Science.gov

Sample records for 3-year prospective study

  1. Aetiopathology of maxillary swelling--a 3-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Deb; Crank, Stephen

    2007-11-01

    A wide variety of lesions and not necessarily a malignant tumour can cause maxillary swelling. Non-specificity of clinical and radiological features of these maxillary lesions makes their diagnosis difficult. Review of literature adds a little regarding the aetiopathological distribution of the various lesions causing maxillary swelling. We present our finding regarding the relative distribution of various conditions causing maxillary swelling. The awareness of the spectrum of pathology related to maxillary swelling is essential for correct diagnosis and treatment. Forty-eight patients who presented with a swelling of the maxilla to our hospital between May 1998 and April 2001 were prospectively studied regarding the clinical presentations, radiological features and histological findings. Maxillary swelling was found to be caused by malignant tumours in 54.2%, benign neoplasms in 22.9% and non-neoplastic lesions in 22.9%. Overall squamous cell carcinoma (22.9%) was the commonest lesion, tumour of vascular origin was the commonest benign neoplasm and odontogenic cyst was the commonest among the non-neoplastic lesions. PMID:17611767

  2. Does Attention Constrain Developmental Trajectories in Fragile X Syndrome? A 3-Year Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornish, Kim; Cole, Victoria; Longhi, Elena; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Scerif, Gaia

    2012-01-01

    Basic attentional processes and their impact on developmental trajectories in fragile X syndrome were assessed in a 3-year prospective study. Although fragile X syndrome is a monogenic X-linked disorder, there is striking variability in outcomes even in young boys with the condition. Attention is a key factor constraining interactions with the…

  3. Negative cognitive styles synergistically predict suicidal ideation in bipolar spectrum disorders: a 3-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Stange, Jonathan P; Hamilton, Jessica L; Burke, Taylor A; Kleiman, Evan M; O'Garro-Moore, Jared K; Seligman, Nicole D; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-03-30

    Rates of suicidal ideation and behavior are extremely high in bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs). However, relatively little work has evaluated potentially synergistic relationships between cognitive and emotion-regulatory processes proposed by theoretical models of suicidality in BSDs. The present study evaluated whether negative cognitive style and subtypes of rumination would exacerbate the impact of self-criticism on suicidal ideation in a prospective study of individuals with BSDs. Seventy-two young adults with BSDs (bipolar II, bipolar NOS, or cyclothymia) completed diagnostic interviews and trait measures of self-criticism, negative cognitive style, and brooding and reflective rumination at a baseline assessment. The occurrence of suicidal ideation was assessed as part of diagnostic interviews completed every 4 months for an average of 3 years of follow-up. Negative cognitive style and reflective rumination strengthened the association between self-criticism and the prospective occurrence of suicidal ideation across follow-up. Individuals with high levels of self-criticism in conjunction with negative cognitive style or reflective rumination were most likely to experience the onset of suicidal ideation. Self-criticism may work synergistically with negative cognitive style and rumination to confer risk for suicidal ideation in bipolar spectrum disorders. These results support theoretical models of suicidality in BSDs and indicate that evaluating and understanding negative cognitive styles may help to identify individuals who are at risk of suicide. PMID:25660736

  4. Intrathecal opioid treatment for chronic non-malignant pain: a 3-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Thimineur, Mark A; Kravitz, Edward; Vodapally, Mohan S

    2004-06-01

    Intrathecal (IT) opioid therapy is a treatment alternative for patients with severe chronic non-malignant pain. Several uncontrolled retrospective and prospective outcome studies have suggested a benefit in chronic non-malignant pain patients, but uncertainties about patient selection in these studies weaken the results. This study evaluated long-term outcome of IT opioid therapy in chronic non-malignant pain prospectively, and included two comparative groups to improve understanding of selection criteria and relative severity of intrathecal pump recipients (PRs). The study subjects included 38 PRs while the comparative groups included 31 intrathecal candidates who either had an unsuccessful trial, or declined the IT therapy, and another group of 41 newly referred patients. The following data were analyzed at study entry, and at 6 monthly intervals for a 3-year period: Symptom Check List 90 (SLC-90), SF-36 Health survey, Beck Depression Inventory, McGill Pain Questionnaire (short form), Oswestry Disability Index, Pain Drawings and Pain rating on visual analogue scale. Data analysis suggests the study group of PRs had improvements in pain, mood, and function from baseline to 36 months. These same parameters improved among new referrals (less severe patients receiving conservative pain management) while non-recipients significantly worsened. Although PRs improved, they were still worse off at 36 months than new referrals were at baseline. The study showed that when patients with extremely severe pain problems are selected as pump candidates, they will likely improve with the therapy, but their overall severity of pain and symptoms still remains high. PMID:15157684

  5. Gender Abuse, Depressive Symptoms, and Substance Use Among Transgender Women: A 3-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Bockting, Walter; Rosenblum, Andrew; Hwahng, Sel; Mason, Mona; Macri, Monica; Becker, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effects of gender abuse (enacted stigma), depressive symptoms, and demographic, economic, and lifestyle factors on substance use among transgender women. Methods. We conducted a 3-year prospective study (December 2004 to September 2007) of 230 transgender women aged 19 to 59 years from the New York Metropolitan Area. Statistical techniques included generalized estimating equations with logistic and linear regression links. Results. Six-month prevalence of any substance use at baseline was 76.2%. Across assessment points, gender abuse was associated with alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, or any substance use during the previous 6 months, the number of days these substances were used during the previous month, and the number of substances used. Additional modeling associated changes in gender abuse with changes in substance use across time. Associations of gender abuse and substance use were mediated 55% by depressive symptoms. Positive associations of employment income, sex work, transgender identity, and hormone therapy with substance use were mediated 19% to 42% by gender abuse. Conclusions. Gender abuse, in conjunction with depressive symptoms, is a pervasive and moderately strong risk factor for substance use among transgender women. Improved substance abuse treatment is sorely needed for this population. PMID:25211716

  6. Acute Undifferentiated Febrile Illness in Rural Cambodia: A 3-Year Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Tara C.; Siv, Sovannaroth; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Fleischmann, Erna; Ariey, Frédéric; Buchy, Philippe; Guillard, Bertrand; González, Iveth J.; Christophel, Eva-Maria; Abdur, Rashid; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Bell, David; Menard, Didier

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, malaria control has been successfully implemented in Cambodia, leading to a substantial decrease in reported cases. Wide-spread use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) has revealed a large burden of malaria-negative fever cases, for which no clinical management guidelines exist at peripheral level health facilities. As a first step towards developing such guidelines, a 3-year cross-sectional prospective observational study was designed to investigate the causes of acute malaria-negative febrile illness in Cambodia. From January 2008 to December 2010, 1193 febrile patients and 282 non-febrile individuals were recruited from three health centers in eastern and western Cambodia. Malaria RDTs and routine clinical examination were performed on site by health center staff. Venous samples and nasopharyngeal throat swabs were collected and analysed by molecular diagnostic tests. Blood cultures and blood smears were also taken from all febrile individuals. Molecular testing was applied for malaria parasites, Leptospira, Rickettsia, O. tsutsugamushi, Dengue- and Influenza virus. At least one pathogen was identified in 73.3% (874/1193) of febrile patient samples. Most frequent pathogens detected were P. vivax (33.4%), P. falciparum (26.5%), pathogenic Leptospira (9.4%), Influenza viruses (8.9%), Dengue viruses (6.3%), O. tsutsugamushi (3.9%), Rickettsia (0.2%), and P. knowlesi (0.1%). In the control group, a potential pathogen was identified in 40.4%, most commonly malaria parasites and Leptospira. Clinic-based diagnosis of malaria RDT-negative cases was poorly predictive for pathogen and appropriate treatment. Additional investigations are needed to understand their impact on clinical disease and epidemiology, and the possible role of therapies such as doxycycline, since many of these pathogens were seen in non-febrile subjects. PMID:24755844

  7. The Development of Core Cognitive Skills in Autism: A 3-Year Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study tested the veracity of one candidate multiple-deficits account of autism by assessing 37 children with autism (M age = 67.9 months) and 31 typical children (M age = 65.2 months) on tasks tapping components of theory of mind (ToM), executive function (EF), and central coherence (CC) at intake and again 3 years later. As a…

  8. Ice Hockey Injuries in a Japanese Elite Team: A 3-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Kuzuhara, Kenji; Shimamoto, Hideki; Mase, Yasuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Context: As the Asian Ice Hockey League gradually expands and becomes more competitive, ice hockey-related injuries may increase. However, no reports have been published on ice hockey injuries in Japan, including the method of injury and the daily supervision of the players during the regular season. Objective: To prospectively study the incidence, types, and mechanisms of ice hockey injuries in an elite Japanese ice hockey team. Design: Prospective observational cohort study design. Setting: An elite ice hockey team, Tokyo, Japan. Patients or Other Participants: Ninety-four players during the 2002–2005 seasons. Main Outcome Measure(s): Data were collected for 3 consecutive seasons using an injury reporting form. Results: The overall game injury rate was 74.3 per 1000 player-game hours and 11.7 per 1000 player-game hours for injuries resulting in any time loss. The overall practice injury rates were 11.2 per 1000 player-practice hours and 1.1 per 1000 player-practice hours for injuries resulting in any time loss. Forwards had the highest rate of injury, followed by defensemen and then goalkeepers. Contusions were the most common injury, followed by strains, lacerations, and sprains. Conclusions: Most injuries among Japanese ice hockey players occurred during games. Game or play intensity may influence the injury rate during games. PMID:19295967

  9. Immediate implants and immediate loading in periodontally compromised patients-a 3-year prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Alves, Celia Coutinho; Correia, Andre Ricardo; Neves, Manuel

    2010-10-01

    To avoid the necessity of a removable provisional prosthesis, and therefore preserve the patient's functional outcome, esthetics, and quality of life, a clinical protocol was developed to approach periodontally compromised patients presenting a full-arch irreversibly lost dentition: full-arch extraction and immediate replacement with a provisional acrylic resin implant-supported fixed partial denture (FPD). A total of 23 periodontally compromised patients (11 women, 12 men; 4 smokers, 4 controlled diabetics) were included in this study. Pretreatment casts were taken and vertical dimension of occlusion was determined. In most patients, 6 Straumann implants were distributed along the arch according to the surgical guide or bone availability, with the most distal ones in the maxilla slightly tilted so they could emerge more distally. A total of 168 implants (146 Straumann, 10 Nobel Biocare, 8 Biomet 3i, and 4 Lifecore) were placed (83 in the maxilla, 85 in the mandible). Of those in the maxilla, 74 were loaded immediately (implant stability quotient mentor [ISQm] > 70) and 9 placed with delayed loading (ISQm =/< 70). Of the 85 implants placed in the mandible, all were loaded immediately (ISQm > 70). If an FPD had not been fabricated already, impressions were taken during surgery to do so. The prosthesis was then adapted (cemented or screwed) to the 6 implants within the first 48 hours postsurgery. After 2 months, definitive impressions were taken, and a definitive porcelain-fused-to-metal implant-supported 12-element FPD was fabricated and cemented or screwed to all 6 implants. Of the 168 implants, 108 were immediate implants and 159 immediately loaded. Only 2 implants (1 in the mandible, 1 in the maxilla) did not osseointegrate. This yields a 3-year cumulative survival rate of 98.74% (98.65% in the maxilla, 98.82% in the mandible). From a total of 26 immediately loaded prostheses (12 in the maxilla, 14 in the mandible), 6 were cemented and 20 screw-retained. The 3

  10. Effects of intracranial meningioma location, size, and surgery on neurocognitive functions: a 3-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Liouta, Evangelia; Koutsarnakis, Christos; Liakos, Faidon; Stranjalis, George

    2016-06-01

    OBJECT Current recommendations stress the need for cognitive parameters to be integrated in the evaluation of outcomes for intracranial meningioma surgery. The aim of this prospective study was to examine neurocognitive function in meningioma patients pre- and postoperatively. METHODS Patients with skull base (anterior and middle fossa) and convexity (anterior and posterior) meningiomas (n = 54) underwent neuropsychological examination prior to and 1 year after surgery. A control group (n = 52) of healthy volunteers matched for age, sex, and education underwent the same examination. Assessments included executive, memory, and motor functions with standardized testing. Patients with convexity meningiomas were clinically assessed for parietal association cortex functions. RESULTS All patients performed significantly worse (p < 0.05) in most neurocognitive domains than controls. The skull base group showed more disturbances in memory than the convexity group (p < 0.05). The anterior convexity group showed more deficits in executive function than the posterior convexity group, which presented with parietal association cortex deficits. Verbal deficits were more pronounced in the left hemisphere than in the right hemisphere. Patients with a large tumor (> 4 cm) had more severe neurocognitive deficits than those with a small tumor (< 4 cm). Postoperatively, patients showed no deterioration in neurocognitive function. Instead, significant improvement (p < 0.05) was observed in some executive, motor, and parietal association cortex functions. CONCLUSIONS According to the authors' findings, intracranial meningiomas may cause neurocognitive deficits in patients. Surgery does not cause a deterioration in cognitive function; instead, it may lead to improvements in some functions. Permanent neuropsychological postoperative deficits should be interpreted as tumor-induced rather than due to surgery. PMID:26636380

  11. Outcome from a Prospective, Longitudinal Study of Prenatal Cocaine Use: Preschool Development at 3 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Behnke, Marylou; Eyler, Fonda Davis; Warner, Tamara Duckworth; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson; Hou, Wei; Wobie, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on child development. Methods This prospective, longitudinal study recruited 154 pregnant cocaine users who were matched on race, parity, socioeconomic status, and perinatal risk to 154 noncocaine users. Drug use status was determined by maternal history and urine screening. At 3 years of age, the child subjects were assessed by an evaluator blinded to maternal drug use history. During a home visit at age 3, caregiver, family, and home assessments were administered. Results Structural equation modeling showed a direct effect of the amount of prenatal cocaine exposure on the adjusted birth head circumference which in turn directly affected preschool development. Conclusions We could not demonstrate a direct effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on preschool development, a result that is consistent with that of earlier work and now extending findings to age 3. However, cocaine continued to exert an indirect effect on development through its direct effect on the head circumference at birth. PMID:15827349

  12. Sustained favorable long-term outcome in the treatment of schizophrenia: a 3-year prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study of chronically ill patients with schizophrenia aimed to identify patients who achieve sustained favorable long-term outcome - when the outcome incorporates severity of symptoms, level of functioning, and use of acute care services - and to identify the best baseline predictors of achieving this sustained favorable long-term outcome. Methods Using data from the United States Schizophrenia Care and Assessment Program (US-SCAP) (N = 2327), a large 3-year prospective, multisite, observational study of individuals treated for schizophrenia in the US, a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to group patients based upon baseline symptom severity. Symptom severity was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores, level of functioning, and use of acute care services. Level of functioning reflected patient-reported productivity and clinician-rated occupational role functioning. Use of acute care services reflected self-reported psychiatric hospitalization and emergency service use. Change of health state was determined over the 3-year period. A patient was classified as having a sustained favorable long-term outcome if their health state values had the closest distance to the defined "best baseline cluster" at each point over the length of the study. Stepwise logistic regression was used to determine baseline predictors of sustained favorable long-term outcome. Results At baseline, 5 distinct health state clusters were identified, ranging from "best" to "worst." Of 1635 patients with sufficient data, only 157 (10%) experienced sustained favorable long-term outcome during the 2-years postbaseline. The baseline predictors associated with sustained favorable long-term outcome included better quality of life, more daily activities, patient-reported clearer thinking from medication, better global functioning, being employed, not being a victim of a crime, not having received individual therapy, and not having received help

  13. Observational prospective study of viral infections in children undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: a 3-year GETMON experience.

    PubMed

    Verdeguer, A; de Heredia, C D; González, M; Martínez, A M; Fernández-Navarro, J M; Pérez-Hurtado, J M; Badell, I; Gómez, P; González, M E; Muñoz, A; Díaz, M A

    2011-01-01

    We studied surveillance, incidence and outcome of viral infections in children undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in the main pediatric transplant units in Spain. We prospectively collected data from first year post-HCT in every consecutive allogeneic HCT performed during 3 years (N = 215): first HCT = 188 and second HCT = 27; median age = 6.6 years (0.1-20.7). Most patients had acute leukemia (N = 137) and 135 recipients (63%) were CMV seropositive. A total of 46 patients underwent cord blood transplant, 133 patients underwent HCT from alternative donors (62%) and 101 patients received anti-thymocyte globulin. Observational time was completed in 137 patients, whereas the remaining 78 died after a median survival time of 99 days (3-352). CMV was monitored in all patients; adenovirus (ADV) and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) were monitored in 101 and 33 patients, respectively. We found 145 viral infections in 103 patients: CMV (n = 42), ADV (n = 32), HHV-6 (n = 7), polyomavirus (n = 20), EBV (n = 6), VZV (n=17) and others (n = 8). CMV infection was significantly higher in seropositive patients (25 vs 7%) (P = 0.02). Extensive chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was significantly associated with an increased rate of viral infections (12 of 16 patients with cGVHD had infections vs 91 of 199 without GVHD) (P = 0.035). In total, 10 patients (4.6%) died of viral infections (CMV = 5, ADV = 3, respiratory = 2). We found a high incidence of viral infection, but mortality was low. PMID:20228849

  14. Intergenerational Transmission of Warm-Sensitive-Stimulating Parenting: A Prospective Study of Mothers and Fathers of 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Jaffee, Sara R.; Sligo, Judith; Woodward, Lianne; Silva, Phil A.

    2005-01-01

    More than 200 New Zealand men and women studied repeatedly since age 3 were videotaped interacting with their own 3-year-old children to determine (a) whether childrearing and family climate experienced in 3 distinct developmental periods while growing up (i.e., early childhood, middle childhood, early adolescence) predicted parenting and (b)…

  15. 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing Single Titanium Dental Implants: A Prospective Multicenter Study with 3 Years of Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This prospective 3-year follow-up clinical study evaluated the survival and success rates of 3DP/AM titanium dental implants to support single implant-supported restorations. After 3 years of loading, clinical, radiographic, and prosthetic parameters were assessed; the implant survival and the implant-crown success were evaluated. Eighty-two patients (44 males, 38 females; age range 26–67 years) were enrolled in the present study. A total of 110 3DP/AM titanium dental implants (65 maxilla, 45 mandible) were installed: 75 in healed alveolar ridges and 35 in postextraction sockets. The prosthetic restorations included 110 single crowns (SCs). After 3 years of loading, six implants failed, for an overall implant survival rate of 94.5%; among the 104 surviving implant-supported restorations, 6 showed complications and were therefore considered unsuccessful, for an implant-crown success of 94.3%. The mean distance between the implant shoulder and the first visible bone-implant contact was 0.75 mm (±0.32) and 0.89 (±0.45) after 1 and 3 years of loading, respectively. 3DP/AM titanium dental implants seem to represent a successful clinical option for the rehabilitation of single-tooth gaps in both jaws, at least until 3-year period. Further, long-term clinical studies are needed to confirm the present results. PMID:27313616

  16. 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing Single Titanium Dental Implants: A Prospective Multicenter Study with 3 Years of Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Tunchel, Samy; Blay, Alberto; Kolerman, Roni; Mijiritsky, Eitan; Shibli, Jamil Awad

    2016-01-01

    This prospective 3-year follow-up clinical study evaluated the survival and success rates of 3DP/AM titanium dental implants to support single implant-supported restorations. After 3 years of loading, clinical, radiographic, and prosthetic parameters were assessed; the implant survival and the implant-crown success were evaluated. Eighty-two patients (44 males, 38 females; age range 26-67 years) were enrolled in the present study. A total of 110 3DP/AM titanium dental implants (65 maxilla, 45 mandible) were installed: 75 in healed alveolar ridges and 35 in postextraction sockets. The prosthetic restorations included 110 single crowns (SCs). After 3 years of loading, six implants failed, for an overall implant survival rate of 94.5%; among the 104 surviving implant-supported restorations, 6 showed complications and were therefore considered unsuccessful, for an implant-crown success of 94.3%. The mean distance between the implant shoulder and the first visible bone-implant contact was 0.75 mm (±0.32) and 0.89 (±0.45) after 1 and 3 years of loading, respectively. 3DP/AM titanium dental implants seem to represent a successful clinical option for the rehabilitation of single-tooth gaps in both jaws, at least until 3-year period. Further, long-term clinical studies are needed to confirm the present results. PMID:27313616

  17. 3-year results of transvaginal cystocele repair with transobturator four-arm mesh: A prospective study of 105 patients

    PubMed Central

    Kdous, Moez; Zhioua, Fethi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of transobturator four-arm mesh for treating cystoceles. Patients and methods In this prospective study, 105 patients had a cystocele corrected between January 2004 and December 2008. All patients had a symptomatic cystocele of stage ⩾2 according to the Baden–Walker halfway stratification. We used only the transobturator four-arm mesh kit (Surgimesh®, Aspide Medical, France). All surgical procedures were carried out by the same experienced surgeon. The patients’ characteristics and surgical variables were recorded prospectively. The anatomical outcome, as measured by a physical examination and postoperative stratification of prolapse, and functional outcome, as assessed by a questionnaire derived from the French equivalents of the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory, Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire and the Pelvic Organ Prolapse–Urinary Incontinence-Sexual Questionnaire, were considered as the primary outcome measures. Peri- and postoperative complications constituted the secondary outcome measures. Results At 36 months after surgery the anatomical success rate (stage 0 or 1) was 93%. On a functional level, all the scores of quality of life and sexuality were improved. The overall satisfaction score (visual analogue scale) was 71.4%. There were no perioperative adverse events. Mesh erosion was reported in 7.6% and mesh retraction in 5.7% of the patients. Conclusions If the guidelines and precautions are followed, vaginal prosthetic surgery for genitourinary prolapse has shown long-term benefits. It provides excellent results both anatomically and functionally. However, complications are not negligible and some are specific to prosthetic surgery. PMID:26019962

  18. Maxillary Overdentures Supported by Four Splinted Direct Metal Laser Sintering Implants: A 3-Year Prospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Mangano, Francesco; Shibli, Jamil Awad; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Nowadays, the advancements in direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) technology allow the fabrication of titanium dental implants. The aim of this study was to evaluate implant survival, complications, and peri-implant marginal bone loss of DMLS implants used to support bar-retained maxillary overdentures. Materials and Methods. Over a 2-year period, 120 implants were placed in the maxilla of 30 patients (18 males, 12 females) to support bar-retained maxillary overdentures (ODs). Each OD was supported by 4 implants splinted by a rigid cobalt-chrome bar. At each annual follow-up session, clinical and radiographic parameters were assessed. The outcome measures were implant failure, biological and prosthetic complications, and peri-implant marginal bone loss (distance between the implant shoulder and the first visible bone-to-implant contact, DIB). Results. The 3-year implant survival rate was 97.4% (implant-based) and 92.9% (patient-based). Three implants failed. The incidence of biological complication was 3.5% (implant-based) and 7.1% (patient-based). The incidence of prosthetic complication was 17.8% (patient-based). No detrimental effects on marginal bone level were evidenced. Conclusions. The use of 4 DMLS titanium implants to support bar-retained maxillary ODs seems to represent a safe and successful procedure. Long-term clinical studies on a larger sample of patients are needed to confirm these results. PMID:25580124

  19. Predictive Factors for Subjective Improvement in Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Patients with Nonsurgical Treatment: A 3-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Matsudaira, Ko; Hara, Nobuhiro; Oka, Hiroyuki; Kunogi, Junichi; Yamazaki, Takashi; Takeshita, Katsushi; Atsushi, Seichi; Tanaka, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the predictive factors for subjective improvement with nonsurgical treatment in consecutive patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Materials and Methods Patients with LSS were enrolled from 17 medical centres in Japan. We followed up 274 patients (151 men; mean age, 71 ± 7.4 years) for 3 years. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess the predictive factors for subjective symptom improvement with nonsurgical treatment. Results In 30% of patients, conservative treatment led to a subjective improvement in the symptoms; in 70% of patients, the symptoms remained unchanged, worsened, or required surgical treatment. The multivariable analysis of predictive factors for subjective improvement with nonsurgical treatment showed that the absence of cauda equina symptoms (only radicular symptoms) had an odds ratio (OR) of 3.31 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.50–7.31); absence of degenerative spondylolisthesis/scoliosis had an OR of 2.53 (95% CI: 1.13–5.65); <1-year duration of illness had an OR of 3.81 (95% CI: 1.46–9.98); and hypertension had an OR of 2.09 (95% CI: 0.92–4.78). Conclusions The predictive factors for subjective symptom improvement with nonsurgical treatment in LSS patients were the presence of only radicular symptoms, absence of degenerative spondylolisthesis/scoliosis, and an illness duration of <1 year. PMID:26863214

  20. Association of Perioperative Plasma Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin Levels with 3-Year Mortality after Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Moledina, Dennis G.; Parikh, Chirag R.; Garg, Amit X.; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; Koyner, Jay L.; Patel, Uptal D.; Devarajan, Prasad; Shlipak, Michael G.; Coca, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Higher levels of plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (pNGAL) are an early marker of acute kidney injury and are associated with increased risk of short-term adverse outcomes. The independent association between pNGAL and long-term mortality is unknown. Methods In this prospective observational cohort study, we studied 1191 adults who underwent cardiac surgery between 2007 and 2009 at 6 centers in the TRIBE-AKI cohort. We measured the pNGAL on the pre-operative and first 3 post-operative days and assessed the relationship of peri-operative pNGAL concentrations with all-cause mortality. Results During a median follow-up of 3.0 years, 139 participants died (50/1000 person-years). Pre-operative levels of pNGAL were associated with 3-year mortality (unadjusted HR 1.96, 95% CI 1.34,2.85) and the association persisted after adjustment for pre-operative variables including estimated glomerular filtration rate (adjusted HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.04–2.12). After adjustment for pre- and intra-operative variables, including pre-operative NGAL levels, the highest tertiles of first post-operative and peak post-operative pNGAL were also independently associated with 3-year mortality risk (adjusted HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.0–1.7 and adjusted HR 1.78, 95% CI 1.2–2.7, respectively). However, after adjustment for peri-operative changes in serum creatinine, there was no longer an independent association between the first post-operative and peak post-operative pNGAL and long-term mortality (adjusted HR 0.98,95% CI 0.79–1.2 for first pNGAL and adjusted HR 1.19, 95% CI 0.87–1.61 for peak pNGAL). Conclusions Pre-operative pNGAL levels were independently associated with 3-year mortality after cardiac surgery. While post-operative pNGAL levels were also associated with 3-year mortality, this relationship was not independent of changes in serum creatinine. These findings suggest that while pre-operative pNGAL adds prognostic value for mortality beyond routinely available

  1. Outcomes of Early- and Late-identified Children at 3 Years of Age: Findings from a Prospective Population-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Teresa Y.C.; Dillon, Harvey; Marnane, Vivienne; Hou, Sanna; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark; Crowe, Kathryn; Street, Laura; Thomson, Jessica; Van Buynder, Patricia; Zhang, Vicky; Wong, Angela; Burns, Lauren; Flynn, Christopher; Cupples, Linda; Cowan, Robert S.C.; Leigh, Greg; Sjahalam-King, Jessica; Yeh, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To address the question of whether, on a population level, early detection and amplification improve outcomes of children with hearing impairment. Design All families of children who were born between 2002 and 2007, and who presented for hearing services below 3 years of age at Australian Hearing pediatric centers in New South Wales, Victoria and Southern Queensland were invited to participate in a prospective study on outcomes. Children’s speech, language, functional and social outcomes were assessed at 3 years of age, using a battery of age-appropriate tests. Demographic information relating to the child, family, and educational intervention was solicited through the use of custom-designed questionnaires. Audiological data were collected from the national database of Australian Hearing and records held at educational intervention agencies for children. Regression analysis was used to investigate the effects of each of 15 predictor variables, including age of amplification, on outcomes. Results Four hundred and fifty-one children enrolled in the study, 56% of whom received their first hearing-aid fitting before 6 months of age. Based on clinical records, 44 children (10%) were diagnosed with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. There were 107 children (24%) reported to have additional disabilities. At 3 years of age, 317 children (70%) were hearing-aid users and 134 children (30%) used cochlear implants. Based on parent reports, about 71% used an aural/oral mode of communication, and about 79% used English as the spoken language at home. Children’s performance scores on standardized tests administered at 3 years of age were used in a factor analysis to derive a global development factor score. On average, the global score of hearing-impaired children was more than one standard deviation (SD) below the mean of normal-hearing children at the same age. Regression analysis revealed that five factors, including female gender, absence of additional

  2. Work Engagement as a Predictor of Onset of Major Depressive Episode (MDE) among Workers, Independent of Psychological Distress: A 3-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Kotaro; Kawakami, Norito; Inoue, Akiomi; Shimazu, Akihito; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Takahashi, Masaya; Totsuzaki, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated work engagement as a baseline predictor of onset of major depressive episode (MDE). Methods The study used a prospective cohort design, conforming to the STROBE checklist. Participants were recruited from the employee population of a private think tank company (N = 4,270), and 1,058 (24.8%) of them completed a baseline survey, of whom 929 were included in this study. Work engagement and psychological distress at baseline were assessed as predictor variables. MDE was measured at baseline and at each of the follow-ups as the outcome, using the web-based, self-administered version of the Japanese WHO-CIDI 3.0 depression section based upon DSM-IV-TR/DSM-5 criteria. Cox discrete-time hazards analyses were conducted to estimate hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals CIs). Results Follow-up rates of participants (N = 929) were 78.4%, 67.2%, and 51.6% at 1-, 2-, and 3-year follow-ups, respectively. The association between work engagement at baseline and the onset of MDE was U-shaped. Compared with a group with low work engagement scores, groups with the middle and high scores showed significantly (HR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.05 to 0.64; p = 0.007) and marginally significantly (HR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.20 to 1.15, p = 0.099) lower risks of MDE, respectively, over the follow-ups, after adjusting for covariates. The pattern remained the same after additionally adjusting for psychological distress. Conclusions The present study first demonstrated work engagement as an important predictor of the onset of MDE diagnosed according to an internationally standard diagnostic criteria of mental disorders. PMID:26841020

  3. Factor XI replacement for inherited factor XI deficiency in routine clinical practice: results of the HEMOLEVEN prospective 3-year postmarketing study

    PubMed Central

    Bauduer, F; de Raucourt, E; Boyer-Neumann, C; Trossaert, M; Beurrier, P; Faradji, A; Peynet, J; Borg, J-Y; Chamouni, P; Chatelanaz, C; Henriet, C; Bridey, F; Goudemand, J

    2015-01-01

    Factor XI (FXI)-deficient patients may develop excessive bleeding after trauma or surgery. Replacement therapy should be considered in high-risk situations, especially when FXI levels are below 20 IU dL−1. HEMOLEVEN is a human plasma-derived factor XI concentrate available in France since 1992, but there are few data regarding its use by physicians. This prospective study assessed the use, efficacy and safety of HEMOLEVEN in common clinical practice. HEMOLEVEN was evaluated in FXI-deficient patients in 13 French centres in a 3-year postmarketing study. Forty-four patients (30 females, 14 males) received 67 treatments. The median age was 37 years (8 months–91 years). Basal FXI levels were <1 to 51 IU dL−1 (median: 5.5); 29 patients were severely FXI-deficient (<20 IU dL−1). FXI was administered prophylactically before 43 surgical procedures, 10 invasive procedures, 8 vaginal deliveries, or as curative treatment for six bleeds. The efficacy was assessed as excellent/good in 63, moderate in two and undetermined in two treatments. Seven patients experienced seven adverse effects, including two rated as serious: one sudden massive pulmonary embolism with fatal outcome and one case of inhibitor to FXI. HEMOLEVEN is effective for bleeding prevention in FXI deficiency. However, considering the benefit/risk ratio observed in relation to dosage in this study; firstly, it should be used sparingly due to its potential prothrombotic effect; secondly, new prescription procedures should be defined to adapt the dosage, especially in patients with intrinsic and/or acquired risk factors for thrombosis. PMID:25817556

  4. Incidence and Prevalence of Major Central Nervous System Involvement in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A 3-Year Prospective Study of 370 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kampylafka, Eleni I.; Alexopoulos, Haralampos; Kosmidis, Michalis L.; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Vlachoyiannopoulos, Panayiotis G.; Dalakas, Marinos C.; Moutsopoulos, Haralampos M.; Tzioufas, Athanasios G.

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence and prevalence of CNS involvement in SLE remains unclear owing to conflicting results in the published studies. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of major definite CNS events in SLE patients. Methods 370 SLE patients with no previous history of CNS involvement were prospectively evaluated in a tertiary hospital referral center for 3 years. Major CNS manifestations were codified according to ACR definitions, including chorea, aseptic meningitis, psychosis, seizures, myelopathy, demyelinating syndrome, acute confusional state and strokes. Minor CNS events were excluded. ECLAM and SLEDAI-SELENA Modification scores were used to evaluate disease activity and SLICC/ACR Damage Index was used to assess accumulated damage. Results 16/370 (4.3%) patients presented with a total of 23 major CNS events. These included seizures (35%), strokes (26%), myelopathy (22%), optic neuritis (8.7%), aseptic meningitis (4.3%) and acute psychosis (4.3%). Incidence was 7.8/100 person years. Among hospitalizations for SLE, 13% were due to CNS manifestations. Epileptic seizures were associated with high disease activity, while myelopathy correlated with lower disease activity and NMO-IgG antibodies (P≤0.05). Stroke incidence correlated with APS coexistence (P = 0.06). Overall, CNS involvement correlated with high ECLAM and SLEDAI scores (P<0.001). Conclusions Clinically severe CNS involvement is rare in SLE patients, accounting for 7.8/100 person years. CNS involvement correlates with high disease activity and coexistence of specific features that define the respective CNS syndromes. PMID:23424638

  5. Low prevalence of HCV, HIV, and HTLV-I/II infection markers in northwestern Greece: results of a 3-year prospective donor study (1995-1997).

    PubMed

    Zervou, E K.; Boumba, D S.; Liaskos, Ch; Georgiadou, S; Tsianos, E V.; Dalekos, G N.

