Science.gov

Sample records for 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride

  1. Development and validation of sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of moxifloxacin antibiotic in pure and commercial tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashour, Safwan; Bayram, Roula

    2015-04-01

    New, accurate, sensitive and reliable kinetic spectrophotometric method for the assay of moxifloxacin hydrochloride (MOXF) in pure form and pharmaceutical formulations has been developed. The method involves the oxidative coupling reaction of MOXF with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride monohydrate (MBTH) in the presence of Ce(IV) in an acidic medium to form colored product with lambda max at 623 and 660 nm. The reaction is followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the increase in absorbance at 623 nm as a function of time. The initial rate and fixed time methods were adopted for constructing the calibration curves. The linearity range was found to be 1.89-40.0 ?g mL-1 for initial rate and fixed time methods. The limit of detection for initial rate and fixed time methods is 0.644 and 0.043 ?g mL-1, respectively. Molar absorptivity for the method was found to be 0.89 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1. Statistical treatment of the experimental results indicates that the methods are precise and accurate. The proposed method has been applied successfully for the estimation of moxifloxacin hydrochloride in tablet dosage form with no interference from the excipients. The results are compared with the official method.

  2. A novel use of oxidative coupling reactions for determination of some statins (cholesterol-lowering drugs) in pharmaceutical formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashour, Safwan; Bahbouh, Mahmoud; Khateeb, Mouhammed

    2011-03-01

    New, accurate and reliable spectrophotometric methods for the assay of three statin drugs, atorvastatin calcium (AVS), fluvastatin sodium (FVS) and pravastatin sodium (PVS) in pure form and pharmaceutical formulations have been described. All methods involve the oxidative coupling reaction of AVS, FVS and PVS with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride monohydrate (MBTH) in the presence of Ce(IV) in an acidic medium to form colored products with ?max at 566, 615 and 664 nm, respectively. Beer's law was obeyed in the ranges of 2.0-20.0, 4.9-35.4 and 7.0-30.0 ?g mL -1 for AVS-MBTH, FVS-MBTH and PVS-MBTH, respectively. Molar absorptivities for the above three methods were found to be 3.24 × 10 4, 1.05 × 10 4 and 0.68 × 10 4 L mol -1 cm -1, respectively. Statistical treatment of the experimental results indicates that the methods are precise and accurate. The proposed methods have been applied to the determination of the components in commercial forms with no interference from the excipients. A comparative study between the suggested procedures and the official methods for these compounds in the commercial forms showed no significant difference between the two methods.

  3. A review exploring biological activities of hydrazones

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Garima; Marella, Akranth; Shaquiquzzaman, Mohammad; Akhtar, Mymoona; Ali, Mohammad Rahmat; Alam, Mohammad Mumtaz

    2014-01-01

    The development of novel compounds, hydrazones has shown that they possess a wide variety of biological activities viz. antimicrobial, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiplatelet, antimalarial, anticancer, antifungal, antitubercular, antiviral, cardio protective etc., Hydrazones/azomethines/imines possess-NHN = CH- and constitute an important class of compounds for new drug development. A number of researchers have synthesized and evaluated the biological activities of hydrazones. This review aims at highlighting the diverse biological activities of hydrazones. PMID:24741273

  4. Glucosamine hydrochloride

    MedlinePLUS

    ... glucosamine are sold as supplements. These products may contain glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, or N-acetyl-glucosamine. ... page is about glucosamine hydrochloride. Dietary supplements that contain glucosamine often contain additional ingredients. These additional ingredients ...

  5. Development of a paper-type tyrosinase biosensor for detection of phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    ?enyurt, Özge; Eyido?an, Füsun; Y?lmaz, Remziye; Öz, M Tufan; Özalp, V Cengiz; Ar?ca, Yakup; Öktem, Hüseyin A

    2015-01-01

    A low-cost, portable, and disposable paper-type tyrosinase biosensor was developed for determination of phenolic compounds, using a paper-strip absorption method. Tyrosinase and a chromophore (3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone) were immobilized on paper strips to manufacture the biosensor, which was tested on a nontoxic substrate (l-dopamine). The biosensor was responsive to phenolic compounds such as 4-chlorophenol, catechol, m-cresol, and p-cresol. The sensor showed stability for 70 days. The developed biosensor can be used for remote on-site qualitative monitoring of phenolic compounds in wastewater samples. PMID:24847915

  6. Glucosamine hydrochloride

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with high cholesterol. Bone and joint disease (Kashin-Beck disease). Early evidence shows that taking glucosamine hydrochloride, ... with a bone and joint disorder called Kashin-Beck disease. Osteoarthritis. There is conflicting evidence about the ...

  7. 4-Hydroxyanisole: the most suitable monophenolic substrate for determining spectrophotometrically the monophenolase activity of polyphenol oxidase from fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Espín, J C; Tudela, J; García-Cánovas, F

    1998-05-15

    A continuous spectrophotometric method for determining the monophenolase activity of polyphenol oxidase from several plant sources is described. This assay method is based on the coupling reaction between 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone and the quinone product of the oxidation of 4-hydroxyanisole in the presence of polyphenol oxidase. 4-Hydroxyanisole proved to be the best monophenol assayed to measure the monophenolase activity of polyphenol oxidase from apple, artichoke, avocado, medlar, pear, and strawberry. Kinetic constants of 4-hydroxyanisole were compared to those of p-hydroxyphenyl propionic acid, a very sensitive monophenol previously reported to assay the monophenolase activity of polyphenol oxidase from apple, pear, and mushroom. The high values of the maximum steady state rate obtained for 4-hydroxyanisole suggest the existence of high catalytic constant toward this monophenol. These kinetic values were supported by nuclear magnetic resonance assays which predicted the highest reactivity of 4-hydroxyanisole. Therefore nuclear magnetic resonance assays proved to be a valuable and useful tool to predict the best monophenolic substrate for plant polyphenol oxidases. The 3-methyl-2-benzothiazlolinone-adduct for 4-hydroxyanisole was stable, with high molar absorptivity at the optimum pHs of the polyphenol oxidases assayed. All this together makes the use of 4-hydroxyanisol as monophenolic substrate and 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone as coupling reagent the most sensitive and precise assay method up to date reported in the literature to determine the monophenolas activity of polyphenol oxidase from fruits and vegetables. PMID:9606152

  8. Therapeutic Potential of Hydrazones as Anti-Inflammatory Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bala, Suman; Sharma, Neha; Saini, Vipin

    2014-01-01

    Hydrazones are a special class of organic compounds in the Schiff base family. Hydrazones constitute a versatile compound of organic class having basic structure (R1R2C=NNR3R4). The active centers of hydrazone, that is, carbon and nitrogen, are mainly responsible for the physical and chemical properties of the hydrazones and, due to the reactivity toward electrophiles and nucleophiles, hydrazones are used for the synthesis of organic compound such as heterocyclic compounds with a variety of biological activities. Hydrazones and their derivatives are known to exhibit a wide range of interesting biological activities like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, analgesic, antimicrobial, anticancer, antiprotozoal, antioxidant, antiparasitic, antiplatelet, cardioprotective, anthelmintic, antidiabetic, antitubercular, trypanocidal, anti-HIV, and so forth. The present review summarizes the efficiency of hydrazones as potent anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:25383223

  9. Study and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Todaro, Aldo; Cavallaro, Rosalinda; Argento, Sergio; Branca, Ferdinando; Spagna, Giovanni

    2011-10-26

    In this study the catecholase and cresolase activities of eggplant polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were investigated. Enzyme activity was determined by measuring the increase in absorbance using catechol as substrate and 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) as coupled reagent. The effects of substrate specificity, heat inactivation, temperature, pH, and inhibitors were investigated to understand the enzymatic alteration of ready-to-eat preparations. Browning of vegetables was determined through a colorimeter. Decrease of lightness (L*) and increase of color difference values (?E*) were correlated with tissue browning. Antibrowning agents were tested on PPO under the same conditions. The enzyme activity was strongly inhibited by 0.4 M citric acid. Under natural pH conditions, the enzyme was also inhibited by tartaric acid and acetic acid. All of the results were used to understand the best conditions for food transformation (ready-to-eat and grilled eggplant slices). PMID:21942648

  10. Biomimetic Modeling of Copper Complexes: A Study of Enantioselective Catalytic Oxidation on D-(+)-Catechin and L-( ? )-Epicatechin with Copper Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Mutti, Francesco G.; Pievo, Roberta; Sgobba, Maila; Gullotti, Michele; Santagostini, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The biomimetic catalytic oxidations of the dinuclear and trinuclear copper(II) complexes versus two catechols, namely, D-(+)-catechin and L-( ? )-epicatechin to give the corresponding quinones are reported. The unstable quinones were trapped by the nucleophilic reagent, 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH), and have been calculated the molar absorptivities of the different quinones. The catalytic efficiency is moderate, as inferred by kinetic constants, but the complexes exhibit significant enantio-differentiating ability towards the catechols, albeit for the dinuclear complexes, this enantio-differentiating ability is lower. In all cases, the preferred enantiomeric substrate is D-(+)-catechin to respect the other catechol, because of the spatial disposition of this substrate. PMID:18825268

  11. Trifluridine and Tipiracil Hydrochloride

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about trifluridine and tipiracil hydrochloride and a collection of links to more information about the use of this drug combination, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  12. Netupitant and Palonosetron Hydrochloride

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about netupitant and palonosetron hydrochloride and a collection of links to more information about the use of this drug combination, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  13. Drug release from hydrazone-containing peptide amphiphiles

    SciTech Connect

    Matson, John B.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2012-03-15

    Hydrolytically-labile hydrazones in peptide amphiphiles were studied as degradable tethers for release of the drug nabumetone from nanofiber gels. On-resin addition of the novel compound tri-Boc-hydrazido adipic acid to a lysine E-amine allowed for precise placement of a hydrazide in a peptide sequence.

  14. Antioxidant activity of hydrazones with sterically hindered phenol fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaevskii, A. N.; Kniga, O. P.; Khizhan, E. I.; Tikhonova, G. A.; Vinogradov, V. V.; Khizhan, A. I.

    2012-12-01

    Kinetic parameters of the antiradical activity of derivatives of hydrazones of 4-hydroxy-3,5-di- tert-butyl-benzaldehyde are determined photocolorimetrically in their reactions with a stable diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical, and by chemiluminescence from the capture of peroxide radicals upon the initiated oxidation of ethylbenzene. It is found that during inhibited oxidation, the reactive centers (N-H and O-H) in hetaryl- and acylhydrazone molecules operate in parallel. Regularities of the compounds' inhibiting effect are studied in heterogeneous systems upon the initiated oxidation of ethylbenzene in emulsion, and in a water-lipid model of the oxidation of phosphatidylcholine dispersion. It is established that hydrazone derivatives are antioxidants of combined action in heterophase processes of the oxidation of unsaturated substrates, displaying properties of hydroperoxide deactivators in addition to their antiradical activity.

  15. 21 CFR 582.5676 - Pyridoxine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5676 Pyridoxine hydrochloride. (a) Product. Pyridoxine hydrochloride. (b)...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5676 - Pyridoxine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5676 Pyridoxine hydrochloride. (a) Product. Pyridoxine hydrochloride. (b)...

  17. Metronidazole hydrazone conjugates: Design, synthesis, antiamoebic and molecular docking studies.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mohammad Fawad; Siddiqui, Shadab Miyan; Agarwal, Subhash M; Vikramdeo, Kunwar Somesh; Mondal, Neelima; Azam, Amir

    2015-09-01

    Metronidazole hydrazone conjugates (2-13) were synthesized and screened in vitro for antiamoebic activity against HM1: IMSS strain of Entamoeba histolytica. Six compounds were found to be better inhibitors of E. histolytica than the reference drug metronidazole. These compounds showed greater than 50-60% viability against HeLa cervical cancer cell line after 72 h treatment. Also, molecular docking study was undertaken on E. histolytica thioredoxin reductase (EhTHRase) protein which showed significant binding affinity in the active site. Out of the six actives, some of the compounds showed lipophilic characteristics. PMID:26174554

  18. Ligand substitution reactions of a phenolic quinolyl hydrazone; oxidovanadium (IV) complexes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Quinoline ring has therapeutic and biological activities. Quinolyl hydrazones constitute a class of excellent chelating agents. Recently, the physiological and biological activities of quinolyl hydrazones arise from their tendency to form metal chelates with transition metal ions. In this context, we have aimed to study the competency effect of a phenolic quinolyl hydrazone (H2L; primary ligand) with some auxiliary ligands (Tmen, Phen or Oxine; secondary ligands) towards oxidovanadium (IV) ions. Results Mono- and binuclear oxidovanadium (IV) - complexes were obtained from the reaction of a phenolic quinolyl hydrazone with oxidovanadium (IV)- ion in absence and presence of N,N,N',N'- tetramethylethylenediamine (Tmen), 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) or 8-hydroxyquinoline (Oxine). The phenolic quinolyl hydrazone ligand behaves as monobasic bidentate (NO- donor with O- bridging). All the obtained complexes have the preferable octahedral geometry except the oxinato complex (2) which has a square pyramid geometry with no axial interaction; the only homoleptic complex in this study. Conclusion The ligand exchange (substitution/replacement) reactions reflect the strong competency power of the auxiliary aromatic ligands (Phen/Oxine) compared to the phenolic quinolyl hydrazone (H2L) towards oxidovanadium (IV) ion; (complexes 2 and 3). By contrast, in case of the more flexible aliphatic competitor (Tmen), an adduct was obtained (4). The obtained complexes reflect the strength of the ligand field towards the oxidovanadium (IV)- ion; Oxine or Phen >> phenolic hydrazone (H2L) > Tmen. PMID:21846387

  19. Synthesis of Macrocyclic Bis-Hydrazone and Their Use in Metal Cations Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Kandil, Farouk; Chebani, Mohamad Khaled; Al Zoubi, Wail

    2012-01-01

    Two new macrocyclic hydrazone Schiff bases were synthesized by reaction of succindihydrazide and adipdihydrazide with acetylacetone. Hydrazones have been characterized by elemental analyses and IR, mass, 1H?NMR, and 13C?NMR spectral data. Hydrazones have been studied by liquid-liquid extraction towards the s-metal ions (Li+, Na+, and K+) and d-metal ions (Cu2+ and Cr3+) from aqueous phase to organic phase. The effect of chloroform and dichloromethane as organic solvents over the metal chlorides extraction was investigated at 25 ± 0.1°C by using flame atomic absorption. We found differences between the two solvents in extraction selectivity. PMID:24052837

  20. 21 CFR 522.1222b - Ketamine hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. 522.1222b Section 522.1222b Food and Drugs FOOD AND... hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. (a) Chemical name... hydrochloride, 10- phenothiazine monohydrochloride, and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate. (b) Specifications....

  1. 21 CFR 522.1222b - Ketamine hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. 522.1222b Section 522.1222b Food and Drugs FOOD AND... hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. (a) Chemical name... hydrochloride, 10- phenothiazine monohydrochloride, and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate. (b) Specifications....

  2. 21 CFR 522.1222b - Ketamine hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. 522.1222b Section 522.1222b Food and Drugs FOOD AND... hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. (a) Chemical name... hydrochloride, 10- phenothiazine monohydrochloride, and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate. (b) Specifications....

  3. Procedure for Working with SEMICARBAZIDE HYDROCHLORIDE or SEMICARBAZIDE HYDROCHLORIDE-Treated Animals

    E-print Network

    Chan, Hue Sun

    must wear the appropriate PPE. ANIMAL HOUSING For the first 24 hours post-injection or before the first with SEMICARBAZIDE HYDROCHLORIDE or SEMICARBAZIDE HYDROCHLORIDE-Treated Animals University of Toronto June 2010 Procedure for Working with Semicarbazide hydrochloride and Semicarbazide hydrochloride-Treated Animals

  4. 21 CFR 522.1222b - Ketamine hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. 522.1222b Section 522.1222b Food and Drugs FOOD AND... hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. (a) Chemical name... hydrochloride, 10- phenothiazine monohydrochloride, and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate. (b) Specifications....

  5. The antibacterial activity of some sulfonamides and sulfonyl hydrazones, and 2D-QSAR study of a series of sulfonyl hydrazones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslan, H. Güzin; Özcan, Servet; Karacan, Nurcan

    2012-12-01

    Benzenesulfonicacid-1-methylhydrazide (1) and its four aromatic sulfonyl hydrazone derivatives (1a-1d), N-(3-amino-2-hydroxypropyl)benzene sulfonamide (2) and N-(2-hydroxyethyl)benzenesulfonamide (3) were synthesized and their structures were determined by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and LCMS techniques. Antibacterial activities of new synthesized compounds were evaluated against various bacteria strains by microdilution and disk diffusion methods. The experimental results show that presence of OH group on sulfonamides reduces the antimicrobial activity, and antimicrobial activities of the sulfonyl hydrazones (1a-1d) are smaller than that of the parent sulfonamide (1), except Candida albicans. In addition, 2D-QSAR analysis was performed on 28 aromatic sulfonyl hydrazones as antimicrobial agents against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. In the QSAR models, the most important descriptor is total point-charge component of the molecular dipole for E. coli, and partial negative surface area (PNSA-1) for S. aureus.

  6. Possible Side Effects of Cyclophosphamide, Topotecan Hydrochloride

    Cancer.gov

    Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Cyclophosphamide, Topotecan Hydrochloride (Table Version Date: August 28, 2014) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Cyclophosphamide, Topotecan Hydrochloride, more than 20 and up to 100 may have: Hair

  7. 21 CFR 582.5875 - Thiamine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5875 Thiamine hydrochloride. (a) Product. Thiamine hydrochloride. (b) Conditions of...

  8. 21 CFR 520.2002 - Propiopromazine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Propiopromazine hydrochloride. 520.2002 Section 520.2002 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2002 Propiopromazine hydrochloride. (a)...

  9. 21 CFR 520.2002 - Propiopromazine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Propiopromazine hydrochloride. 520.2002 Section 520.2002 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2002 Propiopromazine hydrochloride. (a)...

  10. 21 CFR 520.2002 - Propiopromazine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Propiopromazine hydrochloride. 520.2002 Section 520.2002 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2002 Propiopromazine hydrochloride. (a)...

  11. Gold(I)-Catalyzed Intermolecular Cycloaddition of Allenamides with ?,?-Unsaturated Hydrazones: Efficient Access to Highly Substituted Cyclobutanes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    ?,?-Unsaturated N,N-dialkyl hydrazones undergo a mild [2 + 2] cycloaddition to allenamides when treated with a suitable gold catalyst. The method, which represents the first application of N,N-dialkyl hydrazones in gold catalysis, is compatible with a wide variety of substituents at the alkenyl moiety of the hydrazone component, proceeds with excellent levels of regio- and diastereoselectivity, and provides densely substituted cyclobutanes with good to excellent yields. PMID:25406491

  12. Fenfluramine hydrochloride, (+-)-N-ethyl-m-(trifluoromethyl)amphetamine hydrochloride

    E-print Network

    Grunewald, Gary L.; Creese, Mary W.; Extine, Michael W.

    1981-01-01

    . Program for crya structure determination. Univ. of Cambridge, England. STEWART, R . F . , DAVIDSON, E . R . & SIMPSON, W. T. J. Chem.Phys. 4 2 , 3 1 7 5 - 3 1 8 7 . Acta Cryst. (1981). B37, 1790-1793 Fenfluramine Hydrochloride, (±)-A^-Ethyl-/w-(trifluoromethyl)amphetamine... reflections after anisotropic refinement of all non-H atoms. The solid-state conformations of the fenfluramine and amphetamine cations are the same. Introduction. Single crystals of racemic fenfluramine hydrochloride were obtained by recrystallization from...

  13. Simple hydrazone building blocks for complicated functional materials.

    PubMed

    Tatum, Luke A; Su, Xin; Aprahamian, Ivan

    2014-07-15

    CONSPECTUS: The ability to selectively and effectively control various molecular processes via specific stimuli is a hallmark of the complexity of biological systems. The development of synthetic structures that can mimic such processes, even on the fundamental level, is one of the main goals of supramolecular chemistry. Having this in mind, there has been a foray of research in the past two decades aimed at developing molecular architectures, whose properties can be modulated using external inputs. In most cases, reversible conformational, configurational, or translational motions, as well as bond formation or cleavage reactions have been used in such modulations, which are usually initiated using inputs including, irradiation, metalation, or changes in pH. This research activity has led to the development of a diverse array of impressive adaptive systems that have been used in showcasing the potential of molecular switches and machines. That being said, there are still numerous obstacles to be tackled in the field, ranging from difficulties in getting molecular switches to communicate and work together to complications in integrating and interfacing them with surfaces and bulk materials. Addressing these challenges will necessitate the development of creative new approaches in the field, the improvement of the currently available materials, and the discovery of new molecular switches. This Account will describe how our quest to design new molecular switches has led us to the development of structurally simple systems that can be used for complicated functions. Our focus on the modular and tunable hydrazone functional group was instigated by the desire to simplify the structure and design of molecular switches in order to circumvent multistep synthesis. We hypothesized that by avoiding this synthetic bottleneck, which is one of the factors that hinder fast progress in the field, we can expedite the development and deployment of our adaptive materials. It should be noted though that designing structurally simple switches cannot be an end goal by itself! Therefore, we showed that our molecules can be used in applications that are beyond a simple molecular switching event (i.e., the control of the photophysical properties of liquid crystals and multistep switching cascades). While focusing on these switches, we discovered that the hydrazones can be easily transformed, using straightforward one-step reactions, into visible light activated azo switches, and two different families of fluorophores that can be used in sensing applications. These findings demonstrate that our approach of developing simple systems for sophisticated functions is not limited to the field of molecular switches and machines but can also encompass other adaptive materials. PMID:24766362

  14. The tautomerization between keto- to phenol-hydrazone induced by anions in the solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Xuefang; Yuan, Jianmei; Wang, Yingling; Zhang, Jinlian; Xu, Xiufang

    2012-02-01

    Two simple anion receptors, 2-[(2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenyl)methylene]hydrazone (1) and 2-[(3,5-dibromo-2-hydroxyphenyl)methylene]hydrazone (2) with -OH binding sites, were synthesized and characterized. The anion binding ability of receptors 1 and 2 with halide anions (F-, Cl-, Br- and I-), AcO- and HPO4- was investigated using visual (naked-eye), UV-vis titration experiments in dry DMSO together with DFT theoretical calculation. The addition of F-, AcO- and HPO4- to the host solution resulted in a red shift of the charge-transfer absorbance band accompanied by a color change from yellow to orange in the naked-eye experiments. Receptor 1 containing a nitro group at the para position and receptor 2 containing two bromine groups at the ortho and para positions both showed strong binding ability for HPO4- ion in the form of phenol-hydrazone. Moreover, receptor 1, induced by anion species in the solution, converted to the form of phenol-hydrazone from keto-hydrazone.

  15. FUNCTIONALIZED BETA-C-GLYCOSIDIC KETONE HYDRAZONES. NOVEL DERIVATIVES FOR IMMOBILIZATION AND END-LABELING OF CARBOHYDRATES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrazones are excellent derivatives for the analysis of aldehydes and ketones and are often readily prepared in quantitative yield. Unlike simple aldehydes and ketones, sugars do not usually form simple hydrazones. They react with three equivalents of aryl- or acylhydrazines at both the C1 and C2...

  16. Ruthenium(II) hydrazone Schiff base complexes: Synthesis, spectral study and catalytic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikandan, R.; Viswanathamurthi, P.; Muthukumar, M.

    2011-12-01

    Ruthenium(II) hydrazone Schiff base complexes of the type [RuCl(CO)(B)(L)] (were B = PPh 3, AsPh 3 or Py; L = hydrazone Schiff base ligands) were synthesized from the reactions of hydrazone Schiff base ligand (obtained from isonicotinoylhydrazide and different hydroxy aldehydes) with [RuHCl(CO)(EPh 3) 2(B)] (where E = P or As; B = PPh 3, AsPh 3 or Py) in 1:1 molar ratio. All the new complexes have been characterized by analytical and spectral (FT-IR, electronic, 1H, 13C and 31P NMR) data. They have been tentatively assigned an octahedral structure. The synthesized complexes have exhibited catalytic activity for oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde and cyclohexanol to cyclohexanone in the presence of N-methyl morpholine N-oxide (NMO) as co-oxidant. They were also found to catalyze the transfer hydrogenation of aliphatic and aromatic ketones to alcohols in KOH/Isopropanol.

  17. 21 CFR 522.2470 - Tiletamine hydrochloride and zolazepam hydrochloride for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2470 Tiletamine hydrochloride and zolazepam hydrochloride for...

  18. 21 CFR 522.1222b - Ketamine hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. 522.1222b Section...promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. (a) Chemical...monohydrochloride, and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate. (b)...

  19. 21 CFR 522.1222b - Ketamine hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. 522.1222b Section...promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. (a) Chemical...monohydrochloride, and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate. (b)...

  20. 21 CFR 522.1222b - Ketamine hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. 522.1222b Section...promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. (a) Chemical...monohydrochloride, and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate. (b)...

  1. 21 CFR 522.1222b - Ketamine hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. 522.1222b Section...promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection. (a) Chemical...monohydrochloride, and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate. (b)...

  2. The ligational behavior of an isatinic quinolyl hydrazone towards copper(II)- ions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The importance of the isatinic quinolyl hydrazones arises from incorporating the quinoline ring with the indole ring. Quinoline ring has therapeutic and biological activities whereas, the indole ring occurs in Jasmine flowers and Orange blossoms. As a ligand, the isatin moiety is potentially ambidentate and can coordinate the metal ions either through its lactam or lactim forms. In a previous study, the ligational behavior of a phenolic quinolyl hydrazone towards copper(II)- ions has been studied. As continuation of our interest, the present study is planned to check the ligational behavior of an isatinic quinolyl hydrazone. Results New homo- and heteroleptic copper(II)- complexes were obtained from the reaction of an isatinic quinolyl hydrazone (HL) with several copper(II)- salts viz. Cl?, Br?, NO3?, ClO4-, SO42- and AcO-. The obtained complexes have Oh, Td and D4h- symmetry and fulfill the strong coordinating ability of Cl?, Br?, NO3? and SO42- anions. Depending on the type of the anion, the ligand coordinates the copper(II)- ions either through its lactam (NO3? and ClO4-) or lactim (the others) forms. Conclusion The effect of anion for the same metal ion is obvious from either the geometry of the isolated complexes (Oh, Td and D4h) or the various modes of bonding. Also, the obtained complexes fulfill the strong coordinating ability of Cl?, Br?, NO3? and SO42- anions in consistency with the donor ability of the anions. In case of copper(II)- acetate, a unique homoleptic complex (5) was obtained in which the AcO- anion acts as a base enough to quantitatively deprotonate the hydrazone. The isatinic hydrazone uses its lactim form in most complexes. PMID:21504614

  3. An Optical Test Strip for the Detection of Benzoic Acid in Food

    PubMed Central

    Hamzah, Hairul Hisham; Yusof, Nor Azah; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Bakar, Fatimah Abu

    2011-01-01

    Fabrication of a test strip for detection of benzoic acid was successfully implemented by immobilizing tyrosinase, phenol and 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) onto filter paper using polystyrene as polymeric support. The sensing scheme was based on the decreasing intensity of the maroon colour of the test strip when introduced into benzoic acid solution. The test strip was characterized using optical fiber reflectance and has maximum reflectance at 375 nm. It has shown a highly reproducible measurement of benzoic acid with a calculated RSD of 0.47% (n = 10). The detection was optimized at pH 7. A linear response of the biosensor was obtained in 100 to 700 ppm of benzoic acid with a detection limit (LOD) of 73.6 ppm. At 1:1 ratio of benzoic acid to interfering substances, the main interfering substance is boric acid. The kinetic analyses show that, the inhibition of benzoic is competitive inhibitor and the inhibition constant (Ki) is 52.9 ppm. The activity of immobilized tyrosinase, phenol, and MBTH in the test strip was fairly sustained during 20 days when stored at 3 °C. The developed test strip was used for detection of benzoic acid in food samples and was observed to have comparable results to the HPLC method, hence the developed test strip can be used as an alternative to HPLC in detecting benzoic acid in food products. PMID:22164018

  4. Tridentate hydrazone metal complexes derived from cephalexin and 2-hydrazinopyridine: Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anacona, J. R.; Rincones, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Metal(II) coordination compounds of a tridentate hydrazone ligand (HL) derived from the condensation of cephalexin antibiotic with 2-hydrazinopyridine were synthesized. The hydrazone ligand and mononuclear [ML(OAc)(H2O)] (M(II) = Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ag) complexes were characterized by several techniques, including elemental and thermal analysis, molar conductance and magnetic susceptibility measurements, electronic, FT-IR, EPR and 1H NMR spectral studies. The cephalexin 2-pyridinylhydrazone ligand HL behaves as a monoanionic tridentate NNO chelating agent. The biological applications of complexes have been studied on three bacteria strains (Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii and Enterococcus faecalis) by agar diffusion disc method.

  5. POLYSTYRENE SULFONIC ACID CATALYZED GREENER SYNTHESIS OF HYDRAZONES IN AQUEOUS MEDIUM USING MICROWAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An environmentally benign aqueous protocol for the synthesis of cyclic, bi-cyclic, and heterocyclic hydrazones using polystyrene sulfonic acid (PSSA) as a catalyst has been developed; the simple reaction proceeds efficiently in water in the absence of any organic solvent under mi...

  6. Diastereoselective addition of Grignard reagents to ?-epoxy N-sulfonyl hydrazones.

    PubMed

    Uteuliyev, Maulen M; Nguyen, Thien T; Coltart, Don M

    2015-12-01

    The ?-alkylation of ketones and their derivatives by the addition of their corresponding enolates to alkyl halides is a fundamental synthetic transformation, but its utility is limited because the key bond-forming step proceeds in a bimolecular nucleophilic substitution fashion. Here we describe how an umpolung strategy that involves the addition of Grignard reagents to ?-epoxy N-sulfonyl hydrazones-directed by the alkoxide of the 1-azo-3-alkoxy propenes formed in situ via base-induced ring opening of the epoxide-leads to the syn-selective production of ?-alkyl-?-hydroxy N-sulfonyl hydrazones with ?-quaternary centres. This transformation is remarkable in its ability to incorporate an unprecedented range of carbon-based substituents, which include primary, secondary and tertiary alkyl, as well as alkenyl, aryl, allenyl and alkynyl groups. Subsequent hydrolysis of the ?-hydroxy N-sulfonyl hydrazone products produces the corresponding ?-hydroxy ketones. In addition to hydrolysis, the hydrazone products are poised to undergo numerous different known synthetic transformations via well-established chemistry, which would provide access to a wide array of useful structures. PMID:26587719

  7. Synthesis and larvicidal and adult topical activity of some hydrazide-hydrazone derivatives against Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of novel hydrazide-hydrazone derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their larvicidal and adult topical activity against Aedes aegypti. The proposed structures of all the synthesized compounds were confirmed using elemental analysis, UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectroscopy. Com...

  8. 21 CFR 520.2002 - Propiopromazine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Propiopromazine hydrochloride. 520.2002 Section 520.2002 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2002 Propiopromazine hydrochloride. (a) Chemical name....

  9. Potentially cytotoxic new copper(II) hydrazone complexes: synthesis, crystal structure and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Alagesan, Mani; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai S P; Dharmaraj, Nallasamy

    2013-05-21

    A new set of penta-coordinated copper(II) hydrazone complexes containing solvated methanol were synthesized by reacting the hydrazone ligands, 2-acetylpyridine benzoyl hydrazone (HL1) and 2-acetylpyridine thiophene-2-carboxylic acid hydrazone (HL2), with [CuCl2(DMSO)2] and characterized by different spectral methods. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of the complexes revealed that both of them, [CuCl(L1)(MeOH)] (1) and [CuCl(L2)(MeOH)] (2), have square pyramidal geometry around the cupric ion, in which the hydrazone is coordinated through NNO atoms along with a molecule of methanol in the apical position. Interaction of the ligands HL1 and HL2 along with the corresponding copper complexes 1 and 2 with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) has been estimated by absorption and emission titration methods which revealed that the compounds interacted with CT-DNA through intercalation. Binding of the compounds, i.e., free ligands and complexes (1) and (2) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein investigated using UV-visible, fluorescence and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic methods indicated that there occurred strong binding of copper complexes to BSA over the ligands. Further, the cytotoxicity of the compounds examined in vitro on a panel of cancerous cell lines such as a human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), a pancreatic cancer cell line (PANC-1), an Ehrlich ascites cancer cell line (EAC) and Dalton's lymphoma ascitic cancer cells (DLA) and a normal mouse embryonic fibroblasts cell line (NIH3) demonstrated that the complexes 1 and 2 possessed superior cytotoxicity than that of well-known commercial anticancer drug cisplatin to the tumor cells but are less toxic to the normal cell line and have emerged as potential candidates for further studies. PMID:23529726

  10. 21 CFR 522.883 - Etorphine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... milliliter of etorphine hydrochloride injection, veterinary, contains 1 mg of etorphine hydrochloride in... use the drug unless diprenorphine hydrochloride injection, veterinary, as provided for in § 522.723, is available for use in reversing the effects of etorphine hydrochloride injection, veterinary....

  11. 21 CFR 522.883 - Etorphine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... milliliter of etorphine hydrochloride injection, veterinary, contains 1 mg of etorphine hydrochloride in... use the drug unless diprenorphine hydrochloride injection, veterinary, as provided for in § 522.723, is available for use in reversing the effects of etorphine hydrochloride injection, veterinary....

  12. Tetradentate metal complexes derived from cephalexin and 2,6-diacetylpyridine bis(hydrazone): Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anacona, J. R.; Rangel, Victor; Loroño, Marcos; Camus, Juan

    2015-10-01

    Metal(II) coordination compounds of a hydrazone ligand (HL) derived from the condensation of cephalexin antibiotic with 2,6-diacetylpyridine bis(hydrazone) were synthesized. The hydrazone ligand and mononuclear [ML(H2O)2][PF6] (M(II) = Mn, Co, Ni, Zn) complexes were characterized by several techniques, including elemental and thermal analysis, molar conductance and magnetic susceptibility measurements, electronic, FT-IR, EPR and 1H NMR spectral studies. The cephalexin 2,6-diacetylpyridine bis(hydrazone) ligand HL behaves as a monoanionic tetradentate NNNO chelating agent. The biological applications of complexes have been studied on two bacteria strains (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) by agar diffusion disc method.

  13. Acute Psychotic Symptoms due to Benzydamine Hydrochloride Abuse with Alcohol.

    PubMed

    Acar, Yahya Ayhan; Kalkan, Mustafa; Cetin, R?dvan; Cevik, Erdem; C?nar, Orhan

    2014-01-01

    Benzydamine hydrochloride is a locally acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Benzydamine hydrochloride overdose can cause stimulation of central nervous system, hallucinations, and psychosis. We presented a young man with psychotic symptoms due to benzydamine hydrochloride abuse. He received a total dose of 1000?mg benzydamine hydrochloride with alcohol for its hallucinative effects. Misuse of benzydamine hydrochloride must be considered in differential diagnosis of first-episode psychosis and physicians should consider possibility of abuse in prescribing. PMID:25343054

  14. Acute Psychotic Symptoms due to Benzydamine Hydrochloride Abuse with Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Acar, Yahya Ayhan; Kalkan, Mustafa; Çetin, R?dvan; Çevik, Erdem; Ç?nar, Orhan

    2014-01-01

    Benzydamine hydrochloride is a locally acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Benzydamine hydrochloride overdose can cause stimulation of central nervous system, hallucinations, and psychosis. We presented a young man with psychotic symptoms due to benzydamine hydrochloride abuse. He received a total dose of 1000?mg benzydamine hydrochloride with alcohol for its hallucinative effects. Misuse of benzydamine hydrochloride must be considered in differential diagnosis of first-episode psychosis and physicians should consider possibility of abuse in prescribing. PMID:25343054

  15. Yohimbine hydrochloride as an antagonist to xylazine hydrochloride-ketamine hydrochloride immobilization of white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; DelGiudice, G.D.; Karns, P.D.; Seal, U.S.

    1985-01-01

    Thirteen captive and one free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were immobilized one to six times each with ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride during winter and spring in northern Minnesota. Administration of 0.09 to 0.53 mg of yohimbine hydrochloride per kg IV after each trial reversed the immobilization. The deer raised their heads within a median time of 2.0 min, stood in 6.0 min and walked away in 9.5 min. No adverse side effects were observed for several weeks following the immobilization.

  16. Thermoanalytical Investigation of Terazosin Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Attia, Ali Kamal; Mohamed Abdel-Moety, Mona

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Thermal analysis (TGA, DTG and DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) have been used to study the thermal behavior of terazosin hydrochloride (TER). Methods: Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to determine the thermal behavior and purity of the used drug. Thermodynamic parameters such as activation energy (E*), enthalpy (?H*), entropy (?S*) and Gibbs free energy change of the decomposition (?G*) were calculated using different kinetic models. Results: The purity of the used drug was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (99.97%) and specialized official method (99.85%) indicating to satisfactory values of the degree of purity. Thermal analysis technique gave satisfactory results to obtain quality control parameters such as melting point (273 ºC), water content (7.49%) and ash content (zero) in comparison to what were obtained using official method: (272 ºC), (8.0%) and (0.02%) for melting point, water content and ash content, respectively. Conclusion: Thermal analysis justifies its application in quality control of pharmaceutical compounds due to its simplicity, sensitivity and low operational costs. DSC data indicated that the degree of purity of terazosin hydrochloride is similar to that found by official method. PMID:24312828

  17. The ligational behavior of a phenolic quinolyl hydrazone towards copper(II)- ions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The heterocyclic hydrazones constitute an important class of biologically active drug molecules. The hydrazones have also been used as herbicides, insecticides, nematocides, redenticides, and plant growth regulators as well as plasticizers and stabilizers for polymers. The importance of the phenolic quinolyl hydrazones arises from incorporating the quinoline ring with the phenolic compound; 2,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde. Quinoline ring has therapeutic and biological activities whereas, phenols have antiseptic and disinfectants activities and are used in the preparation of dyes, bakelite and drugs. The present study is planned to check the effect of the counter anions on the type and geometry of the isolated copper(II)- complexes as well as the ligational behavior of the phenolic hydrazone; 4-[(2-(4,8-dimethylquinolin-2-yl)hydrazono)methyl] benzene-1,3-diol; (H2L). Results A phenolic quinolyl hydrazone (H2L) was allowed to react with various copper(II)- salts (Cl?, Br?, NO3?, ClO4?, AcO?, SO42-). The reactions afforded dimeric complexes (ClO4?, AcO? ), a binuclear complex (NO3? ) and mononuclear complexes (the others; Cl?, Br?, SO42-). The isolated copper(II)- complexes have octahedral, square pyramid and square planar geometries. Also, they reflect the strong coordinating ability of NO3?, Cl?, Br?, AcO? and SO42- anions. Depending on the type of the anion, the ligand showed three different modes of bonding viz. (NN)0 for the mononuclear complexes (3, 4, 6), (NO)- with O- bridging for the dimeric complexes (1, 5) and a mixed mode [(NN)0 + (NO)- with O- bridging] for the binuclear nitrato- complex (2). Conclusion The ligational behavior of the phenolic hydrazone (H2L) is highly affected by the type of the anion. The isolated copper(II)- complexes reflect the strong coordinating power of the SO42-, AcO?, Br?, Cl? and NO3? anions. Also, they reflect the structural diversity (octahedral, square pyramid and square planar) depending on the type of the counter anion. PMID:21223587

  18. Immobilization of swift foxes with ketamine hydrochloride-xylazine hydrochloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Telesco, R.L.; Sovada, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing need to develop field immobilization techniques that allow researchers to handle safely swift foxes (Vulpes velox) with minimal risk of stress or injury. We immobilized captive swift foxes to determine the safety and effectiveness of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride at different dosages. We attempted to determine appropriate dosages to immobilize swift foxes for an adequate field-handling period based on three anesthesia intervals (induction period, immobilization period, and recovery period) and physiologic responses (rectal temperature, respiration rate, and heart rate). Between October 1998-July 1999, we conducted four trials, evaluating three different dosage ratios of ketamine and xylazine (2.27:1.2, 5.68:1.2, and 11.4:1.2 mg/kg ketamine:mg/kg xylazine, respectively), followed by a fourth trial with a higher dosage at the median ratio (11.4 mg/kg ketamine:2.4 mg/kg xylazine). We found little difference in induction and recovery periods among trials 1-3, but immobilization time increased with increasing dosage (P<0.08). Both the immobilization period and recovery period increased in trial 4 compared with trials 1-3 (P???0.03). There was a high variation in responses of individual foxes across trials, making it difficult to identify an appropriate dosage for field handling. Heart rate and respiration rates were depressed but all physiologic measures remained within normal parameters established for domestic canids. We recommend a dosage ratio of 10 mg/kg ketamine to 1 mg/kg xylazine to immobilize swift foxes for field handling.

  19. The anion recognition properties of a novel hydrazone based on colorimetric and potentiometric studies.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Divya; Gupta, Neha; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    A novel hydrazone, 1,3-bis (2-formylphenoxy) propane bis (2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine) (S) has been synthesized and characterized by the NMR, IR, CHNS, UV-Vis, Raman, TEM and XPS analysis. Upon the addition of monohydrogen phosphate (MHP) ion, sudden color change from light yellow to dark violet has occurred. The binding constant of S-MHP was determined by Hill plot. Hydrazone also showed potential response with MHP ion. A number of polymeric membrane electrodes (PME) and coated graphite electrode (CGE) were also fabricated and found that the CGE has revealed better results in comparison to PME in terms of the detection limit of 7.58×10(-9)molL(-1) and Nernstian response. PMID:26478343

  20. Development of Chiral Bis-hydrazone Ligands for the Enantioselective Cross-Coupling Reactions of Aryldimethylsilanolates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A palladium-catalyzed, enantioselective, aryl–aryl cross-coupling reaction using 1-naphthyldimethylsilanolates and chiral bis-hydrazone ligands has been developed. A family of glyoxal bis-hydrazone ligands containing various 2,5-diarylpyrrolidine groups was prepared to evaluate the influence of ligand structure on the rate and enantioselectivity of the cross-coupling. New synthetic routes to the 1-amino-2,5-diarylpyrrolidines were developed to enable the structure/reactivity–selectivity studies. Role reversal experiments of aryldimethylsilanolates and aryl bromides result in biaryl products with the same configuration and similar enantioselectivities implying that reductive elimination is the stereodetermining step. The origin of stereoselectivity is rationalized through computational modeling of diarylpalldium(II) complex which occurs through a conrotatory motion for the two aryl groups undergoing C–C bond formation. PMID:25494058

  1. 21 CFR 184.1676 - Pyridoxine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... hydrochloride that is prepared by chemical synthesis. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...)(31) of this chapter; plant protein products as defined in § 170.3(n)(33) of this chapter; and...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1676 - Pyridoxine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... hydrochloride that is prepared by chemical synthesis. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...)(31) of this chapter; plant protein products as defined in § 170.3(n)(33) of this chapter; and...

  3. 21 CFR 520.2002 - Propiopromazine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...potentiate the toxicity of organophosphates and the activity of procaine hydrochloride. Overdosage may produce significant depression. (3) For use only by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian. [40 FR 13838, Mar. 27, 1975, as amended...

  4. 21 CFR 520.2002 - Propiopromazine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...potentiate the toxicity of organophosphates and the activity of procaine hydrochloride. Overdosage may produce significant depression. (3) For use only by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian. [40 FR 13838, Mar. 27, 1975, as amended...

  5. Design, synthesis, computational calculation and biological evaluation of some novel 2-thiazolyl hydrazones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbazhagan, R.; Sankaran, K. R.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study a novel series of 1-(1-(4-isobutylphenyl)ethylidene)-2-(4-phenylthiazol-2-yl)hydrazine 2a and its derivatives 2b-2f have been synthesized by the cyclization of 1-(1-(4-isobutylphenyl)ethylidene)thiosemicarbazide with 2-bromoacetophenone/ 4-substituted 2-bromoacetophenones. The structures of the synthesized thiazolyl hydrazones 2a-2f were characterized by FT-IR, 1H, 13C NMR, 2D NMR and mass spectral techniques. The molecular geometries were also investigated theoretically using B3LYP functional with 6-311G(d,p) basis set. To explain the molecular properties energy gap (Eg), electronegativity (?), hardness (g), electrophilicity (?) and softness (S) were computed, natural bonding orbital (NBO) analysis and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) were also performed at the same level of theory. All the synthesized thiazolyl hydrazones 2a-2f were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against selected bacterial and fungal strains. The results showed that the heterocyclic thiazolyl hydrazone derivatives exhibit a promising selective inhibitory activity against various bacterial and fungal strains.

  6. In Vitro Nematicidal Activity of Aryl Hydrazones and Comparative GC-MS Metabolomics Analysis.

    PubMed

    Eloh, Kodjo; Demurtas, Monica; Deplano, Alessandro; Ngoutane Mfopa, Alvine; Murgia, Antonio; Maxia, Andrea; Onnis, Valentina; Caboni, Pierluigi

    2015-11-18

    A series of aryl hydrazones were synthesized and in vitro assayed for their activity on the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The phenylhydrazones of thiophene-2-carboxyaldehyde 5, 3-methyl-2-thiophenecarboxyaldehyde, 6, and salicylaldehyde, 2, were the most potent with EC50/48h values of 16.6 ± 2.2, 23.2 ± 2.7, and 24.3 ± 1.4 mg/L, respectively. A GC-MS metabolomics analysis, after in vitro nematode treatment with hydrazone 6 at 100 mg/L for 12 h, revealed elevated levels of fatty acids such as lauric acid, stearic acid, 2-octenoic acid, and palmitic acid. Whereas control samples showed the highest levels of monoacylglycerols such as monostearin and 2-monostearin, surprisingly, 2 h after treatment with hydrazone 6, nematodes excreted 3 times the levels of ammonia eliminated in the same conditions by controls. Thus, phenylhydrazones may represent a good scaffold in the discovery and synthesis of new nematicidal compounds, and a metabolomics approach may be helpful in understanding their mechanisms of toxicity and mode of action. PMID:26528945

  7. 78 FR 34108 - Determination That SUBOXONE (Buprenorphine Hydrochloride and Naloxone Hydrochloride) Sublingual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... Naloxone Hydrochloride) Sublingual Tablets, 2 Milligrams/0.5 Milligrams and 8 Milligrams/2 Milligrams, Were... (buprenorphine hydrochloride (HCl) and naloxone HCl) sublingual tablets, 2 milligrams (mg)/0.5 mg and 8 mg/2 mg... (buprenorphine HCl and naloxone HCl) sublingual tablets, 2 mg/0.5 mg and 8 mg/2 mg, are the subject of NDA...

  8. Structural studies and investigation on the activity of imidazole-derived thiosemicarbazones and hydrazones against crop-related fungi.

    PubMed

    Reis, Débora C; Despaigne, Angel A Recio; Da Silva, Jeferson G; Silva, Nayane F; Vilela, Camila F; Mendes, Isolda C; Takahashi, Jacqueline A; Beraldo, Heloisa

    2013-01-01

    New imidazole derived thiosemicarbazones and hydrazones were prepared by condensation of 4(5)-imidazole carboxaldehyde, 4-(1H-imidazole-1-yl)benzaldehyde and 4-(1H-imidazole-1-yl)acetophenone with a thiosemicarbazide or hydrazide. All compounds were characterized by quantitative elemental analysis, IR and NMR techniques. Eight structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The antifungal activities of the compounds were evaluated. None of the compounds exhibited significant activity against Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans, while 4(5)-imidazolecarboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (ImT) and 4-(1H-imidazole-1-yl)benzaldehyde thiosemicabazone (4ImBzT) were highly and selectively active against Cladosporium cladosporioides. 4(5)-Imidazolecarboxaldehyde benzoyl hydrazone (4(5)ImPh), 4(5)-imidazolecarboxaldehyde-para-chlorobenzoyl hydrazone (4(5)ImpClPh), 4(5)-imidazolecarboxaldehyde-para-nitrobenzoyl hydrazone (4(5)ImpNO2Ph), 4-(imidazole-1-yl)acetophenone-para-chloro-benzoyl hydrazone (4ImAcpClPh) and 4-(imidazole-1-yl)acetophenone-para-nitro-benzoylhydrazone (4ImAcpNO2Ph) were highly active against Candida glabrata. 4(5)ImpClPh and 4(5)ImpNO2Ph were very effective against C. cladosporioides. In many cases, activity was superior to that of the reference compound nystatin. PMID:24129274

  9. Possible Side Effects of Cyclophosphamide, Etoposide, Topotecan Hydrochloride

    Cancer.gov

    Page of 1Possible Side Effects of Cyclophosphamide, Etoposide, Topotecan Hydrochloride (Table Version Date: August 28, 2014) COMMON, SOME MAY BE SERIOUS In 100 people receiving Cyclophosphamide, Etoposide, Topotecan Hydrochloride, more than 20 and

  10. 21 CFR 520.1242 - Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage forms. 520.1242...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS...1242 Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1242 - Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage forms. 520.1242...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS...1242 Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage...

  12. 21 CFR 520.1242 - Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage forms. 520.1242...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS...1242 Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage...

  13. 21 CFR 522.2002 - Propiopromazine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Propiopromazine hydrochloride injection. 522.2002 Section 522.2002 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2002 Propiopromazine hydrochloride injection....

  14. 21 CFR 522.2002 - Propiopromazine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Propiopromazine hydrochloride injection. 522.2002 Section 522.2002 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2002 Propiopromazine hydrochloride injection....

  15. 21 CFR 522.2002 - Propiopromazine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Propiopromazine hydrochloride injection. 522.2002 Section 522.2002 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2002 Propiopromazine hydrochloride injection....

  16. 21 CFR 182.1047 - Glutamic acid hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glutamic acid hydrochloride. 182.1047 Section 182.1047 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1047 Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (a) Product. Glutamic acid hydrochloride....

  17. 21 CFR 182.1047 - Glutamic acid hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glutamic acid hydrochloride. 182.1047 Section 182.1047 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1047 Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (a) Product. Glutamic acid hydrochloride....

  18. 21 CFR 182.1047 - Glutamic acid hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glutamic acid hydrochloride. 182.1047 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1047 Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (a) Product. Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  19. 21 CFR 182.1047 - Glutamic acid hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glutamic acid hydrochloride. 182.1047 Section 182.1047 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1047 Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (a) Product. Glutamic acid hydrochloride....

  20. Synthesis and anticancer activities of novel 8-azapurine carbocyclic nucleoside hydrazones.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yeming; Yan, Hong; Ma, Chao; Lu, Dan

    2015-10-15

    A series of novel 8-azapurine carbocyclic nucleoside hydrazones were synthesized through a useful procedure starting from amino alcohol and pyrimido dichloride. All the products were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and HRMS spectral analysis and the stereochemical structure of key intermediate was also confirmed by a single crystal X-ray diffraction crystallographic analysis. Moreover, the anticancer activities were evaluated in vitro against human liver cancer Huh-7 cell line and human breast cancer A549 cell line. PMID:26364944

  1. 21 CFR 184.1676 - Pyridoxine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pyridoxine hydrochloride. 184.1676 Section 184.1676 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1875 - Thiamine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...C1N4 OS·HCl, CAS Reg. No. 67-03-8) is the chloride-hydrochloride salt of thiamine. It occurs as hygroscopic white crystals or a white crystalline powder. The usual method of preparing this substance is by linking the preformed thiazole and...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1875 - Thiamine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...C1N4 OS·HCl, CAS Reg. No. 67-03-8) is the chloride-hydrochloride salt of thiamine. It occurs as hygroscopic white crystals or a white crystalline powder. The usual method of preparing this substance is by linking the preformed thiazole and...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5676 - Pyridoxine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pyridoxine hydrochloride. 582.5676 Section 582.5676 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5676...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1676 - Pyridoxine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pyridoxine hydrochloride. 184.1676 Section 184.1676 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1676 - Pyridoxine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...5-dihydroxymethy-2-methylpyridine hydrochloride that is prepared by chemical synthesis. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications...defined in § 170.3(n)(31) of this chapter; plant protein products as defined in § 170.3(n)(33) of this...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1676 - Pyridoxine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...5-dihydroxymethy-2-methylpyridine hydrochloride that is prepared by chemical synthesis. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications...defined in § 170.3(n)(31) of this chapter; plant protein products as defined in § 170.3(n)(33) of this...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1676 - Pyridoxine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...5-dihydroxymethy-2-methylpyridine hydrochloride that is prepared by chemical synthesis. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications...defined in § 170.3(n)(31) of this chapter; plant protein products as defined in § 170.3(n)(33) of this...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1676 - Pyridoxine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...5-dihydroxymethy-2-methylpyridine hydrochloride that is prepared by chemical synthesis. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications...defined in § 170.3(n)(31) of this chapter; plant protein products as defined in § 170.3(n)(33) of this...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1676 - Pyridoxine hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...5-dihydroxymethy-2-methylpyridine hydrochloride that is prepared by chemical synthesis. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications...defined in § 170.3(n)(31) of this chapter; plant protein products as defined in § 170.3(n)(33) of this...

  11. Synthesis, Antiplatelet Activity and Cytotoxicity Assessment of Indole-Based Hydrazone Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Haj Mohammad Ebrahim Tehrani, Kamaleddin; Esfahani Zadeh, Marjan; Mashayekhi, Vida; Hashemi, Maryam; Kobarfard, Farzad; Gharebaghi, Farhad; Mohebbi, Shohreh

    2015-01-01

    A series of indole-based aryl(aroyl)hydrazone analogs of antiplatelet indole-3-carboxaldehyde phenylhydrazone were synthesized by the Schiff base formation reaction and their antiplatelet activity was assessed using human platelet rich plasma. The platelet concentrate was obtained using a two-step centrifugation protocol and ADP, arachidonic acid and collagen were used as inducers of platelet aggregation. Based on the results, substituted phenylhydrazones showed promising activity. Among them, compound 1i was the most potent derivative with an IC50 comparable to that of indomethacin as a standard drug. The hydrazone derivatives were also tested for their cytotoxicity using on platelet concentrates and fibroblast L929 cells. The majority of the derivatives showed an acceptable selectivity towards antiplatelet aggregation activity. Based on the activity data, phenylhydrazone derivatives (1a-i) exhibited considerable antiplatelet activity and minimal toxic effect on platelet cells. The results of the present study could provide a better understanding of the structure activity relationship of antiplatelet indolehydrazones.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and modeling structures of isatin-3-Girard T (IGT) and P (IGP) hydrazone complexes.

    PubMed

    Salah, Sabah; El-Wahab, Zeinab H Abd; Farag, Rabei S; Mostafa, Mohsen M

    2014-04-24

    The reactions of isatin Girard's T hydrazone, N,N,N-trimethyl-2-oxo-2[(2z)-2-(2-oxo-1,2-dihydro-3H-indole-3-ylidene)hydrazino]ethan ammonium chloride (IGT) and isatin Girard's P hydrazone, 1-{2-oxo-2-[(2z)(2-oxo-1,2-dihydro-3H-indole-3-ylidene)hydrazine]ethyl} pyridinium chloride (IGP), with Fe(3+), Al(3+), Sb(3+) and Sn(2+) salts afford different types of complexes. The isolated solid complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance, spectral (IR, UV-Vis, (1)H NMR, mass), magnetic moment and thermal measurements. The results suggest that all the complexes are conducting in polar solvents (EtOH, H2O and DMF). The IR spectral data suggest that the ligands coordinate in a tridentate manner via the two carbonyl of both isatin and Girard's and the azomethine (C=N) groups. The amounts of solvents inside and outside the coordination sphere were determined using thermal data (TGA) and weight loss method. The octahedral geometry of the complexes is confirmed using DFT method from DMOL(3) calculations. The ligands and their metal complexes were tested against different strains of bacteria and fungi. PMID:24509535

  13. Synthesis and antifungal activity of substituted 2,4,6-pyrimidinetrione carbaldehyde hydrazones.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Donna M; Cammarata, Amy; Backes, Gregory; Palmer, Glen E; Jursic, Branko S

    2014-01-15

    Opportunistic fungal infections caused by the Candida spp. are the most common human fungal infections, often resulting in severe systemic infections-a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in at-risk populations. Azole antifungals remain the mainstay of antifungal treatment for candidiasis, however development of clinical resistance to azoles by Candida spp. limits the drugs' efficacy and highlights the need for discovery of novel therapeutics. Recently, it has been reported that simple hydrazone derivatives have the capability to potentiate antifungal activities in vitro. Similarly, pyrimidinetrione analogs have long been explored by medicinal chemists as potential therapeutics, with more recent focus being on the potential for pyrimidinetrione antimicrobial activity. In this work, we present the synthesis of a class of novel hydrazone-pyrimidinetrione analogs using novel synthetic procedures. In addition, structure-activity relationship studies focusing on fungal growth inhibition were also performed against two clinically significant fungal pathogens. A number of derivatives, including phenylhydrazones of 5-acylpyrimidinetrione exhibited potent growth inhibition at or below 10?M with minimal mammalian cell toxicity. In addition, in vitro studies aimed at defining the mechanism of action of the most active analogs provide preliminary evidence that these compound decrease energy production and fungal cell respiration, making this class of analogs promising novel therapies, as they target pathways not targeted by currently available antifungals. PMID:24361188

  14. DMSO containing ruthenium(ii) hydrazone complexes: in vitro evaluation of biomolecular interaction and anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Alagesan, M; Sathyadevi, P; Krishnamoorthy, P; Bhuvanesh, N S P; Dharmaraj, N

    2014-11-14

    Synthesis, spectral, electrochemical and single crystal X-ray diffraction data of a new series of DMSO containing bivalent ruthenium hydrazone complexes are presented. XRD data of two of the new complexes revealed an octahedral coordination around the ruthenium ion satisfied by NOS2Cl2 atoms. Electrochemical studies showed the metal centred, quasi-reversible, one-electron redox behaviour of the new complexes. The binding of these complexes with biomolecules such as calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein investigated by different spectrophotometric methods revealed an intercalative mode of interaction. The in vitro cytotoxicity of these complexes evaluated by the MTT assay on a panel of cancer and normal cell lines indicated that the above complexes are more toxic to cancer cells with a few micromolar concentrations as the IC50 value, but are significantly less toxic to normal cell lines. The observed variations in the binding interactions and cytotoxicity of the complexes were attributed to the nature of the hydrazide moiety of the hydrazones that influences their biological activities. PMID:25223849

  15. Vanadium Complexes with Hydrazone or Thiosemicarbazone Ligands as Potential Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis Agents.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Paula C; Maia, Pedro I S; de Barros, Heloisa B; Leite, Clarice Q F; Deflon, Victor M; Pavan, Fernando R

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused mainly by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and still an important public health problem worldwide. Some factors like the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains make urgent the research of new active compounds. Searching for new inorganic compounds against TB, three new dioxovanadium(V) complexes were obtained upon reaction of [VO(acac)2] with hydrazone and thiosemicarbazone ligands derived from di-2-pyridyl ketone. Spectroscopic studies and X-ray crystallography revealed asymmetrically oxo bridged binuclear complexes of the type [{VO(L(1,2))}2(?-O)2], involving the hydrazone ligands, while a mononuclear square pyramidal complex of the type [VO2(L(3))] was formed with the thiosemicarbazone ligand. The compounds were tested against M. tuberculosis and three of them, with MICs values between 2.00 and 3.76 ?M were considered promising for TB treatment. Such MIC values are comparable or better than those found for some drugs currently used in TB treatment. PMID:24433444

  16. Palladium-catalyzed three-component reaction of N-tosyl hydrazones, isonitriles and amines leading to amidines.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qiang; Jiang, Yan; Yu, Jin-Tao; Cheng, Jiang

    2015-12-01

    A palladium-catalyzed three-component reaction between N-tosyl hydrazones, aryl isonitriles and amines was developed, leading to amidines in moderate to good yields. This procedure features the rapid construction of amidine frameworks with high diversity and complexity. Ketenimines serve as intermediates, which encounter nucleophilic attack by amines to produce amidines. PMID:26426254

  17. 2078 J. Am. Chem. SOC.1985, 107, 2078-2082 On the Origin of the Stereoselectivity of Hydrazone

    E-print Network

    Collum, David B.

