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Sample records for 3-methylthiopropionic acid ethyl

  1. 3-Methylthiopropionic Acid Ethyl Ester, Isolated from Katsura-uri (Japanese pickling melon, Cucumis melo var. conomon), Enhanced Differentiation in Human Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yasushi; Nakayama, Yuko; Ando, Hitomi; Tanaka, Atsuo; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Okamoto, Shigehisa; Upham, Brad L.; Chang, Chia-Cheng; Trosko, James E.; Park, Eun Young; Sato, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    The fully ripened fruit of Katsura-uri Japanese pickling melon (Cucumis melo var. conomon) has rarely been used for food because the midripened fruit is utilized for making pickles, but the fully ripened fruit is no longer valuable for pickles due to the fruit body being too soft. We have considered the utilization of the fully ripened Katsura-uri fruit that may be used for nonpickling products, particularly if the fully ripened fruit demonstrated health benefits such as anticarcinogenic properties. The phytochemical extract from the fully ripened fruit of Katsura-uri Japanese pickling melon was purified via a bioassay-guided fractionation scheme, which was based on the induction of differentiation in a RCM-1 human colon cancer cell line. On the criteria of two differentiation markers (duct formation and alkaline phosphatase activity), the most potent fraction contained a compound identified as 3-methylthiopropionic acid ethyl ester, based on GC retention time, EI-MS, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR spectra. Previously, the role of 3-methylthiopropionic acid ethyl ester was considered as an odor producing compound in many fruits, but this study indicates potential medical benefits of this compound. PMID:18426216

  2. 3-Methylthiopropionic acid ethyl ester, isolated from Katsura-uri (Japanese pickling melon, Cucumis melo var. conomon), enhanced differentiation in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yasushi; Nakayama, Yuko; Ando, Hitomi; Tanaka, Atsuo; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Okamoto, Shigehisa; Upham, Brad L; Chang, Chia-Cheng; Trosko, James E; Park, Eun Young; Sato, Kenji

    2008-05-14

    The fully ripened fruit of Katsura-uri Japanese pickling melon ( Cucumis melo var. conomon) has rarely been used for food because the midripened fruit is utilized for making pickles, but the fully ripened fruit is no longer valuable for pickles due to the fruit body being too soft. We have considered the utilization of the fully ripened Katsura-uri fruit that may be used for nonpickling products, particularly if the fully ripened fruit demonstrated health benefits such as anticarcinogenic properties. The phytochemical extract from the fully ripened fruit of Katsura-uri Japanese pickling melon was purified via a bioassay-guided fractionation scheme, which was based on the induction of differentiation in a RCM-1 human colon cancer cell line. On the criteria of two differentiation markers (duct formation and alkaline phosphatase activity), the most potent fraction contained a compound identified as 3-methylthiopropionic acid ethyl ester, based on GC retention time, EI-MS, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR spectra. Previously, the role of 3-methylthiopropionic acid ethyl ester was considered as an odor producing compound in many fruits, but this study indicates potential medical benefits of this compound. PMID:18426216

  3. 3-Methylthiopropionic Acid of Rhizoctonia solani AG-3 and Its Role in the Pathogenicity of the Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Kankam, Frederick; Long, Hai-Tao; He, Jing; Zhang, Chun-hong; Zhang, Hui-Xiu; Pu, Lumei; Qiu, Huizhen

    2016-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the role of 3-methylthioproprionic acid (MTPA) in the pathogenicity of potato stem canker, Rhizoctonia solani, and the concentrations required to inhibit growth of R. solani under laboratory and plant house-based conditions. The experiments were laid out in a completely randomized design with five treatments and five replications. The treatments were 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mM concentrations of MTPA. The purified toxin exhibited maximal activity at pH 2.5 and 30°C. MTPA at 1, 2, 4, and 8 mM levels reduced plant height, chlorophyll content, haulm fresh weight, number of stolons, canopy development, and tuber weight of potato plants, as compared to the control. MTPA significantly affected mycelial growth with 8 mM causing the highest infection. The potato seedlings treated with MTPA concentrations of 1.0–8.0 mM induced necrosis of up to 80% of root system area. Cankers were resulted from the injection of potato seedling stems with 8.0 mM MTPA. The results showed the disappearance of cell membrane, rough mitochondrial and cell walls, change of the shape of chloroplasts, and swollen endoplasmic reticulum. Seventy-six (76) hours after toxin treatment, cell contents were completely broken, cytoplasm dissolved, and more chromatin were seen in the nucleus. The results suggested that high levels of the toxin concentration caused cell membrane and cytoplasm fracture. The integrity of cellular structure was destroyed by the phytotoxin. The concentrations of the phytotoxin were significantly correlated with pathogenicity and caused damage to the cell membrane of potato stem base tissue. PMID:27147928

  4. 3-Methylthiopropionic Acid of Rhizoctonia solani AG-3 and Its Role in the Pathogenicity of the Fungus.

    PubMed

    Kankam, Frederick; Long, Hai-Tao; He, Jing; Zhang, Chun-Hong; Zhang, Hui-Xiu; Pu, Lumei; Qiu, Huizhen

    2016-04-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the role of 3-methylthioproprionic acid (MTPA) in the pathogenicity of potato stem canker, Rhizoctonia solani, and the concentrations required to inhibit growth of R. solani under laboratory and plant house-based conditions. The experiments were laid out in a completely randomized design with five treatments and five replications. The treatments were 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mM concentrations of MTPA. The purified toxin exhibited maximal activity at pH 2.5 and 30°C. MTPA at 1, 2, 4, and 8 mM levels reduced plant height, chlorophyll content, haulm fresh weight, number of stolons, canopy development, and tuber weight of potato plants, as compared to the control. MTPA significantly affected mycelial growth with 8 mM causing the highest infection. The potato seedlings treated with MTPA concentrations of 1.0-8.0 mM induced necrosis of up to 80% of root system area. Cankers were resulted from the injection of potato seedling stems with 8.0 mM MTPA. The results showed the disappearance of cell membrane, rough mitochondrial and cell walls, change of the shape of chloroplasts, and swollen endoplasmic reticulum. Seventy-six (76) hours after toxin treatment, cell contents were completely broken, cytoplasm dissolved, and more chromatin were seen in the nucleus. The results suggested that high levels of the toxin concentration caused cell membrane and cytoplasm fracture. The integrity of cellular structure was destroyed by the phytotoxin. The concentrations of the phytotoxin were significantly correlated with pathogenicity and caused damage to the cell membrane of potato stem base tissue. PMID:27147928

  5. 40 CFR 721.10244 - Phosphonic acid, P-[2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-, 2-[bis(2- chloroethoxy)phosphinyl]ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10244 Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2... substance identified as phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2-chloroethyl ester (PMN P-09-195; CAS...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10244 - Phosphonic acid, P-[2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-, 2-[bis(2- chloroethoxy)phosphinyl]ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10244 Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2... substance identified as phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2-chloroethyl ester (PMN P-09-195; CAS...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10244 - Phosphonic acid, P-[2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-, 2-[bis(2- chloroethoxy)phosphinyl]ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10244 Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2... substance identified as phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2-chloroethyl ester (PMN P-09-195; CAS...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3152 - Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates (salts). 721.3152 Section 721... Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates... ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3152 - Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates (salts). 721.3152 Section 721... Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates... ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

  10. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

  11. Testing for ethanol markers in hair: discrepancies after simultaneous quantification of ethyl glucuronide and fatty acid ethyl esters.

    PubMed

    Kintz, P; Nicholson, D

    2014-10-01

    The hair of 97 cases were analysed for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE, including ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate) according to the Society of Hair Testing guidelines to examine the role of both tests in documenting chronic excessive alcohol drinking, particularly when the results are in contradiction. 27 (27.8%) results were EtG negative and FAEE positive, when applying the SoHT cut-offs, probably due to the use of alcohol-containing hair products. Four cases (4.1%) were EtG positive and FAEE negative that were attributed to the use of herbal lotions containing EtG. PMID:24794020

  12. 40 CFR 721.4250 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester... Substances § 721.4250 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester...

  13. 40 CFR 721.7290 - Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...)-, ethyl ester. 721.7290 Section 721.7290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7290 Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester (PMN P-01-22; CAS No. 137787-41-8) is subject to...

  14. 40 CFR 721.7290 - Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...)-, ethyl ester. 721.7290 Section 721.7290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7290 Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester (PMN P-01-22; CAS No. 137787-41-8) is subject to...

  15. Impact of Association Colloids on Lipid Oxidation in Triacylglycerols and Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters.

    PubMed

    Homma, Rika; Suzuki, Karin; Cui, Leqi; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2015-11-25

    The impact of association colloids on lipid oxidation in triacylglycerols and fatty acid ethyl esters was investigated. Association colloids did not affect lipid oxidation of high oleic safflower and high linoleic safflower triacylglycerols, but were prooxidative in fish triacylglycerols. Association colloids retarded aldehyde formation in stripped ethyl oleate, linoleate, and fish oil ethyl esters. Interfacial tension revealed that lipid hydroperoxides were surface active in the presence of the surfactants found in association colloids. The lipid hydroperoxides from ethyl esters were less surface active than triacylglycerol hydroperoxides. Stripping decreased iron and copper concentrations in all oils, but more so in fatty acid ethyl esters. The combination of lower hydroperoxide surface activity and low metal concentrations could explain why association colloids inhibited lipid oxidation in fatty acid ethyl esters. This research suggests that association colloids could be used as an antioxidant technology in fatty acid ethyl esters. PMID:26506263

  16. Interaction of Ethyl Alcohol Vapor with Sulfuric Acid Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, Ming-Taun

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the uptake of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) vapor by sulfuric acid solutions over the range approx.40 to approx.80 wt % H2SO4 and temperatures of 193-273 K. Laboratory studies used a fast flow-tube reactor coupled to an electron-impact ionization mass spectrometer for detection of ethanol and reaction products. The uptake coefficients ((gamma)) were measured and found to vary from 0.019 to 0.072, depending upon the acid composition and temperature. At concentrations greater than approx.70 wt % and in dilute solutions colder than 220 K, the values approached approx.0.07. We also determined the effective solubility constant of ethanol in approx.40 wt % H2SO4 in the temperature range 203-223 K. The potential implications to the budget of ethanol in the global troposphere are briefly discussed.

  17. Solid Dose Form of Metformin with Ethyl Eicosapentaenoic Acid Does Not Improve Metformin Plasma Availability

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Jeffrey H.; Johnson, William D.; Greenway, Frank L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study was to investigate effects of ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid on pharmacokinetics of metformin. Pharmacokinetic profiles of metformin and ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid when delivered separately or together in solid dose form were investigated and compared to determine whether the solid dose resulted in an altered metforminpharmacokinetics when given with or without food. Methods A single-center, open-label, repeated dose study investigated the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of metformin when administered in solid dose form with ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid compared to co-administration with icosapent ethyl, an ester of eicosapentaenoic acid and ethyl alcohol used to treat severe hypertriglyceridemia with metformin hydrochloride. Non-compartmental PK methods were used to compare area under the plasma concentration curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) between patients randomized to either the ester or separate medications group under both fasting and fed conditions. Results Using these two PK parameters, results showed that metformin availability was higher under fasting conditions when delivered separately from icosapent ethyl. There were no group differences in the fed condition. Conclusions The solid dose form of metformin and ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid did not improve the pharmacokinetics of metformin in terms of plasma availability, suggesting that little is to be gained over the separate administration of ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid and metformin hydrochloride. PMID:26893954

  18. 40 CFR 721.10243 - Phosphonic acid, P-[2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10243 Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester. (a... phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester (PMN P-09-193; CAS No. 55088-28-3) is subject...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10243 - Phosphonic acid, P-[2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10243 Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester. (a... phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester (PMN P-09-193; CAS No. 55088-28-3) is subject...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10243 - Phosphonic acid, P-[2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10243 Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester. (a... phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester (PMN P-09-193; CAS No. 55088-28-3) is subject...

  1. Oxidase-peroxidase enzymes of Datura innoxia. Oxidation of formylphenylacetic acid ethyl ester.

    PubMed Central

    Kalyanaraman, V S; Mahadevan, S; Kumar, S A

    1975-01-01

    An enzyme system from Datura innoxia roots oxidizing formylphenylacetic acid ethyl ester was purified 38-fold by conventional methods such as (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, negative adsorption on alumina Cy gel and chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. The purified enzyme was shown to catalyse the stoicheiometric oxidation of formylphenylacetic acid ethyl ester to benzoylformic acid ethyl ester and formic acid, utilizing molecular O2. Substrate analogues such as phenylacetaldehyde and phenylpyruvate were oxidized at a very low rate, and formylphenylacetonitrile was an inhilating agents, cyanide, thiol compounds and ascorbic acid. This enzyme was identical with an oxidase-peroxidase isoenzyme. Another oxidase-peroxidase isoenzyme which separated on DEAE-chromatography also showed formylphenylacetic acid ethyl ester oxidase activity, albeit to a lesser extent. The properties of the two isoenzymes of the oxidase were compared and shown to differ in their oxidation and peroxidation properties. The oxidation of formylphenylacetic acid ethyl ester was also catalysed by horseradish peroxidase. The Datura isoenzymes exhibited typical haemoprotein spectra. The oxidation of formylphenylacetic acid ethyl ester was different from other peroxidase-catalysed reactions in not being activated by either Mn2+ or monophenols. The oxidation was inhibited by several mono- and poly-phenols and by catalase. A reaction mechanism for the oxidation is proposed. PMID:997

  2. Nitrosamine-induced carcinogenesis. The alkylation of N-7 of guanine of nucleic acids of the rat by diethylnitrosamine, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea and ethyl methanesulphonate

    PubMed Central

    Swann, P. F.; Magee, P. N.

    1971-01-01

    1. The extent of ethylation of N-7 of guanine in the nucleic acids of rat tissue in vivo by diethylnitrosamine, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea and ethyl methanesulphonate was measured. 2. All compounds produced measurable amounts of 7-ethyl-guanine. 3. A single dose of diethylnitrosamine or N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea produced tumours of the kidney in the rat. Three doses of ethyl methanesulphonate produced kidney tumours, but a single dose did not. 4. A single dose of diethylnitrosamine produced twice as much ethylation of N-7 of guanine in DNA of kidney as did N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. A single dose of both compounds induced kidney tumours, although of a different histological type. 5. A single dose of ethyl methanesulphonate produced ten times as much ethylation of N-7 of guanine in kidney DNA as did N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea without producing tumours. 6. The relevance of these findings to the hypothesis that alkylation of a cellular component is the mechanism of induction of tumours by nitroso compounds is discussed. PMID:5145908

  3. Comparison of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) concentrations in hair for testing abstinence.

    PubMed

    Albermann, M E; Musshoff, F; Madea, B

    2011-04-01

    Hair analysis is a powerful tool for retrospective drug analysis. By determining the minor ethanol metabolites ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in hair, even a previous consumption of alcohol is detectable. However, previous studies showed a lack of correlation if both parameters are determined simultaneously. A further study was conducted to confirm or refute these results. One hundred and sixty hair samples were analyzed for EtG and FAEE in the context of driving ability. In 109 cases, alcohol abstinence was clearly proven and was excluded in 15 cases. In 36 cases, ambiguous results were found. Possible reasons for the deviating results are discussed. It is recommended, that in context of driving ability diagnostics the EtG result is determinant. In critical cases FAEE concentrations can be determined for checking purposes, but a negative FAEE result cannot refute a determined EtG concentration >7 pg/mg. PMID:21127843

  4. Liquid-liquid extraction separation of iron (III) with 2-ethyl hexyl phosphonic acid mono 2-ethyl hexyl ester.

    PubMed

    Jayachandran, J; Dhadke, P M

    1997-07-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction separation of iron(III) with 2-ethyl hexyl phosphonic acid mono 2-ethyl hexyl ester (PC-88A) in toluene has been studied. Quantitative extraction of iron(III) with 5 x 10(-3) M PC-88A in toluene is observed in the pH range 0.75-2.5. From the extracted complex species in the organic phase iron(III) was stripped with 1-4 M HNO(3), 1.5-4 M H(2)SO(4) and 1.5-4 M HCl, and later determined spectrophotometrically by thiocyanate method. Separation of iron(III) was carried out with some of the first transition metals in binary and multicomponent mixtures. This method was extended for the determination of iron in real samples. PMID:18966864

  5. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . 721.1950 Section 721.1950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  6. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . 721.1950 Section 721.1950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  7. GENOTOXICITY OF ACRYLIC ACID, METHYL ACRYLATE, ETHYL ACRYLATE, METHYL METHACRYLATE, AND ETHYL METHACRYLATE IN L5178Y MOUSE LYMPHOMA CELLS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of monomeric acrylate/methacrylate esters (methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, and ethyl methacrylate) as well as acrylic acid were examined for genotoxic activity in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells without exogenous activation. All five compounds induced c...

  8. High-yield synthesis of bioactive ethyl cinnamate by enzymatic esterification of cinnamic acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Zhang, Dong-Hao; Zhang, Jiang-Yan; Chen, Na; Zhi, Gao-Ying

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, Lipozyme TLIM-catalyzed synthesis of ethyl cinnamate through esterification of cinnamic acid with ethanol was studied. In order to increase the yield of ethyl cinnamate, several media, including acetone, isooctane, DMSO and solvent-free medium, were investigated in this reaction. The reaction showed a high yield by using isooctane as reaction medium, which was found to be much higher than the yields reported previously. Furthermore, several parameters such as shaking rate, water activity, reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio and enzyme loading had important influences on this reaction. For instance, when temperature increased from 10 to 50 °C, the initial reaction rate increased by 18 times and the yield of ethyl cinnamate increased by 6.2 times. Under the optimum conditions, lipase-catalyzed synthesis of ethyl cinnamate gave a maximum yield of 99%, which was of general interest for developing industrial processes for the preparation of ethyl cinnamate. PMID:26213020

  9. Orthogonal Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Pathway Improves Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Dawn T; HamediRad, Mohammad; Yuan, Yongbo; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-07-17

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are a form of biodiesel that can be microbially produced via a transesterification reaction of fatty acids with ethanol. The titer of microbially produced FAEEs can be greatly reduced by unbalanced metabolism and an insufficient supply of fatty acids, resulting in a commercially inviable process. Here, we report on a pathway engineering strategy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhancing the titer of microbially produced FAEEs by providing the cells with an orthogonal route for fatty acid synthesis. The fatty acids generated from this heterologous pathway would supply the FAEE production, safeguarding endogenous fatty acids for cellular metabolism and growth. We investigated the heterologous expression of a Type-I fatty acid synthase (FAS) from Brevibacterium ammoniagenes coupled with WS/DGAT, the wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme that catalyzes the transesterification reaction with ethanol. Strains harboring the orthologous fatty acid synthesis yielded a 6.3-fold increase in FAEE titer compared to strains without the heterologous FAS. Variations in fatty acid chain length and degree of saturation can affect the quality of the biodiesel; therefore, we also investigated the diversity of the fatty acid production profile of FAS enzymes from other Actinomyces organisms. PMID:25594225

  10. Clinical Sensitivity and Specificity of Meconium Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters, Ethyl Glucuronide, and Ethyl Sulfate for Detecting Maternal Drinking During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Himes, Sarah K.; Dukes, Kimberly A.; Tripp, Tara; Petersen, Julie M.; Raffo, Cheri; Burd, Larry; Odendaal, Hein; Elliott, Amy J.; Hereld, Dale; Signore, Caroline; Willinger, Marian; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Background We investigated agreement between self-reported prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and objective meconium alcohol markers to determine the optimal meconium marker and threshold for identifying PAE. Methods Meconium fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), ethyl glucuronide (EtG), and ethyl sulfate (EtS) were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 0.1 g meconium from infants of Safe Passage Study participants. Detailed PAE information was collected from women with a validated timeline follow-back interview. As meconium formation begins during weeks 12-20, maternal self-reported drinking at or beyond 19 weeks was our exposure variable. Results Of 107 women, 33 reported no alcohol consumption in pregnancy, 16 stopped drinking by week 19, and 58 drank beyond 19 weeks (including 45 3rd trimester drinkers). There was moderate-substantial agreement between self-reported PAE ≥19 weeks and meconium EtG ≥30 ng/g (kappa: 0.57, 95% CI 0.41-0.73). This biomarker and associated cutoff was superior to a 7 FAEE sum ≥2 nmol/g and all other individual and combination marker cutoffs. With meconium EtG ≥30 ng/g as the gold-standard condition and maternal self-report ≥19 weeks gestation as the test condition, 82% sensitivity (95% CI: 71.6-92.0) and 75% specificity (95% CI: 63.2-86.8) were observed. A significant dose-concentration relationship between self-reported drinks per drinking day and meconium EtG ≥30 ng/g also was observed (P<0.01). Conclusions We assessed meconium EtG, EtS, and FAEE concentrations in the same meconium sample and compared concentrations to detailed self-reported PAE data. Maternal alcohol consumption ≥19 weeks was better represented by meconium EtG ≥30 ng/g compared to current FAEE cutoffs. PMID:25595440

  11. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10300 Benzeneacetic acid,...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10300 Benzeneacetic acid,...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10300 Benzeneacetic acid,...

  14. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  15. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  16. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10457 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mixed esters with benzyl alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... esters with benzyl alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol. 721.10457...-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol (PMN P-03-154; CAS No....

  18. 40 CFR 721.10457 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mixed esters with benzyl alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... esters with benzyl alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol. 721.10457...-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol (PMN P-03-154; CAS No....

  19. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to...

  20. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to...

  1. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to...

  2. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to...

  3. 40 CFR 721.4250 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester. 721.4250 Section 721.4250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4250 Hexanoic...

  4. Enzymatic synthesis of fatty acid ethyl esters by utilizing camellia oil soapstocks and diethyl carbonate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingying; Cao, Xuejun

    2011-11-01

    This study was reported on a novel process for fatty acid ethyl esters preparation by transesterification and esterification from renewable low-cost feedstock camellia oil soapstocks and friendly acyl acceptor diethyl carbonate. The main components of product were 83.9% ethyl oleate, 8.9% ethyl palmitate, 4.7% ethyl linoleate and 2.1% ethyl stearate, which could be used as eco-friendly renewable resources or additives of industrial solvent and fossil fuel. The effects of molar ratio of diethyl carbonate to soapstocks oil, lipases, organic solvent, reaction temperature and time were investigated, and process conditions were optimized. The yield was up to 98.4% in solvent-free system with molar ratio of diethyl carbonate to soapstocks oil 3:1 and 5% Novozym 435 (based on the weight of soapstocks oil) at 50 °C and 180 rpm for 24 h. Moreover, there was no obvious loss in the yield after lipases were reused for 10 batches without treatment under optimized conditions. PMID:21958524

  5. Ethyl cellulose microcapsules for protecting and controlled release of folic acid.

    PubMed

    Prasertmanakit, Satit; Praphairaksit, Nalena; Chiangthong, Worawadee; Muangsin, Nongnuj

    2009-01-01

    Ethyl cellulose microcapsules were developed for use as a drug-delivery device for protecting folic acid from release and degradation in the undesirable environmental conditions of the stomach, whilst allowing its release in the intestinal tract to make it available for absorption. The controlled release folic acid-loaded ethyl cellulose microcapsules were prepared by oil-in-oil emulsion solvent evaporation using a mixed solvent system, consisting of a 9:1 (v/v) ratio of acetone:methanol and light liquid paraffin as the dispersed and continuous phase. Span 80 was used as the surfactant to stabilize the emulsion. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the microcapsules had a spherical shape. However, the particulate properties and in vitro release profile depended on the concentrations of the ethyl cellulose, Span 80 emulsifier, sucrose (pore inducer), and folic acid. The average diameter of the microcapsules increased from 300 to 448 microm, whilst the folic acid release rate decreased from 52% to 40%, as the ethyl cellulose concentration was increased from 2.5% to 7.5% (w/v). Increasing the Span 80 concentration from 1% to 4% (v/v) decreased the average diameter of microcapsules from 300 to 141 microm and increased the folic acid release rate from 52% to 79%. The addition of 2.5-7.5% (w/v) of sucrose improved the folic acid release from the microcapsules. The entrapment efficiency was improved from 64% to 88% when the initial folic acid concentration was increased from 1 to 3 mg/ml. PMID:19763838

  6. Combined use of fatty acid ethyl esters and ethyl glucuronide in hair for diagnosis of alcohol abuse: interpretation and advantages.

    PubMed

    Pragst, F; Rothe, M; Moench, B; Hastedt, M; Herre, S; Simmert, D

    2010-03-20

    In this study the combined use of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) for diagnoses of chronically excessive alcohol abuse is investigated at 174 hair samples from driving ability examination, workplace testing and child custody cases for family courts and evaluated with respect to the basics of interpretation. Using the cut-off values of 0.50 ng/mg for FAEE and 25 pg/mg for EtG, both markers were in agreement in 75% of the cases with 103 negative and 28 positive results and there were 30 cases with FAEE positive and EtG negative and 13 cases with FAEE negative and EtG positive. As the theoretical basis of interpretation, the pharmacokinetics of FAEE and EtG is reviewed for all steps between drinking of ethanol to incorporation in hair with particular attention to relationships between alcohol dose and concentrations in hair. It is shown that the concentrations of both markers are essentially determined by the area under the ethanol concentration in blood vs. time curve AUC(EtOH), despite large inter-individual variations. It is demonstrated by calculation of AUC(EtOH) on monthly basis for moderate, risky and heavy drinking that AUC(EtOH) increases very strongly in the range between 60 and 120 g ethanol per day. This specific feature which is caused by the zero-order elimination of ethanol is a favorable prerequisite for a high discrimination power of the hair testing for alcohol abuse. From the consideration of the different profiles of FAEE and EtG along the hair and in agreement with the literature survey, a standardized hair segment 0-3 cm is proposed with cut-off values of 0.5 ng/mg for FAEE and 30 pg/mg for EtG. This improves also the agreement between FAEE and EtG results in the cases of the present study. A scheme for combined interpretation of FAEE and EtG is proposed which uses the levels of abstinence and the double of the cut-off values as criteria in addition to the cut-off's. Considering the large variations in the relationship

  7. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10074 Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. (a... acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester (PMN P-05-568; CAS No. 477218-59-0)...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10074 Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. (a... acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester (PMN P-05-568; CAS No. 477218-59-0)...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10326 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2... 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2), 2,2'-(1,2-diazenediyl)bis - and...

  10. Quantification of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in meconium for detection of alcohol abuse during pregnancy: Correlation study between both biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Cabarcos, Pamela; Tabernero, María Jesús; Otero, José Luís; Míguez, Martha; Bermejo, Ana María; Martello, Simona; De Giovanni, Nadia; Chiarotti, Marcello

    2014-11-01

    This article presents results from 47 meconium samples, which were analyzed for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) for detection of gestational alcohol consumption. A validated microwave assisted extraction (MAE) method in combination with GC-MS developed in the Institute of Forensic Science (Santiago de Compostela) was used for FAEE and the cumulative concentration of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate and ethyl stearate with a cut-off of 600ng/g was applied for interpretation. A simple method for identification and quantification of EtG has been evaluated by ultrasonication followed solid phase extraction (SPE). Successful validation parameters were obtained for both biochemical markers of alcohol intake. FAEE and EtG concentrations in meconium ranged between values lower than LOD and 32,892ng/g or 218ng/g respectively. We have analyzed FAEE and EtG in the same meconium aliquot, enabling comparison of the efficiency of gestational ethanol exposure detection. Certain agreement between the two biomarkers was found as they are both a very specific alcohol markers, making it a useful analysis for confirmation. PMID:25137651

  11. Circumvention of defective neutral amino acid transport in Hartnup disease using tryptophan ethyl ester.

    PubMed

    Jonas, A J; Butler, I J

    1989-07-01

    Tryptophan ethyl ester, a lipid-soluble tryptophan derivative, was used to bypass defective gastrointestinal neutral amino acid transport in a child with Hartnup disease. The child's baseline tryptophan concentrations in serum (20 +/- 6 microM) and cerebrospinal fluid (1.0 +/- 0.2 microM) were persistently less than 50% of normal values. Cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), a serotonin metabolite, was also less than 50% of normal (21 +/- 2 ng/ml). Serum tryptophan concentrations increased only modestly and briefly after an oral challenge with 200 mg/kg of oral L-tryptophan, reflecting the absorptive defect. An oral challenge with 200 mg/kg of tryptophan ethyl ester resulted in a prompt increase in serum tryptophan to a peak of 555 microM. Sustained treatment with 20 mg/kg q6h resulted in normalization of serum (66 +/- 15 microM) and cerebrospinal fluid tryptophan concentrations (mean = 2.3 microM). Cerebrospinal fluid 5-HIAA increased to more normal concentrations (mean = 33 ng/ml). No toxicity was observed over an 8-mo period of treatment, chronic diarrhea resolved, and body weight, which had remained unchanged for 7 mo before ester therapy, increased by approximately 26%. We concluded that tryptophan ethyl ester is effective at circumventing defective gastrointestinal neutral amino acid transport and may be useful in the treatment of Hartnup disease. PMID:2472426

  12. Circumvention of defective neutral amino acid transport in Hartnup disease using tryptophan ethyl ester.

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, A J; Butler, I J

    1989-01-01

    Tryptophan ethyl ester, a lipid-soluble tryptophan derivative, was used to bypass defective gastrointestinal neutral amino acid transport in a child with Hartnup disease. The child's baseline tryptophan concentrations in serum (20 +/- 6 microM) and cerebrospinal fluid (1.0 +/- 0.2 microM) were persistently less than 50% of normal values. Cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), a serotonin metabolite, was also less than 50% of normal (21 +/- 2 ng/ml). Serum tryptophan concentrations increased only modestly and briefly after an oral challenge with 200 mg/kg of oral L-tryptophan, reflecting the absorptive defect. An oral challenge with 200 mg/kg of tryptophan ethyl ester resulted in a prompt increase in serum tryptophan to a peak of 555 microM. Sustained treatment with 20 mg/kg q6h resulted in normalization of serum (66 +/- 15 microM) and cerebrospinal fluid tryptophan concentrations (mean = 2.3 microM). Cerebrospinal fluid 5-HIAA increased to more normal concentrations (mean = 33 ng/ml). No toxicity was observed over an 8-mo period of treatment, chronic diarrhea resolved, and body weight, which had remained unchanged for 7 mo before ester therapy, increased by approximately 26%. We concluded that tryptophan ethyl ester is effective at circumventing defective gastrointestinal neutral amino acid transport and may be useful in the treatment of Hartnup disease. PMID:2472426

  13. Determination of fatty acid ethyl esters in hair by GC-MS and application in a population of cocaine users.

    PubMed

    Politi, Lucia; Mari, Francesco; Furlanetto, Sandra; Del Bravo, Ester; Bertol, Elisabetta

    2011-04-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the determination of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl stearate in hair samples was developed, validated and applied to real samples. Ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl stearate are fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) which are known to be direct biotransformation products of ethanol. Their presence in the body fluids and tissue is therefore indicative of alcohol intake and, in particular, FAEE concentration in hair higher than 0.5 ng/mg is indicative of excessive chronic alcohol consumption. The method was applied to 80 hair samples formerly found positive for cocaine and FAEE analytical results were compared with the presence of cocaethylene, a cocaine metabolite formed only when alcohol and cocaine are used together. According to our data the two biomarkers (FAEE and cocaethylene in hair) are tools of great value in the assessment of the diagnosis of use of cocaine and ethanol. In fact, discrepancies were noted and might be related to various factors including differences in consumption habits and thus permitting to distinguish the use of both substances non-concurrently or concurrently. Also, the determination of both markers may, in some cases, discriminate the use of moderate or heavy alcohol amounts when associated with cocaine. Finally, in a population of non-cocaine-users our results support FAEE as valuable means in the assessment of excessive alcohol chronic use. PMID:21159458

  14. Acetic acid removal from corn stover hydrolysate using ethyl acetate and the impact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Ladisch, Michael R; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    Acetic acid is introduced into cellulose conversion processes as a consequence of composition of lignocellulose feedstocks, causing significant inhibition of adapted, genetically modified and wild-type S. cerevisiae in bioethanol fermentation. While adaptation or modification of yeast may reduce inhibition, the most effective approach is to remove the acetic acid prior to fermentation. This work addresses liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from biomass hydrolysate through a pathway that mitigates acetic acid inhibition while avoiding the negative effects of the extractant, which itself may exhibit inhibition. Candidate solvents were selected using simulation results from Aspen Plus™, based on their ability to extract acetic acid which was confirmed by experimentation. All solvents showed varying degrees of toxicity toward yeast, but the relative volatility of ethyl acetate enabled its use as simple vacuum evaporation could reduce small concentrations of aqueous ethyl acetate to minimally inhibitory levels. The toxicity threshold of ethyl acetate, in the presence of acetic acid, was found to be 10 g L(-1) . The fermentation was enhanced by extracting 90% of the acetic acid using ethyl acetate, followed by vacuum evaporation to remove 88% removal of residual ethyl acetate along with 10% of the broth. NRRL Y-1546 yeast was used to demonstrate a 13% increase in concentration, 14% in ethanol specific production rate, and 11% ethanol yield. This study demonstrated that extraction of acetic acid with ethyl acetate followed by evaporative removal of ethyl acetate from the raffinate phase has potential to significantly enhance ethanol fermentation in a corn stover bioethanol facility. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:929-937, 2016. PMID:27090191

  15. Ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy of carboxylated cobalt-containing nanocomposite ethyl methacrylate/acrylic acid copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voytsihovskaya, S. A.; Sokolov, M. E.; Panyushkin, V. T.; Gromov, P. Yu.; Shcherbina, A. A.; Matveev, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    We have used ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the effect of the concentration of cobalt nanoparticles (5-9 nm) incorporated into ethyl methacrylate/acrylic acid copolymers (monomer ratios 100:1 and 10:1) on the magnitude of the resonant field in ferromagnetic resonance and on the effective magnetization of thin-film samples of these nanocomposite polymer materials. The cobalt nanoparticles were obtained by thermolysis of Co2(CO)8 in 5% solutions of the indicated copolymers in toluene. From the solutions obtained, we prepared films of thickness 1 μm on aluminum substrates.

  16. Metabolic pathway engineering for fatty acid ethyl ester production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using stable chromosomal integration.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Bouke Wim; Shi, Shuobo; Valle-Rodríguez, Juan Octavio; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-03-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters are fatty acid derived molecules similar to first generation biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters; FAMEs) which can be produced in a microbial cell factory. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a suitable candidate for microbial large scale and long term cultivations, which is the typical industrial production setting for biofuels. It is crucial to conserve the metabolic design of the cell factory during industrial cultivation conditions that require extensive propagation. Genetic modifications therefore have to be introduced in a stable manner. Here, several metabolic engineering strategies for improved production of fatty acid ethyl esters in S. cerevisiae were combined and the genes were stably expressed from the organisms' chromosomes. A wax ester synthase (ws2) was expressed in different yeast strains with an engineered acetyl-CoA and fatty acid metabolism. Thus, we compared expression of ws2 with and without overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH2), acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALD6) and acetyl-CoA synthetase (acs SE (L641P) ) and further evaluated additional overexpression of a mutant version of acetyl-CoA decarboxylase (ACC1 (S1157A,S659A) ) and the acyl-CoA binding protein (ACB1). The combined engineering efforts of the implementation of ws2, ADH2, ALD6 and acs SE (L641P) , ACC1 (S1157A,S659A) and ACB1 in a S. cerevisiae strain lacking storage lipid formation (are1Δ, are2Δ, dga1Δ and lro1Δ) and β-oxidation (pox1Δ) resulted in a 4.1-fold improvement compared with sole expression of ws2 in S. cerevisiae. PMID:25422103

  17. Improved ethyl caproate production of Chinese liquor yeast by overexpressing fatty acid synthesis genes with OPI1 deletion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yefu; Luo, Weiwei; Gong, Rui; Xue, Xingxiang; Guan, Xiangyu; Song, Lulu; Guo, Xuewu; Xiao, Dongguang

    2016-09-01

    During yeast fermentation, ethyl esters play a key role in the development of the flavor profiles of Chinese liquor. Ethyl caproate, an ethyl ester eliciting apple-like flavor, is the characteristic flavor of strong aromatic liquor, which is the best selling liquor in China. In the traditional fermentation process, ethyl caproate is mainly produced at the later fermentation stage by aroma-producing yeast, bacteria, and mold in a mud pit instead of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at the expense of grains and fermentation time. To improve the production of ethyl caproate by Chinese liquor yeast (S. cerevisiae) with less food consumption and shorter fermentation time, we constructed three recombinant strains, namely, α5-ACC1ΔOPI1, α5-FAS1ΔOPI1, and α5-FAS2ΔOPI1 by overexpressing acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1), fatty acid synthase 1 (FAS1), and fatty acid synthase 2 (FAS2) with OPI1 (an inositol/choline-mediated negative regulatory gene) deletion, respectively. In the liquid fermentation of corn hydrolysate, the contents of ethyl caproate produced by α5-ACC1ΔOPI1, α5-FAS1ΔOPI1, and α5-FAS2ΔOPI1 increased by 0.40-, 1.75-, and 0.31-fold, correspondingly, compared with the initial strain α5. The contents of other fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) (C8:0, C10:0, C12:0) also increased. In comparison, the content of FAEEs produced by α5-FAS1ΔOPI1 significantly improved. Meanwhile, the contents of acetyl-CoA and ethyl acetate were enhanced by α5-FAS1ΔOPI1. Overall, this study offers a promising platform for the development of pure yeast culture fermentation of Chinese strong aromatic liquor without the use of a mud pit. PMID:27344573

  18. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to the following prescribed conditions: (a)...

  19. Semiconductor nanoparticles in poly((2-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) co-polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trandafilović, L. V.; Bibić, N.; Georges, M. K.; Blanuša, J.; Radhakrishnan, T.; Djoković, V.

    2013-11-01

    Nanostructured cadmium selenide (CdSe) and lead sulfide (PbS) semiconductors were prepared in a poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) matrix. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by using optical and structural methods. Co-polymers were synthesized in two different molar ratios of pDMAEMA:acrylic acid monomer units (1:2, 1:1). Transmission electron microscopy analysis confirmed the presence of nano-sized CdSe and PbS particles. In the case of CdSe, a shift of the onset of the optical absorption toward lower wavelengths was observed. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that both CdSe and PbS nanoparticles have cubic crystal structure.

  20. Fatty acid ethyl ester synthesis in the preparation of scotch whiskey.

    PubMed

    Goss, K A; Alharethi, R; Laposata, M

    1999-04-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), nonoxidative ethanol metabolites present in human organs commonly damaged by ethanol abuse, have been implicated as mediators of organ damage. FAEE are additives in various foods and beverages to provide flavor or fragrance, and therefore are common dietary lipid constituents. We hypothesized that FAEE could be generated during alcoholic beverage production because fatty acids are present within microorganisms and ethanol is generated during the fermentation process. In this report, we demonstrate that FAEE are present in commercially available scotch beverages, and that in the preparation of scotch, FAEE can be produced during the fermentation reaction as a result of FAEE synthase activity in the yeast. Following ingestion of scotch, preformed FAEE are delivered to GI tract. The consequences of ingestion of FAEE in scotch, if any, remain to be determined. PMID:10231172

  1. Quantification of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in meconium from newborns for detection of alcohol abuse in a maternal health evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Bakdash, Abdulsallam; Burger, Pascal; Goecke, Tamme W; Fasching, Peter A; Reulbach, Udo; Bleich, Stefan; Hastedt, Martin; Rothe, Michael; Beckmann, Matthias W; Pragst, Fritz; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2010-04-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) were determined in 602 meconium samples in a maternal health evaluation study for detection of gestational alcohol consumption. A validated headspace solid phase microextraction method in combination with GC-MS was used for FAEE and the cumulative concentration of ethyl palmitate, ethyl linoleate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl stearate with a cut-off of 500 ng/g was applied for interpretation. A new and simple method was developed and validated for quantification of EtG from 10-20 mg meconium with D(5)-EtG as internal standard consisting of 30 min. extraction with methanol/water (1:1, v/v), evaporation of methanol, filtration of the aqueous solution through a cellulose filter and injection into LC-MS-MS. The limits of detection and quantification for EtG were 10 and 30 ng/g, the recovery 86.6 to 106.4% and the standard deviation of the concentrations ranged from 13% at 37 ng/g to 5% at 46,700 ng/g (N = 6). FAEE above the cut-off were found in 43 cases (7.1%) with cumulative concentrations between 507 and 22,580 ng/g and with one outlier of about 150,000 ng/g (EtG not detected). EtG was detected in 97 cases (16.3%) and concentrations between LOD and 10,200 ng/g with another outlier of 82,000 ng/g (FAEE 10,500 ng/g). Optimal agreement between the two markers was obtained with a cut-off for EtG of 274 ng/g and 547 cases with both FAEE- and EtG-negative, 33 cases with both FAEE- and EtG-positive, nine cases with FAEE-positive and EtG-negative, and seven cases with FAEE-negative and EtG-positive. Differences in physical, chemical, and biochemical properties and in the pharmacokinetic behavior are discussed as reasons for the deviating cases. In none of the 602 cases, serious alcohol consumption was reported by the mothers and no evidence for gestational ethanol exposure was observed in the medical investigation of the newborns. It is concluded that the combined use of FAEE and EtG in meconium as markers for fetal

  2. 40 CFR 721.10505 - Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol mono-C12...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and... Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol mono-C12-16-alkyl... identified as phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10505 - Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol mono-C12...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and... Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol mono-C12-16-alkyl... identified as phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol...

  4. Cholestane as a digestibility marker in the absorption of polyunsaturated fatty acid ethyl esters in Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Sigurgisladottir, S; Lall, S P; Parrish, C C; Ackman, R G

    1992-06-01

    Salmonid fish require long-chain n-3 fatty acids in their diet. The digestibility of different chemical forms of fish oil fatty acids, fed as triacylglycerols, free fatty acids or ethyl esters, was examined in 300 g farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) using cholestane as an indicator of fat absorption in lieu of the chromium oxide (Cr2O3) which is commonly used as a marker in digestibility studies. It was established that the two digestibility markers gave similar results. Conveniently, cholestane does not require a separate analysis if fatty acids are to be determined by appropriate gas-liquid chromatography. The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids were particularly well absorbed, the apparent digestibility being 90-98% when feeding triacylglycerols or free fatty acids. However, the digestibility of monounsaturated fatty acids (75-94%) was lower, and lower still for saturated fatty acids (50-80%). Ethyl esters of fatty acids were significantly less well absorbed (P less than 0.05) than were the corresponding fatty acids in free acid or triacylglycerol form. Irrespective of dietary fat type, only free fatty acids were identified in feces, indicating total hydrolysis of triacylglycerols and ethyl esters. PMID:1630276

  5. Glucuronic acid and the ethanol metabolite ethyl-glucuronide cause toll-like receptor 4 activation and enhanced pain.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Susannah S; Hutchinson, Mark R; Zhang, Yingning; Hund, Dana K; Maier, Steven F; Rice, Kenner C; Watkins, Linda R

    2013-05-01

    We have previously observed that the non-opioid morphine metabolite, morphine-3-glucuronide, enhances pain via a toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) dependent mechanism. The present studies were undertaken to determine whether TLR4-dependent pain enhancement generalizes to other classes of glucuronide metabolites. In silico modeling predicted that glucuronic acid alone and ethyl glucuronide, a minor but long-lasting ethanol metabolite, would dock to the same MD-2 portion of the TLR4 receptor complex previously characterized as the docking site for morphine-3-glucuronide. Glucuronic acid, ethyl glucuronide and ethanol all caused an increase in TLR4-dependent reporter protein expression in a cell line transfected with TLR4 and associated co-signaling molecules. Glucuronic acid-, ethyl glucuronide-, and ethanol-induced increases in TLR4 signaling were blocked by the TLR4 antagonists LPS-RS and (+)-naloxone. Glucuronic acid and ethyl glucuronide both caused allodynia following intrathecal injection in rats, which was blocked by intrathecal co-administration of the TLR4 antagonist LPS-RS. The finding that ethyl glucuronide can cause TLR4-dependent pain could have implications for human conditions such as hangover headache and alcohol withdrawal hyperalgesia, as well as suggesting that other classes of glucuronide metabolites could have similar effects. PMID:23348028

  6. Glucuronic acid and the ethanol metabolite ethyl-glucuronide cause Toll-like receptor 4 activation and enhanced pain

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Susannah S.; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Zhang, Yingning; Hund, Dana K.; Maier, Steven F.; Rice, Kenner C.; Watkins, Linda R.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously observed that the non-opioid morphine metabolite, morphine-3-glucuronide, enhances pain via a toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) dependent mechanism. The present studies were undertaken to determine whether TLR4-dependent pain enhancement generalizes to other classes of glucuronide metabolites. In silico modeling predicted that glucuronic acid alone and ethyl glucuronide, a minor but long-lasting ethanol metabolite, would dock to the same MD-2 portion of the TLR4 receptor complex previously characterized as the docking site for morphine-3-glucuronide. Glucuronic acid, ethyl glucuronide and ethanol all caused an increase in TLR4-dependent reporter protein expression in a cell line transfected with TLR4 and associated co-signaling molecules. Glucuronic acid-, ethyl glucuronide-, and ethanol-induced increases in TLR4 signaling were blocked by the TLR4 antagonists LPS-RS and (+)-naloxone. Glucuronic acid and ethyl glucuronide both caused allodynia following intrathecal injection in rats, which was blocked by intrathecal co-administration of the TLR4 antagonist LPS-RS. The finding that ethyl glucuronide can cause TLR4-dependent pain could have implications for human conditions such as hangover headache and alcohol withdrawal hyperalgesia, as well as suggesting that other classes of glucuronide metabolites could have similar effects. PMID:23348028

  7. Physiological and transcriptional characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered for production of fatty acid ethyl esters.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Bouke Wim; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-02-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has previously been engineered to become a cell factory for the production of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), molecules suitable for crude diesel replacement. To find new metabolic engineering targets for the improvement of FAEE cell factories, three different FAEE-producing strains of S. cerevisiae, constructed previously, were compared and characterized by quantification of key fluxes and genome-wide transcription analysis. From both the physiological and the transcriptional data, it was indicated that strain CB2I20, with high expression of a heterologous wax ester synthase gene (ws2) and strain BdJ15, containing disruptions of genes DGA1, LRO1, ARE1, ARE2 and POX1, which prevent the conversion of acyl-CoA to sterol esters, triacylglycerides and the degradation to acetyl-CoA, triggered oxidative stress that consequently influenced cellular growth. In the latter strain, stress was possibly triggered by disabling the buffering capacity of lipid droplets in encapsulating toxic fatty acids such as oleic acid. Additionally, it was indicated that there was an increased demand for NADPH required for the reduction steps in fatty acid biosynthesis. In conclusion, our analysis clearly shows that engineering of fatty acid biosynthesis results in transcriptional reprogramming and has a significant effect on overall cellular metabolism. PMID:26590613

  8. Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters Disrupt Neonatal Alveolar Macrophage Mitochondria and Derange Cellular Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Sowmya S; Ping, Xiao Du; Harris, Frank L; Ronda, Necol J; Brown, Lou Ann S; Gauthier, Theresa W

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic alcohol exposure alters the function of alveolar macrophages (AM), impairing immune defenses in both adult and neonatal lungs. Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are biological markers of prenatal alcohol exposure in newborns. FAEEs contribute to alcohol-induced mitochondrial (MT) damage in multiple organs. We hypothesized that in utero ethanol exposure would increase FAEEs in the neonatal lung and that direct exposure of neonatal AM to FAEEs would contribute to MT injury and cellular dysfunction. Methods FAEEs were measured in neonatal guinea pig lungs after ± in utero ethanol exposure via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The NR8383 cell line and freshly isolated neonatal guinea pig AM were exposed to ethyl oleate (EO) in vitro. MT membrane potential, MT reactive oxygen species generation (mROS), phagocytosis, and apoptosis were evaluated after exposure to EO ± the MT-specific antioxidant mito-TEMPO (mitoT) or ± the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK. Whole lung FAEEs were compared using the Mann–Whitney U-test. Cellular results were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance, followed by the Student–Newman–Keuls Method for post hoc comparisons. Results In utero ethanol significantly increased ethyl linoleate and the combinations of ethyl oleate + linoleate + linolenate (OLL), and OLL + stearate in the neonatal lung. In vitro EO caused significant MT dysfunction in both NR8383 and primary neonatal AM, as indicated by increased mROS and loss of MT membrane potential. Impaired phagocytosis and apoptosis were significantly increased in both the cell line and primary AM after EO exposure. MitoT conferred significant but only partial protection against EO-induced MT injury, as did caspase inhibition with Z-VAD-FMK. Conclusions In utero ethanol exposure increased FAEEs in the neonatal guinea pig lung. Direct exposure to the FAEE EO significantly contributed to AM dysfunction, in part via oxidant injury to the MT and in part via secondary

  9. A novel collector 2-ethyl-2-hexenoic hydroxamic acid: Flotation performance and adsorption mechanism to ilmenite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Haifeng; Zhong, Hong; Tang, Qing; Wang, Shuai; Zhao, Gang; Liu, Guangyi

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a novel collector, 2-ethyl-2-hexenoic hydroxamic acid (EHHA) was prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectra. The flotation performance and adsorption mechanism of EHHA to ilmenite were investigated by micro-flotation tests, density functional theory (DFT) calculations, FTIR spectra, zeta potential and solution chemistry analyses. The micro-flotation results indicated that EHHA exhibited superior flotation performance compared to isooctyl hydroximic acid (IOHA) and octyl hydroxamic acid (OHA), and floated out 84.03% ilmenite at pH 8.0 with 250 mg/L dosage. The analyses of FTIR spectra and zeta potential demonstrated that EHHA might chemisorb onto ilmenite surfaces by form of five-membered chelates. The solution chemistry analyses further inferred that at pH 6.3-10.5, both Fe and Ti species on ilmenite surfaces could chelate EHHA. DFT calculation results implied EHHA owned the strongest affinity to ilmenite among the three C8 hydroximic acids. To discern the sharply improving floatability of ilmenite at pH 8-10, a schematic co-adsorption molecule-ion model of EHHA on ilmenite surfaces was suggested.

