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Sample records for 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride

  1. Stability indicating method for determination of nortriptyline hydrochloride using 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH).

    PubMed

    El Ragehy, N A; Abbas, S S; El-Khateeb, S Z

    2001-04-01

    A spectrophotometric procedure is described for determination of nortriptyline hydrochloride in pure and dosage form as well as in the presence of its degradate. 3-Methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) has been used as the chromogenic reagent, where aqueous solutions of the drug and reagent are treated with cerium(IV) ammonium sulphate in an acidic medium. Nortriptyline hydrochloride reacts to give a blue coloured product having two absorption maxima at 619 and 655 nm. Various parameters affecting the reaction have been studied. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 24-216 microg ml(-1) of nortriptyline hydrochloride, with mean percentage recoveries of 100.22+/-0.870 and 100.66+/-0.642% for both maxima, 619 and 655 nm, respectively. Results were statistically analyzed and compared with those obtained by applying the British Pharmacopoeia (1993) method. PMID:11274868

  2. Spectrophotometric determination of isoxsuprine hydrochloride using 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride in spiked human urine and pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Tharpa, Kalsang; Basavaiah, Kanakapura; Revanasiddappa, Hosakere Doddarevanna; Vinay, Kanakapura Basavaiah

    2010-06-15

    Two selective and sensitive spectrophotometric methods are proposed for the determination of isoxsuprine hydrochloride (ISX) in spiked human urine and in pharmaceuticals. The methods are based on the oxidative-coupling reaction between 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride (MBTH) and ISX in the presence of Ce(SO(4))(2). The novelty of the proposed reaction is the formation of two different colored chromogens at two different pHs. The resulting product at pH<1.5 is a red colored chromogen peaking at 500nm (method A) and that formed between the pH 3.85 and 4.15, is violet colored with an absorption maximum at 580nm (method B). In both the methods, absorbance of the chromogen is found to increase linearly with the concentration of ISX as is corroborated by the correlation coefficients of 0.9989 and 0.9970, and the systems obey Beer's law over the ranges of 1.4-21.0 and 1.0-15.0microgml(-1), for method A and method B, respectively. The calculated molar absorptivities are 1.08 x 10(4) and 1.78 x 10(4)lmol(-1)cm(-1) for method A and method B, respectively with corresponding Sandell sensitivity values of 0.0311 and 0.0190microgcm(-2). The reaction stoichiometry, in both the methods, was evaluated by the limiting logarithmic method and was found to be 1:1 (ISX:MBTH). The methods were successfully applied to the determination of ISX in spiked human urine and pharmaceutical formulation. PMID:20441887

  3. Determination of airborne formaldehyde by active sampling on 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride-coated glass fibre filters.

    PubMed

    Chan, W H; Shuang, S; Choi, M M

    2001-05-01

    Formaldehyde was sampled with the use of a standard miniature glass fibre filter coated with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride (MBTH). The formaldehyde hydrazone formed [i.e., the adduct of formaldehyde (HCHO) and MBTH] was desorbed from the filter with water and then oxidised by an iron(III) chloride-sulfamic acid solution to form a blue cationic dye in acidic medium which was subsequently determined by visible absorption at 628 nm. The recovery of HCHO as the cationic dye from MBTH-coated filters is 87-102% in the range 0.065-2.9 micrograms of HCHO. This corresponds to 4.3-193.3 micrograms m-3 in a 15 L air sample. The collection efficiency of the MBTH-coated filter is higher than 90%. When the filter sampling system is used in active mode, air can be sampled at a rate of up to 1 L min-1, affording an overall sensitivity of about 3 micrograms m-3, corresponding to about 2 ppb v/v HCHO at 1 atm and 273 K. The method was successfully applied to the determination of HCHO in samples of indoor and outdoor air with satisfactory results. PMID:11394322

  4. Highly sensitive reaction of nitrate with brucine and 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride for the determination of nitrate in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, Padmarajaiah; Kumar, Mattighatta Hemantha; Yathirajan, Hemmige; Prakash, Jainara

    2003-06-01

    A modified and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of nitrate in trace quantities in environmental samples is described. The method is based on the reaction of nitrate ion with brucine and 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride (MBTH) in sulfuric acid medium to yield a violet-colored product which is stable for over two days. The optimum photometric range for the determination of nitrate is 0.04-0.16 microg cm(-3) and the Sandell's sensitivity being 0.000279 microg cm(-2). The proposed method is applied to various water samples and the results indicate that the reaction is highly sensitive than the original brucine method. PMID:12834245

  5. Simple and sensitive method for the quantification of total bilirubin in human serum using 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride as a chromogenic probe.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, Padmarajaiah; Avinash, Krishnegowda; Shivakumar, Anantharaman; Dinesh, Rangappa; Shrestha, Ashwinee Kumar

    2010-11-01

    We here describe a new spectrophotometric method for measuring total bilirubin in serum. The method is based on the cleavage of bilirubin giving formaldehyde which further reacts with diazotized 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride giving blue colored solution with maximum absorbance at 630 nm. Sensitivity of the developed method was compared with Jendrassik-Grof assay procedure and its applicability has been tested with human serum samples. Good correlation was attained between both methods giving slope of 0.994, intercept 0.015, and R(2)=0.997. Beers law obeyed in the range of 0.068-17.2 μM with good linearity, absorbance y=0.044 C(bil)+0.003. Relative standard deviation was 0.006872, within day precision ranged 0.3-1.2% and day-to-day precision ranged 1-6%. Recovery of the method varied from 97 to 102%. The proposed method has higher sensitivity with less interference. The obtained product was extracted and was spectrally characterized for structural confirmation with FT-IR, ¹H NMR. PMID:20829101

  6. Simple and sensitive method for the quantification of total bilirubin in human serum using 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride as a chromogenic probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraja, Padmarajaiah; Avinash, Krishnegowda; Shivakumar, Anantharaman; Dinesh, Rangappa; Shrestha, Ashwinee Kumar

    2010-11-01

    We here describe a new spectrophotometric method for measuring total bilirubin in serum. The method is based on the cleavage of bilirubin giving formaldehyde which further reacts with diazotized 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride giving blue colored solution with maximum absorbance at 630 nm. Sensitivity of the developed method was compared with Jendrassik-Grof assay procedure and its applicability has been tested with human serum samples. Good correlation was attained between both methods giving slope of 0.994, intercept 0.015, and R2 = 0.997. Beers law obeyed in the range of 0.068-17.2 μM with good linearity, absorbance y = 0.044 Cbil + 0.003. Relative standard deviation was 0.006872, within day precision ranged 0.3-1.2% and day-to-day precision ranged 1-6%. Recovery of the method varied from 97 to 102%. The proposed method has higher sensitivity with less interference. The obtained product was extracted and was spectrally characterized for structural confirmation with FT-IR, 1H NMR.

  7. Development of a selective and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the trace determination of thallium(III) using 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride and N-(1-naphthyl)-ethylenediamine dihydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, Padmarajaiah; Al-Tayar, Naef Ghllab Saeed; Kumar, Anantharaman Shiva

    2008-01-01

    A simple, selective, sensitive, and rapid spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of thallium(III) using 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride and N-(1-naphthyl)-ethylenediamine dihydrochloride. The obtained product had an absorption maximum of 590 nm. Beer's law was valid over the concentration range of 0.15-8 microg/mL. The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of the colored system were 2.93 x 10(4) L/mol x cm and 0.00723 microg/mL, respectively. The effect of different acids on the sensitivity of the method, interference by foreign substances, the optimum reaction conditions, and other analytical parameters were evaluated. The proposed method has been successfully applied in the analysis of T1(III) in standard reference materials, synthetic mixtures, and water and urine samples. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated in terms of Student's t-test and variance ratio F-test, which indicated the significance of the proposed method over reported methods. PMID:18980127

  8. The acute toxicity and mutagenic potential of 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, B; Slesinski, R S; Myers, R C

    1988-03-01

    3-Methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH), widely used in analytical laboratories, was investigated for potential handling hazards. Tested as the hydrochloride, it was found to be of moderately high acute peroral toxicity with LD50 values in rabbits of 177 mg/kg (males) and 268 mg/kg (females), and in the rat 308 mg/kg (males) and 149 mg/kg (females). The major signs of toxicity, seen at peroral doses of 125 mg/kg and above, were convulsions. Although of low acute lethal percutaneous toxicity in rats (LD50 greater than 16 g/kg), rabbits were more sensitive with one of five males dying at an applied dose of 16 g/kg, and females having an LD50 of 12.3 g/kg; convulsions were seen in rabbits having applied cutaneous doses of 4 g/kg and above. There was no evidence for cutaneous inflammation after a 4 hour occluded contact with MBTH in rabbits, although following 24 hour occlusive contact in the acute percutaneous toxicity study there was erythema, edema, desquamation and, in a few animals, local necrosis. Ocular studies in rabbits indicated that, depending on the degree of contamination, MBTH produced mild to moderate eye irritation. In keeping with its low vapor pressure, there were no adverse effects from a 6 hour exposure of rats to an atmosphere saturated with any vapor produced from solid MBTH at ambient temperature. MBTH was positive in an Ames bacterial mutagenicity assay, particularly in the absence of metabolic activation. These studies indicate MBTH to be of moderately high acute peroral toxicity, of moderate percutaneous toxicity, a mild primary skin irritant, a mild to moderate eye irritant, and produced mutations in Salmonella. There is a need for skin and eye protection, and avoidance of swallowing, when handling MBTH. PMID:3291201

  9. Determination of manganese peroxidase activity with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone and 3-(dimethylamino)benzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Castillo, M P; Stenström, J; Ander, P

    1994-05-01

    This method was proposed earlier for measuring glucose in a peroxidase-glucose oxidase system but has not been studied for determination of manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity. The assay is based on the oxidative coupling of 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) and 3-(dimethylamino)benzoic acid (DMAB). The reaction of MBTH and DMAB in the presence of H2O2, Mn2+, and MnP gives a deep purple-blue color with a broad absorption band with a peak at 590 nm. The extinction coefficient is high (53,000 M-1 cm-1), so low MnP activities can be detected. Lignin peroxidase and laccase, usually present in cultures of white rot fungi, gave little or no interference at the concentrations tested. However, slight interference from very high LiP activity may occur at very low MnP activity. PMID:8074299

  10. Badge-type diffusive sampler using 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone for measuring formaldehyde in indoor air.

    PubMed

    Yim, Bongbeen; Jung, Euisuk

    2006-07-01

    The evaluation of a badge-type diffusive sampler for measuring formaldehyde using 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) was investigated. On average, the formaldehyde concentration in blanks was reduced by approximately 31% by cleaning procedures. The cleaning techniques did not significantly differ in effectiveness. The maximum sampling rate was 22.4 +/- 3.5 mL min(-1) at MBTH concentrations of 0.05%. The formaldehyde concentration in blanks did not appreciably increase over a period of about 1 month at room temperature, and was 0.36 +/- 0.03 microg, with a relative standard deviation of 8%. The diffusive sampler had good precision and accuracy for measuring formaldehyde in indoor environments. For a 24-h exposure time, the limits of detection and quantification calculated with the field blanks were 9.7 and 13.8 ppb, respectively. The minimum exposure times were calculated based on the measured and calculated limits of quantification, the sampling rate, and the atmospheric formaldehyde concentration. The capacity of the diffusive sampler with 0.5% MBTH was 3 ppm h(-1), approximately 1.5-times the capacity when the MBTH concentrations were 0.05%. PMID:16837752

  11. A continuous spectrophotometric method for the determination of monophenolase activity of tyrosinase using 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-López, J N; Escribano, J; García-Cánovas, F

    1994-01-01

    A continuous spectrophotometric method for the rapid determination of monophenolase activity of tyrosinase is described. This method is based on the coupling reaction between 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) and the quinone products of the oxidation of various monophenols in the presence of tyrosinase. The chemical reaction between MBTH and o-quinone has been kinetically characterized, the lambda max and the molar absorptivity coefficients of the adducts have been calculated, and the stoichiometry of the reaction has been determined. The method is illustrated by measuring the enzymatic activity of mushroom tyrosinase during the hydroxylation of phenol and tyramine. The presence of MBTH in the reaction medium decreases the lag period present during the expression of monophenolase activity and the high epsilon values at 500-505 nm of the adducts make this method more sensitive than other continuous methods. The MBTH reaction in the presence of monophenols or o-diphenols has been optimized to stain tyrosinase obtained from different biological sources in electrophoresis gels. PMID:8135353

  12. A new peroxidase color reaction: oxidative coupling of 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) with its formaldehyde azine. Application to glucose and choline oxidases.

    PubMed

    Capaldi, D J; Taylor, K E

    1983-03-01

    Hydrogen peroxide in the presence of horseradish peroxidase effects the oxidative coupling of 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone with its formaldehyde azine to form a tetraazapentamethine dye. The blue chromophore, when formed at pH 3.5 and quenched with acetone or 1 N hydrochloric acid, has an extinction coefficient of 69 +/- 2 or 55 +/- 2 mM-1 cm-1, respectively. This chromogen system has been adapted for enzymatic determinations of hydrogen peroxide and of glucose in the 10- to 45-nmol range and of choline in the 5- to 20-nmol range. PMID:6342472

  13. Determination of ultratrace amounts of copper (II) by its catalytic effect on the oxidative coupling reaction of 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone with N-ethyl-N-(2-hydroxy-3-sulfopropyl)-3,5-dimethoxyaniline.

    PubMed

    Ohno, S; Teshima, N; Watanabe, T; Itabashi, H; Nakano, S; Kawashima, T

    1996-10-01

    A spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of ultratrace amounts of copper(II) based on its catalytic effect on the oxidative coupling reaction of 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone with N-ethyl-N-(2-hydroxy-3-sulfopropyl)-3,5-dimethoxyaniline to produce an intensely coloured dye (lambda(max) = 525 nm) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. In this reaction, pyridine acted as an effective activator for the catalysis of copper(II). By measuring the absorbance of the dye, copper(II) can be determined at the 0.002-0.1 ng cm(-3) (3.1 x 10(-11)-1.6 x 10(-9) mol dm(-3) level. The relative standard deviation for ten determinations of 0.06 ng cm(0-3) of copper(II) was 2.6%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of copper(II) in tap water and biological material. PMID:9148646

  14. A rapid method for detection of tyrosinase activity in electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Nellaiappan, K; Vinayagam, A

    1986-09-01

    This rapid and sensitive method for localizing tyrosinase in polyacrylamide slab gels is based on the condensation of Bestthorn's hydrazone (3 methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride) with the quinone obtained by enzymatic oxidation of phenol. Both monophenolase and diphenolase activities are localized by this method. PMID:3097880

  15. A method for demonstrating prophenoloxidase after electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Nellaiappan, K; Vinayakam, A

    1993-07-01

    The demonstration of prophenoloxidase after electrophoresis is based on its activation by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or sodium oleate and staining the activated phenoloxidase with dopamine and 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride (MBTH). A rapid method is presented for demonstrating the presence of activated phenoloxidase using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by staining in the presence of SDS or sodium oleate. PMID:7692984

  16. A new technique for staining catecholic residues in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Kalyani, R; Nellaiappan, K

    1989-01-01

    This technique for localizing catecholic residues in biological samples is based on the condensation of Besthorn's hydrazone (3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride (MBTH) with quinone residues obtained by the oxidation of catechols in the presence of ammonia. The product is a dark pink MBTH-quinone compound. This method is very sensitive and positive to catechol even at the 0.05 microgram level and the final product is chemically stable. PMID:2472680

  17. Flow-injection spectrophotometric determination of diclofenac sodium in pharmaceuticals and urine samples.

    PubMed

    García, M S; Albero, M I; Sánchez-Pedreño, C; Molina, J

    1998-06-01

    A sensitive and fast flow-injection spectrophotometric method for the determination of diclofenac sodium based on the formation of coloured compound with Ce(IV)-3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride (MBTH) in H2SO4 3 x 10(-2) M medium is proposed. Using the peak height as a quantitative parameter diclofenac was determined at 580 nm over the range 0.20-8.0 micrograms ml-1. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of diclofenac in pharmaceuticals and urine samples. PMID:9638579

  18. Spectrophotometric determination of pyridoxal and pyridoxal 5′-phosphate with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolone hydrazone hydrochloride, and their selective assay

    PubMed Central

    Soda, Kenji; Yorifuji, Takamitsu; Misono, Haruo; Moriguchi, Mitsuaki

    1969-01-01

    A spectrophotometric method with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolone hydrazone hydrochloride was developed for the determination of pyridoxal and pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, and for the selective determination of each in the presence of the other. Pyridoxal and pyridoxal 5′-phosphate react with the reagent to yield the azine derivatives, which give characteristic absorption spectra. The highest extinction values are obtained when pyridoxal and pyridoxal 5′-phosphate are incubated at pH values of about 3·4 and 8·0 respectively; their maxima are at 430nm. (∈ 2·74×104) and 380nm. (∈ 2·24×104) respectively. The azine of pyridoxal is only slightly soluble under the neutral and alkaline conditions, whereas that of pyridoxal 5′-phosphate is substantially insoluble in the acid pH range. This difference in solubility of the azines made possible the selective determination of pyridoxal and pyridoxal 5′-phosphate. α-Oxoglutarate and pyruvate are among the substances shown not to interfere with the assay of pyridoxal; their derivatives absorb appreciably only at wavelengths below 420nm. For the assay of pyridoxal 5′-phosphate in the presence of these compounds measurement at 390nm. is necessary. PMID:5820647

  19. Mixed ligand complex via zinc(II)-mediated in situ oxidative heterocyclization of hydrochloride salt of 2-chlorobenzaldehyde hydralazine hydrazone as potential of antihypertensive agent.

    PubMed

    Bakale, Raghavendra P; Naik, Ganesh N; Mangannavar, Chandrashekhar V; Muchchandi, Iranna S; Shcherbakov, I N; Frampton, Chris; Gudasi, Kalagouda B

    2014-02-12

    An unusual tetrahedral mixed ligand Zn(II) complex ZnT(L)Cl, where L=2-chlorobenzaldehyde hydralazine hydrazone and T=in situ generated 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-a]phthalazine is reported. Structure of the fused triazole has been confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Structure of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes has been confirmed by spectral and analytical methods. Metal complexes have exhibited better activity in the fructose induced hypertension studies in animal model and are comparable with the standard. PMID:24378708

  20. Phenoloxidases in ascidian hemocytes: characterization of the pro-phenoloxidase activating system.

    PubMed

    Parrinello, Nicolò; Arizza, Vincenzo; Chinnici, Cinzia; Parrinello, Daniela; Cammarata, Matteo

    2003-08-01

    The phenoloxidase (PO) activity of the hemocytes lysate supernatant from three ascidians species, assayed by means of 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride, have been compared. PO-containing hemocytes were identified by a cytochemical reaction and the enzymatic activity measured by a spectrophotometric assay of lysate supernatant from hemocyte populations separated on a discontinuous Percoll density gradient. In Styela plicata, the enzyme appeared to be contained in morula cells only. In Ciona intestinalis, PO activity was shown in univacuolar refractile granulocyte and granular hemocyte. In Phallusia mammillata both compartment cell and granular hemocytes were positive. Enzymatic assay following electrophoretic analysis on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) or SDS-PAGE indicated that hemocyte lysate presented orthodiphenoloxidase (catecholase) activity. The enzymes from the three species differed in molecular size, activating substances and trypsin sensitivity. PMID:12892750

  1. Development and validation of sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of moxifloxacin antibiotic in pure and commercial tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashour, Safwan; Bayram, Roula

    2015-04-01

    New, accurate, sensitive and reliable kinetic spectrophotometric method for the assay of moxifloxacin hydrochloride (MOXF) in pure form and pharmaceutical formulations has been developed. The method involves the oxidative coupling reaction of MOXF with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride monohydrate (MBTH) in the presence of Ce(IV) in an acidic medium to form colored product with lambda max at 623 and 660 nm. The reaction is followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the increase in absorbance at 623 nm as a function of time. The initial rate and fixed time methods were adopted for constructing the calibration curves. The linearity range was found to be 1.89-40.0 ?g mL-1 for initial rate and fixed time methods. The limit of detection for initial rate and fixed time methods is 0.644 and 0.043 ?g mL-1, respectively. Molar absorptivity for the method was found to be 0.89 104 L mol-1 cm-1. Statistical treatment of the experimental results indicates that the methods are precise and accurate. The proposed method has been applied successfully for the estimation of moxifloxacin hydrochloride in tablet dosage form with no interference from the excipients. The results are compared with the official method.

  2. Development and validation of sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of moxifloxacin antibiotic in pure and commercial tablets.

    PubMed

    Ashour, Safwan; Bayram, Roula

    2015-04-01

    New, accurate, sensitive and reliable kinetic spectrophotometric method for the assay of moxifloxacin hydrochloride (MOXF) in pure form and pharmaceutical formulations has been developed. The method involves the oxidative coupling reaction of MOXF with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride monohydrate (MBTH) in the presence of Ce(IV) in an acidic medium to form colored product with lambda max at 623 and 660 nm. The reaction is followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the increase in absorbance at 623 nm as a function of time. The initial rate and fixed time methods were adopted for constructing the calibration curves. The linearity range was found to be 1.89-40.0 μg mL(-1) for initial rate and fixed time methods. The limit of detection for initial rate and fixed time methods is 0.644 and 0.043 μg mL(-1), respectively. Molar absorptivity for the method was found to be 0.89×10(4) L mol(-1) cm(-1). Statistical treatment of the experimental results indicates that the methods are precise and accurate. The proposed method has been applied successfully for the estimation of moxifloxacin hydrochloride in tablet dosage form with no interference from the excipients. The results are compared with the official method. PMID:25596545

  3. Spectrophotometric determination of some antidepressant drugs using 3-methylbenzothiazolin-2-one hydrazone.

    PubMed

    Revanasiddappa, H D; Manju, B

    1999-12-01

    A sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of amitriptyline hydrochloride, nortriptyline hydrochloride and doxepin hydrochloride in pure and dosage forms, is described. The method is based on the oxidative coupling of the drugs with 3-methylbenzothiazolin-2-one hydrazone in the presence of iron(III) chloride in 1 M hydrochloric acid. The commonly encountered excipients and additives do not interfere with the determinations. Results of the present method are comparable with those of official methods. The new method offers the advantage of simplicity and rapidity. PMID:10620735

  4. Development and validation of LC methods with visible detection using pre-column derivatization and mass detection for the assay of voglibose.

    PubMed

    Raman, Nanduri V V S S; Reddy, Kura Ratnakar; Prasad, Adapa V S S; Ramakrishna, Karipeddi

    2009-03-15

    Two sensitive and selective liquid chromatographic methods were developed for the assay of voglibose (VB) and validated as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. First method is based on the pre-column derivatization of VB followed by visible detection (LC-VD) and second method involves mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS). In LC-VD method, VB was derivatized with sodium metaperiodate and 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride monohydrate (MBTH). The derivatized color product of VB (DCPVB) was run through Novapak C18 (300 x 3.9 mm, 4 microm) column using the mobile phase containing buffer (0.01 M mixture of sodium di hydrogen orthophosphate and disodium hydrogen orthophosphate, pH 6.0) and acetonitrile in 35:65 v/v ratio. The eluted DCPVB was monitored at 667 nm. The fixation of optimum conditions in LC-VD method is described. DCPVB structure was confirmed by mass spectral analysis. In LC-MS method, VB was passed through Venusil XBPPH (150 x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) column using a 95:5 v/v mixture of 0.01% formic acid and methanol as mobile phase. The assay concentrations of VB in pure form and in tablets for LC-VD and LC-MS methods are 25 and 5 ngml(-1), respectively. PMID:19159812

  5. Selective and validated spectrophotometric methods for the determination of nicorandil in pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Nafisur; Ahmad, Yasmin; Azmi, Syed Najmul Hejaz

    2004-01-01

    Two simple and sensitive validated spectrophotometric methods have been described for the assay of nicorandil in drug formulations. Method A is based on the reaction of the drug with phloroglucinol-sulfanilic acid reagent in sulfuric acid medium to give yellow-colored product, which absorbs maximally at 425 nm. Method B uses the oxidative coupling of 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride (MBTH) with DL- 3,4 - dihydroxyphenylalanine (DL-dopa) in the presence of nicorandil as oxidant in sulfuric acid medium to form an intensely colored product having maximum absorbance at 530 nm. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range 2.5 to 50.0 and 1.0 to 15.0 microg mL(-1) with methods A and B, respectively. Both methods have been successfully applied for the analysis of drug in pharmaceutical formulations. The reliability and the performance of the proposed methods are established by point and interval hypothesis and through recovery studies. The experimental true bias of all samples is smaller than +/-2%. PMID:15760099

  6. Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of ethamsylate in dosage forms.

    PubMed

    El-Enany, Nahed; Belal, Fathalla; Rizk, Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    A simple and sensitive kinetic method has been developed for the determination of ethamsylate (ESL) in its pharmaceutical preparations. The method is based upon oxidation of ESL with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride in presence of cerium (IV) ammonium sulfate at room temperature for 20 min. The absorbance of the reaction product is measured at 514 nm. The absorbance-concentration plot was rectilinear over the range of 4-30 microg/mL (r = 0.9999). The lower detection limit was 0.267 microl/mL (9.110 x 10(-6) M) and the lower quantitation limit was 0.808 microg/mL. The different experimental parameters affecting the development and stability of the reaction product were studied and optimized. The proposed method was applied to the determination of ESL in formulations, and the results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained using a reference method. The proposed method was also used for the in vitro detection of ESL in spiked human plasma at its therapeutic concentration level. PMID:17580619

  7. A novel use of oxidative coupling reactions for determination of some statins (cholesterol-lowering drugs) in pharmaceutical formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashour, Safwan; Bahbouh, Mahmoud; Khateeb, Mouhammed

    2011-03-01

    New, accurate and reliable spectrophotometric methods for the assay of three statin drugs, atorvastatin calcium (AVS), fluvastatin sodium (FVS) and pravastatin sodium (PVS) in pure form and pharmaceutical formulations have been described. All methods involve the oxidative coupling reaction of AVS, FVS and PVS with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride monohydrate (MBTH) in the presence of Ce(IV) in an acidic medium to form colored products with ?max at 566, 615 and 664 nm, respectively. Beer's law was obeyed in the ranges of 2.0-20.0, 4.9-35.4 and 7.0-30.0 ?g mL -1 for AVS-MBTH, FVS-MBTH and PVS-MBTH, respectively. Molar absorptivities for the above three methods were found to be 3.24 10 4, 1.05 10 4 and 0.68 10 4 L mol -1 cm -1, respectively. Statistical treatment of the experimental results indicates that the methods are precise and accurate. The proposed methods have been applied to the determination of the components in commercial forms with no interference from the excipients. A comparative study between the suggested procedures and the official methods for these compounds in the commercial forms showed no significant difference between the two methods.

  8. Glucosamine hydrochloride

    MedlinePLUS

    ... glucosamine are sold as supplements. These products may contain glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, or N-acetyl-glucosamine. ... page is about glucosamine hydrochloride. Dietary supplements that contain glucosamine often contain additional ingredients. These additional ingredients ...

  9. A review exploring biological activities of hydrazones

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Garima; Marella, Akranth; Shaquiquzzaman, Mohammad; Akhtar, Mymoona; Ali, Mohammad Rahmat; Alam, Mohammad Mumtaz

    2014-01-01

    The development of novel compounds, hydrazones has shown that they possess a wide variety of biological activities viz. antimicrobial, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiplatelet, antimalarial, anticancer, antifungal, antitubercular, antiviral, cardio protective etc., Hydrazones/azomethines/imines possess-NHN = CH- and constitute an important class of compounds for new drug development. A number of researchers have synthesized and evaluated the biological activities of hydrazones. This review aims at highlighting the diverse biological activities of hydrazones. PMID:24741273

  10. A sensitive colorimetric method for the determination of imipramine hydrochloride and desipramine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    el-Yazbi, F A; Korany, M A; Bedair, M

    1985-12-01

    A simple and rapid colorimetric method for the determination of imipramine hydrochloride and desipramine hydrochloride in their tablet formulations and in biological fluids is presented. The method is based on the reaction of these drugs with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolone hydrazone in the presence of ferric chloride, with direct measurement at 635 nm. Cyclohexane was used to extract these drugs from serum and urine, at basic pH, by a single manual extraction. The method can detect 0.5 microgram/ml of each drug. The main advantages of this method are its simplicity and high sensitivity. PMID:4093508

  11. Development of a paper-type tyrosinase biosensor for detection of phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Şenyurt, Özge; Eyidoğan, Füsun; Yılmaz, Remziye; Öz, M Tufan; Özalp, V Cengiz; Arıca, Yakup; Öktem, Hüseyin A

    2015-01-01

    A low-cost, portable, and disposable paper-type tyrosinase biosensor was developed for determination of phenolic compounds, using a paper-strip absorption method. Tyrosinase and a chromophore (3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone) were immobilized on paper strips to manufacture the biosensor, which was tested on a nontoxic substrate (l-dopamine). The biosensor was responsive to phenolic compounds such as 4-chlorophenol, catechol, m-cresol, and p-cresol. The sensor showed stability for 70 days. The developed biosensor can be used for remote on-site qualitative monitoring of phenolic compounds in wastewater samples. PMID:24847915

  12. Hydrazones as substrates for cycloaddition reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belskaya, N. P.; Eliseeva, A. I.; Bakulev, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    The [2+2]-, [4+2]- and [3+2]-cycloaddition reactions of hydrazones and 1,2-diazabuta-1,3-dienes, azomethine imines, nitrile imines and azomethine ylides formed upon hydrazone transformations with dienophiles, dipolarophiles and dienes are considered. The principal issues of structure and reactivity of active substrates and the influence of the reaction conditions and catalysts on the reaction regioselectivity and efficiency are discussed. The bibliography includes 288 references.

  13. Lucanthone hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Blair, D. M.

    1958-01-01

    This review of the published work on the treatment of bilharziasis with lucanthone hydrochloride draws attention to the inconclusive nature of many of the trials carried out so far: either the dosage was inadequate or the patients were not followed up for a sufficient length of time. The author stresses the importance of obtaining a high concentration of lucanthone in the body fluids. He suggests that better results might be obtained if the total dose were given in two days or even as a single, massive dose. This method might also reduce the side effects, which do not appear, as a rule, until the second or third day. PMID:13573122

  14. Therapeutic Potential of Hydrazones as Anti-Inflammatory Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bala, Suman; Sharma, Neha; Saini, Vipin

    2014-01-01

    Hydrazones are a special class of organic compounds in the Schiff base family. Hydrazones constitute a versatile compound of organic class having basic structure (R1R2C=NNR3R4). The active centers of hydrazone, that is, carbon and nitrogen, are mainly responsible for the physical and chemical properties of the hydrazones and, due to the reactivity toward electrophiles and nucleophiles, hydrazones are used for the synthesis of organic compound such as heterocyclic compounds with a variety of biological activities. Hydrazones and their derivatives are known to exhibit a wide range of interesting biological activities like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, analgesic, antimicrobial, anticancer, antiprotozoal, antioxidant, antiparasitic, antiplatelet, cardioprotective, anthelmintic, antidiabetic, antitubercular, trypanocidal, anti-HIV, and so forth. The present review summarizes the efficiency of hydrazones as potent anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:25383223

  15. 4-Hydroxyanisole: the most suitable monophenolic substrate for determining spectrophotometrically the monophenolase activity of polyphenol oxidase from fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Espn, J C; Tudela, J; Garca-Cnovas, F

    1998-05-15

    A continuous spectrophotometric method for determining the monophenolase activity of polyphenol oxidase from several plant sources is described. This assay method is based on the coupling reaction between 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone and the quinone product of the oxidation of 4-hydroxyanisole in the presence of polyphenol oxidase. 4-Hydroxyanisole proved to be the best monophenol assayed to measure the monophenolase activity of polyphenol oxidase from apple, artichoke, avocado, medlar, pear, and strawberry. Kinetic constants of 4-hydroxyanisole were compared to those of p-hydroxyphenyl propionic acid, a very sensitive monophenol previously reported to assay the monophenolase activity of polyphenol oxidase from apple, pear, and mushroom. The high values of the maximum steady state rate obtained for 4-hydroxyanisole suggest the existence of high catalytic constant toward this monophenol. These kinetic values were supported by nuclear magnetic resonance assays which predicted the highest reactivity of 4-hydroxyanisole. Therefore nuclear magnetic resonance assays proved to be a valuable and useful tool to predict the best monophenolic substrate for plant polyphenol oxidases. The 3-methyl-2-benzothiazlolinone-adduct for 4-hydroxyanisole was stable, with high molar absorptivity at the optimum pHs of the polyphenol oxidases assayed. All this together makes the use of 4-hydroxyanisol as monophenolic substrate and 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone as coupling reagent the most sensitive and precise assay method up to date reported in the literature to determine the monophenolas activity of polyphenol oxidase from fruits and vegetables. PMID:9606152

  16. Trifluridine and Tipiracil Hydrochloride

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about trifluridine and tipiracil hydrochloride and a collection of links to more information about the use of this combination drug, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  17. Netupitant and Palonosetron Hydrochloride

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about netupitant and palonosetron hydrochloride and a collection of links to more information about the use of this combination drug, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  18. Optical determination of L-tyrosine based on eggshell membrane immobilized tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong Jin

    2010-01-01

    An optical biosensor based on the eggshell membrane immobilized tyrosinase is described for the detection of L-tyrosine (L-Tyr). The detection scheme was based on the measurement of absorption value of color adduct resulting from the reaction of 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone and dopa-quinone produced from the enzymatic oxidation of L-Tyr. The prepared biosensor demonstrated optimum activity at pH 7, optimum temperature range of 20-40 degrees C and a linear response for the L-Tyr concentration in range of 5-200 microM. It also showed good operation stability for repeated measurements (over 300 times) and storage stability after it had been kept at 4 degrees C for 3 months. PMID:21313820

  19. Soybean lipoxygenases-1, -2a, -2b and -2c do not contain PQQ.

    PubMed

    Michaud-Soret, I; Daniel, R; Chopard, C; Mansuy, D; Cucurou, C; Ullrich, V; Chottard, J C

    1990-11-15

    Soybean isoenzymes lipoxygenases-1, -2a, -2b and -2c were examined spectroscopically for the presence of covalently bound pyrrolo quinoline quinone (PQQ) after derivatization by phenylhydrazine (PH), 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH). DNPH derivatization of PQQ after a pronase digestion step of lipoxygenase-1 in the presence of an anion exchange gel fixing the cofactor was also investigated. None of these experiments provided evidence for the presence of PQQ contrary to previous report by Van der Meer et al (1). We have checked, by EPR spectroscopy, that the three reactants used were able to reduce the active site ferric iron. Our results were confirmed by the absence of enzyme inhibition by cis- and trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane or benzylamine in the presence of NaBH3CN which have been reported to react with PQQ and to inactivate quinoproteins (2,3). PMID:2173916

  20. Membrane solubilization technique for spectrophotometric determination of trace formaldehyde in rainwater.

    PubMed

    Murai, Keita; Okano, Mayumi; Kuramitz, Hideki; Hata, Noriko; Kawakami, Takanori; Taguchi, Shigeru

    2008-01-01

    A simple and sensitive spectrophotometry for formaldehyde in water by membrane solubilization technique was proposed. Formaldehyde was converted into a blue cationic dye with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone, and the dye was retained on a membrane filter as an ion-associate with tetraphenylborate anion. The filter retaining the blue dye was dissolved in 2-methoxyethanol containing sulfuric acid, and the absorbance of the solution was measured at 670 nm against the reagent blank. The formaldehyde from 0.007 to 0.2 mg L(-1) was determined with an RSD of less than 5%, and the detection limit was 0.002 mg L(-1). The proposed method was very simple and rapid. Twenty minutes was sufficient for the entire analytical procedure. When the method was applied to rainwater, the analytical results were in good agreement with those obtained by GC/MS. PMID:18997375

  1. Biomimetic Modeling of Copper Complexes: A Study of Enantioselective Catalytic Oxidation on D-(+)-Catechin and L-( ? )-Epicatechin with Copper Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Mutti, Francesco G.; Pievo, Roberta; Sgobba, Maila; Gullotti, Michele; Santagostini, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The biomimetic catalytic oxidations of the dinuclear and trinuclear copper(II) complexes versus two catechols, namely, D-(+)-catechin and L-( ? )-epicatechin to give the corresponding quinones are reported. The unstable quinones were trapped by the nucleophilic reagent, 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH), and have been calculated the molar absorptivities of the different quinones. The catalytic efficiency is moderate, as inferred by kinetic constants, but the complexes exhibit significant enantio-differentiating ability towards the catechols, albeit for the dinuclear complexes, this enantio-differentiating ability is lower. In all cases, the preferred enantiomeric substrate is D-(+)-catechin to respect the other catechol, because of the spatial disposition of this substrate. PMID:18825268

  2. Computational investigation of first hyperpolarizability in substituted hydrazones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shih-I.

    2013-08-01

    Density functional theory has been used to calculate the ??(-2?;?,?,0) on a series of solution-phase hydrazones. Using the experimental and MP2(Full) calculated data as references, the qualitative trend of the Hartree-Fock, M06-HF and range-separated hybrids have been examined. Our results propose methods with long-range corrections, and without short-range exact exchange, are capable of qualitatively predicting the nonlinear optical responses of the hydrazones when reliable geometries have been provided. The same conclusion can also be applied to solution-phase push-pull phenylpolyenes.

  3. Drug release from hydrazone-containing peptide amphiphiles

    SciTech Connect

    Matson, John B.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2012-03-15

    Hydrolytically-labile hydrazones in peptide amphiphiles were studied as degradable tethers for release of the drug nabumetone from nanofiber gels. On-resin addition of the novel compound tri-Boc-hydrazido adipic acid to a lysine E-amine allowed for precise placement of a hydrazide in a peptide sequence.

  4. Structures and Optical Properties of Hydrazones Derived from Biological Polyenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Takayasu; Yamada, Takashi; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2001-08-01

    A set of hydrazone molecules was derived from a series of biological polyenes that have different polyene chain-lengths with common substituent group of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Their structures were determined by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy as well as X-ray crystallography, and their optical properties were investigated by room and low temperature optical absorption spectroscopy. Among the derivatives so far synthesized, the one that has the shortest polyene chain (C13-DNPH) afforded single crystals without inversion symmetry, hence applicable for the second-order nonlinear optical devices. Molecular structures in the crystals were closely inspected in order to explain the cause to violate the inversion symmetry. Hydrazones derived in this study gave rise to two transition moments along the molecular axis. Comparison of the optical absorption spectra among the derivatives showed a unique phenomenon that could be attributed to the crossover of the excited state potential energy surfaces along the elongation of the polyene chain-lengths.

  5. Structures and Optical Properties of Hydrazones Derived from Biological Polyenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Takayasu; Yamada, Takashi; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    A set of hydrazone molecules was derived from a series of biological polyenes that have different polyene chain-lengths with common substituent group of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Their structures were determined by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy as well as X-ray crystallography, and their optical properties were investigated by room and low temperature optical absorption spectroscopy. Among the derivatives so far synthesized, the one that has the shortest polyene chain (C13-DNPH) afforded single crystals without inversion symmetry, hence applicable for the second-order nonlinear optical devices. Molecular structures in the crystals were closely inspected in order to explain the cause to violate the inversion symmetry. Hydrazones derived in this study gave rise to two transition moments along the molecular axis. Comparison of the optical absorption spectra among the derivatives showed a unique phenomenon that could be attributed to the crossover of the excited state potential energy surfaces along the elongation of the polyene chain-lengths.

  6. Antioxidant activity of hydrazones with sterically hindered phenol fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaevskii, A. N.; Kniga, O. P.; Khizhan, E. I.; Tikhonova, G. A.; Vinogradov, V. V.; Khizhan, A. I.

    2012-12-01

    Kinetic parameters of the antiradical activity of derivatives of hydrazones of 4-hydroxy-3,5-di- tert-butyl-benzaldehyde are determined photocolorimetrically in their reactions with a stable diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical, and by chemiluminescence from the capture of peroxide radicals upon the initiated oxidation of ethylbenzene. It is found that during inhibited oxidation, the reactive centers (N-H and O-H) in hetaryl- and acylhydrazone molecules operate in parallel. Regularities of the compounds' inhibiting effect are studied in heterogeneous systems upon the initiated oxidation of ethylbenzene in emulsion, and in a water-lipid model of the oxidation of phosphatidylcholine dispersion. It is established that hydrazone derivatives are antioxidants of combined action in heterophase processes of the oxidation of unsaturated substrates, displaying properties of hydroperoxide deactivators in addition to their antiradical activity.

  7. Diaryl Hydrazones as Multifunctional Inhibitors of Amyloid Self-Assembly†

    PubMed Central

    Török, Béla; Sood, Abha; Bag, Seema; Tulsan, Rekha; Ghosh, Sanjukta; Borkin, Dmitry; Kennedy, Arleen R.; Melanson, Michelle; Madden, Richard; Zhou, Weihong; LeVine, Harry; Török, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    The design and application of an effective, new class of multifunctional small molecule inhibitors of amyloid self-assembly are described. Several compounds, based on the diaryl hydrazone scaffold were designed. Forty-four substituted derivatives of this core structure were synthesized using a variety of benzaldehydes and phenylhydrazines and were characterized. The inhibitor candidates were evaluated in multiple assays, including the inhibition of Aβ fibrillogenesis and oligomer formation and the reverse processes, the disassembly of preformed fibrils and oligomers. Since the structure of the hydrazone-based inhibitors mimic the redox features of the antioxidant resveratrol the radical scavenging effect of the compounds was evaluated by colorimetric assays against 2,2-diphenyl-lpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radicals. The hydrazone scaffold was active in all of the different assays. The structure-activity relationship revealed that the substituents on the aromatic rings had considerable effect on the overall activity of the compounds. The inhibitors showed strong activity in the fibrillogenesis inhibition and disassembly, and even greater potency in the inhibition of oligomer formation and oligomer disassembly. Supporting the quantitative fluorometric and colorimetric assays, size exclusion chromatographic studies indicated that the best compounds practically eliminated or substantially inhibited the formation of soluble, aggregated Aβ species, as well. Atomic Force Microscopy was also applied to monitor the morphology of Aβ deposits. The compounds also possessed the predicted antioxidant properties; approximately 30% of the synthesized compounds showed equal or better radical scavenging effect than resveratrol or ascorbic acid. PMID:23346953

  8. Transition metal complexes of an isatinic quinolyl hydrazone

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The importance of the isatinic quinolyl hydrazones arises from incorporating the quinoline ring with the indole ring in the same compound. Quinoline ring has therapeutic and biological activities. On the other hand, isatin (1H-indole-2,3-dione) and its derivatives exhibit a wide range of biological activities. Also, the indole ring occurs in Jasmine flowers and Orange blossoms. Recently, the physiological and biological activities of quinolyl hydrazones arise from their tendency to form metal chelates with transition metal ions. In this context, we have reported to isolate, characterize and study the biological activity of some transition metal complexes of an isatinic quinolyl hydrazone; 3-[2-(4-methyl quinolin-2-yl)hydrazono] indolin-2-one. Results Mono- and binuclear as well as dimeric chelates were obtained from the reaction of a new isatinic quinolyl hydrazone with Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), VO(II) and Pd(II) ions. The ligand showed a variety of modes of bonding viz. (NNO)2-, (NO)- and (NO) per each metal ion supporting its ambidentate and flexidentate characters. The mode of bonding and basicity of the ligand depend mainly on the type of the metal cation and its counter anion. All the obtained Pd(II)- complexes have the preferable square planar geometry (D4h- symmetry) and depend mainly on the mole ratio (M:L). Conclusion The effect of the type of the metal ion for the same anion (Cl-) is obvious from either structural diversity of the isolated complexes (Oh, Td and D4h) or the various modes of bonding. The isatinic hydrazone uses its lactim form in all complexes (Cl-) except complex 5 (SO42-) in which it uses its lactam form. The obtained Pd(II)- complexes (dimeric, mono- and binuclear) are affected by the mole ratio (M:L) and have the square planar (D4h) geometry. Also, the antimicrobial activity is highly influenced by the nature of the metal ion and the order for S. aureus bacteria is as follows: Nickel(II) > Vanadyl(II) > Cobalt(II) > Copper(II) ≈ Palladium(II) >> Iron(III). PMID:21708023

  9. Catalytic enantioselective hydrogenation of N-alkoxycarbonyl hydrazones: a practical synthesis of chiral hydrazines.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Naoki; Tan, Lushi; McWilliams, J Christopher; Ramasamy, Deepa; Sheppard, Ruth

    2010-01-15

    An enantioselective hydrogenation of hydrazones catalyzed by Rh complexes (Rh-Josiphos or Rh-Taniaphos) has been developed. The protocol can be applied to hydrazones with three different protective groups (Boc, Cbz, and methoxycarbonyl), allowing for selective deprotection and further elaboration of the hydrazine products in the presence of other functional groups. PMID:20017501

  10. [In vitro synergisms among hydrazones, ajoeno and posaconazole against Cryptococcus spp].

    PubMed

    Vivas, Julio; Alvarado, Primavera; Visbal, Gonzalo; Alvarez-Aular, Alvaro; Ruiz, Egle; Ledezma, Eliades

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro susceptibility to novel antifungal compounds, the steroidal hydrazones, and to compare their antifungal activity and synergistic effects with other compounds, such as ajoeno and posaconazole on Cryptocococus spp isolates. Three Cryptococcus strains were used for this study (42794, 4050 and 44192) and their antifungal sensitivity and synergistic effects with ajoeno and posaconazole were evaluated according to the CLSI protocol number M27-A2. Candida albicans (ATCC 90028) and Candida parapsilosis (ATCC 22019) were used as controls. A plateau effect with hydrazones (H1, H2, H3, H4) was observed after 10 microM (CMI). However, with H4 only a mild inhibition on the growth was obtained. Combining hydrazone and ajoeno, CMI values between 25 and 50 microM were obtained. The highest inhibitions values were obtained with posaconazole and a CMI value of 6 microM for the strains 42794 and 44192, and a CMI value of 20 microM for the strain 4050. Synergy was observed combining posaconazole with ajoeno, ajoeno with hydrazone 3 and posaconazole with hydrazone 3. Fractional inhibitory concentrations were 0.24, 0.16 and 0.09 respectively, which might indicate a synergistic effect. Important synergistic effects were obtained with posaconazole and ajoeno, ajoeno and hydrazone 3 and posaconazole with hydrazone 3, which would be very useful for clinical trials in the future. PMID:22523841

  11. Ligand substitution reactions of a phenolic quinolyl hydrazone; oxidovanadium (IV) complexes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Quinoline ring has therapeutic and biological activities. Quinolyl hydrazones constitute a class of excellent chelating agents. Recently, the physiological and biological activities of quinolyl hydrazones arise from their tendency to form metal chelates with transition metal ions. In this context, we have aimed to study the competency effect of a phenolic quinolyl hydrazone (H2L; primary ligand) with some auxiliary ligands (Tmen, Phen or Oxine; secondary ligands) towards oxidovanadium (IV) ions. Results Mono- and binuclear oxidovanadium (IV) - complexes were obtained from the reaction of a phenolic quinolyl hydrazone with oxidovanadium (IV)- ion in absence and presence of N,N,N',N'- tetramethylethylenediamine (Tmen), 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) or 8-hydroxyquinoline (Oxine). The phenolic quinolyl hydrazone ligand behaves as monobasic bidentate (NO- donor with O- bridging). All the obtained complexes have the preferable octahedral geometry except the oxinato complex (2) which has a square pyramid geometry with no axial interaction; the only homoleptic complex in this study. Conclusion The ligand exchange (substitution/replacement) reactions reflect the strong competency power of the auxiliary aromatic ligands (Phen/Oxine) compared to the phenolic quinolyl hydrazone (H2L) towards oxidovanadium (IV) ion; (complexes 2 and 3). By contrast, in case of the more flexible aliphatic competitor (Tmen), an adduct was obtained (4). The obtained complexes reflect the strength of the ligand field towards the oxidovanadium (IV)- ion; Oxine or Phen >> phenolic hydrazone (H2L) > Tmen. PMID:21846387

  12. 21 CFR 522.1222b - Ketamine hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. 522.1222b Section 522.1222b Food and Drugs FOOD AND... hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. (a) Chemical name... hydrochloride, 10- phenothiazine monohydrochloride, and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate. (b) Specifications....

  13. 21 CFR 522.1222b - Ketamine hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. 522.1222b Section 522.1222b Food and Drugs FOOD AND... hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. (a) Chemical name... hydrochloride, 10- phenothiazine monohydrochloride, and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate. (b) Specifications....

  14. 21 CFR 522.1222b - Ketamine hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. 522.1222b Section 522.1222b Food and Drugs FOOD AND... hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. (a) Chemical name... hydrochloride, 10- phenothiazine monohydrochloride, and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate. (b) Specifications....

  15. 21 CFR 522.1222b - Ketamine hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. 522.1222b Section 522.1222b Food and Drugs FOOD AND... hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. (a) Chemical name... hydrochloride, 10- phenothiazine monohydrochloride, and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate. (b) Specifications....

  16. Possible Side Effects of Cyclophosphamide, Topotecan Hydrochloride

    Cancer.gov

    Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Cyclophosphamide, Topotecan Hydrochloride (Table Version Date: August 28, 2014) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Cyclophosphamide, Topotecan Hydrochloride, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: Hair

  17. 21 CFR 582.5875 - Thiamine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 582.5875 Thiamine hydrochloride. (a) Product. Thiamine hydrochloride. (b) Conditions of...

  18. Structural and spectroscopic investigation on a new potentially bioactive di-hydrazone containing thiophene heterocyclic rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, Vanessa de S.; Ramalho Freitas, Maria Clara; Cruz, Wellington S.; Ribeiro, Tatiana S.; Resende, Jackson A. L. C.; Rey, Nicolás A.

    2016-02-01

    Hydrazones and several substituted hydrazones are associated with a broad spectrum of biological activities, as well as compounds containing the thiophene ring. In this context, a novel di-hydrazone derived from 2-thiophenecarboxylic acid hydrazide was synthesized and completely characterized by elemental analysis, XRD, FT-IR, Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopies, thermogravimetry, 1H NMR, 1H-1H COSY and 1H-1H ROESY. A preliminary in silico pharmacological evaluation was also performed in order to assess the performance of the new compound regarding some molecular properties relevant for a drug's pharmacokinetics in the human body.

  19. Synthesis of Macrocyclic Bis-Hydrazone and Their Use in Metal Cations Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Kandil, Farouk; Chebani, Mohamad Khaled; Al Zoubi, Wail

    2012-01-01

    Two new macrocyclic hydrazone Schiff bases were synthesized by reaction of succindihydrazide and adipdihydrazide with acetylacetone. Hydrazones have been characterized by elemental analyses and IR, mass, 1H?NMR, and 13C?NMR spectral data. Hydrazones have been studied by liquid-liquid extraction towards the s-metal ions (Li+, Na+, and K+) and d-metal ions (Cu2+ and Cr3+) from aqueous phase to organic phase. The effect of chloroform and dichloromethane as organic solvents over the metal chlorides extraction was investigated at 25 0.1C by using flame atomic absorption. We found differences between the two solvents in extraction selectivity. PMID:24052837

  20. The antibacterial activity of some sulfonamides and sulfonyl hydrazones, and 2D-QSAR study of a series of sulfonyl hydrazones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslan, H. Güzin; Özcan, Servet; Karacan, Nurcan

    2012-12-01

    Benzenesulfonicacid-1-methylhydrazide (1) and its four aromatic sulfonyl hydrazone derivatives (1a-1d), N-(3-amino-2-hydroxypropyl)benzene sulfonamide (2) and N-(2-hydroxyethyl)benzenesulfonamide (3) were synthesized and their structures were determined by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and LCMS techniques. Antibacterial activities of new synthesized compounds were evaluated against various bacteria strains by microdilution and disk diffusion methods. The experimental results show that presence of OH group on sulfonamides reduces the antimicrobial activity, and antimicrobial activities of the sulfonyl hydrazones (1a-1d) are smaller than that of the parent sulfonamide (1), except Candida albicans. In addition, 2D-QSAR analysis was performed on 28 aromatic sulfonyl hydrazones as antimicrobial agents against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. In the QSAR models, the most important descriptor is total point-charge component of the molecular dipole for E. coli, and partial negative surface area (PNSA-1) for S. aureus.