    2003-02-01

    Background: The risk of infection with transfusion-transmitted viruses has been reduced remarkably. A zero-risk blood supply, however, remains a popular goal. A 3-year prospective donor study was conducted in the Epirus region of Greece to determine the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV), hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Herein, we report the prevalence of HIV, HTLV, and HCV infection markers in this area. Methodology: Between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 1997, 6696 donors were investigated for the presence of anti-HIV, anti-HTLV, and anti-HCV antibodies using standard enzyme immunoassays (EIA). Every sample with anti-HCV reactivity by third-generation EIA was further investigated using a third-generation recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA 3.0) and HCV-RNA by a combination of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA EIA. Results: None of the donors tested positive for anti-HIV or anti-HTLV antibodies. In contrast, anti-HCV was detected in 41 donors (0.61%). Using a RIBA 3.0 test, eight donors tested positive and eight had indeterminate results, while 25 tested negative. Seven of the eight donors with both EIA and RIBA 3.0 reactivity had increased levels of aminotransferases and detectable serum HCV-RNA. The remaining 34 donors had repeatedly normal aminotransferases and three times negative HCV-RNA. Liver biopsy was performed in anti-HCV/HCV-RNA-positive donors (7/41). The lesions were compatible with chronic hepatitis C in all of them. Conclusion: A zero prevalence of HIV and HTLV infection markers was found. Although the number of annual donations in this study was relatively low, the negative data for HIV and HTLV clearly indicate that rates of these infections are low in our region and that infected donors will be seen infrequently. HCV infection in blood donors remains very low in our region and is similar to the data reported in other industrialized countries. In fact, the prevalence of

  6. Functional and Radiological Outcome of Schatzker type V and VI Tibial Plateau Fracture Treatment with Dual Plates with Minimum 3 years follow-up: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Suri, Harpreet Singh; Gangrade, Kewal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction High energy intra-articular fractures involving the tibial plateau causes various problems related to management like wound dehiscence, severe comminution leading to malalignment and delayed complications like varus collapse, implant failure and arthritis of knee joint. Aim This study was done to determine functional, radiological outcome and the complications of Schatzker V and VI tibial plateau fractures treated with bipillar plating with dual plates with a regular follow-up of atleast 3 years. Materials and Methods Total 34 cases of tibial plateau fracture type V and VI treated with dual plating were studied from January 2011 to December 2013 in KIMS Hospital were followed for minimum of 3 years. The patients were operated through an anterolateral approach for lateral plate and a medial column plate was put through a minimally invasive medial approach or an open posteromedial approach. Results Total 34 patients were evaluated postoperatively thoroughly for functional outcome using The Knee Society Score and radiological outcomes by Modified Rasmussen Assessment criteria which showed 29 patients (85.29%) had excellent and 5 patients (14.71%) had good objective knee society score. 24 patients (70.59%) had excellent, 8 patients (23.53%) had good and 1patient (2.94%) were each of poor and fair functional knee society score. Eleven patients (32.35%) had excellent, 21patients (61.76%) had good and 2 patients (5.88%) had fair radiological outcome. Conclusion We conclude that open reduction and internal fixation of high-energy tibial plateau fractures with dual plates via 2 incisions gives excellent to good functional outcome with minimal soft tissue complications. Thus, a minimally invasive approach should be used which helps in preventing soft tissue problems and helps in early wound healing. Fixation done by bipillar plating is important for early mobilization of knee joint. Early mobilization leads to better range of movements and thereby better

  7. A protocol for resuscitation of severe burn patients guided by transpulmonary thermodilution and lactate levels: a 3-year prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The use of urinary output and vital signs to guide initial burn resuscitation may lead to suboptimal resuscitation. Invasive hemodynamic monitoring may result in over-resuscitation. This study aimed to evaluate the results of a goal-directed burn resuscitation protocol that used standard measures of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and urine output, plus transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD) and lactate levels to adjust fluid therapy to achieve a minimum level of preload to allow for sufficient vital organ perfusion. Methods We conducted a three-year prospective cohort study of 132 consecutive critically burned patients. These patients underwent resuscitation guided by MAP (>65 mmHg), urinary output (0.5 to 1 ml/kg), TPTD and lactate levels. Fluid therapy was adjusted to achieve a cardiac index (CI) >2.5 L/minute/m2 and an intrathoracic blood volume index (ITBVI) >600 ml/m2, and to optimize lactate levels. Statistical analysis was performed using mixed models. We also used Pearson or Spearman methods and the Mann-Whitney U-test. Results A total of 98 men and 34 women (mean age, 48 ± 18 years) was studied. The mean total body surface area (TBSA) burned was 35% ± 22%. During the early resuscitation phase, lactate levels were elevated (2.58 ± 2.05 mmol/L) and TPTD showed initial hypovolemia by the CI (2.68 ± 1.06 L/minute/m2) and the ITBVI (709 ± 254 mL/m2). At 24 to 32 hours, the CI and lactic levels were normalized, although the ITBVI remained below the normal range (744 ± 276 ml/m2). The mean fluid rate required to achieve protocol targets in the first 8 hours was 4.05 ml/kg/TBSA burned, which slightly increased in the next 16 hours. Patients with a urine output greater than or less than 0.5 ml/kg/hour did not show differences in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, CI, ITBVI or lactate levels. Conclusions Initial hypovolemia may be detected by TPTD monitoring during the early resuscitation phase. This hypovolemia might not be reflected by blood

  8. The self-tapping and ICE 3i implants: a prospective 3-year multicenter evaluation.

    PubMed

    Davarpanah, M; Martinez, H; Tecucianu, J F; Alcoforado, G; Etienne, D; Celletti, R

    2001-01-01

    This multicenter prospective clinical evaluation was undertaken to determine the therapeutic success and marginal bone level stability of 3i's self-tapping and ICE implants after 3 years of prosthetic loading. Between July 1995 and June 1996, 189 completely or partially edentulous patients were treated with 614 machined-surface screw-type commercially pure titanium implants (self-tapping or ICE). Two hundred seventy-seven self-tapping implants were placed in 85 patients (average age of 56 years), and 337 ICE implants were placed in 104 patients (average age of 61 years). A total of 360 implants (58.6%) were placed in posterior segments. Easier placement was reported with the ICE implant in normal or dense bone. For the self-tapping implants, survival rates of 92.9% and 91.6% were noted after 1 and 3 years of prosthetic loading, respectively. Survival rates of 95.4% and 93.8% were obtained with the ICE implant for the same periods. Late failures (after loading) were more common than early failures (before loading) for both types of implants. The marginal bone level of 238 self-tapping implants (85.9%) and of 307 ICE implants (91%) was radiographically evaluated at 3 years. Marginal bone level was at the first thread for 95.1% of implants. A loss of marginal bone level of 2 to 4 threads was noted for 4.9% of the evaluated implants. No implant showed bone loss greater than the fourth thread. Overall survival rates of 94.3% and 92.9% were obtained after 1 and 3 years of prosthetic loading, respectively, for 596 and 588 implants. PMID:11280362

  9. Parental Styles and Religious Values among Teenagers: A 3-Year Prospective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaven, Patrick C. L.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Leeson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the effect of Grade 7 parental styles on Grade 10 religious values. The authors surveyed 784 participants (382 boys, 394 girls; 8 unreported) in Grade 7. The mean age of the group at Time 1 was 12.3 years (SD = 0.5 years). Time 2 occurred 3 years later when students were in Grade 10 (372 boys, 375 girls). In addition to…

  10. Developing Dialogic Argumentation Skills: A 3-Year Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowell, Amanda; Kuhn, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    Argumentation is increasingly recognized as a fundamental intellectual skill, but evidence suggests that few adolescents or adults are skilled arguers. This article reports on an extended (3-year, twice weekly) intervention designed to afford dense practice in dialogic argumentation to middle-school students from traditionally academically…

  11. Chronic autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura. A 3-year study.

    PubMed

    Fotos, P G; Graham, W L; Bowers, D C; Perfetto, S P

    1983-06-01

    Idiopathic (autoimmune) thrombocytopenic purpura (ATP) is accepted to be a disorder resulting from accelerated platelet destruction attributed to an autoimmune process. The patient whose case is presented in this article was first seen by a dentist. The oral findings have been documented as the case was followed for 3 years through acute exacerbations, pregnancy, and delivery of an infant with thrombocytopenia. The patient was managed with intermittent steroid therapy and splenectomy. PMID:6576288

  12. Parental styles and religious values among teenagers: a 3-year prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Heaven, Patrick C L; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Leeson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the effect of Grade 7 parental styles on Grade 10 religious values. The authors surveyed 784 participants (382 boys, 394 girls; 8 unreported) in Grade 7. The mean age of the group at Time 1 was 12.3 years (SD = 0.5 years). Time 2 occurred 3 years later when students were in Grade 10 (372 boys, 375 girls). In addition to assessing parental styles at Time 1, we also controlled for a number of Time 1 variables thought to possibly influence Time 2 religious values, namely, self-esteem, trait hope, and students' levels of conscientiousness. Time 1 measures (except self-esteem) were significantly correlated with Time 2 religious values, but only parental authoritativeness and hope significantly predicted religious values. The authors discuss these results with reference to the nature of parental styles and hope and their impact on religious values. PMID:20333897

  13. 3-Year Follow-up of the NIMH MTA Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Peter S.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Swanson, James M.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Abikoff, Howard B.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Hechtman, Lily; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Pelham, William E.; Wells, Karen C.; Conners, C. Keith; Elliott, Glen R.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Hoza, Betsy; March, John S.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Severe, Joanne B.; Wigal, Timothy; Gibbons, Robert D.; Hur, Kwan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: In the intent-to-treat analysis of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD (MTA), the effects of medication management (MedMgt), behavior therapy (Beh), their combination (Comb), and usual community care (CC) differed at 14 and 24 months due to superiority of treatments that used the MTA medication algorithm (Comb+MedMgt)…

  14. A prospective 3-year follow-up trial of implantation of two trabecular microbypass stents in open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Donnenfeld, Eric D; Solomon, Kerry D; Voskanyan, Lilit; Chang, David F; Samuelson, Thomas W; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K; Katz, L Jay

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate 3-year safety and intraocular pressure (IOP) following two trabecular microbypass stents in phakic and pseudophakic subjects with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) not controlled on preoperative medication. Patients and methods In this prospective pilot study, phakic or pseudophakic subjects with OAG and IOP between 18 mmHg and 30 mmHg on one preoperative topical ocular hypotensive medication underwent medication washout. Thirty-nine qualified subjects with preoperative unmedicated IOP ≥22 mmHg and ≤38 mmHg received two stents. Postoperative examinations were scheduled at Day 1, Week 1, Months 1, 3, 6, and 12, and semiannually through Month 60. Ocular hypotensive medication was considered if postoperative IOP exceeded 21 mmHg. IOP, medication use, and safety were assessed at each visit. Subject follow-up through Month 36 was completed. Results Thirty-six eyes (92.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 79.1%, 98.4%) achieved the primary efficacy end point of Month 12 reduction in IOP ≥20% from baseline (unmedicated IOP) without ocular hypotensive medication. Four subjects required medication during the Month 36 follow-up period. Mean IOP at 36 months for subjects not taking medication was 15.2 mmHg. At 36 months, subjects sustained mean IOP decrease of 9.1±2.7 mmHg (95% CI 8.0 mmHg, 10.14 mmHg), or 37% IOP reduction, from unmedicated baseline IOP. Compared to preoperative medicated IOP, subjects had mean reduction at Month 36 of 5.5±2.7 mmHg (95% CI 4.5 mmHg, 6.6 mmHg), or 26% reduction. Both measures of IOP reduction were highly significant (P<0.001). Other than one case of early postoperative hyphema that resolved at 1 week, no postoperative adverse events were attributed to stent implantation. Conclusion In a pilot study, two trabecular microbypass stents to treat OAG subjects on one preoperative medication provided statistically significant, sustained, and safe reduction of IOP to ≤15 mmHg without medication through 36 months. PMID:26604675

  15. Leadership Coaching in an Induction Program for Novice Principals: A 3-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochmiller, Chad R.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents results from a study of leadership coaches who worked with novice principals in a university-based induction program for a 3-year period. The qualitative case study describes how the support the coaches provided to the novice principals changed over time. The study reveals that coaches adapted their leadership coaching…

  16. Lymphoma in patients treated with anti-TNF: results of the 3-year prospective French RATIO registry

    PubMed Central

    Mariette, Xavier; Tubach, Florence; Bagheri, Haleh; Bardet, Michel; Berthelot, Jean-Marie; Gaudin, Philippe; Heresbach, Denis; Martin, Antoine; Schaeverbeke, Thierry; Salmon, Dominique; Lemann, Marc; Hermine, Olivier; Raphael, Martine; Ravaud, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe cases of lymphoma associated with anti-TNF therapy, identify risk factors, estimate the incidence and compare risks for different anti-TNF agents. Methods We designed a national prospective registry (RATIO) from 2004 to 2006, for collecting all cases of lymphoma in French patients receiving anti-TNF therapy, whatever the indication. We conducted a case-control analysis including two controls treated with anti-TNF per case and an incidence study of lymphoma with the French population used as reference.. Results We collected 38 cases of lymphoma, 31 non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) (26 B-cell and 5 T-cell), 5 Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) and 2 Hodgkin’s-like lymphoma. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was detected in 2 of 2 Hodgkin’s-like lymphoma, 3 of 5 HL and one NHL. Patients receiving adalimumab or infliximab had a higher risk than those treated with etanercept: SIR = 4.1 (2.3–7.1) and 3.6 (2.3–5.6) versus 0.9 (0.4– 1.8). The exposure to adalimumab or infliximab versus etanercept was an independent risk factor for lymphoma in the case-control study: odds ratio=4.7 (1.3– 17.7) and 4.1 (1.4–12.5), respectively. The sex and age- adjusted incidence rate of lymphoma was 42.1 per 100,000 patient-years. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7–3.2). Conclusion Some lymphomas associated with immunosuppression may occur in patients receiving anti TNF therapy, and the risk of lymphoma is higher with monoclonal-antibody therapy than with soluble-receptor therapy. PMID:19828563

  17. A Study of Developmentally Appropriate Curriculum for 3-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mary F.

    Based on classroom observations, developmental assessment, individual educational planning, and research, this curriculum describes developmentally appropriate practices to assist adults who work with young children (primarily 3-year-olds) in providing quality care and education. Chapter 1 sets out the study's specific questions, procedures,…

  18. Predictors of Reading Development in Deaf Children: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Fiona E.; Harris, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The development of reading ability in a group of deaf children was followed over a 3-year period. A total of 29 deaf children (7-8 years of age at the first assessment) participated in the study, and every 12 months they were given a battery of literacy, cognitive, and language tasks. Earlier vocabulary and speechreading skills predicted…

  19. Premarital Education and Training Sequence (PETS): A 3-year Follow-up of an Experimental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagarozzi, Dennis A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews and critiques premarital counseling programs and discusses the development of the Premarital Education and Training Sequence (PETS). A study of the long-term effects of the PETS program (N=36) showed significant immediate differences between the experimental and control groups, but differences were not maintained at 3-year follow-up…

  20. Timing of breast cancer surgery in relation to menstrual cycle phase: no effect on 3-year prognosis: The ITS Study

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, H; Brown, S R; Sainsbury, J R; Perren, T J; Hiley, V; Dowsett, M; Nejim, A; Brown, J M

    2007-01-01

    The effect of breast cancer surgery timing during the menstrual cycle on prognosis remains controversial. We conducted a multicentre prospective study to establish whether timing of interventions influences prognosis. We report 3-year overall and disease-free survival (OS/DFS) results for ‘primary analysis' patients (regular cycles, no oral contraceptives within previous 6 months). Data were collected regarding timing of interventions in relation to patients' last menstrual period (LMP) and first menstrual period after surgery (FMP). Hormone profiles were also measured. Cox's proportional hazards model incorporated LMP in continuous form. Exploratory analyses used menstrual cycle categorisations of Senie, Badwe and Hrushesky. Hormone profiles with LMP and FMP data were also used to define menstrual cycle phase. Four hundred and twelve ‘primary analysis' patients were recruited. Three-year OS from first surgery was 90.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) [87.9, 93.6%]. Menstrual cycle according to LMP was not statistically significant (OS: hazard ratio (HR)=1.02, 95%CI [0.995,1.042], P=0.14; DFS: HR=1.00, 95%CI [0.980,1.022], P=0.92). Timing of surgery in relation to menstrual cycle phase had no significant impact on 3-year survival. This may be due to 97% of patients receiving some form of adjuvant therapy. Survival curves to 10 years indicate results may remain true for longer-term survival. PMID:18087287

  1. Early epileptic encephalopathies including West syndrome: a 3-year retrospective study from Klang Hospital, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Thambyayah, M

    2001-11-01

    It is difficult to give a country report from Malaysia. A study done in 1999 reported the incidence of West Syndrome to be 3% among newly diagnosed cases of epilepsy. In this 3 year retrospective hospital-based study (1997-1999), the prevalence of early epileptic encephalopathy (EEE) and West Syndrome were 4.1 and 2.5% respectively. There is difficulty classifying EEE cases into distinct sub-groups of EIEE (early infantile epileptic encephalopathy), WS (West Syndrome) and SMEI (severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy), using a combination of clinical features, EEG and CT/MRI findings. PMID:11701263

  2. Myxomatous stromal changes and necrosis of bone marrow--a retrospective study of 3 years.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nalini; Kumar, Vijay; Varma, Neelam; Garewal, Gurjeevan; Das, Reena; Ahluwalia, Jasmina; Dash, Sumitra

    2004-07-01

    Myxomatous stromal changes and bone marrow necrosis (BMN) are uncommon histologic findings. These changes have been found in various conditions like disseminated carcinomatosis, postchemotherapy cases, chronic infections, infiltrative disorders of the marrow etc. The present study is a retrospective study of 3 years (Jan, 1999 to Dec. 2001) from Deptt. Of Hematology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh (India). During this period, 3740 bone marrow samples were examined. Myxomatous stromal changes and bone marrow necrosis were noted in 0.43% (16/3740) and 0.45% (17/3740) samples respectively. In addition to common causes of myxomatous stromal changes and bone marrow necrosis as described in the literature, this study highlights the association of these conditions with some of the rarer entities like hyperoxalosis, leishmaniasis, parvovirus induced marrow aplasia and cryptococcal infection. There is paucity of such associations in the literature. PMID:16295422

  3. Effect of Breastfeeding Duration on Cognitive Development in Infants: 3-Year Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the association between breastfeeding and cognitive development in infants during their first 3 years. The present study was a part of the Mothers’ and Children’s Environmental Health (MOCEH) study, which was a multi-center birth cohort project in Korea that began in 2006. A total of 697 infants were tested at age 12, 24, and 36 months using the Korean version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (K-BSID-II). The use and duration of breastfeeding and formula feeding were measured. The relationship between breastfeeding and the mental development index (MDI) score was analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis. The results indicated a positive correlation between breastfeeding duration and MDI score. After adjusting for covariates, infants who were breastfed for ≥ 9 months had significantly better cognitive development than those who had not been breastfed. These results suggest that the longer duration of breastfeeding improves cognitive development in infants. PMID:27051242

  4. Effect of Breastfeeding Duration on Cognitive Development in Infants: 3-Year Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyungmin; Park, Hyewon; Ha, Eunhee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Ha, Mina; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Lee, Boeun; Lee, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Kyung Yeon; Kim, Ja Hyeong; Jeong, Kyoung Sook; Kim, Yangho

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the association between breastfeeding and cognitive development in infants during their first 3 years. The present study was a part of the Mothers' and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study, which was a multi-center birth cohort project in Korea that began in 2006. A total of 697 infants were tested at age 12, 24, and 36 months using the Korean version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (K-BSID-II). The use and duration of breastfeeding and formula feeding were measured. The relationship between breastfeeding and the mental development index (MDI) score was analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis. The results indicated a positive correlation between breastfeeding duration and MDI score. After adjusting for covariates, infants who were breastfed for ≥ 9 months had significantly better cognitive development than those who had not been breastfed. These results suggest that the longer duration of breastfeeding improves cognitive development in infants. PMID:27051242

  5. Predictors of reading development in deaf children: a 3-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Fiona E; Harris, Margaret

    2010-11-01

    The development of reading ability in a group of deaf children was followed over a 3-year period. A total of 29 deaf children (7-8 years of age at the first assessment) participated in the study, and every 12 months they were given a battery of literacy, cognitive, and language tasks. Earlier vocabulary and speechreading skills predicted longitudinal growth in reading achievement. The relations between reading and the predictor variables showed developmental change. Earlier reading ability was related to later phonological awareness skills, suggesting that deaf children might develop their phonological awareness through reading. Deaf children who had the most age-appropriate reading skills tended to have less severe hearing losses and earlier diagnoses and also preferred to communicate through speech. The theoretical implications of the role for speechreading, vocabulary and phonological awareness in deaf children's literacy are discussed. PMID:20570282

  6. A Case of Dentin Dysplasia with Full Mouth Rehabilitation: A 3-year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Dheeraj; Likhyani, Lalit

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dentin dysplasia, a rare hereditary disorder of dentin formation, is characterized by normal enamel but atypical dentin formation along with abnormal pulpal morphology. It is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. It has been divided into two clinical entities: type I (radicular) and type II (coronal). Early diagnosis and initiation of effective regular dental treatments may help the patients with this condition to delay or prevent the loss of the entire dentition and help them in cope up with edentulous state in early ages. The condition undoubtedly has a negative impact on the physical and psychological well-being of the affected individual. Numerous factors have to be considered during the prosthetic rehabilitation of patients with dentin dysplasia. Treatment protocol varies according to clinical case. Although literature reports suggest general guidelines for treatment planning, the present case report describes a full mouth rehabilitation of an 8-year-old female patient with dentin dysplasia. How to cite this article: Khandelwal S, Gupta D, Likhyani L. A Case of Dentin Dysplasia with Full Mouth Rehabilitation: A 3-year Longitudinal Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2): 119-124. PMID:25356011

  7. The Prospects Study and Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that greater caution is required when drawing conclusions from statistical results than the Armor study has done, and describes the "Prospects" study (begun in 1989), the largest longitudinal study of educational outcomes conducted in the United States. "Prospects" provides much data useful in evaluating the school desegregation situation…

  8. Prospective clinical and serological follow-up in early childhood reveals a high rate of subclinical RSV infection and a relatively high reinfection rate within the first 3 years of life.

    PubMed

    Kutsaya, A; Teros-Jaakkola, T; Kakkola, L; Toivonen, L; Peltola, V; Waris, M; Julkunen, I

    2016-06-01

    Children encounter repeated respiratory tract infections during their early life. We conducted a prospective clinical and serological follow-up study to estimate the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) primary infection and reinfection rates in early childhood. Sera were collected from 291 healthy children at the ages of 13, 24 and 36 months and antibody levels against RSV antigens were determined by enzyme immunoassay. The RT-PCR method was also used for identifying the possible presence of RSV in symptomatic patients. At ages 1, 2 and 3 years, 37%, 68% and 86%, respectively, of studied children were seropositive for RSV. In children seropositive at age 1 year, RSV reinfection rate was at least 37%. Only one of reinfected children showed evidence for a third reinfection by age 3 years. Of children who turned RSV seropositive between ages 1 and 2 years, the reinfection rate was 32% during the third year of life. The mean antibody levels at primary infection were very similar in all age groups. The average decrease of antibody levels was 25-30% within a year. In 66 cases RSV infection was identified by RT-PCR. RSV infection rate in early childhood is 86% and reinfection rate is around 35%. This prospective serological follow-up study also provided evidence for the presence of RSV infections in children that did not show clinical signs warranting RSV RNA detection. PMID:26732801

  9. Predictors of child-to-parent aggression: A 3-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Gamez-Guadix, Manuel; Bushman, Brad J

    2015-05-01

    Although we rarely hear about it, children sometimes aggress against their parents. This is a difficult topic to study because abused parents and abusive children are both reluctant to admit the occurrence of child-to-parent aggression. There are very few research studies on this topic, and even fewer theoretical explanations of why it occurs. We predicted that exposure to violence in the home (e.g., parents aggressing against each other) and ineffective parenting (i.e., parenting that is overly permissive or lacks warmth) influences cognitive schemas of how children perceive themselves and the world around them (i.e., whether aggression is normal, whether they develop grandiose self-views, and whether they feel disconnected and rejected), which, in turn, predicts child-to-parent aggression. In a 3-year longitudinal study of 591 adolescents and their parents, we found that exposure to violence in Year 1 predicted child-to-parent aggression in Year 3. In addition, parenting characterized by lack of warmth in Year 1 was related to narcissistic and entitled self-views and disconnection and rejection schemas in Year 2, which, in turn, predicted child-to-mother and child-to-father aggression in Year 3. Gender comparisons indicated that narcissism predicted child-to-parent aggression only in boys and that exposure to violence was a stronger predictor of child-to-father violence in boys. This longitudinal study increases our understanding of the understudied but important topic of child-to-parent aggression, and will hopefully stimulate future research. PMID:25822895

  10. Molecular diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients: a 3-year multicenter retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Robert-Gangneux, Florence; Sterkers, Yvon; Yera, Hélène; Accoceberry, Isabelle; Menotti, Jean; Cassaing, Sophie; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Hennequin, Christophe; Delhaes, Laurence; Bonhomme, Julie; Villena, Isabelle; Scherer, Emeline; Dalle, Frédéric; Touafek, Feriel; Filisetti, Denis; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Pelloux, Hervé; Bastien, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients (ICPs). The definitive diagnosis relies on parasite DNA detection, but little is known about the incidence and burden of disease in HIV-negative patients. A 3-year retrospective study was conducted in 15 reference laboratories from the network of the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis, in order to record the frequency of Toxoplasma gondii DNA detection in ICPs and to review the molecular methods used for diagnosis and the prevention measures implemented in transplant patients. During the study period, of 31,640 PCRs performed on samples from ICPs, 610 were positive (323 patients). Blood (n = 337 samples), cerebrospinal fluid (n = 101 samples), and aqueous humor (n = 100 samples) were more frequently positive. Chemoprophylaxis schemes in transplant patients differed between centers. PCR follow-up of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) patients was implemented in 8/15 centers. Data from 180 patients (13 centers) were further analyzed regarding clinical setting and outcome. Only 68/180 (38%) patients were HIV(+); the remaining 62% consisted of 72 HSCT, 14 solid organ transplant, and 26 miscellaneous immunodeficiency patients. Cerebral toxoplasmosis and disseminated toxoplasmosis were most frequently observed in HIV and transplant patients, respectively. Of 72 allo-HSCT patients with a positive PCR result, 23 were asymptomatic; all were diagnosed in centers performing systematic blood PCR follow-up, and they received specific treatment. Overall survival of allo-HSCT patients at 2 months was better in centers with PCR follow-up than in other centers (P < 0.01). This study provides updated data on the frequency of toxoplasmosis in HIV-negative ICPs and suggests that regular PCR follow-up of allo-HSCT patients could guide preemptive treatment and improve outcome. PMID:25762774

  11. Molecular Diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis in Immunocompromised Patients: a 3-Year Multicenter Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Sterkers, Yvon; Yera, Hélène; Accoceberry, Isabelle; Menotti, Jean; Cassaing, Sophie; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Hennequin, Christophe; Delhaes, Laurence; Bonhomme, Julie; Villena, Isabelle; Scherer, Emeline; Dalle, Frédéric; Touafek, Feriel; Filisetti, Denis; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Pelloux, Hervé; Bastien, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients (ICPs). The definitive diagnosis relies on parasite DNA detection, but little is known about the incidence and burden of disease in HIV-negative patients. A 3-year retrospective study was conducted in 15 reference laboratories from the network of the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis, in order to record the frequency of Toxoplasma gondii DNA detection in ICPs and to review the molecular methods used for diagnosis and the prevention measures implemented in transplant patients. During the study period, of 31,640 PCRs performed on samples from ICPs, 610 were positive (323 patients). Blood (n = 337 samples), cerebrospinal fluid (n = 101 samples), and aqueous humor (n = 100 samples) were more frequently positive. Chemoprophylaxis schemes in transplant patients differed between centers. PCR follow-up of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) patients was implemented in 8/15 centers. Data from 180 patients (13 centers) were further analyzed regarding clinical setting and outcome. Only 68/180 (38%) patients were HIV+; the remaining 62% consisted of 72 HSCT, 14 solid organ transplant, and 26 miscellaneous immunodeficiency patients. Cerebral toxoplasmosis and disseminated toxoplasmosis were most frequently observed in HIV and transplant patients, respectively. Of 72 allo-HSCT patients with a positive PCR result, 23 were asymptomatic; all were diagnosed in centers performing systematic blood PCR follow-up, and they received specific treatment. Overall survival of allo-HSCT patients at 2 months was better in centers with PCR follow-up than in other centers (P < 0.01). This study provides updated data on the frequency of toxoplasmosis in HIV-negative ICPs and suggests that regular PCR follow-up of allo-HSCT patients could guide preemptive treatment and improve outcome. PMID:25762774

  12. Blood Lead Concentrations in 1–3 Year Old Lebanese Children: A Cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Nuwayhid, Iman; Nabulsi, Mona; Muwakkit, Samar; Kouzi, Sarah; Salem, George; Mikati, Mohamed; Ariss, Majd

    2003-01-01

    Background Childhood lead poisoning has not made the list of national public health priorities in Lebanon. This study aims at identifying the prevalence and risk factors for elevated blood lead concentrations (B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L) among 1–3 year old children. It also examines the need for universal blood lead screening. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 281 well children, presenting to the pediatric ambulatory services at the American University of Beirut Medical Center in 1997–98. Blood was drawn on participating children for lead analysis and a structured questionnaire was introduced to mothers asking about social, demographic, and residence characteristics, as well as potential risk factors for lead exposure. Children with B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L were compared to those with B-Pb < 100 μg/L. Results Mean B-Pb was 66.0 μg/L (median 60.0; range 10–160; standard deviation 26.3) with 39 (14%) children with B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L. Logistic regression analysis showed that elevated B-Pb was associated with paternal manual jobs (odds ratio [OR]: 4.74), residence being located in high traffic areas (OR: 4.59), summer season (OR: 4.39), using hot tap water for cooking (OR: 3.96), exposure to kohl (OR: 2.40), and living in older buildings (OR: 2.01). Conclusion Lead screening should be offered to high-risk children. With the recent ban of leaded gasoline in Lebanon, emphasis should shift to other sources of exposure in children. PMID:12780938

  13. The Development of Inhibitory Control in Early Childhood: A Twin Study from 2-3 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Jeffrey R.; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2016-01-01

    Parent- and lab-based observer ratings were employed to examine genetic and environmental influences on continuity and change in inhibitory control (IC) in over 300 twin-pairs assessed longitudinally at 2 and 3 years of age. Genetic influences accounted for approximately 60% of the variance in parent-rated IC at both ages. Although many of the…

  14. Impacts of anemia on 3-year ischemic events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a propensity-matched study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Qiu, Miaohan; Li, Jing; Wang, Heyang; Qi, Jing; Wang, Geng; Xu, Kai; Liu, Haiwei; Zhao, Xin; Jing, Quanmin; Han, Yaling

    2015-01-01

    Background Anemia correlates with worse outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), improved anemia can improve the outcomes in patients who underwent PCI. But the influence of anemia on long-term ischemic events after PCI remains unknown. Methods We analyzed 8,825 consecutive patients who underwent PCI at General Hospital of Shenyang Military Region and identified 581 patients with anemia. Patients (anemia vs. no anemia) were compared using a propensity score analysis to best match between groups. The main outcome of this study is 3-year ischemic events after PCI, the secondary outcome of this study is 3-year mortality and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) after PCI. Results Compared with nonanemic patients, anemic patients were often female (38.90% vs. 14.51%) and elder patients (66.44% vs. 34.95%). Anemic patients have lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and creatinine clearance (Ccr) and were more likely to have history of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, hypertension, peripheral vascular diseases (PVD) (P<0.05). However, the prevalences of diabetes and hyperlipidemia were lower in anemic patients (P<0.01). Anemia was an independent predictor for 3-year ischemic events [hazard ratio (HR): 2.20, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.61-3.00, P<0.01], 3-year mortality (HR: 3.58, 95% CI: 1.75-7.32, P<0.01) and 3-year MACE (HR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.64-2.79, P<0.01) after PCI in post-match samples. The incidence of 3-year ischemic events was 41.0% and 19.3% in anemic and nonanemic patients, respectively. Conclusions Anemia is an independent predictor for 3-year ischemic events, 3-year mortality and 3-year MACE in patients who underwent PCI. Further studies need to explore the impact of the pathogenesis and progress, prevention and therapy of anemia on the outcome of patients undergoing PCI. PMID:26716033

  15. Microfracture in the hip: a matched-control study with average 3-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Lodhia, Parth; Gui, Chengcheng; Chandrasekaran, Sivashankar; Suarez-Ahedo, Carlos; Vemula, S. Pavan; Domb, Benjamin G.

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of literature regarding microfracture surgery in the hip. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes in patients undergoing hip arthroscopy predominantly for labral tears with focal full thickness chondral damage on the acetabulum or femoral head treated with microfracture and a matched control group that did not have focal full thickness chondral damage. A prospective matched-control study was performed examining four patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores: modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), non-arthritic hip score, Hip Outcome Score—Activities of Daily Living (HOS-ADL), and Hip Outcome Score—Sports Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS) at minimum 2 years post-operatively between 35 patients undergoing microfracture for chondral defects during hip arthroscopy and 70 patients in a control group that did not have chondral defects. The patients were matched based on gender, age within 7 years, Workman’s compensation claim, labral treatment and acetabular crossover percentage less than or greater than 20. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in PRO scores preoperatively between the groups. Both groups demonstrated significant improvement (P < 0.05) in all post-operative PRO scores at all time points. There was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) in post-operative PRO scores between the microfracture and control groups, except for HOS-ADL and the visual analog scale (VAS) score, both of which were superior in the control group (P < 0.05). Patient satisfaction was 6.9 for the microfracture group and 7.7 for the control group (P > 0.05). Arthroscopic microfracture of the hip during treatment of labral tears results in favorable outcomes that are similar to the results arthroscopic treatment of labral tears in patients without full thickness chondral damage. PMID:27011867

  16. Determinants of physician antibiotic prescribing behavior: a 3 year cohort study in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Teixeira Rodrigues, António; Ferreira, Mónica; Piñeiro-Lamas, Maria; Falcão, Amílcar; Figueiras, Adolfo; Herdeiro, Maria T

    2016-05-01

    Objectives Antibiotic misprescription is a major driver of resistance, which is a worldwide public health problem. Therefore, our aim is to assess the influence of the determinants of physician prescribing on the quality of antibiotic use. Methods A 3 year cohort study including all primary-care physicians working in Portugal's Central Regional Health Administration (n = 1094) was conducted. We assessed the determinants of prescribing using a pre-validated, personally addressed, reply-paid, self-administered questionnaire (sent four times to non-responders, between September 2011 and February 2012) designed to collect information on physicians' attitudes to and knowledge of antibiotic prescribing as well as their socio-demographic and professional data. To evaluate antibiotic prescribing, we've calculated ESAC 12 quality indicators per physician per year, allowing us to stratify them as good or poor prescribers according to their performance on those indicators. Associations between determinants and outcomes were fitted with generalized linear mixed models. Results The overall response rate was 46.1%. Emergency activity (OR [95% CI] = 0.29 [0.16-0.54]; p < 0.05) and workload (number of patients seen per day: OR [95% CI] = 0.97 [0.94-1.00]; p < 0.05; number of patients seen per week in emergencies: OR [95% CI] = 0.98 [0.97-0.99]; p < 0.05) were both related to poor quality of antibiotic prescribing. Statistically significant odds ratios were also obtained for ignorance (IqOR [95% CI] = 2.14 [1.31-3.52]), complacency (1/IqOR [95% CI] = 1.19 [1.01-1.41]) and responsibility of others (1/IqOR [95% CI] = 1.78 [1.10-3.06]). Conclusions The above results serve to emphasize workload, working at emergency departments and physicians' attitudes identified as critical factors affecting antibiotic prescribing. This provides new insights for clinicians, researchers and policy makers when it comes to developing and improving the clinical and

  17. Fluoxetine in adolescents with comorbid major depression and an alcohol use disorder: a 3-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Jack R; Clark, Duncan B; Bukstein, Oscar G; Kelly, Thomas M; Salloum, Ihsan M; Wood, D Scott

    2005-05-01

    The goal of this 3-year follow-up evaluation was to determine whether the decreases in drinking and in depressive symptoms that were noted during our acute phase study with fluoxetine in comorbid adolescents persisted at a 3-year follow-up evaluation. At the 3-year follow-up evaluation, the group continued to demonstrate significantly fewer DSM criteria for an AUD and fewer BDI depressive symptoms and also consumed fewer standard drinks than they had demonstrated at the baseline of the acute phase study. However, 7 of the 10 participants demonstrated MDD at the 3-year follow-up assessment, and 4 demonstrated an AUD. The presence of a MDD was significantly correlated with the presence of an AUD at both the 1-year and the 3-year follow-up assessments. Four of the participants restarted SSRI medications during the follow-up period. Half of the subjects graduated from college during the 3-year assessment period, despite their residual depressive symptoms and drinking. We conclude that the long-term therapeutic effects of an acute phase trial of fluoxetine plus psychotherapy slowly decrease but did not disappear when fluoxetine is discontinued shortly after the acute phase trial. The high rate of MDD at follow-up suggests that longer term antidepressant medication treatment may be needed for at least some comorbid adolescents. PMID:15833583

  18. A prospective clinical evaluation of different single-tooth restoration designs on osseointegrated implants. A 3-year follow-up of Brånemark implants.