  10. Scaffolds of Hyaluronic Acid-Poly(Ethyl Acrylate) Interpenetrating Networks: Characterization and In Vitro Studies.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pérez, E; Lloret Compañ, A; Monleón Pradas, M; Martínez-Ramos, C

    2016-08-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) provides many advantages to regenerative implants through its bioactive properties, but it also has many limitations as a biomaterial if it is not chemically modified. In order to overcome some of these limitations, HA has been combined with poly(ethyl acrylate) in the form of interpenetrating polymeric networks (IPNs), in which the HA network is crosslinked with divinyl sulfone. Scaffolds of this IPN have been produced through a template-leaching methodology, and their properties have been compared with those of single-network scaffolds made of either PEA or crosslinked HA. A fibroblast cell line has been used to assess the in vitro performance of the scaffolds, revealing good cell response and a differentiated behavior on the IPN surface when compared to the individual polymers. Altogether, the results confirm that this type of material offers an interesting microenvironment for cells, which can be further improved toward its potential use in medical implants. PMID:27072058

  11. Method for the purification of bis (2-ethyl-hexyl)phosphoric acid

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, W.W.

    1974-02-19

    Foreign products including the neutral organophosphorous compounds and the iron salts normally present in commercial bis(2ethyl-hexyl) phosphoric acid(HDEHP), and the radiolytic degradation products of HDEHP on exposure of HDEHP to beta and gamma irradiation are removed from HDEHP containing one or more of such products by contacting the said foreign product containing HDEHP with a macroreticular anion exchange resin in base form whereby the DEHP- ion of HDEHP exchanges with the anion of the resin and is thus adsorbed on the resin and the said foreign products are not adsorbed and will pass through a bed of particles of the resin. The adsorbed DEHP- ion is then eluted from the resin and acidified to form and recover the purified HDEHP. (auth)

  12. Chiral quizalofop-ethyl and its metabolite quizalofop-acid in soils: Enantioselective degradation, enzymes interaction and toxicity to Eisenia foetida.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lin; Liu, Hui; Qu, Han; Xu, Yangguang; Wang, Peng; Sun, Mingjing; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Liu, Donghui

    2016-06-01

    An enantioselective chromatographic method to analyze enantiomers of quizalofop-ethyl and its metabolite quizalofop-acid was established using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on (R, R) Whelk-O 1 column. The enantioselective degradation kinetics of quizalofop-ethyl and quizalofop-acid in three soils were investigated. Moreover, the interaction with urease and catalase in the soils and the acute toxicity to Eisenia foetida of quizalofop-ethyl were also determined in order to assess their metabolism mechanism and environmental risk. From the results, quizalofop-ethyl was configurationally stable and was hydrolyzed rapidly to quizalofop-acid, which also degraded enantioselectively but slowly, and the inversion of the S-(-)-quizalofop-acid into the R-(+)-quizalofop-acid was observed in Xinxiang soil. In addition, quizalofop-ethyl and quizalofop-acid enantioselectively affected urease activity but not catalase. The acute toxicity assays to earthworm indicated that the racemic quizalofop-ethyl and quizalofop-acid were more toxic than quizalofop-p-ethyl and quizalofop-p-acid respectively, dramatically, the toxicity of the metabolite was much higher than the parent compound. These results revealed the enantioselective degradation of quizalofop-ethyl and quizalofop-acid, and the differences of toxicity among the enantiomers of the parent compound and the metabolite, which should be considered in future environmental risk evaluation. PMID:26971169

  13. Validation of a novel method to identify in utero ethanol exposure: simultaneous meconium extraction of fatty acid ethyl esters, ethyl glucuronide, and ethyl sulfate followed by LC-MS/MS quantification

    PubMed Central

    Himes, Sarah K.; Concheiro, Marta; Scheidweiler, Karl B.

    2015-01-01

    Presence of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), ethyl glucuronide (EtG), and ethyl sulfate (EtS) in meconium, the first neonatal feces, identifies maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Current meconium alcohol marker assays require separate analyses for FAEE and EtG/EtS. We describe development and validation of the first quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay for 9 FAEEs, EtG, and EtS in 100 mg meconium. For the first time, these alcohol markers are analyzed in the same meconium aliquot, enabling comparison of the efficiency of gestational ethanol exposure detection. 100 mg meconium was homogenized in methanol and centrifuged. The supernatant was divided, and applied to two different solid phase extraction columns for optimized analyte recovery. Limits of quantification for ethyl laurate, myristate, linolenate, palmitoleate, arachidonate, linoleate, palmitate, oleate, and stearate ranged from 25–50 ng/g, with calibration curves to 2,500–5,000 ng/g. EtG and EtS linear dynamic ranges were 5–1,000 and 2.5–500 ng/g, respectively. Mean bias and between-day imprecision were <15 %. Extraction efficiencies were 51.2–96.5 %. Matrix effects ranged from −84.7 to 16.0 %, but were compensated for by matched deuterated internal standards when available. All analytes were stable (within ±20 % change from baseline) in 3 authentic positive specimens, analyzed in triplicate, after 3 freeze/thaw cycles (−20 °C). Authentic EtG and EtS also were stable after 12 h at room temperature and 72 h at 4 °C; some FAEE showed instability under these conditions, although there was large inter-subject variability. This novel method accurately detects multiple alcohol meconium markers and enables comparison of markers for maternal alcohol consumption. PMID:24408304

  14. 40 CFR 721.10109 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. 721.10109 Section 721.10109 Protection of Environment... triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane (PMN P-04-508; CAS No. 610787-76-3 ) is subject to reporting...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10109 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. 721.10109 Section 721.10109 Protection of Environment... triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane (PMN P-04-508; CAS No. 610787-76-3) is subject to reporting under...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10109 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. 721.10109 Section 721.10109 Protection of Environment... triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane (PMN P-04-508; CAS No. 610787-76-3) is subject to reporting under...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10109 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. 721.10109 Section 721.10109 Protection of Environment... triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane (PMN P-04-508; CAS No. 610787-76-3) is subject to reporting under...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10109 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. 721.10109 Section 721.10109 Protection of Environment... triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane (PMN P-04-508; CAS No. 610787-76-3 ) is subject to reporting...

  19. 40 CFR 721.8450 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-[3-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ester. 721.8450 Section 721.8450 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8450 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance... acid, 2-methyl-, 2- ethyl ester, (PMN P-90-333) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  20. Breast Cancer Genetic and Molecular Subtype Impacts Response to Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching Hui; Fabian, Carol; Hursting, Stephen; deGraffenried, Linda A

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have correlated frequent omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid consumption with a lower risk for breast cancer; however, recent prospective studies have been less conclusive. Efforts in the preventive setting have focused on the use of n-3 fatty acids, and the pharmaceutical ethyl esters (EE) of these natural compounds, for high-risk patient populations. Limited understanding of specific mechanisms by which these agents function has hampered identification of the cancer subtype(s) that would gain the greatest therapeutic benefit. In this study, we investigated the in vitro effects of n-3 EEs in four distinct breast cancer subtypes and explored how they affect not only breast cancer cell survival but also modulate the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma signaling pathways. Similar to the high variance in response observed in human studies, we found that the effectiveness of n-3 EEs depends on the molecular characteristics of the MCF-7, CAMA-1, MDA-MB-231, and SKBR3 breast cancer cell lines and is closely associated with the suppression of NF-κB. These data strongly suggest that the use of n-3 fatty acids and their pharmaceutical ether esters in the prevention and therapeutic setting should be guided by specific tumor characteristics. PMID:27367296

  1. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester (PMN P-05-568; CAS No. 477218-59-0) is.... Requirements as specified in § 721.80(h). (ii) (b) Specific requirements. The provisions of subpart A of this... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester (PMN P-05-568; CAS No. 477218-59-0) is.... Requirements as specified in § 721.80(h). (ii) (b) Specific requirements. The provisions of subpart A of this... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses...

  3. Acetyl xylan esterase of Aspergillus ficcum catalyzed the synthesis of peracetic acid from ethyl acetate and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung-Moon

    2011-11-01

    Recombinant acetyl xylan esterase (rAXE) of Aspergillus ficcum catalyzed the synthesis of peracetic acid (PAA) from ethyl acetate and hydrogen peroxide. Ten micrograms of rAXE catalyzed the synthesis of 1.34 mM of PAA, which can be used for the pretreatment of cellulosic biomass in situ. PMID:21824816

  4. Placental Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters Are Elevated with Maternal Alcohol Use in Pregnancies Complicated by Prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Theresa W.; Mohan, Sowmya S.; Gross, Teresa S.; Harris, Frank L.; Guidot, David M.; Brown, Lou Ann S.

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in meconium of term newborns has been described as one potential biomarker of maternal alcohol use during pregnancy. FAEEs accumulate in multiple alcohol-exposed fetal tissues and in the placenta. Limited research has focused on the identification of the premature newborn exposed to alcohol in utero. We hypothesized that maternal alcohol use occurs in a significant proportion of premature deliveries and that this exposure can be detected as elevated placental FAEEs. The goals of this study were to 1) determine the prevalence of maternal alcohol use in the premature newborn and 2) investigate whether placental FAEEs could identify those newborns with fetal alcohol exposure. This prospective observational study evaluated 80 placentas from 80 women after premature delivery. Subjects were interviewed for alcohol intake and placental FAEEs were quantified via GC/MS. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) Curves were generated to evaluate the ability of placental FAEEs to predict maternal drinking during pregnancy. Adjusted ROC curves were generated to adjust for gestational age, maternal smoking, and illicit drug use. 30% of the subjects admitted to drinking alcohol during pregnancy and approximately 14% answered questions indicative of problem drinking (designated AUDIT+). The specific FAEEs ethyl stearate and linoleate, as well as combinations of oleate + linoleate + linolenate (OLL) and of OLL + stearate, were significantly (p<0.05) elevated in placentas from AUDIT+ pregnancies. Adjusted ROC Curves generated areas under the curve ranging from 88–93% with negative predictive values of 97% for AUDIT+ pregnancies. We conclude that nearly one third of premature pregnancies were alcohol-exposed, and that elevated placental FAEEs hold great promise to accurately determine maternal alcohol use, particularly heavy use, in pregnancies complicated by premature delivery. PMID:25978403

  5. Fatty acid ethyl ester-synthesizing activity of lipoprotein lipase from rat postheparin plasma.

    PubMed

    Tsujita, T; Okuda, H

    1994-02-25

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) was obtained from rat postheparin plasma by chromatographies on heparin-Sepharose and hydroxyapatite. The enzyme was associated with fatty acid ethyl ester synthase (FAEE synthase) as judged by their co-elution profiles and identical profiles of inhibition by diisopropyl fluorophosphate. Only one polypeptide of molecular weight 57,000 in purified LPL fraction was labeled by affinity labeling with [3H]-diisopropyl fluorophosphate. The FAEE synthase activity of LPL was not affected by addition of apolipoprotein C-II. Digestion of the enzyme with trypsin resulted in almost complete loss of the triolein-hydrolyzing activity without change in FAEE synthase activity. The tributyrin-hydrolyzing activity of LPL was also not affected by addition of apolipoprotein C-II or trypsin digestion. On addition at progressively higher concentrations, bovine serum albumin increased FAEE synthesis to a maximum at 2 mg/ml and at higher concentrations inhibited its activity. On incubation of purified LPL with chylomicrons in an ethanol/water mixture, FAEE was formed in the presence of a high concentration of bovine serum albumin. The specific activity of FAEE synthesis from chylomicrons was about 65 times that from oleic acid. Triolein/gum arabic emulsion was used for identification of reaction products. We propose the following mechanism of FAEE formation from chylomicrons by LPL. The enzyme attacks chylomicrons forming an acyl-enzyme intermediate, and during the deacylation process, ethanol binds to fatty acids as an acceptor. These results suggest that LPL contributes to nonoxidative ethanol metabolism (FAEE formation) through degradation of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins such as chylomicrons. PMID:8119932

  6. Intrapulmonary delivery of ethyl pyruvate attenuates lipopolysaccharide- and lipoteichoic acid-induced lung inflammation in vivo.

    PubMed

    van Zoelen, Marieke A D; de Vos, Alex F; Larosa, Gregory J; Draing, Christian; von Aulock, Sonja; van der Poll, Tom

    2007-11-01

    Ethyl pyruvate (EP) is a stable pyruvate derivative that has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects in various models of systemic inflammation including endotoxemia. We here sought to determine the local effects of EP, after intrapulmonary delivery, in models of lung inflammation induced by instillation via the airways of either lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a constituent of the gram-negative bacterial cell wall) or lipoteichoic acid (LTA, a component of the gram-positive bacterial cell wall). For this, we first established that EP dose dependently reduced the responsiveness of mouse MH-S alveolar macrophages and mouse MLE-15 and MLE-12 respiratory epithelial cells to stimulation with LPS or LTA in vitro. We then showed that intranasal administration of EP dose dependently inhibited tumor necrosis factor alpha release in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice challenged with either LPS or LTA via the airways. Moreover, EP reduced the recruitment of neutrophils into the bronchoalveolar space after either LPS or LTA administration. These data suggest that intrapulmonary delivery of EP diminishes lung inflammation induced by LPS or LTA, at least in part by targeting alveolar macrophages and respiratory epithelial cells. PMID:17577142

  7. Determination of enthalpy of formation of methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Lapuerta, Magín; Rodríguez-Fernández, José; Oliva, Fermín

    2010-02-01

    Biofuels composed by fatty acid methyl esters are widely used as partly substituting fuels for diesel fossil fuels. Additionally, it is expected that the diesel biofuel norms will be extended to ethyl esters produced from bioethanol in the upcoming years. A precise knowledge of the standard enthalpy of formation is necessary for the calculation of some parameters useful for the analysis of the combustion process and emissions of a diesel engine operating with different fuels, such as the heating value, the adiabatic flame temperature or the kinetic mechanisms. However, experimental data for this property are scarce, and only available for short-chain, saturated methyl esters. In this work, four estimation methods for the calculation of the enthalpy of formation are examined and compared. Three of them are simple methods based on groups or bonds contribution, and another one is a computational method (with Gaussian 03 software). After presenting the implementation rules for each of them, conclusions are stated based on the results attained. Gaussian and Benson-Groups methods seem to be more accurate in predicting the actual values of the enthalpy of formation, both methods considering the separation between double bonds and the edge effects in the molecule. However, only the Gaussian method considers the effect of the position of the double bond in the molecule for all the unsaturated esters. PMID:19917272

  8. Enhancing fatty acid ethyl ester production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through metabolic engineering and medium optimization.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R Adam; Trinh, Cong T

    2014-11-01

    Biodiesels in the form of fatty acyl ethyl esters (FAEEs) are a promising next generation biofuel due to their chemical properties and compatibility with existing infrastructure. It has recently been shown that expression of a bacterial acyl-transferase in the established industrial workhorse Saccharomyces cerevisiae can lead to production of FAEEs by condensation of fatty acyl-CoAs and ethanol. In contrast to recent strategies to produce FAEEs in S. cerevisiae through manipulation of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis or a series of arduous genetic manipulations, we introduced a novel genetic background, which is comparable in titer to previous reports with a fraction of the genetic disruption by aiming at increasing the fatty acyl-CoA pools. In addition, we combined metabolic engineering with modification of culture conditions to produce a maximum titer of over 25 mg/L FAEEs, a 40% improvement over previous reports and a 17-fold improvement over our initial characterizations. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2014;111: 2200-2208. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24895195

  9. Simulated moving bed chromatography for the separation of ethyl esters of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid under nonlinear conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Bao, Zongbi; Xing, Huabin; Yang, Qiwei; Yang, Yiwen; Ren, Qilong

    2015-12-18

    In this study, ethyl esters of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were separated with simulated moving bed (SMB) chromatography, where the stationary phase was C18 silica gel with particle size of 10μm packed in eight columns, and the mobile phase was pure methanol. The Henry constants, transport parameters and total porosity were measured from pulse response chromatographic experiments using a single column. The Henry constants were obtained from the first moment analysis. The transport parameters including axial dispersion coefficients and effective mass transfer coefficients were obtained from the second moment analysis. Nonlinear adsorption equilibrium isotherms for the pure components and their mixture were determined from adsorption-desorption method. The Langmuir model was used to fit the experimental data, and the corresponding parameters were further used to predict the competitive adsorption equilibria of the mixture. The validity of mathematical model parameters was checked by a frontal chromatography experiment. The simulated results of the SMB process using these parameters agreed well with the experimental results. At the feed concentration of 100g/L, the SMB separation was able to produce both solutes with relative purity above 99%, productivity of 13.11g/L adsorbent/h, and solvent consumption of 0.46L/g. PMID:26620595

  10. Solid dispersions of the penta-ethyl ester prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA): Formulation design and optimization studies

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu-Tsai; Di Pasqua, Anthony J.; Zhang, Yong; Sueda, Katsuhiko; Jay, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The penta-ethyl ester prodrug of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), which exists as an oily liquid, was incorporated into a solid dispersion for oral administration by the solvent evaporation method using blends of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), Eudragit® RL PO and α-tocopherol. D-optimal mixture design was used to optimize the formulation. Formulations that had a high concentration of both Eudragit® RL PO and α-tocopherol exhibited low water absorption and enhanced stability of the DTPA prodrug. Physicochemical properties of the optimal formulation were evaluated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro release of the prodrug was evaluated using the USP Type II apparatus dissolution method. DSC studies indicated that the matrix had an amorphous structure, while FTIR spectrometry showed that DTPA penta-ethyl ester and excipients did not react with each other during formation of the solid dispersion.. Dissolution testing showed that the optimized solid dispersion exhibited a prolonged release profile, which could potentially result in a sustained delivery of DTPA penta-ethyl to enhance bioavailability. In conclusion, DTPA penta-ethyl ester was successfully incorporated into a solid matrix with high drug loading and improved stability compared to prodrug alone. PMID:24047113

  11. Acid-Catalyzed Conversion of Furfuryl Alcohol to Ethyl Levulinate in Liquid Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    González Maldonado, Gretchen M.; Assary, Rajeev S.; Dumesic, James; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2014-01-01

    Reaction pathways for the acid-catalyzed conversion of furfuryl alcohol (FAL) to ethyl levulinate (EL) in ethanol were investigated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and ab initio high-level quantum chemical (G4MP2) calculations. Our combined studies show that the production of EL at high yields from FAL is not accompanied by stoichiometric production of diethyl either (DEE), indicating that ethoxymethyl furan (EMF) is not an intermediate in the major reaction pathway. Several intermediates were observed using an LC-MS system, and three of these intermediates were isolated and subjected to reaction conditions. The structures of two intermediates were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. One of these intermediates is EMF, which forms EL and DEE in a secondary reaction pathway. The second intermediate identified is 4,5,5-triethoxypentan-2-one, which is analogous to one of the intermediates observed in the conversion of FAL to LA in water (i.e. 4,5,5-trihydroxypentan-2-one). Furthermore, conversion of this intermediate to EL again involves the formation of DEE, indicating that it is also part of a secondary pathway. The primary pathway for production of EL involves solvent-assisted transfer of a water molecule from the partially detached protonated hydroxyl group of FAL to a ring carbon, followed by intra-molecular hydrogen shift, where the apparent reaction barrier for the hydrogen shift is relatively smaller in ethanol (21.1 kcal/mol) than that in water (26.6 kcal/mol). PMID:25035710

  12. 40 CFR 721.5375 - Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis-[[[[(sub-sti-tut-ed)] amino]-alkyl-phenyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis- amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-az-o] (ge-ner-ic name). (a) Chemical substance...-lic acid, ethyl ester, bis- -amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-azo] (PMN P-87-304) is subject to reporting under... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic...

  13. 40 CFR 721.5375 - Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis-[[[[(sub-sti-tut-ed)] amino]-alkyl-phenyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis- amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-az-o] (ge-ner-ic name). (a) Chemical substance...-lic acid, ethyl ester, bis- -amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-azo] (PMN P-87-304) is subject to reporting under... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5375 - Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis-[[[[(sub-sti-tut-ed)] amino]-alkyl-phenyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis- amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-az-o] (ge-ner-ic name). (a) Chemical substance...-lic acid, ethyl ester, bis- -amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-azo] (PMN P-87-304) is subject to reporting under... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic...

  15. 40 CFR 721.5375 - Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis-[[[[(sub-sti-tut-ed)] amino]-alkyl-phenyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis- amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-az-o] (ge-ner-ic name). (a) Chemical substance...-lic acid, ethyl ester, bis- -amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-azo] (PMN P-87-304) is subject to reporting under... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5375 - Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis-[[[[(sub-sti-tut-ed)] amino]-alkyl-phenyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis- amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-az-o] (ge-ner-ic name). (a) Chemical substance...-lic acid, ethyl ester, bis- -amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-azo] (PMN P-87-304) is subject to reporting under... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic...

  17. Switching from EPA + DHA (Omega-3-acid Ethyl Esters) to High-Purity EPA (Icosapent Ethyl) in a Statin-Treated Patient with Persistent Dyslipidemia and High Cardiovascular Risk: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Crandell, James R

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) risk may remain despite statin treatment, and there is a need to address this risk with add-on therapy. The lipid effects of two different prescription omega-3 fatty acid therapies are described in a 55-year-old statin- and niacin-treated female with severe dyslipidemia and high CV risk. The patient was initially treated with omega-3-acid ethyl esters (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid) 4 g/day. Due to persistently elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), she was switched to icosapent ethyl (high-purity EPA ethyl ester) 4 g/day. Approximately 28 months after switching to icosapent ethyl, her LDL-C decreased by 69% to 52 mg/dL, triglycerides decreased by 35% to 119 mg/dL, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) decreased by 63% to 76 mg/dL, total cholesterol decreased by 44% to 137 mg/dL, and HDL-C increased by 45% to 61 mg/dL. Total and small dense LDL particle concentrations decreased by 60 and 59%, respectively. Treatment was well tolerated, with improvements maintained over two years. PMID:27478390

  18. Switching from EPA + DHA (Omega-3-acid Ethyl Esters) to High-Purity EPA (Icosapent Ethyl) in a Statin-Treated Patient with Persistent Dyslipidemia and High Cardiovascular Risk: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Crandell, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) risk may remain despite statin treatment, and there is a need to address this risk with add-on therapy. The lipid effects of two different prescription omega-3 fatty acid therapies are described in a 55-year-old statin- and niacin-treated female with severe dyslipidemia and high CV risk. The patient was initially treated with omega-3-acid ethyl esters (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid) 4 g/day. Due to persistently elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), she was switched to icosapent ethyl (high-purity EPA ethyl ester) 4 g/day. Approximately 28 months after switching to icosapent ethyl, her LDL-C decreased by 69% to 52 mg/dL, triglycerides decreased by 35% to 119 mg/dL, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) decreased by 63% to 76 mg/dL, total cholesterol decreased by 44% to 137 mg/dL, and HDL-C increased by 45% to 61 mg/dL. Total and small dense LDL particle concentrations decreased by 60 and 59%, respectively. Treatment was well tolerated, with improvements maintained over two years. PMID:27478390

  19. Study of the miscibility of poly(styrene-co-4-vinylbenzoic acid) with poly(ethyl methacrylate) or with poly[ethyl methacrylate-co-(2-N,N-dimethylaminoethyl) methacrylate] by inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ourdani, Samia; Amrani, Farouk

    2002-09-01

    Poly(styrene) is immiscible with poly(ethyl methacrylate). The introduction of a small amount of 4-vinylbenzoic acid units along poly(styrene) chains (PS-VBA) enhanced its miscibility with poly(ethyl methacrylate) (PEMA) or with poly[ethyl methacrylate-co-(2-N,N-dimethylaminoethyl) methacrylate] (PEMA-DAE), as observed from the appearance of a single composition dependent glass transition temperature for each binary system using inverse gas chromatography. The negative values of the apparent polymer-polymer interaction parameter, chi(23)app, determined with different families of molecular probes, for three blend compositions and over a range of temperature confirm quantitatively the miscibility of these blends. The chi(23)app values for PEMA(PS-VBA) and (PEMA-DAE)-(PS-VBA) blends are dependent of the chemical nature of the probes, the temperature and the blend composition. PMID:12385399

  20. Production and Characterization of Ethyl Ester from Crude Jatropha curcas Oil having High Free Fatty Acid Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajneesh; Dixit, Anoop; Singh, Shashi Kumar; Singh, Gursahib; Sachdeva, Monica

    2015-09-01

    The two step process was carried out to produce biodiesel from crude Jatropha curcas oil. The pretreatment process was carried out to reduce the free fatty acid content by (≤2 %) acid catalyzed esterification. The optimum reaction conditions for esterification were reported to be 5 % H2SO4, 20 % ethanol and 1 h reaction time at temperature of 65 °C. The pretreatment process reduced the free fatty acid of oil from 7 to 1.85 %. In second process, alkali catalysed transesterification of pretreated oil was carried and the effects of the varying concentrations of KOH and ethanol: oil ratios on percent ester recovery were investigated. The optimum reaction conditions for transesterification were reported to be 3 % KOH (w/v of oil) and 30 % (v/v) ethanol: oil ratio and reaction time 2 h at 65 °C. The maximum percent recovery of ethyl ester was reported to be 60.33 %.

  1. 40 CFR 721.6120 - Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester. 721.6120 Section 721.6120 Protection of Environment...-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substances and significant new...

  2. 40 CFR 721.6120 - Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester. 721.6120 Section 721.6120 Protection of Environment...-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substances and significant new...

  3. 40 CFR 721.6120 - Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester. 721.6120 Section 721.6120 Protection of Environment...-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substances and significant new...

  4. 40 CFR 721.6120 - Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester. 721.6120 Section 721.6120 Protection of Environment...-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substances and significant new...

  5. Guiding optimal biofuels : a comparative analysis of the biochemical production of ethanol and fatty acid ethyl esters from switchgrass.

    SciTech Connect

    Paap, Scott M.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka; Dibble, Dean C.; Simmons, Blake Alexander; Steen, Eric J.; Beller, Harry R.; Keasling, Jay D.; Chang, Shiyan

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, processes to produce either ethanol or a representative fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) via the fermentation of sugars liberated from lignocellulosic materials pretreated in acid or alkaline environments are analyzed in terms of economic and environmental metrics. Simplified process models are introduced and employed to estimate process performance, and Monte Carlo analyses were carried out to identify key sources of uncertainty and variability. We find that the near-term performance of processes to produce FAEE is significantly worse than that of ethanol production processes for all metrics considered, primarily due to poor fermentation yields and higher electricity demands for aerobic fermentation. In the longer term, the reduced cost and energy requirements of FAEE separation processes will be at least partially offset by inherent limitations in the relevant metabolic pathways that constrain the maximum yield potential of FAEE from biomass-derived sugars.

  6. Safety of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) administered as DHA ethyl ester in a 9-month toxicity study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Dahms, Irina; Beilstein, Paul; Bonnette, Kimberly; Salem, Norman

    2016-06-01

    DHA Ethyl Ester (DHA-EE) is a 90% concentrated ethyl ester of docosahexaenoic acid manufactured from the microalgal oil. The objective of the 9-month study was to evaluate safety of DHA-EE administered to beagle dogs at dose levels 150, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw/day by oral gavage and to determine reversibility of any findings after a 2-month recovery period. DHA-EE was well tolerated at all doses. There were observations of dry flaky skin with occasional reddened areas at doses ≥1000 mg/kg bw/day. These findings lacked any microscopic correlate and were no longer present after the recovery period. There were no toxicologically relevant findings in body weights, body weight gains, food consumption, ophthalmological examinations, and ECG measurements. Test article-related changes in hematology parameters were limited to decreases in reticulocyte count in the high-dose males and considered non-adverse. In clinical chemistry parameters, dose-related decreases in cholesterol and triglycerides levels were observed at all doses in males and females and attributed to the known lipid-lowering effects of DHA. There were no effects on other clinical chemistry, urinalysis or coagulation parameters. There were no abnormal histopathology findings attributed to test article. The No-Observable-Adverse-Effect Level of DHA-EE was established at 2000 mg/kg bw/day for both genders. PMID:27036332

  7. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], in or on the following...) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl...

  8. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], in or on the following...) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl...

  9. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], in or on the following...) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl...

  10. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], in or on the following...) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl...

  11. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], in or on the following...) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl...

  12. Direct detection of fatty acid ethyl esters using low temperature plasma (LTP) ambient ionization mass spectrometry for rapid bacterial differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J Isabella; Costa, Anthony B; Tao, W Andy; Cooks, R Graham

    2011-08-01

    Low temperature plasma mass spectrometry (LTP-MS) was employed to detect fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) from bacterial samples directly. Positive ion mode FAEE mass spectrometric profiles of sixteen different bacterial samples were obtained without extraction or other sample preparation. In the range m/z 200-300, LTP mass spectra show highly reproducible and characteristic patterns. To identify the FAEE's associated with the characteristic peaks, accurate masses were recorded in the full scan mode using an LTQ/Orbitrap instrument, and tandem mass spectrometry was performed. Data were examined by principal component analysis (PCA) to determine the degree of differentiation possible amongst different bacterial species. Gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria are readily distinguished, and 11 out of 13 Salmonella strains show distinctive patterns. Growth media effects are observed but do not interfere with species recognition based on the PCA results. PMID:21706093

  13. Theoretical study of the hydrolysis of ethyl benzoate in acidic aqueous solution using the QM/MC/FEP method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaweetirawatt, Thanayuth; Kokita, Yohei; Iwai, Shiho; Sumimoto, Michinori; Hori, Kenji

    2012-09-01

    The hydrolysis of ethyl benzoate in acidic condition was theoretically studied for models with two (2W) or three water (3WA) molecules at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) levels of theory. Activation free energy of solvation in aqueous solution (ΔG‡cal) was calculated using the QM/MC/FEP method. The value of the 2W model in aqueous solution was calculated to be smaller by more than 5.0 kcal mol-1 than the observed value (26.0 kcal mol-1 at 298 K). The position of the third water molecule in the 3WA model plays an essential role in producing the ΔG‡cal value (26.4 kcal mol-1) consistent with the experimental value.

  14. Fatty acid ethyl ester concentrations in hair and self-reported alcohol consumption in 644 cases from different origin.

    PubMed

    Süsse, Silke; Selavka, Carl M; Mieczkowski, Tom; Pragst, Fritz

    2010-03-20

    For diagnosis of chronic alcohol abuse, fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) were determined in hair samples from 644 individuals, mainly parents from child protection cases. The analysis for ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate was performed according to a validated procedure consisting of external degreasing by two times washing with n-heptane, extraction with a mixture of dimethylsulfoxide and n-heptane, separation and evaporation of the n-heptane layer, headspace solid phase microextraction of the residue after addition of phosphate buffer pH 7.6 and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using deuterated internal standards. For interpretation, the sum of the concentrations of the four esters C(FAEE) was used with the cut-off's 0.5 ng/mg for the proximal scalp hair segment 0-3 cm or less and 1.0 ng/mg for scalp hair samples with a length between 3 and 6 cm and for body hair. C(FAEE) ranged from 0.11 to 31 ng/mg (mean 1.77 ng/mg, median 0.82 ng/mg). The mean concentration ratio between the 4 esters was 8:45:38:9. 298 cases had C(FAEE) above the cut-off's. Self-reported drinking data were obtained in 553 of the cases in the categories abstinent (156 cases), moderate drinking (252 cases) and excessive drinking (145 cases). Median and box-plot data clearly demonstrate differentiation of these ingestor sub-populations by C(FAEE). However, in the abstinent and moderate groups the consumption was frequently underreported (37 and 110 cases positive) whereas in the group self-reported excessive drinking 32 cases were negative. Comparison of C(FAEE) with carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) in 139 cases and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) in 136 cases showed a good agreement in CDT- and GGT positive cases (27/28 and 32/41) but a large portion of the negative CDT- and GGT-results with positive hair test (44/100 and 48/95) which is explained mainly by the much shorter time window of CDT and GGT. No significant correlation was found between persons

  15. Characterization of enzymes involved in formation of ethyl esters of long-chain fatty acids in humans.

    PubMed

    Diczfalusy, M A; Björkhem, I; Einarsson, C; Hillebrant, C G; Alexson, S E

    2001-07-01

    Elevated fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) concentrations have been detected in postmortem organs from alcoholics and patients acutely intoxicated by alcohol, and FAEE have been implicated as mediators of ethanol-induced organ damage. The formation of FAEE is catalyzed by acyl-coenzyme A:ethanol O-acyltransferase (AEAT) and by FAEE synthase, which utilize acyl-CoA and free fatty acids, respectively, as substrates. Because little is known about the capacity of various human tissues to synthesize and hydrolyze FAEE, we investigated formation of FAEE by AEAT and FAEE synthase in tissue homogenates from human gastric ventricular and duodenal mucosa, pancreas, liver, heart, lung, and adipose tissue, gallbladder mucosa, and in serum. Liver, duodenal mucosa, and pancreas were found to have the highest capacities to synthesize FAEE, mainly due to AEAT. FAEE hydrolyzing activity was highest in liver and pancreas, but hardly detectable in adipose tissue or heart. Because fatty acids and alcohol are absorbed by the intestinal mucosa, intestine may be a major site of FAEE synthesis, and FAEE may be delivered via the circulation to other organs and taken up by lipoprotein receptor-mediated uptake. A very low rate of FAEE hydrolysis was detected in heart and adipose tissue, which probably accounts for the previously observed accumulation of FAEE in these organs. PMID:11441128

  16. 40 CFR 721.8450 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-[3-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2- ethyl ester. 721.8450 Section 721.8450 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses...

  17. 40 CFR 721.8450 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-[3-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2- ethyl ester. 721.8450 Section 721.8450 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses...

  18. 40 CFR 721.8450 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-[3-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2- ethyl ester. 721.8450 Section 721.8450 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses...

  19. 40 CFR 721.8450 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-[3-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2- ethyl ester. 721.8450 Section 721.8450 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses...

  20. Copper-mediated C-H(sp²)/C-H(sp³) coupling of benzoic acid derivatives with ethyl cyanoacetate: an expedient route to an isoquinolinone scaffold.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Dengyou; Yang, Nan; Liu, Hong

    2014-09-21

    A facile, copper-mediated, direct C-H(sp(2))/C-H(sp(3)) bond coupling of benzoic acid derivatives with ethyl cyanoacetate by the deployment of an 8-aminoquinoline moiety as a bidentate directing group is disclosed. Such a unique transformation provides a new strategy for the construction of an isoquinolinone scaffold as one of the privileged cores. PMID:25074033

  1. Photolytic degradation of chlorophenols from industrial wastewaters by organic oxidants peroxy acetic acid, para nitro benzoic acid and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide: identification of reaction products.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Swati; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi; Murthy, Zagabathuni Venkata Panchakshari

    2014-01-01

    In this investigation, chlorophenol (CP) containing industrial wastewater was remediated by ultraviolet irradiation in conjunction with organic oxidants, peroxy acetic acid (PAA); para nitro benzoic acid (PNBA); and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP). CP mineralization was studied with regard to chemical oxygen demand (COD) and chloride ion release under identical test conditions. COD depletion to the extent of 81% by PAA, 66% by PNBA, and 67% by MEKP was noted along with an upwardly mobile trend of chloride ion release upon irradiation of samples at 254 nm. A 90-99% decrease in CP concentration (as per high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis) was achieved with an additional 15.0 ml of organic oxidant in all cases. Gas chromatography high resolution mass spectroscopy (GC-HRMS) results also indicated the formation of such reaction products as are free from chlorine substitutions. This treatment also leads to total decolorization of the collected samples. PMID:24647192

  2. 40 CFR 721.10111 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. 721.10111 Section 721.10111 Protection of Environment... diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and diethylene glycol (PMN P-04-510; CAS No. 610787-78-5) is subject to reporting under...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10111 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. 721.10111 Section 721.10111 Protection of Environment... diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and diethylene glycol (PMN P-04-510; CAS No. 610787-78-5) is subject to reporting under...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10110 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. 721.10110 Section 721.10110 Protection of Environment... diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol (PMN P-04-509; CAS No. 610787-77-4) is subject to reporting under...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10110 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. 721.10110 Section 721.10110 Protection of Environment... diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol (PMN P-04-509; CAS No. 610787-77-4) is subject to reporting under...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10111 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. 721.10111 Section 721.10111 Protection of Environment... diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and diethylene glycol (PMN P-04-510; CAS No. 610787-78-5) is subject to reporting under...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10111 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. 721.10111 Section 721.10111 Protection of Environment... diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and diethylene glycol (PMN P-04-510; CAS No. 610787-78-5) is subject to reporting under...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10110 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. 721.10110 Section 721.10110 Protection of Environment... diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol (PMN P-04-509; CAS No. 610787-77-4) is subject to reporting under...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10110 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. 721.10110 Section 721.10110 Protection of Environment... diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol (PMN P-04-509; CAS No. 610787-77-4) is subject to reporting under...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10110 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. 721.10110 Section 721.10110 Protection of Environment... diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol (PMN P-04-509; CAS No. 610787-77-4) is subject to reporting under...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10111 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. 721.10111 Section 721.10111 Protection of Environment... diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... benzoic acid and diethylene glycol (PMN P-04-510; CAS No. 610787-78-5) is subject to reporting under...

  12. Icosapent Ethyl

    MedlinePlus

    ... weight loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat-like substance) in your blood. Icosapent ... ethyl may work by decreasing the amount of triglycerides and other fats made in the liver.

  13. 40 CFR 180.217 - Ammoniates for [ethylenebis-(dithiocarbamato)] zinc and ethyl-enebis [dithiocarbamic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ammoniates for zinc and ethyl-enebis... for zinc and ethyl-enebis bimolecular and trimolecular cyclic anhydrosulfides and disulfides... mixture of 5.2 parts by weight of ammoniates of zinc with 1 part by weight ethylenebis bimolecular...

  14. Metabolism of ethyl 2-carbamoyloxybenzoate (4003/2), a prodrug of salicylic acid, carsalam and salicylamide.

    PubMed

    Kamal, A

    1990-10-01

    The metabolites of 4003/2 observed in vivo have been produced by incubation in vitro of 4003/2 with liver post-mitochondrial supernatants from rat, rabbit and dog. The metabolites were characterized by UV, i.r., NMR, MS and HPLC. All the metabolites detected have been or are in use as drugs for the relief of pain and inflammation. Hence, the new drug 4003/2 is a pro-drug of salicylic acid, carsalam and salicylamide. PMID:2222521

  15. Determination of fatty acid ethyl esters in dried blood spots by LC-MS/MS as markers for ethanol intake: application in a drinking study.

    PubMed

    Luginbühl, Marc; Schröck, Alexandra; König, Stefan; Schürch, Stefan; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    The forensic utility of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in dried blood spots (DBS) as short-term confirmatory markers for ethanol intake was examined. An LC-MS/MS method for the determination of FAEEs in DBS was developed and validated to investigate FAEE formation and elimination in a drinking study, whereby eight subjects ingested 0.66-0.84 g/kg alcohol to reach blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of 0.8 g/kg. Blood was taken every 1.5-2 h, BAC was determined, and dried blood spots were prepared, with 50 μL of blood, for the determination of FAEEs. Lower limits of quantitation (LLOQ) were between 15 and 37 ng/mL for the four major FAEEs. Validation data are presented in detail. In the drinking study, ethyl palmitate and ethyl oleate proved to be the two most suitable markers for FAEE determination. Maximum FAEE concentrations were reached in samples taken 2 or 4 h after the start of drinking. The following mean peak concentrations (c̅ max) were reached: ethyl myristate 14 ± 4 ng/mL, ethyl palmitate 144 ± 35 ng/mL, ethyl oleate 125 ± 55 ng/mL, ethyl stearate 71 ± 21 ng/mL, total FAEEs 344 ± 91 ng/mL. Detectability of FAEEs was found to be on the same time scale as BAC. In liquid blood samples containing ethanol, FAEE concentrations increase post-sampling. This study shows that the use of DBS fixation prevents additional FAEE formation in blood samples containing ethanol. Positive FAEE results obtained by DBS analysis can be used as evidence for the presence of ethanol in the original blood sample. Graphical Abstract Time courses for fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) concentrations in DBS and ethanol concentrations for subject 1 over a period of 7 h. Ethanol ingestion occured during the first hour of the time course. PMID:26968564

  16. Rapid Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester Synthesis by Porcine Myocardium Upon Ethanol Infusion into the Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Yoerger, Danita M.; Best, Catherine A.; McQuillan, Brendan M.; Supple, Gregory E.; Guererro, J. Luis; Cluette-Brown, Joanne E.; Hasaba, Ali; Picard, Michael H.; Stone, James R.; Laposata, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol, have been implicated in ethanol-induced heart injury. To assess the in vivo production of FAEEs by myocardial tissue, we used a modified ethanol ablation procedure in pigs. A controlled 60-minute ethanol infusion was administered into the distal left anterior descending coronary artery in seven swine; serial blood sampling of the coronary sinus and peripheral vein before, during, and after infusion allowed measurement of FAEE production and ethanol levels in the coronary sinus and the peripheral circulation. In a single animal, FAEEs were also quantified from nine different sites within the myocardium. FAEEs were produced by the heart within 5 minutes of exposure to ethanol, with very high concentrations of FAEEs detected in coronary sinus blood. Significant variability in amounts of FAEEs was detected in different regions of the heart tissue. A strong correlation was found between coronary sinus FAEEs and ethanol concentration (r = 0.9241, P < 0.00001). FAEE production by the heart after delivery of ethanol into the left anterior descending coronary artery was rapid, reaching levels in the coronary sinus blood 4 to 10 times greater than that found in peripheral blood after ethanol intake. These data demonstrate that FAEEs may be mediators of ethanol-induced cardiotoxicity. PMID:16651611

  17. Biocatalytic Resolution of Rac-α-Ethyl-2-Oxo-Pyrrolidineacetic Acid Methyl Ester by Immobilized Recombinant Bacillus cereus Esterase.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian-Yong; Liu, Yin-Yan; Luo, Wei-Feng; Zheng, Ren-Chao; Ying, Xiang-Xian; Wang, Zhao

    2016-04-01

    A new esterase-producing strain (Bacillus cereus WZZ001) which exhibiting high hydrolytic activity and excellent enantioselectivity on rac-α-ethyl-2-oxo-pyrrolidineacetic acid methyl ester (R, S-1) has been isolated from soil sample by our laboratory. In this study, the stereoselective hydrolysis of (R, S-1) was performed using the recombinant Bacillus cereus esterase which expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Under the optimized conditions of pH 8.0, 35 °C, and concentration of substrate 400 mM, a successful enzymatic resolution was achieved with an e.e. s of 99.5 % and conversion of 49 %. Immobilization considerably increased the reusability of the recombinant esterase; the immobilized enzyme showed excellent reusability during 6 cycles of repeated 2 h reactions at 35 °C. Thereby, it makes the recombinant B. cereus esterase a usable biocatalyst for industrial application. PMID:26695776

  18. Corrosion Mitigation of Copper in Acidic Chloride Pickling Solutions by 2-Amino-5-ethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherif, El-Sayed M.

    2010-08-01

    Corrosion of copper in acidic chloride pickling solutions of 0.5 M HCl and its mitigation by 2-amino-5-ethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole (AETDA) have been investigated using potentiodynamic polarization, chronoamperometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and weight-loss measurements. The study was also complemented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray (EDX), and UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy investigations. The presence of AETDA and the increase of its concentration in the chloride solutions greatly decreased the corrosion rate and increased the surface and polarization resistances of copper as indicated by the electrochemical measurements. Weight-loss data also indicated that AETDA decreases the dissolution of copper coupons in the studied chloride solution. SEM/EDX investigations showed that AETDA molecules are strongly adsorbed onto copper surface. The UV-Visible absorption spectra confirmed that AETDA molecules suppress the corrosion of copper via their interactions with the copper surface via their adsorption then formation of AETDA-Cu complex.

  19. Synthesis of fatty acid ethyl esters in mammalian tissues after ethanol exposure: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Zelner, Irene; Matlow, Jeremy N; Natekar, Aniket; Koren, Gideon

    2013-08-01

    The ability to undergo non-oxidative metabolism from ethanol to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) varies greatly among tissues and organs. To gain a greater understanding of non-oxidative ethanol metabolism to FAEE, we aimed to collect all published data on FAEE synthesis in mammalian organs and tissues to identify all tissues, organs, and enzymes that are known to, or likely possess FAEE-synthetic activity. A systematic search for relevant papers was performed and two independent reviewers examined potentially relevant abstracts (articles on FAEEs that pertain to ethanol exposure) to determine whether they met the inclusion criteria. Information on FAEE synthesis was retrieved from papers meeting the inclusion/exclusion criteria and summarized by organ/tissue/matrix examined. The systematic search through four databases yielded 78 articles that investigated FAEE synthesis by tissues, tissue fractions and cell lines, and 29 articles that attempted to purify and/or characterize the enzymes involved in FAEE synthesis. Two enzyme activities have been studied: FAEE synthase (FAEES, which conjugates ethanol and free fatty acid) and acyl-CoA: ethanol O-acyltransferase (AEAT, which conjugates ethanol and fatty acyl-CoA). Both activities are expressed by a variety of different enzymes. FAEES activity is the most widely studied and has been purified from several tissues and shown to be associated with several well-known enzymes, while the identity of enzymes possessing AEAT activity remains unknown. The organs and tissues that have been shown to synthesize FAEEs are discussed, with special emphasis on the studies that attempted to elucidate the enzymology of FAEE synthesis in those tissues. PMID:23713893

  20. 40 CFR 721.10326 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2...-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2), 2,2′-(1,2-diazenediyl)bis - and 2,2... butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2),...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10326 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2...-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2), 2,2′-(1,2-diazenediyl)bis - and 2,2... butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2),...

  2. 2-Aza-niumyl-4-(ethyl-carbamo-yl)butano-ate: the zwitterionic form of the amino acid theanine.

    PubMed

    Kang, Shou-Kai; Chen, Yue-Hu; Qian, Shao-Song; Hu, Hao

    2010-01-01

    In the title zwitterion, C(7)H(14)N(2)O(3), the ethyl-amino and the 5-oxo groups are positionally disordered with occupancy ratios of 0.50:0.50 and 0.70:0.30, respectively. The terminal ethyl -CH(3) group undergoes considerable thermal motion. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked via N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional arrangement propagating in the bc plane. PMID:21522793

  3. Ethyl carbamate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl carbamate ; CASRN 51 - 79 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  4. Ethyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 00 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  5. Ethyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl ether ; CASRN 60 - 29 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  6. Ethyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl acetate ; CASRN 141 - 78 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  7. Engineering of chromosomal wax ester synthase integrated Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants for improved biosynthesis of fatty acid ethyl esters.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shuobo; Valle-Rodríguez, Juan Octavio; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, significant advances have been made to engineer robust microbes for overproducing biochemical products from renewable resources. These accomplishments have to a large extend been based on plasmid based methods. However, plasmid maintenance may cause a metabolic burden on the host cell and plasmid-based overexpression of genes can result in genetically unstable strains, which contributes to loss in productivity. Here, a chromosome engineering method based on delta integration was applied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), which can be directly used as biodiesel and would be a possible substitute for conventional petroleum-based diesel. An integration construct was designed and integrated into chromosomal delta sequences by repetitive transformation, which resulted in 1-6 copies of the integration construct per genome. The corresponding FAEE production increased up to 34 mg/L, which is an about sixfold increase compared to the equivalent plasmid-based producer. The integrated cassette in the yeast genome was stably maintained in nonselective medium after deletion of RAD52 which is essential for efficient homologous recombination. To obtain a further increase of FAEE production, genes encoding endogenous acyl-CoA binding protein (ACB1) and a bacterial NADP(+)-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapN) were overexpressed in the final integration strain, which resulted in another 40% percent increase in FAEE production. Our integration strategy enables easy engineering of strains with adjustable gene copy numbers integrated into the genome and this allows for an easy evaluation of the effect of the gene copy number on pathway flux. It therefore represents a valuable tool for introducing and expressing a heterologous pathway in yeast. PMID:24752598

  8. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters do not Improve Clopidogrel Associated P2Y12 Inhibition in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Kamal, Haris; Baxter, Melissa; Mehta, Bijal K.

    2015-01-01

    The specific action of omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters (OFA) in preventing cerebrovascular disease remains unknown, but research has demonstrated multiple possible mechanisms. In addition to altering lipid profiles, OFA may inhibit platelet aggregation. Clopidogrel inhibits platelets via the P2Y12 receptor. OFA may alter clopidogrel-associated platelet-inhibition via a possible combined effect on P2Y12 inhibition. To determine if OFA affects clopidogrel associated P2Y12 platelet receptor inhibition by comparing the percentage of responders in patients with cerebrovascular disease who were taking clopidogrel with or without OFA. We retrospectively reviewed data from adult patients with cerebrovascular disease or cerebral aneurysms and taking clopidogrel, who were seen at a single hospital between March 2010 to September 2011. We included 438 subjects in the study. For the 67 subjects who received loading doses of both clopidogrel and OFA, 71.6% had a P2Y12 inhibition response more than 20%, which is considered a positive response. For the 55 subjects who received just clopidogrel load, 67.2% of subjects were responders. There were 70.4% responders in the 274 subjects who were taking 75 mg of clopidogrel alone at home, and 73.8% responders in the 42 subjects who were taking both clopidogrel and OFA at home. However, these percentage differences were not statistically significant. This study did not find additional P2Y12 platelet inhibition when patients were given OFA, either given as a loading dose or taking it daily. PMID:26294943

  9. The effect of ferulic acid ethyl ester on leptin-induced proliferation and migration of aortic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yung-Chieh; Lee, Yen-Mei; Hsu, Chih-Hsiung; Leu, Sy-Ying; Chiang, Hsiao-Yen; Yen, Mao-Hsiung; Cheng, Pao-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Leptin is a peptide hormone, which has a central role in the regulation of body weight; it also exerts many potentially atherogenic effects. Ferulic acid ethyl ester (FAEE) has been approved for antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to investigate whether FAEE can inhibit the atherogenic effects of leptin and the possible molecular mechanism of its action. Both of cell proliferation and migration were measured when the aortic smooth muscle cell (A10 cell) treated with leptin and/or FAEE. Phosphorylated p44/42MAPK, cell cycle-regulatory protein (for example, cyclin D1, p21, p27), β-catenin and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) proteins levels were also measured. Results demonstrated that leptin (10, 100 ng ml(-1)) significantly increased the proliferation of cells and the phosphorylation of p44/42MAPK in A10 cells. The proliferative effect of leptin was significantly reduced by the pretreatment of U0126 (0.5 μM), a MEK inhibitor, in A10 cells. Meanwhile, leptin significantly increased the protein expression of cyclin D1, p21, β-catenin and decreased the expression of p27 in A10 cells. In addition, leptin (10 ng ml(-1)) significantly increased the migration of A10 cells and the expression of MMP-9 protein. Above effects of leptin were significantly reduced by the pretreatment of FAEE (1 and 10 μM) in A10 cells. In conclusion, FAEE exerts multiple effects on leptin-induced cell proliferation and migration, including the inhibition of p44/42MAPK phosphorylation, cell cycle-regulatory proteins and MMP-9, thereby suggesting that FAEE may be a possible therapeutic approach to the inhibition of obese vascular disease. PMID:26315599

  10. Fatty acid ethyl esters in hair: correlation with self-reported ethanol intake in 160 subjects and influence of estroprogestin therapy.