    2078 J. Am. Chem. SOC.1985, 107, 2078-2082 On the Origin of the Stereoselectivity of Hydrazone. J. L.; Tuller, F. N.; Caine, D. J. Org. Chem. 1969, 34, 3070. (b) House, H. 0.;Umen, M. J. J. Org. Chem. 1973, 38, 1000. (c) Howe, R.; McQuillin, F. J. J. Chem. SOC.1958, 1194. (d) Kuwajima, I

  18. Synthesis of Naphthalenes through Three-Component Coupling of Alkynes, Fischer Carbene Complexes, and Benzaldehyde Hydrazones via Isoindole Intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Shaofeng; Sinha-Mahapatra, Dilip K.; Herndon, James W.

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of naphthalene derivatives through three-component coupling of 2-alkynylbenzaldehyde hydrazones with carbene complexes and electron-deficient alkynes has been examined. The reaction involves formation of an isoindole derivative, followed by intramolecular Diels–Alder reaction, followed by nitrene extrusion. The reaction was highly regioselective using unsymmetrical alkynes. PMID:18351767

  19. Synthesis of naphthalenes through three-component coupling of alkynes, Fischer carbene complexes, and benzaldehyde hydrazones via isoindole intermediates.

    PubMed

    Duan, Shaofeng; Sinha-Mahapatra, Dilip K; Herndon, James W

    2008-04-17

    The synthesis of naphthalene derivatives through three-component coupling of 2-alkynylbenzaldehyde hydrazones with carbene complexes and electron-deficient alkynes has been examined. The reaction involves formation of an isoindole derivative, followed by intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction, followed by nitrene extrusion. The reaction was highly regioselective using unsymmetrical alkynes. PMID:18351767

  20. Structure-Activity Relationships of Novel Salicylaldehyde Isonicotinoyl Hydrazone (SIH) Analogs: Iron Chelation, Anti-Oxidant and Cytotoxic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Pot??ková, Eliška; Hrušková, Kate?ina; Bureš, Jan; Kova?íková, Petra; Špirková, Iva A.; Pravdíková, Kate?ina; Kolbabová, Lucie; Hergeselová, Tereza; Hašková, Pavlína; Jansová, Hana; Machá?ek, Miloslav; Jirkovská, Anna; Richardson, Vera; Lane, Darius J. R.; Kalinowski, Danuta S.; Richardson, Des R.; Vávrová, Kate?ina; Šim?nek, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (SIH) is a lipophilic, tridentate iron chelator with marked anti-oxidant and modest cytotoxic activity against neoplastic cells. However, it has poor stability in an aqueous environment due to the rapid hydrolysis of its hydrazone bond. In this study, we synthesized a series of new SIH analogs (based on previously described aromatic ketones with improved hydrolytic stability). Their structure-activity relationships were assessed with respect to their stability in plasma, iron chelation efficacy, redox effects and cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, studies assessed the cytotoxicity of these chelators and their ability to afford protection against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative injury in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. The ligands with a reduced hydrazone bond, or the presence of bulky alkyl substituents near the hydrazone bond, showed severely limited biological activity. The introduction of a bromine substituent increased ligand-induced cytotoxicity to both cancer cells and H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. A similar effect was observed when the phenolic ring was exchanged with pyridine (i.e., changing the ligating site from O, N, O to N, N, O), which led to pro-oxidative effects. In contrast, compounds with long, flexible alkyl chains adjacent to the hydrazone bond exhibited specific cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells and low toxicity against H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Hence, this study highlights important structure-activity relationships and provides insight into the further development of aroylhydrazone iron chelators with more potent and selective anti-neoplastic effects. PMID:25393531

  1. 77 FR 20987 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Lincomycin Hydrochloride Soluble Powder...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ...Hydrochloride Soluble Powder; Penicillin G Potassium in Drinking Water; Tetracycline Powder...lincomycin hydrochloride; penicillin G potassium, USP; and tetracycline hydrochloride...and ANADA 200-347 for Penicillin G Potassium, USP, all soluble powders...

  2. 40 CFR 721.6196 - Hydrochloride salt of a fatty polyalkkylene polyamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Hydrochloride salt of a fatty polyalkkylene polyamine (generic...Substances § 721.6196 Hydrochloride salt of a fatty polyalkkylene polyamine (generic...identified generically as Hydrochloride salt of a fatty polyalkkylene...

  3. 75 FR 64310 - Determination That BUSPAR (Buspirone Hydrochloride) Tablets, 10 Milligrams, 15 Milligrams, and 30...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ...BUSPAR (Buspirone Hydrochloride) Tablets, 10 Milligrams, 15 Milligrams, and 30 Milligrams...BUSPAR (buspirone hydrochloride) Tablets, 10 milligrams (mg), 15 mg, and 30 mg...BUSPAR (buspirone hydrochloride) Tablets, 10 mg, 15 mg, and 30 mg, are the...

  4. Coordination Structure Conversion of Hydrazone-Palladium(II) Complexes in the Solid State and in Solution.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Fumi; Sawaguchi, Kana; Mori, Asami; Takagi, Shoji; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Kato, Masako; Nakajima, Kiyohiko

    2015-09-01

    We prepared hydrazone-palladium(II) complexes of [PdCl2(HL(n))] and [PdCl(L(n))] (n = 1-3) by the reaction of [PdCl2(cod)] or [PdCl2(PhCN)2] and the hydrazone ligands of HL(n) {N'-(pyridin-2-ylmethylene)picolinohydrazide (HL(1)), N'-[1-(pyridin-2-yl)ethylidene]picolinohydrazide (HL(2)), and N'-[(6-methylpyridin-2-yl)methylene]picolinohydrazide (HL(3))}. The structures of the complexes were determined by X-ray analysis. The hydrazone ligands had ?N(py1),?N(imine) and ?N(amidate),?N(py2) bidentate coordination modes in [PdCl2(HL(n))] (1, n = 1; 2, n = 2) and in [PdCl2(HL(3))] (3), respectively. In contrast, tridentate coordination modes of ?N(py1),?N(imine),?N(py2) and ?N(py1),?N(amidate),?N(py2) were observed in [PdCl(L(n))] (4, n = 1; 5, n = 2) and in [PdCl(L(n))] (6, n = 1; 7, n = 2; 8, n = 3). Thermal conversion of complexes 1-3 to complexes 6-8 proceeded in acetonitrile. Complexes 4 and 5 were obtained from complexes 1 and 2, respectively, in a basic acetonitrile solution under dark conditions. Complex 4 reverted immediately to complex 1 in an acidic acetonitrile solution that included hydrochloric acid. However, under room light, in the basic acetonitrile solution that included trimethylamine, complex 4 converted photochemically to complex 6. The thermochromic or vapochromic structure conversion of these complexes also occurred in the solid state. On heating at 180 °C, the color of the crystals of complexes 1, 2, and 3 changed from yellow to orange in the solid state. (1)H NMR and/or UV-vis absorption spectroscopy confirmed that the orange complexes 6-8 were produced. The reddish-orange crystals of complexes 4 and 5 were exposed to hydrogen chloride vapor to yield the yellow products of complexes 1 and 2, respectively. PMID:26305775

  5. 21 CFR 522.1662 - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage forms. 522...DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL...1662 Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage...

  6. 21 CFR 522.1662 - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage forms. 522...DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL...1662 Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage...

  7. 21 CFR 522.1662 - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage forms. 522...DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL...1662 Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage...

  8. 21 CFR 522.1662 - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage forms. 522...DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL...1662 Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage...

  9. 21 CFR 520.2345a - Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... organisms sensitive to tetracycline hydrochloride, such as bacterial gastroenteritis due to E. coli and urinary tract infections due to Staphylococcus spp. and E. coli. (3) Limitations. Federal law...

  10. 21 CFR 520.2345a - Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... organisms sensitive to tetracycline hydrochloride, such as bacterial gastroenteritis due to E. coli and urinary tract infections due to Staphylococcus spp. and E. coli. (3) Limitations. Federal law...

  11. 21 CFR 520.2345a - Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... organisms sensitive to tetracycline hydrochloride, such as bacterial gastroenteritis due to E. coli and urinary tract infections due to Staphylococcus spp. and E. coli. (3) Limitations. Federal law...

  12. 21 CFR 520.2345a - Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... organisms sensitive to tetracycline hydrochloride, such as bacterial gastroenteritis due to E. coli and urinary tract infections due to Staphylococcus spp. and E. coli. (3) Limitations. Federal law...

  13. 21 CFR 520.2345a - Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... organisms sensitive to tetracycline hydrochloride, such as bacterial gastroenteritis due to E. coli and urinary tract infections due to Staphylococcus spp. and E. coli. (3) Limitations. Federal law...

  14. Nalfurafine hydrochloride to treat pruritus: a review

    PubMed Central

    Inui, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    Uremic pruritus has a great negative influence on quality of life in hemodialysis (HD) patients and, importantly, negatively affects mortality risk. Recently, nalfurafine hydrochloride, an opioid ?-selective agonist, has been officially approved for resistant pruritus in HD patients on the basis of a well-evidenced clinical trial in Japan. From clinical observation, it has been suggested that the upper neuron system plays a role in its pathogenesis. According to previous experimental results, using mice injected with opioids, dynorphin suppresses itch through binding ?-opioid receptors, suggesting that ?-opioid opioid receptor agonists act as potential therapeutic reagents for pruritus in HD patients. In Japan, a large-scale placebo-controlled study was performed to examine the efficacy and safety of oral nalfurafine hydrochloride for intractable pruritus in 337 HD patients. Two daily doses of 2.5 or 5 ?g nalfurafine or placebo were orally administered for 2 weeks, and clinical responses were analyzed. The results showed that the mean decrease in the visual analog scale for pruritus from baseline was 22 mm in the 5 ?g nalfurafine hydrochloride group (n=114) and 23 mm in the 2.5 ?g group (n=112). These reductions were statistically significant compared with 13 mm, which is the mean decrease of visual analog scale in the placebo group (n=111), demonstrating that nalfurafine is an effective and safe drug for uremic pruritus in HD patients. Moreover, another open-label trial (n=145) examining the long-term effect of 5 ?g oral nalfurafine revealed the maintenance of the antipruritic effect of nalfurafine for 52 weeks. In addition, on the basis of recent data showing ?-opioid receptor expression in the epidermis of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, nalfurafine hydrochloride also can be potentially used for these two skin diseases. PMID:26005355

  15. Cyclization of an ?,?-Unsaturated hydrazone catalyzed by a BINOL-phosphoric acid: Pericyclic or not?

    PubMed

    Heggen, Berit; Patil, Mahendra; Thiel, Walter

    2016-01-15

    Density functional theory is used to study the mechanism of the title reaction, one of the first catalytic asymmetric 6?-electrocyclizations observed experimentally. The benzylideneacetone-derived phenyl hydrazone is chosen as model substrate for the cyclization reaction, both in the protonated (A) and unprotonated (B) form, while the isoelectronic carbon analogue, 1,5-diphenylpentadienyl anion (C), serves as a reference for comparisons. The barrier to cyclization is computed to be more than 15 kcal/mol lower in A compared with B, in line with the observed acid catalysis. The relevant transition states to cyclization are characterized for A and C using orbital inspection, natural bond orbital analysis, nucleus independent chemical shifts, and stereochemical indicators. The cyclization of C is confirmed to be pericyclic, while that of A can be described as pseudopericyclic ring closure involving an intramolecular nucleophilic addition. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26373256

  16. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of new sulfonyl hydrazone derivatives and their nickel(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özmen, Ümmühan Özdemir; Olgun, Gülçin

    2008-08-01

    Prophane sulfonic acid hydrazide (psh: CH 3CH 2CH 2SO 2NHNH 2) derivatives as salicylaldehydeprophanesulfonylhydrazone (salpsh), 5-methylsalicylaldehydeprophanesulfonylhydrazone (5-msalpsh), 2-hydroxyacetophenoneprophanesulfonylhydrazone (afpsh), 5-methyl-2-hydroxyacetophenoneprophanesulfonylhydrazone (5-mafpsh) and their Ni(II) complexes have been synthesized. The structure of these compounds has been investigated by using elemental analysis, FTIR, 1H NMR, LC/MS, UV-vis spectrophotometric method, magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements. The complexes were found to have general compositions [NiL2]. Square-planer structures are proposed for the Ni(II) complexes on the basis of magnetic evidence, electronic spectra and TGA data. Bacterial activities of sulfonyl hydrazone compounds were studied against gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus magaterium and gram-negative bacteria: Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli by using minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) method.

  17. Molecular oxygen reduction catalyzed by a highly oxidative resistant complex of cobalt-hydrazone at the liquid/liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Kamyabi, Mohammad Ali; Soleymani-Bonoti, Fatemeh; Bikas, Rahman; Hosseini-Monfared, Hassan; Arshadi, Nematollah; Siczek, Milosz; Lis, Tadeusz

    2015-12-01

    A new complex of Co(iii) using an oxidative stable hydrazone ligand, CoL, was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopic methods and single crystal X-ray analysis where HL is bis-[(E)-N'-(phenyl(pyridin-2-yl)methylene)]carbohydrazide. X-ray analysis revealed that the complex is mononuclear and the coordination environment around the Co(iii) core is trans-[CoN4Cl2]. The catalytic activity of the complex in the oxygen reduction reaction was investigated. The complex is a highly oxidative resistant cobalt-hydrazone which can efficiently catalyze the reduction of oxygen (O2) by a weak electron donor ferrocene, (Fc), at the polarized water/1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) interface. Oxygen reduction is coupled with proton transfer from water to the organic phase to form hydrogen peroxide, which is extracted into the aqueous phase. PMID:26377052

  18. Synthesis and crystal structures of ethanol-coordinated molybdenum(VI) oxo complexes with tridentate hydrazone ligands.

    PubMed

    Qian, Shao-Song; Cheng, Xiao-Shan; You, Zhong-Lu; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Reaction of [MoO2(acac)2] (where acac = acetylacetonate) with two similar hydrazone ligands in ethanol yielded two ethanol-coordinated mononuclear molybdenum(VI) oxo complexes with general formula [MoO2L(EtOH)], where L = L1 = (N'-(3,5-dibromo-2-hydroxybenzylidene)-4-nitrobenzohydrazide (H2L1), and L = L2 = (N'-(3,5-dibromo-2-hydroxybenzylidene)-2-fluorobenzohydrazide (H2L2). Crystal and molecular structures of the complexes were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. All of the investigated compounds were further characterized by elemental analysis and FT-IR spectra. Single crystal X-ray structural studies indicate that the hydrazone ligands coordinate to the MoO2 cores through enolate oxygen, phenolate oxygen and azomethine nitrogen. The Mo atoms in both complexes are in octahedral coordination. Thermal stability of the complexes has also been studied. PMID:24362991

  19. 40 CFR 721.4460 - Amidinothiopropionic acid hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amidinothiopropionic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4460 Amidinothiopropionic acid hydrochloride. (a) Chemical substance and... amidinothiopropionic acid hydrochloride (PMN P-91-102) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1263c - Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder. 520.1263c Section 520.1263c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1263c Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder....

  1. 21 CFR 520.1263c - Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder. 520.1263c Section 520.1263c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1263c Lincomycin hydrochloride soluble powder....

  2. Stereoselective synthesis, spectral and antimicrobial studies of some cyanoacetyl hydrazones of 3-alkyl-2,6-diarylpiperidin-4-ones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velayutham Pillai, M.; Rajeswari, K.; Vidhyasagar, T.

    2014-11-01

    A series of novel cyanoacetyl hydrazones of 3-alkyl-2,6-diarylpiperidin-4-ones were synthesized stereoselectively and characterized by IR, Mass, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 1H-1H COSY and 1H-13C COSY spectra. The stereochemistry of the synthesized compounds was established using NMR spectra. Antimicrobial screening of the synthesized compounds revealed their antibacterial and antifungal potencies. Growth inhibition of Enterobacter Aerogenes by compound 15 was found to be superior to the standard drug.

  3. An investigation on new ruthenium(II) hydrazone complexes as anticancer agents and their interaction with biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Alagesan, Mani; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai S P; Dharmaraj, Nallasamy

    2014-04-28

    A new set of ruthenium(II) hydrazone complexes [Ru(H)(CO)(PPh3)2(L)] (1) and [RuCl2(DMSO)2(HL)] (2), with triphenyl phosphine or DMSO as co-ligands was synthesized by reacting benzoyl pyridine furoic acid hydrazone (HL) with [Ru(H)(Cl)(CO)(PPh3)3] and [RuCl2(DMSO)4]. The single crystal X-ray data of complexes 1 and 2 revealed an octahedral geometry around the ruthenium ion in which the hydrazone is coordinated through ON and NN atoms in complexes 1 and 2 respectively. The interaction of the compounds with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) has been estimated by absorption and emission titration methods which indicated that the ligand and the complexes interacted with CT-DNA through intercalation. In addition, the DNA cleavage ability of these newly synthesized ruthenium complexes assessed by an agarose gel electrophoresis method demonstrated that complex 2 has a higher DNA cleavage activity than that of complex 1. The binding properties of the free ligand and its complexes with bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein have been investigated using UV-visible, fluorescence and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic methods which indicated the stronger binding nature of the ruthenium complexes to BSA than the free hydrazone ligand. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of the compounds examined in vitro on a human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) and a normal mouse embryonic fibroblasts cell line (NIH 3T3) revealed that complex 2 exhibited a superior cytotoxicity than complex 1 to the cancer cells but was less toxic to the normal mouse embryonic fibroblasts under identical conditions. PMID:24519473

  4. 78 FR 34108 - Determination That SUBOXONE (Buprenorphine Hydrochloride and Naloxone Hydrochloride) Sublingual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has determined that SUBOXONE (buprenorphine hydrochloride (HCl) and naloxone HCl) sublingual tablets, 2 milligrams (mg)/0.5 mg and 8 mg/2 mg, were not withdrawn from sale for reasons of safety or effectiveness. This determination will allow FDA to approve abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for buprenorphine HCl and naloxone HCl sublingual tablets, 2......

  5. High-yielding and photolabile approaches to the covalent attachment of biomolecules to surfaces via hydrazone chemistry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Hun; Domaille, Dylan W; Noh, Hyunwoo; Oh, Taeseok; Choi, Chulmin; Jin, Sungho; Cha, Jennifer N

    2014-07-22

    The development of strategies to couple biomolecules covalently to surfaces is necessary for constructing sensing arrays for biological and biomedical applications. One attractive conjugation reaction is hydrazone formation--the reaction of a hydrazine with an aldehyde or ketone--as both hydrazines and aldehydes/ketones are largely bioorthogonal, which makes this particular reaction suitable for conjugating biomolecules to a variety of substrates. We show that the mild reaction conditions afforded by hydrazone conjugation enable the conjugation of DNA and proteins to the substrate surface in significantly higher yields than can be achieved with traditional bioconjugation techniques, such as maleimide chemistry. Next, we designed and synthesized a photocaged aryl ketone that can be conjugated to a surface and photochemically activated to provide a suitable partner for subsequent hydrazone formation between the surface-anchored ketone and DNA- or protein-hydrazines. Finally, we exploit the latent functionality of the photocaged ketone and pattern multiple biomolecules on the same substrate, effectively demonstrating a strategy for designing substrates with well-defined domains of different biomolecules. We expect that this approach can be extended to the production of multiplexed assays by using an appropriate mask with sequential photoexposure and biomolecule conjugation steps. PMID:24972257

  6. Biting deterrence and insecticidal activity of hydrazide–hydrazones and their corresponding 3-acetyl-2,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazoles against Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Hydrazones are important compounds for drug design and they have also good insecticidal activity. In this study, A series of hydrazide–hydrazones (1-10) and 3-acetyl-2,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazoles (11-20) were investigated for their biting deterrent and insecticidal act...

  7. Synthesis, characterization, investigation of biological activity and theoretical studies of hydrazone compounds containing choloroacetyl group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cukurovali, Alaaddin; Yilmaz, Engin

    2014-10-01

    In this study, three new hydrazide-hydrazone derivative compounds which contain choloroacetyl group have been synthesized and characterized. In the characterization, spectral techniques such as IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy techniques were used. Antibacterial effects of the synthesized compounds were investigated against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. In the theoretical calculations Gaussian 09 software was used with the DFT/6-311+(d,p) basis set. Experimental X-ray analysis of compounds has not been studied. Theoretical bond lengths of synthesized compounds were compared with experimental bond lengths of a similar compound. Theoretical and experimental bond lengths are in good agreement with R2: 0.896, 0.899 and 0.900 for compounds 1, 2, and 3, respectively. For antibacterial activity, the most effective one was found to be N?-(4-bromobenzylidene)-2-chloro-N-(4-(3-methyl-3-phenylcyclobutyl)-thiazol-2-yl) acetohydrazide against P.aeroginaosa ATTC 27853, among the studied compounds.

  8. A dual colorimetric and fluorescent sensor for lead ion based on naphthalene hydrazone derivative.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fang-Ying; Zhang, Hua; Xiao, Ming; Han, Bing-Xin

    2013-05-15

    A new compound, 2-boronobenzaldehyde-(2'-hydroxyl-4'-sulfonic acid) naphthalene hydrazone (1), was synthesized and its structure was characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance, mass and element analyses. The presence of Pb(2+) led 1 to undergo colorimetric and fluorescent changes, which were detectable with the naked eye. Thus, a dual spectral response for Pb(2+) detection was introduced. In KH2PO4-NaOH buffer aqueous solution (pH 6.0), 1 exhibited fluorescence enhancement at 568 nm and hyperchromicity at 595 nm upon the addition of Pb(2+). The fluorescent intensity change was proportionate to the concentration of Pb(2+) with a dynamic working range of 5.0×10(-7) mol L(-1) to 1.0×10(-4) mol L(-1) and a detection limit of 3.7×10(-8) mol L(-1). The fluorometric method was successfully applied for the detection of Pb(2+) water of Qianhu Lake and soil in Nanchang university campus. The recoveries were 111-116% for water and 97.6% for soil respectively, determined via the standard addition method. PMID:23542496

  9. Synthesis, growth and characterization of a new promising organic nonlinear optical crystal: 4-Nitrophenyl hydrazone.

    PubMed

    Hemaraju, B C; Ahlam, M A; Pushpa, N; Mahadevan, K M; Gnana Prakash, A P

    2015-12-01

    4-Nitrophenyl hydrazone single crystals were grown by slow evaporation of solvent method using acetone as a solvent. The grown crystals were subjected to various characterizations such as X-ray diffraction studies, UV-visible studies, thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA) and second harmonic generation (SHG). The cell parameters were calculated by using single crystal XRD measurement and the crystal system was found as orthorhombic with non-centro-symmetric space group Pca21. The crystallinity of the grown crystal was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction analysis. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies confirmed the presence of functional groups in the sample. The optical transmittance spectrum shows that the crystal is transparent in the visible wavelength range. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the surface morphology of the grown crystal. The chemical composition of the grown crystal was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The TGA/DTA results showed that the material is stable up to 146°C. The NLO property of the crystal was confirmed by Kurtz and Perry method and SHG conversion efficiency is 15.39 times when compared to KDP crystal. PMID:26184469

  10. Switching mechanisms and role of entropy in chemically controlled hydrazone-based switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derian, Rene; Stich, Ivan

    2015-03-01

    Chemically controlled synthetic rotary switches are important as they resemble rotary motors found in nature. In order to elucidate the recent experiments, using hybrid QM/MM methods we have studied chemically controlled hydrazone-based switches in a strongly polar solvent. The experiments indicate a controlled E -->Z-H+ switching by addition of acid and thermal backward isomerization. We have studied the Z -->E switching mechanisms and the role of entropy. We find use of explicit MM solvent crucial for understanding the huge dipole moments (>10D) in the Z conformation and significantly smaller (~5D) in the E conformation and at the transition state, pointing toward very different ordering in those states. Furthermore, the internal and free energy surfaces from thermodynamic integration are qualitatively very different with the free energy surface exhibiting much smaller energy differences between E and Z. In addition, the solvent causes a pronounced shift (~30°) in the position of the Z states from internal and free energies. Both finding highlight the role of the entropy in the switching process and help a quantitative understanding of the switching in the solvent. Supported by APVV-0207-11 and VEGA (2/0007/12) projects.

  11. Experimental and theoretical studies on methanesulfonic acid 1-methylhydrazide: Antimicrobial activities of its sulfonyl hydrazone derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özbek, Neslihan; Alyar, Saliha; Karacan, Nurcan

    2009-12-01

    Methanesulfonic acid 1-methylhydrazide ( msmh) and its sulfonyl hydrazone derivatives, salicylaldehyde- N-methylmethanesulfonylhydrazone ( salmsmh) and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde- N-methylmethanesulfonylhydrazone ( nafmsmh) were synthesized and characterized by using FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, LC-MS and elemental analysis. Conformation analysis of msmh based on DFT/B3LYP/6-311G(d) method was performed. 1H and 13C shielding tensors of msmh for the most stable conformer were calculated with GIAO/DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(2d, 2p) methods in vacuo and various solvents such as DMSO, THF, acetonitrile, methanol and aqueous solution. The harmonic vibrational wavenumbers for the most stable conformer were calculated using at B3LYP/6-311G(d) level. Antimicrobial activity of the compounds was also screened against Gram-positive bacteria ( Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus cereus RSKK 863) and Gram-negative bacteria ( Escherichia coli ATCC 11230, Salmonella enterititis ATCC 40376, Pseudomonos aeruginosa ATCC 28753) by both disc diffusion and micro dilution methods.

  12. Efficient Bioconjugation of Protein Capture Agents to Biosensor Surfaces Using Aniline-Catalyzed Hydrazone Ligation

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Ji-Yeon; Limpoco, F. T.; Bailey, Ryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Aniline-catalyzed hydrazone ligation between surface immobilized hydrazines and aldehyde-modified antibodies is shown to be an efficient method for attaching protein capture agents to model oxide-coated biosensor substrates. Silicon photonic microring resonators are used to directly evaluate the efficiency of this surface bioconjugate reaction at various pHs and in the presence or absence of aniline as a nucleophilic catalyst. It is found that aniline significantly increases the net antibody loading for surfaces functionalized over a pH range from 4.5 to 7.4, allowing derivatization of substrates with reduced incubation time and sample consumption. This increase in antibody loading directly results in more sensitive antigen detection when functionalized microrings are employed in a label-free immunoassay. Furthermore, these experiments also reveal an interesting pH dependent non-covalent binding trend that plays an important role in dictating the amount of antibody attached onto the substrate, highlighting the competing contributions of the bioconjugate reaction rate and the dynamic interactions that control opportunities for a solution-phase biomolecule to react with a substrate-bound reagent. PMID:20809595

  13. Submicron Organic Matter in a Peri-alpine, Ultra-oligotrphic Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Chanudet,V.; Filella, M.

    2007-01-01

    Combining organic carbon (OC) measurements with the classic MBTH (3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrochloride) method for carbohydrate determination and a new voltammetric method for the determination of refractory organic matter (ROM) made it possible, for the first time, to quantify the types, sources and fate of submicron organic matter present in an ultra-oligotrophic lake (Lake Brienz, Switzerland). The lake is extremely rich in suspended glacial flour in summer (glacier melting season). Measurements were taken from June 2004 to October 2005 from 1.2 {mu}m filtered samples. OC concentration remained extremely low throughout the year (below 1 mg C L{sup -1}). MBTH carbohydrate concentration was very low in the lake (0.06-0.43 mg C L{sup -1}) and in the two tributary rivers (0.06-0.25 mg C L{sup -1}). Lake carbohydrate concentration only correlated with phytoplanktonic biomass at the onset of the productivity period. The results suggest that differences in MBTH concentration may sometimes reflect differences in the nature of the carbohydrates rather than differences in carbon concentration. Extensive fibril formation was evidenced by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. ROM concentration in the lake was also very low (0.1-0.2 mg C L{sup -1}). Significant variation in ROM riverine input was due to either annual occurrences (snow melting) or irregular episodes (floods). Melting snow was responsible for about 30% of the lake's annual ROM input. One box mass balance calculations showed that about 25% of ROM was lost within the lake. Evidence gleaned from TEM and STXM (scanning transmission X-ray microscopy) observations clearly indicates that this is mainly caused by ROM sedimentation after association with inorganic colloids.

  14. Extending the Scope of the B(C6 F5 )3 -Catalyzed C?N Bond Reduction: Hydrogenation of Oxime Ethers and Hydrazones.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Jens; Porwal, Digvijay; Chatterjee, Indranil; Oestreich, Martin

    2015-12-01

    The B(C6 F5 )3 -catalyzed hydrogenation is applied to aldoxime triisopropylsilyl ethers and hydrazones bearing an easily removable phthaloyl protective group. The C?N reduction of aldehyde-derived substrates (oxime ethers and hydrazones) is enabled by using 1,4-dioxane as the solvent known to participate as the Lewis-basic component in FLP-type heterolytic dihydrogen splitting. More basic ketone-derived hydrazones act as Lewis bases themselves in the FLP-type dihydrogen activation and are therefore successfully hydrogenated in nondonating toluene. The difference in reactivity between aldehyde- and ketone-derived substrates is also reflected in the required catalyst loading and dihydrogen pressure. PMID:26489785

  15. 40 CFR 180.499 - Propamocarb hydrochloride, tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...propamocarb hydrochloride in or on the following raw agricultural commodity: Commodity Parts per million Lettuce, head 50 Lettuce, leaf 90 Potato 0.06 Tomato, paste 5.0 Vegetable, cucurbit, group 9 1.5...

  16. 40 CFR 180.499 - Propamocarb hydrochloride, tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...propamocarb hydrochloride in or on the following raw agricultural commodity: Commodity Parts per million Lettuce, head 50 Lettuce, leaf 90 Potato 0.06 Tomato, paste 5.0 Vegetable, cucurbit, group 9 1.5...

  17. 40 CFR 180.499 - Propamocarb hydrochloride, tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...propamocarb hydrochloride in or on the following raw agricultural commodity: Commodity Parts per million Lettuce, head 50 Lettuce, leaf 90 Potato 0.06 Tomato, paste 5.0 Vegetable, cucurbit, group 9 1.5...

  18. 21 CFR 522.313b - Ceftiofur hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.313b Ceftiofur hydrochloride. (a) Specifications ....

  19. 21 CFR 522.2002 - Propiopromazine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2002 Propiopromazine hydrochloride injection. (a) Chemical...

  20. 21 CFR 522.863 - Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.863 Ethylisobutrazine hydrochloride injection. (a)...

  1. 21 CFR 522.1462 - Naloxone hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1462 Naloxone hydrochloride injection. (a)...

  2. 21 CFR 522.1462 - Naloxone hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1462 Naloxone hydrochloride injection. (a)...

  3. A novel and practical asymmetric synthesis of dapoxetine hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yijun; Liu, Zhenren; Li, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    Summary A novel and practical asymmetric synthesis of dapoxetine hydrochloride by using the chiral auxiliary (S)-tert-butanesulfinamide was explored. The synthesis was concise, mild, and easy to perform. The overall yield and stereoselectivity were excellent.

  4. 21 CFR 522.1642 - Oxymorphone hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...75-1.5 (2) Do not mix with a barbiturate in the same syringe to preclude precipitation. (3) It tends to depress respiration. Naloxone hydrochloride and other narcotic antagonists are used to counter over-dosing. (4) Federal law...

  5. 21 CFR 522.1642 - Oxymorphone hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...75-1.5 (2) Do not mix with a barbiturate in the same syringe to preclude precipitation. (3) It tends to depress respiration. Naloxone hydrochloride and other narcotic antagonists are used to counter over-dosing. (4) Federal law...

  6. 21 CFR 522.1642 - Oxymorphone hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...75-1.5 (2) Do not mix with a barbiturate in the same syringe to preclude precipitation. (3) It tends to depress respiration. Naloxone hydrochloride and other narcotic antagonists are used to counter over-dosing. (4) Federal law...

  7. 21 CFR 520.2345a - Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...sensitive to tetracycline hydrochloride, such as bacterial gastroenteritis due to E . coli and urinary tract infections due to Staphylococcus spp. and E. coli . (3) Limitations . Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the...

  8. 21 CFR 520.2345a - Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...sensitive to tetracycline hydrochloride, such as bacterial gastroenteritis due to E . coli and urinary tract infections due to Staphylococcus spp. and E. coli . (3) Limitations . Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the...

  9. 21 CFR 520.2345a - Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...sensitive to tetracycline hydrochloride, such as bacterial gastroenteritis due to E . coli and urinary tract infections due to Staphylococcus spp. and E. coli . (3) Limitations . Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the...

  10. 21 CFR 520.2345a - Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...sensitive to tetracycline hydrochloride, such as bacterial gastroenteritis due to E. coli and urinary tract infections due to Staphylococcus spp. and E. coli. (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the...

  11. 21 CFR 520.2345a - Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...sensitive to tetracycline hydrochloride, such as bacterial gastroenteritis due to E . coli and urinary tract infections due to Staphylococcus spp. and E. coli . (3) Limitations . Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the...

  12. 21 CFR 522.723 - Diprenorphine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Specifications. Each milliliter of diprenorphine hydrochloride injection, veterinary, contains 2 mg of... injection, veterinary, the use of which is provided for in § 522.883, in wild and exotic animals. (2) It...

  13. 21 CFR 522.723 - Diprenorphine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Specifications. Each milliliter of diprenorphine hydrochloride injection, veterinary, contains 2 mg of... injection, veterinary, the use of which is provided for in § 522.883, in wild and exotic animals. (2) It...

  14. Relative predominance of azo and hydrazone tautomers of 4-carboxyl-2,6-dinitrophenylazohydroxynaphthalenes in binary solvent mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adegoke, Olajire A.

    2011-12-01

    Azo-hydrazone tautomerism is a phenomenon that occurs in azo dyes possessing substituents conjugated to the azo linkage which has labile proton that can be exchanged intramolecularly. Thus the predominance of one tautomer over another is a function of many factors among which are solvent polarity, solvent type, solute-solvent interactions and the structure of the dye molecule itself. The 4-carboxyl-2,6-dinitrophenylazohydroxynaphthalenes, previously shown to exhibit azo-hydrazone tautomerism, were studied for the relative predominance of one form over another based on interaction at the microenvironment of binary solvent mixtures containing DMF and non-hydrogen bonding (CCl 4), hydrogen bond donor (toluene, chloroform), hydrogen bond acceptor (acetonitrile, acetone) and the alcohols; ethanol and methanol as solvent pairs. The three dyes gave two main bands in the 50:50 mixture of DMF with these solvents consisting of a high energy band at 250-382 nm while the low energy bands for the dyes occurred at 415-485 nm. Spectral shifts in the binary solvent mixtures were related to the solvent dipolarity, basicity of the less polar component relative to DMF, substituent type, molar transition energy, formation constant for the hydrogen-bonding solvated complexes and the standard free energy change for hydrogen bonding with DMF. The relative predominance of the hydrazone tautomer bears a direct relationship to the basicity of the solvent, presence of hydrogen bond donor substituent and was associated with high molar transition energies and low formation constant. The microenvironment surrounding the dye molecules played a major role in the stability of one tautomer relative to the other.

  15. Canine olfactory sensitivity to cocaine hydrochloride and methyl benzoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waggoner, L. Paul; Johnston, James M.; Williams, Marc; Jackson, Jan; Jones, Meredith H.; Boussom, Teresa; Petrousky, James A.

    1997-02-01

    Methyl benzoate is a consistent product of cocaine hydrochloride exposed to humid air. The detection responses of dogs trained to detect illicit cocaine hydrochloride may be controlled by vapor from cocaine, methyl benzoate, or other constituents of illicit cocaine. The present study addressed the following questions: 1) How capable are dogs of detecting methyl benzoate compared to cocaine hydrochloride, 2) When dogs are trained to detect methyl benzoate, do they respond to cocaine hydrochloride as being the same or different from methyl benzoate. These questions were investigated using random source dogs trained and tested under laboratory conditions. Odor stimuli were generated and delivered by a vapor generation systems, the outputs from which were characterized by thermal desorption GC/MS. ONe group of dogs was trained to discriminate pharmaceutical grade and illicit cocaine hydrochloride from clean air and tested using a two lever procedure to determine their sensitivity to these substances. A second group of dogs was trained to discriminate between methyl benzoate and clean air and tested for their sensitivity to the substance. The dogs in this second group were then tested using a three lever procedure to determine their sensitivity to these substances. A second group of dogs was trained to discriminate between methyl benzoate and clean air and tested for their sensitivity to the substance. The dogs in this second group were then tested using a three lever procedure to determine whether they responded to cocaine hydrochloride as the same or different from methyl benzoate.

  16. Enantioselective Rhodium(I) Donor Carbenoid-Mediated Cascade Triggered by a Base-Free Decomposition of Arylsulfonyl Hydrazones.

    PubMed

    Torres, Òscar; Parella, Teodor; Solà, Miquel; Roglans, Anna; Pla-Quintana, Anna

    2015-11-01

    The reaction of diyne arylsulfonyl hydrazone substrates under rhodium(I)/BINAP catalysis gives access to sulfonated azacyclic frameworks in a highly enantioselective manner. This new cascade process considerably increases the molecular complexity by generating two C?C bonds, one C?S bond, and one C?H bond. Theoretical calculations, competitive experiments, and deuterium labeling have jointly been used to propose a mechanism that accounts for the reaction. The mechanism involves the formation of vinyl rhodium carbenoids, hydride migratory insertion, and intermolecular stereoselective nucleophilic attack. The last two steps are the key to the stereoselectivity of the process. PMID:26397988

  17. Binding of carbohydrates to solid supports, Part 2: Reaction of sugar hydrazones with isothiocyanate-substituted polystyrene.

    PubMed

    Tweeddale, H J; Batley, M; Redmond, J W

    1994-12-01

    The binding of sugars to a polymer support as thiosemicarbazones has been investigated as a means of immobilizing glycans. Hydrazones of glucose and N-acetylglucosamine were prepared by reaction with hydrazine hydrate, and successfully reacted with isothiocyanate-substituted polystyrene by incubation at room temperature and neutral pH. The binding was efficient and stable in aqueous buffers over a range of pH conditions. The bound sugars were recovered in moderate yield by treatment of the beads with hydrazine hydrate, benzaldehyde or acetone. Direct binding of reducing sugars to thiosemicarbazide-substituted polystyrene was not successful because of the unfavourable thermodynamics. PMID:7696862

  18. A Post Hoc Analysis of D-Threo-Methylphenidate Hydrochloride (Focalin) Versus D,l-Threo-Methylphenidate Hydrochloride (Ritalin)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Margaret; Wasdell, Michael; Patin, John

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate clinical measures of the benefit/risk ratio in a post hoc analysis of a clinical trial of d-threo-methylphenidate hydrochloride (d-MPH) and d,l-threo-methylphenidate hydrochloride (d,l-MPH). Method: Data from a phase III clinical trial was used to compare equimolar doses of d-MPH and d,l-MPH treatment for…

  19. Bivalent transition metal complexes of ONO donor hydrazone ligand: Synthesis, structural characterization and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, Ravindra; Salunkhe, Nilesh; Yaul, Amit; Aswar, Anand

    2015-12-01

    Mononuclear transition metal complexes of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) with a new hydrazone ligand derived from pyrazine-2-carbohydrazide and 2-hydroxyacetophenone have been synthesized. The isolated complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, spectral and analytical methods including elemental analyses, IR, diffuse reflectance, (1)H-NMR, mass spectra, molar conductance, magnetic moment, ESR, XRD, TG and SEM analysis. From the elemental analyses data, the stoichiometry of the complexes was found to be 1:1 (metal:ligand) having the general formulae [M(HL)(Cl)(H2O)2], [M=Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II)] and [M(L)(H2O)], [M=Zn(II) and Cd(II)]. The molar conductance values indicate the nonelectrolytic nature of metal complexes. The IR spectral data suggest that the ligand behaves as tridentate moiety with ONO donor atoms sequence towards central metal ion. The Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes have been assigned a monomeric octahedral geometry whereas tetrahedral to Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the ligand and its metal complexes were studied against bacterial species Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus pyogenes and fungi Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus clavatus. The activity data show that the metal complexes have a promising biological activity comparable with the parent ligand against all bacterial and fungal species. PMID:26163785

  20. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by thiosemicarbazones, hydrazones and dithiocarbazates derived from hydroxy-substituted benzaldehydes.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Maria; Raines, Daniel J; Castillo, Carmen E; Duhme-Klair, Anne K

    2011-06-01

    Nonpurine xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) inhibitors represent important alternatives to the purine analogue allopurinol, which is still the most widely used drug in the treatment of conditions associated with elevated uric acid levels in the blood. By condensing mono-, di- and trihydroxybenzaldehydes with aromatic thiosemicarbazides, aryl hydrazides and dithiocarbazates, three series of structurally related Schiff bases were synthesised, characterised and tested for XOR inhibitory activity. Hydroxy substitution in the para-position of the benzaldehyde component was found to confer high inhibitory activities. Acyl hydrazones were generally less potent than thiocarbonyl-containing Schiff bases. Within the thiosemicarbazone series, chloro and cyano substituents in the para-position of the thiosemicarbazide unit increased activities further, up to potencies approximately four-times higher than that of the benchmark allopurinol, as measured under the same assay conditions. In order to illustrate the potential of the Schiff bases to bind directly to the molybdenum centre in the active site of the enzyme, a representative example (H?L) of each inhibitor series was co-ordinated to a cis-dioxomolybdenum(VI) unit, and the resulting complexes, [MoO?(L)MeOH], were structurally characterised. Subsequent steady-state kinetic investigations, however, indicated mixed-type inhibition, similar to that observed for inhibitors known to bind within the substrate access channel of the enzyme, remote from the Mo centre. Enzyme co-crystallisation studies are thus required to determine the exact binding mode. Finally, the coordination of representative inhibitors to copper(II) gave rise to significantly decreased IC?? values, revealing an additive effect that merits further investigation. PMID:21480532

  1. Syntheses, crystal structure, Hirshfeld surfaces, fluorescence properties, and DFT analysis of benzoic acid hydrazone Schiff bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Mohammad Sayed; Lee, Dong-Ung

    2015-06-01

    Two hydrazone Schiff base analogues, namely, (E)-N?-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)benzohydrazide (3a) and (E)-N?-(4-methoxybenzylidene)benzohydrazide (3b), were synthesized using a mild, efficient method and characterized by 1H NMR, mass spectrometry, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. X-ray analysis of a single crystal of 3a revealed a tetragonal, space group I4(1)/a structure, with an E-configuration around the azomethine (sbnd C8dbnd N2sbnd) double bond. In this structure, the sbnd NHsbnd and sbnd OH groups act as proton donors and the >Cdbnd O and sbnd Ndbnd groups as proton acceptors, and these facilitate hydrogen bond formation in the crystal state. Plausible intermolecular interactions were studied using 3D Hirshfeld surfaces and related 2D fingerprint plots. The optimized geometry, vibrational frequencies, Mulliken charge distribution, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) maps, frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs), and associated energies of the ground state and the first single excited state were calculated using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependant DFT calculations using the B3LYP/6-311G method. Vibrational frequencies calculated in the gaseous phase compared with experimental values measured in the solid state and showed good agreement with each other. The chemical reactivities of 3a and 3b were predicted by mapping MEP surface over optimized geometries and comparing these with MEP map generated over crystal structures. Mulliken charge distribution analysis and MEP map of 3a and 3b revealed that N(1), O(1), O(2) and O(3) atoms could act as electron donors and coordinate with metals and that these represented the most suitable sites for electrophilic attack. In fluorescence spectra, the absorption and emission spectra of 3a and 3b were similar in different polar solvents with few exceptions. In addition, both compounds exhibited dual emission spectra in acetone due to keto-enol tautomerism induced by photoexcitation.

  2. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of salicylaldehyde 2-chlorobenzoyl hydrazone (H(2)LASSBio-466), salicylaldehyde 4-chlorobenzoyl hydrazone (H(2)LASSBio-1064) and their zinc(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Júnior, Walfrido Bispo; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna S; Alves, Marina A; Perez-Rebolledo, Anayive; Parrilha, Gabrieli L; Castellano, Eduardo E; Piro, Oscar E; Barreiro, Eliezer J; Lima, Lídia Moreira; Beraldo, Heloisa

    2011-01-01

    Salicylaldehyde 2-chlorobenzoyl hydrazone (H(2)LASSBio-466), salicylaldehyde 4-chlorobenzoyl hydrazone (H(2)LASSBio-1064) and their complexes [Zn(LASSBio-466)H(2)O](2) (1) and [Zn(HLASSBio-1064)Cl](2) (2) were evaluated in animal models of peripheral and central nociception, and acute inflammation. All studied compounds significantly inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing response. Upon coordination the anti-nociceptive activity was favored in the complex 1. H(2)LASSBio-466 inhibited only the first phase of the formalin test, while 1 was active in the second phase, like indomethacin, indicating its ability to inhibit nociception associated with the inflammatory response. Hence coordination to zinc(II) altered the pharmacological profile of H(2)LASSBio-466. H(2)LASSBio-1064 inhibited both phases but this effect was not improved by coordination. The studied compounds did not increase the latency of response in the hot plate model, indicating their lack of central anti-nociceptive activity. All compounds showed levels of inhibition of zymosan-induced peritonitis comparable or superior to indomethacin, indicating an expressive anti-inflammatory profile. PMID:21844840

  3. Highly efficient donor-acceptor hydrazone dyes-inorganic Si/TiO2 hybrid solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G.; Irfan, Ahmad; Al-Melfi, Mohrah Abdullah M.

    2015-06-01

    We have synthesized the two donor-bridge-acceptor organic dyes (hydrazone dye 1 (HD1) and hydrazone dye 2 (HD2)) with the aim to enhance intra-molecular charge transfer then characterized by FTIR and NMR. The ground state geometries have been optimized at three different levels of theories, i.e., B3LYP/6-31G?, B3LYP/6-31G?? and Hartee-Fock HF/6-31G??. The absorption spectra and oscillator strengths in different solvents have been computed and compared with the experimental data. The vibrational spectral assignments have been performed on the recorded FTIR spectra based on the theoretical predicted wavenumbers at three different levels of theories. The effect of different solvents (CHCl3, CH3CN and C2H5OH) has been studied on the absorption wavelengths. Furthermore, we have computed the ionization potentials, electron affinities and reorganization energies of studied compounds and shed light on the charge transport properties. The hetero-junction solar cell devices were fabricated by organic-inorganic hetero-junction (Si/TiO2/dye) then the efficiency has been measured by applying the incident power 30, 50 and 70 mW/cm2. The maximum efficiency 3.12% has been observed for HD1.

  4. Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and 2D-QSAR Study of Halophenyl Bis-Hydrazones as Antimicrobial and Antitubercular Agents

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Aziz, Hatem A.; Eldehna, Wagdy M.; Fares, Mohamed; Al-Rashood, Sara T. A.; Al-Rashood, Khalid A.; Abdel-Aziz, Marwa M.; Soliman, Dalia H.

    2015-01-01

    In continuation of our endeavor towards the development of potent and effective antimicrobial agents, three series of halophenyl bis-hydrazones (14a–n, 16a–d, 17a and 17b) were synthesized and evaluated for their potential antibacterial, antifungal and antimycobacterial activities. These efforts led to the identification of five molecules 14c, 14g, 16b, 17a and 17b (MIC range from 0.12 to 7.81 ?g/mL) with broad antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Aspergillus fumigates; Gram positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Bacillis subtilis; and Gram negative bacteria, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Escherichia coli. Three of the most active compounds, 16b, 17a and 17b, were also devoid of apparent cytotoxicity to lung cancer cell line A549. Amphotericin B and ciprofloxacin were used as references for antifungal and antibacterial screening, while isoniazid and pyrazinamide were used as references for antimycobacterial activity. Furthermore, three Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models were built to explore the structural requirements controlling the different activities of the prepared bis-hydrazones. PMID:25903147

  5. Pharmacological Evaluation and Preparation of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Containing an N-Acyl Hydrazone Subunit

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Thais Regina Ferreira; Chelucci, Rafael Consolin; Pires, Maria Elisa Lopes; Dutra, Luiz Antonio; Barbieri, Karina Pereira; Bosquesi, Priscila Longhin; Trossini, Gustavo Henrique Goulart; Chung, Man Chin; dos Santos, Jean Leandro

    2014-01-01

    A series of anti-inflammatory derivatives containing an N-acyl hydrazone subunit (4a–e) were synthesized and characterized. Docking studies were performed that suggest that compounds 4a–e bind to cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 isoforms, but with higher affinity for COX-2. The compounds display similar anti-inflammatory activities in vivo, although compound 4c is the most effective compound for inhibiting rat paw edema, with a reduction in the extent of inflammation of 35.9% and 52.8% at 2 and 4 h, respectively. The anti-inflammatory activity of N-acyl hydrazone derivatives was inferior to their respective parent drugs, except for compound 4c after 5 h. Ulcerogenic studies revealed that compounds 4a–e are less gastrotoxic than the respective parent drug. Compounds 4b–e demonstrated mucosal damage comparable to celecoxib. The in vivo analgesic activities of the compounds are higher than the respective parent drug for compounds 4a–b and 4d–e. Compound 4a was more active than dipyrone in reducing acetic-acid-induced abdominal constrictions. Our results indicate that compounds 4a–e are anti-inflammatory and analgesic compounds with reduced gastrotoxicity compared to their respective parent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:24714090

  6. Erlotinib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Bladder Cancer Undergoing Surgery | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase II trial studies how well erlotinib hydrochloride works in treating patients with bladder cancer undergoing surgery. Erlotinib hydrochloride may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth.

  7. 76 FR 1620 - Trials to Verify and Describe Clinical Benefit of Midodrine Hydrochloride; Establishment of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ...FDA-2010-N-0637] Trials to Verify and Describe Clinical Benefit of Midodrine Hydrochloride; Establishment...facilitate communication regarding the conduct of clinical trials needed to verify and describe the clinical benefit of midodrine hydrochloride...

  8. 76 FR 32366 - Determination That ORLAAM (Levomethadyl Acetate Hydrochloride) Oral Solution, 10 Milligrams...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and...Levomethadyl Acetate Hydrochloride) Oral Solution, 10 Milligrams/Milliliter...acetate hydrochloride (HCl)) oral solution, 10 milligrams (mg...for levomethadyl acetate HCl oral solution, 10 mg/mL, if...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1263 - Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage forms. 520.1263...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS...Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage...

  10. 21 CFR 520.1263 - Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage forms. 520.1263...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS...Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1263 - Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage forms. 520.1263...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS...Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage...

  12. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications...externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and other inflammatory...

  13. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications...externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and other inflammatory...

  14. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications...externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and other inflammatory...

  15. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications...externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and other inflammatory...

  16. Synthesis and biological activity of hydrazide hydrazones and their corresponding 3-acetyl-2,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazoles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various new 3-acetyl-2,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazoles (11-20) were prepared by the reaction of aryl substituted hydrazones of 4-fluorobenzoic acid hydrazide (1-10) with acetic anhydride. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds 11-20, were confirmed by UV, IR and 1H NMR spec...

  17. CATALYST-FREE REACTIONS UNDER SOLVENT-FEE CONDITIONS: MICROWAVE-ASSISTED SYNTHESIS OF HETEROCYCLIC HYDRAZONES BELOW THE MELTING POINT OF NEAT REACTANTS: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-CIN-1437 Jeselnik, M., Varma*, R.S., Polanc, S., and Kocevar, M. Catalyst-free Reactions under Solvent-fee Conditions: Microwave-assisted Synthesis of Heterocyclic Hydrazones below the Melting Point of Neat Reactants. Published in: Chemical Communications 18:1716-1717 (200...

  18. Sapropterin Hydrochloride: Enzyme Enhancement Therapy for Phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Lachmann, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited disorder of amino acid metabolism caused by deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). Historically PKU was a common genetic cause of severe learning difficulties and developmental delay, but with the introduction of newborn screening and early dietary management, it has become a treatable disease and people born with PKU should now have IQs and achievements similar to their peers. Dietary treatment, however, involves lifestyle changes that pervade most aspects of daily life for an individual and their family. A simple pharmacological treatment for PKU would have a great appeal. Sapropterin hydrochloride is a synthetic form of tetrahydrobiopterin, the cofactor for PAH. A proportion of mutant PAH enzymes show enhanced activity in the presence of pharmacological doses of sapropterin and, for some patients with milder forms of PKU, sapropterin can effectively lower plasma phenylalanine levels. This article discusses the potential place for sapropterin in the management of PKU and how this expensive orphan drug is being integrated into patient care in different healthcare systems. PMID:23148178

  19. 77 FR 20987 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Lincomycin Hydrochloride Soluble Powder...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ...; Lincomycin Hydrochloride Soluble Powder; Penicillin G Potassium in Drinking Water; Tetracycline Powder AGENCY... new animal drug applications (ANADAs) for lincomycin hydrochloride; penicillin G potassium, USP; and... 324; ANADA 200-303 for Lincomycin Hydrochloride Soluble Powder; and ANADA 200-347 for Penicillin...

  20. Temperature-dependent THz vibrational spectra of clenbuterol hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, YuPing; Lei, XiangYun; Yue, Ai; Zhang, Zhenwei

    2013-04-01

    Using the high-resolution Terahertz Time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and the standard sample pellet technique, the far-infrared vibrational spectra of clenbuterol hydrochloride (CH), a ? 2-adrenergic agonist for decreasing fat deposition and enhancing protein accretion, were measured in temperature range of 77-295 K. Between 0.2 and 3.6 THz (6.6-120.0 cm-1), seven highly resolved spectral features, strong line-narrowing and a frequency blue-shift were observed with cooling. However, ractopamine hydrochloride, with some structural and pharmacological similarities to clenbuterol hydrochloride, showed no spectral features, indicating high sensitivity and strong specificity of THz-TDS. These results could be used for the rapid and nondestructive CH residual detection in food safety control.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and DNA-binding properties of Ln(III) complexes with 6-ethoxy chromone-3-carbaldehyde benzoyl hydrazone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ju; Yang, Zheng-Yin; Wang, Bao-Dui; Yi, Xu-Yang; Liu, Yong-Chun

    2009-09-01

    A novel 6-ethoxy chromone-3-carbaldehyde benzoyl hydrazone (L) and its Ln(III) complexes, [Ln = Sm (1), Eu (2), Gd (3), Tb (4)], have been synthesized and characterized. The fluorescence properties of the Eu(III) and Sm(III) complexes in solid state and Eu(III) complex in different solutions (DMF, DMSO, methanol and acetonitrile) were investigated. At the same time, the DNA-binding properties of the two complexes are investigated using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, viscosity measurement. All the experimental evidences indicate that the two complexes can bind to CT-DNA via an intercalation mechanism. Furthermore, antioxidant activity tests in vitro showed that the complexes have significant antioxidative activity against hydroxyl free radicals from the Fenton reaction. PMID:19370403

  2. Synthesis, molecular structure and computational study of (Z)-2-((E)-4-nitrobenzylidene)hydrazone)-1,2-diphenylethan-1-one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmac?, Gökhan; Aktan, Ebru; Sefero?lu, Nurgül; Hökelek, Tuncer; Sefero?lu, Zeynel

    2015-11-01

    A new benzilmonohydrazone, (Z)-2-((E)-4-nitrobenzylidene)hydrazone)-1,2-diphenylethan-1-one (BMH) has been synthesized for the first time. It was characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H/13C NMR and mass spectrometry techniques. Molecular structure of the title compound was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction study. In addition, molecular structure of BMH was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique and found that the compound crystallizes in triclinic, space group P-1. Furthermore, chemical calculations employing density functional theory (DFT) method were performed to study the structural and spectroscopic properties of BMH, and the results were compared with the experimental findings.

  3. Structure–activity studies in the development of a hydrazone based inhibitor of adipose-triglyceride lipase (ATGL)

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Nicole; Schweiger, Martina; Melcher, Michaela-Christina; Fledelius, Christian; Zechner, Rudolf; Zimmermann, Robert; Breinbauer, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) catalyzes the degradation of cellular triacylglycerol stores and strongly determines the concentration of circulating fatty acids (FAs). High serum FA levels are causally linked to the development of insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance, which eventually progresses to overt type 2 diabetes. ATGL-specific inhibitors could be used to lower circulating FAs, which can counteract the development of insulin resistance. In this article, we report about structure–activity relationship (SAR) studies of small molecule inhibitors of ATGL based on a hydrazone chemotype. The SAR indicated that the binding pocket of ATGL requests rather linear compounds without bulky substituents. The best inhibitor showed an IC50 = 10 ?M in an assay with COS7-cell lysate overexpressing murine ATGL. PMID:25778769

  4. Synthesis of novel flavone hydrazones: In-vitro evaluation of ?-glucosidase inhibition, QSAR analysis and docking studies.

    PubMed

    Imran, Syahrul; Taha, Muhammad; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Kashif, Syed Muhammad; Rahim, Fazal; Jamil, Waqas; Hariono, Maywan; Yusuf, Muhammad; Wahab, Habibah

    2015-11-13

    Thirty derivatives of flavone hydrazone (5-34) had been synthesized through a five-step reaction and screened for their ?-glucosidase inhibition activity. Chalcone 1 was synthesized through aldol condensation then subjected through oxidative cyclization, esterification, and condensation reaction to afford the final products. The result for baker's yeast ?-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.20) inhibition assay showed that all compounds are active with reference to the IC50 value of the acarbose (standard drug) except for compound 3. Increase in activity observed for compounds 2 to 34 clearly highlights the importance of flavone, hydrazide and hydrazone linkage in suppressing the activity of ?-glucosidase. Additional functional group on N-benzylidene moiety further enhances the activity significantly. Compound 5 (15.4 ± 0.22 ?M), a 2,4,6-trihydroxy substituted compound, is the most active compound in the series. Other compounds which were found to be active are those having chlorine, fluorine, and nitro substituents. Compounds with methoxy, pyridine, and methyl substituents are weakly active. Further studies showed that they are not active in inhibiting histone deacetylase activity and do not possess any cytotoxic properties. QSAR model was being developed to further identify the structural requirements contributing to the activity. Using Discovery Studio (DS) 2.5, various 2D descriptors were being used to develop the model. The QSAR model is able to predict the pIC50 and could be used as a prediction tool for compounds having the same skeletal framework. Molecular docking was done for all compounds using homology model of ?-glucosidase to identify important binding modes responsible for inhibition activity. PMID:26491979

  5. Transdermal permeation of tetracaine hydrochloride by lecithin microemulsion: in vivo.

    PubMed

    Changez, Mohammad; Chander, Jagdish; Dinda, Amit Kumar

    2006-03-01

    In vivo transdermal permeation of tetracaine hydrochloride encapsulated in lecithin water-in-oil and oil-in-water microemulsion was studied. The effect of the composition of the lecithin microemulsion on analgesic response of tetracaine hydrochloride was evaluated on Wistar rats by tail flick method. To find out the toxicity of lecithin/n-propanol/isopropyl myristate/water/tetracaine hydrochloride microemulsion histopathological and irritation response were measured in Swiss mice. Time course studies were also conducted for the biochemical response of microemulsion by measuring catalase, glutathione and lipid peroxidation levels of the treated mice skin. The analgesic response was found to be dependent on the drug concentration and composition of the systems. The histopathological, irritation and biochemical findings reveal that lecithin/n-propanol/isopropyl myristate/water/tetracaine hydrochloride microemulsion is a safe carrier for transdermal drug delivery systems. Confocal laser scanning microscopy observation indicated that sweat gland and hair follicle also provided the path for transdermal permeation of lecithin/n-propanol/isopropyl myristate/water microemulsion. PMID:16497490

  6. Amides and Hydrazides from Amine and Hydrazine Hydrochlorides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shama, Sami A.; Tran, Thuan L.