    PubMed

    Wannfors, K; Smedberg, J I

    1999-12-01

    Since single-tooth implant restorations were introduced 12 years ago (Jemt 1986), there has been continuous development both in the technical design and the aesthetic outcome of the treatment. In order to ensure high quality in single-tooth implant treatments a clinical follow-up study was carried out on patients treated with modifications to the original regimen. In this study 69 consecutive patients were provided with 80 single-tooth implant restorations. The patients were followed for 3 years. There was continuous development of the prosthetic design during the time of the study, allowing us to analyse possible prognostic differences for the different prosthetic treatments. This study confirms earlier reports which describe the single-tooth implant treatment as a safe method with few surgical complications and minimal marginal bone loss. Only 1 implant was lost during the follow-up period and the average marginal bone loss was 0.48 mm over the 3-year follow-up period. Crowns veneered with acrylic and with gold casted directly to the abutments, screwed onto the implants, led to recurring prosthetic complications and gave an appearance of rapid ageing. The first generation of crowns made following the Cera-One design, sometimes produced a gap between the crown and the abutment associated with significant marginal bone loss during the first year. Few surgical or prosthetic complications were noted with cemented all-ceramic constructions, although the number of these crowns in this study was limited. PMID:10740454

  19. [Results of 3-year study of toothbrushing with a fluoride amine gel].

    PubMed

    Szöke, J; Kozma, M

    1989-12-01

    265 6-year-old children were investigated over a period of 3 years. In the test group, 6 toothbrushing exercises and 25-30 controlled applications of Elmex Gelèe were carried out yearly. The effect was analyzed by oral hygiene, caries frequency, caries intensity, and caries increase. The improvement of the oral hygiene index according to Silness-Löe was 30% and can be characterized as highly statistically significant (p less than 0.001). The inhibition of caries increase related to the surface (delta DMF-S) was 53% in the case of caries with substance loss and was also highly significant. PMID:2639721

  20. Development, Validation and Parametric study of a 3-Year-Old Child Head Finite Element Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Shihai; Chen, Yue; Li, Haiyan; Ruan, ShiJie

    2015-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury caused by drop and traffic accidents is an important reason for children's death and disability. Recently, the computer finite element (FE) head model has been developed to investigate brain injury mechanism and biomechanical responses. Based on CT data of a healthy 3-year-old child head, the FE head model with detailed anatomical structure was developed. The deep brain structures such as white matter, gray matter, cerebral ventricle, hippocampus, were firstly created in this FE model. The FE model was validated by comparing the simulation results with that of cadaver experiments based on reconstructing the child and adult cadaver experiments. In addition, the effects of skull stiffness on the child head dynamic responses were further investigated. All the simulation results confirmed the good biofidelity of the FE model.

  1. The development of inhibitory control in early childhood: A twin study from 2-3 years

    PubMed Central

    Gagne, Jeffrey R.; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2015-01-01

    Parent and lab-based observer ratings were employed to examine genetic and environmental influences on continuity and change in inhibitory control (IC) in over 300 twin-pairs assessed longitudinally at 2 and 3 years of age. Genetic influences accounted for approximately 60% of the variance in parent-rated IC at both ages. Although many of the same genetic effects on parent-rated IC were stable across age, there were also novel genetic effects that emerged at age 3 (i.e., genetic factors contributed to both continuity and change in parent ratings of IC). Observed IC displayed a different developmental pattern. Genetic influences were moderate at age 2 (38%) and nonsignificant at age 3 (6%). Change in observed IC across early childhood was due to shared and nonshared environmental factors. Findings indicate that it is important to consider the measurement of IC when interpreting developmental and etiological findings. PMID:26784384

  2. Predictors of Child-to-Parent Aggression: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Gamez-Guadix, Manuel; Bushman, Brad J.

    2015-01-01

    Although we rarely hear about it, children sometimes aggress against their parents. This is a difficult topic to study because abused parents and abusive children are both reluctant to admit the occurrence of child-to-parent aggression. There are very few research studies on this topic, and even fewer theoretical explanations of why it occurs. We…

  3. Dispelling the Notion of Inconsistencies in Teachers' Mathematics Beliefs and Practices: A 3-Year Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross Francis, Dionne I.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in the field of mathematics education have focused on beliefs as a significant area of study because of the influence of beliefs on what is taught and learned. Much of the research in this area speaks about inconsistency between teachers' beliefs about mathematics teaching and learning and their classroom practices. In this case study,…

  4. A 3-Year Study of a School-Based Parental Involvement Program in Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Susan Ann; Rasinski, Timothy; Padak, Nancy; Yildirim, Kasim

    2015-01-01

    Although parental involvement in children's literacy development has been recognized for its potential in helping children develop early literacy achievement, studies of the effectiveness and sustainability of school-based parent involvement programs are not numerous. This study examines the effectiveness and durability of a school-based…

  5. Stability of vaccinia-vectored recombinant oral rabies vaccine under field conditions: A 3-year study

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, Joseph R.; Fry, Alethea M.; Siev, David; Slate, Dennis; Lewis, Charles; Gatewood, Donna M.

    2011-01-01

    Rabies is an incurable zoonotic disease caused by rabies virus, a member of the rhabdovirus family. It is transmitted through the bite of an infected animal. Control methods, including oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programs, have led to a reduction in the spread and prevalence of the disease in wildlife. This study evaluated the stability of RABORAL, a recombinant vaccinia virus vaccine that is used in oral rabies vaccination programs. The vaccine was studied in various field microenvironments in order to describe its viability and facilitate effective baiting strategies. Field microenvironments influenced the stability of this vaccine in this study. This study emphasizes the importance of understanding how vaccines perform under varying field conditions in order to plan effective baiting strategies. PMID:22468025

  6. A 3-Year Study of Self-Regulation in Montessori and Non-Montessori Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin, Barbara; Wash, Pamela D.; Mecca, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    Albert Bandura, the leading pioneer in the study of self-regulation, has defined the term as the child's ability to self-educate, self-direct, regulate motivation, and learn to think about what she is learning (1994). Lev Vygotsky's theory that children can be taught to think independently about how to solve problems expands upon Bandura's work…

  7. Engaging Hispanic Students in Agricultural Education and the FFA: A 3-Year Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, T. Grady; Hall, Johnathan L.; Briers, Gary E.; Gill, Ernie; Shinn, Glen C.; Larke, Alvin, Jr.; Jaure, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the outcomes of field-based efforts to increase diversity in agricultural education programs and the FFA. This study focused on three schools in San Antonio, Texas. Guided by Rogers' (2003) theories of diffusion of innovations, a series of six intervention strategies was implemented: (a) provide specific FFA or agricultural…

  8. A 3-Year Study of Middle, Junior High, and High School IEP Meetings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James E.; Marshall, Laura Huber; Sale, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The study examined the perceptions of 1,638 secondary individualized education program (IEP) meeting participants from 393 IEP meetings across 3 consecutive years. Results indicate significant differences between the survey answers and participant roles, when students did or did not attend their IEP meetings, and when different professional team…

  9. The Sydney Multicentre Study of Parkinson's disease: a report on the first 3 years.

    PubMed Central

    Hely, M A; Morris, J G; Rail, D; Reid, W G; O'Sullivan, D J; Williamson, P M; Genge, S; Broe, G A

    1989-01-01

    One hundred and twenty nine de novo patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease are being followed over a 5 year period in a double-blind multicentre study comparing low-dose bromocriptine (less than 30 mg/day) with low-dose levodopa-carbidopa (less than 600/150 mg/day). Sixty six patients have been randomised to bromocriptine and 63 patients to levodopa-carbidopa. Improvement has been greater in the levodopa-carbidopa group than in the bromocriptine group. Involuntary movements have so far only occurred in patients on levodopa-carbidopa, the incidence being much lower than is usually described with conventional doses. Mild, end-of-dose failure has occurred in both treatment groups; however, no patient has developed the "on-off" phenomenon. Low-dose levodopa-carbidopa appears to be a more effective anti-Parkinsonian treatment than low-dose bromocriptine but more prone to cause dyskinesia. PMID:2647907

  10. Influence of Shared Medical Appointments on Patient Satisfaction: A Retrospective 3-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Heyworth, Leonie; Rozenblum, Ronen; Burgess, James F.; Baker, Errol; Meterko, Mark; Prescott, Debra; Neuwirth, Zeev; Simon, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Shared medical appointments (SMAs) are becoming popular, but little is known about their association with patient experience in primary care. We performed an exploratory analysis examining overall satisfaction and patient-centered care experiences across key domains of the patient-centered medical home among patients attending SMAs vs usual care appointments. METHODS We undertook a cross-sectional study using a mailed questionnaire measuring levels of patient satisfaction and other indicators of patient-centered care among 921 SMA and 921 usual care patients between 2008 and 2010. Propensity scores adjusted for potential case mix differences between the groups. Multivariate logistic regression assessed propensity-matched patients’ ratings of care. Generalized estimating equations accounted for physician-level clustering. RESULTS A total of 40% of SMA patients and 31% of usual care patients responded. In adjusted analyses, SMA patients were more likely to rate their overall satisfaction with care as “very good” when compared with usual care counterparts (odds ratio = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.05–1.52). In the analysis of patient-centered medical home elements, SMA patients rated their care as more accessible and more sensitive to their needs, whereas usual care patients reported greater satisfaction with physician communication and time spent during their appointment. CONCLUSIONS Overall, SMA patients appear more satisfied with their care relative to patients receiving usual care. SMAs may also improve access to care and deliver care that patients find to be sensitive to their needs. Further research should focus on enhancing patient-clinician communication within an SMA as this model of care becomes more widely adopted. PMID:25024240

  11. Family function of the families consisting of Asian immigrant women living in South Korea: a 3-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Pyo; Joh, Ju-Youn; Shin, Il-Seon

    2015-03-01

    Marriages between Korean men and immigrant women from elsewhere in Asia have increased rapidly during recent years. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship within families consisting of immigrant women and to identify the relevant factors. The study subjects were 62 Asian immigrant women married to South Korean men living in South Korea. In a baseline study in August 2008, the socioeconomic factors and family APGAR (adaptation, partnership, growth, affection, and resolve) scores were measured. Family APGAR has been widely used to study the relationship of family function and health problems in the busy clinician's office. A 3-year follow-up study was then conducted in August 2011, and the results were compared with the baseline study results. Family APGAR scores were higher at the 3-year follow-up than those at baseline. Changes in family APGAR scores were found to be influenced by the birthplace, reported subjective ability to read Korean, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale score. PMID:22652245

  12. Fluorouracil-based preoperative chemoradiotherapy with or without oxaliplatin for stage II/III rectal cancer: a 3-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Dexin; Zhang, Rui; Gong, Zhiqiang; Liu, Fang; Chen, Yue; Yu, Qinrui; Sun, Liping; Duan, Hongyan; Zhu, Shendong; Liu, Fei; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background Fluorouracil-based preoperative chemoradiotherapy has become the standard treatment for stage II/III rectal cancer. In order to improve the overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS), we added oxaliplatin to the standard treatment, and compared the effectiveness of these two treatment patterns. Methods A total of 206 patients enrolled in the prospective study had histologically confirmed rectal cancer of clinical stage II/III during July 2007 to July 2010. They were randomized into the experimental group received oxaliplatin and capecitabine in combination with radiotherapy, and the control group received capecitabine in combination with radiotherapy. All patients received surgery in 6−10 weeks after chemoradiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy with mFOLFOX6. The primary endpoints were DFS and OS, and the secondary endpoints included toxicity, compliance, and histopathological response. Results The 3-year OS in the experimental group and the control group was 90.29% vs. 86.41% (P>0.05), and the 3-year DFS was 80.58% vs. 69.90% (P>0.05). The pathological complete remission (pCR) rates were 23.30% and 19.42%, respectively (P=0.497). The 3-year local recurrence rates were 4.85% vs. 5.83% (P=0.694), and the 3-year distant metastasis rates were 16.50% and 28.16%, respectively (P=0.045). There were no significant differences in most grade 3−4 toxicities between two groups, however, grade 3−4 diarrhea occurred in 16.50% (17/103) of the experimental group, compared with 6.80% (7/103) of the control group (P=0.030). Also, the total grade 3−4 acute toxicity showed a significant difference (10.68% vs. 21.36%, P=0.037). Conclusions The experimental treatment did not lead significantly improved OS and DFS, and thus longer follow-up is warranted for our patient cohort. Adding oxaliplatin to capecitabine-based preoperative chemoradiotherapy can significantly reduce metastasis, but has only minimal impact on local recurrence. Although grade 3−4

  13. Patterns of paediatric facial fractures in a hospital of São Paulo, Brazil: a retrospective study of 3 years.

    PubMed

    Nardis, Amanda da Costa; Costa, Sabrina Araújo Pinho; da Silva, Rogério Almeida; Kaba, Shajadi Carlos Pardo

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze patterns of facial fractures in children treated at the Service of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Vila Penteado General Hospital (HGVP), in São Paulo, Brazil, in a period of 3 years. Between May 2008 and April 2011 the authors reviewed 110 records of patients under 12 years old with facial fractures. The following parameters were evaluated: age and sex distribution, aetiology of trauma, incidence and type of fractures, monthly distribution and treatment modality. Male-to-female ratio was 1.8:1, and the mean age was 8.13. The majority of the involved patients were aged between 6 and 12 years. The most prevalent cause was fall (58%) and nasal fractures were the most common type of fracture (69%). Monthly distribution was similar in all seasons. Of 110 patients, 69 (62%) were treated conservatively. The incidence of facial fractures in the area of study is high. The high incidence of nasal fractures should be a warning to maxillofacial surgeons, so that they are not overlooked. Safety programs should be installed in Brazil to increase public awareness and to decrease morbidity resulting from paediatric trauma. PMID:23062741

  14. [Anemia management in French hemodialysis patients: DiaNE study results at 3 years (DiaNE2)].

    PubMed

    Kessler, Michèle; Landais, Paul; Bataille, Pierre; Yver, Laurent; Koné, Sébastien; Kraemer, Sandrine; Brillet, Georges; Canivet, Eric

    2011-06-01

    The observational study DiaNE provides a current state of anemia management with Epoetine bêta in hemodialysis patients regarding European recommendations over a 3-year period in France. Patients still treated with Epoetine bêta twelve months after their inclusion in DiaNE were eligible for a 24-month extension phase entitled DiaNE 2. Data regarding 439 patients followed during three years, from M0 to M36, were analyzed. Hemoglobin (Hb) level of the cohort remained over the target value of 11g/dL during the study (M0: 11.3±1.2g/dL; M36: 11.8±1.3g/dL). The anemia management had evolved with European recommendations updates and was in accordance with the last recommended target range (11-12g/dL) in a third of patients. During the follow-up, the majority of patients (97%) had at least one modification of treatment with Epoetine bêta (change in frequency of injections, adjustment of doses) mainly justified by excursion of Hb level out of the target range. However, the median dose of Epoetine bêta was relatively stable. The number of patients with iron treatment remained stable (60%). In spite of undertaken efforts, anemia management of hemodialysed patients in France still needs optimization for maintaining Hb level in the recommended target range. PMID:21227765

  15. Predictors for Progression of Sleep Disordered Breathing among Public Transport Drivers: A 3-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng-Yu; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Chang, Cheng-Ping; Chou, Tzu-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle crashes. This study aimed to understand SDB progression and related factors among professional drivers. Methods: A total of 524 professional male drivers from a transportation company were included in this study. These drivers completed overnight in-home pulse oximetry studies both in 2006 and in 2009. Participants with abnormal results (oxygen desaturation index [ODI] ≥ 10 events/h) comprised the SDB group. Data included questionnaire information on demographics, medical history, SDB symptoms, and anthropometric measurements. Results: A total of 318 male workers were recruited for further analysis. Fifty of these workers belonged to the SDB group. Workers with untreated SDB significantly progressed to a more severe state after three years. Baseline body mass index (BMI), baseline ODI, and change in BMI were all significant positive predictors of SDB progression (β = 0.823, 0.242, and 1.626; p = 0.047, 0.013, and 0.004, respectively). Compared with non-SDB drivers, SDB subjects showed a greater proportion of newly diagnosed cardiovascular disease (38.0%) at follow-up. Conclusions: Untreated SDB was a gradually progressive disorder in professional drivers over a three-year period. Subjects with high BMI and moderate to severe SDB should be closely monitored to allow for early detection of worsening SDB. Weight control should be highlighted in the management of SDB. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 409. Citation: Lin CY, Shih TS, Liou SH, Lin MH, Chang CP, Chou TC. Predictors for progression of sleep disordered breathing among public transport drivers: a 3-year follow-up study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(4):419–425. PMID:25766707

  16. Testing the predictive power of cognitive atypicalities in autistic children: evidence from a 3-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2013-08-01

    This follow-up study investigated the predictive power of early cognitive atypicalities. Specifically, it examined whether early individual differences in specific cognitive skills, including theory of mind, executive function, and central coherence, could uniquely account for variation in autistic children's behaviors-social communication, repetitive behaviors, and interests and insistence on sameness-at follow-up. Thirty-seven cognitively able children with an autism spectrum condition were assessed on tests tapping verbal and nonverbal ability, theory of mind (false-belief prediction), executive function (planning ability, cognitive flexibility, and inhibitory control), and central coherence (local processing) at intake and their behavioral functioning (social communication, repetitive behaviors and interests, insistence on sameness) 3 years later. Individual differences in early executive but not theory of mind skills predicted variation in children's social communication. Individual differences in children's early executive function also predicted the degree of repetitive behaviors and interests at follow-up. There were no predictive relationships between early central coherence and children's insistence on sameness. These findings challenge the notion that distinct cognitive atypicalities map on to specific behavioral features of autism. Instead, early variation in executive function plays a key role in helping to shape autistic children's emerging behaviors, including their social communication and repetitive behaviors and interests. PMID:23495146

  17. Prospective Teachers' Perspectives on Microteaching Lesson Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Maria L.; Robinson, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Microteaching Lesson Study [MLS] is a cooperative learning experience that we felt could challenge our prospective teachers thinking about teaching and support their connection of theory and practice during an initial course on learning to teach mathematics. We studied seventy-four prospective teachers' perspectives on MLS over four sections of…

  18. Clinical evaluation of meniscus repair with a bioabsorbable arrow: a 2- to 3-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Ellermann, A; Siebold, R; Buelow, J U; Sobau, C

    2002-09-01

    In a clinical study with the bioabsorbable Bionx Meniscus Arrow we prospectively evaluated 113 consecutive patients (113 menisci) after all-inside meniscus repair. Repairs were performed in either the medial (80.5%) or lateral (19.5%) posterior horn in the red-red or red-white meniscal zone; 66% of patients underwent concomitant ACL reconstruction. Assessment was based on history, clinical examination, and Lysholm [37] and Cincinnati Knee Scores. After a mean follow-up was 33 months (range 24-43; n=105) 21 (20%) patients showed signs and symptoms consistent with a meniscus tear (16 medial, 5 lateral) and underwent partial meniscectomy. In 11 (52%) of the revised patients concomitant ACL reconstruction was performed; 4 (19%) of revised patients were older than 35 years. In the nonrevised the average Lysholm Score was 92.5 and the average Cincinnati Score 90.4. Two patients showed a distinct femoral cartilage damage. Patient's age did not significantly affect the revision rate. Meniscus repair with the bioabsorbable arrow leads to clinical results comparable to those of traditional suture techniques. When stabilized, patients with concomitant ACL reconstruction showed comparable results to patients without ACL rupture. The simple and time saving all-inside insertion obviates the need for additional incisions and avoids knot tying. A proper tear selection and arrow positioning is necessary and should avoid cartilage damage. PMID:12355303

  19. Stress Hyperglycaemia in Hospitalised Patients and Their 3-Year Risk of Diabetes: A Scottish Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, David A.; Hughes, Katherine A.; Lone, Nazir; Mills, Nicholas L.; Sattar, Naveed; McKnight, John; Wild, Sarah H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hyperglycaemia during hospital admission is common in patients who are not known to have diabetes and is associated with adverse outcomes. The risk of subsequently developing type 2 diabetes, however, is not known. We linked a national database of hospital admissions with a national register of diabetes to describe the association between admission glucose and the risk of subsequently developing type 2 diabetes. Methods and Findings In a retrospective cohort study, patients aged 30 years or older with an emergency admission to hospital between 2004 and 2008 were included. Prevalent and incident diabetes were identified through the Scottish Care Information (SCI)-Diabetes Collaboration national registry. Patients diagnosed prior to or up to 30 days after hospitalisation were defined as prevalent diabetes and were excluded. The predicted risk of developing incident type 2 diabetes during the 3 years following hospital discharge by admission glucose, age, and sex was obtained from logistic regression models. We performed separate analyses for patients aged 40 and older, and patients aged 30 to 39 years. Glucose was measured in 86,634 (71.0%) patients aged 40 and older on admission to hospital. The 3-year risk of developing type 2 diabetes was 2.3% (1,952/86,512) overall, was <1% for a glucose ≤5 mmol/l, and increased to approximately 15% at 15 mmol/l. The risks at 7 mmol/l and 11.1 mmol/l were 2.6% (95% CI 2.5–2.7) and 9.9% (95% CI 9.2–10.6), respectively, with one in four (21,828/86,512) and one in 40 (1,798/86,512) patients having glucose levels above each of these cut-points. For patients aged 30–39, the risks at 7 mmol/l and 11.1 mmol/l were 1.0% (95% CI 0.8–1.3) and 7.8% (95% CI 5.7–10.7), respectively, with one in eight (1,588/11,875) and one in 100 (120/11,875) having glucose levels above each of these cut-points. The risk of diabetes was also associated with age, sex, and socio-economic deprivation, but not with specialty (medical versus

  20. Contribution of dysregulated serum magnesium to mortality in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism: a 3-year cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kurita, Noriaki; Akizawa, Tadao; Fukagawa, Masafumi; Onishi, Yoshihiro; Kurokawa, Kiyoshi; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2015-01-01

    Background The extent of contribution of disturbed magnesium balance to mortality remains unclear among hemodialysis patients. Methods This was a cohort study involving 3276 patients on maintenance hemodialysis at 86 facilities in Japan from 2008 to 2010 who had secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). Baseline serum magnesium (sMg) values were categorized into quintiles (≤2.3, >2.3–2.5, >2.5–2.7, >2.7–3.0 and >3.0 mg/dL), and the middle quintile was set as the reference. Outcome was all-cause death. Independent contribution to all-cause death was assessed via Cox regression to generate population-attributable fractions (PAFs). Results A total of 2165 patients from 68 facilities were analyzed. The lowest quintile of sMg was positively associated with lower serum potassium and albumin levels, higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and prevalence of atrial fibrillation and cerebrovascular disease than the other quintiles. The highest sMg quintile was positively associated with higher potassium levels, and negatively associated with lower serum albumin levels and higher intact parathyroid hormone and CRP levels and prevalence of cerebrovascular disease than the other quintiles. During a median follow-up of 3 years, the lowest and the second lowest quintiles of sMg were associated with all-cause death [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.737, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.200–2.512 and HR 1.675, 95% CI 1.254–2.238, respectively). Point estimates of adjusted HRs of the highest and the second highest sMg quintiles were higher than those of the middle quintile for all-cause death. Adjusted PAFs of lower sMg and of higher and lower sMg for all-cause death were 24.0% (95% CI 13.0–35.0%) and 30.7% (95% CI 14.5–46.8%), respectively. Conclusion In hemodialysis patients with SHPT, dysregulated sMg is an important contributor to all-cause death. Further studies are warranted to examine whether or not correction of sMg improves survival. PMID:26613035

  1. Typing and Antibiogram of Vibrio cholerae Isolates from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Pune: A 3 Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Palewar, Meghna S; Choure, Archana C; Mudshingkar, Swati; Dohe, Vaishali; Kagal, Anju; Bhardwaj, Renu; Jaiswal, Abhishek; Sarkar, Banwarilal

    2015-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was done over a period of 3 years (January 2010- December 2012) in a tertiary care hospital, Pune, to note the changes in the prevalence and distribution of biotypes, serotypes, antibiotic susceptibility pattern and phage types of Vibrio cholerae isolates from clinical samples so as to be vigilant and curtail major outbreak in future. Vibrio cholerae isolates were obtained from 4.4% of the 1126 fecal specimens processed from cases of acute watery diarrhea. Majority of the isolates were identified as V. cholerae O1 biotype El Tor serotype Ogawa (98%); Phage 27 was the predominant type (77.5%). Majority of the cases were encountered during the months June-August (68%). Antibiogram over a period of 3 years showed that isolates were consistently resistant to Ampicillin (90%) and Furazolidone (88%). Low level of resistance was seen with Norfloxacin (8%), Gentamicin (8%) and Tetracycline (6%). All isolates were susceptible to Chloramphenicol. PMID:25722619

  2. Developmental milestones record - 3 years

    MedlinePlus

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 3 years; Growth milestones for children - 3 years; Childhood growth milestones - 3 years ... provider. Physical and motor milestones for a typical 3-year-old include: Gains about 4 - 5 pounds ...

  3. Trait Anger, Anger Expression, and Suicide Attempts among Adolescents and Young Adults: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Stephanie S.; Goldston, David B.; Erkanli, Alaattin; Franklin, Joseph C.; Mayfield, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies of the relationship between anger, anger expression, and suicidal behavior have been largely cross-sectional and have yielded mixed findings. In a prospective, naturalistic study, we examined how trait anger and anger expression influenced the likelihood of suicide attempts among 180 adolescents followed for up to 13.3 years after…

  4. Implants and sinus-inlay bone grafts in a 1-stage procedure on severely atrophied maxillae: surgical aspects of a 3-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Johansson, B; Wannfors, K; Ekenbäck, J; Smedberg, J I; Hirsch, J

    1999-01-01

    This 3-year follow-up study compares implant treatment in 39 1-stage sinus-inlay block-grafted patients (study group) with 37 patients treated without bone grafting (reference group), all of whom were edentulous in the maxilla and were treated over the same time period. The cumulative success rate (CSR) of implant stability after 3 years in the study group was 75.3% in grafted areas and 82.2% in non-grafted areas. The CSR after 3 years in the reference group was 93.1%. The mean marginal bone resorption after 3 years of loading was 1.4 mm in grafted areas and 1.6 mm in non-grafted areas in the study group and 1.1 mm in the reference group. Complications noted during the postoperative healing periods correlated significantly with implant failures later on (P < .05). Since prosthesis stability (CSR) after 3 years was 94.9% in the study group and 97.3% in the reference group, it can be concluded that 1-stage sinus-inlay block grafts can be regarded as a safe method with a predictable outcome for use on patients with severely atrophied edentulous maxillae, although increased failure rates are to be expected for implants placed in bone-grafted regions. PMID:10612917

  5. Sociocultural and Individual Psychological Predictors of Body Image in Young Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Levina; Tiggemann, Marika

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective predictors of body image in 9- to 12-year-old girls. Participants were 150 girls in Grades 4-6 with a mean age of 10.3 years. Girls completed questionnaire measures of media and peer influences (television/magazine exposure, peer appearance conversations), individual psychological variables (appearance…

  6. Development of Risk Score for Predicting 3-Year Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes: Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Nanri, Akiko; Nakagawa, Tohru; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Honda, Toru; Okazaki, Hiroko; Uehara, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Makoto; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Kochi, Takeshi; Eguchi, Masafumi; Murakami, Taizo; Shimizu, Chii; Shimizu, Makiko; Tomita, Kentaro; Nagahama, Satsue; Imai, Teppei; Nishihara, Akiko; Sasaki, Naoko; Hori, Ai; Sakamoto, Nobuaki; Nishiura, Chihiro; Totsuzaki, Takafumi; Kato, Noritada; Fukasawa, Kenji; Huanhuan, Hu; Akter, Shamima; Kurotani, Kayo; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Sone, Tomofumi; Dohi, Seitaro

    2015-01-01

    Objective Risk models and scores have been developed to predict incidence of type 2 diabetes in Western populations, but their performance may differ when applied to non-Western populations. We developed and validated a risk score for predicting 3-year incidence of type 2 diabetes in a Japanese population. Methods Participants were 37,416 men and women, aged 30 or older, who received periodic health checkup in 2008–2009 in eight companies. Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥126 mg/dl, random plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dl, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥6.5%, or receiving medical treatment for diabetes. Risk scores on non-invasive and invasive models including FPG and HbA1c were developed using logistic regression in a derivation cohort and validated in the remaining cohort. Results The area under the curve (AUC) for the non-invasive model including age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference, hypertension, and smoking status was 0.717 (95% CI, 0.703–0.731). In the invasive model in which both FPG and HbA1c were added to the non-invasive model, AUC was increased to 0.893 (95% CI, 0.883–0.902). When the risk scores were applied to the validation cohort, AUCs (95% CI) for the non-invasive and invasive model were 0.734 (0.715–0.753) and 0.882 (0.868–0.895), respectively. Participants with a non-invasive score of ≥15 and invasive score of ≥19 were projected to have >20% and >50% risk, respectively, of developing type 2 diabetes within 3 years. Conclusions The simple risk score of the non-invasive model might be useful for predicting incident type 2 diabetes, and its predictive performance may be markedly improved by incorporating FPG and HbA1c. PMID:26558900

  7. Predictive Effects of Mother and Peer Influences on Increases in Adolescent Eating Disorder Risk Factors and Symptoms: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Linville, Deanna; Stice, Eric; Gau, Jeff; O'Neil, Maya

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relation of maternal and peer attitudes and behaviors to changes in eating disorder risk factors and symptoms in adolescent females. Method We tested whether maternal and peer eating attitudes, behaviors, and deficits in social support at baseline predicted subsequent increases in eating disorder risk factors and symptoms among 483 late adolescent females followed over 3 years. Results Data provide partial support for hypotheses, as eating disorder risk factors and symptoms increased over time and maternal thin ideal internalization significantly predicted a future increases in adolescent bulimic symptoms. There were no significant predictors of adolescent thin ideal internalization or body dissatisfaction. Discussion Findings only partially support the hypothesis that unhealthy attitudes and behaviors of mothers increase risk for eating disorder symptoms in their late adolescent daughters. These results underscore why eating disorder prevention programs should be based on risk factor research that has used prospective and rigorous designs. PMID:21344465

  8. Progression of cardiovascular risk factors in black Africans: 3 year follow up of the SABPA cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Mark; von Känel, Roland; Reimann, Manja; Malan, Nico T.; Schutte, Alta E.; Huisman, Hugo W.; Malan, Leone

    2015-01-01

    Recent work identified a high prevalence of modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among urban black South Africans. The aim was to track the progression of CVD risk factors in a multi-ethnic sample of South Africans. Participants were 173 black (aged 47.5 ± 7.8 yrs) and 186 white teachers (aged 49.6 ± 9.9 yrs) that were examined at baseline and 3 years follow-up. Blacks demonstrated a substantially higher prevalence of composite CVD burden (defined as history of physician diagnosed heart disease, use of anti-hypertensives, anti-diabetic, or statin medications at either time point) compared to whites (49.1 vs. 32.0%, p = 0.012) respectively. After controlling for baseline, the black participants demonstrated greater increases in 24 h systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, fasting glucose, fibrinogen, D-dimer, and waist circumference in comparison with whites. In summary, an adverse progression of CVD risk factors was observed in the whole sample, although to a larger degree in black participants. Aggressive treatment strategies for controlling risk factors in black Africans are needed to reduce the increasing burden of CVD in South Africa. PMID:25437890

  9. Airway accidents in critical care unit: A 3-year retrospective study in a Public Teaching Hospital of Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Sugata; Singh, Shipti Shradha; Chaudhuri, Arunima; Bhattacharya, Dipasri; Choudhury, Sourav Das

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although tracheal tubes are essential devices to control and protect airway in a critical care unit (CCU), they are not free from complications. Aims: To document the incidence and nature of airway accidents in the CCU of a government teaching hospital in Eastern India. Methods: Retrospective analysis of all airway accidents in a 5-bedded (medical and surgical) CCU. The number, types, timing, and severity of airway accidents were analyzed. Results: The total accident rate was 19 in 233 intubated and/or tracheostomized patients over 1657 tube days (TDs) during 3 years. Fourteen occurred in 232 endotracheally intubated patients over 1075 endotracheal tube (ETT) days, and five occurred in 44 tracheostomized patients over 580 tracheostomy TDs. Fifteen accidents were due to blocked tubes. Rest four were unplanned extubations (UEs), all being accidental extubations. All blockages occurred during night shifts and all UEs during day shifts. Five accidents were mild, the rest moderate. No major accident led to cardiorespiratory arrest or death. All blockages occurred after 7th day of intubation. The outcome of accidents were more favorable in tracheostomy group compared to ETT group (P = 0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of airway accidents was 8.2 accidents per 100 patients. Blockages were the most common accidents followed by UEs. Ten out of the 15 blockages and all 4 UEs were in endotracheally intubated patients. Tracheostomized patients had 5 blockages and no UEs. PMID:27076709

  10. Case Study: Variation in fatty acid profiles in milk from adjacent organic and conventional dairy farms over a 3-year period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measuring the seasonal variability of fatty acids (FAs) in milk improves our understanding of the nutritional and health values of milk. In collaboration with the Rodale Institute, Kutztown, PA, a 3-year study evaluated the seasonal variation of FA profiles of milk obtained from two farms adjacent t...