    PubMed

    Bertol, Elisabetta; Del Bravo, Ester; Vaiano, Fabio; Mari, Francesco; Favretto, Donata

    2014-09-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are minor ethanol metabolites that can accumulate in hair. The performance of hair FAEEs as a biomarker that can discriminate null or moderate drinking from risky, excessive drinking was verified by evaluating the relationship between self-reported daily alcohol intake and FAEE concentration in hair. The study subjects were 160 healthy volunteers (52% female) that included teetotallers, moderate/social drinkers (< 60 g of ethanol per day), and heavy drinkers (≥ 60 g/day).The estimated daily alcohol intake (EDAI) was assessed by a specific written questionnaire aimed at estimating the measure and the frequency of alcohol drinking and at excluding confounding factors. FAEEs (ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl stearate) were extracted from the hair matrix by overnight incubation in n-hexane/dimethylsulphoxide, purified by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in selected ion monitoring and Electron ionization (EI) mode, using pentadeuterated internal standards. Hair samples exhibited FAEE concentrations (expressed as the sum of the four esters, CFAEE ) ranging from 0.01 to 10.78 ng/mg (average 1.16 and median 0.60 ng/mg). The EDAI was from 0 to 246 g of ethanol per day, average 28 g/day and median 15 g/day. A cut-off of 0.5 ng/mg in 3 cm of a proximal hair segment was adopted to discriminate social drinking from excessive ethanol consumption. False positive samples were identified in subjects using ethanol-containing hair lotions and women on estroprogestin therapy. Specificity of 87% was reached when the identified false positives were excluded from data elaboration. CFAEE in hair at a predetermined cut-off can be used to discriminate between moderate and excessive drinking only when confounding factors are meticulously removed. PMID:24431044

  11. Pilot-Scale Production of Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters by an Engineered Escherichia coli Strain Harboring the p(Microdiesel) Plasmid▿

    PubMed Central

    Elbahloul, Yasser; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) were produced in this study by the use of an engineered Escherichia coli p(Microdiesel) strain. Four fed-batch pilot scale cultivations were carried out by first using glycerol as sole carbon source for biomass production before glucose and oleic acid were added as carbon sources. Cultivations yielded a cell density of up to 61 ± 3.1 g of cell dry mass (CDM) per liter and a maximal FAEE content of 25.4% ± 1.1% (wt/wt) of CDM. PMID:20453138

  12. Common and distinct gene expression patterns induced by the herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, cinidon-ethyl and tribenuron-methyl in wheat.

    PubMed

    Pasquer, Frédérique; Ochsner, Urs; Zarn, Jürg; Keller, Beat

    2006-12-01

    In wheat, herbicides are used to control weeds. Little is known about the changes induced in the metabolism of tolerant plants after herbicide treatment. The impact of three herbicides [2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), cinidon-ethyl and tribenuron-methyl] on the wheat transcriptome was studied using cDNA microarrays. Gene expression of plants grown in a controlled environment or in the field was studied between 24 h and 2 weeks after treatment. Under controlled conditions, 2,4-D induced genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway soon after treatment. Cinidon-ethyl triggered peroxidase and defence-related gene expression under controlled conditions, probably because reactive oxygen species are released by photo-oxidation of protoporphyrin-IX. The same genes were upregulated in the field as under controlled conditions, albeit at a weaker level. These results show that cinidon-ethyl specifically induces genes involved in plant defence. Under controlled conditions, tribenuron-methyl did not change the expression profile immediately after treatment, but defence-related genes were upregulated after 1 week. Sulfonylurea compounds such as tribenuron-methyl specifically inhibit acetolactate synthase and are rapidly detoxified, but the activity of some of the resulting metabolites could explain later changes in gene expression. Finally, overexpression of the isopropylmalate synthase gene, involved in branched-chain amino acid synthesis, and of defence-related genes was observed in the field after sulfonylurea treatment. PMID:17054088

  13. Intakes of dietary docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester and egg phosphatidylcholine improve maze-learning ability in young and old mice.

    PubMed

    Lim, S Y; Suzuki, H

    2000-06-01

    The effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) [22:6 (n-3)] ethyl ester (EE) and egg-phosphatidylcholine (PC) on maze-learning ability in young and old mice was studied. Male Crj:CD-1 mice aged either 3 wk or 14 mo were fed a diet containing 2 g DHA-EE/100 g diet plus 3 g palm oil/100 g diet (DHA-EE Group), 5 g egg-PC/100 g diet (egg-PC Group), 1 g DHA-EE/100 g diet plus 2.5 g egg-PC/100 g diet plus 1.5 g palm oil/100 g diet (DHA-EE + egg-PC Group) or 5 g palm oil/100 g diet (Control Group) for 5 mo. Maze-learning ability was assessed 4 mo after the start of the experiment. The time required to reach the maze exit and the number of times that a mouse strayed into blind alleys in the maze were measured in three trials every 4 d. In trial 2 of young mice, performed on d 4 after the first trial, the DHA-EE group required less (P < 0.05) time to reach the maze exit and DHA-EE and egg-PC groups strayed (P < 0.05) into blind alleys fewer times than the control group. In trial 2 of old mice, the DHA-EE, egg-PC and DHA-EE + egg-PC groups needed less (P < 0.05) time to find the exit and spent a fewer (P < 0.05) number of times in blind alleys than did the control group. The DHA-EE, DHA-EE + egg-PC and egg-PC groups strayed into blind alleys fewer times than the control group in trial 3 of old mice (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the intake of DHA-EE and the egg-PC diet effectively enhances maze-learning ability and brain functions in old mice. PMID:10827221

  14. Formation of fatty acid ethyl esters in rat liver microsomes. Evidence for a key role for acyl-CoA: ethanol O-acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Diczfalusy, M A; Björkhem, I; Einarsson, C; Alexson, S E

    1999-01-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters have been detected in high concentrations in organs commonly damaged by alcohol abuse and are regarded as being important non-oxidative metabolites of ethanol. The formation of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) has been ascribed to two enzymic activities, acyl-CoA : ethanol O-acyltransferase (AEAT) and FAEE synthase. In the present study we determined AEAT and FAEE synthase activities in isolated rat liver microsomes and further characterized the microsomal AEAT activity in more detail. The determined AEAT and FAEE synthase activities were found to be similar (about 1.7 nmol.min-1.mg-1). However, the AEAT activity was increased about sixfold by the addition of 250 microm bis-(4-nitrophenyl) phosphate (a serine esterase inhibitor) to the incubation whereas FAEE synthase activity was completely inhibited. p-Hydroxymercuribenzoic acid (a cysteine-reacting compound) also stimulated AEAT activity (about fourfold) but had no effect on FAEE synthase activity. The effects of the inhibitors suggest that the formation of FAEEs by AEAT was severely counteracted by enzymic hydrolysis of the substrate (acyl-CoA) and to a lesser extent the product by serine esterases. dl-Melinamide, a hypocholesterolaemic drug, was found to be a very potent inhibitor of AEAT activity with an IC50 value of about 2.5 microm. Furthermore, we compared the activities of two purified microsomal carboxylesterases, ES-4 and ES-10, and identified ES-4 as the enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of FAEEs. The two carboxyesterases were also tested for FAEE synthase activity, but neither had any detectable activity. Esterase ES-4 was found to have some AEAT activity, but it was low. When measured under optimal conditions without competing hydrolysis the capacity of AEAT is thus considerably higher than FAEE synthase and the results are consistent with an important role for AEAT in the formation of ethyl esters. As the ratio acyl-CoA/non-esterified fatty acids is high under normal

  15. Terpolymers of ethyl acrylate/methacrylic acid/unsaturated acid ester of alcohols and acids as anti-settling agents in coal water slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Savoly, A.; Villa, J.L.; Grinstein, R.H.; Nachfolger, S.J.

    1988-05-17

    This patent describes a pumpable stabilized coal water slurry, having a coal content of at least about 50% by weight wherein at least 80% of the coal particles are about 200 mesh or finer, containing from about 0.01% to about 1% by weight of the slurry of a water soluble terpolymer of ethylacrylate (A), metacrylic acid (B) and a third monomer (C) selected from the group consisting of an unsaturated carboxylic acid ester of an alcohol and an ethoxylated carboxylic acid. The unsaturated carboxylic acid is a mono- or di- basic unsaturated carboxylic acid of 3 to 10 carbon atoms selected from the group consisting of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, itaconic acid, fumaric acid, and maleic acid.

  16. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies of gamma-irradiated DL-alanine ethyl ester hydrochloride, L-theanine and L-glutamic acid dimethyl ester hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Başkan, M Halim; Aydın, Murat

    2013-08-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of gamma irradiated powders of DL-alanine ethyl ester hydrochloride, L-theanine and L-glutamic acid dimethyl ester hydrochloride were investigated at room temperature. The observed paramagnetic species were attributed to the CH3ĊHCOOC2H5, -CH2ĊHCOOH and -CH2ĊHCOOCH3 radicals, respectively. Hyperfine structure constants and g-values were determined for these three radicals. Some spectroscopic properties and suggestions concerning the possible structure of the radicals were also discussed. PMID:23680512

  17. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies of gamma-irradiated DL-alanine ethyl ester hydrochloride, L-theanine and L-glutamic acid dimethyl ester hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Başkan, M. Halim; Aydın, Murat

    2013-08-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of gamma irradiated powders of DL-alanine ethyl ester hydrochloride, L-theanine and L-glutamic acid dimethyl ester hydrochloride were investigated at room temperature. The observed paramagnetic species were attributed to the CH3ĊHCOOC2H5, -CH2ĊHCOOH and -CH2ĊHCOOCH3 radicals, respectively. Hyperfine structure constants and g-values were determined for these three radicals. Some spectroscopic properties and suggestions concerning the possible structure of the radicals were also discussed.

  18. 40 CFR 180.441 - Quizalofop ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... combined residues of the herbicide quizalofop (2- propanoic acid) and quizalofop ethyl (ethyl-2- propanoate...) Tolerances are established for the combined residues of the herbicide quizalofop (2- propanoic acid... herbicide quizalofop-p ethyl ester , and its acid metabolite quizalofop-p , and the S enantiomers of...

  19. Cytotoxicity of copper(II)-complexes with some S-alkyl derivatives of thiosalicylic acid. Crystal structure of the binuclear copper(II)-complex with S-ethyl derivative of thiosalicylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolić, Miloš V.; Mijajlović, Marina Ž.; Jevtić, Verica V.; Ratković, Zoran R.; Novaković, Slađana B.; Bogdanović, Goran A.; Milovanović, Jelena; Arsenijević, Aleksandar; Stojanović, Bojana; Trifunović, Srećko R.; Radić, Gordana P.

    2016-07-01

    The spectroscopically predicted structure of the obtained copper(II)-complex with S-ethyl derivative of thiosalicylic acid was confirmed by X-ray structural study and compared to previously reported crystal structure of the Cu complex with S-methyl derivative. Single crystals suitable for X-ray measurements were obtained by slow crystallization from a water solution. Cytotoxic effects of S-alkyl (R = benzyl (L1), methyl (L2), ethyl (L3), propyl (L4) and butyl (L5)) derivatives of thiosalicylic acid and the corresponding binuclear copper(II)-complexes on murine colon carcinoma cell lines, CT26 and CT26.CL25 and human colon carcinoma cell line HCT-116 were reported here. The analysis of cancer cell viability showed that all the tested complexes had low cytotoxic effect on murine colon carcinoma cell lines, but several times higher cytotoxicity on normal human colon carcinoma cells.

  20. Modulation of ultraviolet light-, ethyl methanesulfonate-, and 7,12-dimethylbenz(A)anthracene-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis by retinol and retinoic acid in the primary rat hepatocyte

    SciTech Connect

    Budroe, J.D.; Shaddock, J.G.; Casciano, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of retinol and retinoic acid on unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in primary Sprague-Dawley rat hepatocytes were studied in the presence and absence of know chemical and physical mutagens. Neither retinol or retinoic acid caused a significant increase in UDS over solvent control at concentrations ranging from 1 ..mu..M to 50 ..mu..M. Retinol and retinoic acid did not significantly affect 200..mu..g/mL ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)- or 32 J/m/sup 2/ ultraviolet light (UV)-induced UDS at concentrations ranging from 1..mu..M to 50 ..mu..M. In contrast, retinol and retinoic acid significantly inhibited 2.5 ..mu..g/mL and 5.0 ..mu..g/mL 7,12-dimethyl-benz(a)-anthracene(DMBA)-induced UDS at concentrations of 1..mu..M or greater. Retinol-and retinoic acid-induced hepatocytotoxicity was studied in vitro using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release as an indicator of cytoxicity. Neither retinol nor retinoic acid caused significant increases in LDH release over solvent control 3 hours after treatment, whereas retinol caused a biologically significant increase in LDH release 24 hours posttreatment at concentrations of 50 ..mu..M and 100 ..mu..M. These data suggest that nontoxic concentrations of retinol and retinoic acid do not inhibit the DNA excision repair process but apparently affect the effective DNA adduct load due to the ultimate species of DMBA metabolite responsible for hepatocellular DNA damage.

  1. Modulation of ultraviolet light-, ethyl methanesulfonate-, and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis by retinol and retinoic acid in the primary rat hepatocyte

    SciTech Connect

    Budroe, J.D.; Shaddock, J.G.; Casciano, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of retinol and retinoic acid on unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in primary Sprague-Dawley rat hepatocytes were studied in the presence and absence of known chemical and physical mutagens. Neither retinol nor retinoic acid caused a significant increase in UDS over solvent control at concentrations ranging from 1 microM to 50 microM. Retinol and retinoic acid did not significantly affect 200 micrograms/mL ethyl methanesulfonate(EMS)- or 32 J/m2 ultraviolet light(UV)-induced UDS at concentrations ranging from 1 microM to 50 microM. In contrast, retinol and retinoic acid significantly inhibited 2.5 micrograms/mL and 5.0 micrograms/mL 7,12-dimethyl-benz(a)anthracene(DMBA)-induced UDS at concentrations of 1 microM or greater. Retinol- and retinoic acid-induced hepatocytotoxicity was studied in vitro using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release as an indicator of cytoxicity. Neither retinol nor retinoic acid caused significant increases in LDH release over solvent control 3 hours after treatment, whereas retinol caused a biologically significant increase in LDH release 24 hours posttreatment at concentrations of 50 microM and 100 microM. These data suggest that nontoxic concentrations of retinol and retinoic acid do not inhibit the DNA excision repair process but apparently affect the effective DNA adduct load due to the ultimate species of DMBA metabolite responsible for hepatocellular DNA damage.

  2. N-alpha-Cocoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester, DL-pyroglutamic acid salt, as an inactivator of hepatitis B surface antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Y; Toyoshima, S

    1979-01-01

    N-alpha-Cocoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester, DL-pyroglutamic acid salt (CAE), exhibited a strong inactivating effect on hepatitis B surface antigen. Concentrations of CAE required for 50 and 100% inactivation of the antigen were 0.01 to 0.025% and 0.025 to 0.05% respectively. CAE completely inactivated hepatitis B surface antigen at the lowest concentration compared with various compounds including about 500 amino acid derivatives, sodium hypochlorite, 2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenyl ether, and some detergents. Furthermore, CAE inactivated vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus, and influenza virus, whereas poliovirus was not inactivated at all. The results suggest that the inactivating effects of CAE are related to interaction with lipid-containing viral envelopes. PMID:228595

  3. Preparation and optical properties of CdS nanoparticles dispersed in poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) co-polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trandafilović, L. V.; Djoković, V.; Bibić, N.; Georges, M. K.; Radhakrishnan, T.

    2008-03-01

    CdS/poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) nanocomposites were prepared and characterized using structural, optical and thermal methods. Co-polymers used as the matrices were synthesized by radical polymerization of the co-monomers in different mol ratios (1:1, 2:1 and 1:2, DMAEMA:acrylic acid). The presence of the nanostructured CdS was confirmed by TEM analysis as well as by the shift of the onset of the optical absorption towards lower wavelengths. XRD spectra showed the cubic crystal phase of the obtained CdS nanoparticles. TGA measurements revealed improved thermal stability of the nanocomposite with respect to pure co-polymer matrix.

  4. 11-nor-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (THC-COOEt): unsuccessful search for a marker of combined cannabis and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Nadulski, Thomas; Bleeck, Simona; Schräder, Johannes; Bork, Wolf-Rainer; Pragst, Fritz

    2010-03-20

    11-Nor-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (THC-COOEt) can be presumed to be a mixed metabolite formed during combined consumption of cannabinoids and alcohol. In order to examine this hypothesis, THC-COOEt and its deuterated analogue D(3)-THC-COOEt were synthesized as reference substance and internal standard from the corresponding carboxylic acids and diazoethane and methods were developed for the sensitive detection of THC-COOEt in plasma and hair based on gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry after silylation with N-methyl-N-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide and gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS) as well as tandem mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS-MS) after derivatization with pentafluoropropionyl anhydride. The methods were applied for THC-COOEt determination to plasma samples from 22 drunk driving cases which contained both ethanol (0.30-2.16 mg/g) and THC-COOH (15-252 ng/mL) as well as to 12 hair samples from drug fatalities which were both positive for THC (0.09-2.04 ng/mg) and fatty acid ethyl esters as markers of chronic alcohol abuse (0.70-6.3 ng/mg). In none of these samples THC-COOEt could be found with limits of detection of 0.3 ng/mL in plasma and 2 pg/mg in hair in 11 samples using GC-NCI-MS and 0.2 pg/mg in one sample using GC-NCI-MS. Therefore, the use of this compound as a marker for combined cannabis and alcohol consumption could not be achieved. PMID:20074877

  5. Assessing the Potential Content of Ethyl Carbamate in White, Red, and Rosé Wines as a Key Factor for Pursuing Urea Degradation by Purified Acid Urease.

    PubMed

    Cerreti, Martina; Fidaleo, Marcello; Benucci, Ilaria; Liburdi, Katia; Tamborra, Pasquale; Moresi, Mauro

    2016-07-01

    The ethyl carbamate (EC) content of a wine after a given temperature-time storage was theoretically predicted from the potential concentration of ethyl carbamate (PEC), as determined via an accelerated EC formation test. Such information was used to decide whether an enzymatic treatment was needed to reduce the wine urea level before bottling/aging. To this end, 6 white, red, and rosé wines, manufactured in Italy as such or enriched with urea, were tested for their PEC content either before or after enzymatic treatment using a purified acid urease preparation derived from Lactobacillus fermentum. The treatment was severely affected by the total phenolic content (TP) of the wine, the estimated pseudo-first-order kinetic rate constant for NH3 formation reducing by a factor of approximately 2000 as the TP increased from 0 to 1.64 g L(-1) . Such a sensitivity to TP was by far greater than that pertaining to a killed cell-based enzyme preparation used previously. Urea hydrolysis was successful at reducing EC concentration in wines with low levels of TP and other EC precursors. PMID:27239804

  6. 40 CFR 721.10019 - Benzoic acid, 2-chloro-5-nitro-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester. 721.10019 Section 721.10019 Protection of Environment...-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester (PMN P-01-563; CAS No. 174489-76-0) is subject to...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10019 - Benzoic acid, 2-chloro-5-nitro-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester. 721.10019 Section 721.10019 Protection of Environment...-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester (PMN P-01-563; CAS No. 174489-76-0) is subject to...

  8. Functional modulation of cerebral gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex with ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate: Presence of independent binding site for ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, J.; Kuriyama, K. )

    1990-05-01

    Effect of ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCE) on the function of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex was studied. Beta-CCE noncompetitively and competitively inhibited (3H)flunitrazepam binding to benzodiazepine receptor, but not (3H)muscimol binding to GABAA receptor as well as t-(3H)butylbicycloorthobenzoate (( 3H) TBOB) binding to chloride ion channel, in particulate fraction of the mouse brain. Ro15-1788 also inhibited competitively (3H) flunitrazepam binding. On the other hand, the binding of beta-(3H)CCE was inhibited noncompetitively and competitively by clonazepam and competitively by Ro15-1788. In agreement with these results, benzodiazepines-stimulated (3H)muscimol binding was antagonized by beta-CCE and Ro15-1788. Gel column chromatography for the solubilized fraction from cerebral particulate fraction by 0.2% sodium deoxycholate (DOC-Na) in the presence of 1 M KCl indicated that beta-(3H)CCE binding site was eluted in the same fraction (molecular weight, 250,000) as the binding sites for (3H)flunitrazepam, (3H)muscimol and (3H)TBOB. GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx into membrane vesicles prepared from the bovine cerebral cortex was stimulated and attenuated by flunitrazepam and beta-CCE, respectively. These effects of flunitrazepam and beta-CCE on the GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx were antagonized by Ro15-1788. The present results suggest that the binding site for beta-CCE, which resides on GABAA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex, may be different from that for benzodiazepine. Possible roles of beta-CCE binding site in the allosteric inhibitions on benzodiazepine binding site as well as on the functional coupling between chloride ion channel and GABAA receptor are also suggested.

  9. Omega-3 fatty acid ethyl-eicosapentaenoate, but not soybean oil, attenuates memory impairment induced by central IL-1beta administration.

    PubMed

    Song, Cai; Horrobin, David

    2004-06-01

    Proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1beta can cause cognitive impairment, activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and impair monoaminergic neurotransmission in the rat. IL-1beta has also been shown to increase the concentration of the inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the blood. Omega (n)-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), which are components of fish oil, have been shown to reduce both the proinflammatory cytokines and the synthesis of PGE2. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dietary supplements of EPA would attenuate the inflammation-induced impairment of spatial memory by centrally administered IL-1beta. Rats were fed with a diet of coconut oil (contained a negligible quantity of fatty acids), soybean oil (contained mainly n-6 fatty acids), or a diet of coconut oil enriched with ethyl-EPA (E-EPA). The rats were then injected intracerebroventricularly with IL-1beta or saline. The results of this study demonstrated that the IL-1-induced deficit in spatial memory was correlated with an impairment of central noradrenergic and serotonergic (but not dopaminergic) function and an increase in the serum corticosterone concentration. IL-1beta also caused an increase in the hippocampal PGE2 concentration. These effects of IL-1 were attenuated by the chronic administration of E-EPA. By contrast, rats fed with the soybean oil diet showed no effect on the changes induced by the IL-1 administration. PMID:15060086

  10. The stability and controlled release of I-ascorbic acid encapsulated in poly (ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate) nanocapsules prepared by interfacial polymerization of water-in-oil microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Su-Ning; Chen, Tao; Guo, Yi-Guang; Zhang, Jian; Song, Xiaoqiu; Zhou, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The L-ascorbic acid (AA) was encapsulated into biodegradable and biocompatible poly(ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate) (PECA) nanocapsules by interfacial polymerization of water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsions. The influences of surfactant concentration, pH value of the dispersed aqueous phase, and W/O ratio on nanocapsule size were discussed. The stability and in vitro release of encapsulated AA were also investigated. The results show that nanocapsules could be obtained under the conditions with low pH value, high fraction of aqueous phase, and appropriate surfactant concentration. The encapsulated AA was protected by nanocapsules from oxidation and presented superior storage stability in aqueous medium than pure AA. Releasing AA from the inner core of nanocapsules could be controlled by adjusting the enzyme hydrolysis extent of the PECA wall. PMID:26665980

  11. Preparation of complex nano-particles based on alginic acid/poly[(2-dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate] and a drug vehicle for doxorubicin release controlled by ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hong; Ni, Caihua; Zhang, Liping

    2012-01-23

    Monodispersed complex nano-particles were synthesized simply by mixing alginic acid (ALG-H) with poly[(2-dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate] (PDEMA) in pure water without any surfactants or additives. The structure and properties of the nano-particles were extensively studied. The surface charges and average sizes of the nano-particles were varied with the composition of ALG-H and PDEMA. The nano-particles were formed through electrostatic attraction force, and they were very stable in pure water, but dissociated in salt solutions. An anticancer drug (doxorubicin) was loaded in the nano-particles and released in different saline solutions. The release profiles revealed that the drug release could be controlled by adjusting the pH and salt concentrations. The nano-particles displayed apparent advantages such as simple preparation process, low cost, free of organic solvents, size controllable, biodegradable and biocompatible. PMID:22079138

  12. Clinical use of meconium fatty acid ethyl esters for identifying children at risk for alcohol-related disabilities: the first reported case.

    PubMed

    Zelner, Irene; Shor, Sarit; Lynn, Hazel; Roukema, Henry; Lum, Lisa; Eisinga, Kirsten; Koren, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in meconium are validated biomarkers of heavy fetal alcohol exposure that may potentially be used clinically for identifying children at risk for alcohol-related disabilities. However, until now, FAEEs have been largely used anonymously in epidemiological studies, and by child protection authorities in need for verification of heavy alcohol use in pregnancy. Here we describe the first case of a neonate identified as part of a research study on a pilot neonatal screening program for prenatal alcohol exposure. The neonate's meconium tested high for FAEEs (52 nmol/g; positive cut-off ≥ 2 nmol/g), which prompted active follow-up of the infant's development, identifying early neurocognitive problems and allowing initiation of a remedial program. PMID:22247425

  13. Active-Site Engineering of ω-Transaminase for Production of Unnatural Amino Acids Carrying a Side Chain Bulkier than an Ethyl Substituent.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Woo; Park, Eul-Soo; Dong, Joo-Young; Shin, Jong-Shik

    2015-10-01

    ω-Transaminase (ω-TA) is a promising enzyme for use in the production of unnatural amino acids from keto acids using cheap amino donors such as isopropylamine. The small substrate-binding pocket of most ω-TAs permits entry of substituents no larger than an ethyl group, which presents a significant challenge to the preparation of structurally diverse unnatural amino acids. Here we report on the engineering of an (S)-selective ω-TA from Ochrobactrum anthropi (OATA) to reduce the steric constraint and thereby allow the small pocket to readily accept bulky substituents. On the basis of a docking model in which L-alanine was used as a ligand, nine active-site residues were selected for alanine scanning mutagenesis. Among the resulting variants, an L57A variant showed dramatic activity improvements in activity for α-keto acids and α-amino acids carrying substituents whose bulk is up to that of an n-butyl substituent (e.g., 48- and 56-fold increases in activity for 2-oxopentanoic acid and L-norvaline, respectively). An L57G mutation also relieved the steric constraint but did so much less than the L57A mutation did. In contrast, an L57V substitution failed to induce the improvements in activity for bulky substrates. Molecular modeling suggested that the alanine substitution of L57, located in a large pocket, induces an altered binding orientation of an α-carboxyl group and thereby provides more room to the small pocket. The synthetic utility of the L57A variant was demonstrated by carrying out the production of optically pure L- and D-norvaline (i.e., enantiomeric excess [ee]>99%) by asymmetric amination of 2-oxopantanoic acid and kinetic resolution of racemic norvaline, respectively. PMID:26231640

  14. Active-Site Engineering of ω-Transaminase for Production of Unnatural Amino Acids Carrying a Side Chain Bulkier than an Ethyl Substituent

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang-Woo; Park, Eul-Soo; Dong, Joo-Young

    2015-01-01

    ω-Transaminase (ω-TA) is a promising enzyme for use in the production of unnatural amino acids from keto acids using cheap amino donors such as isopropylamine. The small substrate-binding pocket of most ω-TAs permits entry of substituents no larger than an ethyl group, which presents a significant challenge to the preparation of structurally diverse unnatural amino acids. Here we report on the engineering of an (S)-selective ω-TA from Ochrobactrum anthropi (OATA) to reduce the steric constraint and thereby allow the small pocket to readily accept bulky substituents. On the basis of a docking model in which l-alanine was used as a ligand, nine active-site residues were selected for alanine scanning mutagenesis. Among the resulting variants, an L57A variant showed dramatic activity improvements in activity for α-keto acids and α-amino acids carrying substituents whose bulk is up to that of an n-butyl substituent (e.g., 48- and 56-fold increases in activity for 2-oxopentanoic acid and l-norvaline, respectively). An L57G mutation also relieved the steric constraint but did so much less than the L57A mutation did. In contrast, an L57V substitution failed to induce the improvements in activity for bulky substrates. Molecular modeling suggested that the alanine substitution of L57, located in a large pocket, induces an altered binding orientation of an α-carboxyl group and thereby provides more room to the small pocket. The synthetic utility of the L57A variant was demonstrated by carrying out the production of optically pure l- and d-norvaline (i.e., enantiomeric excess [ee] > 99%) by asymmetric amination of 2-oxopantanoic acid and kinetic resolution of racemic norvaline, respectively. PMID:26231640

  15. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  16. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  17. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  18. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  19. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  20. Detection of omega-3 oxylipins in human plasma and response to treatment with omega-3 acid ethyl esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The long chain omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids have beneficial health effects, but the molecular mediators of these effects are not well-characterized. Oxygenated n-3 FAs (oxylipins) may be an important class of mediators. Members of this chemic...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1295 - Ethyl formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of concentrated sulfuric acid. Ethyl formate occurs naturally in some plant oils, fruits, and juices but does not occur naturally in the animal kingdom. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1295 - Ethyl formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of concentrated sulfuric acid. Ethyl formate occurs naturally in some plant oils, fruits, and juices but does not occur naturally in the animal kingdom. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of...

  3. Limited Impact of 2 g/day Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (Omacor®) on Plasma Lipids and Inflammatory Markers in Patients Awaiting Carotid Endarterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Yusof, Hayati M.; Cawood, Abbie L.; Ding, Ren; Williams, Jennifer A.; Napper, Frances L.; Shearman, Clifford P.; Grimble, Robert F.; Payne, Simon P.K.; Calder, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of prescription omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ethyl esters (Omacor®) on blood pressure, plasma lipids, and inflammatory marker concentrations in patients awaiting carotid endarterectomy. Patients awaiting carotid endarterectomy (n = 121) were randomised to Omacor® or olive oil as placebo (2 g/day) until surgery (median 21 days). Blood pressure, plasma lipids, and plasma inflammatory markers were determined. There were significant decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and in plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, soluble vascular cellular adhesion molecule 1, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 concentrations, in both groups. The extent of triglyceride lowering was greater with Omacor® (25%) compared with placebo (9%). Soluble E-selectin concentration was significantly decreased in the Omacor® group but increased in the placebo group. At the end of the supplementation period there were no differences in blood pressure or in plasma lipid and inflammatory marker concentrations between the two groups. It is concluded that Omacor® given at 2 g/day for an average of 21 days to patients with advanced carotid atherosclerosis lowers triglycerides and soluble E-selectin concentrations, but has limited broad impact on the plasma lipid profile or on inflammatory markers. This may be because the duration of intervention was too short or the dose of n-3 fatty acids was too low. PMID:24065166

  4. Alteration of seed fatty acid composition by an ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana affecting diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Katavic, V; Reed, D W; Taylor, D C; Giblin, E M; Barton, D L; Zou, J; Mackenzie, S L; Covello, P S; Kunst, L

    1995-01-01

    In characterizing the enzymes involved in the formation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) in the Brassicaceae, we have generated a series of mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana that have reduced VLCFA content. Here we report the characterization of a seed lipid mutant, AS11, which, in comparison to wild type (WT), has reduced levels of 20:1 and 18:1 and accumulates 18:3 as the major fatty acid in triacylglycerols. Proportions of 18:2 remain similar to WT. Genetic analyses indicate that the fatty acid phenotype is caused by a semidominant mutation in a single nuclear gene, designated TAG1, located on chromosome 2. Biochemical analyses have shown that the AS11 phenotype is not due to a deficiency in the capacity to elongate 18:1 or to an increase in the relative delta 15 or delta 12 desaturase activities. Indeed, the ratio of desaturase/elongase activities measured in vitro is virtually identical in developing WT and AS11 seed homogenates. Rather, the fatty acid phenotype of AS11 is the result of reduced diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity throughout development, such that triacylglycerol biosynthesis is reduced. This leads to a reduction in 20:1 biosynthesis during seed development, leaving more 18:1 available for desaturation. Thus, we have demonstrated that changes to triacylglycerol biosynthesis can result in dramatic changes in fatty acid composition and, in particular, in the accumulation of VLCFAs in seed storage lipids. PMID:7784510

  5. Improved stability and enhanced efficiency to degrade chlorimuron-ethyl by the entrapment of esterase SulE in cross-linked poly (γ-glutamic acid)/gelatin hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liqiang; Li, Xinyu; Li, Xu; Su, Zhencheng; Zhang, Chenggang; Xu, MingKai; Zhang, Huiwen

    2015-04-28

    Free enzymes often undergo some problems such as easy deactivation, low stability, and less recycling in biodegradation processes, especially in soil condition. A novel esterase SulE, which is responsible for primary degradation of a wide range of sulfonylurea herbicides by methyl or ethyl ester de-esterification, was expressed by strain Hansschlegelia sp. CHL1 and entrapped for the first time in an environment-friendly, biocompatible and biodegradable cross-linked poly (γ-glutamic acid)/gelatin hydrogel (CPE). The activity and stability of CPE-SulE were compared with free SulE under varying pH and temperature condition by measuring chlorimuron-ethyl residue. Meanwhile, the three-dimensional network of CPE-SulE was verified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that CPE-SulE obviously improved thermostability, pH stability and reusability compared with free SulE. Furthermore, CPE-SulE enhanced degrading efficiency of chlorimuron-ethyl in both soil and water system, especially in acid environment. The characteristics of CPE-SulE suggested the great potential to remediate chlorimuron-ethyl contaminated soils in situ. PMID:25661176

  6. Characterization of porous collagen/hyaluronic acid scaffold modified by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Park, Si-Nae; Park, Jong-Chul; Kim, Hea Ok; Song, Min Jung; Suh, Hwal

    2002-02-01

    In order to develop a scaffolding material for tissue regeneration, porous matrices containing collagen and hyaluronic acid were fabricated by freeze drying at -20 degrees C, -70 degrees C or -196 degrees C. The fabricated porous membranes were cross-linked using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) in a range of 1-100 mM concentrations for enhancing mechanical stability of the composite matrix. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) views of the matrices demonstrated that the matrices obtained before cross-linking process had interconnected pores with mean diameters of 40, 90 or 230 microm and porosity of 58-66% according to the freezing temperature, and also the porous structures after cross-linking process were retained. The swelling test and IR spectroscopic measurement of different cross-linked membranes were carried out as a measure of the extent of cross-linking. The swelling behavior of cross-linked membranes showed no significant differences as cross-linking degree increased. FT-IR spectra showed the increase of the intensity of the absorbencies at amide bonds (1655, 1546, 1458 cm(-1)) compared to that of CH bond (2930 cm(-1)). In enzymatic degradation test, EDC treated membranes showed significant enhancement of the resistance to collagenase activity in comparison with 0.625% glutaraldehyde treated membranes. In cytotoxicity test using L929 fibroblastic cells, the EDC-cross-linked membranes demonstrated no significant toxicity. PMID:11791924

  7. Ethyl oleate-containing nanostructured lipid carriers improve oral bioavailability of trans-ferulic acid ascompared with conventional solid lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongtai; Li, Zhe; Zhang, Kai; Yang, Gang; Wang, Zhi; Zhao, Jihui; Hu, Rongfeng; Feng, Nianping

    2016-09-10

    trans-Ferulic acid (TFA) has antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and cardioprotective effects, but its poor solubility in water results in unsatisfactory oral bioavailability when administered conventionally at a standard dosage. However, the limited bioavailability of TFA can be overcome by delivering it in nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). In this study, a microemulsion (ME)-based method was used to prepare NLCs with ethyl oleate as the liquid lipid component and glyceryl behenate as the solid lipid component. These NLCs and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were then used as vehicles for TFA. Their entrapment efficiencies (EE), stability during storage, in vitro release profiles, and in vivo pharmacokinetics were compared. The NLC formulation afforded a drug entrapment efficiency that was significantly greater than that of the SLN formulation, which was made using a single solid lipid. Furthermore, the TFA that was dispersed in the disordered binary lipid matrix of the NLC formulation was more stable than that in the SLN formulation, and thus showed less expulsion from the vehicle during storage. In in vivo pharmacokinetic studies, the NLC TFA formulation yielded a greater Cmax and AUC than that produced by the SLN formulation and an aqueous TFA suspension. This showed that the oral bioavailability of TFA was markedly improved by packaging in NLCs. NLCs are thus a promising vehicle for oral TFA administration, with significant advantages over SLNs. PMID:27374194

  8. Production of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters from Menhaden Oil Using Proteus vulgaris Lipase-Mediated One-Step Transesterification and Urea Complexation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Kim, Hyung Kwoun

    2016-05-01

    An organic solvent-stable lipase from Proteus vulgaris K80 was used to produce the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ethyl esters (ω-3 PUFA EEs). First, the lyophilized recombinant lipase K80 (LyoK80) was used to perform the transesterification reaction of menhaden oil and ethanol. LyoK80 produced the ω-3 PUFA EEs with a conversion yield of 82 % in the presence of 20 % water content via a three-step ethanol-feeding process; however, in a non-aqueous condition, LyoK80 produced only a slight amount of the ω-3 PUFA EEs. To enhance its reaction properties, the lipase K80 was immobilized on a hydrophobic bead to derive ImmK80; the biochemical properties and substrate specificity of ImmK80 are similar to those of LyoK80. ImmK80 was then used to produce ω-3 PUFA EEs in accordance with the same transesterification reaction. Unlike LyoK80, ImmK80 achieved a high ω-3 PUFA EE conversion yield of 86 % under a non-aqueous system via a one-step ethanol-feeding reaction. The ω-3 PUFA EEs were purified up to 92 % using a urea complexation method. PMID:26842598

  9. Synthesis, spectral characterization, thermal behaviour, antibacterial activity and DFT calculation on N'-[bis(methylsulfanyl) methylene]-2-hydroxybenzohydrazide and N'-(4-methoxy benzoyl)-hydrazinecarbodithioic acid ethyl ester.

    PubMed

    Bharty, M K; Dani, R K; Kushawaha, S K; Prakash, Om; Singh, Ranjan K; Sharma, V K; Kharwar, R N; Singh, N K

    2015-06-15

    Two new compounds N'-[bis(methylsulfanyl) methylene]-2-hydroxybenzohydrazide {Hbmshb (1)} and N'-(4-methoxy benzoyl)-hydrazinecarbodithioic acid ethyl ester {H2mbhce (2)} have been synthesized and characterized with the aid of elemental analyses, IR, NMR and single crystal X-ray diffraction data. Compounds 1 and 2 crystallize in orthorhombic and monoclinic systems with space group Pna21 and P21/n, respectively. Inter and intra molecular hydrogen bonding link two molecules and provide linear chain structure. In addition to this, compound 2 is stabilized by CH⋯π and NH⋯π interactions. Molecular geometry from X-ray analysis, geometry optimization, charge distribution, bond analysis, frontier molecular orbital (FMO) analysis and non-linear optical (NLO) effects have been performed using the density functional theory (DFT) with the B3LYP functional. The bioefficacy of compounds has been examined against the growth of bacteria to evaluate their anti-microbial potential. Compounds 1 and 2 are thermally stable and show NLO behaviour better than the urea crystal. PMID:25767993

  10. Linear Versus Non-Linear Dose-Response Relationship Between Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Meconium Concentration of Nine Different Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters.

    PubMed

    Yang, J Y; Kwak, H S; Han, J Y; Choi, J S; Ahn, H K; Oh, Y J; Velázquez-Armenta, E Y; Nava-Ocampo, A A

    2015-01-01

    Presence of individual fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in meconium is considered to be a reliable biomarker of prenatal alcohol exposure, and their concentration has been found to be linearly associated with poor postnatal development, supporting the widely extended idea that ethanol is a non-threshold teratogen. However, a growing number of epidemiological studies have consistently found a lack of adverse short- and long-term fetal outcomes at low exposure levels. We therefore aimed to investigate the relationship between the concentration of individual FAEEs and prenatal alcohol exposure in meconium samples collected within the first 6 to 12?h after birth from 182 babies born to abstainer mothers and from 54 babies born to women who self-reported either light or moderate alcohol ingestion in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. In most cases, the individual FAEE concentrations were negligible and not significantly different (P >0.05) between exposed and control babies. The concentrations appeared to increase linearly with the dose only in the few babies born to mothers who reported >3 drinks/week. These results provide evidence that the correlation between prenatal alcohol exposure and individual FAEE concentrations in meconium is non-linear shape, with a threshold probably at 3 drinks/week. PMID:26691866

  11. Synthesis, and anticonvulsant activity of new amides derived from 3-methyl- or 3-ethyl-3-methyl-2,5-dioxo-pyrrolidin-1-yl-acetic acids.

    PubMed

    Obniska, Jolanta; Rapacz, Anna; Rybka, Sabina; Góra, Małgorzata; Kamiński, Krzysztof; Sałat, Kinga; Żmudzki, Paweł

    2016-04-15

    This paper describes the synthesis of the library of 22 new 3-methyl- and 3-ethyl-3-methyl-2,5-dioxo-pyrrolidin-1-yl-acetamides as potential anticonvulsant agents. The maximal electroshock (MES) and the subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) seizure models were used for screening all the compounds. The 6Hz model of pharmacoresistant limbic seizures was applied for studying selected derivatives. Six amides were chosen for pharmacological characterization of their antinociceptive activity in the formalin model of tonic pain as well as local anesthetic activity was assessed in mice. The pharmacological data indicate on the broad spectra of activity across the preclinical seizure models. Compounds 10 (ED50=32.08mg/kg, MES test) and 9 (ED50=40.34mg/kg, scPTZ test) demonstrated the highest potency. These compounds displayed considerably better safety profiles than clinically relevant antiepileptic drugs phenytoin, ethosuximide, or valproic acid. Several molecules showed antinociceptive and local anesthetic properties. The in vitro radioligand binding studies demonstrated that the influence on the sodium and calcium channels may be one of the essential mechanisms of action. PMID:26970661

  12. Lamellar Liquid Crystal Improves the Skin Retention of 3-O-Ethyl-Ascorbic Acid and Potassium 4-Methoxysalicylate In Vitro and In Vivo for Topical Preparation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanru; Dong, Cuilian; Cun, Dongmei; Liu, Jie; Xiang, Rongwu; Fang, Liang

    2016-06-01

    The study aimed at increasing the skin retention of 3-O-ethyl-ascorbic acid (EA) and potassium 4-methoxysalicylate (4-MSK) via topical administration for effective skin-whitening. To achieve this goal, EA and 4-MSK were formulated into lamellar liquid crystalline (LLC) cream, and response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the formulation. Polarized light microscopy (PLM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and rheological experiments were performed to confirm the presence of the LLC structure in the base of cream. In addition, a comparison analysis of the skin retention of the two drugs between the LLC cream and the common o/w (COW) cream was made through in vitro permeation and in vivo drug distribution experiments. As a result, the optimal formulation was defined as 1.2% of EA, 1.48% of 4-MSK, 14.05% of Schercemol™ DISM Ester (DISM) as the oil, 4.0% of Emulium® Delta as the emulsifier, and 3.0% of stearyl alcohol as the co-emulsifier. In comparison with the COW cream, the LLC cream significantly increased the skin retention of EA and 4-MSK both in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, the LLC carrier serves as a promising choice for topical preparation by enhancing skin retention and providing desirable rheological characteristics. PMID:26349686

  13. Omega-3-Acid Ethyl Esters Block the Protumorigenic Effects of Obesity in Mouse Models of Postmenopausal Basal-like and Claudin-Low Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ford, Nikki A; Rossi, Emily L; Barnett, Kelsey; Yang, Peiying; Bowers, Laura W; Hidaka, Brandon H; Kimler, Bruce F; Carlson, Susan E; Shureiqi, Imad; deGraffenried, Linda A; Fabian, Carol J; Hursting, Stephen D

    2015-09-01

    Obesity induces chronic inflammation and is an established risk and progression factor for triple-negative breast cancers, including basal-like (BL) and claudin-low (CL) subtypes. We tested the effects of dietary supplementation with ethyl esters of the marine-derived anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA+DHA; Lovaza) on growth of murine BL and CL mammary tumors. Female ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet or a diet-induced obesity (DIO) diet with or without EPA+DHA (0.025%, resulting in blood levels of EPA and DHA comparable with women taking Lovaza 4 g/d) for 6 weeks. All mice were then orthotopically injected with Wnt-1 cells (a BL tumor cell suspension derived from MMTV-Wnt-1 transgenic mouse mammary tumors) or M-Wnt cells (a CL tumor cell line cloned from the Wnt-1 tumor cell suspension). Mice were killed when tumors were 1 cm in diameter. EPA+DHA supplementation did not significantly affect Wnt-1 or M-Wnt mammary tumor growth in normoweight control mice. However, EPA+DHA supplementation in DIO mice reduced growth of Wnt-1 and M-Wnt tumors; reduced leptin:adiponectin ratio and proinflammatory eicosanoids in the serum; improved insulin sensitivity; and decreased tumoral expression of COX-2 and phospho-p65. Thus, EPA+DHA supplementation in mouse models of postmenopausal BL and CL breast cancer offsets many of the protumorigenic effects of obesity. These preclinical findings, in combination with results from parallel biomarker studies in women, suggest that EPA+DHA supplementation may reduce the burden of BL and CL breast cancer in obese women. PMID:26100521

  14. Omega-3-Acid Ethyl Esters Block the Pro-tumorigenic Effects of Obesity in Mouse Models of Postmenopausal Basal-Like and Claudin-Low Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Nikki A.; Rossi, Emily L.; Barnett, Kelsey; Yang, Peiying; Bowers, Laura W.; Hidaka, Brandon H.; Kimler, Bruce F.; Carlson, Susan E.; Shureiqi, Imad; deGraffenried, Linda A.; Fabian, Carol J.; Hursting, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity induces chronic inflammation and is an established risk and progression factor for triple-negative breast cancers, including basal-like (BL) and claudin-low (CL) subtypes. We tested the effects of dietary supplementation with ethyl esters of the marine-derived anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA+DHA; Lovaza®) on growth of murine BL and CL mammary tumors. Female ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet or a diet-induced obesity (DIO) diet with or without EPA+DHA (0.025%, resulting in blood levels of EPA and DHA comparable to women taking Lovaza 4 g/day) for 6 weeks. All mice were then orthotopically injected with Wnt-1 cells (a BL tumor cell suspension derived from MMTV-Wnt-1 transgenic mouse mammary tumors) or M-Wnt cells (a CL tumor cell line cloned from the Wnt-1 tumor cell suspension). Mice were killed when tumors were 1 cm in diameter. EPA+DHA supplementation did not significantly impact Wnt-1 or M-Wnt mammary tumor growth in normoweight control mice. However, EPA+DHA supplementation in DIO mice reduced growth of Wnt-1 and M-Wnt tumors; reduced leptin:adiponectin ratio and pro-inflammatory eicosanoids in the serum; improved insulin sensitivity; and decreased tumoral expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and phospho-p65. Thus, EPA+DHA supplementation in mouse models of postmenopausal BL and CL breast cancer offsets many of the pro-tumorigenic effects of obesity. These preclinical findings, in combination with results from parallel biomarker studies in women, suggest EPA+DHA supplementation may reduce the burden of BL and CL breast cancer in obese women. PMID:26100521

  15. New Spectrophotometric Method for Determining Nitrogen Dioxide in Air Using 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethyl benzothiazoline)-6-Sulfonic Acid-Diammonium Salt and Passive Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Alaa A.; Soliman, Ahmed A.; El-Haty, Ismail A.

    2011-01-01

    A new simple and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method for determining nitrogen dioxide in air was developed. The method is based on converting atmospheric nitrogen dioxide to nitrite ions within the IVL passive samplers used for samples collection. Acidifying nitrite ions with concentrated HCl produced the peroxynitrous acid oxidizing agent which was measured using 2, 2-azino-bis(3-ethyl benzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid-diammonium salt (ABTS) as reducing coloring agent. A parallel series of collected samples were measured for its nitrite content using a validated ion chromatographic method. The results obtained using both methods were compared in terms of their sensitivity and accuracy. Developed spectrophotometric method was shown to be one order of magnitude higher in sensitivity compared to the ion chromatographic method. Quantitation limits of 0.05 ppm and 0.55 μg/m3 were obtained for nitrite ion and nitrogen dioxid, respectively. Standard deviations in the ranges of 0.05–0.59 and 0.63–7.92 with averages of 0.27 and 3.11 were obtained for determining nitrite and nitrogen dioxide, respectively. Student-t test revealed t-values less than 6.93 and 4.40 for nitrite ions and nitrogen dioxide, respectively. These values indicated insignificant difference between the averages of the newly developed method and the values obtained by ion chromatography at 95% confidence level. Compared to continuous monitoring techniques, the newly developed method has shown simple, accurate, sensitive, inexpensive and reliable for long term monitoring of nitrogen dioxide in ambient air. PMID:21760708

  16. Synthesis of Ethyl Salicylate Using Household Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu; Lee, Alan; Smith, Kurt

    1996-02-01

    Ethyl salicylate is synthesized, isolated, and characterized in a three-step process using simple equipment and household chemicals. First, acetylsalicylic acid is extracted from aspirin tablets with isopropyl alcohol, then hydrolyzed to salicylic acid with muriatic acid, and finally, the salicylic acid is esterified using ethanol and a boric acid catalyst. The experiment can be directed towards high school or university level students who have sufficient background in organic chemistry to recognize the structures and reactions that are involved.