  1. Gold(I)-Catalyzed Intermolecular Cycloaddition of Allenamides with α,β-Unsaturated Hydrazones: Efficient Access to Highly Substituted Cyclobutanes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    α,β-Unsaturated N,N-dialkyl hydrazones undergo a mild [2 + 2] cycloaddition to allenamides when treated with a suitable gold catalyst. The method, which represents the first application of N,N-dialkyl hydrazones in gold catalysis, is compatible with a wide variety of substituents at the alkenyl moiety of the hydrazone component, proceeds with excellent levels of regio- and diastereoselectivity, and provides densely substituted cyclobutanes with good to excellent yields. PMID:25406491

  2. Simple hydrazone building blocks for complicated functional materials.

    PubMed

    Tatum, Luke A; Su, Xin; Aprahamian, Ivan

    2014-07-15

    CONSPECTUS: The ability to selectively and effectively control various molecular processes via specific stimuli is a hallmark of the complexity of biological systems. The development of synthetic structures that can mimic such processes, even on the fundamental level, is one of the main goals of supramolecular chemistry. Having this in mind, there has been a foray of research in the past two decades aimed at developing molecular architectures, whose properties can be modulated using external inputs. In most cases, reversible conformational, configurational, or translational motions, as well as bond formation or cleavage reactions have been used in such modulations, which are usually initiated using inputs including, irradiation, metalation, or changes in pH. This research activity has led to the development of a diverse array of impressive adaptive systems that have been used in showcasing the potential of molecular switches and machines. That being said, there are still numerous obstacles to be tackled in the field, ranging from difficulties in getting molecular switches to communicate and work together to complications in integrating and interfacing them with surfaces and bulk materials. Addressing these challenges will necessitate the development of creative new approaches in the field, the improvement of the currently available materials, and the discovery of new molecular switches. This Account will describe how our quest to design new molecular switches has led us to the development of structurally simple systems that can be used for complicated functions. Our focus on the modular and tunable hydrazone functional group was instigated by the desire to simplify the structure and design of molecular switches in order to circumvent multistep synthesis. We hypothesized that by avoiding this synthetic bottleneck, which is one of the factors that hinder fast progress in the field, we can expedite the development and deployment of our adaptive materials. It should be noted though that designing structurally simple switches cannot be an end goal by itself! Therefore, we showed that our molecules can be used in applications that are beyond a simple molecular switching event (i.e., the control of the photophysical properties of liquid crystals and multistep switching cascades). While focusing on these switches, we discovered that the hydrazones can be easily transformed, using straightforward one-step reactions, into visible light activated azo switches, and two different families of fluorophores that can be used in sensing applications. These findings demonstrate that our approach of developing simple systems for sophisticated functions is not limited to the field of molecular switches and machines but can also encompass other adaptive materials. PMID:24766362

  3. The tautomerization between keto- to phenol-hydrazone induced by anions in the solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Xuefang; Yuan, Jianmei; Wang, Yingling; Zhang, Jinlian; Xu, Xiufang

    2012-02-01

    Two simple anion receptors, 2-[(2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenyl)methylene]hydrazone (1) and 2-[(3,5-dibromo-2-hydroxyphenyl)methylene]hydrazone (2) with -OH binding sites, were synthesized and characterized. The anion binding ability of receptors 1 and 2 with halide anions (F-, Cl-, Br- and I-), AcO- and HPO4- was investigated using visual (naked-eye), UV-vis titration experiments in dry DMSO together with DFT theoretical calculation. The addition of F-, AcO- and HPO4- to the host solution resulted in a red shift of the charge-transfer absorbance band accompanied by a color change from yellow to orange in the naked-eye experiments. Receptor 1 containing a nitro group at the para position and receptor 2 containing two bromine groups at the ortho and para positions both showed strong binding ability for HPO4- ion in the form of phenol-hydrazone. Moreover, receptor 1, induced by anion species in the solution, converted to the form of phenol-hydrazone from keto-hydrazone.

  4. FUNCTIONALIZED BETA-C-GLYCOSIDIC KETONE HYDRAZONES. NOVEL DERIVATIVES FOR IMMOBILIZATION AND END-LABELING OF CARBOHYDRATES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrazones are excellent derivatives for the analysis of aldehydes and ketones and are often readily prepared in quantitative yield. Unlike simple aldehydes and ketones, sugars do not usually form simple hydrazones. They react with three equivalents of aryl- or acylhydrazines at both the C1 and C2...

  5. Synthesis and biological evaluation of hydrazone derivatives as antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Bruna B; Muniz, Mauro N; de Oliveira, Thayse; de Oliveira, Lus Flavio; Machado, Michel M; Fuentefria, Alexandre M; Gosmann, Grace; Gnoatto, Simone C B

    2015-01-01

    Emerging yeasts are among the most prevalent causes of systemic infections with high mortality rates and there is an urgent need to develop specific, effective and non-toxic antifungal agents to respond to this issue. In this study 35 aldehydes, hydrazones and hydrazines were obtained and their antifungal activity was evaluated against Candida species (C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. lusitaneae) and Trichosporon asahii, in an in vitro screening. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the active compounds in the screening was determined against 10 clinical isolates of C. parapsilosis and 10 of T. asahii. The compounds 4-pyridin-2-ylbenzaldehyde] (13a) and tert-butyl-(2Z)-2-(3,4,5-trihydroxybenzylidine)hydrazine carboxylate (7b) showed the most promising MIC values in the range of 16-32 ?g/mL and 8-16 ?g/mL, respectively. The compounds' action on the stability of the cell membrane and cell wall was evaluated, which suggested the action of the compounds on the fungal cell membrane. Cell viability of leukocytes and an alkaline comet assay were performed to evaluate the cytotoxicity. Compound 13a was not cytotoxic at the active concentrations. These results support the discovery of promising candidates for the development of new antifungal agents. PMID:26007181

  6. Supramolecular arrangement in mono and bi-camphor acyl hydrazones: A structural study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvão, Adelino M.; Carvalho, M. Fernanda N. N.; Ferreira, Ana S. D.

    2016-03-01

    New acyl hydrazones were synthesized by condensation with camphorquinone aiming at extending the range of applications of the biologically active camphor compounds and structural studies by XRD, 1H-NMR and IR were used in conjunction with advanced computational methodologies to understand the new structural chemistry enabled by the conjugation of the camphor ketone group to the hydrazone Ndbnd C double bond. In particular, were analysed supramolecular arrangements either by hydrogen bonding to water molecules or electrostatic interactions with non protic solvents. The relative stability of all conformers (E/Z) prompted by the hydrazone bond was addressed by state of the art methods such as CR-CCSD(T) and their inter-conversion in both S0 and S1 by CR-EOM-CCSD(T).

  7. Ruthenium(II) hydrazone Schiff base complexes: Synthesis, spectral study and catalytic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikandan, R.; Viswanathamurthi, P.; Muthukumar, M.

    2011-12-01

    Ruthenium(II) hydrazone Schiff base complexes of the type [RuCl(CO)(B)(L)] (were B = PPh 3, AsPh 3 or Py; L = hydrazone Schiff base ligands) were synthesized from the reactions of hydrazone Schiff base ligand (obtained from isonicotinoylhydrazide and different hydroxy aldehydes) with [RuHCl(CO)(EPh 3) 2(B)] (where E = P or As; B = PPh 3, AsPh 3 or Py) in 1:1 molar ratio. All the new complexes have been characterized by analytical and spectral (FT-IR, electronic, 1H, 13C and 31P NMR) data. They have been tentatively assigned an octahedral structure. The synthesized complexes have exhibited catalytic activity for oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde and cyclohexanol to cyclohexanone in the presence of N-methyl morpholine N-oxide (NMO) as co-oxidant. They were also found to catalyze the transfer hydrogenation of aliphatic and aromatic ketones to alcohols in KOH/Isopropanol.

  8. 21 CFR 522.234 - Butamisole hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Butamisole hydrochloride. 522.234 Section 522.234 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.234 Butamisole hydrochloride. (a)...

  9. The ligational behavior of an isatinic quinolyl hydrazone towards copper(II)- ions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The importance of the isatinic quinolyl hydrazones arises from incorporating the quinoline ring with the indole ring. Quinoline ring has therapeutic and biological activities whereas, the indole ring occurs in Jasmine flowers and Orange blossoms. As a ligand, the isatin moiety is potentially ambidentate and can coordinate the metal ions either through its lactam or lactim forms. In a previous study, the ligational behavior of a phenolic quinolyl hydrazone towards copper(II)- ions has been studied. As continuation of our interest, the present study is planned to check the ligational behavior of an isatinic quinolyl hydrazone. Results New homo- and heteroleptic copper(II)- complexes were obtained from the reaction of an isatinic quinolyl hydrazone (HL) with several copper(II)- salts viz. Cl?, Br?, NO3?, ClO4-, SO42- and AcO-. The obtained complexes have Oh, Td and D4h- symmetry and fulfill the strong coordinating ability of Cl?, Br?, NO3? and SO42- anions. Depending on the type of the anion, the ligand coordinates the copper(II)- ions either through its lactam (NO3? and ClO4-) or lactim (the others) forms. Conclusion The effect of anion for the same metal ion is obvious from either the geometry of the isolated complexes (Oh, Td and D4h) or the various modes of bonding. Also, the obtained complexes fulfill the strong coordinating ability of Cl?, Br?, NO3? and SO42- anions in consistency with the donor ability of the anions. In case of copper(II)- acetate, a unique homoleptic complex (5) was obtained in which the AcO- anion acts as a base enough to quantitatively deprotonate the hydrazone. The isatinic hydrazone uses its lactim form in most complexes. PMID:21504614

  10. Optimized protocol for the radioiodination of hydrazone-type polymer drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Sedl?ek, Ond?ej; Ku?ka, Jan; Hrub, Martin

    2014-10-27

    Hydrazone conjugates of polymers with doxorubicin represent a very promising tool for cancer chemotherapy. However, these conjugates are very difficult to radiolabel with iodine radionuclides, which possess otherwise very advantageous nuclear properties to, e.g., follow biodistribution. In this study, we developed a robust protocol for the high-yield radioiodination of hydrazone-type drug delivery systems with doxorubicin. In particular, it is crucial that the polymer radioiodination step be performed before the deprotection of the hydrazide and doxorubicin binding. PMID:25464189

  11. Asymmetric Synthesis of 2-Substituted Oxetan-3-ones via Metalated SAMP/RAMP Hydrazones

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    2-Substituted oxetan-3-ones can be prepared in good yields and enantioselectivities (up to 84% ee) by the metalation of the SAMP/RAMP hydrazones of oxetan-3-one, followed by reaction with a range of electrophiles that include alkyl, allyl, and benzyl halides. Additionally, both chiral 2,2- and 2,4-disubstituted oxetan-3-ones can be made in high ee (8690%) by repetition of this lithiation/alkylation sequence under appropriately controlled conditions. Hydrolysis of the resultant hydrazones with aqueous oxalic acid provides the 2-substituted oxetan-3-ones without detectable racemization. PMID:24152298

  12. Lanthanide Complexes of Substituted ?-Diketone Hydrazone Derivatives: Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Hegazy, W. H.; Al-Motawaa, I. H.

    2011-01-01

    A series of ?-diketone hydrazone derivatives have been synthesized through condensation of ?-diketone with aromatic aldehydes followed by reaction with phenylhydrazine. The structure of the ligands and intermediates are well defined through elemental and spectroscopic analyses. These hydrazones are potential ligands toward lanthanide metal ions. New complexes of trivalent Scandium, Yttrium, Lanthanum, and Cerium have been synthesized. The composition of these complexes is discussed on the basis of elemental analyses, IR, magnetic moments, and thermal analyses. The prepared complexes were screened for antibacterial and antifungal properties and have exhibited potential activity. PMID:21799665

  13. Tridentate hydrazone metal complexes derived from cephalexin and 2-hydrazinopyridine: Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anacona, J. R.; Rincones, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Metal(II) coordination compounds of a tridentate hydrazone ligand (HL) derived from the condensation of cephalexin antibiotic with 2-hydrazinopyridine were synthesized. The hydrazone ligand and mononuclear [ML(OAc)(H2O)] (M(II) = Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ag) complexes were characterized by several techniques, including elemental and thermal analysis, molar conductance and magnetic susceptibility measurements, electronic, FT-IR, EPR and 1H NMR spectral studies. The cephalexin 2-pyridinylhydrazone ligand HL behaves as a monoanionic tridentate NNO chelating agent. The biological applications of complexes have been studied on three bacteria strains (Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii and Enterococcus faecalis) by agar diffusion disc method.

  14. 21 CFR 522.1462 - Naloxone hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Naloxone hydrochloride injection. 522.1462 Section... 522.1462 Naloxone hydrochloride injection. (a) Specifications. Naloxone hydrochloride injection is an aqueous sterile solution containing 0.4 milligram of naloxone hydrochloride per milliliter. (b)...

  15. 21 CFR 522.1462 - Naloxone hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Naloxone hydrochloride injection. 522.1462 Section... 522.1462 Naloxone hydrochloride injection. (a) Specifications. Naloxone hydrochloride injection is an aqueous sterile solution containing 0.4 milligram of naloxone hydrochloride per milliliter. (b)...

  16. 21 CFR 522.1462 - Naloxone hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Naloxone hydrochloride injection. 522.1462 Section... 522.1462 Naloxone hydrochloride injection. (a) Specifications. Naloxone hydrochloride injection is an aqueous sterile solution containing 0.4 milligram of naloxone hydrochloride per milliliter. (b)...

  17. 21 CFR 522.883 - Etorphine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... milliliter of etorphine hydrochloride injection, veterinary, contains 1 mg of etorphine hydrochloride in... use the drug unless diprenorphine hydrochloride injection, veterinary, as provided for in 522.723, is available for use in reversing the effects of etorphine hydrochloride injection, veterinary....

  18. Cardiovascular responses to mianserin hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, C. D.; Turner, P.; Wadsworth, Jane

    1978-01-01

    1 The cardiovascular responses of mianserin hydrochloride and tricyclic antidepressant drugs were investigated using non-invasive methods of cardiac investigation. A study of the interaction of mianserin and antihypertensive drug therapy is reported. 2 In six normal volunteers, mianserin hydrochloride 20 mg was shown to prolong the corrected Q-T interval at 150 min (P<0.001). It did not affect heart rate, systolic time intervals or the peak normalized derivative of the apexcardiogram. Amitriptyline 50 mg increased the corrected pre-ejection period interval (PEPI) and the PEP/left ventricular ejection time (LVET) ratio of the systolic time intervals at 150 min (P<0.001). Q-T interval was shortened at 90 minutes. 3 In a double-blind patient study, clomipramine increased heart rate, P-R interval, QRS and corrected Q-T interval in one patient at 2 weeks. Mianserin prolonged corrected Q-T interval at 1 week but this returned to the pretreatment time by 2 weeks in two patients. 4 In an open study, mianserin 20 mg three times daily did not antagonize the hypotensive action of propranolol or propranolol and hydrallazine in three patients. 5 In a double-blind study in three patients with desmethylimipramine 25 mg three times daily, mianserin 20 mg three times daily did not antagonize the hypotensive action of either guanethidine or bethanidine. PMID:341940

  19. Yohimbine hydrochloride as an antagonist to xylazine hydrochloride-ketamine hydrochloride immobilization of white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; DelGiudice, G.D.; Karns, P.D.; Seal, U.S.

    1985-01-01

    Thirteen captive and one free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were immobilized one to six times each with ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride during winter and spring in northern Minnesota. Administration of 0.09 to 0.53 mg of yohimbine hydrochloride per kg IV after each trial reversed the immobilization. The deer raised their heads within a median time of 2.0 min, stood in 6.0 min and walked away in 9.5 min. No adverse side effects were observed for several weeks following the immobilization.

  20. Immobilization of swift foxes with ketamine hydrochloride-xylazine hydrochloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Telesco, R.L.; Sovada, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing need to develop field immobilization techniques that allow researchers to handle safely swift foxes (Vulpes velox) with minimal risk of stress or injury. We immobilized captive swift foxes to determine the safety and effectiveness of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride at different dosages. We attempted to determine appropriate dosages to immobilize swift foxes for an adequate field-handling period based on three anesthesia intervals (induction period, immobilization period, and recovery period) and physiologic responses (rectal temperature, respiration rate, and heart rate). Between October 1998-July 1999, we conducted four trials, evaluating three different dosage ratios of ketamine and xylazine (2.27:1.2, 5.68:1.2, and 11.4:1.2 mg/kg ketamine:mg/kg xylazine, respectively), followed by a fourth trial with a higher dosage at the median ratio (11.4 mg/kg ketamine:2.4 mg/kg xylazine). We found little difference in induction and recovery periods among trials 1-3, but immobilization time increased with increasing dosage (P<0.08). Both the immobilization period and recovery period increased in trial 4 compared with trials 1-3 (P???0.03). There was a high variation in responses of individual foxes across trials, making it difficult to identify an appropriate dosage for field handling. Heart rate and respiration rates were depressed but all physiologic measures remained within normal parameters established for domestic canids. We recommend a dosage ratio of 10 mg/kg ketamine to 1 mg/kg xylazine to immobilize swift foxes for field handling.

  1. Quantification of acetaminophen by oxidation with tyrosinase in the presence of Besthorn's hydrazone.

    PubMed

    Valero, Edelmira; Carrión, Pedro; Varón, Ramón; García-Carmona, Francisco

    2003-07-15

    A method for the quantitative determination of acetaminophen by measuring the kinetics of its oxidation by the enzyme tyrosinase in the presence of the nucleophilic agent 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolone hydrazone (Besthorn's hydrazone) is described. The hydrazone traps the o-quinone product of the catalytic activity, 4-acetamido-o-benzoquinone, thus increasing the level of the catecholic intermediate, 3'-hydroxyacetaminophen, in the pathway, as was shown by liquid chromatography. This reduces the time necessary for the steady state to be reached and increases the steady state oxidation rate, reaching activations of 124 times at an initial concentration of 3mM hydrazone. Despite being rapid and simple the method is thorough and provides a linear range of quantification of the drug from 10 nmol/ml to 1.4 micromol/ml. The assay can be performed in continuous or discontinuous form, meaning that it can be used with the immobilized enzyme for the design of specific biosensors. PMID:12814621

  2. Colorimetric assay of sialic acid by a methyl-3-benzothiazolinone-2-hydrazone reactant.

    PubMed

    Massamiri, Y; Beljean, M; Durand, G; Feger, J; Pays, M; Agneray, J

    1978-12-01

    A colorimetric assay of sialic acid has been developed in which bound sialic acid is oxidized by periodic acid so as to quantitatively release formaldehyde. In the second step of the reaction formaldehyde reacts with methyl-3-benzothiazolinone-2-hydrazone, giving a colored compound. This method does not require a prior hydrolysis and presents the advantage of great accuracy. PMID:9762148

  3. Catalytic asymmetric construction of chiral hydropyridazines via conjugate addition of N-monosubstituted hydrazones to enones.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenbin; Yuan, Xiaoqian; Hu, Juan; Wu, Xinxin; Wei, Yuan; Liu, Zunwu; Lu, Junzhu; Ye, Jinxing

    2013-09-01

    The first example of a highly enantioselective and scalable formal diaza-ene reaction between N-monosubstituted hydrazones and enones catalyzed by a simple chiral primary-second diamine salt has been developed. The catalytic process provides a highly practical and stereoselective synthetic method for chiral hydropyridazines. PMID:23964662

  4. POLYSTYRENE SULFONIC ACID CATALYZED GREENER SYNTHESIS OF HYDRAZONES IN AQUEOUS MEDIUM USING MICROWAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An environmentally benign aqueous protocol for the synthesis of cyclic, bi-cyclic, and heterocyclic hydrazones using polystyrene sulfonic acid (PSSA) as a catalyst has been developed; the simple reaction proceeds efficiently in water in the absence of any organic solvent under mi...

  5. Synthesis and larvicidal and adult topical activity of some hydrazide-hydrazone derivatives against Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of novel hydrazide-hydrazone derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their larvicidal and adult topical activity against Aedes aegypti. The proposed structures of all the synthesized compounds were confirmed using elemental analysis, UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectroscopy. Com...

  6. Diastereoselective addition of Grignard reagents to ?-epoxy N-sulfonyl hydrazones.

    PubMed

    Uteuliyev, Maulen M; Nguyen, Thien T; Coltart, Don M

    2015-12-01

    The ?-alkylation of ketones and their derivatives by the addition of their corresponding enolates to alkyl halides is a fundamental synthetic transformation, but its utility is limited because the key bond-forming step proceeds in a bimolecular nucleophilic substitution fashion. Here we describe how an umpolung strategy that involves the addition of Grignard reagents to ?-epoxy N-sulfonyl hydrazones-directed by the alkoxide of the 1-azo-3-alkoxy propenes formed in situ via base-induced ring opening of the epoxide-leads to the syn-selective production of ?-alkyl-?-hydroxy N-sulfonyl hydrazones with ?-quaternary centres. This transformation is remarkable in its ability to incorporate an unprecedented range of carbon-based substituents, which include primary, secondary and tertiary alkyl, as well as alkenyl, aryl, allenyl and alkynyl groups. Subsequent hydrolysis of the ?-hydroxy N-sulfonyl hydrazone products produces the corresponding ?-hydroxy ketones. In addition to hydrolysis, the hydrazone products are poised to undergo numerous different known synthetic transformations via well-established chemistry, which would provide access to a wide array of useful structures. PMID:26587719

  7. Comparison of Hydrazone Heterobifunctional Crosslinking Agents for Reversible Conjugation of Thiol-Containing Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Christie, R. James; Anderson, Diana J.; Grainger, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Reversible covalent conjugation chemistries that allow site- and condition-specific coupling and uncoupling reactions are attractive components in nanotechnologies, bioconjugation methods, imaging and drug delivery systems. Here, we compare three heterobifunctional crosslinkers, containing both thiol- and amine- reactive chemistry, to form pH-labile hydrazones with hydrazide derivatives of the known and often published water-soluble polymer, poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylamide)] (pHPMA), while subsequently coupling thiol-containing molecules to the crosslinker via maleimide addition. Two novel crosslinkers were prepared from the popular heterobifunctional crosslinking agent, succinimidyl-4-(N-maleimidomethyl) cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (SMCC), modified to contain either terminal aldehyde groups (i.e., 1-(N-3-propanal)-4-(N-maleimidomethyl) cyclohexane carboxamide, PMCA) or methylketone groups (i.e., 1-(N-3-butanone)-4-(N-maleimidomethyl) cyclohexane carboxamide, BMCA). A third crosslinking agent was the commercially available N-4-acetylphenyl maleimide (APM). PMCA and BMCA exhibited excellent reactivity towards hydrazide-derivatized pHPMA with essentially complete hydrazone conjugation to polymer reactive sites, while APM coupled only ~ 60% of available reactive sites on the polymer despite a 3-fold molar excess relative to polymer hydrazide groups. All polymer hydrazone conjugates bearing these bifunctional agents were then further reacted with thiol-modified tetramethylrhodamine dye, confirming crosslinker maleimide reactivity after initial hydrazone polymer conjugation. Incubation of dye-labeled polymer conjugates in phosphate buffered saline at 37C showed that hydrazone coupling resulting from APM exhibited the greatest difference in stability between pH 7.4 and 5.0, with hydrolysis and dye release increased at pH 5.0 over a 24hr incubation period. Polymer conjugates bearing hydrazones formed from crosslinker BMCA exhibited intermediate stability with hydrolysis much greater at pH 5.0 at early time points, but hydrolysis at pH 7.4 was significant after 5 hrs. Hydrazones formed with the PMCA crosslinker showed no difference in release rates at pH 7.4 and 5.0. PMID:20695431

  8. Tetradentate metal complexes derived from cephalexin and 2,6-diacetylpyridine bis(hydrazone): Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Anacona, J R; Rangel, Victor; Loroo, Marcos; Camus, Juan

    2015-10-01

    Metal(II) coordination compounds of a hydrazone ligand (HL) derived from the condensation of cephalexin antibiotic with 2,6-diacetylpyridine bis(hydrazone) were synthesized. The hydrazone ligand and mononuclear [ML(H2O)2][PF6] (M(II)=Mn, Co, Ni, Zn) complexes were characterized by several techniques, including elemental and thermal analysis, molar conductance and magnetic susceptibility measurements, electronic, FT-IR, EPR and (1)H NMR spectral studies. The cephalexin 2,6-diacetylpyridine bis(hydrazone) ligand HL behaves as a monoanionic tetradentate NNNO chelating agent. The biological applications of complexes have been studied on two bacteria strains (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) by agar diffusion disc method. PMID:25942081

  9. Tetradentate metal complexes derived from cephalexin and 2,6-diacetylpyridine bis(hydrazone): Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anacona, J. R.; Rangel, Victor; Loroño, Marcos; Camus, Juan

    2015-10-01

    Metal(II) coordination compounds of a hydrazone ligand (HL) derived from the condensation of cephalexin antibiotic with 2,6-diacetylpyridine bis(hydrazone) were synthesized. The hydrazone ligand and mononuclear [ML(H2O)2][PF6] (M(II) = Mn, Co, Ni, Zn) complexes were characterized by several techniques, including elemental and thermal analysis, molar conductance and magnetic susceptibility measurements, electronic, FT-IR, EPR and 1H NMR spectral studies. The cephalexin 2,6-diacetylpyridine bis(hydrazone) ligand HL behaves as a monoanionic tetradentate NNNO chelating agent. The biological applications of complexes have been studied on two bacteria strains (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) by agar diffusion disc method.

  10. Palladium-Catalyzed C(sp(2) )-H Alkylation of Aldehyde-Derived Hydrazones with Functionalized Difluoromethyl Bromides.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Alexis; Melot, Romain; Bouyssi, Didier; Monteiro, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    A palladium-catalyzed C(sp(2) )-H difluoromethylation of aldehyde-derived hydrazones using bromodifluoromethylated compounds to afford the corresponding functionalized difluoromethylketone hydrazones has been established. It is proposed that a radical/SET mechanism proceeding via a difluoroalkyl radical may be involved in the catalytic cycle. Applications of the methodology to the synthesis of ?,?-difluoro-?-ketoesters and ?,?-difluoroketones (RCOCF2 H) have been illustrated. PMID:26676834

  11. 21 CFR 522.2470 - Tiletamine hydrochloride and zolazepam hydrochloride for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tiletamine hydrochloride and zolazepam hydrochloride for injection. 522.2470 Section 522.2470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  12. Possible Side Effects of Cyclophosphamide, Etoposide, Topotecan Hydrochloride

    Cancer.gov

    Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Cyclophosphamide, Etoposide, Topotecan Hydrochloride (Table Version Date: August 28, 2014) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Cyclophosphamide, Etoposide, Topotecan Hydrochloride, more than 20 and

  13. 21 CFR 520.863 - Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... hydrochloride per pound of body weight.1 (3) It is not to be used in conjunction with organophosphates and/or procaine hydrochloride because phenothiazine may potentiate the toxicity of organophosphates and...

  14. 21 CFR 522.2582 - Triflupromazine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... organophosphates and/or procaine hydrochloride, because phenothiazines may potentitate the toxicity of organophosphates and the activity of procaine hydrochloride. 1 (5) Federal law restricts this drug to use by or...

  15. 21 CFR 520.863 - Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... hydrochloride per pound of body weight.1 (3) It is not to be used in conjunction with organophosphates and/or procaine hydrochloride because phenothiazine may potentiate the toxicity of organophosphates and...

  16. 21 CFR 522.2582 - Triflupromazine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... organophosphates and/or procaine hydrochloride, because phenothiazines may potentitate the toxicity of organophosphates and the activity of procaine hydrochloride. 1 (5) Federal law restricts this drug to use by or...

  17. 21 CFR 520.863 - Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... hydrochloride per pound of body weight.1 (3) It is not to be used in conjunction with organophosphates and/or procaine hydrochloride because phenothiazine may potentiate the toxicity of organophosphates and...

  18. 21 CFR 522.2582 - Triflupromazine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... organophosphates and/or procaine hydrochloride, because phenothiazines may potentitate the toxicity of organophosphates and the activity of procaine hydrochloride. 1 (5) Federal law restricts this drug to use by or...

  19. 21 CFR 522.2582 - Triflupromazine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... organophosphates and/or procaine hydrochloride, because phenothiazines may potentitate the toxicity of organophosphates and the activity of procaine hydrochloride. 1 (5) Federal law restricts this drug to use by or...

  20. 21 CFR 520.863 - Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... hydrochloride per pound of body weight.1 (3) It is not to be used in conjunction with organophosphates and/or procaine hydrochloride because phenothiazine may potentiate the toxicity of organophosphates and...

  1. 21 CFR 520.863 - Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... hydrochloride per pound of body weight.1 (3) It is not to be used in conjunction with organophosphates and/or procaine hydrochloride because phenothiazine may potentiate the toxicity of organophosphates and...

  2. The anion recognition properties of a novel hydrazone based on colorimetric and potentiometric studies.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Divya; Gupta, Neha; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    A novel hydrazone, 1,3-bis (2-formylphenoxy) propane bis (2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine) (S) has been synthesized and characterized by the NMR, IR, CHNS, UV-Vis, Raman, TEM and XPS analysis. Upon the addition of monohydrogen phosphate (MHP) ion, sudden color change from light yellow to dark violet has occurred. The binding constant of S-MHP was determined by Hill plot. Hydrazone also showed potential response with MHP ion. A number of polymeric membrane electrodes (PME) and coated graphite electrode (CGE) were also fabricated and found that the CGE has revealed better results in comparison to PME in terms of the detection limit of 7.58 × 10(-9) mol L(-1) and Nernstian response. PMID:26478343

  3. Development of Chiral Bis-hydrazone Ligands for the Enantioselective Cross-Coupling Reactions of Aryldimethylsilanolates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A palladium-catalyzed, enantioselective, aryl–aryl cross-coupling reaction using 1-naphthyldimethylsilanolates and chiral bis-hydrazone ligands has been developed. A family of glyoxal bis-hydrazone ligands containing various 2,5-diarylpyrrolidine groups was prepared to evaluate the influence of ligand structure on the rate and enantioselectivity of the cross-coupling. New synthetic routes to the 1-amino-2,5-diarylpyrrolidines were developed to enable the structure/reactivity–selectivity studies. Role reversal experiments of aryldimethylsilanolates and aryl bromides result in biaryl products with the same configuration and similar enantioselectivities implying that reductive elimination is the stereodetermining step. The origin of stereoselectivity is rationalized through computational modeling of diarylpalldium(II) complex which occurs through a conrotatory motion for the two aryl groups undergoing C–C bond formation. PMID:25494058

  4. Synthesis and evaluation of antioxidant activity of new quinoline-2-carbaldehyde hydrazone derivatives: bioisosteric melatonin analogues.

    PubMed

    Puskullu, M Orhan; Shirinzadeh, Hanif; Nenni, Merve; Gurer-Orhan, Hande; Suzen, Sibel

    2016-02-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen species results in oxidative stress that can cause fatal damage to vital cell structures. It is known that the use of antioxidants could be beneficial in the prevention or delay of numerous diseases associated with oxidative stress. Melatonin (MLT) is known as a powerful free-radical scavenger and antioxidant. It was found that indole ring of MLT can be employed by bioisosteric replacement by other aromatic rings. Quinoline derivatives constitute an important class of compounds for new drug development. Owing to quinoline and hydrazones appealing physiological properties and are mostly found in numerous biologically active compounds a series of quinoline-2-carbaldehyde hydrazone derivatives were synthesized as bioisosteric analogues of MLT, characterized and in vitro antioxidant activity was investigated by evaluating their reducing effect against oxidation of a redox-sensitive fluorescent probe. Cytotoxicity potential of all compounds was investigated both by lactate dehydrogenase leakage assay and by MTT assay. PMID:25942363

  5. Novel hydrazone derivatives containing pyridine amide moiety: Design, synthesis, and insecticidal activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zai-Bo; Hu, De-Yu; Zeng, Song; Song, Bao-An

    2016-02-15

    A series of novel hydrazone derivatives containing pyridine amide moiety were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their insecticidal activity. Bioassays indicated that some of the target compounds exhibited good insecticidal activities against Nilaparvata lugens (N. lugens), Plutella xylostella (P. xylostella), Mythimna separata (M. separata), Helicoverpa armigera (H. armigera), Pyrausta nubilalis (P. nubilalis), and Culex pipiens pallens (C. pipiens pallens). In particular, compound 5j revealed excellent insecticidal activity against C. pipiens pallens, with the 50% lethal concentration (LC50) and the 95% lethal concentration (LC95) values of 2.44 and 5.76mg/L, respectively, which were similar to those of chlorpyrifos (3.26 and 6.98mg/L, respectively), tebufenozide (1.22 and 2.49mg/L, respectively), and RH-5849 (2.61 and 6.37mg/L, respectively). These results indicated that hydrazone derivatives containing pyridine amide moiety could be developed as novel and promising insecticides. PMID:26832221

  6. PEGylated Polyamidoamine Dendrimers with Bis-Aryl Hydrazone Linkages for Enhanced Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Quan; Yeudall, W. Andrew; Yang, Hu

    2010-01-01

    Surface modification of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers with polyethylene glycol (PEG) often results in the decrease in their buffering capacity, which is essential for gene transfer. In this work, bis-aryl hydrazone bond, which possesses protonatable pyridine and amines, was explored as a new linkage for PEGylation of PAMAM dendrimers. PEGylated polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer G4.0 conjugates with bis-aryl hydrazone (BAH) linkages were synthesized following a two-step procedure: activation of PAMAM dendrimer G4.0 and monofunctional methoxypolyethylene glycol amine (MW=5000 Da) with succinimidyl 4-hydrazinonicotinate acetone hydrazone (SANH) and succinimidyl 4-formylbenzoate (SFB), respectively, and coupling of SFB-activated PEG to SANH-activated G4.0 to generate PEGylated G4.0 with bis-aryl hydrazone linkages (G4.0-BAH-PEG). It was found that the incorporation of BAH linkages into the vector significantly enhanced the buffering capacity of the vector even with a high degree of PEGylation (42 PEG chains per dendrimer). G4.0-BAH-PEG conjugates could complex with DNA plasmid tightly at low weight ratios and display dramatically improved cytocompatibility. According to gene transfection studies in 293T and HN12 cells, this new vector has been shown to be capable of both transfecting more cells and inducing higher gene expression than the parent dendrimer. This work demonstrates that the use of the BAH linkage in coupling of PEG to the dendrimer helps maintain or increase the buffering capacity of the functionalized dendrimer and results in enhanced transfection. PMID:20593893

  7. Synthesis and characterization of platinum-sterol hydrazone complexes with biological activity against Leishmania (L.) mexicana.

    PubMed

    Visbal, Gonzalo; Marchán, Edgar; Maldonado, Alexis; Simoni, Zulay; Navarro, Maribel

    2008-03-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by protozoans of the genus Leishmania transmitted by insects known as phlebotomines, which are found in wild or urban environments. The disease occurs in tropical and sub-tropical areas, mainly in Asia, Europe, Africa and the Americas. At present, there is no effective treatment for this disease. In the search for new rational chemotherapeutic alternatives, two novel trans [Pt(Hpy1)(2)(Cl)(2)] (1) and trans [Pt(Hpy2)(2) (Cl)(2)] (2) complexes were synthesized by the reaction of K(2)PtCl(4) with sterol hydrazone ligands 20-hydrazone-pyridin-2-yl-5alpha-pregnan-3beta-ol (Hpy1) and 22-hydrazone-pyridin-2-yl-chol-5-ene-3beta-ol (Hpy2). These organic compounds are specific inhibitors of sterol methyl transferase (SMT). The new platinum complexes were characterized by a combination of ESI-MS (electrospray ionization-mass spectroscopy), UV-vis, infrared and NMR spectroscopies; elemental analysis and molar conductivity. Promastigotes of Leishmania (L.) mexicana were treated for 48 h with 10 microM of the sterol hydrazones Hpy1 or Hpy2 alone or coordinated to Pt. Hpy1 produced higher leishmanistatic activity than Hpy2 (39% growth inhibition vs. 16%), which significatively increased (71%, p<0.001) when the complex trans-[Pt(Hpy1)(2)(Cl)(2)] was used. This complex represents a new chemotherapeutic alternative to be evaluated in depth in experimental models of leishmaniasis. PMID:18164763

  8. Stacked films immobilization of MBTH in nafion/sol-gel silicate and horseradish peroxidase in chitosan for the determination of phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Jaafar; Ahmad, Musa; Heng, Lee Yook; Karuppiah, Nadarajah; Sidek, Hamidah

    2006-11-01

    The stacked-film immobilization of 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) in hybrid nafion/sol-gel silicate film and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in chitosan, performed in order to allow the determination of phenolic compounds, was investigated via an optical method. The stacked films were deposited onto a microscope glass slide by a spin-coating technique. The quinone or free radical product formed by the enzymatic reactions of phenolic compounds interacts with MBTH to form azo-dye products, which can be measured spectrophotometrically at a wavelength of 500 nm. The color intensity of the product was found to increase in proportion to the phenolic concentration after 5 min of exposure. The response of the biosensor was linear over concentration ranges of 0.025-0.500, 0.010-0.070 and 0.050-0.300 mM for guaiacol, resorcinol and o-cresol, respectively, and gave detection limits of 0.010, 0.005 and 0.012 mM. The sensor exhibited good sensitivity and stability for at least two months. PMID:17031625

  9. Flow injection determination of hydrogen peroxide using catalytic effect of cobalt(II) ion on a dye formation reaction.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Makoto; Muramatsu, Miyuki; Yamada, Mari; Kitamura, Naoya

    2012-07-15

    A novel flow injection photometric method was developed for the determination of hydrogen peroxide in rainwater. This method is based on a cobalt(II)-catalyzed oxidative coupling of 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) with N-ethyl-N-(2-hydroxy-3-sulfopropyl)-3,5-dimethoxyaniline (DAOS) as a modified Trinder's reagent to produce intensely colored dye (λ(max)=530nm) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide at pH 8.4. In this method, 1,2-dihydroxy-3,5-benzenedisulfonic acid (Tiron) acted as an activator for the cobalt(II)-catalyzed reaction and effectively increased the peak height for hydrogen peroxide. The linear calibration graphs were obtained in the hydrogen peroxide concentration range 5×10(-8) to 2.2×10(-6)mol dm(-3) at a sampling rate of 20h(-1). The relative standard deviations for ten determinations of 2.2×10(-6) and 2×10(-7)mol dm(-3) hydrogen peroxide were 1.1% and 3.7%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of hydrogen peroxide in rainwater samples and the analytical results agreed fairly well with the results obtained by different two reference methods; peroxidase method and hydrogen peroxide electrode method. PMID:22817947

  10. An Optical Test Strip for the Detection of Benzoic Acid in Food

    PubMed Central

    Hamzah, Hairul Hisham; Yusof, Nor Azah; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Bakar, Fatimah Abu

    2011-01-01

    Fabrication of a test strip for detection of benzoic acid was successfully implemented by immobilizing tyrosinase, phenol and 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) onto filter paper using polystyrene as polymeric support. The sensing scheme was based on the decreasing intensity of the maroon colour of the test strip when introduced into benzoic acid solution. The test strip was characterized using optical fiber reflectance and has maximum reflectance at 375 nm. It has shown a highly reproducible measurement of benzoic acid with a calculated RSD of 0.47% (n = 10). The detection was optimized at pH 7. A linear response of the biosensor was obtained in 100 to 700 ppm of benzoic acid with a detection limit (LOD) of 73.6 ppm. At 1:1 ratio of benzoic acid to interfering substances, the main interfering substance is boric acid. The kinetic analyses show that, the inhibition of benzoic is competitive inhibitor and the inhibition constant (Ki) is 52.9 ppm. The activity of immobilized tyrosinase, phenol, and MBTH in the test strip was fairly sustained during 20 days when stored at 3 C. The developed test strip was used for detection of benzoic acid in food samples and was observed to have comparable results to the HPLC method, hence the developed test strip can be used as an alternative to HPLC in detecting benzoic acid in food products. PMID:22164018

  11. Design, synthesis, computational calculation and biological evaluation of some novel 2-thiazolyl hydrazones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbazhagan, R.; Sankaran, K. R.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study a novel series of 1-(1-(4-isobutylphenyl)ethylidene)-2-(4-phenylthiazol-2-yl)hydrazine 2a and its derivatives 2b-2f have been synthesized by the cyclization of 1-(1-(4-isobutylphenyl)ethylidene)thiosemicarbazide with 2-bromoacetophenone/ 4-substituted 2-bromoacetophenones. The structures of the synthesized thiazolyl hydrazones 2a-2f were characterized by FT-IR, 1H, 13C NMR, 2D NMR and mass spectral techniques. The molecular geometries were also investigated theoretically using B3LYP functional with 6-311G(d,p) basis set. To explain the molecular properties energy gap (Eg), electronegativity (?), hardness (g), electrophilicity (?) and softness (S) were computed, natural bonding orbital (NBO) analysis and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) were also performed at the same level of theory. All the synthesized thiazolyl hydrazones 2a-2f were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against selected bacterial and fungal strains. The results showed that the heterocyclic thiazolyl hydrazone derivatives exhibit a promising selective inhibitory activity against various bacterial and fungal strains.

  12. Diastereoselective addition of Grignard reagents to α-epoxy N-sulfonyl hydrazones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uteuliyev, Maulen M.; Nguyen, Thien T.; Coltart, Don M.

    2015-12-01

    The α-alkylation of ketones and their derivatives by the addition of their corresponding enolates to alkyl halides is a fundamental synthetic transformation, but its utility is limited because the key bond-forming step proceeds in a bimolecular nucleophilic substitution fashion. Here we describe how an umpolung strategy that involves the addition of Grignard reagents to α-epoxy N-sulfonyl hydrazones—directed by the alkoxide of the 1-azo-3-alkoxy propenes formed in situ via base-induced ring opening of the epoxide—leads to the syn-selective production of α-alkyl-β-hydroxy N-sulfonyl hydrazones with α-quaternary centres. This transformation is remarkable in its ability to incorporate an unprecedented range of carbon-based substituents, which include primary, secondary and tertiary alkyl, as well as alkenyl, aryl, allenyl and alkynyl groups. Subsequent hydrolysis of the β-hydroxy N-sulfonyl hydrazone products produces the corresponding β-hydroxy ketones. In addition to hydrolysis, the hydrazone products are poised to undergo numerous different known synthetic transformations via well-established chemistry, which would provide access to a wide array of useful structures.

  13. 21 CFR 520.2345a - Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules. 520.2345a... Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 50, 100, 125, 250, or 500 milligrams (mg) tetracycline hydrochloride. (b) Sponsor. See sponsors in § 510.600(c) of this chapter for...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1660b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules. 520.1660b... Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules. (a) Specifications. The drug is in capsule form with each capsule containing 125 or 250 milligrams of oxytetracycline hydrochloride. Oxytetracycline is the...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1660b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules. 520.1660b... Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules. (a) Specifications. The drug is in capsule form with each capsule containing 125 or 250 milligrams of oxytetracycline hydrochloride. Oxytetracycline is the...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10687 - Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides... Specific Chemical Substances 721.10687 Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (PMNs P-13-201, P-13-203, P-13-204, P-13-205, P-13-206, P-13-207,...

  17. 21 CFR 182.1047 - Glutamic acid hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glutamic acid hydrochloride. 182.1047 Section 182.1047 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1047 Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (a) Product. Glutamic acid hydrochloride....

  18. 21 CFR 182.1047 - Glutamic acid hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glutamic acid hydrochloride. 182.1047 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1047 Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (a) Product. Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  19. 21 CFR 182.1047 - Glutamic acid hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glutamic acid hydrochloride. 182.1047 Section 182.1047 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1047 Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (a) Product. Glutamic acid hydrochloride....

  20. 21 CFR 182.1047 - Glutamic acid hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glutamic acid hydrochloride. 182.1047 Section 182.1047 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1047 Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (a) Product. Glutamic acid hydrochloride....

  1. Chromatographic Determination of Aminoacridine Hydrochloride, Lidocaine Hydrochloride and Lidocaine Toxic Impurity in Oral Gel.

    PubMed

    Bebawy, Lories I; Elghobashy, Mohamed R; Abbas, Samah S; Shokry, Rafeek F

    2016-04-01

    Two sensitive and selective analytical methods were developed for simultaneous determination of aminoacridine hydrochloride and lidocaine hydrochloride in bulk powder and pharmaceutical formulation. Method A was based on HPLC separation of the cited drugs with determination of the toxic lidocaine-related impurity 2,6-dimethylaniline. The separation was achieved using reversed-phase column C18, 250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm particle size and mobile phase consisting of 0.05 M disodium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (pH 6.0 ± 0.2 adjusted with phosphoric acid) and acetonitrile (55 : 45, v/v). Quantitation was achieved with UV detection at 240 nm. Linear calibration curve was in the range of 1.00-10.00, 13.20-132.00 and 1.32-13.20 µg mL(-1) for aminoacridine hydrochloride, lidocaine hydrochloride and 2,6-dimethylaniline, respectively. Method B was based on TLC separation of the cited drugs followed by densitometric measurement at 365 nm on the fluorescent mode for aminoacridine hydrochloride and 220 nm on the absorption mode for lidocaine hydrochloride. The separation was carried out using ethyl acetate-methanol-acetic acid (65 : 30 : 5 by volume) as a developing system. The calibration curve was in the range of 25.00-250.00 ng spot(-1) and 0.99-9.90 µg spot(-1) for aminoacridine hydrochloride and lidocaine hydrochloride, respectively. The results obtained were statistically analyzed and compared with those obtained by applying the manufacturer's method. PMID:26671412

  2. 21 CFR 556.350 - Levamisole hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Levamisole hydrochloride. 556.350 Section 556.350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD...

  3. 21 CFR 556.350 - Levamisole hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole hydrochloride. 556.350 Section 556.350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD...

  4. 21 CFR 556.580 - Robenidine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Robenidine hydrochloride. 556.580 Section 556.580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs...

  5. 21 CFR 556.580 - Robenidine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Robenidine hydrochloride. 556.580 Section 556.580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs...

  6. 21 CFR 556.580 - Robenidine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Robenidine hydrochloride. 556.580 Section 556.580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs...

  7. 21 CFR 556.410 - Metoserpate hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Metoserpate hydrochloride. 556.410 Section 556.410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs ...

  8. 21 CFR 556.580 - Robenidine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Robenidine hydrochloride. 556.580 Section 556.580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs...

  9. 21 CFR 556.410 - Metoserpate hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metoserpate hydrochloride. 556.410 Section 556.410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs ...

  10. 21 CFR 556.410 - Metoserpate hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Metoserpate hydrochloride. 556.410 Section 556.410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs ...

  11. 21 CFR 556.580 - Robenidine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Robenidine hydrochloride. 556.580 Section 556.580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs...

  12. 21 CFR 556.410 - Metoserpate hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Metoserpate hydrochloride. 556.410 Section 556.410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs ...

  13. 21 CFR 556.410 - Metoserpate hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Metoserpate hydrochloride. 556.410 Section 556.410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs ...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5875 - Thiamine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Thiamine hydrochloride. 582.5875 Section 582.5875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 582.5875...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5676 - Pyridoxine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pyridoxine hydrochloride. 582.5676 Section 582.5676 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 582.5676...

  16. Treatment of allergic conjunctivitis with olopatadine hydrochloride eye drops

    PubMed Central

    Uchio, Eiichi

    2008-01-01

    Olopatadine hydrochloride exerts a wide range of pharmacological actions such as histamine H1 receptor antagonist action, chemical mediator suppressive action, and eosinophil infiltration suppressive action. Olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% ophthalmic solution (Patanol®) was introduced to the market in Japan in October 2006. In a conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC) test, olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% ophthalmic solution significantly suppressed ocular itching and hyperemia compared with levocabastine hydrochloride 0.05% ophthalmic solution, and the number of patients who complained of ocular discomfort was lower in the olopatadine group than in the levocabastine group. Conjunctival cell membrane disruption was observed in vitro in the ketotifen fumarate group, epinastine hydrochloride group, and azelastine hydrochloride group, but not in the olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% ophthalmic solution group, which may potentially explain the lower discomfort felt by patients on instillation. Many other studies in humans have revealed the superiority of olopatadine 0.1% hydrochloride eye drops to several other anti-allergic eye drops. Overseas, olopatadine hydrochloride 0.2% ophthalmic solution for a once-daily regimen has been marketed under the brand name of Pataday®. It is expected that olopatadine hydrochloride ophthalmic solutions may be used in patients with a more severe spectrum of allergic conjunctival diseases, such as vernal keratoconjunctivitis or atopic keratoconjunctivitis, in the near future. PMID:19668750

  17. Metallo-hydrazone complexes immobilized in zeolite Y: Synthesis, identification and acid violet-1 degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Ayman H.; Thabet, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    Copper(II), cobalt(II) and nickel(II) complexes of hydrazone ligand (SAPH) derived from salicylaldehyde and phenylhydrazine have been encapsulated in zeolite-Y super cages via ship-in-a-bottle synthesis. Detailed characterization of the intrazeolitic complexes were performed by elemental analysis, spectral (FT-IR, UV-Vis.) studies, magnetic measurements and X-ray diffraction. Furthers, surface texture and thermal analysis (TG, DTG, DTA) have provided further evidence for successful immobilization of the metal complexes inside zeolite Y. Investigation of the stereochemistry of these incorporated chelates pointed out that, SAPH ligand is capable to coordinate with the central metal through the (C dbnd N), phenolic (OH) and (NH) groups forming polynuclear structures. The involvement of zeolite oxygen in coordination was postulated in the hybrid materials. The intrazeolitic copper, cobalt and nickel-SAPH complexes have distorted tetrahedral, octahedral and square-pyramidal configurations, respectively. The zeolite encapsulated complexes are thermally stable up to 800 C except Cu(II) sample which is thermally stable up to midpoint 428 C. The assessment of the catalytic activity was performed by the use of the photo-degradation of acid violet-1 dye as a probe reaction in presence of H 2O 2 as an oxidant. Decolorization of acid violet-1 dye was examined under the same conditions whereas the unpromoted zeolite and Cu II, Co II, Ni II-hydrazone complexes supported on zeolite showed 13% and 76%, 53%, 43% color removal, respectively. The results revealed that, the zeolite encapsulated Cu(II) complex generally exhibited better catalytic efficiency (76%) compared with other investigated zeolite encapsulated metal-hydrazone samples.

  18. Synthesis and anticancer activities of novel 8-azapurine carbocyclic nucleoside hydrazones.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yeming; Yan, Hong; Ma, Chao; Lu, Dan

    2015-10-15

    A series of novel 8-azapurine carbocyclic nucleoside hydrazones were synthesized through a useful procedure starting from amino alcohol and pyrimido dichloride. All the products were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and HRMS spectral analysis and the stereochemical structure of key intermediate was also confirmed by a single crystal X-ray diffraction crystallographic analysis. Moreover, the anticancer activities were evaluated in vitro against human liver cancer Huh-7 cell line and human breast cancer A549 cell line. PMID:26364944

  19. Study on fluorescence characteristics of duloxetine hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiangping; Du, Yingxiang; Wu, Xiulan

    2008-12-01

    The fluorescence characteristics of duloxetine hydrochloride are studied in this paper. The fluorescence emission spectra of duloxetine demonstrate that intramolecular charge-transfer takes place between thiophene ring and napthalenyloxy group upon irradiation. The effects of excitation light, solvent system, variation of solution pH value, metal ions and vitamin C on the fluorescence spectra of duloxetine hydrochloride are elucidated, respectively. A spectrofluorometric method of quantitative determination of duloxetine in dosage form is reported for the first time, the linear range is 7.14 × 10 -8 mol/L to 1.43 × 10 -5 mol/L, the linear correlation coefficient r is equal to 0.9997, and the detection limit is 3.5 × 10 -8 mol/L. The accuracy and the precision are satisfactory.

  20. 40 CFR 721.10682 - Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides... Specific Chemical Substances 721.10682 Fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (generic). (a) Chemical substances... fatty acid amide hydrochlorides (PMNs P-13-63, P-13-64, P-13-65, P-13-69, P-13-70, P-13-71, P-13-72,...

  1. Nalfurafine hydrochloride to treat pruritus: a review

    PubMed Central

    Inui, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    Uremic pruritus has a great negative influence on quality of life in hemodialysis (HD) patients and, importantly, negatively affects mortality risk. Recently, nalfurafine hydrochloride, an opioid κ-selective agonist, has been officially approved for resistant pruritus in HD patients on the basis of a well-evidenced clinical trial in Japan. From clinical observation, it has been suggested that the upper neuron system plays a role in its pathogenesis. According to previous experimental results, using mice injected with opioids, dynorphin suppresses itch through binding κ-opioid receptors, suggesting that κ-opioid opioid receptor agonists act as potential therapeutic reagents for pruritus in HD patients. In Japan, a large-scale placebo-controlled study was performed to examine the efficacy and safety of oral nalfurafine hydrochloride for intractable pruritus in 337 HD patients. Two daily doses of 2.5 or 5 μg nalfurafine or placebo were orally administered for 2 weeks, and clinical responses were analyzed. The results showed that the mean decrease in the visual analog scale for pruritus from baseline was 22 mm in the 5 μg nalfurafine hydrochloride group (n=114) and 23 mm in the 2.5 μg group (n=112). These reductions were statistically significant compared with 13 mm, which is the mean decrease of visual analog scale in the placebo group (n=111), demonstrating that nalfurafine is an effective and safe drug for uremic pruritus in HD patients. Moreover, another open-label trial (n=145) examining the long-term effect of 5 μg oral nalfurafine revealed the maintenance of the antipruritic effect of nalfurafine for 52 weeks. In addition, on the basis of recent data showing κ-opioid receptor expression in the epidermis of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, nalfurafine hydrochloride also can be potentially used for these two skin diseases. PMID:26005355

  2. 21 CFR 520.2345a - Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... organisms sensitive to tetracycline hydrochloride, such as bacterial gastroenteritis due to E. coli and urinary tract infections due to Staphylococcus spp. and E. coli. (3) Limitations. Federal law...

  3. 21 CFR 520.2345a - Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... organisms sensitive to tetracycline hydrochloride, such as bacterial gastroenteritis due to E. coli and urinary tract infections due to Staphylococcus spp. and E. coli. (3) Limitations. Federal law...

  4. 21 CFR 520.2345a - Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... organisms sensitive to tetracycline hydrochloride, such as bacterial gastroenteritis due to E. coli and urinary tract infections due to Staphylococcus spp. and E. coli. (3) Limitations. Federal law...

  5. 21 CFR 520.2345a - Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... organisms sensitive to tetracycline hydrochloride, such as bacterial gastroenteritis due to E. coli and urinary tract infections due to Staphylococcus spp. and E. coli. (3) Limitations. Federal law...

  6. Novel colorimetric sensors for cyanide based on azo-hydrazone tautomeric skeletons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adegoke, Olajire A.; Adesuji, Temitope E.; Thomas, Olusegun E.