  11. Lifestyle, Dwelling Conditions and Daily Routine as Qualitative Indicators of Infant Development: A Study of 0-3 Years Old Children from Rural Brazilian Northeast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinovich, Elaine Pedreira

    The developing child and his/her eco-social-cultural context is the focus of study of 28 children ages 0-3 years in the rural area of Cocal, Piaui in Northeast Brazil. Ethnographic methods, naturalistic observations and semi-structured interviews were used to ascertain the physical context (the house and its surroundings), as well as maternal…

  12. Predictive value of health-related quality of life in progression of disability and depression in persons with multiple sclerosis: a 3-year study.

    PubMed

    Kisic Tepavcevic, Darija; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Stojsavljevic, Nebojsa; Kostic, Jelena; Dujmovic Basuroski, Irena; Mesaros, Sarlota; Drulovic, Jelena

    2013-12-01

    In our study, we examined whether health-related quality of life (HRQoL) could predict changes in disability, depression, and fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) over a 3-year follow-up period. A group of 109 consecutive MS patients (McDonald's criteria) referring to the Institute of Neurology, Belgrade were enrolled in the study. At two time points during the study (baseline, and after a 3-year period) an HRQoL (measured by MSQoL-54), EDSS, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS) and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) were assessed. At the end of a 3-year follow-up, 12 out of 109 patients (11%) had dropped out. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that Physical Health scale of MSQoL-54 is significant independent predictor of change in EDSS after 3 years (p = 0.035). Mental health composite score of MSQoL-54 was predictor of change in HDRS score (p = 0.049). In separate regression analysis, only social function was independent predictor of the development of depression (p = 0.041). None of the HRQoL domains had predictive effect on the change of FSS. Our study suggests that baseline HRQoL scores, measured by MSQoL-54, could be applied as a prognostic marker for progression of both, disability, and severity of depressive symptoms in MS. PMID:23460394

  13. TRMM 3-Year Anniversary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Ever wonder about the rain? Beyond the practicality of needing an umbrella, climate researchers have wondered about the science of rainfall for a long time. But it's only in the past few years that they've begun to roll back some of its secrets. One of their tools for doing so is a powerful satellite called the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, or TRMM. Now, after three years of continual operation, project scientists have released dramatic new maps of rainfall patterns gathered across a wide band of the Earth. And with measurements from one of the satellite's advanced sensors, meteorologists are now able to calibrate ground-based rain monitoring systems with greater precision than ever before. A complete accounting of the world's total rainfall has long been a major goal of climate researchers. Rain acts as the atmosphere's fundamental engine for heat exchange; every time a raindrop falls, the atmosphere gets churned up and latent heat flows back into the total climate system. Considering that rainfall is the primary driving force of heat in the atmosphere, and that two thirds of all rain falls in the tropics, these measurements are significant for our understanding of overall climate. The above image shows a one month average of rainfall measurements taken by the TRMM's unique precipitation radar during January of 1998. Areas of low rainfall are colored light blue, while regions with heavy rainfal are colored orange and red. TRMM began collecting data in December of 1997, and continues today. For more information about TRMM's 3-year anniversary, read Maps of Falling Water To learn more about the TRMM mission or order TRMM data, see the TRMM Home Page. Image courtesy TRMM Science team and the NASA GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio.

  14. A retrospective study of the changing trends of antimicrobial resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from urine samples over last 3 years (2012-2014)

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Neetu; Gupta, Anita K.; Walia, Geeta; Bakhshi, Rupinder

    2016-01-01

    Background: In our country, the problem of antibiotic resistance is compounding because of overuse and misuse of antibiotics. There is no systematic national surveillance of antibiotic resistance and insufficient data are available to quantify the problem. Objectives: To study the changing pattern of antimicrobial resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from patients of urinary tract infections over last 3 years. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, record-based study carried out based on the records culture sensitivity reports of indoor patients, during past 3 years (2012-2014). The type of organisms most common in urine sample was noted, and the drugs still effective for the particular organism were noted. Results: Klebsiella was the second most frequent isolate throughout the 3 years (14%) of the total isolates). Analysis of the results year wise indicated that the lowest percentage of resistance was manifested against imipenem between 11.94% (2012) and 13.75% (2014). Over the successive years, resistance to ceftriaxone tends to increase from 74.95 % (2012) to 81% (2014). Klebsiella showed very high resistance 90.78% (2012) and 95.63% (2012) to co-trimoxazole and tetracycline, respectively with increasing trend to absolute resistance to both groups over the 3 years period. On an average over the 3 years Klebsiella showed a high amount of resistances to fluoroquinolones (72.71%) and aminoglycosides (76.22%). While multi-drug resistant Klebsiella range between 65% (2012) and 67% (2014). Conclusion: The antimicrobial resistance patterns are constantly evolving and vary from region to region it has become a necessity to do constant antimicrobial sensitivity surveillance. This will help clinicians to provide safe and effective empirical therapies. PMID:27003967

  15. Autism-Risk Screening in the First 3 Years of Life in Taiwan Birth Cohort Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lung, For-Wey; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean; Shu, Bih-Ching

    2011-01-01

    To increase public awareness and sensitivity, a two-stage screening with a community-based approach is proposed, with the use of the broadband Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS) developmental instrument in the first stage and the narrowband Modified Checklist of Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) in the second stage. Thus, the purpose of this study was to…

  16. Feeling Refreshed by Sleep Can Predict Psychological Wellbeing Assessed Using the General Health Questionnaire in Male Workers: A 3-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Prediction of psychological wellbeing based on several important predictors was conducted for ensuring maintenance of good mental health. A 3-year follow-up study to determine psychological well-being was conducted in 969 Japanese male workers. Age, body mass index, present history of medication and four lifestyle factors were used for the analysis. A logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for obtaining a score of ≥4 in the General Health Questionnaire-12-item version, among the subjects who felt refreshed by sleep was 0.559 (0.415-0.753). None of the other factors showed any statistically significant association. Feeling refreshed by sleep was identified as a predictor of maintained psychological wellbeing in this 3-year follow-up study. PMID:23251209

  17. Feeling refreshed by sleep can predict psychological wellbeing assessed using the general health questionnaire in male workers: a 3-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Tomoyuki

    2012-12-01

    Prediction of psychological wellbeing based on several important predictors was conducted for ensuring maintenance of good mental health. A 3-year follow-up study to determine psychological well-being was conducted in 969 Japanese male workers. Age, body mass index, present history of medication and four lifestyle factors were used for the analysis. A logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for obtaining a score of ≥4 in the General Health Questionnaire-12-item version, among the subjects who felt refreshed by sleep was 0.559 (0.415-0.753). None of the other factors showed any statistically significant association. Feeling refreshed by sleep was identified as a predictor of maintained psychological wellbeing in this 3-year follow-up study. PMID:23251209

  18. A clinico-histopathological study of lupus vulgaris: A 3 year experience at a tertiary care centre

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Varadraj Vasant; Naveen, Kikkeri Narayanshetty; Athanikar, S. B.; Dinesh, U. S.; Divyashree, A.; Gupta, Gaurang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lupus vulgaris is the most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis in adults. Lupus vulgaris is caused by hematogenous, lymphatic, or contiguous spread from elsewhere in the body. histologically it is charecterised by typical tubercles with or without caseation, surrounded by epitheloid histiocytes and multinucleate giant cells in the superficial epidermis with prominent peripheral lymphocytes. Materials and Method: All cases of clinically and histopathologicaly diagnosed lupus vulgaris over the previous five years were included in the study. Results: Fourteen cases of lupus vulgaris cases reported during the study period with eaqual incidence among males and females. Discussion: Plaque type of lupus vulgaris was the most common type. Histopathologically tubercular granulomas were seen in all cases as compared to other studies. Conclusion: Different patterns of lupus vulgaris are reported PMID:25396129

  19. Reading Development in a Tracked School System: A Longitudinal Study over 3 Years Using Propensity Score Matching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retelsdorf, Jan; Becker, Michael; Koller, Olaf; Moller, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Background: Assigning students to different school tracks on the basis of their achievement levels is a widely used strategy that aims at giving students the best possible learning opportunity. There is, however, a growing body of literature that questions such positive effects of tracking. Aims: This study compared the developmental trajectories…

  20. Corpus callosum atrophy as a predictor of age-related cognitive and motor impairment: a 3-year follow-up of the LADIS study cohort.

    PubMed

    Ryberg, C; Rostrup, E; Paulson, O B; Barkhof, F; Scheltens, P; van Straaten, E C W; van der Flier, W M; Fazekas, F; Schmidt, R; Ferro, J M; Baezner, H; Erkinjuntti, T; Jokinen, H; Wahlund, L-O; Poggesi, A; Pantoni, L; Inzitari, D; Waldemar, G

    2011-08-15

    The aim of this 3-year follow-up study was to investigate whether corpus callosum (CC) atrophy may predict future motor and cognitive impairment in an elderly population. On baseline MRI from 563 subjects with age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) from the Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) study, the CC was segmented and subdivided into five anterior-posterior regions (CC1-CC5). Associations between the CC areas and decline in motor performance and cognitive functions over a 3-year period were analyzed. CC atrophy at baseline was significantly associated with impaired cognitive performance (p<0.01 for CC1, p<0.05 for CC5), motor function (p<0.05 for CC2 and CC5), and walking speed (p<0.01 for CC2 and CC5, p<0.05 for CC3 and total CC), and with development of dementia at 3 years (p<0.05 for CC1) after correction for appropriate confounders (ARWMC volume, atrophy, age, gender and handedness). In conclusion, CC atrophy, an indicator of reduced functional connectivity between cortical areas, seems to contribute, independently of ARWMC load, to future cognitive and motor decline in the elderly. PMID:21621224

  1. Risk factors for death and the 3-year survival of patients with systemic sclerosis: the French ItinérAIR-Sclérodermie study

    PubMed Central

    Carpentier, Patrick; Gressin, Virginie; Diot, Elisabeth; Allanore, Yannick; Sibilia, Jean; Launay, David; Mouthon, Luc; Jego, Patrick; Cabane, Jean; de Groote, Pascal; Chabrol, Amélie; Lazareth, Isabelle; Guillevin, Loïc; Clerson, Pierre; Humbert, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. This longitudinal study investigated survival, risk factors and causes of death in the multicentre ItinérAIR-Sclérodermie cohort of patients with SSc without severe pulmonary fibrosis or severe left heart disease at baseline. Methods. At 3-year follow-up, vital status was obtained from investigators or French national death records. Causes of death were classified as SSc-related or otherwise. Data were censored at 37 months, time of death or loss to follow-up, whichever was earlier. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Multivariate survival analyses were conducted using the Cox model. Results. In total, 546 patients were followed for a median duration of 37 months, representing 1547 patient-years. At baseline, the majority of patients were female, with lcSSc, mean age 54.9 ± 13.0 years and mean duration of SSc of 8.8 ± 8.1 years. In total, 47 patients died, giving a 3-year survival of 91.1% and cumulative mortality of 3.04 deaths per 100 patient-years; 17 deaths (32.2%) resulted from pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and eight (17.1%) from cancer. Of the 47 patients with PAH at baseline, 20 died during follow-up, giving a 3-year survival of 56.3%. In a multivariate analysis, PAH [hazard ratio (HR) 7.246], age at first symptom (HR 1.052), duration of SSc (HR 1.047 per year) and Rodnan skin score (per one point) (HR 1.045) were associated with increased mortality. Conclusion. This 3-year study observed survival and mortality estimates that were comparable with previous reports. PAH increased the HR for mortality in patients with SSc, justifying yearly echocardiographic screening. PMID:19174571

  2. The Prevalence of Idiopathic Scoliosis in Eleven Year-Old Korean Adolescents: A 3 Year Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin-Young; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Han Jo; Suh, Bo-Kyung; Nam, Ji Hoon; Jung, Jae Kyun; Lee, Hwan-Mo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose School screening allows for early detection and early treatment of scoliosis, with the purpose of reducing the number of patients requiring surgical treatment. Children between 10 and 14 years old are considered as good candidates for school screening tests of scoliosis. The purpose of the present study was to assess the epidemiological findings of idiopathic scoliosis in 11-year-old Korean adolescents. Materials and Methods A total of 37856 11-year-old adolescents were screened for scoliosis. There were 17110 girls and 20746 boys. Adolescents who were abnormal by Moiré topography were subsequently assessed by standardized clinical and radiological examinations. A scoliotic curve was defined as 10° or more. Results The prevalence of scoliosis was 0.19% and most of the curves were small (10° to 19°). The ratio of boys to girls was 1:5.5 overall. Sixty adolescents (84.5%) exhibited single curvature. Thoracolumbar curves were the most common type of curve identified, followed by thoracic and lumbar curves. Conclusion The prevalence of idiopathic scoliosis among 11-year-old Korean adolescents was 0.19%. PMID:24719147

  3. Nitinol stent implantation for femoropopliteal disease in patients on hemodialysis: results of the 3-year retrospective multicenter APOLLON study.

    PubMed

    Fujihara, Masahiko; Higashimori, Akihiro; Kato, Yoshihiro; Taniguchi, Hiromasa; Iwasaki, Yusuke; Amano, Tomonori; Sumiyoshi, Akinori; Nishiya, Daisuke; Yokoi, Yoshiaki

    2016-09-01

    The clinical outcomes of nitinol stents for femoropopliteal arterial (FP) disease in patients on hemodialysis were assessed. Endovascular therapy (EVT) is accepted for symptomatic FP disease. However, the clinical outcomes of patients on dialysis are not well known. A multicenter retrospective study was conducted with data between November 2010 and August 2013. A total of 484 consecutive patients who successfully underwent EVT for FP disease with nitinol stents were recruited and analyzed. Patients were categorized into the hemodialysis group (N = 161) and non-hemodialysis group (N = 323). The primary measure was primary patency verified by duplex ultrasound at a rest peak systolic velocity (PSVR) of >2.5, and secondary measures were freedom from target lesion revascularization (TLR) and major amputation-free survival (AFS). Average follow-up duration was 19.5 ± 13.5 months. The primary patency rate at 3 years was significantly lower in the hemodialysis group than the non-hemodialysis group (33.8 vs. 43.7 %; p = 0.036). Freedom from TLR at 3 years was 55.0 % in the hemodialysis group and 66.1 % in the non-hemodialysis group (p = 0.032). The hemodialysis group showed a significantly lower AFS rate at 3 years than the non-hemodialysis group (86.4 vs. 58.2 %; p < 0.001). In hemodialysis patients, nitinol stent use resulted in a lower patency rate, higher TLR rate, and lower AFS rate compared to non-hemodialysis patients. These data suggest that nitinol stent implantation for FP arteries in hemodialysis patient needs to be reconsidered. PMID:26337619

  4. How Grammatical Are 3-Year-Olds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Sarita L.; Guo, Ling-Yu; Germezia, Mor

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the level of grammatical accuracy in typically developing 3-year-olds and the types of errors they produce. Method: Twenty-two 3-year-olds participated in a picture description task. The percentage of grammatical utterances was computed and error types were analyzed. Results: The mean level of grammatical accuracy…

  5. Gender Differences in Outcome of an Attempt to Stop Smoking Among Smokers Attending a Smoking Cessation Clinic in Taiwan: 3-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pin-Chieh; Hsueh, Kuang-Chieh; Mar, Guang-Yuan; Hsueh, Shu-Chun; Tu, Ming-Shium; McRobbie, Hayden; Hajek, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Studies that have examined gender differences in smoking cessation have produced mixed results. The purpose of the study was to examine whether there are gender differences in long-term smoking abstinence rates in smokers treated with nicotine patches at a smoking cessation clinic in Taiwan, where 39% of men and 5% of women smoke. This study included 1,065 smokers, comprising of 940 men and 125 women. Smokers were invited to attend the clinic every 1-2 weeks for a maximum of eight visits over 90 days, where they received prescriptions for nicotine patches, counseling, and educational materials. Participants were contacted by telephone at 1 and 3 years after the first visit and were asked whether they had smoked at all over the past 7 days. The results showed that women were significantly less likely than men to be abstinent at 1 year (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.64; 95% CI [confidence interval] = [0.41, 0.99]; p = .044) and 3 years (aOR = 0.44; 95% CI = [0.27, 0.74]; p = .02). More effective ways are needed to help female smokers quit in societies where smoking in women is rare and may be associated with social stigma. PMID:26604017

  6. Ethnic differences in infant feeding practices and their relationship with BMI at 3 years of age - results from the Born in Bradford birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Santorelli, Gillian; Fairley, Lesley; Petherick, Emily S; Cabieses, Baltica; Sahota, Pinki

    2014-05-28

    The present study aimed to explore previously unreported ethnic differences in infant feeding practices during the introduction of solid foods, accounting for maternal and birth factors, and to determine whether these feeding patterns are associated with BMI at 3 years of age. An observational study using Poisson regression was carried out to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and infant feeding practices and linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between feeding practices and BMI at 3 years of age in a subsample of 1327 infants in Bradford. It was found that compared with White British mothers, mothers of Other ethnicities were less likely to replace breast milk with formula milk before introducing solid foods (adjusted relative risk (RR) - Pakistani: 0·76 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·91), Other South Asian: 0·58 (95 % CI 0·39, 0·86), and Other ethnicities: 0·50 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·73)). Pakistani and Other South Asian mothers were less likely to introduce solid foods early ( < 17 weeks) (adjusted RR - Pakistani: 0·92 (95 % CI 0·87, 0·96) and Other South Asian: 0·87 (95 % CI 0·81, 0·93)). Other South Asian mothers and mothers of Other ethnicities were more likely to continue breast-feeding after introducing solid foods (adjusted RR - 1·72 (95 % CI 1·29, 2·29) and 2·12 (95 % CI 1·60, 2·81), respectively). Pakistani and Other South Asian infants were more likely to be fed sweetened foods (adjusted RR - 1·18 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·23) and 1·19 (95 % CI 1·10, 1·28), respectively) and Pakistani infants were more likely to consume sweetened drinks (adjusted RR 1·72 (95 % CI 1·15, 2·57)). No association between infant feeding practices and BMI at 3 years was observed. Although ethnic differences in infant feeding practices were found, there was no association with BMI at 3 years of age. Interventions targeting infant feeding practices need to consider ethnicity to identify which populations are failing to follow

  7. Prospective Demographic Study of Cosmetic Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schlessinger, Daniel; Schlessinger, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The authors sought to examine and assess cosmetic surgery patient demographics as well as age in relation to partner, in a prospective manner, analyzing data for any significant correlations. Design: The authors conducted a prospective study utilizing a survey. Setting: The study was conducted in a private, nonacademic dermatological practice. Participants: Three hundred thirty-six patients participated in this study. Results: Demographics of onabotulinumtoxinA/abobotulinumtoxinA (neurotoxins), fillers, and laser hair removal users were studied. The data show that the average private practice cosmetic surgery patient in this study is a married (67.5%), college-educated or greater (66.9%), employed (74.3%), mother (74.5%). In the fillers category, 50 percent of women were older than their partners, as opposed to 14.8 percent in 2008 Census data. Additionally, women were more educated and employed to a higher percentage than similar women in 2008 Census data. Data on motivations were statistically not significant. Conclusion: Data from this study show potential correlations with Census data norms in marital status and motherhood status categories, but not in the age in relation to partner, education, and employment level categories. Motivations of individuals undergoing cosmetic surgery will need further analysis in future studies. PMID:21103314

  8. A Cross-sectional Study on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and General Psychiatric Morbidity Among Adult Survivors 3 Years After the Wenchuan Earthquake, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Duan, Guangfeng; Xu, Qin; Jia, Zhaobao; Bai, Zhengyang; Liu, Weizhi; Pan, Xiao; Tian, Wenhua

    2015-11-01

    After the Wenchuan earthquake, a large number of studies have focused on postearthquake psychological disorders among survivors; however, most of these studies were conducted within a relatively short period. This study was conducted to examine the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and general psychiatric morbidity among adult survivors 3 years after the Wenchuan earthquake, China. Through a multistage systematic sampling approach, a cross-sectional survey of 360 participants, 18 years or older, was conducted. The prevalence of PTSD and general psychiatric morbidity was 10.3% and 20.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed significant predictors for PTSD, including female gender and having felt guilt concerning someone's death or injury. Significant predictors for general psychiatric morbidity included unmarried status and having been in serious danger. These results suggest that mental health services should be continuously available to earthquake survivors. PMID:26316500

  9. Prospective study of definite caterpillar exposures.

    PubMed

    Balit, Corrine R; Geary, Merilyn J; Russell, Richard C; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2003-11-01

    Exposure to caterpillars results in a variety of clinical effects depending on the species involved. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical effects from caterpillar exposures within Australia. Cases were recruited prospectively from calls to a poison information centre. Subjects were included if they had a definite exposure and they had collected the caterpillar or cocoon. The caterpillars were identified to genus and species level where possible. There were 36 included cases: two were contact exposures to caterpillar contents, one was an ingestion of a caterpillar and the remaining 33 patients had definite reactions from caterpillar or cocoon exposure. There were five families of caterpillars identified in the study: Arctiidae, Limacodidae, Anthelidae, Lymantriidae and Sphingidae, many of which occur worldwide. Clinical effects ranged from severe pain to an urticarial response depending on the species involved. There were no adverse effects following ingestion in this study. Treatment consisted primarily of removal of the caterpillar or cocoon. Other treatment measures consisted of symptomatic treatment such as ice packs and antihistamines. This is the first prospective study of caterpillar exposures within Australia and demonstrates that exposures can result in a variety of reactions depending on the family and species involved. PMID:14602121

  10. Reorganizing life: A qualitative study of fathers' lived experience in the 3 years subsequent to the very preterm birth of their child.

    PubMed

    Lundqvist, Pia; Hellström-Westas, Lena; Hallström, Inger

    2014-01-01

    This is the second part of a study that is following eight Swedish fathers of very preterm children using qualitative interviews. The aim was to illuminate fathers' lived experience of the 3 years since the birth of their very preterm child using a hermeneutic phenomenological method. The fathers described their lived experience as a process of reorganizing life, which constituted the overarching theme. They described a journey from the past to the present in which they adapted ordinary family life. The sub-themes identified were struggling to endure, experiencing empowerment, and building a secure base. The results may serve as a basis for neonatal staff to optimize care for both fathers and mothers during the child's hospitalization, as well as subsequent to their discharge. PMID:24239685

  11. A 3-year follow-up study of β-cell function in patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shaoling; Meng, Xiaomei; Wang, Shuyan; Ren, Ruizhen; Hou, Weikai; Huang, Kuixiang; Shi, Hongli

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance and reduced β-cell glucose sensitivity are present in patients with type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the changes in β-cell function in patients with type 2 diabetes during a 3-year follow-up study. A total of 48 patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes (EOD) and 55 patients with late-onset type 2 diabetes (LOD) were enrolled. Weight, height, waist circumference, hip circumference, blood pressure and plasma levels of lipids, glucose, fasting serum C-peptide (CPR0) and serum C-peptide 6 min after glucagon stimulation (CPR6) were measured. In addition, islet β-cell secretory activity was detected. Subjects with EOD had lower Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body mass index (BMI), fasting CPR0, CPR6 and greater glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), triglyceride (TG) compared with subjects with LOD. CPR0, CPR6 and TG were decreased in both EOD and LOD groups 3 years later. The ratio of β-cell function failure was 29.17 and 10.91% in the EOD and LOD groups, respectively, and there was significant difference between the two groups. A positive correlation was identified between the CPR0 and waist-hip ratio, HbA1c in the EOD group. A similar positive correlation was observed between CPR0 and BMI in the LOD group. Collectively, islet β-cell function has declined in patients with EOD, and this change may be more evident when compared with those with LOD. PMID:27446326

  12. Relationship between working-memory network function and substance use: a 3-year longitudinal fMRI study in heavy cannabis users and controls.

    PubMed

    Cousijn, Janna; Vingerhoets, Wilhelmina A M; Koenders, Laura; de Haan, Lieuwe; van den Brink, Wim; Wiers, Reinout W; Goudriaan, Anna E

    2014-03-01

    Deficient executive functions play an important role in the development of addiction. Working-memory may therefore be a powerful predictor of the course of drug use, but chronic substance use may also impair working-memory. The aim of this 3-year longitudinal neuro-imaging study was to investigate the relationship between substance use (e.g. alcohol, cannabis, nicotine, illegal psychotropic drugs) and working-memory network function over time in heavy cannabis users and controls. Forty-nine participants performed an n-back working-memory task at baseline and at 3-year follow-up. At follow-up, there were 22 current heavy cannabis users, 4 abstinent heavy cannabis users and 23 non-cannabis-using controls. Tensor-independent component analysis (Tensor-ICA) was used to investigate individual differences in working-memory network functionality over time. Within the group of cannabis users, cannabis-related problems remained stable, whereas alcohol-related problems, nicotine dependence and illegal psychotropic substance use increased over time. At both measurements, behavioral performance and network functionality during the n-back task did not differ between heavy cannabis users and controls. Although n-back accuracy improved, working-memory network function remained stable over time. Within the group of cannabis users, working-memory network functionality was not associated with substance use. These results suggest that sustained moderate to heavy levels of cannabis, nicotine, alcohol and illegal psychotropic substance use do not change working-memory network functionality. Moreover, baseline network functionality did not predict cannabis use and related problems three years later, warranting longitudinal studies in more chronic or dependent cannabis users. PMID:24589297

  13. Abdominal Lipectomy: A Prospective Outcomes Study

    PubMed Central

    Semer, Nadine B; Ho, Wan C; Mills, Sharrie; Rajashekara, BM; Taylor, Jason R; Trung, Nguyen B; Young, Henry; Kivuls, Juris

    2008-01-01

    Context/objective: Abdominal lipectomy is performed by plastic surgeons to provide symptomatic, functional, and cosmetic relief for patients with excess abdominal tissue. However, there are few clinical outcome studies looking at the utility of this procedure: this is the first prospective oucomes study. Design: Patients who underwent abdominal lipectomy at the Bellflower Medical Center during a 12-month period (September 2004 through September 2005) were prospectively studied. Data were collected at the preoperative visit, during surgery, and at the one-week, one-month, and six-month postoperative visits. Outcome measures: Complications, both major (requiring rehospitalization or reoperation) and minor (requiring local outpatient care) were identified. To evaluate the impact on our patients' perceived health and well-being as well as body image, we administered the Short Form–36 Health Survey (SF-36) and the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ) to participants at their preoperative and six-month postoperative visits. Results: For the 72 patients enrolled in the study, the postoperative major complication rate was 5.6% (four patients) and the minor complication rate was 27.8% (20 patients); 98.3% were happy to have had the surgery. Two components of the MBSRQ, feelings of attractiveness and body area satisfaction, showed significant improvement (p < 0.0001 for each) at six-month postoperative testing. No component of the SF-36 reached statistical significance between pre- and postoperative testing. Conclusion: Because the complication rate for cosmetic abdominoplasty in our study did not significantly differ from rates reported for other studies, and given our data on perceived patient satisfaction and improvement in outcomes, our study validates the utility of abdominal lipectomy for patients with symptomatic lower abdominal pannus. PMID:21364808

  14. Prospective study on nutrition transition in China.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Fengying; Wang, Huijun; Du, Shufa; He, Yuna; Wang, Zhihong; Ge, Keyou; Popkin, Barry M

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the prospective study reported here was to examine the effects of social and economic transformation on dietary patterns and nutritional status in China. The study began in 1989 and continued with follow-ups in 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, and 2004. A total of 5000 subjects aged 18-45 years from 4280 households in nine provinces were included. Weighed records and three consecutive 24-h recalls were used. Over the study period, average consumption of all animal foods except milk increased, while cereal intake decreased. The proportion of animal protein and fat as a percentage of energy also increased. However, vitamin A and calcium intake did not increase and remained low. Child height and weight increased while undernutrition decreased and overweight increased. The results indicate that rapid changes in dietary pattern are associated with economic reforms in China. PMID:19453679

  15. Abnormality in glutamine–glutamate cycle in the cerebrospinal fluid of cognitively intact elderly individuals with major depressive disorder: a 3-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, K; Bruno, D; Nierenberg, J; Marmar, C R; Zetterberg, H; Blennow, K; Pomara, N

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD), common in the elderly, is a risk factor for dementia. Abnormalities in glutamatergic neurotransmission via the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) have a key role in the pathophysiology of depression. This study examined whether depression was associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of NMDA-R neurotransmission-associated amino acids in cognitively intact elderly individuals with MDD and age- and gender-matched healthy controls. CSF was obtained from 47 volunteers (MDD group, N=28; age- and gender-matched comparison group, N=19) at baseline and 3-year follow-up (MDD group, N=19; comparison group, N=17). CSF levels of glutamine, glutamate, glycine, l-serine and d-serine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. CSF levels of amino acids did not differ across MDD and comparison groups. However, the ratio of glutamine to glutamate was significantly higher at baseline in subjects with MDD than in controls. The ratio decreased in individuals with MDD over the 3-year follow-up, and this decrease correlated with a decrease in the severity of depression. No correlations between absolute amino-acid levels and clinical variables were observed, nor were correlations between amino acids and other biomarkers (for example, amyloid-β42, amyloid-β40, and total and phosphorylated tau protein) detected. These results suggest that abnormalities in the glutamine–glutamate cycle in the communication between glia and neurons may have a role in the pathophysiology of depression in the elderly. Furthermore, the glutamine/glutamate ratio in CSF may be a state biomarker for depression. PMID:26926880

  16. Metabolomic pattern analysis after mediterranean diet intervention in a nondiabetic population: a 1- and 3-year follow-up in the PREDIMED study.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Fresno, Rosa; Llorach, Rafael; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Lupianez-Barbero, Ascension; Estruch, Ramón; Corella, Dolores; Fitó, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet (MD) is considered a dietary pattern with beneficial effects on human health. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an MD on urinary metabolome by comparing subjects at 1 and 3 years of follow-up, after an MD supplemented with either extra-virgin olive oil (MD + EVOO) or nuts (MD + Nuts), to those on advice to follow a control low-fat diet (LFD). Ninety-eight nondiabetic volunteers were evaluated, using metabolomic approaches, corresponding to MD + EVOO (n = 41), MD + Nuts (n = 27), or LFD (n = 30) groups. The (1)H NMR urinary profiles were examined at baseline and after 1 and 3 years of follow-up. Multivariate data analysis (OSC-PLS-DA and HCA) methods were used to identify the potential biomarker discriminating groups, exhibiting a urinary metabolome separation between MD groups against baseline and LFD. Results revealed that the most prominent hallmarks concerning MD groups were related to the metabolism of carbohydrates (3-hydroxybutyrate, citrate, and cis-aconitate), creatine, creatinine, amino acids (proline, N-acetylglutamine, glycine, branched-chain amino acids, and derived metabolites), lipids (oleic and suberic acids), and microbial cometabolites (phenylacetylglutamine and p-cresol). Otherwise, hippurate, trimethylamine-N-oxide, histidine and derivates (methylhistidines, carnosine, and anserine), and xanthosine were predominant after LFD. The application of NMR-based metabolomics enabled the classification of individuals regarding their dietary pattern and highlights the potential of this approach for evaluating changes in the urinary metabolome at different time points of follow-up in response to specific dietary interventions. PMID:25353684

  17. Evidence for Trait Related Theory of Mind Impairment in First Episode Psychosis Patients and Its Relationship with Processing Speed: A 3 Year Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Setién-Suero, Esther; Neergaard, Karl D.; Ferro, Adele; Fatjó-Vilas, Mar; Ríos-Lago, Marcos; Otero, Soraya; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Jose M.; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to confirm whether first-episode psychosis patients present a stable trait impairment in theory of mind (ToM) and to examine the potential relationship between ToM and clinical symptomatology and neurocognition. Patients with a first episode of psychosis (N = 160) and healthy controls (N = 159) were assessed with an extensive neuropsychological test battery, which included a mental state decoding task known as “The Reading the Mind in the Eyes” (Eyes test), at baseline and reassessed after 1 and 3 years. The clinical group performed below healthy controls on the Eyes test while not showing test-retest differences between baseline and follow-up administrations. Analyses revealed age, education and premorbid IQ as potential moderators. Poorer performance on the Eyes test was not linked to clinical symptomatology but was associated with greater neurocognitive deficit, particularly related to processing speed. The persistence of ToM deficits in patients suggests that there are trait related metalizing impairments in first episode psychosis. This study shows the influence of processing speed and moderator variables on efficient ToM. PMID:27199826

  18. Evidence for Trait Related Theory of Mind Impairment in First Episode Psychosis Patients and Its Relationship with Processing Speed: A 3 Year Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Setién-Suero, Esther; Neergaard, Karl D; Ferro, Adele; Fatjó-Vilas, Mar; Ríos-Lago, Marcos; Otero, Soraya; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Jose M; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to confirm whether first-episode psychosis patients present a stable trait impairment in theory of mind (ToM) and to examine the potential relationship between ToM and clinical symptomatology and neurocognition. Patients with a first episode of psychosis (N = 160) and healthy controls (N = 159) were assessed with an extensive neuropsychological test battery, which included a mental state decoding task known as "The Reading the Mind in the Eyes" (Eyes test), at baseline and reassessed after 1 and 3 years. The clinical group performed below healthy controls on the Eyes test while not showing test-retest differences between baseline and follow-up administrations. Analyses revealed age, education and premorbid IQ as potential moderators. Poorer performance on the Eyes test was not linked to clinical symptomatology but was associated with greater neurocognitive deficit, particularly related to processing speed. The persistence of ToM deficits in patients suggests that there are trait related metalizing impairments in first episode psychosis. This study shows the influence of processing speed and moderator variables on efficient ToM. PMID:27199826

  19. Long-term performance of the second-generation cobalt-chromium sirolimus-eluting stents in real-world clinical practice: 3-year clinical outcomes from the prospective multicenter FOCUS registry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Yang, Ji’e; Qian, Juying; Ge, Lei; Zhou, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background The short- and mid-term outcomes of the second-generation cobalt-chromium sirolimus-eluting stent (CoCr-SES) in real-world patients had been reported previously, but the long-term performance remained unclear. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of the second-generation CoCr-SES from the FOCUS registry. Methods The FOCUS registry (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00868829) enrolled all-comers eligible to receive Firebird-2 CoCr-SES. Follow-up was continued to 3 years to evaluate long-term safety and effectiveness of the second-generation CoCr-SES in real-world practice. Results of the extended-use group and standard-use group are compared to explore performance of CoCr-SES in more severe patients with more complex lesions. Results The rate of 3-year MACE was 7.37%, consisting of 84 cases (1.78%) of cardiac death, 166 cases (3.52%) of MI and 98 cases (2.08%) of TVR. ARC definite/probable stent thrombosis happened in 34 (0.72%) patients, only 3 new cases (<0.1%) of very late stent thrombosis was reported in the third year. Meanwhile, the difference of MACE (7.77% vs. 6.06%; P=0.058), TLF (4.71% vs. 3.49%; P=0.085) and ARC definite/probable stent thrombosis (0.83% vs. 0.37%; P=0.116) between extended-use group and standard-use group showed no significance. Conclusions The second-generation CoCr-SES was associated with continued low rates of 3-year MACE, TLF and stent thrombosis in a broad spectrum of patients. PMID:27499948

  20. Endoscopic vertical ramus osteotomy: a long-term prospective study.

    PubMed

    Papadaki, M E; Kaban, L B; Troulis, M J

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the outcomes of endoscopic vertical ramus osteotomy (EVRO) with rigid fixation for the treatment of mandibular prognathism or asymmetry. Inclusion criteria were age >15 years, adequate clinical and radiographic documentation, and minimum postoperative follow-up of 3 years. Exclusion criteria were refusal to consent, rheumatoid arthritis, steroid use, and smoking. Demographic data, pre-operative (T0), immediate postoperative (T1), and latest follow-up (T2) clinical examinations and cephalometric analysis, procedure data, complications, and length of hospital stay (LOS) were documented. Ten fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Diagnoses included mandibular hyperplasia (n = 5), stable condylar hyperplasia (n = 4), and mandibular asymmetry secondary to condylar resorption (n = 1). In total, 17 EVROs were performed. The mean operative time was 33 min per side. Mean mandibular setback was 4.7 mm. Mean LOS was 1.9 days. Latest follow-up ranged from 3 to 5 years. Skeletal stability was confirmed in nine patients. One patient exhibited recurrence of mandibular prognathism at 5 years due to late growth. No VII nerve deficits were encountered. Inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) paresthesia was noted in four patients, which resolved postoperatively. EVRO was fast and resulted in minimal blood loss, quick recovery, and skeletal stability. PMID:24246948

  1. Personality Disorder and Changes in Affect Consciousness: A 3-Year Follow-Up Study of Patients with Avoidant and Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Merete Selsbakk; Normann-Eide, Tone; Egeland, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are highly prevalent in patients receiving psychiatric services, and are associated with significant personal and social costs. Over the past two decades, an increasing number of treatment studies have documented the effectiveness of treatment for patients with PDs, especially when it comes to reduction of symptom distress, risk taking behavior, self-harm, or suicide attempts. However, less is known about the more complex aims of improving the personality structure itself, such as identity- and interpersonal disturbances. Emotional dysfunction is closely associated with PD pathology. The present study investigated changes in affect consciousness (AC) in patients with avoidant or borderline PD, and how these changes were associated with clinical status after 3 years of follow-up. The study included 52 individuals; 79 percent were females, and mean age was 30 years. The evaluations included the Affect Consciousness Interview, Symptom Checklist-90-R, Circumplex of Interpersonal Problems, the Index of Self-Esteem, and three domains (Identity Integration, Relational Capacities, and Self-Control) of the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118). There was a significant increase in the Global AC and AC scores for most of the specific affects from baseline to follow-up. As the present study did not include a control group, it cannot be concluded that changes in AC are effects of psychotherapy, and the possibility of age-related maturation processes cannot be excluded. The change in Global AC contributed significantly to explained variance in the follow-up levels of Circumplex of Interpersonal Problems, and the two SIPP-118 domains Relational Capacities and Identity Integration. Improved AC was not associated with change in the Self-Control domain or the Global Severity Index of Symptom Checklist-90-R. The results suggest that AC may be altered for patients with borderline and avoidant PDs, and this is the first study to report that

  2. Personality Disorder and Changes in Affect Consciousness: A 3-Year Follow-Up Study of Patients with Avoidant and Borderline Personality Disorder.