  17. Ethyl-bridged hybrid column as an efficient alternative for HPLC analysis of plasma amino acids by pre-column derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Mar; Van Eendenburg, Cecile Van; Gubern, Carme; Sanchez, Juan M

    2016-09-01

    Conventional C18 silica columns have proven to be useful for the analysis of amino acids (AA) from protein hydrolysates but undesirable peak overlapping is usually found when analyzing body fluids given that a large number of AAs are present in the samples. As an alternative to silica packings, an ethyl-bridged packing for reversed-phase liquid chromatography of derivatized AAs with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) has been evaluated. The new packing material improves the separation efficiency allowing better separations when analyzing biological fluids. Moreover, this packing has advantages for routine AA analysis, such as a decrease in the total running time and an increase in the life-time of the columns. The pH of the mobile phase has a significant effect on the elution behavior of the AQC hydrolysis product (AMQ) and on the AA derivatives. It is not possible to elute AMQ before detecting the first AA derivative, which requires an accurate adjustment of the pH in the range of 5.30-5.35 to obtain good separation and resolution for the most polar compounds. Under the conditions proposed, it is possible to separate all AAs except the Gly-Gln pair, which is not a problem when hydrolyzed samples are analyzed. The AMQ-Ser pair requires either the use of a different mobile phase pH for its baseline separation or the use of fluorescence detection. Two different procedures for protein removal from plasma samples have been evaluated, solvent precipitation and ultrafiltration (UF) and it has been found that UF gives better results as no significant losses of AAs were observed. The validation of the proposed method with UV detection gives method detection limits in the range of 8-12μM, with repeatability values<8% (n=6) and inter-day precision in plasma samples ranging from 4 to 13% (n=4). PMID:27428457

  18. Quantum chemical computational studies on 5-(4-bromophenylamino)-2-methylsulfanylmethyl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-carboxylic acid ethyl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokatlı, Ahmet; Özen, Emrah; Ucun, Fatih; Bahçeli, Semiha

    2011-03-01

    The optimized molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, and gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO) 1H and 13C NMR shift values of 5-(4-bromophenylamino)-2-methylsulfanylmethyl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-carboxylic acid ethyl ester have been calculated by using Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional method (DFT/B3LYP) with 6-31G(d), 6-31G(d,p) and LANL2DZ basis sets. The optimized molecular geometric parameters were presented and compared with the data obtained from X-ray diffraction. In order to fit the calculated harmonic wavenumbers to the experimentally observed ones, scaled quantum mechanics force field (SQM FF) methodology was proceeded. Correlation factors between the experimental and calculated 1H chemical shift values of the title compound in vacuum and in CHCl 3 solution by using the conductor-like screening continuum solvation model (COSMO) were reported. The calculated results showed that the optimized geometry well reproduces the crystal structure. The theoretical vibrational frequencies and chemical shifts are in very good agreement with the experimental data. In solvent media the energetic behavior of the title compound was also examined by using the B3LYP method with the 6-31G(d) basis set, applying the COSMO model. The obtained results indicated that the total energy of the title compound decreases with increasing polarity of the solvent. Furthermore, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), natural bond orbital (NBO) and frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) of the title compound were performed by the B3LYP/LANL2DZ method, and also thermodynamic parameters for the title compound were calculated at all the HF and B3LYP levels.

  19. Mechanisms of chitosan-coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles for improving oral absorption of 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Miao; Rong, Wen-Ting; Hou, Jie; Wang, Dong-Fang; Lu, Yu; Wang, Ying; Yu, Shu-Qin; Xu, Qian

    2013-06-01

    Chitosan-modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (CHI/PLGA NPs) loaded with 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38), named CHI/PLGA/SN-38 NPs, were successfully prepared using an oil-in-water (O/W) solvent evaporation method. The physicochemical properties of the novel NPs were characterized by DLS, Zeta potential, SEM, DSC, XRD, and FTIR. The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading content were 71.83 (±2.77)% and 6.79 (±0.26)%, respectively. In vitro drug release in the simulated gastric juice was lower than that in the intestinal juice. In situ single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) studies indicated a dramatic improvement of drug absorption as a result of the synergistic effect between CHI and PLGA on P-glycoprotein (Pgp) inhibition. CHI/PLGA NPs showed high cellular uptake and low efflux for drugs in Caco-2 cells. The cytotoxicity studies revealed that CHI/PLGA NPs had a transient effect on the membrane integrity, but did not have an influence on cell viability. Based on the in vitro release studies, SPIP, and intracellular drug accumulation and transport investigations, we speculate rationally that CHI/PLGA NPs were mainly internalized in the form of intact NPs, thus escaping the recognition of enterocyte Pgp and avoiding efflux into the apical part of the enterocytes. After partial release of drugs inside the enterocytes, CHI/PLGA interfered with the microenvironment of Pgp and further weakened the Pgp-mediated efflux. Then, the drug-loaded NPs exited via the exocytose effect from the basal part of the enterocytes and entered the blood circulation. These results showed that CHI/PLGA NPs would be smart oral delivery carriers for antineoplastic agents that are also Pgp substrates.

  20. Neurotoxic and teratogenic effects of an organophosphorus insecticide (phenyl phosphonothioic acid-O-ethyl -O-[4-nitrophenyl] ester) on mallard development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Sileo, L.

    1984-01-01

    Phenyl phosphonothioic acid-O-ethyl-O-[4-nitrophenyl] ester (EPN) is one of the 10 most frequently used organophosphorus insecticides and causes delayed neurotoxicity in adult chickens and mallards. Small amounts of organophosphorus insecticides placed on birds' eggs are embryotoxic and teratogenic. For this reason, the effects of topical egg application on EPN were examined on mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) embryo development. Mallard eggs were treated topically at 72 hr of incubation with 25 microliter of a nontoxic oil vehicle or with EPN in the vehicle at concentrations of approximately 12, 36, or 108 micrograms/g egg, equivalent to one, three, and nine times the agricultural level of application used to spray crops. Treatment with EPN resulted in 22 to 44% mortality over this dose range by 18 days of development compared with 4 and 5% for untreated and vehicle-treated controls. EPN impaired embryonic growth and was highly teratogenic: 37-42% of the surviving embryos at 18 days were abnormal with cervical and axial scoliosis as well as severe edema. Brain weights were significantly lower in EPN-treated groups at different stages of development including hatchlings. Brain neurotoxic esterase (NTE) activity was inhibited by as much as 91% at 11 days, 81% at 18 days, and 79% in hatchlings. Examination of brain NTE activity during the course of normal development revealed an increase of nearly sixfold from Day 11 through hatching. The most rapid increase occurred between Day 20 and hatching. Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was inhibited by as much as 41% at 11 days, 47% at 18 days, and 20% in hatchlings. Plasma cholinesterase and alkaline phosphatase activities were inhibited and plasma aspartate aminotransferase activity was increased at one or more stages of development. Hatchlings from EPN-treated eggs were weaker and slower to right themselves. Histopathological examination did not reveal demyelination and axonopathy of the spinal cord that was

  1. Neuroprotection of (+)-2-(1-Hydroxyl-4-Oxocyclohexyl) Ethyl Caffeate Against Hydrogen Peroxide and Lipopolysaccharide Induced Injury via Modulating Arachidonic Acid Network and p38-MAPK Signaling.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jiao-Ning; Xu, Liu-Xin; Shan, Lei; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Li, Hong-Lin; Wang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are highly relevant to the pathological processes of various neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). (+)-2-(1-hydroxyl-4-oxocyclohexyl) ethyl caffeate (HOEC), a novel 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, was isolated from the whole plant of Incarvillea mairei var granditlora (Wehrhahn) Grierson. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of HOEC on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced cytotoxicity and neuroinflammation in vitro and in vivo. MTT assay, LDH release assay, morphological observation and Hoechst 33342/PI dual staining followed by EIA, immunofluorescence staining and Western Blotting analysis were performed to elucidate the neuroprotective effect of HOEC. Treatment with HOEC at various concentrations prior to H2O2 exposure significantly enhanced cell viability, decreased LDH release, prevented cell morphologic changes and apoptosis. Instead of PGE2 reduction, HOEC markedly inhibited the production of LTB4 and suppressed the macrophage-mediated neurotoxicity. Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining showed that HOEC inhibited H2O2-induced p38 phosphorylation and NF-κB activation. Neuroprotective effect of HOEC was abolished by a p38 inhibitor. Further in vivo studies of LPS-induced neuroinflammation confirmed the anti-inflammatory effects of HOEC. These findings that HOEC protects SH-SY5Y cells from H2O2 and LPS-induced injury via arachidonic acid network modulation followed by p38 MAPK and NF-κB signaling, might make HOEC be considered as a therapeutic candidate for prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases involving oxidative stress or/and inflammation. PMID:26510982

  2. Comparison of removal of endodontic smear layer using ethylene glycol bis (beta-amino ethyl ether)-N, N, N', N'-tetraacetic acid and citric acid in primary teeth: A scanning electron microscopic study

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Rahul J.; Bapna, Kavita

    2016-01-01

    Background: Root canal irrigants are considered momentous in their tissue dissolving property, eliminating microorganisms, and removing smear layer. The present study was aimed to compare the removal of endodontic smear layer using ethylene glycol bis (beta-amino ethyl ether)-N, N, N', N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and citric acid solutions with saline as a control in primary anterior teeth. Materials and Methods: Thirty primary anterior teeth were chosen for the study. The teeth were distributed into three groups having ten teeth each. Following instrumentation, root canals of the first group were treated with 17% EGTA and the second group with 6% citric acid. Only saline was used as an irrigant for the control group. Then, the teeth were subjected to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study. The scale given by Rome et al. for the smear layer removal was used in the present study. Results: The pictures from the SEM showed that among the tested irrigants, 17% EGTA + 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) group showed the best results when compared to other groups. Conclusion: The results advocate that the sequential irrigation of the pulp canal walls with 17% EGTA followed by 5% NaOCl produced efficacious and smear-free root canal walls. PMID:27307670

  3. Improved production of fatty acid ethyl esters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through up-regulation of the ethanol degradation pathway and expression of the heterologous phosphoketolase pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to an increasing demand of transportation fuels, a lower availability of cheap crude oil and a lack of sustainability of fossil fuels, a gradual shift from petroleum based fuels towards alternative and renewable fuel resources will be required in the near future. Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) have properties similar to current crude diesel and could therefore form an important contribution to the development of sustainable transportation fuels in future. It is important to develop novel cell factories for efficient production of FAEEs and their precursors. Results Here, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell factory expressing a heterologous wax ester synthase (ws2) from Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus was used to produce FAEEs from ethanol and acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA). The production of acyl-CoA requires large amounts of NADPH and acetyl-CoA. Therefore, two metabolic engineering strategies for improved provision of NADPH and acetyl-CoA were evaluated. First, the ethanol degradation pathway was employed to re-channel carbon flow towards the synthesis of acetyl-CoA. Therefore, ADH2 and ALD6 encoding, respectively, alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase were overexpressed together with the heterologous gene acsSEL641P encoding acetyl-CoA synthetase. The co-overexpression of ADH2, ALD6 and acsSEL641P with ws2 resulted in 408 ± 270 μg FAEE gCDW−1, a 3-fold improvement. Secondly, for the expression of the PHK pathway two genes, xpkA and ack, both descending from Aspergillus nidulans, were co-expressed together with ws2 to catalyze, respectively, the conversion of xylulose-5-phosphate to acetyl phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and acetyl phosphate to acetate. Alternatively, ack was substituted with pta from Bacillus subtilis, encoding phosphotransacetylase for the conversion of acetyl phosphate to acetyl-CoA. Both PHK pathways were additionally expressed in a strain with multiple chromosomally integrated ws2 gene, which

  4. Process for the preparation of ethyl benzene

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1995-12-19

    Ethyl benzene is produced in a catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 50 C to 300 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic by feeding ethylene to the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux to result in a molar excess present in the reactor to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene and diethyl benzene in the bottoms. The bottoms are fractionated, the ethyl benzene recovered and the bottoms are contacted with benzene in the liquid phase in a fixed bed straight pass reactor under conditions to transalkylate the benzene thereby converting most of the diethyl benzene to ethyl benzene which is again separated and recovered. 2 figs.

  5. Process for the preparation of ethyl benzene

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1995-01-01

    Ethyl benzene is produced in a catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 50.degree. C. to 300.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic by feeding ethylene to the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux to result in a molar excess present in the reactor to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene and diethyl benzene in the bottoms. The bottoms are fractionated, the ethyl benzene recovered and the bottoms are contacted with benzene in the liquid phase in a fixed bed straight pass reactor under conditions to transalkylate the benzene thereby converting most of the diethyl benzene to ethyl benzene which is again separated and recovered.

  6. Fatty acid ethyl esters in hair as alcohol markers: estimating a reliable cut-off point by evaluation of 1,057 autopsy cases.

    PubMed

    Hastedt, Martin; Bossers, Lydia; Krumbiegel, Franziska; Herre, Sieglinde; Hartwig, Sven

    2013-06-01

    Alcohol abuse is a widespread problem, especially in Western countries. Therefore, it is important to have markers of alcohol consumption with validated cut-off points. For many years research has focused on analysis of hair for alcohol markers, but data on the performance and reliability of cut-off values are still lacking. Evaluating 1,057 cases from 2005 to 2011, included a large sample group for the estimation of an applicable cut-off value when compared to earlier studies on fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in hair. The FAEEs concentrations in hair, police investigation reports, medical history, and the macroscopic and microscopic alcohol-typical results from autopsy, such as liver, pancreas, and cardiac findings, were taken into account in this study. In 80.2 % of all 1,057 cases pathologic findings that may be related to alcohol abuse were reported. The cases were divided into social drinkers (n = 168), alcohol abusers (n = 502), and cases without information on alcohol use. The median FAEEs concentration in the group of social drinkers was 0.302 ng/mg (range 0.008-14.3 ng/mg). In the group of alcohol abusers a median of 1.346 ng/mg (range 0.010-83.7 ng/mg) was found. Before June 2009 the hair FAEEs test was routinely applied to a proximal hair segment of 0-6 cm, changing to a routinely investigated hair length of 3 cm after 2009, as proposed by the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT). The method showed significant differences between the groups of social drinkers and alcoholics, leading to an improvement in the postmortem detection of alcohol abuse. Nevertheless, the performance of the method was rather poor, with an area under the curve calculated from receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve AUC) of 0.745. The optimum cut-off value for differentiation between social and chronic excessive drinking calculated for hair FAEEs was 1.08 ng/mg, with a sensitivity of 56 % and a specificity of 80 %. In relation to the "Consensus on Alcohol Markers 2012

  7. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  8. Biocatalytic ammonolysis of (5S)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1,5-dicarboxylic acid, 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-5-ethyl ester: preparation of an intermediate to the dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor Saxagliptin.

    PubMed

    Gill, Iqbal; Patel, Ramesh

    2006-02-01

    An efficient biocatalytic method has been developed for the conversion of (5S)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1,5-dicarboxylic acid, 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-5-ethyl ester (1) into the corresponding amide (5S)-5-aminocarbonyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1-carboxylic acid, 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)ester (2), which is a critical intermediate in the synthesis of the dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4) inhibitor Saxagliptin (3). Candida antartica lipase B mediates ammonolysis of the ester with ammonium carbamate as ammonia donor to yield up to 71% of the amide. The inclusion of Ascarite and calcium chloride as adsorbents for carbon dioxide and ethanol byproducts, respectively, increases the yield to 98%, thereby offering an efficient and practical alternative to chemical routes which yield 57-64%. PMID:16257208

  9. 40 CFR 180.570 - Isoxadifen-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... residues of isoxadifen-ethyl (ethyl 5,5-diphenyl-2-isoxazoline-3-carboxylate, (CAS No. 163520-33-0), and...-isoxazolecarboxylic acid, 4,5-dihydro-5,5-diphenyl-, ethyl ester (CAS No. 164520-33-0)), and its metabolites...

  10. [Degradation of thiometon in ethyl acetate].

    PubMed

    Satoh, M; Shimokawa, S; Kobata, M; Tanaka, T; Nakanishi, Y

    2001-04-01

    When performing multiresidue analysis of pesticides, the recovery of thiometon was less than 20% from carrots and eggplants, but about 100% from garlic chives and welsh onions. The recovery of thiometon was found to depend on the lot of ethyl acetate. A 2-year-old lot of ethyl acetate caused degradation of thiometon, but a fresh lot of ethyl acetate did not. Analysis showed that ethyl acetate stored for 2 years contained about 5 microL/mL of acetaldehyde. Thiometon was also degraded by acetone or acetonitrile, when acetaldehyde was added to them, in the same manner as by aged ethyl acetate. The fact that the recovery of thiometon from welsh onions was about 100% indicated that some of the mercaptans in allium vegetables may prevent thiometon degradation. Mercaptans such as L-cysteine and 3-mercaptoproionic acid were confirmed to prevent the degradation of thiometon and disulfoton. These findings show that mercaptans may be useful additives for analyzing thiometon and disulfoton. PMID:11486375

  11. Chlorimuron-ethyl

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorimuron - ethyl ; CASRN 90982 - 32 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  12. Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl ethyl ketone ( MEK ) ( CASRN 78 - 93 - 3 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonc

  13. Ethyl alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, V.; Hauck, D.

    1980-11-01

    Recent price increases and temporary shortages of petroleum products have caused farmers to search for alternate sources of fuel. The production of ethyl alcohol from grain is described and the processes involved include saccharification, fermentation and distillation. The resulting stillage has potential as a livestock feed.

  14. Influence of iron solubility and charged surface-active compounds on lipid oxidation in fatty acid ethyl esters containing association colloids.

    PubMed

    Homma, Rika; Johnson, David R; McClements, D Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2016-05-15

    The impact of iron compounds with different solubilities on lipid oxidation was studied in the presence and absence of association colloids. Iron (III) sulfate only accelerated lipid oxidation in the presence of association colloids while iron (III) oleate accelerated oxidation in the presence and absence of association colloids. Further, iron (III) oxide retarded lipid oxidation both with and without association colloids. The impact of charged association colloids on lipid oxidation in ethyl oleate was also investigated. Association colloids consisting of the anionic surface-active compound dodecyl sulphosuccinate sodium salt (AOT), cationic surface-active compound hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and nonionic surface-active compound 4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenyl-polyethylene glycol (Triton X-100) retarded, promoted, and had no effect on lipid oxidation rates, respectively. These results indicate that the polarity of metal compounds and the charge of association colloids play a big role in lipid oxidation. PMID:26776045

  15. 40 CFR 721.10020 - Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10020 Benzoic acid,...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10019 - Benzoic acid, 2-chloro-5-nitro-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 2-chloro-5-nitro-, 1,1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10019 Benzoic acid, 2-chloro-5-nitro... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzoic acid, 2-chloro-5-nitro-,...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10019 - Benzoic acid, 2-chloro-5-nitro-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 2-chloro-5-nitro-, 1,1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10019 Benzoic acid, 2-chloro-5-nitro... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzoic acid, 2-chloro-5-nitro-,...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10019 - Benzoic acid, 2-chloro-5-nitro-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 2-chloro-5-nitro-, 1,1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10019 Benzoic acid, 2-chloro-5-nitro... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzoic acid, 2-chloro-5-nitro-,...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10020 - Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10020 Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-,...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10020 - Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10020 Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-,...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10020 - Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10020 Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-,...

  2. 40 CFR 721.6120 - Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6120 Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphoric acid, 1,2-ethanediyl...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10020 - Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzoic acid, 5-amino-2-chloro-, 1,1... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10020 Benzoic acid,...

  4. Mechanism of alpha-amino acids decomposition in the gas phase. experimental and theoretical study of the elimination kinetics of N-benzyl glycine ethyl ester.

    PubMed

    Tosta, Maria; Oliveros, Jhenny C; Mora, Jose R; Córdova, Tania; Chuchani, Gabriel

    2010-02-25

    The gas-phase elimination kinetics of N-benzylglycine ethyl ester was examined in a static system, seasoned with allyl bromide, and in the presence of the free chain radical suppressor toluene. The working temperature and pressure range were 386.4-426.7 degrees C and 16.7-40.0 torr, respectively. The reaction showed to be homogeneous, unimolecular, and obeys a first-order rate law. The elimination products are benzylglycine and ethylene. However, the intermediate benzylglycine is unstable under the reaction conditions decomposing into benzyl methylamine and CO(2) gas. The variation of the rate coefficients with temperature is expressed by the following Arrhenius equation: log k(1) (s(-1)) = (11.83 +/- 0.52) - (190.3 +/- 6.9) kJ mol(-1) (2.303RT)(-1). The theoretical calculation of the kinetic parameters and mechanism of elimination of this ester were performed at B3LYP/6-31G*, B3LYP/6-31+G**, MPW1PW91/6-31G*, and MPW1PW91/6-31+G** levels of theory. The calculation results suggest a molecular mechanism of a concerted nonsynchronous six-membered cyclic transition state process. The analysis of bond order and natural bond orbital charges implies that the bond polarization of C(=O)O-C, in the sense of C(=O)O(delta-)...C(delta+), is rate determining. The experimental and theoretical parameters have been found to be in reasonable agreement. PMID:20121282

  5. Linear polyethylenimine produced by partial acid hydrolysis of poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) for DNA and siRNA delivery in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Julio C; Qiu, Xingping; Winnik, Françoise M; Benderdour, Mohamed; Zhang, Xiaoling; Dai, Kerong; Shi, Qin

    2013-01-01

    Polyethylenimines (PEIs) are the most efficient synthetic vectors for gene delivery available to date. With its high charge density and strong proton-buffering effect, PEI has an ability to condense DNA and small interfering RNA at physiologic pH. However, the polymer suffers from the disadvantage of high cellular toxicity. To reduce its cellular toxicity, we synthesized linear PEIs by partial hydrolysis of poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline). Three linear PEIs with different hydrolysis percentages (30%, 70%, and 96%, respectively) were produced as PEI30, PEI70, and PEI96. PEI30 and PEI96 cannot be considered as suitable transfection agents because of low transfection efficiency (PEI30) or high cellular toxicity (PEI96). PEI70 displayed very weak cell toxicity. The charge density of this polymer (PEI70) was strong enough to condense DNA and small interfering RNA at a physiologic pH of 7.4. Our results also show that PEI70 was highly efficient in DNA delivery and small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of target genes. Thus, polymers such as PEI70 appear to be very promising vectors for gene delivery. PMID:24204139

  6. Fabrication and characterization of superparamagnetic and thermoresponsive hydrogels based on oleic-acid-coated Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles, hexa(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate and 2-(acetoacetoxy)ethyl methacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaphilippou, Petri C.; Pourgouris, Antonis; Marinica, Oana; Taculescu, Alina; Athanasopoulos, George I.; Vekas, Ladislau; Krasia-Christoforou, Theodora

    2011-03-01

    Stimuli-responsive hydrogel nanocomposites comprised of swollen polymer networks, in which magnetic nanoparticles are embedded, are a relatively new class of "smart" soft materials presenting a significant impact on various technological and biomedical applications. A novel approach for the fabrication of hydrogel nanocomposites exhibiting temperature- and magneto-responsive behavior involves the random copolymerization of hexa(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (HEGMA, hydrophilic, thermoresponsive) and 2-(acetoacetoxy)ethyl methacrylate (AEMA, hydrophobic, metal-chelating) in the presence of preformed oleic-acid-coated magnetite nanoparticles (OA·Fe 3O 4). In total, two series of hydrogel nanocomposites have been prepared in two different solvent systems: ethyl acetate (series A) and tetrahydrofuran (series B). The degrees of swelling (DSs) of all conetworks were determined in organic and in aqueous media. The nanocrystalline phase adopted by the embedded magnetic nanoparticles was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The obtained diffraction patterns indicated the presence of magnetite (Fe 3O 4). Deswelling kinetic studies that were carried out at ˜60 °C in water demonstrated the thermoresponsive properties of the hydrogel nanocomposites, attributed to the presence of the hexaethylene glycol side chains within the conetworks. Moreover, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements showed that these materials exhibited superior thermal stability compared to the pristine hydrogels. Further to the characterization of compositional and thermal properties, the assessment of magnetic characteristics by vibrational sample magnetometry (VSM) disclosed superparamagnetic behavior. The tunable superparamagnetic behavior exhibited by these materials depending on the amount of magnetic nanoparticles incorporated within the networks combined with their thermoresponsive properties may allow for their future exploitation in the biomedical field.

  7. Enantioselective Metabolism of Quizalofop-Ethyl in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yiran; Wang, Peng; Liu, Donghui; Shen, Zhigang; Liu, Hui; Jia, Zhixin; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic and distribution of the enantiomers of quizalofop-ethyl and its metabolite quizalofop-acid were studied in Sprague-Dawley male rats. The two pairs of enantiomers were determined using a validated chiral high-performance liquid chromatography method. Animals were administered quizalofop-ethyl at 10 mg kg−1 orally and intravenously. It was found high concentration of quizalofop-acid in the blood and tissues by both intragastric and intravenous administration, and quizalofop-ethyl could not be detected through the whole study which indicated a quick metabolism of quizalofop-ethyl to quizalofop-acid in vivo. In almost all the samples, the concentrations of (+)-quizalofop-acid exceeded those of (−)-quizalofop-acid. Quizalofop-acid could still be detected in the samples even at 120 h except in brain due to the function of blood-brain barrier. Based on a rough calculation, about 8.77% and 2.16% of quizalofop-acid were excreted through urine and feces after intragastric administration. The oral bioavailability of (+)-quizalofop-acid and (−)-quizalofop-acid were 72.8% and 83.6%. PMID:24964043

  8. Determination of 13C isotopic enrichment of valine and threonine by GC-C-IRMS after formation of the N(O,S)-ethoxycarbonyl ethyl ester derivatives of the amino acids.

    PubMed

    Godin, Jean-Philippe; Faure, Magali; Breuille, Denis; Hopfgartner, Gérard; Fay, Laurent-Bernard

    2007-06-01

    We describe a new method of assessing, in a single run, (13)C isotopic enrichment of both Val and Thr by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). This method characterised by a rapid one-step derivatisation procedure performed at room temperature to form the N(O,S)-ethoxycarbonyl ethyl ester derivatives, and a polar column for GC. The suitability of this method for Val and Thr in in-vivo samples (mucosal hydrolysate) was demonstrated by studying protein metabolism with two tracers ((13)C-valine or (13)C-threonine). The intra-day and inter-day repeatability were both assessed either with standards or with in-vivo samples at natural abundance and at low (13)C isotopic enrichment. For inter-day repeatability CVs were between 0.8 and 1.5% at natural abundance and lower than 5.5% at 0.112 and 0.190 atom% enrichment for Val and Thr, respectively. Overall isotopic precision was studied for eleven standard amino acid derivatives (those of Val, Ala, Leu, Iso, Gly, Pro, Asp, Thr, Ser, Met, and Phe) and was assessed at 0.32 per thousand. The (13)C isotopic measurement was then extended to the other amino acids (Ala, Val, Leu, Iso, Gly, Pro, Thr, and Phe) at natural abundance for in-vivo samples. The isotopic precision was better than 0.002 atom% per amino acid (for n = 4 rats). This analytical method was finally applied to an animal study to measure Thr utilization in protein synthesis. PMID:17468859

  9. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of ethyl palmitate calibration and resolution with ethyl oleate as biomarker ethanol sub acute in urine application study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suaniti, Ni Made; Manurung, Manuntun

    2016-03-01

    Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry is used to separate two and more compounds and identify fragment ion specific of biomarker ethanol such as palmitic acid ethyl ester (PAEE), as one of the fatty acid ethyl esters as early detection through conyugated reaction. This study aims to calibrate ethyl palmitate and develop analysis with oleate acid. This methode can be used analysis ethanol and its chemistry biomarker in ethanol sub-acute consumption as analytical forensic toxicology. The result show that ethanol level in urine rats Wistar were 9.21 and decreased 6.59 ppm after 48 hours consumption. Calibration curve of ethyl palmitate was y = 0.2035 x + 1.0465 and R2 = 0.9886. Resolution between ethyl palmitate and oleate were >1.5 as good separation with fragment ion specific was 88 and the retention time was 18 minutes.

  10. Density functional study of electronic, charge density, and chemical bonding properties of 9-methyl-3-Thiophen-2-YI-Thieno [3,2-e] [1, 2, 4] Thriazolo [4,3-c] pyrimidine-8-Carboxylic acid ethyl ester crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshak, A. H.; Kamarudin, H.; Alahmed, Z. A.; Auluck, S.; Chyský, Jan

    2014-06-01

    A comprehensive theoretical density functional investigation of the electronic crystal structure, chemical bonding, and the electron charge densities of 9-Methyl-3-Thiophen-2-YI-Thieno [3, 2-e] [1, 2, 4] Thriazolo [4,3-c] Pyrimidine-8-Carboxylic Acid Ethyl Ester (C15H12N4O2S2) is performed. The density of states at Fermi level equal to 5.50 (3.45) states/Ry cell, and the calculated bare electronic specific heat coefficient is found to be 0.95 (0.59) mJ/mole-K2 for the local density approximation (Engel-Vosko generalized gradient approximation). The electronic charge density space distribution contours in (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) planes were calculated. We find that there are two independent molecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit exhibit intramolecular C-H…O, C-H…N interactions. This intramolecular interaction is different in molecules A and B, where A molecule show C-H…O interaction while B molecule exhibit C-H…N interaction. We should emphasis that there is π-π interaction between the pyrimidine rings of the two neighbors B molecules gives extra strengths and stabilizations to the superamolecular structure. The calculated distance between the two neighbors pyrimidine rings found to be 3.345 Å, in good agreement with the measured one (3.424(1) Å).

  11. Temperature-induced inversion of the elution order of enantiomers in gas chromatography: N-ethoxycarbonyl propylamides and N-trifluoroacetyl ethyl esters of alpha-amino acids on Chirasil-Val-C11 and Chirasil-Dex stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Levkin, Pavel A; Levkina, Anna; Czesla, Harri; Schurig, Volker

    2007-06-15

    Inversion of the elution order of enantiomers caused by enthalpy-entropy compensation at the isoenantioselective temperature (Tiso) was experimentally observed by gas chromatography on the diamide-type chiral stationary phase (CSP), Chirasil-L-Val-C11, with N-ethoxycarbonyl propylamide (ECPA) derivatives of a number of alpha-amino acids. For the first time, a clear visual representation of the increase of the apparent enantioseparation factor alpha app from 1.00 to 1.08 as the temperature is raised from 120 to 170 degrees C is presented. The increase of alpha app is accompanied by a concomitant reduction of the retention factors of the enantiomers. The Tiso values were in the range from 110 to 130 degrees C depending on the nature of the alpha-amino acid. On the contrary, the Tiso values of the N(O)-trifluoroacetyl ethyl ester derivatives (TFA-Et) of the same alpha-amino acids were approximately 80 degrees higher than that of ECPA derivatives. The comprehensive thermodynamic investigation of the enantioseparation of ECPA and TFA-Et derivatives of valine and alanine using the retention increment method showed that the Delta L,D(DeltaH) difference between the diastereomeric selector-selectand associates was almost the same for ECPA and TFA-Et derivatives despite a much stronger bonded selector-selectand association taking place for the ECPA derivatives. On the other hand, the Delta L,D(DeltaS) values were found to be more negative in the case of ECPA derivatives, resulting in the unusually low values of Tiso. A temperature-dependent inversion of the elution order of enantiomers was also observed on the cyclodextrin-type CSP, Chirasil-Dex, with TFA-Et derivatives of several alpha-amino acids. The Tiso values were in the range from 20 to 170 degrees C depending on the nature of the alpha-amino acid. The results obtained demonstrate the necessity to conduct temperature-dependent studies in order to optimize the enantiomeric separation of single racemates isothermally or

  12. Salicylic acid triggers genotoxic adaptation to methyl mercuric chloride and ethyl methane sulfonate, but not to maleic hydrazide in root meristem cells of Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Patra, Jita; Sahoo, Malaya K; Panda, Brahma B

    2005-03-01

    Salicylic acid (SA), 0.01 mM, a signalling phytohormone, was tested for induction of adaptive response against genotoxicity of methyl mercuric chloride (MMCl), 0.013 mM; ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS), 2.5 mM, or maleic hydrazide (MH), 5 mM, in root meristem cells of Allium cepa. Induction of adaptive response to EMS by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 1 mM, and yet another secondary signal molecule was tested for comparison. Assessed by the incidence of mitoses with spindle and/or chromosome aberration and micronucleus, the findings provided evidence that SA-conditioning triggered adaptive response against the genotoxic-challenges of MMCl and EMS, but failed to do so against MH. H2O2, which is known to induce adaptive response to MMCl and MH, failed to induce the same against EMS in the present study. The findings pointed to the possible role of signal transduction in the SA-induced adaptive response to genotoxic stress that perhaps ruled out an involvement of H2O2. PMID:15725616

  13. Features of the Thermodynamics of Trivalent Lanthanide/Actinide Distribution Reactions by Tri-n-Octylphosphine Oxide and Bis(2-EthylHexyl) Phosphoric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Travis S. Grimes; Peter R. Zalupski

    2014-11-01

    A new methodology has been developed to study the thermochemical features of the biphasic transfer reactions of trisnitrato complexes of lanthanides and americium by a mono-functional solvating ligand (tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide - TOPO). Stability constants for successive nitrato complexes (M(NO3)x3-x (aq) where M is Eu3+, Am3+ or Cm3+) were determined to assist in the calculation of the extraction constant, Kex, for the metal ions under study. Enthalpies of extraction (?Hextr) for the lanthanide series (excluding Pm3+) and Am3+ by TOPO have been measured using isothermal titration calorimetry. The observed ?Hextr were found to be constant at ~29 kJ mol-1across the series from La3+-Er3+, with a slight decrease observed from Tm3+-Lu3+. These heats were found to be consistent with enthalpies determined using van ’t Hoff analysis of temperature dependent extraction studies. A complete set of thermodynamic parameters (?G, ?H, ?S) was calculated for Eu(NO3)3, Am(NO3)3 and Cm(NO3)3 extraction by TOPO and Am3+ and Cm3+ extraction by bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP). A discussion comparing the energetics of these systems is offered. The measured biphasic extraction heats for the transplutonium elements, ?Hextr, presented in these studies are the first ever direct measurements offered using two-phase calorimetric techniques.

  14. Fragrance material review on 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414652

  15. Ethyl levulinate: A potential bio-based diluent for biodiesel which improves cold flow properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physical properties of biodiesel from soybean, canola, cottonseed and poultry fat methyl esters were improved with addition of ethyl levulinate with increasing concentration. The effect of adding ethyl levulinate was determined by studying its influence on the acid value, cloud point, pour point...

  16. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of 4-[(1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl) methyl] 1-piperazine carboxylic acid ethyl ester: A new piperazine derivative.

    PubMed

    Silva, Daiany P B; Florentino, Iziara F; Oliveira, Lanussy P; Lino, Roberta C; Galdino, Pablinny M; Menegatti, Ricardo; Costa, Elson A

    2015-10-01

    Piperazine compounds possess anti-infective, anti-carcinogenic, anxiolytic, hypotensive, anti-hypertensive and vasorelaxant properties and are attractive candidates for the development of new analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs. This study investigates the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of piperazine derivative 4-[(1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl) methyl]1-piperazine carboxylic acid ethyl ester (LQFM-008) and the involvement of the serotonergic pathway. In the formalin test, treatments with LQFM-008 (15 and 30mg/kg p.o.) reduced the licking time in both neurogenic and inflammatory phases of this test. In the tail flick and hot plate tests, LQFM008 treatment (15 and 30mg/kg p.o.) increased latency to thermal stimulus, suggesting the involvement of central mechanisms in the anti-nociceptive effect of LQFM-008. In the carrageenan-induced paw edema test, LQFM-008 (p.o.) at the doses of 15 and 30mg/kg reduced the edema at all tested time points, while the dose of 7.5mg/kg reduced the edema only for the first hour. LQFM-008 (30mg/kg p.o.) reduced both cell migration and protein exudation in the carrageenan-induced pleurisy test. Furthermore, pre-treatment with NAN-190 (0.6mg/kgi.p.) and PCPA (100mg/kgi.p.) antagonized the anti-nociceptive effect of LQFM-008 in both phases of the formalin test. Our data suggest that LQFM-008 possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects mediated through the serotonergic pathway. PMID:26276732

  17. Cellular Inhibition of Checkpoint Kinase 2 (Chk2) and Potentiation of Camptothecins and Radiation by the Novel Chk2 Inhibitor PV1019 [7-Nitro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid {4-[1-(guanidinohydrazone)-ethyl]-phenyl}-amide

    SciTech Connect

    Jobson, Andrew G.; Lountos, George T.; Lorenzi, Philip L.; Llamas, Jenny; Connelly, John; Cerna, David; Tropea, Joseph E.; Onda, Akikazu; Zoppoli, Gabriele; Kondapaka, Sudhir; Zhang, Guangtao; Caplen, Natasha J.; Cardellina, II, John H.; Yoo, Stephen S.; Monks, Anne; Self, Christopher; Waugh, David S.; Shoemaker, Robert H.; Pommier, Yves

    2010-04-05

    Chk2 is a checkpoint kinase involved in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated pathway, which is activated by genomic instability and DNA damage, leading to either cell death (apoptosis) or cell cycle arrest. Chk2 provides an unexplored therapeutic target against cancer cells. We recently reported 4,4'-diacetyldiphenylurea-bis(guanylhydrazone) (NSC 109555) as a novel chemotype Chk2 inhibitor. We have now synthesized a derivative of NSC 109555, PV1019 (NSC 744039) [7-nitro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid {l_brace}4-[1-(guanidinohydrazone)-ethyl]-phenyl{r_brace}-amide], which is a selective submicromolar inhibitor of Chk2 in vitro. The cocrystal structure of PV1019 bound in the ATP binding pocket of Chk2 confirmed enzymatic/biochemical observations that PV1019 acts as a competitive inhibitor of Chk2 with respect to ATP. PV1019 was found to inhibit Chk2 in cells. It inhibits Chk2 autophosphorylation (which represents the cellular kinase activation of Chk2), Cdc25C phosphorylation, and HDMX degradation in response to DNA damage. PV1019 also protects normal mouse thymocytes against ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis, and it shows synergistic antiproliferative activity with topotecan, camptothecin, and radiation in human tumor cell lines. We also show that PV1019 and Chk2 small interfering RNAs can exert antiproliferative activity themselves in the cancer cells with high Chk2 expression in the NCI-60 screen. These data indicate that PV1019 is a potent and selective inhibitor of Chk2 with chemotherapeutic and radiosensitization potential.

  18. EXTRACTION OF TETRAVALENT PLUTONIUM VALUES WITH METHYL ETHYL KETONE, METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE ACETOPHENONE OR MENTHONE

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1961-08-01

    A process is described for extracting tetravalent plutonium from an aqueous acid solution with methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, or acetophenone and with the extraction of either tetravalent or hexavalent plutonium into menthone. (AEC)

  19. Detection of interstellar ethyl cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. R.; Lovas, F. J.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Litvak, M. M.; Thaddeus, P.; Guelin, M.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-four millimeter-wave emission lines of ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN) have been detected in the Orion Nebula (OMC-1) and seven in Sgr B2. To derive precise radial velocities from the astronomical data, a laboratory measurement of the rotational spectrum of ethyl cyanide has been made at frequencies above 41 GHz. In OMC-1, the rotational temperature of ethyl cyanide is 90 K (in good agreement with other molecules), the local-standard-of-rest radial velocity is 4.5 + or - 1.0 km/s (versus 8.5 km/s for most molecules), and the column density is 1.8 by 10 to the 14th power per sq cm (a surprisingly high figure for a complicated molecule). The high abundance of ethyl cyanide in the Orion Nebula suggests that ethane and perhaps larger saturated hydrocarbons may be common constituents of molecular clouds and have escaped detection only because they are nonpolar or only weakly polar.

  20. S-Ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate (EPTC)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    S - Ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate ( EPTC ) ; CASRN 759 - 94 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessme

  1. Temperature Independent Catalytic Two-Electron Reduction of Dioxygen by Ferrocenes with a Tris[2-(2-pyridyl)ethyl]amine-Copper(II) Catalyst in the Presence of Perchloric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Das, Dipanwita; Lee, Yong-Min; Ohkubo, Kei; Nam, Wonwoo; Karlin, Kenneth D.; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2013-01-01

    Selective two-electron plus two-proton (2e−/2H+) reduction of O2 to hydrogen peroxide by ferrocene (Fc) or 1,1′-dimethylferrocene (Me2Fc) in the presence of perchloric acid is catalyzed efficiently by a mononuclear copper(II) complex, [CuII(tepa)]2+ {tepa = tris[2-(2-pyridyl)ethyl]amine} (1) in acetone. The E1/2 value for [CuII(tepa)]2+ as measured by cyclic voltammetry is 0.07 V vs Fc/Fc+ in acetone, being significantly positive, which makes it possible to use relatively weak one-electron reductants such as Fc and Me2Fc for the overall two-electron reduction of O2. Fast electron transfer from Fc or Me2Fc to 1 affords the corresponding CuI complex, [CuI(tepa)]+ (2), which reacts at low temperature (193 K) with O2, however only in presence of HClO4 to afford the hydroperoxo complex, [CuII(tepa)(OOH)]2+ (3). The detailed kinetic study on the homogeneous catalytic system reveals the rate-determining step to be the O2-binding process in the presence of HClO4 at lower temperature as well as at room temperature. The O2-binding kinetics in the presence of HClO4 were studied, demonstrating that the rate of formation of the hydroperoxo complex (3) as well as the overall catalytic reaction remained virtually the same with changing temperature. The apparent lack of an activation energy for the catalytic two-electron reduction of O2 is shown to result from the existence of a pre-equilibrium between 2 and O2 prior to the formation of the hydroperoxo complex 3. No further reduction of [CuII(tepa)(OOH)]2+ (3) by Fc or Me2Fc occurred, and instead 3 is protonated by HClO4 to yield H2O2 accompanied by regeneration of 1, thus completing the catalytic cycle for the two-electron reduction of O2 by Fc or Me2Fc. PMID:23394287

  2. Ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in meconium and hair-potential biomarkers of intrauterine exposure to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Morini, L; Marchei, E; Vagnarelli, F; Garcia Algar, O; Groppi, A; Mastrobattista, L; Pichini, S

    2010-03-20

    This study investigated ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) concentration in meconium and in maternal and neonatal hair (HEtG and HFAEEs, respectively) as potential markers of intrauterine exposure to ethanol together with meconium fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in a cohort of 99 mother-infant dyads, 49 coming from the Arcispedale of Reggio Emilia (Italy) and 50 from the Hospital del Mar of Barcelona (Spain). FAEEs, EtG and EtS were measured in meconium samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A head space-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to test HEtG and HFAEEs in hair samples from mothers and their newborns. Eighty-two meconium samples (82.8%) tested positive for EtG, 19 (19.2%) for EtS while 22 (22.2%) showed FAEEs levels higher than 2 nmol/g, the cut-off used to differentiate daily maternal ethanol consumption during pregnancy from occasional or no use. Although EtG and EtS in meconium did not correlate with total FAEEs concentration, a good correlation between EtG, EtS and ethyl stearate was observed. Moreover, EtG correlated well with ethyl palmitoleate, while EtS with ethyl laurate, myristate and linolenate. Neither maternal nor neonatal hair appears as good predictors of gestational ethanol consumption and subsequent fetal exposure in these mother-infant dyads. In conclusion, these data show that meconium is so far the best matrix in evaluating intrauterine exposure to ethanol, with EtG and EtS being potentially good alternative biomarkers to FAEEs. PMID:20060246

  3. Labeled 1,N6-ethenoadenosine and 3,N4-ethenocytidine in hepatic RNA of mice given[ethyl-1,2(-3)H or ethyl-1(-14)C]ethyl carbamate (urethan).

    PubMed

    Ribovich, M L; Miller, J A; Miller, E C; Timmins, L G

    1982-01-01

    Injection of a single dose of[ethyl-1,2(-3)H]or[ethyl-1(-14C]- ethyl carbamate into 12-day old male[C57BL/6 x C3H/He]F1 mice or of[ethyl-1,2(-3H]ethyl carbamate into adult male A/Jax mice resulted in the formation of labeled 1,N6-ethenoadenosine and 3,N4-ethenocytidine adducts in the hepatic RNA. These adducts were characterized by comigration on h.p.l.c. of 3H or 14C in enzymatic hydrolysates of the RNA with synthetic standards. Both the ethenoadenosine and ethenocytidine were further characterized by their conversion to acetylated products that comigrated with acetylated synthetic standards. The ethenoadenosine was also converted by anhydrous trifluoroacetic acid to a product that comigrated with synthetic 1,N6-ethenoadenine. The levels of adducts in the hepatic RNA 12 h after a single injection of 0.5-0.6 mg of ethyl carbamate/g body weight were 6-10 and 2-3 pmol/mg RNA of ethenoadenosine and ethenocytidine, respectively. No labeled ethenoadenosine or ethenocytidine could be detected in the hepatic RNA of mice given[1-14C]ethanol, an enzymatic hydrolysis product of ethyl carbamate. These data indicate that ethyl carbamate may be metabolically activated by dehydrogenation to vinyl carbamate and subsequent epoxidation of the latter compound as previously proposed. Vinyl carbamate epoxide may form etheno derivatives in a manner analogous to that demonstrated for chloroethylene oxide, an electrophilic metabolite of vinyl chloride. Vinyl carbamate has been shown to have the same spectrum of tumor induction as ethyl carbamate but to be much more active than the latter carcinogen. PMID:6178529

  4. 21 CFR 176.160 - Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N... § 176.160 Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine. The chromium... by weight of the chromium (Cr III) complex of heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonic acid may be...

  5. Antimutagenic; differentiation-inducing; and antioxidative effects of fragrant ingredients in Katsura-uri (Japanese pickling melon; Cucumis melo var. conomon).

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yasushi; Watanabe, Shinpei; Kageyama, Minami; Shirota, Keiko; Shirota, Koji; Amano, Hisashi; Kashimoto, Tadahiro; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Okamoto, Shigehisa; Park, Eun Young; Sato, Kenji

    2010-12-21

    Six fragrant ingredients were identified in fully-ripened Katsura-uri (Japanese pickling melon; Cucumis melo var. conomon). Four of them were sulfur-containing compounds [methylthioacetic acid ethyl ester (MTAE), acetic acid 2-methylthio ethyl ester (AMTE), 3-methylthiopropionic acid ethyl ester (MTPE), and acetic acid 3-methylthio propyl ester (AMTP)]; and the others were benzyl acetate and eugenol. The newly identified MTAE and AMTP possessed antimutagenic activity as determined by their ability to inhibit the UV-induced mutation in repair-proficient E. coli B/r WP2. MTAE and MTPE (esters with thiocarbonic acid and alkyl alcohol) induced the differentiation of human colon cancer cells (RCM-1 cells), but AMTE and AMTP (esters with carbonic acid and thioalkyl alcohol) did not. A specific thioester motif containing a thiocarbonic acid and alkyl alcohol correlated with these compounds ability to induce differentiation. AMTE, MTPE, AMTP, and eugenol had higher oxygen radical absorbing capacity than the antioxidative vitamin, ascorbic acid. The quantity of MTPE, AMTP and eugenol increased 49-fold, >1175-fold and 11-fold, respectively, in the fully-ripened fruit as compared to the mid-ripened fruit. PMID:20801232

  6. Improving lipids with prescription icosapent ethyl after previous use of fish oil dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kota J; Chowdhury, Sumita

    2016-05-01

    Managing dyslipidemia can be challenging in patients with statin intolerance. We describe the lipid effects of icosapent ethyl 4 g/day (high-purity prescription omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid) in two coronary artery disease patients with statin intolerance who were self-treating with fish oil dietary supplements. After initiating icosapent ethyl, improvements were noted in the first and second patients, respectively, in total cholesterol (-12%; -21%), LDL cholesterol (-3%; -24%), triglycerides (-34%; -16%), non-HDL cholesterol (-12%; -22%), the omega-3 index (+42%; +8%) and eicosapentaenoic acid levels (+275%; +138%). Icosapent ethyl was well tolerated with no adverse events reported. These cases demonstrated favorable lipid effects with prescription icosapent ethyl treatment that may help optimize the care of high-risk coronary artery disease patients with statin intolerance. PMID:27070379

  7. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, Box... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and....1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH. (b) The ingredient meets...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  9. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  10. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  11. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  12. Hydrogenation of ethyl 5-cyano-2-oximinovalerate

    SciTech Connect

    Klabunovskii, E.I.; Levitina, E.S.; Kaigorodova, L.N.; Godunova, L.F.; Gogoladze, D.D.; Karpeiskaya, E.I.; Novikova, S.A.

    1987-03-10

    Hydrogenation of ethyl 5-cyano-2-oximinovalerate in acetic anhydride at atmospheric pressure in the presence of strong base leads to a quantitative yield of the ethyl ester of ..cap alpha..,eta-diacetyllysine. Selective reduction of the cyano and oximino groups in ethyl 5-cyano-2-oximinovalerate has been shown in the presence of powdered Ni, Cu-Ni, and LaNi/sub 5/H/sub 6.6/ catalysts. Hydrogenation of ethyl 5-cyano-2-oximinovalerate on Raney Ni at atmospheric pressure in dioxan with addition of acetic anhydride leads to a 50% yield of diacetyllysine.

  13. Fragrance material review on ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties; acute toxicity; skin irritation; and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22433983

  14. Catalyst-free ethyl biodiesel production from rice bran under subcritical condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zullaikah, Siti; Afifudin, Riza; Amalia, Rizky

    2015-12-01

    In-situ ethyl biodiesel production from rice bran under subcritical water and ethanol with no catalyst was employed. This process is environmentally friendly and is very flexible in term of feedstock utilization since it can handle relatively high moisture and free fatty acids (FFAs) contents. In addition, the alcohol, i.e. bioethanol, is a non-toxic, biodegradable, and green raw material when produced from non-edible biomass residues, leading to a 100% renewable biodiesel. The fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, ethyl biodiesel) are better than fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs, methyl biodiesel) in terms of fuel properties, including cetane number, oxidation stability and cold flow properties. The influences of the operating variables such as reaction time (1 - 10 h), ethanol concentration (12.5 - 87.5%), and pressurizing gas (N2 and CO2) on the ethyl biodiesel yield and purity have been investigated systematically while the temperature and pressure were kept constant at 200 °C and 40 bar. The optimum results were obtained at 5 h reaction time and 75% ethanol concentration using CO2 as compressing gas. Ethyl biodiesel yield and purity of 58.78% and 61.35%, respectively, were obtained using rice bran with initial FFAs content of 37.64%. FFAs level was reduced to 14.22% with crude ethyl biodiesel recovery of 95.98%. Increasing the reaction time up to 10 h only increased the yield and purity by only about 3%. Under N2 atmosphere and at the same operating conditions (5h and 75% ethanol), ethyl biodiesel yield and purity decreased to 54.63% and 58.07%, respectively, while FFAs level was increased to 17.93% and crude ethyl biodiesel recovery decreased to 87.32%.