    1978-01-01

    This safe and efficient procedure for the synthesis of N-substituted amides and hydrazides is a modification of the Schotten-Bausmann procedure in which the amine or hydrazide is replaced by the corresponding hydrochloride salt, and the use of alkali is eliminated. (Author/BB)

  7. 21 CFR 522.2474 - Tolazoline hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tolazoline hydrochloride injection. 522.2474 Section 522.2474 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2474 Tolazoline...

  8. 21 CFR 522.2474 - Tolazoline hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tolazoline hydrochloride injection. 522.2474 Section 522.2474 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2474 Tolazoline...

  9. 21 CFR 522.2474 - Tolazoline hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tolazoline hydrochloride injection. 522.2474 Section 522.2474 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2474 Tolazoline...

  10. (Thiazol-2-yl)hydrazone derivatives from acetylpyridines as dual inhibitors of MAO and AChE: synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular modeling studies.

    PubMed

    D'Ascenzio, Melissa; Chimenti, Paola; Gidaro, Maria Concetta; De Monte, Celeste; De Vita, Daniela; Granese, Arianna; Scipione, Luigi; Di Santo, Roberto; Costa, Giosuè; Alcaro, Stefano; Yáñez, Matilde; Carradori, Simone

    2015-12-01

    Several (thiazol-2-yl)hydrazone derivatives from 2-, 3- and 4-acetylpyridine were synthesized and tested against human monoamine oxidase (hMAO) A and B enzymes. Most of them had an inhibitory effect in the low micromolar/high nanomolar range, being derivatives of 4-acetylpyridine selective hMAO-B inhibitors also at low nanomolar concentrations. The structure-activity relationship, as confirmed by molecular modeling studies, proved that the pyridine ring linked to the hydrazonic nitrogen and the substituted aryl moiety at C4 of the thiazole conferred the inhibitory effects on hMAO enzymes. Successively, the strongest hMAO-B inhibitors were tested toward acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the most interesting compound showed activity in the low micromolar range. Our results suggest that this scaffold could be further investigated for its potential multi-targeted role in the discovery of new drugs against the neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25807300

  11. Natural-product-based insecticidal agents 14. Semisynthesis and insecticidal activity of new piperine-based hydrazone derivatives against Mythimna separata Walker in vivo.

    PubMed

    Qu, Huan; Yu, Xiang; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Lv, Min; Xu, Hui

    2013-10-15

    In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural-product-based insecticidal agents, twenty-six new piperine-based hydrazone derivatives were synthesized from piperine, an alkaloid isolated from Piper nigrum Linn. The single-crystal structures of 6c, 6q and 6w were unambiguously confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Their insecticidal activity was evaluated against the pre-third-instar larvae of Mythimna separata Walker in vivo. Especially compounds 6b, 6i and 6r, the final mortality rates of which, at the concentration of 1 mg/mL, were 62.1%, 65.5% and 65.5%, respectively, exhibited more pronounced insecticidal activity compared to toosendanin at 1 mg/mL, a commercial botanical insecticide isolated from Melia azedarach. It suggested that introduction of the substituents at the C-2 position on the phenyl ring of the hydrazone derivatives was important for their insecticidal activity. PMID:24018189

  12. Chemical Immobilization of Sloth Bears (Melursus ursinus) with Ketamine Hydrochloride and Xylazine Hydrochloride: Hematology and Serum Biochemical Values.

    PubMed

    Veeraselvam, M; Sridhar, R; Perumal, P; Jayathangaraj, M G

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to define the physiological responses of captive sloth bears immobilized with ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride and to determine and compare the values of hematology and serum biochemical parameters between sexes. A total of 15 sloth bears were immobilized using combination of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride drugs at the dose rate of 5.0?milligram (mg) per kg body weight and 2.0?mg per kg body weight, respectively. The use of combination of these drugs was found satisfactory for the chemical immobilization of captive sloth bears. There were no significant differences observed in induction time and recovery time and physiological parameters such as heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature between sexes. Health related parameters comprising hematological values like packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell count (RBC), erythrocyte indices, and so forth and biochemical values like total protein, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, alkaline amino-transferase (ALT), aspartate amino-transferase (AST), and so forth were estimated in 11 (5 males and 6 females) apparently healthy bears. Comparison between sexes revealed significant difference in PCV (P < 0.05) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) (P < 0.05). The study might help to evaluate health profiles of sloth bears for appropriate line treatment. PMID:24876990

  13. Chemical Immobilization of Sloth Bears (Melursus ursinus) with Ketamine Hydrochloride and Xylazine Hydrochloride: Hematology and Serum Biochemical Values

    PubMed Central

    Veeraselvam, M.; Sridhar, R.; Perumal, P.; Jayathangaraj, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to define the physiological responses of captive sloth bears immobilized with ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride and to determine and compare the values of hematology and serum biochemical parameters between sexes. A total of 15 sloth bears were immobilized using combination of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride drugs at the dose rate of 5.0?milligram (mg) per kg body weight and 2.0?mg per kg body weight, respectively. The use of combination of these drugs was found satisfactory for the chemical immobilization of captive sloth bears. There were no significant differences observed in induction time and recovery time and physiological parameters such as heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature between sexes. Health related parameters comprising hematological values like packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell count (RBC), erythrocyte indices, and so forth and biochemical values like total protein, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, alkaline amino-transferase (ALT), aspartate amino-transferase (AST), and so forth were estimated in 11 (5 males and 6 females) apparently healthy bears. Comparison between sexes revealed significant difference in PCV (P < 0.05) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) (P < 0.05). The study might help to evaluate health profiles of sloth bears for appropriate line treatment. PMID:24876990

  14. Structural and vibrational study of 8-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone - A potential metal-protein attenuating compound (MPAC) for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Freitas, Leonardo Viana; da Silva, Cecilia C. P.; Ellena, Javier; Costa, Luiz Antônio Sodré; Rey, Nicolás A.

    2013-12-01

    A comprehensive structural and vibrational study of the potential metal-protein attenuating compound 8-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone is reported. X-ray diffraction data, as well as FT-IR and Raman frequencies, were compared with the respective theoretical values obtained from DFT calculations. Theory agrees well with experiment. In this context, an attempt of total assignment concerning the FT-IR and Raman spectra of the title compound was performed, shedding new light on previous partial assignments published elsewhere.

  15. Fundamentals of ionic conductivity relaxation gained from study of procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride at ambient and elevated pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojnarowska, Z.; Swiety-Pospiech, A.; Grzybowska, K.; Hawelek, L.; Paluch, M.; Ngai, K. L.

    2012-04-01

    The pharmaceuticals, procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride, are glass-forming as well as ionically conducting materials. We have made dielectric measurements at ambient and elevated pressures to characterize the dynamics of the ion conductivity relaxation in these pharmaceuticals, and calorimetric measurements for the structural relaxation. Perhaps due to their special chemical and physical structures, novel features are found in the ionic conductivity relaxation of these pharmaceuticals. Data of conductivity relaxation in most ionic conductors when represented by the electric loss modulus usually show a single resolved peak in the electric modulus loss M?(f ) spectra. However, in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride we find in addition another resolved loss peak at higher frequencies over a temperature range spanning across Tg. The situation is analogous to many non-ionic glass-formers showing the presence of the structural ?-relaxation together with the Johari-Goldstein (JG) ?-relaxation. Naturally the analogy leads us to name the slower and faster processes resolved in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride as the primary ?-conductivity relaxation and the secondary ?-conductivity relaxation, respectively. The analogy of the ?-conductivity relaxation in procaine HCl and procainamide HCl with JG ?-relaxation in non-ionic glass-formers goes further by the finding that the ?-conductivity is strongly related to the ?-conductivity relaxation at temperatures above and below Tg. At elevated pressure but compensated by raising temperature to maintain ?-conductivity relaxation time constant, the data show invariance of the ratio between the ?- and the ?-conductivity relaxation times to changes of thermodynamic condition. This property indicates that the ?-conductivity relaxation has fundamental importance and is indispensable as the precursor of the ?-conductivity relaxation, analogous to the relation found between the Johari-Goldstein ?-relaxation and the structural ?-relaxation in non-ionic glass-forming systems. The novel features of the ionic conductivity relaxation are brought out by presenting the measurements in terms of the electric modulus or permittivity. If presented in terms of conductivity, the novel features are lost. This warns against insisting that a log-log plot of conductivity vs. frequency is optimal to reveal and interpret the dynamics of ionic conductors.

  16. A novel kind of TSV slurry with guanidine hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Hong; Yuling, Liu; Baoguo, Zhang; Xinhuan, Niu; Liying, Han

    2015-10-01

    The effect of a novel alkaline TSV (through-silicon-via) slurry with guanidine hydrochloride (GH) on CMP (chemical mechanical polishing) was investigated. The novel alkaline TSV slurry was free of any inhibitors. During the polishing process, the guanidine hydrochloride serves as an effective surface-complexing agent for TSV CMP applications, the removal rate of barrier (Ti) can be chemically controlled through tuned selectivity with respect to the removal rate of copper and dielectric, which is helpful to modifying the dishing and gaining an excellent topography performance in TSV manufacturing. In this paper, we mainly studied the working mechanism of the components of slurry and the skillful application guanidine hydrochloride in the TSV slurry. Project supported by the Major National Science and Technology Special Projects (No. 2009ZX02308), the Fund Project of Hebei Provincial Department of Education, China (No. QN2014208), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (No. E2013202247), and Colleges and Universities Scientific research project of Hebei Province, China (No. Z2014088).

  17. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory evaluation of some new acyl-hydrazones bearing 2-aryl-thiazole.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, Cristina Mariana; Oniga, Ovidiu; Pârvu, Alina; Tiperciuc, Brîndu?a; Verite, Philippe; Pîrn?u, Adrian; Cri?an, Ovidiu; Boji??, Marius; Pop, Raluca

    2011-02-01

    This work describes recent results from our research program aiming at the synthesis and evaluation of new compounds acting as potential anti-inflammatory drugs. A series of novel acyl-hydrazones bearing 2-aryl-thiazole moiety were synthesized by the condensation between derivatives of 4-[2-(4-methyl-2-phenyl-thiazole-5-yl)-2-oxo-ethoxy]-benzaldehyde and 2, 3 or 4-(2-aryl-thiazol-4-ylmethoxy)-benzaldehyde, respectively and different carboxylic acid hydrazides. The structures of newly synthesized compounds were established by the combined use of IR, (1)H NMR, mass spectral data and elemental analysis. These compounds were tested in vivo for their anti-inflammatory activity, in an acute experimental inflammation. The acute phase bone marrow response, phagocytes' activity and NO synthesis were evaluated. Compounds 10, 15, 17, 18 and 22 reduced the absolute leukocytes count due to the lower neutrophils percentage. Phagocitary index was decreased by all the compounds. Seven of them reduced the phagocitary activity. Five compounds inhibited NO synthesis, 3, 4, 16 and 22 stronger than Meloxicam, the anti-inflammatory reference drug. PMID:21163557

  18. Structure investigation of three hydrazones Schiff's bases by spectroscopic, thermal and molecular orbital calculations and their biological activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belal, Arafa A. M.; Zayed, M. A.; El-Desawy, M.; Rakha, Sh. M. A. H.

    2015-03-01

    Three Schiff's bases AI (2(1-hydrazonoethyl)phenol), AII (2, 4-dibromo 6-(hydrazonomethyl)phenol) and AIII (2(hydrazonomethyl)phenol) were prepared as new hydrazone compounds via condensation reactions with molar ratio (1:1) of reactants. Firstly by reaction of 2-hydroxy acetophenone solution and hydrazine hydrate; it gives AI. Secondly condensation between 3,5-dibromo-salicylaldehyde and hydrazine hydrate gives AII. Thirdly condensation between salicylaldehyde and hydrazine hydrate gives AIII. The structures of AI-AIII were characterized by elemental analysis (EA), mass (MS), FT-IR and 1H NMR spectra, and thermal analyses (TG, DTG, and DTA). The activation thermodynamic parameters, such as, ?E?, ?H?, ?S? and ?G? were calculated from the TG curves using Coats-Redfern method. It is important to investigate their molecular structures to know the active groups and weak bond responsible for their biological activities. Consequently in the present work, the obtained thermal (TA) and mass (MS) practical results are confirmed by semi-empirical MO-calculations (MOCS) using PM3 procedure. Their biological activities have been tested in vitro against Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillissubtilies and Staphylococcus aurous bacteria in order to assess their anti-microbial potential.

  19. Novel hydrazone moiety-bearing aminopyrimidines as selective inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor T790M mutant.

    PubMed

    Qin, Mingze; Wang, Tingting; Xu, Boxuan; Ma, Zonghui; Jiang, Nan; Xie, Hongbo; Gong, Ping; Zhao, Yanfang

    2015-11-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) T790M mutant is found in approximately 50% of clinically acquired resistance to gefitinib among patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, a series of novel aminopyrimidines bearing a hydrazone moiety were identified as potent and selective EGFR inhibitors. Compounds 14a, 15g, and 15i potently inhibited all EGFR mutants including EGFR T790M/L858R, EGFR T790M/delE746_A750, and EGFR T790M while they showed weak effects on the wild type (WT) EGFR. In addition, these compounds effectively suppressed proliferation of gefitinib-resistant H1975 (EGFR T790M/L858R) cells but were less potent against A549 (WT EGFR and k-Ras mutation) and HT-29 (non-special gene type) cells, showing a high safety index. Therefore, 14a, 15g, and 15i might be promising candidates to overcome drug resistance mediated by the EGFR T790M mutant. PMID:26451770

  20. Electronic-topological and neural network approaches to the structure- antimycobacterial activity relationships study on hydrazones derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kandemirli, Fatma; Vurdu, Can Dogan; Basaran, Murat Alper; Sayiner, Hakan Sezgin; Shvets, Nathaly; Dimoglo, Anatholy; Kovalish, Vasyl; Polat, Turgay

    2014-01-01

    That the implementation of Electronic-Topological Method and a variant of Feed Forward Neural Network (FFNN) called as the Associative Neural Network are applied to the compounds of Hydrazones derivatives have been employed in order to construct model which can be used in the prediction of antituberculosis activity. The supervised learning has been performed using (ASNN) and categorized correctly 84.4% of them, namely, 38 out of 45. Ph1 pharmacophore and Ph2 pharmacophore consisting of 6 and 7 atoms, respectively were found. Anti-pharmacophore features socalled "break of activity" have also been revealed, which means that APh1 is found in 22 inactive molecules. Statistical analyses have been carried out by using the descriptors, such as EHOMO, ELUMO, ?E, hardness, softness, chemical potential, electrophilicity index, exact polarizibility, total of electronic and zero point energies, dipole moment as independent variables in order to account for the dependent variable called inhibition efficiency. Observing several complexities, namely, linearity, nonlinearity and multi-co linearity at the same time leads data to be modeled using two different techniques called multiple regression and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) after computing correlations among descriptors in order to compute QSAR. Computations resulting in determining some compounds with relatively high values of inhibition are presented. PMID:24773351

  1. The Cytotoxicity of Benzaldehyde Nitrogen Mustard-2-Pyridine Carboxylic Acid Hydrazone Being Involved in Topoisomerase II? Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yun; Zhou, Sufeng; Liu, Youxun; Yang, Yingli; Sun, Xingzhi; Li, Changzheng

    2014-01-01

    The antitumor property of iron chelators and aromatic nitrogen mustard derivatives has been well documented. Combination of the two pharmacophores in one molecule in drug designation is worth to be explored. We reported previously the syntheses and preliminary cytotoxicity evaluation of benzaldehyde nitrogen mustard pyridine carboxyl acid hydrazones (BNMPH) as extended study, more tumor cell lines (IC50 for HepG2: 26.1 ± 3.5??M , HCT-116: 57.5 ± 5.3??M, K562: 48.2 ± 4.0??M, and PC-12: 19.4 ± 2.2??M) were used to investigate its cytotoxicity and potential mechanism. In vitro experimental data showed that the BNMPH chelating Fe2+ caused a large number of ROS formations which led to DNA cleavage, and this was further supported by comet assay, implying that ROS might be involved in the cytotoxicity of BNMPH. The ROS induced changes of apoptosis related genes, but the TFR1 and NDRG1 metastatic genes were not obviously regulated, prompting that BNMPH might not be able to deprive Fe2+ of ribonucleotide reductase. The BNMPH induced S phase arrest was different from that of iron chelators (G1) and alkylating agents (G2). BNMPH also exhibited its inhibition of human topoisomerase II?. Those revealed that the cytotoxic mechanism of the BNMPH could stem from both the topoisomerase II inhibition, ROS generation and DNA alkylation. PMID:24995306

  2. HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Structure with RNase H Inhibitor dihydroxy benzoyl naphthyl Hydrazone Bound at a Novel Site

    SciTech Connect

    Himmel,D.; Sarafianos, S.; Dharmasena, S.; Hossain, M.; McCoy-Simandle, K.; Ilina, T.; Clark, A.; Knight, J.; Julias, J.; et al.

    2007-01-01

    The rapid emergence of drug-resistant variants of human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1), has limited the efficacy of anti-acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) treatments, and new lead compounds that target novel binding sites are needed. We have determined the 3.15 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) complexed with dihydroxy benzoyl naphthyl hydrazone (DHBNH), an HIV-1 RT RNase H (RNH) inhibitor (RNHI). DHBNH is effective against a variety of drug-resistant HIV-1 RT mutants. While DHBNH has little effect on most aspects of RT-catalyzed DNA synthesis, at relatively high concentrations it does inhibit the initiation of RNA-primed DNA synthesis. Although primarily an RNHI, DHBNH binds >50 {angstrom} away from the RNH active site, at a novel site near both the polymerase active site and the non-nucleoside RT inhibitor (NNRTI) binding pocket. When DHBNH binds, both Tyr181 and Tyr188 remain in the conformations seen in unliganded HIV-1 RT. DHBNH interacts with conserved residues (Asp186, Trp229) and has substantial interactions with the backbones of several less well-conserved residues. On the basis of this structure, we designed substituted DHBNH derivatives that interact with the NNRTI-binding pocket. These compounds inhibit both the polymerase and RNH activities of RT.

  3. Coordination diversity of new mononuclear ONS hydrazone with transition metals: Synthesis, characterization, molecular modeling and antimicrobial studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adly, Omima M. I.; Taha, A.

    2013-04-01

    The mononuclear hydrazone ligand, H2L, a condensation product of 4-amino-6-methyl-3-thioxo-3,4-dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-5(2H)-one with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde and its metal chelates of Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), VO(IV) and UO2(VI) ions were synthesized and characterized using elemental analyses, spectral, magnetic and molar conductance studies as well as thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The physico-chemical studies support that the ligand acts as mono- or dibasic tridentate ONS donor toward metal ions forming a mononuclear square planar, tetrahedral, square pyramidal and octahedral geometrical arrangements except UO2(VI) complex in which the metal ion is octa-coordinated. The ligand field parameters, Dq, B and ? values, in the case of the cobalt and nickel complexes are calculated. The kinetics of the thermal decomposition for some metal complexes studied and their thermodynamic parameters were reported. Structural parameters of the ligand and its metal chelates have been calculated and correlated with the experimental data. The ligand and its metal chelates were screened for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis as Gram-positive bacteria, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium as Gram-negative bacteria and Candida albicans as fungus strain.

  4. 40 CFR 180.558 - N,N-diethyl-2-(4-methylbenz-yloxy)ethylamine hydrochloride; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...4-methylbenz-yloxy)ethylamine hydrochloride; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance for residues of the plant growth regulator N,N- diethyl-2-(4-methylenzyloxy)ethylamine hydrochloride in or on raw agricultural...

  5. 40 CFR 180.558 - N,N-diethyl-2-(4-methylbenz-yloxy)ethylamine hydrochloride; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...4-methylbenz-yloxy)ethylamine hydrochloride; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance for residues of the plant growth regulator N,N- diethyl-2-(4-methylenzyloxy)ethylamine hydrochloride in or on raw agricultural...

  6. 21 CFR 524.1484b - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium chloride, topical powder. 524.1484b Section 524.1484b... Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium chloride... hydrochloride and .2 milligram of myristyl-gamma-picolinium chloride in each gram of the product in a...

  7. 21 CFR 524.1484b - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium chloride, topical powder. 524.1484b Section 524.1484b... Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium chloride... hydrochloride and .2 milligram of myristyl-gamma-picolinium chloride in each gram of the product in a...

  8. 21 CFR 524.1484b - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium chloride, topical powder. 524.1484b Section 524.1484b... Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium chloride... hydrochloride and .2 milligram of myristyl-gamma-picolinium chloride in each gram of the product in a...

  9. 21 CFR 524.1484b - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium chloride, topical powder. 524.1484b Section 524.1484b... Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium chloride... hydrochloride and .2 milligram of myristyl-gamma-picolinium chloride in each gram of the product in a...

  10. 77 FR 53892 - Determination That ALOXI (Palonosetron Hydrochloride) Capsules, 0.5 Milligram (Base), Were Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ...) Capsules, 0.5 mg (base). In previous instances (see, e.g., 72 FR 9763, March 5, 2007; 61 FR 25497, May 21... SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That ALOXI (Palonosetron Hydrochloride) Capsules, 0.5... (palonosetron hydrochloride (HCl)) Capsules, 0.5 milligram (mg) (base), were not withdrawn from sale for...

  11. 77 FR 7583 - Determination That WILPO (phentermine hydrochloride) Tablets, 8 Milligrams, Was Not Withdrawn...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has determined that WILPO (phentermine hydrochloride) Tablets, 8 Milligrams (mg), was not withdrawn from sale for reasons of safety or effectiveness. This determination will allow FDA to approve Abbreviated New Drug Applications (ANDAs) for phentermine hydrochloride tablets, 8 mg, if all other legal and regulatory requirements are...

  12. 21 CFR 524.1662a - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride and hydrocortisone spray.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spray. 524.1662a Section 524.1662a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1662a Oxytetracycline hydrochloride and hydrocortisone spray. (a) Specifications. Each 3-ounce unit of oxytetracycline hydrochloride and hydrocortisone spray contains...

  13. 40 CFR 721.1075 - Benzenamine, 4-(1-methyl-bu-toxy)-, hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzenamine, 4-(1-methyl-bu-toxy)-, hydrochloride. 721.1075 Section 721.1075 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1075 Benzenamine, 4-(1-methyl-bu-toxy)-, hydrochloride. (a)...

  14. Effects of metomindate hydrochloride and tricaine methanesulfonate on the short term cortisol response in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of metomidate hydrochloride and tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) on cortisol stress response of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were examined during 10 minutes of sedation. Channel catfish were assigned to three treatments: 1. Metomidate hydrochloride (12.5 mg/L), 2. MS-222 (100...

  15. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524.1484d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin... a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and...

  16. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524.1484d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin... a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and...

  17. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524.1484d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin... a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and...

  18. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524.1484d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin... a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and...

  19. Pyridine-Hydrazones as N,N'-Ligands in Asymmetric Catalysis: Pd(II)-Catalyzed Addition of Boronic Acids to Cyclic Sulfonylketimines.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Casao, Yolanda; Monge, David; Álvarez, Eleuterio; Fernández, Rosario; Lassaletta, José M

    2015-10-16

    The design, synthesis, and coordination features of a novel class of chiral pyridine-hydrazone ligands are described. As a first application, L/Pd(TFA)2 complexes served as catalysts in the 1,2-addition of arylboronic acids to saccharin-derived cyclic ketimines, affording products in high yields and enantioselectivities. The method was also applied to more challenging 3,4-disubstituted 1,2,5-thiadiazole 1,1-dioxides, affording again high yields and enantioselectivities along with high regioselectivities for unsymmetrically substituted derivatives. PMID:26425892

  20. Chitosan coated vancomycin hydrochloride liposomes: Characterizations and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenlei; Liu, Junli; Gao, Jinhua; Chen, Shilei; Huang, Guihua

    2015-11-10

    The present work evaluated the feasibility of chitosan coated liposomes (c-Lips) for the intravenous delivery of vancomycin hydrochloride (VANH), a water-soluble antibiotic for the treatment of gram-positive bacterial infections like osteomyelitis, arthritis, endocarditis, pneumonia, etc. The objective of this research was to develop a suitable drug delivery system in vivo which could improve therapeutic efficacy and decrease side effects especially nephrotoxicity. Firstly, the vancomycin hydrochloride liposomes (VANH-Lips) were prepared by modified reverse phase evaporation method, then the chitosan wrapped vancomycin hydrochloride liposomes (c-VANH-Lips) nanosuspension was formulated by the method of electrostatic deposition. Based on the optimized results of single-factor screening experiment, the c-VANH-Lips were found to be relatively uniform in size (220.40±3.56nm) with a narrow polydispersity index (PI) (0.21±0.03) and a positive zeta potential (25.7±1.12mV). The average drug entrapment efficiency (EE) and drug loading (DL) were 32.65±0.59% and 2.18±0.04%, respectively. The in vitro release profile of c-VANH-Lips possessed a sustained release Characterization and the release behavior was in accordance with the Weibull equation. Hemolysis experiments showed that its intravenous injection had preliminary safety. In vivo, after intravenous injection to mice, c-VANH-Lips showed a longer retention time and higher AUC values compared with the VANH injection (VANH-Inj) and VANH-Lips. In addition, biodistribution results clearly demonstrated that c-VANH-Lips preferentially decreased the drug distribution in kidney of mice after intravenous injection. These results revealed that injectable c-VANH-Lips may serve as a promising carrier for VANH to increase therapeutic efficacy on gram-positive bacterial infections and reduce nephrotoxicity, which provides significantly clinical value for long-term use of VANH. PMID:26325316

  1. The effects of Dalmane /flurazepam hydrochloride/ on human EEG characteristics.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.; Carrie, J. R. G.; Borda, R. P.; Kellaway, P.

    1973-01-01

    Evaluation of the changes in the waking EEGs of six healthy male subjects who received 30 mg daily oral doses of flurazepam hydrochloride for two weeks. A placebo was then substituted for flurazepam for another two weeks. An increase in beta activity with a maximum in fronto-central leads was observed during the test period. A small increase in the mean wavelength of the alpha and theta activities in the central-occipital derivations was also apparent in the subjects during the period.

  2. Torsionally responsive C3-symmetric azo dyes: azo-hydrazone tautomerism, conformational switching, and application for chemical sensing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho Yong; Song, Xinli; Park, Hyunsoo; Baik, Mu-Hyun; Lee, Dongwhan

    2010-09-01

    An efficient triple azo coupling reaction between anilines and phloroglucinol furnished a series of C(3)-symmetric molecules 7-9 supporting multiple conjugation pathways that converge at the molecular core. A combination of (1)H/(13)C NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and density functional theory computational studies provided a coherent picture of the [n,pi]-conjugated molecular core, which is best described as the tris(hydrazone) [rather than tris(azo)] tautomer stabilized by resonance-assisted hydrogen bonding. For a homologous series of compounds, an increase in the torsional angles between the planar molecular core and the peripheral aryl groups results in a systematic blue shift in the low-energy electronic transitions (7, 523 nm; 8, 505 nm; 9, 445 nm in CHCl(3)) that qualitatively correlates with the shrinkage of effective conjugation through structural distortion. Similar spectral shifts could also be induced by amine substrates that interact with the intramolecular hydrogen-bonding network to trigger bond-twisting motions. Specifically, a brief exposure of a thin film of 7 to vapor samples of butyl-, hexyl-, diethyl-, and diisopropylamine resulted in a rapid and reversible color change from pink to dark-orange. Under similar conditions, however, triethylamine did not elicit any detectable color change, despite the fact that it has a significantly higher vapor pressure than n-hexylamine. These findings implicate that the hydrogen-bonding donor ability is a key requirement for the binding-induced conformational switching, which allows for direct naked-eye detection of volatile amines under ambient conditions. PMID:20698548

  3. Torsionally Responsive C[subscript 3]-Symmetric Azo Dyes: Azo?Hydrazone Tautomerism, Conformational Switching, and Application for Chemical Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ho Yong; Song, Xinli; Park, Hyunsoo; Baik, Mu-Hyun; Lee, Dongwhan

    2010-12-07

    An efficient triple azo coupling reaction between anilines and phloroglucinol furnished a series of C{sub 3}-symmetric molecules 7-9 supporting multiple conjugation pathways that converge at the molecular core. A combination of {sup 1}H/{sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and density functional theory computational studies provided a coherent picture of the [n,{pi}]-conjugated molecular core, which is best described as the tris(hydrazone) [rather than tris(azo)] tautomer stabilized by resonance-assisted hydrogen bonding. For a homologous series of compounds, an increase in the torsional angles between the planar molecular core and the peripheral aryl groups results in a systematic blue shift in the low-energy electronic transitions (7, 523 nm; 8, 505 nm; 9, 445 nm in CHCl{sub 3}) that qualitatively correlates with the shrinkage of effective conjugation through structural distortion. Similar spectral shifts could also be induced by amine substrates that interact with the intramolecular hydrogen-bonding network to trigger bond-twisting motions. Specifically, a brief exposure of a thin film of 7 to vapor samples of butyl-, hexyl-, diethyl-, and diisopropylamine resulted in a rapid and reversible color change from pink to dark-orange. Under similar conditions, however, triethylamine did not elicit any detectable color change, despite the fact that it has a significantly higher vapor pressure than n-hexylamine. These findings implicate that the hydrogen-bonding donor ability is a key requirement for the binding-induced conformational switching, which allows for direct naked-eye detection of volatile amines under ambient conditions.

  4. Transepithelial transport of biperiden hydrochloride in Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Abalos, Ivana S; Rodríguez, Yanina I; Lozano, Verónica; Cereseto, Marina; Mussini, Maria V; Spinetto, Marta E; Chiale, Carlos; Pesce, Guido

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this research has been to determine the biperiden hydrochloride permeability in Caco-2 model, in order to classify it based on the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). The World Health Organization (WHO) as well as many other authors have provisionally assigned the drug as BCS class I (high solubility-high permeability) or III (high solubility-low permeability), based on different methods. We determined biperiden BCS class by comparing its permeability to 5 pre-defined compounds: atenolol and ranitidine hydrochloride (low permeability group) and metoprolol tartrate, sodium naproxen and theophylline (high permeability group). Since biperiden permeability was higher than those obtained for high permeability drugs, we classified it as a BCS class I compound. On the other hand, as no differences were obtained for permeability values when apical to basolateral and basolateral to apical fluxes were studied, this drug cannot act as a substrate of efflux transporters. As a consequence of our results, we suggest that the widely used antiparkinsonian drug, biperiden, should be candidate for a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence studies. PMID:22554863

  5. The hydrochloride and hydrobromide salt forms of (S)-amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Dennany, Lynn; Kennedy, Alan R; Walker, Brandon

    2015-10-01

    Despite the high profile of amphetamine, there have been relatively few structural studies of its salt forms. The lack of any halide salt forms is surprising as the typical synthetic route for amphetamine initially produces the chloride salt. (S)-Amphetamine hydrochloride [systematic name: (2S)-1-phenylpropan-2-aminium chloride], C9H14N(+)·Cl(-), has a Z' = 6 structure with six independent cation-anion pairs. That these are indeed crystallographically independent is supported by different packing orientations of the cations and by the observation of a wide range of cation conformations generated by rotation about the phenyl-CH2 bond. The supramolecular contacts about the anions also differ, such that both a wide variation in the geometry of the three N-H...Cl hydrogen bonds formed by each chloride anion and differences in C-H...Cl contacts are apparent. (S)-Amphetamine hydrobromide [systematic name: (2S)-1-phenylpropan-2-aminium bromide], C9H14N(+)·Br(-), is broadly similar to the hydrochloride in terms of cation conformation, the existence of three N-H...X hydrogen-bond contacts per anion and the overall two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded sheet motif. However, only the chloride structure features organic bilayers and Z' > 1. PMID:26422209

  6. 78 FR 17933 - Determination That BENADRYL (diphenhydramine hydrochloride) Injection and Two Other Drug Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0320...hydrochloride) Injection and Two Other Drug Products Were Not Withdrawn From Sale for...Safety or Effectiveness AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION:...

  7. 78 FR 23273 - Determination That the OXYCONTIN (Oxycodone Hydrochloride) Drug Products Covered by New Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ...AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket Nos...Oxycodone Hydrochloride) Drug Products Covered by New Drug...crushed original OxyContin in recreational opioid users with a history of intranasal drug abuse. FDA concludes,...

  8. Functional photoacoustic imaging to observe regional brain activation induced by cocaine hydrochloride

    E-print Network

    Jo, Janggun; Yang, Xinmai

    2011-09-13

    Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) was used to detect small animal brain activation in response to drug abuse. Cocaine hydrochloride in saline solution was injected into the blood stream of Sprague Dawley rats through tail veins. The rat brain...

  9. 77 FR 9944 - Determination That REQUIP XL (Ropinerole Hydrochloride) Extended-Release Tablets, 3 Milligrams...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... tablets, 3 mg. In previous instances (see, e.g., 72 FR 9763, 61 FR 25497), the Agency has determined that... signs and symptoms of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. REQUIP XL (ropinerole hydrochloride)...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart Nnn... - Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...other phenolic resins, especially those with a high FF content. 2. Principle 2.1a. The basis for this method is the titration of the hydrochloric acid that is liberated when hydroxylamine hydrochloride reacts with formaldehyde to form...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart Nnn... - Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...other phenolic resins, especially those with a high FF content. 2. Principle 2.1a. The basis for this method is the titration of the hydrochloric acid that is liberated when hydroxylamine hydrochloride reacts with formaldehyde to form...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart Nnn... - Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...other phenolic resins, especially those with a high FF content. 2. Principle 2.1a. The basis for this method is the titration of the hydrochloric acid that is liberated when hydroxylamine hydrochloride reacts with formaldehyde to form...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart Nnn... - Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...other phenolic resins, especially those with a high FF content. 2. Principle 2.1a. The basis for this method is the titration of the hydrochloric acid that is liberated when hydroxylamine hydrochloride reacts with formaldehyde to form...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart Nnn... - Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...other phenolic resins, especially those with a high FF content. 2. Principle 2.1a. The basis for this method is the titration of the hydrochloric acid that is liberated when hydroxylamine hydrochloride reacts with formaldehyde to form...

  15. 77 FR 9944 - Determination That REQUIP XL (Ropinerole Hydrochloride) Extended-Release Tablets, 3 Milligrams...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ...approved on June 13, 2008. REQUIP XL is indicated for the treatment of treatment of signs and symptoms of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. REQUIP XL (ropinerole hydrochloride) extended-release tablets, 3 mg, are currently listed in the...

  16. Multilayer Films and Capsules of Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose and Polyhexamethylenguanidine Hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzenko, Nataliia; Gabchak, Oleksandra; Pakhlov, Evgenij

    The complexation of polyhexamethylenguanidine hydrochloride (PHMG) and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) was investigated for different conditions. Mixing of equiconcentrated aqueous solutions of the polyelectrolytes was found to result in the formation of an insoluble interpolyelectrolyte complex with an overweight of carboxymethylcellulose. A step-by-step formation of stable, irreversibly adsorbed multilayer film of the polymers was demonstrated using the quartz crystal microbalance method. Unusually thick polymer shells with a large number of loops and tails of the polyanion were formed by the method of layer-by-layer self-assembly of PHMG and CMC on spherical CaCO3 particles. Hollow multilayer capsules stable in neutral media were obtained by dissolution of the inorganic matrix in EDTA solution.

  17. Determination of tetracycline hydrochloride by terahertz spectroscopy with PLSR model.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jianyuan; Xie, Lijuan; Ying, Yibin

    2015-03-01

    Antibiotic residues in agricultural and food products are of great concern to legislatures and consumers. Reliable techniques for rapid and sensitive detection of these residues are necessary to ensure food safety. In this study, tetracycline hydrochloride (TC-HCl) in powder and solution form was detected and quantified using terahertz (THz) spectroscopy. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was used to build calibration models. The results obtained in this study indicated that the PLSR model for powder samples was excellent and could be used for quality control. However, the PLSR model for solution samples was not robust and needed to be improved. Overall, THz spectroscopy combined with PLSR model had its potential for the rapid and non-destructive prediction of TC-HCl residue without sophisticated methods, although the accuracy was not high for solution samples which should be improved in future study. PMID:25306365

  18. Amantadine hydrochloride treatment in heredodegenerative ataxias: a double blind study.

    PubMed Central

    Botez, M I; Botez-Marquard, T; Elie, R; Pedraza, O L; Goyette, K; Lalonde, R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A group of 27 patients with Friedreich's ataxia and another group of 30 patients with olivopontocerebellar atrophies were each randomly divided into two subgroups, one receiving placebo and the other amantadine hydrochloride (AH; 200 mg daily) for three to four months. METHODS: The effect of double blind treatment was evaluated by simple visual and auditory reaction time (RT) and movement time (MT) for both right and left hands. RESULTS: The subgroup with olivopontocerebellar atrophies receiving AH showed significant improvement on seven out of eight variables studied by analysis of covariance. In patients with Friedreich's ataxia, improvement was definitely less. Treatment remained contraindicated for those with cardiomyopathies or drug intolerance. CONCLUSION: The rationale of AH use in heredodegenerative ataxias can be explained by its replacement effect (dopamine release) and by direct involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) in glutamate mediated neurotoxicity in cerebellar granular cells; memantine, an AH analogue, is a potent blocker of NMDA receptors. PMID:8795596

  19. Effects of colestipol hydrochloride on drug absorption in the rat II.

    PubMed

    Phillips, W A; Ratchford, J M; Schultz, J R

    1976-09-01

    The effects of colestipol hydrochloride, a hypocholesterolemic bile acid-binding anion-exchange polymer, on the GI absorption of drugs commonly used in humans were studied in the rat. Colestipol hydrochloride was given by gavage in single doses of 71.5 or 214.5 mg/kg, equivalent to 5 or 15 g, respectively, in a 70-kg human; controls received equivalent amounts of microcrystalline cellulose. Single oral doses of labeled drugs were given concurrently with colestipol hydrochloride or microcrystalline cellulose at the human therapeutic dose range on a milligrams per kilogram basis. Subsequent changes in serum drug levels were measured at several time periods, and absorption was evaluated as the total area under the time-concentration curve. Colestipol hydrochloride at either dose did not significantly alter the absorption of 6-14C-nicotinic acid, 7-3H-tetracycline, 35S-chlorpromazine, 12alpha-3H-digoxin, warfarin (alpha-14C-benzyl), or clofibrate (14C-carboxyl). In addition, the effects of 214.5 mg/kg of colestipol hydrochloride were compared with the same dose of cholestyramine with respect to the absorption of 3-14C-hydrochlorothiazide, 2-14C-phenobarbital, and 3H-digitoxin. Cholestyramine reduced absorption of hydrochlorothiazide by 42%, but colestipol hydrochloride had no significant effect. Neither resin altered phenobarbital or digitoxin absorption when compared with the the control, but a significant difference occurred between the two resins with digitoxin; areas under the time-concentration curve [in (dpm/0.1 ml serum) x hr] were: colestipol hydrochloride, 2001; cholestyramine, 16,300; and cellulose, 17, 067. These results indicate that colestipol hydrochloride and cholestyramine can differ in their effects on the absorption of certain drugs from the GI tract of the rat. PMID:966139

  20. Effect of tetracycline hydrochloride treatment on the critical thermal maximum of common shiners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The transfer of fish from field to laboratory facilities or their propagation in closed or restricted systems frequently results in bacterial infection and ultimately large-scale mortality. In attemps to alleviate this problem, we have added tetracycline hydrochloride to the water prophylactically (pretreating tanks before wild fish were added) and therapeutically (treating tanks after bacterial outbreaks were detected.) In the present study, we examined the effect of tetracyline hydrochloride on the critical thermal maximum (CTM) of the common shiner (Notropis cornutus).

  1. Benzydamine hydrochloride in prevention and management of pain in oral mucositis associated with radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, J.B.; Stevenson-Moore, P.

    1986-08-01

    Benzydamine hydrochloride rinse reduced pain associated with radiation mucositis when it was used during the course of radiation therapy. Fewer patients using benzydamine rinse required systemic analgesics. All patients using benzydamine tolerated the rinse well and continued with regular rinsing throughout the course of radiation therapy. Benzydamine hydrochloride is currently undergoing clinical trials in the United States for application for approval from the Food and Drug Administration.

  2. Efficacy of clindamycin hydrochloride in refractory periodontitis: 24-month results.

    PubMed

    Gordon, J; Walker, C; Hovliaras, C; Socransky, S

    1990-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the use of clindamycin hydrochloride in the treatment of adult refractory periodontitis. Thirty patients with a history of unsuccessful treatment with scaling, periodontal surgery, and the use of tetracyclines were entered into the study. Upon entry, the suspected refractory patients were scaled several times and then monitored for the presence of active disease by probing attachment level measurements performed in duplicate. Active disease was defined as a 3.0 mm or greater loss in attachment from the baseline examination or the occurrence of a periodontal abscess. When active disease was detected, patients were treated with scaling and clindamycin 150 mg qid for 7 days. Patients served as their own controls. Twenty four patients demonstrated further attachment loss following scaling alone and were treated with clindamycin hydrochloride. Scaling and clindamycin treatment decreased the incidence of active disease from an annual rate of 8.0% to 0.5% of sites per patient (P less than .001). The mean time required to detect the first active site increased from 4.9 +/- 3.7 months following scaling alone to 16.7 +/- 7.6 months following scaling and clindamycin (P less than 001). Active sites lost an average of 3.1 mm of probing attachment following scaling alone but "gained" back 2.0 mm at 6 months and 1.5 mm at 24 months post-antibiotic and scaling treatment. Bleeding on probing was significantly reduced (P less than .05) from 31.8% of sites pre-clindamycin treatment to 12.3% at 12 months and 17.9% of sites at 24 months post-clindamycin treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2254835

  3. Stability-indicating HPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Montelukast and Fexofenadine Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Pankhaniya, Mona; Patel, Parula; Shah, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    A simple, specific, accurate, and stability-indicating reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of montelukast and fexofenadine hydrochloride, using a Lichrospher® 100, RP-18e column and a mobile phase composed of methanol:0.1% o-phosphoric acid (90:10 v/v), pH 6.8. The retention times of montelukast and fexofenadine hydrochloride were found to be 10.16 and 12.03 min, respectively. Linearity was established for montelukast and fexofenadine hydrochloride in the range of 2-10 ?g/ml and 24-120 ?g/ml, respectively. The percentage recoveries of montelukast and fexofenadine hydrochloride were found to be in the range of 99.09 and 99.81%, respectively. Both the drugs were subjected to acid and base hydrolysis, oxidation, photolytic, and thermal degradation conditions. The degradation products of montelukast and fexofenadine hydrochloride were well resolved from the pure drug with significant differences in their retention time values. This method can be successfully employed for simultaneous quantitative analysis of montelukast and fexofenadine hydrochloride in bulk drugs and formulations. PMID:24082344

  4. Safety and efficacy of tramadol hydrochloride on treatment of premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Eassa, Bayoumy I; El-Shazly, Mohamed A

    2013-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common sexual disorder. It affects 20%–30% of adult men; the aetiology of this condition has not yet been elucidated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy, safety, tolerability, undesirable effects and improved satisfaction with sexual intercourse with tramadol hydrochloride at different dosages for the treatment of PE. A total of 300 patients who presented with lifelong (primary) PE were included in this study. The study was performed for 28 weeks, in which placebo (starch tablet) was given for 4 weeks, and active ingredient (tramadol hydrochloride) was administered at different therapeutic dosages for 24 weeks. Patients were divided into three equal groups, each consisting of 100 patients. The first group (A) was given tramadol hydrochloride capsule 25 mg. The second group (B) was given tramadol hydrochloride capsule 50 mg. The third group (C) was given tramadol hydrochloride capsule 100 mg. All of the 300 participants included completed the study voluntarily. The age of the patients varied from 25 to 50 years. After the treatment period, the recorded data were collected for each group and analysed. The results showed a highly significant increase in the mean intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) in all groups compared to baseline data (P<0.0001). We concluded that using tramadol hydrochloride at different doses on demand for the treatment of PE is effective, safe and tolerable, with minimal undesirable effects, and approval for this indication should be sought. PMID:23103596

  5. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Berberine Hydrochloride in Patients with Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunqiu; Tao, Chunhua; Liu, Zhongchen; Lu, Meiling; Pan, Qiuhui; Zheng, Lijun; Li, Qing; Song, Zhenshun; Fichna, Jakub

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to evaluate clinical symptoms in diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) receiving berberine hydrochloride in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Overall, 196 patients with IBS-D were recruited for this study; consequently, 132 patients randomized to receive daily 400?mg of berberine hydrochloride, delivered twice daily or placebo for 8?weeks followed by a 4-week washout period. After a 2-week run-in period, diarrhea, abdominal pain, urgent need for defecation frequency and any adverse events were recorded daily. Prior to administration of the medication and after completing the treatment, assessment of IBS symptom scores, depression and anxiety scale scores and the IBS scale for quality of life (QOL) was carried out. The effects of berberine hydrochloride on IBS-D, defined by a reduction of diarrhea frequency (P?=?0.032), abdominal pain frequency (P?hydrochloride for IBS symptom score, depression score and anxiety score and the IBSQOL, compared with placebo. At last, berberine hydrochloride was well tolerated. So we concluded that berberine hydrochloride is well tolerated and reduces IBS-D symptoms, which effectively improved patients QOL. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26400188

  6. RP-HPLC Estimation of Imipramine Hydrochloride and Diazepam in Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Srikantha, D.; Raju, R. R.

    2015-01-01

    A simple and rapid reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for simultaneous determination of imipramine hydrochloride and diazepam in pharmaceutical formulations. The elution was done in isocratic mode utilizing a mobile phase consisting of methanol:water:0.1M sodium acetate (30:50:20 v/v/v) on Chromosil C18 column with a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and with detection at 243 nm. The measured retention time was 3.33±0.02 min for imipramine hydrochloride and 4.64±0.02 min for diazepam. Linearity was measured in the range 25-150 ?g/ml for imipramine hydrochloride (r2=0.999) and in the range 5-30 ?g/ml for diazepam (r2=0.9994), respectively. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.03 and 0.1 ?g/ml for imipramine hydrochloride and 0.02 and 0.07 ?g/ml for diazepam. Satisfactory validation was also obtained from recovery (100.95-101.52% for imipramine hydrochloride and 99.47-100.33% for diazepam) studies, intraday and interday precision (<2%) and robustness results. The reported method was the first study of these drugs in combination and could be employed for routine quantitative determination of imipramine hydrochloride and diazepam in tablets. PMID:26180281

  7. Reagents for astatination of biomolecules. 5. Evaluation of hydrazone linkers in (211)At- and (125)I-labeled closo-decaborate(2-) conjugates of Fab' as a means of decreasing kidney retention.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, D Scott; Chyan, Ming-Kuan; Hamlin, Donald K; Nguyen, Holly; Vessella, Robert L

    2011-06-15

    Evaluation of monoclonal antibody (mAb) fragments (e.g., Fab', Fab, or engineered fragments) as cancer-targeting reagents for therapy with the ?-particle emitting radionuclide astatine-211 ((211)At) has been hampered by low in vivo stability of the label and a propensity of these proteins localize to kidneys. Fortunately, our group has shown that the low stability of the (211)At label, generally a meta- or para-[(211)At]astatobenzoyl conjugate, on mAb Fab' fragments can be dramatically improved by the use of closo-decaborate(2-) conjugates. However, the higher stability of radiolabeled mAb Fab' conjugates appears to result in retention of radioactivity in the kidneys. This investigation was conducted to evaluate whether the retention of radioactivity in kidney might be decreased by the use of an acid-cleavable hydrazone between the Fab' and the radiolabeled closo-decaborate(2-) moiety. Five conjugation reagents containing sulfhydryl-reactive maleimide groups, a hydrazone functionality, and a closo-decaborate(2-) moiety were prepared. In four of the five conjugation reagents, a discrete poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) linker was used, and one substituent adjacent to the hydrazone was varied (phenyl, benzoate, anisole, or methyl) to provide varying acid sensitivity. In the initial studies, the five maleimido-closo-decaborate(2-) conjugation reagents were radioiodinated ((125)I or (131)I), then conjugated with an anti-PSMA Fab' (107-1A4 Fab'). Biodistributions of the five radioiodinated Fab' conjugates were obtained in nude mice at 1, 4, and 24 h post injection (pi). In contrast to closo-decaborate(2-) conjugated to 107-1A4 Fab' through a noncleavable linker, two conjugates containing either a benzoate or a methyl substituent on the hydrazone functionality displayed clearance rates from kidney, liver, and spleen that were similar to those obtained with directly radioiodinated Fab' (i.e., no conjugate). The maleimido-closo-decaborate(2-) conjugation reagent containing a benzoate substituent on the hydrazone was chosen for study with (211)At. That reagent was conjugated with 107-1A4 Fab', then labeled (separately) with (125)I and (211)At. The radiolabeled Fab' conjugates were coinjected into nude mice bearing LNCaP human tumor xenografts, and biodistribution data were obtained at 1, 4, and 24 h pi. Tumor targeting was achieved with both (125)I- and (211)At-labeled Fab', but the (211)At-labeled Fab' reached a higher concentration (25.56 ± 11.20 vs 11.97 ± 1.31%ID/g). Surprisingly, while the (125)I-labeled Fab' was cleared from kidney similar to earlier studies, the (211)At-labeled Fab'was not (i.e., kidney conc. for (125)I vs (211)At; 4 h, 13.14 ± 2.03 ID/g vs 42.28 ± 16.38%D/g; 24 h, 4.23 ± 1.57 ID/g vs 39.52 ± 15.87%ID/g). Since the Fab' conjugate is identical in both cases except for the radionuclide, it seems likely that the difference in tissue clearance seen is due to an effect that (211)At has on either the hydrazone cleavage or on the retention of a metabolite. Results from other studies in our laboratory suggest that the latter case is most likely. The hydrazone linkers tested do not provide the tissue clearance sought for (211)At, so additional hydrazones linkers will be evaluated. However, the results support the use of hydrazone linkers when Fab' conjugated with closo-decaborate(2-) reagents are radioiodinated. PMID:21513347

  8. Reagents for Astatination of Biomolecules. 5. Evaluation of hydrazone linkers in 211At- and 125I-labeled closo-decaborate(2-) conjugates of Fab? as a means of decreasing kidney retention

    PubMed Central

    Wilbur, D. Scott; Chyan, Ming-Kuan; Hamlin, Donald K.; Nguyen, Holly; Vessella, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of monoclonal antibody (MAb) fragments (e.g. Fab?, Fab or engineered fragments) as cancer-targeting reagents for therapy with the ?-particle emitting radionuclide astatine-211 (211At) has been hampered by low in vivo stability of the label and a propensity of these proteins localize to kidneys. Fortunately, our group has shown that the low stability of the 211At label, generally a meta- or para-[211At]astatobenzoyl conjugate, on MAb Fab? fragments can be dramatically improved by use of closo-decaborate(2-) conjugates. However, the higher stability of radiolabeled MAb Fab? conjugates appears to result in retention of the radioactivity in kidneys. This investigation was conducted to evaluate whether the retention of radioactivity in kidney might be decreased by the use of acid-cleavable hydrazone between the Fab? and the radiolabeled closo-decaborate(2-) moiety. Five conjugation reagents containing sulfhydryl-reactive maleimide groups, a hydrazone functionality and a closo-decaborate(2-) moiety were prepared. In four of the five conjugation reagents, a discrete polyethylene glycol (PEG) linker was used, and one substituent adjacent to the hydrazone was varied (phenyl, benzoate, anisole or methyl) to provide varying acid-sensitivity. In the initial studies, the five maleimido-closo-decaborate(2-) conjugation reagents were radioiodinated (125I or 131I), then conjugated with an anti-PSMA Fab? (107-1A4 Fab?). Biodistributions of the five radioiodinated Fab? conjugates were obtained in nude mice at 1, 4 and 24 h post injection (pi). In contrast to closo-decaborate(2-) conjugated to 107-1A4 Fab? through a non-cleavable linker, two conjugates containing either a benzoate or a methyl substituent on the hydrazone functionality displayed clearance rates from kidney, liver and spleen that were similar to those obtained with directly radioiodinated Fab? (i.e. no conjugate). The maleimido-closo-decaborate(2-) conjugation reagent containing a benzoate substituent on the hydrazone was chosen for study with 211At. That reagent was conjugated with 107-1A4 Fab?, then labeled (separately) with 125I and 211At. The radiolabeled Fab? conjugates were coinjected into nude mice bearing LNCaP human tumor xenografts, and biodistribution data was obtained at 1, 4 and 24 h pi. Tumor targeting was achieved with both 125I- and 211At-labeled Fab?, but the 211At-labeled Fab? reached a higher concentration (25.56 ± 11.20 vs. 11.97 ± 1.31 %ID/g). Surprisingly, while the 125I-labeled Fab? was cleared from kidney similar to earlier studies, the 211At-labeled Fab? was not (i.e. kidney conc. for 125I vs. 211At; 4h: 13.14 ± 2.03 ID/g vs. 42.28 ± 16.38 %D/g, 24h: 4.23 ± 1.57 ID/g vs. 39.52 ± 15.87 %ID/g). Since the Fab? conjugate is identical in both cases except for the radionuclide, it seems likely that the difference in tissue clearance seen is due to an effect that 211At has on either the hydrazone cleavage or on the retention of a metabolite. Results from other studies in our laboratory suggest that the latter case is most likely. The hydrazone linkers tested do not provide the tissue clearance sought for 211At, so additional hydrazones linkers will be evaluated. However, the results support the use of hydrazone linkers when Fab? conjugated with closo-decaborate(2-) reagents are radioiodinated. PMID:21513347

  9. A highly selective turn-on fluorescent probe for hypochlorous acid based on hypochlorous acid-induced oxidative intramolecular cyclization of boron dipyrromethene-hydrazone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Chieh; Venkatesan, Parthiban; Wu, Shu-Pao

    2015-07-01

    A BODIPY-based fluorescent probe, HBP, was developed for the detection of hypochlorous acid based on the specific hypochlorous acid-promoted oxidative intramolecular cyclization of heterocyclic hydrazone in response to the amount of HOCl. The reaction is accompanied by a 41-fold increase in the fluorescent quantum yield (from 0.004 to 0.164). The fluorescence intensity of the reaction between HOCl and HBP is linear in the HOCl concentration range of 1-8 ?M with a detection limit of 2.4 nM (S/N=3). Confocal fluorescence microscopy imaging using RAW264.7 cells showed that the new probe HBP could be used as an effective fluorescent probe for detecting HOCl in living cells. PMID:26043093

  10. An efficient PEGylated liposomal nanocarrier containing cell-penetrating peptide and pH-sensitive hydrazone bond for enhancing tumor-targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yuan; Sun, Dan; Wang, Gui-Ling; Yang, Hong-Ge; Xu, Hai-Feng; Chen, Jian-Hua; Xie, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) as small molecular transporters with abilities of cell penetrating, internalization, and endosomal escape have potential prospect in drug delivery systems. However, a bottleneck hampering their application is the poor specificity for cells. By utilizing the function of hydration shell of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and acid sensitivity of hydrazone bond, we constructed a kind of CPP-modified pH-sensitive PEGylated liposomes (CPPL) to improve the selectivity of these peptides for tumor targeting. In CPPL, CPP was directly attached to liposome surfaces via coupling with stearate (STR) to avoid the hindrance of PEG as a linker on the penetrating efficiency of CPP. A PEG derivative by conjugating PEG with STR via acid-degradable hydrazone bond (PEG2000-Hz-STR, PHS) was synthesized. High-performance liquid chromatography and flow cytometry demonstrated that PHS was stable at normal neutral conditions and PEG could be completely cleaved from liposome surface to expose CPP under acidic environments in tumor. An optimal CPP density on liposomes was screened to guaranty a maximum targeting efficiency on tumor cells as well as not being captured by normal cells that consequently lead to a long circulation in blood. In vitro and in vivo studies indicated, in 4 mol% CPP of lipid modified system, that CPP exerted higher efficiency on internalizing the liposomes into targeted subcellular compartments while remaining inactive and free from opsonins at a maximum extent in systemic circulation. The 4% CPPL as a drug delivery system will have great potential in the clinical application of anticancer drugs in future. PMID:26491292

  11. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Dexmethylphenidate Hydrochloride and D,l-Threo-Methylphenidate Hydrochloride in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigal, Sharon; Swanson, James M.; Feifel, David; Sangal, R. Bart; Elia, Josephine; Casat, Charles D.; Zeldis, Jerome B.; Conners, C. Keith

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride (d-MPH, Focalin[TM]) for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to test an a priori hypothesis that d-MPH would have a longer duration of action than d,l-threo-methylphenidate (d,l-MPH). Method: This was a randomized, double-blind study…

  12. Conformation and interactions of dopamine hydrochloride in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callear, Samantha K.; Johnston, Andrew; McLain, Sylvia E.; Imberti, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The aqueous solution of dopamine hydrochloride has been investigated using neutron and X-ray total scattering data together with Monte-Carlo based modelling using Empirical Potential Structure Refinement. The conformation of the protonated dopamine molecule is presented and the results compared to the conformations found in crystal structures, dopamine-complexed protein crystal structures and predicted from theoretical calculations and pharmacophoric models. It is found that protonated dopamine adopts a range of conformations in solution, highlighting the low rotational energy barrier between different conformations, with the preferred conformation being trans-perpendicular. The interactions between each of the species present (protonated dopamine molecules, water molecules, and chloride anions) have been determined and are discussed with reference to interactions observed in similar systems both in the liquid and crystalline state, and predicted from theoretical calculations. The expected strong hydrogen bonds between the strong hydrogen bond donors and acceptors are observed, together with evidence of weaker CH hydrogen bonds and ? interactions also playing a significant role in determining the arrangement of adjacent molecules.