    PubMed

    Normann-Eide, Eivind; Johansen, Merete Selsbakk; Normann-Eide, Tone; Egeland, Jens; Wilberg, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are highly prevalent in patients receiving psychiatric services, and are associated with significant personal and social costs. Over the past two decades, an increasing number of treatment studies have documented the effectiveness of treatment for patients with PDs, especially when it comes to reduction of symptom distress, risk taking behavior, self-harm, or suicide attempts. However, less is known about the more complex aims of improving the personality structure itself, such as identity- and interpersonal disturbances. Emotional dysfunction is closely associated with PD pathology. The present study investigated changes in affect consciousness (AC) in patients with avoidant or borderline PD, and how these changes were associated with clinical status after 3 years of follow-up. The study included 52 individuals; 79 percent were females, and mean age was 30 years. The evaluations included the Affect Consciousness Interview, Symptom Checklist-90-R, Circumplex of Interpersonal Problems, the Index of Self-Esteem, and three domains (Identity Integration, Relational Capacities, and Self-Control) of the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118). There was a significant increase in the Global AC and AC scores for most of the specific affects from baseline to follow-up. As the present study did not include a control group, it cannot be concluded that changes in AC are effects of psychotherapy, and the possibility of age-related maturation processes cannot be excluded. The change in Global AC contributed significantly to explained variance in the follow-up levels of Circumplex of Interpersonal Problems, and the two SIPP-118 domains Relational Capacities and Identity Integration. Improved AC was not associated with change in the Self-Control domain or the Global Severity Index of Symptom Checklist-90-R. The results suggest that AC may be altered for patients with borderline and avoidant PDs, and this is the first study to report that

  3. A Study of Prospective Teachers' Consumption Patterns on Special Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saglam, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify prospective teachers' consumption patterns on special days. The sample was comprised of 29 prospective teachers (22 females and 7 males) who studied Primary School Teaching in the Faculty of Education at Sakarya University during the 2014-2015 Academic Year. The study was designed as a phenomenological…

  4. Study of Prospective Teachers' Conceptualization of Value Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koruklu, Nermin; Aktamis, Hilal

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were any changes in the conceptualization of prospective teachers' values preferences during their university studies. The research group was composed of 208 prospective teachers who were studying at Science Education, Social Science Education and Fine Arts Education at Adnan Menderes…

  5. Ion cyclotron emission studies: Retrospects and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenkov, N. N.

    2016-05-01

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) studies emerged in part from the papers by A.B. Mikhailovskii published in the 1970s. Among the discussed subjects were electromagnetic compressional Alfvénic cyclotron instabilities with the linear growth rate √ {n_α /n_e } driven by fusion products, -particles which draw a lot of attention to energetic particle physics. The theory of ICE excited by energetic particles was significantly advanced at the end of the 20th century motivated by first DT experiments on TFTR and subsequent JET experimental studies which we highlight. More recently ICE theory was advanced by detailed theoretical and experimental studies on spherical torus (ST) fusion devices where the instability signals previously indistinguishable in high aspect ratio tokamaks due to high toroidal magnetic field became the subjects of experiments. We discuss further prospects of ICE theory applications for future burning plasma (BP) experiments such as those to be conducted in ITER device in France, where neutron and gamma rays escaping the plasma create extremely challenging conditions fusion alpha particle diagnostics.

  6. Ossiculoplasty: A Prospective Study of 80 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Shrinivas Shripatrao; Jain, Prateek V; Vedi, Jeevan N; Rai, Dharmendra kumar; Kadri, Himayat

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The use of ossicular graft material in ossicular chain reconstruction has significantly improved hearing results hearing after tympanoplasty and tympanomastoid surgery for chronic otitis media. Today, otologists have a wide array of tools from which to choose, but may find it difficult to know which middle ear implant works best. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of 80 patients who underwent ossiculoplasty was performed in the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) department at a tertiary health care facility from 2011 to 2013. Patients with chronic suppurative otitis media with an air-bone gap (ABG) of >25 dB with ossicular involvement were included in the study. Total ossicular replacement prosthesis (TORP), partial ossicular replacement prosthesis (PORP), and refashioned incus were used. Success was defined as ABG <25 dB on postoperative Day 90. Results: The majority patients were of middle age with moderate conductive hearing loss. Incus was the most susceptible ossicle. Overall success rate in this study was 80.0% with an average change of 15.76 dB in ABG. Conclusion: With continuing advances in our understanding of middle ear mechanics, the results of ossiculoplasty are improving and results can be very rewarding in experienced hands. Severity of preoperative ear discharge, preoperative mastoid cellularity, presence of disease, and surgical procedure proved to be significant prognostic factors. Autograft incus and PORP fared better when the malleus handle was present while TORP gave better results when the malleus handle was eroded. PMID:25009804

  7. Ion cyclotron emission studies: Retrospects and prospects

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gorelenkov, N. N.

    2016-06-05

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) studies emerged in part from the papers by A.B. Mikhailovskii published in the 1970s. Among the discussed subjects were electromagnetic compressional Alfv,nic cyclotron instabilities with the linear growth rate similar ~ √(nα/ne) driven by fusion products, -particles which draw a lot of attention to energetic particle physics. The theory of ICE excited by energetic particles was significantly advanced at the end of the 20th century motivated by first DT experiments on TFTR and subsequent JET experimental studies which we highlight. Recently ICE theory was advanced by detailed theoretical and experimental studies on spherical torus (ST) fusionmore » devices where the instability signals previously indistinguishable in high aspect ratio tokamaks due to high toroidal magnetic field became the subjects of experiments. Finally, we discuss prospects of ICE theory applications for future burning plasma (BP) experiments such as those to be conducted in ITER device in France, where neutron and gamma rays escaping the plasma create extremely challenging conditions fusion alpha particle diagnostics.« less

  8. A 3-year study on occurrence of emerging contaminants in an urban stream of São Paulo State of Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campanha, Mariele B; Awan, Almas Taj; de Sousa, Diana N R; Grosseli, Guilherme M; Mozeto, Antonio A; Fadini, Pedro S

    2015-05-01

    This manuscript reports a 3-year study on occurrence of pharmaceuticals, hormones, and triclosan in surface waters of a central urban region of São Paulo State of Southeast Brazil (the Monjolinho River in São Carlos). Water samples collected once at every 2 months were pre-concentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The most frequently detected compounds in higher concentrations were caffeine, paracetamol, and atenolol (maximum concentrations 129,585, 30,421, and 8199 ng L(-1), respectively), while hormones estrone and 17-β-estradiol were the least detected, in levels up to 14.8 ng L(-1). There was an increasing trend in concentrations of most of the compounds along the river course, especially downstream of the river where there is discharge of both wastewater treatment plant effluent and raw sewage from a particular region of São Carlos city. Concentrations of contaminants were higher during dry periods as a result of decline in the water levels. Decrease in concentrations near the river mouth occurred to different extents for each compound. It was high for caffeine and atenolol, but was very low for carbamazepine and diclofenac. The present study reports the first data about the occurrence of some major emerging contaminants in the Monjolinho River. Besides its regional significance, this work may assist in composing a dataset for water contamination diagnosis focusing on emerging contaminants, both in the Brazilian as well as in the Global studies related to aquatic ecosystems. Such datasets can be helpful for making future public policies on water quality, since these compounds are not yet legally regulated. PMID:25516246

  9. Frailty Change and Major Osteoporotic Fracture in the Elderly: Data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women 3-Year Hamilton Cohort.

    PubMed

    Li, Guowei; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Thabane, Lehana; Cheng, Ji; Adachi, Jonathan D

    2016-04-01

    Investigating the cumulative rate of deficits and the change of a frailty index (FI) chronologically is helpful in clinical and research settings in the elderly. However, limited evidence for the change of frailty before and after some nonfatal adverse health event such as a major osteoporotic fracture (MOF) is available. Data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women 3-Year Hamilton cohort were used in this study. The changes of FI before and after onset of MOF were compared between the women with and without incident MOF. We also evaluated the relationship between risk of MOF, falls, and death and the change of FI and the absolute FI measures. There were 3985 women included in this study (mean age 69.4 years). The change of FI was significantly larger in the women with MOF than those without MOF at year 1 (0.085 versus 0.067, p = 0.036) and year 2 (0.080 versus 0.052, p = 0.042) post-baseline. The FI change was not significantly related with risk of MOF independently of age. However, the absolute FI measures were significantly associated with increased risk of MOF, falls, and death independently of age. In summary, the increase of the FI is significantly larger in the elderly women experiencing a MOF than their peer controls, indicating their worsening frailty and greater deficit accumulation after a MOF. Measures of the FI change may aid in the understanding of cumulative aging nature in the elderly and serve as an instrument for intervention planning and assessment. PMID:26547825

  10. A prospective study of rock climbing injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, J P; McNaughton, G W; Grant, P T

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the rate, causes, and nature of rock climbing injuries presenting to an accident and emergency (A&E) department. METHODS: Patients presenting with rock climbing injuries to an urban A&E department were studied prospectively for one year. RESULTS: 19 rock climbers presented during the year, at a rate of one per 2774 A&E attendances. Fourteen climbers were injured on outdoor cliffs and five on the local indoor climbing wall, where the safety mats were noted to be in poor condition. Eighteen climbers had been injured during falls, 17 hitting the ground. Twelve of these climbers sustained fractures, four of which were missed on initial attendance. The remaining climber sustained the characteristic A2 pulley finger injury, which was treated conservatively with a good result. CONCLUSIONS: The risks of rock climbing in Britain would be reduced if lead climbers arranged protection at earlier stages of climbs. Sports centres with climbing walls should regularly inspect and repair their safety equipment. It is important for staff in A&E departments to appreciate the large forces involved in any climbing fall, in order that significant injuries are not missed. Those treating injured climbers should also be aware of the specific injuries to which elite climbers are predisposed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8799601

  11. Injuries in competitive boxing. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Siewe, J; Rudat, J; Zarghooni, K; Sobottke, R; Eysel, P; Herren, C; Knöll, P; Illgner, U; Michael, J

    2015-03-01

    Boxing remains a subject of controversy and is often classified as dangerous. But the discussion is based mostly on retrospective studies. This survey was conducted as a prospective study. From October 2012 to September 2013, 44 competitive boxers were asked to report their injuries once a month. The questionnaire collected general information (training, competition) and recorded the number of bouts fought, injuries and resulting lost days. A total of 192 injuries were recorded, 133 of which resulted in interruption of training or competition. Each boxer sustained 3 injuries per year on average. The injury rate was 12.8 injuries per 1 000 h of training. Boxers fighting more than 3 bouts per year sustain more injuries (p=0.0075). The injury rate does is not a function of age (age≤19 vs. > 19a, p=0.53). Injuries to the head and the upper limbs occur most frequently. The most common injuries are soft tissue lacerations and contusions. Head injuries with neurological symptoms rarely occur (4.2%). Boxing has a high injury rate that is comparable with other contact sports, but most injuries are minor. Injury frequency is not a function of whether the boxer competes in the junior or adult category. Athletes fighting many bouts per year have a greater risk of injury. PMID:25376728

  12. Predictors of remission, erosive disease and radiographic progression in a Colombian cohort of early onset rheumatoid arthritis: a 3-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Quintana-Duque, M A; Rondon-Herrera, F; Mantilla, R D; Calvo-Paramo, E; Yunis, J J; Varela-Nariño, A; Restrepo, J F; Iglesias-Gamarra, A

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the study is to find predictors of remission, radiographic progression (RP), and erosive disease in a cohort of patients with early onset rheumatoid arthritis (EORA) that followed a therapeutic protocol aiming at remission, in a real world tight-control setting. EORA patients were enrolled in a 3-year follow-up study. Clinical, biological, immunogenetic, and radiographical data were analyzed. Radiographs were scored according to Sharp-van der Heijde (SvdH) method. RP was defined by an increase of 3 units in 36 months. Remission was defined as DAS28 <2.6. A stepwise multiple logistic regression model was used to identify independent predictors of the three target outcomes. One hundred twenty-nine patients were included. Baseline disease activity was high. Significant overall improvement was observed, but only 33.3 % achieved remission. At 36 month, 50.4 % (65) of patients showed erosions. RP was observed in 62.7 % (81) of cases. Statistical analysis showed that baseline SvdH score was the only predictive factor associated with the three outcomes evaluated. Lower HAQ-DI and absence of autoantibodies were predictive of remission. Higher levels of ESR and presence of erosions at entry were predictive of RP. Independent baseline predictors of incident erosive disease were anti-CCP and RF positivity, symptom duration at baseline >3 months, and presence of HLA-DRB1 shared epitope. Radiographic damage at baseline was the main predictor of outcomes. Autoantibodies, HAQ and ESR at baseline, symptom duration before diagnosis, and HLA-DRB1 status had influence on clinical course and development of structural joint damage in Colombian RA patients. PMID:27041382

  13. Radiologic Findings and Risk Factors of Adjacent Segment Degeneration after Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion : A Retrospective Matched Cohort Study with 3-Year Follow-Up Using MRI

    PubMed Central

    So, Wan-Soo; Ku, Min-Geun; Kim, Sang-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Won; Lee, Byung-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to figure out the radiologic findings and risk factors related to adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using 3-year follow-up radiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance image (MRI). Methods A retrospective matched comparative study was performed for 64 patients who underwent single-level ACDF with a cage and plate. Radiologic parameters, including upper segment range of motion (USROM), lower segment range of motion (LSROM), upper segment disc height (UDH), and lower segment disc height (LDH), clinical outcomes assessed with neck and arm visual analogue scale (VAS), and risk factors were analyzed. Results Patients were categorized into the ASD (32 patients) and non-ASD (32 patients) group. The decrease of UDH was significantly greater in the ASD group at each follow-up visit. At 36 months postoperatively, the difference for USROM value from the preoperative one significantly increased in the ASD group than non-ASD group. Preoperative other segment degeneration was significantly associated with the increased incidence of ASD at 36 months. However, pain intensity for the neck and arm was not significantly different between groups at any post-operative follow-up visit. Conclusion The main factor affecting ASD is preoperative other segment degeneration out of the adjacent segment. In addition, patients over the age of 50 are at higher risk of developing ASD. Although there was definite radiologic degeneration in the ASD group, no significant difference was observed between the ASD and non-ASD groups in terms of the incidence of symptomatic disease. PMID:26962418

  14. Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Blair, A.; Hines, C.J.; Thomas, K.W.; Alavanja, M.C.R.; Beane Freeman, L.E.; Hoppin, J.A.; Kamel, F.; Lynch, C.F.; Lubin, J.H.; Silverman, D.T.; Whelan, E.; Zahm, S. H.; Sandler, D. P.

    2015-01-01

    Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the contribution of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes to the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used for occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. We draw upon our experience using this design to study agricultural workers to identify conditions that might foster use of prospective cohorts to study other occupational settings. Prospective cohort studies are perceived by many as the strongest epidemiologic design. It allows updating of information on exposure and other factors, collection of biologic samples before disease diagnosis for biomarker studies, assessment of effect modification by genes, lifestyle, and other occupational exposures, and evaluation of a wide range of health outcomes. Increased use of prospective cohorts would be beneficial in identifying hazardous exposures in the workplace. Occupational epidemiologists should seek opportunities to initiate prospective cohorts to investigate high priority, occupational exposures. PMID:25603935

  15. Superwarfarin poisoning in children: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Smolinske, S C; Scherger, D L; Kearns, P S; Wruk, K M; Kulig, K W; Rumack, B H

    1989-09-01

    This prospective study was undertaken to determine the incidence, severity, time of onset, and duration of coagulopathy in children following accidental ingestion of long-acting anticoagulant rodenticides, often called "superwarfarins." Of 110 children, who ingested superwarfarins and in whom one or more prothrombin time values were obtained, 8 had a prothrombin time ratio (patient to control) of greater than or equal to 1.2, indicative of anticoagulation. Prothrombin time values obtained 48 hours after ingestion were more likely to be prolonged (6/34, 17.6%) than values obtained 24 hours after ingestion (2/104, 1.9%) (P less than .005). The occurrence of an abnormal prothrombin time could not be predicted based on the history of amount ingested or on the presence of the characteristic green-blue product dye in or around the child's mouth. Acute toxicity was evidenced by transient abdominal pain, vomiting, and heme positive stools in 2 patients. The duration of prothrombin time prolongation could not be determined because of the few values obtained after 48 hours. To detect all possible abnormal prothrombin time values, 24- and 48-hour determinations are recommended after a child has ingested a superwarfarin. PMID:2771552

  16. Depression after CABG: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Joana Kátya Veras Rodrigues Sampaio; de Figueiredo Neto, José Albuquerque; de Sousa, Rosângela Maria Lopes; Costa, Vera Lívia Xavier de Castro; Silva, Flor de Maria Araújo Mendonça; da Hora, Ana Flávia Lima Teles; da Silva, Edna Lúcia Coutinho; Reis, Lívia Mariane Castelo Branco

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Depression during or shortly after hospitalization elevated two to three times the risk of mortality or nonfatal cardiac events, significantly increasing the morbidity and mortality of these patients. Objective To assess the impact of revascularization on symptoms of depression in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods A prospective cohort study of 57 patients of both sexes undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting between June 2010 and June 2011. We used the SF-36 to assess quality of life, and the Beck Depression Inventory to detect depressive symptoms, applied preoperatively and six months. Results The prevalence of patients aged 60-69 years was 22 patients (38.60%), 39 men (68.42%), 26 described themselves as mixed race (45.61%), 16 literate (28.07 %) and 30 married (52.63%). The beck depression inventory score demonstrated increased after revascularization: 15 patients mild (26.32%) at time zero to 17 (29.82%) after. And with moderate, seven patients (12.28%) before and 10 (17.54%) after. In the categories of individuals with decreased minimum degree of 32 (56.14%) to 28 (49.12%), and severe of three (5.26%) for two (3.51%) patients. Association was observed between beck depression inventory, gender, age, lifestyle, comorbidities and quality of life. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of elevated beck depression inventory scores, lowest scores of depressive symptoms among men and association between the improvement of quality of life scores and beck depression inventory. PMID:24598954

  17. Child cyclist injuries: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Armson, C J; Pollard, C W

    1986-02-01

    A prospective study of pedalcycle accident morbidity and mortality was carried out from February to mid-November 1983 because of the high frequency of child cyclist injuries that were occurring on the relatively flat Redcliffe Peninsula. These injuries were apparently associated with the large number of young children who use a bicycle as their main mode of transport to and from school. The schools were surveyed for the extent of bicycle use and cyclists were surveyed for the amount of protective clothing that was worn while involved in cycling. It was found that a disturbingly large number of young children made regular bicycle trips on public roads with the minimal use of safety helmets or any other form of protective clothing. Nearly 40% of on-road accidents involved children of less than 12 years of age, and over 10% of these involved children of six years of age or less. No child in our series of on-road accidents was, at the time of injury, wearing a safety helmet or any other form of protective clothing. No bicycle accidents occurred on the exclusive cycle track of approximately 1 km in length on the Peninsula. PMID:3945202

  18. Body size and colorectal cancer risk after 16.3 years of follow-up: an analysis from the Netherlands Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Laura A E; Simons, Colinda C J M; van den Brandt, Piet A; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; van Engeland, Manon; Weijenberg, Matty P

    2011-11-15

    A large body size may differentially influence risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) by anatomic location. The Netherlands Cohort Study includes 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years who self-reported weight, height, and trouser/skirt size at baseline (1986), as well as weight at age 20 years. Derived variables included body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)), BMI at age 20 years, and BMI change. After 16.3 years of follow-up (1986-2002), 2,316 CRC cases were available for case-cohort analysis. In men, the highest risk estimates were observed for body fat (per 5-unit increase in BMI, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.46; for highest quintile of trouser size vs. lowest, HR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.17, 2.29 (P-trend = 0.02)) and appeared more closely associated with distal colon tumors (for BMI (5-unit increase), HR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.79; for highest quintile of trouser size, HR = 2.56, 95% CI: 1.55, 4.24 (P-trend < 0.01)) than with proximal colon or rectal tumors. In women, body fat was not associated with CRC risk unless it was considered simultaneously with physical activity; a large trouser/skirt size and a low level of physical activity increased risk for all subtypes. Height was associated with risk of CRC, especially distal colon tumors (highest quintile vs. lowest: HR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.27; P-trend = 0.05), in women only. PMID:21984660

  19. Changes of Overweight and Obesity Prevalence Among School Children in North West of Iran After 3 Years Follow-up (2009–2011): A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Nouri Saeidlou, Sakineh; Rezaiegoyjeloo, Fatemeh; Ayremlou, Parvin; Babaie, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity and overweight among children is a major public health problem in developed and developing countries and has important health and economic implications. This longitudinal study aimed to assessing the prevalence trend of overweight and obesity in West Azerbaijan in North West of Iran. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up study and was conducted in school children at 2009–2011 year. The subjects were all school children (12 years of age) that were recruited from rural and urban schools in West Azerbaijan. Overall, 22,820 girls and 28,763 boys were enrolled in 2009 and were followed for 3 years. A body mass index (BMI) 85th–95th percentile was classified as overweight and a BMI >95th percentile was classified as obese. All statistical analyses were performed using the Excel Software. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample in different time periods. The prevalence was calculated as the ratio of number of present cases to a given population number in a given subgroup at a given time. Results: In urban schools, the prevalence of overweight among girls and boys was 118.26 and 103.9 per 1000 persons in 2009 year, respectively, and this trend was increased in both girls (152.90 per 1000 persons) and boys (125.72 per 1000 persons) in 2011. The obesity trend was increased among both girls and boys (22.26 and 26.52 among girls and boys in 2009 to 24.66 and 28.65 per 1000 persons in 2011), respectively. In rural schools, the prevalence of overweight among girls was increased from 84.5 in 2009 to 108.89 per 1000 persons in 2011, but this trend was decreased among boys (from 95.49 in 2009 to 43.9 per 1000 persons in 2011), and the prevalence of obesity among boys was increased at the end of follow-up, but this trend was decreased among girls. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity in children has increased. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the relationship between obesity and overweight and risk factors such as

  20. Supracostal percutaneous nephrolithotomy: A prospective comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Maneesh; Krishnappa, Pramod; Subudhi, Santosh Kumar; Krishnamoorthy, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A widely prevalent fear of thoracic complications with the supracostal approach has led to its underutilization in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). We frequently use the supracostal approach and compared the efficacy and thoracic complications of infracostal, supra 12th, and supra 11th punctures. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study of patients who underwent PCNL between January 2005 and December 2012. The patients were divided into three groups based on the access: infracostal, supra 12th (between the 11th and 12th ribs) and supra 11th (between the 10th and 11th ribs). Clearance rates, fall in hemoglobin levels, transfusion rates, perioperative analgesic requirements, hospital stay and thoracic complications were compared. Results: Seven hundred patients were included for analysis. There were 179 (25.5%) patients in the supra 11th group, 187 (26.7%) patients in the supra 12th group and 334 (47.8%) patients in the infracostal group. The overall clearance rate was 78% with no difference in the three groups. The postoperative analgesic requirements were significantly higher in the supracostal groups and showed a graded increase from infracostal to supra 12th to supra 11th. During the study period, only 2 patients required angioembolization (0.3%) and none required open exploration. The number of patients requiring intercostal chest drain insertion was extremely low, at 1.6% and 2.2% in the supra 12th and supra 11th groups, respectively. Conclusions: Our results confirm the feasibility of the supracostal approach including punctures above the 11th rib, albeit at the cost of an increase in thoracic complications. Staying in the line of the calyx has helped us to minimize the most dreaded complication of bleeding requiring angioembolization. PMID:26941494

  1. Increased Immunoendocrine Cells in Intestinal Mucosa of Postinfectious Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients 3 Years after Acute Shigella Infection - An Observation in a Small Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Sun; Lim, Jung Hyun; Lee, Sang In

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Postinfectiously irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) develops in 3-30% of individuals with bacterial gastroenteritis. Recent studies demonstrated increases in inflammatory components in gut mucosa of PI-IBS patients even after complete resolution of infection. We aimed to investigate histological changes in colon and rectum of PI-IBS subjects after long term period of infection. Materials and Methods We recruited PI-IBS subjects who had been diagnosed IBS after complete resolution of enteritis caused by shigellosis outbreak 3 years earlier. We compared unmatched four groups, PI-IBS (n = 4), non PI-IBS (n = 7), D-IBS (n = 7, diarrhea predominant type) and healthy controls (n = 10). All of them underwent colonoscopic biopsy at three areas, including descending colon (DC), sigmoid colon (SC) and rectum, which were assessed for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)/peptide YY (PYY)-containing enterochromaffin (EC) cell, intraepithelial (IEL) and lamina propria T lymphocyte (CD3), CD8 lymphocytes, mast cells and CD68/calprotectin+ macrophages. Results All subjects had no structural or gross abnormalities at colonoscopy. In PI-IBS, 5-HT containing EC cells, PYY containing EC cells, IELs, CD3 lymphocytes, CD8 lymphocytes, mast cells, and CD68 + macrophages were increased compared to control (p < 0.05). In D-IBS, PYY containing EC cells, IELs, and CD3 lymphocytes were increased compared to control (p < 0.05). In PI-IBS, 5-HT containing EC cells tended to increase and PYY containing EC cells, CD8 lymphocytes, mast cells, and CD68+ macrophages were increased compared to non PI-IBS (p < 0.05). Calprotectin + marcrophages were decreased in PI-IBS, non PI-IBS and IBS compared to control. Conclusion The immunoendocrine cells were sporadically increased in PI-IBS, non PI-IBS and D-IBS compared with control. Our findings in a very small number of patients suggest that mucosal inflammation may play a role in long-term PI-IBS, and that other sub-groups of IBS and larger scale studies are

  2. Effect of depression on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity in type 2 diabetes mellitus after 3 years follow up. The DIADEMA study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus and depression are highly prevalent diseases that are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. There is evidence about a bidirectional association between depressive symptoms and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, prognostic implications of the joint effects of these two diseases on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are not well-known. Method/design A three-year, observational, prospective, cohort study, carried out in Primary Health Care Centres in Madrid (Spain). The project aims to analyze the effect of depression on cardiovascular events, all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to estimate a clinical predictive model of depression in these patients. The number of patients required is 3255, all them with type 2 diabetes mellitus, older than 18 years, who regularly visit their Primary Health Care Centres and agree to participate. They are chosen by simple random sampling from the list of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus of each general practitioner. The main outcome measures are all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular morbidity; and exposure variable is the major depressive disorder. There will be a comparison between depressed and not depressed patients in all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, coronary artery disease and stroke using the Chi-squared test. Logistic regression with random effects will be used to adjust for prognostic factors. Confounding factors that might alter the effect recorded will be taken into account in this analysis. To assess the effect of depression on the mortality, a survival analysis will be used comparing the two groups using the log-rank test. The control of potential confounding variables will be performed by the construction of a Cox regression model. Discussion Our study’s main contribution is to evaluate the increase in the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality

  3. Performance of a full-scale biofilter with peat and ash as a medium for treating industrial landfill leachate: a 3-year study of pollutant removal efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kängsepp, Pille; Mathiasson, Lennart

    2009-03-01

    Shredder residues of end-of-life vehicles and white goods are a complex waste stream, which nowadays most often is disposed of at industrial landfills. This paper describes the most important findings concerning the complex composition of the landfill leachate and its on-site, year-round treatment under cold-climate conditions. A 3-year investigation has confirmed that concentrations of different types of pollutants, most of them at low initial concentrations, can be simultaneously reduced in vertical-flow biofilters consisting of a mixture of peat and carbon-containing ash. For metals such as Mn, Cu, Sn, Cd, Pb, Fe and Ni the average removal was 73, 72, 66, 60, 55, 55 and 37%, respectively. An average reduction of NH(4)-N (45%), N(tot) (25%), total organic carbon (30%), dissolved organic carbon (28%) and suspended solids (38%) was also obtained. A good reduction was achieved for phenols (between 75 and 95%), polychlorinated biphenyls (between 22 and 99%), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry amenable pollutants, considered at initial concentration above 50 microg L( -1) (between 80 and 100%). The performance of the biofilter system was good in spite of large variations of inlet concentration during the considered period. PMID:19244414

  4. PSA Bounce and Biochemical Failure After Brachytherapy for Prostate Cancer: A Study of 820 Patients With a Minimum of 3 Years of Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Caloglu, Murat; Ciezki, Jay P.; Reddy, Chandana A.; Angermeier, Kenneth; Ulchaker, James; Chehade, Nabil; Altman, Andrew; Magi-Galuzzi, Christina; Klein, Eric A.

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: To determine clinical or dosimetric factors associated with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce, as well as an association between a PSA bounce and biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS), in patients treated with iodine-125 brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: A variety of clinical and treatment factors were examined in 820 patients who had a minimum of 3 years of PSA follow-up with T1-T2cN0M0 prostate cancer. Four different PSA threshold values were used for defining a PSA bounce: a PSA rise of {>=}0.2, {>=}0.4, {>=}0.6, and {>=}0.8 ng/mL. Results: A PSA bounce of {>=}0.2, {>=}0.4, {>=}0.6, and {>=}0.8 ng/mL was noted in 247 patients (30.1%), 161 (19.6%), 105 (12.8%), and 78 (9.5%), respectively. The median time to the first PSA rise was 17.4, 16.25, 16.23, and 15.71 months, respectively, vs. 34.35 months for a biochemical failure (p < 0.0001). A PSA rise of {>=}0.2 ng/mL was the only definition for which there was a significant difference in bRFS between bounce and non-bounce patients. The 5-year bRFS rate of patients having a PSA bounce of {>=}0.2 was 97.7% vs. 91% for those who did not have a PSA bounce (p = 0.0011). On univariate analysis for biochemical failure, age, risk group, and PSAs per year had a statistically significant correlation with PSA bounce of {>=}0.2 ng/mL. On multivariate analysis, age and PSAs per year remained statistically significant (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0456, respectively). Conclusions: A bounce definition of a rise {>=}0.2 ng/mL is a reliable definition among several other definitions. The time to first PSA rise is the most valuable factor for distinguishing between a bounce and biochemical failure.

  5. Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the role of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes in the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used in the study of occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. W...