    2014-07-01

    The monoazo dyes, 4-carboxyl-2, 6-dinitrophenylazohydroxynaphthalenes dyes (AZ-01, AZ-03 and AZ-04), were evaluated as a highly selective colorimetric chemosensor for cyanide ion. The recognition of cyanide ion gave an obvious colour change from light yellow to brownish red and upon dilution with acetone produced a purple to lilac colour. Optimum conditions for the reaction between the azo dyes and cyanide ion were established at 30 C for 5 min, and different variables affecting the reaction were carefully studied and optimised. Under the optimum conditions, linear relationships between the CN- concentrations and light absorption were established. Using these azo-hydrazone molecular switch entities, excellent selectivity towards the detection of CN- in aqueous solution over miscellaneous competitive anions was observed. Such selectivity mainly results from the possibility of nucleophilic attack on the azo-hydrazone chemosensors by cyanide anions in aqueous system, which is not afforded by other competing anions. The cyanide chemosensor method described here should have potential application as a new family probes for detecting cyanide in aqueous solution.

  7. Synthesis and antifungal activity of substituted 2,4,6-pyrimidinetrione carbaldehyde hydrazones.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Donna M; Cammarata, Amy; Backes, Gregory; Palmer, Glen E; Jursic, Branko S

    2014-01-15

    Opportunistic fungal infections caused by the Candida spp. are the most common human fungal infections, often resulting in severe systemic infections-a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in at-risk populations. Azole antifungals remain the mainstay of antifungal treatment for candidiasis, however development of clinical resistance to azoles by Candida spp. limits the drugs' efficacy and highlights the need for discovery of novel therapeutics. Recently, it has been reported that simple hydrazone derivatives have the capability to potentiate antifungal activities in vitro. Similarly, pyrimidinetrione analogs have long been explored by medicinal chemists as potential therapeutics, with more recent focus being on the potential for pyrimidinetrione antimicrobial activity. In this work, we present the synthesis of a class of novel hydrazone-pyrimidinetrione analogs using novel synthetic procedures. In addition, structure-activity relationship studies focusing on fungal growth inhibition were also performed against two clinically significant fungal pathogens. A number of derivatives, including phenylhydrazones of 5-acylpyrimidinetrione exhibited potent growth inhibition at or below 10?M with minimal mammalian cell toxicity. In addition, in vitro studies aimed at defining the mechanism of action of the most active analogs provide preliminary evidence that these compound decrease energy production and fungal cell respiration, making this class of analogs promising novel therapies, as they target pathways not targeted by currently available antifungals. PMID:24361188

  8. Highly efficient donor-acceptor hydrazone dyes-inorganic Si/TiO₂ hybrid solar cells.

    PubMed

    Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G; Irfan, Ahmad; Al-Melfi, Mohrah Abdullah M

    2015-06-15

    We have synthesized the two donor-bridge-acceptor organic dyes (hydrazone dye 1 (HD1) and hydrazone dye 2 (HD2)) with the aim to enhance intra-molecular charge transfer then characterized by FTIR and NMR. The ground state geometries have been optimized at three different levels of theories, i.e., B3LYP/6-31G, B3LYP/6-31G and Hartee-Fock HF/6-31G. The absorption spectra and oscillator strengths in different solvents have been computed and compared with the experimental data. The vibrational spectral assignments have been performed on the recorded FTIR spectra based on the theoretical predicted wavenumbers at three different levels of theories. The effect of different solvents (CHCl3, CH3CN and C2H5OH) has been studied on the absorption wavelengths. Furthermore, we have computed the ionization potentials, electron affinities and reorganization energies of studied compounds and shed light on the charge transport properties. The hetero-junction solar cell devices were fabricated by organic-inorganic hetero-junction (Si/TiO2/dye) then the efficiency has been measured by applying the incident power 30, 50 and 70 mW/cm(2). The maximum efficiency 3.12% has been observed for HD1. PMID:25766477

  9. Vanadium Complexes with Hydrazone or Thiosemicarbazone Ligands as Potential Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis Agents.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Paula C; Maia, Pedro I S; de Barros, Heloisa B; Leite, Clarice Q F; Deflon, Victor M; Pavan, Fernando R

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused mainly by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and still an important public health problem worldwide. Some factors like the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains make urgent the research of new active compounds. Searching for new inorganic compounds against TB, three new dioxovanadium(V) complexes were obtained upon reaction of [VO(acac)2] with hydrazone and thiosemicarbazone ligands derived from di-2-pyridyl ketone. Spectroscopic studies and X-ray crystallography revealed asymmetrically oxo bridged binuclear complexes of the type [{VO(L(1,2))}2(?-O)2], involving the hydrazone ligands, while a mononuclear square pyramidal complex of the type [VO2(L(3))] was formed with the thiosemicarbazone ligand. The compounds were tested against M. tuberculosis and three of them, with MICs values between 2.00 and 3.76 ?M were considered promising for TB treatment. Such MIC values are comparable or better than those found for some drugs currently used in TB treatment. PMID:24433444

  10. Synthesis and structural characterization of zinc(II) and cobalt(II) complexes based on multidentate hydrazone ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Zhang, Yuan Zhuo; Liu, E.; Yang, Chengxiong; Golen, James A.; Rheingold, Arnold L.; Zhang, Guoqi

    2016-04-01

    Two multidentate Schiff base ligands containing a hydrazone unit have been synthesized and investigated for zinc(II) and cobalt(II) coordination chemistry. The reactions of the 4-pyridyl derived hydrazone ligand HL1 with zinc(II) or cobalt(II) salts gave three mononuclear complexes that were structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. The results revealed that the ligand could adopt different coordination modes when various counter anions were employed. While in the case that zinc dichloride was used as a metal salt a neutral mononuclear mono-ligand complex was formed, the deprotonation of hydrazone occurred when zinc(II) or cobalt(II) nitrate were present and two new isostructural mononuclear bis-ligand complexes were isolated. Modification of the hydrazone ligand with oxygen donors was found to have a significant impact on the ligand reactivity, and a similar reaction of H2L2 with cobalt(II) nitrate gave a protonated product of H2L2 without the incorporation of cobalt(II), which features a one-dimensional hydrogen-bonded network in the solid state.

  11. SOLID-STATE SYNTHESIS OF HETEROCYCLIC HYDRAZONES USING MICROWAVES UNDER CATALYST-FREE CONDITIONS: JOURNAL ARTICLE (1605)

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-CIN-1605 Jeselnik, M., Varma*, R.S., Polanc, S., and Kocevar, M. Solid-State Synthesis of Heterocyclic Hydrazones using Microwaves under Catalyst-free Conditions. Green Chemistry (White, J.D. (Ed.), Cambridge, United Kingdom: Royal Society of Chemistry) (4):35-38 (2002). ...

  12. Synthesis of Naphthalenes through Three-Component Coupling of Alkynes, Fischer Carbene Complexes, and Benzaldehyde Hydrazones via Isoindole Intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Shaofeng; Sinha-Mahapatra, Dilip K.; Herndon, James W.

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of naphthalene derivatives through three-component coupling of 2-alkynylbenzaldehyde hydrazones with carbene complexes and electron-deficient alkynes has been examined. The reaction involves formation of an isoindole derivative, followed by intramolecular DielsAlder reaction, followed by nitrene extrusion. The reaction was highly regioselective using unsymmetrical alkynes. PMID:18351767

  13. Synthesis of naphthalenes through three-component coupling of alkynes, Fischer carbene complexes, and benzaldehyde hydrazones via isoindole intermediates.

    PubMed

    Duan, Shaofeng; Sinha-Mahapatra, Dilip K; Herndon, James W

    2008-04-17

    The synthesis of naphthalene derivatives through three-component coupling of 2-alkynylbenzaldehyde hydrazones with carbene complexes and electron-deficient alkynes has been examined. The reaction involves formation of an isoindole derivative, followed by intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction, followed by nitrene extrusion. The reaction was highly regioselective using unsymmetrical alkynes. PMID:18351767

  14. Structure-Activity Relationships of Novel Salicylaldehyde Isonicotinoyl Hydrazone (SIH) Analogs: Iron Chelation, Anti-Oxidant and Cytotoxic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Pot??kov, Elika; Hrukov, Kate?ina; Bure, Jan; Kova?kov, Petra; pirkov, Iva A.; Pravdkov, Kate?ina; Kolbabov, Lucie; Hergeselov, Tereza; Hakov, Pavlna; Jansov, Hana; Mach?ek, Miloslav; Jirkovsk, Anna; Richardson, Vera; Lane, Darius J. R.; Kalinowski, Danuta S.; Richardson, Des R.; Vvrov, Kate?ina; im?nek, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (SIH) is a lipophilic, tridentate iron chelator with marked anti-oxidant and modest cytotoxic activity against neoplastic cells. However, it has poor stability in an aqueous environment due to the rapid hydrolysis of its hydrazone bond. In this study, we synthesized a series of new SIH analogs (based on previously described aromatic ketones with improved hydrolytic stability). Their structure-activity relationships were assessed with respect to their stability in plasma, iron chelation efficacy, redox effects and cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, studies assessed the cytotoxicity of these chelators and their ability to afford protection against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative injury in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. The ligands with a reduced hydrazone bond, or the presence of bulky alkyl substituents near the hydrazone bond, showed severely limited biological activity. The introduction of a bromine substituent increased ligand-induced cytotoxicity to both cancer cells and H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. A similar effect was observed when the phenolic ring was exchanged with pyridine (i.e., changing the ligating site from O, N, O to N, N, O), which led to pro-oxidative effects. In contrast, compounds with long, flexible alkyl chains adjacent to the hydrazone bond exhibited specific cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells and low toxicity against H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Hence, this study highlights important structure-activity relationships and provides insight into the further development of aroylhydrazone iron chelators with more potent and selective anti-neoplastic effects. PMID:25393531

  15. 21 CFR 522.2470 - Tiletamine hydrochloride and zolazepam hydrochloride for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... hydrochloride for injection. 522.2470 Section 522.2470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... analgesia. (2) Amount. Expressed as milligrams of the drug combination: (i) In healthy dogs: An initial... cats with pancreatic disease, or with severe cardiac or pulmonary dysfunction. Not for use in...

  16. 21 CFR 522.2470 - Tiletamine hydrochloride and zolazepam hydrochloride for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... hydrochloride for injection. 522.2470 Section 522.2470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... analgesia. (2) Amount. Expressed as milligrams of the drug combination: (i) In healthy dogs: An initial... cats with pancreatic disease, or with severe cardiac or pulmonary dysfunction. Not for use in...

  17. 21 CFR 522.2470 - Tiletamine hydrochloride and zolazepam hydrochloride for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... hydrochloride for injection. 522.2470 Section 522.2470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... analgesia. (2) Amount. Expressed as milligrams of the drug combination: (i) In healthy dogs: An initial... cats with pancreatic disease, or with severe cardiac or pulmonary dysfunction. Not for use in...

  18. Effect of Ractopamine Hydrochloride and Zilpaterol Hydrochloride on tenderness of longissimus steaks of Bos Taurus steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: Three experiments were conducted to determine 1) the interaction of ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) inclusion rate (0 or 300 mg·hd-1·d-1 for last 30 to 34 d before harvest) and dietary protein level (13.5 or 17.5% CP) on LM slice shear force (SSF) at 14 d postmortem (Exp. 1); 2) the inter...

  19. 21 CFR 522.1222 - Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms. 522.1222 Section 522.1222 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... ANIMAL DRUGS 522.1222 Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms....

  20. 21 CFR 520.1263c - Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder. 520.1263c Section 520.1263c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1263c Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder....

  1. 21 CFR 520.2098 - Selegiline hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Selegiline hydrochloride tablets. 520.2098 Section 520.2098 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.2098 Selegiline hydrochloride tablets. (a)...

  2. 21 CFR 522.536 - Detomidine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Detomidine hydrochloride injection. 522.536 Section 522.536 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 522.536 Detomidine hydrochloride...

  3. 21 CFR 522.536 - Detomidine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Detomidine hydrochloride injection. 522.536 Section 522.536 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 522.536 Detomidine hydrochloride...

  4. 21 CFR 522.883 - Etorphine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Etorphine hydrochloride injection. 522.883 Section 522.883 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.883 Etorphine hydrochloride injection....

  5. 21 CFR 522.536 - Detomidine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Detomidine hydrochloride injection. 522.536 Section 522.536 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.536 Detomidine hydrochloride...

  6. 40 CFR 721.4460 - Amidinothiopropionic acid hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amidinothiopropionic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4460 Amidinothiopropionic acid hydrochloride. (a) Chemical substance and... amidinothiopropionic acid hydrochloride (PMN P-91-102) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  7. Coordination Structure Conversion of Hydrazone-Palladium(II) Complexes in the Solid State and in Solution.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Fumi; Sawaguchi, Kana; Mori, Asami; Takagi, Shoji; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Kato, Masako; Nakajima, Kiyohiko

    2015-09-01

    We prepared hydrazone-palladium(II) complexes of [PdCl2(HL(n))] and [PdCl(L(n))] (n = 1-3) by the reaction of [PdCl2(cod)] or [PdCl2(PhCN)2] and the hydrazone ligands of HL(n) {N'-(pyridin-2-ylmethylene)picolinohydrazide (HL(1)), N'-[1-(pyridin-2-yl)ethylidene]picolinohydrazide (HL(2)), and N'-[(6-methylpyridin-2-yl)methylene]picolinohydrazide (HL(3))}. The structures of the complexes were determined by X-ray analysis. The hydrazone ligands had κN(py1),κN(imine) and κN(amidate),κN(py2) bidentate coordination modes in [PdCl2(HL(n))] (1, n = 1; 2, n = 2) and in [PdCl2(HL(3))] (3), respectively. In contrast, tridentate coordination modes of κN(py1),κN(imine),κN(py2) and κN(py1),κN(amidate),κN(py2) were observed in [PdCl(L(n))] (4, n = 1; 5, n = 2) and in [PdCl(L(n))] (6, n = 1; 7, n = 2; 8, n = 3). Thermal conversion of complexes 1-3 to complexes 6-8 proceeded in acetonitrile. Complexes 4 and 5 were obtained from complexes 1 and 2, respectively, in a basic acetonitrile solution under dark conditions. Complex 4 reverted immediately to complex 1 in an acidic acetonitrile solution that included hydrochloric acid. However, under room light, in the basic acetonitrile solution that included trimethylamine, complex 4 converted photochemically to complex 6. The thermochromic or vapochromic structure conversion of these complexes also occurred in the solid state. On heating at 180 °C, the color of the crystals of complexes 1, 2, and 3 changed from yellow to orange in the solid state. (1)H NMR and/or UV-vis absorption spectroscopy confirmed that the orange complexes 6-8 were produced. The reddish-orange crystals of complexes 4 and 5 were exposed to hydrogen chloride vapor to yield the yellow products of complexes 1 and 2, respectively. PMID:26305775

  8. Treatment of gonorrheal urethritis with spectinomycin hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J.; Tabert, O.; Hanna, J. D.; Rentiers, P. L.

    1974-01-01

    One hundred and eighty-seven males with uncomplicated gonorrheal urethritis were treated with spectinomycin hydrochloride in a dosage of 2 g. given intramuscularly. A failure rate of 3.2% was observed and no complications of therapy were encountered. In addition, 310 strains of N. gonorrhoeae were tested for susceptibility to penicillin G and spectinomycin. All strains were sensitive to 20 μg./ml. of spectinomycin and this susceptibility appeared to decrease as penicillin resistance increased. A greater incidence of relative resistance to penicillin G was observed than in similar studies from other Canadian areas. PMID:4272505

  9. Conformation and conformational exchange of Olopatadine hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Lian-di; Zhu, Chuan-jun; Yang, Chun-hui; Cui, Yu-xin

    2008-12-01

    Besides the assignments of the 13C and 1H shifts by 1D and 2D NMR, the experiment 1H spectra of Olopatadine hydrochloride were recorded at temperature range 228-338 K. The variable-temperature spectra revealed a dynamic NMR effect which is attributed to conformational interconversion of the drug. At low temperature, the solution was shown to contain two conformers and the ration of them was 1:1. A conformational process with a free energy of activation of 56.7 kJ mol -1, coalescence temperature 298 K, was interpreted as geminal 1H exchange. Using molecule simulation, conformational candidates for two conformers are proposed.

  10. Potassium N-Iodo p-Toluenesulfonamide (TsNIK, Iodamine-T): A New Reagent for the Oxidation of Hydrazones to Diazo Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Nicolle, Simon M; Moody, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    A new reagent for the oxidation of hydrazones to diazo compounds is described. N-Iodo p-toluenesulfonamide (TsNIK, iodamine-T) allows the preparation of ?-diazoesters, ?-diazoamides, ?-diazoketones and ?-diazophosphonates in good yield and in high purity after a simple extractive work-up. ?-Diazoesters were also obtained in high yield from the corresponding ketones through a one-pot process of hydrazone formation/oxidation. PMID:24615944

  11. Cyclization of an ?,?-Unsaturated hydrazone catalyzed by a BINOL-phosphoric acid: Pericyclic or not?

    PubMed

    Heggen, Berit; Patil, Mahendra; Thiel, Walter

    2016-01-15

    Density functional theory is used to study the mechanism of the title reaction, one of the first catalytic asymmetric 6?-electrocyclizations observed experimentally. The benzylideneacetone-derived phenyl hydrazone is chosen as model substrate for the cyclization reaction, both in the protonated (A) and unprotonated (B) form, while the isoelectronic carbon analogue, 1,5-diphenylpentadienyl anion (C), serves as a reference for comparisons. The barrier to cyclization is computed to be more than 15 kcal/mol lower in A compared with B, in line with the observed acid catalysis. The relevant transition states to cyclization are characterized for A and C using orbital inspection, natural bond orbital analysis, nucleus independent chemical shifts, and stereochemical indicators. The cyclization of C is confirmed to be pericyclic, while that of A can be described as pseudopericyclic ring closure involving an intramolecular nucleophilic addition. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26373256

  12. Synthesis and antituberculosis activity of indole-pyridine derived hydrazides, hydrazide-hydrazones, and thiosemicarbazones.

    PubMed

    Velezheva, Valeriya; Brennan, Patrick; Ivanov, Pavel; Kornienko, Albert; Lyubimov, Sergey; Kazarian, Konstantin; Nikonenko, Boris; Majorov, Konstantin; Apt, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    We describe the design, synthesis, and in vitro antimycobacterial activity of a series of novel simple hybrid hydrazides and hydrazide-hydrazones combining indole and pyridine nuclei. The compounds are derivatives of 1-acetylindoxyl or substituted indole-3-carboxaldehydes tethered via a hydrazine group by simple CN or double CN bonds with 3- and 4-pyridines, 1-oxide 3- and 4-pyridine carbohydrazides. The most active of 15 compounds showed MICs values against an INH-sensitive strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv equal to that of INH (0.05-2μg/mL). Five compounds demonstrated appreciable activity against the INH-resistant M. tuberculosis CN-40 clinical isolate (MICs: 2-5μg/mL), providing justification for further in vivo studies. PMID:26725953

  13. Rational design, synthesis and anti-proliferative evaluation of novel benzosuberone tethered with hydrazide-hydrazones.

    PubMed

    Yadagiri, Bandi; Holagunda, Uma Devi; Bantu, Rajashaker; Nagarapu, Lingaiah; Guguloth, Vijayacharan; Polepally, Sowjanya; Jain, Nishanth

    2014-11-01

    Two different series of novel analogues of benzosuberones (5a-m and 9a-w) tethered with hydrazone-hydrazides (functional group alterations: Head group to Tail group and vice versa) have been synthesized by the reaction of appropriate aldehydes with substituted hydrazides in excellent yields (87-94%) and their structures were confirmed by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, ESI-MS and HRMS. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for anti-proliferative activity against different human cancer cell lines (HeLa, MDA MB 231, MIAPACA and IMR32). Among the synthesized compounds, six compounds 5 a, 5 b, 5 d, 5 e, 5 f and 9 v exhibited potent anti-proliferative activity with GI50 values less than 0.01 ?M against MIAPACA, MDA-MB-231 and IMR32 human cancer cell lines. PMID:25264072

  14. Benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxybenzoyl hydrazone derivatives as inhibitors of the corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Fouda, A S; Gouda, M M; El-Rahman, S I

    2000-05-01

    The effect of benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxybenzoyl hydrazone derivatives on the corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid has been investigated using thermometric and polarization techniques. The inhibitive efficiency ranking of these compounds from both techniques was found to be: 2>3>1>4. The inhibitors acted as mixed-type inhibitors but the cathode is more polarized. The relative inhibitive efficiency of these compounds has been explained on the basis of structure of the inhibitors and their mode of interaction at the surface. Results show that these additives are adsorbed on an aluminium surface according to the Langmuir isotherm. Polarization measurements indicated that the rate of corrosion of aluminium rapidly increases with temperature over the range 30-55 degrees C both in the absence and in the presence of inhibitors. Some thermodynamic data of the adsorption process are calculated and discussed. PMID:10823698

  15. Mapping Protein Surface Accessibility via an Electron Transfer Dissociation Selectively Cleavable Hydrazone Probe*

    PubMed Central

    Vasicek, Lisa; O'Brien, John P.; Browning, Karen S.; Tao, Zhihua; Liu, Hung-Wen; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    A protein's surface influences its role in protein-protein interactions and protein-ligand binding. Mass spectrometry can be used to give low resolution structural information about protein surfaces and conformations when used in combination with derivatization methods that target surface accessible amino acid residues. However, pinpointing the resulting modified peptides upon enzymatic digestion of the surface-modified protein is challenging because of the complexity of the peptide mixture and low abundance of modified peptides. Here a novel hydrazone reagent (NN) is presented that allows facile identification of all modified surface residues through a preferential cleavage upon activation by electron transfer dissociation coupled with a collision activation scan to pinpoint the modified residue in the peptide sequence. Using this approach, the correlation between percent reactivity and surface accessibility is demonstrated for two biologically active proteins, wheat eIF4E and PARP-1 Domain C. PMID:22393264

  16. Molecular oxygen reduction catalyzed by a highly oxidative resistant complex of cobalt-hydrazone at the liquid/liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Kamyabi, Mohammad Ali; Soleymani-Bonoti, Fatemeh; Bikas, Rahman; Hosseini-Monfared, Hassan; Arshadi, Nematollah; Siczek, Milosz; Lis, Tadeusz

    2015-12-01

    A new complex of Co(iii) using an oxidative stable hydrazone ligand, CoL, was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopic methods and single crystal X-ray analysis where HL is bis-[(E)-N'-(phenyl(pyridin-2-yl)methylene)]carbohydrazide. X-ray analysis revealed that the complex is mononuclear and the coordination environment around the Co(iii) core is trans-[CoN4Cl2]. The catalytic activity of the complex in the oxygen reduction reaction was investigated. The complex is a highly oxidative resistant cobalt-hydrazone which can efficiently catalyze the reduction of oxygen (O2) by a weak electron donor ferrocene, (Fc), at the polarized water/1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) interface. Oxygen reduction is coupled with proton transfer from water to the organic phase to form hydrogen peroxide, which is extracted into the aqueous phase. PMID:26377052

  17. Simultaneous UV Spectrophotometric Estimation of Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Levocetirizine Dihydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, S. Lakshmana; Shirwaikar, A. A.; Shirwaikar, Annie; Kumar, C. Dinesh; Kumar, G. Aravind

    2008-01-01

    A novel, simple, sensitive and rapid spectrophotometric method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of ambroxol hydrochloride and levocetirizine dihydrochloride. The method involved solving simultaneous equations based on measurement of absorbance at two wavelengths 242 nm and 231 nm, the γ max of ambroxol hydrochloride and levocetirizine dihydrochloride, respectively. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range 10–50 μg/ml and 8–24 μg/ml for ambroxol hydrochloride and levocetirizine dihydrochloride respectively. Results of the method were validated statistically and by recovery studies. PMID:20046721

  18. ?-Hydroxy-?-naphthaldehyde [2-(quinolin-8?-yloxy) acetyl] hydrazone as an efficient fluorescent chemosensor for Mg2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jing-can; Yang, Zheng-yin; Fan, Long; Wang, Bao-dui

    2015-04-01

    An efficient fluorescent sensor based on ?-hydroxy-?-naphthaldehyde [2-(quinolin-8?-yloxy) acetyl] hydrazone (HL) for Mg2+ has been designed and synthesized. The receptor showed "off-on" fluorescent responses toward Mg2+ in acetonitrile. The reasons for this phenomenon is that the addition of Mg2+ to the solution of HL induce the formation of a 1:1 ligand-metal complex which inhibit excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT).

  19. New Organocatalyst Scaffolds with High Activity in Promoting Hydrazone and Oxime Formation at Neutral pH

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of two new classes of catalysts for hydrazone and oxime formation in water at neutral pH, namely 2-aminophenols and 2-(aminomethyl)benzimidazoles, is reported. Kinetics studies in aqueous solutions at pH 7.4 revealed rate enhancements up to 7-fold greater than with classic aniline catalysis. 2-(Aminomethyl)benzimidazoles were found to be effective catalysts with otherwise challenging aryl ketone substrates. PMID:25545888

  20. Stereoselective synthesis, spectral and antimicrobial studies of some cyanoacetyl hydrazones of 3-alkyl-2,6-diarylpiperidin-4-ones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velayutham Pillai, M.; Rajeswari, K.; Vidhyasagar, T.

    2014-11-01

    A series of novel cyanoacetyl hydrazones of 3-alkyl-2,6-diarylpiperidin-4-ones were synthesized stereoselectively and characterized by IR, Mass, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 1H-1H COSY and 1H-13C COSY spectra. The stereochemistry of the synthesized compounds was established using NMR spectra. Antimicrobial screening of the synthesized compounds revealed their antibacterial and antifungal potencies. Growth inhibition of Enterobacter Aerogenes by compound 15 was found to be superior to the standard drug.

  1. High-yielding and photolabile approaches to the covalent attachment of biomolecules to surfaces via hydrazone chemistry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Hun; Domaille, Dylan W; Noh, Hyunwoo; Oh, Taeseok; Choi, Chulmin; Jin, Sungho; Cha, Jennifer N

    2014-07-22

    The development of strategies to couple biomolecules covalently to surfaces is necessary for constructing sensing arrays for biological and biomedical applications. One attractive conjugation reaction is hydrazone formation--the reaction of a hydrazine with an aldehyde or ketone--as both hydrazines and aldehydes/ketones are largely bioorthogonal, which makes this particular reaction suitable for conjugating biomolecules to a variety of substrates. We show that the mild reaction conditions afforded by hydrazone conjugation enable the conjugation of DNA and proteins to the substrate surface in significantly higher yields than can be achieved with traditional bioconjugation techniques, such as maleimide chemistry. Next, we designed and synthesized a photocaged aryl ketone that can be conjugated to a surface and photochemically activated to provide a suitable partner for subsequent hydrazone formation between the surface-anchored ketone and DNA- or protein-hydrazines. Finally, we exploit the latent functionality of the photocaged ketone and pattern multiple biomolecules on the same substrate, effectively demonstrating a strategy for designing substrates with well-defined domains of different biomolecules. We expect that this approach can be extended to the production of multiplexed assays by using an appropriate mask with sequential photoexposure and biomolecule conjugation steps. PMID:24972257

  2. 21 CFR 522.1642 - Oxymorphone hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... milligrams of oxymorphone hydrochloride per milliliter of aqueous solution containing 0.8 percent sodium chloride. (b) Sponsor. See No. 060951 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The...

  3. 21 CFR 522.1642 - Oxymorphone hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... milligrams of oxymorphone hydrochloride per milliliter of aqueous solution containing 0.8 percent sodium chloride. (b) Sponsor. See No. 060951 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The...

  4. 21 CFR 522.1642 - Oxymorphone hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... milligrams of oxymorphone hydrochloride per milliliter of aqueous solution containing 0.8 percent sodium chloride. (b) Sponsor. See No. 060951 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The...

  5. 21 CFR 520.1242e - Levamisole hydrochloride effervescent tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...: (1) Amount. The equivalent of 8 milligrams of levamisole hydrochloride per kilogram of body weight... thoroughly. Allow 1 gallon of medicated water for each 100 pounds body weight of pigs to be treated. No...

  6. 21 CFR 520.1660b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... containing 125 or 250 milligrams of oxytetracycline hydrochloride. Oxytetracycline is the antibiotic substance produced by growth of Streptomyces rimosus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other... continuation of compatible antibiotic therapy following parenteral oxytetracycline administration where...

  7. 21 CFR 520.1660b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... containing 125 or 250 milligrams of oxytetracycline hydrochloride. Oxytetracycline is the antibiotic substance produced by growth of Streptomyces rimosus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other... continuation of compatible antibiotic therapy following parenteral oxytetracycline administration where...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1660b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... containing 125 or 250 milligrams of oxytetracycline hydrochloride. Oxytetracycline is the antibiotic substance produced by growth of Streptomyces rimosus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other... continuation of compatible antibiotic therapy following parenteral oxytetracycline administration where...

  9. A novel and practical asymmetric synthesis of dapoxetine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yijun; Liu, Zhenren; Li, Hongyan; Ye, Deyong; Zhou, Weicheng

    2015-01-01

    A novel and practical asymmetric synthesis of dapoxetine hydrochloride by using the chiral auxiliary (S)-tert-butanesulfinamide was explored. The synthesis was concise, mild, and easy to perform. The overall yield and stereoselectivity were excellent. PMID:26734109

  10. A novel and practical asymmetric synthesis of dapoxetine hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yijun; Liu, Zhenren; Li, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    Summary A novel and practical asymmetric synthesis of dapoxetine hydrochloride by using the chiral auxiliary (S)-tert-butanesulfinamide was explored. The synthesis was concise, mild, and easy to perform. The overall yield and stereoselectivity were excellent. PMID:26734109

  11. 21 CFR 522.863 - Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... safety information. (3) It is not to be used in conjunction with organophosphates and/or procaine hydrochloride because phenothiazines may potentiate the toxicity of organophosphates and the activity...

  12. 21 CFR 522.2002 - Propiopromazine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....25 milligram per pound of body weight. (2) It is not to be used in conjunction with organophosphates and/or procaine hydrochloride since phenothiazines may potentiate the toxicity of organophosphates...

  13. 21 CFR 520.2582 - Triflupromazine hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... effect continuing after withdrawal.1 (3) Do not use in conjunction with organophosphates and/or procaine hydrochloride, because phenothiazines may potentiate the toxicity of organophosphates and the activity...

  14. 21 CFR 520.2582 - Triflupromazine hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... effect continuing after withdrawal.1 (3) Do not use in conjunction with organophosphates and/or procaine hydrochloride, because phenothiazines may potentiate the toxicity of organophosphates and the activity...

  15. 21 CFR 520.2582 - Triflupromazine hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... effect continuing after withdrawal.1 (3) Do not use in conjunction with organophosphates and/or procaine hydrochloride, because phenothiazines may potentiate the toxicity of organophosphates and the activity...

  16. 21 CFR 522.2002 - Propiopromazine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....25 milligram per pound of body weight. (2) It is not to be used in conjunction with organophosphates and/or procaine hydrochloride since phenothiazines may potentiate the toxicity of organophosphates...

  17. 21 CFR 522.863 - Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... safety information. (3) It is not to be used in conjunction with organophosphates and/or procaine hydrochloride because phenothiazines may potentiate the toxicity of organophosphates and the activity...

  18. 21 CFR 522.863 - Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... safety information. (3) It is not to be used in conjunction with organophosphates and/or procaine hydrochloride because phenothiazines may potentiate the toxicity of organophosphates and the activity...

  19. 21 CFR 522.2002 - Propiopromazine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....25 milligram per pound of body weight. (2) It is not to be used in conjunction with organophosphates and/or procaine hydrochloride since phenothiazines may potentiate the toxicity of organophosphates...

  20. 21 CFR 520.2582 - Triflupromazine hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... effect continuing after withdrawal.1 (3) Do not use in conjunction with organophosphates and/or procaine hydrochloride, because phenothiazines may potentiate the toxicity of organophosphates and the activity...

  1. 21 CFR 522.2002 - Propiopromazine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....25 milligram per pound of body weight. (2) It is not to be used in conjunction with organophosphates and/or procaine hydrochloride since phenothiazines may potentiate the toxicity of organophosphates...

  2. 21 CFR 520.2582 - Triflupromazine hydrochloride tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... effect continuing after withdrawal.1 (3) Do not use in conjunction with organophosphates and/or procaine hydrochloride, because phenothiazines may potentiate the toxicity of organophosphates and the activity...

  3. Canine olfactory sensitivity to cocaine hydrochloride and methyl benzoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waggoner, L. Paul; Johnston, James M.; Williams, Marc; Jackson, Jan; Jones, Meredith H.; Boussom, Teresa; Petrousky, James A.

    1997-02-01

    Methyl benzoate is a consistent product of cocaine hydrochloride exposed to humid air. The detection responses of dogs trained to detect illicit cocaine hydrochloride may be controlled by vapor from cocaine, methyl benzoate, or other constituents of illicit cocaine. The present study addressed the following questions: 1) How capable are dogs of detecting methyl benzoate compared to cocaine hydrochloride, 2) When dogs are trained to detect methyl benzoate, do they respond to cocaine hydrochloride as being the same or different from methyl benzoate. These questions were investigated using random source dogs trained and tested under laboratory conditions. Odor stimuli were generated and delivered by a vapor generation systems, the outputs from which were characterized by thermal desorption GC/MS. ONe group of dogs was trained to discriminate pharmaceutical grade and illicit cocaine hydrochloride from clean air and tested using a two lever procedure to determine their sensitivity to these substances. A second group of dogs was trained to discriminate between methyl benzoate and clean air and tested for their sensitivity to the substance. The dogs in this second group were then tested using a three lever procedure to determine their sensitivity to these substances. A second group of dogs was trained to discriminate between methyl benzoate and clean air and tested for their sensitivity to the substance. The dogs in this second group were then tested using a three lever procedure to determine whether they responded to cocaine hydrochloride as the same or different from methyl benzoate.

  4. A Post Hoc Analysis of D-Threo-Methylphenidate Hydrochloride (Focalin) Versus D,l-Threo-Methylphenidate Hydrochloride (Ritalin)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Margaret; Wasdell, Michael; Patin, John

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate clinical measures of the benefit/risk ratio in a post hoc analysis of a clinical trial of d-threo-methylphenidate hydrochloride (d-MPH) and d,l-threo-methylphenidate hydrochloride (d,l-MPH). Method: Data from a phase III clinical trial was used to compare equimolar doses of d-MPH and d,l-MPH treatment for

  5. Biting deterrence and insecticidal activity of hydrazidehydrazones and their corresponding 3-acetyl-2,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazoles against Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Hydrazones are important compounds for drug design and they have also good insecticidal activity. In this study, A series of hydrazidehydrazones (1-10) and 3-acetyl-2,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazoles (11-20) were investigated for their biting deterrent and insecticidal act...

  6. Synthesis, growth and characterization of a new promising organic nonlinear optical crystal: 4-Nitrophenyl hydrazone.

    PubMed

    Hemaraju, B C; Ahlam, M A; Pushpa, N; Mahadevan, K M; Gnana Prakash, A P

    2015-12-01

    4-Nitrophenyl hydrazone single crystals were grown by slow evaporation of solvent method using acetone as a solvent. The grown crystals were subjected to various characterizations such as X-ray diffraction studies, UV-visible studies, thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA) and second harmonic generation (SHG). The cell parameters were calculated by using single crystal XRD measurement and the crystal system was found as orthorhombic with non-centro-symmetric space group Pca21. The crystallinity of the grown crystal was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction analysis. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies confirmed the presence of functional groups in the sample. The optical transmittance spectrum shows that the crystal is transparent in the visible wavelength range. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the surface morphology of the grown crystal. The chemical composition of the grown crystal was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The TGA/DTA results showed that the material is stable up to 146C. The NLO property of the crystal was confirmed by Kurtz and Perry method and SHG conversion efficiency is 15.39 times when compared to KDP crystal. PMID:26184469

  7. Switching mechanisms and role of entropy in chemically controlled hydrazone-based switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derian, Rene; Stich, Ivan

    2015-03-01

    Chemically controlled synthetic rotary switches are important as they resemble rotary motors found in nature. In order to elucidate the recent experiments, using hybrid QM/MM methods we have studied chemically controlled hydrazone-based switches in a strongly polar solvent. The experiments indicate a controlled E -->Z-H+ switching by addition of acid and thermal backward isomerization. We have studied the Z -->E switching mechanisms and the role of entropy. We find use of explicit MM solvent crucial for understanding the huge dipole moments (>10D) in the Z conformation and significantly smaller (~5D) in the E conformation and at the transition state, pointing toward very different ordering in those states. Furthermore, the internal and free energy surfaces from thermodynamic integration are qualitatively very different with the free energy surface exhibiting much smaller energy differences between E and Z. In addition, the solvent causes a pronounced shift (~30) in the position of the Z states from internal and free energies. Both finding highlight the role of the entropy in the switching process and help a quantitative understanding of the switching in the solvent. Supported by APVV-0207-11 and VEGA (2/0007/12) projects.

  8. Antitumor activity of a 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde 2-pyridinecarboxylic acid hydrazone copper complex and the related mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yingli; Huang, Tengfei; Zhou, Sufeng; Fu, Yun; Liu, Youxun; Yuan, Yanbin; Zhang, Qiongqing; Li, Shaoshan; Li, Changzheng

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde 2-pyridinecarboxylic acid hydrazone (PPAH) was prepared and its antitumor activity was evaluated. The inhibition of proliferation of PPAH against the HepG2 and HCT-116 cell lines was less effective, yet in the presence of copper ions, the mixture demonstrated excellent antitumor activity (IC50 at 2.75±0.30 µM for the HepG2 cell line, and 1.90±0.20 µM for the HCT-116 cell line, respectively) and the new active species was confirmed to be a PPAH copper complex with a 1:1 ratio by spectral analysis. The excellent antitumor activity of the copper complex prompted us to investigate the underlying mechanism. RT-PCR was performed to detect the changes in the expression of apoptotic genes induced by PPAH and its copper complex. However, no changes were observed when the cells were treated by the agents for 24 or 48 h, indicating that ROS were unlikely involved. Cell cycle analysis showed that both PPAH and its copper complex led to S phase arrest of the cells. The sDNA relaxation assay revealed that the PPAH-copper complex displayed dual topoisomerase inhibition for type I and II. The data suggest that the inhibition of proliferation exhibited by the PPAH copper complex may stem from its dual topoisomerase inhibition, which is rarely observed for a metal complex. PMID:26135482

  9. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of hydrazone incorporated 1,2,4-triazines as anticonvulsant agents.

    PubMed

    Amir, Mohammed; Ali, Israr; Hassan, Mohd Zaheen; Mulakayala, Naveen

    2014-12-01

    New hydrazone incorporated triazines were designed and synthesized using an appropriate synthetic route with regard to essential pharmacophores, and evaluated for their anticonvulsant activity through maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure (scPTZ) screenings. Among the tested compounds, 4-[{2-(5-(3-chlorobenzyl)-3-phenyl-1,2,4-triazine-6-yl)hydrazono}methyl]-N,N-dimethylaniline 6k (MES ED50 54.31, scPTZ ED50 92.01) and 4-[{2-(5-(4-chlorobenzyl)-3-phenyl-1,2,4-triazine-6-yl)hydrazono}methyl]-N,N-dimethylaniline 6r (MES ED50 46.05, scPTZ ED50 83.90) emerged as the most active anticonvulsant agents having GABAergic effects. Compounds 6k and 6r also showed lesser CNS depressant effect than the standard drug carbamazepine. To obtain further insights into the binding interactions of these molecules, molecular docking studies were carried out. PMID:25251582

  10. Synthesis, characterization, investigation of biological activity and theoretical studies of hydrazone compounds containing choloroacetyl group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cukurovali, Alaaddin; Yilmaz, Engin

    2014-10-01

    In this study, three new hydrazide-hydrazone derivative compounds which contain choloroacetyl group have been synthesized and characterized. In the characterization, spectral techniques such as IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy techniques were used. Antibacterial effects of the synthesized compounds were investigated against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. In the theoretical calculations Gaussian 09 software was used with the DFT/6-311+(d,p) basis set. Experimental X-ray analysis of compounds has not been studied. Theoretical bond lengths of synthesized compounds were compared with experimental bond lengths of a similar compound. Theoretical and experimental bond lengths are in good agreement with R2: 0.896, 0.899 and 0.900 for compounds 1, 2, and 3, respectively. For antibacterial activity, the most effective one was found to be N‧-(4-bromobenzylidene)-2-chloro-N-(4-(3-methyl-3-phenylcyclobutyl)-thiazol-2-yl) acetohydrazide against P.aeroginaosa ATTC 27853, among the studied compounds.

  11. Measuring cellular forces using bis-aliphatic hydrazone crosslinked stress-relaxing hydrogels.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, D D; Domaille, D W; Brown, T E; Kyburz, K A; Kiyotake, E; Cha, J N; Anseth, K S

    2014-12-14

    Studies focused on understanding the role of matrix biophysical signals on cells, especially those when cells are encapsulated in hydrogels that are locally remodelled, are often complicated by appropriate methods to measure differences between the bulk and local material properties. From this perspective, stress-relaxing materials that allow long-term culture of embedded cells provide an opportunity to elucidate aspects of this biophysical signalling. In particular, rheological characterization of the stress relaxation properties allows one to link a bulk material measurement to local aspects of cellular functions by quantifying the corresponding cellular forces that must be applied locally. Here, embryonic stem cell-derived motor neurons were encapsulated in a well-characterized covalently adaptable bis-aliphatic hydrazone crosslinked PEG hydrogel, and neurite outgrowth was observed over time. Using fundamental physical relationships describing classical mechanics and viscoelastic materials, we calculated the forces and energies involved in neurite extension, the results of which provide insight to the role of biophysical cues on this process. PMID:25265090

  12. Radiation induced conductivity of polycarbonate doped with different concentrations of aromatic hydrazone DEH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimir, Saenko; Novikov, Lev; Tyutnev, Andrey

    Radiation induced conductivity (RIC) of polymers widely used on present-day spacecraft plays is an important factor affecting their charging by the hot plasma of the Earths magnetosphere. As a result, researchers pay special attention to laboratory investigations of RIC in polymers excited by 10 -100 keV electrons prevailing in the hot magnetospheric plasma, including auroral radiation. Due to fluctuating fluxes of plasma electrons and especially of auroral electrons, it is very important to know how RIC depends on time. In our report we present RIC results observed in polycarbonate (PC) molecularly doped with aromatic hydrazone DEH (10 to 30 mas. percent) under continuous irradiation with 50 keV electrons. It has been found that RIC behavior in this material differs markedly from what we observed earlier in most of the polymers. After beginning of the stepwise irradiation, the RIC of PC+DEH rises fast to the quasistationary level but unlike common polymers, does not fall by an order of magnitude, instead it starts to increase further thus causing the accumulating space charge to decrease. This fact combined with the confirmed high radiation and temperature tolerance allows us to recommend this material for application on the spacecraft outer surface and specifically, as a thermal blanket.

  13. Design, synthesis, and insecticidal activities of phthalamides containing a hydrazone substructure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming; Wang, Yi; Wangyang, Wei-zi; Liu, Feng; Cui, Yong-liang; Duan, You-sheng; Wang, Min; Liu, Shang-zhong; Rui, Chang-hui

    2010-06-01

    Fluobendiamide is the first commercialized artificial synthetic insecticide acting on the ryanodine receptor. This new molecule possesses a combination of excellent insecticidal activity and eco-friendly characteristics with a skeleton structure of phthalamide. In this study, we incorporated hydrazone, present in many pesticidal compounds reported during the last two decades, into phthalamide derivatives via Schiff-base condensation and aminolysis to obtain 21 new compounds; these compounds were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) or elemental analysis. A preliminary bioassay against peach aphids ( Myzus persicae ) revealed that the title compounds exhibited good stomach toxicity at 600 mg/L. Twelve new compounds were found to display higher activity than postive control flubendiamide (LC(50) = 184.099 mg/L), however, LC(50) was less than 100 mg/L only for compounds 4e, 4o, 4s, 4t (59-77 mg/L). That is, combinations of a p-fluorophenyl or (methyl)thienyl group at the Ar position with an isopropyl or cyclohexyl group at the R position might improve the lethality of the designed phthalamide derivative. Preliminary results of a bioassay at 600 mg/L against diamondback moth ( Plutella xylostella , Linnaeus) showed that only the title compound 4e possessed good larvicidal activity. On comparison of the bioassay results of stomach toxicity and larvicidal activity, it is noteworthy that the compound incorporating phenylpyrazolyl exhibited good larvicidal activity and poor stomach activity. PMID:20450195

  14. Extending the Scope of the B(C6 F5 )3 -Catalyzed C=N Bond Reduction: Hydrogenation of Oxime Ethers and Hydrazones.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Jens; Porwal, Digvijay; Chatterjee, Indranil; Oestreich, Martin

    2015-12-01

    The B(C6 F5 )3 -catalyzed hydrogenation is applied to aldoxime triisopropylsilyl ethers and hydrazones bearing an easily removable phthaloyl protective group. The CN reduction of aldehyde-derived substrates (oxime ethers and hydrazones) is enabled by using 1,4-dioxane as the solvent known to participate as the Lewis-basic component in FLP-type heterolytic dihydrogen splitting. More basic ketone-derived hydrazones act as Lewis bases themselves in the FLP-type dihydrogen activation and are therefore successfully hydrogenated in nondonating toluene. The difference in reactivity between aldehyde- and ketone-derived substrates is also reflected in the required catalyst loading and dihydrogen pressure. PMID:26489785

  15. Luminescent properties of a di-hydrazone derived from the antituberculosis agent isoniazid: Potentiality as an emitting layer constituent for OLED fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, Rafaela S.; Aderne, Rian E.; Cremona, Marco; Rey, Nicolás A.

    2016-02-01

    Hydrazones constitute a class of compounds presenting azomethine R‧R″Nsbnd Ndbnd CHsbnd R hydrogens, which show diverse properties and a wide range of applications. A hydrazone derived from the antituberculosis drug isoniazid, namely, N,N‧-diisonicotinoyl-2-hydroxy-5-methylisophthalaldehyde hydrazone (DMD) was synthesized and chemically characterized. Its luminescent properties were also investigated, as well as the possibility of using this compound as a constituent of the emitting layer for the fabrication of OLEDs. Co-deposited devices were fabricated using the organic molecule BSBF as matrix and DMD as dopant. All the devices presented a broad electroluminescence band, in which it was possible to recognize the DMD emission along with emissions of some of the other organic layers. The best results were obtained with 35% DMD doping, achieving a luminance of about 35 cd/m2.

  16. Sapropterin Hydrochloride: Enzyme Enhancement Therapy for Phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Lachmann, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited disorder of amino acid metabolism caused by deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). Historically PKU was a common genetic cause of severe learning difficulties and developmental delay, but with the introduction of newborn screening and early dietary management, it has become a treatable disease and people born with PKU should now have IQs and achievements similar to their peers. Dietary treatment, however, involves lifestyle changes that pervade most aspects of daily life for an individual and their family. A simple pharmacological treatment for PKU would have a great appeal. Sapropterin hydrochloride is a synthetic form of tetrahydrobiopterin, the cofactor for PAH. A proportion of mutant PAH enzymes show enhanced activity in the presence of pharmacological doses of sapropterin and, for some patients with milder forms of PKU, sapropterin can effectively lower plasma phenylalanine levels. This article discusses the potential place for sapropterin in the management of PKU and how this expensive orphan drug is being integrated into patient care in different healthcare systems. PMID:23148178

  17. Stability of cefozopran hydrochloride in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Przemysław; Skibiński, Robert; Paczkowska, Magdalena; Garbacki, Piotr; Talaczyńska, Alicja; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta; Jelińska, Anna

    2016-04-01

    The influence of pH on the stability of cefozopran hydrochloride (CZH) was investigated in the pH range of 0.44-13.00. Six degradation products were identified with a hybrid ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometer. The degradation of CZH as a result of hydrolysis was a pseudo-first-order reaction. As general acid-base hydrolysis of CZH was not occurred in the solutions of hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, acetate, borate and phosphate buffers, kobs = kpH because specific acid-base catalysis was observed. Specific acid-base catalysis of CZH consisted of the following reactions: hydrolysis of CZH catalyzed by hydrogen ions (kH+), hydrolysis of dications (k1H2O), monocations (k2H2O) and zwitter ions (k3H2O) and hydrolysis of zwitter ions (k1OH-) and monoanions (k2OH-) of CZH catalyzed by hydroxide ions. The total rate of the reaction was equal to the sum of partial reactions: [Formula: see text]. CZH similarly like other fourth generation cephalosporin was most stable at slightly acidic and neutral pH and less stable in alkaline pH. The cleavage of the β-lactam ring resulting from a nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon in the β-lactam moiety is the preferred degradation pathway of β-lactam antibiotics in aqueous solutions. PMID:26079426

  18. Spectrophotometric, difference spectroscopic, and high-performance liquid chromatographic methods for the determination of cefixime in pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Shah, Paresh B; Pundarikakshudu, Kilambi

    2006-01-01

    Three simple and sensitive spectrophotometric, difference spectroscopic, and liquid chromatographic (LC) methods are described for the determination of cefixime. The first method is based on the oxidative coupling reaction of cefixime with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinon hydrazone HCI in presence of ferric chloride. The absorbance of reaction product was measured at the maximum absorbance wavelength (wavelength(max)), 630 nm. The difference spectroscopic method is based on the measurement of absorbance of cefixime at the absorbance maximum, 268 nm, and minimum, 237 nm. The measured value was the amplitude of maxima and minima between 2 equimolar solutions of the analyte in different chemical forms, which exhibited different spectral characteristics. The conditions were optimized, and Beer's law was obeyed for cefixime at 1 to 16 microg/mL and 10 to 50 microg/mL, respectively. The third method, high-performance LC, was developed for the determination of cefixime using 50 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate (pH 3.0)-methanol (78 + 22, v/v) as the mobile phase and measuring the response at wavelength(max) 286 nm. The analysis was performed on a Lichrospher RPC18 column. The calibration curve was obtained for cefixime at 5 to 250 microg/mL, and the mean recovery was 99.71 +/- 0.01%. The methods were validated according to the guidelines of the U.S. Pharmacopoeia and also assessed by applying the standard addition technique. The results obtained in the analysis of dosage forms agreed well with the contents stated on the labels. PMID:16915834

  19. A new enzymo-chemical method for simultaneous assay of methanol and formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Gonchar, M V; Grabek, D; Oklejewich, B; Pavlishko, H M; Shamlian, O V; Sybirny, V A; Kotylak, Z; Rudke, K; Csöregi, E; Sibirny, A A

    2005-01-01

    A new enzymo-chemical method for the simultaneous assay of methanol and formaldehyde in mixtures is described which exploits alcohol oxidase (AO) and aldehyde-selective reagent, 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH). The enzyme is used for methanol oxidation to formaldehyde and MBTH plays a double role: 1) at the first step of reaction, it forms a colorless azine adduct with pre-existing and enzymatically formed formaldehyde and masks it from oxidation by AO; 2) at the second step of reaction, non-enzymatic oxidation of azine product to cyanine dye occurs in the presence of ferric ions in acid medium. Pre-existing formaldehyde content is assayed by colorimetric reaction with MBTH without treating samples by AO, and methanol content is determined by a gain in a colored product due to methanol-oxidising reaction. Possibility of differential assay of methanol and formaldehyde by the proposed method has been proved for model solutions as well as for real samples of industrial waste and technical formaline. A threshold sensitivity of the assay method for both analytes is near 1 microM that responds to 30-32 ng analyte in 1 ml of reaction mixture and is 3.2-fold higher when compared to the chemical method with the use of permanganate and chromotropic acid. Linearity of the calibration curve is reliable (p < 0.0001) and standard deviation for parallel measurements for real samples does not exceed 7%. The proposed method, in contrast to the standard chemical approach, does not need the use of aggressive chemicals (concentrated sulfuric, phosphoric, chromotropic acids, permanganate), it is more simple in fulfillment and can be used for industrial wastes control and certification of formaline-contained stuffs. PMID:16566143

  20. UV analysis of Amadori-glycated phosphatidylethanolamine in foods and biological samples.

    PubMed

    Oak, Jeong-Ho; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2002-03-01

    Maillard reactions are among the most important of the chemical and oxidative changes occurring in food and biological samples that contribute to food deterioration and to the pathophysiology of human disease. Although the association of lipid glycation with this process has recently been shown, the number of lipid glycation products in food and biological materials has not been clear. In this study, we synthesized the Amadori products derived from the glycation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), i.e., Amadori-PEs. Dioleoyl PE was incubated with glucose and lactose for 15 days, and the resultant Amadori-PEs were purified and isolated using solid phase extraction followed by HPLC. With this procedure, essentially pure (>98% purity) Amadori-PEs glycated with glucose (Glc-PE) and with lactose (Lac-PE) were obtained and used as standards in the subsequent studies. To determine the presence of Amadori-PEs in food and biological samples, the carbonyl group of Amadori-PEs was ultraviolet (UV)-labeled with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone, and the labeled Amadori-PEs were analyzed with normal phase HPLC-UV (318 nm). The detection limit was 4.5 ng (5 pmol) for Glc-PE and 5.3 ng (5 pmol) for Lac-PE. Among the several food samples examined, infant formula and chocolate contained a high amount of both Glc-PE and Lac-PE over wide concentration ranges, such as 1.5-112 microg/g. Testing biological materials showed Amadori-PE (Glc-PE) was detectable in rat plasma. PMID:11893788

  1. Spectrophotometric, spectrofluorimetric, and densitometric methods for the determination of indapamide.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Nadia F

    2003-01-01

    Three sensitive spectrophotometric, spectrofluorimetric, and densitometric methods are described for the determination of indapamide. The first and second methods are based on the oxidative coupling reaction of indapamide with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone HCl (MBTH) in the presence of cerium(IV) ammonium sulfate in an acidic medium. The absorbance of the reaction product is measured at the lambdamax, 601 nm. With the same reaction, indapamide is determined by its quenching effect on the fluorescence of excess cerous ions at the emission lambdamax, 350 nm, and the excitation at lambdamax, 300 nm. The reaction conditions were optimized, and Beer's law was obeyed for indapamide at 1.2-9.6 microg/mL with mean recoveries of 99.92 +/- 0.83 and 99.97 +/- 1.11%, respectively. The third method, a stability-indicating densitometric assay, was developed for the determination of indapamide, using toluene-ethyl acetate-glacial acetic acid (69 + 30 + 1, v/v/v) as the developing system and scanning at the lambdamax, 242 nm, in the presence of the degradation product and related substance; for the indapamide concentration range of 0.6-6 microg/spot, the mean recovery was 99.73 +/- 0.71%. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of indapamide in bulk powder and commercial tablets, and the results of the analysis agreed statistically with those obtained with the official method. Furthermore, the methods were validated according to the guidelines of the U.S. Pharmacopeia and also assessed by applying the standard additions technique. PMID:14632394

  2. Phenoloxidase and cytotoxicity in the compound ascidian Botryllus schlosseri.

    PubMed

    Ballarin, L; Cima, F; Sabbadin, A

    1998-01-01

    The vacuoles of morula cells (MC) of the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri contain phenoloxidase (PO). As the release of their vacuolar content at the border of incompatible contacting colonies is associated with the formation of necrotic masses which characterize the rejection reaction, the role of PO in Botryllus cytotoxicity was investigated. When hemocytes are incubated with blood plasma from incompatible (heterologous) colonies, MC degranulate and, after 60 min, the cytotoxicity index becomes significantly greater than that observed in controls incubated with autologous plasma. The rise in cell mortality is completely inhibited by the addition of PO inhibitors sodium benzoate, tropolone and phenylthiourea, and serine protease inhibitors phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, benzamidine, N-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone and N-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone. The addition of either reducing agents L-cysteine and ascorbic acid or reactive oxygen species scavenger enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase has a similar effect. Significant inhibition of cytotoxicity is also observed with the quinone scavenger, 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone. In the presence of sodium benzoate and phenylthiourea, there is a significant reduction in the number, size and color intensity of necrotic masses along the contact border of incompatible colonies. A significant increase in superoxide anion production, completely inhibited by sodium benzoate, is observed when hemocytes are incubated with heterologous blood plasma. These results indicate that: (i) PO is the enzyme responsible for the cytotoxicity observed in both hemocyte cultures and rejection reactions; (ii) PO is present inside MC vacuoles as a proenzyme which is activated, upon release, by humoral proteases; (iii) cytotoxicity appears to be mainly due to oxidative stress generated by PO during oxidation of polyphenols to quinones without the involvement of other oxidases such as NADPH oxidase and peroxidase. PMID:9877431

  3. Immobilizing wild mountain lions (Felis concolor) with ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Logan, K A; Thorne, E T; Irwin, L L; Skinner, R

    1986-01-01

    A mixture of 120 mg ketamine hydrochloride (KHCL)/20 mg xylazine hydrochloride (XHCL)/ml was used to immobilize 37 wild mountain lions (Felis concolor) 46 times. Observations were recorded during 37 trials that included kittens, adult females, and adult males. Dosages were based on 11 mg KHCL and 1.8 mg XHCL/kg estimated body weight. Actual doses for 24 lions requiring a single injection for immobilization ranged from 4.7-15.8 mg KHCL/kg and 0.8-2.6 mg XHCL/kg. Induction, duration, and recovery times did not differ (P greater than 0.05) between the sex and age classes. Two kittens were overdosed with the drug combination, but the effects were not life threatening. Eleven other lions, nine of which were initially underdosed, required additional injections of the drug combination for safe handling. Immobilization was characterized initially by semi-consciousness, open eyelids, pupillary dilation, and muscle rigidity. Later, most lions appeared unconscious, muscles relaxed, and breathing slowed considerably. No convulsions or hypersalivation occurred. The KHCL/XHCL mixture given at approximately 11 mg KHCL and 1.8 mg XHCL/kg body weight proved useful for immobilizing wild mountain lions for research purposes. Suggestions for case of immobilized cats are included. PMID:3951066

  4. Immobilization of polar bears (Ursus maritimus Phipps) with a mixture of tiletamine hydrochloride and zolazepam hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Haigh, J C; Stirling, I; Broughton, E

    1985-01-01

    A 1:1 mixture of tiletamine hydrochloride and zolazepam hydrochloride was tested on 39 polar bears in and near Churchill, Manitoba, Canada during October 1983. The mean dose for satisfactory immobilization with a single injection was 5.1 mg/kg. Bears showed signs of ataxia from 1-3 min following injection and were usually sitting within 4 min. The mean induction time, taken as the adoption of sternal recumbency, was 5.1 min. Maximum relaxation was usually seen by about 20 min post-injection. The duration of immobilization appeared to be related to the dose of drug received. In bears that received a dose near the mean, recumbency lasted about 2 hr. Cubs of the year recovered more quickly than adults. Preliminary results indicated that the bears did not suffer respiratory depression and were able to thermoregulate while immobilized. Bears could be handled safely while under the effects of the drug and workers could readily evaluate the state of their sedation by their reactions. The drug did not appear to provide good analgesia at the doses tested. PMID:3981743

  5. Synthesis of novel diflunisal hydrazide-hydrazones as anti-hepatitis C virus agents and hepatocellular carcinoma inhibitors.