  15. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor....

  16. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  17. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  18. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  19. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT....108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor. (b) Specific gravity at 15.56 °/15.56 °C. Not...

  20. 21 CFR 172.868 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl cellulose. 172.868 Section 172.868 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.868 Ethyl...

  1. 21 CFR 172.868 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl cellulose. 172.868 Section 172.868 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.868 Ethyl...

  2. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor....

  3. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  4. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor....

  5. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor....

  6. Formation and inhibition of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Stachel, Nicole; Skopp, Gisela

    2016-08-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) und ethyl sulfate (EtS) are widely accepted biomarkers in forensic and clinical settings. Even though, levels of EtG and EtS in blood and urine increase with increasing doses of alcohol, a high inter-individual variability in their production has been noticed. Therefore, we investigated the influence of dietary plant phenols on the formation of EtG and EtS and tentatively estimated the magnitude of in vivo inhibitory interactions from our in vitro results. To address these issues, formation of EtS and EtG was investigated using recombinant glucuronosyl- and sulfotransferases as well as human liver microsomes and liver cytosol. After respective kinetics had been established, inhibition experiments using quercetin, kaempferol and resveratrol were performed. These polyphenols are subject to extensive glucuronidation and/or sulfonation. EtG and EtS were determined by LC-MS/MS following solid phase extraction for EtG due to severe matrix effects and by direct injection for EtS. All enzymes investigated were involved in the conjugation of ethanol. Maximal EtG and EtS formation rates were observed with HLM and SULT1A1, respectively. All kinetics could best be described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Resveratrol was a competitive inhibitor of UGT1A1, UGT1A9 and HLM; quercetin and kaempferol were inhibitors of all transferases under investigation except UGT2B15. Findings for quercetin with regard to UGT2B7 and SULT2A1 and for kaempferol with regard to SULT1E1 and SULT2A1 suggested a mechanism based inhibition. Competitive inhibition of the glucuronidation and sulfonation of ethanol was estimated as weak to negligible and as moderate to weak, respectively. Beside the known polymorphisms of the transferases involved in EtG and EtS formation, prediction of the inhibitory potential indicates that polyphenols may contribute to the variable formation rate of EtG and EtS. PMID:26829336

  7. Photostability of Isovaline and its Precursor 5-Ethyl-5- methylhydantoin Exposed to Simulated Space Radiations

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Palash K.; Takahashi, Jun-ichi; Kawamoto, Yukinori; Obayashi, Yumiko; Kaneko, Takeo; Kobayashi, Kensei

    2012-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of isovaline and its precursor molecule, 5-ethyl-5-methylhydantoin, were irradiated with ultraviolet and γ-ray photons, to evaluate their structural stability against space radiation. The degree of photolysis was measured and irradiation products were identified using chiral, reversed-phase and ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography. The experimental results show that the degree of photolysis of 5-ethyl-5-methylhydantoin is more significant than that of isovaline under ultraviolet light irradiation, while the results under γ-ray irradiation are the opposite. As the products of isovaline photolysis, aspartic acid, serine, glutamic acid and alanine were dominantly detected. PMID:22312300

  8. S-(2-((2 prime -carbamoylethyl)amino)ethyl) phosphorothioate and related compounds as potential antiradiation agents

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, F.I.; Gopinathan, M.B.; Philip, A. )

    1990-09-01

    A reinvestigation of the radiation protection activity of S-(2-((2{prime}-carbamylethyl)amino)ethyl) lithium hydrogen phosphorothioate (4a) revealed that this compound possessed good (70% protection at a dose of 600 mg/kg) activity. The thione and imino bioisosteres of 4, S-(2-(2{prime}-thiocarbamylethylamino)ethyl) lithium hydrogen phosphorothioate (13a) and S-(2-(2{prime}-amidinoethylamino)ethyl) phosphorothioic acid (18b) showed 100% protection at doses of 300 and 150 mg/kg, respectively. The N-methyl (4b) and tert-butyl (4c) analogues of amide 4a, the N-methyl (13b) analogue of the thioamide 13a, the N-methyl (18a) analogue of amidine (18b), and the cyclic amidine S-(2-((2{prime}-(4,5-dihydroimidozoyl)ethyl)amino)ethyl) lithium hydrogen phosphorothioate (21) all showed 80% protection at the highest dose tested.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1295 - Ethyl formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Ethyl formate occurs naturally in some plant oils, fruits, and juices but does not occur naturally in the animal kingdom. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex,” 3d...

  10. Environmental Fate of Chiral Herbicide Fenoxaprop-ethyl in Water-Sediment Microcosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Xu; Yao, Guojun; Liu, Donghui; Liu, Mingke; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2016-05-01

    The environmental fate of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl (FE) in water, sediment and water-sediment microcosm was studied and degradation products fenoxaprop (FA), ethyl-2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)propanoate (EHPP), 2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)propanoic acid (HPPA) and 6-chloro-2,3-dihydrobenzoxazol-2-one (CDHB) were monitored. FE, FA, EHPP and HPPA were chiral and the environmental behavior was investigated on an enantiomeric level. In water, sediment and water-sediment microcosms, fenoxaprop-ethyl degraded very fast with half-lives less than 1 day and it was found the herbicidally inactive S-enantiomer degraded faster. Fenoxaprop was the main primary degradation product which was quickly formed and the further degradation was relatively slow with half-lives of 6.4–12.4 days, and the S-enantiomer degraded faster too. EHPP, HPPA and CDHB could be found and S-EHPP and S-HPPA were degraded preferentially. The effects of microorganism and water content were investigated and it was found that the enantioselectivity was attributed to microorganisms. In sediment, the main degradation pathway of fenoxaprop-ethyl was hydrolysis and the degradation rate of fenoxaprop-ethyl increased with water content. The degradation products and enantioselectivity should be considered for the impact of fenoxaprop-ethyl on the aquatic system.

  11. Environmental Fate of Chiral Herbicide Fenoxaprop-ethyl in Water-Sediment Microcosms.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xu; Yao, Guojun; Liu, Donghui; Liu, Mingke; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    The environmental fate of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl (FE) in water, sediment and water-sediment microcosm was studied and degradation products fenoxaprop (FA), ethyl-2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)propanoate (EHPP), 2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)propanoic acid (HPPA) and 6-chloro-2,3-dihydrobenzoxazol-2-one (CDHB) were monitored. FE, FA, EHPP and HPPA were chiral and the environmental behavior was investigated on an enantiomeric level. In water, sediment and water-sediment microcosms, fenoxaprop-ethyl degraded very fast with half-lives less than 1 day and it was found the herbicidally inactive S-enantiomer degraded faster. Fenoxaprop was the main primary degradation product which was quickly formed and the further degradation was relatively slow with half-lives of 6.4-12.4 days, and the S-enantiomer degraded faster too. EHPP, HPPA and CDHB could be found and S-EHPP and S-HPPA were degraded preferentially. The effects of microorganism and water content were investigated and it was found that the enantioselectivity was attributed to microorganisms. In sediment, the main degradation pathway of fenoxaprop-ethyl was hydrolysis and the degradation rate of fenoxaprop-ethyl increased with water content. The degradation products and enantioselectivity should be considered for the impact of fenoxaprop-ethyl on the aquatic system. PMID:27225540

  12. Environmental Fate of Chiral Herbicide Fenoxaprop-ethyl in Water-Sediment Microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Xu; Yao, Guojun; Liu, Donghui; Liu, Mingke; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    The environmental fate of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl (FE) in water, sediment and water-sediment microcosm was studied and degradation products fenoxaprop (FA), ethyl-2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)propanoate (EHPP), 2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)propanoic acid (HPPA) and 6-chloro-2,3-dihydrobenzoxazol-2-one (CDHB) were monitored. FE, FA, EHPP and HPPA were chiral and the environmental behavior was investigated on an enantiomeric level. In water, sediment and water-sediment microcosms, fenoxaprop-ethyl degraded very fast with half-lives less than 1 day and it was found the herbicidally inactive S-enantiomer degraded faster. Fenoxaprop was the main primary degradation product which was quickly formed and the further degradation was relatively slow with half-lives of 6.4–12.4 days, and the S-enantiomer degraded faster too. EHPP, HPPA and CDHB could be found and S-EHPP and S-HPPA were degraded preferentially. The effects of microorganism and water content were investigated and it was found that the enantioselectivity was attributed to microorganisms. In sediment, the main degradation pathway of fenoxaprop-ethyl was hydrolysis and the degradation rate of fenoxaprop-ethyl increased with water content. The degradation products and enantioselectivity should be considered for the impact of fenoxaprop-ethyl on the aquatic system. PMID:27225540

  13. Microbial Community Dynamics during the Bioremediation Process of Chlorimuron-Ethyl-Contaminated Soil by Hansschlegelia sp. Strain CHL1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liqiang; Li, Xinyu; Li, Xu; Su, Zhencheng; Zhang, Chenggang; Zhang, Huiwen

    2015-01-01

    Long-term and excessive application of chlorimuron-ethyl has led to a series of environmental problems. Strain Hansschlegelia sp. CHL1, a highly efficient chlorimuron-ethyl degrading bacterium isolated in our previous study, was employed in the current soil bioremediation study. The residues of chlorimuron-ethyl in soils were detected, and the changes of soil microbial communities were investigated by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. The results showed that strain CHL1 exhibited significant chlorimuron-ethyl degradation ability at wide range of concentrations between 10μg kg-1 and 1000μg kg-1. High concentrations of chlorimuron-ethyl significantly decreased the total concentration of PLFAs and the Shannon-Wiener indices and increased the stress level of microbes in soils. The inoculation with strain CHL1, however, reduced the inhibition on soil microbes caused by chlorimuron-ethyl. The results demonstrated that strain CHL1 is effective in the remediation of chlorimuron-ethyl-contaminated soil, and has the potential to remediate chlorimuron-ethyl contaminated soils in situ. PMID:25689050

  14. Characterization of the Antiallergic Drugs 3-[2-(2-Phenylethyl) benzoimidazole-4-yl]-3-hydroxypropanoic Acid and Ethyl 3-Hydroxy-3-[2-(2-phenylethyl)benzoimidazol-4-yl]propanoate as Full Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Morales, José Luis; Krzeminski, Jacek; Amin, Shantu; Perdew, Gary H.

    2008-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates most of the toxic effects of numerous chlorinated (e.g., TCDD) and nonchlorinated polycyclic aromatic compounds (e.g., benzo[a]pyrene). Studies in AhR null mice suggested that this receptor may also play a role in the modulation of immune responses. Recently, two drugs, namely, M50354 and M50367 (ethyl ester derivative of M50354), were described as AhR ligands with high efficacy toward reducing atopic allergic symptoms in an AhR-dependent manner by skewing T helper cell differentiation toward a TH1 phenotype [Negishi et al. (2005) J. Immunol. 175 (11), 7348–7356]. Surprisingly, these drugs were shown to have minimal activity toward inducing classical dioxin responsive element-driven AhR-mediated CYP1A1 transcription. We synthesized and reevaluated the ability of these drugs to regulate AhR activity. In contrast to previously published data, both M50354 and M50367 were found to be potent inducers of several AhR target genes, namely, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and UGT1A2. M50367 was a more effective agonist than M50354, perhaps accounting for its higher bioavailability in vivo. However, M50354 was capable of displacing an AhR-specific radioligand more effectively than M50367. This is consistent with M50354 being the active metabolite of M50367. In conclusion, two selective inhibitors of TH2 differentiation are full AhR agonists. PMID:18179178

  15. 40 CFR 721.10595 - Octadecen-1-aminium, N-ethyl-N,N-dimethy-, ethyl sulfate (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Octadecen-1-aminium, N-ethyl-N,N... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10595 Octadecen-1-aminium, N-ethyl-N,N-dimethy... chemical substance identified as octadecen-1-aminium, N-ethyl-N,N-dimethy-, ethyl sulfate (1:1) (PMN...

  16. Deuterium Exchange in Ethyl Acetoacetate: An Undergraduate GC-MS [Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy] Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinson, C. D.; Williams, J. M.; Tinnerman, W. N.; Malloy, T. B.

    2005-01-01

    The role of ethanol O-d in nullifying the deuterolysis may be demonstrated by determining that transesterification of methyl acetoacetate of the ethyl ester occurs as well as deuterium exchange of the five acetoacetate hydrogens. The significant acidity of the methylene protons in the acetoacetate group, the efficacy of base catalysis, the role of…

  17. 40 CFR 721.10122 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′-[2-ethyl-2-[[(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)oxy]methyl]- 1,3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2..., polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2-propenoate. (a) Chemical...-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene,...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10122 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′-[2-ethyl-2-[[(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)oxy]methyl]- 1,3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2..., polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2-propenoate. (a) Chemical...-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene,...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10122 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′-[2-ethyl-2-[[(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)oxy]methyl]- 1,3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2..., polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2-propenoate. (a) Chemical...-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene,...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10122 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′-[2-ethyl-2-[[(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)oxy]methyl]- 1,3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2..., polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2-propenoate. (a) Chemical...-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene,...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10122 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′-[2-ethyl-2-[[(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)oxy]methyl]- 1,3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1â²- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2-propenoate. 721.10122 Section 721.10122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL...

  2. Organosolv pretreatment of Sitka spruce wood: conversion of hemicelluloses to ethyl glycosides.

    PubMed

    Bouxin, Florent P; David Jackson, S; Jarvis, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    A range of Organosolv pretreatments, using ethanol:water mixtures with dilute sulphuric acid, were applied to Sitka spruce sawdust with the aim of generating useful co-products as well as improving saccharification yield. The most efficient of the pretreatment conditions, resulting in subsequent saccharification yields of up to 86%, converted a large part of the hemicellulose sugars to their ethyl glycosides as identified by GC/MS. These conditions also reduced conversion of pentoses to furfural, the ethyl glycosides being more stable to dehydration than the parent pentoses. Through comparison with the behaviour of model compounds under the same reaction conditions it was shown that the anomeric composition of the products was consistent with a predominant transglycosylation reaction mechanism, rather than hydrolysis followed by glycosylation. The ethyl glycosides have potential as intermediates in the sustainable production of high-value chemicals. PMID:24269088

  3. Direct Conversion of Cellulose into Ethyl Lactate in Supercritical Ethanol-Water Solutions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lisha; Yang, Xiaokun; Tian, Elli; Lin, Hongfei

    2016-01-01

    Biomass-derived ethyl lactate is a green solvent with a growing market as the replacement for petroleum-derived toxic organic solvents. Here we report, for the first time, the production of ethyl lactate directly from cellulose with the mesoporous Zr-SBA-15 silicate catalyst in a supercritical mixture of ethanol and water. The relatively strong Lewis and weak Brønsted acid sites on the catalyst, as well as the surface hydrophobicity, were beneficial to the reaction and led to synergy during consecutive reactions, such as depolymerization, retro-aldol condensation, and esterification. Under the optimum reaction conditions, ∼33 % yield of ethyl lactate was produced from cellulose with the Zr-SBA-15 catalyst at 260 °C in supercritical 95:5 (w/w) ethanol/water. PMID:26685114

  4. The Benzenesulfoamide T0901317 [N-(2,2,2-Trifluoroethyl)-N-[4-[2,2,2-trifluoro-1-hydroxy-1-(trifluoromethyl)ethyl]phenyl]-benzenesulfonamide] Is a Novel Retinoic Acid Receptor-Related Orphan Receptor-α/γ Inverse Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Naresh; Solt, Laura A.; Conkright, Juliana J.; Wang, Yongjun; Istrate, Monica A.; Busby, Scott A.; Garcia-Ordonez, Ruben D.; Burris, Thomas P.

    2010-01-01

    Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors (RORs) regulate a variety of physiological processes including hepatic gluconeogenesis, lipid metabolism, circadian rhythm, and immune function. Here we present the first high-affinity synthetic ligand for both RORα and RORγ. In a screen against all 48 human nuclear receptors, the benzenesulfonamide liver X receptor (LXR) agonist N-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-N-[4-[2,2,2-trifluoro-1-hydroxy-1-(trifluoromethyl)ethyl]phenyl]-benzenesulfonamide (T0901317) inhibited transactivation activity of RORα and RORγ but not RORβ. T0901317 was found to directly bind to RORα and RORγ with high affinity (Ki = 132 and 51 nM, respectively), resulting in the modulation of the receptor's ability to interact with transcriptional cofactor proteins. T0901317 repressed RORα/γ-dependent transactivation of ROR-responsive reporter genes and in HepG2 cells reduced recruitment of steroid receptor coactivator-2 by RORα at an endogenous ROR target gene (G6Pase). Using small interference RNA, we demonstrate that repression of the gluconeogenic enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase in HepG2 cells by T0901317 is ROR-dependent and is not due to the compound's LXR activity. In summary, T0901317 represents a novel chemical probe to examine RORα/γ function and an excellent starting point for the development of ROR selective modulators. More importantly, our results demonstrate that small molecules can be used to target the RORs for therapeutic intervention in metabolic and immune disorders. PMID:19887649

  5. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from microalgal oil using ethyl acetate as an acyl acceptor.

    PubMed

    Alavijeh, Razieh Shafiee; Tabandeh, Fatemeh; Tavakoli, Omid; Karkhane, Aliasghar; Shariati, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have become an important source of biomass for biodiesel production. In enzymatic transesterification reaction, the enzyme activity is decreased in presence of alcohols. The use of different acyl acceptors such as methyl/ethyl acetate is suggested as an alternative and effective way to overcome this problem. In this study, ethyl acetate was used for the first time in the enzymatic production of biodiesel by using microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, as a triglyceride source. Enzymatic conversion of such fatty acids to biodiesel was catalyzed by Novozym 435 as an efficient immobilized lipase which is extensively used in biodiesel production. The best conversion yield of 66.71% was obtained at the ethyl acetate to oil molar ratio of 13:1 and Novozym 435 concentration of 40%, based on the amount of oil, and a time period of 72 h at 40℃. The results showed that ethyl acetate have no adverse effect on lipase activity and the biodiesel amount was not decreased even after seven transesterification cycles, so ethyl acetate has a great potential to be substituted for short-chain alcohols in transesterification reaction. PMID:25742923

  6. Spectroscopic characterization of ethyl xanthate oxidation products and analysis by ion interaction chromatography

    PubMed

    Hao; Silvester; Senior

    2000-10-15

    An ion interaction chromatographic separation method, coupled with UV spectroscopic detection, has been developed for the analysis of ethyl xanthate (O-ethyl dithiocarbonate) and its oxidative decomposition products in mineral flotation systems. The effects of the ion-pairing agent (tetrabutylammonium ion), pH modifier (phosphoric acid), and organic modifier (acetonitrile) in the eluant upon the retention characteristics of the ethyl xanthate oxidation products have been determined. The optimized separation procedure has been successfully applied to the analysis of ethyl xanthate and its oxidation products in a nickel-iron sulfide mineral suspension containing a number of other anionic species, including cyanide complexes of nickel and iron, as well as sulfur-oxy anions. The ethyl xanthate oxidation products investigated in this study have been isolated as pure compounds and characterized by UV-visible, FT-IR, and NMR spectroscopies. The UV-visible and FT-IR spectroscopic properties of these species are discussed in terms of the chemical modifications of the thiocarbonate group. PMID:11055697

  7. Elastic electron scattering by ethyl vinyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Khakoo, M. A.; Hong, L.; Kim, B.; Winstead, C.; McKoy, V.

    2010-02-15

    We report measured and calculated results for elastic scattering of low-energy electrons by ethyl vinyl ether (ethoxyethene), a prototype system for studying indirect dissociative attachment processes that may play a role in DNA damage. The integral cross section displays the expected {pi}{sup *} shape resonance. The agreement between the calculated and measured cross sections is generally good.

  8. Ethyl p-nitrophenyl phenylphosphorothioate (EPN)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl p - nitrophenyl phenylphosphorothioate ( EPN ) ; CASRN 2104 - 64 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Ha

  9. 21 CFR 184.1295 - Ethyl formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl formate. 184.1295 Section 184.1295 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS §...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1295 - Ethyl formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl formate. 184.1295 Section 184.1295 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS §...

  11. 49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation...

  12. Striations in an ethyl alcohol glow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, P. G.; Gómez, A.; Torres, C.; Martínez, H.; Castillo, F.; Vergara, J.

    2015-03-01

    This research shows the behavior of striations in glow discharge generated with high purity ethyl alcohol at a pressure of 0.6 Torr. This paper present the number of striations as a function of the of current and voltage discharge.

  13. Tropane ethyl esters in illicit cocaine: isolation, detection, and determination of new manufacturing by-products from the clandestine purification of crude cocaine base with ethanol.

    PubMed

    Casale, John F; Boudreau, Danielle K; Jones, Laura M

    2008-05-01

    Seven ethyl homologues of known tropane esters have recently been detected as impurities in the gas chromatographic signature profiles of authentic Peruvian illicit cocaine base and hydrochloride exhibits. Peruvian cocaine base processors are now known to use ethanol for the purification of crude cocaine base. This process is referred to as the "base lavada" or "washed base" process and is a recent substitute method for the potassium permanganate oxidation purification methodology. Seven ethyl ester homologues were formed in illicit cocaine from the transesterification of known tropane methyl esters or possibly ethyl esterification of their respective tropane C-2 carboxylic acids in the presence of ethanol. Exhibits containing these compounds were subjected to gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses to determine their identity and were subsequently synthesized to verify their structures. Quantitative determinations were obtained from ion-pair chromatography isolation followed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Specifically, hexanoylecgonine ethyl ester, cocaethylene, cis-cinnamoylecgonine ethyl ester, trans-cinnamoylecgonine ethyl ester, 3',4',5'-trimethoxybenzoylecgonine ethyl ester, cis-3',4',5'-trimethoxycinnamoylecgonine ethyl ester, and trans-3',4',5'-trimethoxycinnamoylecgonine ethyl ester were detected and characterized. When present, these compounds were detected at levels ranging from 8.6 x 10(-4) to 9.3 x 10(-1)% relative to cocaine. PMID:18471211

  14. Effects of repeated applications of chlorimuron-ethyl on the soil microbial biomass, activity and microbial community in the greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Zhang, Ying; Dong, Fengshou; Liu, Xingang; Wu, Xiaohu; Zheng, Yongquan

    2014-02-01

    The impacts of repeated chlorimuron-ethyl applications on soil microbial community structure and function were studied under greenhouse conditions. Chlorimuron-ethyl was applied to soil samples at three different doses [1-,10-,100-fold of recommended field rate (T1, T10, T100)] for 3 years. The half-lives of chlorimuron-ethyl were 37.1-54.6 days. The soil microbial biomass (microbial biomass carbon and total phospholipid fatty acid), the microbial activity (basal respiration and average well color development), the ratio of Gram-negative/Gram-positive bacteria and Shannon index were stimulated by chlorimuron-ethyl during the initial period. Except for T100, the other treatments recovered to the untreated level. The ratio of fungi/bacteria decreased during the initial period and then recovered in the end. Principal component analysis of phospholipid fatty acid showed that chlorimuron-ethyl altered the microbial community structure. Except got T100, T1 and T10 were not different from the control at the end of experiment. These results suggested a dosage effect of chlorimuron-ethyl on the living microbial biomass and the microbial community. PMID:24264144

  15. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... prescribed for polyethylene in § 177.1520. (1) Specifications—(i) Infrared identification. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (ii) Quantitative determination of ethyl acrylate content. The ethyl acrylate can be determined by the infrared spectra. Prepare...

  16. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 177.1520. (1) Specifications—(i) Infrared identification. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (ii) Quantitative determination of ethyl acrylate content. The ethyl acrylate can be determined by the infrared spectra. Prepare a scan from 10.5 microns...

  17. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prescribed for polyethylene in § 177.1520. (1) Specifications—(i) Infrared identification. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (ii) Quantitative determination of ethyl acrylate content. The ethyl acrylate can be determined by the infrared spectra. Prepare...

  18. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... prescribed for polyethylene in § 177.1520. (1) Specifications—(i) Infrared identification. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (ii) Quantitative determination of ethyl acrylate content. The ethyl acrylate can be determined by the infrared spectra. Prepare...

  19. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... prescribed for polyethylene in § 177.1520. (1) Specifications—(i) Infrared identification. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (ii) Quantitative determination of ethyl acrylate content. The ethyl acrylate can be determined by the infrared spectra. Prepare...

  20. 40 CFR 180.441 - Quizalofop ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide quizalofop ethyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on the....05 (2) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide quizalofop ethyl, including its... with regional registration are established for residues of the herbicide quizalofop ethyl,...

  1. 40 CFR 180.441 - Quizalofop ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide quizalofop ethyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on the....05 (2) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide quizalofop ethyl, including its... with regional registration are established for residues of the herbicide quizalofop ethyl,...

  2. 40 CFR 180.441 - Quizalofop ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide quizalofop ethyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on the....05 (2) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide quizalofop ethyl, including its... with regional registration are established for residues of the herbicide quizalofop ethyl,...

  3. Biodegradation of chlorimuron-ethyl and the associated degradation pathway by Rhodococcus sp. D310-1.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunyan; Zang, Hailian; Yu, Qi; Lv, Tongyang; Cheng, Yi; Cheng, Xiaosong; Liu, Keran; Liu, Wanjun; Xu, Pianpian; Lan, Chuanzeng

    2016-05-01

    Chlorimuron-ethyl is a typical long-term residual sulfonylurea herbicide, and strategies for its removal have attracted increasing attention. Microbial degradation is considered the most acceptable dissipation method. In this study, we optimized the cultivation conditions (substrate concentration, pH, inoculum concentration, and temperature) of the chlorimuron-ethyl-degrading bacterium Rhodococcus sp. D310-1 using response surface methodology (RSM) to improve the biodegradation efficiency. A maximum biodegradation rate of 88.95 % was obtained. The Andrews model was used to describe the changes in the specific degradation rate as the substrate concentration increased. Chlorimuron-ethyl could be transformed with a maximum specific degradation rate (q max), half-saturation constant (K S), and inhibition constant (K i) of 0.4327 day(-1), 63.50045 mg L(-1), and 156.76666 mg L(-1), respectively. Eight biodegradation products (2-amino-4-chloro-6-methoxypyrimidine, ethyl 2-sulfamoyl benzoate, 2-sulfamoyl benzoic acid, o-benzoic sulfimide, 2-[[(4-chloro-6-methoxy-2-pyrimidinyl) carbamoyl] sulfamoyl] benzoic acid, ethyl 2-carbonyl sulfamoyl benzoate, ethyl 2-benzenesulfonyl isocyanate benzoate, and N,N-2(ethyl formate)benzene sulfonylurea) were identified, and three possible degradation pathways were proposed based on the results of high performance liquid chromatography HPLC, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses and the relevant literature. This systematic study is the first to examine the chlorimuron-ethyl degradation pathways of the genus Rhodococcus. PMID:26810662

  4. Alkaline hydrolysis of n-ethyl-2,4-dinitroacetanilide

    SciTech Connect

    Skarzewski, J.; Aoki, M.; Sekiquchi, S.

    1982-04-23

    The alkaline hydrolyses of anilides have been studied extensively, but those of anilides bearing ortho substituents seem to be a rather unexplored field. As was shown for p-nitroacetanilide (1), the reaction mechanism of the base-catalyzed hydrolyses of anilides with strongly electron-withdrawing substituents on the phenyl moiety differs somewhat from the general one. The difference is caused by higher acidity of leaving-group nitroanilines. The results obtained in the case of the alkaline hydrolysis of N-ethyl-2,4-dinitroacetanilide are expected to conform to the reaction mechanism proposed for all other anilides, but the rate-determining step may change for such sterically hindered derivatives. That this prediction is fulfilled will be developed in latter sections.

  5. Production of ethyl alcohol from bananas

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.; Towns, T.

    1983-12-01

    The production of ethyl alcohol from waste bananas presents many special problems. During cooking, matting of the latex fibers from the banana peel recongeal when cooled and left untreated. This problem has been addressed by Alfaro by the use of CaC1/sub 2/. Separation of solids prior to distillation of the mashes in an economical fashion and use of the by product are also of concern to banana processors.

  6. Computer assisted modeling of ethyl sulfate pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Georg; Halter, Claudia C; Aderjan, Rolf; Auwaerter, Volker; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2010-01-30

    For 12 volunteers of a drinking experiment the concentration-time-courses of ethyl sulfate (EtS) and ethanol were simulated and fitted to the experimental data. The concentration-time-courses were described with the same mathematical model as previously used for ethyl glucuronide (EtG). The kinetic model based on the following assumptions and simplifications: a velocity constant k(form) for the first order formation of ethyl sulfate from ethanol and an exponential elimination constant k(el). The mean values (and standard deviations) obtained for k(form) and k(el) were 0.00052 h(-1) (0.00014) and 0.561 h(-1) (0.131), respectively. Using the ranges of these parameters it is possible to calculate minimum and maximum serum concentrations of EtS based on stated ethanol doses and drinking times. The comparison of calculated and measured concentrations can prove the plausibility of alleged ethanol consumption and add evidence to the retrospective calculation of ethanol concentrations based on EtG concentrations. PMID:19913378

  7. The binding of ethyl isocyanide to ferroperoxidase

    PubMed Central

    Phelps, Charles; Antonini, Eraldo; Brunori, Maurizio

    1972-01-01

    The equilibrium and kinetics of ethyl isocyanide binding to ferroperoxidase were studied. At pH9.1 the results of both studies are consistent with a single-process model with an affinity constant of 95m−1 and combination and dissociation constants of 2.2×103m−1·s−1 and 23s−1 respectively. Ethyl isocyanide is not bound significantly at pH values lower than 6.0, and in this behaviour and the pH-dependence of the affinity constant, similarities exist between isocyanide and cyanide binding. The enthalpy of the process measured by equilibrium methods is −59kJ/mol (−14kcal/mol). At pH values below 9, the ethyl isocyanide adduct changes in a slow time-dependent manner, giving rise to a new species. These changes are reversible on increasing the pH. The results are discussed in relation to other known information about ligand binding to ferroperoxidase and to myoglobin. PMID:5084796

  8. Chemical and thermochemical aspects of the ozonolysis of ethyl oleate: decomposition enthalpy of ethyl oleate ozonide.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Neat ethyl oleate was ozonized in a bubble reactor and the progress of the ozonolysis was followed by infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The ozonolysis was conducted till a molar ratio O3/C=C≈1 when the exothermal reaction spontaneously went to completion. A specific thermochemical calculation on ethyl oleate ozonation has been made to determine the theoretical heat of the ozonization reaction using the group increment approach. A linear relationship was found both in the integrated absorptivity of the ozonide infrared band at 1110 cm(-1) and the ozonolysis time as well as the thermal decomposition enthalpy of the ozonides and peroxides formed as a result of the ozonation. The DSC decomposition temperature of ozonated ethyl oleate occurs with an exothermal peak at about 150-155 °C with a decomposition enthalpy of 243.0 kJ/mol at molar ratio O3/C=C≈1. It is shown that the decomposition enthalpy of ozonized ethyl oleate is a constant value (≈243 kJ/mol) at any stage of the O3/C=C once an adequate normalization of the decomposition enthalpy for the amount of the adsorbed ozone is taken into consideration. The decomposition enthalpy of ozonized ethyl oleate was also calculated using a simplified thermochemical model, obtaining a result in reasonable agreement with the experimental value. PMID:23969233

  9. {2-[1-(3-Methoxycarbonylmethyl-1H-indol-2-yl)-1-methyl-ethyl]-1H-indol-3-yl}-acetic Acid Methyl Ester Inhibited Hepatocellular Carcinoma Growth in Bel-7402 Cells and Its Resistant Variants by Activation of NOX4 and SIRT3.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Wang, Wenjing; Xu, Xiaoxue; Sun, Shiyue; Xu, Xiaoyu; Qu, Xian-jun

    2015-01-01

    {2-[1-(3-Methoxycarbonylmethyl-1H-indol-2-yl)-1-methyl-ethyl]-1H-indol-3-yl}-acetic acid methyl ester (MIAM) is a novel indole compound, which possessed high efficacy against many cancers xenografted in mice without obvious toxicity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of MIAM on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Bel-7402 cells and its resistant variants Bel-7402/5FU. MIAM inhibited the growth of HCC more potent in Bel-7402/5FU cells than its parent cells. MIAM increased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, induced cell apoptosis, and arrested cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. MIAM might exert its action on Bel-7402/5FU cells through activation of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4)/p22(phox), Sirtuin3 (SIRT3)/SOD2, and SIRT3/p53/p21(Waf1/Cip) pathways. MIAM might inhibit HCC growth through the modulation of SIRT3. When SIRT3 was silenced, the inhibitory effect of MIAM on Bel-7402/5FU was lowered, showing the characteristic of resistance against MIAM, whereas Bel-7402/5FU cells with high expression of SIRT3 by SIRT3 adenovirus infection demonstrated the high sensitivity to MIAM. These results suggested that MIAM might exert its action against Bel-7402/5FU growth through upregulation of SIRT3. We suggested that MIAM might be a promising candidate compound which could develop as a potent anticancer agent targeting NOX4 and SIRT3 activation. PMID:25961022

  10. {2-[1-(3-Methoxycarbonylmethyl-1H-indol-2-yl)-1-methyl-ethyl]-1H-indol-3-yl}-acetic Acid Methyl Ester Inhibited Hepatocellular Carcinoma Growth in Bel-7402 Cells and Its Resistant Variants by Activation of NOX4 and SIRT3

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ye; Wang, Wenjing; Xu, Xiaoxue; Sun, Shiyue; Xu, Xiaoyu; Qu, Xian-jun

    2015-01-01

    {2-[1-(3-Methoxycarbonylmethyl-1H-indol-2-yl)-1-methyl-ethyl]-1H-indol-3-yl}-acetic acid methyl ester (MIAM) is a novel indole compound, which possessed high efficacy against many cancers xenografted in mice without obvious toxicity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of MIAM on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Bel-7402 cells and its resistant variants Bel-7402/5FU. MIAM inhibited the growth of HCC more potent in Bel-7402/5FU cells than its parent cells. MIAM increased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, induced cell apoptosis, and arrested cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. MIAM might exert its action on Bel-7402/5FU cells through activation of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4)/p22phox, Sirtuin3 (SIRT3)/SOD2, and SIRT3/p53/p21Waf1/Cip pathways. MIAM might inhibit HCC growth through the modulation of SIRT3. When SIRT3 was silenced, the inhibitory effect of MIAM on Bel-7402/5FU was lowered, showing the characteristic of resistance against MIAM, whereas Bel-7402/5FU cells with high expression of SIRT3 by SIRT3 adenovirus infection demonstrated the high sensitivity to MIAM. These results suggested that MIAM might exert its action against Bel-7402/5FU growth through upregulation of SIRT3. We suggested that MIAM might be a promising candidate compound which could develop as a potent anticancer agent targeting NOX4 and SIRT3 activation. PMID:25961022

  11. An XAFS study of nickel chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; G Cheek; K Pandya; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Nickel chloride was studied with cyclic voltammetry and X-ray absorption spectroscopy in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Acidic melts display metal stripping peaks which are not observed in the basic melt. EXAFS analysis shows that the nickel is tetrahedrally coordinated with chloride ions in the basic solution. In the acidic solution the nickel is coordinated by six chloride ions that are also associated with aluminum ions.

  12. Ethyl pyruvate and ethyl lactate down-regulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and modulate expression of immune receptors.

    PubMed

    Hollenbach, Marcus; Hintersdorf, Anja; Huse, Klaus; Sack, Ulrich; Bigl, Marina; Groth, Marco; Santel, Thore; Buchold, Martin; Lindner, Inge; Otto, Andreas; Sicker, Dieter; Schellenberger, Wolfgang; Almendinger, Johannes; Pustowoit, Barbara; Birkemeyer, Claudia; Platzer, Mathias; Oerlecke, Ilka; Hemdan, Nasr; Birkenmeier, Gerd

    2008-09-01

    Esters of alpha-oxo-carbonic acids such as ethyl pyruvate (EP) have been demonstrated to exert inhibitory effects on the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. So far, there is no information about effects, if any, of ethyl lactate (EL), an obviously inactive analogue of EP, on inflammatory immune responses. In the present study, we provide evidence that the anti-inflammatory action of alpha-oxo-carbonic acid esters is mediated by inhibition of glyoxalases (Glo), cytosolic enzymes that catalyse the conversion of alpha-oxo-aldehydes such as methylglyoxal (MGO) into the corresponding alpha-hydroxy acids using glutathione as a cofactor. In vitro enzyme activity measurements revealed the inhibition of human Glo1 by alpha-oxo-carbonic acid esters, whilst alpha-hydroxy-carbonic acid esters such as EL were not inhibitory. In contrast, both EP and EL were shown to suppress the Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6 and IL-8 from human immunocompetent cells, and modulated the expression of the immune receptors HLA-DR, CD14 and CD91 on human monocytes. Here, we show a crossing link between glyoxalases and the immune system. The results described herein introduce glyoxalases as a possible target for therapeutic approaches of immune suppression. PMID:18625205

  13. Antiplasmodial Properties and Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Carica papaya Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Melariri, Paula; Campbell, William; Etusim, Paschal; Smith, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the antiplasmodial properties of crude extracts from Carica papaya leaves to trace the activity through bioassay-guided fractionation. The greatest antiplasmodial activity was observed in the ethyl acetate crude extract. C. papaya showed a high selectivity for P. falciparum against CHO cells with a selectivity index of 249.25 and 185.37 in the chloroquine-sensitive D10 and chloroquine-resistant DD2 strains, respectively. Carica papaya ethyl acetate extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation to ascertain the most active fraction, which was purified and identified using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry) methods. Linoleic and linolenic acids identified from the ethyl acetate fraction showed IC50 of 6.88 μg/ml and 3.58 μg/ml, respectively. The study demonstrated greater antiplasmodial activity of the crude ethyl acetate extract of Carica papaya leaves with an IC50 of 2.96 ± 0.14 μg/ml when compared to the activity of the fractions and isolated compounds. PMID:22174990

  14. Physiological and biochemical characteristics of the ethyl tiglate production pathway in the yeast Saprochaete suaveolens.

    PubMed

    Grondin, Eric; Shum Cheong Sing, Alain; Caro, Yanis; de Billerbeck, Gustavo M; François, Jean Marie; Petit, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A yeast identified as Saprochaete suaveolens was investigated for its capacity to produce a large panel of flavouring molecules. With a production of 32 compounds including 28 esters, S. suaveolens seems to be a good producer of fruity flavours and fragrances and especially of unsaturated esters, such as ethyl tiglate. Physiological and biochemical analyses were performed in this study in an attempt to comprehend the metabolic route to the formation of this compound. We show that the accumulation of ethyl tiglate by S. suaveolens is specifically induced by isoleucine. However, and contrary to S. cerevisiae, which harbours a classical Ehrlich pathway leading to the production of 2-methylbutanol from isoleucine, our results provide phenotypic and enzymological evidence of ethyl tiglate biosynthesis in S. suaveolens through the catabolism of this amino acid by the β-oxidation pathway, which generates tiglyl-CoA as a probable intermediate. A kinetic analysis of this flavour molecule during growth of S. suaveolens on glucose and isoleucine showed a phase of production of ethyl tiglate that culminated concurrently with isoleucine exhaustion, followed by a disappearance of this compound, likely due to reassimilation by the yeast. PMID:25407290

  15. Production of 10(S)-hydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic and 7,10(S,S)-hydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic ethyl esters by Novozym 435 in solvent-free media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novozym 435, lipase B from Candida antarctica, was used in this study for the production of ethyl esters. For the first time, trans-hydroxy-fatty acid ethyl esters were synthesized in vitro in solvent-free media. We studied the effects of the substrate–ethanol molar ratio and enzyme synthetic stabil...

  16. 4-(2-Benzoyl­ethyl)benzoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Lalancette, Roger A.; Thompson, Hugh W.

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, C16H14O3, adopts a conformation in which each functional group is almost coplanar with its adjacent ring, while the two aromatic rings are twisted with respect to one another with a dihedral angle of 78.51 (3)°. The compound dimerizes by standard centrosymmetric hydrogen-bonded carboxyl pairing [O⋯O = 2.6218 (11) Å and O—H⋯O = 176 (2)°]. The packing includes two inter­molecular C—H⋯O close contacts with the ketone group. PMID:21203119

  17. Optimization of ethyl ester production assisted by ultrasonic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Noipin, K; Kumar, S

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the optimization of the continuous flow potassium hydroxide-catalyzed synthesis of ethyl ester from palm oil with ultrasonic assistance. The process was optimized by application of factorial design and response surface methodology. The independent variables considered were ethanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature and ultrasonic amplitude; and the response was ethyl ester yield. The results show that ethanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, and ultrasonic amplitude have positive effect on ethyl ester yield, whereas reaction temperature has negative influence on ethyl ester yield. Second-order models were developed to predict the responses analyzed as a function of these three variables, and the developed models predicts the results in the experimental ranges studied adequately. This study shows that ultrasonic irradiation improved the ethyl ester production process to achieve ethyl ester yields above 92%. PMID:25116594

  18. A green approach to ethyl acetate: quantitative conversion of ethanol through direct dehydrogenation in a Pd-Ag membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Gaofeng; Chen, Tao; He, Lipeng; Pinnau, Ingo; Lai, Zhiping; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2012-12-01

    Pincers do the trick: The conversion of ethanol to ethyl acetate and hydrogen was achieved using a pincer-Ru catalyst in a Pd-Ag membrane reactor. Near quantitative conversions and yields could be achieved without the need for acid or base promoters or hydrogen acceptors (see scheme). PMID:23136053

  19. Mechanism of the reaction of isocyanic acid with ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Sheludyakov, Y.L.; Shubareva, F.Z.; Golodov, V.A.; Korolev, A.V.

    1995-03-01

    The kinetics of the interaction of isocyanic acid with ethanol is investigated. The reaction products include ethyl carbamate and ethyl allophanate, the yields of which depend on both the concentration ratio of HNCO:ROH and the presence of a catalyst. The influence of water, acid, and base additives is also examined. A reaction mechanism is proposed.

  20. Ethyl pyruvate inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma via regulation of the HMGB1–RAGE and AKT pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Ping; Dai, Weiqi; Wang, Fan; Lu, Jie; Shen, Miao; Chen, Kan; Li, Jingjing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Chengfen; Yang, Jing; Zhu, Rong; Zhang, Huawei; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Guo, Chuan-Yong Xu, Ling

    2014-01-24

    Highlights: • Ethyl pyruvate inhibits liver cancer. • Promotes apoptosis. • Decreased the expression of HMGB1, p-Akt. - Abstract: Ethyl pyruvate (EP) was recently identified as a stable lipophilic derivative of pyruvic acid with significant antineoplastic activities. The high mobility group box-B1 (HMGB1)–receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) and the protein kinase B (Akt) pathways play a crucial role in tumorigenesis and development of many malignant tumors. We tried to observe the effects of ethyl pyruvate on liver cancer growth and explored its effects in hepatocellular carcinoma model. In this study, three hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines were treated with ethyl pyruvate. An MTT colorimetric assay was used to assess the effects of EP on cell proliferation. Flow cytometry and TUNEL assays were used to analyze apoptosis. Real-time PCR, Western blotting and immunofluorescence demonstrated ethyl pyruvate reduced the HMGB1–RAGE and AKT pathways. The results of hepatoma orthotopic tumor model verified the antitumor effects of ethyl pyruvate in vivo. EP could induce apoptosis and slow the growth of liver cancer. Moreover, EP decreased the expression of HMGB1, RAGE, p-AKT and matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP9) and increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that ethyl pyruvate induces apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in G phase in hepatocellular carcinoma cells, plays a critical role in the treatment of cancer.

  1. Alternanthera sessilis Red Ethyl Acetate Fraction Exhibits Antidiabetic Potential on Obese Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kok Keong; Kim, Kah Hwi

    2013-01-01

    The antidiabetic potential of Alternanthera sessilis Red was investigated using the obese type 2 diabetic rats induced by high fat diet and streptozotocin. Three fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water) were obtained from the crude ethanol extract of Alternanthera sessilis Red. Alternanthera sessilis Red ethyl acetate fraction (ASEAF) was found to possess the most potent antihyperglycemic effect through oral glucose tolerance test. The ASEAF was subsequently given to the diabetic rats for two weeks. It was found that two-week administration of ASEAF reduces the fasting blood glucose level, triglyceride level, and free fatty acid level of the rats. ASEAF-treated diabetic rats showed higher pancreatic insulin content and pancreatic total superoxide dismutase activity compared to the untreated diabetic rats. Also, the insulin sensitivity indexes suggested that ASEAF ameliorates the insulin resistant state of the diabetic rats. In conclusion, ASEAF could be developed into a potential antidiabetic agent for the management of type 2 diabetes. PMID:23606892

  2. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF METHYL ETHYL KETONE (2003 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, "Toxicological Review of Methyl Ethyl Ketone: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)". The updated Summary for Methyl Ethyl Ketone and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Database.

  3. 46 CFR 151.50-42 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ethyl ether. 151.50-42 Section 151.50-42 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-42 Ethyl ether. (a)(1) Gravity...

  4. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from ethyl cyanoacrylate.

    PubMed

    Bruze, M; Björkner, B; Lepoittevin, J P

    1995-03-01

    Glues based on cyanoacrylates are widely used as contact adhesives for metal, glass, rubber, plastics and textiles, as well for biological materials, including binding tissues and sealing wounds in surgery. In this paper, an apprentice cobbler with an occupational allergic contact dermatitis from an ethyl cyanoacrylate glue, in which the major monomer was shown to be the sensitizer, is reported. Initial patch testing with the cyanoacrylate glue dissolved in acetone with the Finn Chamber (aluminium) technique yielded false-negative reactions. Positive test reactions were obtained with the same preparations using Van der Bend chambers. With petrolatum as vehicle for the glue, there was no difference between Finn Chamber technique and Van der Bend chamber technique. The role of aluminium in the false-negative reactions is discussed. PMID:7774187

  5. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with sulfur... acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and triethylenetetramine. (a) Chemical substance...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with sulfur... acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and triethylenetetramine. (a) Chemical substance...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with sulfur... acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and triethylenetetramine. (a) Chemical substance...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with sulfur... acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and triethylenetetramine. (a) Chemical substance...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with sulfur... acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and triethylenetetramine. (a) Chemical substance...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with...

  10. Antifungal and antioxidant activity of Crassocephalum bauchiense (Hutch.) Milne-Redh ethyl acetate extract and fractions (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Crassocephalum bauchiense is a flowering plant, found in the West Region of Cameroon. Previous studied has highlighted the antibacterial and the dermal toxicological safety as well as the immunomodulatory activities of the ethyl acetate extract of its dry leaves. As an extension of the previous researches, the current work has been undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antifungal and antioxidant activities of C. bauchiense dried leaves ethyl acetate extract and fractions. Methods The extract was obtained by maceration in ethyl acetate and further fractionated into six fractions labeled F1 to F6 by flash chromatography. The antifungal activity of the extract and fractions against yeasts and dermatophytes was evaluated using broth microdilution method. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO) and β-carotene - linoleic acid assays. Results The extract (MIC = 0.125 - 4 mg/ml) was found to be more active on dermatophytes and yeasts compared to the fractions. The ethyl acetate extract and fractions exhibited strong scavenging activity on DPPH (CI50 = 28.57 - 389.38 μg/ml). The fractions F3 and F6 expressed best antioxidant activity on DPPH radicals compared to the crude extract. Conclusion The results of these findings clearly showed that C. bauchiense ethyl acetate extract has a significant antifungal and antioxidant activity. It is therefore a source of active compounds that might be used as antifungal and antioxidant agents. PMID:24742210

  11. A morphogenetic regulatory role for ethyl alcohol in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Nitin M; Raut, Jayant S; Karuppayil, S Mohan

    2011-11-01

    Regulation of morphogenesis through the production of chemical signalling molecules such as isoamyl alcohol, 2-phenylethyl alcohol, 1-dodecanol, E-nerolidol and farnesol is reported in Candida albicans. The present study focuses on the effect of ethyl alcohol on C. albicans dimorphism and biofilm development. Ethyl alcohol inhibited germ tube formation induced by the four standard inducers in a concentration-dependent manner. The germ tube inhibitory concentration (4%) did not have any effect on the growth and viability of C. albicans cells. Ethyl alcohol also inhibited the elongation of germ tubes. Four percentage of ethyl alcohol significantly inhibited biofilm development on polystyrene and silicone surfaces. We suggest a potential morphogenetic regulatory role for ethyl alcohol, which may influence dissemination, virulence and establishment of infection. PMID:21605190

  12. Fragmentation dynamics of the ethyl bromide and ethyl iodide cations: a velocity-map imaging study.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Sara H; Karsili, Tolga N V; Lipciuc, M Laura; Wilman, Edward; Ashfold, Michael N R; Vallance, Claire

    2014-02-01

    The photodissociation dynamics of ethyl bromide and ethyl iodide cations (C2H5Br(+) and C2H5I(+)) have been studied. Ethyl halide cations were formed through vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of the respective neutral parent molecules at 118.2 nm, and were photolysed at a number of ultraviolet (UV) photolysis wavelengths, including 355 nm and wavelengths in the range from 236 to 266 nm. Time-of-flight mass spectra and velocity-map images have been acquired for all fragment ions and for ground (Br) and spin-orbit excited (Br*) bromine atom products, allowing multiple fragmentation pathways to be investigated. The experimental studies are complemented by spin-orbit resolved ab initio calculations of cuts through the potential energy surfaces (along the RC-Br/I stretch coordinate) for the ground and first few excited states of the respective cations. Analysis of the velocity-map images indicates that photoexcited C2H5Br(+) cations undergo prompt C-Br bond fission to form predominantly C2H5(+) + Br* products with a near-limiting 'parallel' recoil velocity distribution. The observed C2H3(+) + H2 + Br product channel is thought to arise via unimolecular decay of highly internally excited C2H5(+) products formed following radiationless transfer from the initial excited state populated by photon absorption. Broadly similar behaviour is observed in the case of C2H5I(+), along with an additional energetically accessible C-I bond fission channel to form C2H5 + I(+) products. HX (X = Br, I) elimination from the highly internally excited C2H5X(+) cation is deemed the most probable route to forming the C2H4(+) fragment ions observed from both cations. Finally, both ethyl halide cations also show evidence of a minor C-C bond fission process to form CH2X(+) + CH3 products. PMID:24317740

  13. Mechanistic insight into alkylation of the ethyl acetoacetate anion with different ethyl halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marković, S.; Đurđević, J.; Vukosavljević, M.; Petrović, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The alkylation reactions of the ambident ethyl acetoacetate anion with C2H5X (X = F, Cl, Br, and I) in the O2, C3, and O4 positions of the anion were investigated at the B3LYP/6-311+G( d,p) level of theory. It was found that the ethylation reaction does not occur in the position O4, as well as with ethyl fluoride in any position of the anion, due to very high activation energies and thermodynamic instability of the hypothetic products. The activation energies for the reactions in the position O2 are lower in comparison to the position C3, but the products of the reactions in the C3 position are more stable than those in the position O4, implying that the C/O products ratio is controlled by both thermodynamic and kinetic factors, leading to the O2-product with the chloride, and C3-product with the iodide as leaving group.