  6. Social Capital and Health: A Review of Prospective Multilevel Studies

    PubMed Central

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background This article presents an overview of the concept of social capital, reviews prospective multilevel analytic studies of the association between social capital and health, and discusses intervention strategies that enhance social capital. Methods We conducted a systematic search of published peer-reviewed literature on the PubMed database and categorized studies according to health outcome. Results We identified 13 articles that satisfied the inclusion criteria for the review. In general, both individual social capital and area/workplace social capital had positive effects on health outcomes, regardless of study design, setting, follow-up period, or type of health outcome. Prospective studies that used a multilevel approach were mainly conducted in Western countries. Although we identified some cross-sectional multilevel studies that were conducted in Asian countries, including Japan, no prospective studies have been conducted in Asia. Conclusions Prospective evidence from multilevel analytic studies of the effect of social capital on health is very limited at present. If epidemiologic findings on the association between social capital and health are to be put to practical use, we must gather additional evidence and explore the feasibility of interventions that build social capital as a means of promoting health. PMID:22447212

  7. Surface reflectance and material studies for the PROSPECT Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowes, Alyssa; Prospect Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The PROSPECT Experiment aims to probe the existence of sterile neutrino oscillations by measuring the energy spectrum of antineutrinos emanating from nuclear reactors in a matrix of optically separated target scintillator cells at a variety of reactor-detector baselines. By measuring the absolute spectrum we also learn about reactors and what isotopes they produce. In order to properly model and optimise PROSPECT's energy resolution and background rejection capabilities, the reflective properties of the cell surfaces must be well understood. To address this, a study of various reflective surfaces under consideration to be used in the detector was conducted at non-normal incident angles through liquid using a custom-built laser-based reflectance measurement system. This presentation will describe the apparatus, reflectance measurements, and implications for the PROSPECT optical cell performance. Future plans to incorporate measurements into existing optical simulations will also be discussed. Funding provided by Illinois Institute of Technology College of Science.

  8. WWC Review of the Report "Efficacy of the Responsive Classroom Approach: Results from a 3-Year, Longitudinal Randomized Controlled Trial." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The study authors examined the impact of "Responsive Classroom," a professional development program for teachers, on student achievement. This study took place in a large, ethnically and socioeconomically diverse district in a mid-Atlantic state. The intervention was implemented during 3 school years from 2008 to 2011. Study authors…

  9. Trait Anger, Anger Expression, and Suicide Attempts among Adolescents and Young Adults: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Stephanie S.; Goldston, David B.; Erkanli, Alaattin; Franklin, Joseph C.; Mayfield, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies of the relationship between anger, anger expression, and suicidal behavior have been largely cross-sectional and have yielded mixed findings. In a prospective, naturalistic study, we examined how trait anger and anger expression influenced the likelihood of suicide attempts among 180 adolescents followed for up to 13.3 years after discharge from an inpatient psychiatry unit. Results showed that higher trait anger and anger expressed outwardly over the follow-up was related to increased likelihood of suicide attempts among males. For girls, trait anger and both the inward and outward expression of anger moderated the risk for suicide attempts associated with major depression. These results are interpreted in light of theory regarding behavioral activation and behavioral inhibition systems. PMID:20183651

  10. A Qualitative Study on the Prospective Social Studies Teachers' Role-Model Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonga, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    In this study is intended to investigate prospective social studies teachers' role model preferences and the reflections of these preferences to their daily lives. This study was designed as a qualitative study in the form of descriptive model. The participants consisted of 306 prospective social studies teachers enrolled in nine different…

  11. Prospects of Elliptic Flow Studies at NICA/MPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraksiev, Nikolay

    2016-01-01

    As a key observable, anisotropic flow presents a unique insight into heavy ion collision physics. The presented poster reveals the prospects of studying elliptic flow at the NICA/MPD facility through the UrQMD model. Here, results for the elliptic flow of simulated and reconstructed hadrons at the planned NICA energy range are presented.

  12. PROSPECTIVE PREGNANCY STUDY DESIGNS FOR ASSESSING REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prospective Pregnancy Study Designs for Assessing Reproductive and Developmental Toxicants
    Germaine M. Buck,1 Courtney D. Johnson,1 Joseph Stanford,2 Anne Sweeney,3 Laura Schieve,4 John Rockett,5 Sherry G. Selevan,6 Steve Schrader 7

    Abstract
    The origin of successfu...

  13. Prospective Study of the Effectiveness of Coping in Pediatric Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehnder, Daniel; Prchal, Alice; Vollrath, Margarete; Landolt, Markus A.

    2006-01-01

    Findings about the influence of coping on psychological adjustment in children with different medical conditions are inconsistent and often based on cross-sectional data. This prospective study evaluated the effect of various coping strategies on children's post-traumatic stress symptoms and behavioral problems 1 month and 1 year after an…

  14. Development in Children with Achondroplasia: A Prospective Clinical Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireland, Penelope J.; Donaghey, Samantha; McGill, James; Zankl, Andreas; Ware, Robert S.; Pacey, Verity; Ault, Jenny; Savarirayan, Ravi; Sillence, David; Thompson, Elizabeth; Townshend, Sharron; Johnston, Leanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Achondroplasia is characterized by delays in the development of communication and motor skills. While previously reported developmental profiles exist across gross motor, fine motor, feeding, and communication skills, there has been no prospective study of development across multiple areas simultaneously. Method: This Australasian…

  15. Prospective Nationwide Study of Aeromonas Infections in France▿

    PubMed Central

    Lamy, Brigitte; Kodjo, Angeli; Laurent, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    We report a systematic prospective multicenter nationwide study of clinical Aeromonas infections in France. During 6 months (May to October 2006), 78 cases of aeromonosis were reviewed for risk factors and clinical, microbiological, and antimicrobial susceptibility data. They included wound infections (44%), bacteremia (26%), enteritis (19%), respiratory tract infections (6%), and miscellaneous (5%) infections. PMID:19244464

  16. Students' Perception on the Prospect of Economics Education Study Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiriza, Mica Siar

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the extent to which perceptions of students on the prospect of the Economics Education Program. The method used in this research is descriptive method in which the required data is obtained through questionnaire and technique of analyzing data used is percentages. Questionnaires were distributed through the Student…

  17. Studying Native America: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Russell, Ed.

    Based on a conference, this volume examines the past, present, and future of Native American studies. Native American studies seeks to understand Native Americans, America, and the world from a Native American indigenous perspective, and thereby broaden the education of both Native and non-Native Americans. Part 1 asks who Native Americans are…

  18. Studying the Fine Structure and Temporal Variations of the Zodiacal Cloud and Asteroidal Dust Bands Using the 3-Year Near-IR COBE-DIRBE Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayaraman, Sumita

    1999-01-01

    The report presents the results of the data analyses of the DIRBE-COBE data set to study the structure of the zodiacal cloud in the near-infrared wavebands at 1.2, 2.2, and 3.4 microns. The cloud has been divided into two components which have been analyzed and studied separately. The annual variation of the flux in the smooth or low frequency component has been measured in all three bands and the presence of any asymmetries due to the Earth's resonant ring have been studied. The high frequency component which primarily consisted of the asteroidal dust bands. Extensive and careful co-addition was done to extract the central bands in all three wavebands. The ten-degree bands are present in the 1.2 and 2.2 microns but not in the 3.4 micron waveband.

  19. Development of Phonological Processing Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment with and without Literacy Delay: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandewalle, Ellen; Boets, Bart; Ghesquiere, Pol; Zink, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the development of phonological skills in children with specific language impairment (SLI) with and without literacy delay and to examine whether kindergarten phonological skills could discriminate these 2 groups. Method: In a longitudinal study, 8 children with SLI and literacy delay, 10 children with SLI and normal literacy,…

  20. Outcome of isolated fetal choroid plexus cyst detected in prenatal sonography among infertile patients referred to Royan Institute: A 3-year study

    PubMed Central

    Irani, Shohreh; Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Javam, Maryam; Vosough Taghi dizaj, Ahmad; Niknejad, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have assessed the correlation of fetal choroid plexus cyst (CPC) and the risk of congenital anomalies, but few ones have discussed isolated CPC (with no other abnormal sonographic finding). Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the outcome of isolated fetal choroid plexus cyst and to specify its clinical significance. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out at Royan Institute in Tehran, Iran, between April 2009 and December 2012. All prenatal sonographies in this period of time were assessed using a computerized database and fetuses who had isolated CPC were recruited in the study. Sonography reports, mother serum screening test results, fetal echocardiography and amniocentesis were evaluated until birth. A follow-up phone call was made to all individuals to learn about the neonatal outcomes. Results: Overall, 6240 prenatal sonographies were performed in this setting during this period. Isolated CPC was detected in 64 fetuses. The results of double test (N=30), triple test (N=5) and fetal echocardiography (N =24) were normal. Quadruple test result showed 3 abnormal out of 29 cases that all had normal karyotypes. Four samples were dropped out due to premature rupture of membranes (N=3) and intrauterine fetal death (N=1). It was found that the outcomes of all remaining fetuses (N=60) were normal and no anomaly ones were seen until birth. Conclusion: Isolated CPC is a benign regressive condition with no clinical significance. PMID:26568762

  1. Prospects for alpha particle studies on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.J.

    1987-05-01

    TFTR is expected to produce approximately 5 MW of alpha heating during the D/T Q approx. = 1 phase of operation in 1990. At that point the collective confinement properties and the heating effects of alpha particles become accessible for study for the first time. This paper outlines the potential performance of TFTR with respect to alpha particle production, the diagnostics which will be available for alpha particle measurements, and the physics issues which can be studied both before and during D/T operation.

  2. A 3-year randomized therapeutic trial of nitisinone in alkaptonuria.

    PubMed

    Introne, Wendy J; Perry, Monique B; Troendle, James; Tsilou, Ekaterini; Kayser, Michael A; Suwannarat, Pim; O'Brien, Kevin E; Bryant, Joy; Sachdev, Vandana; Reynolds, James C; Moylan, Elizabeth; Bernardini, Isa; Gahl, William A

    2011-08-01

    Alkaptonuria is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder of tyrosine degradation due to deficiency of the third enzyme in the catabolic pathway. As a result, homogentisic acid (HGA) accumulates and is excreted in gram quantities in the urine, which turns dark upon alkalization. The first symptoms, occurring in early adulthood, involve a painful, progressively debilitating arthritis of the spine and large joints. Cardiac valvular disease and renal and prostate stones occur later. Previously suggested therapies have failed to show benefit, and management remains symptomatic. Nitisinone, a potent inhibitor of the second enzyme in the tyrosine catabolic pathway, is considered a potential therapy; proof-of-principle studies showed 95% reduction in urinary HGA. Based on those findings, a prospective, randomized clinical trial was initiated in 2005 to evaluate 40 patients over a 36-month period. The primary outcome parameter was hip total range of motion with measures of musculoskeletal function serving as secondary parameters. Biochemically, this study consistently demonstrated 95% reduction of HGA in urine and plasma over the course of 3 years. Clinically, primary and secondary parameters did not prove benefit from the medication. Side effects were infrequent. This trial illustrates the remarkable tolerability of nitisinone, its biochemical efficacy, and the need to investigate its use in younger individuals prior to development of debilitating arthritis. PMID:21620748

  3. Comprehensive 3-year study of the phenolic profile of Moroccan monovarietal virgin olive oils from the Meknès region.

    PubMed

    Bajoub, Aadil; Hurtado-Fernández, Elena; Ajal, El Amine; Ouazzani, Noureddine; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría

    2015-05-01

    The phenolic fraction of monovarietal virgin olive oils (VOOs) from the main Moroccan cultivar Picholine marocaine (142 samples from three different subareas of the Meknès region) was studied over three consecutive crop seasons (2011, 2012, and 2013) using a powerful LC-MS methodology. First, LC-ESI-TOF MS was used to get a comprehensive characterization of the phenolic fraction; afterward, LC-ESI-IT MS was utilized for further identification (MS/MS experiments) and quantitation purposes. A total of 28 phenolic compounds (and quinic acid) were determined, revealing the complex profile of Meknès VOO, composed, in order of abundance, by secoiridoids, phenolic alcohols, lignans, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Tukey's test was applied to ascertain possible significant intraregional and/or interannual variations of the phenolic content of the Meknès VOOs under study. Results showed that the content of phenolic compounds was mainly related to the crop season. PMID:25846897

  4. Prostate, Lung, Colon, and Ovary Prospective Study

    Cancer.gov

    A large cohort study of etiologic determinants of cancer carried out within an NCI trial for the evaluation of screening procedures for the early detection of prostate, lung, colon, and ovarian cancer (the PLCO Trial) at 10 U.S. screening centers

  5. Communication Studies in Australia: Achievements and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Harry

    The introduction of communications studies in Australian higher education and problems and achievements of the past decade are discussed. Attention is directed to: the development of formal college coursework; staff training and retraining schemes to support development; academic and professional associations; journals in the field; and research,…

  6. Problems and Prospect of Chinese Communication Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Guo-Ming

    Chinese have systematically practiced communication for over two thousand years, but from the Western perspective communication education and research in Chinese societies only began to burgeon in recent decades. In addition to summarizing the Western and traditional Chinese communication study and practice, this paper identified four problems…

  7. A 3-Year Study Reveals That Plant Growth Stage, Season and Field Site Affect Soil Fungal Communities while Cultivar and GM-Trait Have Minor Effects

    PubMed Central

    Hannula, Silja Emilia; de Boer, Wietse; van Veen, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    In this three year field study the impact of different potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars including a genetically modified (GM) amylopectin-accumulating potato line on rhizosphere fungal communities are investigated using molecular microbiological methods. The effects of growth stage of a plant, soil type and year on the rhizosphere fungi were included in this study. To compare the effects, one GM cultivar, the parental isoline, and four non-related cultivars were planted in the fields and analysed using T-RFLP on the basis of fungal phylum specific primers combined with multivariate statistical methods. Additionally, fungal biomass and some extracellular fungal enzymes (laccases, Mn-peroxidases and cellulases) were quantified in order to gain insight into the function of the fungal communities. Plant growth stage and year (and agricultural management) had the strongest effect on both diversity and function of the fungal communities while the GM-trait studied was the least explanatory factor. The impact of cultivar and soil type was intermediate. Occasional differences between cultivars, the amylopectin-accumulating potato line, and its parental variety were detected, but these differences were mostly transient in nature and detected either only in one soil, one growth stage or one year. PMID:22529898

  8. A 3-year long study of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from subclinical mastitis in three Azawak zebu herds at the Sahelian experimental farm of Toukounous, Niger.

    PubMed

    Issa, Abdoulkarim Ibrahim; Duprez, Jean-Noël; Bada-Alambedji, Rianatou; Djika, Mamane; Mainil, Jacques Georges; Bardiau, Marjorie

    2016-02-01

    Staphylococcus (S.) aureus is one of the most important pathogens causing bovine mastitis. The aim of the present work was to follow in three herds and during the 3 years the clonality of S. aureus isolated from California Mastitis Test (CMT)-positive cows at the experimental station of Toukounous (Niger) by (i) comparing their pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) fingerprints, (ii) identifying their virulotypes by PCR amplification and (iii) assessing the production of capsule and the formation of biofilm. The 88 S. aureus isolates belonged to 14 different pulsotypes, 3 of them being predominant: A (30 %), D (27 %), B (15 %). A and B pulsotypes had the highest profile similarity coefficient (94 %), while others had similarity coefficients under 60 %. Seventy-five S. aureus isolates were further studied for their virulotypes, capsular antigens and biofilm production. Most surface factor-, leukocidin- and haemolysin-, but not the enterotoxin-encoding genes were detected in the majority (>75 %) of the isolates and were evenly distributed between the A, B and D pulsotype isolates. The majority of the 72 S. aureus positive with the cap5H or cap8H PCR produced the CP5 (82 %) or the CP8 (88 %) capsular antigen, respectively. Biofilm production by the 57 icaA-positive isolates was strong for 8 isolates, moderate for 31 isolates but weak for 18 isolates, implying that the icaA gene may not be expressed in vitro by one third of the positive isolates. Similar to other studies, those results confirm that a restricted number of S. aureus clones circulate within the three herds at Toukounous and that their specific virulence-associated properties must still be further studied. PMID:26584940

  9. A variability study of the first catalog of gamma-ray sources on the 2.3 years AGILE data archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verrecchia, Francesco; Pittori, C.; Bulgarelli, A.; Chen, A. W.; Tavani, M.; Giommi, P.; AGILE-Collaboration

    AGILE pointed observations performed from July 9, 2007 to October 30, 2009 are a recent, high quality gamma-ray data archive for monitoring studies of medium to high brightness gamma-ray sources in the 30 MeV -50 GeV energy range. We present a variability study of the 1AGL sources over the complete AGILE pointed Observation Blocks (OBs) dataset. The first AGILE Gamma-Ray Imaging Detector (GRID) catalog (Pittori et al. 2009) included a significance-limited (4 sigma) sample of 47 sources (1AGL), detected with a conservative analysis over a first-year non-uniform sky coverage dataset. In this analysis we used data of an improved full Field of View (FOV) event filter, on a much larger (about 27.5 months) observation dataset, analyzing each OB separatedly. This data processing resulted in an improved source list as compared to the 1AGL one. We present here some results on the variability of some of these sources.

  10. A variability study of the AGILE first catalog of γ-ray sources on 2.3 years of AGILE pointed observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verrecchia, F.; Pittori, C.; Bulgarelli, A.; Chen, A. W.; Tavani, M.; Giommi, P.; AGILE Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    AGILE pointed observations performed from July 9, 2007 to October 30, 2009 cover a very large time interval, with a γ-ray data archive useful to perform monitoring studies of medium to high brightness γ-ray sources in the 30 MeV-50 GeV energy range. The first AGILE Gamma-Ray Imaging Detector (GRID) catalog (Pittori et al., 2009) included a significance-limited (4σ) sample of 47 sources (1AGL), detected with a conservative analysis over the first-year of operations.We present a variability study of the 1AGL sources over the complete AGILE pointed Observation Blocks (OBs) dataset.In the analysis here reported we used data obtained with an improved full Field of View (FOV) event filter, on a much larger (about 27.5 months) dataset, integrating data on the OB timescales, mostly ranging between 4 and 30 days. The data processing resulted in an improved source list as compared to the 1AGL one. We present here our results on the variability of some of these sources.

  11. Correlation Between Cerebral Atrophy and Texture Features in Alzheimer-type Dementia Brains: A 3-Year Follow-up MRI Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Naoki; Takeuchi, Hiroshi

    We assessed relationships between six texture features and changes in atrophy of the cerebral parenchyma, the hippocampus, and the parahippocampal gyrus in the Alzheimer-type dementia (ATD) brain to determine whether or not the features reflect cerebral atrophy in ATD patients. The subjects of this study were 10 ATD patients, and underwent an magnetic resonanse imaging test of the head annually for at least 3 consecutive years. They consisted of three men and seven women, with a mean age of 71.4 ± 6.7 years. The results of study, the mean run length nonuniformity (RLN), angular second moment (ASM), and contrast (CON) increased with time, whereas the mean gray level nonuniformity (GLN), run percentage (RPC), and entropy (ENT) decreased with time. There was a statistically significant correlation between brain-intracranial area ratio (BIR) and GLN (p = 0.039), between BIR and ASM (p = 0.011), and between BIR and ENT (p = 0.023) as well as between parahippocampal-intracranial area ratio and GLN (p = 0.049). These results indicate that the six texture features were shown to reflect gray matter atrophy associated with ATD and to change with the progress of the disease. Although the course of ATD can be followed up by measuring a hippocampal area or volume and determining a decrease in the area or volume, texture features should be a more effective instrument for identifying the progress of ATD.

  12. Conduct Disorder and Initiation of Substance Use: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopfer, Christian; Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan; Min, Sung-Joon; McQueen, Matt; Crowley, Thomas; Young, Susan; Corley, Robin; Sakai, Joseph; Thurstone, Christian; Hoffenberg, Analice; Hartman, Christie; Hewitt, John

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the influence of conduct disorder (CD) on substance use initiation. Method: Community adolescents without CD (n = 1,165, mean baseline age = 14.6 years), with CD (n = 194, mean baseline age = 15.3 years), and youth with CD recruited from treatment (n = 268, mean baseline age = 15.7 years) were prospectively followed and…

  13. A randomised, phase II study of nintedanib or sunitinib in previously untreated patients with advanced renal cell cancer: 3-year results

    PubMed Central

    Eisen, T; Loembé, A-B; Shparyk, Y; MacLeod, N; Jones, R J; Mazurkiewicz, M; Temple, G; Dressler, H; Bondarenko, I

    2015-01-01

    Background: This exploratory study evaluated the safety/efficacy of nintedanib or sunitinib as first-line therapy in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Methods: Ninety-six patients were randomised (2:1) to either nintedanib (200 mg twice daily) or sunitinib (50 mg kg−1 once daily (4 weeks on treatment; 2 weeks off)). Primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) at 9 months. P-values reported are descriptive only; the study was not powered for such comparisons. Results: Progression-free survival at 9 months was comparable between nintedanib and sunitinib (43.1% vs 45.2%, respectively; P=0.85). Median PFS was 8.4 months in each group (hazard ratio (HR), 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70–1.80; P=0.64). Median overall survival was 20.4 and 21.2 months for nintedanib and sunitinib, respectively (HR, 0.92; 95% CI: 0.54–1.56; P=0.76). Overall incidence of any grade adverse events (AEs) was comparable (90.6% vs 93.8%); AEs grade ⩾3 were lower with nintedanib than sunitinib (48.4% vs 59.4%). Nintedanib was associated with lower incidences of some AEs typical of antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs): hypertension, hypothyroidism, hand–foot syndrome, cardiac disorders and haematological abnormalities. Conclusions: In patients with advanced RCC, nintedanib has promising efficacy and similar tolerability to sunitinib, and a manageable safety profile with fewer TKI-associated AEs. PMID:26448178

  14. [The issue of dialysis withdrawal and palliative cares. A 3-year retrospective study carried out at Grenoble university teaching hospital development of a decision-making tool].

    PubMed

    Jarrin, Guillemette; Maurizi-Balzan, Jocelyne; Laval, Guillemette

    2007-07-01

    Dialysis-related constraints encourage questioning about discontinuation of treatment. In France, the 04/22/2005 law, related to patients' rights and end-of-life issues, defines bounds to treatment withdrawal, authorizing it in specific conditions, to avoid foolish obstinacy. Shortly before the publication of this law, a study has been conducted at Grenoble University Teaching Hospital, involving 31 patients followed by the dialysis service and the palliative care service, in order to analyse the circumstances in which withdrawals from dialysis happen. These patients were old and their general condition was very poor. After initiation of the questioning, treatment was removed in older patients and in those who had been dialysed for short time, which suggests they may have poor adaption to the treatment. No dialysis withdrawal was ever decided without the patient consent or without his nearest and dearest consent. After multidisciplinary discussions, a decision-making tool for dialysis withdrawal has been developed, with a view to be a starting point in the thinking process, for each decision to be adapted to each situation. This tool emphasizes the importance of time and collegial consultation in the decision-making process. It points out to that the decision lies with the referent nephrologist. After withdrawing dialysis, palliative cares must be implemented, since stopping the treatment does not mean stopping cares. PMID:17658440

  15. NMR spectroscopic study of the carbon and nitrogen dynamics of grass-derived pyrogenic organic material during 2.3 years of incubation in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilscher, André; Knicker, Heike

    2010-05-01

    Incomplete combustion of vegetation results in pyrogenic organic material (PyOM) which occurs ubiquitously in soils and sediments. To understand the C sequestration potential of PyOM in environmental systems knowledge is required about the respective degradation and humification mechanisms and the stability of the different chemical PyOM structures. The present study focuses on the microbial recalcitrance of PyOM on molecular scale. Therefore, microcosms incubation experiments were performed using PyOM produced from highly isotopically enriched 13C and 15N rye grass (Lolium perenne) at 350°C under oxic conditions for one (1M) and four minutes (4M). Solid-state CPMAS 13C and 15N NMR studies were accomplished to obtain insights into the involved humification mechanisms at different stages the PyOM degradation. In total up to 38% of the bulk PyOM C was mineralised during the 28 months of incubation. The O/N-alkyl C and alkyl C residues which survived the charring process were effectively decomposed. At the end of the incubation up to 73% and 57% of the initial O/N-alkyl C and alkyl C amount were mineralised or converted to other C groups, respectively. The total aryl C group recovery of the PyOM decreased significantly during the 28 months of incubation (P ≤ 0.001). After 20 months of incubation between 26% and 40% of the initial aryl C amount was lost. For this group, relative short half time periods in the range of 3.0 and 3.8 years were obtained. The observed loss of aromatic C structures may be attributed to two simultaneous processes, the mineralisation to CO2 and the conversion to other C groups by partial oxidation. The presence of a readily decomposable co-substrate showed no significant changes in the degradation pattern of the different PyOM, possibly because decomposable sources were already available in the starting PyOM. Most of the organic bound N of the fresh PyOM was assignable to heterocyclic aromatic compounds such as pyrrole and indole

  16. The Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Investigation and Management of Invasive Lobular Carcinoma-A 3-Year Retrospective Study in Two District General Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Derias, Mina; Subramanian, Ashok; Allan, Simon; Shah, Elizabeth; Teraifi, Hassan El; Howlett, David

    2016-07-01

    Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) accounts for 5-15% of breast cancers. In comparison to other types of breast cancer, ILC is more likely to be associated with multifocal and contralateral breast involvement as well as a tendency to a diffuse infiltrative growth pattern which can represent a diagnostic challenge. The National Institute of Clinical Excellence guidelines in 2009 recommended the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the preoperative assessment of ILC. This study aims to assess compliance with the guidelines in two District General Hospitals and the utility of MRI in the investigation of ILC. All cases of ILC between 2011 and 2013 were retrospectively identified from the pathology database and their breast imaging findings, pathology report, and operative intervention were reviewed. A total of 126 patients were identified with ILC, of these 46 had MRI preoperatively (36.5%). MRI upgraded mammography/ultrasound diagnoses in 10 patients (21.7%). MRI showed multicentric unilateral disease in 17 patients (37.0%) occult on ultrasound/mammogram, with these patients undergoing mastectomy and 16/17 (94.1%) confirmed multifocality on pathology. MRI showed a contralateral lesion in 9 patients (19.6%), four (8.7%) of which were malignant and had bilateral surgery, and five (10.9%) were benign on further imaging/biopsy. MRI also downgraded three patients (6.5%) to unifocal disease with reported multifocal appearances on mammography/ultrasound, and these patients underwent breast-conserving surgery. MRI adds significant additional information to mammograms/ultrasound in ILC and should be undertaken in all such cases preoperatively assuming no contraindication. PMID:27265271

  17. Clinical and Epidemiologic Features of Severe Viral Gastroenteritis in Children: A 3-Year Surveillance, Multicentered Study in Taiwan With Partial Rotavirus Immunization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Jung; Wu, Fang-Tzy; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Chang, Wan-Chi; Wu, Ho-Sheng; Wu, Ching-Yi; Lin, Jen-Shiou; Huang, Fu-Chen; Hsiung, Chao A

    2015-08-01

    The global epidemiological landscape of childhood acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is changing after the introduction of 2 effective rotavirus vaccines in 2006. A comprehensive evaluation for viral etiology of childhood AGE in Taiwan, where rotavirus vaccination was provided by the private sector since 2006, is lacking.From 2009 to 2011, children younger than 5 years of age with AGE who were hospitalized at 3 sentinel hospitals were enrolled in this surveillance study. Stool specimens were tested for rotavirus, norovirus, enteric adenovirus, and astrovirus. The epidemiologic and clinical information was collected by questionnaire-based interviews and chart reviews.Viral agents were detected in 1055 (37.5%) of 2810 subjects, with rotavirus (21.2%) being the leading cause of disease, followed by norovirus (14.9%), enteric adenovirus (3.74%), astrovirus (2.10%), and a mixture of at least 2 of 4 above-mentioned viruses (4.06%). The majority (56%) of the viral AGE occurred in children <2 years of age. Rotavirus and norovirus were detected more frequently in cool seasons (P < 0.0001 for both), whereas no seasonal variation was observed for adenovirus and astrovirus. Adult households with diarrhea and a Vesikari score >10 were independent factors respectively associated with an increased risk of norovirus (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 9.034, P = 0.0003) and rotavirus (aOR, 3.284, P < 0.0001) infections. Rotavirus immunization and female gender were protective factors against rotavirus (aOR, 0.198, P < 0.0001) and astrovirus (aOR, 0.382, P = 0.0299) infections, respectively.Rotavirus and norovirus are the 2 most important viral agents of childhood AGE in Taiwan with partial rotavirus immunization. In addition, different enteric viruses are associated with distinct epidemiologic and clinical features. PMID:26287425

  18. Effects of New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme on Medical Service Utilization and Medical Expense Control of Inpatients: A 3-year Empirical Study of Hainan Province in China

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Tao; Hu, Hong-Pu; Na, Xu; Li, Ya-Zi; Wan, Yan-Li; Xie, Li-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Background: The New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) has been further adjusted and optimized to reduce the financial burden of rural residents and to achieve universal coverage for them. In this study, we aimed to explore the impact of NCMS on medical service utilization and medical expense of inpatients in recent years. Methods: The research data of Hainan Province were extracted from the Chinese NCMS platform from 2012 to 2014. Detailed information included total expenditure, average inpatients costs, average out-of-pocket payments, actual reimbursement rate, and average annual growth rate of the above indicators. Descriptive analysis was used to gauge the effects of NCMS. Results: In the utilization of medical services, NCMS inpatients in tertiary hospital decreased from 25.49% in 2012 to 20.39% in 2014, inpatients in county hospitals increased from 39.49% to 55.92%, simultaneously. The total expenditure in county hospitals rose steadily from 28.46% to 46.66%, meanwhile, the total expenditure in tertiary hospitals fell from 60.44% to 44.51%.The average out-of-pocket costs of rural inpatients remained stable over the years. Furthermore, the compensation fund of NCMS inpatients grew significantly. The actual inpatient reimbursement rate at township health centers increased from 76.93% to 84.04%. Meanwhile, the rate at county hospitals and tertiary hospitals increased slightly from 59.37% and 46.10% to 61.25% and 47.71%, respectively. Conclusions: With the improvement of the reimbursement ability, especially after the new health care reform in 2009, the NCMS have been playing a prominent role in alleviating the economic burden of farmers’ medical treatment. Meanwhile, more patients go to primary hospitals than tertiary hospitals, and the capability of primary hospitals has been greatly improved. PMID:27231163

  19. STATISTICAL PRINCIPLES FOR PROSPECTIVE STUDY PROTOCOLS:

    PubMed Central

    Langberg, Henning

    2012-01-01

    In the design of scientific studies it is essential to decide on which scientific questions one aims to answer, just as it is important to decide on the correct statistical methods to use to answer these questions. The correct use of statistical methods is crucial in all aspects of research to quantify relationships in data. Despite an increased focus on statistical content and complexity of biomedical research these topics remain difficult for most researchers. Statistical methods enable researchers to condense large spreadsheets with data into means, proportions, and difference between means, risk differences, and other quantities that convey information. One of the goals in biomedical research is to develop parsimonious models ‐ meaning as simple as possible. This approach is valid if the subsequent research report (the article) is written independent of whether the results are “statistically significant” or not. In the present paper we outline the considerations and suggestions on how to build a trial protocol, with an emphasis on having a rigorous protocol stage, always leading to a full article manuscript, independent of statistical findings. We conclude that authors, who find (rigorous) protocol writing too troublesome, will realize that they have already written the first half of the final paper if they follow these recommendations; authors simply need to change the protocols future tense into past tense. Thus, the aim of this clinical commentary is to describe and explain the statistical principles for trial protocols in terms of design, analysis, and reporting of findings. PMID:23091782

  20. Adherence to immunosuppression: a prospective diary study.

    PubMed

    Gordon, E J; Prohaska, T R; Gallant, M P; Siminoff, L A

    2007-12-01

    Immunosuppression adherence among kidney transplant recipients is essential for graft survival. However, nonadherence is common, jeopardizing graft survival. Besides skipping dosages, little is known about other forms of medication nonadherence and their underlying reasons. This study sought to examine patients' extent of medication adherence over time and reasons for nonadherence. Thirty-nine new kidney transplant recipients were asked to complete a month-long medication-taking diary that included reporting medication nonadherence such as skipped medications, medications taken early or late, taking dosages greater or less than prescribed, and the reason for each occurrence of nonadherence. Of the 20 (51%) patients who completed the diary, 11 (55%) reported at least 1 form of nonadherence. Eleven patients reported taking their immunosuppression at least 1 hour later than the prescribed time, 1 patient reported skipping medication, but no patients reported changing the dosage on their own. Immunosuppression was taken on average 1.5 hours after the prescribed time. Of those patients who took their medications late, there were on average 3.1 occasions of taking it late. The most common reasons for this behavior included health care-related issues, followed by oversleeping, being away from home, work-related barriers, and forgetting. The majority of kidney transplant recipients took medications later than prescribed during 1 month. Future research should determine the clinical impact on graft function of late administration of immunosuppression. Interventions should be designed to better assist kidney recipients with taking medications on time, especially when they are away from home. PMID:18089327

  1. [Prenatal diagnosis. Review, personal and prospective studies].