  13. Properties of olopatadine hydrochloride, a new antiallergic/antihistaminic drug.

    PubMed

    Ohmori, Kenji; Hasegawa, Kazuhide; Tamura, Tadafumi; Miyake, Kiyomi; Matsubara, Masahiro; Masaki, Shigehiro; Karasawa, Akira; Urayama, Naoko; Horikoshi, Kaori; Kajita, Jiro; Hasegawa, Masanori; Taniguchi, Koji; Komada, Toshio; Kawamoto, Yuji

    2004-01-01

    Olopatadine hydrochloride (CAS 140462-76-6, KW-4679, AL-4943A; hereinafter referred to as olopatadine) is a novel antiallergic drug that is a selective histamine H1 receptor antagonist possessing inhibitory effects on the release of inflammatory lipid mediators such as leukotriene and thromboxane from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and eosinophils. Olopatadine also inhibits the tachykininergic contractions in guinea pig bronchi by prejunctional inhibition of peripheral sensory nerves. Oral administration of olopatadine at doses of 0.03 mg/kg or higher reduces the symptoms of experimental allergic cutaneous responses and rhinoconjunctivitis in sensitized animals. Preclinical and clinical evaluations have demonstrated that olopatadine is a safe drug. After oral administration to healthy volunteers, olopatadine was rapidly and extensively absorbed. Unlike most other antiallergic drugs which are eliminated via hepatic metabolism, olopatadine is mainly excreted into urine. Olopatadine did not affect cytochrome P450 activities in human liver microsomes and consequently drug-drug metabolic interactions are unlikely. In double-masked clinical trials, olopatadine was shown to be effective at alleviating symptoms of allergic diseases. The drug (Allelock) was approved in Japan for the treatment of allergic rhinitis, chronic urticaria, eczema dermatitis, prurigo, cutaneous pruritus, psoriasis vulgaris and erythema exsudativum multiforme in December, 2000. An ophthalmic solution of olopatadine is also useful for the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis: this formulation (Patanol) was approved in the USA and the European Union for the treatment of seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis in 1996 and 2002, respectively. PMID:15646365

  14. Release Kinetics of Papaverine Hydrochloride from Tablets with Different Excipients

    PubMed Central

    Kasperek, Regina; Polski, Andrzej; Zimmer, ?ukasz; Poleszak, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The influence of excipients on the disintegration times of tablets and the release of papaverine hydrochloride (PAP) from tablets were studied. Ten different formulations of tablets with PAP were prepared by direct powder compression. Different binders, disintegrants, fillers, and lubricants were used as excipients. The release of PAP was carried out in the paddle apparatus using 0.1 N HCl as a dissolution medium. The results of the disintegration times of tablets showed that six formulations can be classified as fast dissolving tablets (FDT). FDT formulations contained Avicel PH 101, Avicel PH 102, mannitol, (3-lactose, PVP K 10, gelatinized starch (CPharmGel), Prosolv Easy Tab, Prosolv SMCC 90, magnesium stearate, and the addition of disintegrants such as AcDiSol and Kollidon CL. Drug release kinetics were estimated by the zero- and first-order, Higuchi release rate, and Korsmeyer-Peppas models. Two formulations of the tablets containing PVP (K10) (10%), CPharmGel (10% and 25%), and Prosolv Easy Tab (44% and 60%) without the addition of a disintegrant were well-fitted to the kinetics models such as the Higuchi and zero-order, which are suitable for controlled- or sustained-release. PMID:25853076

  15. Lycorine hydrochloride inhibits metastatic melanoma cell-dominant vasculogenic mimicry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruifang; Cao, Zhifei; Tu, Jian; Pan, Yanyan; Shang, Bingxue; Zhang, Gaochuan; Bao, Meimei; Zhang, Shasha; Yang, Ping; Zhou, Quansheng

    2012-09-01

    Melanoma cells actively participate in tumor angiogenesis and vasculogenic mimicry. However, anti-angiogenic therapy in patients with melanoma has not shown a significant survival gain. Thus, new anti-melanoma angiogenic and vasculogenic drugs are highly desired. Using the metastatic melanoma cell line C8161 as a model, we explored melanoma vasculogenic inhibitors and found that lycorine hydrochloride (LH) effectively suppressed C8161 cell-dominant formation of capillary-like tubes in vitro and generation of tumor blood vessels in vivo with low toxicity. Mechanistic studies revealed that LH markedly hindered expression of VE-cadherin in C8161 cells, but did not affect expression of six other important angiogenic and vasculogenic genes. Luciferase assays showed that LH significantly impeded promoter activity of the VE-cadherin gene in a dose-dependent manner. Together, these data suggest that LH inhibits melanoma C8161 cell-dominant vasculogenic mimicry by reducing VE-cadherin gene expression and diminishing cell surface exposure of the protein. PMID:22781316

  16. Conformation and interactions of dopamine hydrochloride in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Callear, Samantha K.; Imberti, Silvia; Johnston, Andrew; McLain, Sylvia E.

    2015-01-07

    The aqueous solution of dopamine hydrochloride has been investigated using neutron and X-ray total scattering data together with Monte-Carlo based modelling using Empirical Potential Structure Refinement. The conformation of the protonated dopamine molecule is presented and the results compared to the conformations found in crystal structures, dopamine-complexed protein crystal structures and predicted from theoretical calculations and pharmacophoric models. It is found that protonated dopamine adopts a range of conformations in solution, highlighting the low rotational energy barrier between different conformations, with the preferred conformation being trans-perpendicular. The interactions between each of the species present (protonated dopamine molecules, water molecules, and chloride anions) have been determined and are discussed with reference to interactions observed in similar systems both in the liquid and crystalline state, and predicted from theoretical calculations. The expected strong hydrogen bonds between the strong hydrogen bond donors and acceptors are observed, together with evidence of weaker CH hydrogen bonds and ? interactions also playing a significant role in determining the arrangement of adjacent molecules.

  17. HPLC study on the stability of bendamustine hydrochloride immobilized onto polyphosphoesters.

    PubMed

    Pencheva, Ivanka; Bogomilova, Anita; Koseva, Neli; Obreshkova, Danka; Troev, Kolio

    2008-12-01

    Novel water soluble polymer complexes of bendamustine hydrochloride, a bifunctional alkylating agent with antimetabolic and cytotoxic activity, were developed using biodegradable polymer carriers-poly(oxyethylene H-phosphonate), poly(methyloxyethylene phosphate) and poly(hydroxyoxyethylene phosphate). Bendamustine hydrochloride was immobilized onto polyphosphoesters via covalent, ionic and hydrogen bonding. The structure of the complexes formed was elucidated by (1)H, (13)C, (31)P NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. The chemical stability of bendamustine hydrochloride in the novel complexes was studied by HPLC analysis based on a validated method with appointed analytical parameters such as specificity, repeatability, limit of quantitation, limit of detection and linearity. The results from the HPLC indicate that in neutral (pH 7) and alkaline (pH 9) media bendamustine hydrochloride in the polymer complexes is more stable than the pure bendamustine hydrochloride. The enhanced stability of the immobilized drug is explained with the drug interaction with the polymer carriers or their degradation products. PMID:18926656

  18. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation on carcass cutability of calf-fed Holstein steers.

    PubMed

    Howard, S T; Woerner, D R; Vote, D J; Scanga, J A; Acheson, R J; Chapman, P L; Bryant, T C; Tatum, J D; Belk, K E

    2014-01-01

    Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) and zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on saleable yield of carcass sides from calf-fed Holstein steers were evaluated using steers implanted with a progesterone (100 mg) plus estradiol benzoate (10 mg) implant followed by a terminal trenbolone acetate (200 mg) plus estradiol (40 mg) implant. Steers were blocked by weight into pens (n = 32) randomly assigned to one of four treatments: control, RH fed at 300 mg•steer(-1)/d(-1) (RH 300) or RH fed at 400 mg•steer(-1)/d(-1) (RH 400) the final 31 d of finishing, and ZH fed at 60 to 90 mg•steer(-1)/d(-1) (7.56 g/ton on a 100% DM basis) for 21 d with a 5 d withdrawal before harvest. Eight to nine carcass sides were randomly selected from each pen; carcass sides with excessive hide pulls, fat pulls or bruises were avoided. Cutout data were collected within a commercial facility using plant personnel to fabricate sides at a rate of one every 3 to 4 min into items typically merchandised by the facility. All lean, fat and bone were weighed and summed back to total chilled side weight with a sensitivity of ± 2% to be included in the data set. Compared to controls, ?-agonists increased saleable yield of whole-muscle cuts by 0.61%, 0.86% and 1.95% for RH 300, RH 400 and ZH, respectively (P < 0.05). Percent fat was less in carcasses from the ZH treatment compared to controls (P < 0.05); however, this difference was not observed between RH treatments and controls (P > 0.05). Percent bone was less in the ZH treatment due to increased muscle (P < 0.05). The percent of chilled side weight comprised of trimmings was unchanged between treatments, but on a 100% lean basis, RH 400 and ZH increased trim yields (P < 0.05). Analysis of saleable yield by primal showed a fundamental shift in growth and development. Beta-agonists caused a shift in proportion of saleable yield within individual primals, with a greater portion produced from the hindquarter relative to the forequarter, specifically in those muscles of the round (P < 0.05). Beta-agonists increased saleable yield, but these effects were not constant between all major primals. The cutout value gained by packers as a result of ?-agonist use may be influenced more by reduced fatness and increased absolute weight if musculature is primarily increased in the lower priced cuts of the carcass. PMID:24243909

  19. 40 CFR 721.1025 - Benzenamine, 4-chloro-2-methyl-; benzenamine, 4-chloro-2-methyl-, hydrochloride; and ben-zenamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzenamine, 4-chloro-2-methyl-; benzenamine, 4-chloro-2-methyl-, hydrochloride; and ben-zenamine, 2-chloro-6-methyl-. 721.1025 Section 721... Benzenamine, 4-chloro-2-methyl-; benzenamine, 4-chloro-2-methyl-, hydrochloride; and ben-zenamine,...

  20. 21 CFR 524.1484b - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium chloride, topical powder. 524.1484b Section...hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium chloride, topical powder. (a) Specifications...milligram of myristyl-gamma-picolinium chloride in each gram of the product in a...

  1. 21 CFR 524.1484b - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium chloride, topical powder. 524.1484b Section...hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium chloride, topical powder. (a) Specifications...milligram of myristyl-gamma-picolinium chloride in each gram of the product in a...

  2. 78 FR 27971 - Determination That REV-EYES (Dapiprazole Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution), 0.5%, Was Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration...FDA-2012-P-1000] Determination That REV-EYES (Dapiprazole Hydrochloride...has determined that REV-EYES (dapiprazole hydrochloride...refer to a listed drug. REV-EYES (dapiprazole...

  3. Pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride after intravenous and intramuscular administration of a single dose to American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; KuKanich, Butch; Drazenovich, Tracy L.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R.

    2014-01-01

    Results indicated hydromorphone hydrochloride had high bioavailability and rapid elimination after IM administration, with a short terminal half-life, rapid plasma clearance, and large volume of distribution in American kestrels. Further studies regarding the effects of other doses, other administration routes, constantrate infusions, and slow release formulations on the pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride and its metabolites in American kestrels may be indicated.

  4. Photoacoustic imaging to detect rat brain activation after cocaine hydrochloride injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Janggun; Yang, Xinmai

    2011-03-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) was employed to detect small animal brain activation after the administration of cocaine hydrochloride. Sprague Dawley rats were injected with different concentrations (2.5, 3.0, and 5.0 mg per kg body) of cocaine hydrochloride in saline solution through tail veins. The brain functional response to the injection was monitored by photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system with horizontal scanning of cerebral cortex of rat brain. Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) was also used for coronal view images. The modified PAT system used multiple ultrasonic detectors to reduce the scanning time and maintain a good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The measured photoacoustic signal changes confirmed that cocaine hydrochloride injection excited high blood volume in brain. This result shows PAI can be used to monitor drug abuse-induced brain activation.

  5. A pilot study of acotiamide hydrochloride hydrate in patients with detrusor underactivity

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Koichi; Akiyama, Takahiro; Shimizu, Nobutaka; Matsumura, Naoki; Hayashi, Taiji; Nishioka, Tsukasa; Uemura, Hirotsugu

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate the clinical efficacy of acotiamide hydrochloride hydrate in patients with detrusor underactivity. Methods We measured the post-void residual urinary volume in 19 patients with underactive bladders. All these patients had been under treatment with distigmine bromide and were prescribed acotiamide hydrochloride hydrate at a dose of 100 mg three times daily for 2 weeks. Results Compared with the post-void residual urinary volume value at baseline (161.4±90.0 mL) a statistically significant reduction was observed at the end of treatment (116.3±63.1 mL) (P=0.006). The drug was generally well tolerated by the majority of patients. Conclusion Maybe, acotiamide hydrochloride hydrate showed clinical efficacy in patients with underactive bladders and may, therefore, be used alternatively in patients who do not respond sufficiently to distigmine bromide. PMID:26056686

  6. Identification of impurities and statistical classification of methamphetamine hydrochloride drugs seized in the China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian Xin; Zhang, Da Ming; Han, Xu Guang

    2008-01-01

    A total of 48 methamphetamine hydrochloride samples from eight seizures were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and a flame ionization detector (GC–FID). Major impurities detected include 1,2-dimethyl-3-phenylaziridine, Ephedrine/pseudoephedrine, 1,3-dimethyl-2-phenylnaphthalene, 1-benzyl-3-methylnaphthalene. These data are suggestive of ephedrine/pseudoephedrine as the main precursor of the methamphetamine hydrochloride samples seized during 2006–2007. Additionally the presence of 1,3-dimethyl-2-phenylnaphthalene, 1-benzyl-3-methylnaphthalene is indicative that six seizures were synthesized via the more specific ephedrine/hydriodic acid/red phosphorus method. In addition, five impurities were found for the first time in methamphetamine hydrochloride samples. Seventeen impurity peaks were selected from the GC–FID chromatograms. The peak areas of the selected peaks were then grouped for cluster analysis. PMID:19008060

  7. High Performance Thin Layer Chromatographic Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Ibuprofen and Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Chitlange, S. S.; Sakarkar, D. M.; Wankhede, S. B.; Wadodkar, S. G.

    2008-01-01

    High performance thin layer chromatographic method is developed for simultaneous estimation of ibuprofen and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride in tablets. Silica gel 60F254 plates were used as stationary phase and t.butanol: ethyl acetate: glacial acetic acid: water (7:4:2:2 v/v) as mobile phase. Wavelength selected for analysis was 254 nm. Percent estimation of ibuprofen and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride was found to be 99.56% and 98.77%, respectively. Percent recovery for both the drugs was found in the range of 98.27% to 100.91%, respectively. PMID:20046759

  8. Effects of tramadol hydrochloride on the thermal threshold in cats.

    PubMed

    Pypendop, Bruno H; Siao, Kristine T; Ilkiw, Jan E

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE-To determine the thermal antinociceptive effect of oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride at doses between 0.5 and 4 mg/kg in cats. ANIMALS-6 healthy adult domestic shorthair cats. PROCEDURES-Baseline (before drug administration; time 0) thermal threshold was determined by applying a thermal probe to the thorax of each cat. Tramadol (0.5, 1, 2, 3, or 4 mg/kg) or a placebo was then administered orally in accordance with a Latin square design. Thermal threshold was determined by an observer who was unaware of treatment at various times until thermal threshold returned to baseline values or 6 hours had elapsed. Plasma tramadol and O-desmethyl-tramadol concentrations were measured prior to drug administration and at 1-hour intervals thereafter. Effect-concentration data were fitted to effect maximum models. RESULTS-Highest plasma tramadol and O-desmethyl-tramadol concentrations increased with increasing tramadol dose. Significant effects of dose and time on thermal threshold were detected. Thermal threshold was significantly higher than the baseline value at 80 and 120 minutes for the 0.5 mg/kg dose, at 80 and from 120 to 360 minutes for the 2 mg/kg dose, from 40 to 360 minutes for the 3 mg/kg dose, and from 60 to 360 minutes for the 4 mg/kg dose. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Tramadol induced thermal antinociception in cats. Doses of 2 to 4 mg/kg appeared necessary for induction of significant and sustained analgesic effects. Simulations predicted that 4 mg/kg every 6 hours would maintain analgesia close to the maximum effect of tramadol. PMID:19951117

  9. Suppressive activity of epinastine hydrochloride on eosinophil activation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Yu-ichiro; Furuta, Atsuko; Furuya, Ayako; Kanai, Ken-ichi; Asano, Kazuhito; Suzaki, Harumi

    2008-01-01

    The influence of a histamine H1 receptor antagonist, epinastine hydrochloride (EP), on eosinophil functions was examined in vitro and in vivo. The first set of experiments was undertaken to examine whether EP could suppress eosinophilia and IgE hyperproduction induced by Mesocestoides cortii infection in BALB/c mice. The number of peripheral blood eosinophils and levels of IgE were examined 21 days after infection. Oral administration of EP at a daily dose of 0.3 mg/kg, which is the recommended human therapeutic dose, for 21 days was not able to suppress either peripheral blood eosinophilia or IgE hyperproduction, which was observed in mice infected with M. cortii. The second part of the experiment was designed to examine the influence of EP on eosinophil activation induced by stem cell factor (SCF) stimulation in vitro. Eosinophils were obtained from M. cortii-infected mice and stimulated with SCF in the presence of different concentrations of EP for 24 h. The addition of EP into cell cultures suppressed eosinophil activation induced by SCF stimulation as assessed by measuring the contents of acronym for Regulated upon Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and presumably Secreted (RANTES), macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta (MIP-1beta) and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) levels in culture supernatants. The minimum concentration of EP which caused significant suppression of factor productions was 25 ng/ml, which is similar to the concentration in plasma after oral administration of the therapeutic dose in humans. These results may suggest that EP exerts inhibitory effects on eosinophil activation and results in favorable modification of the clinical status of allergic patients. PMID:18396776

  10. Novel Potent Imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-N-Glycinyl-Hydrazone Inhibitors of TNF-? Production: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lacerda, Renata B.; Sales, Natália M.; da Silva, Leandro L.; Tesch, Roberta; Miranda, Ana Luisa P.; Barreiro, Eliezer J.; Fernandes, Patricia D.; Fraga, Carlos A. M.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we describe the design, synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of novel imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-N-glycinyl-hydrazone derivatives (1a–k) intended for use as inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) production. The compounds were designed based on the orally active anti-inflammatory prototype LASSBio-1504 (2), which decreases the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-? in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro pharmacological evaluation of the imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine compounds (1) showed that substitution of the N-phenylpyrazole core present in prototype 2 by a bioisosteric imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine scaffold generated anti-TNF-? compounds that were more potent than the previously described N-phenylpyrazole derivative 2 and as potent as SB-203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor. The most active derivative (E)-2-(2-tert-butylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-ylamino)-N’-(4-chlorobenzylidene) acetohydrazide, or LASSBio-1749 (1i) was orally active as an anti-inflammatory agent in a subcutaneous air pouch model, reducing expressively the levels in vivo of TNF-? and other pro-inflammatory cytokines at all of the tested doses. PMID:24632827

  11. Synthesis and biological evaluation of (acyl)hydrazones and thiosemicarbazones obtained via in situ condensation of iminium salts with nitrogen-containing nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Caneva, Chiara; Alfei, Silvana; De Maria, Monica; Ibba, Cristina; Delogu, Ilenia; Spallarossa, Andrea; Loddo, Roberta

    2015-11-01

    An unprecedented, highly convergent, high-yielding, one-pot synthesis of (acyl)hydrazones and thiosemicarbazones was carried out by the in situ condensation of isolable iminium chlorides of imidazolidin-2-(thio)one, tetrahydropyrimidin-2-thione and indole derivatives with nitrogen nucleophiles in the presence of a base. The developed reaction procedure is largely advantageous. It is highly parallelizable, no intermediates need to be isolated and minimal sample handling is required during the purification steps. Some relevant reaction parameters including reaction temperature and p[Formula: see text] of the base are discussed. NMR analysis was carried out to assess the stereochemistry of the obtained compounds. The stereochemical outcome of the reaction was found to be affected by the nature of the nitrogen-containing nucleophile being the majority of the derivatives isolated as single geometric isomers. The cytotoxicity and antiviral activities of the prepared compounds have been preliminary assessed. In cell-based screenings some of the derivatives proved to be cytotoxic at low micromolar concentrations and interesting anti-Reo-1 properties have been detected. PMID:26077842

  12. Spectroscopic and biological studies of new mononuclear metal complexes of a bidentate NN and NO hydrazone-oxime ligand derived from egonol.

    PubMed

    Babahan, Ilknur; Emirda?-Öztürk, Safiye; Poyrazo?lu-Çoban, Esin

    2015-04-15

    A novel ligand, vicinal dioxime ligand (egonol-hydrazone glyoxime) (LH2) was synthesized and characterized using (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, MS, AAS, infrared spectroscopy, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Mononuclear nickel (II), copper (II) and cobalt (II) complexes with a metal:ligand ratio of 1:2 for LH2 were also synthesized. Zn(II) forms complex [Zn(LH)Cl2] with a metal to ligand ratio of 1:1. IR spectrum shows that the ligand act in a bidentate manner and coordinates N4 donor groups of the ligands to Ni(II), Cu(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) ions. The detection of H-bonding (OH?O) in the [M(LH)2] metal complexes by IR spectra supported the square-planar MN4 coordination of Ni(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) complexes. The antimicrobial activities of compounds LH2 and their Ni(II), Cu(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) complexes were evaluated using the disc diffusion method against 16 bacteria and 5 yeasts. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against all the bacteria and yeasts were also determined. Among the attempted test compounds, it is showed that all the compounds (L, LH2, [Ni(LH)2], [Cu(LH)2], [Co(LH)2(H2O)2], [Zn(LH)Cl2]) were effective against used test microorganisms. PMID:25686861

  13. Spectroscopic and biological studies of new mononuclear metal complexes of a bidentate NN and NO hydrazone-oxime ligand derived from egonol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babahan, Ilknur; Emirda?-Öztürk, Safiye; Poyrazo?lu-Çoban, Esin

    2015-04-01

    A novel ligand, vicinal dioxime ligand (egonol-hydrazone glyoxime) (LH2) was synthesized and characterized using 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS, AAS, infrared spectroscopy, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Mononuclear nickel (II), copper (II) and cobalt (II) complexes with a metal:ligand ratio of 1:2 for LH2 were also synthesized. Zn(II) forms complex [Zn(LH)Cl2] with a metal to ligand ratio of 1:1. IR spectrum shows that the ligand act in a bidentate manner and coordinates N4 donor groups of the ligands to NiII, CuII, CoII and ZnII ions. The detection of H-bonding (Osbnd H⋯O) in the [M(LH)2] metal complexes by IR spectra supported the square-planar MN4 coordination of Ni(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) complexes. The antimicrobial activities of compounds LH2 and their Ni(II), Cu(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) complexes were evaluated using the disc diffusion method against 16 bacteria and 5 yeasts. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against all the bacteria and yeasts were also determined. Among the attempted test compounds, it is showed that all the compounds (L, LH2, [Ni(LH)2], [Cu(LH)2], [Co(LH)2(H2O)2], [Zn(LH)Cl2]) were effective against used test microorganisms.

  14. Determination and analysis of the optical constants of thin films of nickel(II) and copper(II) hydrazone complexes by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z. M.; Wu, Y. Q.; Gu, D. H.; Gan, F. X.

    2007-08-01

    Thin films of four nickel(II) and copper(II) hydrazone complexes, which will hopefully be used as recording layers for the next-generation of high-density recordable disks, were prepared by using the spin-coating method. Absorption spectra of the thin films on K9 optical glass substrates in the 300-700 nm wavelength region were measured. Optical constants (complex refractive indices N) and thickness d of the thin films prepared on single-crystal silicon substrates in the 275-675 nm wavelength region were investigated on a rotating analyzer-polarizer scanning ellipsometer by fitting the measured ellipsometric angles (?(?) and ?(?)) with a 3-layer model (Si/dye film/air). The dielectric functions ? and absorption coefficients ? as a function of the wavelength were then calculated. Additionally, a design to achieve high reflectivity and optimum dye film thickness with an appropriate reflective layer was performed with the Film Wizard software using a multilayered model (PC substrate/reflective layer/dye film/air) at 405 nm wavelength.

  15. Reactivity Differences between [alpha, beta]-Unsaturated Carbonyls and Hydrazones Investigated by Experimental and Theoretical Electron Density and Electron Localizability Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Grabowsky, Simon; Weber, Manuela; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Grabowski, Matthias T.; Brehme, Rainer; Hesse, Malte; Schirmeister, Tanja; Luger, Peter

    2012-10-11

    It is still a challenge to predict a compound's reactivity from its ground-state electronic nature although Bader-type topological analyses of the electron density (ED) and electron localizability indicator (ELI) give detailed and useful information on electron concentration and electron-pair localization, respectively. Both ED and ELI can be obtained from theoretical calculations as well as high-resolution X-ray diffraction experiments. Besides ED and ELI descriptors, the delocalization index is used here; it is likewise derived from theoretical calculations as well as from experimental X-ray results, but in the latter case, demonstrated here for the first time. We investigate {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carbonyl and hydrazone compounds because resonance exhibited by these compounds in the electronic ground-state determines their reactive behavior. The degree of resonance as well as the reactivity contrast are quantified with the electronic descriptors. Moreover, competitive mesomeric substituent effects are studied using the two biologically important compounds acrolein and acrylamide. The reactivity differences predicted from the analyses are in line with the known reactivity of these compounds in organic synthesis. Hence, the capability of the ED and ELI for rationalizing and predicting different and competing substituent effects with respect to reactivity is demonstrated.

  16. Observations on the use of cyproheptadine hydrochloride as an antipruritic agent in allergic cats.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, D W; Rothstein, E; Beningo, K E; Miller, W H

    1998-01-01

    Cyproheptadine hydrochloride was administered to 20 presumed or proven allergic cats to determine its efficacy in controlling pruritus. Each cat received 2 mg, orally, every 12 h. The pruritus was satisfactorily controlled in 9 cats. Side effects were seen in 8 cats, and included polyphagia, sedation, vocalization, affectionate behavior, and vomiting. PMID:9789674

  17. Performance of finishing beef steers in response to anabolic implant and zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objectives were to evaluate the dose/payout pattern of trenbolone acetate (TBA) and estradiol-17b (E2) implants and feeding of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers. A randomized complete block design was used with a 3 × 2 factorial arr...

  18. Performance of finishing beef steers in response to anabolic implant dose and zilpaterol hydrochloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    British × Continental steers (n = 168; 7 pens/treatment; initial BW = 362 kg) were used to evaluate the dose of trenbolone acetate (TBA) and estradiol-17ß (E2) and feeding of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on performance and carcass characteristics. A randomized complete block design was used with a ...

  19. 75 FR 64310 - Determination That BUSPAR (Buspirone Hydrochloride) Tablets, 10 Milligrams, 15 Milligrams, and 30...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has determined that BUSPAR (buspirone hydrochloride) Tablets, 10 milligrams (mg), 15 mg, and 30 mg, were not withdrawn from sale for reasons of safety or effectiveness. This determination means that FDA will not begin procedures to withdraw approval of abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) that refer to this drug product, and it will allow FDA to......

  20. Fate and transport of the ß-adrenergic agonist ractopamine hydrochloride in soil-water systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The feed additive ractopamine hydrochloride was fortified at four concentrations into batch vials containing soils that differed in both biological activity and organic matter (OM). Sampling of the liquid layer for 14 d demonstrated that ractopamine rapidly dissipated from the liquid layer. Less t...

  1. A Parent Guide To Understanding the Effects of Ritalin (Methylphenidate Hydrochloride).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villegas, Orlando; And Others

    This guide provides information to help parents decide whether their child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) should take methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin). Information is provided in a question-and-answer format on various concerns, including: the meaning of ADHD, whether Ritalin is overprescribed, when this medication is…

  2. Determination and Characterization of Two Degradant Impurities in Bendamustine Hydrochloride Drug Product.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenhua; Zou, Limin; Zhang, Fei; Xu, Xiangyang; Zhang, Liandi; Liao, Mingyi; Li, Xiaoqiang; Ding, Li

    2015-11-01

    Bendamustine hydrochloride is an alkylating antitumor agent with a good efficacy in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL). Under the stressed conditions, two degradant impurities in bendamustine hydrochloride drug product were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. These two degradant impurities were isolated from preparative liquid chromatography, and were further characterized using Q-TOF/MS and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Based on the MS and NMR spectral data, they were characterized as 4-[5-(2-chloro-ethylamino)-1-methyl-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl] butyric acid hydrochloride (impurity-A) and 4-{5-[[2-(4-{5-[bis-(2-chloroethyl) amino]-1-methyl-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl}-butyryloxy)-ethyl]-(2-chloroethyl)amino]-1-methyl-3a, 7a-dihydro-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl} butyric acid hydrochloride (impurity-B). Isolation, structural elucidation of these two impurities by spectral data (Q-TOF/MS, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, D2O exchange NMR and two-dimensional NMR) and the probable formation mechanism of the impurities were discussed. PMID:26052090

  3. Ammonium PerchlorateBinding Poly(allylamine hydrochloride) Hydrogels for Wastewater Remediation

    E-print Network

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Ammonium Perchlorate­Binding Poly(allylamine hydrochloride) Hydrogels for Wastewater Remediation: Systems that are capable of removing highly toxic anions from wastewater effluents, even at extremely low ) anion from ammonium perchlorate (NH4ClO4) wastewater. The sorbent devel- oped is a crosslinked poly

  4. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR 2,4-DIMETHYLANILINE AND 2,4-DIMETHYLANILINE HYDROCHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for 2-4-Dimethylaniline and 2,4-Dimethylaniline Hydrochloride was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to pr...

  5. Development of directly compressible metformin hydrochloride by the spray-drying technique.

    PubMed

    Barot, Bhavesh S; Parejiya, Punit B; Patel, Tushar M; Parikh, Rajesh K; Gohel, Mukesh C

    2010-06-01

    Metformin hydrochloride exhibits poor compressibility during compaction, often resulting in weak and unacceptable tablets with a high tendency to cap. The purpose of this study was to develop directly compressible metformin hydrochloride by the spray-drying technique in the presence of polymer. Metformin hydrochloride was dissolved in solutions containing a polymer, namely polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP K30), in various concentrations ranging from 0-3% (m/V). These solutions were employed for spray-drying. Spray-dried drug was evaluated for yield, flow property and compressibility profile. Metformin hydrochloride spray-dried in the presence of 2% PVP K30 showed an excellent flow property and compressibility profile. From the calculated Heckel's parameter (Py = 2.086), it was demonstrated that the treated drug showed better particle arrangement in the initial compression stage. Kawakita analysis revealed better packability of the treated drug compared to the untreated drug. Differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy experiments showed that the spray-dried drug did not undergo any chemical modifications. Tablets made from the spray-dried drug (90%, m/m) were evaluated for crushing strength, friability and disintegration time and the results were found satisfactory. PMID:21134853

  6. EFFECTS OF DRC-1339 (3-CHLORO-4-METHYLANILINE HYDROCHLORIDE) AVICIDE ON PHEASANT

    E-print Network

    85 EFFECTS OF DRC-1339 (3-CHLORO-4-METHYLANILINE HYDROCHLORIDE) AVICIDE ON PHEASANT REPRODUCTION) on ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). Twelve females and 4 males were administered 3 doses of 4 affect reproduction in ring- necked pheasants. Key words: avicide, DRC-1339, Phasianus colchicus

  7. EPR study of free-radical structure and conformation in pyridoxine hydrochloride single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiakowski, Jerzy T.; Krzyminiewski, Ryszard; Pietrzak, Jerzy

    1985-05-01

    Numerical analysis of experimental EPR spectra of ?-irradiated single crystals of pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B 6) allowed determination of the structure of the radical formed. Six hyperfine couplings were distinguished. The geometrical model of the radical was found to be in good agreement with the geometry expected from the crystal structure. Semi-empirical INDO and CNDO calculations were performed.

  8. Formulation and Evaluation of Propranolol Hydrochloride-Loaded Carbopol-934P/Ethyl Cellulose Mucoadhesive Microspheres.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jayvadan; Patel, Darshna; Raval, Jignyasha

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to formulate and systemically evaluate in-vitro and in-vivo performances of mucoadhesive propranolol hydrochloride microspheres for its potential use in the treatment of hypertension, myocardial infraction and cardiac arrhythmias. Propranolol hydrochloride mucoadhesive microspheres, containing carbopol-934P as mucoadhesive polymer and ethyl cellulose as carrier polymer, were prepared by an emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. Results of preliminary trials indicated that the quantity of emulsifying agent, time for stirring, drug-to-polymers ratio, and speed of rotation affected various characteristics of microspheres. Microspheres were discrete, spherical, free-flowing and showed a good percentage of drug entrapment efficiency. An in-vitro mucoadhesive test showed that propranolol hydrochloride mucoadhesive microspheres adhered more strongly to the gastric mucous layer and could be retained in the gastrointestinal tract for an extended period of time. A 3(2) full factorial design was employed to study the effect of independent variables, drug-to-polymer-to-polymer ratio (propranolol hydrochloride-ethyl cellulose-carbopol-934P) (X 1), and stirring speed (X 2) on dependent variables, i.e. percentage of mucoadhesion, drug entrapment efficiency, particle size and t80. The best batch exhibited a high drug entrapment efficiency of 54 %; 82% mucoadhesion after 1 h and particle size of 110 ?m. A sustained pattern of drug release was obtained for more than 12 h. The drug-to-polymer-to-polymer ratio had a more significant effect on the dependent variables. The morphological characteristics of the mucoadhesive microspheres were studied under a scanning electron microscope. In-vivo evaluation studies on propranolol hydrochloride mucoadhesive microspheres and propranolol hydrochloride powder were performed on normal healthy rabbits. The results showed a sustained anti-hypertensive effect over a longer period of time in case of mucoadhesive microspheres, compared to the powder. In conclusion, the prolonged gastrointestinal residence time and slow release of propranolol hydrochloride resulting from the mucoadhesive microspheres, could contribute to the provision of a sustained anti-hypertensive effect. PMID:24363731

  9. [Pharmacokinetic interaction of pioglitazone hydrochloride and atorvastatin calcium in Beagle dogs].

    PubMed

    Chen, He-Li; Zhang, Wen-Ping; Yang, Fu-Ying; Wang, Xin-Yu; Yang, Wen-Cheng; Dang, Hong-Wan

    2013-05-01

    The object of this study is to investigate the pharmacokinetic interaction of pioglitazone hydrochloride and atorvastatin calcium in healthy adult Beagle dogs following single and multiple oral dose administration. A randomized, cross-over study was conducted with nine healthy adult Beagle dogs assigned to three groups. Each group was arranged to take atorvastatin calcium (A), pioglitazone hydrochloride (B), atorvastatin calcium and pioglitazone hydrochloride (C) orally in the first period, to take B, C, A in the second period, and to take C, A, B in the third period for 6 days respectively. The blood samples were collected at the first and the sixth day after the administration, plasma drug concentrations were determined by LC-MS/MS, a one-week wash-out period was needed between each period. The pharmacokinetic parameters of drug combination group and the drug alone group were calculated by statistical moment method, calculation of C(max) and AUC(0-t) was done by using 90% confidence interval method of the bioequivalence and bioavailability degree module DAS 3.2.1 software statistics. Compared with the separate administration, the main pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max) and AUC(0-t)) of joint use of pioglitazone hydrochloride and atorvastatin calcium within 90% confidence intervals for bioequivalence statistics were unqualified, the mean t(max) with standard deviation used paired Wilcoxon test resulted P > 0.05. There was no significant difference within t1/2, CL(int), MRT, V/F. Pioglitazone hydrochloride and atorvastatin calcium had pharmacokinetic interaction in healthy adult Beagle dogs. PMID:23888699

  10. A clinical pharmacokinetic study comparing two azelastine hydrochloride nasal formulations in a single-dose design.

    PubMed

    Du, Daniel; Targett, Darren; Stolberg, Erhard; Canali, Alessandra

    2014-03-01

    Azelastine hydrochloride is a potent second-generation antihistamine, available in Europe and the USA as a nasal spray formulation for the treatment of allergic rhinitis symptoms. GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) Consumer Healthcare has developed a new nasal formulation of azelastine hydrochloride. The present study was aimed at comparing the clinical pharmacokinetic profiles and assessing the bioequivalence of the new formulation of azelastine hydrochloride with a marketed reference nasal spray product. This was a randomized, two-way crossover, two-stage, single-dose pharmacokinetic study with 2 weeks washout between the two treatment periods. A dosage of 0.28 mg of the test and reference products was administered as a single dose to healthy volunteers according to the crossover design. Twenty-three subjects (15 subjects from stage 1 and 8 subjects from stage 2) were enrolled in the study. Adjusted mean values for AUC0-t were 1,526.8 h pg/mL for the test drug and 1,441.5 h pg/mL for the reference drug; for C max the values were 61.59 pg/mL for the test drug and 58.21 pg/mL for the reference drug. The 94.12 % CI of geometric mean ratios (test/reference) were 0.99-1.13 and 0.95-1.18 for AUC0-t and C max. This met the predefined criteria for bioequivalence between test and reference drugs. Secondary pharmacokinetic parameters for azelastine and for the metabolite desmethyl azelastine, AUC(0-?) and t max, were numerically similar between the two study treatments. Both test and reference azelastine hydrochloride formulations were well tolerated at single dose. This study demonstrated the bioequivalence between the new azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray formulation and the marketed reference Allergodil(®) after single-dose administration. PMID:23681835

  11. Clinical effects of the new phosphorus binder, bixalomer in hemodialysis patients switched from sevelamer hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Gen, Shikou; Sasaki, Takaya; Saito, Kanako; Nobe, Kanako; Nodaira, Yuka; Ikeda, Naofumi

    2014-06-01

    It has been reported that sevelamer hydrochloride, which is often used as a polymer phosphorus (P) binder for managing serum P concentration in dialysis patients, causes gastrointestinal adverse effects such as constipation, etc. The reason for this is thought to be that sevelamer hydrochloride has high water absorption, causing it to absorb water and swell in the gastrointestinal tract. In June 2012, the new polymer P binder bixalomer was launched in Japan. Since bixalomer has low swelling due to water absorption, it can be expected to alleviate adverse effects in the gastrointestinal system. In our study, for 21 cases of maintenance hemodialysis patients undergoing treatment with sevelamer hydrochloride at our hospital, the P binder was switched from sevelamer hydrochloride to the same dosage of bixalomer, and the concentrations of serum P, corrected calcium (Ca) and whole parathyroid hormone (PTH) before and one month after the switch were compared. In addition, gastrointestinal symptoms (acid reflux, abdominal pain, indigestion, diarrhea and constipation) were evaluated before and after the switch using a questionnaire based on the Japanese version of the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS). By switching to bixalomer, serum P concentration was significantly reduced (P=0.024), but there were no significant changes observed for serum corrected Ca and whole PTH. Furthermore, there were no significant changes observed for all five of the evaluation items of the GSRS, before and after the switch. These results suggest that although bixalomer can more potently reduce the serum P concentration than sevelamer hydrochloride, there were no significant differences in the effects of both P binders on the gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:24975889

  12. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Ddd... - Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by the Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride Method

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...other phenolic resins, especially those with a high FF content. 2. Principle 2.1a. The basis for this method is the titration of the hydrochloric acid that is liberated when hydroxylamine hydrochloride reacts with formaldehyde to form...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Ddd... - Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by the Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride Method

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...other phenolic resins, especially those with a high FF content. 2. Principle 2.1a. The basis for this method is the titration of the hydrochloric acid that is liberated when hydroxylamine hydrochloride reacts with formaldehyde to form...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Ddd... - Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by the Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride Method

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...other phenolic resins, especially those with a high FF content. 2. Principle 2.1a. The basis for this method is the titration of the hydrochloric acid that is liberated when hydroxylamine hydrochloride reacts with formaldehyde to form...

  15. Pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride after intravenous and intramuscular administration of a single dose to American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; KuKanich, Butch; Drazenovich, Tracy L.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated hydromorphone hydrochloride had high bioavailability and rapid elimination after IM administration, with a short terminal half-life, rapid plasma clearance, and large volume of distribution in American kestrels. Further studies regarding the effects of other doses, other administration routes, constantrate infusions, and slow release formulations on the pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride and its metabolites in American kestrels may be indicated.

  16. Investigation of the mechanism of protein denaturation by guanidine hydrochloride-induced dissociation of inhibitor-protease complexes.

    PubMed

    Qasim, Mohammad A; Taha, Mohammad

    2013-02-01

    In this communication we describe an approach in which guanidine hydrochloride-induced dissociation of a protein inhibitor-serine protease complex is used to explore the molecular basis of protein denaturation. The rationale behind this approach is that the inhibitor-protease complex is stabilized by the same types of non-covalent interactions that stabilize the native state of a protein. The dissociation of inhibitor-protease complex can be performed at concentrations of guanidine hydrochloride at which the inhibitor and the protease retain their native conformations. Here, we present our results on the effect of 0.1 M to 0.4 M guanidine hydrochloride concentrations on the association equilibrium constants (reciprocal of dissociation constant) of P?G, P?A, P?V, P?N, and P?S variants of turkey ovomucoid third domain with bovine ?-chymotrypsin. We use these results to calculate the free energy change in the dissociation of inhibitor-protease complexes (the m value) per mol of guanidine hydrochloride concentration. Our results agree with the general consensus that the denaturing effect of guanidine hydrochloride is due to its favorable interaction with the polar parts of proteins and that the non-polar side chains have no or little favorable interaction with guanidine hydrochloride. PMID:22894155

  17. Weakly-bridged dimeric diorganotin(IV) compounds derived from pyruvic acid hydrazone Schiff base ligands: Synthesis, characterization and crystal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Min; Yin, Han-Dong; Cui, Ji-Chun

    2011-03-01

    We report the synthesis of four diorganotin(IV) compounds of Schiff base pyruvic acid hydrazone derivatives formulated as [R 2SnLY] 2, where L 1 is 2-SC 4H 3CON 2C(CH 3)CO 2 with Y = CH 3CH 2CH 2CH 2OH, R = n-Bu ( 1); L 2 is C 6H 5CON 2C(CH 3)CO 2 with Y = CH 3CH 2OH, R = p-F-Bz ( 2); L 3 is 2-HOC 6H 4CON 2C(CH 3)CO 2 with Y dbnd H 2O, R = p-CN -Bz ( 3); and L 4 is 4-NO 2-C 6H 4CON 2C(CH 3)CO 2 with Y dbnd CH 3CH 2OH, R = Bz ( 4). The structures of all compounds have been established by a combination of single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, 1H and 119Sn NMR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. Studies reveal that four ligands present the same coordination mode with tin center, which all present tridentate ONO donor Schiff bases and coordinate to the tin center in an enolic form. In compounds 1- 4, each tin atom is seven-coordinated and exhibits a distorted pentagonal bipyramid with a planar SnO 4N unit and two apical alkyl carbon atoms, thus forming a weakly-bridged dimeric molecule. Additionally, the distance of Sn⋯O bridge in each compound is obviously affected by the choice of different alkyl groups and coordination solvent molecules, which fluctuates in the range of 2.571(5)-2.839(4) Å. Furthermore, the supramolecular structure analysis show that there are two types of supramolecular infrastructures, 1D chain or 2D network, which are formed by intermolecular O-H···N or C-H⋯X (X = O, N or F) hydrogen bonds.

  18. Bivalent transition metal complexes of o-hydroxyacetophenone [N-(3-hydroxy-2-naphthoyl)] hydrazone: Spectroscopic, antibacterial, antifungal activity and thermogravimetric studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaky, R. R.; Ibrahim, K. M.; Gabr, I. M.

    2011-10-01

    Schiff base complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) with the o-hydroxyacetophenone [N-(3-hydroxy-2-naphthoyl)] hydrazone (H 2o-HAHNH) containing N and O donor sites have been synthesized. Both ligand and its metal complexes were characterized by different physicochemical methods, elemental analysis, molar conductivity ( 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, UV-visible, ESR, MS spectra) and also thermal analysis (TG and DTG) techniques. The discussion of the outcome data of the prepared complexes indicates that the ligand behave as a bidentate and/or tridentate ligand. The electronic spectra of the complexes as well as their magnetic moments suggest octahedral geometries for all isolated complexes. The room temperature solid state ESR spectrum of the Cu(II) complex shows d x2- y2 as a ground state, suggesting tetragonally distorted octahedral geometry around Cu(II) centre. The molar conductance measurements proved that the complexes are non-electrolytes. The kinetic thermodynamic parameters such as: E#, ? H#, ? G#, ? S# are calculated from the DTG curves, for the [Ni(H O-HAHNH) 2] and [Zn(H 2 O-HAHNH)(OAc) 2]·H 2O complexes using the Coats-Redfern equation. Also, the antimicrobial properties of all compounds were studied using a wide spectrum of bacterial and fungal strains. The [Cu(H o-HAHNH)(OAc)(H 2O) 2] complex was the most active against all strains, including Aspergillus sp., Stemphylium sp. and Trichoderma sp. Fungi; E. coli and Clostridium sp. Bacteria.

  19. Synthesis and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study of novel N-arylsulfonyl-3-acylindole arylcarbonyl hydrazone derivatives as nematicidal agents.

    PubMed

    Che, Zhiping; Zhang, Shaoyong; Shao, Yonghua; Fan, Lingling; Xu, Hui; Yu, Xiang; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Yao, Xiaojun; Zhang, Rui

    2013-06-19

    In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural-product-based pesticidal agents, 54 novel N-arylsulfonyl-3-acylindole arylcarbonyl hydrazone derivatives were prepared, and their structures were well characterized by ¹H NMR, ¹³C NMR, HRMS, ESI-MS, and mp. Their nematicidal activity was evaluated against that of the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in vivo. Among all of the derivatives, especially V-12 and V-39 displayed the best promising nematicidal activity with LC?? values of 1.0969 and 1.2632 mg/L, respectively. This suggested that introduction of R¹ and R² together as the electron-withdrawing substituents, R³ as the methyl group, and R? as the phenyl with the electron-donating substituents could be taken into account for further preparation of these kinds of compounds as nematicidal agents. Six selected descriptors are a WHIM descriptor (E1m), two GETAWAY descriptors (R1m+ and R3m+), a Burden eigenvalues descriptor (BEHm8), and two edge-adjacency index descriptors (EEig05x and EEig13d). Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies demonstrated that the structural factors, such as molecular mass (a negative correlation with the bioactivity) and molecular polarity (a positive correlation with bioactivity), are likely to govern the nematicidal activities of these compounds. For this model, the correlation coefficient (R²(training set)), the leave-one-out cross-validation correlation coefficient (Q²(LOO)), and the 7-fold cross-validation correlation coefficient (Q²(7-fold)) were 0.791, 0.701, and 0.715, respectively. The external cross-validation correlation coefficient (Q²ext) and the root-mean-square error for the test set (RMSE(test set)) were 0.774 and 3.412, respectively. This study will pave the way for future design, structural modification, and development of indole derivatives as nematicidal agents. PMID:23738496

  20. Denaturing action of urea and guanidine hydrochloride towards two thermophilic esterases.

    PubMed Central

    Del Vecchio, Pompea; Graziano, Giuseppe; Granata, Vincenzo; Barone, Guido; Mandrich, Luigi; Rossi, Mosè; Manco, Giuseppe

    2002-01-01

    The stability of two thermophilic esterases, AFEST from Archaeoglobus fulgidus and EST2 from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius, against the denaturing action of urea and guanidine hydrochloride has been investigated by means of steady-state fluorescence and circular dichroism measurements. Experimental results indicate that the two enzymes, even though very resistant to temperature and urea, show a resistance to guanidine hydrochloride weaker than expected on the basis of data collected so far for a large set of globular proteins. Structural information available for AFEST and EST2 and ideas that emerged from studies on the molecular origin of the greater thermal stability of thermophiles allow the suggestion of a reliable rationale. The present results may be an indication that the optimization of charge-charge interactions on the protein surface is a key factor for the stability of the two esterases. PMID:12160466

  1. Hollow fibers as an oral sustained-release delivery system using propranolol hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Hussain, M A; DiLuccio, R C; Shefter, E; Hurwitz, A R

    1989-12-01

    Fibers were spun by the downward configuration of the wet spinning technique. This configuration is capable of encapsulating nonspherical and/or coarse particles. We examined encapsulation of propranolol hydrochloride and the ability of the fibers to act as a sustained-release delivery system for propranolol hydrochloride as a model drug. The U.S.P. basket dissolution method was used to evaluate the in vitro drug release kinetics and the effect of the aspect ratio (length/diameter) on drug release. For in vivo evaluation, selected fibers were administered to dogs in gelatin capsules. The results of these in vitro and in vivo studies were compared to those obtained with a marketed sustained-release propranolol product (Inderal LA). The fiber delivery system provided a sustained-release profile of plasma propranolol concentrations similar to that observed with Inderal LA. PMID:2622860

  2. The effect of polymorphism on powder compaction and dissolution properties of chemically equivalent oxytetracycline hydrochloride powders.

    PubMed

    Liebenberg, W; de Villiers, M M; Wurster, D E; Swanepoel, E; Dekker, T G; Lötter, A P

    1999-09-01

    In South Africa, oxytetracycline is identified as an essential drug; many generic products are on the market, and many more are being developed. In this study, six oxytetracycline hydrochloride powders were obtained randomly from manufacturers, and suppliers were compared. It was found that compliance to a pharmacopoeial monograph was insufficient to ensure the optimum dissolution performance of a simple tablet formulation. Comparative physicochemical raw material analysis showed no major differences with regard to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, powder dissolution, and particle size. However, the samples could be divided into two distinct types with respect to X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and thus polymorphism. The two polymorphic forms had different dissolution properties in water or 0.1 N hydrochloride acid. This difference became substantial when the dissolution from tablets was compared. The powders containing form A were less soluble than that containing form B. PMID:10518242

  3. The development of a short route to the API ropinirole hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Zeshan; Richards, Andrew K; Dwyer, Andrew N; Linclau, Bruno; Harrowven, David C

    2015-11-14

    A four-step, three-stage synthesis of the API ropinirole hydrochloride has been developed from a commercially available naphthalene derivative. The new route has half the step-count and twice the overall yield of the current manufacturing process. Key features of the synthesis are a regioselective Birch reduction and an ozonolysis with concomitant ring closure to induce the required ring contraction. PMID:26337252

  4. Kinetic modelling for the assay of nortriptyline hydrochloride using potassium permanganate as oxidant.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Nafisur; Khan, Sumaiya

    2015-06-01

    Kinetic methods for accurate determination of nortriptyline hydrochloride have been described. The methods are based on the oxidation of nortriptyline hydrochloride with KMnO4 in acidic and basic media. In acidic medium, the decrease in absorbance at 525.5 nm and in basic medium, the increase in absorbance at 608.5 nm were measured as a function of time. The variables affecting the reactions were carefully investigated and optimised. Kinetic models such as initial rate, rate constant, variable time and fixed time were employed to construct the calibration curves. The initial rate and fixed time methods were selected for quantification of nortriptyline hydrochloride. In acidic medium, the calibration curves showed a linear response over the concentration range 10-50 ?g mL(-1) for initial rate and 10-60 ?g mL(-1) for fixed time method (2 min). In basic medium, the calibration graphs were linear over the concentration range 10-100 ?g mL(-1) for initial rate and fixed time methods (4 min). In acidic medium, the limits of detection for initial rate and fixed time methods (2 min) were 1.02 and 3.26 ?g mL(-1), respectively. In basic medium, the limits of detection were found to be 1.67 and 1.55 ?g mL(-1) for initial rate and fixed time methods (4 min), respectively. The initial rate and fixed time methods have been successfully applied to the determination of nortriptyline hydrochloride in commercial dosage form. Statistical comparison of the results of the proposed methods with those of reference method exhibited excellent agreement and there is no significant difference between the compared methods in terms of accuracy and precision. PMID:25380790

  5. Gastrointestinal symptoms after the substitution of sevelamer hydrochloride with lanthanum carbonate in Japanese patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, D; Ichie, T; Hayashi, H; Sugiura, Y; Sugiyama, T

    2015-08-01

    Lanthanum carbonate has the same phosphorus depressant effect as the other phosphorus adsorbents, and is expected to decrease digestive symptom onset such as constipation in Japanese patients undergoing hemodialysis compared to sevelamar hydrochloride. In this study, we investigated the short- and long-term changes in digestive symptoms in these patients after substituting sevelamar hydrochloride with lanthanum carbonate. We studied 16 patients (4 men, 12 women) and evaluated their gastrointestinal symptoms before administration, at the time of administration, and 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after administration, using the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale. In addition, we conducted repeat evaluations 52 weeks after administration for the patients in whom lanthanum carbonate was administered continuously for 52 weeks. Fourteen (87.5%) out of the 16 patients could tolerate continuous administration for 12 weeks. The constipation score was 3.21 ± 1.74 before administration, 2.07 ± 0.83 2 weeks after administration, 1.76 ± 0.83 4 weeks after administration, 1.57 ± 0.56 8 weeks after administration, and 11.41 ± 0.48 12 weeks after administration. The scores improved significantly 4 weeks after administration (p < 0.05) and even 12 weeks after continuous administration. Among the 16 study patients, 9 patients (1 men, 8 women) were received lanthanum carbonate continuously for 52 weeks. The constipation score was 3.74 ± 1.92 at the start of administration, 1.37 ± 0.56 12 weeks after administration, and 1.85 ± 0.63 52 weeks after administration, with significant improvement even 52 weeks after administration (p < 0.05). This study shows that substituting sevelamar hydrochloride with lanthanum carbonate improves constipation symptoms in hemodialysis patients from an early stage, which indicates its usefulness in improving constipation symptoms caused by sevelamar hydrochloride. PMID:26380521

  6. Effects of switching from sevelamer hydrochloride to bixalomer on laboratory parameters in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Kazunori; Ikawa, Tomoyoshi; Yokoi, Sayuri; Yokouchi, Shuhei; Kato, Kieko; Ueno, Miki; Takahashi, Junichiro

    2014-06-01

    In Japan, the clinical use of bixalomer, a new polymer preparation like sevelamer hydrochloride, became possible from 2012. In our study, in order to investigate the clinical characteristics of this new phosphorus (P) binder, bixalomer in a clinical practice, for 18 cases of hemodialysis patients at our hospital being treated with sevelamer hydrochloride, we switched the P binder to bixalomer, and compared the laboratory parameters before and after switching. Subjects used for analysis were nine cases in which it was possible to use bixalomer continuously for 10 months. The laboratory parameters measured were the concentrations of serum P, corrected calcium (Ca), whole parathyroid hormone (PTH), albumin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as indicators of mineral and bone disorder, and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) as indicators of lipid metabolism. Regarding the results after switching to bixalomer and starting treatment using the same dosage as the dosage previously used for sevelamer hydrochloride, there were many cases that showed increasing P concentrations that required increasing the dosage of bixalomer, the dosage after switching was increased significantly (P=0.002). In the comparison of laboratory parameters before and after switching, the concentrations of serum P and albumin decreased significantly (P=0.035 and 0.033). From these results, it was considered that the decreases in serum P concentrations were due not only to the effects of bixalomer, but that suppression of food intake by patients was another reason. There were no significant changes in corrected Ca, whole PTH or ALP. In addition, after changing the P binder, serum HDL-C concentration decreased significantly (P=0.015) and LDL-C increased significantly (P<0.001), and serum TG concentration showed no significant changes. This indicated that the beneficial effects of bixalomer on lipid metabolism may be less than those of sevelamer hydrochloride. PMID:24975888

  7. 76 FR 20685 - Determination That NOVANTRONE (Mitoxantrone Hydrochloride) Injection, Equivalent to 25 Milligrams...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has determined that NOVANTRONE (mitoxantrone hydrochloride) Injection, equivalent to (EQ) 25 milligrams (mg) base/12.5 milliliters (mL) and EQ 30 mg base/15 mL, was not withdrawn from sale for reasons of safety or effectiveness. This determination means that FDA will not begin procedures to withdraw approval of abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs)......

  8. Derivative Synchronous Fluorescence Spectroscopy for the Simultaneous Determination of Dapoxetine Hydrochloride and Vardenafil in Binary Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliman, S. M.; El-Agizy, H. M. Y.; El Bayoumi, Abd El Aziz

    2014-07-01

    The first and second derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (FDSFS&SDSFS) methods have been developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of a binary mixture of dapoxetine hydrochloride and vardenafil. Method 1A describes a measurement of the normal synchronous fluorescence intensity of these drugs at ?? = 35 nm using sodium dodecyl sulfate as the fluorescence enhancer in aqueous solutions. This method was extended (Method 1B) to the use of FDSFS&SDSFS for the determination of both drugs. The fluorescence concentration plots were linear over the range of 1-10 and 0.2-2 ?g/ml for dapoxetine hydrochloride and vardenafil, respectively, with lower detection limits of 290 and 62.5 ng/ml, and quantification limits of 890 and 190 ng/ml for dapoxetine hydrochloride and vardenafil, respectively. The proposed method was applied for the simultaneous determination of DAP and VAR in different synthetic mixtures and in co-formulated pharmaceutical preparation. The results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained using a reference method.