  14. An XAFS Study of Niobium chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Niobium chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Although anhydrous Nb2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic melt than in the acidic melt, the EXAFS data shows that the coordination shell around the niobium does not change in the different ionic liquids. Both the acidic and basic melts show a coordination of five chlorides in the first shell. This indicates that in this series of ionic liquids, the Nb2Cl10 breaks up into two NbCl5 entities in both the acidic and the basic melts.

  15. Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, Luc

    2003-06-24

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

  16. Perspectives for the biotechnological production of ethyl acetate by yeasts.

    PubMed

    Löser, Christian; Urit, Thanet; Bley, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Ethyl acetate is an environmentally friendly solvent with many industrial applications. The production of ethyl acetate currently proceeds by energy-intensive petrochemical processes which are based on natural gas and crude oil without exception. Microbial synthesis of ethyl acetate could become an interesting alternative. The formation of esters as aroma compounds in food has been repeatedly reviewed, but a survey which deals with microbial synthesis of ethyl acetate as a bulk product is missing. The ability of yeasts for producing larger amounts of this ester is known for a long time. In the past, this potential was mainly of scientific interest, but in the future, it could be applied to large-scale ester production from renewable raw materials. Pichia anomala, Candida utilis, and Kluyveromyces marxianus are yeasts which convert sugar into ethyl acetate with a high yield where the latter is the most promising one. Special attention was paid to the mechanism of ester synthesis including regulatory aspects and to the maximum and expectable yield. Synthesis of much ethyl acetate requires oxygen which is usually supplied by aeration. Ethyl acetate is highly volatile so that aeration results in its phase transfer and stripping. This stripping process cannot be avoided but requires adequate handling during experimentation and offers a chance for a cost-efficient process-integrated recovery of the synthesized ester. PMID:24788328

  17. Ethyl pyruvate protects colonic anastomosis from ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Unal, B; Karabeyoglu, M; Huner, T; Canbay, E; Eroglu, A; Yildirim, O; Dolapci, M; Bilgihan, A; Cengiz, O

    2009-03-01

    Ethyl pyruvate is a simple derivative in Ca(+2)- and K(+)-containing balanced salt solution of pyruvate to avoid the problems associated with the instability of pyruvate in solution. It has been shown to ameliorate the effects of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in many organs. It has also been shown that I/R injury delays the healing of colonic anastomosis. In this study, the effect of ethyl pyruvate on the healing of colon anastomosis and anastomotic strength after I/R injury was investigated. Anastomosis of the colon was performed in 32 adult male Wistar albino rats divided into 4 groups of 8 individuals: (1) sham-operated control group (group 1); (2) 30 minutes of intestinal I/R by superior mesenteric artery occlusion (group 2); (3) I/R+ ethyl pyruvate (group 3), ethyl pyruvate was administered as a 50-mg/kg/d single dose; and (4) I/R+ ethyl pyruvate (group 4), ethyl pyruvate administration was repeatedly (every 6 hours) at the same dose (50 mg/kg). On the fifth postoperative day, animals were killed. Perianastomotic tissue hydroxyproline contents and anastomotic bursting pressures were measured in all groups. When the anastomotic bursting pressures and tissue hydroxyproline contents were compared, it was found that they were decreased in group 2 when compared with groups 1, 3, and 4 (P < .05). Both anastomotic bursting pressure (P = .005) and hydroxyproline content (P < .001) levels were found to be significantly increased with ethyl pyruvate administration when compared with group 2. When ethyl pyruvate administration doses were compared, a significant difference was not observed (P > .05). Ethyl pyruvate significantly prevents the delaying effect of I/R injury on anastomotic strength and healing independent from doses of administration. PMID:19064591

  18. Osteocompatibility evaluation of poly(glycine ethyl ester-co-alanine ethyl ester)phosphazene with honeycomb-patterned surface topography.

    PubMed

    Duan, Shun; Yang, Xiaoping; Mao, Jifu; Qi, Bing; Cai, Qing; Shen, Hong; Yang, Fei; Deng, Xuliang; Wang, Shenguo

    2013-02-01

    Biodegradable amino acid ester-substituted polyphosphazenes are unique biomaterials for tissue engineering. Considering the surface properties as topography and chemical composition having vital roles in regulating cellular response, in this study, a kind of micropatterned polyphosphazene films were prepared and subjected to osteoblasts culture. Briefly, poly(glycine ethyl ester-co-alanine ethyl ester)phosphazene (PGAP) was synthesized, and its solution in chloroform was cast under high (80%) or low (20%) environmental humidity. Honeycomb-patterned or flat PGAP films were resulted. By analyzing with scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscope, and water contact angle measurement, the honeycomb-patterned PGAP films demonstrated higher surface roughness, phosphorous and nitrogen content, and hydrophilicity than the flat one. Although the initial cell attachment and proliferation on PGAP films were inferior to those on conventional poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) films, P-containing PGAP was a sort of bone-binding bioactive polymer. With these alternations, honeycomb-patterned PGAP films had accordingly enhanced protein adsorption and apatite deposition in simulated body fluid and showed great advantages in promoting osteogenous differentiation. The results suggested a potential way to make polyphosphazenes as good choices for bone tissue regeneration by increasing their surface roughness and phosphorous content. PMID:22733644

  19. On the cause of low thermal stability of ethyl halodiazoacetates

    PubMed Central

    Mortén, Magnus; Hennum, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Rates for the thermal decomposition of ethyl halodiazoacetates (halo = Cl, Br, I) have been obtained, and reported herein are their half-lives. The experimental results are supported by DFT calculations, and we provide a possible explanation for the reduced thermal stability of ethyl halodiazoacetates compared to ethyl diazoacetate and for the relative decomposition rates between the chloro, bromo and iodo analogs. We have also briefly studied the thermal, non-catalytic cyclopropanation of styrenes and compared the results to the analogous Rh(II)-catalyzed reactions. PMID:27559411

  20. On the cause of low thermal stability of ethyl halodiazoacetates.

    PubMed

    Mortén, Magnus; Hennum, Martin; Bonge-Hansen, Tore

    2016-01-01

    Rates for the thermal decomposition of ethyl halodiazoacetates (halo = Cl, Br, I) have been obtained, and reported herein are their half-lives. The experimental results are supported by DFT calculations, and we provide a possible explanation for the reduced thermal stability of ethyl halodiazoacetates compared to ethyl diazoacetate and for the relative decomposition rates between the chloro, bromo and iodo analogs. We have also briefly studied the thermal, non-catalytic cyclopropanation of styrenes and compared the results to the analogous Rh(II)-catalyzed reactions. PMID:27559411

  1. Amidation reaction of eugenyl oxyacetate ethyl ester with 1,3 diaminopropane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryanti, V.; Wibowo, F. R.; Kusumaningsih, T.; Wibowo, A. H.; Khumaidah, S. A.; Wijayanti, L. A.

    2016-04-01

    Eugenol having various substituents on the aromatic ring (hydroxy, methoxy and allyl) are useful for starting material in synthesizing of its derivatives. Eugenol derivatives have shown wide future potential applications in many areas, especially as future drugs against many diseases. The aim of this work was to synthesize an amide of eugenol derivative. The starting material used was eugenol from clove oil and the reaction was conducted in 3 step reactions to give the final product. Firstly, eugenol was converted into eugenyl oxyacetate [2-(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy) acetic acid] as a white crystal with 70.5% yield, which was then esterified with ethanol to have eugenyl oxyacetate ethyl ester [ethyl 2-(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy) acetate] as brown liquid in 75.7%. The last step was the reaction between eugenyl oxyacetate ethyl ester and 1,3 diaminopropane to give 2-(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy)-N-(3-aminopropyl) acetamide as a brown powder with 71.6% yield, where the amidation reaction was occurred.

  2. Subchronic Toxicity Study in Rats of Two New Ethyl-Carbamates with Ixodicidal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Prado-Ochoa, María Guadalupe; Abrego-Reyes, Víctor Hugo; Velázquez-Sánchez, Ana María; Muñoz-Guzmán, Marco Antonio; Ramírez-Noguera, Patricia; Angeles, Enrique; Alba-Hurtado, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Female and male Wistar rats were used to determine the subchronic oral toxicities of two new ethyl-carbamates with ixodicidal activities (ethyl-4-bromphenyl-carbamate and ethyl-4-chlorphenyl-carbamate). The evaluated carbamates were administered in the drinking water (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg/day) for 90 days. Exposure to the evaluated carbamates did not cause mortality or clinical signs and did not affect food consumption or weight gain. However, exposure to these carbamates produced alterations in water consumption, hematocrit, percentages of reticulocytes, plasma proteins, some biochemical parameters (aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, cholinesterase, and creatinine activities), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and the relative weight of the spleen. Histologically, slight pathological alterations were found in the liver that were consistent with the observed biochemical alterations. The nonobserved adverse effect levels (NOAELs) of the evaluated carbamates were 12.5 mg/kg/day for both the female and male rats. The low severity and reversibility of the majority of the observed alterations suggest that the evaluated carbamates have low subchronic toxicity. PMID:24818142

  3. In vitro protection of biological macromolecules against oxidative stress and in vivo toxicity evaluation of Acacia nilotica (L.) and ethyl gallate in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, enormous research has been focused on natural bioactive compounds possessing potential antioxidant and anticancer properties using cell lines and animal models. Acacia nilotica (L.) is widely distributed in Asia, Africa, Australia and Kenya. The plant is traditionally used to treat mouth, ear and bone cancer. However, reports on Acacia nilotica (L.) Wild. Ex. Delile subsp. indica (Benth.) Brenan regarding its toxicity profile is limited. Hence in this study, we investigated the antioxidant capacity and acute toxicity of ethyl gallate, a phenolic antioxidant present in the A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract. Methods The antioxidant activity of ethyl gallate against Fenton’s system (Fe3+/H2O2/ascorbic acid) generated oxidative damage to pBR322 DNA and BSA was investigated. We also studied the interaction of ethyl gallate to CT-DNA by wave scan and FTIR analysis. The amount of ethyl gallate present in the A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract was calculated using HPLC and represented in gram equivalence of ethyl gallate. The acute toxicity profile of ethyl gallate in the A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract was analyzed in albino Wistar rats. Measurement of liver and kidney function markers, total proteins and glucose were determined in the serum. Statistical analysis was done using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) tool version 16.0. Results Ethyl gallate was found to be effective at 100 μg/mL concentration by inhibiting the free radical mediated damage to BSA and pBR322 DNA. We also found that the interaction of ethyl gallate and A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract to CT-DNA occurs through intercalation. One gram of A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract was found to be equivalent to 20 mg of ethyl gallate through HPLC analysis. Based on the acute toxicity results, A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract and ethyl gallate as well was found to be non-toxic and safe. Conclusions Results revealed no mortality or abnormal biochemical changes in vivo and the protective effect

  4. Experimental study of the autoignition of C{sub 8}H{sub 16}O{sub 2} ethyl and methyl esters in a motored engine

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yu.; Boehman, Andre L.

    2010-03-15

    Autoignition of two biodiesel surrogates, methyl heptanoate and ethyl hexanoate, was studied in a motored CFR engine at an equivalence ratio of 0.25 and an intake temperature of 155 C. The engine compression ratio was gradually increased from the lowest point (4.43) to the point where significant high temperature heat release (HTHR) occurred. Within the test range of this work, both of the two esters exhibited evident cool flame behavior. At the same compression ratio, methyl heptanoate was observed to have both an earlier onset and a higher magnitude of low temperature heat release (LTHR) than ethyl hexanoate, indicating that methyl heptanoate is more reactive in the low temperature region than ethyl hexanoate. GC-MS analyses of the reaction intermediates from the oxidation of the two esters showed that the alkyl chain of fatty acid esters experiences the typical paraffin-like low temperature oxidation sequence. Based on the observations from GC-MS analyses, major low temperature oxidation pathways of ethyl hexanoate are proposed in this work. Also, it is observed that the abstraction of H-atoms on the {alpha}-carbon of the ester carbonyl group plays an important role in the oxidation of fatty acid esters. In addition, the identification of hexanoic acid among the reaction intermediates from low temperature oxidation of ethyl hexanaoate together with the observation of more fuel carbon being converted to C{sub 2}H{sub 4} during ethyl hexanoate oxidation than during methyl heptanoate oxidation provide evidence for the existence of the six-centered unimolecular elimination reaction during low temperature oxidation of ethyl esters. (author)

  5. Ethyl Lithiodiazoacetate: Extremely Unstable Intermediate Handled Efficiently in Flow.

    PubMed

    Müller, Simon T R; Hokamp, Tobias; Ehrmann, Svenja; Hellier, Paul; Wirth, Thomas

    2016-08-16

    Ethyl diazoacetate (EDA) is one of the most prominent diazo reagents. It is frequently used in metal-carbene-type reactions. However, EDA can also be used as a nucleophile under base catalysis. Whilst the addition of EDA to aldehydes can be performed using organic bases, the addition of EDA to other carbonyl electrophiles requires the use of organometallics such as lithium diisopropylamide (LDA). The generated ethyl lithiodiazoacetate is highly reactive and decomposes rapidly, even at low temperatures. Herein, we report a continuous flow protocol that overcomes the problems associated with the instantaneous decomposition of ethyl lithiodiazoacetate. The addition of ethyl lithiodiazoacetate to ketones provides direct access to tertiary diazoalcohols in good yields. PMID:27339757

  6. [Reaction of 1,8-naphthyridine azides with ethyl acrylate].

    PubMed

    Livi, O; Ferrarini, P L; Bertini, D; Tonetti, I

    1975-12-01

    The reaction of 1,8-naphthyridine azides with ethyl acrylate leads to the formation of 2-pyrazolines instead of 1,2,3-triazolines. Some of the compounds obtained have undergone pharmacological and microbiological (antibacterial) testing. PMID:1204828

  7. N-Acetyl-5-chloro-3-nitro-l-tyrosine ethyl ester

    PubMed Central

    Mutahi, Teresa T.; Edagwa, Benson J.; Fronczek, Frank R.; Uppu, Rao M.

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, C13H15ClN2O6, was synthesized by hypochlorous acid-mediated chlorination of N-acetyl-3-nitro-l-tyrosine ethyl ester. The OH group forms an intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond to the nitro group and the N—H group forms an inter­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to an amide O atom, linking the mol­ecules into chains along [100]. The crystal studied was a non-merohedral twin, with a 0.907 (4):0.093 (4) domain ratio. PMID:22969682

  8. A Facile Method of Preparing Transparent Superhydrophobic Film Based on Ethyl alpha-Cyanoacrylate and Polydimethylsiloxane.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Aoyun; Yang, Lijun; Liao, Ruijin; Guo, Chao; Zuo, Zhiping; Yuan, Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Fabrication of robust and transparent superhydrophobic thin film with high transmittance in the visible light region by coating mixing solution included by ethyl alpha-cyanoacrylate and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) on the acid-etched Al foil has been developed. The micro/nano-structured protrusions of the film surface were composed mainly of ethyl alpha-cyanoacrylate which was more likely to flow into the pits on acid-etched Al foil compared to polydimethylsiloxane while the main body of the film was constituted by the PDMS since its excellent transparency and mechanical flexibility. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), X-ray Photo- electron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Drop Meter were utilized to evaluate its morphology, accurate topography and quantitative roughness, element types and levels, crystallinity and wettability respectively. Optical properties of the as-prepared films were analyzed by UV-VIS scanning spectrophotometer. The result showed that the contact angle of the film was greater than 155 degrees and the transmittance of the film was greater than 90% simultaneously. In addition, the film showed good surface mechanical stability and acid-alkali resistance which has great potential in durable application of various fields. PMID:27433615

  9. A jet-stirred reactor and kinetic modeling study of ethyl propanoate oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, W.K.; Curran, H.J.; Simmie, J.M.; Togb e, C.; Dagaut, P.

    2009-01-15

    A jet-stirred reactor study of ethyl propanoate, a model biodiesel molecule, has been carried out at 10 atm pressure, using 0.1% fuel at equivalence ratios of 0.3, 0.6, 1.0 and 2.0 and at temperatures in the range 750-1100 K with a constant residence time of 0.7 seconds. Concentration profiles of ethyl propanoate were measured together with those of major intermediates, ethylene, propanoic acid, methane and formaldehyde, and major products, water, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. This data was used to further validate a previously published detailed chemical kinetic mechanism, containing 139 species and 790 reversible reactions. It was found that this mechanism required a significant increase in the rate constant of the six-centered unimolecular elimination reaction which produces ethylene and propanoic acid in order to correctly reproduce the measured concentrations of propanoic acid. The revised mechanism was then used to re-simulate shock tube ignition delay data with good agreement observed. Rate of production and sensitivity analyses were carried out under the experimental conditions, highlighting the importance that ethylene chemistry has on the overall reactivity of the system. (author)

  10. Synthesis of New Functionalized Indoles Based on Ethyl Indol-2-carboxylate.

    PubMed

    Boraei, Ahmed T A; El Ashry, El Sayed H; Barakat, Assem; Ghabbour, Hazem A

    2016-01-01

    Successful alkylations of the nitrogen of ethyl indol-2-carboxylate were carried out using aq. KOH in acetone. The respective N-alkylated acids could be obtained without separating the N-alkylated esters by increasing the amount of KOH and water. The use of NaOMe in methanol led to transesterification instead of the alkylation, while the use of NaOEt led to low yields of the N-alkylated acids. Hydrazinolysis of the ester gave indol-2-carbohydrazide which then was allowed to react with different aromatic aldehydes and ketones in ethanol catalyzed by acetic acid. Indol-2-thiosemicarbazide was used in a heterocyclization reaction to form thiazoles. The new structures were confirmed using NMR, mass spectrometry and X-ray single crystal analysis. PMID:26978331

  11. [Chemical constituents from ethyl acetate extract of flower of Albizia julibrissin].

    PubMed

    Rong, Guang-Qing; Geng, Chang-An; Ma, Yun-Bao; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Hong-Ling; Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Chen, Ji-Jun

    2014-05-01

    The ethyl acetate extract of the flower of Albizia julibrissin was isolated and purified by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and MCI GEL CHP-20P column chromatography to yield 29 compounds. Their structures were elucidated as 8-hydroxy-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6Z-octadienoic acid (1), 8-O-formyl-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6Z-octadienoic acid (la), 8-hydroxy-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6E-octadienoic acid (2), 8-O-formyl-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6E-octadienoic acid (2a), (2E, 6S)-2, 6-dimethyl-6-O-beta-D-xylpyranosyloxy-2, 7-menthia-folic acid (3), clovan-2beta, 9alpha-diol (4), 2beta-O-formyl-clovan-9alpha-ol (4a), 2beta, 9alpha-O-diformyl-clovan (4b), vomifoliol (5), (6S, 9R)-roseoside (6), vanillin (7), 4-O-ethylgallic acid (8), 3-ethoxy4-hydroxy-benzoic acid (9), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (10), gallic acid (11), protocatechoic acid (12), stearic acid (13), palmitic acid (14), 2, 3-dihydroxypropyl hexadecanoate (15), linoleic acid (16), scopoletin (17), indole-3-carboxaldehyde (18), 2-furoic acid (19), 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (20), (22E, 24R)-5alpha, 8alpha-epidioxy-ergosta-6, 22-dien-3beta-ol (21), (22E, 24R)-5alpha, 8alpha-epidioxy-ergosta-6, 9, 22-trien-3beta-ol (22), (+)-lariciresinol 9'-stearate (23), formononetin (24) and uridine (25). Compounds 1a, 2a, 4a and 4b were new artifacts from the separation process, and others were obtained from A. julibrissin for the first time. PMID:25282893

  12. Ethyl pyruvate protects against sepsis by regulating energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hongjun; Mao, Zhi; Zhao, Yan; Yin, Ting; Song, Qing; Pan, Liang; Hu, Xin; Hu, Jie; Zhou, Feihu

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethyl pyruvate (EP) is a derivative of pyruvic acid that has been demonstrated to be a potential scavenger of reactive oxygen species as well as an anti-inflammatory agent. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of EP and its role in regulating the energy metabolism in the livers of cecal-ligation-and-puncture-induced septic mice. Methods The animals were treated intraperitoneally with 0.2 mL of Ringer’s lactate solution or an equivalent volume of Ringer’s lactate solution containing EP immediately after cecal ligation and puncture. Each mouse in the Sham group was only subjected to a laparotomy. At 30-, 60-, 180-, and 360-minute time points, we measured the histopathological alterations of the intestines, and the plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and the total antioxidative capacity, malondialdehyde content, and lactate and lactate/pyruvate levels in livers. Furthermore, we detected the levels of adenosine triphosphate, total adenylate, and energy charge in the livers. Results Our results demonstrated that the administration of EP significantly improved the survival rate and reduced intestinal histological alterations. EP inhibited the plasma levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α and increased the IL-10 level. EP significantly inhibited the elevation of the malondialdehyde, lactate, and lactate/pyruvate levels and enhanced the total antioxidative capacity levels in the liver tissues. The downregulation of the adenosine triphosphate, total adenylate, and energy charge levels in the liver tissues was reversed in the septic mice treated with EP. Conclusion The results suggest that EP administration effectively modulates the energy metabolism, which may be an important component in treatment of sepsis. PMID:26966369

  13. Synthesis of novel ethyl 1-ethyl-6-fluoro-7-(fatty amido)-1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylate derivatives and their biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Venepally, Vijayendar; Prasad, R B N; Poornachandra, Y; Kumar, C Ganesh; Jala, Ram Chandra Reddy

    2016-01-15

    A series of novel ethyl 1-ethyl-6-fluoro-7-(fatty amido)-1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylate derivatives were prepared through multistep synthesis. The key step in the synthesis was to obtain the C-7 fatty amide derivative. The azide was selectively formed at C-7 position using sodium azide at 60°C. Subsequently, the azide was reduced under mild conditions using zinc and ammonium chloride to form the corresponding amine. The synthesized derivatives were further subjected to biological evaluation studies like cytotoxicity against a panel of cancer cell lines such as DU145, A549, SKOV3, MCF7 and normal lung cells, IMR-90 as well as with antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. It was observed that the carboxylated quinolone derivatives with hexanoic (8a), octanoic (8b), lauric (8d) and myristic (8e) moieties exhibited promising cytotoxicity against all the tested cancer cell lines. The results also suggested that hexanoic acid-based fatty amide carboxylated quinolone derivative (8a) exhibited promising activity against both bacterial and fungal strains and significant antibacterial activity was observed against Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96 (MIC value of 3.9μg/mL). The compound 8a also showed excellent anti-biofilm activity against Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96 and Bacillus subtilis MTCC 121 with MIC values of 2.1 and 4.6μg/mL, respectively. PMID:26646219

  14. Fatty acid esters produced by Lasiodiplodia theobromae function as growth regulators in tobacco seedlings.

    PubMed

    Uranga, Carla C; Beld, Joris; Mrse, Anthony; Córdova-Guerrero, Iván; Burkart, Michael D; Hernández-Martínez, Rufina

    2016-04-01

    The Botryosphaeriaceae are a family of trunk disease fungi that cause dieback and death of various plant hosts. This work sought to characterize fatty acid derivatives in a highly virulent member of this family, Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of an isolated compound revealed (Z, Z)-9,12-ethyl octadecadienoate, (trivial name ethyl linoleate), as one of the most abundant fatty acid esters produced by L. theobromae. A variety of naturally produced esters of fatty acids were identified in Botryosphaeriaceae. In comparison, the production of fatty acid esters in the soil-borne tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, and the non-phytopathogenic fungus Trichoderma asperellum was found to be limited. Ethyl linoleate, ethyl hexadecanoate (trivial name ethyl palmitate), and ethyl octadecanoate, (trivial name ethyl stearate), significantly inhibited tobacco seed germination and altered seedling leaf growth patterns and morphology at the highest concentration (0.2 mg/mL) tested, while ethyl linoleate and ethyl stearate significantly enhanced growth at low concentrations, with both still inducing growth at 98 ng/mL. This work provides new insights into the role of naturally esterified fatty acids from L. theobromae as plant growth regulators with similar activity to the well-known plant growth regulator gibberellic acid. PMID:26926564

  15. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethyl acetate extract, fractions and compounds from stem bark of Albizia adianthifolia (Mimosoideae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Albizia adianthifolia is used traditionally in Cameroon to treat several ailments, including infectious and associated diseases. This work was therefore designed to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethyl acetate extract, fractions and compounds isolated from the stem bark of this plant. Methods The plant extract was prepared by maceration in ethyl acetate. Its fractionation was done by column chromatography and the structures of isolated compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic data in conjunction with literature data. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays were used to detect the antioxidant activity. Broth micro-dilution method was used for antimicrobial test. Total phenol content was determined spectrophotometrically in the extracts by using Folin–Ciocalteu method. Results The fractionation of the extract afforded two known compounds: lupeol (1) and aurantiamide acetate (2) together with two mixtures of fatty acids: oleic acid and n-hexadecanoic acid (B1); n-hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid and docosanoic acid (B2). Aurantiamide acetate was the most active compound. The total phenol concentration expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) was found to vary from 1.50 to 13.49 μg/ml in the extracts. The antioxidant activities were well correlated with the total phenol content (R2 = 0.946 for the TEAC method and R2 = 0.980 for the DPPH free-radical scavenging assay). Conclusions Our results clearly reveal that the ethyl acetate extract from the stem bark of A. adianthifolia possesses antioxidant and antimicrobial principles. The antioxidant activity of this extract as well as that of compound 2 are being reported herein for the first time. These results provide promising baseline information for the potential use of this plant as well as compound 2 in the treatment of oxidative damage and infections associated with the studied microorganisms. PMID

  16. Production of ethyl alcohol from tubers

    SciTech Connect

    Sreekantiah, K.R.; Rao, B.A.S.

    1980-01-01

    Ethanol was produced from starchy tubers by gelatinization in a boiling acidic solution, saccharification with Rhizopus niveus, and fermentation with Saccharomyces ellipsoideus in the presence of the saccharifying fungus. The efficiency of ethanol production from potato, tapioca, and sweet potato starch was 68, 81, and 75% respectively.

  17. [Formation of ethyl carbamate in umeshu (plum liqueur)].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K; Kamimura, H; Ibe, A; Tabata, S; Yasuda, K; Nishijima, M

    2001-12-01

    Samples of umeshu, a Japanese plum liqueur made from unripe plums, shochu and crystal sugar, were stored under fluorescent light, in the dark and in the refrigerator. The amount of ethyl carbamate formed in umeshu exposed to light or room temperature was larger than that in the dark or at low temperature. The amount of ethyl carbamate formed in umeshu to which cyanide had been added was larger than that in the absence of added cyanide. Thus, the amount of ethyl carbamate formed in the umeshu was increased by not only light and higher temperature, but also cyanide. Samples of model alcoholic beverages were stored under various conditions using red, yellow and blue cellophanes. The amount of ethyl carbamate formed in the model alcoholic beverage with blue cellophane was larger than in the cases of red and yellow cellophanes. It was found that the amount of ethyl carbamate formed in the model alcoholic beverage was increased by light in the wavelength range of 375-475 nm. PMID:11875819

  18. NEW GROUND-STATE MEASUREMENTS OF ETHYL CYANIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Brauer, Carolyn S.; Pearson, John C.; Drouin, Brian J.; Yu, Shanshan

    2009-09-01

    The spectrum of ethyl cyanide, or propionitrile (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CN), has been repeatedly observed in the interstellar medium with large column densities and surprisingly high temperatures in hot core sources. The construction of new, more sensitive, observatories accessing higher frequencies such as Herschel, ALMA, and SOFIA have made it important to extend the laboratory data for ethyl cyanide to coincide with the capabilities of the new instruments. We report extensions of the laboratory measurements of the rotational spectrum of ethyl cyanide in its ground vibrational state to 1.6 THz. A global analysis of the ground state, which includes all of the previous data and 3356 newly assigned transitions, has been fitted to within experimental error to J = 132, K = 36, using both Watson A-reduced and Watson S-reduced Hamiltonians.

  19. Assistance of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in the interpretation of postmortem ethanol findings.

    PubMed

    Krabseth, Hege; Mørland, Jørg; Høiseth, Gudrun

    2014-09-01

    Postmortem ethanol formation is a well-known problem in forensic toxicology. The aim of this study was to interpret findings of ethanol in blood, in a large collection of forensic autopsy cases, by use of the nonoxidative ethanol metabolites, ethyl glucuronide (EtG), and ethyl sulfate (EtS). In this study, according to previously published literature, antemortem ethanol ingestion was excluded in EtS-negative cases. Among 493 ethanol-positive forensic autopsy cases, collected during the study period, EtS was not detected in 60 (12 %) of the cases. Among cases with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of ≤ 0.54 g/kg, antemortem ethanol ingestion was excluded in 38 % of the cases, while among cases with a BAC of ≥ 0.55 g/kg, antemortem ethanol ingestion was excluded in 2.2 % of the cases. For all cases where ethanol was measured at a concentration >1.0 g/kg, EtS was detected. The highest blood ethanol concentration in which EtS was not detected was 1.0 g/kg. The median concentrations of EtG and EtS in blood were 9.5 μmol/L (range: not detected (n.d.) 618.1) and 9.2 μmol/L (range: n.d. 182.5), respectively. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between concentration levels of ethanol and of EtG (Spearman's rho=0.671, p<0.001) and EtS (Spearman's rho=0.670, p<0.001), respectively. In conclusion, this study showed that in a large number of ethanol-positive forensic autopsy cases, ethanol was not ingested before the time of death, particularly among cases where ethanol was present in lower blood concentrations. Routine measurement of EtG and EtS should therefore be recommended, especially in cases with BAC below 1 g/kg. PMID:24935750

  20. Blood kinetics of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulphate in heavy drinkers during alcohol detoxification.

    PubMed

    Høiseth, Gudrun; Morini, Luca; Polettini, Aldo; Christophersen, Asbjørg; Mørland, Jørg

    2009-07-01

    Studies of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) blood kinetics have so far been performed on healthy volunteers with ingestion of low to moderate doses of ethanol. These data are not necessarily transferable to heavy drinkers where the consumed doses of ethanol are much higher. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of EtG and ethyl sulphate (EtS) in blood in heavy drinkers after termination of alcohol ingestion. Sixteen patients from an alcohol withdrawal clinic were included directly after admission. Time of end of drinking, estimated daily intake of ethanol (EDI) and medical history were recorded. Three to five blood samples over 20-43 h were collected from each patient subsequent to admission. The median EDI was 172 g (range 60-564). The first sample was collected median 2.5 h after end of drinking (range 0.5-23.5). Two patients had levels of EtG and EtS below LOQ in all samples, the first collected 19.25 and 23.5 h after cessation of drinking, respectively. Of the remaining 14 patients, one subject, suffering from both renal and hepatic disease, showed concentrations of EtG and EtS substantially higher than the rest of the material. This patient's initial value of EtG was 17.9 mg/L and of EtS 5.9 mg/L, with terminal elimination half lives of 11.9 h for EtG and 12.5 h for EtS. Among the remaining 13 patients, the initial median values were 0.7 g/L (range 0-3.7) for ethanol, 1.7 mg/L (range 0.1-5.9) for EtG and 0.9 mg/L (range 0.1-1.9) for EtS. Elimination occurred with a median half-life of 3.3 h for EtG (range 2.6-4.3) and 3.6 h for EtS (range 2.7-5.4). In conclusion, elimination of EtG in heavy drinkers did not significantly differ from healthy volunteers, and EtS appeared to have similar elimination rate. In the present work, there was one exception to this, and we propose that this could be explained by the patient's renal disease, which would delay excretion of these conjugated metabolites. PMID:19395207

  1. Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

  2. An XAFS Study of Tantalum Chloride in the Ionic Liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl Imidazolium Chloride/ aluminum Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Tantalum chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ionic liquids (ILs). Anhydrous Ta2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic solution than in the acidic solution and the X-ray absorption data shows that the coordination shell of chlorides around the tantalum is larger in the basic solution. In the acidic solution, tantalum has five chlorides in its coordination shell while in the basic solution; the tantalum is coordinated by seven chlorides. This indicates that the Lewis acidity of the tantalum chloride causes the Ta to coordinate differently in the acidic and the basic solutions.

  3. Dissociation of the Ethyl Radical: An Exercise in Computational Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassabeh, Nahal; Tran, Mark; Fleming, Patrick E.

    2014-01-01

    A set of exercises for use in a typical physical chemistry laboratory course are described, modeling the unimolecular dissociation of the ethyl radical to form ethylene and atomic hydrogen. Students analyze the computational results both qualitatively and quantitatively. Qualitative structural changes are compared to approximate predicted values…

  4. Reactivity of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Iniesta García, María Paz; Moreno Sanroma, Alberto; Martín Porrero, María Pilar; Tapia Valle, Araceli; Cabañas Galán, Beatriz; Salgado Muñoz, María Sagrario

    2010-04-01

    Rate coefficients at room temperature for the reaction of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol with OH and NO(3) radicals and with Cl atoms have been determined in a 150 L PTFE chamber using GC-FID/SPME and FTIR as detection systems. The rate coefficients k (in units of cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) obtained were: (1.13 +/- 0.31) 10(-11) for the OH reaction, (2.93 +/- 0.92) 10(-15) for the NO(3) reaction and (1.88 +/- 0.25) 10(-10) for the Cl reaction. Despite the high concentrations of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, especially in indoor air, this is the first kinetic study carried out to date for these reactions. The results are consistent with the expected reactivity given the chemical structure of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. Calculated atmospheric lifetimes reveal that the dominant loss process for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is clearly the daytime reaction with the hydroxyl radical. PMID:20237722

  5. 40 CFR 799.2700 - Methyl ethyl ketoxime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Specific Chemical Test Rules § 799.2700 Methyl ethyl ketoxime. (a) Identification of test substance. (1... signs of cytotoxicity (e.g., a change in the ratio of polychromatic to normochromatic erythrocytes)...

  6. 40 CFR 799.2700 - Methyl ethyl ketoxime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Specific Chemical Test Rules § 799.2700 Methyl ethyl ketoxime. (a) Identification of test substance. (1... signs of cytotoxicity (e.g., a change in the ratio of polychromatic to normochromatic erythrocytes)...

  7. 40 CFR 799.2700 - Methyl ethyl ketoxime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methyl ethyl ketoxime. 799.2700 Section 799.2700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Specific Chemical Test Rules § 799.2700...

  8. 76 FR 31479 - Pyraflufen-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Federal Register of June 23, 2010 (75 FR 35801) (FRL-8831- 3), EPA issued a notice pursuant to section 408...- ethyl. C. Revisions to Petitioned-for Tolerances In the Federal Register of December 8, 2010 (75 FR..., entitled Regulatory Planning and Review (58 FR 51735, ] October 4, 1993). Because this final rule has...

  9. 77 FR 41346 - Trinexapac-ethyl; Proposed Pesticide Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... tolerance table for trinexapac-ethyl that was published in the Federal Register on March 2, 2012 (77 FR... Planning and Review'' (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993). Because this proposed rule has been exempted from..., Distribution, or Use'' (66 FR 28355, May 22, 2001). This proposed rule does not contain any...

  10. Synthesis of Ethyl Nalidixate: A Medicinal Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Ray; Leeb, Elaine; Smith, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments that complement a medicinal chemistry lecture course in drug design and development have been developed. The synthesis of ethyl nalidixate covers three separate experimental procedures, all of which can be completed in three, standard three-hour lab classes and incorporate aspects of green chemistry such as…

  11. Synthesis and degradation behavior of poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) was synthesized using N, N'-dimethyl-p-toulidine (DMPT) as an initiator through anionic/zwitterionic pathway. The degradability and the degradation mechanism of the prepared polymers were carefully examined from various points of views. It was found that the polymers were...

  12. 40 CFR 180.430 - Fenoxaprop-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on the...-limited tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including...

  13. 40 CFR 180.430 - Fenoxaprop-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on the...-limited tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including...

  14. 40 CFR 180.430 - Fenoxaprop-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on the...-limited tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including...

  15. 40 CFR 180.430 - Fenoxaprop-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... combined residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl phenoxy]propanoate] and its metabolites (6-chloro-2... tolerances are established for combined residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, phenoxy]propanoic...

  16. A novel aminoalcohol modifier for the enantioselective hydrogenation of ethyl pyruvate on Pt/alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Minder, B.; Mallat, T.; Baiker, A.

    1995-07-01

    A novel chiral modifier, (R)-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-(1-naphthyl) ethanol (PNE), has been synthesised and tested in the enantioselective hydrogenation of ethyl pyruvate over Pt/alumina. An enantiomeric excess in (R)-ethyl lactate of up to 75% was achieved. The influence of solvent, pressure, temperature, and concentrations of the components (reactant, modifier, catalyst) on the reaction rate and enantiodifferentiation was investigated. Among various polar and nonpolar solvents, acetic acid was found to be most suitable for reaching good enantioselectivity. Favorable reaction conditions are 1-10 bar hydrogen pressure, 0-25{degrees}C, and a catalyst loading {ge}15 g liter{sup -1}. The efficiency of PNE is demonstrated by the very low modifier:reactant molar ratio (1:30,000) which is required to obtain maximum enantioselectivity. The performance and stability of the aminoalcohol-type modifer are compared to those of cinchona alkaloids. At low hydrogen pressure, the enantiodifferentiation of PNE is comparable to that of 10,11-dihydrocinchonidine. 39 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Orally administered DTPA penta-ethyl ester for the decorporation of inhaled 241Am

    PubMed Central

    Sueda, Katsuhiko; Sadgrove, Matthew P.; Huckle, James E.; Leed, Marina G. D.; Weber, Waylon M.; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Jay, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is an effective decorporation agent to facilitate the elimination of radionuclides from the body, but its permeability-limited oral bioavailability limits its utility in mass-casualty emergencies. To overcome this limitation, a prodrug strategy using the penta-ethyl ester form of DTPA is under investigation. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies were conducted in rats by orally administering [14C]DTPA penta-ethyl ester, and this prodrug and its hydrolysis products were analyzed as a single entity. Compared to a previous reporting of intravenously administered DTPA, the oral administration of this prodrug resulted in a sustained plasma concentration profile with higher plasma exposure and lower clearance. An assessment of the urine composition revealed that the bioactivation was extensive but incomplete, with no detectable levels of the penta- or tetra-ester forms. Tissue distribution at 12 h was limited, with approximately 73% of the administered dose being associated with the gastrointestinal tract. In the efficacy study, rats were exposed to aerosols of 241Am nitrate before receiving a single oral treatment of the prodrug. The urinary excretion of 241Am was found to be 19% higher than with the control. Consistent with prior reports of DTPA, the prodrug was most effective when the treatment delays were minimized. PMID:24619514

  18. Effects of the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Alchornea triplinervia on Healing Gastric Ulcer in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Zeila P.; Bonamin, Flavia; Calvo, Tamara R.; Vilegas, Wagner; Santos, Lourdes C.; Rozza, Ariane L.; Pellizzon, Claudia H.; Rocha, Lucia R. M.; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia A.

    2011-01-01

    Alchornea triplinervia (Spreng.) Muell. Arg (Euphorbiaceae) is a medicinal plant commonly used by people living in the Cerrado region of Brazil to treat gastrointestinal ulcers. We previously described the gastroprotective action of methanolic extract (ME) of Alchornea triplinervia and the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) in increasing of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) gastric levels in the mucosa. In this work we evaluated the effect of EAF in promoting the healing process in rats with acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers. In addition, toxicity was investigated during treatment with EAF. After 14 days of treatment with EAF, the potent stimulator of gastric cell proliferation contributed to the acceleration of gastric ulcer healing. Upon immunohistochemical analysis, we observed a pronounced expression of COX-2, mainly in the submucosal layer. The 14-day EAF treatment also significantly increased the number of neutrophils in the gastric mucosa regeneration area. The EAF induced angiogenesis on gastric mucosa, observed as an increase of the number of blood vessels supplying the stomach in rats treated with EAF. Oral administration for 14 days of the ethyl acetate fraction from Alchornea triplinervia accelerated the healing of gastric ulcers in rats by promoting epithelial cell proliferation, increasing the number of neutrophils and stimulation of mucus production. This fraction, which contained mainly phenolic compounds, contributed to gastric mucosa healing. PMID:26791640

  19. Influence of the brewing process on furfuryl ethyl ether formation during beer aging.

    PubMed

    Vanderhaegen, Bart; Neven, Hedwig; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Delvaux, Freddy R; Verachtert, Hubert; Derdelinckx, Guy

    2004-11-01

    In beer, the development of a solvent-like stale flavor is associated with the formation of furfuryl ethyl ether. The synthesis rate of this important flavor compound is proportional to the concentration of furfuryl alcohol in beer. This study shows that furfuryl alcohol in beer is mainly formed by Maillard reactions initiated during wort boiling and malt production. A mechanism for its formation from alpha-(1,4)-oligoglucans and amino acids in wort and beer is proposed. During wort boiling, a quadratic relationship was found between the wort extract concentration, on the one hand, and the increase of furfuryl alcohol and furfural, on the other. The reduction of furfural by yeast during fermentation further increases the furfuryl alcohol content. In pale beers, the furfuryl alcohol concentration is essentially determined by the thermal load on wort during brewing operations. In dark beers, a considerable fraction of furfuryl alcohol may, however, come from the dark malts used. These results lead to important practical conclusions concerning the control over furfuryl ethyl ether in beer. PMID:15506813

  20. Orally administered DTPA penta-ethyl ester for the decorporation of inhaled (241)Am.

    PubMed

    Sueda, Katsuhiko; Sadgrove, Matthew P; Huckle, James E; Leed, Marina G D; Weber, Waylon M; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Guilmette, Raymond A; Jay, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is an effective decorporation agent to facilitate the elimination of radionuclides from the body, but its permeability-limited oral bioavailability limits its utility in mass-casualty emergencies. To overcome this limitation, a prodrug strategy using the penta-ethyl ester form of DTPA is under investigation. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies were conducted in rats by orally administering [(14) C]DTPA penta-ethyl ester, and this prodrug and its hydrolysis products were analyzed as a single entity. Compared with a previous reporting of intravenously administered DTPA, the oral administration of this prodrug resulted in a sustained plasma concentration profile with higher plasma exposure and lower clearance. An assessment of the urine composition revealed that the bioactivation was extensive but incomplete, with no detectable levels of the penta- or tetra-ester forms. Tissue distribution at 12 h was limited, with approximately 73% of the administered dose being associated with the gastrointestinal tract. In the efficacy study, rats were exposed to aerosols of (241) Am nitrate before receiving a single oral treatment of the prodrug. The urinary excretion of (241) Am was found to be 19% higher than with the control. Consistent with prior reports of DTPA, the prodrug was most effective when the treatment delays were minimized. PMID:24619514

  1. Studies on the mechanism of synthesis of ethyl acetate in Kluyveromyces marxianus DSM 5422.

    PubMed

    Löser, Christian; Urit, Thanet; Keil, Peter; Bley, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Kluyveromyces marxianus converts whey-borne sugar into ethyl acetate, an environmentally friendly solvent with many applications. K. marxianus DSM 5422 presumably synthesizes ethyl acetate from acetyl-SCoA. Iron limitation as a trigger for this synthesis is explained by a diminished aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase activity (both enzymes depend on iron) causing diversion of acetyl-SCoA from the tricarboxic acid cycle to ester synthesis. Copper limitation as another trigger for ester synthesis in this yeast refers to involvement of the electron transport chain (all ETC complexes depend on iron and complex IV requires copper). This hypothesis was checked by using several ETC inhibitors. Malonate was ineffective but carboxin partially inhibited complex II and initiated ester synthesis. Antimycin A and cyanide as complexes III and IV inhibitors initiated ester synthesis only at moderate levels while higher concentrations disrupted all respiration and caused ethanol formation. A restricted supply of oxygen (the terminal electron acceptor) also initiated some ester synthesis but primarily forced ethanol production. A switch from aerobic to anaerobic conditions nearly stopped ester synthesis and induced ethanol formation. Iron-limited ester formation was compared with anaerobic ethanol production; the ester yield was lower than the ethanol yield but a higher market price, a reduced number of process stages, a faster process, and decreased expenses for product recovery by stripping favor biotechnological ester production. PMID:25487884

  2. Analgesic and antiinflammatory activities of the ethyl acetate fraction of Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Fotso, Aurélien Fotso; Longo, Frida; Djomeni, Paul Désiré Dzeufiet; Kouam, Siméon Fogue; Spiteller, Michael; Dongmo, Alain Bertrand; Savineau, J P

    2014-04-01

    Bidens pilosa is an Asteraceae widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments including pain and inflammation. The present work was undertaken to assess the analgesic and antiinflammatory properties of the ethyl acetate fraction of methylene chloride/methanol (1:1) extract of leaves of Bidens pilosa at the gradual doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg in mice and rats, respectively. The analgesic properties of Bidens pilosa were investigated using the acetic acid writhing, hot plate, capsaicin and formalin-induced pain models. This was followed by a study of the antiinflammatory properties using carrageenan, dextran, histamine and serotonin to induce acute inflammation in rat hind paw. The extract provided a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in pain induced by all four models of nociception. It also presented significant (p < 0.05) antiinflammatory activity in all four models of acute inflammation. These results show that the ethyl acetate fraction of methylene chloride/methanol (1:1) of Bidens pilosa has both analgesic and antiinflammatory properties. The qualitative analysis of the fraction by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint revealed the presence of two flavonoids, namely quercetin and iso-okanin, known to have antiinflammatory and antinociceptive properties, which could be responsible for the analgesic and antiinflammatory effects observed. PMID:24242914

  3. 40 CFR 721.4090 - Ethanaminium, N-[bis(diethylamino)-methylene]-N-ethyl-, bromide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide... Substances § 721.4090 Ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.4090 - Ethanaminium, N-[bis(diethylamino)-methylene]-N-ethyl-, bromide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide... Substances § 721.4090 Ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.4090 - Ethanaminium, N-[bis(diethylamino)-methylene]-N-ethyl-, bromide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide... Substances § 721.4090 Ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.4090 - Ethanaminium, N-[bis(diethylamino)-methylene]-N-ethyl-, bromide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide... Substances § 721.4090 Ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 180.430 - Fenoxaprop-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on the...-limited tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including its... established for residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in or...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products...

  13. 40 CFR 180.662 - Trinexapac-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trinexapac-ethyl; tolerances for... § 180.662 Trinexapac-ethyl; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the plant growth inhibitor, trinexapac-ethyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in...

  14. The combined use of ultrasound and molecular sieves improves the synthesis of ethyl butyrate catalyzed by immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase.

    PubMed

    Paludo, Natalia; Alves, Joana S; Altmann, Cintia; Ayub, Marco A Z; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto; Rodrigues, Rafael C

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the combined use of ultrasound energy and molecular sieves was investigated for the synthesis of ethyl butyrate, ester with mango and banana notes, catalyzed by the immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL-IM). Initially, the best concentrations of biocatalysts (35%) and butyric acid (0.7M) were tested using ultrasound as an alternative to mechanical agitation. The amount of acid in the reaction could be increased by 2-fold when compared to previous works where mechanical agitation was used. In the next step, substrate molar ratio and reaction temperature were optimized and the best conditions were at their lowest levels: 1:1 (acid:alcohol), and 30°C, reaching 61% of conversion in 6h. Molecular sieves (3Å) were added to optimized reaction medium in order to remove the formed water and improve the maximum yield. The reaction yield increased 1.5 times, reaching 90% of conversion in 6h, when 60mg of molecular sieves per mmol of butyric acid was used. Finally, the reuse of Lipozyme TL-IM for the ultrasound-assisted synthesis of ethyl butyrate was verified for 10 batches, without any appreciable loss of activity, whereas in systems using mechanical agitation, the biocatalyst was completely inactivated after 5 batches. These results suggest that the combined use of ultrasound and molecular sieves greatly improve esterification reactions by stabilizing the enzyme and increasing yields. PMID:24844439

  15. Ethyl m-digallate from red maple, Acer rubrum L., as the major resistance factor to forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria Hbn.

    PubMed

    Abou-Zaid, M M; Helson, B V; Nozzolillo, C; Arnason, J T

    2001-12-01

    An ethanolic extract of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) leaves (RME) applied to trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) leaves reduced feeding in choice test assays with forest tent caterpillar larvae (Malacosoma disstria Hbn.) (FTC), whereas a trembling aspen foliage extract, similarly applied, stimulated feeding. Compounds isolated from the RME were gallic acid, methyl gallate, ethyl gallate, m-digallate, ethyl m-digallate, 1-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose, 1-O-galloyl-alpha-L-rhamnose, kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-galactoside, kaempferol 3-O-beta-L-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoglucoside, quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-beta-L-rhamnoside and quercetin 3-O-rhamnoglucoside, (-)-epicatechin. (+)-catechin and ellagic acid. All of the gallates, (-)-epicatechin, and kaempferol 3-O-beta-L-rhamnoside deterred feeding on trembling aspen leaf disks when applied at 0.28 mg/cm2. The two digallates deterred feeding by 90% and were the most effective. HPLC analysis indicated that ethyl m-digallate is present in amounts 10-100 x higher in RME (approximately 2.5-250 mg/g) than any other compound. Thus, ethyl m-digallate appears to be the major compound protecting red maple from feeding by FTC, with a minor contribution from other gallates. PMID:11789956

  16. Improved Gas Chromatographic Determination of Guanidino Compounds Using Isovaleroylacetone and Ethyl Chloroformate as Derivatizing Reagents.