    PubMed

    Engel, E; Empson, J; DeLozier, D; McGee, B; da Costa Woodson, E; Engel-de Montmollin, M; Carter, T; Lorber, C; Cassidy, S B; Millis, J; Heller, R M; Boehm, F; Vanhooydonk, J

    1979-07-01

    instruments is particularly useful in cases where a severe fetal morphologic malformation cannot currently be identified by indirect visualization (ultrasound) or by analysis of cytogenetic or molecular markers. 6. Pathological accumulations of alpha-fetoprotein which are associated with diverse feto-placental abnormalities (particularly open malformations of the neural tube) can be detected in the amniotic fluid and/or maternal blood. In extension of this approach, it is foreseeable that conditions existing prenatally will be diagnosed in a growing number of cases from the study of fetal cells and molecules which can be isolated from the venous blood of pregnant women. This will become feasible as a result of some well-developed techniques which allow separation of fetal from maternal cells and metabolites, and also to some extremely fine analytic techniques, notably examination of the DNA itself by means of restriction enzymes. PMID:88763

  2. AI-related BMD variation in actual practice conditions: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sanz, María; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Servitja, Sonia; Garcia-Giralt, Natalia; Garrigos, Laia; Rodriguez-Morera, Jaime; Albanell, Joan; Martínez-García, Maria; González, Iria; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Tusquets, Ignasi; Nogués, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the progression of bone mineral density (BMD) during 3 years of aromatase inhibitors (AI) therapy in actual practice conditions. This prospective, clinical cohort study of Barcelona-Aromatase induced Bone Loss in Early breast cancer (B-ABLE) assessed BMD changes during 3 years of AI treatment in women with breast cancer. Patients with osteoporosis (T score < -2.5 or T score ≤ -2.0) and a major risk factor and/or prevalent fragility fractures were treated with oral bisphosphonates (BPs). Of 685 women recruited, 179 (26.1%) received BP treatment. By the third year of AI therapy, this group exhibited increased BMD in the lumbar spine (LS; 2.59%) and femoral neck (FN; 2.50%), although the increase was significant only within the first year (LS: 1.99% and FN: 2.04%). Despite BP therapy, however, approximately 15% of these patients lost more than 3% of their baseline bone mass. At 3 years, patients without BP experienced BMD decreases in the LS (-3.10%) and FN (-2.79%). In this group, BMD changes occurred during the first (LS: -1.33% and FN: -1.25%), second (LS: -1.19% and FN: -0.82%), and third (LS: -0.57% and FN: -0.65%) years of AI treatment. Increased BMD (>3%) was observed in just 7.6% and 10.8% of these patients at the LS and FN, respectively. Our data confirm a clinically relevant bone loss associated with AI therapy amongst nonusers of preventative BPs. We further report on the importance of BMD monitoring as well as calcium and 25-hydroxy vitamin D supplementation in these patients. PMID:26911377

  3. The clinical outcomes of chronic hepatitis C in South Korea: A prospective, multicenter cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ok, Kyeong Sam; Jeong, Sook-Hyang; Jang, Eun Sun; Kim, Young Seok; Lee, Youn Jae; Kim, In Hee; Cho, Sung Bum; Bae, Si Hyun; Lee, Han Chu

    2016-08-01

    This prospective cohort study aimed to elucidate the clinical outcome and its related factors of chronic hepatitis C in a hepatitis B-dominant Asian region.From January 2007 to October 2012, 382 patients with chronic hepatitis C without liver cirrhosis were prospectively enrolled at 6 university hospitals, and regularly followed until Apr 2014 to identify the development of liver cirrhosis, decompensated cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and overall survival.During the median follow-up of 39.0 months (range 18.0-81.0 months), liver cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation, and HCC developed in 42 patients (11.0%), 4 patients (1.0%), and 12 patients (3.1%), respectively. The cumulative probability of development of cirrhosis at 3 years and at 5 years was 9.6% and 16.7%, respectively. That of HCC at 3 and 5 years was 1.6% and 4.5%, respectively. The 3-year and 5-year overall survival rate was 99.7% and 96.0%, respectively. Pegylated interferon-based antiviral therapy was undertaken in 237 patients (62.0%) with a sustained virologic response (SVR) rate of 74.3%. The factors related to the overall clinical outcomes were age ≥55 years (HR 2.924, P = 0.016), platelet counts <150  × 10/L (HR 3.195, P = 0.007), and the achievement of SVR (HR 0.254, P = 0.002).The clinical outcomes of this Korean chronic hepatitis C cohort were modest with minimal mortality, but significant disease progression occurred in the patients with old age, low platelet, and non-SVR after interferon-based antiviral treatment or no treatment, suggesting priority for direct acting antiviral therapy. PMID:27583874

  4. Clinical Performance and Management Outcomes with the DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Profile Test in a Prospective Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Plasseraud, Kristen Meldi; Tsai, Tony; Shildkrot, Yevgeniy; Middlebrook, Brooke; Maetzold, Derek; Wilkinson, Jeff; Stone, John; Johnson, Clare; Oelschlager, Kristen; Aaberg, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Uveal melanoma management is challenging due to its metastatic propensity. DecisionDx-UM is a prospectively validated molecular test that interrogates primary tumor biology to provide objective information about metastatic potential that can be used in determining appropriate patient care. To evaluate the continued clinical validity and utility of DecisionDx-UM, beginning March 2010, 70 patients were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, IRB-approved study to document patient management differences and clinical outcomes associated with low-risk Class 1 and high-risk Class 2 results indicated by DecisionDx-UM testing. Thirty-seven patients in the prospective study were Class 1 and 33 were Class 2. Class 1 patients had 100% 3-year metastasis-free survival compared to 63% for Class 2 (log rank test p = 0.003) with 27.3 median follow-up months in this interim analysis. Class 2 patients received significantly higher-intensity monitoring and more oncology/clinical trial referrals compared to Class 1 patients (Fisher's exact test p = 2.1 × 10−13 and p = 0.04, resp.). The results of this study provide additional, prospective evidence in an independent cohort of patients that Class 1 and Class 2 patients are managed according to the differential metastatic risk indicated by DecisionDx-UM. The trial is registered with Clinical Application of DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Assay Results (NCT02376920). PMID:27446211

  5. Clinical Performance and Management Outcomes with the DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Profile Test in a Prospective Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Plasseraud, Kristen Meldi; Cook, Robert W; Tsai, Tony; Shildkrot, Yevgeniy; Middlebrook, Brooke; Maetzold, Derek; Wilkinson, Jeff; Stone, John; Johnson, Clare; Oelschlager, Kristen; Aaberg, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Uveal melanoma management is challenging due to its metastatic propensity. DecisionDx-UM is a prospectively validated molecular test that interrogates primary tumor biology to provide objective information about metastatic potential that can be used in determining appropriate patient care. To evaluate the continued clinical validity and utility of DecisionDx-UM, beginning March 2010, 70 patients were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, IRB-approved study to document patient management differences and clinical outcomes associated with low-risk Class 1 and high-risk Class 2 results indicated by DecisionDx-UM testing. Thirty-seven patients in the prospective study were Class 1 and 33 were Class 2. Class 1 patients had 100% 3-year metastasis-free survival compared to 63% for Class 2 (log rank test p = 0.003) with 27.3 median follow-up months in this interim analysis. Class 2 patients received significantly higher-intensity monitoring and more oncology/clinical trial referrals compared to Class 1 patients (Fisher's exact test p = 2.1 × 10(-13) and p = 0.04, resp.). The results of this study provide additional, prospective evidence in an independent cohort of patients that Class 1 and Class 2 patients are managed according to the differential metastatic risk indicated by DecisionDx-UM. The trial is registered with Clinical Application of DecisionDx-UM Gene Expression Assay Results (NCT02376920). PMID:27446211

  6. Prospective pregnancy study designs for assessing reproductive and developmental toxicants.

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Germaine M; Lynch, Courtney D; Stanford, Joseph B; Sweeney, Anne M; Schieve, Laura A; Rockett, John C; Selevan, Sherry G; Schrader, Steven M

    2004-01-01

    The determinants of successful human reproduction and development may act as early as periconceptionally, underscoring the need to capture exposures during these critical windows when assessing potential toxicants. To identify such toxicants, couples must be studied longitudinally prior to conception without regard to a couple's ability to ascertain a clinically recognized pregnancy. We examined the utility and feasibility of prospective pregnancy study designs by conducting a systematic review of the literature to summarize relevant information regarding the planning, implementation, and success of previously published prospective pregnancy studies. Information concerning design elements and participation was abstracted from 15 eligible studies (from a total of 20 identified studies) using a standardized form. The primary author of each study was contacted to review our summary of their work and obtain missing information. Our findings confirm the ability to recruit women/couples from diverse populations using a variety of recruitment strategies. Among the studies we reviewed, 4-97% of eligible individuals were successfully contacted, with enrollment rates ranging from 42 to 100%. Length of follow-up varied from 3 to 12 months. A high percentage of women provided urine (57-98%) and blood (86-91%) specimens and most male partners (94-100%) provided semen samples. These data support the feasibility of this design. PMID:14698935

  7. Airway reactivity in welders: a controlled prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Beckett, W S; Pace, P E; Sferlazza, S J; Perlman, G D; Chen, A H; Xu, X P

    1996-12-01

    In a 3-year survey, respiratory symptoms, spirometry, and methacholine reactivity were measured annually in welders (n = 51) and non-welder controls subjects (n = 54) to determine whether welding-related symptoms are associated with accelerated decline in lung function or changes in airway reactivity. In the cross-workshift study, maximal midexpiratory flow rate declined reversibly during a welding day, whereas 1-second forced expiratory volume and forced-vital capacity were unchanged. In the longitudinal study, the welders had significantly more reversible work-related symptoms of cough, phlegm, wheeze, and chest tightness than the non-welder shipyard control subjects. In this group of actively working welders, across-workshift changes in midflow and reversible symptoms were related to the welding occupation, but evidence for chronic irreversible effects on spirometry or airway reactivity was not seen over the 3 years of observation. The short period of observation was not optimal for detecting a chronic effect on lung function. Work practices and engineering controls may be successfully preventing irreversible respiratory effects, but not mild reversible effects, in this group of welders. PMID:8978514

  8. Short-term prospective spirometric study of new coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Hankinson, J.L.; Hodous, T.K.

    1982-09-01

    This study examined prospectively a small cohort (N=116) of new coal miners with questionnaires and spirometry. Data collection began just prior to underground employment and extended over a two year period at 6 month intervals to address the question or short-term adverse occupational pulmonary effects and their relationship to outward migration from the industry. A comparison of the initial (unexposed) and six month (exposed) changes in lung function over the work shift was also conducted to detect an acute effect due to dust, which might be related to chronic decline in lung function.

  9. Equestrian injuries--a one year prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    McLatchie, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    A one year prospective study of equestrian injuries was carried out in an area where horse riding is a popular pursuit. 115 persons suffered injury--eighty females and thirty-five males of whom sixty were under fifteen years of age. No fatalities were recorded and there were 0.2 injuries per 100 rides. Most injuries were minor and to the musculo-skeletal system. Visceral and cerebral injuries were not common but the former were life threatening in all cases. It is concluded that young riders should be supervised. PMID:465903

  10. Self-reported occupational exposure to chemical and physical factors and risk of skin problems: a 3-year follow-up study of the general working population of Norway.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Jose Hernan; Thyssen, Jacob P; Tynes, Tore; Mehlum, Ingrid Sivesind; Johannessen, Håkon A

    2015-11-01

    Prospective studies on occupational dermatoses in the general working population are sparse. This study investigated prospectively the impact of self-reported occupational exposure to chemicals and physical factors on the risk of skin problems. The cohort comprised respondents drawn randomly from the general population in Norway, who were registered employed in 2006 and 2009 (n = 6,745). Indoor dry air (odds ratio (OR) 1.3; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.1-1.6) was a significant baseline predictor of skin problems at follow-up, whereas exposure to cleaning products (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.2-2.5), water (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.9) and indoor dry air (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1-2.1) at both measurement time-points was significantly associated with skin problems. The population risk attributable to these factors was 16%. This study quantified the contribution of occupational exposure factors to skin problems in the general working population of Norway. PMID:25941012

  11. Impaired Sleep Predicts Cognitive Decline in Old People: Findings from the Prospective KORA Age Study

    PubMed Central

    Johar, Hamimatunnisa; Kawan, Rasmila; Emeny, Rebecca Thwing; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the association between sleep-related characteristics and cognitive change over 3 years of follow up in an aged population. Methods: Sleep characteristics and covariates were assessed at baseline in a standardized interview and clinical examination of the population-based KORA Age Study (n = 740, mean age = 75 years). Cognitive score (determined by telephone interview for cognitive status, TICS-m) was recorded at baseline and 3 years later. Results: At baseline, 82.83% (n = 613) of participants had normal cognitive status, 13.51% (n = 100) were classified with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 3.64% (n = 27) with probable dementia. The effect of three distinct patterns of poor sleep (difficulties initiating [DIS] or maintaining sleep [DMS], daytime sleepiness [DS] or sleep duration) were considered on a change in cognitive score with adjustments for potential confounders in generalized linear regression models. Cognitive decline was more pronounced in individuals with DMS compared to those with no DMS (β = 1.33, 95% CI = 0.41–2.24, P < 0.001). However, the predictive power of DMS was only significant in individuals with normal cognition and not impaired subjects at baseline. Prolonged sleep duration increased the risk for cognitive decline in cognitively impaired elderly (β = 1.86, 95% CI = 0.15–3.57, P = 0.03). Other sleep characteristics (DIS and DS) were not significantly associated with cognitive decline. Conclusions: DMS and long sleep duration were associated with cognitive decline in normal and cognitively impaired elderly, respectively. The identification of impaired sleep quality may offer intervention strategies to deter cognitive decline in the elderly with normal cognitive function. Citation: Johar H, Kawan R, Emeny RT, Ladwig KH. Impaired sleep predicts cognitive decline in old people: findings from the prospective KORA age study. SLEEP 2016;39(1):217–226. PMID:26414903

  12. Urinary amino acid alterations in 3-year-old children with neurodevelopmental effects due to perinatal dioxin exposure in Vietnam: a nested case-control study for neurobiomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Nishijo, Muneko; Tai, Pham The; Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Nghi, Tran Ngoc; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Van Luong, Hoang; Anh, Tran Hai; Morikawa, Yuko; Waseda, Tomoo; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study of 3-year-old children in a dioxin contamination hot spot in Vietnam, the high total dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ-PCDDs/Fs)-exposed group during the perinatal period displayed lower Bayley III neurodevelopmental scores, whereas the high 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-exposed group displayed increased autistic traits. In autistic children, urinary amino acid profiles have revealed metabolic alterations in the amino acids that serve as neurotransmitters in the developing brain. Therefore, our present study aimed to investigate the use of alterations in urinary amino acid excretion as biomarkers of dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits in highly exposed 3-year-old children in Vietnam. A nested case-control study of urinary analyses was performed for 26 children who were selected from 111 3-year-old children whose perinatal dioxin exposure levels and neurodevelopmental status were examined in follow-up surveys conducted in a dioxin contaminated hot spot. We compared urinary amino acid levels between the following 4 groups: (1) a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD-exposed group; (2) a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD-exposed group; (3) a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and poorly developed group; and (4) a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and well-developed group. Urinary levels of histidine and tryptophan were significantly decreased in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group, as well as in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD group, compared with the low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and well-developed group. However, the ratio of histidine to glycine was significantly lower only in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group. Furthermore, urinary histidine levels and the ratio of histidine to glycine were significantly correlated with neurodevelopmental scores, particularly for language and fine motor skills. These results indicate that urinary histidine is specifically associated with dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits, suggesting that

  13. Urinary Amino Acid Alterations in 3-Year-Old Children with Neurodevelopmental Effects due to Perinatal Dioxin Exposure in Vietnam: A Nested Case-Control Study for Neurobiomarker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Nishijo, Muneko; Tai, Pham The; Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Nghi, Tran Ngoc; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Van Luong, Hoang; Anh, Tran Hai; Morikawa, Yuko; Waseda, Tomoo; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study of 3-year-old children in a dioxin contamination hot spot in Vietnam, the high total dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ-PCDDs/Fs)-exposed group during the perinatal period displayed lower Bayley III neurodevelopmental scores, whereas the high 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-exposed group displayed increased autistic traits. In autistic children, urinary amino acid profiles have revealed metabolic alterations in the amino acids that serve as neurotransmitters in the developing brain. Therefore, our present study aimed to investigate the use of alterations in urinary amino acid excretion as biomarkers of dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits in highly exposed 3-year-old children in Vietnam. A nested case-control study of urinary analyses was performed for 26 children who were selected from 111 3-year-old children whose perinatal dioxin exposure levels and neurodevelopmental status were examined in follow-up surveys conducted in a dioxin contaminated hot spot. We compared urinary amino acid levels between the following 4 groups: (1) a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD-exposed group; (2) a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD-exposed group; (3) a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and poorly developed group; and (4) a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and well-developed group. Urinary levels of histidine and tryptophan were significantly decreased in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group, as well as in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD group, compared with the low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and well-developed group. However, the ratio of histidine to glycine was significantly lower only in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group. Furthermore, urinary histidine levels and the ratio of histidine to glycine were significantly correlated with neurodevelopmental scores, particularly for language and fine motor skills. These results indicate that urinary histidine is specifically associated with dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits, suggesting that

  14. Bariatric support line: a prospective study of support line activity.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Kirsten; Segaran, Ella; Sufi, Pratik; Heath, Dugal I

    2010-03-01

    In this prospective study, we examine the workload of the North London Obesity Surgery Service Bariatric telephone support line (BTSL) and its effects on service provision. Over a 3-month period (June to August 2008), a prospective record was kept of all calls, who they were from, whether the patient was presurgery or postsurgery, the type of procedure planned or undertaken, the nature of the enquiry, and the time taken to answer the query. Seventy-five (72%) calls were related to patients who were postsurgery and 29 (28%) presurgery. Patients scheduled for or having undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass accounted for 46 (44%) calls; 24 (23%) were preprocedure and 22 (21%) postprocedure. Patients scheduled for or having undergone gastric banding accounted for 56 (54%) calls; five (0.5%) were preprocedure and 51 (49%) postprocedure. Patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy accounted for two (<1%) calls. Both calls were postprocedure. The reason for the support line enquiry was psychological support in 15 (14%) patients, questions postsurgery in 26 (25%), general enquiries in 27 (26%), and clinical enquiries in 36 (36%). This study of the BTSL has allowed us to identify areas of need within our bariatric population and improve the service we deliver. The changes we have made should lead to a better use of the team's time, greater patient compliance, and satisfaction as well as reduced complaints and litigation. PMID:19711140

  15. Endogenous hormones and breast cancer: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Toniolo, P G; Pasternack, B S; Shore, R E; Sonnenschein, E; Koenig, K L; Rosenberg, C; Strax, P; Strax, S

    1991-05-01

    A cohort study is under way in New York City to evaluate how levels of endogenous reproductive hormones influence the risk of breast cancer. The study, in which approximately 15,000 women are being recruited, utilizes a prospective design in which volunteers are asked to provide repeated specimens of serum during the period 1985-1992. A case-control study nested within the cohort is planned by which specimens from all cases arising in the population and from a randomly selected sample of time-matched controls will be analyzed and compared. As of December 31, 1989, 13,609 volunteers had donated blood specimens, about 50% of whom had already donated more than once. Of the 187 incident breast cancer cases who are expected to arise in the cohort before the end of 1992, 77 have been detected thus far. PMID:1873553

  16. A prospective study of bilateral inguinal hernia repair.

    PubMed Central

    Serpell, J. W.; Johnson, C. D.; Jarrett, P. E.

    1990-01-01

    A prospective study of outcome after inguinal hernia repair in patients undergoing simultaneous repair of bilateral hernias (n = 31), sequential repair of bilateral hernias (n = 5), and unilateral hernia repair (n = 75) is reported. There were no differences in wound complications, post-operative respiratory complications, or other adverse effects in the three groups. Operating time was similar in the unilateral and bilateral simultaneous repairs (median 55 min), but was longer (100 min) for the combination of two sequential repairs. Hospital stay was shortest for patients undergoing unilateral repair (2 days) but was less with bilateral simultaneous repair (4 days) than after two sequential repairs (total of 6 days). There were 12 (11%) wound complications of which five (5%) were infections. There was no difference in complication rate between unilateral and bilateral hernia repair. Postoperative recovery was assessed prospectively and was recorded at 1 month. There was no difference between unilateral and bilateral simultaneous repairs in the number of days before the patient was able to climb stairs easily, drive a car or return to work. The duration of the requirement for analgesia was similar in each group. We conclude that bilateral simultaneous hernia repair can be carried out with no greater morbidity than a unilateral repair, and the return to normal activity is as rapid. Bilateral hernias should be repaired simultaneously rather than sequentially. PMID:2221764

  17. Predictors of outcome in childhood intracerebral hemorrhage: a prospective consecutive cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Beslow, Lauren A; Licht, Daniel J; Smith, Sabrina E; Storm, Phillip B; Heuer, Gregory G; Zimmerman, Robert A; Feiler, Alana M; Kasner, Scott E; Ichord, Rebecca N; Jordan, Lori C

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose To describe features of children with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and to determine predictors of short-term outcome in a single-center prospective cohort study. Methods Single-center prospective consecutive cohort study of spontaneous ICH in children age 1-18 years from January 2006 to June 2008. Exclusion criteria were inciting trauma; intracranial tumor; isolated epidural, subdural, intraventricular, or subarachnoid hemorrhage; hemorrhagic transformation of ischemic stroke; and cerebral sinovenous thrombosis. Hospitalization records were abstracted. Follow-up assessments included outcome scores using the Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure (PSOM) and King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury (KOSCHI). ICH volumes and total brain volumes (TBV) were measured by manual tracing. Results Twenty-two patients, median age of 10.3 years (range 4.2-16.6 years), had presenting symptoms of headache in 77%, focal deficits 50%, altered mental status 50%, and seizures 41%. Vascular malformations caused hemorrhage in 91%. Surgical treatment (hematoma evacuation, lesion embolization or excision) was performed during acute hospitalization in 50%. One patient died acutely. At median follow-up of 3.5 months (range 0.3-7.5 months), 71% of survivors had neurological deficits; 55% had clinically significant disability. Outcome based on PSOM and KOSCHI scores was worse in patients with ICH volume >2% of TBV (p=0.023) and altered mental status at presentation (p = 0.005). Conclusions Spontaneous childhood ICH was due mostly to vascular malformations. Acute surgical intervention was commonly performed. Although death was rare, 71% of survivors had persisting neurological deficits. Larger ICH volume and altered mental status predicted clinically significant disability. PMID:20019325

  18. Bullying increased suicide risk: prospective study of Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Shin; Leventhal, Bennett L; Koh, Yun-Joo; Boyce, W Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the independent impact of bullying on suicide risk. Bullying was assessed by peer nomination in a prospective study of 1,655 7th and 8th grade Korean students, and suicide by youth self-report. Odds Ratios (ORs) of bullying for suicidal risks were computed, controlling for other suicide risk factors. Victim-Perpetrators and female Victims at baseline showed increased risk for persistent suicidality (OR: 2.4-9.8). Male Incident Victims exhibited increased risk for suicidal behaviors and ideations (OR = 4.4, 3.6). Female Persistent Perpetrators exhibited increased risks for suicidal behaviors; male Incident Perpetrators had increased risk for suicidal ideations (OR = 2.7, 2.3). Baseline-only male Victim-Perpetrators showed increased risk for suicidal ideations. (OR = 6.4). Bullying independently increased suicide risks. PMID:19123106

  19. Early breastfeeding experiences of adolescent mothers: a qualitative prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Teen mothers face many challenges to successful breastfeeding and are less likely to breastfeed than any other population group in the U.S. Few studies have investigated this population; all prior studies are cross-sectional and collect breastfeeding data retrospectively. The purpose of our qualitative prospective study was to understand the factors that contribute to the breastfeeding decisions and practices of teen mothers. Methods This prospective study took place from January through December 2009 in Greensboro, North Carolina in the U.S. We followed the cohort from pregnancy until two weeks after they ceased all breastfeeding and milk expression. We conducted semi-structured interviews at baseline and follow-up, and tracked infant feeding weekly by phone. We analyzed the data to create individual life and breastfeeding journeys and then identified themes that cut across the individual journeys. Results Four of the five teenagers breastfed at the breast for nine days: in contrast, one teen breastfed exclusively for five months. Milk expression by pumping was associated with significantly longer provision of human milk. Breastfeeding practices and cessation were closely connected with their experiences as new mothers in the context of ongoing multiple roles, complex living situations, youth and dependency, and poor knowledge of the fundamentals of breastfeeding and infant development. Breastfeeding cessation was influenced by inadequate breastfeeding skill, physically unpleasant and painful early experiences they were unprepared to manage, and inadequate health care response to real problems. Conclusions Continued breastfeeding depends on a complex interplay of multiple factors, including having made an informed choice and having the skills, support and experiences needed to sustain the belief that breastfeeding is the best choice for them and their baby given their life situation. Teenagers in the US context need to have a positive early

  20. Maternal intake of methyl-donor nutrients and child cognition at 3 years of age.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Eduardo; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily

    2012-07-01

    Methyl-donor nutrients are substrates for methylation reactions involved in neurodevelopment processes. The role of maternal intake of these nutrients on cognitive performance of the offspring is poorly understood. We examined the associations of maternal intake of folate, vitamin B12, choline, betaine and methionine during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, with tests of cognitive performance in the offspring at 3 years of age using data from 1210 participants in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study in Massachusetts. We assessed nutrient intake with the use of food frequency questionnaires. Children's cognition at age 3 years was evaluated with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III (PPVT-III) and visual-motor skills with the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities test. In multivariable models adjusting for potential sociobehavioural and nutritional confounders, for each 600 µg/day increment in total folate intake during the first trimester, PPVT-III score at age 3 years was 1.6 points [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1, 3.1; P = 0.04] higher. There was a weak inverse association between vitamin B12 intake during the second trimester and PPVT-III scores [-0.4 points per 2.6 µg/day; 95% CI -0.8, -0.1; P = 0.01]. We did not find associations between choline, betaine or methionine and cognitive outcomes at this age. Results of this study suggest that higher intake of folate in early pregnancy is associated with higher scores on the PPVT-III, a test of receptive language that predicts overall intelligence, at age 3 years. PMID:22686384

  1. Predicting 3-year outcomes of early-identified children with hearing impairment

    PubMed Central

    Ching, T.Y.C.; Day, J.; Seeto, M.; Dillon, H.; Marnane, V.; Street, L.

    2013-01-01

    Problem/Objectives Permanent childhood hearing loss has major negative impacts on children’s health and development. To improve outcomes, universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) has been implemented widely. However, high-quality evidence on its efficacy was lacking. To address this evidence gap, we conducted the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study to directly compare outcomes of early- and late-identified children. This paper investigates whether early performance measured shortly after initial amplification predicts language development at 3 years of age. Methodology This is a prospective, population-based study. We assessed outcomes at 6- and 12-months after amplification, and then at 3 and 5 years of age. Main outcome measures included directly-assessed language, receptive vocabulary, speech production; and parent-reported functional performance in everyday life. A range of demographic and audiological information was also collected at evaluation intervals. Results About 450 children participated, and 3-year outcomes scores were available for 356 participants. Multiple regression analysis revealed that early language scores or functional performance ratings were significant predictors of 3-year outcomes. Other significant predictors included the presence or absence of additional disabilities, severity of hearing loss, and age at cochlear implant activation. Conclusions Early performance, either directly-assessed language ability (PLS-4) or parent-reported functional ratings (PEACH), were significant predictors of 3-year outcomes; along with presence or absence of additional disabilities, severity of hearing loss, and age at CI activation. Earlier implantation is possible with early detection of hearing loss via UNHS. Monitoring performance after initial amplification allows preventive strategies to be implemented early to improve outcomes. PMID:24383228

  2. Cohort Profile: Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans (SABPA) prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Malan, Leoné; Hamer, Mark; Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Steyn, Hendrik S; Malan, Nicolaas T

    2015-12-01

    Adapting to an over-demanding stressful urban environment may exhaust the psychophysiological resources to cope with these demands, and lead to sympathetic nervous system dysfunction. The evidence that an urban-dwelling lifestyle may be detrimental to the cardiometabolic health of Africans motivated the design of the Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in African Prospective cohort study. We aimed to determine neural mechanistic pathways involved in emotional distress and vascular remodelling. The baseline sample included 409 teachers representing a bi-ethnic sex cohort from South Africa. The study was conducted in 2008-09 and repeated after 3-year follow-up in 2011-12, with an 87.8% successful follow-up rate. Seasonal changes were avoided and extensive clinical assessments were performed in a well-controlled setting. Data collection included sociodemographics, lifestyle habits, psychosocial battery and genetic analysis, mental stress responses mimicking daily life stress (blood pressure and haemostatic, cardiometabolic, endothelial and stress hormones). Target organ damage was assessed in the brain, heart, kidney, blood vessels and retina. A unique highly phenotyped cohort is presented that can address the role of a hyperactive sympathetic nervous system and neural response pathways contributing to the burden of cardiometabolic diseases in Africans. PMID:25344943

  3. A prospective study of coping after exposure to a mass murder episode.

    PubMed

    North, C S; Spitznagel, E L; Smith, E M

    2001-06-01

    In a study of 136 survivors of a mass murder spree, multidimensional scaling identified clusters of responses mapping from 75 coping behaviors described by victims. This powerful method identified three coping dimensions: (a) Active Outreach versus Passive Isolation, (b) Informed Pragmatism versus Abandonment of Control, and (c) Reconciliation/Acceptance versus Evading the Status Quo. These coping dimensions were used to predict change in psychiatric status prospectively assessed with structured diagnostic interviews at index 3-4 months after the event and follow-up assessments 1 and 3 years later. Statistically significant changes in the positive direction on each of the three dimensions in this study were associated with reductions of 47-79% of the odds for acute postdisaster major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and any non-PTSD disorder. These findings suggest mechanisms for development of therapeutic techniques capitalizing on encouraging active outreach, informed focus and pragmatism, and reconciliation and acceptance, and reduction of passive and isolative behaviors, resignation of control, and avoidance of realities of the postdisaster situation. PMID:11534929

  4. OPEN DRAINAGE VERSUS PERCUTANEOUS DRAINAGE IN THE TREATMENT OF TROPICAL PYOMYOSITIS. PROSPECTIVE AND RANDOMIZED STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Palacio, Evandro Pereira; Rizzi, Nívea Gitahy; Reinas, Gustavo Serra; Júnior, Melvis Michiuti; Júnior, Alcides Durigan; Mizobuchi, Roberto Ryuiti; Yanasse, Ricardo Hideki; da Silva, Marcos Vinícius Muriano; Branco, Rodrigo Borsatto; Galbiatti, José Antônio

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the results from treating tropical pyomyositis through percutaneous drainage of abscesses versus open surgical drainage of abscesses, by means of a randomized prospective study. Methods: Twenty-five patients with tropical pyomyositis (Chiedozi grade II) were included in this study. They were randomized into two groups: group A (n = 13), treated with antibiotics and open drainage of the abscesses; and group B (n = 12), treated with antibiotics and percutaneous drainage of the abscesses. Results: The mean age was 35.3 years (± 19.2) in group A and 30.1 years (± 9) in group B (p = 0.41). There were eight female patients (61.5%) and five male patients (38.5%) in group A; in group B, three were female (25%) and nine were male (75%) (p = 0.11). Staphylococcus aureus was the microorganism most frequently found (72%). The mean hospital stay in group A was 12.7 days (± 2.3), and in group B, 10.6 days (± 1.6) (p = 0.01). The mean duration of antibiotic use in group A was 12.2 days (± 2.3), and in group B, 10.1 days (± 1.5) (p = 0.02). Conclusion: Percutaneous drainage of the abscesses, in association with antibiotic therapy, is an efficient treatment method for tropical pyomyositis grade II, with shorter antibiotic use and hospital stay for patients. PMID:27022550

  5. Prospective study of erythema toxicum neonatorum: epidemiology and predisposing factors.

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, Benigno; Labandeira, Javier; Cabanillas, Miguel; Acevedo, Antonio; Toribio, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    We performed a prospective study of 1,000 neonates investigated in the first 72 hours of life in the health area of Ferrol (northwest of Spain) to assess the prevalence of erythema toxicum neonatorum, the anatomical sites most frequently involved, the influence of different maternal and neonatal parameters, day of life of medical examination, and type of delivery (vaginal or Cesarean). Overall prevalence of erythema toxicum neonatorum was 16.7%. Lesions most frequently involved the trunk, buttocks, and proximal areas of limbs. A higher prevalence of this dermatosis was found in Caucasian newborns (p = 0.01) and those with higher birthweight (p < 0.05), greater gestational age (p < 0.05), vaginal delivery (p < 0.05), maternal age of <30 years (p = 0.28), and fewer than two previous pregnancies (p = 0.12). PMID:22066938

  6. Predictors of early precocious talking: a prospective population study.

    PubMed

    Skeat, Jemma; Wake, Melissa; Reilly, Sheena; Eadie, Patricia; Bretherton, Lesley; Bavin, Edith L; Ukoumunne, Obioha C

    2010-11-01

    This study examines potential predictors of 'precocious talking' (expressive language ≥90th percentile) at one and two years of age, and of 'stability' in precocious talking across both time periods, drawing on data from a prospective community cohort comprising over 1,800 children. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between precocious talking and the following potential predictors: gender, birth order, birth weight, non-English speaking background, socioeconomic status, maternal age, maternal mental health scores, and vocabulary and educational attainment of parents. The strongest predictors of precocity (being female and having a younger mother) warrant further exploration. Overall, however, it appears that precocity in early vocabulary development is not strongly influenced by the variables examined, which together explained just 2.6% and 1% of the variation at 1;0 and 2;0 respectively. PMID:19874641

  7. Recent results and future prospects for asteroseismic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miglio, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    In the last decade the study and interpretation of global oscillations in stars has undergone a dramatic development thanks to the advent of space-based telescopes such as CoRoT and Kepler. In this contribution I will review our endeavours towards a detailed understanding of stellar structure and evolution and I will discuss the symbiosis between stellar seismology and both exoplanetary and Galactic science. I will then emphasise the wider significance of asteroseismology as a tool for testing stellar physics, with examples on how seismic predictions depend on our (often poor) knowledge of the relevant physics. Future prospects in the light of future ambitious space missions such as NASA-TESS and ESA-Plato will also be briefly presented.