    PubMed

    ?enkarde?, Sevil; Kaushik-Basu, Neerja; Durmaz, ?rem; Manvar, Dinesh; Basu, Amartya; Atalay, Rengl; Kkgzel, ? Gniz

    2016-01-27

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a main cause of chronic liver disease, leading to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The objective of our research was to develop effective agents against viral replication. We have previously identi?ed the hydrazide-hydrazone scaffold as a promising hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatocelluler inhibitor. Herein we describe the design a number of 2',4'-difluoro-4-hydroxy-N'-(arylmethylidene) biphenyl-3-carbohydrazide (3a-t) as anti-HCV and anticancer agents. Results from evaluation of anti-HCV activity indicated that most of the synthesized hydrazone derivatives inhibited viral replication in the Huh7/Rep-Feo1b and Huh 7.5-FGR-JCI-Rluc2A reporter systems. Antiproliferative activities of increasing concentrations of 2',4'-difluoro-4-hydroxy-N'-(2-pyridyl methylidene)biphenyl-3-carbohydrazide 3b and diflunisal (2.5-40?M) were assessed in liver cancer cell lines (Huh7, HepG2, Hep3B, Mahlavu, FOCUS and SNU-475) with sulforhodamine B assay for 72h. Compound 3b with 2-pyridinyl group in the hydrazone part exhibited promising cytotoxic activity against all cell lines with IC50 values of 10, 10.34 16.21 4.74, 9.29 and 8.33?M for Huh7, HepG2, Hep3B, Mahlavu, FOCUS and SNU-475cells, respectively, and produced dramatic cell cycle arrest at SubG1/G0 phase as an indicator of apoptotic cell death induction. PMID:26695731

  6. Enantioselective Rhodium(I) Donor Carbenoid-Mediated Cascade Triggered by a Base-Free Decomposition of Arylsulfonyl Hydrazones.

    PubMed

    Torres, scar; Parella, Teodor; Sol, Miquel; Roglans, Anna; Pla-Quintana, Anna

    2015-11-01

    The reaction of diyne arylsulfonyl hydrazone substrates under rhodium(I)/BINAP catalysis gives access to sulfonated azacyclic frameworks in a highly enantioselective manner. This new cascade process considerably increases the molecular complexity by generating two C?C bonds, one C?S bond, and one C?H bond. Theoretical calculations, competitive experiments, and deuterium labeling have jointly been used to propose a mechanism that accounts for the reaction. The mechanism involves the formation of vinyl rhodium carbenoids, hydride migratory insertion, and intermolecular stereoselective nucleophilic attack. The last two steps are the key to the stereoselectivity of the process. PMID:26397988

  7. Bivalent transition metal complexes of ONO donor hydrazone ligand: Synthesis, structural characterization and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, Ravindra; Salunkhe, Nilesh; Yaul, Amit; Aswar, Anand

    2015-12-01

    Mononuclear transition metal complexes of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) with a new hydrazone ligand derived from pyrazine-2-carbohydrazide and 2-hydroxyacetophenone have been synthesized. The isolated complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, spectral and analytical methods including elemental analyses, IR, diffuse reflectance, (1)H-NMR, mass spectra, molar conductance, magnetic moment, ESR, XRD, TG and SEM analysis. From the elemental analyses data, the stoichiometry of the complexes was found to be 1:1 (metal:ligand) having the general formulae [M(HL)(Cl)(H2O)2], [M=Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II)] and [M(L)(H2O)], [M=Zn(II) and Cd(II)]. The molar conductance values indicate the nonelectrolytic nature of metal complexes. The IR spectral data suggest that the ligand behaves as tridentate moiety with ONO donor atoms sequence towards central metal ion. The Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes have been assigned a monomeric octahedral geometry whereas tetrahedral to Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the ligand and its metal complexes were studied against bacterial species Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus pyogenes and fungi Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus clavatus. The activity data show that the metal complexes have a promising biological activity comparable with the parent ligand against all bacterial and fungal species. PMID:26163785

  8. Syntheses, crystal structure, Hirshfeld surfaces, fluorescence properties, and DFT analysis of benzoic acid hydrazone Schiff bases.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohammad Sayed; Lee, Dong-Ung

    2015-06-15

    Two hydrazone Schiff base analogues, namely, (E)-N'-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)benzohydrazide (3a) and (E)-N'-(4-methoxybenzylidene)benzohydrazide (3b), were synthesized using a mild, efficient method and characterized by (1)H NMR, mass spectrometry, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. X-ray analysis of a single crystal of 3a revealed a tetragonal, space group I4(1)/a structure, with an E-configuration around the azomethine (C8N2) double bond. In this structure, the NH and OH groups act as proton donors and the >CO and N groups as proton acceptors, and these facilitate hydrogen bond formation in the crystal state. Plausible intermolecular interactions were studied using 3D Hirshfeld surfaces and related 2D fingerprint plots. The optimized geometry, vibrational frequencies, Mulliken charge distribution, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) maps, frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs), and associated energies of the ground state and the first single excited state were calculated using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependant DFT calculations using the B3LYP/6-311G method. Vibrational frequencies calculated in the gaseous phase compared with experimental values measured in the solid state and showed good agreement with each other. The chemical reactivities of 3a and 3b were predicted by mapping MEP surface over optimized geometries and comparing these with MEP map generated over crystal structures. Mulliken charge distribution analysis and MEP map of 3a and 3b revealed that N(1), O(1), O(2) and O(3) atoms could act as electron donors and coordinate with metals and that these represented the most suitable sites for electrophilic attack. In fluorescence spectra, the absorption and emission spectra of 3a and 3b were similar in different polar solvents with few exceptions. In addition, both compounds exhibited dual emission spectra in acetone due to keto-enol tautomerism induced by photoexcitation. PMID:25804368

  9. Syntheses, crystal structure, Hirshfeld surfaces, fluorescence properties, and DFT analysis of benzoic acid hydrazone Schiff bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Mohammad Sayed; Lee, Dong-Ung

    2015-06-01

    Two hydrazone Schiff base analogues, namely, (E)-N?-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)benzohydrazide (3a) and (E)-N?-(4-methoxybenzylidene)benzohydrazide (3b), were synthesized using a mild, efficient method and characterized by 1H NMR, mass spectrometry, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. X-ray analysis of a single crystal of 3a revealed a tetragonal, space group I4(1)/a structure, with an E-configuration around the azomethine (sbnd C8dbnd N2sbnd) double bond. In this structure, the sbnd NHsbnd and sbnd OH groups act as proton donors and the >Cdbnd O and sbnd Ndbnd groups as proton acceptors, and these facilitate hydrogen bond formation in the crystal state. Plausible intermolecular interactions were studied using 3D Hirshfeld surfaces and related 2D fingerprint plots. The optimized geometry, vibrational frequencies, Mulliken charge distribution, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) maps, frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs), and associated energies of the ground state and the first single excited state were calculated using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependant DFT calculations using the B3LYP/6-311G method. Vibrational frequencies calculated in the gaseous phase compared with experimental values measured in the solid state and showed good agreement with each other. The chemical reactivities of 3a and 3b were predicted by mapping MEP surface over optimized geometries and comparing these with MEP map generated over crystal structures. Mulliken charge distribution analysis and MEP map of 3a and 3b revealed that N(1), O(1), O(2) and O(3) atoms could act as electron donors and coordinate with metals and that these represented the most suitable sites for electrophilic attack. In fluorescence spectra, the absorption and emission spectra of 3a and 3b were similar in different polar solvents with few exceptions. In addition, both compounds exhibited dual emission spectra in acetone due to keto-enol tautomerism induced by photoexcitation.

  10. Ligational, analytical and biological applications on oxalyl bis(3,4-dihydroxybenzylidene) hydrazone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Asmy, Ahmed A.; El-Gammal, O. A.; Radwan, H. A.; Ghazy, S. E.

    2010-09-01

    The molecular modeling and parameters have been calculated to confirm the geometry of oxalyl bis(3,4-dihydroxybenzylidene) hydrazone, H 6L. The metal complexes of Cr 3+, VO 2+, ZrO 2+, HfO 2+, UO 22+ and MoO 22+ with H 6L have been prepared and characterized by partial elemental analysis, spectral studies (electronic; IR), thermal analysis and magnetic measurements. The data suggest the formation of polymer complexes with a unit [Cr(H 4L)(H 2O) 3Cl]H 2O, [VO(H 4L)(H 2O) 2], [Hf(H 4L)(H 2O)]H 2O [UO 2(H 4L)(H 2O) 2]2H 2O [MoO 2(H 4L)] and [(ZrO) 2(H 2L)-(C 2H 5OH) 2]. The ligand behaves as a dibasic bidentate in all complexes except ZrO 2+ which acts as a tetrabasic tetradentate with the two ZrO 2+ ions. An octahedral geometry was proposed for the Cr 3+, HfO 2+, MoO 22+and UO 22+ complexes and square pyramid for VO 2+. The Cr 3+ is necessary to degrade the DNA of eukaryotic subject completely; the other complexes have little effect. H 6L was found suitable as a new reagent for the separation and preconcentration of ZrO 2+ ions from different water samples using flotation technique with satisfactory results.

  11. 21 CFR 520.2345h - Tetracycline hydrochloride, sodium novobiocin, and prednisolone tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tetracycline hydrochloride, sodium novobiocin, and... ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2345h Tetracycline hydrochloride, sodium novobiocin, and prednisolone tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains the equivalent of 60 milligrams of tetracycline hydrochloride, 60...

  12. 21 CFR 520.2345g - Tetracycline hydrochloride and sodium novobiocin tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tetracycline hydrochloride and sodium novobiocin... § 520.2345g Tetracycline hydrochloride and sodium novobiocin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains the equivalent of 60 milligrams of tetracycline hydrochloride and 60 milligrams of novobiocin,...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1660c - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride tablets/boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride tablets/boluses. 520....1660c Oxytetracycline hydrochloride tablets/boluses. (a) Specifications. Each tablet or bolus contains 250, 500, or 1,000 milligrams of oxytetracycline hydrochloride. (b) Sponsors. For sponsors in §...

  14. 21 CFR 524.1662a - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride and hydrocortisone spray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride and hydrocortisone... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1662a Oxytetracycline hydrochloride and hydrocortisone spray. (a) Specifications. Each 3-ounce unit of oxytetracycline hydrochloride and hydrocortisone spray contains...

  15. 21 CFR 524.1662b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride, polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride, polymyxin B sulfate... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1662b Oxytetracycline hydrochloride, polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram of the ointment contains oxytetracycline hydrochloride...

  16. 21 CFR 524.1662a - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride and hydrocortisone spray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride and hydrocortisone... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1662a Oxytetracycline hydrochloride and hydrocortisone spray. (a) Specifications. Each 3-ounce unit of oxytetracycline hydrochloride and hydrocortisone spray contains...

  17. 21 CFR 524.1662b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride, polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride, polymyxin B sulfate... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1662b Oxytetracycline hydrochloride, polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram of the ointment contains oxytetracycline hydrochloride...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1660c - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride tablets/boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride tablets/boluses. 520....1660c Oxytetracycline hydrochloride tablets/boluses. (a) Specifications. Each tablet or bolus contains 250, 500, or 1,000 milligrams of oxytetracycline hydrochloride. (b) Sponsors. For sponsors in §...

  19. Temperature-dependent THz vibrational spectra of clenbuterol hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, YuPing; Lei, XiangYun; Yue, Ai; Zhang, Zhenwei

    2013-04-01

    Using the high-resolution Terahertz Time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and the standard sample pellet technique, the far-infrared vibrational spectra of clenbuterol hydrochloride (CH), a ? 2-adrenergic agonist for decreasing fat deposition and enhancing protein accretion, were measured in temperature range of 77-295 K. Between 0.2 and 3.6 THz (6.6-120.0 cm-1), seven highly resolved spectral features, strong line-narrowing and a frequency blue-shift were observed with cooling. However, ractopamine hydrochloride, with some structural and pharmacological similarities to clenbuterol hydrochloride, showed no spectral features, indicating high sensitivity and strong specificity of THz-TDS. These results could be used for the rapid and nondestructive CH residual detection in food safety control.

  20. Propranolol hydrochloride release behaviour of crosslinked chitosan membranes.

    PubMed

    Thacharodi, D; Rao, K P

    1993-01-01

    Chitosan membranes of 20 microns thickness were prepared by a solvent evaporation technique and crosslinked with different concentrations of glutaraldehyde to obtain membranes of various degrees of crosslinking. These membranes were characterized by thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and tensile strength studies. The effect of crosslinking on the permeability of membranes to propranolol hydrochloride was evaluated by permeation studies conducted in static glass diffusion cells. A decrease in the thermal stability of chitosan membranes due to crosslinking was observed. The tensile strength of the membranes was improved by crosslinking. The introduction of crosslink points within the membrane reduced its permeability to propranolol hydrochloride as evidenced by decreased permeability and diffusion coefficients. Permeability studies revealed the operation of a pore mechanism in the transport of hydrophilic agents such as propranolol hydrochloride through chitosan and crosslinked chitosan membranes. PMID:7764115

  1. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Drotaverine Hydrochloride and Paracetamol in Tablet

    PubMed Central

    Mahaparale, Sonali; Telekone, R. S.; Raut, R. P.; Damle, S. S.; Kasture, P. V.

    2010-01-01

    Two simple, accurate and reproducible spectrophotometric methods; Q analysis and first order derivative method have been described for the simultaneous estimation of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in combined tablet dosage form. Absorption maxima of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in distilled water were found to be 303.5 nm and 243.5 nm respectively. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range 5-50 ?g/ml for drotaverine and 5-60 ?g/ml for paracetamol. In Q analysis method, two wavelengths were selected at isobestic point (277 nm) and ?max of paracetamol (243.5 nm). In first order derivative method, zero crossing point for drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol were selected at 303.5 nm and 243.5 nm, respectively. The results of two methods were validated statistically and recovery studies were found to be satisfactory. PMID:20582207

  2. Medium effects on fluorescence of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rui; Fu, Yan; Li, Long-Di; Liu, Jia-Ming

    2003-10-01

    The medium (pH, organic solvents, cyclodextrin (CD) or surfactants) effects on the fluorescence of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CPFXHCl) were studied in detail. It is found that the three acid constants of ciprofloxacin (CPFX) are near to each other. Therefore the relation curve between pH and fluorescence intensity has no strident change and keeps relative stable in the pH range of 2-7. When pH was in the range of 5.5-6.0, the fluorescence intensity of CPFX reached the max. The kind and amount of organic solvent added to the luminescent system have various effects. Ethanol quenched fluorescence and the fluorescence excitation wavelength is red shift at first and then blue shift. Acetone has complicated effects on the fluorescence properties of CPFXHCl solution. The experiment result shows that acetone is really a quencher when its volume content in the system is from 0 to 20%, but when its content is 90%, the signal intensity is unexpectedly one and a half times as much as that of no acetone. This means that there is a strong interaction between the acetone and CPFX; CPFXH + could be included into the ?-CD but the capping effect is not notable. The effect of cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and non-ionic surfactant TX-100 and TX-80 on CPFX fluorescence was unimpressive, but the anionic surfactant's effect is aberrant. The fluorescence intensity of CPFXHCl solution experiences three stages of increasing, decreasing and increasing in turn, as sodium dodecyl sulfate is adding gradually. But for sodium lauryl sulfonate, there are only two stages of decreasing and increasing with the concentration increasing. It is problematic to illustrate clearly the effect mechanism of acetone and anionic surfactant at present. Undoubtedly, the experimental results in this paper should be useful in practice works and the research is worth studying still further.

  3. Stability and compatibility of topotecan hydrochloride with selected drugs.

    PubMed

    Mayron, D; Gennaro, A R

    1999-05-01

    The physical and chemical compatibility of topotecan 56 microg/mL (as the hydrochloride) with 18 other drugs during simulated Y-site injection was studied. A vial of topotecan hydrochloride was reconstituted under aseptic conditions with sterile water for injection to yield a solution containing 1 mg of topotecan base per milliliter and further mixed with 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection. Equal volumes of topotecan solution and each secondary drug, also prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection, were mixed in sterile vials. All mixtures were stored at 20-23 degrees C under normal fluorescent light. Samples were taken initially and at four hours for analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography, visual inspection, and pH measurement. With a few exceptions, the drug combinations exhibited no visible change in color or clarity initially or after four hours, and the concentration of topotecan hydrochloride and of the secondary drugs was 95% or more of the initial concentration. The concentration of topotecan hydrochloride dropped to 88.7% of the initial concentration after four hours when the drug was mixed with ticarcillin disodium and with clavulanate potassium in 5% dextrose injection. An intense yellow color and a slight haze developed immediately after topotecan hydrochloride was mixed with dexamethasone sodium phosphate or with fluorouracil in 0.9% sodium chloride injection. The topotecan-mitomycin combination in both diluents became pale purple immediately and turned dark pink-lavender within four hours, after which analysis showed 15-20% degradation of mitomycin. During simulated Y-site injection, topotecan hydrochloride was physically and chemically compatible with 15 of 18 drug products. PMID:10344611

  4. [Effect of topical exhedrine hydrochloride on muco-ciliary transport].

    PubMed

    Grammatica, L; Fiorella, R

    1983-07-30

    The time of nasal M.C.T. (Mucus Ciliar Transport) was studied by the indirect objective method of bleu-sky in 30 healthy subjects before and after the application of efedrina hydrochloride in water solution associated with timolo, eucaliptolo, mentolo essence of canfora monobramata and clorbutamolo. The time of nasal M.C.T., regular in the 87% of the subjects during the first determination was found extended in almost all of the cases after the application of vasoconstrictor (85%). This experimental data may be caused both by a direct effect of efedrina hydrochloride and by the substances associated in the solution and their physical characteristics. PMID:6626327

  5. Potential amoebicidal activity of hydrazone derivatives: synthesis, characterization, electrochemical behavior, theoretical study and evaluation of the biological activity.

    PubMed

    Toledano-Magaa, Yanis; Garca-Ramos, Juan Carlos; Navarro-Olivarria, Marisol; Flores-Alamo, Marcos; Manzanera-Estrada, Mayra; Ortiz-Frade, Luis; Galindo-Murillo, Rodrigo; Ruiz-Azuara, Lena; Melndrez-Luevano, Ruth Ma; Cabrera-Vivas, Blanca M

    2015-01-01

    Four new hydrazones were synthesized by the condensation of the selected hydrazine and the appropriate nitrobenzaldehyde. A complete characterization was done employing 1H- and 13C-NMR, electrochemical techniques and theoretical studies. After the characterization and electrochemical analysis of each compound, amoebicidal activity was tested in vitro against the HM1:IMSS strain of Entamoeba histolytica. The results showed the influence of the nitrobenzene group and the hydrazone linkage on the amoebicidal activity. meta-Nitro substituted compound 2 presents a promising amoebicidal activity with an IC50 = 0.84 ?M, which represents a 7-fold increase in cell growth inhibition potency with respect to metronidazole (IC50 = 6.3 ?M). Compounds 1, 3, and 4 show decreased amoebicidal activity, with IC50 values of 7, 75 and 23 M, respectively, as a function of the nitro group position on the aromatic ring. The observed differences in the biological activity could be explained not only by the redox potential of the molecules, but also by their capacity to participate in the formation of intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Redox potentials as well as the amoebicidal activity can be described with parameters obtained from the DFT analysis. PMID:26035095

  6. Structural, spectroscopic and quantum chemical studies of acetyl hydrazone oxime and its palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Yunus; Icsel, Ceyda; Yilmaz, Veysel T.; Buyukgungor, Orhan

    2015-09-01

    Acetyl hydrazone oxime, [(1E,2E)-2-(hydroxyimino)-1-phenylethylidene]acetohydrazone (hipeahH2) and its palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes, [M(hipeahH)2] (M = PdII and PtII), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, UV-vis IR, NMR and LC-MS techniques. X-ray diffraction analysis of [Pd(hipeahH)2] shows that the two hipeahH2 ligands are not equal; one of the ligands loses the hydrazone proton, while the other one loses the oxime proton, resulting in a different coordination behavior to form five- and six-membered chelate rings. The molecular geometries from X-ray experiments in the ground state were compared using the density functional theory (DFT) with the B3LYP method combined with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set for the ligand and the LanL2DZ basis set for the complexes. Comprehensive theoretical and experimental structural studies on the molecule have been carried out by FT-IR, NMR and UV-vis spectrometry. In addition, the isomer studies of ligand and its complexes were made by DFT.

  7. Comparative studies, synthesis, spectroscopic and characterization of N-methylisatin-3-Girard's T and P hydrazone complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhari, Shaker J.; Salah, Sabah; Farag, Rabei S.; Mostafa, Mohsen M.

    2015-02-01

    Different types of complexes derived from the reactions of N-methylisatin Girard's T hydrazone, N,N,N-trimethyl-2-[(2z)-2-(1-methyl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydro-3H-indole-3-ylidene) hydrazino]-2-oxo-ethan ammonium chloride (MIGT) and N-methylisatin Girard's P hydrazone, 1-{2-(2z)-2-[(1-methyl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydro-3H-indole-3-ylidene) hydrazino]-2-oxoethyl}pyridinium chloride (MIGP) with Fe3+, Al3+, Sb3+ and Sn2+ salts were synthesized. The isolated complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductivities, spectral (IR, UV-Vis., 1H NMR, mass), magnetic moments and thermal measurements. The values of conductance suggest that the complexes are conducting in polar solvents (EtOH, H2O and DMF). The IR spectra suggest that the ligands coordinate in a bidentate and/or tridentate manner via the carbonyl groups of both N-methylisatin and Girard's T and/or P and the (Cdbnd N) group. The solvents inside and outside the coordination sphere were determined by weight loss and TGA methods. The octahedral geometry of the complexes is confirmed using spectral, magnetic and DFT method from DMOL3 calculations. The ligands and their metal complexes were tested against different strains of bacteria and fungi.

  8. Pharmacological Evaluation and Preparation of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Containing an N-Acyl Hydrazone Subunit

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Thais Regina Ferreira; Chelucci, Rafael Consolin; Pires, Maria Elisa Lopes; Dutra, Luiz Antonio; Barbieri, Karina Pereira; Bosquesi, Priscila Longhin; Trossini, Gustavo Henrique Goulart; Chung, Man Chin; dos Santos, Jean Leandro

    2014-01-01

    A series of anti-inflammatory derivatives containing an N-acyl hydrazone subunit (4ae) were synthesized and characterized. Docking studies were performed that suggest that compounds 4ae bind to cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 isoforms, but with higher affinity for COX-2. The compounds display similar anti-inflammatory activities in vivo, although compound 4c is the most effective compound for inhibiting rat paw edema, with a reduction in the extent of inflammation of 35.9% and 52.8% at 2 and 4 h, respectively. The anti-inflammatory activity of N-acyl hydrazone derivatives was inferior to their respective parent drugs, except for compound 4c after 5 h. Ulcerogenic studies revealed that compounds 4ae are less gastrotoxic than the respective parent drug. Compounds 4be demonstrated mucosal damage comparable to celecoxib. The in vivo analgesic activities of the compounds are higher than the respective parent drug for compounds 4ab and 4de. Compound 4a was more active than dipyrone in reducing acetic-acid-induced abdominal constrictions. Our results indicate that compounds 4ae are anti-inflammatory and analgesic compounds with reduced gastrotoxicity compared to their respective parent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:24714090

  9. Highly efficient donor-acceptor hydrazone dyes-inorganic Si/TiO2 hybrid solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G.; Irfan, Ahmad; Al-Melfi, Mohrah Abdullah M.

    2015-06-01

    We have synthesized the two donor-bridge-acceptor organic dyes (hydrazone dye 1 (HD1) and hydrazone dye 2 (HD2)) with the aim to enhance intra-molecular charge transfer then characterized by FTIR and NMR. The ground state geometries have been optimized at three different levels of theories, i.e., B3LYP/6-31G∗, B3LYP/6-31G∗∗ and Hartee-Fock HF/6-31G∗∗. The absorption spectra and oscillator strengths in different solvents have been computed and compared with the experimental data. The vibrational spectral assignments have been performed on the recorded FTIR spectra based on the theoretical predicted wavenumbers at three different levels of theories. The effect of different solvents (CHCl3, CH3CN and C2H5OH) has been studied on the absorption wavelengths. Furthermore, we have computed the ionization potentials, electron affinities and reorganization energies of studied compounds and shed light on the charge transport properties. The hetero-junction solar cell devices were fabricated by organic-inorganic hetero-junction (Si/TiO2/dye) then the efficiency has been measured by applying the incident power 30, 50 and 70 mW/cm2. The maximum efficiency 3.12% has been observed for HD1.

  10. Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and 2D-QSAR Study of Halophenyl Bis-Hydrazones as Antimicrobial and Antitubercular Agents

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Aziz, Hatem A.; Eldehna, Wagdy M.; Fares, Mohamed; Al-Rashood, Sara T. A.; Al-Rashood, Khalid A.; Abdel-Aziz, Marwa M.; Soliman, Dalia H.

    2015-01-01

    In continuation of our endeavor towards the development of potent and effective antimicrobial agents, three series of halophenyl bis-hydrazones (14a–n, 16a–d, 17a and 17b) were synthesized and evaluated for their potential antibacterial, antifungal and antimycobacterial activities. These efforts led to the identification of five molecules 14c, 14g, 16b, 17a and 17b (MIC range from 0.12 to 7.81 μg/mL) with broad antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Aspergillus fumigates; Gram positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Bacillis subtilis; and Gram negative bacteria, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Escherichia coli. Three of the most active compounds, 16b, 17a and 17b, were also devoid of apparent cytotoxicity to lung cancer cell line A549. Amphotericin B and ciprofloxacin were used as references for antifungal and antibacterial screening, while isoniazid and pyrazinamide were used as references for antimycobacterial activity. Furthermore, three Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models were built to explore the structural requirements controlling the different activities of the prepared bis-hydrazones. PMID:25903147

  11. Increased Mortality in Groups of Cattle Administered the ?-Adrenergic Agonists Ractopamine Hydrochloride and Zilpaterol Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Loneragan, Guy H.; Thomson, Daniel U.; Scott, H. Morgan

    2014-01-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved two ?-adrenergic agonists (?AA) for in-feed administration to cattle fed in confinement for human consumption. Anecdotal reports have generated concern that administration of ?AA might be associated with an increased incidence of cattle deaths. Our objectives, therefore, were to a) quantify the association between ?AA administration and mortality in feedlot cattle, and b) explore those variables that may confound or modify this association. Three datasets were acquired for analysis: one included information from randomized and controlled clinical trials of the ?AA ractopamine hydrochloride, while the other two were observational data on zilpaterol hydrochloride administration to large numbers of cattle housed, fed, and cared for using routine commercial production practices in the U.S. Various population and time at-risk models were developed to explore potential ?AA relationships with mortality, as well as the extent of confounding and effect modification. Measures of effect were relatively consistent across datasets and models in that the cumulative risk and incidence rate of death was 75 to 90% greater in animals administered the ?AA compared to contemporaneous controls. During the exposure period, 40 to 50% of deaths among groups administered the ?AA were attributed to administration of the drug. None of the available covariates meaningfully confounded the relationship between ?AA and increased mortality. Only month of slaughter, presumably a proxy for climate, consistently modified the effect in that the biological association was generally greatest during the warmer months of the year. While death is a rare event in feedlot cattle, the data reported herein provide compelling evidence that mortality is nevertheless increased in response to administration of FDA-approved ?AA and represents a heretofore unquantified adverse drug event. PMID:24621596

  12. CATALYST-FREE REACTIONS UNDER SOLVENT-FEE CONDITIONS: MICROWAVE-ASSISTED SYNTHESIS OF HETEROCYCLIC HYDRAZONES BELOW THE MELTING POINT OF NEAT REACTANTS: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-CIN-1437 Jeselnik, M., Varma*, R.S., Polanc, S., and Kocevar, M. Catalyst-free Reactions under Solvent-fee Conditions: Microwave-assisted Synthesis of Heterocyclic Hydrazones below the Melting Point of Neat Reactants. Published in: Chemical Communications 18:1716-1717 (200...

  13. Synthesis and biological activity of hydrazide hydrazones and their corresponding 3-acetyl-2,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazoles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various new 3-acetyl-2,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazoles (11-20) were prepared by the reaction of aryl substituted hydrazones of 4-fluorobenzoic acid hydrazide (1-10) with acetic anhydride. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds 11-20, were confirmed by UV, IR and 1H NMR spec...

  14. EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL CARCINOGENICITY OF O-TOLUIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    o-Toluidine hydrochloride is a potential human carcinogen, classified as weight-of-evidence Group B2 under the EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986a). vidence on potential carcinogenicity from animal studies is "Sufficient," and the evidence from human st...

  15. 40 CFR 180.276 - Formetanate hydrochloride; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hydrochloride) in or on raw agricultural commodities as follows: Commodity Parts per million Apple 0.50 Apple, wet pomace 1.5 Grapefruit 1.5 Lemon 0.60 Lime 0.03 Nectarine 0.40 Orange 1.5 Peach 0.40 Pear...

  16. 40 CFR 180.276 - Formetanate hydrochloride; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hydrochloride) in or on raw agricultural commodities as follows: Commodity Parts per million Apple 0.50 Apple, wet pomace 1.5 Grapefruit 1.5 Lemon 0.60 Lime 0.03 Nectarine 0.40 Orange 1.5 Peach 0.40 Pear...

  17. 40 CFR 180.276 - Formetanate hydrochloride; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hydrochloride) in or on raw agricultural commodities as follows: Commodity Parts per million Apple 0.50 Apple, wet pomace 1.5 Grapefruit 1.5 Lemon 0.60 Lime 0.03 Nectarine 0.40 Orange 1.5 Peach 0.40 Pear...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1242e - Levamisole hydrochloride effervescent tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... thoroughly. Allow 1 gallon of medicated water for each 100 pounds body weight of pigs to be treated. No other....1242e Section 520.1242e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...: (1) Amount. The equivalent of 8 milligrams of levamisole hydrochloride per kilogram of body...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1242e - Levamisole hydrochloride effervescent tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... thoroughly. Allow 1 gallon of medicated water for each 100 pounds body weight of pigs to be treated. No other....1242e Section 520.1242e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...: (1) Amount. The equivalent of 8 milligrams of levamisole hydrochloride per kilogram of body...

  20. Nanoemulsion as a potential ophthalmic delivery system for dorzolamide hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Hussein O; Salama, H A; Ghorab, M; Mahmoud, A A

    2009-01-01

    Dilutable nanoemulsions are potent drug delivery vehicles for ophthalmic use due to their numerous advantages as sustained effect and high ability of drug penetration into the deeper layers of the ocular structure and the aqueous humor. The aim of this article was to formulate the antiglaucoma drug dorzolamide hydrochloride as ocular nanoemulsion of high therapeutic efficacy and prolonged effect. Thirty-six systems consisting of different oils, surfactants, and cosurfactants were prepared and their pseudoternary-phase diagrams were constructed by water titration method. Seventeen dorzolamide hydrochloride nanoemulsions were prepared and evaluated for their physicochemical and drug release properties. These nanoemulsions showed acceptable physicochemical properties and exhibited slow drug release. Draize rabbit eye irritation test and histological examination were carried out for those preparations exhibiting superior properties and revealed that they were nonirritant. Biological evaluation of dorzolamide hydrochloride nanoemulsions on normotensive albino rabbits indicated that these products had higher therapeutic efficacy, faster onset of action, and prolonged effect relative to either drug solution or the market product. Formulation of dorzolamide hydrochloride in a nanoemulsion form offers, thus, a more intensive treatment of glaucoma, a decrease in the number of applications per day, and a better patient compliance compared to conventional eye drops. PMID:19536653

  1. Cradle-to-gate life cycle inventory of vancomycin hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Ponder, Celia; Overcash, Michael

    2010-02-15

    A life cycle analysis on the cradle-to-gate production of vancomycin hydrochloride, which begins at natural resource extraction and spans through factory (gate) production, not only shows all inputs, outputs, and energy usage to manufacture the product and all related supply chain chemicals, but can highlight where process changes would have the greatest impact on raw material and energy consumption and emissions. Vancomycin hydrochloride is produced by a low-yield fermentation process that accounts for 47% of the total cradle-to-gate energy. The fermentation step consumes the most raw materials and energy cradle-to-gate. Over 75% of the total cradle-to-gate energy consumption is due to steam use; sterilization within fermentation is the largest user of steam. Aeration and agitation in the fermentation vessels use 65% of the cradle-to-gate electrical energy. To reduce raw materials, energy consumption, and the associated environmental footprint of producing vancomycin hydrochloride, other sterilization methods, fermentation media, nutrient sources, or synthetic manufacture should be investigated. The reported vancomycin hydrochloride life cycle inventory is a part of a larger life cycle study of the environmental consequences of the introduction of biocide-coated medical textiles for the prevention of MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) nosocomial infections. PMID:19942254

  2. 21 CFR 558.315 - Levamisole hydrochloride (equivalent).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole hydrochloride (equivalent). 558.315 Section 558.315 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1263c - Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder. 520.1263c Section 520.1263c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.... The safety of lincomycin has not been demonstrated in pregnant swine or swine intended for...

  4. 21 CFR 522.1335 - Medetomidine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medetomidine hydrochloride injection. 522.1335 Section 522.1335 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1335 Medetomidine...

  5. 21 CFR 522.2474 - Tolazoline hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tolazoline hydrochloride injection. 522.2474 Section 522.2474 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2474 Tolazoline...

  6. 21 CFR 522.1465 - Naltrexone hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Naltrexone hydrochloride injection. 522.1465 Section 522.1465 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1465 Naltrexone...

  7. 21 CFR 520.1263c - Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder. 520.1263c Section 520.1263c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.... The safety of lincomycin has not been demonstrated in pregnant swine or swine intended for...

  8. 21 CFR 524.1982 - Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution. 524.1982 Section 524.1982 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM...

  9. 21 CFR 524.1982 - Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution. 524.1982 Section 524.1982 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM...

  10. 21 CFR 524.1982 - Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution. 524.1982 Section 524.1982 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM...

  11. 21 CFR 524.1982 - Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution. 524.1982 Section 524.1982 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM...

  12. Stability of propranolol hydrochloride in SyrSpend SF.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Christine M; Voudrie, Mark A; Sorenson, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    Propranolol hydrochloride is a beta blocker used to treat high blood pressure, abnormal heart rhythms, heart disease, pheochromocytoma, and certain types of tremors. Propranolol is marketed by Wyeth (now a part of Pfizer) and AstraZeneca under the brand names Inderal, Inderal LA, Avlocardyl, Deralin, Dociton, Inderalici, InnoPran XL, Sumial, Anaprilium, Bedranol SR (Sandoz). It is also available generically from several manufacturers. Propranolol hydrochloride is available as tablet, capsule, and oral liquid dosage forms in several strengths. Some patients are unable to tolerate oral tablets and capsules, challenging compounding pharmacies to seek alternative dosing options; namely oral solutions and suspensions. The objective of this study was to determine the stability of propranolol hydrochloride in SyrSpend SF. The drug was compounded into a 1-mg/mL suspension using SyrSpend SF and subsequently stored in a low-actinic plastic prescription bottle at room temperature conditions. Six samples were assayed at each specific time point extending to 90 days by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. The method was validated for its specificity through forced-degradation studies. Based on the data collected, when protected from light at room temperature, the beyond-use date of propranolol hydrochloride in SyrSpend SF was shown to be at least 90 days. PMID:23259369

  13. 21 CFR 522.2615 - Tripelennamine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tripelennamine hydrochloride injection. 522.2615 Section 522.2615 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 522.2615 Tripelennamine...

  14. 21 CFR 522.723 - Diprenorphine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diprenorphine hydrochloride injection. 522.723 Section 522.723 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.723 Diprenorphine...

  15. Amides and Hydrazides from Amine and Hydrazine Hydrochlorides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shama, Sami A.; Tran, Thuan L.

    1978-01-01

    This safe and efficient procedure for the synthesis of N-substituted amides and hydrazides is a modification of the Schotten-Bausmann procedure in which the amine or hydrazide is replaced by the corresponding hydrochloride salt, and the use of alkali is eliminated. (Author/BB)

  16. 21 CFR 522.723 - Diprenorphine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diprenorphine hydrochloride injection. 522.723 Section 522.723 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.723 Diprenorphine...

  17. 21 CFR 522.863 - Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride injection. 522.863 Section 522.863 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.863...

  18. 21 CFR 522.1222 - Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms. 522.1222 Section 522.1222 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1222...

  19. Synthesis, leishmanicidal, trypanocidal and cytotoxic activity of quinoline-hydrazone hybrids.

    PubMed

    Coa, Juan Carlos; Castrillón, Wilson; Cardona, Wilson; Carda, Miguel; Ospina, Victoria; Muñoz, July Andrea; Vélez, Iván D; Robledo, Sara M

    2015-08-28

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis and Chagas disease are vector-borne parasitic disease causing serious risks to million people living in poverty-stricken areas. Both diseases are a major health problem in Latin America, and currently drugs for the effective treatment of these diseases have important concerns related with efficacy or toxicity than need to be addressed. We report herein the synthesis and biological activities (cytotoxicity, leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activities) of ten quinolone-hydrazone hybrids. The structure of the products was elucidated by spectrometric analyses. The synthesized compounds were evaluated against amastigotes forms of L. (V) panamensis which is the most prevalent Leishmania species in Colombia and Trypanosoma cruzi that is the major pathogenic species to humans; in turn, cytotoxicity was evaluated against human U-937 macrophages. Compounds 6b, 6c and 8 showed activity against L. (V) panamensis with EC50 of 6.5 ± 0.8 μg/mL (21.2 μM), 0.8 ± 0.0 μg/mL (2.6 μM) and 3.4 ± 0.6 μg/mL (11.1 μM), respectively, while compounds 6a and 6c had activity against T. cruzi. with EC50 values of 1.4 ± 0.3 μg/mL (4.8 μM) and 6.6 ± 0.3 μg/mL (4.6 μM), respectively. Even compound 6a showed better activity against T. cruzi than the standard drug benznidazole with EC50 = 10.5 ± 1.8 μg/mL (40.3 μM). Analysis of the results obtained against leishmaniasis indicates that antiparasite activity is related to the presence of 2-substituted quinoline (isoquinolinic core) and the hydroxyl group in positions 3 and 4 of the aromatic ring. Although the majority of these compounds were highly cytotoxic, the antiparasite activity was higher than cytotoxicity and therefore, they still have potential to be considered as hit molecules for leishmanicidal and trypanocidal drug development. PMID:26218652

  20. Dielectric relaxation study on tramadol monohydrate and its hydrochloride salt.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, K; Kaminska, E; Adrjanowicz, K; Grzybowiska, K; Wlodarczyk, P; Paluch, M; Burian, A; Ziolo, J; Lepek, P; Mazgalski, J; Sawicki, W

    2010-01-01

    Dielectric relaxation measurements as well as differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction investigations were performed on tramadol monohydrate and its hydrochloride salt. Examined samples do not crystallize during cooling and in consequence they reach the glassy state. In the case of the hydrochloride tramadol we are able to monitor alpha-relaxation process despite large contribution of dc conductivity to the loss spectra. It is the first such study on the salt of the drug. Up to now the dielectric spectroscopy has been regarded as useless in measuring such kind of API (active pharmaceutical ingredient). In this paper we also made some suggestions about the nature of the secondary relaxations in the amorphous tramadol monohydrate and its salt. The knowledge about the molecular mechanisms, which govern the observed secondary relaxations seems to be the key in predicting the stability of the amorphous form of the examined API. Finally additional dissolving measurements on the amorphous and crystal tramadol hydrochloride were performed. As a result we understood that dissolution properties of the amorphous form of the considered drug are comparable to those of crystalline one. However, we have found out that amorphous tramadol hydrochloride has greater ability to form tablets than its crystalline equivalent. This finding shows that amorphous drugs can be alternative even for the freely solved pharmaceuticals such as tramadol hydrochloride, because the former one has better ability to form tablets. It implies that during tabletting of the amorphous drugs there is no need to use any excipients and chemicals improving compaction properties of the API. PMID:19475556

  1. Chemical Immobilization of Sloth Bears (Melursus ursinus) with Ketamine Hydrochloride and Xylazine Hydrochloride: Hematology and Serum Biochemical Values

    PubMed Central

    Veeraselvam, M.; Sridhar, R.; Perumal, P.; Jayathangaraj, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to define the physiological responses of captive sloth bears immobilized with ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride and to determine and compare the values of hematology and serum biochemical parameters between sexes. A total of 15 sloth bears were immobilized using combination of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride drugs at the dose rate of 5.0?milligram (mg) per kg body weight and 2.0?mg per kg body weight, respectively. The use of combination of these drugs was found satisfactory for the chemical immobilization of captive sloth bears. There were no significant differences observed in induction time and recovery time and physiological parameters such as heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature between sexes. Health related parameters comprising hematological values like packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell count (RBC), erythrocyte indices, and so forth and biochemical values like total protein, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, alkaline amino-transferase (ALT), aspartate amino-transferase (AST), and so forth were estimated in 11 (5 males and 6 females) apparently healthy bears. Comparison between sexes revealed significant difference in PCV (P < 0.05) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) (P < 0.05). The study might help to evaluate health profiles of sloth bears for appropriate line treatment. PMID:24876990

  2. Synthesis, molecular structure and computational study of (Z)-2-((E)-4-nitrobenzylidene)hydrazone)-1,2-diphenylethan-1-one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmac?, Gkhan; Aktan, Ebru; Sefero?lu, Nurgl; Hkelek, Tuncer; Sefero?lu, Zeynel

    2015-11-01

    A new benzilmonohydrazone, (Z)-2-((E)-4-nitrobenzylidene)hydrazone)-1,2-diphenylethan-1-one (BMH) has been synthesized for the first time. It was characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H/13C NMR and mass spectrometry techniques. Molecular structure of the title compound was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction study. In addition, molecular structure of BMH was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique and found that the compound crystallizes in triclinic, space group P-1. Furthermore, chemical calculations employing density functional theory (DFT) method were performed to study the structural and spectroscopic properties of BMH, and the results were compared with the experimental findings.

  3. Structure–activity studies in the development of a hydrazone based inhibitor of adipose-triglyceride lipase (ATGL)

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Nicole; Schweiger, Martina; Melcher, Michaela-Christina; Fledelius, Christian; Zechner, Rudolf; Zimmermann, Robert; Breinbauer, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) catalyzes the degradation of cellular triacylglycerol stores and strongly determines the concentration of circulating fatty acids (FAs). High serum FA levels are causally linked to the development of insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance, which eventually progresses to overt type 2 diabetes. ATGL-specific inhibitors could be used to lower circulating FAs, which can counteract the development of insulin resistance. In this article, we report about structure–activity relationship (SAR) studies of small molecule inhibitors of ATGL based on a hydrazone chemotype. The SAR indicated that the binding pocket of ATGL requests rather linear compounds without bulky substituents. The best inhibitor showed an IC50 = 10 μM in an assay with COS7-cell lysate overexpressing murine ATGL. PMID:25778769

  4. Anticancer phytochemical analogs 37: synthesis, characterization, molecular docking and cytotoxicity of novel plumbagin hydrazones against breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dandawate, Prasad; Ahmad, Aamir; Deshpande, Jyoti; Swamy, K Venkateswara; Khan, Ejazuddin M; Khetmalas, Madhukar; Padhye, Subhash; Sarkar, Fazlul

    2014-07-01

    We have synthesized, structurally characterized and examined cytotoxicity of novel plumbagin hydrazones against estrogen and progesterone receptor positive (ER+/PR+) MCF-7 and triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines in order to evaluate the potential of these novel phytochemical analogs. Compounds were docked into the protein cavity of p50-subunit of NF-?B protein revealing better fit and better binding energies than the parent plumbagin compound. This was also reflected in their superior cytotoxicities which were found to be mediated by inhibition of NF-?B expression. These compounds can provide a starting point for the development of novel drug molecules against triple negative breast cancers. PMID:24835626

  5. Stereoselective Alkylations of Chiral Nitro Imine and Nitro Hydrazone Dianions. Synthesis of Enantiomerically Enriched 3-Substituted 1-Nitrocyclohexenes†

    PubMed Central

    Denmark, Scott E.; Ares, Jeffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    Dianions of chiral nitro imines (generated by a combination of LDA and s-BuLi) underwent diastereoselective alkylation with methyl, butyl, isopropyl, allyl and methallyl iodides. In contrast to the behavior of simple metalloenamines, the most selective auxiliary contained no coordinating groups, but did possess a large steric difference between the two substituents. The yield and selectivity of the alkylations were improved by the addition of HMPA or DMPU. The use of (S)-1-naphthylethylamine as the auxiliary afforded the R absolute configuration of the alkylation products. This stereochemical outcome could be rationalized by simple steric approach controlled alkylation in a conformationally fixed, internally coordinated dianion. A SAMP nitro hydrazone gave poorer yields and selectivities. PMID:18855478

  6. Submicron Organic Matter in a Peri-alpine, Ultra-oligotrphic Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Chanudet,V.; Filella, M.

    2007-01-01

    Combining organic carbon (OC) measurements with the classic MBTH (3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrochloride) method for carbohydrate determination and a new voltammetric method for the determination of refractory organic matter (ROM) made it possible, for the first time, to quantify the types, sources and fate of submicron organic matter present in an ultra-oligotrophic lake (Lake Brienz, Switzerland). The lake is extremely rich in suspended glacial flour in summer (glacier melting season). Measurements were taken from June 2004 to October 2005 from 1.2 {mu}m filtered samples. OC concentration remained extremely low throughout the year (below 1 mg C L{sup -1}). MBTH carbohydrate concentration was very low in the lake (0.06-0.43 mg C L{sup -1}) and in the two tributary rivers (0.06-0.25 mg C L{sup -1}). Lake carbohydrate concentration only correlated with phytoplanktonic biomass at the onset of the productivity period. The results suggest that differences in MBTH concentration may sometimes reflect differences in the nature of the carbohydrates rather than differences in carbon concentration. Extensive fibril formation was evidenced by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. ROM concentration in the lake was also very low (0.1-0.2 mg C L{sup -1}). Significant variation in ROM riverine input was due to either annual occurrences (snow melting) or irregular episodes (floods). Melting snow was responsible for about 30% of the lake's annual ROM input. One box mass balance calculations showed that about 25% of ROM was lost within the lake. Evidence gleaned from TEM and STXM (scanning transmission X-ray microscopy) observations clearly indicates that this is mainly caused by ROM sedimentation after association with inorganic colloids.

  7. Synthesis of novel flavone hydrazones: in-vitro evaluation of α-glucosidase inhibition, QSAR analysis and docking studies.

    PubMed

    Imran, Syahrul; Taha, Muhammad; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Kashif, Syed Muhammad; Rahim, Fazal; Jamil, Waqas; Hariono, Maywan; Yusuf, Muhammad; Wahab, Habibah

    2015-11-13

    Thirty derivatives of flavone hydrazone (5-34) had been synthesized through a five-step reaction and screened for their α-glucosidase inhibition activity. Chalcone 1 was synthesized through aldol condensation then subjected through oxidative cyclization, esterification, and condensation reaction to afford the final products. The result for baker's yeast α-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.20) inhibition assay showed that all compounds are active with reference to the IC50 value of the acarbose (standard drug) except for compound 3. Increase in activity observed for compounds 2 to 34 clearly highlights the importance of flavone, hydrazide and hydrazone linkage in suppressing the activity of α-glucosidase. Additional functional group on N-benzylidene moiety further enhances the activity significantly. Compound 5 (15.4 ± 0.22 μM), a 2,4,6-trihydroxy substituted compound, is the most active compound in the series. Other compounds which were found to be active are those having chlorine, fluorine, and nitro substituents. Compounds with methoxy, pyridine, and methyl substituents are weakly active. Further studies showed that they are not active in inhibiting histone deacetylase activity and do not possess any cytotoxic properties. QSAR model was being developed to further identify the structural requirements contributing to the activity. Using Discovery Studio (DS) 2.5, various 2D descriptors were being used to develop the model. The QSAR model is able to predict the pIC50 and could be used as a prediction tool for compounds having the same skeletal framework. Molecular docking was done for all compounds using homology model of α-glucosidase to identify important binding modes responsible for inhibition activity. PMID:26491979

  8. On the roles of close shell interactions in the structure of acyl-substituted hydrazones: An experimental and theoretical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Aamer; Ifzan Arshad, M.; Bolte, Michael; Fantoni, Adolfo C.; Delgado Espinoza, Zuly Y.; Erben, Mauricio F.