  9. Controlled delivery of ropinirole hydrochloride through skin using modulated iontophoresis and microneedles.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neha D; Banga, Ajay K

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of modulated current application using iontophoresis- and microneedle-mediated delivery on transdermal permeation of ropinirole hydrochloride. AdminPatch® microneedles and microchannels formed by them were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, dye staining and confocal microscopy. In vitro permeation studies were carried out using Franz diffusion cells, and skin extraction was used to quantify drug in underlying skin. Effect of microneedle pore density and ions in donor formulation was studied. Active enhancement techniques, continuous iontophoresis (74.13 ± 2.20 µg/cm(2)) and microneedles (66.97 ± 10.39 µg/cm(2)), significantly increased the permeation of drug with respect to passive delivery (8.25 ± 2.41?µg/cm(2)). Modulated iontophoresis could control the amount of drug delivered at a given time point with the highest flux being 5.12 ± 1.70 µg/cm(2)/h (5-7 h) and 5.99 ± 0.81 µg/cm(2)/h (20-22 h). Combination of modulated iontophoresis and microneedles (46.50 ± 6.46 µg/cm(2)) showed significantly higher delivery of ropinirole hydrochloride compared to modulated iontophoresis alone (84.91 ± 9.21 µg/cm(2)). Modulated iontophoresis can help in maintaining precise control over ropinirole hydrochloride delivery for dose titration in Parkinson's disease therapy and deliver therapeutic amounts over a suitable patch area and time. PMID:23311703

  10. Kinetic and thermodynamic evaluation of phosphate ions binding onto sevelamer hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Elsiddig, Reem; Hughes, Helen; Owens, Eleanor; O' Reilly, Niall J; O'Grady, David; McLoughlin, Peter

    2014-10-20

    Sevelamer hydrochloride is the first non-aluminium, non-calcium-based phosphate binder developed for the management of hyperphosphatemia in end stage renal diseases. It is a synthetic ion-exchange polymer which binds and removes phosphate ions due to the high content of cationic charge associated with protonated amine groups on the polymer matrix. This is the first in-depth study investigating phosphate removal in vitro from aqueous solutions using commercially available sevelamer hydrochloride at physiological conditions of phosphate level, pH and temperature. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of phosphate binding onto the sevelamer hydrochloride particles were evaluated in order to define the binding process. A series of kinetic studies were carried out in order to delineate the effect of initial phosphate concentration, absorbent dose and temperature on the rate of binding. The results were analysed using three kinetic models with the best-fit of the experimental data obtained using a pseudo-second order model. Thermodynamic parameters provide in-depth information on inherent energetic changes that are associated with binding. Free energy ?G°, enthalpy ?H°, and entropy ?S° changes were calculated in this study in order to assess the relationship of these parameters to polymer morphology. The binding reaction was found to be a spontaneous endothermic process with increasing entropy at the solid-liquid interface. PMID:25102115

  11. Pioglitazone hydrochloride: chemopreventive potential and development of site-specific drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Vivek Ranjan; Sethi, Shilpa

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of pioglitazone hydrochloride as a promising anticancer agent and then to design and evaluate the colon-targeted delivery system. The role of pioglitazone hydrochloride as a promising anticancer agent was evaluated by in vitro cell line studies and in vivo 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. In order to deliver the drug at site of action, i.e. colon, drug embedded in matrices containing a release retarding polymer (HPMC K4M) and a polysaccharide (locust bean gum) were prepared. These matrix systems were further enteric coated with Eudragit®S100 to minimize the premature drug release in the upper segments of the GIT. In vitro dissolution studies were performed in absence and presence of rat caecal contents on selected batches and samples were analyzed using a validated RP-HPLC method. Hence, the studies led to the conclusion that successful site-specific delivery systems of pioglitazone hydrochloride were developed to improve its therapeutic efficacy in the management of colorectal cancer. PMID:24547712

  12. Feasibility of amlodipine besylate, chloroquine phosphate, dapsone, phenytoin, pyridoxine hydrochloride, sulfadiazine, sulfasalazine, tetracycline hydrochloride, trimethoprim and zonisamide in SyrSpend(®) SF PH4 oral suspensions.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Anderson O; Polonini, Hudson C; Silva, Sharlene L; Patrício, Fernando B; Brandão, Marcos Antônio F; Raposo, Nádia R B

    2016-01-25

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of 10 commonly used active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) compounded in oral suspensions using an internationally used suspending vehicle (SyrSpend(®) SF PH4 liquid): (i) amlodipine, (as besylate) 1.0mg/mL; (ii) chloroquine phosphate,15.0mg/mL; (iii) dapsone, 2.0mg/mL; (iv) phenytoin, 15.0mg/mL; (v) pyridoxine hydrochloride, 50.0mg/mL; (vi) sulfadiazine, 100.0mg/mL; (vii) sulfasalazine, 100.0mg/mL; (viii) tetracycline hydrochloride, 25.0mg/mL; (ix) trimethoprim, 10.0mg/mL; and (x) zonisamide, 10.0mg/mL. All suspensions were stored both at controlled refrigeration (2-8°C) and controlled room temperature (20-25°C). Feasibility was assessed by measuring the percent recovery at varying time points throughout a 90-day period. API quantification was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV), via a stability-indicating method. Given the percentage of recovery of the APIs within the suspensions, the expiration date of the final products (API+vehicle) was at least 90 days for all suspensions with regard to both the controlled temperatures. This suggests that the vehicle is stable for compounding APIs from different pharmacological classes. PMID:26540625

  13. A Rapid, Stability Indicating RP-UPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Ambroxol Hydrochloride, Cetirizine Hydrochloride and Antimicrobial Preservatives in Liquid Pharmaceutical Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Rakshit Kanubhai; Patel, Mukesh C.; Jadhav, Sushant B.

    2011-01-01

    A stability indicating reversed phase ultra performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) method was developed for simultaneous determination of ambroxol hydrochloride (AMB), cetirizine hydrochloride (CTZ), methylparaben (MP) and propylparaben (PP) in liquid pharmaceutical formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent Eclipse plus C18, 1.8 ?m (50 × 2.1 mm) column using gradient elution at 237 nm detector wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consists of a mixture of 0.01 M phosphate buffer and 0.1 % triethylamine as a solvent-A and acetonitrile as a solvent-B. The developed method separates AMB, CTZ, MP and PP in presence of twelve known impurities/degradation products and one unknown degradation product within 3.5 min. Stability indicating capability was established by forced degradation experiments and seperation of known and unknown degradation products. The lower limit of quantification was established for AMB, CTZ, MP and PP. The developed RP-UPLC method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. This validated method is applied for simultaneous estimation of AMB, CTZ, MP and PP in commercially available syrup samples. Further, the method can be extended for estimation of AMB, CTZ, MP, PP and levo-cetirizine (LCTZ) in various commercially available dosage forms. PMID:21886901

  14. Synthesis, characterisation, reactivity and in vitro antiamoebic activity of hydrazone based oxovanadium(IV), oxovanadium(V) and mu-bis(oxo)bis{oxovanadium(V)} complexes.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Mannar R; Agarwal, Shalu; Abid, Mohammad; Azam, Amir; Bader, Cerstin; Ebel, Martin; Rehder, Dieter

    2006-02-21

    Binuclear, mu-bis(oxo)bis{oxovanadium(V)} complexes [(VOL)2(mu-O)2](2 and 7)(where HL are the hydrazones Hacpy-nah I or Hacpy-fah II; acpy = 2-acetylpyridine, nah = nicotinic acid hydrazide and fah = 2-furoic acid hydrazide) were prepared by the reaction of [VO(acac)2] and the ligands in methanol followed by aerial oxidation. The paramagnetic intermediate complexes [VO(acac)(acpy-nah)](1) and [VO(acac)(acpy-fah)](6) have also been isolated. Treatment of [VO(acac)(acpy-nah)] and [VO(acac)(acpy-fah)] with aqueous H2O2 yields the oxoperoxovanadium(V) complexes [VO(O2)(acpy-nah)](3) and [VO(O2)(acpy-fah)](8). In the presence of catechol (H2cat) or benzohydroxamic acid (H2bha), 1 and 6 give the mixed chelate complexes [VO(cat)L](HL =I: 4, HL =II: 9) or [VO(bha)L](HL =I: 5, HL =II: 10). Complexes 4, 5, 9 and 10 slowly convert to the corresponding oxo-mu-oxo species 2 and 7 in DMF solution. Ascorbic acid enhances this conversion under aerobic conditions, possibly through reduction of these complexes with concomitant removal of coordinated catecholate or benzohydroxamate. Acidification of 7 with HCl dissolved in methanol afforded a hydroxo(oxo) complex. The crystal and molecular structure of 2.1.5H2O has been determined, and the structure of 7 re-determined, by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Both of these binuclear complexes contain the uncommon asymmetrical {VO(mu-O)}2 diamond core. The in vitro tests of the antiamoebic activity of ligands I and II and their binuclear complexes 2 and 7 against the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica show that the ligands have no amoebicidal activity while their vanadium complexes 2 and 7 display more effective amoebicidal activity than the most commonly used drug metronidazole (IC50 values are 1.68 and 0.45 microM, respectively vs 1.81 microM for metronidazole). Complexes 2 and 7 catalyse the oxidation of styrene and ethyl benzene effectively. Oxidation of styrene, using H2O2 as an oxidant, gives styrene epoxide, 2-phenylacetaldehyde, benzaldehyde, benzoic acid and 1-phenyl-ethane-1,2-diol, while ethyl benzene yields benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde and 1-phenyl-ethane-1,2-diol. PMID:16462954

  15. A hydrazone covalent organic polymer based micro-solid phase extraction for online analysis of trace Sudan dyes in food samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengjiang; Li, Gongke; Zhang, Zhuomin

    2015-11-01

    Covalent organic polymers (COPs) connected by covalent bonds are a new class of porous network materials with large surface area and potential superiority in sample pretreatment. In this study, a new hydrazone linked covalent organic polymer (HL-COP) adsorbent was well-designed and synthesized based on a simple Schiff-base reaction. The condensation of 1,4-phthalaldehyde and 1,3,5-benzenetricarbohydrazide as organic building blocks led to the synthesis of HL-COP with uniform particle size and good adsorption performance. This HL-COP adsorbent with high hydrophobic property and rich stacking ? electrons contained abundant phenyl rings and imine (CN) groups throughout the entire molecular framework. The adsorption mechanism was explored and discussed based on ?-? affinity, hydrophobic effect, hydrogen bonding and electron-donor-acceptor (EDA) interaction, which contributed to its strong recognition affinity to target compounds. Enrichment factors were 305-757 for six Sudan dyes by HL-COP micro-solid phase extraction (?-SPE), indicating its remarkable preconcentration ability. Furthermore, the adsorption amounts by HL-COP ?-SPE were 1.0-11.0 folds as those by three commonly used commercial adsorbents. Then, HL-COP was applied as adsorbent of online ?-SPE coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for enrichment and analysis of trace Sudan dyes in food samples with detection limit of 0.03-0.15?g/L. The method was successfully applied for online analysis of chilli powder and sausage samples. Sudan II and Sudan III in one positive chilli powder sample were actually found and determined with concentrations of 8.3 and 6.8?g/kg, respectively. The recoveries of chilli powder and sausage samples were in range of 75.8-108.2% and 73.8-112.6% with relative standard deviations of 1.2-8.5% and 1.9-9.4% (n=5), respectively. The proposed method was accurate, reliable and convenient for the online simultaneous analysis of trace Sudan dyes in food samples. PMID:26456513

  16. Quantitative determination of ticlopidine hydrochloride in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography-electronspray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Jiao, Haoyan; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Zunjian; Chen, Yun

    2009-01-01

    A sensitive, selective and simple high performance liquid chromatographyelectrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) was developed and validated for the quantification of ticlopidine hydrochloride (CAS 53885-35-1) in human plasma using loratadine (CAS 79794-75-5) as internal standard (IS). Following liquid-liquid extraction, the analyte and the IS were extracted from plasma samples by n-hexane:isopropanol (95:5, v/v), separated by HPLC on a commercially available column (150 mm x 2.0 mm ID, 5 microm) with a mobile phase of acetonitrile: 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate buffer solution (85:15, v/v) and analyzed on a quadrupole mass spectrometer with ESI interface operating in the positive-ion mode. The correlation coefficient of the calibration curve was linear (r2 > 0.99) over the concentration range of 1-1000 ng/mL for ticlopidine hydrochloride. The intra- and inter-batch precisions were less than 15% of the relative standard deviation and the accuracy ranged from 85 to 115% in terms of percent accuracy. The limit of detection (LOD) of ticlopidine hydrochloride was 0.5 ng/mL. The extraction recovery of ticlopidine hydrochloride was more than 80%. The proposed method enables the unambiguous identification and quantification of ticlopidine hydrochloride for pharmacokinetic, bioavailability or bioequivalence studies. PMID:19402342

  17. A placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over trial of adjunctive one month remacemide hydrochloride treatment in patients with refractory epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Richens, A; Mawer, G; Crawford, P; Harrison, B

    2000-12-01

    The efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of adjunctive remacemide hydrochloride, a novel, low-affinity non-competitive NMDA receptor channel blocker, were investigated in 28 adult patients with refractory epilepsy. This was a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study with five 4-week periods (baseline, treatment 1, washout, treatment 2, washout). Baseline median seizure frequency was reduced by 33% following adjunctive remacemide hydrochloride 150 mg q.i.d. for 4 weeks compared with placebo (P= 0.041). Seizure frequency was reduced by > or =50% in 30% of patients treated with remacemide hydrochloride compared with 9% on placebo. Mean plasma concentration of concomitant carbamazepine increased by approximately 15% following adjunctive remacemide hydrochloride. There was no correlation between increased plasma carbamazepine and reduced seizure frequency. Remacemide hydrochloride was well tolerated and only three patients withdrew due to adverse events (two remacemide hydrochloride, one placebo). Two patients died unexpectedly from their epilepsy during placebo treatment; both deaths were considered by the investigators to be unrelated to earlier remacemide hydrochloride treatment. This first specific efficacy investigation with adjunctive remacemide hydrochloride demonstrated anticonvulsant effects in patients with refractory epilepsy. More extensive clinical investigation is justified. PMID:11162750

  18. Analysis of Short-Term Cortisol Stress Response in Channel Catfish by Anesthetization with Metomidate Hydrochloride and Tricaine Methanesulfonate.

    PubMed

    Smith, M S; Booth, N J; Peterson, B C; Stephens, W S; Goudie, C A; Simco, B A

    2015-09-01

    The ability of the anesthetics metomidate hydrochloride and tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) to mitigate the cortisol stress response of Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated during a 10-min confinement stress. The cortisol concentrations of Channel Catfish anesthetized in metomidate hydrochloride remained consistent throughout the 10-min exposure; however, for fish anesthetized with MS-222 and nonanesthetized fish, cortisol concentrations were approximately 7- and 22-fold higher, respectively, than the baseline concentrations. While both anesthetics reduced cortisol concentrations relative to those of nonanesthetized fish, these results suggest that MS-222 is an appropriate anesthetic to use during the initial 5 min of sedation and that metomidate hydrochloride is appropriate for longer periods of sedation. PMID:26198857

  19. Denaverine hydrochloride and carbetocin increased welfare during and after parturition and enhanced subsequent fertility in cattle.

    PubMed

    Zobel, Robert; Taponen, Juhani

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the current study were to investigate the influence of denaverine hydrochloride and carbetocin on softening and dilatation of the birth canal, the need for assistance during parturition, calf mortality, retention of fetal membranes, endometritis, and subsequent fertility. Altogether 200 animals (100 cows and 100 heifers) of the Simmental breed were divided into 2 groups: treatment (n = 100) and control (n = 100). Animals in the treatment group received denaverine hydrochloride and carbetocin (a maximum of twice for each, depending on the progression of labor) during delivery over a maximum of 4 waiting periods (30 min each), whereas control animals experienced the same waiting periods but received no treatment. The treatment protocol had a positive influence on the ease of calving and postpartum reproductive health. The treatment increased the number of animals with the birth canal dilated by more than 25 cm, and halved the need for any assistance at parturition. In addition, treatment decreased the occurrence of difficult calving, the need for episiotomy, the appearance of birth canal lesions, and clinical endometritis. The treatment protocol had an effect throughout the entire puerperal period, as treated animals conceived with fewer artificial inseminations (1.3 vs. 1.6 artificial inseminations/pregnancy) and sooner (67 vs. 78 d open) compared with control animals. Denaverine hydrochloride and carbetocin administered in combination during parturition affected the progression and ease of calving, and thus the welfare of cows in labor and subsequently. However, further studies are needed to confirm the findings and to establish best practices. PMID:24731624

  20. Ocular and systemic pharmacokinetics of lidocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic gel in rabbits after topical ocular administration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Ding, Li; Xu, Xiaowen; Lin, Hongda; Sun, Chenglong; You, Linjun

    2015-12-01

    Lidocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic gel is a novel ophthalmic preparation for topical ocular anesthesia. The study is aimed at evaluating the ocular and systemic pharmacokinetics of lidocaine hydrochloride 3.5 % ophthalmic gel in rabbits after ocular topical administration. Thirty-six rabbits were randomly placed in 12 groups (3 rabbits per group). The rabbits were quickly killed according to their groups at 0 (predose), 0.0833, 0.167, 0.333, 0.667, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 h postdose and then the ocular tissue and plasma samples were collected. All the samples were analyzed by a validated LC-MS/MS method. The test result showed that the maximum concentration (C max) of lidocaine in different ocular tissues and plasma were all achieved within 20 min after drug administration, and the data of C max were (2,987 ± 1814) ?g/g, (44.67 ± 12.91) ?g/g, (26.26 ± 7.19) ?g/g, (11,046 ± 2,734) ng/mL, and (160.3 ± 61.0) ng/mL for tear fluid, cornea, conjunctiva, aqueous humor, and plasma, respectively. The data of the elimination half-life in these tissues were 1.5, 3.2, 3.5, 1.9, and 1.7 h for tear fluid, cornea, conjunctiva, aqueous humor, and plasma, respectively. The intraocular lidocaine levels were significantly higher than that in plasma, and the elimination half-life of lidocaine in cornea, conjunctiva, and aqueous humor was relatively longer than that in tear fluid and plasma. The high intraocular penetration, low systemic exposure, and long duration in the ocular tissues suggested lidocaine hydrochloride 3.5 % ophthalmic gel as an effective local anesthetic for ocular anesthesia during ophthalmic procedures. PMID:25031074

  1. Release of tetracycline hydrochloride from electrospun poly(ethylene-co-vinylacetate), poly(lactic acid), and a blend.

    PubMed

    Kenawy, El-Refaie; Bowlin, Gary L; Mansfield, Kevin; Layman, John; Simpson, David G; Sanders, Elliot H; Wnek, Gary E

    2002-05-17

    Electrospun fiber mats are explored as drug delivery vehicles using tetracycline hydrochloride as a model drug. The mats were made either from poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (PEVA), or from a 50:50 blend of the two. The fibers were electrospun from chloroform solutions containing a small amount of methanol to solubilize the drug. The release of the tetracycline hydrochloride from these new drug delivery systems was followed by UV-VIS spectroscopy. Release profiles from the electrospun mats were compared to a commercially available drug delivery system, Actisite (Alza Corporation, Palo Alto, CA), as well as to cast films of the various formulations. PMID:11992678

  2. Hydroxylamine hydrochloride-acetic acid-soluble and -insoluble fractions of pelagic sediment: Readsorption revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, D.Z.; Wandless, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    The extraction of the rare earth elements (REE) from deep-ocean pelagic sediment, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride-acetic acid, leads to the separation of approximately 70% of the bulk REE content into the soluble fraction and 30% into the insoluble fraction. The REE pattern of the soluble fraction, i.e., the content of REE normalized to average shale on an element-by-element basis and plotted against atomic number, resembles the pattern for seawater, whereas the pattern, as well as the absolute concentrations, in the insoluble fraction resembles the North American shale composite. These results preclude significant readsorption of the REE by the insoluble phases during the leaching procedure.

  3. X-ray radiation of poly-L-arginine hydrochloride and multilayered DNA-coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stypczy?ska, Agnieszka; Nixon, Tony; Mason, Nigel

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the chemical changes induced in thin films of the dry polypeptide poly-L-arginine hydrochloride and its mixture with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) during 5 h of soft X-ray exposure. The physical and chemical effects of the soft X-ray irradiation were studied using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Analysis of O1 s, N1 s and C1 s features in XPS spectra reveals the existence of several routes of radiation-induced decomposition and shows quantitative and qualitative changes.

  4. In vivo comet assay of acrylonitrile, 9-aminoacridine hydrochloride monohydrate and ethanol in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yuzuki; Toyoizumi, Tomoyasu; Sui, Hajime; Ohta, Ryo; Kumagai, Fumiaki; Usumi, Kenji; Saito, Yoshiaki; Yamakage, Kohji

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, we examined the ability of acrylonitrile, 9-aminoacridine hydrochloride monohydrate (9-AA), and ethanol to induce DNA damage in the liver and glandular stomach of male rats. Acrylonitrile is a genotoxic carcinogen, 9-AA is a genotoxic non-carcinogen, and ethanol is a non-genotoxic carcinogen. Positive results were obtained in the liver cells of male rats treated with known genotoxic compounds, acrylonitrile and 9-AA. PMID:26212299

  5. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart Nnn... - Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... within 5 minutes. 3. Apparatus 3.1Balance, readable to 0.01 g or better. 3.2pH meter, standardized to pH 4.0 with pH 4.0 buffer and pH 7 with pH 7.0 buffer. 3.350-mL burette for 1.0 N sodium hydroxide. 3... hydrochloride solution, 100 grams per liter, pH adjusted to 4.00. 4.3Hydrochloric acid solution, 1.0 N and 0.1......

  6. Effects of two different kinds of silicium dioxide on release of drugs from suppositories: benzydamine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Dal Zotto, M; Realdon, N; Ragazzi, E; Dalla Fini, G

    1991-05-01

    Silica gel confirmed its function as viscosity agent for lipophylic excipients for suppositories, ensuring homogeneous drug distribution in the suppository mass. The influence on release rate of a water-soluble drug (benzydamine hydrochloride) was clearly different according to type of silica gel. With Aerosil 200 (hydrophylic), after a progressive decrease in release rate at the lowest concentrations, an increase was observed at the highest concentrations, until it reached that of the suppositories without silica gel. With Aerosil R972, release rate decreased progressively with increased silica gel concentration, until release was practically inhibited even at low concentrations. PMID:1659426

  7. The effect of excipients on the stability and phase transition rate of xylazine hydrochloride and zopiclone.

    PubMed

    Kr?kle-B?rzi?a, Krist?ne; Acti?š, Andris

    2015-03-25

    The compatibility of thermodynamically unstable polymorph of two active pharmaceutical compounds (xylazine hydrochloride form X and zopiclone form C) with different excipients was investigated. The effects of the excipient and its amount in the sample on the thermal properties and possible chemical interactions were studied. The most commonly used excipients in the pharmaceutical industry - calcium carbonate, lactose hydrate, cellulose, magnesium stearate hydrate and calcium stearate hydrate were selected for this study. The dependence of the phase transition rate from an unstable to a more stable polymorph on the excipients and their amounts in the initial sample was analysed at 80°C, and the corresponding phase transition rate constants were calculated. PMID:25590944

  8. Nitrogen mustard hydrochloride-induced acute respiratory failure and myelosuppression: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, XIAOJUAN; ZHANG, ZHIDAN; CHEN, SONG; ZHAO, DONGMEI; ZHANG, FANGXIAO; HU, ZIWEI; XIAO, FENG; MA, XIAOCHUN

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen mustards are chemical agents that are similar to sulfur mustards, with similar toxicities. The present study describes a case of nitrogen mustard-induced acute respiratory failure and myelosuppression in a 33-year-old man. The patient, who was accidentally exposed to nitrogen mustard hydrochloride in a pharmaceutical factory, exhibited severe inhalation injury and respiratory symptoms. Laboratory tests revealed reduced white blood cell counts and lowered platelet levels during the first 6 days after the skin exposure to nitrogen mustard. Following treatment with mechanical ventilation, immunity-enhancing agents and nutritional supplements for 1 month, the patient successfully recovered and was released from hospital. PMID:26622480

  9. Guanidine hydrochloride embedded polyurethanes as antimicrobial and absorptive wound dressing membranes with promising cytocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Sahraro, Maryam; Yeganeh, Hamid; Sorayya, Marziyeh

    2016-02-01

    Preparation and assessments of novel absorptive wound dressing materials with efficient antimicrobial activity as well as very good cytocompatibility were described in this work. An amine terminated poly(hexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride) was prepared and used as curing agent of different epoxy-terminated polyurethane prepolymers. The structures of prepared materials were elucidated by evaluation of their (1)H NMR and FTIR spectra. The recorded tensile strength of membranes confirmed the excellent dimensional stability of the film type dressings even at fully hydrated conditions. Therefore, these dressings could protect the wound bed from external forces during the healing period. The structurally optimized dressing membranes could preserve the desired moist environment over the wounded area, as a result of their balanced equilibrium, water absorption and water vapor transmission rate. Therefore, a very good condition for stimulation of self-healing of wound bed was attained. Also, owing to the presence of guanidine hydrochloride moieties embedded into the structure of dressings, efficient antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans were detected. In vitro cytotoxicity assay of the prepared dressings revealed cytocompatibility of these materials against fibroblast cells. Therefore, they could support cell growth and proliferation at the wounded area. PMID:26652461

  10. Efficacy of topical benzydamine hydrochloride gel on oral mucosal ulcers: an in vivo animal study.

    PubMed

    Karavana Hizarcio?lu, S Y; Sezer, B; Güneri, P; Veral, A; Boyacio?lu, H; Ertan, G; Epstein, J B

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of benzydamine hydrochloride bioadhesive gel on healing of oral mucosal ulceration in an animal model. For in vivo determination of the effects of the bioadhesive gel, 36 rabbits were separated into three groups: the first group was treated with the gel formulation without active agent, the second group with the gel formulation containing benzydamine, and the third group received no treatment. Clinical healing was established by measuring the area of the ulcer in each test group on days 3, 6, 9 and 12. Histological healing was determined on the same days. Benzydamine containing gel applications resulted in a decrease in the ulcer area in 12 days (p=0.000). Histological evaluation showed that the benzydamine group had a higher mean histological score than the base and the control groups during the whole test period, and the difference between the benzydamine group and the control group was significant (p=0.04). The bioadhesive gel formulation of benzydamine hydrochloride showed a statistically significant increased rate of mucosal repair in this experimental standard mucosal wound animal study. It is a candidate for the topical treatment of oral mucosal ulcerative lesions. PMID:21549562

  11. Stability-indicating LC method for the estimation of bendamustine hydrochloride and its related impurities.

    PubMed

    Kasa, Srinivasulu; Raja Sekhar Reddy, M; Kadaboina, Raja Sekhar; Murki, Veerender; Mulukutla, Venkata Suryanarayana

    2014-08-01

    A novel, simple, sensitive and stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the quantification of impurities (process related and degradants) and the assay determination of Bendamustine hydrochloride. A chromatographic separation of Bendamustine and its impurities was achieved with an Inertsil ODS-2 analytical column, 250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm, using gradient elution with mobile phase A consisting of a mixture of water and trifluoroacetic acid (1000:1, v/v) and mobile phase B consisting of acetonitrile. The instrumental settings included a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, column temperature of 27°C and a detector wavelength of 233 nm, using a photodiode array detector. The tailing factor for Bendamustine was 1.10. Bendamustine hydrochloride was exposed to thermal, photolytic, hydrolytic and oxidative stress conditions and the stressed samples were analyzed by the proposed method. Peak homogeneity data of Bendamustine were obtained by using a photodiode array detector in the stressed sample chromatograms, which demonstrated the specificity of the method for estimation in the presence of degradants. The developed method was validated for parameters such as precision, accuracy, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, ruggedness and robustness. The stability tests were also performed on drug substances as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. PMID:23825351

  12. In vitro and in vivo activities of trybizine hydrochloride against various pathogenic trypanosome species.

    PubMed

    Kaminsky, R; Brun, R

    1998-11-01

    Trybizine hydrochloride [O,O'-bis(4,6-diamino-1,2-dihydro-2, 2-tetramethylene-s-triazine-1-yl)-1,6-hexanediol dihydrochloride] was active in vitro against the sleeping sickness-causing agents Trypanosoma brucei subsp. rhodesiense and T. brucei subsp. gambiense; against a multidrug-resistant organism, T. brucei subsp. brucei; and against animal-pathogenic organisms Trypanosoma evansi, Trypanosoma equiperdum, and Trypanosoma congolense; but not against the intracellular parasites Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania donovani. Cytotoxic effects against mammalian cells were observed at approximately 10(6)-fold higher concentrations than those necessary to inhibit T. brucei subsp. rhodesiense. Trybizine hydrochloride was able to eliminate T. brucei subsp. rhodesiense and T. brucei subsp. gambiense in an acute rodent model with four intraperitoneal doses of 0.25 mg kg of body weight-1 or four doses of 1 mg kg-1, respectively, or with four oral doses of 20 mg kg-1. The compound expressed activity against suramin-resistant T. evansi strains in mice. However, these concentrations were not sufficient to cure mice infected with multidrug-resistant T. brucei subsp. brucei. A late-stage rodent model with central nervous system involvement could not be cured, indicating that trybizine may not pass the blood-brain barrier in sufficient quantities. PMID:9797216

  13. Microspheres of tramadol hydrochloride compressed along with a loading dose: A modified approach for sustaining release.

    PubMed

    Gonjari, I D; Hosmani, A H; Karmarkar, A B; Kadam, S B; Godage, A S; Khade, T S

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to study mucoadhesive microspheres of tramadol hydrochloride compressed into tablet along with a loading dose. Microspheres containing tramadol hydrochloride were prepared by employing sodium alginate in combination with a mucoadhesive polymer, i.e., Carbopol 971P. An orifice-ionic gelation method was used to prepare the microspheres. A 3(2) factorial design was used to investigate the combined effect of two independent formulation variables in the preparation of microspheres. The concentration of sodium alginate (X(1)) and carbopol 971P (X(2)) were selected as independent variables. Nine batches were used in the experimental design and evaluated for swelling index, mucoadhesion, and drug entrapment efficiency. A surface plot is presented to graphically represent the effect of the independent variables on the evaluation parameters. The best batch exhibited drug entrapment efficiency of 70.12%, swelling index of 2.3 and mucoadhesion of 95.42%. Microspheres showing maximum drug entrapment were compressed with the loading dose and subjected to in vitro dissolution studies. Drug release from tablets was found to follow a matrix model. Initial burst release from these tablets indicated the release of the loading dose and then a sustained effect over the time. This modified approach to formulation of tablets was found to be effective in sustaining drug release. PMID:22495604

  14. Development of a Floating Dosage Form of Ranitidine Hydrochloride by Statistical Optimization Technique

    PubMed Central

    Jain, S; Srinath, MS; Narendra, C; Reddy, SN; Sindhu, A

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of formulation variables on the release properties, floating lag time, and hardness, when developing floating tablets of Ranitidine hydrochloride, by the statistical optimization technique. The formulations were prepared based on 32 factorial design, with polymer ratio (HPMC 100 KM: Xanthan gum) and the amount of aerosil, as two independent formulation variables. The four dependent (response) variables considered were: percentage of drug release at the first hour, T50% (time taken to release 50% of the drug), floating lag time, and hardness of the tablet. The release profile data was subjected to a curve fitting analysis, to describe the release mechanism of the drug from the floating tablet. An increase in drug release was observed with an increase in the polymer ratio, and as the amount of aerosil increased, the hardness of the tablet also increased, without causing any change in the floating lag time. The desirability function was used to optimize the response variables, each having a different target, and the observed responses were in accordance with the experimental values. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the model in the development of floating tablets containing Ranitidine hydrochloride. PMID:21264091

  15. A thermodynamic study of the amphiphilic phenothiazine drug thioridazine hydrochloride in water/ethanol solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheema, Mohammad Arif; Barbosa, Silvia; Taboada, Pablo; Castro, Emilio; Siddiq, Mohammad; Mosquera, Víctor

    2006-09-01

    The thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions of the tricyclic antidepressant amphiphilic phenothiazine drug thioridazine hydrochloride in the temperature range 20-50 °C and in the presence of ethanol have been measured. The phenothiazine tranquillizing drugs have interesting association characteristics that derive from their rigid, tricyclic hydrophobic groups. Thioridazine hydrochloride is a drug used in treatment of mental illness that shows side effects. Therefore, it is interesting to study the change of its physico-chemical properties with temperature and with the surrounding environment to understand the action mechanism of the drug. Densities, conductivities, and surface tension were measured to obtain surface and bulk solution properties. Critical concentrations, cc, at different temperatures and in the presence of ethanol, and partition coefficients, K, have been calculated, the latter using an indirect method based in the pseudophase model with the help of apparent molar volume data. This method has the advantage that allows calculating the distribution coefficients at solubilizate concentrations below the saturation. Conductivity data show two critical concentrations. The second critical concentration is not clear by density data. The effect of the alcohol is to decrease the first critical concentration due to a decrease in headgroup repulsion. The molar apparent volumes at infinite dilution and in the aggregate in water and in presence of ethanol have been also obtained.

  16. Lyophilized Chitosan/xanthan Polyelectrolyte Complex Based Mucoadhesive Inserts for Nasal Delivery of Promethazine Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    G Dehghan, Mohamed Hassan; Marzuka, Marzuka

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was the development of chitosan/xanthan polyelectrolyte complex based mucoadhesive nasal insert of promethazine hydrochloride a drug used in the treatment of motion sickness. A 32 factorial design was applied for preparing chitosan/xanthan polyelectrolyte complex and to study the effect of independent variables i.e. concentration of xanthan [X1] and concentration of chitosan [X2] on various responses i.e. viscosity of polyelectrolyte complex solution, water uptake of nasal inserts (at pH 2, 5.5, 7.4), bioadhesion potential of nasal inserts and in-vitro drug release at Q6h through nasal inserts. FTIR and DSC analysis were carried out to confirm complex formation and on loaded and unloaded nasal insert to investigate any drug excipient interaction. The nasal inserts were also characterized by powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and for ex-vivo permeation studies. The results show that higher amount of xanthan in polyelectrolyte complexes with respect to higher amount of chitosan retarded in-vitro drug release. The water uptake behaviour of nasal insert was strongly influenced by pH of the medium and by polycation/ polyanion concentration. The investigation verifies the formation of polyelectrolyte complexes formation between chitosan and xanthan at pH values in the vicinity of pKa intervals of the two polymers and confirms their potential for the nasal delivery of promethazine hydrochloride. PMID:25276178

  17. Spectrophotometric estimation of eflornithine hydrochloride by using ion-pair reagents.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Singh, Vijender; Kumar, Praveen

    2015-03-01

    Four newer, cost effective and sensitive ion-pair complex methods were estimated for the determination of eflornithine hydrochloride drug in pharmaceutical formulation. In these methods eflornithine hydrochloride react with bromocresol green (buffer of pH 4), bromophenol blue (buffer pH 4.5), methyl orange (buffer of pH 5.5) and bromothymol blue (buffer of pH 5) respectively. The chloroform was used for extraction of ion-pair complexes. The measurement of complexes was done at 413, 416, 417 and 425 nm respectively. Under the described conditions the proposed methods are linear over the concentration range of 3-18, 4-16, 6-30 and 2-12 ?g/ml and the coefficient of determination were >0.999 (n=6) with a relative standard deviation of <1% (n=6). The average recovery of the target compound is >100% with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 20, 0.869, 2 and 4.167 ?g/ml and the limit of detection (LOD) 6.6, 0.287, 0.66 and 1.375 ?g/ml. The mechanism of the derivatization reaction is proposed and advantages of the proposed method are discussed. PMID:25730793

  18. Effect of thiamine hydrochloride on the redox reactions of iron at pyrite surface

    SciTech Connect

    Pesic, B.; Oliver, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The present investigation is a part of our studies on the electro chemical aspects of pyrite bioleaching involving Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. Previously (1,2) we have examined the effect of T. ferrooxidans and their metabolic products on the redox reactions of Fe[sup 2+]/Fe[sup 3+] couple at the pyrite surface. Results obtained suggest that beyond 1. 5 days during their growth in a batch fermenter, the bacteria and their metabolic products completely cover the pyrite surface and shut down all electron transfer across the electrode-solution interface. In addition, it has been observed that the bacteria serve as the nucleation site for jarosite formation, which is found detrimental to bioleaching. In the present work we have focussed on the effect of the presence of vitamins on the redox chemistry of iron. Our examination of the effect of the presence of thiamine hydrochloride in the redox behavior of Fe[sup 2+]/Fe[sup 3+] at the pyrite surface has revealed that thiamine hydrochloride does not undergo chemical interaction with ferrous or ferric iron. However, it may adsorb onto the pyrite surface causing polarization of the pyrite electrode.

  19. Development of duloxetine hydrochloride loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles: characterizations and in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Mani; Ubaidulla, Udhumansha; Hemalatha, Pushparaj; Peng, Mei Mei; Jang, Hyun Tae

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the potential use of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) as a carrier for duloxetine hydrochloride (DX), which is prone to acid degradation. Sol-gel and solvothermal methods were used to synthesize the MSNs, which, after calcination and drug loading, were then characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) technique, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and diffuse reflectance ultraviolet-visible (DRS-UV-Vis) spectroscopy. Releases of DX from the MSNs were good in pH 7.4 (90%) phosphate buffer but poor in acidic pH (40%). In a comparative release study between the MSNs in phosphate buffer, TW60-3DX showed sustained release for 140 h, which was higher than the other nanoparticles. The mechanism of DX release from the MSNs was studied using Peppas kinetics model. The "n" value of all three MSNs ranged from 0.45 to 1 with a correlation coefficient (r (2)) >0.9, which indicated that the release of the drug from the system follows the anomalous transport or non-Fickian diffusion. The results supported the efficacy of mesoporous silica nanoparticles synthesized here as a promising carrier for duloxetine hydrochloride with higher drug loading and greater pH-sensitive release. PMID:25604699

  20. Simultaneous Derivative Spectrophotometric Analysis of Doxylamine Succinate, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride and Folic Acid in Combined Dosage Forms

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, A.; Rajput, S. J.

    2008-01-01

    Two UV spectrophotometric methods have been developed, based on first derivative spectrophotometry for simultaneous estimation of doxylamine succinate, pyridoxine hydrochloride, and folic acid in tablet formulations. In method I, the concentrations of these drugs were determined by using linear regression equation. Method II is also based on first derivative spectrophotometry however simultaneous equations (Vierdot's method) were derived on derivative spectra. The first derivative amplitudes at 270.0, 332.8 and 309.2 nm were utilized for simultaneous estimation of these drugs respectively by both methods. In both the methods, linearity was obtained in the concentration range 2.5-50 ?g/ml, 1-40 ?g/ml and 1-30 ?g/ml for doxylamine succinate, pyridoxine hydrochloride, and folic acid respectively. The developed methods show best results in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, LOD, LOQ and ruggedness for standard laboratory mixtures of pure drugs and marketed formulations. The common excipients and additives did not interfere in their determinations. PMID:20046784

  1. Effect of guanidine hydrochloride on removal rate selectivity and wafer topography modification in barrier CMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hailong, Li; Jin, Kang; Yuling, Liu; Chenwei, Wang; Hong, Liu; Jiaojiao, Gao

    2014-03-01

    We propose an alkaline barrier slurry containing guanidine hydrochloride (GH) and hydrogen peroxide. The slurry does not contain any corrosion inhibitors, such as benzotriazole (BTA). 3-inch samples of tantalum copper and oxide were polished to observe the removal rate. The effect of GH on removal rate selectivity along with hydrogen peroxide was investigated by comparing slurry containing GH and H2O2 with slurry containing only GH. Details about the tantalum polishing mechanism in an alkaline guanidine-based slurry and the electrochemical reactions are discussed. The results show that guanidine hydrochloride can increase the tantalum polishing rate and the selectivity of copper and barrier materials. The variation of the dishing and wire line resistance with the polishing time was measured. The dishing value after a 300 mm pattern wafer polishing suggests that the slurry has an effective performance in topography modification. The result obtained from the copper wire line resistance test reveals that the wire line in the trench has a low copper loss.

  2. Lyophilized Chitosan/xanthan Polyelectrolyte Complex Based Mucoadhesive Inserts for Nasal Delivery of Promethazine Hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    G Dehghan, Mohamed Hassan; Marzuka, Marzuka

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was the development of chitosan/xanthan polyelectrolyte complex based mucoadhesive nasal insert of promethazine hydrochloride a drug used in the treatment of motion sickness. A 3(2) factorial design was applied for preparing chitosan/xanthan polyelectrolyte complex and to study the effect of independent variables i.e. concentration of xanthan [X1] and concentration of chitosan [X2] on various responses i.e. viscosity of polyelectrolyte complex solution, water uptake of nasal inserts (at pH 2, 5.5, 7.4), bioadhesion potential of nasal inserts and in-vitro drug release at Q6h through nasal inserts. FTIR and DSC analysis were carried out to confirm complex formation and on loaded and unloaded nasal insert to investigate any drug excipient interaction. The nasal inserts were also characterized by powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and for ex-vivo permeation studies. The results show that higher amount of xanthan in polyelectrolyte complexes with respect to higher amount of chitosan retarded in-vitro drug release. The water uptake behaviour of nasal insert was strongly influenced by pH of the medium and by polycation/ polyanion concentration. The investigation verifies the formation of polyelectrolyte complexes formation between chitosan and xanthan at pH values in the vicinity of pKa intervals of the two polymers and confirms their potential for the nasal delivery of promethazine hydrochloride. PMID:25276178

  3. 77 FR 7581 - Determination That KAPVAY (Clonidine Hydrochloride) Extended-Release Tablets, 0.2 Milligram, Was...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... September 28, 2010. KAPVAY is indicated for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder as... (clonidine hydrochloride) Extended-Release Tablets, 0.2 mg. In previous instances (see, e.g., 72 FR 9763, March 5, 2007; 61 FR 25497, May 21, 1996), the Agency has determined that, for purposes of Sec. Sec....

  4. 78 FR 27971 - Determination That REV-EYES (Dapiprazole Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution), 0.5%, Was Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That REV-EYES (Dapiprazole Hydrochloride Ophthalmic... Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has determined that REV-EYES... CFR 314.161)). FDA may not approve an ANDA that does not refer to a listed drug. REV-EYES...

  5. A validated stability-indicating HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of pheniramine maleate and naphazoline hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A simple, rapid, and accurate stability-indicating reverse phase liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of pheniramine maleate and naphazoline hydrochloride in bulk drugs and pharmaceutical formulations. Results Optimum chromatographic separations among pheniramine maleate, naphazoline hydrochloride and stress-induced degradation products have been achieved within 10 minutes by using an Agilent zorbax eclipse XDB C18 column (150 mm?×?4.6 mm, 5 ?m) as the stationary phase with a mobile phase consisted of 10 mM phosphate buffer pH 2.8 containing 0.5% triethlamine and methanol (68:32, v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL min-1. Detection was performed at 280 nm using a diode array detector. Theoretical plates for pheniramine maleate and naphazoline hydrochloride were calculated to be 6762 and 6475, respectively. The method was validated in accordance with ICH guidelines with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness, specificity, limit of detection and quantitation. Regression analysis showed good correlations (R2?>?0.999) for pheniramine maleate in the concentration range of 150–1200 ?g mL-1 and naphazoline hydrochloride in 12.5-100 ?g mL-1. The method results in excellent separation of both the analytes and degradation products. The peak purity factor is ?980 for both analytes after all types of stress, indicating complete separation of both analyte peaks from the stress induced degradation products. Conclusions Overall, the proposed stability-indicating method was suitable for routine quality control and drug analysis of pheniramine maleate and naphazoline hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:24485011

  6. End-to-end continuous flow synthesis and purification of diphenhydramine hydrochloride featuring atom economy, in-line separation, and flow of molten ammonium salts

    E-print Network

    Snead, David R.

    A continuous end-to-end synthesis and purification of diphenhydramine hydrochloride featuring atom economy and waste minimization is described. Combining a 1 : 1 molar ratio of the two starting material streams ...

  7. Functional photoacoustic imaging to observe regional brain activation induced by cocaine hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Janggun; Yang, Xinmai

    2011-09-01

    Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) was used to detect small animal brain activation in response to drug abuse. Cocaine hydrochloride in saline solution was injected into the blood stream of Sprague Dawley rats through tail veins. The rat brain functional change in response to the injection of drug was then monitored by the PAM technique. Images in the coronal view of the rat brain at the locations of 1.2 and 3.4 mm posterior to bregma were obtained. The resulted photoacoustic (PA) images showed the regional changes in the blood volume. Additionally, the regional changes in blood oxygenation were also presented. The results demonstrated that PA imaging is capable of monitoring regional hemodynamic changes induced by drug abuse.

  8. [Treatment of chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency and chronic obliterating arteriopathy of the lower extremities with buflomedil hydrochloride].

    PubMed

    Salerno, L; Sallì, L; Pepe, S; Curiale, B; Allegra, G; Scalici, G; Salvato, F

    1985-09-22

    Research has been carried out into the effects of a new vasoactive substance, buflomedil hydrochloride, on two groups of patients suffering from cerebrovascular insufficiency and obliterating arteriopathy at the lower extremities. Ten clinical parameters were assessed in the first group of patients (insomnia, headache, vertigo, tinnitus, asthenia, shaking, changes in reflexes, anorexia, memory disturbances, problems of concentration and character disturbances); in the second group, the muscular flow of the gastrocnemius as measured by the muscular clearance of NaI131 at rest, during standard exercise conditions, during ten minutes following exercise and in the post-ischaemic phase. The results can be considered satisfactory in both groups, especially after prolonged treatment and in the early stage of the disease. Drug tolerance was very good. PMID:4047447

  9. Binding of the bioactive component isothipendyl hydrochloride with bovine serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, S. M. T.; Seetharamappa, J.; Kandagal, P. B.; Ashoka, S.

    2006-03-01

    The binding of isothipendyl hydrochloride (IPH) to bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy combined with UV-visible absorption and circular dichroism (CD) techniques under simulative physiological conditions for the first time. The quenching mechanism of fluorescence BSA by IPH was discussed. The binding parameters have been evaluated by fluorescence quenching method. The thermodynamic parameters, ? H°, ? S° and ? G° calculated at different temperatures indicated that the hydrophobic force played a major role in the interaction of IPH to BSA. The distance, r between donor (BSA) and acceptor (IPH) was obtained according to the Förster's theory of non-radiation energy transfer and was found to be 2.21 nm. Experimental results showed that the ?-helicity of BSA decreased from 66.4% (in free BSA) to 39.1% (in bound BSA). The effect of common ions on the binding constant was also investigated.

  10. The 14-day repeated dose liver micronucleus test with methapyrilene hydrochloride using young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kenji; Ochi, Akimu; Koda, Akira; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Doi, Takaaki

    2015-03-01

    The repeated dose liver micronucleus (RDLMN) assay using young adult rats has the potential to detect genotoxic hepatocarcinogens that can be integrated into a general toxicity study. The assay methods were thoroughly validated by 19 Japanese facilities. Methapyrilene hydrochloride (MP), known to be a non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogen, was examined in the present study. MP was dosed orally at 10, 30 and 100mg/kg/day to 6-week-old male Crl:CD (SD) rats daily for 14 days. Treatment with MP resulted in an increase in micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs) with a dosage of only 100mg/kg/day. At this dose level, cytotoxicity followed by regenerative cell growth was noted in the liver. These findings suggest that MP may induce clastogenic effects indirectly on the liver or hepatotoxicity of MP followed by regeneration may cause increase in spontaneous incidence of MNHEPs. PMID:24768639

  11. Vibrational spectra and density functional theoretical calculations on the anti-neurodegenerative drug: Orphenadrine hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwin, Bismi; Hubert Joe, I.

    2012-11-01

    Vibrational spectral analysis and quantum chemical computations based on density functional theory have been performed on the anti-neuro-degenerative drug Orphenadrine hydrochloride. The geometry, intermolecular hydrogen bond, and harmonic vibrational frequencies of the title molecule have been investigated with the help of B3LYP method. The calculated molecular geometry has been compared with the experimental data. The various intramolecular interactions have been exposed by natural bond orbital analysis. The distribution of Mulliken atomic charges and bending of natural hybrid orbitals also reflect the presence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding. The analysis of the electron density of HOMO and LUMO gives an idea of the delocalization and low value of energy gap indicates electron transport in the molecule and thereby bioactivity. Effective docking of the drug molecule with NMDA receptor subunit 3A also enhances its bioactive nature.

  12. Simultaneous determination of paracetamol, phenylephrine hydrochloride and chlorpheniramine maleate in pharmaceutical preparations using multivariate calibration 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadi-Maybodi, Abdolraouf; Hassani Nejad-Darzi, Seyed Karim

    2010-04-01

    Resolution of binary mixtures of paracetamol, phenylephrine hydrochloride and chlorpheniramine maleate with minimum sample pre-treatment and without analyte separation has been successfully achieved by methods of partial least squares algorithm with one dependent variable, principal component regression and hybrid linear analysis. Data of analysis were obtained from UV-vis spectra of the above compounds. The method of central composite design was used in the ranges of 1-15 mg L -1 for both calibration and validation sets. The models refinement procedure and their validation were performed by cross-validation. Figures of merit such as selectivity, sensitivity, analytical sensitivity and limit of detection were determined for all three compounds. The procedure was successfully applied to simultaneous determination of the above compounds in pharmaceutical tablets.

  13. Report: Simultaneous determination of naphazoline hydrochloride, chlorpheniramine maleate and methylene blue in their ternary mixture.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nouruddin Wageih; Hegazy, Maha Ahmad; Abdelkawy, Mohamad; Abdelfatah, Rehab Magdy

    2013-05-01

    Validated spectrophotometric and chemometric methods were developed for determination of Naphazoline Hydrochloride (NAP), Chlorpheniramine maleate (CLO) and Methylene blue (MB) in their ternary mixture. Method A was a spectrophotometric method, where NAP and MB were determined using second derivative (D²) spectrophoto metric method using the peak amplitudes at 299 nm and 337 nm for NAP and MB respectively , while CLO was determined using second derivative ratio (DD²) spectrophotometric method using the peak amplitude at 276.6 nm. Method B used the chemometric techniques; principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS) for determination of NAP, CLO and MB using the information contained in the absorption spectra of their ternary mixture solutions. The proposed methods have been successfully applied for the analysis of NAP, CLO and MB in their pharmaceutical formulation and the obtained results were statistically compared with the reported methods. PMID:23625443

  14. Simultaneous determination of paracetamol, phenylephrine hydrochloride and chlorpheniramine maleate in pharmaceutical preparations using multivariate calibration 1.

    PubMed

    Samadi-Maybodi, Abdolraouf; Hassani Nejad-Darzi, Seyed Karim

    2010-04-01

    Resolution of binary mixtures of paracetamol, phenylephrine hydrochloride and chlorpheniramine maleate with minimum sample pre-treatment and without analyte separation has been successfully achieved by methods of partial least squares algorithm with one dependent variable, principal component regression and hybrid linear analysis. Data of analysis were obtained from UV-vis spectra of the above compounds. The method of central composite design was used in the ranges of 1-15 mg L(-1) for both calibration and validation sets. The models refinement procedure and their validation were performed by cross-validation. Figures of merit such as selectivity, sensitivity, analytical sensitivity and limit of detection were determined for all three compounds. The procedure was successfully applied to simultaneous determination of the above compounds in pharmaceutical tablets. PMID:20097597

  15. 3-Chloro-p-toluidine hydrochloride: in vitro mutagenicity studies for human health hazards determinations.

    PubMed

    Stankowski, L F; San Sebastian, J R; Sterner, R T

    1997-04-11

    3-Chloro-p-toluidine hydrochloride (CPT-HCl) is an aniline derivative used in the manufacture of the dye palatine fast yellow; it is also registered as a selective, low-volume-use (< 45 kg/yr) avicide. Three in vitro mutagenicity tests of CPT-HCl were performed according to methods recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): the Ames/Salmonella assay, the Chinese hamster ovary/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase (CHO/HPRT) mammalian cell forward gene mutation assay, and the CHO chromosome aberration assay. CPT-HCl did not display mutagenic activity using the Ames/Salmonella or CHO/HPRT assays. However, CPT-HCl induced statistically significant, concentration-dependent, metabolically activated increases in the proportion of aberrant cells and aberrations/cell in cultured CHO cells. Results are suggestive of minimal mutagenicity effects associated with exposure to anilines and their derivatives. PMID:9140464

  16. Formulation and Evaluation of Extended-Release Solid Dispersion of Metformin Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Patil, SA; Kuchekar, BS; Chabukswar, AR; Jagdale, SC

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to formulate and characterize solid dispersion (SD) of metformin hydrochloride using methocel K100M as the carrier by the solvent evaporation and cogrinding method. The influence of drug polymer ratio on drug release was studied by dissolution tests. Characterization was performed by fourier transform spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffractometry. The optimized formulation was subjected to accelerated stability testing as per ICH guidelines. Release data were examined kinetically. SD with 1:4 and 1:5 ratio of drug to polymer obtained by solvent evaporation and cogrinding were selected as the best candidates suitable for prolonged-release oral dosage form of metformin. PMID:21264113

  17. Resistance of bovine band 3, a hydrophobic erythrocyte membrane protein, to denaturation of guanidine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Makino, S; Nakashima, H; Shibagaki, K

    1981-02-01

    Bovine Band 3 was cleaved into two fragments by extracellular chymotryptic attack. As in the case of intact Band 3, both fragments were resistant to complete denaturation by guanidine hydrochloride and did not show the single cooperative conformational transition which is typical of many globular proteins. These results suggest that each Band 3 fragment contains several domains differing in resistance to denaturation. A discriminant function analysis further suggests that a considerable part of the polypeptide chain of the fragments is intercalated into or interacts with the lipid bilayer. These combined data are not incompatible with the suggestion of Drickamer ((1977) J. Biol. Chem. 252, 6909-6917) that the Band 3 polypeptide is probably folded to pass several times through the membrane. PMID:7240133

  18. Taro corms mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patch: an efficient device for delivery of diltiazem hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Gunjan; Saha, Nayan Ranjan; Roy, Indranil; Bhattacharyya, Amartya; Bose, Madhura; Mishra, Roshnara; Rana, Dipak; Bhattacharjee, Debashis; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the effectiveness of mucilage/hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) based transdermal patch (matrix type) as a drug delivery device. We have successfully extracted mucilage from Colocasia esculenta (Taro) corms and prepared diltiazem hydrochloride incorporated mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patches using various wt% of mucilage by the solvent evaporation technique. Characterization of both mucilage and transdermal patches has been done by several techniques such as Molisch's test, organoleptic evaluation of mucilage, mechanical, morphological and thermal analysis of transdermal patches. Skin irritation test is studied on hairless Albino rat skin showing that transdermal patches are apparently free of potentially hazardous skin irritation. Fourier transform infrared analysis shows that there is no interaction between drug, mucilage and HPMC while scanning electron microscopy shows the surface morphology of transdermal patches. In vitro drug release time of mucilage-HPMC based transdermal patches is prolonged with increasing mucilage concentration in the formulation. PMID:24556117

  19. Biogenic gold nanoparticles as fotillas to fire berberine hydrochloride using folic acid as molecular road map.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sunil; Mewada, Ashmi; Thakur, Mukeshchand; Shah, Ritu; Oza, Goldie; Sharon, Madhuri

    2013-10-01

    Use of biologically modified gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as molecular vehicle to ferry potential anti-cancer drug berberine hydrochloride (BHC) using folic acid (FA) as targeting molecule is reported in this work. A tropical fruit peel, Trapa bispinosa is used to fabricate highly monodispersed GNPs, passivated with essential functional groups which were used as linkers to attach FA and BHC via amide linkage. Flocculation Parameter (FP) of biologically synthesized GNPs was calculated under different salt concentrations which were found to be very ideal under a physiological condition. Various statistical models were used to find drug release profile out of which Higuchi was found to be the most ideal. GNP-FA-BHC complexes were found to be active against folic acid expressing HeLa cells. PMID:23910269

  20. Anomalous Electrical Conductivity Behavior at Elevated Pressure in the Protic Ionic Liquid Procainamide Hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojnarowska, Z.; Roland, C. M.; Swiety-Pospiech, A.; Grzybowska, K.; Paluch, M.

    2012-01-01

    Using broadband dielectric spectroscopy, we investigated the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the conductivity relaxation time ?? of the supercooled protic ionic liquid, procainamide hydrochloride, a common pharmaceutical. The pressure dependence of ?? exhibited anomalous behavior in the vicinity of the glass transition Tg, manifested by abrupt changes in activation volume. This peculiar behavior, paralleling the change in temperature dependence of ?? near Tg, is a manifestation of the decoupling between electrical conductivity and structural relaxation. Although the latter effectively ceases in the glassy state, free ions retain their mobility but with a reduced sensitivity to thermodynamic changes. This is the first observation of decoupling of ion migration from structural relaxation in a glassy conductor by isothermal densification.

  1. High pressure study of molecular dynamics of protic ionic liquid lidocaine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Swiety-Pospiech, A; Wojnarowska, Z; Pionteck, J; Pawlus, S; Grzybowski, A; Hensel-Bielowka, S; Grzybowska, K; Szulc, A; Paluch, M

    2012-06-14

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of pressure on the molecular dynamics of protic ionic liquid lidocaine hydrochloride, a commonly used pharmaceutical, by means of dielectric spectroscopy and pressure-temperature-volume methods. We observed that near T(g) the pressure dependence of conductivity relaxation times reveals a peculiar behavior, which can be treated as a manifestation of decoupling between ion migration and structural relaxation times. Moreover, we discuss the validity of thermodynamic scaling in lidocaine HCl. We also employed the temperature-volume Avramov model to determine the value of pressure coefficient of glass transition temperature, dT(g)/dP|(P = 0.1). Finally, we investigate the role of thermal and density fluctuations in controlling of molecular dynamics of the examined compound. PMID:22713051

  2. Successful use of vancomycin hydrochloride in the treatment of lactulose resistant chronic hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Tarao, K; Ikeda, T; Hayashi, K; Sakurai, A; Okada, T; Ito, T; Karube, H; Nomoto, T; Mizuno, T; Shindo, K

    1990-01-01

    Vancomycin hydrochloride (2 g daily) was administered to 12 patients with cirrhosis and lactulose resistant portal systemic encephalopathy in a double blind crossover trial. All 12 patients showed a remarkable clinical improvement after vancomycin treatment. The mean (SE) electroencephalographic (EEG) frequency changed from 6.3 (0.2) to 8.5 (0.2) cps (p less than 0.001) and the mean arterial ammonia concentration from 152 (4) micrograms/ml to 97 (8) micrograms/ml (p less than 0.001). Their clinical condition deteriorated when treatment was switched to lactulose, returning to the previous slower EEG frequency and high arterial ammonia concentrations. Vancomycin seems to be effective in chronic portal systemic encephalopathy in patients who are not helped by lactulose alone. PMID:2199349

  3. High pressure study of molecular dynamics of protic ionic liquid lidocaine hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swiety-Pospiech, A.; Wojnarowska, Z.; Pionteck, J.; Pawlus, S.; Grzybowski, A.; Hensel-Bielowka, S.; Grzybowska, K.; Szulc, A.; Paluch, M.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of pressure on the molecular dynamics of protic ionic liquid lidocaine hydrochloride, a commonly used pharmaceutical, by means of dielectric spectroscopy and pressure-temperature-volume methods. We observed that near Tg the pressure dependence of conductivity relaxation times reveals a peculiar behavior, which can be treated as a manifestation of decoupling between ion migration and structural relaxation times. Moreover, we discuss the validity of thermodynamic scaling in lidocaine HCl. We also employed the temperature-volume Avramov model to determine the value of pressure coefficient of glass transition temperature, dTg/dP|P = 0.1. Finally, we investigate the role of thermal and density fluctuations in controlling of molecular dynamics of the examined compound.

  4. Simultaneous determination of a binary mixture of pantoprazole sodium and itopride hydrochloride by four spectrophotometric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, Nesrin K.; El-Ragehy, Nariman A.; Ragab, Mona T.; El-Zeany, Badr A.

    2015-02-01

    Four simple, sensitive, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of a binary mixture containing Pantoprazole Sodium Sesquihydrate (PAN) and Itopride Hydrochloride (ITH). Method (A) is the derivative ratio method (1DD), method (B) is the mean centering of ratio spectra method (MCR), method (C) is the ratio difference method (RD) and method (D) is the isoabsorptive point coupled with third derivative method (3D). Linear correlation was obtained in range 8-44 ?g/mL for PAN by the four proposed methods, 8-40 ?g/mL for ITH by methods A, B and C and 10-40 ?g/mL for ITH by method D. The suggested methods were validated according to ICH guidelines. The obtained results were statistically compared with those obtained by the official and a reported method for PAN and ITH, respectively, showing no significant difference with respect to accuracy and precision.

  5. [Microbiologic study of a new disinfectant: decyloxy-3-hydroxy-2-amino-1-propane hydrochloride].