    PubMed

    Zounr, Rizwan Ali; Khuhawar, Mumammad Yar; Jahangir, Taj Muhammad; Alamgir, Malik

    2016-01-01

    An improved GC method in terms of sensitivity and decrease in the analysis time has been developed for the analysis of eight guanidino compounds: guanidine (G), methylguanidine (MG), creatinine (CTN), guanidinoacetic acid (GAA), guanidinobutyric acid (GBA), guanidinopropionic acid (GPA), argenine (Arg), and guanidinosuccinic acid (GSA), using isovaleroylacetone (IVA) and ethyl chloroformate (ECF) as derivatizing reagents. The separation was obtained from column HP-5 (30 m × 0.32 mm i.d.) with film thickness of 0.25 μm within 11 min. The linear calibrations were obtained with 0.5 to 50 μg/mL with coefficient of determination (R(2)) within 0.9969 - 0.9998. Limits of detections (LODs) were within 5 - 140 ng/mL. The derivatization, separation and determination was repeatable (n = 6) with relative standard deviation (RSD) within 1.2 - 3.1%. The guanidino compounds were determined in deproteinized serum of healthy volunteers and uremic patients within below LOD to 8.8 μg/mL and below LOD to 43.99 μg/mL with RSD within 1.4 - 3.6%. The recovery of guanidino compounds calculated by standard addition from serum was within 96.1 - 98.9%, with RSD 1.4 - 3.6%. PMID:26860556

  17. Autophagy Modulation by Lanthionine Ketimine Ethyl Ester Improves Long-Term Outcome after Central Fluid Percussion Injury in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Hensley, Kenneth; Poteshkina, Aleksandra; Johnson, Ming F; Eslami, Pirooz; Gabbita, S Prasad; Hristov, Alexandar M; Venkova-Hristova, Kalina M; Harris-White, Marni E

    2016-08-15

    Diffuse axonal injury is recognized as a progressive and long-term consequence of traumatic brain injury. Axonal injury can have sustained negative consequences on neuronal functions such as anterograde and retrograde transport and cellular processes such as autophagy that depend on cytoarchitecture and axon integrity. These changes can lead to somatic atrophy and an inability to repair and promote plasticity. Obstruction of the autophagic process has been noted after brain injury, and rapamycin, a drug used to stimulate autophagy, has demonstrated positive effects in brain injury models. The optimization of drugs to promote beneficial autophagy without negative side effects could be used to attenuate traumatic brain injury and promote improved outcome. Lanthionine ketimine ethyl ester, a bioavailable derivative of a natural sulfur amino acid metabolite, has demonstrated effects on autophagy both in vitro and in vivo. Thirty minutes after a moderate central fluid percussion injury and throughout the survival period, lanthionine ketimine ethyl ester was administered, and mice were subsequently evaluated for learning and memory impairments and biochemical and histological changes over a 5-week period. Lanthionine ketimine ethyl ester, which we have shown previously to modulate autophagy markers and alleviate pathology and slow cognitive decline in the 3 × TgAD mouse model, spared cognition and pathology after central fluid percussion injury through a mechanism involving autophagy modulation. PMID:26530250

  18. Removal of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium cations with bacterial biosorbents from aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Won, Sung Wook; Choi, Sun Beom; Mao, Juan; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

    2013-01-15

    This study aims to determine whether biosorption can be used for the removal of ionic liquids (ILs), especially their cationic parts, from aqueous media. As a model IL, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM]OAc) was used. Five types of bacterial biosorbents were prepared from fermentation wastes through chemical modification of the bacterial surface. Screening study was performed to compare the cationic [EMIM] biosorption capacity among the bacterial biosorbents, indicating that the succinated Escherichia coli biomass (SB-E) was the best biosorbent for removing [EMIM] cations. The [EMIM] biosorption performance of SB-E was evaluated in detail through various experiments. The optimal pH range for [EMIM] biosorption was from 7 to 10, and biosorption equilibrium was reached within 10 min. The maximum uptake of SB-E was also estimated to be 72.6 mg/g. Moreover, [EMIM] cations were easily desorbed from [EMIM]-sorbed SB-E by adding acetic acid. PMID:23246948

  19. Identification of a powerful aroma compound in munster and camembert cheeses: ethyl 3-mercaptopropionate.

    PubMed

    Sourabié, Alain M; Spinnler, Henry-Eric; Bonnarme, Pascal; Saint-Eve, Anne; Landaud, Sophie

    2008-06-25

    With the view to investigate the presence of thiols in cheese, the use of different methods of preparation and extraction with an organomercuric compound ( p-hydroxymercuribenzoate) enabled the isolation of a new compound. The analysis of cheese extracts by gas chromatography coupled with pulse flame photometry, mass spectrometry, and olfactometry detections led to the identification of ethyl 3-mercaptopropionate in Munster and Camembert cheeses. This compound, described at low concentrations as having pleasant, fruity, grapy, rhubarb, and empyreumatic characters, has previously been reported in wine and Concord grape but was never mentioned before in cheese. A possible route for the formation of this compound in relation with the catabolism of sulfur amino acids is proposed. PMID:18512934

  20. Optical on-line method of ethyl mercaptan detection in liquid phase in motor fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kireev, S. V.; Shnyrev, S. L.

    2015-11-01

    The letter reports on the experimental research of the absorption spectra of ethyl mercaptan in liquid phase in various motor fuels (petrol, kerosene, and diesel fuel). The values of ethyl mercaptan absorption sections were obtained in the above-mentioned fuels in the spectral range of 280-475 nm, and the dependences of ethyl mercaptan absorption coefficients on its part in the analyzed mixture with motor fuels were researched. On the basis of the obtained results we propose an optical on-line method of ethyl mercaptan detection in motor fuels. The optimal spectral ranges for the highest sensitivity of ethyl mercaptan detection in various motor fuels were determined.

  1. Reactions of methyl and ethyl radicals with uranium hexafluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, John L.; Laguna, Glenn

    1985-01-01

    We have measured the rates of reaction of both methyl and ethyl radicals with uranium hexafluoride (UF6) in the gas phase. The method we used was to photolyze samples of UF6 in the presence of either methane or ethane. The radicals produced by reaction of fluorine atoms with these species then react with either themselves or with UF6. We inferred the rate constants from ratios of the reaction products and the published rate constants for radical recombination. The diagnostic technique was gas chromatography. The resulting rate constants for reaction with UF6 were (1.6±0.8)×10-14 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 for methyl radicals and (4±2)×10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 for ethyl radicals.

  2. Highly efficient palladium-catalyzed hydrostannation of ethyl ethynyl ether

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Ian P.; Kwon, Ohyun

    2008-01-01

    The palladium-catalyzed hydrostannation of acetylenes is widely exploited in organic synthesis as a means of forming vinyl stannanes for use in palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. Application of this methodology to ethyl ethynyl ether results in an enol ether that is challenging to isolate from the crude reaction mixture because of incompatibility with typical silica gel chromatography. Reported here is a highly efficient procedure for the palladium-catalyzed hydrostannation of ethyl ethynyl ether using 0.1% palladium(0) catalyst and 1.0 equiv of tributyltin hydride. The product obtained is a mixture of regioisomers that can be carried forward with exclusive reaction of the β-isomer. This method is highly reproducible; relative to previously reported procedures, it is more economical and involves a more facile purification procedure. PMID:20011027

  3. Fragrance material review on 2-ethyl-1-hexanol.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2010-07-01

    A summary of the safety data available for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Ethyl-1-hexanol is a member of the fragrance structural group branched chain saturated alcohols in which the common characteristic structural element is one hydroxyl group per molecule, and a C(4) to C(12) carbon chain with one or several methyl side chains. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire branched chain saturated alcohol group will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2010) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances. PMID:20659633

  4. Fragrance material review on 2-ethyl-1-butanol.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2010-07-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-ethyl-1-butanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Ethyl-1-butanol is a member of the fragrance structural group branched chain saturated alcohols. The common characteristic structural elements of the alcohols with saturated branched chain are one hydroxyl group per molecule, and a C(4)-C(12) carbon chain with one or several methyl side chains. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire branched chain saturated alcohol group will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2010) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances. PMID:20659644

  5. Turbulent Motion in Ethyl Acetate-Water System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Jamil

    2000-09-01

    An overhead projector demonstration is described in which 4 mL of ethyl acetate is added to 10 mL of water contained in a 10-cm diameter Petri dish. Within a minute or so of the addition, image of a turbulent motion appears on the screen, at first at a few centers that eventually organize themselves in a line. The image of the line of turbulence is quite striking and resembles a moving front of dancing flames. The phenomenon arises because as ethyl acetate evaporates from the region where it has spread in the form of a monolayer, fresh material gets transferred to take its place. Because of the viscosity effects, this transfer of the surface film causes movement in the bulk of the material as well, making the process visible.

  6. Enantioselective hydrolysis of naproxen ethyl ester catalyzed by monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhen-Dan; Yang, Bing-Hui; Zhao, Jing-Jing; Wu, Yu-Lin; Ji, Yong-Yong; Yeh, Ming

    2002-07-01

    This report described that a hapten of racemic phosphonate 3 designed as the mimic of the transition state of hydrolysis of naproxen ethyl ester was successfully synthesized from easily available 2-acetyl-6-methoxy-naphthalene 5. Then BALB/C mice were immunized and one of the monoclonal catalytic antibodies, N116-27, which enantioselectively accelerated the hydrolysis of the R-(-)-naproxen ethyl ester was given. The Michaelis-Menton parameter for the catalyzed reaction was K(M)=6.67 mM and k(cat)/k(uncat)=5.8 x 10(4). This enantioselective result was explained by the fact that the R-isomer of rac-hapten was more immunogenic than the S-isomer. PMID:11983513

  7. SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION AND DETECTION OF ETHYL MERCAPTAN IN ORION

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesniková, L.; Alonso, J. L.; Daly, A. M.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Gordon, B. P.; Shipman, S. T. E-mail: jlalonso@qf.uva.es E-mail: terceromb@cab.inta-csic.es E-mail: brittany.gordon@ncf.edu

    2014-03-20

    New laboratory data of ethyl mercaptan, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}SH, in the millimeter- and submillimeter-wave domains (up to 880 GHz) provided very precise values of the spectroscopic constants that allowed the detection of gauche-CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}SH toward Orion KL. This identification is supported by 77 unblended or slightly blended lines plus no missing transitions in the range 80-280 GHz. A detection of methyl mercaptan, CH{sub 3}SH, in the spectral survey of Orion KL is reported as well. Our column density results indicate that methyl mercaptan is ≅ 5 times more abundant than ethyl mercaptan in the hot core of Orion KL.

  8. Decreasing the Level of Ethyl Acetate in Ethanolic Fermentation Broths of Escherichia coli KO11 by Expression of Pseudomonas putida estZ Esterase†

    PubMed Central

    Hasona, Adnan; York, S. W.; Yomano, L. P.; Ingram, L. O.; Shanmugam, K. T.

    2002-01-01

    During the fermentation of sugars to ethanol relatively high levels of an undesirable coproduct, ethyl acetate, are also produced. With ethanologenic Escherichia coli strain KO11 as the biocatalyst, the level of ethyl acetate in beer containing 4.8% ethanol was 192 mg liter−1. Although the E. coli genome encodes several proteins with esterase activity, neither wild-type strains nor KO11 contained significant ethyl acetate esterase activity. A simple method was developed to rapidly screen bacterial colonies for the presence of esterases which hydrolyze ethyl acetate based on pH change. This method allowed identification of Pseudomonas putida NRRL B-18435 as a source of this activity and the cloning of a new esterase gene, estZ. Recombinant EstZ esterase was purified to near homogeneity and characterized. It belongs to family IV of lipolytic enzymes and contains the conserved catalytic triad of serine, aspartic acid, and histidine. As expected, this serine esterase was inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and the histidine reagent diethylpyrocarbonate. The native and subunit molecular weights of the recombinant protein were 36,000, indicating that the enzyme exists as a monomer. By using α-naphthyl acetate as a model substrate, optimal activity was observed at pH 7.5 and 40°C. The Km and Vmax for α-naphthyl acetate were 18 μM and 48.1 μmol · min−1 · mg of protein−1, respectively. Among the aliphatic esters tested, the highest activity was obtained with propyl acetate (96 μmol · min−1 · mg of protein−1), followed by ethyl acetate (66 μmol · min−1 · mg of protein−1). Expression of estZ in E. coli KO11 reduced the concentration of ethyl acetate in fermentation broth (4.8% ethanol) to less than 20 mg liter−1. PMID:12039716

  9. Estimation of alcohol consumption during "Fallas" festivity in the wastewater of Valencia city (Spain) using ethyl sulfate as a biomarker.

    PubMed

    Andrés-Costa, María Jesús; Escrivá, Úrsula; Andreu, Vicente; Picó, Yolanda

    2016-01-15

    Alcohol consumption has been increasing in the last years and it has become a sociological problem due its derived health and safety problems. Ethyl sulfate is a secondary metabolite of the alcohol degradation that is excreted through the urine (0.010-0.016%) after alcohol ingestion and it is quite stable in water. In this study, a new methodology to determine ethyl sulfate by ion-pair liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. Different ion-pairs and additives were tested directly in the sample extracts or in the mobile phase. The best ion-pair was set up adding 0.5M of tributylamine and 0.1% of formic acid to the sample. The limit of quantification was 0.3 μg L(-1) and the intra-day and inter-day precision of the method were ≤ 2.8 and ≤ 3.0%, respectively. Good linearity (r(2)<0.999) and low matrix effect (<30% corrected by using internal isotopically labelled internal standard) were achieved. The sampling campaign was from 4th to 20th March of 2014 covering the festivity of Fallas (15th to 19th March). Ethyl sulfate was determined in all influents of the 3 wastewater treatment plants (Pinedo I, Pinedo II and Quart-Benàger) belonging to Valencia and surrounding area. Ethyl sulfate concentrations ranged from 1.46 to 19.85 μg L(-1) and alcohol consumption ranged from 1.07 to 56.11 mL day(-1) inhab(-1), being the highest value of alcohol consumption determined during Fallas. This study presents a reliable and alternative method to traditional ones to determine alcohol consumption by population that provides real-time information of alcohol consumption. PMID:26439652

  10. [Detection and application of ethyl glucuronide in forensic toxicology].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Zhuo, Xian-yi; Shen, Bao-hua

    2009-02-01

    Ethyl glucuronide is a specific metabolite of ethanol. There have been plenty of articles referring its pharmacokinetics, detection and application as a specific bio-marker of alcohol intake. This article reviews various analytical methods of EtG, relationship between EtG quantification and ethanol intake, and criteria for determining chronic alcohol abuse, and origin of ethanol found in the cadavers by EtG analysis. EtG has its potential application in forensic toxicology. PMID:19397218

  11. 21 CFR 172.872 - Methyl ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... a cellulose ether having the general formula [C6H(10 -x-y)O5(CH3)x(C2H5)y]n, where x is the number of methyl groups and y is the number of ethyl groups. The average value of x is 0.3 and the average... the dry sample. (2) The viscosity of an aqueous solution, 2.5 grams of the material in 100...

  12. 21 CFR 172.872 - Methyl ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a cellulose ether having the general formula [C6H(10 -x-y)O5(CH3)x(C2H5)y]n, where x is the number of methyl groups and y is the number of ethyl groups. The average value of x is 0.3 and the average... the dry sample. (2) The viscosity of an aqueous solution, 2.5 grams of the material in 100...

  13. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of ethyl acetate and ethanol in rodents and humans.

    PubMed

    Crowell, S R; Smith, J N; Creim, J A; Faber, W; Teeguarden, J G

    2015-10-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed and applied to a metabolic series approach for the ethyl series (i.e., ethyl acetate, ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetate). This approach bases toxicity information on dosimetry analyses for metabolically linked compounds using pharmacokinetic data for each compound and toxicity data for parent or individual compounds. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies of ethyl acetate and ethanol were conducted in rats following IV and inhalation exposure. Regardless of route, ethyl acetate was rapidly converted to ethanol. Blood concentrations of ethyl acetate and ethanol following both IV bolus and infusion suggested linear kinetics across blood concentrations from 0.1 to 10 mM ethyl acetate and 0.01-0.8 mM ethanol. Metabolic parameters were optimized and evaluated based on available pharmacokinetic data. The respiratory bioavailability of ethyl acetate and ethanol were estimated from closed chamber inhalation studies and measured ventilation rates. The resulting ethyl series model successfully reproduces blood ethyl acetate and ethanol kinetics following IV administration and inhalation exposure in rats, and blood ethanol kinetics following inhalation exposure to ethanol in humans. The extrapolated human model was used to derive human equivalent concentrations for the occupational setting of 257-2120 ppm ethyl acetate and 72-517 ppm ethyl acetate for continuous exposure, corresponding to rat LOAELs of 350 and 1500 ppm. PMID:26297692

  14. Sensory reception of the primer pheromone ethyl oleate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muenz, Thomas S.; Maisonnasse, Alban; Plettner, Erika; Le Conte, Yves; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2012-05-01

    Social work force distribution in honeybee colonies critically depends on subtle adjustments of an age-related polyethism. Pheromones play a crucial role in adjusting physiological and behavioral maturation of nurse bees to foragers. In addition to primer effects of brood pheromone and queen mandibular pheromone—both were shown to influence onset of foraging—direct worker-worker interactions influence adult behavioral maturation. These interactions were narrowed down to the primer pheromone ethyl oleate, which is present at high concentrations in foragers, almost absent in young bees and was shown to delay the onset of foraging. Based on chemical analyses, physiological recordings from the antenna (electroantennograms) and the antennal lobe (calcium imaging), and behavioral assays (associative conditioning of the proboscis extension response), we present evidence that ethyl oleate is most abundant on the cuticle, received by olfactory receptors on the antenna, processed in glomeruli of the antennal lobe, and learned in olfactory centers of the brain. The results are highly suggestive that the primer pheromone ethyl oleate is transmitted and perceived between individuals via olfaction at close range.

  15. Enrichment of amaranth oil with ethyl palmitate at the sn-2 position by chemical and enzymatic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Pina-Rodriguez, Ashanty M; Akoh, Casimir C

    2009-06-10

    Amaranth oil is rich in linoleic, oleic, and palmitic acids. Structured lipids (SLs) with specific functional and nutritional characteristics can be prepared through chemical or enzymatic interesterification. The aim of this study was to increase the palmitic acid content at the sn-2 position in amaranth oil triacylglycerols (TAG) for possible use in infant formula. Chemical and enzymatic interesterification techniques were assessed before selecting the latter for further optimization modeling. Enzymatic interesterification of ethyl palmitate and amaranth oil significantly increased the total content of palmitic acid, reduced linoleic acid content, and increased the amount of palmitic acid at the sn-2 position of the SL product. Even though amaranth oil content of palmitic acid (18.3%) was originally similar to that in breast milk (18.3-25.9%), the structural changes induced through enzymatic modification resulted in a SL closely resembling breast milk fat and hence its possible application as a fat substitute for infant nutrition. A second-order polynomial model was developed to predict the amount of total palmitic acid incorporated when reaction time and substrate level were manipulated, and to optimize the combination of parameters to achieve specific palmitic acid contents in amaranth oil. The resulting model is useful to develop an SL from amaranth oil enriched with palmitic acid specifically at the sn-2 position for possible application in infant formulas. PMID:19413361

  16. 40 CFR 180.483 - O-[2-(1,1-Dimethylethyl)-5-pyrimidinyl] O-ethyl-O-(1-methyl-ethyl) phosphorothioate; tolerances...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false O- O-ethyl-O-(1-methyl-ethyl) phosphorothioate; tolerances for residues. 180.483 Section 180.483 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.483...

  17. Design, synthesis, molecular docking studies and in vitro screening of ethyl 4-(3-benzoylthioureido) benzoates as urease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Aamer; Khan, Muhammad Siraj; Rafique, Hummera; Shahid, Mohammad; Iqbal, Jamshed

    2014-02-01

    Thioureas are exceptionally versatile building blocks towards the synthesis of wide variety of heterocyclic systems, which also possess extensive range of pharmacological activities. The substituted benzoic acids were converted into corresponding acid chlorides, these acid chlorides were then treated with potassium thiocyanate in acetone and then the reaction mixture was refluxed for 1-2h afford ethyl 4-(3-benzoylthioureido)benzoates thioureas in good yields. All the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their urease inhibitory activities and were found to be potent inhibitors of urease enzyme. Compounds 1f and 1g were identified as the most potent urease inhibitors (IC50 0.21 and 0.13 μM, respectively), and was 100-fold more potent than the standard inhibitors. Further molecular docking studies were carried out using the crystal structure of urease to find out the binding mode of the inhibitors with the enzyme. PMID:24269986

  18. H sub 3 PMo sub 12 O sub 40 -doped polyacetylene as a catalyst for ethyl alcohol conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Pozniczek, J.; Bielanski, A. ); Kulszewicz-Bajer, I.; Zagorska, M. ); Kruczala, K.; Dyrek, K. ); Pron, A. )

    1991-12-01

    A new and highly efficient catalyst was obtained by exploiting the unique ability of polyacetylene to incorporate heteropolyanions (HPA) of the Keggin type via oxidative doping. 12-Molybdophosphoric acid, 20.8 wt%, was introduced into the polymer. A uniform distribution of HPA over the cross section of the polymer film was found. However, the concentration of HPA seemed to be higher at the surface of the polymer fibers than in their bulk. The conversion of ethyl alcohol was used as a catalytic test reaction. The catalyst exhibited both acid-base activity (formation of ethylene and diethyl ether) as well as redox activity (formation of acetaldehyde). The acid-base activity was 10 times higher than that of unsupported H{sub 3}PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}, and the redox activity was about 40 times higher.

  19. 40 CFR 721.5260 - 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7-[[2-[(aminocarbonyl)amino]- 4-[[4-[[2-[2-(ethenylsulfonyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...- - 4- ethyl]amino]- 6-fluoro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]phenyl]azo], trisodium salt. 721.5260 Section 721...,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7- - 4- ethyl]amino]- 6-fluoro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]phenyl]azo... substance identified as 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7- -4-......

  20. 40 CFR 721.5260 - 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7-[[2-[(aminocarbonyl)amino]- 4-[[4-[[2-[2-(ethenylsulfonyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...- - 4- ethyl]amino]- 6-fluoro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]phenyl]azo], trisodium salt. 721.5260 Section 721...,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7- - 4- ethyl]amino]- 6-fluoro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]phenyl]azo... substance identified as 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7- -4-......

  1. Purification and properties of a carbonyl reductase involved in stereoselective reduction of ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate from Cylindrocarpon sclerotigenum IFO 31855.

    PubMed

    Saratani, Yuri; Uheda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Nishimura, Atsuo; Yoshizako, Fumiki

    2003-06-01

    A NADPH-dependent carbonyl reductase (CSCR1) was purified to homogeneity from Cylindrocarpon sclerotigenum IFO 31855. The enzyme catalyzed the stereoselective reduction of ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate to the corresponding (S)-alcohol with a >99% enantiomer excess. The relative molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be 68,000 by gel filtration chromatography and 24,800 on SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme had an extremely narrow substrate specificity and it highly reduced conjugated diketone, 2,3-butanedion, in addition to ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate. The enzyme activity was inhibited by HgCl(2) (100%), 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (56%), dicoumarol (42%), and CuSO(4) (46%). The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme (P-Q-G-I-P-T-A-S-R-L) showed no apparent similarity with those of other oxidoreductases. PMID:12843676

  2. Thermal Decomposition of Ethyl Formate behind the Reflected Shock Waves in the Temperature Range of 909-1258K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaganesh, M.; Sudhakar, G.; Rajakumar, B.

    Ethyl formate is the simplest model of ethyl esters which are considered as biodiesel. Systematic tests on properties and reactivity of biodiesel have been reported[1, 2]. Methyl and ethyl ester mix can offer improved physical properties. Generally, ethyl esters are slightly more reactive than the methyl esters[3]. Also ethyl formate is an interstellar molecule. It was first detected in interstellar space by Belloche et al.[4]. So studies of this molecule are required to understand the fuel properties and interstellar chemistry.

  3. Thermochemistry and dissociation dynamics of state-selected C/sub 4/H/sub 8/O/sub 2//sup +/ ions. 3. Ethyl acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser-Monteiro, L.; Fraser-Monteiro, M.L.; Butler, J.J.; Baer, T.

    1982-01-01

    The photoionization efficiency curves and appearance energies of C/sub 4/H/sub 8/O/sub 2//sup +/, C/sub 3/H/sub 5/O/sub 2//sup +/, C/sub 4/H/sub 6/O/sup +/, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/O/sub 2//sup +/, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/O/sup +/, C/sub 2/H/sub 3/O/sup +/, and C/sub 2/H/sub 5//sup +/ from ethyl acetate have been obtained. Structures and heats of formation of some of the ions are proposed. The ethyl acetate ion was found to be metastable in the vicinity of the first dissociation onset producing C/sub 4/H/sub 6/O/sup +/ (m/e 70) and H/sub 2/O. The decay rates as a function of parent ion internal energy were measured betwen 10.4 and 10.7 eV. The comparison of the observed rates with those calculated by use of the RRKM/QET statistical theory indicates that the the ethyl acetate ion isomerizes to a more stable ion prior to dissociation. The isomerized structure is neither that of dioxane nor butanoic acid, but may be the enol tautomer of ethyl acetate.

  4. Cloning, overexpression, and mutagenesis of the Sporobolomyces salmonicolor AKU4429 gene encoding a new aldehyde reductase, which catalyzes the stereoselective reduction of ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate to ethyl (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate

    SciTech Connect

    Kita, Keiko; Fukura, Takanobu; Nakase, Kohichi; Okamoto, Kenji; Yanase, Hideshi; Kataoka, Michihiko; Shimizu, Sakayu

    1999-12-01

    The authors cloned and sequenced the gene encoding and NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase (ARII) in Sporobolomyces salmonicolor AKU4429, which reduces ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate (4-COBE) to ethyl (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate. The ARII gene is 1,032 bp long, is interrupted by four introns, and encodes a 37,315-Da polypeptide. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited significant levels of similarity to the amino acid sequences of members of the mammalian 3{Beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-plant dihydroglavonol 4-reductase superfamily but not to the amino acid sequences of members of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily or to the amino acid sequence of an aldehyde reductase previously isolated from the same organism. The ARII protein was overproduced in Escherichia coli about 2,000-fold compared to the production in the original y east cells. The enzyme expressed in E. coli was purified to homogeneity and had the same catalytic properties as ARII purified from S. Salmonicolor. To examine the contribution of the dinucleotide-binding motif G{sub 19}-X-X-G{sub 22}-X-X-A{sub 25}, which is located in the N-terminal region, during ARII catalysis, they replaced three amino acid residues in the motif and purified the resulting mutant enzymes. Substrate inhibition of the G{sub 19}{r{underscore}arrow}A and G{sub 22}{r{underscore}arrow}A mutant enzymes by 4-COBE die not occur. The A{sub 25}{r{underscore}arrow}G mutant enzyme could reduce 4-COBE when NADPH was replaced by an equimolar concentration of NADH.

  5. Cloning, Overexpression, and Mutagenesis of the Sporobolomyces salmonicolor AKU4429 Gene Encoding a New Aldehyde Reductase, Which Catalyzes the Stereoselective Reduction of Ethyl 4-Chloro-3-Oxobutanoate to Ethyl (S)-4-Chloro-3-Hydroxybutanoate

    PubMed Central

    Kita, Keiko; Fukura, Takanobu; Nakase, Koh-Ichi; Okamoto, Kenji; Yanase, Hideshi; Kataoka, Michihiko; Shimizu, Sakayu

    1999-01-01

    We cloned and sequenced the gene encoding an NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase (ARII) in Sporobolomyces salmonicolor AKU4429, which reduces ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate (4-COBE) to ethyl (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate. The ARII gene is 1,032 bp long, is interrupted by four introns, and encodes a 37,315-Da polypeptide. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited significant levels of similarity to the amino acid sequences of members of the mammalian 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase–plant dihydroflavonol 4-reductase superfamily but not to the amino acid sequences of members of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily or to the amino acid sequence of an aldehyde reductase previously isolated from the same organism (K. Kita, K. Matsuzaki, T. Hashimoto, H. Yanase, N. Kato, M. C.-M. Chung, M. Kataoka, and S. Shimizu, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:2303–2310, 1996). The ARII protein was overproduced in Escherichia coli about 2,000-fold compared to the production in the original yeast cells. The enzyme expressed in E. coli was purified to homogeneity and had the same catalytic properties as ARII purified from S. salmonicolor. To examine the contribution of the dinucleotide-binding motif G19-X-X-G22-X-X-A25, which is located in the N-terminal region, during ARII catalysis, we replaced three amino acid residues in the motif and purified the resulting mutant enzymes. Substrate inhibition of the G19→A and G22→A mutant enzymes by 4-COBE did not occur. The A25→G mutant enzyme could reduce 4-COBE when NADPH was replaced by an equimolar concentration of NADH. PMID:10583966

  6. Analysis of Veterinary Drug and Pesticide Residues Using the Ethyl Acetate Multiclass/Multiresidue Method in Milk by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Imamoglu, Husniye; Oktem Olgun, Elmas

    2016-01-01

    A rapid and simple multiclass, ethyl acetate (EtOAc) multiresidue method based on liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) detection was developed for the determination and quantification of 26 veterinary drugs and 187 total pesticide residues in milk. Sample preparation was a simple procedure based on liquid–liquid extraction with ethyl acetate containing 0.1% acetic acid, followed by centrifugation and evaporation of the supernatant. The residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate with 0.1% acetic acid and centrifuged prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Chromatographic separation of analytes was performed on an Inertsil X-Terra C18 column with acetic acid in methanol and water gradient. The repeatability and reproducibility were in the range of 2 to 13% and 6 to 16%, respectively. The average recoveries ranged from 75 to 120% with the RSD (n = 18). The developed method was validated according to the criteria set in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and SANTE/11945/2015. The validated methodology represents a fast and cheap alternative for the simultaneous analysis of veterinary drug and pesticide residues which can be easily extended to other compounds and matrices. PMID:27293962

  7. Analysis of Veterinary Drug and Pesticide Residues Using the Ethyl Acetate Multiclass/Multiresidue Method in Milk by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Imamoglu, Husniye; Oktem Olgun, Elmas

    2016-01-01

    A rapid and simple multiclass, ethyl acetate (EtOAc) multiresidue method based on liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) detection was developed for the determination and quantification of 26 veterinary drugs and 187 total pesticide residues in milk. Sample preparation was a simple procedure based on liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate containing 0.1% acetic acid, followed by centrifugation and evaporation of the supernatant. The residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate with 0.1% acetic acid and centrifuged prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Chromatographic separation of analytes was performed on an Inertsil X-Terra C18 column with acetic acid in methanol and water gradient. The repeatability and reproducibility were in the range of 2 to 13% and 6 to 16%, respectively. The average recoveries ranged from 75 to 120% with the RSD (n = 18). The developed method was validated according to the criteria set in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and SANTE/11945/2015. The validated methodology represents a fast and cheap alternative for the simultaneous analysis of veterinary drug and pesticide residues which can be easily extended to other compounds and matrices. PMID:27293962

  8. Influence of Gilbert's syndrome on the formation of ethyl glucuronide.

    PubMed

    Huppertz, Laura M; Gunsilius, Leonie; Lardi, Christelle; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Thierauf-Emberger, Annette

    2015-09-01

    A drinking experiment with participants suffering from Gilbert's syndrome was performed to study the possible influence of this glucuronidation disorder on the formation of ethyl glucuronide (EtG). Gilbert's syndrome is a rather common and, in most cases, asymptomatic congenital metabolic aberration with a prevalence of about 5 %. It is characterized by a reduction of the enzyme activity of the uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoform 1A1 up to 80 %. One of the glucuronidation products is EtG, which is formed in the organism following exposure to ethanol. EtG is used as a short-term marker for ethyl alcohol consumption to prove abstinence in various settings. After 2 days of abstinence from ethanol and giving a void urine sample, 30 study participants drank 0.1 L of sparkling wine (9 g ethanol). 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after drinking, urine samples were collected. 3 hours after drinking, an additional blood sample was taken, in which liver enzyme activities, ethanol, hematological parameters, and bilirubin were measured. EtG and ethyl sulfate (EtS), another short-term marker of ethanol consumption, were determined in the urine samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS); creatinine was measured photometrically. In all participants, EtG and EtS were detected in concentrations showing a wide range (EtG: 3 h sample 0.5-18.43 mg/L and 6 h sample 0.67-13.8 mg/L; EtS: 3 h sample 0.87-6.87 mg/L and 6 h sample 0.29-4.48 mg/L). No evidence of impaired EtG formation was found. Thus, EtG seems to be a suitable marker for ethanol consumption even in individuals with Gilbert's syndrome. PMID:25680552

  9. Rapid syntheses of dehydrodiferulates via biomimetic radical coupling reactions of ethyl ferulate.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fachuang; Wei, Liping; Azarpira, Ali; Ralph, John

    2012-08-29

    Dehydrodimerization of ferulates in grass cell walls provides a pathway toward cross-linking polysaccharide chains limiting the digestibility of carbohydrates by ruminant bacteria and in general affecting the utilization of grass as a renewable bioresource. Analysis of dehydrodiferulates (henceforth termed diferulates) in plant cell walls is useful in the evaluation of the quality of dairy forages as animal feeds. Therefore, there has been considerable demand for quantities of diferulates as standards for such analyses. Described here are syntheses of diferulates from ethyl ferulate via biomimetic radical coupling reactions using the copper(II)-tetramethylethylenediamine [CuCl(OH)-TMEDA] complex as oxidant or catalyst. Although CuCl(OH)-TMEDA oxidation of ethyl ferulate in acetonitrile produced mixtures composed of 8-O-4-, 8-5-, 8-8- (cyclic and noncyclic), and 5-5-coupled diferulates, a catalyzed oxidation using CuCl(OH)-TMEDA as catalyst and oxygen as an oxidant resulted in better overall yields of such diferulates. Flash chromatographic fractionation allowed isolation of 8-8- and 5-5-coupled diferulates. 8-5-Diferulate coeluted with 8-O-4-diferulate but was separated from it via crystallization; the 8-O-4 diferulate left in the mother solution was isolated by rechromatography following a simple tetrabutylammonium fluoride treatment that converted 8-5-diferulate to another useful diferulate, 8-5-(noncyclic) diferulate. Therefore, six of the nine (5-5, 8-O-4, 8-5-c, 8-5-nc, 8-5-dc, 8-8-c, 8-8-nc, 8-8-THF, 4-O-5) diferulic acids that have to date been found in the alkaline hydrolysates of plant cell walls can be readily synthesized by the CuCl(OH)-TMEDA catalyzed aerobic oxidative coupling reaction and subsequent saponification described here. PMID:22846085

  10. Micellar phase boundaries under the influence of ethyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Denis E

    2016-03-01

    The Compton spectrum quenching technique is used to monitor the effect of ethyl alcohol (EtOH) additions on phase boundaries in two systems. In toluenic solutions of the nonionic surfactant, Triton X-100, EtOH shifts the boundary separating the first clear phase from the first turbid phase to higher water:surfactant ratios. In a commonly used scintillant, Ultima Gold AB, the critical micelle concentration is not shifted. The molecular interactions behind the observations and implications for liquid scintillation counting are discussed. PMID:26585642

  11. Ethyl alcohol boiling heat transfer on multilayer meshed surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dåbek, Lidia; Kapjor, Andrej; Orman, Łukasz J.

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents the problem of heat transfer enhancement with the application of multilayer metal mesh structures during boiling of ethyl alcohol at ambient pressure. The preparation of samples involved sintering fine copper meshes with the copper base in the reduction atmosphere in order to prevent oxidation of the samples. The experiments included testing up to 4 layers of copper meshes. Significant augmentation of boiling heat transfer is possible, however, considerable number of meshes actually hinders heat transfer conditions and leads to the reduction in the heat flux transferred from the heater surface.

  12. Photoelectron spectroscopic study of the ethyl cyanoacrylate anion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinxing; Tang, Xin; Bowen, Kit

    2013-09-01

    Anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory have been utilized to study the parent, ethyl cyanoacrylate molecular anion, ECA-. The measured electron affinity (0.9 ± 0.2 eV), vertical detachment energy (1.3 ± 0.1 eV), and anion-to-triplet neutral, photodetachment transition energies (4.0 ± 0.1 eV and 4.5 ± 0.1 eV) all compare well with their calculated values. The relatively high electron affinity of the ECA monomer is responsible for the fact that its “anionic” polymerization mechanism proceeds even with weak nucleophiles, such as water.

  13. Ethyl Pyruvate Combats Human Leukemia Cells but Spares Normal Blood Cells.

    PubMed

    Birkenmeier, Gerd; Hemdan, Nasr Y A; Kurz, Susanne; Bigl, Marina; Pieroh, Philipp; Debebe, Tewodros; Buchold, Martin; Thieme, Rene; Wichmann, Gunnar; Dehghani, Faramarz

    2016-01-01

    Ethyl pyruvate, a known ROS scavenger and anti-inflammatory drug was found to combat leukemia cells. Tumor cell killing was achieved by concerted action of necrosis/apoptosis induction, ATP depletion, and inhibition of glycolytic and para-glycolytic enzymes. Ethyl lactate was less harmful to leukemia cells but was found to arrest cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase. Both, ethyl pyruvate and ethyl lactate were identified as new inhibitors of GSK-3β. Despite the strong effect of ethyl pyruvate on leukemia cells, human cognate blood cells were only marginally affected. The data were compiled by immune blotting, flow cytometry, enzyme activity assay and gene array analysis. Our results inform new mechanisms of ethyl pyruvate-induced cell death, offering thereby a new treatment regime with a high therapeutic window for leukemic tumors. PMID:27579985

  14. Inhibition of mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium by Glycyrrhiza glabra extract, glycyrrhizinic acid, 18 alpha- and 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acids.

    PubMed

    Zani, F; Cuzzoni, M T; Daglia, M; Benvenuti, S; Vampa, G; Mazza, P

    1993-12-01

    The effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. extract, glycyrrhizinic acid, 18 alpha- and 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acids on the mutagenicity of the ethyl methanesulfonate, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, and ribose-lysine Maillard model systems were investigated by using the Salmonella/microsome reversion assay. The protocol used allowed us to detect desmutagenic and antimutagenic activity and to avoid false positive results due to toxicity. For all the compounds tested, no desmutagenic activity was observed against ethyl methanesulfonate and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine; only Glycyrrhiza glabra extract showed antimutagenic activity against ethyl methanesulfonate. On using the ribose-lysine mutagenic browning mixture, the desmutagenic activities of the Glycyrrhiza glabra extract, glycyrrhizinic acid, 18 alpha- and 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acids were observed. 18 beta-Glycyrrhetinic acid was the most active compound. Glycyrrhiza glabra extract also exhibited antimutagenic activity against ribose-lysine. PMID:8302947

  15. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assessment of new ethyl-carbamates with ixodicidal activity.

    PubMed

    Prado-Ochoa, María Guadalupe; Muñoz-Guzmán, Marco Antonio; Vázquez-Valadez, Víctor Hugo; Velázquez-Sánchez, Ana María; Salazar, Ana María; Ramírez-Noguera, Patricia; Angeles, Enrique; Alba-Hurtado, Fernando

    2016-09-01

    The mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test was used on the peripheral blood of Wistar rats exposed to two new ethyl-carbamates: ethyl-4-bromophenyl-carbamate (LQM 919) and ethyl-4-chlorophenyl-carbamate (LQM 996) to analyze their genotoxic potential. The mitotic index and cell proliferation kinetics in human lymphocyte cultures in the presence of these ethyl-carbamates were used to evaluate cytotoxicity and cytostaticity respectively. Exposure to greater acute doses (300mg/kg) and to all of the subchronic doses (12.5, 25 and 50mg/kg daily for 90 days) of these ethyl-carbamates induced an increased frequency (p<0.05) of micro-nucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MN-PCE) compared with rats not exposed to the ethyl-carbamates. Increases in MN-PCE was higher in males than in females exposed to LQM 996 50mg/Kg (p<0.05). All observed changes in rats return 21days after suspending ethyl-carbamate exposure. The highest concentration (0.3mM) of both ethyl-carbamates in lymphocyte cultures increased the percentage of cells in first division metaphase and decreased the percentage of cells in third division metaphase, indicating an increase in cell cycle length or a possible cell cycle arrest in metaphase (cytostatic effect). The results of this study show that the evaluated ethyl-carbamates may induce genotoxic damage in rats and alterations in the human lymphocyte cell cycle. PMID:27542710

  16. Detection of ethyl glucuronide in blood spotted on different surfaces.

    PubMed

    Winkler, M; Kaufmann, E; Thoma, D; Thierauf, A; Weinmann, W; Skopp, G; Alt, A

    2011-07-15

    This study aims to show that sensitive detection of ethyl glucuronide in dried blood spotted onto various surfaces after a period of 24h is feasible. At present, there is insufficient information how tightly ethyl glucuronide (EtG) binds to various materials and how easily it can be eluted. 4ml aliquots of blood samples obtained from seven volunteers after consumption of alcoholic beverages were applied to six different surfaces. After drying and a 24h-storage at 20±2°C the samples were re-dissolved in water, and EtG was subsequently analyzed by a LC-MS Paul-type ion trap. A comparison was made between dried and corresponding fluid samples. EtG was detectable in all subjects' samples following consumption of alcohol. EtG was also detectable after a storage time of four weeks at 4°C in whole blood that had been preserved with EDTA. EtG was detectable in all samples dried on different surfaces and its concentration remained relatively constant irrespective of the particular condition of the material. Detection of EtG in blood spots from the scene may indicate recent alcohol consumption in cases where collection of blood remained undone or could not be performed. PMID:21641739

  17. Protective effects of ethyl pyruvate in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kelle, Ilker; Akkoc, Hasan; Tunik, Selcuk; Nergiz, Yusuf; Erdinc, Meral; Erdinc, Levent

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of ethyl pyruvate on changes in renal functions and oxidative stress related renal injury caused by cisplatin (cis-dichlorodiammine platinum-II; CDDP). Male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups (n = 8): (1) control group (1 ml Ringer's lactate solution i.p.); (2) ethyl pyruvate (EP) group (50 mg/kg Ringer's EP solution (REPS) i.p.); (3) cisplatin group (a single dose of cisplatin (5 mg/kg, i.p.); and (4) cisplatin + EP group (a single dose of cisplatin (5 mg/kg, i.p.) + REPS 50 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for five days. At the sixth day, kidneys of rats were mounted to a Langendorff apparatus. Renal perfusion pressures were recorded. Blood samples were taken for serum urea, creatinine, total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS) and oxidative stres index (OSI) evaluations. Kidney tissues were obtained for malondialdehyde (MDA) analyses and histopathological examination. Perfusion pressures, serum urea, creatinine, TOS, OSI and tissue MDA levels were found significantly higher, whereas TAS was notably lower in cisplatin group. Histopathological examination showed apparent renal paranchymal injury in cisplatin group. In cisplatin + REPS group, perfusion pressures, serum urea, creatinine and tissue MDA levels were decreased. Moreover, EP co-administration provided less inflammatory cell infiltration, tubular dilatation, whereas TOS, TAS and OSI improved significantly versus cisplatin group. These findings show that EP has protective effects against cisplatin nephrotoxicity. PMID:26019553

  18. DISCOVERY OF METHYL ACETATE AND GAUCHE ETHYL FORMATE IN ORION

    SciTech Connect

    Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Lopez, A.; Caro, G. M. Munoz; Kleiner, I.; Nguyen, H. V. L. E-mail: jcernicharo@cab.inta-csic.es E-mail: munozcg@cab.inta-csic.es E-mail: nguyen@pc.rwth-aachen.de

    2013-06-10

    We report on the discovery of methyl acetate, CH{sub 3}COOCH{sub 3}, through the detection of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule: AA species (A{sub 1} or A{sub 2}), EA species (E{sub 1}), AE species (E{sub 2}), and EE species (E{sub 3} or E{sub 4}). We also report, for the first time in space, the detection of the gauche conformer of ethyl formate, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OCOH, in the same source. The trans conformer is also detected for the first time outside the Galactic center source SgrB2. From the derived velocity of the emission of methyl acetate, we conclude that it arises mainly from the compact ridge region with a total column density of (4.2 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. The derived rotational temperature is 150 K. The column density for each conformer of ethyl formate, trans and gauche, is (4.5 {+-} 1.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}. Their abundance ratio indicates a kinetic temperature of 135 K for the emitting gas and suggests that gas-phase reactions could participate efficiently in the formation of both conformers in addition to cold ice mantle reactions on the surface of dust grains.

  19. Transesterification process to manufacture ethyl ester of rape oil

    SciTech Connect

    Korus, R.A.; Hoffman, D.S.; Bam, N.; Peterson, C.L.; Drown, D.C.

    1993-12-31

    A process for the production of the ethyl ester of winter rape [EEWR] for use as a biodiesel fuel has been studied. The essential part of the process is the transesterification of rape oil with ethanol, in the presence of a catalyst, to yield the ethyl ester of rape oil as a product and glycerin as a by-product. Experiments have been performed to determine the optimum conditions for the preparation of EEWR. The process variables were: (1) temperature, (2) catalyst, (3) rate of agitation, (4) water content of the alcohol used, and (5) the amount of excess alcohol used. The optimum conditions were: (1) room temperature, (2) 0.5% sodium methoxide or 1% potassium hydroxide catalyst by weight of rapeseed oil, (3) extremely vigorous agitation with some splashing during the initial phase of the reaction and agitation was not necessary after the reaction mixture became homogeneous, (4) absolute ethanol was necessary for high conversion, and (5) 50% excess ethanol with NaOCH{sub 3} or 100% excess with KOH gave a maximum conversion. Viscosity, cloud point and pour point of the EEWR were measured. A preliminary break-even cost for the commercial production of EEWR was found to be $0.55/liter [$2.08/US gallon].

  20. Application of ethyl cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose and octadecanol for wax based floating solid dispersion pellets.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong-Xiang; Zhang, Shuang-Shuang; He, Jian-Hua; Liu, Jian-Ping

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to develop and optimize the wax based floating sustained-release dispersion pellets for a weakly acidic hydrophilic drug protocatechuic acid to achieve prolonged gastric residence time and improved bioavailability. This low-density drug delivery system consisted of octadecanol/microcrystalline cellulose mixture matrix pellet cores prepared by extrusion-spheronization technique, coated with drug/ethyl cellulose 100cp solid dispersion using single-step fluid-bed coating method. The formulation-optimized pellets could maintain excellent floating state without lag time and sustain the drug release efficiently for 12h based on non-Fickian transport mechanism. Observed by SEM, the optimized pellet was the dispersion-layered spherical structure containing a compact inner core. DSC, XRD and FTIR analysis revealed drug was uniformly dispersed in the amorphous molecule form and had no significant physicochemical interactions with the polymer dispersion carrier. The stability study of the resultant pellets further proved the rationality and integrity of the developed formulation. PMID:27185125

  1. In Vitro and in Vivo antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate extraction of purple rice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Y; Chen, L; Zhang, H; Zhang, Y; Zhang, H; Wang, L; Qian, H; Qi, X; Zhang, H

    2016-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate extraction of purple rice (EAEPR) were evaluated by various methods in vitro and in vivo. In in vitro antioxidant assays, EAEPR was found to have strong 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity hydroxyl radical, reducing power and metal-ion chelating activity. In in vivo antioxidant assays, mice were administered with EAEPR via gavage for 42 consecutive days. As a result, administration of EAEPR significantly enhanced the activities of glutathione peroxidase in serums and livers of mice. EAEPR could improve the lipid status, especially total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In addition, total phenolic content of EAEPR was 188.21mg/g. The main phenolic compounds in EAEPR analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry were determined as ferulic acid and quercetin. The contents of ferulic acid and quercetin in EAEPR were 14.21mg/g and 35.28mg/g, respectively. The Nrf2 expression was significantly elevated after administration of EAEPR.These results suggested that EAEPR had potent antioxidant activity and could be explored as a novel natural antioxidant. PMID:27188742

  2. Use of ethyl lactate to extract bioactive compounds from Cytisus scoparius: Comparison of pressurized liquid extraction and medium scale ambient temperature systems.