    2016-03-01

    The 2-(phenyl-hydrazono)-succinic acid dimethyl ester compound was synthesized by reacting phenylhydrazine with dimethylacetylene dicarboxylate at room temperature and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared, Raman, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopies and mass spectrometry. Its solid state structure was determined by X-ray diffraction methods. The X-ray structure determination corroborates that the molecule is present in the crystal as the hydrazone tautomer, probably favored by a strong intramolecular N-H···Odbnd C hydrogen bond occurring between the carbonyl (-Cdbnd O) and the hydrazone -Cdbnd N-NH- groups. A substantial fragment of the molecular skeleton is planar due to an extended π-bonding delocalization. The topological analysis of the electron densities (Atom in Molecule, AIM) allows characterization of intramolecular N-H···O interaction, that can be classified as a resonant assisted hydrogen bond (RAHB). Moreover, the Natural Bond Orbital population analysis confirms that a strong hyperconjugative lpO1 → σ*(N2-H) remote interaction between the C2dbnd O1 and N2-H groups takes place. Periodic system electron density and topological analysis have been applied to characterize the intermolecular interactions in the crystal. Weak intermolecular interactions determine the crystal packing, and the prevalence of non-directional dispersive contributions are inferred on topological grounds. The IR spectrum of the crystalline compound was investigated by means of density functional theory calculations carried out with periodic boundary conditions on the crystal, showing excellent agreement between theory and the experiments. The vibrational assignment is complemented with the analysis of the Raman spectrum.

  9. On the roles of close shell interactions in the structure of acyl-substituted hydrazones: An experimental and theoretical approach.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Aamer; Ifzan Arshad, M; Bolte, Michael; Fantoni, Adolfo C; Delgado Espinoza, Zuly Y; Erben, Mauricio F

    2016-03-15

    The 2-(phenyl-hydrazono)-succinic acid dimethyl ester compound was synthesized by reacting phenylhydrazine with dimethylacetylene dicarboxylate at room temperature and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared, Raman, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopies and mass spectrometry. Its solid state structure was determined by X-ray diffraction methods. The X-ray structure determination corroborates that the molecule is present in the crystal as the hydrazone tautomer, probably favored by a strong intramolecular N-H···OC hydrogen bond occurring between the carbonyl (-CO) and the hydrazone -CN-NH- groups. A substantial fragment of the molecular skeleton is planar due to an extended π-bonding delocalization. The topological analysis of the electron densities (Atom in Molecule, AIM) allows characterization of intramolecular N-H···O interaction, that can be classified as a resonant assisted hydrogen bond (RAHB). Moreover, the Natural Bond Orbital population analysis confirms that a strong hyperconjugative lpO1→σ*(N2-H) remote interaction between the C2O1 and N2-H groups takes place. Periodic system electron density and topological analysis have been applied to characterize the intermolecular interactions in the crystal. Weak intermolecular interactions determine the crystal packing, and the prevalence of non-directional dispersive contributions are inferred on topological grounds. The IR spectrum of the crystalline compound was investigated by means of density functional theory calculations carried out with periodic boundary conditions on the crystal, showing excellent agreement between theory and the experiments. The vibrational assignment is complemented with the analysis of the Raman spectrum. PMID:26761413

  10. [Molecular imprinting-flow injection chemiluminescence method for determination of doxycycline hydrochloride].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-Mei; Zhang, Cheng-Li; Lei, Jian-Du; Ma, Tong-Sen; Ma, Guang-Hui; Su, Zhi-Guo; Chao, Yang

    2009-07-01

    Doxycycline hydrochloride can enhance the chemiluminescence of potassium ferricyanide and luminol in alkaline medium. So a molecular imprinting-flow-injection chemiluminescence method for the determination of doxycycline hydrochloride was established by using doxycycline hydrochloride-imprinted polymers as recognition material and potassium ferricyanide and luminol as detection system. Doxycycline hydrochloride-imprinted polymer was synthesized using methacrylic acid as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker. The linear range is 9.0 x 10(-7)-6.0 x 10(-5) g x mL(-1) and the detection limit is 3.2 x 10(-7) g x mL(-1). The relative standard deviation for 6.0 X 10(-6) g x mL(-1) of doxycycline hydrochloride was 3.5% (n = 9). This method has been successfully applied to the determination of doxycycline hydrochloride in tablets and in urine samples. PMID:19798931

  11. Fundamentals of ionic conductivity relaxation gained from study of procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride at ambient and elevated pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojnarowska, Z.; Swiety-Pospiech, A.; Grzybowska, K.; Hawelek, L.; Paluch, M.; Ngai, K. L.

    2012-04-01

    The pharmaceuticals, procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride, are glass-forming as well as ionically conducting materials. We have made dielectric measurements at ambient and elevated pressures to characterize the dynamics of the ion conductivity relaxation in these pharmaceuticals, and calorimetric measurements for the structural relaxation. Perhaps due to their special chemical and physical structures, novel features are found in the ionic conductivity relaxation of these pharmaceuticals. Data of conductivity relaxation in most ionic conductors when represented by the electric loss modulus usually show a single resolved peak in the electric modulus loss M?(f ) spectra. However, in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride we find in addition another resolved loss peak at higher frequencies over a temperature range spanning across Tg. The situation is analogous to many non-ionic glass-formers showing the presence of the structural ?-relaxation together with the Johari-Goldstein (JG) ?-relaxation. Naturally the analogy leads us to name the slower and faster processes resolved in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride as the primary ?-conductivity relaxation and the secondary ?-conductivity relaxation, respectively. The analogy of the ?-conductivity relaxation in procaine HCl and procainamide HCl with JG ?-relaxation in non-ionic glass-formers goes further by the finding that the ?-conductivity is strongly related to the ?-conductivity relaxation at temperatures above and below Tg. At elevated pressure but compensated by raising temperature to maintain ?-conductivity relaxation time constant, the data show invariance of the ratio between the ?- and the ?-conductivity relaxation times to changes of thermodynamic condition. This property indicates that the ?-conductivity relaxation has fundamental importance and is indispensable as the precursor of the ?-conductivity relaxation, analogous to the relation found between the Johari-Goldstein ?-relaxation and the structural ?-relaxation in non-ionic glass-forming systems. The novel features of the ionic conductivity relaxation are brought out by presenting the measurements in terms of the electric modulus or permittivity. If presented in terms of conductivity, the novel features are lost. This warns against insisting that a log-log plot of conductivity vs. frequency is optimal to reveal and interpret the dynamics of ionic conductors.

  12. Fundamentals of ionic conductivity relaxation gained from study of procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride at ambient and elevated pressure.

    PubMed

    Wojnarowska, Z; Swiety-Pospiech, A; Grzybowska, K; Hawelek, L; Paluch, M; Ngai, K L

    2012-04-28

    The pharmaceuticals, procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride, are glass-forming as well as ionically conducting materials. We have made dielectric measurements at ambient and elevated pressures to characterize the dynamics of the ion conductivity relaxation in these pharmaceuticals, and calorimetric measurements for the structural relaxation. Perhaps due to their special chemical and physical structures, novel features are found in the ionic conductivity relaxation of these pharmaceuticals. Data of conductivity relaxation in most ionic conductors when represented by the electric loss modulus usually show a single resolved peak in the electric modulus loss M(")(f) spectra. However, in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride we find in addition another resolved loss peak at higher frequencies over a temperature range spanning across T(g). The situation is analogous to many non-ionic glass-formers showing the presence of the structural α-relaxation together with the Johari-Goldstein (JG) β-relaxation. Naturally the analogy leads us to name the slower and faster processes resolved in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride as the primary α-conductivity relaxation and the secondary β-conductivity relaxation, respectively. The analogy of the β-conductivity relaxation in procaine HCl and procainamide HCl with JG β-relaxation in non-ionic glass-formers goes further by the finding that the β-conductivity is strongly related to the α-conductivity relaxation at temperatures above and below T(g). At elevated pressure but compensated by raising temperature to maintain α-conductivity relaxation time constant, the data show invariance of the ratio between the β- and the α-conductivity relaxation times to changes of thermodynamic condition. This property indicates that the β-conductivity relaxation has fundamental importance and is indispensable as the precursor of the α-conductivity relaxation, analogous to the relation found between the Johari-Goldstein β-relaxation and the structural α-relaxation in non-ionic glass-forming systems. The novel features of the ionic conductivity relaxation are brought out by presenting the measurements in terms of the electric modulus or permittivity. If presented in terms of conductivity, the novel features are lost. This warns against insisting that a log-log plot of conductivity vs. frequency is optimal to reveal and interpret the dynamics of ionic conductors. PMID:22559496

  13. Extractive spectrophotometric determination of TRODAT-1 hydrochloride in lyophilized kit.

    PubMed

    Li, X M; Chen, Z P; Wang, S P; Tang, J; Liu, C Y; Zou, M F

    2008-09-01

    A simple, sensitive, and accurate spectrophotometric method has been developed for the assay of TRODAT-1 hydrochloride in lyophilized kit. The method is based on the formation of ion-pair association complex of TRODAT-1 with bromothymol blue (BTB) in disodium hydrogen phosphate/citric acid buffer of pH 4.0. The colored product was extracted with chloroform, and measured spectrophotometrically at 414 nm. Beer's law was obeyed in the range of 5-25 microg/ml with molar absorptivity of 2.75 x 10(4) l/mol/cm. Optimization of experimental conditions was described for the method. The proposed method has been successfully applied for the analysis of TRODAT-1 hydrochloride in lyophilized kit. No interference with pharmaceutical excipients was observed. PMID:18819514

  14. Olopatadine hydrochloride inhibits capsaicin-induced flare response in humans.

    PubMed

    Shindo, Masahisa; Yoshida, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    Capsaicin, a vanilloid, has the potential for releasing substance P (SP) from sensory nerves. Topical application of capsaicin induces a flare response in the skin. However, it has not been clarified whether the release of SP is involved in the process of flare response or not. A potent antihistamine drug, olopatadine hydrochloride, is known to have inhibitory action against the release of SP. We examined the effects of olopatadine (at a dose of 5 mg) on skin reaction induced by topical application of capsaicin in 10 healthy subjects. The scores of capsaicin-induced flare responses after olopatadine administration were significantly lower at 30 min than at baseline. Our findings suggest that olopatadine hydrochloride could inhibit capsaicin-induced flare responses. PMID:21346393

  15. Stability of sotalol hydrochloride in extemporaneously prepared oral suspension formulations.

    PubMed

    Sidhom, Madiha B; Rivera, Nadya; Almoazen, Hassan; Taft, David R; Kirschenbaum, Harold L

    2005-01-01

    The physical, chemical, and microbial stabilities of extemporaneously compounded oral liquid formulations of sotalol hydrochloride were studied. Sotalol hydrochloride oral liquid suspensions (5mg/mL) were prepared from commercially available tablets (Betapace) in a 1:1 mixture of Ora-Plus: Ora-Sweet, a 1:1 mixture of Ora-Plus:Ora-Sweet SF, and a 1:2.4 mixture of simple syrup:methylcellulose vehicle. Six batches of each formulation were prepared; three were stored at refrigerated temperature (2 deg to 8 deg C) and three at room temperature (20 deg to 25 deg C). Samples were collected from each batch weekly for 6 weeks, and again at 12 weeks. Samples were analyzed by means of a high-performance liquid chromatographic method, and the concentrations obtained were compared to the theoretical time zero value. Samples were examined for pH, odor, color, and consistency changes. The suspensions also were evaluated for their microbial stability. Sotalol hydrochloride oral liquid suspensions (5mg/mL) were chemically stable for 12 weeks regardless of storage conditions (room temperature or refrigerated). Bacterial growth was not supported by any of the formulations. Suspensions stored at refrigerated temperature retained better physical quality (e.g., odor, color, and consistency) than suspensions stored at room temperature. Overall, this study demonstrates that oral formulations of sotalol hydrochloride can be readily prepared with commercially available vehicles. The method of preparation is relatively simple, the materials are relatively inexpensive, and the products have a shelf-life of at least 12 weeks. PMID:23925139

  16. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome possibly caused by molindone hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Gradon, J D

    1991-10-01

    The case of a patient who developed neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) on three separate occasions is presented. Her third bout of this syndrome possibly was caused by molindone hydrochloride. This medication has been reported only once previously to cause NMS. The pharmacology of molindone is reviewed and a complicating factor in this case--the recent onset of hypothyroidism--is discussed together with its implication in the development of the clinical manifestations of this syndrome. PMID:1803792

  17. Tetracycline hydrochloride: A potential clinical drug for radioprotection.

    PubMed

    Alok, Amit; Chaudhury, N K

    2016-02-01

    Radiation exposure in planned scenario necessarily requires radioprotector for protection against radiation injuries in tissues and organs. A large number of potential radioprotectors have been investigated but no approved radioprotector is available. Hence, in quest for radioprotector, repurposing of clinical drug is an approach which aims at finding the radioprotective potential of known drugs so that in case of untoward accident the knowledge could be translated to drug usage. In this study, we have investigated the radical scavenging properties of tetracycline pertaining to radioprotection. Our study suggests that tetracycline hydrochloride efficiently scavenges free radicals in ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) assays. Hydroxyl radical scavenging assay has demonstrated its ability to scavenge gamma radiation induced free radicals by lowering the formation of malondialdehyde. Radiation causes damage to macromolecules and hence the protection offered by tetracycline hydrochloride to DNA and protein shows its radioprotective potential. Plasmid DNA relaxation study with pBR322 has shown that tetracycline hydrochloride confers dose modification factor (DMF) of 2 and 4at 100?M and 250?M concentration respectively. Tetracycline hydrochloride has also protected bovine serum albumin (BSA) from radiation induced degradation. The exvivo studies for lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial membrane potential further substantiate our findings. The whole body animal survival study has shown the drug to offer 20% protection at a lethal radiation dose of 9Gy. This study demonstrates the radioprotective potential of the drug by providing some insight into exvivo and invivo efficacy. PMID:26763761

  18. Stability of ondansetron hydrochloride injection in various beverages.

    PubMed

    Yamreudeewong, W; Danthi, S N; Hill, R A; Fox, J L

    1995-09-15

    The stability of ondansetron hydrochloride injection in beverages likely to be acceptable to patients was studied. Ondansetron hydrochloride injection (containing ondansetron 2 mg/mL) was added to apple juice, fruit punch, cherry-flavored drink, carbonated soft drinks, and hot tea to provide a nominal ondansetron concentration of 32.8, 64.5, or 95.2 micrograms/mL. Samples were stored at -3 to 28 degrees C (noncarbonated-beverage mixtures except tea), 2 to 28 degrees C (carbonated-beverage mixtures), and 25 degrees C (tea) and assayed for ondansetron concentration by high-performance liquid chromatography at 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours (noncarbonated-beverage mixtures except tea); 6, 24, and 48 hours (carbonated-beverage mixtures); and 1 hour (tea). More than 95% of the initial ondansetron concentration was retained in apple juice, fruit punch, cherry-flavored drink, Sprite, and Diet Coke throughout the periods studied. A precipitate formed immediately after ondansetron was added to hot tea, but the drug was chemically stable for at least one hour in this preparation. Ondansetron hydrochloride injection 32.7, 64.5, and 95.2 micrograms/mL (expressed as free base) was stable in various beverages when stored at -3 to 28 degrees C for up to 72 hours. Ondansetron at these same concentrations precipitated in hot tea preparations but was chemically stable for at least one hour. PMID:8528869

  19. A novel kind of TSV slurry with guanidine hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Hong; Yuling, Liu; Baoguo, Zhang; Xinhuan, Niu; Liying, Han

    2015-10-01

    The effect of a novel alkaline TSV (through-silicon-via) slurry with guanidine hydrochloride (GH) on CMP (chemical mechanical polishing) was investigated. The novel alkaline TSV slurry was free of any inhibitors. During the polishing process, the guanidine hydrochloride serves as an effective surface-complexing agent for TSV CMP applications, the removal rate of barrier (Ti) can be chemically controlled through tuned selectivity with respect to the removal rate of copper and dielectric, which is helpful to modifying the dishing and gaining an excellent topography performance in TSV manufacturing. In this paper, we mainly studied the working mechanism of the components of slurry and the skillful application guanidine hydrochloride in the TSV slurry. Project supported by the Major National Science and Technology Special Projects (No. 2009ZX02308), the Fund Project of Hebei Provincial Department of Education, China (No. QN2014208), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (No. E2013202247), and Colleges and Universities Scientific research project of Hebei Province, China (No. Z2014088).

  20. Synthesis, crystal structure, optical properties and antibacterial evaluation of novel imidazo[1, 5-a]pyridine derivatives bearing a hydrazone moiety.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yan Qing; Li, Fu Rong; Zhang, Yu Juan; Bi, Yu Shui; Cao, Xiao Qun; Duan, Gui Yun; Wang, Jian Wu; Liu, Zhen Liang

    2014-05-01

    A series of novel imidazo[1,5-a]pyridine-hydrazone derivatives were synthesized and characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), 1H NMR, 13C NMR and high resolution mass spectrometer (HRMS). Typically, the spatial structure of compound 3j was determined using X-ray diffraction analysis. The UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectral characteristics of the compounds in dichloromethane and acetonitrile were investigated. Absorption peaks could be observed in the wavelength range 290-450?nm. It can also be seen that they display very similar maximum emission. The group attached to hydrazone hardly influenced the maximum emission. Furthermore, all the compounds were evaluated for antibacterial activity and were found to be more effective against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella compared with chloramphenicol. PMID:23797987

  1. Spectroscopic and X-ray Crystallographic Evidence for Electrostatic Effects in 4-Substituted Cyclohexanone-Derived Hydrazones, Imines, and Corresponding Salts

    PubMed Central

    Dibble, David J.; Ziller, Joseph W.; Woerpel, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    The axial conformer of several 4-substituted cyclohexanone hydrazone salts was found to predominate in solution. Changes in the charge of the molecule and the polarity of the solvent led to changes in the conformational preference of each molecule that was consistent with electrostatic stabilization of the axial conformer. 1H NMR spectroscopic analysis was utilized to determine the structure of cyclohexanone-derived substrates by comparison to conformationally restricted trans-decalone derivatives and computational models. X-ray crystallography demonstrated that the axial configuration of a pendant benzyloxy group is the preferred conformation of an iminium ion in the solid state. The structure of a neutral hydrazone was also determined to favor the axial configuration for a pendant benzyloxy group in the solid state. PMID:21806053

  2. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of New Hydrazone Derivatives of Quinoline and Their Cu(II) and Zn(II) Complexes against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Mandewale, Mustapha C.; Thorat, Bapu; Shelke, Dnyaneshwar; Yamgar, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    A new series of quinoline hydrazone derivatives and their metal complexes have been synthesized and their biological properties have been evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37 RV strain). Most of the newly synthesized compounds displayed 100% inhibitory activity at a concentration of 6.25–25 μg/mL, against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Fluorescence properties of all the synthesized compounds have been studied. PMID:26759537

  3. Synthesis, structure and study of azo-hydrazone tautomeric equilibrium of 1,3-dimethyl-5-(arylazo)-6-amino-uracil derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debnath, Diptanu; Roy, Subhadip; Li, Bing-Han; Lin, Chia-Her; Misra, Tarun Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Azo dyes, 1,3-dimethyl-5-(arylazo)-6-aminouracil (aryl = -C6H5 (1), -p-CH3C6H4 (2), -p-ClC6H4 (3), -p-NO2C6H4 (4)) were prepared and characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopic techniques and single crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis. In the light of spectroscopic analysis it evidences that of the tautomeric forms, the azo-enamine-keto (A) form is the predominant form in the solid state whereas in different solvents it is the hydrazone-imine-keto (B) form. The study also reveals that the hydrazone-imine-keto (B) form exists in an equilibrium mixture with its anionic form in various organic solvents. The solvatochromic and photophysical properties of the dyes in various solvents with different hydrogen bonding parameter were investigated. The dyes exhibit positive solvatochromic property on moving from polar protic to polar aprotic solvents. They are fluorescent active molecules and exhibit high intense fluorescent peak in some solvents like DMSO and DMF. It has been demonstrated that the anionic form of the hydrazone-imine form is responsible for the high intense fluorescent peak. In addition, the acid-base equilibrium in between neutral and anionic form of hydrazone-imine form in buffer solution of varying pH was investigated and evaluated the pKa values of the dyes by making the use of UV-vis spectroscopic methods. The determined acid dissociation constant (pKa) values increase according to the sequence of 2 > 1 > 3 > 4.

  4. Synthesis of o-(Dimethylamino)aryl Ketones, Acridones, Acridinium Salts, and 1H-Indazoles by the Reaction of Hydrazones and Arynes

    PubMed Central

    Dubrovskiy, Anton V.; Larock, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    A novel, efficient route to biologically and pharmaceutically important o-(dimethylamino)aryl ketones, acridones, acridinium salts, and 1H-indazoles has been developed starting from readily available hydrazones of aldehydes and o-(trimethylsilyl)aryl triflates. The reaction proceeds through arynes under mild conditions, tolerates a wide range of functional groups, and provides the final products in good to excellent yields. PMID:23206164

  5. Structural and vibrational study of 8-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone - A potential metal-protein attenuating compound (MPAC) for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Freitas, Leonardo Viana; da Silva, Cecilia C. P.; Ellena, Javier; Costa, Luiz Antnio Sodr; Rey, Nicols A.

    2013-12-01

    A comprehensive structural and vibrational study of the potential metal-protein attenuating compound 8-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone is reported. X-ray diffraction data, as well as FT-IR and Raman frequencies, were compared with the respective theoretical values obtained from DFT calculations. Theory agrees well with experiment. In this context, an attempt of total assignment concerning the FT-IR and Raman spectra of the title compound was performed, shedding new light on previous partial assignments published elsewhere.

  6. Syntheses, spectroscopic characterization and thermal behavior on novel binuclear transition metal complexes of hydrazones derived from 4,6-diacetylresorcinol and oxalyldihydrazine.

    PubMed

    Emara, Adel A A; El-Sayed, Badr A; Ahmed, El-Sayed A E

    2008-03-01

    4,6-Diacetylresorcinol (DAR) serves as precursor for the formation of different hydrazone ligands, which are di-, tetra- or hexa-basic with two symmetrical sets of O(2)N tridentate, O(2)N(2) tetradentate or O(4)N(2) hexadentate chelating sites. The condensation of 4,6-diacetylresorcinol (DAR) with oxalyldihydrazine (ODH), in the molar ratio 1:1 and 1:2, yields the corresponding hydrazone, H(6)L(a) and H(4)L(b), ligands, respectively. The structures of these ligands were elucidated by elemental analyses and IR, mass, (1)H NMR and UV-vis spectra. Reactions of the hydrazone ligands with cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II), iron(III) and chromium(III) ions in 1:2 molar ratio afforded the corresponding transition metal complexes. A variety of binuclear transition metal complexes were obtained in its di-, tetra- or hexa-deprotonated forms. The structures of the newly prepared complexes were identified by elemental analyses and IR, UV-vis, mass, (1)H NMR and ESR spectra, as well as, magnetic susceptibility measurements and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The bonding sites are the azomethine and CO oxygen atoms in either keto or enol forms and amino nitrogen atoms, and phenolic oxygen atoms. The metal complexes exhibit different geometrical structures such as tetrahedral and octahedral arrangements. PMID:17627871

  7. New Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) complexes with aroyl-hydrazone based ligand. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and in vitro antibacterial evaluation.

    PubMed

    Angelusiu, Madalina Veronica; Barbuceanu, Stefania-Felicia; Draghici, Constantin; Almajan, Gabriela Laura

    2010-05-01

    A new aroyl-hydrazone, N-(2-pyridinecarbaldehyde)-N'-[4-(4-chloro-phenylsulfonyl) benzoyl]-hydrazone (L) and its Cu(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes have been prepared. The structure of these compounds has been investigated by using elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance, thermal and spectral (IR, UV, NMR, LC-MS, EPR) measurements. The semi-empirical method MM2, LC-ESI-MS, NMR and IR spectra indicate that the ligand behaves as mononegative bidentate/tridentate with NO/NON donor sequence in E isomeric form towards the metal ions. The magnetic and spectral data indicate a square-planar geometry for Ni2+ complex and an octahedral or pseudo-tetrahedral geometry for Co2+ and Cu2+ complexes. Bacterial activity of acyl-hydrazone (L) and its complexes were studied against gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and gram-negative bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli by using minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) method. PMID:20133023

  8. Interaction between lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline) and various irrigants: A nuclear magnetic resonance analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vidhya, Nirmal; Karthikeyan, Balasubramanian Saravana; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy; Abarajithan, Mohan; Nithyanandan, Sivasankaran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Interaction between local anesthetic solution, lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline), and root canal irrigants such as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), and chlorhexidine (CHX) has not been studied earlier. Hence, the purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the chemical interaction between 2% lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline) and commonly used root canal irrigants, NaOCl, EDTA, and CHX. Materials and Methods: Samples were divided into eight experimental groups: Group I-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/3% NaOCl, Group II-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/17% EDTA, Group III- Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/2% CHX, Group IV-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/3% NaOCl, Group V-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/17% EDTA, Group VI-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/2% CHX, and two control groups: Group VII-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/deionized water and Group VIII-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/deionized water. The respective solutions of various groups were mixed in equal proportions (1 ml each) and observed for precipitate formation. Chemical composition of the formed precipitate was then analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and confirmed with diazotation test. Results: In groups I and IV, a white precipitate was observed in all the samples on mixing the respective solutions, which showed a color change to reddish brown after 15 minutes. This precipitate was then analysed by NMR spectroscopy and was observed to be 2,6-xylidine, a reported toxic compound. The experimental groups II, III, V, and VI and control groups VII and VIII showed no precipitate formation in any of the respective samples, until 2 hours. Conclusion: Interaction between lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline) and NaOCl showed precipitate formation containing 2,6-xylidine, a toxic compound. PMID:25097652

  9. 21 CFR 520.1263a - Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate tablets and sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate tablets and sirup. 520.1263a Section 520.1263a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 520.1263a Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate tablets and sirup. (a) Specifications. The...

  10. 21 CFR 520.1263a - Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate tablets and sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate tablets and sirup. 520.1263a Section 520.1263a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 520.1263a Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate tablets and sirup. (a) Specifications. The...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1263a - Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate tablets and sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate tablets and sirup. 520.1263a Section 520.1263a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 520.1263a Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate tablets and sirup. (a) Specifications. The...

  12. 21 CFR 520.1263 - Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage forms. 520.1263 Section 520.1263 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 520.1263 Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage forms....

  13. 21 CFR 520.1263 - Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage forms. 520.1263 Section 520.1263 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 520.1263 Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage forms....

  14. 21 CFR 520.1263a - Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate tablets and sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate tablets and sirup. 520.1263a Section 520.1263a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 520.1263a Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate tablets and sirup. (a) Specifications. The...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1263 - Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage forms. 520.1263 Section 520.1263 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 520.1263 Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage forms....

  16. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524.1484d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin... a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and...

  17. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524.1484d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin... a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and...

  18. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524.1484d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin... a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and...

  19. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524.1484d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin... a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and...

  20. Effects of metomindate hydrochloride and tricaine methanesulfonate on the short term cortisol response in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of metomidate hydrochloride and tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) on cortisol stress response of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were examined during 10 minutes of sedation. Channel catfish were assigned to three treatments: 1. Metomidate hydrochloride (12.5 mg/L), 2. MS-222 (100...

  1. 21 CFR 524.1662 - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. 524.1662 Section 524.1662 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1662 Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms....

  2. 21 CFR 522.1662 - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage forms. 522.1662 Section 522.1662 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1662 Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or...

  3. 21 CFR 522.1662 - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage forms. 522.1662 Section 522.1662 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1662 Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or...

  4. 21 CFR 524.1662 - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. 524.1662 Section 524.1662 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1662 Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms....

  5. 77 FR 20987 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Lincomycin Hydrochloride Soluble Powder...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... Sponsor; Lincomycin Hydrochloride Soluble Powder; Penicillin G Potassium in Drinking Water; Tetracycline...; penicillin G potassium, USP; and tetracycline hydrochloride soluble powders administered in drinking water... ANADA 200-347 for Penicillin G Potassium, USP, all soluble powders administered in drinking water to...

  6. 78 FR 2416 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Rybix® (Tramadol Hydrochloride) Tablets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ...This document provides notice that U.S. Customs and Border Protection (``CBP'') has issued a final determination concerning the country of origin of Rybix[supreg] (tramadol hydrochloride) tablets. Based upon the facts presented, CBP has concluded in the final determination that India is the country of origin of the Rybix (tramadol hydrochloride) tablets for purposes of U.S. Government......

  7. 78 FR 27971 - Determination That REV-EYES (Dapiprazole Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution), 0.5%, Was Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That REV-EYES (Dapiprazole Hydrochloride... determined that REV-EYES (dapiprazole hydrochloride ophthalmic solution), 0.5%, was not withdrawn from sale... refer to a listed drug. REV-EYES (dapiprazole hydrochloride ophthalmic solution), 0.5%, is the...

  8. 21 CFR 524.1484b - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium chloride, topical powder. 524.1484b Section 524.1484b... Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium chloride... hydrochloride and .2 milligram of myristyl-gamma-picolinium chloride in each gram of the product in a...

  9. Cocrystals of bis(4-hydroxy-1-methylpiperidine betaine) hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dega-Szafran, Z.; Dulewicz, E.; Dutkiewicz, G.; Kosturkiewicz, Z.

    2006-08-01

    Bis(4-hydroxy-1-methylpiperidine betaine) hydrochloride, [bis(1-carboxymethyl-4-hydroxy-1-methylpiperidinium) hydrochloride, (HO-MPB) 2HCl], has been prepared from stoichiometric amounts of ?-4-hydroxy-1-methylpiperidine betaine hydrochloride with the OH group in an equatorial position and ?-4-hydroxy-1-methylpiperidine betaine inner salt with the OH group in an axial one. Cocrystals of (HO-MPB) 2HCl belong to monoclinic system with C2/ c space group. Piperidinium ring has a chair conformation with the CH 2COO group in the equatorial position and the CH 3 group in the axial one, while the OH group occupies the equatorial or axial position in the disordered structure. There are three types of substituted piperidinium molecules A, B and C in the asymmetric unit. These isomers are distributed randomly yielding partially occupied sites of the hydroxyl groups. The disorder of molecules has been confirmed by the X-ray diffraction experiments at low temperature. The piperidinium molecules form two independent homoconjugated cations, A-B and C-C, with short asymmetrical (2.457(2) ) and symmetrical (2.440(2) ) OHO hydrogen bonds, respectively. The hydroxyl groups interact with the Cl - anions by the O-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds. The A- B cation is linked with C- C by the O-H⋯O-H hydrogen bond, while C- C cations are joined together by the O-H⋯O=C hydrogen bonds, forming infinite zigzag chains. The FTIR spectrum shows an intense ?OH band in the 3300-3100 cm -1 region and a broad and intense ?(OHO) absorption in the 1500-400 cm -1 region, which confirm the presence of the O-H⋯Cl and OHO hydrogen bonds. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra, in the aqueous solution, prove the inequivalence of the piperidinium ring caused by two conformations of the OH group at the ring.

  10. Stability of valacyclovir hydrochloride in extemporaneously prepared oral liquids.

    PubMed

    Fish, D N; Vidaurri, V A; Deeter, R G

    1999-10-01

    The stability of valacyclovir hydrochloride in three commonly used syrups was studied. Triplicate suspensions of valacyclovir (from caplets) in Ora-Sweet (Paddock Laboratories), Ora-Sweet SF (Paddock), and Syrpalta Humco Laboratory) syrups were extemporaneously compounded to yield a final concentration of valacyclovir 50 mg/mL (as the hydrochloride salt). The nine suspensions were stored at 4 degrees C in amber glass bottles. At intervals up to 60 days, the liquids were visually inspected for color change, cloudiness, gas formation, and precipitation, and samples were assayed in duplicate for valacyclovir concentration by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography. Also tested were pH, particle size, and microbial growth. During the first 21 days of storage, mean valacyclovir concentrations in all liquids were >90% of the initial concentration, but concentrations were <90% by day 21 in some individual samples of suspensions prepared with Ora-Sweet and Ora-Sweet SF. Mean valacyclovir concentrations in the Syrpalta-based suspensions met the 90% cutoff for at least 35 days. Solution pH and particle size remained unchanged in all liquids through day 60, and there were no changes in physical appearance. There was no evidence of microbial growth on the days when microbial growth was tested (0 and 28). Valacyclovir 50 mg/mL (as the hydrochloride salt) in three oral liquids stored in amber glass bottles at 4 degrees C was stable for at least 21 days when prepared with two of three syrups and for at least 35 days when prepared with the third syrup. All the liquids were free of microbial growth for at least 28 days. PMID:10554914

  11. The effects of Dalmane /flurazepam hydrochloride/ on human EEG characteristics.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.; Carrie, J. R. G.; Borda, R. P.; Kellaway, P.

    1973-01-01

    Evaluation of the changes in the waking EEGs of six healthy male subjects who received 30 mg daily oral doses of flurazepam hydrochloride for two weeks. A placebo was then substituted for flurazepam for another two weeks. An increase in beta activity with a maximum in fronto-central leads was observed during the test period. A small increase in the mean wavelength of the alpha and theta activities in the central-occipital derivations was also apparent in the subjects during the period.

  12. 1H-NMR assay of papaverine hydrochloride and formulations.

    PubMed

    Aboutabl, Elsayed A; Ei-Azzouny, Aida A; Afifi, Manal S

    2002-01-01

    A precise and specific 1H-NMR method has been developed for the assay of papaverine hydrochloride (1) as a bulk drug, as well as in tablet and injection dosage forms. The assay depends upon the integration of the 12 protons of the four methoxy groups of 1 relative to that of the three methyl protons of acetanilide (internal standard). In addition to the accurate quantitative determination of 1, the method provides a specific means of identifying 1 as well as detecting other alkaloids or impurities. PMID:12494746

  13. Colorimetric determination of tetracycline hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Saha, U

    1987-01-01

    A simple, sensitive, and rapid colorimetric method is presented for the estimation of tetracycline hydrochloride as the pure drug and in formulations. The proposed method is based on the reaction of tetracycline HCl with cupric chloride in an alkaline medium to give a yellowish green solution whose absorbance is measured at 400 nm against a reagent blank. The color obeys Beer's law in the concentration range of 0-20 micrograms/mL. Molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of the yellowish-green copper complexes of tetracycline HCl are 1.99 X 10(4) L X mol-1 X cm-1 and 0.0241 ppm, respectively. PMID:3624177

  14. Coordination diversity of new mononuclear ONS hydrazone with transition metals: Synthesis, characterization, molecular modeling and antimicrobial studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adly, Omima M. I.; Taha, A.

    2013-04-01

    The mononuclear hydrazone ligand, H2L, a condensation product of 4-amino-6-methyl-3-thioxo-3,4-dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-5(2H)-one with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde and its metal chelates of Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), VO(IV) and UO2(VI) ions were synthesized and characterized using elemental analyses, spectral, magnetic and molar conductance studies as well as thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The physico-chemical studies support that the ligand acts as mono- or dibasic tridentate ONS donor toward metal ions forming a mononuclear square planar, tetrahedral, square pyramidal and octahedral geometrical arrangements except UO2(VI) complex in which the metal ion is octa-coordinated. The ligand field parameters, Dq, B and ? values, in the case of the cobalt and nickel complexes are calculated. The kinetics of the thermal decomposition for some metal complexes studied and their thermodynamic parameters were reported. Structural parameters of the ligand and its metal chelates have been calculated and correlated with the experimental data. The ligand and its metal chelates were screened for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis as Gram-positive bacteria, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium as Gram-negative bacteria and Candida albicans as fungus strain.

  15. Growth and characterization of benzaldehyde 4-nitro phenyl hydrazone (BPH) single crystal: A proficient second order nonlinear optical material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, M.; Abraham Rajasekar, S.

    2016-04-01

    The crystals (benzaldehyde 4-nitro phenyl hydrazone (BPH)) appropriate for NLO appliance were grown by the slow cooling method. The solubility and metastable zone width measurement of BPH specimen was studied. The material crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system with noncentrosymmetric space group of Cc. The optical precision in the whole visible region was found to be excellent for non-linear optical claim. Excellence of the grown crystal is ascertained by the HRXRD and etching studies. Laser Damage Threshold and Photoluminescence studies designate that the grown crystal contains less imperfection. The mechanical behaviour of BPH sample at different temperatures was investigated to determine the hardness stability of the grown specimen. The piezoelectric temperament and the relative Second Harmonic Generation (for diverse particle sizes) of the material were also studied. The dielectric studies were executed at varied temperatures and frequencies to investigate the electrical properties. Photoconductivity measurement enumerates consummate of inducing dipoles due to strong incident radiation and also divulge the nonlinear behaviour of the material. The third order nonlinear optical properties of BPH crystals were deliberate by Z-scan method.

  16. Structural diversity in mercury(II) coordination complexes with asymmetrical hydrazone-based ligands derived from pyridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoumi, Asad; Servati Gargari, Masoumeh; Mahmoudi, Ghodrat; Miroslaw, Barbara; Therrien, Bruno; Abedi, Marjan; Hazendonk, Paul

    2015-05-01

    Three novel Hg(II) complexes 1-3 of asymmetrical hydrazone-pyridine based ligands, L1-L3, with distinct coordination structures have been prepared and characterized by a single crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental and thermal analysis, and IR spectroscopy. The complexes form either discrete units with one (1) or two (2) organic ligands, or one-dimensional polymers (3). Hence the ligands can be regarded as chelating (1), mono-dentate (2) or bridging (3) agents. The mercury center is essentially neutralized in each complex by two iodide anions. The coordination in complexes 2 and 3 adopts deformed tetrahedral shapes. In contrast the Hg(II) cation in complex 1 binds three coplanar ligating atoms (O,N,N) and, as with pincer ligands, its coordination polyhedron is supplemented with two I- anions in apical positions. The structural diversity in these complexes is strongly influenced by the position of N atom in pyridine derived moieties. The crystal structure is stabilized by N/O-H⋯N/O/I hydrogen bonds and ?⋯? interactions.

  17. Synthesis, molecular docking, and biological evaluation of some novel hydrazones and pyrazole derivatives as anti-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Khaled O; Nissan, Yassin M

    2014-10-01

    2-Hydrazinyl-N-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)acetamide 3 was the key intermediate for the synthesis of novel hydrazones 4-10 and pyrazole derivatives 11-17. All compounds were tested for their in vivo anti-inflammatory activity and their ability to inhibit the production of PGE(2) in serum samples of rats. IC(50) values for the most active compounds for inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes were determined in vitro, and they were also tested for their ulcerogenic effect. Molecular docking was performed on the active site of COX-2 to predict their mode of binding to the amino acids. Most of the synthesized compounds showed good anti-inflammatory activity especially compounds 3, 4, 8, 9, 15, and 17 which showed better activity than diclofenac as the reference drug. Compounds 3, 8, 9, 13, and 15-17 were less ulcerogenic than indomethacine as the reference drug. Most of the synthesized compounds interacted with Tyr 385 and Ser 530 in molecular docking study with additional hydrogen bond for compound 17. Compound 17 showed good selectivity index value of 11.1 for COX-1/COX-2 inhibition in vitro. PMID:24720475

  18. [Characterization of collagen of canine intervertebral disks using the N-methyl-benzothiazol-2-on-hydrazone reaction].

    PubMed

    Silva, N; Farias, G; Torres, J M

    1991-06-01

    Collagen types were studied in the lumbar intervertebral discs of non-chondrodystrophic dogs, 1 to 3 years old. Parts of intervertebral discs were frozen and sections were subjected to the 3-methyl-benzothiazol-2-on-hydrazone (MBTH) method, which permits differentiation of genetic types and maturation stages of collagen. The annulus fibrosus showed a blue (collagen I) and a violet colour (collagen II) at the external zone. The internal zone was more homogeneous and contained a mixture of both colours (collagen I and II). The nucleus pulposus showed only the violet colour, indicative of collagen II. Discs were also dissected at three different zones and submitted to an extraction technique to obtain collagen, then subjected to SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and determination of spectrophotometric reactions of MBTH. Both studies demonstrated type I and type II collagens in the external and internal zones of the annulus fibrosus, but only type II in the nucleus pulposus. Collagen characterization, using this technique, would allow for evaluation in pathologic events of the intervertebral discs as well as for establishing the degree of alteration. PMID:1716811

  19. Structure investigation of three hydrazones Schiff's bases by spectroscopic, thermal and molecular orbital calculations and their biological activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belal, Arafa A. M.; Zayed, M. A.; El-Desawy, M.; Rakha, Sh. M. A. H.

    2015-03-01

    Three Schiff's bases AI (2(1-hydrazonoethyl)phenol), AII (2, 4-dibromo 6-(hydrazonomethyl)phenol) and AIII (2(hydrazonomethyl)phenol) were prepared as new hydrazone compounds via condensation reactions with molar ratio (1:1) of reactants. Firstly by reaction of 2-hydroxy acetophenone solution and hydrazine hydrate; it gives AI. Secondly condensation between 3,5-dibromo-salicylaldehyde and hydrazine hydrate gives AII. Thirdly condensation between salicylaldehyde and hydrazine hydrate gives AIII. The structures of AI-AIII were characterized by elemental analysis (EA), mass (MS), FT-IR and 1H NMR spectra, and thermal analyses (TG, DTG, and DTA). The activation thermodynamic parameters, such as, ΔE∗, ΔH∗, ΔS∗ and ΔG∗ were calculated from the TG curves using Coats-Redfern method. It is important to investigate their molecular structures to know the active groups and weak bond responsible for their biological activities. Consequently in the present work, the obtained thermal (TA) and mass (MS) practical results are confirmed by semi-empirical MO-calculations (MOCS) using PM3 procedure. Their biological activities have been tested in vitro against Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillissubtilies and Staphylococcus aurous bacteria in order to assess their anti-microbial potential.

  20. The Cytotoxicity of Benzaldehyde Nitrogen Mustard-2-Pyridine Carboxylic Acid Hydrazone Being Involved in Topoisomerase II? Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yun; Zhou, Sufeng; Liu, Youxun; Yang, Yingli; Sun, Xingzhi; Li, Changzheng

    2014-01-01

    The antitumor property of iron chelators and aromatic nitrogen mustard derivatives has been well documented. Combination of the two pharmacophores in one molecule in drug designation is worth to be explored. We reported previously the syntheses and preliminary cytotoxicity evaluation of benzaldehyde nitrogen mustard pyridine carboxyl acid hydrazones (BNMPH) as extended study, more tumor cell lines (IC50 for HepG2: 26.1 3.5??M , HCT-116: 57.5 5.3??M, K562: 48.2 4.0??M, and PC-12: 19.4 2.2??M) were used to investigate its cytotoxicity and potential mechanism. In vitro experimental data showed that the BNMPH chelating Fe2+ caused a large number of ROS formations which led to DNA cleavage, and this was further supported by comet assay, implying that ROS might be involved in the cytotoxicity of BNMPH. The ROS induced changes of apoptosis related genes, but the TFR1 and NDRG1 metastatic genes were not obviously regulated, prompting that BNMPH might not be able to deprive Fe2+ of ribonucleotide reductase. The BNMPH induced S phase arrest was different from that of iron chelators (G1) and alkylating agents (G2). BNMPH also exhibited its inhibition of human topoisomerase II?. Those revealed that the cytotoxic mechanism of the BNMPH could stem from both the topoisomerase II inhibition, ROS generation and DNA alkylation. PMID:24995306

  1. Synthesis of Tolmetin Hydrazide-Hydrazones and Discovery of a Potent Apoptosis Inducer in Colon Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Kkgzel, ? Gniz; Ko, Derya; ?kla-Szgn, Pelin; zsavc?, Derya; Bingl-zakp?nar, zlem; Mega-Tiber, P?nar; Orun, Oya; Erzincan, P?nar; Sa?-Erdem, Safiye; ?ahin, Fikrettin

    2015-10-01

    Tolmetin hydrazide and a novel series of tolmetin hydrazide-hydrazones 4a-l were synthesized in this study. The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectral (FT-IR, (1)H NMR) methods. N'-[(2,6-Dichlorophenyl)methylidene]-2-[1-methyl-5-(4-methylbenzoyl)-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]acetohydrazide (4g) was evaluated in vitro using the MTT colorimetric method against the colon cancer cell lines HCT-116 (ATCC, CCL-247) and HT-29 (ATCC, HTB-38) to determine growth inhibition and cell viability at different doses. Compound 4g exhibited anti-cancer activity with an IC50 value of 76??M against colon cancer line HT-29 (ATCC, HTB-38) and did not display cytotoxicity toward control NIH3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cells compared to tolmetin. In addition, this compound was evaluated for caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and annexin-V activation in the apoptotic pathway, which plays a key role in the treatment of cancer. We demonstrated that the anti-cancer activity of this compound was due to the activation of caspase-8 and caspase-9 involved in the apoptotic pathway. In addition, in this study, we investigated the catalytical effect of COX on the HT-29 cancer line, the apoptotic mechanism, and the moleculer binding of tolmetin and compound 4g on the COX enzyme active site. PMID:26287512

  2. Effect of tolazoline hydrochloride on sputum viscosity in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Feather, Elizabeth A.; Russell, George

    1970-01-01

    Comparisons have been made between the effects of autonomic dysfunction and the pathophysiological changes in the exocrine secretions from patients with cystic fibrosis (Roberts, 1959). Cotton (1966) found that administration of tolazoline hydrochloride (an alpha-adrenergic blocker) to patients with cor pulmonale in the terminal stages of cystic fibrosis was associated with an improvement in the results of their lung function tests. This effect might have been due to an alteration of the abnormal viscosity of the bronchial mucus mediated via the autonomic nervous system, thus permitting easier expectoration. Measurement, by means of a Ferranti-Shirely cone and plate viscometer, of several different aspects of sputum viscosity is described. Tolazoline hydrochloride, administered to five patients with cystic fibrosis, was shown not to differ significantly from a placebo in its effect on sputum viscosity and dynamic lung volumes. We could not relate the improved lung function seen in Cotton's series to an autonomic effect of the drug on the physical properties of bronchial mucus in this condition. PMID:5494682

  3. Formulation and evaluation of effervescent floating tablets of tizanidine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Someshwar, Komuravelly; Chithaluru, Kalyani; Ramarao, Tadikonda; Kumar, K K Kalyan

    2011-06-01

    Tizanidine hydrochloride is an orally administered prokinetic agent that facilitates or restores motility through-out the length of the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of the present investigation was to develop effervescent floating matrix tablets of tizanidine hydrochloride for prolongation of gastric residence time in order to overcome its low bioavailability (34-40 %) and short biological half life (4.2 h). Tablets were prepared by the direct compression method, using different viscosity grades of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K4M, K15M and K100M). Tablets were evaluated for various physical parameters and floating properties. Further, tablets were studied for in vitro drug release characteristics in 12 hours. Drug release from effervescent floating matrix tablets was sustained over 12 h with buoyant properties. DSC study revealed that there is no drug excipient interaction. Based on the release kinetics, all formulations best fitted the Higuchi, first-order model and non-Fickian as the mechanism of drug release. Optimized formulation (F9) was selected based on the similarity factor (f2) (74.2), dissolution efficiency at 2, 6 and 8 h, and t50 (5.4 h) and was used in radiographic studies by incorporating BaSO4. In vivo X-ray studies in human volunteers showed that the mean gastric residence time was 6.2 0.2 h. PMID:21684848

  4. Butenafine hydrochloride: for the treatment of interdigital tinea pedis.

    PubMed

    Syed, T A; Maibach, H I

    2000-03-01

    Butenafine, a derivative of benzylamine with potent fungicidal activity is a new generation of antimycotic compound that has shown to be extremely effective against experimentally-induced tinea pedis in the guinea-pig, a situation that resembles synergetic pathology similar to that of tinea pedis in humans. Butenafine, (N-4-tert-butylbenzyl-N-methyl-1-naphthalenemethyl-amine hydrochloride) with a chemical structure and mode of action similar to those of the allylamines, demonstrates superior fungicidal activity in vitro against dermatophytes and superior fungistatic activity toward Candida albicans that of naftifine and terbinafine. In vitro, pharmacodynamic data has shown that the geometric mean of minimum inhibitory concentration values for butenafine were comparatively lower than those of naftifine and clotrimazole against clinical isolates for many dermatophytes. It inhibits sterol synthesis by blocking the squalene epoxidation stage in fungi. In phramacokinetic assessments butenafine achieves and maintains high concentrations and long retention time in skin, with associated anti-inflammatory activity in vivo. In controlled clinical trials when applied topically, butenafine appears to be well tolerated with a subjective mild burning sensation at the application site. There were no withdrawals from the study. Butenafine is sparingly soluble in water but readily soluble in methanol, ethanol, dichloromethane and chloroform. If incorporated properly in semisolid topical preparations, with a balanced vehicle, butenafine hydrochloride potentially exhibits as a promising alternative antimycotic agent for the treatment of tinea pedis. PMID:11249531

  5. Application of direct crystallization for racemic compound propranolol hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiujuan; Lu, Jie; Ching, Chi Bun

    2007-10-01

    The application of direct crystallization integrating with chromatography to the resolution of a racemic compound propranolol hydrochloride was studied and the crystallization progression was clearly illustrated in terms of the diagram of solubility and metastable zone widths with different enantiomeric compositions. The solubility and metastable zone widths of propranolol hydrochloride in the mixture of methanol and isopropanol were determined using an in situ Lasentec Focused Beam Reflectance Measurement (FBRM) probe. The direct crystallizations were carried out in an automatic lab reactor (Mettler Toledo LabMax) system. The optical purity of final product crystals was examined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), HPLC and PXRD. The crystal size distribution and morphology were analyzed using Malvern Mastersizer and Jeol SEM. It was found that optically pure crystal product could be obtained within certain safe supersaturation limit and there was no evidence of polymorph or solvate/hydrate transformation during the crystallization process. There was no selectivity of crystal growth or nucleation between the pure enantiomer and its racemate when the solution reaches the temperature lower than saturation temperature of the racemate. Hence, the critical supersaturation control of a solution was essential to obtain pure enantiomers from a partially resolved racemate. PMID:17549769

  6. Synthesis and characterization of a new mebendazole salt: mebendazole hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Brusau, E V; Cam, G E; Narda, G E; Cuffini, S; Ayala, A P; Ellena, J

    2008-01-01

    Mebendazole hydrochloride [(5-benzoyl-1H-benzimidazole-2-yl)-carbamic acid methyl ester hydrochloride, MBZ.HCl], a new stable salt of mebendazole (MBZ), has been synthesized and characterized. It can easily be obtained from recrystallization of forms A, B, or C of MBZ in diverse solvents with the addition of hydrochloric acid solution. Crystallographic data reveals that the particular conformation adopted by the carbamic group contributes to the stability of the network. The crystal packing is stabilized by the presence of three N-H...Cl intermolecular interactions that form chains along the b axis. The XRD analyses of the three crystalline habits found in the crystallization process (square-based pyramids, pseudohexagonal plates, and prismatic) show equivalent diffraction patterns. The vibrational behavior is consistent with crystal structure. The most important functional groups show shifts to lower or higher frequencies in relation to the MBZ polymorphs. The thermal study on MBZ.HCl indicates that the compound is stable up to 160 degrees C approximately. Decomposition occurs in four steps. In the first step the HCl group is eliminated, and after that the remaining MBZ polymorph A decomposes in three steps, as happens with polymorphs B and C. ( PMID:17854049

  7. Influence of colforsin daropate hydrochloride on internal mammary artery grafts.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Nobuhiko; Teshima, Hideki; Tayama, Eiki; Chihara, Shingo; Enomoto, Naofumi; Kawara, Takemi; Aoyagi, Shigeaki

    2002-04-01

    The effect of colforsin daropate hydrochloride (colforsin), a water-soluble forskolin derivative, on blood flow in internal mammary artery (IMA) grafts was evaluated in a prospective randomized study of 26 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Patients were randomized to receive either colforsin treatment (colforsin; n=14) or no colforsin treatment (control; n=14). Administration of colforsin (0.5mg x kg(-1) min(-1)) was started after induction of anesthesia and was continued for 6 h. IMA blood flow and hemodynamic measurements were assessed perioperatively. During cardiopoulmonary bypass (CPB), perfusion flow was adjusted to 2.5 L/m2 and IMA free blood flow was measured. IMA blood flow was also measured 1 h after CPB by an ultrasonic flow meter. Systemic vascular resistance was significantly lower in the colforsin group during and after CPB. IMA blood flow was significantly greater in the colforsin group than in the control group during (44 +/- 2 vs 33 +/- 3 ml min-1 x m(-2), p=0.02) and after CPB (38 +/- 6 vs 20 +/- 3ml x min(-1) m(-2), p=0.01). IMA blood flow 1 h after CPB correlated inversely with concurrent systemic vascular resistance (r=-0.61, p=0.001). Intraoperative administration of colforsin daropate hydrochloride caused potent vasodilation, resulting in an increase in IMA blood flow. The results indicate that the regimen can be used perioperatively in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. PMID:11954952

  8. [Examination of effectiveness of olopatadine hydrochloride in atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Tadamichi; Mashiko, Maki; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2005-02-01

    Subjective/objective symptoms (itching, papula, erythema, lichenification, desquamation, scratching, erosion) and the levels of IgE, LDH, interleukin (IL) -6, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) were compared before and after administering olopatadine hydrochloride (ALLELOCK tablets) to 17 atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. Subject/objective symptoms improved significantly after administering the agent, and the total dosage of the combined topical steroids was also significantly decreased after administration (p<0.05), although IgE, IL-6 and LDH levels did not change, TARC was significantly decreased (p<0.05). The correlation between the levels of IgE, IL-6, LDH and TARC before and after the administration was examined. There was a positive correlation between IgE and TARC (r=0.62, p<0.01) and between IL-6 and TARC (r=0.78, p<0.01). Olopatadine hydrochloride is therefore useful in improving the symptoms in AD, and TARC may be used as an indicator of the symptom improvement. PMID:15864020

  9. Fabrication and Development of Pectin Microsphere of Metformin Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Pritam; Deb, Jyotirmoy; Roy, Amitava; Ghosh, Amitava; Chakraborty, Prithviraj

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The objective of the proposed work is to evaluate the efficacy of Pectins to qualify them as polymers for designing an oral microsphere for the delivery of selected oral antidiabetic drug-like metformin hydrochloride. Methods. Different Microspheres formulations were prepared by the water in oil (w\\o) emulsion solvent evaporation technique and subsequently evaluated for its different physical parameters as well as its in vitro and in vivo drug release study. Results. The formulations F2 (98.42) and F3 (98.03) showed a constant and high release in the dissolution profile, so among these two formulations, F2 was taken for development study, due to the better result shown over in other evaluation parameters. From the HPLC determinations after in vivo study, it had been found that the test samples and the standard sample had not shown any significant fluctuation in relation to their retention time. Conclusion. From in vitro and in??vivo results, it may be concluded that drug-loaded pectin microspheres in 1?:?1 ratio are a suitable delivery system for metformin hydrochloride and may be used for effective management of NIDDM. From this experiment, it could be concluded that as a natural polymer, pectin has potentiality in novel drug delivery system. PMID:22900209

  10. Extractive determination of ephedrine hydrochloride and bromhexine hydrochloride in pure solutions, pharmaceutical dosage form and urine samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Ghani, N. T.; Rizk, M. S.; Mostafa, M.