    PubMed

    Beerens, H; Romond, C; Lepage, C; Cerf, O; Hermier, J; Rancurel, A

    1984-06-01

    Decominol exhibits bactericidal activity in a concentration of 0.05% (NF T 72-151). This concentration is increased five-fold in the presence of an albumin-yeast extract mixture, and 2.5-fold in the presence of hard water (60 degrees French). At pH 5.0, 0.5% concentration is not bactericidal (NF T 72-171) Fungicidal activity (T 72-201) is weak at 20 degrees and 50 degrees C and the sporicidal tests (T 72-231) establish the lack of sporicidal activity at 10%. Decyloxy-3 hydroxy-2 in 0.2 amino-1 propane hydrochloride to 1.5% concentrations used in a meat-canning factory ensures satisfactory disinfection of correctly cleansed surfaces. It also proves useful for sterilization of circuits where it can be used as an adjunct to the lethal action of heat. PMID:6462756

  6. The influence of growth environment on the crystallization of nortriptyline hydrochloride, a tricyclic antidepressant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacCalman, M. L.; Roberts, K. J.; Hendriksen, B. A.

    1993-03-01

    The preparation of the nortriptyline hydrochloride, an important pharmaceutical product, by crystallization from both alcohol and aqueous solutions is presented. At low temperatures this material shows a higher solubility in absolute alcohol compared to aqueous solutions in a trend which reverses at higher temperatures. Examination of crystals prepared from alcohol solutions reveal essentially a needle-like crystal habit which is in excellent agreement with morphological predictions based on the bulk crystallographic structure. In contrast crystals prepared from aqueous solution at high temperatures reveal a particulate structure dominated by heavily agglomerated crystallites with plate-like morphology. When this material is crystallized at the lower temperatures, where the solubility curve is steep, X-ray and thermal analysis appear to show that crystallization results in a new polymorphic structure associated with a less agglomerated product.

  7. The density, viscosity and structural properties of aqueous ethambutol hydrochloride solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deosarkar, S. D.; Puyad, A. L.; Kalyankar, T. M.

    2012-05-01

    Ethambutol (EMB) is a bacteriostatic antimycobacterial drug prescribed to treat tuberculosis. It is bacteriostatic against actively growing TB bacilli. The density and viscosity of aqueous ethambutol hydrochloride solutions have been studied at 298.15, 301.15 and 304.15 K and at different concentrations (0.255, 0.168, 0.128, 0.087, 0.041, and 0.023 mol dm-3). The apparent molar volume of these solutions for different temperatures and concentrations was calculated from the density data. The relative viscosities of drug solutions have been analysed by Jones-Dole equation. The limiting apparent molar volumes have been evaluated for different temperatures. The different properties have been used to study structural properties, structure formation and breaking properties of drug and solute-solvent interactions in solutions.

  8. Memantine Hydrochloride and Whole-Brain Radiotherapy With or Without Hippocampal Avoidance in Reducing Neurocognitive Decline in Patients With Brain Metastases | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase III trial compares memantine hydrochloride and whole-brain radiotherapy with or without hippocampal avoidance in reducing neurocognitive decline in patients with cancer that has spread to the brain. Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is the most common treatment for brain metastasis. Unfortunately, the majority of patients with brain metastases experience cognitive deterioration after WBRT. Memantine hydrochloride may enhance cognitive function by binding to and inhibiting channels of receptors located in the central nervous system.

  9. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of chitosan buccal films of ondansetron hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Koland, Marina; Charyulu, R Narayana; Vijayanarayana, K; Prabhu, Prabhakara

    2011-01-01

    Buccal films of ondanstron hydrochloride were fabricated from mucoadhesive polymer, chitosan, and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP K30) for the purpose of prolonging drug release and improving its bioavailability. All fabricated film formulations prepared were smooth and translucent, with good flexibility. The weight and thickness of all the formulations were found to be uniform. Drug content in the films ranged from 98 – 99%, indicating favorable drug loading and uniformity. The inclusion of PVP K30, a hydrophilic polymer, significantly reduced the bioadhesive strength and in vitro mucoadhesion time of the films, although the degree of swelling increased. In vitro drug release studies in simulated saliva showed a prolonged release of over five to six hours for all formulations, except C4, with 99.98% release in 1.5 hours. Kinetic analysis of the release data indicated that the best fit model with the highest correlation coefficient for all formulations was the Peppas model. In vivo studies, on selected films in rabbits, were conducted, to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters such as Cmax, Tmax, and AUC0-?, using model-independent methods with nonlinear least-squares regression analysis. The AUC and values of Cmax of ondansetron hydrochloride were found to be significantly greater (P < 0.005) than the selected films C2 and C3, as compared to those from the oral solution, thereby confirming improved bioavailability via the buccal route. The Tmax values were also significantly greater (P < 0.005), indicating the slower release of the drug from buccal films, thereby, providing prolonged effects. Good in vitro-in vivo correlation was observed with R2 values exceeding 0.98, when the percentage of drug released was correlated with the percentage of drug absorbed. PMID:23071939

  10. Target-controlled infusion and population pharmacokinetics of landiolol hydrochloride in patients with peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    Kunisawa, Takayuki; Yamagishi, Akio; Suno, Manabu; Nakade, Susumu; Honda, Naoki; Kurosawa, Atsushi; Sugawara, Ami; Tasaki, Yoshikazu; Iwasaki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We previously determined the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of landiolol in healthy male volunteers and gynecological patients. In this study, we determined the PK parameters of landiolol in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Methods Eight patients scheduled to undergo peripheral arterial surgery were enrolled in the study. After inducing anesthesia, landiolol hydrochloride was administered at target plasma concentrations of 500 and 1,000 ng/mL for 30 minutes each. A total of 112 data points of plasma concentration were collected from the patients and used for the population PK analysis. A population PK model was developed using a nonlinear mixed-effect modeling software program (NONMEM). Results The patients had markedly decreased heart rates at 2 minutes after initiation of landiolol hydrochloride administration; however, systolic blood pressures were lower than the baseline values at only five time points. The concentration time course of landiolol was best described by a two-compartment model with lag time. The estimates of PK parameters were as follows: total body clearance, 30.7 mL/min/kg; distribution volume of the central compartment, 65.0 mL/kg; intercompartmental clearance, 48.3 mL/min/kg; distribution volume of the peripheral compartment, 54.4 mL/kg; and lag time, 0.633 minutes. The predictive performance of this model was better than that of the previous model. Conclusion The PK parameters of landiolol were best described by a two-compartment model with lag time. Distribution volume of the central compartment and total body clearance of landiolol in patients with peripheral arterial disease were approximately 64% and 84% of those in healthy volunteers, respectively. PMID:25653534

  11. Detection of Clenbuterol Hydrochloride Residuals in Pork Liver Using a Customized Surface Plasmon Resonance Bioanalyzer

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jiandong; Chen, Ruipeng; Wang, Shun; Wang, Tingting; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Li, Jianwei; Hu, Xinran; Liang, Hao; Zhu, Juanhua; Sun, Xiaohui; Ma, Liuzheng; Jiang, Min

    2015-01-01

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunoassay with an immobilization of self-assembled molecular identification membrane for the detection of residual Clenbuterol Hydrochloride (CLB) in pork liver was systematically investigated and experimentally validated for its high performance. SPR immunoassay with a regular competitive inhibition assay cannot be directly verified to detect CLB residuals. In this study, the binding of Au film with mercaptopropionic acid was investigated using the known form of the strong S-Au covalent bonds formed by the chemical radical of the mercaptopropionic acid and the Au film. After that, the immunoglobulin IgG of swine (SwIgG-CLB) was bonded with the mercaptopropionic acid by covalent -CO-NH- amide bonding. The modified comprehensive analysis of how the membrane structure works was introduced together with the customized SPR bioanalyzer. In order to evaluate the performance of this biomembrane structure, the concentrations of CLB-contained solutions of 0 ng•mL-1, 10 ng•mL-1, 20 ng•mL-1, 33.3 ng•mL-1, and 40 ng•mL-1 were prepared by adding CLB reagents into the solutions of CLB antibody (Clenbuterol Hydrochloride Antibody, CLB-Ab), successively and then the response unit (RU) was measured individually. Using the data collected from the linear CCD array, the fitting curve was established with the R-Square value of 0.9929. Correspondingly, the recovery rate ranged from 88.48% to 103.21% was experimented and the limit of detection of CLB in 1.26 ng•mL-1 was obtained efficiently. It was concluded that the detection method associated with biomembrane properties is expected to contribute much to the determination of residual CLB in pork liver quantitatively by using the customized SPR bioanalyzer. PMID:25799327

  12. Randomized controlled trial of bixalomer versus sevelamer hydrochloride in hemodialysis patients with hyperphosphatemia.

    PubMed

    Akizawa, Tadao; Origasa, Hideki; Kameoka, Chisato; Kaneko, Yuichiro; Kawasaki, Shigenori

    2014-04-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is a prognostic factor for morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease. Bixalomer is a nonabsorbable polymer that decreases serum phosphate levels by binding phosphate in the gastrointestinal tract. This study compared the efficacy and safety of bixalomer versus sevelamer hydrochloride for controlling hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients. This was a multicenter, randomized open-label, non-inferiority study. The primary endpoint was serum phosphate on completion of treatment. Administration of bixalomer was started at 1.5?g/day and adjusted to a maximum of 7.5?g/day depending on the serum phosphate level. Sevelamer hydrochloride was started at 3.0 or 6.0?g/day and adjusted to a maximum of 9.0?g/day. Treatment was continued for 12 weeks. Fifty-five patients were randomized to each treatment group. After 12 weeks, the baseline adjusted mean serum phosphate level was 5.87?mg/dL in the bixalomer group and 5.55?mg/dL in the sevelamer group, with a difference of 0.31?mg/dL and 95% confidence interval (CI) of [-0.13 to 0.76]. The upper limit of the 95%CI for the difference of the mean serum phosphate level between the two groups was <1.0?mg/dL, which was the non-inferiority margin in this study. Thus, non-inferiority of bixalomer to sevelamer was confirmed. The incidence of adverse events was lower in the bixalomer group, and bixalomer did not promote acidosis. Bixalomer achieved a similar reduction of serum phosphate to sevelamer, while causing fewer adverse reactions. Consequently, the usefulness of bixalomer for treating hyperphosphatemia was confirmed. PMID:24720402

  13. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation on longissimus muscle shear force and sensory attributes of calf-fed Holstein steers.

    PubMed

    Howard, S T; Woerner, D R; Vote, D J; Scanga, J A; Chapman, P L; Bryant, T C; Acheson, R J; Tatum, J D; Belk, K E

    2014-01-01

    The effect of ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) and zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on slice shear force (SSF) and sensory characteristics of beef from calf-fed Holstein steers was evaluated. All steers were implanted with a progesterone (100 mg) plus estradiol benzoate (10 mg) implant followed by a terminal trenbolone acetate (200 mg) plus estradiol (40 mg) implant. Steers were blocked by weight into pens (n = 32) randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: control, RH fed at 300 mg·steer(-1)·d(-1) (RH 300) or RH fed at 400 mg·steer(-1)·d(-1)(RH 400) for the final 31 d of finishing, or ZH fed at 6.8 g/t for 21 d with a 5-d withdrawal before harvest. Fourteen carcasses were randomly selected from each pen, and two LM samples (1 per side) were excised and aged either 14 or 21 d before SSF testing. For trained panel evaluation, two steaks were collected from each of 60 low Choice strip loins (20 each from control, RH 300, and ZH treatments) and aged either 14 or 21 d. Steers fed RH and ZH produced steaks with SSF values that were 9% to 25% higher than controls. No difference in SSF was detected between the two levels of RH (P > 0.05). Compared to controls, the probability of steaks aged 14 d failing to meet SSF requirements to be certified tender (SSF < 20 kg) was increased 0.15, 0.17, and 0.26 in steers fed RH 300, RH 400, and ZH, respectively. Compared to controls, the probability of steaks aged 21 d having SSF values >20 kg was increased 0.03, 0.08, and 0.16 in steers fed RH 300, RH 400, and ZH, respectively. Steaks from Select carcasses of steers fed ZH aged 21 d postmortem had double the probability (0.39 vs. 0.17) of having SSF values >20 kg compared to steaks from steers fed either level of RH (P < 0.05). This difference tended to be identical in steaks from Select carcasses 14 d postmortem (0.50 vs. 0.33; P = 0.11); however, no difference was found in low Choice samples at 14 or 21 d postmortem. Trained panelists rated steaks aged 14 d from steers fed ZH lower for overall tenderness and flavor compared to controls (P < 0.05); however, no difference was found between controls and those fed RH 300. Steaks from steers fed ZH aged 21 d were rated lower for overall tenderness and juiciness compared to controls and those from steers fed RH 300 (P < 0.05). This study suggests RH and ZH negatively impact sensory attributes of beef from calf-fed Holstein steers. PMID:24243905

  14. First order derivative spectrophotometric method for the determination of benidipine hydrochloride pharmaceutical preparations and forced degradation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasaka, Ayça

    2015-06-01

    A simple and rapid first order derivative spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of benidipine hydrochloride in pure form and pharmaceutical preparations. For the first derivative spectrophotometric method, the distances between two extremum values l (peak-to-peak amplitudes), 230.2/241.5 nm. The proposed method was validated according to the ICH guidelines with respect to linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision (intra- and inter-day) and recovery were evaluated. The linearity of the method was in the range of 0.2-2.0 ?g/mL. Limits of detection and quantification were 0.58 and 1.73 ?g/mL, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of pharmaceutical preparations. In addition, forced degradation studies were performed on the benidipine hydrochloride drag substance. The drug substance was exposed to the stress conditions of hydrolysis (acid and base).

  15. Oxygen isotope ratio measurements on carbon dioxide generated by reaction of microliter quantities of biological fluids with guanidine hydrochloride

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, W.W.; Lee, L.S.; Klein, P.D.

    1987-03-01

    Guanidine hydrochloride was used to convert water in biological fluids to carbon dioxide for oxygen isotope ratio measurements. Five 10-..mu..L aliquots each of five different saliva, urine, plasma, and human milk samples were allowed to react with 100 mg of guanidine hydrochloride at 260/sup 0/C to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide. Ammonia was removed with 100% phosphoric acid and carbon dioxide was cryogenically purified before isotope ratio measurement. At natural abundances, the delta/sup 18/O values of the biological fluids were reproducible to within 0.16% (standard deviation) and accurate to within 0.11 +/- 0.73% (x vector +/- SD) of the H/sub 2/O-CO/sub 2/ equilibration values. At a 250% enrichment level of /sup 18/O, the delta/sup 18/O values of the biological fluids were reproducible to within 0.95% and accurate to -1.27 +/- 2.25%.

  16. Preparation of Mucoadhesive Oral Patches Containing Tetracycline Hydrochloride and Carvacrol for Treatment of Local Mouth Bacterial Infections and Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Obaidat, Rana M.; Bader, Ammar; Al-Rajab, Wafa; Abu Sheikha, Ghassan; Obaidat, Aiman A.

    2011-01-01

    The specific aim of this work was to prepare mucoadhesive patches containing tetracycline hydrochloride and carvacrol in an attempt to develop a novel oral drug delivery system for the treatment of mouth infections. The bilayered patches were prepared using ethyl cellulose as a backing layer and carbopol 934 as a matrix mucoadhesive layer. Patches were prepared with different loading amounts of tetracycline hydrochloride and carvacrol. The antimicrobial activity was assessed for the prepared patches using the disc-diffusion method against the yeast Candida albicans and five bacterial strains, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus bronchispti. In this work, we highlighted the possibility of occurrence of a synergistic action between carvacrol and tetracycline. The best formulation was selected based on microbiological tests, drug release, ex-vivo mucoadhesive performance, and swelling index. Physical characteristics of the selected formulations were determined. These included pH, patch thickness, weight uniformity, content uniformity, folding endurance, and patch stability. PMID:21617783

  17. [Antineoplastic and curative antileukemic activity of 1,4-benzoquinone guanylhydrazone thiosemicarbazone and its hydrochloride on in vivo murine models].

    PubMed

    Gutsche, W; Schulze, W; Jungstand, W; Wohlrabe, K

    1983-02-01

    By means of four murine models, the authors demonstrated in vivo that 1,4-benzoquinone guanylhydrazone thiosemicarbazone (1), which is known to be antimicrobially active, and its hydrochloride (2) exert an antineoplastic effect. In leukaemia P 388 and leukaemia L 1210 both compounds had a curative action already after four oral administrations. The "cured" animals were resistant or cross-resistant to further transmissions of leukaemia. The resistance was transmissible by splenocytes. PMID:6856662

  18. Simultaneous determination of eperisone hydrochloride and paracetamol in mouse plasma by high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Marcello; Cifelli, Roberta; Di Legge, Cristina; Barbacane, Renato Carmine; Costa, Nicola; Fresta, Massimo; Celia, Christian; Capolupo, Carlo; Di Marzio, Luisa

    2015-04-01

    This paper reports the validation of a quantitative high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (HPLC-PDA) method for the simultaneous analysis, in mouse plasma, of eperisone hydrochloride and paracetamol by protein precipitation using zinc sulphate-methanol-acetonitrile. The analytes were resolved on a Gemini C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm; 5 ?m particle size) using a gradient elution mode with a run time of 15 min, comprising re-equilibration, at 60°C (± 1°C). The method was validated over the concentration range from 0.5 to 25 ?g/mL for eperisone hydrochloride and paracetamol, in mouse plasma. Ciprofloxacin was used as Internal Standard. Results from assay validations show that the method is selective, sensitive and robust. The limit of quantification of the method was 0.5 ?g/mL for eperisone hydrochloride and paracetamol, and matrix-matched standard curves showed a good linearity, up to 25 ?g/mL with correlation coefficients (r(2))? 0.9891. In the entire analytical range the intra and inter-day precision (RSD%) values were ? 1.15% and ? 1.46% for eperisone hydrochloride, and ? 0.35% and ? 1.65% for paracetamol. For both analytes the intra and inter-day trueness (bias%) values ranged, respectively, from -5.33% to 4.00% and from -11.4% to -4.00%. The method was successfully tested in pharmacokinetic studies after oral administration in mouse. Furthermore, the application of this method results in a significant reduction in terms of animal number, dosage, and improvement in speed, rate of analysis, and quality of pharmacokinetic parameters related to serial blood sampling. PMID:25704771

  19. The crystal structure and moisture sensitivity of (+)-4-(1-(2,3 dimethylphenyl) ethyl) 1H-imidazole hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laine, E.; Rajala, R.; Sillanpaa, R.; Pirttimaki, J.

    The preliminar crystal structure determination of dexmedetomidine hydrochloride was carried out. The diffraction data was collected on Rigaku AFC5S diffractometer with graphite monogromated Mo(K sub alpha) radiation at 23 C. The molecular structure and packing in the unit cell was solved by using direct methods. The structure was refined by using the full matrix least squares refinement to an R value of 6.8 with 870 observed reflections.

  20. [Enantiomeric separation of trantinterol hydrochloride by high performance liquid chromatography on cellulose derivative-based chiral stationary phase].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Minyan; Qin, Feng; Xiong, Zhili; Zhang, Shangshang; Pan, Li; Li, Famei

    2011-11-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method using cellulose tris-(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) as chiral stationary phase (Lux Cellulose-1) for the separation of trantinterol hydrochloride enantiomers was developed. The method was based on normal phase model with n-heptane as the basal solvent of mobile phase. The influences of organic modifiers, mobile phase additives and column temperature on the retention and separation of the enantiomers were examined and discussed. It was demonstrated that the mobile phase additives had a dominant effect on the enantiomeric separation. No separation was observed with the addition of diethylamine only in the mobile phase, while the retention was increased and the enatiomeric separation was observed with the addition of trifluoroacetic acid. When both trifluoroacetic acid and diethylamine were added into the mobile phase, the enantioseparation was significantly improved with a resolution up to 4.0. Ethanol and isopropanol were investigated as the organic modifiers, and ethanol offered a better enatiomeric resolution for trantinterol hydrochloride. In the examined temperature range between 15 degrees C and 35 degrees C both separation factor and resolution were decreased with the increase of the column temperature. The optimized chiral HPLC method for the separation of trantinterol hydrochloride enantiomers involved a Lux Cellulose-1 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm), a mobile phase of n-heptane/ethanol/trifluoroacetic acid/diethylamine (88: 12: 0.3: 0.05, v/v/v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, a detection at 246 nm and a column temperature of 25 degrees C. The method is simple and rapid for the enantiomeric impurity determination of (-)-trantinterol hydrochloride bulk samples. PMID:22393706

  1. Crystal and molecular structures of 3-amino-4-hydroxy benzenesulfonamide and its hydrochloride: Quantum-chemical study of their tautomerism

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalchukova, O. V. Strashnova, S. B.; Romashkina, E. P.; Strashnov, P. V.; Zaitsev, B. E.; Sergienko, V. S.

    2013-03-15

    3-amino-4-hydroxy benzenesulfonamide and its hydrochloride have been isolated in the crystalline state. Their crystal and molecular structures are determined by X-ray diffraction. The equilibrium between neutral tautomeric forms of the 3-amino-4-hydroxy benzenesulfonamide molecule is studied within the approximation of density functional theory (B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ). The constants of acid-base equilibrium of 3-amino-4-hydroxy benzenesulfonamide are deter-mined using spectrophotometry.

  2. Formulation, preparation, and evaluation of novel orally disintegrating tablets containing taste-masked naproxen sodium granules and naratriptan hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Stange, Ulrike; Führling, Christian; Gieseler, Henning

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and manufacture novel freeze-dried orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) for migraine therapy containing taste-masked naproxen sodium and naratriptan hydrochloride. The formulation was optimized based on freeze-drying of sucrose solutions with different binders (hydroxyethylstarch, sodium alginate, methylcellulose, and gelatin) and varying amounts of Eudragit® E-coated naproxen sodium granules. Excellent product performance of the ODTs in terms of hardness and disintegration time (<10 s) independent of the mass of particles embedded was found for the solution consisting of sucrose and hydroxyethylstarch. Poloxamer 188, menthol flavor, naratriptan hydrochloride, and taste-masked naproxen sodium granules corresponding to 200 mg of naproxen were then added, and the final batches of ODTs for migraine therapy were produced. The ODTs were fully characterized, and subsequently stored for 1 month at room temperature and at 40°C. The amount of free naproxen sodium after freeze-drying and storage was below the threshold bitterness value, and the coating remained intact. Additionally, the particle size distribution of taste-masked granules was preserved, and more than 90 % naproxen sodium was released after 30 min. Naratriptan hydrochloride was dissolved immediately after disintegration, hence facilitating buccal absorption of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. PMID:24532095

  3. Sensitive spectrofluorimetric methods for determination of ethopabate and amprolium hydrochloride in chicken plasma and their residues in food samples.

    PubMed

    El-Kosasy, Amira M; Hussein, Lobna A; Magdy, N; Abbas, Mahmoud M

    2015-11-01

    Two sensitive and selective spectrofluorimetric methods are proposed to determine ethopabate (ETH) and amprolium hydrochloride (AMP). First derivative synchronous spectrofluorimetry determines the natively fluorescent ethopabate at 288 nm in presence of amprolium hydrochloride which is a non fluorescent quaternary compound with average recovery 100.54±0.721 over a concentration range of 0.01-0.8 ?g/mL. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) are 0.002 and 0.007 ?g/mL, respectively. The second method is direct synchronous spectrofluorimetry for determining amprolium hydrochloride at 362 nm after a reaction with 5% NaOH and 0.08% potassium ferricyanide that is optimized by a two-level factorial design. This method is linear over a concentration range of 0.01-0.65 ?g/mL with average recovery 99.4±1.28. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) are 0.002 and 0.006 ?g/mL, respectively. The proposed methods are found to be valid and applicable for the analysis of ETH and AMP in their veterinary formulation. They are successfully applied to determine the studied drugs in chicken plasma and their residues in chicken muscle, liver, egg and chicken-based baby food product with recoveries in the ranges of 95.71-108.73% and 97.36-111.89% and for ETH and AMP, respectively. PMID:26057097

  4. Development and validation of a liquid chromatographic method for estimation of dicyclomine hydrochloride, mefenamic Acid and paracetamol in tablets.

    PubMed

    Shah, D A; Rana, Jainika P; Chhalotiya, Usmangani K; Baldania, S L; Bhatt, K K

    2014-01-01

    Liquid chromatographic method was developed for simultaneous quantitative determination of dicyclomine hydrochloride, mefenamic acid and paracetamol in their combined dosage form. The separation was achieved using a C18 column (250×4.6 mm id, 5 ?m) using acetonitrile:20 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate 70:30 (v/v) adjusted to pH 4 using orthophosphoric acid as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 ml/min and detection at 220 nm. Separation was completed within 12 min. The retention times of dicyclomine hydrochloride, mefenamic acid and paracetamol were 3.8, 9.3 and 2.5 minutes respectively. The proposed method was found to have linearity in concentration range of 10-100 ?g/ml for dicyclomine hydrochloride, 0.05-10 ?g/ml for mefenamic acid and 0.1-20 ?g/ml for paracetamol. The developed method has been statistically validated and was found to be simple, precise, reproducible and accurate. The developed and validated method was successfully used for the quantitative analysis of commercially available dosage form. PMID:25593386

  5. Effect of UV irradiation on detection of cocaine hydrochloride and crack vapors by IMIS and API-MS methods.

    PubMed

    Kolomiets, Yuri N; Pervukhin, Viktor V

    2009-04-30

    Detection of drug vapors and volatile products of their decomposition is an important, and sometimes the only way to determine the presence of illegal drug traces at the surface of mail items, documents, hands and banknotes. This paper gives the results of experimental studies on the effect of UV irradiation on the sensitivity of a vapor phase detection of cocaine of different origin by a technology of ion mobility increment spectrometry (IMIS). It is shown that the influence of UV irradiation on the surface of cocaine hydrochloride and crack increases the amplitude of IMIS signals by about eight times. We analyzed ions emerged by photolysis of tested cocaine samples using mass-spectrometry with atmospheric pressure ionization (API-MS). The assumption is made about structural formula of volatile products of photolysis of crack and cocaine hydrochloride. By the results of API-MS and IMIS studies on photolysis of cocaine samples it is assumed that compound C(10)H(15)NO(3) with a molecular weight of 197 amu and ecgonidine methyl ester with a molecular weight of 181 amu are responsible for the increase of an amplitude of IMIS signals upon UV irradiation of samples of crack and cocaine hydrochloride. PMID:19203621

  6. A comparative study on the aggregating effects of guanidine thiocyanate, guanidine hydrochloride and urea on lysozyme aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Emadi, Saeed Behzadi, Maliheh

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Lysozyme aggregated in guanidine thiocyanate (1.0 and 2.0 M). • Lysozyme aggregated in guanidine hydrochloride (4 and 5 M). • Lysozyme did not aggregated at any concentration (0.5–5 M) of urea. • Unfolding pathway is more important than unfolding per se in aggregation. - Abstract: Protein aggregation and its subsequent deposition in different tissues culminate in a diverse range of diseases collectively known as amyloidoses. Aggregation of hen or human lysozyme depends on certain conditions, namely acidic pH or the presence of additives. In the present study, the effects on the aggregation of hen egg-white lysozyme via incubation in concentrated solutions of three different chaotropic agents namely guanidine thiocyanate, guanidine hydrochloride and urea were investigated. Here we used three different methods for the detection of the aggregates, thioflavin T fluorescence, circular dichroism spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Our results showed that upon incubation with different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 M) of the chemical denaturants, lysozyme was aggregated at low concentrations of guanidine thiocyanate (1.0 and 2.0 M) and at high concentrations of guanidine hydrochloride (4 and 5 M), although no fibril formation was detected. In the case of urea, no aggregation was observed at any concentration.

  7. Formulation Development and Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablet of Cetirizine Hydrochloride: A Novel Drug Delivery for Pediatrics and Geriatrics

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepak; Singh, Mankaran; Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, Gurmeet

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in fast disintegrating tablets have brought convenience in dosing to pediatric and elderly patients who have trouble in swallowing tablets. The objective of the present study was to prepare the fast disintegrating tablet of Cetirizine Hydrochloride for allergic and respiratory disorders. As precision of dosing and patient's compliance become important prerequisite for a long-term treatment, there is a need to develop a formulation for this drug which overcomes problems such as difficulty in swallowing, inconvenience in administration while travelling, and patient's acceptability. Hence, the present investigation was undertaken with a view to develop a fast disintegrating tablet of Cetirizine Hydrochloride which offers a new range of products having desired characteristics and intended benefits. Superdisintegrants such as Sodium Starch Glycolate were optimized. Different binders were optimized along with optimized superdisintegrant concentration. The tablets were prepared by direct compression technique. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, wetting time, disintegration time and uniformity of content. Optimized formulation was evaluated by in vitro dissolution test, drug excipient compatibility and accelerated stability study. It was concluded that fast disintegrating tablets of Cetirizine Hydrochloride were formulated successfully with desired characteristics which disintegrated rapidly, provide rapid onset of action, and enhance the patient convenience and compliance. PMID:26556203

  8. Neutral dioxovanadium(V) complexes of biomimetic hydrazones ONO donor ligands of bioinorganic and medicinal relevance: Synthesis via air oxidation of bis(acetylaceto-nato)oxovanadium(IV), characterization, biological activity and 3D molecular modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, R. C.; Rajput, S.

    2007-05-01

    The interaction of bis(acetylacetonato)oxovanadium(IV), [VO(acac) 2] with biomimetic hydrazone ONO donor ligands HL in 1:1 mole ratio [where, HL = N-(4'-benzoylidene-3'-methyl-1'-phenyl-2'-pyrazolin-5'-one)-isonicotinic acid hydrazide (bmphp-inH, I), N-(4'-butyrylidene-3'-methyl-1'-phenyl-2'-pyrazolin-5'-one)-isonicotinic acid hydrazide (bumphp-inH, II), N-(4'-acetylidene-3'-methyl-1'-phenyl-2'-pyrazolin-5'-one)-isonicotinic acid hydrazide (amphp-inH, III), N-(3'-methyl-1'-phenyl-4'-propionylidene-2'-pyrazolin-5'-one)-isonicotinic acid hydrazide (mphpp-inH, IV) and N-(4'- iso-butyrylidene-3'-methyl-1'-phenyl-2'-pyrazolin-5'-one)-isonicotinic acid hydrazide ( iso-bumphp-inH, V)] in a mixed solvent (ethanol-methanol, 1:10) via aerial oxidation for 2-3 days yield dioxovanadium(V) complexes of composition [VO 2(L)(H 2O)] · H 2O. The compounds so obtained were characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, thermogravimetry, vanadium determination, IR, Electronic, 51V NMR, 1H NMR and mass spectral studies. The 3D molecular modeling and analysis for bond lengths and bond angles have also been carried out for one of the representative compounds, [VO 2(ampph-in)(H 2O)] ( 3).

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Cr(III), Mn(III), Fe(III), VO(IV), Zr(IV) and UO2(VI) Complexes of Schiff Base Derived from Isonicotinoyl Hydrazone.

    PubMed

    Gawande, Pranita U; Mandlik, P R; Aswar, A S

    2015-01-01

    2-hydroxy-5-chloro-3-nitroacetophenone isonicotinoyl hydrazone as a Schiff base ligand and its complexes with Cr(III), Mn(III), Fe(III), VO(IV), Zr(IV) and UO2(VI) metal ions have been synthesized. The ligands as well as their metal complexes were well characterized using various physicochemical techniques such as elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, magnetic measurements, thermal analysis, electronic and IR spectral studies. On the basis of these studies, square pyramidal stereochemistry for Mn(III) and VO(IV) complexes while octahedral stereochemistry for all the other complexes have been suggested. The complexes were found to be stable up to 60-70° and thermal decomposition of the complexes ended with respective metal oxide as a final product. The thermal data have been analyzed for kinetic parameters using Broido and Horowitz-Metzger methods. The synthesized Schiff base ligand and its complexes were also tested for their antimicrobial activity using various microorganisms. PMID:26664052

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Cr(III), Mn(III), Fe(III), VO(IV), Zr(IV) and UO2(VI) Complexes of Schiff Base Derived from Isonicotinoyl Hydrazone

    PubMed Central

    Gawande, Pranita U.; Mandlik, P. R.; Aswar, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    2-hydroxy-5-chloro-3-nitroacetophenone isonicotinoyl hydrazone as a Schiff base ligand and its complexes with Cr(III), Mn(III), Fe(III), VO(IV), Zr(IV) and UO2(VI) metal ions have been synthesized. The ligands as well as their metal complexes were well characterized using various physicochemical techniques such as elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, magnetic measurements, thermal analysis, electronic and IR spectral studies. On the basis of these studies, square pyramidal stereochemistry for Mn(III) and VO(IV) complexes while octahedral stereochemistry for all the other complexes have been suggested. The complexes were found to be stable up to 60-70° and thermal decomposition of the complexes ended with respective metal oxide as a final product. The thermal data have been analyzed for kinetic parameters using Broido and Horowitz-Metzger methods. The synthesized Schiff base ligand and its complexes were also tested for their antimicrobial activity using various microorganisms. PMID:26664052

  11. Synthesis, Hematological, Biochemical, and Neurotoxicity Screening of Some Mannich Base Hydrochlorides

    PubMed Central

    Lahbib, Karima; Aouani, Iyadh; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Touil, Soufiane

    2013-01-01

    Background: Mannich bases are an important class of compounds in medicinal chemistry with a wide spectrum of biological activities, however, knowledge on their toxicity is limited. Materials and Methods: Two Mannich base hydrochlorides 1a (2-thienyl-?-dimethylaminoethyl ketone hydrochloride) and 1b (?-dimethylaminopropiophenone hydrochloride) were synthesized and characterized on the basis of their infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data. The potential effects of the synthesized compounds (5 mg/kg, i.p, during 30 days) on relative weight, hematological parameters, biochemical parameters, and neurotoxicity were tested using male Wistar rat. Results: The results showed that compound 1b alters body weight on the first 10 days (182%, P < 0.01) and on the last 10 days (107%, P < 0.01) of treatment. The same treatment decreases food intake (P < 0.01) and increases water intake (P < 0.05). Both compounds induced a deficit on rotarod test manifested by a decrease of grasping time (1a: 65.33%, P < 0.01; 1b: 60.55%, P < 0.01) and fall time (1a: 59.75%, P < 0.01; 1b: 56.81%, P < 0.01) only on the last day of training. Moreover, Mannich base 1b decreases the liver relative weight (22.24%, P < 0.01). It was also observed that both products decrease the total serum cholesterol (Ch) levels (1a: 52.87%, P < 0.01; 1b: 64.70%, P < 0.01). Interestingly, compounds 1a and 1b affect hematological parameters manifested by an increase of the number of white blood cells (1a: 32.29%, P < 0.05; 1b: 20.64%, P < 0.05) and red blood cells (RBCs) (1a: 12.57%, P < 0.05; 1b: 20.11%, P < 0.05), an increase of red cell hemoglobin concentration (1a: 10.48%, P < 0.05; 1b: 16.12%, P < 0.05) and of the volume occupied by RBCs or hematocrit (1a: 18.28%, P < 0.05; 1b: 15.56%, P < 0.05), and an increase of the number of platelets (1a: 16.80%, P < 0.05; 1b: 39.96%, P < 0.05) accompanied by a decrease in hemoglobin level only with the compound 1a (7.41%, P < 0.05). Conclusion: These results show that both compounds 1a and 1b induced a hypoxia status associated to low level of Ch and liver toxicity. The deficit observed by rotarod could be explained by the myorelaxant effect of the used products. PMID:24403737

  12. Development and evaluation of a novel modified-release pellet-based tablet system for the delivery of loratadine and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride as model drugs.

    PubMed

    Zeeshan, Farrukh; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan

    2010-06-01

    Modified-release multiple-unit tablets of loratadine and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride with different release profiles were prepared from the immediate-release pellets comprising the above two drugs and prolonged-release pellets containing only pseudoephedrine hydrochloride. The immediate-release pellets containing pseudoephedrine hydrochloride alone or in combination with loratadine were prepared using extrusion-spheronization method. The pellets of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride were coated to prolong the drug release up to 12 h. Both immediate- and prolonged-release pellets were filled into hard gelatin capsule and also compressed into tablets using inert tabletting granules of microcrystalline cellulose Ceolus KG-801. The in vitro drug dissolution study conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography method showed that both multiple-unit capsules and multiple-unit tablets released loratadine completely within a time period of 2 h, whereas the immediate-release portion of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride was liberated completely within the first 10 min of dissolution study. On the other hand, the release of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride from the prolonged release coated pellets was prolonged up to 12 hr and followed zero-order release kinetic. The drug dissolution profiles of multiple-unit tablets and multiple-unit capsules were found to be closely similar, indicating that the integrity of pellets remained unaffected during the compression process. Moreover, the friability, hardness, and disintegration time of multiple-unit tablets were found to be within BP specifications. In conclusion, modified-release pellet-based tablet system for the delivery of loratadine and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride was successfully developed and evaluated. PMID:20496016

  13. Formulation and evaluation of buccal film of Ivabradine hydrochloride for the treatment of stable angina pectoris

    PubMed Central

    Lodhi, Mohasin; Dubey, Akhilesh; Narayan, Reema; Prabhu, Prabhakara; Priya, Sneh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ivabradine hydrochloride is an anti-anginal drug with a biological half-life of about 2 h, and repeated daily administration is needed to maintain effective plasma level. Present investigation of buccal films of Ivabradine hydrochloride is an attempt to avoid the repeated administration and release of drug in more controlled fashion, thereby, to improve the bioavailability. Materials and Methods: Buccal patches were fabricated by solvent casting technique and were evaluated for its physical properties like physical appearance, weight uniformity, thickness, swelling index, surface pH, mucoadhesive time, and folding endurance, in vitro and ex vivo release studies. Results: A combination of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) K15M and K100M with carbopol 940, PEG 6000 gave promising results. Further, the drug content of all the formulations was determined and was found to be uniform. All the formulations were subjected to in vitro release study using phosphate buffer pH 6.6. Patches exhibited drug release in the range of 90.36% ± 0.854 to 98.37% ± 0.589 at the end of six hrs. The best formulations (F2 and F5) containing the composition of HPMC K15-37.50 mg, carbopol-0.42 mg, PEG6000-16.87 mg, Aspertane-0.28 mg, Tween-0.0023 mg and HPMC K100-37.50 mg, carbopol-0.42 mg, PEG6000-16.87 mg, Aspertane-0.28 mg, Tween-0.0023 mg respectively exhibited in vitro drug release of 97.61% ± 0.589 and 98.37% ± 0.114 respectively. The results of ex vivo diffusion using goat cheek pouch revealed that the drug release rate was retarded up to seven hrs. Films prepared with permeation enhancer (Tween 80) showed faster drug release. Finally, stability studies were carried out by using human saliva for the optimized formulation (F2-F5). Conclusion: The present study indicated enormous potential of mucoadhesive buccal patches containing Ivabradine for systemic delivery with an added advantage of circumventing hepatic first pass metabolism. Further work is recommended to support its efficacy claims by long term pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies in human beings. PMID:23799205

  14. Kinetic Analysis of Guanidine Hydrochloride Inactivation of ?-Galactosidase in the Presence of Galactose

    PubMed Central

    Nwamba, Charles O.; Chilaka, Ferdinand C.

    2012-01-01

    Inactivation of purified ?-Galactosidase was done with GdnHCl in the absence and presence of varying [galactose] at 50°C and at pH 4.5. Lineweaver-Burk plots of initial velocity data, in the presence and absence of guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) and galactose, were used to determine the relevant Km and Vmax values, with p-nitrophenyl ?-D-galactopyranoside (pNPG) as substrate, S. Plots of ln([P]? ? [P]t) against time in the presence of GdnHCl yielded the inactivation rate constant, A. Plots of A versus [S] at different galactose concentrations were straight lines that became increasingly less steep as the [galactose] increased, showing that A was dependent on [S]. Slopes and intercepts of the 1/[P]? versus 1/[S] yielded k+0 and k'+0, the microscopic rate constants for the free enzyme and the enzyme-substrate complex, respectively. Plots of k+0 and k'+0 versus [galactose] showed that galactose protected the free enzyme as well as the enzyme-substrate complex (only at the lowest and highest [galactose]) against GdnHCl inactivation. In the absence of galactose, GdnHCl exhibited some degree of non-competitive inhibition. In the presence of GdnHCl, galactose exhibited competitive inhibition at the lower [galactose] of 5?mM which changed to non-competitive as the [galactose] increased. The implications of our findings are further discussed. PMID:23008759

  15. Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Drug-Doped Salmon DNA Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnapareddy, Bramaramba; Reddy Dugasani, Sreekantha; Ha, Taewoo; Paulson, Bjorn; Hwang, Taehyun; Kim, Taesung; Hoon Kim, Jae; Oh, Kyunghwan; Park, Sung Ha

    2015-07-01

    Double-stranded salmon DNA (SDNA) was doped with doxorubicin hydrochloride drug molecules (DOX) to determine the binding between DOX and SDNA, and DOX optimum doping concentration in SDNA. SDNA thin films were prepared with various concentrations of DOX by drop-casting on oxygen plasma treated glass and quartz substrates. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was employed to investigate the binding sites for DOX in SDNA, and electrical and photoluminescence (PL) analyses were used to determine the optimum doping concentration of DOX. The FTIR spectra showed that up to a concentration of 30??M of DOX, there was a tendency for binding with a periodic orientation via intercalation between nucleosides. The current and PL intensity increased as the DOX concentration increased up to 30??M, and then as the concentration of DOX further increased, we observed a decrease in current as well as PL quenching. Finally, the optical band gap and second band onset of the transmittance spectra were analyzed to further verify the DOX binding and optimum doping concentration into SDNA thin films as a function of the DOX concentration.

  16. Mucoadhesive system formed by liquid crystals for buccal administration of poly(hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Souza, Carla; Watanabe, Evandro; Borgheti-Cardoso, Livia Neves; De Abreu Fantini, Márcia Carvalho; Lara, Marilisa Guimarães

    2014-12-01

    Antimicrobial approaches are valuable in controlling the development of buccal diseases, but some antibacterial agents have a short duration of activity. Therefore, the development of prolonged delivery systems would be advantageous. Liquid crystalline systems comprising monoolein (GMO)/water have been considered to be a potential vehicle to deliver drugs to the buccal mucosa because of the phase properties that allow for controlled drug release as well as its mucoadhesive properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a GMO/water system for the slow release of poly(hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride (PHMB) on the buccal mucosa and test the properties of this system with regard to swelling, release profile, antimicrobial activity, and strength of mucoadhesion, with the overall goal of treating buccal infections. The tested systems were capable of modulating drug release, which is controlled by diffusion of the drug throughout the system. Furthermore, PHMB appeared to improve the mucoadhesive properties of the system and may synergistically act with the drug to promote antimicrobial activity against S. mutas and C. albicans, indicating that liquid crystals may be suitable for the administration of PHMB on the buccal mucosa. Therefore, this system could be proposed as a novel system for mucoadhesive drug delivery. PMID:25336429

  17. Thermal Properties of Poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/Poly(acrylic acid) Layer-by-Layer Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutkenhaus, Jodie; Shao, Lin

    2010-03-01

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) assemblies are promising for global energy and health applications, but their materials properties are not well understood. LbL assemblies are created from the alternate adsorption of oppositely charged species from solution to a substrate. Particularly, little is known about the thermal properties of LbL assemblies because the supporting substrate impedes characterization. It is not initially clear if electrostatic LbL assemblies possess a glass transition temperature, if they are rubbery or glassy, or if their heat capacity is comparable to their homopolymer constituents. Here, we isolate large areas of LbL assemblies from a low-energy substrate, which facilitates thermal characterization via modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). LbL assemblies of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) were deposited onto hydrophobic substrates, and subsequently isolated. Results highlight that PAH/PAA LbL films are glassy, and have low mobility because of the high density of ion pair crosslinks. The techniques presented here are general, and can be applied to any LbL film.

  18. Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Drug-Doped Salmon DNA Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Gnapareddy, Bramaramba; Reddy Dugasani, Sreekantha; Ha, Taewoo; Paulson, Bjorn; Hwang, Taehyun; Kim, Taesung; Hoon Kim, Jae; Oh, Kyunghwan; Park, Sung Ha

    2015-01-01

    Double-stranded salmon DNA (SDNA) was doped with doxorubicin hydrochloride drug molecules (DOX) to determine the binding between DOX and SDNA, and DOX optimum doping concentration in SDNA. SDNA thin films were prepared with various concentrations of DOX by drop-casting on oxygen plasma treated glass and quartz substrates. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was employed to investigate the binding sites for DOX in SDNA, and electrical and photoluminescence (PL) analyses were used to determine the optimum doping concentration of DOX. The FTIR spectra showed that up to a concentration of 30??M of DOX, there was a tendency for binding with a periodic orientation via intercalation between nucleosides. The current and PL intensity increased as the DOX concentration increased up to 30??M, and then as the concentration of DOX further increased, we observed a decrease in current as well as PL quenching. Finally, the optical band gap and second band onset of the transmittance spectra were analyzed to further verify the DOX binding and optimum doping concentration into SDNA thin films as a function of the DOX concentration. PMID:26228987

  19. Synthesis and bioactivities of silver nanoparticles capped with 5-Amino-?-resorcylic acid hydrochloride dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Conjugated and drug loaded silver nanoparticles are getting an increased attention for various biomedical applications. Nanoconjugates showed significant enhancement in biological activity in comparison to free drug molecules. In this perspective, we report the synthesis of bioactive silver capped with 5-Amino-?-resorcylic acid hydrochloride dihydrate (AR). The in vitro antimicrobial (antibacterial, antifungal), enzyme inhibition (xanthine oxidase, urease, carbonic anhydrase, ?-chymotrypsin, cholinesterase) and antioxidant activities of the developed nanostructures was investigated before and after conjugation to silver metal. Results The conjugation of AR to silver was confirmed through FTIR, UV¿vis and TEM techniques. The amount of AR conjugated with silver was characterized through UV¿vis spectroscopy and found to be 9% by weight. The stability of synthesized nanoconjugates against temperature, high salt concentration and pH was found to be good. Nanoconjugates, showed significant synergic enzyme inhibition effect against xanthine and urease enzymes in comparison to standard drugs, pure ligand and silver. Conclusions Our synthesized nanoconjugate was found be to efficient selective xanthine and urease inhibitors in comparison to Ag and AR. On a per weight basis, our nanoconjugates required less amount of AR (about 11 times) for inhibition of these enzymes. PMID:25201390

  20. Development of topical hydrogels of terbinafine hydrochloride and evaluation of their antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Çelebi, Nevin; Ermi?, Seda; Özkan, Semiha

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare hydrogels and microemulsion (ME)-based gel formulations containing 1% terbinafine hydrochloride (TER-HCL) and to evaluate the use of these formulations for the antifungal treatment of fungal infections. Three different hydrogel formulations were prepared using chitosan, Carbopol® 974 and Natrosol® 250 polymers. A pseudo-ternary phase diagram was constructed, and starting from ME formulation, a ME gel form containing 1% Carbopol 974 was prepared. We also examined the characteristic properties of the prepared hyrogels. The physical stability of hydrogels and the ME -based gels were evaluated after storage at different temperatures for a period of 3 months. The release of TER-HCL from the gels and the commercial product (Lamisil®) was carried out by using a standard dialysis membrane in phosphate buffer (pH 5.2) at 32?°C. The results of the in vitro release study showed that the Natrosol gel released the highest amount of drug, followed by Carbopol gel, chitosan gel, commercial product, and the microoemulsion-based gel in that order. In vitro examination of antifungal activity revealed that all the prepared and commercial products were effective against Candida parapsilosis, Penicillium, Aspergillus niger and Microsporum. These results indicate that the Natrosol®-based hydrogel is a good candidate for the topical delivery of TER-HCL. PMID:24576265

  1. Molecularly imprinted polymer doped with Hectorite for selective recognition of sinomenine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Fu, H L; Li, X Y; Zhang, H; Wang, N; Li, W; Zhang, X X

    2016-02-01

    In this work, a new and facile method was introduced to prepare molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) based on nano clay hectorite (Hec) for sinomenine hydrochloride (SM) analysis. Hec was firstly dissolved in distilled water in order to swell adequately, followed by a common precipitation polymerization with SM as the template, methacrylic acid as monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a crosslinker and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile as an initiator. Hec@SM-MIPs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The maximum binding capacity of Hec@SM-MIPs, SM-MIPs and non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) (Hec@NIPs) was 57.4, 16.8 and 11.6 mg/g, respectively. The reason for this result may be that Hec@SM-MIPs have more binding sites and imprinted cavities for template molecule. Equilibrium data were described by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The results showed that the Hec@SM-MIPs adsorption data correlated better with the Langmuir equation than the Freundlich equation under the studied concentration range. In vitro drug release experiment, Hec@SM-MIPs have a better ability to control SM release than SM-MIPs. Therefore, Hec@SM-MIPs were successfully applied to extraction of SM and used as the materials for drug delivery system. PMID:26614052

  2. Release behavior and kinetic evaluation of berberine hydrochloride from ethyl cellulose/chitosan microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hui-Yun; Cao, Pei-Pei; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Zhi-Ying; Li, Jun-Bo; Zhang, Fa-Liang

    2014-12-01

    Novel ethyl cellulose/chitosan microspheres (ECCMs) were prepared by the method of w/o/w emulsion and solvent evaporation. The microspheres were spherical, adhesive, and aggregated loosely with a size not bigger than 5 ?m. The drug loading efficiency of berberine hydrochloride (BH) loaded in microspheres were affected by chitosan (CS) concentration, EC concentration and the volume ratio of V(CS)/ V(EC). ECCMs prepared had sustained release efficiency on BH which was changed with different preparation parameters. In addition, the pH value of release media had obvious effect on the release character of ECCMs. The release rate of BH from sample B was only a little more than 30% in diluted hydrochloric acid (dHCl) and that was almost 90% in PBS during 24 h. Furthermore, the drug release data were fitted to different kinetic models to analyze the release kinetics and the mechanism from the microspheres. The released results of BH indicated that ECCMs exhibited non-Fickian diffusion mechanism in dHCl and diffusion-controlled drug release based on Fickian diffusion in PBS. So the ECCMs might be an ideal sustained release system especially in dHCl and the drug release was governed by both diffusion of the drug and dissolution of the polymeric network.

  3. Spectroscopic and quantum chemical analysis of a natural product - Hayatin hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Rashmi; Srivastava, Anubha; Tandon, Poonam; Jain, Sudha

    2015-08-01

    Majority of drugs in use today are natural products, natural product mimics or semi synthetic derivatives. Therefore in recent times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world and large body of evidence has been collected to show immense potential of medicinal plants used in various traditional systems. Therefore, in the present communication to aid that research, structural and spectroscopic analysis of a natural product, an alkaloid Hayatin hydrochloride was performed. Both ab initio Hartree-Fock and density functional theory employing B3LYP with complete relaxation in the potential energy surface using 6-311G (d,p) basis set were used for the calculations. The vibrational frequencies were calculated and scaled values were compared with experimental FT-IR and micro-Raman spectra. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of potential energy distribution. The structure-activity relationship has also been interpreted by mapping electrostatic potential surface, which are valuable information for the quality control of medicines and drug-receptor interactions. Electronic properties have been analysed employing TD-DFT for both gaseous and solvent phase. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions, charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis.

  4. Effects of alcohol on the pharmacokinetics of morphine sulfate and naltrexone hydrochloride extended release capsules.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Franklin K; Ciric, Sabrina; Boudriau, Sophie; Kisicki, James; Stauffer, Joseph

    2012-05-01

    Although contraindicated, coingestion of alcohol and opioids by patients or drug abusers is a major health concern because of dangerous additive and potentially life-threatening sedative and respiratory effects. In addition, alcohol has been shown to disrupt the extended-release characteristics of certain extended-release opioid formulations, releasing a hazardous amount of opioid over a short time period. Morphine sulfate and naltrexone hydrochloride extended release capsules (MS-sNT), which contain naltrexone sequestered in each pellet core, are indicated for management of chronic, moderate to severe pain. Sequestered naltrexone is designed for release upon product tampering (crushing) to potentially mitigate morphine-induced subjective effects. This open-label, single-dose, 4-way crossover, pharmacokinetic drug interaction study compared the relative bioavailability of morphine and naltrexone when MS-sNT is administered (under fasting conditions) with increasing doses of alcohol. Thirty-two healthy, opioid-naive adults were randomized to MS-sNT administered with 240 mL of 4%, 20%, or 40% alcohol or water. No drug interaction was found between morphine in MS-sNT and 4% or 20% alcohol. Administration with 40% alcohol did not affect overall morphine exposure but was associated with a 2-fold increase in C(max) and reduction of t(max) from 9 to 4 hours versus MS-sNT taken with water. Naltrexone sequestering was successful in all treatment arms and not affected by coadministration with alcohol over the dose range tested. PMID:21593282

  5. Evaluation of sutures after immersion in nonalcoholic benzydamine hydrochloride mouthrinse by scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    da Silva Dalben, Gisele; Francischone, Leda Aparecida; Prieto-Oliveira, Paula; Consolaro, Alberto

    2008-09-01

    This study evaluated the surface integrity of sutures after immersion in mouthrinse or water, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Pieces of resorbable suture remaining after oral surgery were immediately collected. Twelve pieces each of catgut, chromed catgut, and polyglactin 910 were divided into four groups and immersed in pure mouthrinse, mouthrinse diluted in water at 1:1 and 1:2, or water (positive control), for 24 h. Three pieces each of new sutures were used as negative control. Specimens were placed on stubs and sputter coated with gold for SEM analysis. Observation of experimental groups and comparison with controls revealed that immersion in the mouthrinse at different dilutions did not alter their surface; slight, nonsignificant changes were found in some experimental specimens yet also in the positive control group. It was concluded that immersion of resorbable sutures in water or non-alcoholic benzydamine hydrochloride mouthrinse did not produce any significant change; therefore, this mouthrinse may be safely employed after oral surgery. PMID:17994255

  6. Benzydamine hydrochloride buccal bioadhesive gels designed for oral ulcers: preparation, rheological, textural, mucoadhesive and release properties.

    PubMed

    Karavana, Sinem Yaprak; Güneri, Pelin; Ertan, Gökhan

    2009-01-01

    This study developed and examined the characterization of Benzidamine hydrochloride (BNZ) bioadhesive gels as platforms for oral ulcer treatments. Bioadhesive gels were prepared with four different hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) types (E5, E15, E50 and K100M) with different ratios. Each formulation was characterized in terms of drug release, rheological, mechanical properties and adhesion to a buccal bovine mucosa. Drug release was significantly decreased as the concentration and individual viscosity of each polymeric component increased due to improved viscosity of the gel formulations. The amount of drug released for the formulations ranged from 0.76 +/- 0.07 and 1.14 +/- 0.01 (mg/cm2 +/- SD). Formulations exhibited pseudoplastic flow and all formulations, increasing the concentration of HPMC content significantly raised storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G''), dynamic viscosity (eta') at 37 degrees C. Increasing concentration of each polymeric component also significantly improved the hardness, compressibility, adhesiveness, cohesiveness and mucoadhesion but decreased the elasticity of the gel formulations. All formulations showed non-Fickian diffusion due to the relaxation and swelling of the polymers with water. In conclusion, the formulations studied showed a wide range of mechanical and drug diffusion characteristics. On the basis of the obtained data, the bioadhesive gel formulation which was prepared with 2.5% HPMC K 100M was determined as the most appropriate formulation for buccal application in means of possessing suitable mechanical properties, exhibiting high cohesion and bioadhesion. PMID:19883251

  7. Six sigma: process of understanding the control and capability of ranitidine hydrochloride tablet.

    PubMed

    Chabukswar, Ar; Jagdale, Sc; Kuchekar, Bs; Joshi, Vd; Deshmukh, Gr; Kothawade, Hs; Kuckekar, Ab; Lokhande, Pd

    2011-01-01

    The process of understanding the control and capability (PUCC) is an iterative closed loop process for continuous improvement. It covers the DMAIC toolkit in its three phases. PUCC is an iterative approach that rotates between the three pillars of the process of understanding, process control, and process capability, with each iteration resulting in a more capable and robust process. It is rightly said that being at the top is a marathon and not a sprint. The objective of the six sigma study of Ranitidine hydrochloride tablets is to achieve perfection in tablet manufacturing by reviewing the present robust manufacturing process, to find out ways to improve and modify the process, which will yield tablets that are defect-free and will give more customer satisfaction. The application of six sigma led to an improved process capability, due to the improved sigma level of the process from 1.5 to 4, a higher yield, due to reduced variation and reduction of thick tablets, reduction in packing line stoppages, reduction in re-work by 50%, a more standardized process, with smooth flow and change in coating suspension reconstitution level (8%w/w), a huge cost reduction of approximately Rs.90 to 95 lakhs per annum, an improved overall efficiency by 30% approximately, and improved overall quality of the product. PMID:21607050

  8. Ham and belly processing characteristics of immunological castrated barrows (Improvest) fed ractopamine hydrochloride (Paylean).

    PubMed

    Lowe, B K; Overholt, M F; Gerlemann, G D; Carr, S N; Rincker, P J; Schroeder, A L; Petry, D B; McKeith, F K; Allee, G L; Dilger, A C

    2016-02-01

    Effects of sex class (physically castrated, PC or immunologically castrated, IC) and diet (0 or 5mg/kg ractopamine hydrochloride, RAC) on characteristics of ham and bellies were determined from pigs slaughtered in three groups with similar ending live weights. One carcass per pen per marketing group (n=8) was selected to evaluate further processing characteristics. Data were analyzed as a 2×2 factorial design with a split plot in time and fixed effects of sex, diet, marketing group, and their interactions. IC fresh bellies were thinner (P<0.01) and softer (P<0.01) than PC bellies. IC hams and bellies were leaner (P<0.05) than those from PC pigs. RAC feeding did not affect (P>0.05) fresh ham or belly characteristics but decreased (P<0.01) fat in cured PC bellies. Marketing group affected (P<0.05) fresh quality, processing characteristics, and composition of hams and bellies. Immunological castration and RAC produced leaner finished products but did not alter processing yield of hams or bacon. PMID:26584399

  9. Prilocaine hydrochloride protects zebrafish from lethal effects of ionizing radiation: role of hematopoietic cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Dimri, Manali; Joshi, Jayadev; Shrivastava, Nitisha; Ghosh, Subhajit; Chakraborti, Rina; Indracanti, Prem Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Drug repositioning is an approach of significant translatability, and the present study was undertaken to screen a collection of FDA approved small-molecule clinical compounds for identification of novel radioprotective agents. Screening of JHCCL (Johns Hopkins Clinical Compound Library), a collection of 1,400 FDA approved small molecules, lead to identification of prilocaine hydrochloride, a local anesthetic used widely during dental procedures, as a potential radioprotector. Prilocaine, at a concentration of 20 µM, protected zebrafish from radiation induced (20 Gy) pericardial edema (PE), microphthalmia and rendered 60 % survival advantage over radiation exposed controls. While 40 % survival advantage over radiation exposed controls was achieved with 10 µM prilocaine. Prilocaine, in a dose-dependent manner, scavenged, radiation-induced hydroxyl radicals and maximally (43 %) at the highest concentration (1 mM) tried in this study. However, prilocaine exerted a mild superoxide anion scavenging potential (around 5 %) at all the concentrations used within this study. Prilocaine, at 20 µM concentration, significantly increased erythropoiesis, a marker for HSC function, in caudal hematopoietic tissue (CHT) in wild type and anemic zebrafish embryos (1.48 and 0.85 folds respectively) when compared to untreated (1) and phenylhydrazine (PHZ) (0.41 fold) treated control groups respectively. These results suggest that prilocaine is a radioprotective agent and free radical scavenging and HSC expanding potential seems to be contributing towards its radioprotective action. PMID:25843444

  10. Probing the binding of fluoxetine hydrochloride to human serum albumin by multispectroscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katrahalli, Umesha; Jaldappagari, Seetharamappa; Kalanur, Shankara S.