    PubMed

    Lores, Marta; Pájaro, Marta; Álvarez-Casas, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge; García-Jares, Carmen

    2015-08-01

    An important trend in the extraction of chemical compounds is the application of new environmentally friendly, food grade solvents. Ethyl lactate (ethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate), produced by fermentation of carbohydrates, is miscible with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds being a potentially good solvent for bioactive compounds. Despite its relatively wide use as a general solvent, the utilization of ethyl lactate as an extraction solvent has only recently been considered. Here, we evaluate the possible use of ethyl lactate to extract phenolic compounds from wild plants belonging to Cytisus scoparius, and we compare the characteristics of the extracts obtained by Pressurized Solvent Extraction (the total phenolics content, the antioxidant activity and the concentration of the major polyphenols) with those of other extracts obtained with methanol. In order to explore the industrial production of the ethyl lactate Cytisus extract, we also evaluate medium scale ambient temperature setups. The whole plant and the different parts (flowers, branches, and seed pods) were evaluated separately as potential sources of polyphenols. All extracts were analyzed by LC-MS/MS for accurate identification of the major polyphenols. Similar phenolic profiles were obtained when using ethyl lactate or methanol. The main bioactives found in the Cytisus extract were the non-flavonoid phenolic compounds caffeic and protocatechuic acids and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde; the flavonoids rutin, kaempferol and quercetin; the flavones chrysin, orientin and apigenin; and the alkaloid lupanine. Regarding the comparison of the extraction systems, although the performance of the PLE was much better than that of the ambient-temperature columns, the energy consumption was also much higher. Ethyl lactate has resulted an efficient extraction solvent for polyphenols from C. scoparius, yielding extracts with high levels of plant phenolics and antioxidant activity. The antimicrobial activity of these

  3. Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial evaluation of the ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of Bridelia micrantha

    PubMed Central

    Adefuye, Anthonio O.; Ndip, Roland N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Plant cells fundamentally are chemical factories containing a rich supply of therapeutically useful phytocompounds that have the potential of being developed into potent antimicrobial agents. Aim of the Study: To investigate the antibacterial activity of fractionated extracts of the ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of Bridelia micrantha (Hochst., Baill., Euphorbiaceae). Materials and Methods: Thin-layer chromatography and column chromatography were used to purify the extracts and antimicrobial activity performed on reference and clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sonnei, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Helicobacter pylori using direct and indirect bioautographic methods respectively. Furthermore, the eluted compound fractions were then assayed for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) using the 96-well micro dilution technique. Results: Better separation of phytocompounds was obtained from the non-polar Benzene/Ethanol/Ammonia (BEA) and intermediate-polar Chloroform/Ethyl acetate/Formic acid (CEF) eluents compared to the polar Ethanol/Methanol/Water (EMW). Bioautography revealed the presence of three bioactive compounds (Rf values; 0.12, 0.20, and 0.42) on the BEA plates, designated fractions 3, 7, and 8 with MIC50 values; 0.0048mg/mL to 1.25mg/mL (fraction 3), 0.0024mg/mL to 5 mg/mL (fraction 7), and 0.0024mg/mL to 2.5mg/mL (fraction 8). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that ethyl acetate extract of the stem-bark of B. micrantha possess potent bioactive phytocompounds that may be developed into new antimicrobials. PMID:23661993

  4. A two-step enzymatic resolution process for large-scale production of (S)- and (R)-ethyl-3-hydroxybutyrate.

    PubMed

    Fishman, A; Eroshov, M; Dee-Noor, S S; van Mil, J; Cogan, U; Effenberger, R

    2001-08-01

    An efficient two-step enzymatic process for production of (R)- and (S)-ethyl-3-hydroxybutyrate (HEB), two important chiral intermediates for the pharmaceutical market, was developed and scaled-up to a multikilogram scale. Both enantiomers were obtained at 99% chemical purity and over 96% enantiomeric excess, with a total process yield of 73%. The first reaction involved a solvent-free acetylation of racemic HEB with vinylacetate for the production of (S)-HEB. In the second reaction, (R)-enriched ethyl-3-acetoxybutyrate (AEB) was subjected to alcoholysis with ethanol to derive optically pure (R)-HEB. Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) was employed in both stages, with high productivity and selectivity. The type of butyric acid ester influenced the enantioselectivity of the enzyme. Thus, extending the ester alkyl chain from ethyl to octyl resulted in a decrease in enantiomeric excess, whereas using bulky groups such as benzyl or t-butyl, improved the enantioselectivity of the enzyme. A stirred reactor was found unsuitable for large-scale production due to attrition of the enzyme particles and, therefore, a batchwise loop reactor system was used for bench-scale production. The immobilized enzyme was confined to a column and the reactants were circulated through the enzyme bed until the targeted conversion was reached. The desired products were separated from the reaction mixture in each of the two stages by fractional distillation. The main features of the process are the exclusion of solvent (thus ensuring high process throughput), and the use of the same enzyme for both the acetylation and the alcoholysis steps. Kilogram quantities of (S)-HEB and (R)-HEB were effectively prepared using this unit, which can be easily scaled-up to produce industrial quantities. PMID:11400099

  5. Inhibition of dual-specificity phosphatase 26 by ethyl-3,4-dephostatin: Ethyl-3,4-dephostatin as a multiphosphatase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Seo, Huiyun; Cho, Sayeon

    2016-04-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) regulate protein function by dephosphorylating phosphorylated proteins in many signaling cascades and some of them have been targets for drug development against many human diseases. There have been many reports that some chemical inhibitors could regulate particular phosphatases. However, there was no extensive study on specificity of inhibitors towardss phosphatases. We investigated the effects of ethyl-3,4-dephostatin, a potent inhibitor of five PTPs including PTP-1B and Src homology-2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1), on thirteen other PTPs using in vitro phosphatase assays. Of them, dual-specificity protein phosphatase 26 (DUSP26), which inhibits mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and p53 tumor suppressor and is known to be overexpressed in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, was inhibited by ethyl-3,4-dephostatin in a concentration-dependent manner. Kinetic studies with ethyl-3,4-dephostatin and DUSP26 revealed competitive inhibition, suggesting that ethyl-3,4-dephostatin binds to the catalytic site of DUSP26 like other substrate PTPs. Moreover, ethyl-3,4-dephostatin protects DUSP26-mediated dephosphorylation of p38, a member of the MAPK family, and p53. Taken together, these results suggest that ethyl-3,4-dephostatin functions as a multiphosphatase inhibitor and is useful as a therapeutic agent for cancers overexpressing DUSP26. PMID:27209699

  6. Fabrication of polymerized crystalline colloidal array thin film modified β-cyclodextrin polymer for paraoxon-ethyl and parathion-ethyl detection.

    PubMed

    Bui, Minh-Phuong N; Seo, Seong S

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an optical chemical sensor for the detection of organophosphate (OP) compounds using a polymerized crystalline colloidal array (PCCA) thin film composed of a close-packed colloidal array of polystyrene particles. The PCCA thin film was modified with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) polymer as a capping cavity for the selective detection of paraoxon-ethyl and parathion-ethyl chemical agents. The fabrication of the modified PCCA thin film was optimized and the structure was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The arrangement of polystyrene particles in the PCCA follows a pattern of the fcc (111) planes with strong diffraction peak in the visible spectral region and pH dependence. The diffraction peak of the β-CD modified PCCA thin film showed a red shift according to the change of paraoxon-ethyl and parathion-ethyl concentrations at a fast response time (10 s) and high sensitivity with detection limits of 2.0 and 3.4 ppb, respectively. Furthermore, the proposed interaction mechanism of β-CD with paraoxon-ethyl and parathion-ethyl in the β-CD modified PCCA thin film were discussed. PMID:24813957

  7. 40 CFR 180.662 - Trinexapac-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trinexapac-ethyl; tolerances for residues. 180.662 Section 180.662 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.662 Trinexapac-ethyl; tolerances...

  8. 40 CFR 180.662 - Trinexapac-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trinexapac-ethyl; tolerances for residues. 180.662 Section 180.662 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.662 Trinexapac-ethyl; tolerances...

  9. 40 CFR 180.585 - Pyraflufen-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pyraflufen-ethyl; tolerances for residues. 180.585 Section 180.585 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.585 Pyraflufen-ethyl; tolerances...

  10. 78 FR 9938 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... recent previous determination for the 2012 amount in the Federal Register on December 30, 2011 (76 FR... COMMISSION Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United States... is equal to 7 percent of the U.S. domestic market for fuel ethyl alcohol during the 12-month...

  11. 40 CFR 721.1085 - Benzenamine,4,4′-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzenamine,4,4â²-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-. 721.1085 Section 721.1085 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1085 Benzenamine,4,4′-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-. (a)...

  12. 40 CFR 721.1085 - Benzenamine,4,4′-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzenamine,4,4â²-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-. 721.1085 Section 721.1085 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1085 Benzenamine,4,4′-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-. (a)...

  13. 40 CFR 721.1085 - Benzenamine,4,4′-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzenamine,4,4â²-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-. 721.1085 Section 721.1085 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1085 Benzenamine,4,4′-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-. (a)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.1085 - Benzenamine,4,4′-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzenamine,4,4â²-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-. 721.1085 Section 721.1085 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1085 Benzenamine,4,4′-methylenebis[N-ethyl-N-methyl-. (a)...

  15. 40 CFR 721.445 - Substituted ethyl alken-a-mide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.445 Substituted ethyl alken-a-mide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted ethyl...

  16. 40 CFR 721.445 - Substituted ethyl alken-a-mide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.445 Substituted ethyl alken-a-mide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted ethyl...

  17. Survey of ethyl carbamate in fermented foods sold in the United Kingdom in 2004.

    PubMed

    Hasnip, Sarah; Crews, Colin; Potter, Nicholas; Christy, Julie; Chan, Danny; Bondu, Thomas; Matthews, Wendy; Walters, Barry; Patel, Krishna

    2007-04-01

    Results are presented of a survey of fermented foods and beverages sold in the United Kingdom for levels of ethyl carbamate (urethane) carried out to expand the range of food types sold in the United Kingdom for which data regarding ethyl carbamate are available. Samples were analyzed by in-house validated methods, which included measurement uncertainty estimates. The samples comprised 75 fermented liquids (beers, wines, fortified wines, spirits, liqueurs, soy sauces, and vinegars) and 25 fermented solid foods (cheeses, yogurts, soybean products, sauerkraut, yeast extract, olives, and Christmas pudding). Ethyl carbamate was not detected in the beers or the cider. Wines contained between 11 and 24 microg/kg and sake between 81 and 164 microg/kg. Fortified wines contained ethyl carbamate at levels between 14 and 60 microg/kg. Only two of five liqueurs contained ethyl carbamate. Most soy sauces and vinegars did not contain ethyl carbamate. No ethyl carbamate was detected in cheeses, yogurts, olives, or soybean-based products. Single samples of sauerkraut, yeast extract, and Christmas pudding contained low levels (29, 41, and 20 microg/kg ethyl carbamate, respectively). PMID:17328558

  18. Controlled Degradation of Poly(Ethyl Cyanoacrylate-Co-Methyl Methacrylate)(PECA-Co-PMMA) Copolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes a method for modifying poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) in order to control the degradation and the stability as well as the glass transition temperatures. Copolymers of poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) (PECA-co-PMMA) with various compositions were synthesized by free ...

  19. 40 CFR 721.538 - Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl)-, homopolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.538 Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl)-, homopolymer. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phenol,...

  20. 40 CFR 721.538 - Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl)-, homopolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.538 Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl)-, homopolymer. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phenol,...

  1. 40 CFR 721.538 - Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl)-, homopolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.538 Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl)-, homopolymer. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phenol,...

  2. 40 CFR 721.538 - Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl)-, homopolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.538 Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl)-, homopolymer. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phenol,...

  3. 40 CFR 721.538 - Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl)-, homopolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.538 Phenol, 4-(1,1-dimethyl- ethyl)-, homopolymer. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phenol,...

  4. Novel in vivo active anti-malarials based on a hydroxy-ethyl-amine scaffold.

    PubMed

    Ciana, Claire-Lise; Siegrist, Romain; Aissaoui, Hamed; Marx, Léo; Racine, Sophie; Meyer, Solange; Binkert, Christoph; de Kanter, Ruben; Fischli, Christoph; Wittlin, Sergio; Boss, Christoph

    2013-02-01

    A novel series of anti-malarials, based on a hydroxy-ethyl-amine scaffold, initially identified as peptidomimetic protease inhibitors is described. Combination of the hydroxy-ethyl-amine anti-malarial phramacophore with the known Mannich base pharmacophore of amodiaquine (57) resulted in promising in vivo active novel derivatives. PMID:23260352

  5. Torsional barrier and equilibrium structure of ethyl cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demaison, J.; Margulès, L.; Mäder, H.; Sheng, M.; Rudolph, H. D.

    2008-12-01

    The quadratic, cubic and semi-diagonal quartic force field of ethyl cyanide has been calculated at the B3LYP level of theory employing a basis set of triple-ζ quality. A semi-experimental equilibrium structure has been derived from experimental ground state rotational constants and rovibrational interaction parameters calculated from the ab initio force field. This structure is in excellent agreement with the ab initio structure calculated at the CCSD(T) level of theory using a basis set of quadruple-ζ quality and a core correlation correction. The empirical structures are also determined and their accuracy is discussed. The potential barrier V3 hindering internal rotation of the methyl group has been calculated from 23 rotational transitions of CH 3CH 2C 15N which were found split into doublets, giving V3 = 3074(27) cal mol -1.

  6. Ethyl carbamate levels in selected fermented foods and beverages.

    PubMed

    Canas, B J; Havery, D C; Robinson, L R; Sullivan, M P; Joe, F L; Diachenko, G W

    1989-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC), also known as urethane, is an animal carcinogen and a by-product of fermentation. Because EC has been found in distilled spirits and wines, a variety of fermented foods and beverages were analyzed to assess its occurrence in other products. Previously described methods using a gas chromatograph-thermal energy analyzer with a nitrogen converter were modified for each matrix and gave recoveries of greater than 80%, with a limit of detection in the 1-2 micrograms/kg (ppb) range. A total of 152 test samples were analyzed; EC levels ranged from none found to 3 ppb in 15 cheeses, 6 teas, 12 yogurts, and 8 ciders; from none found to 13 ppb in 30 breads and 69 malt beverages; and from none found to 84 ppb in 12 soy sauces. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry was used to confirm EC identity and to quantitate EC in selected food extracts. PMID:2592308

  7. Lipase-mediated conversion of vegetable oils into biodiesel using ethyl acetate as acyl acceptor.

    PubMed

    Modi, Mukesh Kumar; Reddy, J R C; Rao, B V S K; Prasad, R B N

    2007-04-01

    Ethyl acetate was explored as an acyl acceptor for immobilized lipase-catalyzed preparation of biodiesel from the crude oils of Jatropha curcas (jatropha), Pongamia pinnata (karanj) and Helianthus annuus (sunflower). The optimum reaction conditions for interesterification of the oils with ethyl acetate were 10% of Novozym-435 (immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B) based on oil weight, ethyl acetate to oil molar ratio of 11:1 and the reaction period of 12h at 50 degrees C. The maximum yield of ethyl esters was 91.3%, 90% and 92.7% with crude jatropha, karanj and sunflower oils, respectively under the above optimum conditions. Reusability of the lipase over repeated cycles in interesterification and ethanolysis was also investigated under standard reaction conditions. The relative activity of lipase could be well maintained over twelve repeated cycles with ethyl acetate while it reached to zero by 6th cycle when ethanol was used as an acyl acceptor. PMID:16822671

  8. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATION OF ESTERS OF CHLORINATED CARBOXYLIC ACIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two groups of compounds were selected for microbial transformation studies. In the first group were carboxylic acid esters having a fixed aromatic moiety and an increasing length of the alkyl component. Ethyl esters of chlorine-substituted carboxylic acids were in the second grou...

  9. Distribution and organoleptic impact of ethyl 2-methylbutanoate enantiomers in wine.

    PubMed

    Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; de Revel, Gilles; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2014-06-01

    The enantiomers of ethyl 2-methylbutanoate were assayed in several wines using chiral gas chromatography (β-cyclodextrin). Analyses of 37 commercial red wines from various vintages and origins revealed the almost exclusive presence of the S-enantiomeric form. The average concentration was ∼50 μg/L, but the oldest samples were found to contain higher ethyl 2-methylbutanoate levels than the youngest wines. The olfactory threshold of a racemic mixture of ethyl (2R)-2-methylbutanoate and ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate (50:50, m/m) in dilute alcohol solution was 2.60 μg/L, almost twice that of the S-form, which was 1.53 μg/L. Ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate and the racemic mixture of ethyl (2R)-2-methylbutanoate and ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate had different aromatic nuances: the former was mainly defined by fruity descriptors, such as green apple (Granny Smith) and strawberry, whereas the latter had an unspecific, caustic, fruity, solvent odor. Sensory analysis revealed an enhancing effect of ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate on the perception of fruity aromas in the matrices studied: the "olfactory threshold" of the fruity pool, consisting of esters found in red wines, in dilute alcohol solution alone was higher than that of the same mixture supplemented with 50 μg/L ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate. The sensory profiles of these aromatic reconstitutions highlighted the contribution of ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate to black-berry-fruit descriptors. PMID:24844693

  10. Avicholic Acid: A Lead Compound from Birds on the Route to Potent TGR5 Modulators

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Grounding on our former 3D QSAR studies, a knowledge-based screen of natural bile acids from diverse animal species has led to the identification of avicholic acid as a selective but weak TGR5 agonist. Chemical modifications of this compound resulted in the disclosure of 6α-ethyl-16-epi-avicholic acid that shows enhanced potency at TGR5 and FXR receptors. The synthesis, biological appraisals, and structure–activity relationships of this series of compounds are herein described. Moreover, a thorough physicochemical characterization of 6α-ethyl-16-epi-avicholic acid as compared to naturally occurring bile acids is reported and discussed. PMID:24900463

  11. Interactions of amino acids, carboxylic acids, and mineral acids with different quinoline derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Dipjyoti; Deka, Himangshu; Samanta, Shyam Sundar; Guchait, Subrata; Baruah, Jubaraj B.

    2011-03-01

    A series of quinoline containing receptors having amide and ester bonds are synthesized and characterised. The relative binding abilities of these receptors with various amino acids, carboxylic acids and mineral acids are determined by monitoring the changes in fluorescence intensity. Among the receptors bis(2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)ethyl) isophthalate shows fluorescence enhancement on addition of amino acids whereas the other receptors shows fluorescence quenching on addition of amino acids. The receptor N-(quinolin-8-yl)-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy) propanamide has higher binding affinity for amino acids. However, the receptor N-(quinolin-8-yl)-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetamide having similar structure do not bind to amino acids. This is attributed to the concave structure of the former which is favoured due to the presence of methyl substituent. The receptor bis(2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)ethyl) isophthalate do not bind to hydroxy carboxylic acids, but is a good receptor for dicarboxylic acids. The crystal structure of bromide and perchlorate salts of receptor 2-bromo-N-(quinolin-8-yl)-propanamide are determined. In both the cases the amide groups are not in the plane of quinoline ring. The structure of N-(quinolin-8-yl)-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetamide, N-(2-methoxyphenethyl)-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetamide and their salts with maleic acid as well as fumaric acid are determined. It is observed that the solid state structures are governed by the double bond geometry of these two acid. Maleic acid forms salt in both the cases, whereas fumaric acid forms either salt or co-crystals.

  12. Crystal structure of (eth­oxy­ethyl­idene)di­methyl­aza­nium ethyl sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Tiritiris, Ioannis; Saur, Stefan; Kantlehner, Willi

    2015-01-01

    In the title salt, C6H14NO+·C2H5SO4 −, the C—N bond lengths in the cation are 1.2981 (14), 1.4658 (14) and 1.4707 (15) Å, indicating double- and single-bond character, respectively. The C—O bond length of 1.3157 (13) Å shows double-bond character, indicating charge delocalization within the NCO plane of the iminium ion. In the crystal, C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between H atoms of the cations and O atoms of neighbouring ethyl sulfate anions are present, generating a three-dimensional network. PMID:26870525

  13. Comparative study of free and immobilized lipase from Bacillus aerius and its application in synthesis of ethyl ferulate.

    PubMed

    Saun, Nitin Kumar; Narwal, Sunil Kumar; Dogra, Priyanka; Chauhan, Ghanshyam Singh; Gupta, Reena

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a purified lipase from Bacillus aerius immobilized on celite matrix was used for synthesis of ethyl ferulate. The celite-bound lipase exposed to glutaraldehyde showed 90.02% binding efficiency. It took two hours to bind maximally onto the support. The pH and temperature optima of the immobilized lipase were same as those of free enzyme i.e 9.5 and 55°C. Among different substrates both free and immobilized lipase showed maximum affinity towards p-nitrophenyl palmitate (p-NPP). The lipase activity was found to be stimulated in the presence of Mg(2+) in case of free enzyme while Zn(2+) and Fe(3+) showed stimulatory effect on immobilized lipase whereas salt ions as well as chelating agents inhibited activity of both free and immobilized lipase. Maximum enzyme activity was observed in n-hexane as organic solvent followed by n-heptane for both free and immobilized lipase, however CCl4, acetone and benzene inhibited the enzyme activity. Moreover, all the selected detergents (SDS, Triton X-100, Tween 80 and Tween 20) had an inhibitory effect on both free and immobilized enzyme activity. The celite bound lipase (1.5%) efficiently performed maximum esterification (2.51 moles/l) of ethanol and ferulic acid (100 mM each, at a molar ratio of 1:3) when incubated at 55°C for 48 h resulting in the formation of ester ethyl ferulate. PMID:25099909

  14. Ethyl chitosan synthesis and quantification of the effects acquired after grafting it on a cotton fabric, using ANOVA statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Vasilica; Muresan, Augustin; Popescu, Gabriel; Balan, Mihaela; Dobromir, Marius

    2016-03-15

    Three ethyl chitosans (ECSs) have been prepared using the ethyl chloride (AA) that was obtained in situ. Each ECS was applied on a 100% cotton fabric through a pad-dry-cure technology. Using the ANOVA as statistic method, the wrinkle-proofing effects have been determined varying the concentrations of AA (0.1-2.1mmol) and chitosan (CS) (0.1-2.1mmol). Alkylation and grafting mechanisms have been confirmed by the results of FTIR, (1)H NMR, XPS, SEM, DSC and termogravimetric analyses. The performances of each ECS as wrinkle-proofing agent have been revealed through quantitative methods (taking-up degree, wrinkle-recovering angle, tensile strength and effect's durability). The ECSs confer wrinkle-recovering angle and tensile strength higher than those of the witness sample. Durability of ECSs grafted on cotton have been demonstrated by a good capacity of dyeing with non-specific (acid/anionic and cationic) dyes under severe working conditions (100°C, 60min) and a good antimicrobial capacity. PMID:26794742

  15. Determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula by liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Han, Chao; Liu, Bin; Lin, Zhengfeng; Zhou, Xiujin; Wang, Chengjun; Zhu, Zhenou

    2014-02-01

    A simple, precise, accurate, and validated liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula samples. Following ultrasonic extraction with methanol/water (1:1, vol/vol), and clean-up on an HLB solid-phase extraction cartridge (Waters Corp., Milford, MA), samples were separated on a Waters XSelect HSS T3 column (150 × 2.1-mm i.d., 5-μm film thickness; Waters Corp.), with 0.1% formic acid solution-acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. Quantification of the target was performed by the internal standard approach, using isotopically labeled compounds for each chemical group, to correct matrix effects. Data acquisition was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring transitions mode, monitoring 2 multiple reaction monitoring transitions to ensure an accurate identification of target compounds in the samples. Additional identification and confirmation of target compounds were performed using the enhanced product ion modus of the linear ion trap. The novel liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry platform offers the best sensitivity and specificity for characterization and quantitative determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula and fulfills the quality criteria for routine laboratory application. PMID:24359823

  16. Sonochemical degradation of ethyl paraben in environmental samples: Statistically important parameters determining kinetics, by-products and pathways.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Costas; Frontistis, Zacharias; Antonopoulou, Maria; Venieri, Danae; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Mantzavinos, Dionissios

    2016-07-01

    The sonochemical degradation of ethyl paraben (EP), a representative of the parabens family, was investigated. Experiments were conducted at constant ultrasound frequency of 20kHz and liquid bulk temperature of 30°C in the following range of experimental conditions: EP concentration 250-1250μg/L, ultrasound (US) density 20-60W/L, reaction time up to 120min, initial pH 3-8 and sodium persulfate 0-100mg/L, either in ultrapure water or secondary treated wastewater. A factorial design methodology was adopted to elucidate the statistically important effects and their interactions and a full empirical model comprising seventeen terms was originally developed. Omitting several terms of lower significance, a reduced model that can reliably simulate the process was finally proposed; this includes EP concentration, reaction time, power density and initial pH, as well as the interactions (EP concentration)×(US density), (EP concentration)×(pHo) and (EP concentration)×(time). Experiments at an increased EP concentration of 3.5mg/L were also performed to identify degradation by-products. LC-TOF-MS analysis revealed that EP sonochemical degradation occurs through dealkylation of the ethyl chain to form methyl paraben, while successive hydroxylation of the aromatic ring yields 4-hydroxybenzoic, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acids. By-products are less toxic to bacterium V. fischeri than the parent compound. PMID:26964924

  17. Urine tested positive for ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulphate after the consumption of "non-alcoholic" beer.

    PubMed

    Thierauf, Annette; Gnann, Heike; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Auwärter, Volker; Perdekamp, Markus Grosse; Buttler, Klaus-Juergen; Wurst, Friedrich M; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2010-10-10

    In abstinence maintenance programs, for reissuing the driving licence and in workplace monitoring programs abstinence from ethanol and its proof are demanded. Various monitoring programs that mainly use ethyl glucuronide (EtG) as alcohol consumption marker have been established. To abstain from ethanol, but not from the taste of alcoholic beverages, in particular non-alcoholic beer has become more and more popular. In Germany, these "alcohol-free" beverages may still have an ethanol content of up to 0.5vol.% without the duty of declaration. Due to severe negative consequences resulting from positive EtG tests, a drinking experiment with 2.5L of non-alcoholic beer per person was performed to address the question of measurable concentrations of the direct metabolites EtG and EtS (ethyl sulphate) in urine and blood. Both alcohol consumption markers - determined by LC-MS/MS - were found in high concentrations: maximum concentrations in urine found in three volunteers were EtG 0.30-0.87mg/L and EtS 0.04-0.07mg/L, i.e., above the often applied cut-off value for the proof of abstinence of 0.1mg EtG/L. In the urine samples of one further volunteer, EtG and EtS concentrations cumulated over-night and reached up to 14.1mg/L EtG and 16.1mg/L EtS in the next morning's urine. Ethanol concentrations in blood and urine samples were negative (determined by HS-GC-FID and by an ADH-based method). PMID:20457499

  18. Practical use of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in postmortem cases as markers of antemortem alcohol ingestion.

    PubMed

    Høiseth, Gudrun; Karinen, Ritva; Christophersen, Asbjørg; Mørland, Jørg

    2010-03-01

    In postmortem toxicology, it could be difficult to determine whether a positive blood ethanol concentration reflects antemortem ingestion or postmortem synthesis of alcohol. Measurement of the nonoxidative ethanol metabolite ethyl glucuronide (EtG) has been suggested as a marker of antemortem ingestion of alcohol, but EtG might degrade postmortem which could make interpretation difficult. So far, the published articles concern EtG only. Another nonoxidative metabolite, ethyl sulfate (EtS), which is more stable, has therefore been included in this study. We present a material of 36 deaths where postmortem formation of ethanol was suspected and where both EtG and EtS were measured in blood and urine to assist the interpretation. In 19 cases, EtG and EtS were positive in the body fluids analyzed. The median concentration of EtG and EtS in blood was 0.4 (range 0.1-23.2) and 0.9 mg/L (range 0.04-7.9), respectively. The median concentration of EtG and EtS in urine was 35.9 (range 1.0-182) and 8.5 mg/L (range 0.3-99), respectively. In another 16 cases, there was no trace of EtG or EtS in the specimens analyzed. In one case, there was inconsistency between the results of EtG and EtS; they were both positive in urine, while only EtS was positive in blood. This study showed that, out of 36 cases, antemortem ingestion of alcohol was very likely in 19 and unlikely in 16, according to EtG and EtS results. In the last case, the interpretation was more difficult. One possible explanation would be postmortem degradation of EtG in blood. PMID:19937334

  19. Reaction of urethane with nucleic acids in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Boyland, E.; Williams, K.

    1969-01-01

    1. [1-14C]Ethyl carbamate, ethyl [carboxy-14C]carbamate, [1-14C]ethanol and sodium hydrogen [14C]carbonate were injected intraperitoneally into C57 mice, and nucleic acids and proteins were separated from the liver and lungs with phenol as described by Kirby (1956). 2. Chromatographic analysis of the hydrolytic products of the urethane-labelled RNA showed the presence of a single radioactive compound differing in behaviour from the major pyrimidine nucleotides and purines. 3. The products from RNA labelled by [1-14C]ethyl carbamate or ethyl [carboxy-14C]carbamate appeared chromatographically identical but could not be detected in the RNA of mice given [1-14C]ethanol or sodium hydrogen [14C]-carbonate. 4. The labelled product appeared to be the ethyl ester of cytosine-5-carboxylic acid formed by the reaction of urethane with RNA in vivo. 5. A direct reaction between labelled urethane or the labelled metabolite of urethane, [1-3H]-ethyl N-hydroxycarbamate, and RNA was not detected. PMID:5775685

  20. Ethyl-p-aminobenzoate (Benzocaine): efficacy as an anesthetic for five species of freshwater fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, V.K.; Gilderhus, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    Ethyl-p-aminobenzoate (benzocaine) was tested for its efficacy as an anesthetic for rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii, brown trout (Salmo truttas, northern pike (Esox lucius). carp (Cyprinus carpio), and largemouth bass (Mieropterus salmoidesi. Since benzocaine is not water soluble, it was applied with acetone as a carrier. Concentrations of 100 to 200 mg!l were required for large adult northern pike, compared with 50 to 100 mg/l for small fish. Rates of sedation and recovery were slower in cold water than in warm water. Water hardness had little influence on the activity of benzocaine. Fish were anesthetized faster and recovered more slowly in acid than in alkaline water. Benzocaine produced deep anesthesia, but concentrations that rendered the fish handleable within 5 min were generally not safe for exposures longer than 15 min. Concentrations of benzocaine efficacious for fish were not acutely toxic to eggs of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshauiytschas, rainbow trout, brown trout, or lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Benzocaine is not registered for fishery use and is neither more effective nor safer than the registered anesthetic, tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222l.

  1. Bacterial ethane formation from reduced, ethylated sulfur compounds in anoxic sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, R.S.; Whiticar, Michael J.; Strohmaier, F.E.; Kiene, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    Trace levels of ethane were produced biologically in anoxic sediment slurries from five chemically different aquatic environments. Gases from these locations displayed biogenic characteristics, having 12C-enriched values of ??13CH4 (-62 to -86%.), ??13C2H6 (-35 to -55%.) and high ratios (720 to 140,000) of CH4 [C2H6 + C3H8]. Endogenous production of ethane by slurries was inhibited by autoclaving or by addition of the inhibitor of methanogenic bacteria, 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid (BES). Ethane formation was stimulated markedly by ethanethiol (ESH), and, to a lesser extent, by diethylsulfide (DES). Formation of methane and ethane in ESH- or DES-amended slurries was blocked by BES. Experiments showed that ethionine (or an analogous compound) could be a precursor of ESH. Ethylamine or ethanol additions to slurries caused only a minor stimulation of ethane formation. Similarly, propanethiol additions resulted in only a minor enhancement of propane formation. Cell suspensions of a methyltrophic methanogen produced traces of ethane when incubated in the presence of DES, although the organism did not grow on this compound. These results indicate that methanogenic bacteria produce ethane from the traces of ethylated sulfur compounds present in recent sediments. Preliminary estimates of stable carbon isotope fractionation associated with sediment methane formation from dimethylsulfide was about 40%., while ethane formation from DES and ESH was only 4. 6 and 6.5%., respectively. ?? 1988.

  2. Unfolding type gastroretentive film of Cinnarizine based on ethyl cellulose and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose.

    PubMed

    Verma, Shakuntla; Nagpal, Kalpana; Singh, S K; Mishra, D N

    2014-03-01

    The present work was based on the development and characterization of unfolding type gastro retentive dosage form appropriate for controlled release of Cinnarizine (CNZ), a drug with narrow therapeutic window. The drug loaded polymer film of biological macromolecules, i.e., ethyl cellulose (EC) and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC K15) was folded into hard gelatin capsules. The film was folded in different patterns for characterizing their unfolding behavior. The polymeric film revealed a fast release during the first hour followed by a more gradual drug release during a 12-h period following a non-Fickian diffusion process. Tensile strength of polymeric film was optimized using different amount (0.2-0.7 ml) of polyethylene glycol (PEG 400). Various physical parameters were studied for evaluating their performance as a gastroretentive dosage form. Drug and polymers were found to be compatible as revealed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study and scanning electron micrograph (SEM) study revealed uniform dispersion of CNZ in polymeric matrices. The results indicate that unfolding type gastro retentive drug delivery system holds lots of potential for drug having stability problems in alkaline pH or are which mainly absorbed in acidic pH. PMID:24370473

  3. An alkaline lipase from organic solvent tolerant Acinetobacter sp. EH28: Application for ethyl caprylate synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Eltayib Hassan; Raghavendra, Tripti; Madamwar, Datta

    2010-05-01

    A mesophilic bacterium producing a thermostable alkaline lipase was isolated from oil rich soil sample and identified as Acinetobacter sp. EH28. The lipase was partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography with 24.2-fold purification and 57.1U/ml specific activity. The partially purified enzyme exhibited maximum activity at pH 10.0 and at 50 degrees C and was highly stable at 50 degrees C retaining 100% of its activity up to 90min. It was highly stable and retained more than 80% of its initial activity upon exposure to various organic solvents. The EH28 lipase was used for synthesis of the flavor ester ethyl caprylate in organic solvents, thus providing a concept of application of Acinetobacter sp. lipase in non-aqueous catalysis. Reaction parameters best suited for this esterification reaction were 40 degrees C reaction temperature, 1.3:1 ratio of caprylic acid to ethanol and cyclohexane as the medium. PMID:20096565

  4. Reduced production of ethyl carbamate for wine fermentation by deleting CAR1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xue-Wu; Li, Yuan-Zi; Guo, Jian; Wang, Qing; Huang, Shi-Yong; Chen, Ye-Fu; Du, Li-Ping; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2016-05-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC), a pluripotent carcinogen, is mainly formed by a spontaneous chemical reaction of ethanol with urea in wine. The arginine, one of the major amino acids in grape musts, is metabolized by arginase (encoded by CAR1) to ornithine and urea. To reduce the production of urea and EC, an arginase-deficient recombinant strain YZ22 (Δcarl/Δcarl) was constructed from a diploid wine yeast, WY1, by successive deletion of two CAR1 alleles to block the pathway of urea production. The RT-qPCR results indicated that the YZ22 almost did not express CAR1 gene and the specific arginase activity of strain YZ22 was 12.64 times lower than that of parent strain WY1. The fermentation results showed that the content of urea and EC in wine decreased by 77.89 and 73.78 %, respectively. Furthermore, EC was forming in a much lower speed with the lower urea during wine storage. Moreover, the two CAR1 allele deletion strain YZ22 was substantially equivalent to parental strain in terms of growth and fermentation characteristics. Our research also suggested that EC in wine originates mainly from urea that is produced by the arginine. PMID:26831650

  5. Ethyl Pyruvate Ameliorates The Damage Induced by Cyclophosphamide on Adult Mice Testes

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiary, Zahra; Shahrooz, Rasoul; Ahmadi, Abbas; Soltanalinejad, Farhad

    2016-01-01

    Background Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a chemotherapy drug which causes deleterious effects on testicular tissue and increases free radicals in the body. The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effects of ethyl pyruvate (EP) on testicular improvement in CP treated animals. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 15 male mice (6-8 weeks) were divided into 3 groups. The control group received normal saline (0.1 ml/day), intraperitoneal (IP), CP group received CP (15 mg/kg/week, IP), and the CP+EP group received EP (40 mg/kg/day, IP) plus CP. After 35 days, we assessed serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) along with histomorphometric and histochemical analyses of the testicles. Results The mean thickness of the germinal epithelium, diameter of seminiferous tubules, and the number of Leydig cells in the CP+EP group were higher than those of the CP group (P<0.05). The number of the mast cells in the CP+EP group significantly reduced compared with the CP group (P<0.05). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), periodic acid-schiff (PAS) positive reactions and lipid granules in cytoplasm of the Leydig cells in the CP group increased compared with the other groups (P<0.05). TAC in the CP group significantly reduced compared with the other groups (P<0.05). Conclusion This study showed the ability of EP to reduce the destructive side effects of CP in the adult mice reproductive system. PMID:27123204

  6. Reversible Carbene Formation in the Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Acetate by Vaporization and Condensation.

    PubMed

    Kar, Bishnu Prasad; Sander, Wolfram

    2015-12-01

    The role of N-heterocyclic carbenes in the chemistry of ionic liquids based on imidazolium salts has long been discussed. Here, we present experimental evidence that 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-2-ylidene (EMIm) can coexist with its protonated imidazolium cation (EMImH(+) ) at low temperatures. If the vapor of the ionic liquid [EMImH(+) ][AcO(-) ] is trapped in solid argon or nitrogen at 9 K, only acetic acid (AcOH) and the carbene, but no ionic species, are found by IR spectroscopy. This indicates that during the evaporation of [EMImH(+) ][AcO(-) ] proton transfer occurs to form the neutral species. If the vapor of [EMImH(+) ][AcO(-) ] is trapped at 9 K as film in the absence of a host matrix, a solid consisting of EMImH(+) , EMIm, AcO(-) , and AcOH is formed. During warming to room temperature the proton transfer in the solid to form back the IL [EMImH(+) ][AcO(-) ] can be monitored by IR spectroscopy. This clearly demonstrates that evaporation and condensation of the IL [EMImH(+) ][AcO(-) ] results in a double proton transfer, and the carbene EMIm is only metastable even at low temperatures. PMID:26376583

  7. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models

    SciTech Connect

    Saeed, Noha M.; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Abdel-Rahman, Hanaa M.; Algandaby, Mardi M.; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A.; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B.

    2012-10-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-κB expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models. -- Highlights: ► Efficacy of MP and EP in combating inflammation was displayed in several models. ► MP and EP reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and prostaglandin E2 level. ► MP and EP decreased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in experimental endotoxemia. ► MP and EP reduced NF-κB expression and histological changes in rat liver and lung. ► MP and EP reduced croton oil-induced ear edema and neutrophil infiltration.

  8. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Noha M; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Abdel-Rahman, Hanaa M; Algandaby, Mardi M; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2012-10-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-κB expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models. PMID:22842335

  9. Cyanate as an Active Precursor of Ethyl Carbamate Formation in Sugar Cane Spirit.

    PubMed

    Galinaro, Carlos A; Ohe, Thiago H K; da Silva, Augusto C H; da Silva, Sebastião C; Franco, Douglas W

    2015-08-26

    The thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of ethyl carbamate (EC) formation through the reaction between cyanate and ethanol were investigated. The rate constant values for cyanate ion decay and EC formation are (8.0 ± 0.4) × 10(-5) and (8.9 ± 0.4) × 10(-5) s(-1), respectively, at 25 °C in 48% aqueous ethanolic solution at pH 4.5. Under the investigated experimental conditions, the rate constants are independent of the ethanol and cyanate concentrations but increase as the temperature increases (ΔH1(⧧) = 19.4 ± 1 kcal/mol, ΔS1(⧧) = −12.1 ± 1 cal/K, and ΔG1(⧧) = 23.0 ± 1 kcal/mol) and decrease as the solution pH increases. According to molecular modeling (DFT) that was performed to analyze the reaction mechanism, the isocyanic acid (HNCO) is the active EC precursor. The calculated ΔG1(⧧), ΔH1(⧧), and ΔS1(⧧) values are in very good agreement with the experimental ones. PMID:26248556

  10. Release behavior and kinetic evaluation of berberine hydrochloride from ethyl cellulose/chitosan microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hui-Yun; Cao, Pei-Pei; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Zhi-Ying; Li, Jun-Bo; Zhang, Fa-Liang

    2014-12-01

    Novel ethyl cellulose/chitosan microspheres (ECCMs) were prepared by the method of w/o/w emulsion and solvent evaporation. The microspheres were spherical, adhesive, and aggregated loosely with a size not bigger than 5 μm. The drug loading efficiency of berberine hydrochloride (BH) loaded in microspheres were affected by chitosan (CS) concentration, EC concentration and the volume ratio of V(CS)/ V(EC). ECCMs prepared had sustained release efficiency on BH which was changed with different preparation parameters. In addition, the pH value of release media had obvious effect on the release character of ECCMs. The release rate of BH from sample B was only a little more than 30% in diluted hydrochloric acid (dHCl) and that was almost 90% in PBS during 24 h. Furthermore, the drug release data were fitted to different kinetic models to analyze the release kinetics and the mechanism from the microspheres. The released results of BH indicated that ECCMs exhibited non-Fickian diffusion mechanism in dHCl and diffusion-controlled drug release based on Fickian diffusion in PBS. So the ECCMs might be an ideal sustained release system especially in dHCl and the drug release was governed by both diffusion of the drug and dissolution of the polymeric network.

  11. (R)-1-Phenyl­ethyl­ammonium trifluoro­acetate

    PubMed Central

    Hernández Linares, María-Guadalupe; Guerrero Luna, Gabriel; Bernès, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title salt, C8H12N+·C2F3O2 −, all of the ammonium H atoms serve as donors for hydrogen bonds to carboxyl­ate O atoms, forming an R 4 3(10) ring motif based on two cations and two anions. Since both cations and anions act as inter-ion bridging groups, R(10) rings aggregate in a one-dimensional supra­molecular network by sharing the strongest N—H⋯O bond. Edge-sharing motifs lie on the twofold screw axis parallel to [010], and anti­parallel packing of these 21-column structural units results in the crystal structure. This arrangement is one of the most commonly occurring in conglomerates of chiral 1-phenyl­ethyl­amine with achiral monocarboxylic acids, confirming that these ionic salts are particularly robust supra­molecular heterosynthons useful in crystal engineering. PMID:21579169

  12. 21 CFR 176.160 - Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.160 Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine. The chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl -...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10588 - Phenol, 2-[1-[[3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)propyl]imino]ethyl]-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phenol, 2- imino]ethyl]-. 721.10588... Substances § 721.10588 Phenol, 2- imino]ethyl]-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phenol, 2- imino]ethyl]- (PMN P-11-98; CAS No....

  14. 40 CFR 721.10588 - Phenol, 2-[1-[[3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)propyl]imino]ethyl]-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phenol, 2- imino]ethyl]-. 721.10588... Substances § 721.10588 Phenol, 2- imino]ethyl]-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phenol, 2- imino]ethyl]- (PMN P-11-98; CAS No....

  15. A Comparative Overview of Prescription Omega-3 Fatty Acid Products

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 25% of adults in the United States have elevated triglyceride (TG) levels. This is of particular concern given the evidence for a causal role of TG in the pathway of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Approved prescription omega-3 fatty acid products (RxOM3FAs) contain the long-chain fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and/or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and are effective options for the treatment of high TG levels. RxOM3FAs that contain both EPA and DHA include omega-3-acid ethyl esters (ethyl esters of EPA and DHA; brand and generic products) and omega-3-carboxylic acids (free fatty acids primarily composed of EPA and DHA), while the RxOM3FA icosapent ethyl (the ethyl ester of EPA) contains EPA only. All RxOM3FA products produce substantial TG reduction and other beneficial effects on atherogenic lipid and inflammation-related parameters, blood pressure, and heart rate variability, but products that contain DHA may raise low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). This commentary provides an overview of hypertriglyceridemia while summarizing the pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of prescription RxOM3FAs. PMID:26681905

  16. Mechanism of quizalofop-ethyl selectivity in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species

    SciTech Connect

    Ruizzo, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) susceptibility to quizalofop-ethyl herbicide was investigated under field and greenhouse conditions. Yield of cucumber cultivars was significantly reduced under field conditions with a single or repeat application of the ethyl ester of quizalofop at 0.14 or 0.28 kg ai/ha. Under greenhouse conditions, quialofop-ethyl significantly suppressed cucumber plant fresh weight with or without the presence of an adjuvant. Enhancement of herbicide activity was directly related to concentration of adjuvant. Microliter droplet application of quizalofop-ethyl at a 10/sup -3/ M concentration, inhibited the relative growth (RGR) and net assimilation rate (NAR) of the treated cucumber leaf 45% and 52%, respectively. Expression of herbicidal injury was localized on the treated leaf with no visible symptoms observed on adjacent leaves. Radiolabeled /sup 14/C-quizalofop-ethyl was applied to leaves of cucumber and corn (Zea mays L.) to compare translocation patterns between two susceptible plant species and relate this information to the observed selectivity of the herbicide. Cucumber autoradiographs showed minimal translocation of /sup 14/C-quizalofop-ethyl 192 hours after treatment. In contrast, corn autoradiographs showed both apoplastic and symplastic transport of quizalofop-ethyl 3 and 24 hours after treatment. Quantification of /sup 14/C in cucumber revealed 96% of absorbed /sup 14/C was confined to the treated leaf after 192h of exposure.

  17. Incorportation of Ethyl Esters of EPA and DHA in Soybean Lecithin Using Rhizomucor miehei Lipase: Effect of Additives and Solvent-Free Conditions.

    PubMed

    Marsaoui, Nabil; Naghmouchi, Karim; Baah, John; Raies, Aly; Laplante, Serge

    2015-06-01

    The transesterification of soybean lecithin with ethyl esters of polyunsaturated fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) using immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei was tested in the presence or absence of organic solvent (hexane) and additives (urea with Ca(2+) or Mg(2+)). The reaction was carried out at a water concentration of 4 % and ethyl ester to phospholipid mass ratio of 3:1. After 24 h of reaction without solvent or additive, fatty acid incorporation reached 29.1 % and thereafter increased only slightly. After 48 h, incorporation was highest in the presence of Mg(2+), urea, and solvent. After 72 h, it was highest with Mg(2+) and urea in the presence or absence of solvent (56.8 and 45.7 %, respectively). Incorporation of EPA and DHA was thus initially fast without solvent and additive, but was increased after prolonged reaction in the presence of Mg(2+) and urea with or without solvent. These results are innovative and promising since they show that immobilized Rhizomucor miehei lipase has potential as a biocatalyst for interesterification reactions without solvent. PMID:25894950

  18. [Study on vibrational spectra of ethyl hexanoate molecule].

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhi-peng; Du, Ya-bing; Zhang, Ling; Li, Peng-wei; Jia, Ting-jian; Mo, Yu-jun

    2008-09-01

    The vibrational spectra of ethyl hexanoate were calculated by the density functional theory (DFT) with B3LYP complex function, diffuse function and polarization function added to heavy atoms and light atoms. On the base of this, the normal Raman spectrum (NRS) and the infrared spectrum (IR) were assigned in detail in the present paper. Comparing the calculated results with the experimental data, the calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental results. The comparison of the experimental Raman and infrared spectra shows that in the experimental Raman spectrum, the strongest bands appear at the frequencies of 2600-3100 cm(-1), while the strongest band is not 1734 cm(-1) but 1444 cm(-1) at the frequencies of 400-2000 cm(-1). The band 1734 cm(-1) attributed to the C=O stretch vibration is the distinctive mark of organic ester compounds, and the band 1444 cm(-1) is related to the symmetric and anti-symmetric scissors vibration of C-H. In the experimental infrared spectrum, the strongest vibrational band is 1739 cm(-1), which is related to C=O stretch vibration; At the frequencies of 400-2000 cm(-1), the relative intensity of the infrared spectrum is distinctively stronger than that of the Raman spectrum, but the relative intensity of infrared spectrum is weaker than that of the Raman spectrum at the frequencies of 2600-3100 cm(-1). In the frequencies of 2600-2800 cm(-1), the vibrational bands 2762 and 2732 cm(-1) do not appear in the experimental spectra, which may originate from two reasons: (1) the weak interaction of molecules. Also, the relative intensity of these vibrational bands is very weak in the experimental spectra, and this may testify that the interaction of molecules is rather weak; (2) the vibrational bands may belong to second order vibrational mode at the frequencies of 2600-2800 cm(-1). The relative intensity of infrared bands is weaker than that of the Raman bands at the frequencies of 2600-2800 cm(-1). At the end, the stronger bands

  19. Replication across Regioisomeric Ethylated Thymidine Lesions by Purified DNA Polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Nisana; Wang, Pengcheng; Wang, Yinsheng

    2013-01-01

    Causal links exist between smoking cigarettes and cancer development. Some genotoxic agents in cigarette smoke are capable of alkylating nucleobases in DNA and higher levels of ethylated DNA lesions were observed in smokers than non-smokers. In this study, we examined comprehensively how the regioisomeric O2-, N3- and O4-ethylthymidine (O2-, N3- and O4-EtdT) perturb DNA replication mediated by purified human DNA polymerases (hPol) η, κ, and ι, yeast DNA polymerase ζ (yPol ζ), and the exonuclease-free Klenow fragment (Kf−) of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I. Our results showed that hPol η and Kf− could bypass all three lesions and generate full-length replication products, whereas hPol ι stalled after inserting a single nucleotide opposite the lesions. Bypass carried out by hPol κ and yPol ζ differed markedly amongst the three lesions: Consistent with its known capability in bypassing efficiently the minor-groove N2-substituted 2′-deoxyguanosine lesions, hPol κ was able to bypass O2-EtdT, though it experienced great difficulty in bypassing N3-EtdT and O4-EtdT; yPol ζ was only modestly blocked by O4-EtdT, but the polymerase was highly hindered by O2-EtdT and N3-EtdT. LC-MS/MS analysis of the replication products revealed that DNA synthesis opposite O4-EtdT was highly error-prone, with dGMP being preferentially inserted, while the presence of O2-EtdT and N3-EtdT in template DNA directed substantial frequencies of misincorporation of dGMP and, for hPol ι and Kf−, dTMP. Thus, our results suggested that O2-EtdT and N3-EtdT may also contribute to the AT→TA and AT→GC mutations observed in cells and tissues of animals exposed to ethylating agents. PMID:24134187

  20. Searching for trans ethyl methyl ether in Orion KL⋆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; López, A.; Brouillet, N.; Kolesniková, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margulès, L.; Alonso, J. L.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2015-10-01

    We report on the tentative detection of trans ethyl methyl ether (tEME), t-CH3CH2OCH3, through the identification of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule towards Orion KL. We also search for gauche-trans-n-propanol, Gt-n-CH3CH2CH2OH, an isomer of tEME in the same source. We have identified lines of both species in the IRAM 30 m line survey and in the ALMA Science Verification data. We have obtained ALMA maps to establish the spatial distribution of these species. Whereas tEME mainly arises from the compact ridge component of Orion, Gt-n-propanol appears at the emission peak of ethanol (south hot core). The derived column densities of these species at the location of their emission peaks are ≤(4.0 ± 0.8) × 1015 cm-2 and ≤(1.0 ± 0.2) × 1015 cm-2 for tEME and Gt-n-propanol, respectively. The rotational temperature is ~100 K for both molecules. We also provide maps of CH3OCOH, CH3CH2OCOH, CH3OCH3, CH3OH, and CH3CH2OH to compare the distribution of these organic saturated O-bearing species containing methyl and ethyl groups in this region. Abundance ratios of related species and upper limits to the abundances of non-detected ethers are provided. We derive an abundance ratio N(CH3OCH3)/N(tEME) ≥ 150 in the compact ridge of Orion. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2011.0.00009.SV. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA), and NINS (Japan) with NRC (Canada), NSC, and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO, and NAOJ. This work was also based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30-m telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org