    2013-07-01

    Simple, rapid, sensitive, precise and accurate spectrophotometeric methods for the determination of ephedrine hydrochloride (E-HCl) and bromhexine hydrochloride (Br-HCl) in bulk samples, dosage form and in spiked urine samples were investigated. The methods are based on the formation of a yellow colored ion-associates due to the interaction between the examined drugs with picric acid (PA), chlorophyllin coppered trisodium salt (CLPH), alizarin red (AR) and ammonium reineckate (Rk) reagents. A buffer solution had been used and the extraction was carried out using organic solvent, the ion associates exhibit absorption maxima at 410, 410, 430 and 530 nm of (Br-HCl)with PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively; 410, 410, 435 and 530 of (E-HCl) with PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively. (E-HCl) and (Br-HCl) could be determined up to 13, 121, 120 and 160; 25, 200, 92 and 206 μg mL-1, using PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively. The optimum reaction conditions for quantitative analysis were investigated. In addition, the molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity were determined for the investigated drug. The correlation coefficient was ⩾0.995 (n = 6) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) ⩽1.15 for five selected concentrations of the reagents. Therefore the concentration of Br-HCl and E-HCl drugs in their pharmaceutical formulations and spiked urine samples had been determined successfully.

  11. Developmental rates of immatures of three Chrysomya species (Diptera: Calliphoridae) under the effect of methylphenidate hydrochloride, phenobarbital, and methylphenidate hydrochloride associated with phenobarbital.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Fbio; Alonso, Marcela A; Souza, Carina M; Thyssen, Patrcia J; Linhares, Arcio X

    2014-05-01

    Entomotoxicology is focused on obtaining data on necrophagous entomofauna, for criminal investigations purposes. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of methylphenidate hydrochloride, phenobarbital, and their association on the developmental rate, larval and pupal survivorship, and the interval of emergence of adults of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Considering the therapeutic dose (TD) of methylphenidate hydrochloride (0.29 mg/Kg), the concentrations tested were 10 TD, 50 TD, and 100 TD. For phenobarbital, the concentrations used were 1 TD (=150 mg/Kg), 3.3 TD, and 6.7 TD. For the association of the drugs, the combinations used were 10 TD-methylphenidate hydrochloride plus 1 TD-phenobarbital, 50 TD-methylphenidate hydrochloride plus 3.3 TD-phenobarbital, and 100 TD-methylphenidate hydrochloride plus 6.7 TD-phenobarbital. The control group, without addition of drug, was maintained under the same conditions of temperature (25??1 C), humidity (70??10%), and photoperiod (12 h). Specimens of each group were weighed every 12 h until pupariation. The developmental rate of the three Chrysomya species immatures was monitored. For C. albiceps the developmental time was delayed in 24 h for methylphenidate hydrochloride group and in 12 h for the phenobarbital and the drugs association groups. The effect was observed only at specific ages for C. megacephala, without altering the developmental time. For C. putoria, the developmental time was delayed in 12 h for methylphenidate hydrochloride group and in 24 h for the phenobarbital and the drugs association groups. The emergence interval was similar among all experimental groups, but larval and pupal viabilities were affected in different ways. PMID:24633905

  12. The antitumor mechanism of di-2-pyridylketone 2-pyridine carboxylic acid hydrazone and its copper complex in ROS generation and topoisomerase inhibition, and hydrazone involvement in oxygen-catalytic iron mobilization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tengfei; Li, Cuiping; Sun, Xingzhi; Zhu, Zhenfu; Fu, Yun; Liu, Youxun; Yuan, Yanbin; Li, Shaoshan; Li, Changzheng

    2015-11-01

    Iron depletion and stimulation of iron-dependent free radical damage is a rapidly developing field for chelation therapy, but the iron mobilization from ferritin by chelators has received less attention. In this study, the di-2-pyridylketone 2-pyridine carboxylic acid hydrazone (DPPCAH) and its copper complex was prepared and characterized by NMR and MS spectra. The proliferation inhibition assay showed that both DPPCAH and its copper complex exhibited selectively proliferation inhibition for HepG2 (IC50, 4.6 0.2 M for DPPACH and 1.3 0.2 M for its copper complex), but less inhibition for HCT-116 cell line (IC50, >100 M for DPPACH and 7.8 0.4 M for its copper complex). The mechanistic studies revealed that DPPACH could remove iron from ferritin in a oxygen-catalytic manner, and contributed to redox activity of labile iron pool (LIP), that is less reported for the chelators that possess significant biological activity. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA cleavage assay in vitro and in vivo showed that both DPPACH-Fe(II) and DPPACH-Cu were redox-active species, indicating that ROS may mediate their antitumor activity. Further study revealed that both DPPACH and its copper complex displayed certain degree of inhibition of type II topoisomerase (Top) which contributed to their antitumor activity. Thus, the mechanism that iron mobilization by DPPACH from ferritin contributed to LIP was proposed, and both DPPACH and its copper complex were involved in ROS generation and Top II inhibition for their antitumor activities. PMID:26398524

  13. Synthesis, characterization and biological activities of Cu(II), Co(II), Mn(II), Fe(II), and UO2(VI) complexes with a new Schiff Base hydrazone: O-hydroxyacetophenone-7-chloro-4-quinoline hydrazone.

    PubMed

    Al-Shaalan, Nora H

    2011-01-01

    The Schiff base hydrazone ligand HL was prepared by the condensation reaction of 7-chloro-4-quinoline with o-hydroxyacetophenone. The ligand behaves either as monobasic bidentate or dibasic tridentate and contain ONN coordination sites. This was accounted for be the presence in the ligand of a phenolic azomethine and imine groups. It reacts with Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Mn(II), UO(2) (VI) and Fe(II) to form either mono- or binuclear complexes. The ligand and its metal complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, IR, NMR, Mass, and UV-Visible spectra. The magnetic moments and electrical conductance of the complexes were also determined. The Co(II), Ni(II) and UO(2) (VI) complexes are mononuclear and coordinated to NO sites of two ligand molecules. The Cu(II) complex has a square-planar geometry distorted towards tetrahedral, the Ni(II) complex is octahedral while the UO(2) (VI) complex has its favoured heptacoordination. The Co(II), Mn(II) complexes and also other Ni(II) and Fe(III) complexes, which were obtained in the presence of Li(OH) as deprotonating agent, are binuclear and coordinated via the NNNO sites of two ligand molecules. All the binuclear complexes have octahedral geometries and their magnetic moments are quite low compared to the calculated value for two metal ions complexes and thus antiferromagnetic interactions between the two adjacent metal ions. The ligand HL and metal complexes were tested against a strain of Gram +ve bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), Gram -ve bacteria (Escherichia coli), and fungi (Candida albicans). The tested compounds exhibited high antibacterial activities. PMID:21996717

  14. [Pharmacological effects of nalfurafine hydrochloride, a kappa-opioid receptor agonist].

    PubMed

    Nakao, Kaoru; Hasebe, Ko; Yoshikawa, Satoru; Ikeda, Ken; Hirakata, Mikito; Miyamoto, Yohei; Mochizuki, Hidenori

    2010-11-01

    Nalfurafine hydrochloride, a kappa-opioid receptor agonist, was approved in January 2009 and released to the market on March 2009 for the indication of "Improvement of pruritus in hemodialysis patients (only for cases resistant to conventional treatments)" in Japan (Brand Name: REMITCH CAPSULES 2.5 microg, Marketing Authorization Holder: Toray Industries, Inc., Distributed by Torii Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Co-developed by Japan Tobacco Inc.). In addition to antipruritic effect, nalfurafine hydrochloride showed ameliorating effects on pain, neuropathic pain, drug dependence, schizophrenia and dyskinesia in non-clinical studies. Therefore, nalfurafine hydrochloride may become a useful therapeutic agent for their diseases. PMID:21226314

  15. Anaphylactic shock due to intravesical administration of pirarubicin hydrochloride for the fifth time.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Koji; Fukuoka, Naokazu; Tanabe, Kumiko; Takenaka, Motoyasu; Iida, Hiroki

    2016-02-01

    We report the first case of anaphylaxis induced by intravesical administration of pirarubicin hydrochloride during spinal anesthesia. The patient was a 64-year-old woman being followed up for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Anaphylaxis occurred the fifth time pirarubicin hydrochloride was administered intravesically. Pirarubicin hydrochloride, an anthracycline antitumor antibiotic that is widely used for intravesical instillation chemotherapy, is administered at the end of surgery. Because this is about the time that the patient is leaving the operating room, attention to patient monitoring tends to be divided. Because anaphylaxis may occur at this time, staff should remain vigilant of the risk of anaphylaxis. PMID:26796606

  16. Pyridine-Hydrazones as N,N'-Ligands in Asymmetric Catalysis: Pd(II)-Catalyzed Addition of Boronic Acids to Cyclic Sulfonylketimines.

    PubMed

    lvarez-Casao, Yolanda; Monge, David; lvarez, Eleuterio; Fernndez, Rosario; Lassaletta, Jos M

    2015-10-16

    The design, synthesis, and coordination features of a novel class of chiral pyridine-hydrazone ligands are described. As a first application, L/Pd(TFA)2 complexes served as catalysts in the 1,2-addition of arylboronic acids to saccharin-derived cyclic ketimines, affording products in high yields and enantioselectivities. The method was also applied to more challenging 3,4-disubstituted 1,2,5-thiadiazole 1,1-dioxides, affording again high yields and enantioselectivities along with high regioselectivities for unsymmetrically substituted derivatives. PMID:26425892

  17. Formulation of a stable parenteral product; Clonidine Hydrochloride Injection.

    PubMed

    Kostecka, D; Duncan, M R; Wagenknecht, D

    1998-01-01

    Clonidine Hydrochloride Injection (Duraclon) is a clear, colorless, preservative-free, pyrogen free, aqueous solution of clonidine hydrochloride. The indication for this product is for use as an adjunct in pain management, administered epidurally, when opiates are insufficient. The drug formulation was evaluated under both normal and stress conditions in the preformulation/formulation studies. The list of studies conducted includes a light sensitivity study, an oxygen sensitivity study, a pH/stability study, a stopper compatibility evaluation, a freeze-thaw study, and a stability study. Samples from the light, oxygen, pH/stability, and stability studies were evaluated for color, visual clarity, pH, potency, and chromatographic purity. Samples from the freeze-thaw study were evaluated for all of the above except chromatographic purity. The results for these studies demonstrate the stability of the product as formulated. The pH of this unbuffered product was consistently within the acceptance criteria. The product remained clear and colorless for the duration of each study. The values obtained for the potency and chromatographic purity assays showed no evidence of degradation. The reasons for the lack of degradation can be found in the molecular structure of the drug substance and the formulation of the drug product. Since the molecular structure is that of a Schiff base, it is theoretically possible, although difficult, to cleave the molecule. A catalyst would be required, and none of the possible catalysts are present in the formulation. The molecule could also be cleaved upon exposure to light, and the evidence indicates that the molecule does interact with light. This interaction is not to the degree, however, that product stability is affected. The formulation contains only the active drug substance and sodium chloride in water for injection with a pH of approximately 6. Although the product is unbuffered, the influence of the stoppers and glass vials upon the formulation pH was minimal. In addition, the stopper compatibility of the product is enhanced by the absence of chelating agents, preservatives, acids, and bases. Since the dilute concentrations of both the active and excipient are well below their solubility limits, no solubility related issues would be expected upon freezing and subsequent thawing. Clonidine Hydrochloride Injection, as formulated, does not require protection from light, oxygen, or freezing. The product shows acceptable stability within the pH range, and the rubber closure is compatible with the product. Real time stability data combined with statistical projections support a 36-month expiration date. PMID:10050130

  18. Synthesis, antioxidant, anticancer and antiviral activities of novel quinoxaline hydrazone derivatives and their acyclic C-nucleosides.

    PubMed

    El-Tombary, Alaa A; El-Hawash, Soad A M

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation describes the synthesis of a new series of aldehydo-sugar-N-(3-phenylquinoxalin-2- yl)hydrazones 3a-d and their acyclic C-nucleoside analogs, 1-(4-phenyl-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-yl)alditols 7ad by using 2-hydrazino-3-phenylquinoxaline 1 as key intermediate. The synthesized compounds were screened for their antioxidant activities by 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation scavenging method. Compounds 3d and 7a, showed potent scavenging activities against ABTS(+) radicals and were found to be the most potent antioxidants described in this study. Out of the synthesized compounds, compounds 3d and 7a were selected by the National Cancer Institute for evaluation of their in vitro anticancer activity. Results revealed that compounds 3d and 7a exhibited non-selective broad spectrum activity against all cancer cell lines between 10(-6) to 10(-5) molar concentrations. Compound 3d showed the highest sensitivity against leukemia cell line HL-60 (TB) with GI50 of 5.15 µM, while compound 7a showed the highest sensitivity against ovarian cancer cell lines IGROV1 and OVCAR-4 with GI50 of 14.5 and 16.0 μM, respectively. In addition, compounds 3d and 7a showed TGI values of 72.2 and 96.3 µM, respectively against ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR-4. Furthermore, the target compounds were tested for antiviral activity against Herpes Simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) using plaque reduction infectivity assay. The results indicated that compounds 3a-d and 7a exhibited very weak antiviral activity in comparison to Aphidicolin as a positive control. PMID:24151878

  19. Torsionally Responsive C[subscript 3]-Symmetric Azo Dyes: Azo−Hydrazone Tautomerism, Conformational Switching, and Application for Chemical Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ho Yong; Song, Xinli; Park, Hyunsoo; Baik, Mu-Hyun; Lee, Dongwhan

    2010-12-07

    An efficient triple azo coupling reaction between anilines and phloroglucinol furnished a series of C{sub 3}-symmetric molecules 7-9 supporting multiple conjugation pathways that converge at the molecular core. A combination of {sup 1}H/{sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and density functional theory computational studies provided a coherent picture of the [n,{pi}]-conjugated molecular core, which is best described as the tris(hydrazone) [rather than tris(azo)] tautomer stabilized by resonance-assisted hydrogen bonding. For a homologous series of compounds, an increase in the torsional angles between the planar molecular core and the peripheral aryl groups results in a systematic blue shift in the low-energy electronic transitions (7, 523 nm; 8, 505 nm; 9, 445 nm in CHCl{sub 3}) that qualitatively correlates with the shrinkage of effective conjugation through structural distortion. Similar spectral shifts could also be induced by amine substrates that interact with the intramolecular hydrogen-bonding network to trigger bond-twisting motions. Specifically, a brief exposure of a thin film of 7 to vapor samples of butyl-, hexyl-, diethyl-, and diisopropylamine resulted in a rapid and reversible color change from pink to dark-orange. Under similar conditions, however, triethylamine did not elicit any detectable color change, despite the fact that it has a significantly higher vapor pressure than n-hexylamine. These findings implicate that the hydrogen-bonding donor ability is a key requirement for the binding-induced conformational switching, which allows for direct naked-eye detection of volatile amines under ambient conditions.

  20. Crystal structure of bis(pyridine betaine) hydrochloride monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao-Ming, Chen; Mak, Thomas C. W.

    1990-04-01

    Bis(pyridine betaine) hydrochloride monohydrate, 2C 5H 5NCH 2COOHClH 2O, crystallizes in space group Pnna (No. 52), with a=15.623(3), b=19.707(3), c=5.069(1) , and Z=4. The structure has been refined to RF=0.067 for 1207 observed (| F0|>6?| F0|) Mo K? data. The carboxylate groups of a pair of pyridine betaine molecules are bridged by a proton to form a centrosymmetric dimer featuring a very strong hydrogen bond of length 2.436(6) . The crystal structure comprises a packing of such [(C 5H 5NCH 2COO) 2H] + moieties and hydrogen-bonded (Cl -{dH 2O} ?) zigzag chains running parallel to the c axis.

  1. Double emulsion templated monodisperse phospholipid liposomes incorporating Doxorubicin hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai, Mingtan; Weitz, David

    2012-02-01

    We present a novel approach for fabricating monodisperse phospholipid liposomes incorporating water soluble anticancer drug Doxorubicin hydrochloride using controlled w/o/w double emulsions as templates. Glass-capillary microfluidics is used to generate monodisperse w/o/w double emulsion templates and double emulsion droplet size is from 20 to 100 um according to different flow rates. We show that the high uniformity in size and shape of the templates are maintained in the final phospholipid liposomes after a solvent removal step by Nikon eclipse microscopy. The lipid bilayers encapsulating anticancer drug inside is retained after the emulsion drops are converted to vesicles. The liposomes vesicles are promising water soluble anticancer drug delivery vehicles.

  2. Glucosamine hydrochloride for the treatment of osteoarthritis symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Beth Anne; Stephens, Mary M

    2007-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is the most common arthritis in the world. It affects millions of people with age being the greatest risk factor for developing the disease. The burden of disease will worsen with the aging of the worlds population. The disease causes pain and functional disability. The direct costs of osteoarthritis include hospital and physician visits, medications, and assistive services. The indirect costs include work absences and lost wages. Many studies have sought to find a therapy to relieve pain and reduce disability. Glucosamine hydrochloride (HCl) is one of these therapies. There are limited studies of glucosamine HCl in humans. Although some subjects do report statistically significant improvement in pain and function from products combining glucosamine HCl and other agents, glucosamine HCl by itself appears to offer little benefit to those suffering from osteoarthritis. PMID:18225460

  3. Determination of impurities in medical products containing metformin hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    K?aczkow, Gabriela; Anuszewska, Elzbieta L

    2010-01-01

    The object of this study was to present a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method allowing to identify and quantify the impurities in medical products in which the only active substance is metformin hydrochloride. Metformin (dimethylbiguanide) is a biguanide derivative active after oral administration. It reduces the basic and postprandial blood glucose levels in patients with type II diabetes (insulin-independent), with partially maintained insulin secretion. The separation of the impurities was performed using a PARTISPHER SCX column and a spectrophotometric detector (lambda = 218 nm). The mobile phase was 1.7% (w/v) ammonium dihydrogen phosphate water solution, with pH adjusted to 3.1 using 85% orthophosphoric acid. The proposed method is rapid, sensitive and selective, and it can be used to evaluate those medical products for which the impurity tests are not currently performed, as well as those for which only cyanoguanidine or cyanoguanidine and melamine assays are performed. PMID:21229873

  4. Molindone hydrochloride: a review of laboratory and clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Owen, R R; Cole, J O

    1989-08-01

    Molindone hydrochloride, a dihydroindolone neuroleptic, is structurally distinct from other classes of neuroleptics. Molindone exhibits many similarities to other neuroleptics, including dopamine receptor blockade, antipsychotic efficacy, and extrapyramidal side effects. Despite these similarities, molindone also has atypical properties and inhibits the enzyme monoamine oxidase in vitro and in vivo. Several studies have shown that molindone causes less dopamine receptor supersensitivity than other neuroleptics and thus may be less likely to cause tardive dyskinesia. It also appears to have a greater effect on mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine neurons than on those in the nigrostriatal dopamine system. Clinically, molindone has a tendency to cause weight loss and may have less effect on seizure threshold than conventional antipsychotic agents. The authors review the laboratory and clinical data on molindone and discuss the relevance of atypical research findings to the clinical characteristics of this antipsychotic agent. PMID:2671060

  5. Instability of the hydrochloride salts of cathinone derivatives in air.

    PubMed

    Tsujikawa, Kenji; Yamamuro, Tadashi; Kuwayama, Kenji; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko T; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    We observed the decomposition of the hydrochloride salt of ?-pyrrolidinoheptanophenone (?-PHPP-HCl), a newly distributed pyrrolidine-type cathinone derivative when 2.5ng of this substance was placed in glass test tubes and stored in a refrigerator for 3 days. To further investigate this phenomenon, we studied the (i) time course of the residual ratios of ?-PHPP-HCl when a small amount (10?g) of ?-PHPP-HCl was stored in glass vials in air at room temperature; (ii) identification of the decomposition products of ?-PHPP-HCl; (iii) effect of air on the decomposition process; (iv) effect of the added amounts of ?-PHPP-HCl on its decomposition; and (v) comparison of the stability between various cathinone derivatives and their decomposition products. The decomposition of ?-PHPP-HCl occurred in air and increased with time. Two possible decomposition products, ?-(2?-oxopyrrolidino)heptanophenone and ?-PHPP-N-oxide, were identified. These products were formed by oxygen in air because the yield significantly decreased by storing them in a vacuum desiccator. With the decrease in the amount of ?-PHPP-HCl, the residual ratios decreased and amount of the decomposition products increased. This indicates that the decomposition of ?-PHPP-HCl occurred on the upper surface of the samples. The hydrochloride salts of other cathinone derivatives were also unstable in air, and the residual ratios observed were different depending on the compounds. The pyrrolidine-type cathinone derivatives afforded two types of decomposition products, which were presumed to be 2?-oxo and N-oxide derivatives, similar to ?-PHPP-HCl. In contrast, secondary amine-type cathinone derivatives showed different decomposition patterns, possibly including the dealkylated derivative. These findings may be very useful for the future toxicological analysis of cathinone derivatives. PMID:25594691

  6. 21 CFR 520.1263a - Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate tablets and sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contains lincomycin hydrochloride equivalent to either 25 milligrams or 50 milligrams of lincomycin. (b... pound of body weight every 12 hours, or 7 mgs per pound of body weight every 8 hours. Treatment may...

  7. Effect of tetracycline hydrochloride treatment on the critical thermal maximum of common shiners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The transfer of fish from field to laboratory facilities or their propagation in closed or restricted systems frequently results in bacterial infection and ultimately large-scale mortality. In attemps to alleviate this problem, we have added tetracycline hydrochloride to the water prophylactically (pretreating tanks before wild fish were added) and therapeutically (treating tanks after bacterial outbreaks were detected.) In the present study, we examined the effect of tetracyline hydrochloride on the critical thermal maximum (CTM) of the common shiner (Notropis cornutus).

  8. Sustained transdermal release of diltiazem hydrochloride through electron beam irradiated different PVA hydrogel membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhunia, Tridib; Goswami, Luna; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar; Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit

    2011-08-01

    Extremely fast release of diltiazem hydrochloride (water soluble, anti anginal drug used to treat chest pain) together with its faster erosion has been the primary problem in conventional oral therapy. It has been addressed in this paper by encapsulating the drug in electron beam irradiated various poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel membranes and delivering it through transdermal route. Results show excellent control over the release of diltiazem hydrochloride through these membranes subject to their physico-mechanicals.

  9. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart Nnn... - Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... buffer. 3.350-mL burette for 1.0 N sodium hydroxide. 3.4Magnetic stirrer and stir bars. 3.5250-mL beaker... N sodium hydroxide solution. 4.2Hydroxylamine hydrochloride solution, 100 grams per liter, pH... hydrochloric acid, and 0.1 N sodium hydroxide. 5.5Add 50 mL of the hydroxylamine hydrochloride...

  10. Benzydamine hydrochloride in prevention and management of pain in oral mucositis associated with radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, J.B.; Stevenson-Moore, P.

    1986-08-01

    Benzydamine hydrochloride rinse reduced pain associated with radiation mucositis when it was used during the course of radiation therapy. Fewer patients using benzydamine rinse required systemic analgesics. All patients using benzydamine tolerated the rinse well and continued with regular rinsing throughout the course of radiation therapy. Benzydamine hydrochloride is currently undergoing clinical trials in the United States for application for approval from the Food and Drug Administration.

  11. Effects of colestipol hydrochloride on drug absorption in the rat II.

    PubMed

    Phillips, W A; Ratchford, J M; Schultz, J R

    1976-09-01

    The effects of colestipol hydrochloride, a hypocholesterolemic bile acid-binding anion-exchange polymer, on the GI absorption of drugs commonly used in humans were studied in the rat. Colestipol hydrochloride was given by gavage in single doses of 71.5 or 214.5 mg/kg, equivalent to 5 or 15 g, respectively, in a 70-kg human; controls received equivalent amounts of microcrystalline cellulose. Single oral doses of labeled drugs were given concurrently with colestipol hydrochloride or microcrystalline cellulose at the human therapeutic dose range on a milligrams per kilogram basis. Subsequent changes in serum drug levels were measured at several time periods, and absorption was evaluated as the total area under the time-concentration curve. Colestipol hydrochloride at either dose did not significantly alter the absorption of 6-14C-nicotinic acid, 7-3H-tetracycline, 35S-chlorpromazine, 12alpha-3H-digoxin, warfarin (alpha-14C-benzyl), or clofibrate (14C-carboxyl). In addition, the effects of 214.5 mg/kg of colestipol hydrochloride were compared with the same dose of cholestyramine with respect to the absorption of 3-14C-hydrochlorothiazide, 2-14C-phenobarbital, and 3H-digitoxin. Cholestyramine reduced absorption of hydrochlorothiazide by 42%, but colestipol hydrochloride had no significant effect. Neither resin altered phenobarbital or digitoxin absorption when compared with the the control, but a significant difference occurred between the two resins with digitoxin; areas under the time-concentration curve [in (dpm/0.1 ml serum) x hr] were: colestipol hydrochloride, 2001; cholestyramine, 16,300; and cellulose, 17, 067. These results indicate that colestipol hydrochloride and cholestyramine can differ in their effects on the absorption of certain drugs from the GI tract of the rat. PMID:966139

  12. Effects of olopatadine hydrochloride, a histamine h(1) receptor antagonist, on histamine-induced skin responses.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Takashi; Ishii, Norito; Hamada, Takahiro; Dainichi, Teruki; Karashima, Tadashi; Nakama, Takekuni; Yasumoto, Shinichiro

    2010-01-01

    Effects of olopatadine hydrochloride, a histamine H(1) receptor antagonist, on histamine-induced skin responses were evaluated in 10 healthy subjects in comparison with placebo, fexofenadine hydrochloride, and bepotastine besilate. Olopatadine significantly suppressed histamine-induced wheal, flare, and itch, starting 30 minutes after oral administration. Olopatadine was more effective than fexofenadine and bepotastine. None of the drugs studied impaired performance of word processing tasks. These results suggest that olopatadine can suppress skin symptoms caused by histamine soon after administration. PMID:20886023

  13. Discovery of Selective Small-Molecule Inhibitors for the ?-Catenin/T-Cell Factor Protein-Protein Interaction through the Optimization of the Acyl Hydrazone Moiety.

    PubMed

    Catrow, J Leon; Zhang, Yongqiang; Zhang, Min; Ji, Haitao

    2015-06-11

    Acyl hydrazone is an important functional group for the discovery of bioactive small molecules. This functional group is also recognized as a pan assay interference structure. In this study, a new small-molecule inhibitor for the ?-catenin/Tcf protein-protein interaction (PPI), ZINC02092166, was identified through AlphaScreen and FP assays. This compound contains an acyl hydrazone group and exhibits higher inhibitory activities in cell-based assays than biochemical assays. Inhibitor optimization resulted in chemically stable derivatives that disrupt the ?-catenin/Tcf PPI. The binding mode of new inhibitors was characterized by site-directed mutagenesis and structure-activity relationship studies. This series of inhibitors with a new scaffold exhibits dual selectivity for ?-catenin/Tcf over ?-catenin/cadherin and ?-catenin/APC PPIs. One derivative of this series suppresses canonical Wnt signaling, downregulates the expression of Wnt target genes, and inhibits the growth of cancer cells. This compound represents a solid starting point for the development of potent and selective ?-catenin/Tcf inhibitors. PMID:25985283

  14. Safety and efficacy of tramadol hydrochloride on treatment of premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Eassa, Bayoumy I; El-Shazly, Mohamed A

    2013-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common sexual disorder. It affects 20%30% of adult men; the aetiology of this condition has not yet been elucidated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy, safety, tolerability, undesirable effects and improved satisfaction with sexual intercourse with tramadol hydrochloride at different dosages for the treatment of PE. A total of 300 patients who presented with lifelong (primary) PE were included in this study. The study was performed for 28 weeks, in which placebo (starch tablet) was given for 4 weeks, and active ingredient (tramadol hydrochloride) was administered at different therapeutic dosages for 24 weeks. Patients were divided into three equal groups, each consisting of 100 patients. The first group (A) was given tramadol hydrochloride capsule 25mg. The second group (B) was given tramadol hydrochloride capsule 50mg. The third group (C) was given tramadol hydrochloride capsule 100mg. All of the 300 participants included completed the study voluntarily. The age of the patients varied from 25 to 50 years. After the treatment period, the recorded data were collected for each group and analysed. The results showed a highly significant increase in the mean intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) in all groups compared to baseline data (P<0.0001). We concluded that using tramadol hydrochloride at different doses on demand for the treatment of PE is effective, safe and tolerable, with minimal undesirable effects, and approval for this indication should be sought. PMID:23103596

  15. Stability-indicating HPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Montelukast and Fexofenadine Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Pankhaniya, Mona; Patel, Parula; Shah, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    A simple, specific, accurate, and stability-indicating reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of montelukast and fexofenadine hydrochloride, using a Lichrospher 100, RP-18e column and a mobile phase composed of methanol:0.1% o-phosphoric acid (90:10 v/v), pH 6.8. The retention times of montelukast and fexofenadine hydrochloride were found to be 10.16 and 12.03 min, respectively. Linearity was established for montelukast and fexofenadine hydrochloride in the range of 2-10 ?g/ml and 24-120 ?g/ml, respectively. The percentage recoveries of montelukast and fexofenadine hydrochloride were found to be in the range of 99.09 and 99.81%, respectively. Both the drugs were subjected to acid and base hydrolysis, oxidation, photolytic, and thermal degradation conditions. The degradation products of montelukast and fexofenadine hydrochloride were well resolved from the pure drug with significant differences in their retention time values. This method can be successfully employed for simultaneous quantitative analysis of montelukast and fexofenadine hydrochloride in bulk drugs and formulations. PMID:24082344

  16. RP-HPLC Estimation of Imipramine Hydrochloride and Diazepam in Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Srikantha, D.; Raju, R. R.

    2015-01-01

    A simple and rapid reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for simultaneous determination of imipramine hydrochloride and diazepam in pharmaceutical formulations. The elution was done in isocratic mode utilizing a mobile phase consisting of methanol:water:0.1M sodium acetate (30:50:20 v/v/v) on Chromosil C18 column with a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and with detection at 243 nm. The measured retention time was 3.33±0.02 min for imipramine hydrochloride and 4.64±0.02 min for diazepam. Linearity was measured in the range 25-150 μg/ml for imipramine hydrochloride (r2=0.999) and in the range 5-30 μg/ml for diazepam (r2=0.9994), respectively. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.03 and 0.1 μg/ml for imipramine hydrochloride and 0.02 and 0.07 μg/ml for diazepam. Satisfactory validation was also obtained from recovery (100.95-101.52% for imipramine hydrochloride and 99.47-100.33% for diazepam) studies, intraday and interday precision (<2%) and robustness results. The reported method was the first study of these drugs in combination and could be employed for routine quantitative determination of imipramine hydrochloride and diazepam in tablets. PMID:26180281

  17. Use of p-dimethylaminobenzalhyde as a colored reagent for determination of procaine hydrochloride by spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, L D; Liu, Y; Wang, H Y; Sun, Y; Ma, L; Tang, B

    2000-09-01

    Spectrophotometric determination of procaine hydrochloride is described. The procaine hydrochloride reacts with p-dimethylaminobenzalhyde in glacial acetic acid to form an Schiff base which is a yellow compound, and its maximum absorption wavelength is at 455nm, epsilon(455)=3.46x10(4). The absorbance for procaine hydrochloride from 0.2 to 15 mug ml(-1) obeys Beer's law. The linear regression equation of the calibration graph is C=5.866A-0.02, with a linear regression correlative coefficient is 0.9994 and relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.7%; the detection limit is 0.1 mug ml(-1); recovery is from 92.0 to 110.0%. Effects of reaction medium, temperature, gentamycin, beneylpenicillin, kanamycin, streptomycin, foreign ions, and stand for time on the determination of procaine hydrochloride have been examined. The results obtained by this method agreed with those by the official method (dead-stop titration). This method is rapid and simple, and can be used for the determination of procaine hydrochloride in injection solution of procaine hydrochloride. PMID:18968059

  18. Stability-indicating HPTLC determination of ambroxol hydrochloride in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage form.

    PubMed

    Jain, P S

    2010-01-01

    A simple, selective, precise, and stability-indicating high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the analysis of ambroxol hydrochloride both as a bulk drug and in formulations was developed and validated. The method employed HPTLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60F-254 as the stationary phase. The solvent system consisted of methanol-triethylamine (4:6 v/v). The system was found to give a compact spot for ambroxol hydrochloride (R(f) value of 0.53 +/- 0.02). Densitometric analysis of ambroxol hydrochloride was carried out in the absorbance mode at 254 nm. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r(2) = 0.9966 +/- 0.0013 with respect to peak area in the concentration range 100-1000 ng/spot. The mean value +/- standard deviation of slope and intercept were 164.85 +/- 0.72 and 1168.3 +/- 8.26 with respect to peak area. The method was validated for precision, recovery, and robustness. The limits of detection and quantitation were 10 and 30 ng/spot, respectively. Ambroxol hydrochloride was subjected to oxidation and thermal degradation. The drug undergoes degradation under oxidation and heat conditions. This indicates that the drug is susceptible to oxidation and heat. Statistical analysis proves that the method is repeatable, selective, and accurate for the estimation of said drug. Stability indicating of new chemical entities is an important part for the drug development of ambroxol hydrochloride and for its estimation in plasma and other biological fluids; the novel Statistical analysis proves that the method is repeatable and selective for the analysis of ambroxol hydrochloride as bulk drug and in pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed developed HPTLC method can be applied for identification and quantitative determination of ambroxol hydrochloride in bulk drug and dosage forms. This work is to determine the purity of the drug available from the various sources by detecting the related impurities. PMID:20056035

  19. Human serum paraoxonase-1 (hPON1): in vitro inhibition effects of moxifloxacin hydrochloride, levofloxacin hemihidrate, cefepime hydrochloride, cefotaxime sodium and ceftizoxime sodium.

    PubMed

    Türkeş, Cüneyt; Söyüt, Hakan; Beydemir, Şükrü

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of antibacterial drugs (moxifloxacin hydrochloride, levofloxacin hemihidrate, cefepime hydrochloride, cefotaxime sodium and ceftizoxime sodium) on human serum paraoxonase-1 (hPON1) enzyme activity from human serum in vitro conditions. For this purpose, hPON1 enzyme was purified from human serum using simple chromatographic methods. The antibacterial drugs exhibited inhibitory effects on hPON1 at low concentrations. Ki constants were calculated to be 2.641 ± 0.040 mM, 5.525 ± 0.817 mM, 35.092 ± 1.093 mM, 252.762 ± 5.749 mM and 499.244 ± 10.149 mM, respectively. The inhibition mechanism of moxifloxacin hydrochloride was competitive, whereas levofloxacin hemihidrate, cefepime hydrochloride, cefotaxime sodium and ceftizoxime sodium were noncompetitive inhibitors. PMID:25519764

  20. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Dexmethylphenidate Hydrochloride and D,l-Threo-Methylphenidate Hydrochloride in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigal, Sharon; Swanson, James M.; Feifel, David; Sangal, R. Bart; Elia, Josephine; Casat, Charles D.; Zeldis, Jerome B.; Conners, C. Keith

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride (d-MPH, Focalin[TM]) for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to test an a priori hypothesis that d-MPH would have a longer duration of action than d,l-threo-methylphenidate (d,l-MPH). Method: This was a randomized, double-blind study…

  1. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Dexmethylphenidate Hydrochloride and D,l-Threo-Methylphenidate Hydrochloride in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigal, Sharon; Swanson, James M.; Feifel, David; Sangal, R. Bart; Elia, Josephine; Casat, Charles D.; Zeldis, Jerome B.; Conners, C. Keith

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride (d-MPH, Focalin[TM]) for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to test an a priori hypothesis that d-MPH would have a longer duration of action than d,l-threo-methylphenidate (d,l-MPH). Method: This was a randomized, double-blind study

  2. Stability indicating methods for assay of mequitazine in presence of its degradate.

    PubMed

    El-Ragehy, N A; Badawey, A M; El Khateeb, S Z

    2002-06-20

    Six procedures have been suggested for the determination of the antihistaminic agent, mequitazine, in the presence of its degradate. Mequitazine, having a phenothiazine group, undergoes peroxide oxidation and the corresponding sulphone is produced. Its identity was confirmed by IR and MS. The first procedure is based on determination of mequitazine by HPLC with UV detection at 256 nm. The mobile phase used is acetonitrile, ortho phosphoric acid (50:50) using caffeine as an internal standard. Linearity range is 1.00-9.00 microg/ml. The second determination is a densitometric procedure based on the determination of mequitazine in the presence of its degradate at 256 nm using the mobile phase, chloroform:methanol:ammonia (50:18:3). Linearity range is 1.25-7.50 microg per spot. The third procedure is spectrophotometric, where a mixture of mequitazine and its degradate are resolved by first derivative ratio spectra. Linear calibration graphs of first derivative values at wavelengths 210.2, 247 and 259.8 nm are obtained. On carrying out measurements at the three mentioned wavelengths, the linearity range is found to be 1.00-10.00 microg/ml. The fourth procedure is based on first derivative spectrophotometry, where D(1) measurements are carried out at 290 nm. Linearity range is 1.00-10.00 microg/ml. The fifth procedure is based on the reaction of mequitazine with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) in the presence of ferric chloride. A stable violet colored oxidative coupling product is formed, which is measured spectrophotometrically at 685 nm. The optimum experimental parameters for the reaction have been studied and assigned. Linearity range is 1.00-16.00 microg/ml. The sixth procedure is based on the reaction of mequitazine in the presence of its degradate with 2,6-dichloroquinone-4-chloroimide (Gibbs reagent) in aqueous methanolic medium. The reddish-brown colored condensation product is measured at 405 nm. The optimum experimental conditions for the reaction have been studied. Linearity range is 50.00-600.00 microg/ml. The validity of the described procedures was assessed by applying the standard addition technique. Statistical analysis of the results has been carried out revealing high accuracy and good precision. The suggested procedures could be used for the determination of mequitazine, both in pure and dosage forms, as well as in the presence of its degradate. PMID:12062671

  3. Structure and vibrational spectra of pyridine betaine hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szafran, Miros?aw; Koput, Jacek; Baran, Jan; G?owiak, Tadeusz

    1997-12-01

    The crystal structure of pyridine betaine hydrochloride (PBETHCl) was determined by X-ray diffraction to be monoclinic, space group {P2 1}/{c} with a = 8.533(2) , b = 9.548(2) , c = 10.781(2) , ? = 107.228(3) and Z = 4. Betaine is protonated and the carboxyl group forms a hydrogen bond with the chloride ion: OCl - distance is 2.928(3) . The interaction of pyridine betaine (PBET) with HCl was examined by ab initio self-consistent field (SCF), second-order Mller-Plesset (MP2) and density functional theory (DFT) methods using the 6-31G(d,p) basis set. Two minima are located in the potential surface at the SCF level (PBET?H +Cl - and PBETH?Cl, with the latter being 1.2 kcal mol -1 lower in energy) and only one minimum (PBETH?Cl) at the MP2 and DFT levels. The molecular parameters of PBET?H +Cl -, computed by the SCF method, reproduce the corresponding experimental data. The computed vibrational frequencies of PBET?H +Cl - resemble correctly the experimental vibrational spectrum in the solid state. The root-mean-square (r.m.s.) deviations between the experimental and calculated SCF frequencies are 65 cm -1 for all bands and 15 cm -1 without the ?Cl?H band. All measured IR bands were interpreted in terms of the calculated vibrational models.

  4. Calculation of the vibrational spectra of betaine hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szafran, Miroslaw; Koput, Jacek

    1997-02-01

    The molecular geometries of betaine hydrochloride, BETHCl, and free protonated betaine, BETH +, were calculated with the 6-31G(d,p) basis set at the SCF, MP2 and DFT levels of theory. At the SCF level, the minimum energy corresponds to the ionic pair, B +Htctdot;A -, however, the equilibrium Otctdot;Cl distance is 0.14 shorter than the X-ray value. Inclusion of the correlation effects, both at the MP2 and DFT levels, predicts a minimum energy for the molecular complex, Btctdot;H-A, with the equilibrium Otctdot;Cl distance close to the experimental value. The frequencies and intensities of the vibrational bands of BETHCl, BETDCl and BETH + were calculated at the SCF and DFT levels and compared with the solid IR spectra. All measured IR bands were interpreted in term of the calculated vibrational modes. The rms deviations between the experimental and calculated SCF frequencies were 21 and 29 cm -1 for BETHCl and BETDCl, respectively. The computed band intensities agree qualitatively with the experimental data. The coupling of the CO stretching and OH bending modes are discussed. The summation bands are probably enhanced in intensity by Fermi resonance with the fundamentals responsible for the main ?(OH) (?(OD) absorption region.

  5. Cinchocaine hydrochloride determination by atomic absorption spectrometry and spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghani, Nour T; Youssef, Ahmed F A; Awady, Mohamed A

    2005-05-01

    Two sensitive spectrophotometric and atomic absorption spectrometric procedures have been developed for determination of cinchocaine hydrochloride (Cin.Cl) in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulation. The spectrophotometric method was based on formation of an insoluble colored ion-associate between the cited drug and tetrathiocyanatocobaltate (CoTC) or hexathiocyanatochromate (CrTC) which dissolved and extracted in an organic solvent. The optimal experimental conditions for quantitative extraction such as pH, concentration of the reagents and solvent were studied. Toluene and iso-butyl alcohol proved to be the most suitable solvents for quantitative extraction of Cin-CoTC and Cin-CrTC ion-associates with maximum absorbance at 620 and 555 nm, respectively. The optimum concentration ranges, molar absorptivities, Ringbom ranges and Sandell sensitivities were also evaluated. The atomic absorption spectrometric method is based on measuring of the excess cobalt or chromium in the aqueous solution, after precipitation of the drug, at 240.7 and 357.9 nm, respectively. Linear application ranges, characteristic masses and detection limits were 57.99-361.9, 50.40 and 4.22 microg ml(-1) of Cin.Cl, in case of CoTC, while 37.99-379.9, 18.94 and 0.81 microg ml(-1) in case of CrTC. PMID:15910814

  6. Properties of olopatadine hydrochloride, a new antiallergic/antihistaminic drug.

    PubMed

    Ohmori, Kenji; Hasegawa, Kazuhide; Tamura, Tadafumi; Miyake, Kiyomi; Matsubara, Masahiro; Masaki, Shigehiro; Karasawa, Akira; Urayama, Naoko; Horikoshi, Kaori; Kajita, Jiro; Hasegawa, Masanori; Taniguchi, Koji; Komada, Toshio; Kawamoto, Yuji

    2004-01-01

    Olopatadine hydrochloride (CAS 140462-76-6, KW-4679, AL-4943A; hereinafter referred to as olopatadine) is a novel antiallergic drug that is a selective histamine H1 receptor antagonist possessing inhibitory effects on the release of inflammatory lipid mediators such as leukotriene and thromboxane from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and eosinophils. Olopatadine also inhibits the tachykininergic contractions in guinea pig bronchi by prejunctional inhibition of peripheral sensory nerves. Oral administration of olopatadine at doses of 0.03 mg/kg or higher reduces the symptoms of experimental allergic cutaneous responses and rhinoconjunctivitis in sensitized animals. Preclinical and clinical evaluations have demonstrated that olopatadine is a safe drug. After oral administration to healthy volunteers, olopatadine was rapidly and extensively absorbed. Unlike most other antiallergic drugs which are eliminated via hepatic metabolism, olopatadine is mainly excreted into urine. Olopatadine did not affect cytochrome P450 activities in human liver microsomes and consequently drug-drug metabolic interactions are unlikely. In double-masked clinical trials, olopatadine was shown to be effective at alleviating symptoms of allergic diseases. The drug (Allelock) was approved in Japan for the treatment of allergic rhinitis, chronic urticaria, eczema dermatitis, prurigo, cutaneous pruritus, psoriasis vulgaris and erythema exsudativum multiforme in December, 2000. An ophthalmic solution of olopatadine is also useful for the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis: this formulation (Patanol) was approved in the USA and the European Union for the treatment of seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis in 1996 and 2002, respectively. PMID:15646365

  7. Conformation and interactions of dopamine hydrochloride in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Callear, Samantha K.; Imberti, Silvia; Johnston, Andrew; McLain, Sylvia E.

    2015-01-07

    The aqueous solution of dopamine hydrochloride has been investigated using neutron and X-ray total scattering data together with Monte-Carlo based modelling using Empirical Potential Structure Refinement. The conformation of the protonated dopamine molecule is presented and the results compared to the conformations found in crystal structures, dopamine-complexed protein crystal structures and predicted from theoretical calculations and pharmacophoric models. It is found that protonated dopamine adopts a range of conformations in solution, highlighting the low rotational energy barrier between different conformations, with the preferred conformation being trans-perpendicular. The interactions between each of the species present (protonated dopamine molecules, water molecules, and chloride anions) have been determined and are discussed with reference to interactions observed in similar systems both in the liquid and crystalline state, and predicted from theoretical calculations. The expected strong hydrogen bonds between the strong hydrogen bond donors and acceptors are observed, together with evidence of weaker CH hydrogen bonds and π interactions also playing a significant role in determining the arrangement of adjacent molecules.

  8. Carcinogenicity studies with medroxalol hydrochloride in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Sells, D M; Gibson, J P

    1987-01-01

    The carcinogenic potential of medroxalol hydrochloride, an antihypertensive agent with beta 1 adrenergic cardiac blocking properties, and beta 2 and some alpha 1 vasodilating activity, was studied by dietary administration. Long Evans rats were treated for 2 years and CD-1 mice for 18 months at dosages of 0, 50, 250 or 500 mg/kg/day. Medroxalol did not produce any evidence of a tumorigenic effect in the Long Evans rat, but graying of pigmented hair was noted at 250 and 500 mg/kg/day and is probably related to melanin binding of the drug. In the CD-1 mouse, there was a dose related increase in uterine leiomyomas that was statistically significant (p less than 0.05) at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg/day. The incidence at 50 mg/kg/day was not different from control. Endometrial stromal sarcomas were observed only in treated mice, and pairwise comparison with controls indicated a statistically significant difference (p less than 0.05) only at the lowest dosage (50 mg/kg/day). The latter finding may not be related to treatment since there was no dose response and the incidence in the two higher dose groups was neither statistically significant nor higher than occasionally seen in other control groups. PMID:3432947

  9. Conformation and interactions of dopamine hydrochloride in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callear, Samantha K.; Johnston, Andrew; McLain, Sylvia E.; Imberti, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The aqueous solution of dopamine hydrochloride has been investigated using neutron and X-ray total scattering data together with Monte-Carlo based modelling using Empirical Potential Structure Refinement. The conformation of the protonated dopamine molecule is presented and the results compared to the conformations found in crystal structures, dopamine-complexed protein crystal structures and predicted from theoretical calculations and pharmacophoric models. It is found that protonated dopamine adopts a range of conformations in solution, highlighting the low rotational energy barrier between different conformations, with the preferred conformation being trans-perpendicular. The interactions between each of the species present (protonated dopamine molecules, water molecules, and chloride anions) have been determined and are discussed with reference to interactions observed in similar systems both in the liquid and crystalline state, and predicted from theoretical calculations. The expected strong hydrogen bonds between the strong hydrogen bond donors and acceptors are observed, together with evidence of weaker CH hydrogen bonds and π interactions also playing a significant role in determining the arrangement of adjacent molecules.

  10. Hydrocolloid carriers with filler inclusion for diltiazem hydrochloride release.

    PubMed

    Gal, A; Nussinovitch, A

    2007-01-01

    Hydrocolloid beads based on agarose, alginate (both 3%, w/w), or gellan (2%, w/w) were produced to study their potential as drug carriers. The beads included various fillers: talc, kaolin, calcium carbonate, potato, or corn starch (10%, w/w). After gelation, the carriers were subjected to either freeze- or vacuum-drying. The dried carriers were spheroids. The diameters of freeze- and vacuum-dried carriers ranged from 2.4 to 4.1 mm and 1.5 to 2.8 mm, respectively. The porosity values of the freeze-dried carriers were significantly higher than those of their vacuum-dried counterparts. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that all dried carriers included internal voids that were partially occupied by the filler particles. Upon their introduction into simulated gastric fluid (3 h), followed by 6 h in intestinal fluid, all carriers were stable and underwent swelling. Release profiles of diltiazem hydrochloride from different carriers were obtained during immersion in dissolution medium. Filler inclusion (but not the type of filler) contributed to the stability of the carriers and prolonged the time of drug release (6.5-8.5 h) relative to the faster drug release from carriers that contained no filler (3.5 h). In summary, alginate, agar, and gellan beads with filler inclusion may be useful for slow drug release. PMID:17031844

  11. Development and evaluation of microporous osmotic tablets of diltiazem hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Bathool, Afifa; Gowda, D. V.; Khan, Mohammed S.; Ahmed, Ayaz; Vasudha, S. L.; Rohitash, K.