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between human serum albumin (HSA) and fluoxetine hydrochloride (FLX) have been studied by using different spectroscopic techniques viz., fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism and FTIR under simulated physiological conditions. Fluorescence results revealed the presence of static type of quenching mechanism in the binding of FLX to HSA. The values of binding constant, K of FLX-HSA were evaluated at 289, 300 and 310 K and were found to be 1.90 × 10 3, 1.68 × 10 3 and 1.45 × 10 3 M -1, respectively. The number of binding sites, n was noticed to be almost equal to unity thereby indicating the presence of a single class of binding site for FLX on HSA. Based on the thermodynamic parameters, ? H0 and ? S0 nature of binding forces operating between HSA and FLX were proposed. Spectral results revealed the conformational changes in protein upon interaction. Displacement studies indicated the site I as the main binding site for FLX on HSA. The effect of common ions on the binding of FLX to HSA was also investigated.

  11. Fluorescent reversible regulation based on the interactions of topotecan hydrochloride, neutral red and quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linlin; Shen, Yizhong; Liu, Shaopu; Yang, Jidong; Liang, Wanjun; Li, Dan; He, Youqiu

    2015-02-01

    The interactions of topotecan hydrochloride (THC), neutral red (NR) and thioglycolic acid (TGA) capped CdTe/CdS quantum dots (QDs) built a solid base for the controlling of the fluorescent reversible regulation of the system. This study was developed by means of ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption, fluorescence (FL), resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Corresponding experimental results revealed that the fluorescence of TGA-CdTe/CdS QDs could be effectively quenched by NR, while the RRS of the QDs enhanced gradually with the each increment of NR concentration. After the addition of THC, the strong covalent conjugation between NR and THC which was in carboxylate state enabled NR to be dissociated from the surface of TGA-CdTe/CdS QDs to form more stable complex with THC, thereby enhancing the fluorescence of the TGA-CdTe/CdS QDs-NR system. What is more, through analyzing the optical properties and experimental data of the reaction between TGA-CdTe/CdS QDs and NR, the possible reaction mechanism of the whole system was discussed. This combination of multiple spectroscopic techniques could contribute to the investigation for the fluorescent reversible regulation of QDs and a method could also be established to research the interactions between camptothecin drugs and dyes.

  12. Optimization of tetracycline hydrochloride adsorption on amino modified SBA-15 using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Hashemikia, Samaneh; Hemmatinejad, Nahid; Ahmadi, Ebrahim; Montazer, Majid

    2015-04-01

    Several researchers are focused on preparation of mesoporous silica as drug carriers with high loading efficiency to control or sustain the drug release. Carriers with highly loaded drug are utilized to minimize the time of drug intake. In this study, amino modified SBA-15 was synthesized through grafting with amino propyl triethoxy silane and then loaded with tetracycline hydrochloride. The drug loading was optimized by using the response surface method considering various factors including drug to silica ratio, operation time, and temperature. The drug to silica ratio indicated as the most influential factor on the drug loading yield. Further, a quadratic polynomial equation was developed to predict the loading percentage. The experimental results indicated reasonable agreement with the predicted values. The modified and drug loaded mesoporous particles were characterized by FT-IR, SEM, TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD), elemental analysis and N2 adsorption-desorption. The release profiles of tetracycline-loaded particles were studied in different pH. Also, Higuchi equation was used to analyze the release profile of the drug and to evaluate the kinetic of drug release. The drug release rate followed the conventional Higuchi model that could be controlled by amino-functionalized SBA-15. Further, the drug delivery system based on amino modified SBA-15 exhibits novel features with an appropriate usage as an anti-bacterial drug delivery system with effective management of drug adsorption and release. PMID:25540827

  13. Simultaneous determination of phenylephrine hydrochloride, guaifenesin, and chlorpheniramine maleate in cough syrup by gradient liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Amer, Sawsan M; Abbas, Samah S; Shehata, Mostafa A; Ali, Nahed M

    2008-01-01

    A simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of mixture of phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHENYL), guaifenesin (GUAIF), and chlorpheniramine maleate (CHLO) either in pure form or in the presence of methylparaben and propylparaben in a commercial cough syrup dosage form. Separation was achieved on a C8 column using 0.005 M heptane sulfonic acid sodium salt (pH 3.4 +/- 0.1) and acetonitrile as a mobile phase by gradient elution at different flow rates, and detection was done spectrophotometrically at 210 nm. A linear relationship in the range of 30-180, 120-1800, and 10-60 microg/mL was obtained for PHENYL, GUAIF, and CHLO, respectively. The results were statistically analyzed and compared with those obtained by applying the British Pharmacopoeia (2002) method and showed that the proposed method is precise, accurate, and can be easily applied for the determination of the drugs under investigation in pure form and in cough syrup formulations. PMID:18476338

  14. A new simultaneous derivatization and microextration method for the determination of memantine hydrochloride in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Jing, Shao-Jun; Li, Qing-Lian; Jiang, Ye

    2016-01-01

    A simple and sensitive method for simultaneous derivatization and hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) followed by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FL) to determine memantine hydrochloride (MT) in human plasma was developed. The derivatization and microextraction was combined to a single step to ensure the precision. What is more, the derivatization reaction accelerated the mass transfer during the process of microextraction. The hollow fiber was filled with cyclohexane and dansyl chloride (derivatization agent) as acceptor phase and submersed in the alkalinized plasma sample. The system was submitted to stirring at 800rpm for 50min at 40°C. Different experimental parameters were systematically evaluated by response surface methodology. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 1-100ng/mL (r=0.9991) with a limit of detection of 0.1ng/mL (S/N=3). The precision estimated as the relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 4.5% and the accuracy was 94.3-100.7%. The present method was successfully applied to determine MT in human plasma samples. PMID:26613537

  15. Impact of tert-butyl alcohol on crystallization kinetics of gemcitabine hydrochloride in frozen aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Munjal, Bhushan; Bansal, Arvind K

    2015-01-01

    The effect of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) on isothermal crystallization kinetics of gemcitabine hydrochloride (GHCl) in frozen aqueous solutions was assessed by cold-stage microscopy. Addition of TBA (0%-5%, w/w) increased the value of Johnson-Mehl-Avrami rate constant (1.3-33.3 h?¹) and reduced the Avrami exponent (2.5-1.0). Thermodynamic parameters [enthalpy (?H(‡)), entropy (?S(‡)), and free energy (?G(‡)) of activation], calculated using Arrhenius and Eyring-Polanyi equations, established that TBA (2%, w/w) accelerated GHCl crystallization by reducing its ?H(‡) (53.9 cf. 96.5 kJ/mol?¹) and ?G(‡) (68.5 cf. 74.9 kJ/mol?¹). Further, to explore insights into the effect of TBA on nucleation and crystal growth of GHCl, crystallization kinetics data were deconvolved using Finke-Watzky model. This revealed that addition of TBA decreased ?H(‡) of nucleation and increased ?S(‡) of crystal growth, thereby reducing ?G(‡) of nucleation and crystal growth by 11.7% and 4.2%, respectively. Finkey-Watzky model also predicted a reduction in the crystal size upon TBA addition, which was confirmed by comparing particle size of GHCl lyophilized in the presence and absence of TBA. In conclusion, TBA reduces ?G(‡) of nucleation and crystal growth in a differential manner, thereby enhancing the crystallization kinetics of GHCl and affecting its morphological features. PMID:25393155

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Metformin Hydrochloride — Compritol 888 ATO Solid Dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Jagdale, SC; Patil, SA; Kuchekar, BS; Chabukswar, AR

    2011-01-01

    Metformin hydrochloride (MET) sustained-release solid dispersions (SD) were prepared by the solvent evaporation and closed melt method, using compritol 888 ATO as the polymer with five different drug-carrier ratios. Characterization of solid dispersion was carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). The FTIR and UV studies suggested that no bond formation had occurred between the polymer and the drug. DSC and XPRD results ruled out any interaction or complex formation between the drug and the polymer. The formulated SD had acceptable physicochemical characters and SD with a 1 : 4 drug : Polymer ratio, which released the drug over an extended period of eight-to-ten hours. The data obtained from the in vitro release studies were fitted with various kinetic models and were found to follow the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation. The prepared SD showed good stability over the studied time period. The solvent evaporation method was found to be more helpful than the closed melt method, giving the sustained release action. The SD with a 1 : 4 ratio of drug to polymer, by the solvent evaporation method, was selected as the most effective candidate for the subsequent development of a well-timed, sustained-release dosage form of the drug. PMID:21897658

  17. In vitro availability of lomefloxacin hydrochloride in presence of essential and trace elements.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Najma; Arayne, M Saeed; Furqan, Hina

    2005-07-01

    Lomefloxacin hydrochloride is a third generation fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent having a broad spectrum of action against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. The in vitro availability studies of lomefloxacin were carried out in presence of essential and trace elements such as magnesium, calcium, chromium, ferric, ferrous, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc and cadmium in simulated gastric juice, simulated intestinal juice and blood pH at 37 degrees C using B.P 2003 dissolution test apparatus. It was observed that availability of lomefloxacin was depressed in presence of nickel and zinc in simulated gastric juice and in presence of Fe2+ in simulated intestinal juice, while many metals like magnesium, chromium, iron (both Fe2+ and Fe3+), cobalt, nickel, copper and cadmium depressed the availability of lomefloxacin at blood pH. Furthermore, the availability of lomefloxacin alone in simulated intestinal juice and at blood pH was reduced as compared to simulated gastric juice. The antibacterial activities of lomefloxacin in presence of these metal ions were observed and compared to control against six different microorganisms i.e., Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus fragilis and Streptococcus pneumonia by disc diffusion method to measure the inhibitory zone and MIC were determined by tube dilution method. PMID:16380347

  18. A degradation study of cefepime hydrochloride in solutions under various stress conditions by TLC-densitometry.

    PubMed

    D?browska, Monika; Starek, Ma?gorzata; Krzek, Jan; Papp, El?bieta; Król, Piotr

    2015-03-01

    A rapid, accurate and sensitive thin-layer chromatography (TLC) method with densitometric detection has been developed and validated for the determination of cefepime in pharmaceuticals. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a silica gel TLC F254 plates with a mobile phase consisting of ethanol-2-propanol-glacial acetic acid 99.5%-water (4:4:1:3, v/v). Densitometric detection was carried out at wavelength of 266 nm in reflectance/absorbance mode. The validation of the method was found to be satisfactory with high accuracy (from 99.24 to 101.37%) and precision (RSD from 0.06 to 0.36%). Additionally, the stability of cefepime in solution was investigated, including the effect of pH, temperature and incubation time. Favorable retention parameters (Rf , Rs, ?) were obtained under the developed conditions, which guaranteed good separation of the studied components. The degradation process of cefepime hydrochloride was described by kinetic and thermodynamic parameters (k, t0.1 , t0.5 and Ea ). Moreover, the chemical properties of degradation products were characterized by the Rf values, absorption spectra, HPLC-MS/MS and TLC-densitometry analysis. As the method could effectively separate the active substance from its main degradation product (1-methylpyrrolidine), it can be employed as a method to indicate the stability of this drug. PMID:25042047

  19. The molecular structure and vibrational, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of lidocaine hydrochloride monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Badawi, Hassan M; Förner, Wolfgang; Ali, Shaikh A

    2016-01-01

    The structure, vibrational and NMR spectra of the local anesthetic drug lidocaine hydrochloride monohydrate salt were investigated by B3LYP/6-311G(??) calculations. The lidocaine·HCl·H2O salt is predicted to have the gauche structure as the predominant form at ambient temperature with NCCN and CNCC torsional angles of 110° and -123° as compared to 10° and -64°, respectively in the base lidocaine. The repulsive interaction between the two N-H bonds destabilized the gauche structure of lidocaine·HCl·H2O salt. The analysis of the observed vibrational spectra is consistent with the presence of the lidocaine salt in only one gauche conformation at room temperature. The (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of lidocaine·HCl·H2O were interpreted by experimental and DFT calculated chemical shifts of the lidocaine salt. The RMSD between experimental and theoretical (1)H and (13)C chemical shifts for lidocaine·HCl·H2O is 2.32 and 8.21ppm, respectively. PMID:26196935

  20. The role of dapoxetine hydrochloride on-demand for the treatment of men with premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    De Hong, Cao; Ren, Liu Liang; Yu, Huang; Qiang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common male sexual dysfunction. Dapoxetine hydrochloride, belonging to a class of drugs known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or, was the first drug originally approved for the on-demand treatment of men with PE. We aimed to compare the intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), patient-reported global impression of change (PGIC), and adverse effect (AE) incidence associated with the use of dapoxetine (30?mg and 60?mg) versus placebo, and evaluate the differences in administering 60?mg versus 30?mg as on-demand medical oral therapy for the treatment of PE via a literature review and meta-analysis. Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified from PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library) databases. Ultimately, a total of seven RCTs with 8039 patients were included. Our meta-analysis demonstrated that dapoxetine (in the 30?mg and 60?mg subgroup) resulted in significantly higher IELT, PGIC, and AE incidence relative to the placebo, with higher proportions observed for 60?mg versus 30?mg of dapoxetine administration. The most common AEs were mild and tolerable. We conclude that dapoxetine (particularly the 60?mg dosage) may be considered a safe and effective drug for patients with PE. PMID:25434754

  1. Formulation and characterization of mucoadhesive microparticles of cinnarizine hydrochloride using supercritical fluid technique.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jayvadan K; Patil, Priyanka S; Sutariya, Vijaykumar B

    2013-06-01

    The mucoadhesive microparticles (CHCNZ) composed of chitosan (CH) and cinnarizine (CNZ) hydrochloride were successfully prepared, in a process of solution-enhanced dispersion, by supercritical CO? (SEDS) technique. Scanning electron microscopy was used to reveal the morphological characteristics of mucoadhesive microparticles. The average particle size of microparticles was in the range from 1.9 to 12.8 µm. In vitro and in vivo mucoadhesive tests showed that CHCNZ mucoadhesive microparticles adhered more strongly to gastric mucous layer. Thereby retaining in gastrointestinal tract for an extended period of time and exhibiting good mucoadhesive properties. The X-ray powder diffractometry and differential scanning calorimetry analysis demonstrated that the SEDS process was an efficient physical coating process to produce CHCNZ composite microparticles. It also suggests that CNZ did not undergo chemical changes during the production of microparticles. The optimized batch exhibited a high drug entrapment efficiency of 67% with particle size of 3.9 µm. A sustained pattern of drug release was obtained for more than 20 h. In vivo studies were carried out by administering orally cinnarizine HCl (CNZ) suspension and mucoadhesive microparticles to rabbits under fasted (for 12 h) conditions. The results showed that CNZ mucoadhesive microparticles had a better bioavailability than CNZ suspension due to longer retention in the gastric environment of the test animals. PMID:23286919

  2. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of ranitidine hydrochloride loaded hollow microspheres in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-meng; Zhao, Ling

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this investigation was to develop the hollow microspheres as a new dosage form of floating drug delivery systems with prolonged stomach retention time. Hollow microspheres containing ranitidine hydrochloride (RH) were prepared by a novel solvent diffusion-evaporation method using ethyl cellulose (EC) dissolved in a mixture of ethanol and ether (6:1.0, v/v). The yield and drug loading amount of hollow microspheres were 83.21+/-0.28% and 20.71+/-0.32%, respectively. The in vitro release profiles showed that the drug release rate decreased with increasing viscosity of EC and the diameter of hollow microspheres, while increased with the increase of RH/EC weight ratio. Hollow microspheres could prolong drug release time (approximately 24 h) and float over the simulate gastric fluid for more than 24 h. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed that the bioavailability from RH-hollow microspheres alone was about 3.0-times that of common RH gelatin capsules, and it was about 2.8-times that of the solid microspheres. These results demonstrated that RH hollow microspheres were capable of sustained delivery of the drug for longer period with increased bioavailability. PMID:18958430

  3. Pharmacokinetics of propafenone hydrochloride sustained-release capsules in male beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Liping; Qian, Yafang; Cheng, Minlu; Gu, Pan; He, Yanna; Xu, Xiaowen; Ding, Li

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of a liquid chromatography–mass spectrometric assay for propafenone and its application to a pharmacokinetic study of propafenone administered as a new propafenone hydrochloride sustained-release capsule (SR-test), as an instant-release tablet (IR-reference) and as the market leader sustained-release capsule (Rythmol, SR-reference) in male beagle dogs (n=8). In Study A comparing SR-test with IR-reference in a crossover design Tmax and t1/2 of propafenone for SR-test were significantly higher than those for IR-reference while Cmax and AUC were lower demonstrating the sustained release properties of the new formulation. In Study B comparing SR-test with SR-reference the observed Cmax and AUC of propafenone for SR-test (124.5±140.0 ng/mL and 612.0±699.2 ng·h/mL, respectively) were higher than for SR-reference (78.52±72.92 ng/mL and 423.6±431.6 ng·h/mL, respectively) although the differences were not significant. Overall, the new formulation has as good if not better sustained release characteristics to the market leader formulation.

  4. A Fluorescence Quenching Study of the Interaction of Nebivolol Hydrochloride with Bovine and Human Serum Albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Aziz, L.; Abdel-Fattah, L.; El-Kosasy, A.; Gaied, M.

    2015-09-01

    The interaction of nebivolol hydrochloride (NH), a ?1-blocker, with bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated at different pH values using the fluorescence quenching technique. The effect of different temperatures was studied at physiological pH 7.4. The binding constants of NH with BSA at 288, 298, and 309 K were found to be 2.691 × 1011, 1.38 × 1010, and 6.27 × 108 M-1, respectively. From the Arrhenius plot, the thermodynamic parameters, ?H0 and ?S0, were estimated to be -204.48 kJ/mol and -491.42 J/mol × K, respectively. This indicates that Van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonds play a major role in the reaction. The effect of some inorganic divalent cations (Cu2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+) on binding of NH to BSA was also studied at physiological pH 7.4. Conformational investigation of BSA was done using synchronous fluorescence, showing the change in the microenvironment of the tryptophan residues. Fluorescence quenching reactions of NH to human serum albumin (HSA) and to ?-globulins were investigated and the binding parameters were obtained.

  5. The molecular structure and vibrational, 1H and 13C NMR spectra of lidocaine hydrochloride monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawi, Hassan M.; Förner, Wolfgang; Ali, Shaikh A.

    2016-01-01

    The structure, vibrational and NMR spectra of the local anesthetic drug lidocaine hydrochloride monohydrate salt were investigated by B3LYP/6-311G?? calculations. The lidocaine·HCl·H2O salt is predicted to have the gauche structure as the predominant form at ambient temperature with NCCN and CNCC torsional angles of 110° and -123° as compared to 10° and -64°, respectively in the base lidocaine. The repulsive interaction between the two N-H bonds destabilized the gauche structure of lidocaine·HCl·H2O salt. The analysis of the observed vibrational spectra is consistent with the presence of the lidocaine salt in only one gauche conformation at room temperature. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of lidocaine·HCl·H2O were interpreted by experimental and DFT calculated chemical shifts of the lidocaine salt. The RMSD between experimental and theoretical 1H and 13C chemical shifts for lidocaine·HCl·H2O is 2.32 and 8.21 ppm, respectively.

  6. Structure activity studies of an analgesic drug tapentadol hydrochloride by spectroscopic and quantum chemical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjunan, V.; Santhanam, R.; Marchewka, M. K.; Mohan, S.; Yang, Haifeng

    2015-11-01

    Tapentadol is a novel opioid pain reliever drug with a dual mechanism of action, having potency between morphine and tramadol. Quantum chemical calculations have been carried out for tapentadol hydrochloride (TAP.Cl) to determine the properties. The geometry is optimised and the structural properties of the compound were determined from the optimised geometry by B3LYP method using 6-311++G(d,p), 6-31G(d,p) and cc-pVDZ basis sets. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra are recorded in the solid phase in the region of 4000-400 and 4000-100 cm-1, respectively. Frontier molecular orbital energies, LUMO-HOMO energy gap, ionisation potential, electron affinity, electronegativity, hardness and chemical potential are also calculated. The stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalisation has been analysed using NBO analysis. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts of the molecule are analysed.

  7. The role of dapoxetine hydrochloride on-demand for the treatment of men with premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    De Hong, Cao; Ren, Liu Liang; Yu, Huang; Qiang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common male sexual dysfunction. Dapoxetine hydrochloride, belonging to a class of drugs known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or, was the first drug originally approved for the on-demand treatment of men with PE. We aimed to compare the intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), patient-reported global impression of change (PGIC), and adverse effect (AE) incidence associated with the use of dapoxetine (30 mg and 60 mg) versus placebo, and evaluate the differences in administering 60 mg versus 30 mg as on-demand medical oral therapy for the treatment of PE via a literature review and meta-analysis. Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified from PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library) databases. Ultimately, a total of seven RCTs with 8039 patients were included. Our meta-analysis demonstrated that dapoxetine (in the 30 mg and 60 mg subgroup) resulted in significantly higher IELT, PGIC, and AE incidence relative to the placebo, with higher proportions observed for 60 mg versus 30 mg of dapoxetine administration. The most common AEs were mild and tolerable. We conclude that dapoxetine (particularly the 60 mg dosage) may be considered a safe and effective drug for patients with PE. PMID:25434754

  8. Electrospinning of PLGA/gum tragacanth nanofibers containing tetracycline hydrochloride for periodontal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar-Mohammadi, Marziyeh; Zamani, M; Prabhakaran, M P; Bahrami, S Hajir; Ramakrishna, S

    2016-01-01

    Controlled drug release is a process in which a predetermined amount of drug is released for longer period of time, ranging from days to months, in a controlled manner. In this study, novel drug delivery devices were fabricated via blend electrospinning and coaxial electrospinning using poly lactic glycolic acid (PLGA), gum tragacanth (GT) and tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH) as a hydrophilic model drug in different compositions and their performance as a drug carrier scaffold was evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that fabricated PLGA, blend PLGA/GT and core shell PLGA/GT nanofibers had a smooth and bead-less morphology with the diameter ranging from 180 to 460nm. Drug release studies showed that both the fraction of GT within blend nanofibers and the core-shell structure can effectively control TCH release rate from the nanofibrous membranes. By incorporation of TCH into core-shell nanofibers, drug release was sustained for 75days with only 19% of burst release within the first 2h. The prolonged drug release, together with proven biocompatibility, antibacterial and mechanical properties of drug loaded core shell nanofibers make them a promising candidate to be used as drug delivery system for periodontal diseases. PMID:26478340

  9. Conformational analysis of 2,2-difluoroethylamine hydrochloride: double gauche effect

    PubMed Central

    Silla, Josué M; Duarte, Claudimar J; Cormanich, Rodrigo A; Rittner, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Summary The gauche effect in fluorinated alkylammonium salts is well known and attributed either to an intramolecular hydrogen bond or to an electrostatic attraction between the positively charged nitrogen and the vicinal electronegative fluorine atom. This work reports the effect of adding a fluorine atom in 2-fluoroethylamine hydrochloride on the conformational isomerism of the resulting 2,2-difluoroethylamine chloride (2). The analysis was carried out using NMR coupling constants in D2O solution, in order to mimic the equilibrium conditions in a physiological medium, in the gas phase and in implicit water through theoretical calculations. Despite the presence of ?CH??*CF and ?CH??*CN interactions, which usually rule the hyperconjugative gauche effect in 1,2-disubstituted ethanes, the most important forces leading to the double gauche effect (+NH3 in the gauche relationship with both fluorine atoms) in 2 are the Lewis-type ones. Particularly, electrostatic interactions are operative even in water solution, where they should be significantly attenuated, whereas hyperconjugation and hydrogen bond have secondary importance. PMID:24778743

  10. Proliposome powders for enhanced intestinal absorption and bioavailability of raloxifene hydrochloride: effect of surface charge.

    PubMed

    Velpula, Ashok; Jukanti, Raju; Janga, Karthik Yadav; Sunkavalli, Sharath; Bandari, Suresh; Kandadi, Prabhakar; Veerareddy, Prabhakar Reddy

    2013-12-01

    The primary goal of the present study was to investigate the combined prospective of proliposomes and surface charge for the improved oral delivery of raloxifene hydrochloride (RXH). Keeping this objective, the present systematic study was focused to formulate proliposomes by varying the ratio of hydrogenated soyphosphatidylcholine and cholesterol. Furthermore, to assess the role of surface charge on improved absorption of RXH, anionic and cationic vesicles were prepared using dicetyl phosphate and stearylamine, respectively. The formulations were characterized for size, zeta potential and entrapment efficiency. The improved dissolution characteristics assessed from dissolution efficiency, mean dissolution rate were higher for proliposome formulations. The solid state characterization studies indicate the transformation of native crystalline form of the drug to amorphous and/or molecular state. The higher effective permeability coefficient and fraction absorbed in humans extrapolated from in situ single-pass intestinal absorption study data in rats provide an insight on the potential of proliposomes and cationic surface charge for augment in absorption across gastro intestinal barrier. To draw the conclusions, in vivo pharmacokinetic study carried out in rats indicate a threefold enhancement in the rate and extent of absorption of RXH from cationic proliposome formulation which unfurl the potential of proliposomes and role of cationic charge for improved oral delivery of RXH. PMID:22458264

  11. Formulation and evaluation of bioadhesive buccal drug delivery of tizanidine hydrochloride tablets.

    PubMed

    Shanker, Gazzi; Kumar, Chegonda K; Gonugunta, Chandra Sekhara Rao; Kumar, B Vijaya; Veerareddy, Prabhakar Reddy

    2009-01-01

    The study aim was concerned with formulation and evaluation of bioadhesive buccal drug delivery of tizanidine hydrochloride tablets, which is extensively metabolized by liver. The tablets were prepared by direct compression using bioadhesive polymers such as hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose K4M, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose alone, and a combination of these two polymers. In order to improve the permeation of drug, different permeation enhancers like beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD), hydroxylpropyl beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD), and sodium deoxycholate (SDC) were added to the formulations. The beta-CD and HP-beta-CD were taken in 1:1 molar ratio to drug in formulations. Bioadhesion strength, ex vivo residence time, swelling, and in vitro dissolution studies and ex vivo permeation studies were performed. In vitro release of optimized bioadhesive buccal tablet was found to be non-Fickian. SDC was taken in 1%, 2%, and 3% w/w of the total tablet weight. Stability studies in natural saliva indicated that optimized formulation has good stability in human saliva. In vivo mucoadhesive behavior of optimized formulation was performed in five healthy male human volunteers and subjective parameters were evaluated. PMID:19424804

  12. Microemulsion-loaded hydrogel formulation of butenafine hydrochloride for improved topical delivery.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Anilkumar B; Nair, Jyothilaksmi V; Gupta, Nishant Kumar; Gupta, Swati

    2015-09-01

    Topical microemulsion systems for the antifungal drug, butenafine hydrochloride (BTF) were designed and developed to overcome the problems associated with the cutaneous delivery due to poor water solubility. The solubility of BTF in oils, surfactants and co-surfactants was evaluated to screen the components of the microemulsion. Isopropyl palmitate was used as the oil phase, aerosol OT as the surfactant and sorbitan monooleate as co-surfactant. The pseudoternary diagrams were constructed to identify the area of microemulsion existence and optimum systems were designed. The systems were assessed for drug-loading efficiency and characterized for pH, robustness to dilution, globule size, drug content and stability. Viscosity analysis, spreadability, drug content assay, ex vivo skin permeation study and antifungal activity assay were performed for the optimized microemulsion-loaded hydrogel. The optimized BTF microemulsion had a small and uniform globule size. The incorporation of microemulsion system into Carbopol 940 gel was found to be better as compared to sodium alginate or hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K4 M) gel. The developed gel has shown better ex vivo skin permeation and antifungal activity when compared to marketed BTF cream. Thus, the results provide a basis for the successful delivery of BTF from microemulsion-loaded hydrogel formulation, which resulted in improved penetration of drug and antifungal activity in comparison with commercial formulation of BTF. PMID:26006164

  13. Release behavior of tetracycline hydrochloride loaded chitosan/poly(lactic acid) antimicrobial nanofibrous membranes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Suwei; Lv, Jian; Ding, Man; Li, Yanan; Wang, Hualin; Jiang, Shaotong

    2016-02-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate the release behavior of tetracycline hydrochloride loaded chitosan/poly(lactic acid) (Tet-CS/PLA) antimicrobial nanofibrous membranes fabricated via electrospinning technique. The electrospinning solution was a blend of Tet, CS formic acid solution and PLA chloroform/ethanol solution. The interaction between CS and PLA in CS/PLA nanofibers was confirmed to be hydrogen bond. The incorporation of Tet caused a slight decrease in the diameter of nanofibers with Tet content below 30%. Tet-CS/PLA nanofibrous membrane showed a slight initial burst within the first 4h before a gradual increase in cumulative release, and the release percentage increased with increasing Tet contents. Tet release (Mt/M?<0.6) from the medicated nanofibers could be described by Fickian diffusion model and the release profiles showed two sequential stages. Tet-CS/PLA nanofibrous membranes exhibited an effective and sustainable inhabitance on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, and the antimicrobial activity increased rapidly with increasing Tet contents below 20%. Furthermore, the incorporation of Tet promoted the degradation of nanofibrous membranes. PMID:26652352

  14. New copper(II) complexes with dopamine hydrochloride and vanillymandelic acid: Spectroscopic and thermal characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Gehad G.; Nour El-Dien, F. A.; El-Nahas, R. G.

    2011-10-01

    The dopamine derivatives participate in the regulation of wide variety of physiological functions in the human body and in medication life. Increase and/or decrease in the concentration of dopamine in human body reflect an indication for diseases such as Schizophrenia and/or Parkinson diseases. The Cu(II) chelates with coupled products of dopamine hydrochloride (DO.HCl) and vanillymandelic acid (VMA) with 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AAP) are prepared and characterized. Different physico-chemical techniques namely IR, magnetic and UV-vis spectra are used to investigate the structure of these chelates. Cu(II) forms 1:1 (Cu:DO) and 1:2 (Cu:VMA) chelates. DO behave as a uninegative tridentate ligand in binding to the Cu(II) ion while VMA behaves as a uninegative bidentate ligand. IR spectra show that the DO is coordinated to the Cu(II) ion in a tridentate manner with ONO donor sites of the phenolic- OH, -NH and carbonyl- O, while VMA is coordinated with OO donor sites of the phenolic- OH and -NH. Magnetic moment measurements reveal the presence of Cu(II) chelates in octahedral and square planar geometries with DO and VMA, respectively. The thermal decomposition of Cu(II) complexes is studied using thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques. The activation thermodynamic parameters, such as, energy of activation, enthalpy, entropy and free energy change of the complexes are evaluated and the relative thermal stability of the complexes are discussed.

  15. Study on the sonodynamic activity and mechanism of promethazine hydrochloride by multi-spectroscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ling-Ling; Wang, Xin; Liu, Bin; Wang, Jun; Sun, Ya-Guang; Xu, Shu-Kun

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, the bovine serum albumin (BSA) was selected as a target molecule, the sonodynamic damage to protein in the presence of promethazine hydrochloride (PMT) and its mechanism were studied by the means of absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectra. The results of hyperchromic effect of absorption spectra and quenching of intrinsic fluorescence spectra indicate that the ultrasound-induced BSA molecules damage is enhanced by PMT. The damage degree of BSA molecules increases with the increase of ultrasonic irradiation time and PMT concentration. The results of synchronous fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence and CD spectra confirmed that the synergistic effects of ultrasound and PMT induced the damage of BSA molecules. The results of oxidation-extraction photometry with several reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers indicate that the damage of BSA molecules could be mainly due to the generation of ROS and both 1O 2 and rad OH are the important mediators of the ultrasound-induced BSA molecules damage in the presence of PMT.

  16. Preparation and Evaluation of Microencapsulated Fast Melt Tablets of Ambroxol Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, S.; Shirwaikar, A.

    2009-01-01

    Natural resources in general and plant materials in particular are receiving more attention due to their safety as pharmaceutical excipients. Present work assessed the potential of a natural polysaccharide, pectin to mask the bitter taste of ambroxol hydrochloride, by microencapsulation technique, and its possibility to formulate as a fast disintegrating dosage form. Taste masking is an important developmental challenge in fast dissolving drug delivery system since it dissolves or disintegrates in the patient's mouth in close proximity to the taste buds. The prepared microspheres by emulsion solvent evaporation technique possessed good sphericity, smooth surface morphology, uniform and narrow size distribution (10-90 ?m), when analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, laser diffraction and optical microscopy. Method of preparation has influenced the particle size and drug loading efficiency. Drug-polymer compatibility was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thin layer chromatography. DSC and X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the drug was dispersed inside the microspheres in the form of an insoluble matrix. The formation of microspheres was affected by glass transition temperature of the polymer, surfactant, type of plasticizers, volume of internal phase, stirrer speed etc. Fast dissolving tablets were prepared by the modification of melt granulation technique. The resulting granules were found to melt fast at body temperature, have smooth mouth feel and good physical stability. This study demonstrated that pectin could be a right choice in developing patient favored formulations for bitter drugs and can be utilized in fast disintegrating dosage forms as well. PMID:20490294

  17. Iofetamine hydrochloride I 123: a new radiopharmaceutical for cerebral perfusion imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Druckenbrod, R.W.; Williams, C.C.; Gelfand, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Iofetamine hydrochloride I-123 permits cerebral blood perfusion imaging with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). SPECT is more widely available than positron emission tomography, and complements anatomic visualization with X-ray computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging. Iofetamine is an amphetamine analog that is rapidly taken up by the lungs, then redistributed principally to the liver and brain. The precise mechanism of localization has not been determined, but is believed to result from nonspecific receptor binding. Brain uptake peaks at 30 minutes postinjection and remains relatively constant through 60 minutes. The drug is metabolized and excreted in the urine, with negligible activity remaining at 48 hours. When compared with CT in stroke patients, visualization may be performed sooner after symptom onset and a larger zone of involvement may be evident with iofetamine. Localization of seizure foci and diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease may also be possible. As CT has revolutionized noninvasive imaging of brain anatomy, SPECT with iofetamine permits routine cerebral blood flow imaging. 36 references.

  18. Multifunctional liposomes for nasal delivery of the anti-Alzheimer drug tacrine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Corace, Giuseppe; Angeloni, Cristina; Malaguti, Marco; Hrelia, Silvana; Stein, Paul C; Brandl, Martin; Gotti, Roberto; Luppi, Barbara

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was the development of multifunctional liposomes for nasal administration of tacrine hydrochloride. Liposomes were prepared using traditional excipients (cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine), partly enriched with ?-tocopherol and/or Omega3 fatty acids. This approach was chosen in order to obtain at the same time two positive results: an enhanced drug permeation through nasal mucosa and a concomitant neuroprotective effect. Several liposome formulations were prepared using the Reverse Phase Evaporation technique followed by membrane filter extrusion. In particular, liposome capacity to enhance drug permeation was evaluated by means of membrane permeation and cellular uptake studies. Furthermore, liposome effect on neuronal viability and intracellular ROS production was evaluated as well as their cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress. All liposome formulations showed a mean diameter in the range of 175 nm to 219 nm with polydispersity index lower than 0.22, a lightly negative zeta potential and excellent encapsulation efficiency. Moreover, along with good mucoadhesive properties, multifunctional liposomes showed a markedly increase in tacrine permeability, which can be related to liposome fusion with cellular membrane, a hypothesis, which was also supported by cellular uptake studies. Finally, the addition of ?-tocopherol without Omega3 fatty acids, was found to increase the neuroprotective activity and antioxidant properties of liposomes. PMID:24807822

  19. Spectrophotometric determination of gemifloxacin mesylate, moxifloxacin hydrochloride, and enrofloxacin in pharmaceutical formulations using Acid dyes.

    PubMed

    Gouda, Ayman A; Amin, Alaa S; El-Sheikh, Ragaa; Yousef, Amira G

    2014-01-01

    SIMPLE, RAPID, AND EXTRACTIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS WERE DEVELOPED FOR THE DETERMINATION OF SOME FLUOROQUINOLONES ANTIBIOTICS: gemifloxacin mesylate (GMF), moxifloxacin hydrochloride (MXF), and enrofloxacin (ENF) in pure forms and pharmaceutical formulations. These methods are based on the formation of ion-pair complexes between the basic drugs and acid dyes, namely, bromocresol green (BCG), bromocresol purple (BCP), bromophenol blue (BPB), bromothymol blue (BTB), and methyl orange (MO) in acidic buffer solutions. The formed complexes were extracted with chloroform and measured at 420, 408, 416, 415, and 422?nm for BCG, BCP, BPB, BTB, and MO, respectively, for GMF; at 410, 415, 416, and 420 nm for BCP, BTB, BPB, and MO, respectively, for MXF; and at 419 and 414 nm for BCG and BTB, respectively, in case of ENF. The analytical parameters and their effects are investigated. Beer's law was obeyed in the ranges 1.0-30, 1.0-20, and 2.0-24? ? g mL(-1) for GMF, MXF, and ENF, respectively. The proposed methods have been applied successfully for the analysis of the studied drugs in pure forms and pharmaceutical formulations. Statistical comparison of the results with the reference methods showed excellent agreement and indicated no significant difference in accuracy and precision. PMID:24587941

  20. Photocatalytic Destruction of Tetracycline Hydrochloride on the Surface of Titanium Dioxide Films Modified by Gold Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnik, O. P.; Zhukovskiy, M. A.; Starukh, G. N.; Smirnova, N. P.; Gaponenko, N. V.; Asharif, A. M.; Khoroshko, L. S.; Borisenko, V. E.

    2015-01-01

    Films of titania (TiO2) and titania modified with gold nanoparticles (TiO2:Au) were synthesized by a sol-gel method on substrates of glass, aluminum, and aluminum with a layer of nanotextured aluminum or porous anodic alumina. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was investigated in an aqueous solution of the antibiotic tetracycline hydrochloride (TC). TC decomposition was observed in the presence of all samples as a reduction of the solution optical density in the range below 500 nm. Titania was in the crystalline anatase phase with incorporated spherical gold nanoparticles primarily of sizes 1-10 nm after heat treatment at 400°C. Modification of TiO2 films with gold nanoparticles on glass or aluminum substrates did not increase the photocatalytic activity of the samples. It was found that complexes of TC with Al3+ in solution formed only in the presence of gold nanoparticles in the film either in the dark or with UV irradiation.

  1. [A case of immotile-dyskinetic cilia syndrome responding to clenbuterol hydrochloride and azithromycin].

    PubMed

    Itoh, Masayuki; Kishi, Koji; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Hatao, Hidekazu; Kioi, Kiwamu; Sudou, Akihiko; Kobayasi, Katsuyuki; Tuchida, Fumihiro; Adachi, Hideki; Yagyuu, Hisanaga; Oh-ishi, Shuji; Matsuoka, Takeshi

    2002-07-01

    In this case, a 30-year-old man had been treated for chronic sinusitis and bronchiectasis since 2000, and presented at our outpatient clinic in May 2001 with chief complaints of massive yellow sputum expectoration and dyspnea. After he was admitted by our hospital, Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria were isolated at the rate of 10(8)/ml from his sputum culture. In electron-microscopic observation, the cilia of the bronchial epithelium were found to lack dynein arms. Semen examination revealed decreased sperm motility. Thus, the following diagnosis was made: diffuse bronchiectasis associated with the immotile-dyskinetic cilia syndrome, complicated with a P. aeruginosa infection. After the airway infection was ameliorated, 40 mg/day of clenbuterol hydrochloride was administered in combination with 250 mg of azithromycin, which was given twice a week, and which led to a markedly decreased frequency of exacerbation of airway infection. Moreover, chest CT scanning and respiratory function testing also indicated improvements. It was hypothesized that the decreased cilia motility due to P. aeruginosa-produced pyocyanin would be ameliorated with a b2 stimulant, and the inhibitory effect of a macrolide on the P. aeruginosa biofilm and production of pyocyanin would also be involved in the improvement of this case. PMID:12382429

  2. Optimizing outcomes with alosetron hydrochloride in severe diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lucak, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder that causes a range of symptoms. Currently, alosetron hydrochloride (Lotronex®), a selective serotonin type 3 receptor antagonist, is the only medication approved for the treatment of severe diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) in women who have inadequately responded to conventional therapy. Alosetron has demonstrated efficacy compared with placebo in clinical trials and has been shown to improve overall health-related quality of life (HRQoL). However, rare instances of ischemic colitis and severe complications of constipation have been reported. As a result, in 2000 alosetron was voluntarily withdrawn from the market but was reintroduced in 2002 with a more restricted indication and a requirement that clinicians and patients follow a prescribing program. Although the efficacy and benefit of alosetron has been clearly demonstrated, it has been used sparingly since its reintroduction. This brief review describes the history of alosetron, efficacy of alosetron in the treatment of IBS, the impact of severe IBS on HRQoL, safety considerations, the risk evaluation and mitigation strategy program under which alosetron is now prescribed, and an update on postmarketing surveillance data. PMID:21180598

  3. Design and development of controlled porosity osmotic tablet of diltiazem hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Sadhana R.; Zadbuke, Nityanand S.; Gulecha, Bhushan; Shivanikar, Shantanu S.; Shinde, Shivram B.

    2012-01-01

    The present work aims towards the design and development of extended release formulation of freely water-soluble drug diltiazem hydrochloride (DLTZ) based on osmotic technology by using controlled porosity approach. DLTZ is an ideal candidate for a zero-order drug delivery system because it is freely water-soluble and has a short half-life (2-3 h). Sodium chloride (Osmogen) was added to the core tablet to alter the solubility of DLTZ in an aqueous medium. Cellulose acetate (CA) and sorbitol were used as semipermeable membrane and pore former, respectively. The effect of different formulation variables namely concentration of osmogen in the core tablet, % pore former, % weight gain, pH of the dissolution medium and agitation intensity on the in vitro release was studied. DLTZ release was directly proportional to % pore former and inversely proportional to % weight gain. The optimized formulation (F8) delivered DLTZ independent of pH and agitation intensity for 12 h at the upper level concentration of % pore former (25% w/w) and middle level concentration of % weight gain (6% w/w). The comparative study of elementary osmotic pump (EOP) and controlled porosity osmotic pump revealed that it superior than conventional EOP and also easier and cost effective to formulate. PMID:23378944

  4. Enhanced dissolution and bioavailability of raloxifene hydrochloride by co-grinding with different superdisintegrants.

    PubMed

    Jagadish, Balasubramaniam; Yelchuri, Rajesh; K, Bindu; Tangi, Hemalatha; Maroju, Swetha; Rao, Vinay Umesh

    2010-03-01

    The present study investigated the effect of co-grinding raloxifene HCL (RHCL) with different superdisintegrants, namely crospovidone (CP), croscarmellose sodium (CCS) and sodium starch glycolate (SSG), using a ball mill, in order to determine the potential effect on dissolution rate and bioavailability of raloxifene hydrochloride (RHCL). The dissolution studies of the co-ground compositions and the corresponding physical mixtures were carried out in U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) Type II apparatus. The solid state interactions of the co-ground and the physical mixtures were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The pharmacokinetics of co-ground mixture (1 : 5 RHCL : CP) and milled RHCL was evaluated following oral administration (25 mg/kg) in healthy female Sprague-Dawley rats. DSC studies showed that the crystalline nature of RHCL was reduced after co-grinding with superdisintegrants, while co-grinding with CP resulted in significant particle-size reduction of the mixture. Significant enhancement in dissolution rate was observed with co-ground mixture of RHCL with CP (1 : 5). The extent of the mean plasma exposures of RHCL was 7-fold higher in animals treated with co-ground mixture of RHCL, CP (1 : 5) compared to animals treated with milled RHCL. Co-grinding of RHCL with CP, reduced drug crystallinity, increased the rate and extent of dissolution, and improved bioavailability. PMID:20190431

  5. Six Sigma: Process of Understanding the Control and Capability of Ranitidine Hydrochloride Tablet

    PubMed Central

    Chabukswar, AR; Jagdale, SC; Kuchekar, BS; Joshi, VD; Deshmukh, GR; Kothawade, HS; Kuckekar, AB; Lokhande, PD

    2011-01-01

    The process of understanding the control and capability (PUCC) is an iterative closed loop process for continuous improvement. It covers the DMAIC toolkit in its three phases. PUCC is an iterative approach that rotates between the three pillars of the process of understanding, process control, and process capability, with each iteration resulting in a more capable and robust process. It is rightly said that being at the top is a marathon and not a sprint. The objective of the six sigma study of Ranitidine hydrochloride tablets is to achieve perfection in tablet manufacturing by reviewing the present robust manufacturing process, to find out ways to improve and modify the process, which will yield tablets that are defect-free and will give more customer satisfaction. The application of six sigma led to an improved process capability, due to the improved sigma level of the process from 1.5 to 4, a higher yield, due to reduced variation and reduction of thick tablets, reduction in packing line stoppages, reduction in re-work by 50%, a more standardized process, with smooth flow and change in coating suspension reconstitution level (8%w/w), a huge cost reduction of approximately Rs.90 to 95 lakhs per annum, an improved overall efficiency by 30% approximately, and improved overall quality of the product. PMID:21607050

  6. Formulation and evaluation of gastroretentive controlled release tablets of alfuzosin hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Rudraswamy-Math, Nijaguni Revansiddayya; Gupta, Vankdari Rama-Mohan

    2015-11-01

    Alfuzosin hydrochloride is a novel drug used in the treatment of urinary incontinency. The purpose of this research was to develop controlled release floating matrix formulations of Alfuzosin HCl. Floating matrix tablets of Alfuzosin HCl were prepared using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), Polyethylene oxide (PEO), Carbopol 971P NF polymer (Direct compressible) and Blend of Polyvinyl Acetate and Povidone 30 (80:19:1(0.8% sodium laury sulfate and 0.2% silica)). Combination of citric acid and sodium bicarbonate were also used as gas forming agent. Matrix formulations were prepared by direct compression method and evaluated for floating, in vitro drug release profile and swelling characteristics. The mechanism of drug release was found to follow non-Fickian or anomalous type. The data obtained from the invitro release studies demonstrated that the floating matrix tablets containing HPMC 100K CR (controlled-release) and carbopol along with sodium CMC were found to sustain the release of drug over a period of 12 hours. Formulations containing 25% PEO 303WSR was also capable of sustaining delivery the release of Alfuzosin HCl. PMID:26639508

  7. Functionalization of electrospun poly(caprolactone) fibers for pH-controlled delivery of doxorubicin hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Jassal, Manisha; Sengupta, Sukalyan; Bhowmick, Sankha

    2015-12-01

    Functionalized electrospun polymer fibers are a promising candidate for controlled delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs to improve the therapeutic efficacy and to reduce the potential toxic effects by delivering the drug at a rate governed by the physiological need of the site of action. In this study, poly(caprolactone) (PCL) fibers were fabricated by electrospinning, followed by hydrolyzation to introduce functional groups on the fiber surface. Characterization studies were performed on these functionalized fibers using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Toluidine Blue O dye assay. The pH-sensitivity of the functional groups on the fiber surface and doxorubicin hydrochloride was utilized to bind the drug electrostatically to these functionalized PCL fibers. The effect of pH on drug loading and release kinetics was investigated. Results indicate successful electrostatic binding of the drug to functionalized electrospun fibers and a high drug payload. The drug delivery response can be modulated by introduction of suitable stimuli (pH). PMID:26406285

  8. Solid-state and solution /sup 13/C NMR in the conformational analysis of methadone-hydrochloride and related narcotic analgesics

    SciTech Connect

    Sumner, S.C.J.

    1986-01-01

    Solid state and solution /sup 13/C NMR have been used to study the conformations of the racemic mixtures and single enantiomers of methadone hydrochloride, alpha and beta methadol hydrochloride, and alpha and beta acetylmethadol hydrochloride. The NMR spectra acquired for the compounds as solids, and in polar and nonpolar solvents are compared, in order to determine the conformation of the molecules in solution. To determine the reliability of assigning solution conformations by comparing solution and solid state chemical shift data, three bond coupling constants measured in solution are compared with those calculated from X-ray data. The conformations of the racemic mixture and plus enantiomer of methadone hydrochloride have been shown to be very similar in the solid state, where minor differences in conformation can be seen by comparing NMR spectra obtained for the solids. Also shown is that the molecules of methadone hydrochloride have conformations in polar and in nonpolar solvents which are very similar to the conformation of the molecules in the solid state.

  9. Semipreparative enantiomer separation of propranolol hydrochloride by high-performance liquid chromatography using cellulose tris(3,5-Dimethylphenylcarbamate) chiral stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Chen, Limei; Ma, Huaqiao; Liu, Xia; Jiang, Sheng Xiang

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, we describe the direct semipreparative resolution of racemic (rac)-propranolol hydrochloride by high-performance liquid chromatography using cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) as chiral stationary phase and mobile phase systems containing petroleum ether and 2-propanol with the use of basic additives. At analytical scale, the retention factor of both enantiomers is less than 5 with the separation factor 1.95 and the resolution 2.4. Then, the analytical method is scaled up to semipreparative loading to obtain small amounts of both propranolol hydrochloride enantiomers. Petroleum ether, rather than n-hexane, is used to effectively reduce the production cost of (R)- and (S)-propranolol. To increase the throughput, overlapping injections are used, allowing an injection to be made every 6.5 min instead of every 12 min. At semipreparative scale, approximately 19 mg/h enantiomers are isolated. The first fraction [(R)-(+)-propranolol hydrochloride] is isolated with a purity of > 99.6% (e.e.) and > 97.0% yield, and the second [(S)-(-)-propranolol hydrochloride] is isolated with a purity of > 99.3% (e.e.) and > 95.0% yield. In addition, optical rotations of both propranolol hydrochloride enantiomers isolated are investigated. PMID:19007476

  10. Development and Validation of a Rapid RP-UPLC Method for the Simultaneous Estimation of Bambuterol Hydrochloride and Montelukast Sodium from Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Yanamandra, R.; Vadla, C. S.; Puppala, U. M.; Patro, B.; Murthy, Y. L. N.; Parimi, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    A rapid, simple, sensitive and selective analytical method was developed by using reverse phase ultra performance liquid chromatographic technique for the simultaneous estimation of bambuterol hydrochloride and montelukast sodium in combined tablet dosage form. The developed method is superior in technology to conventional high performance liquid chromatography with respect to speed, resolution, solvent consumption, time, and cost of analysis. Elution time for the separation was 6 min and ultra violet detection was carried out at 210 nm. Efficient separation was achieved on BEH C18 sub-2-?m Acquity UPLC column using 0.025% (v/v) trifluoro acetic acid in water and acetonitrile as organic solvent in a linear gradient program. Resolutions between bambuterol hydrochloride and montelukast sodium were found to be more than 31. The active pharmaceutical ingredient was extracted from tablet dosage from using a mixture of methanol, acetonitrile and water as diluent. The calibration graphs were linear for bambuterol hydrochloride and montelukast sodium in the range of 6.25-37.5 ?g/ml. The percentage recoveries for bambuterol hydrochloride and montelukast sodium were found to be in the range of 99.1-100.0% and 98.0-101.6%, respectively. The test solution was found to be stable for 7 days when stored in the refrigerator between 2-8°. Developed UPLC method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization specifications for method validation. This method can be successfully employed for simultaneous estimation of bambuterol hydrochloride and montelukast sodium in bulk drugs and formulations. PMID:23325991

  11. Normal-phase LC method for simultaneous analysis of pseudophedrine hydrochloride, dextromethorphan hydrobromide, chlorpheniramine maleate, and paracetamol in tablet formulations.

    PubMed

    Al-Rimawi, Fuad

    2010-04-01

    A simple, precise, and accurate method is developed and validated for the analysis of pseudophedrine hydrochloride, dextromethorphan hydrobromide, chlorpheniramine maleate, and paracetamol in tablet formulations. The method has shown adequate separation of the four ingredients from each other. Separation was achieved on a silica column (5 ?m, 125 × 4.6 mm inner diameter) using a mobile phase consisting of methanol/ammonium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (90:10, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and UV detection at 220 nm. This new method is validated in accordance with USP requirements for new methods for assay determination, which include accuracy, precision, selectivity, linearity and range, robustness and ruggedness. The current method demonstrates good linearity over the range of 0.15-0.45 mg/ml of pseudophedrine hydrochloride with r (2) of 0.996, and in the range of 0.075-0.225 mg/ml of dextromethorphan hydrobromide with r (2) of 0.992, and in the range of 0.01-0.03 mg/ml of chlorpheniramine maleate with r (2) of 0.994, and in the range of 0.25-0.75 mg/ml of paracetamol with r (2) of 0.991. The average recovery of the method is 99.7%, 98.6%, 98.1%, and 99.2% for pseudophedrine hydrochloride, dextromethorphan hydrobromide, chlorpheniramine maleate, and paracetamol, respectively. The degree of reproducibility of the results obtained as a result of small deliberate variations in the method parameters and by changing analytical operator has proven that the method is robust and rugged. PMID:23960726

  12. Safety and efficacy of donepezil hydrochloride in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: Findings of an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Suyog; Chandersekhar, K.; Prasadrao, G.; Dutt, Lakshman; Patkar, S.; Nagpal, R. D.; Gupta, M.; Raju, G. S. P.; Praveen, K. K.; Prasad, B. S. V.; Roy, T.; Kushwaha, S.; Nag, Jyotindra; Langade, D.; Pawar, D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive brain disorder, is the most common cause of dementia among the elderly. Donepezil hydrochloride is a potent, reversible, and highly selective inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). It is chemically distinct from other cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors which are effective in the treatment of AD. Objectives: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of donepezil hydrochloride therapy over a 12 weeks period in patients with mild to moderate AD in Indian population. Materials and Methods: In this post-marketing study, patients with mild to moderate AD received oral donepezil hydrochloride 5 mg/day for 4 weeks followed by 10 mg/day for 8 weeks. Patients were assessed 4 times weekly for cognition on ‘Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) scale’, and function on ‘Activities of Daily Living (ADL) index’. Clinicians and caregivers assessment of safety and efficacy was assessed on a 5-point rating scale. Results: One hundred and seventy two of one hundred and eighty two patients completed 12 weeks of study period. MMSE score significantly improved (P<0.0001) from 16.72 at baseline to 19.77 after 12 weeks, and there was significant improvement (P<0.05) in ADL index in 13 of 17 domains after 12 weeks. Caregivers and clinicians rated the therapy as very good to good in >80% and >90% patients, respectively. Adverse events were consistent with the known pharmacological and safety profile of donepezil. Conclusions: Donepezil is well tolerated in Indian patients with mild to moderate AD with significant improvement in cognition and function. PMID:23372236

  13. A new application of WT-ANN method to control the preparation process of metformin hydrochloride tablets by near infrared spectroscopy compared to PLS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia; Luo, Wei; Wang, Xuekai; Qiang cheng; Sun, Chaoguo; Li, Hui

    2013-06-01

    NIR spectroscopy was an effective expeditious and nondestructive technique to analyze various physical and chemical parameters of interest to the pharmaceutical industry. This paper proposed wavelet transform-artificial neural network (WT-ANN) to determinate mean particle size of metformin hydrochloride granulation process, tablet compression force, tablet hardness, tablet active content with two pretreatment method, standard normal variate (SNV) and multiplicative scatter correction (MSC). The proposed WT-ANN method which was applied to control the preparation process of metformin hydrochloride tablets was feasible and demonstrated more accurate as an available non-linear method compared to traditional methods such as partial least squares (PLS). PMID:23587532

  14. A simple approach to the synthesis of Cu1.8S dendrites with thiamine hydrochloride as a sulfur source and structure-directing agent

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiaoliang; Li, Sha; Yang, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Summary A facile, green and environmental-friendly method for preparing Cu1.8S dendrites was developed. Copper nitrate and thiamine hydrochloride were selected as the starting materials in the water phase under hydrothermal conditions. No addition of a surfactant or a complex reagent was required for the synthesis of the Cu1.8S dendrite structures. Thiamine hydrochloride was employed as a sulfur source and structure-directing agent. The growth mechanism of Cu1.8S is tentatively discussed based on the experimental and computational results. PMID:25977858

  15. Inhibitory effect of olopatadine hydrochloride on the sneezing response induced by intranasal capsaicin challenge in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Kaise, T; Akamatsu, Y; Ohmori, K; Ishii, A; Karasawa, A

    2001-06-01

    To investigate the possible inhibitory effect of olopatadine hydrochloride (olopatadine), an antiallergic drug, on the tachykinin-mediated nasal responses, we examined the effect of olopatadine on the sneezing and the nasal rubbing responses induced by intranasal capsaicin challenge in guinea pigs. Olopatadine (10 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited the sneezing response by 57% without affecting the nasal rubbing one. The antihistamines chlorpheniramine and clemastine did not affect the responses. Morphine caused the inhibition of both responses, which was antagonized by naloxone. These results suggest that olopatadine inhibits the sneezing response by the inhibition of the tachykinin release and not by its antihistaminic action. PMID:11459132

  16. Efficacy of Octenidine Hydrochloride for Reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes on Cattle Hides

    PubMed Central

    Ananda Baskaran, Sangeetha; Upadhyay, Abhinav; Upadhyaya, Indu; Bhattaram, Varunkumar

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of octenidine hydrochloride (OH; 0.025, 0.15, and 0.25%) for inactivating Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes on cattle hides was investigated at 23°C in the presence and absence of bovine feces. All tested concentrations of OH were effective in decreasing more than 5.0 log CFU of bacteria/cm2 in 5 min (P < 0.01). The results suggest that OH could be used to decontaminate cattle hides; however, further studies under commercial settings are necessary to validate these results. PMID:22467506

  17. Experimental and theoretical study on the hydrogen bonding between dopamine hydrochloride and N,N-dimethyl formamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Cuiping; Li, Dan; Li, Lina; Sun, Fang; Ma, Huiting; Liu, Xuejun

    2015-06-01

    The hydrogen bonding between dopamine hydrochloride (DH) and N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) were investigated by UV-visible spectra (UV-Vis), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and density functional theory (DFT). It was found that the position of UV-Vis absorption band and the anodic/cathodic peak potentials of DH were all affected by the concentrations of DH in DMF. It was suggested that hydrogen bonding were formed between DH and DMF, which was confirmed by the DFT results. AIM analyses were performed to elucidate the nature of the hydrogen bonding in the mixtures.

  18. Acoustical studies of molecular interaction in the solution of propranolol hydrochloride drug at different temperatures and concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Ritesh R.; Bawankar, S. V.; Kukade, S. D.