    2012-01-01

    Microporous osmotic tablet of diltiazem hydrochloride was developed for colon targeting. These prepared microporous osmotic pump tablet did not require laser drilling to deliver the drug to the specific site of action. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. The prepared tablets were coated with microporous semipermeable membrane and enteric polymer using conventional pan coating process. The incorporation of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), a leachable pore-forming agent, could form in situ delivery pores while coming in contact with gastrointestinal medium. The effect of formulation variables was studied by changing the amounts of sodium alginate and NaCMC in the tablet core, osmogen, and that of pore-forming agent (SLS) used in the semipermeable coating. As the amount of hydrophilic polymers increased, drug release rate prolonged. It was found that drug release was increased as the concentration of osmogen and pore-former was increased. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Differential scanning calorimetry results showed that there was no interaction between drug and polymers. Scanning electron microscopic studies showed the formation of pores after predetermined time of coming in contact with dissolution medium. The formation of pores was dependent on the amount of pore former used in the semipermeable membrane. in vitro results showed acid-resistant, timed release at an almost zero order up to 24 hours. The developed osmotic tablets could be effectively used for prolonged delivery of Diltiazem HCl. PMID:22837961

  12. Properties of melarsamine hydrochloride (Cymelarsan) in aqueous solution.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, B J; Fairlamb, A H

    1994-01-01

    The antitrypanosomal drug melarsamine hydrochloride (MelCy) (trade name, Cymelarsan) is a melamino-phenylarsine made by conjugation of one equivalent of melarsen oxide and two equivalents of cysteamine. Immediately after it was dissolved in water, the compound was found to exist as an equilibrium mixture containing MelCy (43%), MelCy which had lost one cysteamine moiety (MelCy -1; 24%), melarsen oxide (33%), and free cysteamine. Small amounts (< 1%) of the oxidation products derived from the last two components were also formed (cystamine and sodium melarsen). On incubation at room temperature, the MelCy content decreased steadily, with an associated increase in the melarsen oxide and sodium melarsen contents. After 5 days in solution at room temperature, 27% of the arsenical agent was MelCy, 14% was MelCy -1, 42% was melarsen oxide, and 17% was sodium melarsen. Since H2O2 production was detectable in MelCy or cysteamine solutions and the addition of small amounts of exogenous H2O2 readily converted the trivalent melarsen oxide to the pentavalent sodium melarsen, it is hypothesized that the nonenzymatic conversion of cysteamine to cystamine produced H2O2, which then oxidized melarsen oxide to sodium melarsen. Similar time course experiments showed that melarsonyl potassium and melarsoprol were more stable in solution. PMID:8092828

  13. Canine periodontal disease control using a clindamycin hydrochloride gel.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Thomas P; Mondal, Pravakar; Pal, Dhananjay; MacGee, Scott; Stromberg, Arnold J; Alur, Hemant

    2011-01-01

    Stabilizing or reducing periodontal pocket depth can have a positive influence on the retention of teeth in dogs. A topical 2% clindamycin hydrochloride gel (CHgel) was evaluated for the treatment of periodontal disease in dogs. The CHgel formulation provides for the sustained erosion of the matrix, but also flows into the periodontal pocket as a viscous liquid, and then rapidly forms a gel that has mucoadhesive properties and also may function as a physical barrier to the introduction of bacteria. A professional teeth cleaning procedure including scaling and root planing was done in dogs with one group receiving CHgel following treatment. Periodontal health was determined before and after the procedure including measurement of periodontal pocket depth, gingival index, gingival bleeding sites, and number of suppurating sites. There was a statistically significant decrease in periodontal pocket depth (19%), gingival index (16%), and the number of bleeding sites (64%) at 90-days in dogs receiving CHgel. Additionally, the number of suppurating sites was lower (93%) at 90-days for the group receiving CHgel. The addition of CHgel effectively controlled the bacterial burden (e.g, Fusobacterium nucleatum) at both day 14 and 90. Gingival cells in culture were shown to rapidly incorporate clindamycin and attain saturation in approximately 20-minutes. In summary, a professional teeth cleaning procedure including root planning and the addition of CHgel improves the gingival index and reduces periodontal pocket depth. PMID:22416621

  14. Flow injection chemiluminescence determination of naphazoline hydrochloride in pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Iranifam, Mortaza; Sorouraddin, Mohammad H

    2014-02-01

    A simple and sensitive flow injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL) method was developed for the determination of naphazoline hydrochloride (NPZ). The method is based on the enhancing effect of NPZ on the weak CL signal from the reaction of KIO4 with H2 O2 . Experimental parameters that affected the CL signal, including the pH of the KIO4 solution, concentrations of KIO4 , H2 O2 and disodium-EDTA and flow rate were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the increment of CL intensity was linearly proportional to the concentration of NPZ in the range 5.0 10(-6) to 70 10(-6) mol/L. The detection limit was 1.0 10(-6) mol/L and the relative standard deviation for 50 10(-6) mol/L NPZ solution was 2.8% (n = 11). In addition, a high throughput of 120 samples/h was achieved. The utility of this method was demonstrated by determining NPZ in pharmaceuticals. PMID:23463582

  15. Release Kinetics of Papaverine Hydrochloride from Tablets with Different Excipients

    PubMed Central

    Kasperek, Regina; Polski, Andrzej; Zimmer, Łukasz; Poleszak, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The influence of excipients on the disintegration times of tablets and the release of papaverine hydrochloride (PAP) from tablets were studied. Ten different formulations of tablets with PAP were prepared by direct powder compression. Different binders, disintegrants, fillers, and lubricants were used as excipients. The release of PAP was carried out in the paddle apparatus using 0.1 N HCl as a dissolution medium. The results of the disintegration times of tablets showed that six formulations can be classified as fast dissolving tablets (FDT). FDT formulations contained Avicel PH 101, Avicel PH 102, mannitol, (3-lactose, PVP K 10, gelatinized starch (CPharmGel), Prosolv Easy Tab, Prosolv SMCC 90, magnesium stearate, and the addition of disintegrants such as AcDiSol and Kollidon CL. Drug release kinetics were estimated by the zero- and first-order, Higuchi release rate, and Korsmeyer-Peppas models. Two formulations of the tablets containing PVP (K10) (10%), CPharmGel (10% and 25%), and Prosolv Easy Tab (44% and 60%) without the addition of a disintegrant were well-fitted to the kinetics models such as the Higuchi and zero-order, which are suitable for controlled- or sustained-release. PMID:25853076

  16. Bioavailability of oral and intramuscular molindone hydrochloride in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Zetin, M; Cramer, M; Garber, D; Plon, L; Paulshock, M; Hoffman, H E; Schary, W L

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the bioequivalence of intramuscular molindone hydrochloride and marketed oral molindone. Ten schizophrenic patients (mean age, 30.2 years) received oral molindone in single daily doses of 100 or 150 mg for four to eight days followed by intramuscular molindone in single daily doses of 50 or 75 mg for four days. On the last day each molindone formulation was given, plasma samples were collected at baseline and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 hours after administration. The pharmacokinetic measures of area under the curve and maximum concentration show that intramuscular molindone is 1.49 to 1.67 times more bioavailable than oral molindone. This finding indicates that once a patient's acute psychotic episode has been stabilized with intramuscular molindone, therapy can continue without interruption by substituting 1.5 mg of oral molindone for every 1 mg of intramuscular molindone. The time to maximum concentration occurred significantly earlier (P = 0.05) with intramuscular molindone (0.6 hours) than with oral molindone (1.1 hours). Elimination half-life values were approximately two hours for both formulations. PMID:3986861

  17. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation on carcass cutability of calf-fed Holstein steers.

    PubMed

    Howard, S T; Woerner, D R; Vote, D J; Scanga, J A; Acheson, R J; Chapman, P L; Bryant, T C; Tatum, J D; Belk, K E

    2014-01-01

    Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) and zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on saleable yield of carcass sides from calf-fed Holstein steers were evaluated using steers implanted with a progesterone (100 mg) plus estradiol benzoate (10 mg) implant followed by a terminal trenbolone acetate (200 mg) plus estradiol (40 mg) implant. Steers were blocked by weight into pens (n = 32) randomly assigned to one of four treatments: control, RH fed at 300 mgsteer(-1)/d(-1) (RH 300) or RH fed at 400 mgsteer(-1)/d(-1) (RH 400) the final 31 d of finishing, and ZH fed at 60 to 90 mgsteer(-1)/d(-1) (7.56 g/ton on a 100% DM basis) for 21 d with a 5 d withdrawal before harvest. Eight to nine carcass sides were randomly selected from each pen; carcass sides with excessive hide pulls, fat pulls or bruises were avoided. Cutout data were collected within a commercial facility using plant personnel to fabricate sides at a rate of one every 3 to 4 min into items typically merchandised by the facility. All lean, fat and bone were weighed and summed back to total chilled side weight with a sensitivity of 2% to be included in the data set. Compared to controls, ?-agonists increased saleable yield of whole-muscle cuts by 0.61%, 0.86% and 1.95% for RH 300, RH 400 and ZH, respectively (P < 0.05). Percent fat was less in carcasses from the ZH treatment compared to controls (P < 0.05); however, this difference was not observed between RH treatments and controls (P > 0.05). Percent bone was less in the ZH treatment due to increased muscle (P < 0.05). The percent of chilled side weight comprised of trimmings was unchanged between treatments, but on a 100% lean basis, RH 400 and ZH increased trim yields (P < 0.05). Analysis of saleable yield by primal showed a fundamental shift in growth and development. Beta-agonists caused a shift in proportion of saleable yield within individual primals, with a greater portion produced from the hindquarter relative to the forequarter, specifically in those muscles of the round (P < 0.05). Beta-agonists increased saleable yield, but these effects were not constant between all major primals. The cutout value gained by packers as a result of ?-agonist use may be influenced more by reduced fatness and increased absolute weight if musculature is primarily increased in the lower priced cuts of the carcass. PMID:24243909

  18. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation on longissimus muscle shear force and sensory attributes of beef steers.

    PubMed

    Arp, T S; Howard, S T; Woerner, D R; Scanga, J A; McKenna, D R; Kolath, W H; Chapman, P L; Tatum, J D; Belk, K E

    2013-12-01

    Effect of ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) and zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on LM shear force and sensory attributes was determined using pens (n = 40) British Continental crossbred steers randomly allocated to one of the following treatments: control; RH fed at 200 (RH 200) or 300 mg steer(-1) d(-1) (RH 300), or 400 mg steer(-1) d(-1) (RH 400) top-dressed for the final 30 d of feeding; or ZH fed at 7.5 mg/kg, beginning 23 d before slaughter with a 3-d withdrawal. Two replicates (pens) per treatment were represented in four blocks. Eighteen carcasses per pen were randomly selected and one 5-cm LM sample was removed from both carcass sides to be used for shear force and sensory evaluation. Samples were aged for 14 d, frozen at -28.8 C, and cut into 2.5-cm steaks. All steaks were cooked to an internal temperature of 71.1 C before being evaluated for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), slice shear force (SSF), or being fed to trained sensory panelists. Increasing dose and potency of ?-agonist increased WBSF by 4 to 17% and SSF by 5 to 24% (P < 0.05). Steaks from steers fed ZH had higher WBSF and SSF values compared with all other treatments (P < 0.05), whereas steaks from controls and steers fed RH 200 were not different (P > 0.05). Probability of steaks failing to meet shear force standards to be certified tender (WBSF <4.4 kg, SSF < 20 kg) was increased from an initial probability of <0.06 in steaks from steers in the control treatment to 0.10 to 0.20 in steers fed RH 400 or ZH (P < 0.05). No difference was detected in panel ratings for overall tenderness of steaks from steers fed RH 200 compared with controls (P > 0.05). Steaks from steers fed RH 300 and RH 400 were comparable for all sensory attributes; however, both RH 300 and RH 400 were rated lower for overall tenderness than controls (P < 0.05). Panelists failed to detect differences in overall tenderness of steaks from steers fed RH 400 and ZH (P < 0.05). Panelists detected no difference in flavor profile or juiciness among treatments (P > 0.05). Results from this study indicated ?-agonists negatively affected beef tenderness and these effects may be more noticeable in steers supplemented with ZH and higher doses of RH. PMID:24166996

  19. Reagents for Astatination of Biomolecules. 5. Evaluation of hydrazone linkers in 211At- and 125I-labeled closo-decaborate(2-) conjugates of Fab? as a means of decreasing kidney retention

    PubMed Central

    Wilbur, D. Scott; Chyan, Ming-Kuan; Hamlin, Donald K.; Nguyen, Holly; Vessella, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of monoclonal antibody (MAb) fragments (e.g. Fab?, Fab or engineered fragments) as cancer-targeting reagents for therapy with the ?-particle emitting radionuclide astatine-211 (211At) has been hampered by low in vivo stability of the label and a propensity of these proteins localize to kidneys. Fortunately, our group has shown that the low stability of the 211At label, generally a meta- or para-[211At]astatobenzoyl conjugate, on MAb Fab? fragments can be dramatically improved by use of closo-decaborate(2-) conjugates. However, the higher stability of radiolabeled MAb Fab? conjugates appears to result in retention of the radioactivity in kidneys. This investigation was conducted to evaluate whether the retention of radioactivity in kidney might be decreased by the use of acid-cleavable hydrazone between the Fab? and the radiolabeled closo-decaborate(2-) moiety. Five conjugation reagents containing sulfhydryl-reactive maleimide groups, a hydrazone functionality and a closo-decaborate(2-) moiety were prepared. In four of the five conjugation reagents, a discrete polyethylene glycol (PEG) linker was used, and one substituent adjacent to the hydrazone was varied (phenyl, benzoate, anisole or methyl) to provide varying acid-sensitivity. In the initial studies, the five maleimido-closo-decaborate(2-) conjugation reagents were radioiodinated (125I or 131I), then conjugated with an anti-PSMA Fab? (107-1A4 Fab?). Biodistributions of the five radioiodinated Fab? conjugates were obtained in nude mice at 1, 4 and 24 h post injection (pi). In contrast to closo-decaborate(2-) conjugated to 107-1A4 Fab? through a non-cleavable linker, two conjugates containing either a benzoate or a methyl substituent on the hydrazone functionality displayed clearance rates from kidney, liver and spleen that were similar to those obtained with directly radioiodinated Fab? (i.e. no conjugate). The maleimido-closo-decaborate(2-) conjugation reagent containing a benzoate substituent on the hydrazone was chosen for study with 211At. That reagent was conjugated with 107-1A4 Fab?, then labeled (separately) with 125I and 211At. The radiolabeled Fab? conjugates were coinjected into nude mice bearing LNCaP human tumor xenografts, and biodistribution data was obtained at 1, 4 and 24 h pi. Tumor targeting was achieved with both 125I- and 211At-labeled Fab?, but the 211At-labeled Fab? reached a higher concentration (25.56 11.20 vs. 11.97 1.31 %ID/g). Surprisingly, while the 125I-labeled Fab? was cleared from kidney similar to earlier studies, the 211At-labeled Fab? was not (i.e. kidney conc. for 125I vs. 211At; 4h: 13.14 2.03 ID/g vs. 42.28 16.38 %D/g, 24h: 4.23 1.57 ID/g vs. 39.52 15.87 %ID/g). Since the Fab? conjugate is identical in both cases except for the radionuclide, it seems likely that the difference in tissue clearance seen is due to an effect that 211At has on either the hydrazone cleavage or on the retention of a metabolite. Results from other studies in our laboratory suggest that the latter case is most likely. The hydrazone linkers tested do not provide the tissue clearance sought for 211At, so additional hydrazones linkers will be evaluated. However, the results support the use of hydrazone linkers when Fab? conjugated with closo-decaborate(2-) reagents are radioiodinated. PMID:21513347

  20. Reagents for astatination of biomolecules. 5. Evaluation of hydrazone linkers in (211)At- and (125)I-labeled closo-decaborate(2-) conjugates of Fab' as a means of decreasing kidney retention.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, D Scott; Chyan, Ming-Kuan; Hamlin, Donald K; Nguyen, Holly; Vessella, Robert L

    2011-06-15

    Evaluation of monoclonal antibody (mAb) fragments (e.g., Fab', Fab, or engineered fragments) as cancer-targeting reagents for therapy with the ?-particle emitting radionuclide astatine-211 ((211)At) has been hampered by low in vivo stability of the label and a propensity of these proteins localize to kidneys. Fortunately, our group has shown that the low stability of the (211)At label, generally a meta- or para-[(211)At]astatobenzoyl conjugate, on mAb Fab' fragments can be dramatically improved by the use of closo-decaborate(2-) conjugates. However, the higher stability of radiolabeled mAb Fab' conjugates appears to result in retention of radioactivity in the kidneys. This investigation was conducted to evaluate whether the retention of radioactivity in kidney might be decreased by the use of an acid-cleavable hydrazone between the Fab' and the radiolabeled closo-decaborate(2-) moiety. Five conjugation reagents containing sulfhydryl-reactive maleimide groups, a hydrazone functionality, and a closo-decaborate(2-) moiety were prepared. In four of the five conjugation reagents, a discrete poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) linker was used, and one substituent adjacent to the hydrazone was varied (phenyl, benzoate, anisole, or methyl) to provide varying acid sensitivity. In the initial studies, the five maleimido-closo-decaborate(2-) conjugation reagents were radioiodinated ((125)I or (131)I), then conjugated with an anti-PSMA Fab' (107-1A4 Fab'). Biodistributions of the five radioiodinated Fab' conjugates were obtained in nude mice at 1, 4, and 24 h post injection (pi). In contrast to closo-decaborate(2-) conjugated to 107-1A4 Fab' through a noncleavable linker, two conjugates containing either a benzoate or a methyl substituent on the hydrazone functionality displayed clearance rates from kidney, liver, and spleen that were similar to those obtained with directly radioiodinated Fab' (i.e., no conjugate). The maleimido-closo-decaborate(2-) conjugation reagent containing a benzoate substituent on the hydrazone was chosen for study with (211)At. That reagent was conjugated with 107-1A4 Fab', then labeled (separately) with (125)I and (211)At. The radiolabeled Fab' conjugates were coinjected into nude mice bearing LNCaP human tumor xenografts, and biodistribution data were obtained at 1, 4, and 24 h pi. Tumor targeting was achieved with both (125)I- and (211)At-labeled Fab', but the (211)At-labeled Fab' reached a higher concentration (25.56 11.20 vs 11.97 1.31%ID/g). Surprisingly, while the (125)I-labeled Fab' was cleared from kidney similar to earlier studies, the (211)At-labeled Fab'was not (i.e., kidney conc. for (125)I vs (211)At; 4 h, 13.14 2.03 ID/g vs 42.28 16.38%D/g; 24 h, 4.23 1.57 ID/g vs 39.52 15.87%ID/g). Since the Fab' conjugate is identical in both cases except for the radionuclide, it seems likely that the difference in tissue clearance seen is due to an effect that (211)At has on either the hydrazone cleavage or on the retention of a metabolite. Results from other studies in our laboratory suggest that the latter case is most likely. The hydrazone linkers tested do not provide the tissue clearance sought for (211)At, so additional hydrazones linkers will be evaluated. However, the results support the use of hydrazone linkers when Fab' conjugated with closo-decaborate(2-) reagents are radioiodinated. PMID:21513347

  1. HPLC study on the stability of bendamustine hydrochloride immobilized onto polyphosphoesters.

    PubMed

    Pencheva, Ivanka; Bogomilova, Anita; Koseva, Neli; Obreshkova, Danka; Troev, Kolio

    2008-12-01

    Novel water soluble polymer complexes of bendamustine hydrochloride, a bifunctional alkylating agent with antimetabolic and cytotoxic activity, were developed using biodegradable polymer carriers-poly(oxyethylene H-phosphonate), poly(methyloxyethylene phosphate) and poly(hydroxyoxyethylene phosphate). Bendamustine hydrochloride was immobilized onto polyphosphoesters via covalent, ionic and hydrogen bonding. The structure of the complexes formed was elucidated by (1)H, (13)C, (31)P NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. The chemical stability of bendamustine hydrochloride in the novel complexes was studied by HPLC analysis based on a validated method with appointed analytical parameters such as specificity, repeatability, limit of quantitation, limit of detection and linearity. The results from the HPLC indicate that in neutral (pH 7) and alkaline (pH 9) media bendamustine hydrochloride in the polymer complexes is more stable than the pure bendamustine hydrochloride. The enhanced stability of the immobilized drug is explained with the drug interaction with the polymer carriers or their degradation products. PMID:18926656

  2. Design and development of polyethylene oxide based matrix tablets for verapamil hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Vidyadhara, S; Sasidhar, R L C; Nagaraju, R

    2013-03-01

    In the present investigation an attempt has been made to increase therapeutic efficacy, reduced frequency of administration and improved patient compliance by developing controlled release matrix tablets of verapamil hydrochloride. Verapamil hydrochloride was formulated as oral controlled release matrix tablets by using the polyethylene oxides (Polyox WSR 303). The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of polymer level and type of fillers namely lactose (soluble filler), swellable filler (starch 1500), microcrystalline cellulose and dibasic calcium phosphate (insoluble fillers) on the release rate and mechanism of release for verapamil hydrochloride from matrix tablets prepared by direct compression process. Higher polymeric content in the matrix decreased the release rate of drug. On the other hand, replacement of lactose with anhydrous dibasic calcium phosphate and microcrystalline cellulose has significantly retarded the release rate of verapamil hydrochloride. Biopharmaceutical evaluation of satisfactory formulations were also carried out on New Zealand rabbits and parameters such as maximum plasma concentration, time to reach peak plasma concentration, area under the plasma concentration time curve(0-t) and area under first moment curve(0-t) were determined. In vivo pharmacokinetic study proves that the verapamil hydrochloride from matrix tablets showed prolonged release and were be able to sustain the therapeutic effect up to 24 h. PMID:24019567

  3. A highly selective turn-on fluorescent probe for hypochlorous acid based on hypochlorous acid-induced oxidative intramolecular cyclization of boron dipyrromethene-hydrazone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Chieh; Venkatesan, Parthiban; Wu, Shu-Pao

    2015-07-01

    A BODIPY-based fluorescent probe, HBP, was developed for the detection of hypochlorous acid based on the specific hypochlorous acid-promoted oxidative intramolecular cyclization of heterocyclic hydrazone in response to the amount of HOCl. The reaction is accompanied by a 41-fold increase in the fluorescent quantum yield (from 0.004 to 0.164). The fluorescence intensity of the reaction between HOCl and HBP is linear in the HOCl concentration range of 1-8 ?M with a detection limit of 2.4 nM (S/N=3). Confocal fluorescence microscopy imaging using RAW264.7 cells showed that the new probe HBP could be used as an effective fluorescent probe for detecting HOCl in living cells. PMID:26043093

  4. Synthesis, biological evaluation, drug-likeness, and in silico screening of novel benzylidene-hydrazone analogues as small molecule anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohammad Sayed; Lee, Dong-Ung

    2016-02-01

    A series of fifteen benzylidene-hydrazone analogues (3a-o), including eight new compounds, were synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic activities in four human cancer cell lines and for their antioxidant activities using DPPH. Of the tested compounds 3e, which possesses two methoxy substituents in its benzylidene phenyl ring, was found to be potently cytotoxic to all cancer cell lines tested with IC50 values of 0.12 (lung), 0.024 (ovarian), 0.097 (melanoma), and 0.05?M (colon), and these IC50 values were comparable to those of the doxorubicin standard (IC50=0.021, 0.074, 0.001, and 0.872?M, respectively). DPPH assay showed compounds 3f, 3i, and 3g had IC50 values of 0.60, 0.99, and 1.30?M, respectively, which were comparable to that of ascorbic acid (IC50=0.87?M). Computational parameters such as, drug-likeness, ADME properties, toxicity effects, and drug scores were evaluated, and none of the fifteen compounds violated Lipinski's rule of five or Veber's rule, and thus they demonstrated good drug-likeness properties. In addition, all fifteen compounds had a higher drug score than the doxorubicin and BIBR1532. In silico screening was also conducted by docking of the active compounds on the active site of telomerase reverse transcriptase catalytic subunit, an important therapeutic target of anticancer agents, to determine the probable binding properties. The total binding energies of docked compounds are correlated well with cytotoxic potencies (pIC50) against lung, ovarian, melanoma, and colon cancer cell lines indicating that the benzylidene-hydrazones could use for the development of new anticancer agents as a telomerase inhibitor. PMID:26694484

  5. An efficient PEGylated liposomal nanocarrier containing cell-penetrating peptide and pH-sensitive hydrazone bond for enhancing tumor-targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuan; Sun, Dan; Wang, Gui-Ling; Yang, Hong-Ge; Xu, Hai-Feng; Chen, Jian-Hua; Xie, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) as small molecular transporters with abilities of cell penetrating, internalization, and endosomal escape have potential prospect in drug delivery systems. However, a bottleneck hampering their application is the poor specificity for cells. By utilizing the function of hydration shell of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and acid sensitivity of hydrazone bond, we constructed a kind of CPP-modified pH-sensitive PEGylated liposomes (CPPL) to improve the selectivity of these peptides for tumor targeting. In CPPL, CPP was directly attached to liposome surfaces via coupling with stearate (STR) to avoid the hindrance of PEG as a linker on the penetrating efficiency of CPP. A PEG derivative by conjugating PEG with STR via acid-degradable hydrazone bond (PEG2000-Hz-STR, PHS) was synthesized. High-performance liquid chromatography and flow cytometry demonstrated that PHS was stable at normal neutral conditions and PEG could be completely cleaved from liposome surface to expose CPP under acidic environments in tumor. An optimal CPP density on liposomes was screened to guaranty a maximum targeting efficiency on tumor cells as well as not being captured by normal cells that consequently lead to a long circulation in blood. In vitro and in vivo studies indicated, in 4 mol% CPP of lipid modified system, that CPP exerted higher efficiency on internalizing the liposomes into targeted subcellular compartments while remaining inactive and free from opsonins at a maximum extent in systemic circulation. The 4% CPPL as a drug delivery system will have great potential in the clinical application of anticancer drugs in future. PMID:26491292

  6. An efficient PEGylated liposomal nanocarrier containing cell-penetrating peptide and pH-sensitive hydrazone bond for enhancing tumor-targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yuan; Sun, Dan; Wang, Gui-Ling; Yang, Hong-Ge; Xu, Hai-Feng; Chen, Jian-Hua; Xie, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) as small molecular transporters with abilities of cell penetrating, internalization, and endosomal escape have potential prospect in drug delivery systems. However, a bottleneck hampering their application is the poor specificity for cells. By utilizing the function of hydration shell of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and acid sensitivity of hydrazone bond, we constructed a kind of CPP-modified pH-sensitive PEGylated liposomes (CPPL) to improve the selectivity of these peptides for tumor targeting. In CPPL, CPP was directly attached to liposome surfaces via coupling with stearate (STR) to avoid the hindrance of PEG as a linker on the penetrating efficiency of CPP. A PEG derivative by conjugating PEG with STR via acid-degradable hydrazone bond (PEG2000-Hz-STR, PHS) was synthesized. High-performance liquid chromatography and flow cytometry demonstrated that PHS was stable at normal neutral conditions and PEG could be completely cleaved from liposome surface to expose CPP under acidic environments in tumor. An optimal CPP density on liposomes was screened to guaranty a maximum targeting efficiency on tumor cells as well as not being captured by normal cells that consequently lead to a long circulation in blood. In vitro and in vivo studies indicated, in 4 mol% CPP of lipid modified system, that CPP exerted higher efficiency on internalizing the liposomes into targeted subcellular compartments while remaining inactive and free from opsonins at a maximum extent in systemic circulation. The 4% CPPL as a drug delivery system will have great potential in the clinical application of anticancer drugs in future. PMID:26491292

  7. Pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride after intravenous and intramuscular administration of a single dose to American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; KuKanich, Butch; Drazenovich, Tracy L.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R.

    2014-01-01

    Results indicated hydromorphone hydrochloride had high bioavailability and rapid elimination after IM administration, with a short terminal half-life, rapid plasma clearance, and large volume of distribution in American kestrels. Further studies regarding the effects of other doses, other administration routes, constantrate infusions, and slow release formulations on the pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride and its metabolites in American kestrels may be indicated.

  8. Synthesis and antitumor mechanisms of a copper(II) complex of anthracene-9-imidazoline hydrazone (9-AIH).

    PubMed

    Qin, Qi-Pin; Liu, Yan-Cheng; Wang, Hai-Lu; Qin, Jiao-Lan; Cheng, Feng-Jie; Tang, Shang-Feng; Liang, Hong

    2015-07-01

    A new anthracycline derivative, anthracene-9-imidazoline hydrazone (9-AIH), was synthesized and selected as an antitumor ligand to afford a copper(II) complex of 9-AIH, cis-[Cu(II)Cl2(9-AIH)] (1). Complex 1 was structurally characterized by IR, elemental analysis, ESI-MS and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. By MTT assay, it was revealed that 1 showed overall a higher in vitro cytotoxicity than 9-AIH towards a panel of human tumour cell lines, with IC50 values from 0.94–3.68 μM, in which the BEL-7404 cell line was the most sensitive to 1. By spectral analyses and gel electrophoresis, the DNA binding affinity of 9-AIH and 1 was determined. 9-AIH was suggested to bind with DNA in an intercalative mode, with a quenching constant of 1.04 × 10(4) M(−1) on the EB–DNA complex. While for 1, both intercalative and covalent binding modes were suggested. By flow cytometry, 1 was found to block the cell cycle of BEL-7404 cells in a dose-dependent mode, in which it induced the G2/M phase arrest at 0.5 μM and induced the S phase arrest at higher concentrations of 1.0 or 2.0 μM. From the cellular morphological observations under different fluorescence probe staining, a dose-dependent manner of 1 to induce cell apoptosis in the late stage was suggested. Comparatively, equivalent apoptotic cells, respectively, in the early and late stages were found when incubated with 2.0 μM of 9-AIH. The mitochondrial membrane potential measured by JC-1 staining and the ROS generation in cells detected using a DCFH-DA probe suggested that the cell apoptosis induced by 1 might undergo the ROS-related mitochondrial pathway. Accordingly, the mutant p53 expression was found to be suppressed and the caspase cascade (caspase-9/3) was consequently activated by 1. This action mechanism for 1 in the BEL-7404 cells was unique and was not found in the presence of 9-AIH under the same conditions, indicating their different antitumor mechanism. Furthermore, the in vivo acute toxicity of 1 tested on mice indicated that 1 should be a high cytotoxic antitumor agent, with the LD50 value in the range of 32–45 mg kg(−1), which is much higher than that of 9-AIH. From the above results, the central Cu(II) of 1 in the coordinated mode with 9-AIH was believed to play a key role in exerting both the high cytotoxicity and the effective antitumor mechanism. PMID:25904543

  9. Photoacoustic imaging to detect rat brain activation after cocaine hydrochloride injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Janggun; Yang, Xinmai

    2011-03-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) was employed to detect small animal brain activation after the administration of cocaine hydrochloride. Sprague Dawley rats were injected with different concentrations (2.5, 3.0, and 5.0 mg per kg body) of cocaine hydrochloride in saline solution through tail veins. The brain functional response to the injection was monitored by photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system with horizontal scanning of cerebral cortex of rat brain. Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) was also used for coronal view images. The modified PAT system used multiple ultrasonic detectors to reduce the scanning time and maintain a good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The measured photoacoustic signal changes confirmed that cocaine hydrochloride injection excited high blood volume in brain. This result shows PAI can be used to monitor drug abuse-induced brain activation.

  10. Spectrophotometric microdetermination of nefopam, mebevrine and phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulations using alizarins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shama, S. A.; Amin, A. S.

    2004-07-01

    Simple and rapid spectrophotometric procedures have been established for quantitation of nefopam hydrochloride (NF) mebevrine hydrochloride (MB) and phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride (PP). The procedures are based on the reaction between the examined drugs (NF, MB and PP) and alizarin (I), alizarin red S (II), alizarin yellow G (III) and quinalizarin (IV) producing ion-pair complexes which can be measured at the optimum wavelength. The optimization of the reaction conditions is investigated. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration ranges 0.5-30.0 ?g ml -1. The molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity, detection and quantification limits are also calculated. The correlation coefficient was ?0.9988 ( n=6) with a relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of ?1.3, for six determinations of 20 ?g ml -1. The methods are successfully applied to the determination of NF, MB and PP in their pharmaceutical formulations.

  11. Health and environmental effects profile for 2,4-dimethylaniline and 2,4-dimethylaniline hydrochloride

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for 2-4-Dimethylaniline and 2,4-Dimethylaniline Hydrochloride was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human-health, aquatic-life and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. The human carcinogen potency factors (q1*) for 2-4-dimethylaniline and 2,4-dimethylaniline hydrochloride are 0.75 and 0.58/(mg/kg/day) respectively, for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value for 2-4-dimethylaniline and 2,4-dimethylaniline Hydrochloride is 1000.

  12. Regression of recurrent glioblastoma infiltrating the brainstem after convection-enhanced delivery of nimustine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Saito, Ryuta; Sonoda, Yukihiko; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Nagamatsu, Ken-ichi; Watanabe, Mika; Tominaga, Teiji

    2011-05-01

    This 13-year-old boy with a history of cranial irradiation for the CNS recurrence of acute lymphocytic leukemia developed a glioblastoma in the right cerebellum. Resection and chemo- and radiotherapy induced remission of the disease. However, recurrence was noted in the brainstem region 8 months later. Because no effective treatment was available for this recurrent lesion, the authors decided to use convection-enhanced delivery (CED) to infuse nimustine hydrochloride. On stereotactic insertion of the infusion cannula into the brainstem lesion, CED of nimustine hydrochloride was performed with real-time MR imaging to monitor the co-infused chelated gadolinium. The patient's preinfusion symptom of diplopia disappeared after treatment. Follow-up MR imaging revealed the response of the tumor. The authors report on a case of recurrent glioblastoma infiltrating the brainstem that regressed after CED of nimustine hydrochloride. PMID:21529193

  13. Thermal Analysis Investigation of Dapoxetine and Vardenafil Hydrochlorides using Molecular Orbital Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Attia, Ali Kamal; Souaya, Eglal R.; Soliman, Ethar A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Thermal analysis techniques have been used to study the thermal behavior of dapoxetine and vardenafil hydrochlorides and confirmed using semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations. Methods: Thermogravimetric analysis, derivative thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were used to determine the thermal behavior and purity of the drugs under investigation. Thermodynamic parameters such as activation energy, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy were calculated. Results: Thermal behavior of DAP and VAR were confirmed using by semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations. The purity values were found to be 99.97% and 99.95% for dapoxetine and vardenafil hydrochlorides, respectively. The purity of dapoxetine and vardenafil hydrochlorides is similar to that found by reported methods according to DSC data. Conclusion: Thermal analysis justifies its application in quality control of pharmaceutical compounds due to its simplicity, sensitivity and low operational costs. PMID:26819925

  14. Ornithine carbamoyltransferase unfolding states in the presence of urea and guanidine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Barreca, D; Laganà, G; Ficarra, S; Tellone, E; Leuzzi, U; Galtieri, A; Bellocco, E

    2014-01-01

    Ornithine carbamoyltransferase folding/unfolding is a complex and not completely understood process. Our experimental results suggest that ornithine carbamoyltransferase interacts in a completely different way with urea and guanidine hydrochloride. In fact, we noticed that, increasing concentration from 0.0 to 8.0 M of the two additives, the enzyme follows a simple one-step transition mechanism in the presence of guanidine hydrochloride, with two macroscopic states (the native and the denatured one) significantly populated, whereas in the presence of urea a lot of different protein states can be detected and analyzed. Circular dichroism and UV-visible spectroscopy reveal a similar mechanism of perturbation at high temperature, with opening of hydrophobic core and a significant loss in α-helix structure in the presence of guanidine hydrochloride that cannot be found in the presence of urea. PMID:24122710

  15. Protective effects of glucosamine hydrochloride against free radical-induced erythrocytes damage.

    PubMed

    Jamialahmadi, Khadijeh; Arasteh, Omid; Matbou Riahi, Maryam; Mehri, Soghra; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2014-07-01

    Glucosamine (GlcN) is an important precursor in the biochemical synthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids in human body. It gains importance because of its contribution to human health and its multiple biological and therapeutic effects. In this study, the in vitro oxidative hemolysis of rat erythrocyte was used as a model to study the potential protective effect of glucosamine hydrochloride against free radical-induced damage of biological membranes. Glucosamine hydrochloride exhibited dose-dependent DPPH antioxidant activity. Oxidative hemolysis and lipid/protein peroxidation of erythrocytes induced by a water-soluble free radical initiator 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) were significantly suppressed by GlcN in a time and dose dependent manner. GlcN also prevented the depletion of cytosolic antioxidant glutathione (GSH) in erythrocytes. These results indicated that glucosamine hydrochloride efficiently protected erythrocytes against free radicals and it could be recommended as a pharmaceutical supplement to alleviate oxidative stress. PMID:24959958

  16. Effect of penehyclidine hydrochloride on heart rate variability in hysteroscopy

    PubMed Central

    LIU, XIAO-BO; PAN, SHU; YANG, XI-GE; LI, ZHI-WEN; SUN, QING-SHAN; ZHAO, ZHUANG; MA, HAI-CHUN; CUI, CHENG-RI

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of different doses of penehyclidine hydrochloride (penehyclidine) on heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) in hysteroscopy, 180 patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists grade III) were randomized equally to three groups: 0.5 mg penehyclidine and intravenous anesthesia (group I), 1.0 mg penehyclidine and intravenous anesthesia (group II) and saddle anesthesia combined with intravenous anesthesia (control group). HR and HRV, including total power (TP), low-frequency power (LF), high-frequency power (HF) and the LF to HF ratio (LF/HF), were recorded prior and subsequent to the induction of anesthesia (T0 and T1, respectively), following the start of surgery (T2) and following completion of surgery (T3). HR was lower at T2 than at T0 in the control patients, but no differences were observed in groups I and II. The HR at T2 was increased in group II compared with that in group I. TP in group II was significantly higher compared with that in group I at T2. At T1 and at T2, the LF and HF values were lower in group I than those in the controls. Patients in group II also had higher LF and HF at T2 than patients in group I. The HF was higher at T2 than that at T0 in the controls; however, the HF and LF did not change significantly within groups I and II. No significant differences were observed in the LF/HF ratio among the three groups. At a dose of 0.5 mg, penehyclidine stabilized HRV and did not alter the autonomic nervous modulation of HR. A penehyclidine dose of 1.0 mg may be superior to a dose of 0.5 mg in maintaining HR, but is less effective at balancing sympathetic and parasympathetic activity. PMID:26170932

  17. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of minocycline hydrochloride in horses.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Nagata S; Yamashita S; Kurosawa M; Kuwajima M; Hobo S; Katayama Y; Anzai T

    2010-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of minocycline in horses.ANIMALS: 5 healthy Thoroughbred mares for the pharmacokinetic experiment and 6 healthy Thoroughbred mares for the tissue distribution experiment.PROCEDURES: Each mare was given 2.2 mg of minocycline hydrochloride/kg, IV. Blood samples were collected once before minocycline administration (0 hours) and 10 times within 48 hours after administration in the pharmacokinetics study, and 24 tissue samples were obtained at 0.5 and 3 hours in the distribution study.RESULTS: No adverse effects were observed in any of the mares after minocycline administration. The mean+/-SD elimination half-life was 7.70+/-1.91 hours. The total body clearance was 0.16+/-0.04 L/h/kg, and the volume of distribution at steady state was 1.53+/-0.09 L/kg. The percentage of plasma protein binding was 68.1+/-2.6%. Plasma concentration of free minocycline was 0.12 microg/mL at 12 hours. Minocycline was not detected in brain tissue, CSF or aqueous humor at 0.5 hours; however, it was found in all tissues, except in the aqueous humor, at 3 hours.CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Clearance of minocycline in healthy mares was greater than that reported for humans. For effective treatment of infections with common equine pathogens, it will be necessary to administer minocycline at a dosage of 2.2 mg/kg, IV, every 12 hours. This drug could be useful for infections in many tissues, including the CNS. The pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution data should aid in the appropriate use of minocycline in horses.

  18. Second generation lipid nanoparticles (NLC) as an oral drug carrier for delivery of lercanidipine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Ranpise, Nisharani S; Korabu, Swati S; Ghodake, Vinod N

    2014-04-01

    Lercanidipine hydrochloride is a calcium channel blocker used in the treatment of hypertension. It is a poor water soluble drug with absolute bioavailability of 10%. The aim of this study was to design lercanidipine hydrochloride-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers to investigate whether the bioavailability of the same can be improved by oral delivery. Lercanidipine hydrochloride nanostructured lipid carriers were prepared by the method of solvent evaporation at a high temperature and solidification by freeze drying. The nanostructured lipid carriers were evaluated for particle size analysis, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug diffusion, ex vivo permeation studies and pharmacodynamic study. The resultant nanostructured lipid carriers had a mean size of 214.97 nm and a zeta potential of -31.6 1.5 mV. More than 70% lercanidipine hydrochloride was entrapped in the NLCs. The SEM studies indicated the formation of type 2 nanostructured lipid carriers. The in vitro release studies demonstrated 19.36% release in acidic buffer pH 1.2 indicating that the drug entrapped in the nanostructured lipid carriers remains entrapped at acidic pH. The ex vivo studies indicated that the drug release was enhanced from 10% to 60.54% at blood pH in 24h. The in vivo pharmacodynamic study showed that NLCs released lercanidipine hydrochloride in a controlled manner for a prolonged period of time as compared to plain drug. These results clearly indicate that nanostructured lipid carriers are a potential controlled release formulation for lercanidipine hydrochloride and may be a promising drug delivery system for the treatment of hypertension. PMID:24445002

  19. Molecular interactions between selected sodium salts of bile acids and morphine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Poša, Mihalj; Csanádi, János; Kövér, Katalin E; Guzsvány, Valéria; Batta, Gyula

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the prolonged analgesic action of morphine hydrochloride observed in the presence of sodium 12-oxochenodeoxycholanate. Based on literature, this phenomenon may be due to the formation of aggregates in the cell between the molecules of bile acids and morphine. In addition to the sodium 12-oxochenodeoxycholanate, the present investigation also included salts of cholic and 7-oxodeoxycholic acids. Saturation transfer difference NMR experiments showed that morphine binds to the bile acid molecule close to the aromatic protons H1 and H2 provided that the concentration of the bile acid salt approaches the critical micellar concentration (CMC). The spin-lattice relaxation times (T(1)) of the affected protons decrease significantly in the presence of micellar solutions of the bile acid salts, and the most pronounced change in T(1) was observed for sodium 7-oxodeoxycholate. Diffusion-ordered NMR experiments suggested that morphine hydrochloride can interact only with sodium 7-oxochenodeoxycholate. It can be supposed that the molecular ratio of sodium 7-oxodeoxycholate and morphine hydrochloride in the mixed micelle is 2:1. The CMC values of mixed micelles do not differ from the CMC values of the micelle constituents, which suggests that the binding of morphine hydrochloride does not perturb the hydrophobic domain of the bile acid molecule. In the presence of bile acids, the transfer rate constant (k(12)) of morphine hydrochloride from the buffered aqueous solution to chloroform (model of the cell membrane) shows a decrease. A significant decrease of the k(12) was also observed in the presence of micellar solutions. Kinetic measurements indicated that, in addition to micellar interaction between morphine hydrochloride and sodium salts of bile acids, a complex may also be formed in chloroform via hydrogen bonds formed between the drug and bile acid molecules. PMID:22387018

  20. Vibrational spectra of ketamine hydrochloride and 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine in terahertz range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guangqin; Shen, Jingling; Jia, Yan

    2007-07-01

    The terahertz spectrum of ketamine hydrochloride at room temperature, in the range of 0.2-2.6THz, has been measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (TDS). Full-geometry optimizations and frequency calculations using the density functional theory (DFT) are also applied to predict the absorption spectra of ketamine hydrochloride and 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). The results of the simulation show qualitative agreement with the experimental data especially for MDMA, and the observed spectra features are assigned based on the DFT calculation. The results suggest that use of the terahertz TDS technique can be an effective method for the detection and inspection of illicit drugs.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of impurities of barnidipine hydrochloride, an antihypertensive drug substance.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhi-Gang; Dai, Xu-Yong; Li, Li-Wei; Wan, Qiong; Ma, Xiang; Xiang, Guang-Ya

    2013-01-01

    Barnidipine hydrochloride is a long term dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker used for the treatment of hypertension. During the process development of barnidipine hydrochloride, four barnidipine impurities were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an ordinary column (Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18, 150 mm4.6 mm, 5 m). All these impurities were identified, synthesized, and subsequently characterized by their respective spectral data (MS, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR). The identification of these impurities should be useful for quality control in the manufacture of barnidipine. PMID:24451253

  2. EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL CARCINOGENICITY OF 4-CHLORO-O-TOLUIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    4-Chloro-o-toluidine hydrochloride is a probable human carcinogen, classified as weight-of-evidence Group B2 under the EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986a). vidence on potential carcinogenicity from animal studies is "Sufficient," and the evidence from ...

  3. Quantitative HPLC Analysis of a Psychotherapeutic Medication: Simultaneous Determination of Amitriptyline Hydrochloride and Perphenazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Glenda K.

    1998-12-01

    A quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) laboratory experiment which entails the isocratic separation and simultaneous determination of the two active components of a commercial antipsychotic tablet has been developed. The prescription formulation used in this experiment contains amitriptyline hydrochloride (a tricyclic antidepressant) and perphenazine (a tranquilizer). Our experiment makes use of a straightforward HPLC separation on a cyanopropyl-packed column with an acetonitrile:methanol:aqueous monopotassium phosphate mobile phase pumped at a flow rate of 2.0 mL/min. Analytes are detected by UV absorbance at 215 nm. These conditions yield highly symmetrical and well-resolved peaks in less than 5 min after the injection of a mixture. In the experiment, students are given amitriptyline hydrochloride-perphenazine tablets without the manufacturer's labeled composition claim and a stock solution mixture with known concentrations of amitriptyline hydrochloride and perphenazine. They prepare four standards and a pharmaceutical sample of unknown concentration, assay each solution in quadruplicate, and plot average peak areas of the concentrations of the known solutions in the construction of a standard curve. From the mathematical relationships that result, the average masses of amitriptyline hydrochloride and perphenazine in the prescription tablet are determined. Finally, the standard deviations of the mean masses are calculated. The entire laboratory procedure and statistical data analysis can be completed in a single 3-hour period.

  4. 78 FR 40484 - Determination That METADATE ER (Methylphenidate Hydrochloride) Extended-Release Tablet, 10...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has determined that METADATE ER (methylphenidate hydrochloride (HCl)) extended-release tablet, 10 milligrams (mg), was not withdrawn from sale for reasons of safety or effectiveness. This determination will allow FDA to approve abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for methylphenidate HCl extended-release tablet, 10 mg, if all other legal and......

  5. 21 CFR 520.1242c - Levamisole hydrochloride and piperazine dihydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... an aqueous solution which contains in each fluid ounce 0.36 gram of levamisole hydrochloride and... (Oxyuris equii). (2) Limitations. Aqueous solution: administer by stomach tube or drench 1 fluid ounce per 100 pounds of body weight. Reconstituted soluble powder: administer by stomach tube 1 fluid ounce...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5775 - Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro-, hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5775 Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro-, hydrochloride. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phenol,...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5775 - Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro-, hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5775 Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro-, hydrochloride. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phenol,...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5775 - Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro-, hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5775 Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro-, hydrochloride. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phenol,...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5775 - Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro-, hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5775 Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro-, hydrochloride. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phenol,...

  10. 40 CFR 721.5775 - Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro-, hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5775 Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro-, hydrochloride. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phenol,...

  11. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR 2,4-DIMETHYLANILINE AND 2,4-DIMETHYLANILINE HYDROCHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for 2-4-Dimethylaniline and 2,4-Dimethylaniline Hydrochloride was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to pr...

  12. EPR of Gamma-irradiated L-Glutamine Hydrochloride and N-Carbamoyl-L-glutamic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmano?lua, ?emsettin; Ayd?n, Murat; Ba?kana, M. Halim

    2005-07-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of ? -irradiated L-glutamine hydrochloride and N-carbamoyl- L-glutamic acid single crystals have been investigated at room temperature. Radiation damage centres are attributed to ?H, ?H2 and CH2?(NH2)COOH radicals.

  13. Performance of finishing beef steers in response to anabolic implant dose and zilpaterol hydrochloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    British Continental steers (n = 168; 7 pens/treatment; initial BW = 362 kg) were used to evaluate the dose of trenbolone acetate (TBA) and estradiol-17 (E2) and feeding of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on performance and carcass characteristics. A randomized complete block design was used with a ...

  14. A Parent Guide To Understanding the Effects of Ritalin (Methylphenidate Hydrochloride).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villegas, Orlando; And Others

    This guide provides information to help parents decide whether their child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) should take methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin). Information is provided in a question-and-answer format on various concerns, including: the meaning of ADHD, whether Ritalin is overprescribed, when this medication is

  15. Performance of finishing beef steers in response to anabolic implant and zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objectives were to evaluate the dose/payout pattern of trenbolone acetate (TBA) and estradiol-17b (E2) implants and feeding of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers. A randomized complete block design was used with a 3 2 factorial arr...

  16. Simultaneous HPLC determination of butenafine hydrochloride and betamethasone in a cream formulation.

    PubMed

    Ankam, R; Mukkanti, K; Durgaprasad, S; Khan, M

    2009-09-01

    A fast, specific, accurate and precise reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of butenafine hydrochloride and betamethasone in cream formulation. The determination was carried out on licrocart licrosphere RP-select B (250x4.6 mm, 5 mu) column in isocratic mode, the mobile phase consisting of 50 mM ammonium acetate buffer and acetonitrile in the ratio of 60:40, adjusted to pH 4.5 +/- 0.1 with glacial acetic acid. The flow rate was 2.0 ml/min and eluent was monitored at 254 nm. The retention times of butenafine hydrochloride and betamethasone were 4.70 min and 7.76 min, respectively, and the resolution factor was greater than 4.0. Linearity of butenafine hydrochloride and betamethasone were in the range of 100-300 mug/ml and 5-15 mug/ml, respectively. The proposed method is also found to be precise and robust for the simultaneous determination of butenafine hydrochloride and betamethasone in cream formulation. PMID:20502575

  17. Simultaneous HPLC Determination of Butenafine Hydrochloride and Betamethasone in a Cream Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Ankam, R.; Mukkanti, K.; Durgaprasad, S.; Khan, M.

    2009-01-01

    A fast, specific, accurate and precise reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of butenafine hydrochloride and betamethasone in cream formulation. The determination was carried out on licrocart licrosphere RP-select B (2504.6 mm, 5 ?) column in isocratic mode, the mobile phase consisting of 50 mM ammonium acetate buffer and acetonitrile in the ratio of 60:40, adjusted to pH 4.5 0.1 with glacial acetic acid. The flow rate was 2.0 ml/min and eluent was monitored at 254 nm. The retention times of butenafine hydrochloride and betamethasone were 4.70 min and 7.76 min, respectively, and the resolution factor was greater than 4.0. Linearity of butenafine hydrochloride and betamethasone were in the range of 100-300 ?g/ml and 5-15 ?g/ml, respectively. The proposed method is also found to be precise and robust for the simultaneous determination of butenafine hydrochloride and betamethasone in cream formulation. PMID:20502575

  18. 40 CFR 721.1075 - Benzenamine, 4-(1-methyl-bu-toxy)-, hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzenamine, 4-(1-methyl-bu-toxy... Specific Chemical Substances 721.1075 Benzenamine, 4-(1-methyl-bu-toxy)-, hydrochloride. (a) Chemical...)(5)(i), (a)(5)(ii), (a)(5)(iii), (a)(6)(i), (b) (concentration set at 0.1 percent), and (c)....

  19. 40 CFR 721.1075 - Benzenamine, 4-(1-methyl-bu-toxy)-, hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Benzenamine, 4-(1-methyl-bu-toxy... Specific Chemical Substances 721.1075 Benzenamine, 4-(1-methyl-bu-toxy)-, hydrochloride. (a) Chemical...)(5)(i), (a)(5)(ii), (a)(5)(iii), (a)(6)(i), (b) (concentration set at 0.1 percent), and (c)....

  20. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart Nnn... - Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride B Appendix B to Subpart NNN of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  1. An Investigation on in vitro and in vivo Antimicrobial Properties of the Antidepressant: Amitriptyline Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Anurup; Sinha, Chandrima; Kumar Jena, Aditya; Ghosh, Soma; Samanta, Amalesh

    2010-01-01

    The antidepressant drug amitriptyline hydrochloride was obtained in a dry powder form and was screened against 253 strains of bacteria which included 72 Gram positive and 181 Gram negative bacteria and against 5 fungal strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by inoculating a loopful of an overnight peptone water culture of the organism on nutrient agar plates containing increasing concentrations of amitriptyline hydrochloride (0, 10 ?g/mL, 25 ?g/mL, 50 ?g/mL, 100 ?g/mL, 200 ?g/mL). Amitriptyline hydrochloride exhibited significant action against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria at 25-200 ?g/mL. In the in vivo studies it was seen that amitriptyline hydrochloride at a concentration of 25 ?g/g and 30 ?g/g body weight of mouse offered significant protection to Swiss strain of white mice when challenged with 50 median lethal dose (MLD) of a virulent strain of Salmonella typhimurium NCTC 74. The in vivo data were highly significant (p<0.001) according to the chi-square test. PMID:24031539

  2. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride on blood gas, electrolyte balance, and pH in feedlot cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on blood gas, electrolyte balance and pH in feedlot cattle. Black-hided steers and heifers (n=96) were sourced from a commercial feedlot and transported to the Texas Tech University Beef Center in New Deal, TX. C...

  3. 21 CFR 524.1662a - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride and hydrocortisone spray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride and hydrocortisone spray. 524.1662a Section 524.1662a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... surface by holding the container about 6 inches from the area to be treated and pressing the nozzle for...

  4. 21 CFR 524.1662a - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride and hydrocortisone spray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride and hydrocortisone spray. 524.1662a Section 524.1662a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... surface by holding the container about 6 inches from the area to be treated and pressing the nozzle for...

  5. Observations on the use of cyproheptadine hydrochloride as an antipruritic agent in allergic cats.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, D W; Rothstein, E; Beningo, K E; Miller, W H

    1998-01-01

    Cyproheptadine hydrochloride was administered to 20 presumed or proven allergic cats to determine its efficacy in controlling pruritus. Each cat received 2 mg, orally, every 12 h. The pruritus was satisfactorily controlled in 9 cats. Side effects were seen in 8 cats, and included polyphagia, sedation, vocalization, affectionate behavior, and vomiting. PMID:9789674

  6. 21 CFR 524.1662b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride, polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ophthalmic ointment. 524.1662b Section 524.1662b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1662b Oxytetracycline hydrochloride, polymyxin B sulfate...

  7. 21 CFR 524.1662 - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. 524.1662 Section 524.1662 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND...

  8. 21 CFR 524.1662 - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. 524.1662 Section 524.1662 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND...

  9. 21 CFR 524.1662b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride, polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ophthalmic ointment. 524.1662b Section 524.1662b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1662b Oxytetracycline hydrochloride, polymyxin B sulfate...

  10. Fate and transport of the ß-adrenergic agonist ractopamine hydrochloride in soil-water systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The feed additive ractopamine hydrochloride was fortified at four concentrations into batch vials containing soils that differed in both biological activity and organic matter (OM). Sampling of the liquid layer for 14 d demonstrated that ractopamine rapidly dissipated from the liquid layer. Less t...

  11. 21 CFR 524.1484c - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ointment. 524.1484c Section 524.1484c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS ...

  12. 21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 524.1484f Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride... milligrams of neomycin base, 2.5 milligrams of prednisolone acetate, and 5 milligrams of...

  13. 21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 524.1484f Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride... adjunctive therapy of certain ear conditions in dogs and cats caused by or associated with...

  14. 21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 524.1484f Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride... adjunctive therapy of certain ear conditions in dogs and cats caused by or associated with...

  15. 2-(Decylthio)ethanamine hydrochloride: A new multifunctional biocide which enhances corrosion inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, R.W.; Cooke, L.M.

    1997-12-01

    2-(Decylthio)ethanamine hydrochloride is a new multifunctional biocide that is registered for use in a variety of recirculating cooling water systems. This biocide has broad spectrum activity against bacteria, fungi and algae. It also has biofilm and corrosion inhibition properties. Data on these various activities will be presented for both laboratory and field evaluations.

  16. [Therapeutic form of doxycycline hydrochloride for intravenous administration in the treatment of suppurative-septic diseases].

    PubMed

    Pozdniakova, V P; Lobuseva, A N; Bogomolova, N S; Savitskaia, K I; Dutova, E N; Khlebnikov, V P; Blatun, L A; Stepanova, N A

    1992-08-01

    Efficacy of doxycycline hydrochloride administered intravenously was studied in treatment of severe purulent inflammatory diseases such as pneumonia, lung abscesses, pyothorax, skin and soft tissue infections, peritonitis, purulent cholangitis, etc.. Doxycycline showed significant advantages over tetracyclines: prolonged action, higher efficacy and good tolerance. Favourable results were observed in 85 per cent of the cases. PMID:1456827

  17. Formulation and Evaluation of Propranolol Hydrochloride-Loaded Carbopol-934P/Ethyl Cellulose Mucoadhesive Microspheres.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jayvadan; Patel, Darshna; Raval, Jignyasha

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to formulate and systemically evaluate in-vitro and in-vivo performances of mucoadhesive propranolol hydrochloride microspheres for its potential use in the treatment of hypertension, myocardial infraction and cardiac arrhythmias. Propranolol hydrochloride mucoadhesive microspheres, containing carbopol-934P as mucoadhesive polymer and ethyl cellulose as carrier polymer, were prepared by an emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. Results of preliminary trials indicated that the quantity of emulsifying agent, time for stirring, drug-to-polymers ratio, and speed of rotation affected various characteristics of microspheres. Microspheres were discrete, spherical, free-flowing and showed a good percentage of drug entrapment efficiency. An in-vitro mucoadhesive test showed that propranolol hydrochloride mucoadhesive microspheres adhered more strongly to the gastric mucous layer and could be retained in the gastrointestinal tract for an extended period of time. A 3(2) full factorial design was employed to study the effect of independent variables, drug-to-polymer-to-polymer ratio (propranolol hydrochloride-ethyl cellulose-carbopol-934P) (X 1), and stirring speed (X 2) on dependent variables, i.e. percentage of mucoadhesion, drug entrapment efficiency, particle size and t80. The best batch exhibited a high drug entrapment efficiency of 54 %; 82% mucoadhesion after 1 h and particle size of 110 ?m. A sustained pattern of drug release was obtained for more than 12 h. The drug-to-polymer-to-polymer ratio had a more significant effect on the dependent variables. The morphological characteristics of the mucoadhesive microspheres were studied under a scanning electron microscope. In-vivo evaluation studies on propranolol hydrochloride mucoadhesive microspheres and propranolol hydrochloride powder were performed on normal healthy rabbits. The results showed a sustained anti-hypertensive effect over a longer period of time in case of mucoadhesive microspheres, compared to the powder. In conclusion, the prolonged gastrointestinal residence time and slow release of propranolol hydrochloride resulting from the mucoadhesive microspheres, could contribute to the provision of a sustained anti-hypertensive effect. PMID:24363731

  18. Evaluation of the potential carcinogenicity of 4-chloro-o-toluidine hydrochloride (3165-93-3). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    4-Chloro-o-toluidine hydrochloride is a probable human carcinogen, classified as weight-of-evidence Group B2 under the EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. Evidence on potential carcinogenicity from animal studies is Sufficient, and the evidence from human studies is No Data. The potency factor (F) for 4-chloro-o-toluidine hydrochloride is estimated to be 0.40 (mg/kg/day)(-1), placing it in potency group 3 according to the CAG's methodology for evaluating potential carcinogens. Combining the weight-of-evidence group and the potency group, 4-chloro-o-toluidine hydrochloride is assigned a LOW hazard ranking.

  19. Optimization of mesoporous carbons for efficient adsorption of berberine hydrochloride from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Li, Yin; Fu, Jie; Deng, Shuguang; Lu, Xiuyang

    2014-06-15

    Sixteen mesoporous carbon adsorbents were synthesized by varying the ratio of soft to hard templates in order to optimize the pore textural properties of these adsorbents. The mesoporous carbon adsorbents have a high BET specific surface area (1590.3-2193.5 m(2)/g), large pore volume (1.72-2.56 cm(3)/g), and uniform pore size distribution with a median pore diameter ranging from 3.51 nm to 4.52 nm. It was observed that pore textural properties of the carbon adsorbents critically depend on the molar ratio of carbon sources to templates, and the hard template plays a more important role than the soft template in manipulating the pore textures. Adsorption isotherms of berberine hydrochloride at 303 K were measured to evaluate the adsorption efficacy of these adsorbents. The adsorption of berberine hydrochloride from aqueous solutions on the sixteen mesoporous carbon adsorbents synthesized in this work is very efficient, and the adsorption equilibrium capacities on all samples are more than double the adsorption capacities of berberine hydrochloride of the benchmark adsorbents (polymer resins and spherical activated carbons) at similar conditions. It was observed from the adsorption experiments that the equilibrium adsorption amounts of berberine hydrochloride are strongly correlated with the BET specific surface area and pore volume of the adsorbents. The adsorbent with the highest BET of 2193.5 m(2)/g displayed the largest adsorption capacity of 574 mg/g at an equilibrium concentration of 0.10mg/mL of berberine hydrochloride in an aqueous solution. PMID:24767505

  20. A clinical pharmacokinetic study comparing two azelastine hydrochloride nasal formulations in a single-dose design.

    PubMed

    Du, Daniel; Targett, Darren; Stolberg, Erhard; Canali, Alessandra

    2014-03-01

    Azelastine hydrochloride is a potent second-generation antihistamine, available in Europe and the USA as a nasal spray formulation for the treatment of allergic rhinitis symptoms. GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) Consumer Healthcare has developed a new nasal formulation of azelastine hydrochloride. The present study was aimed at comparing the clinical pharmacokinetic profiles and assessing the bioequivalence of the new formulation of azelastine hydrochloride with a marketed reference nasal spray product. This was a randomized, two-way crossover, two-stage, single-dose pharmacokinetic study with 2 weeks washout between the two treatment periods. A dosage of 0.28 mg of the test and reference products was administered as a single dose to healthy volunteers according to the crossover design. Twenty-three subjects (15 subjects from stage 1 and 8 subjects from stage 2) were enrolled in the study. Adjusted mean values for AUC0-t were 1,526.8 h pg/mL for the test drug and 1,441.5 h pg/mL for the reference drug; for C max the values were 61.59 pg/mL for the test drug and 58.21 pg/mL for the reference drug. The 94.12 % CI of geometric mean ratios (test/reference) were 0.99-1.13 and 0.95-1.18 for AUC0-t and C max. This met the predefined criteria for bioequivalence between test and reference drugs. Secondary pharmacokinetic parameters for azelastine and for the metabolite desmethyl azelastine, AUC(0-?) and t max, were numerically similar between the two study treatments. Both test and reference azelastine hydrochloride formulations were well tolerated at single dose. This study demonstrated the bioequivalence between the new azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray formulation and the marketed reference Allergodil() after single-dose administration. PMID:23681835

  1. Stability studies of lincomycin hydrochloride in aqueous solution and intravenous infusion fluids

    PubMed Central

    Czarniak, Petra; Boddy, Michael; Sunderland, Bruce; Hughes, Jeff D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the chemical stability of Lincocin® (lincomycin hydrochloride) in commonly used intravenous fluids at room temperature (25°C), at accelerated-degradation temperatures and in selected buffer solutions. Materials and methods The stability of Lincocin® injection (containing lincomycin 600 mg/2 mL as the hydrochloride) stored at 25°C±0.1°C in sodium lactate (Hartmann’s), 0.9% sodium chloride, 5% glucose, and 10% glucose solutions was investigated over 31 days. Forced degradation of Lincocin® in hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, and hydrogen peroxide was performed at 60°C. The effect of pH on the degradation rate of lincomycin hydrochloride stored at 80°C was determined. Results Lincomycin hydrochloride w as found to maintain its shelf life at 25°C in sodium lactate (Hartmann’s) solution, 0.9% sodium chloride solution, 5% glucose solution, and 10% glucose solution, with less than 5% lincomycin degradation occurring in all intravenous solutions over a 31-day period. Lincomycin hydrochloride showed less rapid degradation at 60°C in acid than in basic solution, but degraded rapidly in hydrogen peroxide. At all pH values tested, lincomycin followed first-order kinetics. It had the greatest stability near pH 4 when stored at 80°C (calculated shelf life of 4.59 days), and was least stable at pH 2 (calculated shelf life of 0.38 days). Conclusion Lincocin® injection was chemically found to have a shelf life of at least 31 days at 25°C when added to sodium lactate (Hartmann’s) solution, 0.9% sodium chloride solution, 5% glucose solution, and 10% glucose solution. Solutions prepared at approximately pH 4 are likely to have optimum stability.

  2. 40 CFR 721.1025 - Benzenamine, 4-chloro-2-methyl-; benzenamine, 4-chloro-2-methyl-, hydrochloride; and ben-zenamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substances benzenamine, 4-chloro-2-methyl- (CAS Number 95-69-2); benzenamine, 4-chloro-2-methyl-, hydrochloride (CAS Number 3165-93-3); and benzenamine, 2-chloro-6-methyl- (CAS Number 87-63-8) are subject...

  3. Novel Potent Imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-N-Glycinyl-Hydrazone Inhibitors of TNF-? Production: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lacerda, Renata B.; Sales, Natlia M.; da Silva, Leandro L.; Tesch, Roberta; Miranda, Ana Luisa P.; Barreiro, Eliezer J.; Fernandes, Patricia D.; Fraga, Carlos A. M.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we describe the design, synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of novel imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-N-glycinyl-hydrazone derivatives (1ak) intended for use as inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) production. The compounds were designed based on the orally active anti-inflammatory prototype LASSBio-1504 (2), which decreases the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-? in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro pharmacological evaluation of the imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine compounds (1) showed that substitution of the N-phenylpyrazole core present in prototype 2 by a bioisosteric imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine scaffold generated anti-TNF-? compounds that were more potent than the previously described N-phenylpyrazole derivative 2 and as potent as SB-203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor. The most active derivative (E)-2-(2-tert-butylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-ylamino)-N-(4-chlorobenzylidene) acetohydrazide, or LASSBio-1749 (1i) was orally active as an anti-inflammatory agent in a subcutaneous air pouch model, reducing expressively the levels in vivo of TNF-? and other pro-inflammatory cytokines at all of the tested doses. PMID:24632827

  4. Synthesis and biological evaluation of (acyl)hydrazones and thiosemicarbazones obtained via in situ condensation of iminium salts with nitrogen-containing nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Caneva, Chiara; Alfei, Silvana; De Maria, Monica; Ibba, Cristina; Delogu, Ilenia; Spallarossa, Andrea; Loddo, Roberta

    2015-11-01

    An unprecedented, highly convergent, high-yielding, one-pot synthesis of (acyl)hydrazones and thiosemicarbazones was carried out by the in situ condensation of isolable iminium chlorides of imidazolidin-2-(thio)one, tetrahydropyrimidin-2-thione and indole derivatives with nitrogen nucleophiles in the presence of a base. The developed reaction procedure is largely advantageous. It is highly parallelizable, no intermediates need to be isolated and minimal sample handling is required during the purification steps. Some relevant reaction parameters including reaction temperature and p[Formula: see text] of the base are discussed. NMR analysis was carried out to assess the stereochemistry of the obtained compounds. The stereochemical outcome of the reaction was found to be affected by the nature of the nitrogen-containing nucleophile being the majority of the derivatives isolated as single geometric isomers. The cytotoxicity and antiviral activities of the prepared compounds have been preliminary assessed. In cell-based screenings some of the derivatives proved to be cytotoxic at low micromolar concentrations and interesting anti-Reo-1 properties have been detected. PMID:26077842

  5. Effect of the protonophore carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-hydrazon on the glutamate release from rat brain nerve terminals under altered gravity conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, T.; Krisanova, N.

    L-glutamate acts within the mammalian central nervous system as the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter and as a potent neurotoxin The balance between these physiological and pathological actions of glutamate is thought to be kept in check by the rapid removal of the neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft The majority of uptake is mediated by the high-affinity Na -dependent glutamate transporters Depolarization leads to stimulation of glutamate efflux mediated by reversal of the high-affinity glutamate transporters The effects of the protonophore carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-hydrazon FCCP on the glutamate release from isolated nerve terminals rat brain synaptosomes were investigated in control and after centrifuge-induced hypergravity rats were rotated in a long-arm centrifuge at ten-G during one-hour period The treatment of synaptosomes with 1 mu M FCCP during 11 min resulted in the increase in L- 14 C glutamate release by 23 0 pm 2 3 of total accumulated synaptosomal label in control animals and 24 0 pm 2 3 animals subjected to hypergravity FCCP evoked release of L- 14 C glutamate from synaptosomes was not altered in animals exposed to hypergravity as compared to control Glutamate transport is of electrogenic nature and thus depends on the membrane potential The high-KCl stimulated L- 14 C glutamate release in Ca 2 -free media occurred due to reversal of the glutamate transporters Carrier --mediated release of L- 14 C glutamate 6 min slightly increased as a result of

  6. Antimicrobial activity and spectral, magnetic and thermal studies of some transition metal complexes of a Schiff base hydrazone containing a quinoline moiety.

    PubMed

    Al-Sha'alan, Nora H

    2007-01-01

    A series of new copper(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), manganese(II), iron(III), and uranyl(VI) complexes of the Schiff base hydrazone 7-chloro-4-(benzylidene-hydrazo)quinoline (HL) were prepared and characterized. The Schiff base behaves as a monobasic bidentate ligand. Mononuclear complexes with the general composition [ML2(Cl)m(H2O)2(OEt)n] x xEtOH (M = Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Fe(III) or UO2(VI); m and n = 0-1; x = 1-3) were obtained in the presence of Li(OH) as a deprotonating agent. The nature of bonding and the stereochemistry of the complexes have been deduced from elemental analyses, infrared, electronic spectra, magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements. An octahedral geometry was suggested for all the complexes except the Cu(II) and UO2(VI) ones. The Cu(II) complex has a square-planar geometry distorted towards tetrahedral, while the UO2(VI) complex displays its favored heptacoordination. The Schiff base ligand, HL, and its complexes were tested against one strain gram +ve bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), gram -ve bacteria (Escherichia coli), and Fungi (Candida albicans). The prepared metal complexes exhibited higher antibacterial activities than the parent ligand and their biopotency is discussed. PMID:17873842

  7. Spectroscopic and biological studies of new mononuclear metal complexes of a bidentate NN and NO hydrazone-oxime ligand derived from egonol.

    PubMed

    Babahan, Ilknur; Emirda?-ztrk, Safiye; Poyrazo?lu-oban, Esin

    2015-04-15

    A novel ligand, vicinal dioxime ligand (egonol-hydrazone glyoxime) (LH2) was synthesized and characterized using (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, MS, AAS, infrared spectroscopy, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Mononuclear nickel (II), copper (II) and cobalt (II) complexes with a metal:ligand ratio of 1:2 for LH2 were also synthesized. Zn(II) forms complex [Zn(LH)Cl2] with a metal to ligand ratio of 1:1. IR spectrum shows that the ligand act in a bidentate manner and coordinates N4 donor groups of the ligands to Ni(II), Cu(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) ions. The detection of H-bonding (OH?O) in the [M(LH)2] metal complexes by IR spectra supported the square-planar MN4 coordination of Ni(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) complexes. The antimicrobial activities of compounds LH2 and their Ni(II), Cu(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) complexes were evaluated using the disc diffusion method against 16 bacteria and 5 yeasts. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against all the bacteria and yeasts were also determined. Among the attempted test compounds, it is showed that all the compounds (L, LH2, [Ni(LH)2], [Cu(LH)2], [Co(LH)2(H2O)2], [Zn(LH)Cl2]) were effective against used test microorganisms. PMID:25686861

  8. Reactivity Differences between [alpha, beta]-Unsaturated Carbonyls and Hydrazones Investigated by Experimental and Theoretical Electron Density and Electron Localizability Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Grabowsky, Simon; Weber, Manuela; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Grabowski, Matthias T.; Brehme, Rainer; Hesse, Malte; Schirmeister, Tanja; Luger, Peter

    2012-10-11

    It is still a challenge to predict a compound's reactivity from its ground-state electronic nature although Bader-type topological analyses of the electron density (ED) and electron localizability indicator (ELI) give detailed and useful information on electron concentration and electron-pair localization, respectively. Both ED and ELI can be obtained from theoretical calculations as well as high-resolution X-ray diffraction experiments. Besides ED and ELI descriptors, the delocalization index is used here; it is likewise derived from theoretical calculations as well as from experimental X-ray results, but in the latter case, demonstrated here for the first time. We investigate {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carbonyl and hydrazone compounds because resonance exhibited by these compounds in the electronic ground-state determines their reactive behavior. The degree of resonance as well as the reactivity contrast are quantified with the electronic descriptors. Moreover, competitive mesomeric substituent effects are studied using the two biologically important compounds acrolein and acrylamide. The reactivity differences predicted from the analyses are in line with the known reactivity of these compounds in organic synthesis. Hence, the capability of the ED and ELI for rationalizing and predicting different and competing substituent effects with respect to reactivity is demonstrated.

  9. Spectroscopic and biological studies of new mononuclear metal complexes of a bidentate NN and NO hydrazone-oxime ligand derived from egonol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babahan, Ilknur; Emirdağ-Öztürk, Safiye; Poyrazoğlu-Çoban, Esin

    2015-04-01

    A novel ligand, vicinal dioxime ligand (egonol-hydrazone glyoxime) (LH2) was synthesized and characterized using 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS, AAS, infrared spectroscopy, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Mononuclear nickel (II), copper (II) and cobalt (II) complexes with a metal:ligand ratio of 1:2 for LH2 were also synthesized. Zn(II) forms complex [Zn(LH)Cl2] with a metal to ligand ratio of 1:1. IR spectrum shows that the ligand act in a bidentate manner and coordinates N4 donor groups of the ligands to NiII, CuII, CoII and ZnII ions. The detection of H-bonding (Osbnd H⋯O) in the [M(LH)2] metal complexes by IR spectra supported the square-planar MN4 coordination of Ni(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) complexes. The antimicrobial activities of compounds LH2 and their Ni(II), Cu(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) complexes were evaluated using the disc diffusion method against 16 bacteria and 5 yeasts. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against all the bacteria and yeasts were also determined. Among the attempted test compounds, it is showed that all the compounds (L, LH2, [Ni(LH)2], [Cu(LH)2], [Co(LH)2(H2O)2], [Zn(LH)Cl2]) were effective against used test microorganisms.

  10. Lewis Acid Mediated Tandem Reaction of Propargylic Alcohols with Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride To Give ?,?-Unsaturated Amides and Alkenyl Nitriles.

    PubMed

    Han, Ya-Ping; Song, Xian-Rong; Qiu, Yi-Feng; Hao, Xin-Hua; Wang, Jia; Wu, Xin-Xing; Liu, Xue-Yuan; Liang, Yong-Min

    2015-09-18

    We have developed a highly selective method for the synthesis of ?,?-unsaturated amides and alkenyl nitriles from readily available propargylic alcohols. The reaction proceeded smoothly under the neutral conditions with hydroxylamine hydrochloride (NH2OHHCl) as the nitrogen source. The development of these new strategies has significantly extended the application of hydroxylamine hydrochloride to the chemistry of propargylic alcohols. Moreover, both secondary and tertiary alcohols have been highly regioselectively transformed to the desired products with good functional group compatibility. PMID:26317753

  11. Pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride after intravenous and intramuscular administration of a single dose to American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; KuKanich, Butch; Drazenovich, Tracy L.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion and Clinical RelevanceResults indicated hydromorphone hydrochloride had high bioavailability and rapid elimination after IM administration, with a short terminal half-life, rapid plasma clearance, and large volume of distribution in American kestrels. Further studies regarding the effects of other doses, other administration routes, constantrate infusions, and slow release formulations on the pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride and its metabolites in American kestrels may be indicated.

  12. Spectrophotometric determination of procaine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical products using 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic acid as the chromogenic reagent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Li Xiao; Shen, Yun Xiu; Wang, Huai You; Jiang, Ji Gang; Xiao, Yan

    2003-11-01

    Spectrophotometric determination of procaine hydrochloride is described. The procaine hydrochloride reacts with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic acid in pH 3.60 buffer solution to form a salmon pink compound, and its maximum absorption wavelength is at 484 nm, ? 484=5.2210 3.The absorbance for procaine hydrochloride from 0.30 to 100 ?g ml -1 obeys Beer's law. The linear regression equation of the calibration graph is C=19.23A-0.03, with a linear regression correlative coefficient is 0.9996, the detection limit is 0.28 ?g ml -1; recovery is from 98.0 to 105.2%. Effects of pH, surfactant, organic solvent, foreign ions, and standing time on the determination of procaine hydrochloride have been examined. This method is rapid and simple, and can be used for the determination of procaine hydrochloride in injection solution of procaine hydrochloride. The results obtained by this method agreed with those by the official method (dead-stop titration).

  13. Management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: focus on methylphenidate hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Rajasree; Moss, Shannon B

    2009-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in young adults and causes significant psychosocial impairment and economic burden to society. Because of the paucity of long-term evidence and lack of national guidelines for diagnosis and management of adult ADHD, most of the data are based on experience derived from management of childhood ADHD. This article reviews the current evidence for the diagnosis and management of adult ADHD with special emphasis on the role of methylphenidate hydrochloride preparations in its treatment. Methylphenidate hydrochloride, a stimulant that acts through the dopaminergic and adrenergic pathways, has shown more than 75% efficacy in controlling the symptoms of adult ADHD. Although concern for diversion of the drug exists, recent data have shown benefits in preventing substance use disorders in patients with adult ADHD. PMID:19721722

  14. Chiral Separation of Ormeloxifene Hydrochloride, a Non-steroidal Contraceptive Agent.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Hafsa; Gupta, Varsha; Dwivedi, Atma Prakash; Katti, S B; Dwivedi, Anil Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Ormeloxifene hydrochloride (Centchroman) is once-a-week non-steroidal oral contraceptive agent marketed in India and other countries. In this study, we report a validated isocratic high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for chiral separation of d- and l-ormeloxifene hydrochloride. This method is capable of baseline separation of its d- and l-isomers. HPLC separation was achieved on a Lux 5 cellulose-1 with a mobile phase comprising hexane, isopropanol, methanol and triethylamine (90:10:1:0.5). Validation parameters such as limit of detection, limit of quantitation, linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity and preformulation studies were conducted according to new guidelines of International Conference on Harmonization. PMID:26233489

  15. [Synthesis and antifungal activity of butenafine hydrochloride (KP-363), a new benzylamine antifungal agent].

    PubMed

    Maeda, T; Takase, M; Ishibashi, A; Yamamoto, T; Sasaki, K; Arika, T; Yokoo, M; Amemiya, K

    1991-02-01

    In screening of new antifungal agents, bis(naphthalenemethyl)amines were found to have more potent antifungal activity than clotrimazole. Studies on their structure-activity relationships indicated that benzylamines had potent antifungal activity. Among them, butenafine hydrochloride (N-p-tert-butylbenzyl-N-methyl-1-naphthalenemethylamine hydrochloride, KP-363) has proved to show the strongest activity. It exhibits a wide spectrum activity in vitro against particularly dermatophytes (87 strains; minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) range, 0.0015 to 0.05 microgram/ml), and also against Aspergillus (15 strains; MIC range, 0.025 to 0.78 microgram/ml), Cryptococcus neoformans (4 strains; MICs 0.78 and 1.56 micrograms/ml) and yeasts of genus Candida (67 strains; MIC range, 3.13 to greater than 100 micrograms/ml). PMID:2056447

  16. Effects of butenafine hydrochloride, a new benzylamine derivative, on experimental dermatophytosis in guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Arika, T; Yokoo, M; Hase, T; Maeda, T; Amemiya, K; Yamaguchi, H

    1990-01-01

    Butenafine hydrochloride, N-4-tert-butylbenzyl-N-methyl-1-naphthalenemethylamine hydrochloride (butenafine), is a novel antifungal agent of the class of benzylamine derivatives. Butenafine was investigated for its activity against guinea pig dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes or Microsporum canis in comparison with those of naftifine, tolnaftate, clotrimazole, and bifonazole. Topical butenafine showed excellent efficacy against dermatophytosis when it was applied once daily, and the effect was superior to those of all four reference drugs. When applied once at 24 or 48 h before infection, the drug exhibited excellent prophylactic efficacy against experimental T. mentagrophytes infection. The concentrations of butenafine in animal skin at 24 and 48 h after application of 0.2 ml of a 1% solution were several hundred times higher than those required to kill T. mentagrophytes and M. canis. The good efficacy of butenafine against dermatophytosis may be attributable to its fungicidal activity and long retention in the skin after topical application. PMID:2073116

  17. Effects of butenafine hydrochloride, a new benzylamine derivative, on experimental dermatophytosis in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Arika, T; Yokoo, M; Hase, T; Maeda, T; Amemiya, K; Yamaguchi, H

    1990-11-01

    Butenafine hydrochloride, N-4-tert-butylbenzyl-N-methyl-1-naphthalenemethylamine hydrochloride (butenafine), is a novel antifungal agent of the class of benzylamine derivatives. Butenafine was investigated for its activity against guinea pig dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes or Microsporum canis in comparison with those of naftifine, tolnaftate, clotrimazole, and bifonazole. Topical butenafine showed excellent efficacy against dermatophytosis when it was applied once daily, and the effect was superior to those of all four reference drugs. When applied once at 24 or 48 h before infection, the drug exhibited excellent prophylactic efficacy against experimental T. mentagrophytes infection. The concentrations of butenafine in animal skin at 24 and 48 h after application of 0.2 ml of a 1% solution were several hundred times higher than those required to kill T. mentagrophytes and M. canis. The good efficacy of butenafine against dermatophytosis may be attributable to its fungicidal activity and long retention in the skin after topical application. PMID:2073116

  18. Evaluation of genotoxic effects of Apitol (cymiazole hydrochloride) in vitro by measurement of sister chromatid exchange.

    PubMed

    Stanimirovic, Zoran; Stevanovic, Jevrosima; Jovanovic, Slobodan; Andjelkovic, Marko

    2005-12-30

    Apitol, with cymiazole hydrochloride as the active ingredient, is used in bee-keeping against the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor. The preparation was evaluated for genotoxicity in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Sister chromatid exchange, the mitotic index and the cell proliferation index were determined for three experimental concentrations of Apitol (0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 mg/ml). All concentrations significantly (p < 0.001) increased the mitotic index (MI = 7.35+/-0.18%, 8.31+/-0.20% and 12.33+/-0.25%, respectively), the proliferative index (PI = 1.83+/-0.01, 1.84+/-0.01 and 1.88+/-0.02, respectively) and the frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE = 8.19+/-1.81, 8.78+/-1.80 and 13.46+/-1.88, respectively), suggesting that cymiazole hydrochloride has genotoxic potential. PMID:16309949

  19. Stability of lidocaine hydrochloride in 5% dextrose injection in plastic bags

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.M.; Nuessle, N.O.

    1981-11-01

    The stability of lidocaine injection mixed with 5% dextrose injection and refrigerated or stored at room temperature was studied. Lidocaine injection was added to 5% dextrose injection to provide a lidocaine hydrochloride concentration of 4 mg/ml. Samples were assayed for lidocaine and its degradation product, 2,6-dimethylaniline, after 30, 60, and 120 days of storage at room temperature (30 degrees C) and refrigerated temperature (4 degrees C). The analysis was by a stability-indicating HPLC method. Degradation product 2,6-dimethylaniline was not detected at any assay time at either temperature. No statistically significant loss of lidocaine occurred at either temperature. Lidocaine hydrochloride injection is chemically stable for up to 120 days at either 30 degrees C or 4 degrees C when mixed with 5% dextrose injection in plastic infusion bags.

  20. [The determination of pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6) according to European Pharmacopoeia 4.0].

    PubMed

    Kos, N; Surmann, J P

    2006-05-01

    Determination of pyridoxine hydrochloride according to the European Pharmacopoeia 4.0 In the Ph.Eur. 4.0 assay pyridoxine hydrochloride is titrated by sodium hydroxide 0.1 mol x 1(-1) in ethanolic solution. The impossibility of a correct evaluation of the titration curve is shown both in theory and practice. The new method in Ph.Eur. 4.04 is an acidimetric titration of the base chloride. In a mixture of formic acid/acetic anhydride the titration is made by perchloric acid. Because some critical points in this assay an alternative method is developed. This method is robust and should give results with high accuracy. PMID:16724537

  1. Study on the Interaction of ?-Cyclodextrin and Berberine Hydrochloride and Its Analytical Application

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Baoxiu; Li, Yuqin; Wang, Decai; Duan, Rui

    2014-01-01

    The fluorescence enhancement of berberine hydrochloride (BBH) as a result of complex with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) is investigated. The mechanism of the inclusion was studied and discussed by spectrofluoremetry and infrared spectrograms. The results showed that a 1?1 (?-CD: BBH) complex was formed with an apparent association constant of 4.23102 L/mol. Based on the enhancement of the fluorescent intensity of berberine hydrochloride, a new spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of BBH in the presence of ?-CD was developed. The linear range was 1.00?4.00 g/mL with the detection limit of 5.54 ng/mL. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of BBH in tablets. PMID:24810601

  2. Evaluation of a xylazine-ketamine hydrochloride combination in the cat.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, D G; Dyson, D H; Pascoe, P J; O'Grady, M R

    1986-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary function was assessed in healthy cats given a xylazine-ketamine hydrochloride combination intramuscularly. Cardiac output, heart rate, stroke volume and cardiac index were significantly decreased. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure were also significantly decreased. Systemic vascular resistance and central venous pressure were significantly increased. Blood gas values remained stable. In conclusion, significant cardiovascular depression was noted in normal cats given the xylazine-ketamine combination at the dosages listed. PMID:3742353

  3. Pupil Dilation with Intracameral Epinephrine Hydrochloride during Phacoemulsification and Intraocular Lens Implantation.

    PubMed

    Yu, A-Yong; Guo, Hua; Wang, Qin-Mei; Bao, Fang-Jun; Huang, Jing-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate mydriatic effect of intracamerally injected epinephrine hydrochloride during phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Methods. Eighteen cataract patients for bilateral phacoemulsification were enrolled. To dilate pupil, one eye was randomly selected to receive intracamerally 1?mL epinephrine hydrochloride 0.001% for 1 minute after corneal incision (intracameral group), and the contralateral eye received 3 drops of compound tropicamide 0.5% and phenylephrine 0.5% at 5-minute intervals 30 minutes before surgery (topical group). Pupil diameters were measured before corneal incision, before ophthalmic viscoelastic device (OVD) injection, after OVD injection, before IOL implantation, and at the end of surgery. Results. At each time point, the mean pupil diameter in the intracameral group was 2.20 0.08, 5.09 0.20, 6.76 0.19, 6.48 0.18, and 5.97 0.24?mm, respectively, and in the topical group it was 7.98 0.15, 7.98 0.15, 8.53 0.14, 8.27 0.16, and 7.93 0.20?mm, respectively. The topical group consistently had larger mydriatic effects than the intracameral group (P < 0.05). The onset of mydriatic effect was rapid in the intracameral group. There was no difference in surgical performance or other parameters between groups. Conclusions. Intracameral epinephrine hydrochloride appears to be an alternative to the mydriatic modalities for phacoemulsification and IOL implantation. In comparison with topical mydriatics, intracameral epinephrine hydrochloride offers easier preoperative preparation, more rapid pupil dilation, and comparable surgical performance. PMID:26904274

  4. The development of a short route to the API ropinirole hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Zeshan; Richards, Andrew K; Dwyer, Andrew N; Linclau, Bruno; Harrowven, David C

    2015-11-14

    A four-step, three-stage synthesis of the API ropinirole hydrochloride has been developed from a commercially available naphthalene derivative. The new route has half the step-count and twice the overall yield of the current manufacturing process. Key features of the synthesis are a regioselective Birch reduction and an ozonolysis with concomitant ring closure to induce the required ring contraction. PMID:26337252

  5. Pupil Dilation with Intracameral Epinephrine Hydrochloride during Phacoemulsification and Intraocular Lens Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, A-Yong; Guo, Hua; Wang, Qin-Mei; Bao, Fang-Jun; Huang, Jing-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate mydriatic effect of intracamerally injected epinephrine hydrochloride during phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Methods. Eighteen cataract patients for bilateral phacoemulsification were enrolled. To dilate pupil, one eye was randomly selected to receive intracamerally 1 mL epinephrine hydrochloride 0.001% for 1 minute after corneal incision (intracameral group), and the contralateral eye received 3 drops of compound tropicamide 0.5% and phenylephrine 0.5% at 5-minute intervals 30 minutes before surgery (topical group). Pupil diameters were measured before corneal incision, before ophthalmic viscoelastic device (OVD) injection, after OVD injection, before IOL implantation, and at the end of surgery. Results. At each time point, the mean pupil diameter in the intracameral group was 2.20 ± 0.08, 5.09 ± 0.20, 6.76 ± 0.19, 6.48 ± 0.18, and 5.97 ± 0.24 mm, respectively, and in the topical group it was 7.98 ± 0.15, 7.98 ± 0.15, 8.53 ± 0.14, 8.27 ± 0.16, and 7.93 ± 0.20 mm, respectively. The topical group consistently had larger mydriatic effects than the intracameral group (P < 0.05). The onset of mydriatic effect was rapid in the intracameral group. There was no difference in surgical performance or other parameters between groups. Conclusions. Intracameral epinephrine hydrochloride appears to be an alternative to the mydriatic modalities for phacoemulsification and IOL implantation. In comparison with topical mydriatics, intracameral epinephrine hydrochloride offers easier preoperative preparation, more rapid pupil dilation, and comparable surgical performance. PMID:26904274

  6. Gastrointestinal symptoms after the substitution of sevelamer hydrochloride with lanthanum carbonate in Japanese patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, D; Ichie, T; Hayashi, H; Sugiura, Y; Sugiyama, T

    2015-08-01

    Lanthanum carbonate has the same phosphorus depressant effect as the other phosphorus adsorbents, and is expected to decrease digestive symptom onset such as constipation in Japanese patients undergoing hemodialysis compared to sevelamar hydrochloride. In this study, we investigated the short- and long-term changes in digestive symptoms in these patients after substituting sevelamar hydrochloride with lanthanum carbonate. We studied 16 patients (4 men, 12 women) and evaluated their gastrointestinal symptoms before administration, at the time of administration, and 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after administration, using the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale. In addition, we conducted repeat evaluations 52 weeks after administration for the patients in whom lanthanum carbonate was administered continuously for 52 weeks. Fourteen (87.5%) out of the 16 patients could tolerate continuous administration for 12 weeks. The constipation score was 3.21 1.74 before administration, 2.07 0.83 2 weeks after administration, 1.76 0.83 4 weeks after administration, 1.57 0.56 8 weeks after administration, and 11.41 0.48 12 weeks after administration. The scores improved significantly 4 weeks after administration (p < 0.05) and even 12 weeks after continuous administration. Among the 16 study patients, 9 patients (1 men, 8 women) were received lanthanum carbonate continuously for 52 weeks. The constipation score was 3.74 1.92 at the start of administration, 1.37 0.56 12 weeks after administration, and 1.85 0.63 52 weeks after administration, with significant improvement even 52 weeks after administration (p < 0.05). This study shows that substituting sevelamar hydrochloride with lanthanum carbonate improves constipation symptoms in hemodialysis patients from an early stage, which indicates its usefulness in improving constipation symptoms caused by sevelamar hydrochloride. PMID:26380521

  7. Kinetic modelling for the assay of nortriptyline hydrochloride using potassium permanganate as oxidant.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Nafisur; Khan, Sumaiya

    2015-06-01

    Kinetic methods for accurate determination of nortriptyline hydrochloride have been described. The methods are based on the oxidation of nortriptyline hydrochloride with KMnO4 in acidic and basic media. In acidic medium, the decrease in absorbance at 525.5 nm and in basic medium, the increase in absorbance at 608.5 nm were measured as a function of time. The variables affecting the reactions were carefully investigated and optimised. Kinetic models such as initial rate, rate constant, variable time and fixed time were employed to construct the calibration curves. The initial rate and fixed time methods were selected for quantification of nortriptyline hydrochloride. In acidic medium, the calibration curves showed a linear response over the concentration range 10-50 ?g mL(-1) for initial rate and 10-60 ?g mL(-1) for fixed time method (2 min). In basic medium, the calibration graphs were linear over the concentration range 10-100 ?g mL(-1) for initial rate and fixed time methods (4 min). In acidic medium, the limits of detection for initial rate and fixed time methods (2 min) were 1.02 and 3.26 ?g mL(-1), respectively. In basic medium, the limits of detection were found to be 1.67 and 1.55 ?g mL(-1) for initial rate and fixed time methods (4 min), respectively. The initial rate and fixed time methods have been successfully applied to the determination of nortriptyline hydrochloride in commercial dosage form. Statistical comparison of the results of the proposed methods with those of reference method exhibited excellent agreement and there is no significant difference between the compared methods in terms of accuracy and precision. PMID:25380790

  8. Application of design of experiment for floating drug delivery of tapentadol hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Jagdale, Swati C; Patil, Somnath; Kuchekar, Bhanudas S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to apply design of experiment (DOE) to optimize floating drug delivery of tapentadol hydrochloride. Tapentadol hydrochloride is a synthetic opioid used as a centrally acting analgesic and effective in both experimental and clinical pain. The half-life of the drug is about 4 hours and oral dose is 50 to 250 mg twice a day. For optimization 3(2) full factorial design was employed for formulation of tapentadol hydrochloride tablets. Sodium bicarbonate was incorporated as a gas-generating agent. Combination of polymers Xanthan gum and Locust bean gum was used to achieve controlled release effect. The concentration of polymers was considered as the independent variables and dependent variables were floating lag time and swelling index of the tablets. From the factorial batches, it was observed that formulation containing combination of 20% sodium bicarbonate and 10% citric acid shows optimum floating ability whereas the formulation containing 20% Xanthan gum and 28% Locust bean gum shows optimum sustained drug release pattern with adequate floating. PMID:23878616

  9. Controlled delivery of ropinirole hydrochloride through skin using modulated iontophoresis and microneedles.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neha D; Banga, Ajay K

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of modulated current application using iontophoresis- and microneedle-mediated delivery on transdermal permeation of ropinirole hydrochloride. AdminPatch microneedles and microchannels formed by them were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, dye staining and confocal microscopy. In vitro permeation studies were carried out using Franz diffusion cells, and skin extraction was used to quantify drug in underlying skin. Effect of microneedle pore density and ions in donor formulation was studied. Active enhancement techniques, continuous iontophoresis (74.13 2.20 g/cm(2)) and microneedles (66.97 10.39 g/cm(2)), significantly increased the permeation of drug with respect to passive delivery (8.25 2.41?g/cm(2)). Modulated iontophoresis could control the amount of drug delivered at a given time point with the highest flux being 5.12 1.70 g/cm(2)/h (5-7 h) and 5.99 0.81 g/cm(2)/h (20-22 h). Combination of modulated iontophoresis and microneedles (46.50 6.46 g/cm(2)) showed significantly higher delivery of ropinirole hydrochloride compared to modulated iontophoresis alone (84.91 9.21 g/cm(2)). Modulated iontophoresis can help in maintaining precise control over ropinirole hydrochloride delivery for dose titration in Parkinson's disease therapy and deliver therapeutic amounts over a suitable patch area and time. PMID:23311703

  10. Effects of various excipients on tizanidine hydrochloride tablets prepared by direct compression.

    PubMed

    Khan, Lubna Ghazal; Razvi, Nighat; Anjum, Fakhsheena; Siddiqui, Saeed Ahmed; Ghayas, Sana

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effects of various excipients in 10 different Tizanidine hydrochloride tablet dosage forms that were prepared by direct compression method (DC). Various excipients are available for DC method; we selected those excipients that are used commonly in tablet manufacturing. The excipients used included lactose anhydrous, di-basic calcium phosphate anhydrous, starch, talc, sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), silicon dioxide (Aerosil), stearic acid, magnesium stearate and microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel). These tablets were then evaluated by performing different pharmacopoeial and non-pharmacopoeial tests (i.e. diameter, hardness, thickness, weight variation, disintegration and assay). It was observed that Formulations B, D and H of Tizanidine hydrochloride gave best results within USP specified limits for the tests employed among all the formulations whereas Formulations F and G showed poor friability, disintegration and dissolution profiles rendering starch in combination of talc and sodium carboxy-methyl cellulose unsuitable for Tizanidine hydrochloride tablet formulations. With the present approach, more studies can be designed using other active ingredients and excipients to get an optimal and cost effective product. PMID:25176379

  11. Derivative Synchronous Fluorescence Spectroscopy for the Simultaneous Determination of Dapoxetine Hydrochloride and Vardenafil in Binary Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliman, S. M.; El-Agizy, H. M. Y.; El Bayoumi, Abd El Aziz

    2014-07-01

    The first and second derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (FDSFS&SDSFS) methods have been developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of a binary mixture of dapoxetine hydrochloride and vardenafil. Method 1A describes a measurement of the normal synchronous fluorescence intensity of these drugs at ?? = 35 nm using sodium dodecyl sulfate as the fluorescence enhancer in aqueous solutions. This method was extended (Method 1B) to the use of FDSFS&SDSFS for the determination of both drugs. The fluorescence concentration plots were linear over the range of 1-10 and 0.2-2 ?g/ml for dapoxetine hydrochloride and vardenafil, respectively, with lower detection limits of 290 and 62.5 ng/ml, and quantification limits of 890 and 190 ng/ml for dapoxetine hydrochloride and vardenafil, respectively. The proposed method was applied for the simultaneous determination of DAP and VAR in different synthetic mixtures and in co-formulated pharmaceutical preparation. The results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained using a reference method.

  12. Pioglitazone hydrochloride: chemopreventive potential and development of site-specific drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Vivek Ranjan; Sethi, Shilpa

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of pioglitazone hydrochloride as a promising anticancer agent and then to design and evaluate the colon-targeted delivery system. The role of pioglitazone hydrochloride as a promising anticancer agent was evaluated by in vitro cell line studies and in vivo 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. In order to deliver the drug at site of action, i.e. colon, drug embedded in matrices containing a release retarding polymer (HPMC K4M) and a polysaccharide (locust bean gum) were prepared. These matrix systems were further enteric coated with EudragitS100 to minimize the premature drug release in the upper segments of the GIT. In vitro dissolution studies were performed in absence and presence of rat caecal contents on selected batches and samples were analyzed using a validated RP-HPLC method. Hence, the studies led to the conclusion that successful site-specific delivery systems of pioglitazone hydrochloride were developed to improve its therapeutic efficacy in the management of colorectal cancer. PMID:24547712

  13. Application of Design of Experiment for Floating Drug Delivery of Tapentadol Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Jagdale, Swati C.; Patil, Somnath; Kuchekar, Bhanudas S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to apply design of experiment (DOE) to optimize floating drug delivery of tapentadol hydrochloride. Tapentadol hydrochloride is a synthetic opioid used as a centrally acting analgesic and effective in both experimental and clinical pain. The half-life of the drug is about 4 hours and oral dose is 50 to 250?mg twice a day. For optimization 32 full factorial design was employed for formulation of tapentadol hydrochloride tablets. Sodium bicarbonate was incorporated as a gas-generating agent. Combination of polymers Xanthan gum and Locust bean gum was used to achieve controlled release effect. The concentration of polymers was considered as the independent variables and dependent variables were floating lag time and swelling index of the tablets. From the factorial batches, it was observed that formulation containing combination of 20% sodium bicarbonate and 10% citric acid shows optimum floating ability whereas the formulation containing 20% Xanthan gum and 28% Locust bean gum shows optimum sustained drug release pattern with adequate floating. PMID:23878616

  14. The analysis of methamphetamine hydrochloride by thermal desorption ion mobility spectrometry and SIMPLISMA.

    PubMed

    Reese, E S; Harrington, P B

    1999-01-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has been successfully developed to yield an advanced portable instrument. Such instruments may detect trace quantities of regulated substances at the crime scene. The atmospheric ion chemistry that occurs within the instrument may hinder the determination of analytes in real-world samples. The use of temperature programming adds an extra dimension to the data that improves the selectivity of the IMS data when chemometric processing is applied. The SIMPLISMA (SIMPLe-to-use-Interactive Self-Modeling Mixture Analysis) method is demonstrated for modeling variances in IMS data that are introduced from the temperature program. Methamphetamine hydrochloride IMS peaks are obscured by chemical interferences that arise from cigarette smoke residue. Cigarette smoke residue is pervasive at crime scenes. The ability of SIMPLISMA to resolve the analyte peaks that correspond to methamphetamine hydrochloride from interfering cigarette smoke has been demonstrated. A reduced mobility of 1.62 cm2V-1s-1 was observed for a methamphetamine hydrochloride monomer. With the IMS drift tube at room temperature, a second peak was observed at 1.24 cm2V-1s-1, which is consistent with a dimer ion. This peak has not been previously reported. PMID:9987872

  15. Taste Masking and Molecular Properties of Metformin Hydrochloride-Indion 234 Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Bhoyar, PK; Amgaonkar, YM

    2011-01-01

    Metformin hydrochloride is an oral antidiabetic biguinide agent, used in the management of non-insulin-dependent (type-2) diabetes mellitus. The purpose of present work was to formulate tasteless complexes of metformin hydrochloride with indion 234 and to evaluate molecular properties of drug complexes. The drug loading onto ion-exchange resin was optimized for mixing time, activation, effect of pH, mode of mixing, ratio of drug to resin, and temperature. Drug resin complexes (DRC) were evaluated for taste masking and characterized by x-ray diffraction study and infrared spectroscopy. Metformin hydrochloride release from DRC is obtained at salivary and gastric pH and in the presence of electrolytes. The efficient drug loading was evident in batch process using activated indion 234 with a pH of 3.5 and drug-resin ratio of 1:1.2, while temperature enhances the complexation process. Infrared spectroscopy revealed complexation of NH (drug) with indion 234. DRC are amorphous in nature. Drug release from DRC in salivary pH was insufficient to impart bitter taste. Volunteers rated the complex as tasteless and agreeable. Complete drug release was observed at gastric pH in 3 h. The drug release was accelerated in the presence of electrolytes. Indion 234 is inexpensive, and the simple technique is effective for bitterness masking of metformin. PMID:21731355

  16. Simultaneous Determination of Sitagliptin Phosphate Monohydrate and Metformin Hydrochloride in Tablets by a Validated UPLC Method

    PubMed Central

    Malleswararao, Chellu S. N.; Suryanarayana, Mulukutla V.; Mukkanti, Khagga

    2012-01-01

    A novel approach was used to develop and validate a rapid, specific, accurate and precise reverse phase ultra performance liquid chromatographic (UPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of Sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate and Metformin hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The chromatographic separation was achieved on Aquity UPLC BEH C8 100 2.1 mm, 1.7 ?m, column using a buffer consisting of 10 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 2 mM hexane-1-sulfonic acid sodium salt (pH adjusted to 5.50 with diluted phosphoric acid) and acetonitrile as organic solvent in a gradient program. The flow rate was 0.2 mL min?1 and the detection wavelength was 210 nm. The limit of detection (LOD) for Sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate and Metformin hydrochloride was 0.2 and 0.06 ?g mL?1, respectively. The limit of quantification (LOQ) for Sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate and Metformin hydrochloride was 0.7 and 0.2 ?g mL?1, respectively. This method was validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity and robustness. The method was also found to be stability-indicating. PMID:22396910

  17. A Rapid, Stability Indicating RP-UPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Ambroxol Hydrochloride, Cetirizine Hydrochloride and Antimicrobial Preservatives in Liquid Pharmaceutical Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Rakshit Kanubhai; Patel, Mukesh C.; Jadhav, Sushant B.

    2011-01-01

    A stability indicating reversed phase ultra performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) method was developed for simultaneous determination of ambroxol hydrochloride (AMB), cetirizine hydrochloride (CTZ), methylparaben (MP) and propylparaben (PP) in liquid pharmaceutical formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent Eclipse plus C18, 1.8 ?m (50 2.1 mm) column using gradient elution at 237 nm detector wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consists of a mixture of 0.01 M phosphate buffer and 0.1 % triethylamine as a solvent-A and acetonitrile as a solvent-B. The developed method separates AMB, CTZ, MP and PP in presence of twelve known impurities/degradation products and one unknown degradation product within 3.5 min. Stability indicating capability was established by forced degradation experiments and seperation of known and unknown degradation products. The lower limit of quantification was established for AMB, CTZ, MP and PP. The developed RP-UPLC method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. This validated method is applied for simultaneous estimation of AMB, CTZ, MP and PP in commercially available syrup samples. Further, the method can be extended for estimation of AMB, CTZ, MP, PP and levo-cetirizine (LCTZ) in various commercially available dosage forms. PMID:21886901

  18. Feasibility of amlodipine besylate, chloroquine phosphate, dapsone, phenytoin, pyridoxine hydrochloride, sulfadiazine, sulfasalazine, tetracycline hydrochloride, trimethoprim and zonisamide in SyrSpend(®) SF PH4 oral suspensions.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Anderson O; Polonini, Hudson C; Silva, Sharlene L; Patrício, Fernando B; Brandão, Marcos Antônio F; Raposo, Nádia R B

    2016-01-25

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of 10 commonly used active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) compounded in oral suspensions using an internationally used suspending vehicle (SyrSpend(®) SF PH4 liquid): (i) amlodipine, (as besylate) 1.0mg/mL; (ii) chloroquine phosphate,15.0mg/mL; (iii) dapsone, 2.0mg/mL; (iv) phenytoin, 15.0mg/mL; (v) pyridoxine hydrochloride, 50.0mg/mL; (vi) sulfadiazine, 100.0mg/mL; (vii) sulfasalazine, 100.0mg/mL; (viii) tetracycline hydrochloride, 25.0mg/mL; (ix) trimethoprim, 10.0mg/mL; and (x) zonisamide, 10.0mg/mL. All suspensions were stored both at controlled refrigeration (2-8°C) and controlled room temperature (20-25°C). Feasibility was assessed by measuring the percent recovery at varying time points throughout a 90-day period. API quantification was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV), via a stability-indicating method. Given the percentage of recovery of the APIs within the suspensions, the expiration date of the final products (API+vehicle) was at least 90 days for all suspensions with regard to both the controlled temperatures. This suggests that the vehicle is stable for compounding APIs from different pharmacological classes. PMID:26540625

  19. A Rapid, Stability Indicating RP-UPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Ambroxol Hydrochloride, Cetirizine Hydrochloride and Antimicrobial Preservatives in Liquid Pharmaceutical Formulation.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Rakshit Kanubhai; Patel, Mukesh C; Jadhav, Sushant B

    2011-09-01

    A stability indicating reversed phase ultra performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) method was developed for simultaneous determination of ambroxol hydrochloride (AMB), cetirizine hydrochloride (CTZ), methylparaben (MP) and propylparaben (PP) in liquid pharmaceutical formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent Eclipse plus C18, 1.8 ?m (50 2.1 mm) column using gradient elution at 237 nm detector wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consists of a mixture of 0.01 M phosphate buffer and 0.1 % triethylamine as a solvent-A and acetonitrile as a solvent-B. The developed method separates AMB, CTZ, MP and PP in presence of twelve known impurities/degradation products and one unknown degradation product within 3.5 min. Stability indicating capability was established by forced degradation experiments and seperation of known and unknown degradation products. The lower limit of quantification was established for AMB, CTZ, MP and PP. The developed RP-UPLC method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. This validated method is applied for simultaneous estimation of AMB, CTZ, MP and PP in commercially available syrup samples. Further, the method can be extended for estimation of AMB, CTZ, MP, PP and levo-cetirizine (LCTZ) in various commercially available dosage forms. PMID:21886901

  20. Liquid chromatographic methods for the determination of vildagliptin in the presence of its synthetic intermediate and the simultaneous determination of pioglitazone hydrochloride and metformin hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    El-Bagary, Ramzia I; Elkady, Ehab F; Ayoub, Bassam M

    2011-09-01

    Two reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RP-LC) methods are described for the determination of two binary mixtures of hypoglycemic agents. In the first method, vildagliptin (VDG) was determined in the presence of 3-amino-1-adamantanol (AAD), a synthetic intermediate and impurity of VDG. In the second method, pioglitazone hydrochloride (PGZ) and metformin hydrochloride (MET) were simultaneously determined in their binary mixture. Chromatographic separation in the two methods was achieved on a Symmetry() Waters C18 column (150 mm 4.6 mm, 5 ?m). In the first mixture, isocratic elution using a mobile phase of potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer pH (4.6) - acetonitrile - methanol (30:50:20, v/v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL min(-1) with UV detection at 220 nm was performed. In the second method, isocratic elution based on potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer pH (4.6) - acetonitrile (60:40, v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL min(-1) with UV detection at 210 nm was performed. Linearity, accuracy and precision were found to be acceptable over the concentration ranges of 5-200 ?g mL(-1), 0.5-3 ?g mL(-1) and 10-150 ?g mL(-1) for VDG, PGZ and MET, respectively. The optimized methods were validated and proved to be specific, robust, precise and accurate for the quality control of the drugs in their pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:23675237