    2015-11-01

    In the present study ultrasonic velocity (?), density (?) and viscosity (?) have been measured at 1MHz frequency in the binary mixtures of propranolol hydrochloride with water in the concentration range (0.1 to 0.0125%) at 303, 308, 313 K using multifrequency ultrasonic interferometer. The measured value of density, ultrasonic velocity, and viscosity have been used to calculate the acoustical parameters namely adiabatic compressibility (?a), relaxation time (?), acoustic impedance (z), free length ( L f ), free volume ( V f ) and internal pressure (P i ), Wada's constant ( W), Rao's Constant ( R), and cohesive energy ( CE). These parameters explained formation of hydrogen bond and molecular interaction existing in the solution.

  19. Phase solubility, 1H NMR and molecular modelling studies of bupivacaine hydrochloride complexation with different cyclodextrin derivates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jug, Mario; Mennini, Natascia; Melani, Fabrizio; Maestrelli, Francesca; Mura, Paola

    2010-11-01

    A novel method, which simultaneously exploits experimental (NMR) and theoretically calculated data obtained by a molecular modelling technique, was proposed, to obtain deeper insight into inclusion geometry and possible stereoselective binding of bupivacaine hydrochloride with selected cyclodextrin derivatives. Sulphobuthylether-?-cyclodextrin and water soluble polymeric ?-cyclodextrin demonstrated to be the best complexing agents for the drug, resulting in formation of the most stable inclusion complexes with the highest increase in aqueous drug solubility. The drug-carrier binding modes with these cyclodextrins and phenomena which may be directly related to the higher stability and better aqueous solubility of complexes formed were discussed in details.

  20. Effect of donepezil hydrochloride (E2020) on extracellular acetylcholine concentration in the cerebral cortex of rats.

    PubMed

    Kosasa, T; Kuriya, Y; Yamanishi, Y

    1999-10-01

    Donepezil hydrochloride (donepezil), a potent and selective acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, has been developed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. We studied the effect of oral administration of this drug on the extracellular acetylcholine (ACh) concentration in the cerebral cortex of rats using microdialysis. We also observed fasciculation, a peripheral cholinergic sign induced by activation of neuromuscular transmission, after oral administration of the drug as an index of peripheral cholinergic activation. Other cholinesterase inhibitors, tacrine, ENA-713 and TAK-147, were used as reference drugs. Donepezil significantly and dose-dependently increased the extracellular ACh concentration in the rat cerebral cortex within the dose range of 2.5-10 mg/kg. Tacrine, ENA-713 and TAK-147 also elevated the extracellular concentration of ACh. The minimum effective doses of donepezil, tacrine, ENA-713 and TAK-147 were (< or = 2.5, 10, 10 and < or = 10 mg/kg, respectively. Donepezil produced fasciculation at doses of 2.5 mg/kg and above, with a dose-dependent increase in incidence and intensity. The reference compounds also induced fasciculation in a dose-dependent manner. The threshold doses of tacrine, ENA-713 and TAK-147 for fasciculation were 5, 2.5 and 2.5 mg/kg, respectively. The values of the ratio of the minimum effective dose for the ACh-increasing action to that for the fasciculation-producing action were: donepezil, < or = 1; tacrine, 2; ENA-713, 4; TAK-147, < or = 4. These results indicate that orally administered donepezil has a potent and selective activity on the central cholinergic system. PMID:10591480

  1. Penehyclidine Hydrochloride Preconditioning Provides Cardioprotection in a Rat Model of Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Duomao; Ma, Jun; Xue, Yanyan; Wang, Zhaoqi

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the impacts and related mechanisms of penehyclidine hydrochloride (PHC) on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced myocardial injury. A rat model of myocardial I/R injury was established by the ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min followed by 3 h perfusion. Before I/R, the rats were pretreated with or without PHC. Cardiac function was measured by echocardiography. The activities/levels of myocardial enzymes, oxidants and antioxidant enzymes were detected. Evans blue/TTC double staining was performed to assess infarct size. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL assay. The release of inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators was detected by ELISA. Western blot was performed to analyze the expression of COX-2, I?B, p-I?B and NF-?B. Meanwhile, the rats were given a single injection of H-PHC before I/R. The effects of PHC on myocardial infarct and cardiac function were investigated after 7 days post-reperfusion. We found that PHC remarkably improved cardiac function, alleviated myocardial injury by decreasing myocardial enzyme levels and attenuated oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, PHC preconditioning significantly reduced infarct size and the apoptotic rate of cardiomyocytes. Administration of PHC significantly decreased serum TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6 and PGE2 levels and myocardium COX-2 level. Meanwhile, the expression levels of p-I?B and NF-?B were downregulated, while I?B expression was upregulated. H-PHC also exerted long-term cardioprotection in a rat model of I/R injury by decreasing infarct size and improving cardiac function. These results suggest that PHC can efficiently protect the rats against I/R-induced myocardial injury. PMID:26632817

  2. Five different spectrophotometric methods for determination of Amprolium hydrochloride and Ethopabate binary mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Lobna A.; Magdy, N.; Abbas, Mahmoud M.

    2015-03-01

    Five simple, specific, accurate and precise UV-spectrophotometric methods are adopted for the simultaneous determination of Amprolium hydrochloride (AMP) and Ethopabate (ETH), a binary mixture with overlapping spectra, without preliminary separation. The first method is first derivative of the ratio spectra (1DD) for determination of AMP and ETH at 234.7 nm and 306.8 nm respectively with mean percentage recoveries 99.76 ± 0.907 and 100.29 ± 0.842 respectively. The second method is the mean centering of the ratio spectra for determination of AMP and ETH at 238.8 nm and 313 nm respectively with mean percentage recoveries 100.26 ± 1.018 and 99.94 ± 1.286 respectively. The third method is based on dual wavelength selection for determination of AMP and ETH at 235.3 nm & 308 nm and 244 nm & 268.4 nm respectively with mean percentage recoveries 99.30 ± 1.097 and 100.03 ± 1.065 respectively. The fourth method is ratio difference method for determination of AMP and ETH at 239 nm & 310 nm and 239 nm & 313 nm respectively with mean percentage recoveries 99.27 ± 0.892 and 100.40 ± 1.814 respectively. The fifth one is area under the curve (AUC) method where the areas between 235.6-243 nm and 268.3-275 nm are selected for determination of AMP and ETH with mean percentage recoveries 100.35 ± 1.031 and 100.39 ± 0.956 respectively. These methods are tested by analyzing synthetic mixtures of the two drugs and they are applied to their pharmaceutical veterinary preparation. Methods are validated according to the ICH guidelines and accuracy, precision and repeatability are found to be within the acceptable limit.

  3. Stability-indicating HPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Terbutaline Sulphate, Bromhexine Hydrochloride and Guaifenesin

    PubMed Central

    Porel, A.; Haty, Sanjukta; Kundu, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the development and subsequent validation of a simple, precise and stability-indicating reversed phase HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of guaifenesin, terbutaline sulphate and bromhexine hydrochloride in the presence of their potential impurities in a single run. The photolytic as well as hydrolytic impurities were detected as 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 1-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-[(1,1-dimethylethyl) amino]-ethanone from terbutaline, 2-methoxyphenol and an unknown impurity identified as (2RS)-3-(2-hydroxyphenoxy)-propane-1,2-diol from guaifenesin. The chromatographic separation of all the three active components and their impurities was achieved on Wakosil II column, using phosphate buffer (pH 3.0) and acetonitrile as mobile phase which was delivered initially in the ratio of 80:20 (v/v) for 18 min, then changed to 60:40 (v/v) for next 12 min, and finally equilibrated back to 80:20 (v/v) for 10 min. Other HPLC parameters were: Flow rate at 1.0 ml/min, detection wavelengths 248 and 280 nm, injection volume 10 ?l. The calibration graphs plotted with five concentrations of each component were linear with a regression coefficient R2 >0.9999. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were estimated for all the five impurities. The established method was then validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, and specificity and demonstrated to be applicable to the determination of the active ingredients in commercial and model cough syrup. No interference from the formulation excipients was observed. These results suggest that this LC method can be used for the determination of multiple active ingredients and their impurities in a cough and cold syrup. PMID:22131621

  4. Use of tetracycline hydrochloride and alizarin complexone for immersion marking black rockfish Sebastes schlegelii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Hongjian; Zhang, Xiumei; Fu, Mei; Xi, Dan; Gao, Tianxiang

    2014-07-01

    We tested the utility of chemical marking techniques in the juvenile black rockfish Sebastes schlegelii. Juveniles (30-40 mm total length) were immersed in a range of tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) solutions at concentrations ranging from 300 to 500 mg/L, and alizarin complexone (ALC) solutions at concentrations ranging from 200 to 400 mg/L in filtered sea water (salinity of 30) for 24 h, respectively. Otoliths (sagittae, asteriscus), scales, fin rays (dorsal, pectoral, ventral, anal, and caudal fin rays), and fin spines (dorsal, ventral, and anal fin spines) were sampled and used to detect fluorescent marks after a 60-day growth experiment. With the exception of 300 mg/L TC, acceptable marks were produced in the otoliths and fin spines by all concentrations of TC and ALC. In particular, we observed clearly visible marks in the sagittae, asteriscus, and fin spines under normal light at concentrations of 200-400 mg/L, 250-400 mg/L, and 250-400 mg/L ALC, respectively. Scales and fin rays had acceptable marks at much higher concentrations (?350 mg/L TC, ?250 mg/L ALC for scales and ?350 mg/L TC, ?300 mg/L ALC for fin rays). The best mark quality (i.e., acceptable marks were observed in all sampled structures after immersion marking) were obtained following immersion in TC at between 350-500 mg/L, and ALC between 300-400 mg/L. In addition, there was no significant difference in survival and growth of TC and ALC marked fish compared to their controls up to 60 days post-marking ( P > 0.05).

  5. Preparation and in vitro Evaluation of Ethylcellulose Coated Egg Albumin Microspheres of Diltiazem Hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Shailesh, Tp; Vipul, Pd; Girishbhai, Jk; Manish, Cj

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to develop sustained release ethylcellulose-coated egg albumin microspheres of diltiazem hydrochloride (DH) to improve patient compliance. The microspheres were prepared by the w/o emulsion thermal cross-linking method using different proportion of the polymer to drug ratio (1.0:1.0, 1.0:1.5 and 1.0:2.0). A 3(2) full factorial design was employed to optimize two independent variables, polymer to drug ratio (X(1)) and surfactant concentration (X(2)) on dependent variables, namely % drug loading, % drug release in 60 min (Y(60)) and the time required for 80 % drug release (t(80)) were selected as dependable variable. Optimized formulation was compared to its sustained release tablet available in market. The polymer to drug ratio was optimized to 1:1 at which a high drug entrapment efficiency 79.20% ± 0.7% and the geometric mean diameter 47.30 ± 1.5 mm were found. All batches showed a biphasic release pattern; initial burst release effect (55% DH in 1 h) and then were released completely within 6 h. In situ coating of optimized egg albumin DH microspheres using 7.5% ethylcellulose significantly reduced the burst effect and provided a slow release of DH for 8-10 h. Finally, it was concluded that ethylcellulose-coated egg albumin DH microspheres is suitable for oral SR devices in the treatment of angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmias, and hypertension due to their size and release profile. PMID:21331187

  6. Formulation and evaluation of bilayer tablet for bimodal release of venlafaxine hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Momin, Munira M.; Kane, Snehal; Abhang, Pooja

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to develop a bilayer tablet of venlafaxine hydrochloride for bimodal drug release. In the present investigation authors have tried to explore fenugreek mucilage (FNM) for bioadhesive sustained release layer. The attempt has been made to combine FNM with well studied bioadhesive polymers like hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), Carbopol, and Xanthan Gum. The formulations were evaluated for swelling Index, ex vivo bioadhesion, water uptake studies, in vitro drug release and dissolution kinetics was studied. Substantial bioadhesion force (2.4 ± 0.023 g) and tablet adhesion retention time (24 ± 2 h) was observed with FNM and HPMC combination at 80:20 ratio. The dissolution kinetics followed the Higuchi model (R2 = 0.9913) via a non-Fickian diffusion controlled release mechanism after the initial burst. The 32 full factorial design was employed in the present study. The type of polymers used in combination with FNM (X1) and percent polymer replaced with FNM (X2) were taken as independent formulations variables. The selected responses, bioadhesion force (0.11–0.25 ± 0.023 g), amount of drug released in 10 h, Y10 (78.20–95.78 ± 1.24%) and bioadhesive strength, (19–24 ± 2 h) presented good correlation with the selected independent variables. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) of the optimized bilayer formulations showed no significant difference in the cumulative amount of drug release after 15 min, but significant difference (p < 0.05) in the amount of drug released after 1 hr till 12 h from optimized formulations was observed. The natural mucilage like FNM could be successfully incorporated into tablet with only 20% replacement with HPMC and it showed good bioadhesiveness and sustained drug release. PMID:26217229

  7. Stability-indicating HPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Terbutaline Sulphate, Bromhexine Hydrochloride and Guaifenesin.

    PubMed

    Porel, A; Haty, Sanjukta; Kundu, A

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the development and subsequent validation of a simple, precise and stability-indicating reversed phase HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of guaifenesin, terbutaline sulphate and bromhexine hydrochloride in the presence of their potential impurities in a single run. The photolytic as well as hydrolytic impurities were detected as 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 1-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-[(1,1-dimethylethyl) amino]-ethanone from terbutaline, 2-methoxyphenol and an unknown impurity identified as (2RS)-3-(2-hydroxyphenoxy)-propane-1,2-diol from guaifenesin. The chromatographic separation of all the three active components and their impurities was achieved on Wakosil II column, using phosphate buffer (pH 3.0) and acetonitrile as mobile phase which was delivered initially in the ratio of 80:20 (v/v) for 18 min, then changed to 60:40 (v/v) for next 12 min, and finally equilibrated back to 80:20 (v/v) for 10 min. Other HPLC parameters were: Flow rate at 1.0 ml/min, detection wavelengths 248 and 280 nm, injection volume 10 ?l. The calibration graphs plotted with five concentrations of each component were linear with a regression coefficient R(2) >0.9999. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were estimated for all the five impurities. The established method was then validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, and specificity and demonstrated to be applicable to the determination of the active ingredients in commercial and model cough syrup. No interference from the formulation excipients was observed. These results suggest that this LC method can be used for the determination of multiple active ingredients and their impurities in a cough and cold syrup. PMID:22131621

  8. Interaction of gelatin with promethazine hydrochloride: Conductimetry, tensiometry and circular dichroism studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rub, Malik Abdul; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Khan, Javed Masood; Khan, Rizwan Hasan; Kabir-ud Din

    2013-10-01

    The interaction of amphiphilic phenothiazine drug promethazine hydrochloride (PMT) with gelatin in aqueous as well as aqueous-electrolyte (50 mM NaCl) solutions has been studied by using conductimetry, tensiometry and circular dichroism (CD) techniques. The drug interacts with gelatin similar to the interaction of surfactants and polymers. Hence, we have considered the gelatin-amphiphile interaction approach using conductimetry and tensiometry. The plots of specific conductivity versus concentration of drug were nonlinear with three different linear regions with two clear breaks. The critical aggregation concentration (cac), i.e., first break point, appeared well below the usual critical micelle concentration (cmc). Second break is regarded as polymer saturation point (psp) which is similar to cmc. The interaction starts with the formation of a highly surface-active complex as revealed by the lowering of surface tension on the addition of drug to the macromolecule (gelatin). The results further show that the cac decreases on increasing the gelatin concentration, while psp increases for all concentrations of gelatin which is a clear indication of the interaction between the drug and gelatin. By the use of degree of ionization, free energies of aggregation (?Gagg) and micellization (?Gmic) were also evaluated. As inorganic salts increase the ionic strength, the solubility of amphiphile (drug) is lowered by ionic screening effects, resulting in a greater tendency to aggregate at lower concentration. Therefore, both the cac and psp/cmc values decrease. Effect of PMT on the secondary structure of gelatin in aqueous solutions was also investigated using CD measurements. The measurements demonstrated that the random coil content of gelatin increases with increasing the drug concentration.

  9. Growth, spectral, optical, and dielectric studies on novel semiorganic NLO single crystal: d-phenylglycine hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uma, B.; Sakthi Murugesan, K.; Jayavel, R.; Krishnan, S.; Boaz, B. Milton

    2014-05-01

    Good quality novel semiorganic nonlinear optical single crystal of d-phenylglycine hydrochloride has been grown from the aqueous solution by low temperature solution growth method. X-ray diffraction reveals that the crystal crystallises into orthorhombic system with noncentrosymmetric space group P212121. Experimental parameters are evaluated based on single-crystal XRD and the calculated values of the polarisability were compared with the values of polarisability using Clausius-Mossotti equation. The functional groups present in the grown crystal were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis. The 1H and 13C FT-NMR has been recorded to elucidate the molecular structure. Ultraviolet-visible-near infra-red absorption studies on this crystal reveal that the minimum absorption region is around 228 nm. The optical band gap of the crystal was found to be 2.9 eV. The scanning electron microscope study has been carried out to determine the surface morphology of the grown crystal. Photoluminescence studies show that the material emits violet fluorescence. Thermal studies bring forth that the crystal is thermally stable up to 255 °C. Dielectric studies reveal that both the dielectric constant and dielectric loss decrease with the increase in frequency as like the typical semiorganic nonlinear optical crystals such as bisthiourea zinc chloride, bisthiourea cadmium chloride and l-arginine dihydrogen phosphate. Electrical conductivity measurements were carried out and the Arrhenius plot is used to determine the value of activation energy. The Kurtz powder analysis on the crystal confirms the existence of second harmonic generation properties. The SHG efficiency was found to be 1.15 times that of KDP crystal.

  10. Racemic R,S-venlafaxine hydrochloride-DNA interaction: Experimental and computational evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Hadidi, Saba; Ghasemian, Zeinab; Taherpour, Avat(Arman)

    2015-06-01

    The interaction of racemic R,S-venlafaxine hydrochloride (rac-VEN) drug with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ct-DNA) was studied using various physico-chemical techniques and molecular docking at simulated physiological conditions (pH = 7.4). The fluorescence study shows that ct-DNA interacted with rac-VEN and quenched its intrinsic fluorescence in a static quenching process. These results are further supported by UV-Vis spectra. The binding constant of rac-VEN with ct-DNA (0.57 × 104) obtained from the spectroscopic techniques, which is more in keeping with the groove binding with DNA. Furthermore, the competition experiment using Hoechst33258 indicated that rac-VEN may bind to ct-DNA by a minor groove binding mode. In addition, iodide quenching effect on the fluorescence of rac-VEN before and after the interaction with ct-DNA is another evidence to groove binding. The thermodynamic parameters are calculated by van't Hoff equation, which demonstrated that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions played major roles in the binding reaction. Molecular simulation studies carried out by using the AutoDock4 and Spartan10 programs. From the best docking map, we found that R and S-isomers fit in the A6T7T8/T19A18A17 region in minor groove of B-DNA. Finally, these results indicated that the docking of S-VEN-B-DNA is more stable than R-VEN-B-DNA.

  11. Sevalamer Hydrochloride, Sevelamer Carbonate and Lanthanum Carbonate: In Vitro and In Vivo Effects on Gastric Environment.

    PubMed

    Coppolino, Giuseppe; Lucisano, Silvia; Rivoli, Laura; Fuiano, Giorgio; Villari, Antonino; Villari, Iole; Leonello, Grazia; Lacquaniti, Antonio; Santoro, Domenico; Buemi, Michele

    2015-10-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is common in patients with chronic renal failure. Phosphate binders are associated with gastric intolerance, representing the main reason of drug discontinuation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects in vitro and in vivo of sevelamer hydrochloride (SH), sevelamer carbonate (SC) and lanthanum carbonate (LC) on gastric microenvironment. We have also evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of these drugs in hemodialysis (HD) patients. In vitro analysis: Dissolution time, ability to uptake phosphorus, changes in pH starting from gastric milieu and the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) produced were the variables analyzed. In vivo analysis: 24-h esophago-gastric pH measurement was evaluated in 24 HD patients treated with phosphate binders and proton pump inhibitor (PPI). In vitro: LC dissolved over a longer time compared with SC (58?±?2.4 vs. 12?±?0.6?min; P?

  12. Evaluation of the antibacterial effects of vancomycin hydrochloride released from agar-gelatin-bioactive glass composites.

    PubMed

    Rivadeneira, Josefina; Di Virgilio, Ana Laura; Audisio, M Carina; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Gorustovich, Alejandro A

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the perfomance of agar-gelatin (AG) composites and AG-containing 45S5 bioactive glass (BG) microparticles (AGBG) in relation to their water uptake capacity, sustained release of a drug over time, and antibacterial effects. The composites were fabricated by the gel-casting method. To impart the local drug release capacity, vancomycin hydrochloride (VC) was loaded in the composites in concentrations of 0.5 and 1?mg?ml(-1). VC release was assessed in distilled water at 37?°C up to 72?h and quantified spectrophotometrically. The antibacterial activity of composites was evaluated by the inhibition zone test and the plate count method. The experiments were performed in vitro up to 48?h on three staphylococcus strains: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213, S. aureus ATCC6538 and Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC12228. The results showed that the addition of BG to AG composites did not affect the degree of water uptake. The release of VC was significantly affected by the presence of BG. VC release was higher from AGBGVC films than from AGVC ones over prolonged incubation times. Bacterial inhibition zones were found around the composites. The halos were larger when the cells were put in contact with AGVC composites than when they were put in contact with AGBGVC ones. Nevertheless, the viable count method demonstrated that the composites inhibited Staphylococcus cell growth with no statistical differences. In conclusion, the addition of BG did not reflect an improvement in the parameters studied. On the other hand, composites loaded with VC would have a role in prophylaxis against bacterial infection. PMID:25586240

  13. Bitterness intensity prediction of berberine hydrochloride using an electronic tongue and a GA-BP neural network

    PubMed Central

    LIU, RUIXIN; ZHANG, XIAODONG; ZHANG, LU; GAO, XIAOJIE; LI, HUILING; SHI, JUNHAN; LI, XUELIN

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the bitterness intensity of a drug using an electronic tongue (e-tongue). The model drug of berberine hydrochloride was used to establish a bitterness prediction model (BPM), based on the taste evaluation of bitterness intensity by a taste panel, the data provided by the e-tongue and a genetic algorithm-back-propagation neural network (GA-BP) modeling method. The modeling characteristics of the GA-BP were compared with those of multiple linear regression, partial least square regression and BP methods. The determination coefficient of the BPM was 0.99965±0.00004, the root mean square error of cross-validation was 0.1398±0.0488 and the correlation coefficient of the cross-validation between the true and predicted values was 0.9959±0.0027. The model is superior to the other three models based on these indicators. In conclusion, the model established in this study has a high fitting degree and may be used for the bitterness prediction modeling of berberine hydrochloride of different concentrations. The model also provides a reference for the generation of BPMs of other drugs. Additionally, the algorithm of the study is able to conduct a rapid and accurate quantitative analysis of the data provided by the e-tongue. PMID:24926369

  14. The use of Hibiscus esculentus (Okra) gum in sustaining the release of propranolol hydrochloride in a solid oral dosage form.

    PubMed

    Zaharuddin, Nurul Dhania; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Kadivar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of Okra gum in sustaining the release of propranolol hydrochloride in a tablet was studied. Okra gum was extracted from the pods of Hibiscus esculentus using acetone as a drying agent. Dried Okra gum was made into powder form and its physical and chemical characteristics such as solubility, pH, moisture content, viscosity, morphology study using SEM, infrared study using FTIR, crystallinity study using XRD, and thermal study using DSC and TGA were carried out. The powder was used in the preparation of tablet using granulation and compression methods. Propranolol hydrochloride was used as a model drug and the activity of Okra gum as a binder was compared by preparing tablets using a synthetic and a semisynthetic binder which are hydroxylmethylpropyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate, respectively. Evaluation of drug release kinetics that was attained from dissolution studies showed that Okra gum retarded the release up to 24 hours and exhibited the longest release as compared to HPMC and sodium alginate. The tensile and crushing strength of tablets was also evaluated by conducting hardness and friability tests. Okra gum was observed to produce tablets with the highest hardness value and lowest friability. Hence, Okra gum was testified as an effective adjuvant to produce favourable sustained release tablets with strong tensile and crushing strength. PMID:24678512

  15. High-Amylose Sodium Carboxymethyl Starch Matrices: Development and Characterization of Tramadol Hydrochloride Sustained-Release Tablets for Oral Administration

    PubMed Central

    Nabais, Teresa; Leclair, Grégoire

    2014-01-01

    Substituted amylose (SA) polymers were produced from high-amylose corn starch by etherification of its hydroxyl groups with chloroacetate. Amorphous high-amylose sodium carboxymethyl starch (HASCA), the resulting SA polymer, was spray-dried to obtain an excipient (SD HASCA) with optimal binding and sustained-release (SR) properties. Tablets containing different percentages of SD HASCA and tramadol hydrochloride were produced by direct compression and evaluated for dissolution. Once-daily and twice-daily SD HASCA tablets containing two common dosages of tramadol hydrochloride (100?mg and 200?mg), a freely water-soluble drug, were successfully developed. These SR formulations presented high crushing forces, which facilitate further tablet processing and handling. When exposed to both a pH gradient simulating the pH variations through the gastrointestinal tract and a 40% ethanol medium, a very rigid gel formed progressively at the surface of the tablets providing controlled drug-release properties. These properties indicated that SD HASCA was a promising and robust excipient for oral, sustained drug-release, which may possibly minimize the likelihood of dose dumping and consequent adverse effects, even in the case of coadministration with alcohol. PMID:25006518

  16. Fast Dissolving Sublingual Films of Ondansetron Hydrochloride: Effect of Additives on in vitro Drug Release and Mucosal Permeation

    PubMed Central

    Koland, M; Sandeep, VP; Charyulu, NR

    2010-01-01

    Ondansetron hydrochloride, a 5 HT3 antagonist is a powerful antiemetic drug which has oral bioavailability of 60% due to hepatic first pass metabolism and has a short half-life of 5 h. To overcome the above draw back, the present study was carried out to formulate and evaluate fast dissolving films of ondansetron hydrochloride for sublingual administration. The films were prepared from polymers such as polyvinylalcohol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, Carbopol 934P in different ratios by solvent casting method. Propylene glycol or PEG 400 as plasticizers and mannitol or sodium saccharin as sweeteners were also included. The IR spectral studies showed no interaction between drug and polymer or with other additives. Satisfactory results were obtained when subjected to physico-chemical tests such as uniformity of weight, thickness, surface pH, folding endurance, uniformity of drug content, swelling index, bioadhesive strength, and tensile strength. Films were also subjected to in vitro drug release studies by using USP dissolution apparatus. Ex vivo drug permeation studies were carried out using porcine membrane model. In vitro release studies indicated 81–96% release within 7 min and 66–80% within 7 min during ex vivo studies. Drug permeation of 66–77% was observed through porcine mucosa within 40 min. Higher percentage of drug release was observed from films containing the sweeteners. The stability studies conducted for a period of 8 weeks showed no appreciable change in drug content, surface pH, and in vitro drug release. PMID:21042474

  17. Microneedle-assisted percutaneous delivery of naltrexone hydrochloride in Yucatan minipig: in vitro-in vivo correlation

    PubMed Central

    Milewski, Mikolaj; Paudel, Kalpana S.; Brogden, Nicole K.; Ghosh, Priyanka; Banks, Stan L.; Hammell, Dana C.; Stinchcomb, Audra L.

    2013-01-01

    Although microneedle-assisted transdermal drug delivery has been the subject of multiple scientific investigations, very few attempts have been made to quantitatively relate in vitro and in vivo permeation. The case of naltrexone hydrochloride is not an exception. In the present study a pharmacokinetic profile obtained following a “poke and patch” microneedle application method in Yucatan minipig is reported. The profile demonstrates rapid achievement of maximum naltrexone hydrochloride plasma concentration followed by a relatively abrupt concentration decline. No steady-state was achieved in vivo. In an attempt to correlate the present in vivo findings with formerly published in vitro steady-state permeation data, a diffusion-compartmental mathematical model was developed. The model incorporates two parallel permeation pathways, barrier thickness-dependent diffusional resistance, microchannel closure kinetics, and a pharmacokinetic module. The regression analysis of the pharmacokinetic data demonstrated good agreement with independently calculated microchannel closure rate and in vitro permeation data. Interestingly, full-thickness rather than split-thickness skin employed in in vitro diffusion experiments provided the best correlation with in vivo data. Data analysis carried out with the model presented herein provides new mechanistic insight and permits predictions with respect to pharmacokinetics coupled with altered microchannel closure rates. PMID:24053426

  18. Crystal growth, spectral, optical, laser damage, photoconductivity and dielectric properties of semiorganic L-cystine hydrochloride single crystal.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Senthil Kumar; Paulraj, Rajesh; Ramasamy, P

    2015-12-01

    The semiorganic single crystals of l-cystine hydrochloride have been grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique at 40°C. The grown crystals were subjected to single crystal XRD, FTIR, optical absorbance, laser damage threshold, photoluminescence, photoconductivity and dielectric studies. Single crystal XRD studies reveal that the crystal belongs to monoclinic system with space group C2 and the lattice parameters are a=18.63 (Å), b=5.28 (Å), c=7.26 (Å), ?=90°, ?=103.70°, ?=90° and V=696 (Å(3)). FTIR spectroscopy confirms that a band at 1731 cm(-1) represents characteristic of ?-amino acid hydrochlorides. The UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectrum was analyzed and the optical band gap energy was found to be 3.8eV. The crystal exhibits sharp emission peak at 388 nm. The thermal characteristics of crystals were studied by TG-DTA, which indicate that there is no weight loss up to 201°C. Surface laser damage threshold value of title compound was estimated using high power Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm. Dielectric and photoconductivity studies were also carried out for the grown crystals. PMID:26151431

  19. Comparative studies by IR, Raman, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of azodicarbonamide, biurea and semicarbazide hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yunfei; Li, Pei; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Heya; Qian, He; Yao, Weirong

    2013-10-01

    Azodicarbonamide is widely applied in the food industry as a new flour gluten fortifier in China, Canada, the United States, and some other countries, whose metabolites of biurea and semicarbazide hydrochloride are reaction products during baking. In this study, IR, Raman and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of azodicarbonamide, biurea, and semicarbazide hydrochloride have been studied, and vibrational bands have been assigned on the basis of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The calculated Raman spectra were in good agreement with experimental Raman spectra. The SERS method coupled with active gold substrates has also been applied for detection of the three chemicals with pure water as solvent, with the limit of detection of this method being as low as 10 ?g/mL (less than 45 ?g/mL). These results showed that azodicarbonamide and its metabolites could be detected by the vibrational spectra technique, which might be applied as a powerful tool for the rapid detection on these species derived from agents added to flour.

  20. Simultaneous determination of mebeverine hydrochloride and chlordiazepoxide in their binary mixture using novel univariate spectrophotometric methods via different manipulation pathways.

    PubMed

    Lotfy, Hayam M; Fayez, Yasmin M; Michael, Adel M; Nessim, Christine K

    2016-02-15

    Smart, sensitive, simple and accurate spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the quantitative determination of a binary mixture of mebeverine hydrochloride (MVH) and chlordiazepoxide (CDZ) without prior separation steps via different manipulating pathways. These pathways were applied either on zero order absorption spectra namely, absorbance subtraction (AS) or based on the recovered zero order absorption spectra via a decoding technique namely, derivative transformation (DT) or via ratio spectra namely, ratio subtraction (RS) coupled with extended ratio subtraction (EXRS), spectrum subtraction (SS), constant multiplication (CM) and constant value (CV) methods. The manipulation steps applied on the ratio spectra are namely, ratio difference (RD) and amplitude modulation (AM) methods or applying a derivative to these ratio spectra namely, derivative ratio (DD(1)) or second derivative (D(2)). Finally, the pathway based on the ratio spectra of derivative spectra is namely, derivative subtraction (DS). The specificity of the developed methods was investigated by analyzing the laboratory mixtures and was successfully applied for their combined dosage form. The proposed methods were validated according to ICH guidelines. These methods exhibited linearity in the range of 2-28?g/mL for mebeverine hydrochloride and 1-12?g/mL for chlordiazepoxide. The obtained results were statistically compared with those of the official methods using Student t-test, F-test, and one way ANOVA, showing no significant difference with respect to accuracy and precision. PMID:26562180

  1. Determination of Propranolol Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Preparations Using Near Infrared Spectrometry with Fiber Optic Probe and Multivariate Calibration Methods

    PubMed Central

    Marques Junior, Jucelino Medeiros; Muller, Aline Lima Hermes; Foletto, Edson Luiz; da Costa, Adilson Ben; Bizzi, Cezar Augusto; Irineu Muller, Edson

    2015-01-01

    A method for determination of propranolol hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparation using near infrared spectrometry with fiber optic probe (FTNIR/PROBE) and combined with chemometric methods was developed. Calibration models were developed using two variable selection models: interval partial least squares (iPLS) and synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS). The treatments based on the mean centered data and multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) were selected for models construction. A root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 8.2?mg?g?1 was achieved using siPLS (s2i20PLS) algorithm with spectra divided into 20 intervals and combination of 2 intervals (8501 to 8801 and 5201 to 5501?cm?1). Results obtained by the proposed method were compared with those using the pharmacopoeia reference method and significant difference was not observed. Therefore, proposed method allowed a fast, precise, and accurate determination of propranolol hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations. Furthermore, it is possible to carry out on-line analysis of this active principle in pharmaceutical formulations with use of fiber optic probe. PMID:25861516

  2. Analgesic effects of meloxicam, morphine sulfate, flunixin meglumine, and xylazine hydrochloride in African-clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis).

    PubMed

    Coble, Dondrae J; Taylor, Douglas K; Mook, Deborah M

    2011-05-01

    We evaluated analgesic use and analgesiometry in aquatic African-clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis). We used the acetic acid test (AAT) to assess the analgesic potential of systemic xylazine hydrochloride, meloxicam, flunixin meglumine, and morphine sulfate after injection into the dorsal lymph sac. Flunixin meglumine provided better analgesia than did the other drugs, most evident at 5 and 9 h after administration. Because the AAT was associated with the development of dermal lesions, we discontinued use of this assay and chose the Hargreaves test as an alternative method of measuring nociception in Xenopus. This assay is commonly performed in rodents, but its efficacy in an aquatic species such as Xenopus was unknown prior to this study. We found that the Hargreaves test was an effective measure of nociception in Xenopus, and we used it to evaluate the effectiveness of the nonopiod agents xylazine hydrochloride, meloxicam, and flunixin meglumine both in the absence of surgery and after surgical oocyte harvest. Similar to findings from the AAT, flunixin meglumine provided better analgesia in the Hargreaves test than did the other agents when analyzed in the absence of surgical intervention. Results were equivocal after oocyte harvest. Although surgical oocyte harvest is a common procedure in Xenopus, and currently there are no published recommendations for analgesia after this invasive surgery. Future studies are needed to clarify the efficacy of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs for that purpose. PMID:21640031

  3. Effect of the composition of lecithin/n-propanol/isopropyl myristate/water microemulsions on barrier properties of mice skin for transdermal permeation of tetracaine hydrochloride: in vitro.

    PubMed

    Changez, Mohammad; Varshney, Manoj; Chander, Jadish; Dinda, Amit Kumar

    2006-06-01

    Effect of composition of lecithin water-in-oil and oil-in-water microemulsion on in vitro transdermal permeation of tetracaine hydrochloride was studied on mice model. The results were compared with an aqueous solution of tetracaine hydrochloride (2.7 mg/ml). In vitro skin flux and permeability coefficients were obtained using the Franz diffusion cell. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were used to study the mechanism of action of the microemulsion. Micrographs of TEM and CLSM studies were analyzed by using Image Pro Plus image software. Skin flux of tetracaine hydrochloride was found to be dependent on the composition of lecithin/n-propanol/isopropyl myristate/water microemulsions. At lower Km ratio (i.e. 0.5:1 and 0.8:1) of microemulsion, the rate of permeation of tetracaine hydrochloride was higher when compared to the microemulsion of higher Km ratio (1:1 and 1.5:1). Image analysis of TEM micrograph, 6h after application of lecithin microemulsion, showed 3.5+/-0.75-fold (p<0.001) increase in the intercellular space in the epidermis and 3.8+/-0.4-fold (p<0.001) enhancement in upper dermis. CLMS results show that sweat gland and hair follicles also provided path for permeation of the drug through the skin. PMID:16690263

  4. Beliefs and Social Norms about Codeine and Promethazine Hydrochloride Cough Syrup (CPHCS) Onset and Perceived Addiction among Urban Houstonian Adolescents: An Addiction Trend in the City of Lean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Ronald J., Jr.; Kelder, Steven H.; Markham, Christine M.; Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Peters, LeCresha A.; Ellis, Artist

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, we used a qualitative approach to investigate relevant beliefs and norms associated with codeine and promethazine hydrochloride cough syrup (CPHCS) consumption, initiation, and perceived addiction among 48 alternative school students who identified themselves as current CPHCS users. In general, both boys and girls believed…

  5. Simultaneous determination of benzydamine hydrochloride and five impurities in an oral collutory as a pharmaceutical formulation by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Carlucci, Giuseppe; Iuliani, Piera; Di Federico, Lucia

    2010-11-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of benzydamine hydrochloride and its impurities 3-dimethylaminopropyl 2-benzylaminobenzoate, 3-dimethylaminopropyl-2-aminobenzoate,1-benzyl-1H-indazol-3-ol, 1-benzyl-2-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-1,2-dihydro-3H-indazol-3-one, and 1-benzyl-3-(3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-methylamino)propoxy-(1)H-indazole in a collutory formulation is developed. The separation is carried out on a Gemini C(18) (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 ?m) column using acetonitrile-methanol-ammonium carbonate buffer (10 mM; pH 10.5) (37.5:37.5:25, v/v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, column temperature 30°C, and UV detection at 218 nm. Famotidine is used as an internal standard. The total run-time is less than 15 min. The analytical curves present coefficients of correlation greater than 0.99, and detection limits are calculated for all analytes. Excellent accuracy and precision are obtained for benzydamine hydrochloride. Recoveries vary from 98.25 to 102.8%, and intra- and inter-day precisions, calculated as the percent relative standard deviation, are lower than 2.2%. Specificity and robustness for benzydamine hydrochloride are also determined. The method allows the quantitative determination of benzydamine hydrochloride and its impurities, and it is suitable for routine analysis in quality control laboratories. PMID:21044418

  6. Evaluation of the effects of zilpateral hydrochloride supplementation on catecholamine response and other blood metabolites following a combined corticotropin releasing hormone and vasopressin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Supplementation of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; Zilmax®) to cattle has been implicated as having a negative impact on the well-being of cattle. However, there is no data to support or refute these claims. This study was designed to determine if differences exist in the serum metabolic profile and m...

  7. Evaluation of the effects of zilpateral hydrochloride supplementation on catecholamin response and other blood metabolites following a combined corticotropin releasing hormone and vasopressin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stress response of cattle supplemented with zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) has become a topic due to anecdotal claims of supplemented cattle responding poorly to stress. This study was designed to determine if differences exist in the catecholamine and blood metabolite response of ZH-supplemente...

  8. [A case of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) in which lomerizine hydrochloride was suggested to prevent recurrent stroke].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Hisao; Nagami, Shuhei; Takahashi, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    A 60-year-old man visited our hospital because of left hemiparesis in September 2006. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a high-intensity lesions in the right corona radiata on diffusion-weighted images and a high-intensity lesions in the basal ganglia and deep white matter on T2-weighted images. He recovered with no sequelae. Antithrombotic agents such as aspirin were given to prevent stroke, but stroke recurred three times over the course of 3 years. In February 2009, neurological examination revealed right hemiparalysis and dysarthria. Dysphagia and cognitive decline had been progressing gradually. We suspected cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) on the basis of the clinical and family history. An Arg75Pro mutation in the Notch3 gene was found, but did not involve a cysteine residue. Antithrombotic agents were ineffective. We tried lomerizine hydrochloride, which was reported to prevent stroke in a patient with CADASIL. In Japan, lomerizine hydrochloride is used to prevent migraine and to selectively inhibit cerebral artery contraction. During treatment with lomerizine hydrochloride (5 mg/day) for more than 3 years, there was no recurrence of cerebral infarction and no further deterioration of cognitive function or MRI findings. There is no evidence supporting the efficacy of antithrombotic agents in CADASIL patients. Moreover, antithrombotic agents have been reported to increase the frequency of clinically silent microbleeds on MRI in CADASIL. Lomerizine hydrochloride might therefore be one option for the treatment of CADASIL. PMID:24429644

  9. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride on internal body temperature and respiration rate of black-hided feedlot steers and heifers during moderate heat stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on the internal body temperature and respiration rate of feedlot cattle during moderate heat stress. Black-hided steers and heifers (n=96) were sourced from a commercial feedlot and transported to the Texas Tech...

  10. Comparison of the antifungal efficacy of terbinafine hydrochloride and ciclopirox olamine containing formulations against the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum in an infected nail plate model.

    PubMed

    Täuber, Anja; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2014-07-01

    Onychomycosis is a fungal infection mostly induced by dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum. Due to slow nail growth, the treatment takes 3-9 months depending on the nail size and infected area. Hence, high efficacy of the active ingredient without systemic side effects is of major interest. To test the efficacy of an antifungal formulation, an appropriate in vitro model reflecting the in vivo situation as close as possible is required. In this study, a variety of antifungal formulations, i.e., commercial ones (Ciclopoli and Lamisil cream), those used in compounding pharmacies (Pentravan) as well as poloxamer 407-based systems, have been evaluated in an infected nail plate model. The active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) were ciclopirox olamine and terbinafine hydrochloride. The poloxamer 407-based formulations consisted of poloxamer 407, double distilled water, propylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol, medium chain triglycerides and either 1% ciclopirox olamine or 1% terbinafine hydrochloride as API, respectively. Former studies have shown high permeation rates of terbinafine hydrochloride from similar poloxamer 407-based formulations with dimethyl isosorbide instead of propylene glycol. The present contribution shows superior inhibition of T. rubrum growth from poloxamer 407-based formulations in comparison to the commercial Lamisil cream. Moreover, poloxamer 407-based formulations were equally effective as the nail lacquer Ciclopoli even though the poloxamer formulations contained only 1% of the drug instead of 8% in the marketed lacquer. Poloxamer 407-based systems containing ciclopirox olamine proved to be about as effective as similar terbinafine hydrochloride systems. PMID:24490976

  11. Altered plasma pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur hydrochloride in cows affected with severe clinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Gorden, P J; Kleinhenz, M D; Wulf, L W; KuKanich, B; Lee, C J; Wang, C; Coetzee, J F

    2016-01-01

    Mastitis is a frequent problem among dairy cows, reducing milk yield and increasing cull rates. Systemic therapy with the cephalosporin antimicrobial ceftiofur hydrochloride (CEF) may improve therapeutic outcomes, but the incidence of CEF violative residues has increased annually since 2011. One potential explanation is that disease status may alter the pharmacokinetics (PK) of CEF. To test this hypothesis, we compared the plasma PK of CEF in healthy cows with those with severe endotoxic mastitis. Eight cows with naturally occurring mastitis and 8 clinically healthy cows were treated with 2.2 mg of CEF per kilogram of body weight once daily for 5d via the intramuscular route. Blood was collected at 0, 0.33, 0.67, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 8, 16, and 24h after the first CEF administration and every 8h thereafter until 120h after the final dose. Plasma samples were analyzed for CEF concentrations using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. With the exception of time 0, CEF was detected at all time points. The disease group had a significantly higher plasma CEF concentration at t=3h after the first injection and a significantly lower plasma concentration from 40 to 152h following the first injection, with the exception of the t=64h time point. Data following the first injection (time 0-24 h) were fit to a single-dose, noncompartmental PK model. This model indicated that the disease group had a shorter plasma half-life. A multidose, noncompartmental model was used to determine steady-state PK. Compared with control cows, the disease group had an initially higher peak concentration and a higher volume of distribution and drug clearance rates. The disease group also had a lower area under the curve per dosing interval, steady-state concentration maximum, and dose-adjusted peak steady-state concentration. All other PK parameters were not different between the 2 groups. Altered PK, as suggested by this trial, may contribute to an increased risk for the development of a violative residue in meat. Further research is needed to more completely characterize drug distribution in diseased cattle and to study the effect of coadministration of other drugs on drug distribution. PMID:26601579

  12. Study of Epigenetic Properties of Poly(HexaMethylene Biguanide) Hydrochloride (PHMB)

    PubMed Central

    Creppy, Edmond E.; Diallo, Aboudoulatif; Moukha, Serge; Eklu-Gadegbeku, Christophe; Cros, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Poly(HexaMethylene Biguanide) hydrochloride (PHMB) CAS No. [32289-58-0] is a particularly effective member of the biguanides antiseptic chemical group, and has been in use since the early fifties in numerous applications. It has been proposed that PHMB be classified as a category 3 carcinogen although PHMB is not genotoxic. It has been hypothesized that PHMB may have epigenetic properties effects, including non-genotoxic modifications of DNA bases, DNA methylation and mitogenic cytokine production. These properties have been assessed in vitro using 3 cell types: Caco-2 cells (from a human colon adenocarcinoma) with a non-functional p53 gene. (?p53: mut p53), N2-A (Neuro-2A cells, mouse neural cells), the brain being a possible target organ in rodents and HepG2 cells (human hepatocellular carcinoma) with functional p53 gene. From the concentration 1 ?g/mL up to 20 ?g/mL of PHMB, no effect was observed, either growth stimulation or inhibition. Viability testing using neutral red led to an IC 50 of 20–25 ?g/mL after treatment with PHMB for 3 h, whereas the MTT test led to IC50 values of 80 ?g/mL, 160 ?g/mL and 160 ?g/mL respectively for HepG2 cells, Neuro-2A cells and Caco-2 cells. PHMB does not induce significant oxidative stress (production of MDA or lipoperoxidation, nor does it induce hydroxylation of DNA (8-OH-dG) and/or its hypermethylation (m5dC), the latter being strongly implicated in DNA replication and regulation and cell division. PHMB does not induce significant production of mitogenic cytokines such as TNF-? (tumor necrosis factor), interleukins (IL-1 alpha), and the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) which can cause either apoptosis or stimulate the growth of transformed cells or tumors. Instead, from concentrations of 20 to 100 ?g/mL, PHMB kills cells of all types in less than 3 h. The expression of genes involved in the mechanisms of cell death induced by PHMB, including p53, the pro apoptotic gene bax and others, the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 and caspase-3 has been evaluated by RT-PCR. Finally, the status of GAP-junctions (GJIC) in the presence of PHMB has been determined and appeared to not be significantly affected. Taken together the data show that in vitro PHMB does not exhibit clear and remarkable epigenetic properties except a slight increase of some cytokines and transcription factor at higher concentrations at which cell lysis occurs rapidly. PMID:25111876

  13. Distribution and elimination of [14C] sarafloxacin hydrochloride from tissues of juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, W.H.; Meinertz, J.R.; Dawson, V.K.; Gofus, J.E.; Delaney, L.J.; Bunnell, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    The distribution and loss of radioactivity from tissues were determined in 60 juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) following oral dosing with the candidate fish therapeutant Sarafin® ([14C] sarafloxacin hydrochloride) at 10 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days. Twelve groups of 5 fish each were sampled at selected times ranging from 3 to 240 h after the last dose was administered, The concentration and content of sarafloxacin-equivalent activity was determined in liver, gallbladder, kidney, skin, and skinless fillet by sample oxidation and liquid scintillation counting; content of sarafloxacin-equivalent activity was determined in stomach and anterior and posterior intestines, Skinless fillet tissues were also analyzed for sarafloxacin and for potential metabolites by gradient-elution high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with in-line radiometric and fluorescence detection, Loss of radioactivity from the whole body conformed to a bimodal elimination pattern with a rapid initial phase (t1/2=11 h) and a slower secondary phase (t1/2=222 h). Tissue and contents of the gastrointestinal tract (i.e. stomach and anterior and posterior intestines) were a principal depot of activity during the first four sample times (3, 6, 12, and 24 h); the combined head, skeleton, and fins (i.e. residual carcass) were the principal depot of activity in samples taken after 24 h. Of those tissues sampled 3 h after the last dose, relative sarafloxacin concentration was greatest in the liver (4.06 ?g equivalents/g) and least in the residual carcass (1.13 ?g equivalents/g), Intermediate concentrations were found in the kidney (2.04 ?g equivalents/g), skinless fillet (1.71 ?g equivalents/ g), and the skin (1.51 ?g equivalents/g). Concentrations of sarafloxacin-equivalent residues in edible skinless fillet were consistently among the lowest of all tissues examined. The highest mean concentration of parent-equivalent material in the fillet tissue was found 12 h after administration of the last dose (2.27 ?g equivalents/g) and declined thereafter, Sarafloxacin constituted between 80 and 90% of the extractable radioactive residues from the fillet homogenates. No other peaks were resolved in any of the fillet tissue samples analyzed by HPLC with in-line radiometric detection.

  14. Chemical and physical stability of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose matrices containing diltiazem hydrochloride after gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Maggi, L; Segale, L; Ochoa Machiste, E; Buttafava, A; Faucitano, A; Conte, U

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, the exposure to gamma-radiation is an increasingly used method to sterilize or to reduce bacterial charge in drug-delivery devices. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the ionizing radiation may be responsible for drug inactivation or for the alteration of the functional excipient used to modulate drug release from a controlled-release delivery system. In this work, we investigated the physical and dissolution stability of prolonged release matrix tablets containing diltiazem hydrochloride, as a model drug, and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) of two different viscosity grades, as the retarding polymer, before and after exposure to increasing doses of gamma-rays. The results show that gamma-irradiation induces chemical modifications in the structure of the active agent, and also of the hydrophilic polymer. The electronic paramagnetic resonance analysis of gamma-irradiated diltiazem has afforded evidence of carbon radicals stemming from C-H bond ruptures and sulphur radicals, the latter being formed mainly after admission of air at room temperature. The major radical products in the HPMC polymer radiolysis have been reckoned with chain scission events in agreement with the results of viscosity measurements that show a progressive decrease of the average molecular weight with increasing the radiation dose. The elaboration of the viscosity data has led to linear relationships between the eta(o)/eta ratio and the radiation dose D which were rationalized with the following equation under the assumption of a Mark-Houwink Sakurada coefficient a approximately equal 1: eta(o)/eta = (1 + uy(o) D)(a). In this equation, D is gamma-radiation dose, eta(o) and eta are the reduced viscosities before and after the irradiation respectively, u is the number average degree of polymerization, and y(o) is the chain scission radiolytic yield. From the linear relationships G(chain scissions) = 1.2 x 10(-6) and 1.4 x 10(-6) moles/J have been obtained for the two HPMC polymer samples M100 and M4 of different molecular weight used in the experiments. These changes could be responsible for the alteration of the drug-release mechanism and reduced polymer efficacy in controlling drug release. PMID:12486689

  15. Guanidine hydrochloride inhibits the generation of prion "seeds" but not prion protein aggregation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Ness, Frédérique; Ferreira, Paulo; Cox, Brian S; Tuite, Mick F

    2002-08-01

    [PSI(+)] strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae replicate and transmit the prion form of the Sup35p protein but can be permanently cured of this property when grown in millimolar concentrations of guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl). GdnHCl treatment leads to the inhibition of the replication of the [PSI(+)] seeds necessary for continued [PSI(+)] propagation. Here we demonstrate that the rate of incorporation of newly synthesized Sup35p into the high-molecular-weight aggregates, diagnostic of [PSI(+)] strains, is proportional to the number of seeds in the cell, with seed number declining (and the levels of soluble Sup35p increasing) in the presence of GdnHCl. GdnHCl does not cause breakdown of preexisting Sup35p aggregates in [PSI(+)] cells. Transfer of GdnHCl-treated cells to GdnHCl-free medium reverses GdnHCl inhibition of [PSI(+)] seed replication and allows new prion seeds to be generated exponentially in the absence of ongoing protein synthesis. Following such release the [PSI(+)] seed numbers double every 20 to 22 min. Recent evidence (P. C. Ferreira, F. Ness, S. R. Edwards, B. S. Cox, and M. F. Tuite, Mol. Microbiol. 40:1357-1369, 2001; G. Jung and D. C. Masison, Curr. Microbiol. 43:7-10, 2001), together with data presented here, suggests that curing yeast prions by GdnHCl is a consequence of GdnHCl inhibition of the activity of molecular chaperone Hsp104, which in turn is essential for [PSI(+)] propagation. The kinetics of elimination of [PSI(+)] by coexpression of a dominant, ATPase-negative allele of HSP104 were similar to those observed for GdnHCl-induced elimination. Based on these and other data, we propose a two-cycle model for "prionization" of Sup35p in [PSI(+)] cells: cycle A is the GdnHCl-sensitive (Hsp104-dependent) replication of the prion seeds, while cycle B is a GdnHCl-insensitive (Hsp104-independent) process that converts these seeds to pelletable aggregates. PMID:12101251

  16. Effects of implanting and feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride on performance, carcass characteristics, and subprimal beef yields of fed cows.

    PubMed

    Neill, S; Unruh, J A; Marston, T T; Jaeger, J R; Hunt, M C; Higgins, J J

    2009-02-01

    Sixty crossbred cull cows were used to determine the combined effects of a trenbolone acetate-estradiol implant and feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride on performance, carcass characteristics, and subprimal yields of mature cows fed for 70 d. Cows were assigned to 1 of 5 treatments: 1) grazing native grass pasture (G); 2) concentrate-fed (C) a grain sorghum-sorghum silage diet; 3) concentrate-fed and implanted (CI) with Revalor-200 (trenbolone acetate-estradiol); 4) concentrate-fed and fed Zilmax (zilpaterol hydrochloride) beginning on d 38 of the feeding period (CZ); and 5) concentrate-fed, implanted, and fed Zilmax beginning on d 38 (CIZ). The concentrate diet consisted primarily of ground grain sorghum and sorghum silage. During the last 34 d of the feeding trial, concentrate-fed (C, CI, CZ, and CIZ) cows had greater (P < 0.05) gains than G cows. Hot carcass weights and dressing percentages were greater (P < 0.05) for the concentrate-fed cows than for G cows. Longissimus muscle area was largest (P < 0.05) for CIZ cows, whereas subprimal weights from the chuck were heavier (P < 0.05) from CIZ cows than C and G cows, and carcasses from CI and CZ cows had heavier (P < 0.05) chuck subprimal weights than G cows. Rib and round subprimal weights were heavier (P < 0.05) for concentrate-fed cows compared with G cows. In addition, carcasses from CIZ cows had heavier (P < 0.05) total subprimal weights, and total subprimals were a greater percentage of their initial BW than C cows. Rib cut-out and total soft tissue weights from the 9-10-11th rib were less (P < 0.05) for G cows than concentrate-fed cows. Feeding cull cows a concentrate diet increased carcass weight, dressing percentage, and subprimal yields compared with feeding cows a grass-based pasture diet, and the combination of a trenbolone acetate-estradiol implant and feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride can maximize trimmed beef yields from cull cows fed a high-concentrate diet. PMID:18820157

  17. Synthesis and anti-leukemia activity mensuration of 1-phenethyl-4-hydroxy-4-substituted piperidinium hydrochlorides: Structure of bis[1-phenethyl-4-hydroxy-4-(3-fluorophenyl) piperidinium hydrochloride] studied by X-ray and DFT methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dingrong; Xue, Sijia; Wang, Haifeng; Zhu, Jun; Jin, Jia; Chen, Jun

    2009-07-01

    Four unknown compounds have been synthesized based on the molecular motif of 1-phenethyl-4-hydroxy piperidinium hydrochloride with a variety of the substituted groups R on the same carbon atom bearing the hydroxy group, such as 3-fluorophenyl ( 3a), 4-methoxyphenyl ( 3b), 4-methylphenyl ( 3c) and cyclohexanyl ( 3d), and their molecular structures were characterized by 1H NMR, MS and IR. To account for the stereo structure and provide more information on the effect of counter ions, hydrogen bonds on molecular conformation, the structure of [1-phenethyl-4-hydroxy-4-(3-fluorophenyl) piperidinium hydrochloride] [PHFPH .Cl] 3a was determined by the single-crystal X-ray analysis and optimized by the B3LYP/6-31G (d, p) calculations. Two chloride anions, two PHFPH cations and a dichloromethane molecule formed a five-membered structure ([(PHFPH) 2Cl 2]·CH 2Cl 2) via the intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The core of the five-membered structure ([(PHFPH) 2Cl 2]·CH 2Cl 2) is formed by two PHFPH cations linked by N(1B)-H(2)⋯Cl(2) hydrogen bonds of lengths 3.033(4), which is engaged in two hydrogen bonds: N(1A)-H(1)⋯Cl(1) of 3.110(4) Å and O(1B)-H(2B)⋯Cl(1) of 3.099(4) Å. The anti-tumor activity tests indicated that these compounds could inhibit the growth of the K562 cells to some extent and have the potential bioactivity of anti-leukemia.

  18. Metformin Hydrochloride in Patients With Atypical Hyperplasia or In Situ Breast Cancer to Placebo in Decreasing Atypical Cells in Patients With Atypical Hyperplasia or in Situ Breast Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase III trial studies metformin hydrochloride to see how well it works compared to placebo in decreasing atypical cells in patients with atypical hyperplasia or in situ breast cancer.

  19. The effect of polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHMG) derivatives introduced into polylactide (PLA) on the activity of bacterial enzymes.

    PubMed

    Walczak, Maciej; Richert, Agnieszka; Burkowska-But, Aleksandra

    2014-11-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating bactericidal properties of polylactide (PLA) films containing three different polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHMG) derivatives and effect of the derivatives on extracellular hydrolytic enzymes and intracellular dehydrogenases. All PHMG derivatives had a slightly stronger bactericidal effect on Staphylococcus aureus than on E. coli but only PHMG granular polyethylene wax (at the concentration of at least 0.6 %) has a bactericidal effect. PHMG derivatives introduced into PLA affected the activity of microbial hydrolases to a small extent. This means that the introduction of PHMG derivatives into PLA will not reduce its enzymatic biodegradation significantly. On the other hand, PHMG derivatives introduced into PLA strongly affected dehydrogenases activity in S. aureus than in E. coli. PMID:25189811

  20. The Unfolding and Refolding Reactions of Triosephosphate Isomerase from Trypanosoma Cruzi Follow Similar Pathways. Guanidinium Hydrochloride Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Contreras, Edgar; Pérez Hernández, Gerardo; Sánchez-Rebollar, Brenda Guadalupe; Chánez-Cárdenas, María Elena

    2005-04-01

    The unfolding and refolding reactions of Trypanosoma cruzi triosephosphate isomerase (TcTIM) was studied under equilibrium conditions at increasing guanidinium hydrochloride concentrations. The changes in activity intrinsic fluorescence and far-ultraviolet circular dichroism as a function of denaturant were used as a quaternary, tertiary and secondary structural probes respectively. The change in extrinsic ANS fluorescence intensity was also investigated. The results show that the transition between the homodimeric native enzyme to the unfolded monomers (unfolding), and its inverse reaction (refolding) are described by similar pathways and two equilibrium intermediates were detected in both reactions. The mild denaturant concentrations intermediate is active and contains significant amount of secondary and tertiary structures. The medium denaturant concentrations intermediate is inactive and able to bind the fluorescent dye. This intermediates are maybe related with those observed in the denaturation pattern of TIMs from other species; the results are discussed in this context.