  8. Palliative Care Caregivers' Grief Mediators: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Alexandra M; Delalibera, Mayra A; Barbosa, António

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study is to identify the mediators of complicated grief in a Portuguese sample of caregivers. Grief mediators were prospectively evaluated using a list of risk factors completed by the palliative care team members, during the predeath and bereavement period. More than 6 months after the death, we applied PG-13 to diagnose prolonged grief disorder (PGD). The sample was composed of 64 family caregivers. Factors associated with PGD were insecure and dependent relationship, unresolved family crisis, and the perceived deterioration and disfigurement of the patient. The results show relational factors are relevant, but we must consider the reciprocal influence among factors, as well as their impact on specific symptoms. PMID:25601321

  9. An archival prospective study of mental health and longevity.

    PubMed

    Martin, L R; Friedman, H S; Tucker, J S; Schwartz, J E; Criqui, M H; Wingard, D L; Tomlinson-Keasey, C

    1995-09-01

    The relationship between mental health status and longevity was examined in an archival prospective cohort study (N = 1,103) derived from work begun by Lewis Terman in the 1920s. Degree of psychological maladjustment, cumulatively rated by Terman and his colleagues as of 1950, was found to be related to higher risk of all-cause mortality over a 4-decade follow-up period. The differences among causes of death were nonsignificant, but there was some indication that mental health problems were more strongly related to deaths from injury and cardiovascular disease. The overall relationship was significant for men but weaker for women. The effect was not substantially mediated by alcohol consumption, obesity, or cigarette smoking. PMID:7498108

  10. Vaginal breech delivery: results of a prospective registration study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most countries recommend planned cesarean section in breech deliveries, which is considered safer than vaginal delivery. As one of few countries in the western world Norway has continued to practice planned vaginal delivery in selected women. The aim of this study is to evaluate prospectively registered neonatal and maternal outcomes in term singleton breech deliveries in a Norwegian hospital during a ten years period. We aim to compare maternal and neonatal outcomes in term breech pregnancies subjected either to planned vaginal or elective cesarean section. Methods A prospective registration study including 568 women with term breech deliveries (>37 weeks) consecutively registered at Sorlandet Hospital Kristiansand between 2001 and 2011. Fetal and maternal outcomes were compared according to delivery method; planned vaginal delivery versus planned cesarean section. Results Of 568 women, elective cesarean section was planned in 279 (49%) cases and vaginal delivery was planned in 289 (51%) cases. Acute cesarean section was performed in 104 of the planned vaginal deliveries (36.3%). There were no neonatal deaths. Two cases of serious neonatal morbidity were reported in the planned vaginal group. One infant had seizures, brachial plexus injury, and cephalhematoma. The other infant had 5-minutes Apgar < 4. Twenty-nine in the planned vaginal group (10.0%) and eight in the planned cesarean section group (2.9%) (p < 0.001) were transferred to the neonatal intensive care unit. However, only one infant was admitted for ≥4 days. According to follow-up data (median six years) none of these infants had long-term sequelae. Regarding maternal morbidity, blood loss was the only variable that was significantly higher in the planned cesarean section group versus in the vaginal delivery group (p < 0.001). Conclusions Strict guidelines were followed in all cases. There were no neonatal deaths. Two infants had serious neonatal morbidity in the planned

  11. The pleiotropic effects of metformin: time for prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Bromage, Daniel I; Yellon, Derek M

    2015-01-01

    The global prevalence of diabetes has risen to epidemic proportions and the trend is predicted to continue. The consequent burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is a major public health concern and new treatments are required to mitigate the deleterious effects of cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients. Ischaemia-reperfusion injury is well known to exacerbate the harmful effects of acute myocardial infarction and subsequent therapeutic reperfusion, and several mechanical and pharmacological approaches to mitigating this injury have been investigated. Metformin, which is cheap, relatively safe and widely used in type 2 diabetes, is one such pharmacotherapy with considerable pre-clinical evidence for cardioprotective utility beyond its glucose-lowering effect. However, despite convincing basic evidence its translation to clinical application has largely been limited to studies of cardiovascular risk. There are several barriers to prospective randomized assessment in the context of acute myocardial infarction, not least the accessibility and already widespread use of metformin among patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk of cardiovascular events. In the place of class 1 evidence, well-designed prospective cohort studies of the potential pleiotropic utility of metformin in cardiovascular disease, and particularly its benefit in ischaemia-reperfusion injury, are needed. Given the availability of metformin worldwide, this is particularly true in low- and middle-income countries where the optimal therapy for acute myocardial infarction, primary percutaneous coronary intervention, may not be available, and instead patients are managed with thrombolysis. As this is less effective, metformin as an adjunct to thrombolysis (or PPCI) could represent an effective, cheap means of cardioprotection with global relevance. PMID:26271457

  12. The interpersonal antecedents of supportive parenting: a prospective, longitudinal study from infancy to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Raby, K Lee; Lawler, Jamie M; Shlafer, Rebecca J; Hesemeyer, Paloma S; Collins, W Andrew; Sroufe, L Alan

    2015-01-01

    This study drew on prospective, longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that the intergenerational transmission of positive parenting is mediated by competence in subsequent relationships with peers and romantic partners. Interview-based ratings of supportive parenting were completed with a sample of 113 individuals (46% male) followed from birth to age 32. Results indicated that supportive parenting during adulthood was predicted by observed maternal sensitivity during the first 3 years of life, even after controlling for adults' age at first childbirth and adults' socioeconomic status and educational attainment at the time of the second generation parenting assessments. Moreover, the intergenerational association in parenting was mediated by later competence in relationships with peers and romantic partners. In particular, sensitive caregiving in infancy and early childhood predicted teachers' rankings of children's social competence with peers during childhood and adolescence, which in turn forecasted later interview ratings of romantic relationship competence during young adulthood, which in turn predicted supportive parenting in adulthood. Findings are discussed with respect to current theory and research on the intergenerational transmission of parenting. PMID:25419799

  13. Gender Abuse and Major Depression Among Transgender Women: A Prospective Study of Vulnerability and Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Bockting, Walter; Rosenblum, Andrew; Hwahng, Sel; Mason, Mona; Macri, Monica; Becker, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the social and interpersonal context of gender abuse and its effects on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition major depression among transgender women. Methods. We conducted a 3-year prospective study (2004–2007) among 230 transgender women aged 19 to 59 years from the New York City Metropolitan Area. Statistical techniques included generalized estimating equations (logistic regression). Results. We observed significant associations of psychological and physical gender abuse with major depression during follow-up. New or persistent experiences of both types of abuse were associated with 4- to 7-fold increases in the likelihood of incident major depression. Employment, transgender presentation, sex work, and hormone therapy correlated across time with psychological abuse; the latter 2 variables correlated with physical abuse. The association of psychological abuse with depression was stronger among younger than among older transgender women. Conclusions. Psychological and physical gender abuse is endemic in this population and may result from occupational success and attempts to affirm gender identity. Both types of abuse have serious mental health consequences in the form of major depression. Older transgender women have apparently developed some degree of resilience to psychological gender abuse. PMID:24328655

  14. Vascular Calcification in Patients with Nondialysis CKD over 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Pablo; Cerverón, M. Jesús; Vila, Rocío; Bover, Jordi; Nieto, Javier; Barril, Guillermina; Martínez-Castelao, Alberto; Fernández, Elvira; Escudero, Verónica; Piñera, Celestino; Adragao, Teresa; Navarro-Gonzalez, Juan F.; Molinero, Luis M.; Castro-Alonso, Cristina; Pallardó, Luis M.; Jamal, Sophie A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Vascular calcification (VC) is common in CKD, but little is known about its prognostic effect on patients with nondialysis CKD. The prevalence of VC and its ability to predict death, time to hospitalization, and renal progression were assessed. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The Study of Mineral and Bone Disorders in CKD in Spain is a prospective, observational, 3-year follow-up study of 742 patients with nondialysis CKD stages 3–5 from 39 centers in Spain from April to May 2009. VC was assessed using Adragao (AS; x-ray pelvis and hands) and Kauppila (KS; x-ray lateral lumbar spine) scores from 572 and 568 patients, respectively. The primary end point was death. Secondary outcomes were hospital admissions and appearance of a combined renal end point (beginning of dialysis or drop >30% in eGFR). Factors related to VC were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Survival analysis was assessed by Cox proportional models. Results VC was present in 79% of patients and prominent in 47% (AS≥3 or KS>6). Age (odds ratio [OR], 1.05; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.02 to 1.07; P<0.001), phosphorous (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.28 to 2.20; P<0.001), and diabetes (OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.32 to 3.35; P=0.002) were independently related to AS≥3. After a median follow-up of 35 months (interquartile range=17–36), there were 70 deaths (10%). After multivariate adjustment for age, smoking, diabetes, comorbidity, renal function, and level of phosphorous, AS≥3 but not KS>6 was independently associated with all-cause (hazard ratio [HR], 2.07; 95% CI, 1.07 to 4.01; P=0.03) and cardiovascular (HR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.27 to 9.45; P=0.02) mortality as well as a shorter hospitalization event–free period (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.22; P<0.001). VC did not predict renal progression. Conclusions VC is highly prevalent in patients with CKD. VC assessment using AS independently predicts death and time to hospitalization. Therefore, it could be a useful

  15. Early carotid endarterectomy after a nondisabling stroke: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Ricco, J B; Illuminati, G; Bouin-Pineau, M H; Demarque, C; Camiade, C; Blecha, L; Neau, J P

    2000-01-01

    On the recommendation of several studies, carotid endarterectomy (CEA) should be delayed for at least 6 weeks in patients suffering an acute nondisabling stroke. Our objective was to determine if these patients could be safely operated on earlier, thus decreasing the risk of a recurrent stroke prior to surgery. This prospective study, carried out from January 1990 to December 1997, included 72 consecutive patients having a nondisabling hemispheric stroke with severe ipsilateral carotid stenosis (NASCET 70-99%). All patients underwent CEA within 15 days of stroke onset. Patients were considered to have a nondisabling hemispheric stroke if (1) symptoms of hemispheric ischemia persisted longer than 24 hr and (2) the resulting deficit caused no major impairment in their everyday activities. All patients were examined by a neurologist prior to carotid angiography and contrast CT scan. Hemorrhage seen on the initial CT scan eliminated the patient from the study. If the CT scan with contrast injection was negative, patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging. CEA was performed under general anesthesia with intraluminal shunting. All patients had a postoperative duplex scan and yearly follow-up by a neurologist and a surgeon, with a duplex scan of the carotid arteries. Mean follow-up was 53 months. Our study shows that CEA can be performed relatively safely within 15 days following an acute nondisabling stroke. The arbitrary 6-week delay for CEA may unnecessarily expose patients with high-grade stenosis to a recurrent stroke, which could be prevented by earlier surgery. PMID:10629271

  16. A study of geothermal prospects in the western United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The commercial development potential of 13 underdeveloped geothermal prospects in the Western United States was examined, and the prospects were ranked in order of relative potential for development on the basis of investment considerations. The following were considered in the ranking: geotechnical and engineering data, energy market accessibility, administrative constraints, and environmental and socio-economic factors. The primary ranking criterion is the unit cost of energy production expected from each prospect. Secondary criteria are administrative constraints, environmental factors and the quality of the geotechnical data.

  17. Similarity Predicts Liking in 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Christine A.; Markson, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined the influence of similarity on 3-year-old children's initial liking of their peers. Children were presented with pairs of childlike puppets who were either similar or dissimilar to them on a specified dimension and then were asked to choose one of the puppets to play with as a measure of liking. Children selected the puppet…

  18. Pulmonary Complications following Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Palnizky, Gili; Halachmi, Sarel; Barak, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary complications may occur in the post-operative period and are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing anesthesia and surgery. Complication rates vary according to different procedures and different types of anesthesia and may be affected by the patient condition. The purpose of this study was to examine pulmonary complications following percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and to search for associations between the pre- and intra-operative factors and the risk of post-operative pulmonary complications (PPC). Patients and Methods This was a prospective observational study of 100 consecutive adult patients who underwent PCNL surgery. We collected data of the patient, surgery and anesthesia and analyzed it to find correlations with PPC. Results Eight (8%) patients had PPC following PCNL, 7 patients had pneumothorax and 1 had atelectasis and pleural effusion. The latter patient died at post-operative day 24 due to respiratory failure. It was found that patients who had PCNL on the right kidney were at lower risk for PPC. In addition it was found that younger patients had a higher incidence of PPC. Conclusions Based on this study the most common type of post-operative complication following PCNL is pulmonary, with pneumothorax being the main complication. PPC may result in patient mortality. The side of the operation and the patient's age might affect the risk of PPC. PMID:24917770

  19. [Psychic changes in systemic lupus erythematosus: a multidisciplinary prospective study].

    PubMed

    Miguel Filho, E C; Pereira, R M; Busatto Filho, G; Shavitt, R G; Hirsch, R; de Sá, L C; de Arruda, P C

    1990-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of psychic symptoms in lupus patients, there are few systematic studies in this area. Through a multidisciplinary approach, the authors developed a prospective study to characterize and correlate psychopathological aspects with clinical and laboratory data concerning neural manifestations of the disease. Out of 23 patients studied, 12 showed psychic alterations, which were interpreted as primary manifestations of the disease. All of them presented organic mental syndromes (DSM-III-R) in which cognitive symptoms were the most prominent, followed by affective, catatonic and hallucinatory features. The neurologic findings (seizure, migraine and muscular atrophy), as well as the ophthalmologic alterations (hemorrhage and soft exudates) were frequent and concomitant with the psychic features. The laboratory findings were: LE cells 50%; anti-Sm: 16%; anti-U1 RNP: 50%; anti-Ro/SS-A: 50%; anti-nDNA: 58%; decreased CH50 or fractions (C3, C4): 67%; anti-P: 18%; antigangliosides IgG: 67%; antigangliosides IgM: 78%. The cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed: increased cellularity: 18%; elevated protein: 36%; antigangliosides IgG: 67%; antigangliosides IgM: 33%; immunocomplexes: 36%. In spite of the absence of an adequate control group and of the small number of patients, the multidisciplinary approach leads to a better characterization of the nervous system involvement in this disease. PMID:1965671

  20. Sexual Function after Partial Penectomy: A Prospectively Study From China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Cui; Hequn, Chen; Longfei, Liu; Minfeng, Chen; Zhi, Chen; Feng, Zeng; Jinbo, Chen; Lin, Qi; Xiongbing, Zu

    2016-01-01

    The Purpose of this study was to evaluate the sexual function after partial penectomy for penile carcinoma patients. Between January 2010 and May 2013, patients treated with partial penectomy at our institution were prospectively enrolled in this study. Sexual function (IIEF-15), age, body mass index, penile length in the flaccid state after partial penectomy (PL), treatment, having a partner and psychological factors (SAS scores and SDS scores) were assessed. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed. 43 patients were included in our study. The median age was 56 years, and the median PL was 4 cm. The preoperative IIEF-15, SAS, SDS scores were significantly different from the postoperative scores. There was no statistically significant difference between the patients treated with partial penectomy and partial penectomy+ lymphadenectomy on IIEF-15 scores. Age was negatively associated with erectile function, sexual desire, and overall satisfaction; PL was positively associated with intercourse satisfaction; SAS score was negatively associated with erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire, and intercourse satisfaction. Our preliminary findings suggest that the sexual function after partial penectomy was significantly reduced. The sexual function was negatively affected by age and anxiety but positively affected by PL. PMID:26902397

  1. Risk factors for seabather's eruption: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S; Hlady, W G; Malecki, J M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A prospective cohort study was performed to identify risk factors for seabather's eruption. METHODS: Study participants were recruited at four beaches in Palm Beach County, Florida, during three weekends of May and June 1993. Participants were interviewed by telephone after 48 hours regarding medical history, beach activities, development of rashes, and use of possible preventive measures. RESULTS: Seabather's eruption, defined by the occurrence of a rash within two days of exposure to seawater, was reported by 114 (16%) of 735 respondents. The strongest predictor of seabather's eruption was a past history of the condition. Children less than 16 years of age were also at increased risk, as were surfers. Showering with one's bathing suit off was a useful protective measure. CONCLUSION: The study's findings suggest that when the seasonal risk of seabather's eruption is present, children, people with a history of seabather's eruption, and surfers are at greatest risk. During the sea lice season, seabathers can minimize their risk by showering with their bathing suits off after seabathing. Length of the time spent in water was not significantly associated with seabather's eruption. PMID:9018290

  2. Sexual Function after Partial Penectomy: A Prospectively Study From China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Cui; Hequn, Chen; Longfei, Liu; Minfeng, Chen; Zhi, Chen; Feng, Zeng; Jinbo, Chen; Lin, Qi; Xiongbing, Zu

    2016-01-01

    The Purpose of this study was to evaluate the sexual function after partial penectomy for penile carcinoma patients. Between January 2010 and May 2013, patients treated with partial penectomy at our institution were prospectively enrolled in this study. Sexual function (IIEF-15), age, body mass index, penile length in the flaccid state after partial penectomy (PL), treatment, having a partner and psychological factors (SAS scores and SDS scores) were assessed. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed. 43 patients were included in our study. The median age was 56 years, and the median PL was 4 cm. The preoperative IIEF-15, SAS, SDS scores were significantly different from the postoperative scores. There was no statistically significant difference between the patients treated with partial penectomy and partial penectomy+ lymphadenectomy on IIEF-15 scores. Age was negatively associated with erectile function, sexual desire, and overall satisfaction; PL was positively associated with intercourse satisfaction; SAS score was negatively associated with erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire, and intercourse satisfaction. Our preliminary findings suggest that the sexual function after partial penectomy was significantly reduced. The sexual function was negatively affected by age and anxiety but positively affected by PL. PMID:26902397

  3. 75 FR 9902 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; The Agricultural Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... Disease Among Men and Women in Agriculture (NCI) (OMB : 0925-0406). Type of Information Collection Request... Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study of Cancer and Other Disease Among Men and Women in Agriculture.... Affected Public: Private Sector, Farms. Type of Respondents: Licensed pesticide applicators and...

  4. Prospective study of coroner's autopsies in Benin City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aligbe, J U; Akhiwu, W O; Nwosu, S O

    2002-10-01

    A prospective study of 726 cases of coroner's autopsies carried out over a period of two years (1st January, 1996 - 31st December, 1997) was reviewed. The causes and circumstances of death are defined and classified into natural and unnatural deaths. Fifty cases (6.3%) were children while the remaining 676 cases (93.1%) were adults in a male to female ratio of 2.6 to 1. The most common indications for coroner's autopsies were sudden unnatural deaths (SUDs) accounting for 485 cases (66.8%) and also sudden unexpected natural deaths (SUNDs) (241 cases) accounting for 33.2%. In the first category, road traffic accidents accounted for 86.7% of cases with deaths involving motor vehicle drivers and their passengers (41.8%); pedestrians (37.1%); and motorcyclists and their passengers (18.6%). The commonest causes of death in all road traffic accidents were craniocerebral injuries and haemorrhagic shock. In the second category the most common causes of sudden unexpected natural death were cardiovascular diseases resulting from complications of hypertension (54.7%) occurring in apparently healthy individuals. Other causes of death were pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis, typhoid fever and neoplastic diseases. This study showed that in Nigeria, with an increasing acquisition of dietary and life style habits of the developed western world, there is becoming a concomitant risk of deaths from road traffic accidents and sudden unexpected natural deaths from hypertensive cardiovascular disease. PMID:12487517

  5. The Yugoslavia Prospective Study of environmental lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Factor-Litvak, P; Wasserman, G; Kline, J K; Graziano, J

    1999-01-01

    The Yugoslavia Prospective Study of environmental lead exposure has studied the associations between exposure to lead and pregnancy outcomes; childhood neuropsychological, behavioral, and physical development; and hematologic, renal, and cardiovascular function. The cohort comprises 577 children born to women recruited at midpregnancy in two towns in Kosovo, Yugoslavia; one town is the site of a lead smelter, refinery, and battery plant and the other is 25 miles away and relatively unexposed. A sample of these children has been followed at 6-month intervals through 7.5 years of age. Blood lead concentrations ranged from 1 to 70 microg/dl. Exposure to lead was not associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Exposure was associated with modest decrements in intelligence, small increases in blood pressure, higher risks of proteinuria, small increases in behavior problems, and perturbed hematopoiesis. Only at low level exposures (i.e., <16 microg/dl) were small associations with decreased height found. We discuss methodological problems that may hinder causal interpretation of these data, namely, use of blood lead concentration as an exposure measure, confounding, and town-specific associations. We conclude that while reported associations are small, collectively they lend support to the notion that lead is a toxicant with numerous adverse health effects. Images Figure 1 PMID:9872712

  6. Massage Therapy for Lyme Disease Symptoms: a Prospective Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Thomason, Meghan J.; Moyer, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction To study the effects of massage therapy (MT) on Lyme disease (LD) symptoms and affect. Methods A 21-year-old female college student previously diagnosed with LD was recruited for a prospective case study that incorporated alternating periods of treatment and nontreatment across 65 days. Her self-reported symptoms of pain, fatigue, and impairment of concentration were assessed by means of a daily diary with corresponding visual analog scales. Immediate effects of MT on affect were assessed by completion of the Positive and Negative Affect Scales before and after each treatment session. Results LD symptoms decreased during treatment periods and increased during nontreatment periods. Positive affect was increased at every MT session. Conclusions MT is a promising treatment for the symptoms pain, fatigue, and impaired concentration associated with LD. In addition, MT reliably increased positive affect. Massage therapists should consider using light-to-medium pressure MT for treatment of persons who present with a similar pattern of LD symptoms, and further research with this population is warranted. PMID:23429967

  7. A prospective study of radionuclide biliary scanning in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Neoptolemos, J. P.; Fossard, D. P.; Berry, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Early surgery for biliary pancreatitis has resulted in a need for an accurate method of gallstone detection in acute pancreatitis. Fifty patients with acute pancreatitis were studied prospectively to assess the diagnostic value of Radionuclide Biliary Scanning (RBS) performed within 72 hours of an attack. To assess the general accuracy of RBS a further 154 patients with suspected acute cholecystitis or biliary colic were similarly studied. There were 34 patients with biliary pancreatitis and 18 (53%) had a positive scan (no gallbladder seen). There were 16 patients with non-biliary pancreatitis and 5 (31%) had a positive scan. All 51 patients with acute cholecystitis had a positive scan, as did 82% of the 51 patients with biliary colic. There were 52 patients with no biliary or pancreatic disease and none of these had a positive scan. RBS is highly accurate in confirming a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis or biliary colic. However, it cannot be relied on to differentiate between biliary and non-biliary pancreatitis and should certainly not be used as the basis for biliary surgery in these patients. PMID:6859781

  8. A prospective study of collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Raja, Ramachandran; Nada, Ritambhra; Yadav, Ashok K; Kumar, Ashwani; Goyal, Ajay; Kumar, Vivek; Rathi, Manish; Kohli, H S; Gupta, K L; Sakhuja, Vinay; Jha, Vivekanand

    2016-07-01

    Collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (cFSGS) is characterized by rapid progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We evaluated the clinicopathological spectrum of cFSGS and compared its clinical behavior to steroid and tacrolimus (TAC)-resistant noncollapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). All patients (>14 years) diagnosed with cFSGS were enrolled in the study. Staining for differentiated podocyte markers such as WT 1, PAX and KI67 were performed in all patients. The outcome and histological features of cFSGS was compared with a prospectively followed cohort of steroid and TAC-resistant noncollapsing FSGS. The study included 22 cFSGS patients and 19 cases of steroid and TAC-resistant FSGS. Complete remission, partial remission, steroid resistance, progression to ESRD and death were observed in 13.6%, 4.5%, 27.3%, 36.4% and 18.2% patients, respectively. Patients with cFSGS had higher serum creatinine and more advanced tubulointerstitial changes compared to resistant FSGS. Twenty-six percent of therapy resistant noncollapsing FSGS progressed to ESRD after two years of stopping TAC. However, there was no difference in progression to ESRD between cFSGS and therapy-resistant noncollapsing FSGS at the end of two years. Glomerular collapse in the setting of FSGS is poorly responsive to treatment and has a high rate of progression to ESRD. The long-term prognosis of cFSGS and steroid and TAC-resistant FSGS are similar. PMID:27266801

  9. Risk factors for intraoperative floppy iris syndrome: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Chatziralli, I P; Peponis, V; Parikakis, E; Maniatea, A; Patsea, E; Mitropoulos, P

    2016-08-01

    PurposeTo evaluate risk factors for intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS) in patients undergoing phacoemulsification.MethodsParticipants in the study were 1274 consecutive patients, who underwent routine phacoemulsification cataract surgery. The following data were recorded and evaluated as possible risk factors: ophthalmological conditions, axial length of the eye, sociodemographic features, clinical data (hypertension and diabetes mellitus), medications being taken at the time of surgery, and duration of their intake. Cases were characterized intraoperatively as IFIS and non-IFIS. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed.ResultsIFIS was observed in 63/1274 eyes (4.9%, 95% CI: 3.9-6.7%). Current use of tamsulosin, alfuzosin, terazosin, benzodiazepines, quetiapine, and finasteride, as well as hypertension, were all independently associated with IFIS. Significant associations were noted for male sex, rivastigmine, and short axial length, which did not reach significance at the multivariate analysis. Duration of α-blockers intake was not found to be associated with IFIS.ConclusionApart from the well-established associations with α-blockers, this prospective study points to benzodiazepines, quetiapine, finasteride, and hypertension as potential risk factors for IFIS. Short axial length and rivastigmine were significantly associated with IFIS only at the univariate analysis. PMID:27367744

  10. Risk of Complications in Spine Surgery: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Rodolfo Casimiro; de Oliveira, Matheus Fernandes; Rotta, José Marcus; Botelho, Ricardo Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Purpose : Complications are the chief concern of patients and physicians when considering spine surgery. The authors seek to assess the incidence of complications in patients undergoing spine surgery and identify risk factors for their occurrence. Methods : Prospective study of patients undergoing spine surgery from 1 February 2013 to 1 February 2014. Epidemiological characteristics and complications during the surgical hospitalization were recorded and analyzed. Results : The sample comprised 95 patients (mean age, 59 years). Overall, 23% of patients were obese (BMI =30). The mean BMI was 25.9. Approximately 53% of patients had comorbidities. Complications occurred in 23% of cases; surgical site infections were the most common (9%). There were no significant differences between patients who did and did not develop complications in terms of age (60.6 vs 59.9 years, p = 0.71), sex (56% female vs 54% female, p = 0.59), BMI (26.6 vs 27.2, p = 0.40), or presence of comorbidities (52% vs 52.8%, p = 0.87). The risk of complications was higher among patients submitted to spine instrumentation than those submitted to non-instrumented surgery (33% vs 22%), p=0.8. Conclusion : Just over one-quarter of patients in the sample developed complications. In this study, age, BMI, comorbidities were not associated with increased risk of complications after spine surgery. The use of instrumentation increased the absolute risk of complications. PMID:25674185

  11. A prospective study on postoperative pain after cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Porela-Tiihonen, Susanna; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kokki, Merja; Purhonen, Sinikka; Kokki, Hannu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate postoperative pain and early recovery in cataract patients. Patients and methods A total of 201 patients who underwent elective first eye cataract extraction surgery were enrolled, and 196 were included in the final analysis. The study design was a single-center, prospective, follow-up study in a tertiary hospital in eastern Finland. Postoperative pain was evaluated with the Brief Pain Inventory at four time points: at baseline, and at 24 hours, 1 week, and 6 weeks postsurgery. Results Postoperative pain was relatively common during the first hours after surgery, as it was reported by 67 (34%) patients. After hospital discharge, the prevalence decreased; at 24 hours, 1 week, and 6 weeks, 18 (10%), 15 (9%) and 12 (7%) patients reported having ocular pain, respectively. Most patients with eye pain reported significant pain, with a score of ≥4 on a pain scale of 0–10, but few had taken analgesics for eye pain. Those who had used analgesics rated the analgesic efficacy of paracetamol and ibuprofen as good or excellent. Other ocular irritation symptoms were common after surgery; as a new postoperative symptom, foreign-body sensation was reported by 40 patients (22%), light sensitivity by 29 (16%), burning by 15 (8%), and itching by 15 (8%). Conclusion Moderate or severe postoperative pain was relatively common after cataract surgery. Thus, all patients undergoing cataract surgery should be provided appropriate counseling on pain and pain management after surgery. PMID:23885165

  12. A Qualitative Case Study of Prospective Chemistry Teachers' Knowledge about Instructional Strategies: Introducing Particulate Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boz, Nihat; Boz, Yezdan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate prospective chemistry teachers' knowledge about instructional strategies, one component of pedagogical content knowledge about introducing particulate theory, as well as sources of this knowledge. Twenty-two prospective chemistry teachers participated in the study. Data were collected by the means of a…

  13. The Limitations of a Prospective Study of Memories for Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheit, Ross E.

    2003-01-01

    Prospective studies have been held out as a kind of Holy Grail in research about remembering or forgetting child sexual abuse. They seem to hold the perfect answer to the verification problems that plague retrospective self-reports in the clinical literature. Prospective studies begin with verified cases of abuse. Then they require detective work…

  14. A Comparative Study of Problematic Internet Use and Loneliness among Turkish and Korean Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutgun, Aylin; Deniz, Levent; Moon, Man-Ki

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to compare the problematic internet use and its relation to loneliness among two nations' prospective teachers, Turkey and South Korea. Five hundred and ninety five prospective teachers from three universities, two from Turkey and one from South Korea participated in the study. Generalized Problematic Internet Use…

  15. Qingdao Port Cardiovascular Health Study: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Spatz, Erica S; Jiang, Xianyan; Lu, Jiapeng; Masoudi, Frederick A; Spertus, John A; Wang, Yongfei; Li, Xi; Downing, Nicholas S; Nasir, Khurram; Du, Xue; Li, Jing; Krumholz, Harlan M; Liu, Xiancheng; Jiang, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In China, efforts are underway to respond to rapidly increasing rates of heart disease and stroke. Yet the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in China may be different from that of other populations. Thus, there is a critical need for population-based studies that provide insight into the risk factors, incidence and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in China. The Qingdao Port Cardiovascular Health Study is designed to investigate the burden of cardiovascular disease and the sociodemographic, biological, environmental and clinical risk factors associated with disease onset and outcomes. Participants For this study, from 2000 through 2013, 32 404 employees aged 18 years or older were recruited from the Qingdao Port Group in China, contributing 221 923 annual health assessments. The mean age at recruitment was 43.4 (SD=12.9); 79% were male. In this ongoing study, annual health assessments, governed by extensive quality control mechanisms, include a questionnaire (capturing demographic and employment information, medical history, medication use, health behaviours and health outcomes), physical examination, ECG, and blood and urine analysis. Additional non-annual assessments include an X-ray, echocardiogram and carotid ultrasound; bio-samples will be collected for future genetic and proteomic analyses. Cardiovascular outcomes are accessed via self-report and are actively being verified with medical insurance claims; efforts are underway to adjudicate outcomes with hospital medical records. Findings to date Early findings reveal a significant increase in cardiovascular risk factors from 2000 to 2010 (hypertension: 26.4–39.4%; diabetes: 3.3–8.9%; hyperlipidaemia: 5.0–33.6%; body mass index >28 m/kg2: 14.1–18.6%). Future Plans We aim to generate novel insights about the epidemiology and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in China, with specific emphasis on the potentially unique risk factor profiles of this Chinese population. Knowledge

  16. Proactive Approach to Lymphedema Risk Reduction: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Mei R.; Axelrod, Deborah; Guth, Amber A.; Cartwright, Francis; Qiu, Zeyuan; Goldberg, Judith D.; Kim, June; Scagliola, Joan; Kleinman, Robin; Haber, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in cancer treatments continue to reduce the incidence of lymphedema. Yet, many breast cancer survivors still face long-term post-operative challenges as a result of developing lymphedema. The purpose of this study was to preliminarily evaluate The-Optimal-Lymph-Flow program, a patient-centered education and behavioral program focusing on self-care strategies to enhance lymphedema risk reduction by promoting lymph flow and optimize body mass index. Methods A prospective, longitudinal, quasi-experimental design with repeated-measures was used. The study outcomes included lymph volume changes by infra-red perometer and body mass index by a bioimpedance device at pre-surgery baseline, 2-4 weeks after surgery, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. A total of 140 patients were recruited and participated in The-Optimal-Lymph-Flow program; 134 patients completed the study with 4% attrition rate. Results Fifty-eight percent patients had axillary node dissection and 42% had sentinel lymph node biopsy. The majority (97%) of patients maintained and improved their preoperative limb volume and body mass index at the study endpoint of 12 months following cancer surgery. Cumulatively, 2 patients with sentinel lymph node biopsy and 2 patients with the axillary lymph node dissection had measurable lymphedema (>10% limb volume change). At 12-month follow-up, among the 4 patients with measurable lymphedema, 2 patients' limb volume returned to pre-operative level without compression therapy but by maintaining The-Optimal-Lymph-Flow exercises to promote daily lymph flow. Conclusions This educational and behavioral program is effective to enhance lymphedema risk reduction. The study provided initial evidence for emerging change in lymphedema care from treatment-focus to proactive risk reduction. PMID:24809302

  17. Burn injuries in Zaria: a one year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kalayi, G D

    1994-05-01

    Fifty three patients admitted for burn care during a 12 month period from September 1987 to August 1988 were prospectively studied. There were 36 males (60%) and 21 females (40%) with ages ranging from 3 months to 60 years. Children aged 0-4 constituted 40% but 32 (60%) were younger than 16 years. Flame burns affected 26 (49%) patients, scalds in 22 (12%), electrical burns affected four patients and chemical burn was in one. Scald was the commonest injury among children aged 0-4 (70%). Flame, affected 33% of those aged 16 and above. Clothing fire was the commonest flame injury and it was a cause of very extensive injury (mean % BSA 45). Kerosene burn, gas and clothing burns caused the most extensive injury with a mean % BSA 46, 41 and 45 respectively. The commonest complication was burn wound sepsis most frequently by a gram-negative bacilli (65.63%) of which Pseudomonas aeruginosa were that commonest organisms. Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus aureus were about same frequency. Duration of hospital stay ranged from 6 days to 300 days with a mean of 46.52 days. 8 patients absconded, two were transferred to a hospital near their home and 9 died, giving a mortality rate of 17%. Since burn injuries are largely preventable, it is important to define clearly the social, cultural and economic factors which contribute to burn causation in order to combat them effectively. PMID:7925065

  18. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis in Peru: a multicentre prospective study.

    PubMed

    Montano, S M; Mori, N; Nelson, C A; Ton, T G N; Celis, V; Ticona, E; Sihuincha, M; Tilley, D H; Kochel, T; Zunt, J R

    2016-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is one of the most commonly identified infectious aetiologies of encephalitis in North America and Europe. The epidemiology of encephalitis beyond these regions, however, is poorly defined. During 2009-2012 we enrolled 313 patients in a multicentre prospective study of encephalitis in Peru, 45 (14·4%) of whom had confirmed HSV infection. Of 38 patients with known HSV type, 84% had HSV-1 and 16% had HSV-2. Patients with HSV infection were significantly more likely to present in the summer months (44·4% vs. 20·0%, P = 0·003) and have nausea (60·0% vs. 39·8%, P = 0·01) and rash (15·6% vs. 5·3%, P = 0·01) compared to patients without HSV infection. These findings highlight differences in the epidemiology and clinical presentation of HSV encephalitis outside of the Northern Hemisphere that warrant further investigation. Furthermore, there is an urgent need for improved HSV diagnostic capacity and availability of intravenous acyclovir in Peru. PMID:26733400

  19. Socioeconomic Status, Race, and Mortality: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Sarah S.; Williams, David R.; Munro, Heather M.; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Blot, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the independent and joint effects of race, individual socioeconomic status (SES), and neighborhood SES on mortality risk. Methods. We conducted a prospective analysis involving 52 965 non-Hispanic Black and 23 592 non-Hispanic White adults taking part in the Southern Community Cohort Study. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to determine associations of race and SES with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Results. In our cohort, wherein Blacks and Whites had similar individual SES, Blacks were less likely than Whites to die during the follow-up period (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.73, 0.84). Low household income was a strong predictor of all-cause mortality among both Blacks and Whites (HR = 1.76; 95% CI = 1.45, 2.12). Being in the lowest (vs highest) category with respect to both individual and neighborhood SES was associated with a nearly 3-fold increase in all-cause mortality risk (HR = 2.76; 95% CI = 1.99, 3.84). There was no significant mortality-related interaction between individual SES and neighborhood SES among either Blacks or Whites. Conclusions. SES is a strong predictor of premature mortality, and the independent associations of individual SES and neighborhood SES with mortality risk are similar for Blacks and Whites. PMID:25322291

  20. Postoperative Pain after Root Canal Treatment: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Gotler, M.; Bar-Gil, B.; Ashkenazi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the incidence and severity of postendodontic treatment pain (PEP) subsequent to root canal treatment (RCT) in vital and necrotic pulps and after retreatment. Methodology. A prospective study. Participants were all patients (n = 274) who underwent RCT in teeth with vital pulp, necrotic pulp, or vital pulp that had been treated for symptomatic irreversible pulpitis or who received root canal retreatment, by one clinician, during an eight-month period. Exclusion criteria were swelling, purulence, and antibiotic use during initial treatment. A structured questionnaire accessed age, gender, tooth location, and pulpal diagnosis. Within 24 h of treatment, patients were asked to grade their pain at 6 and 18 hours posttreatment, using a 1–5 point scale. Results. RCT of teeth with vital pulp induced a significantly higher incidence and severity of PEP (63.8%; 2.46 ± 1.4, resp.) than RCT of teeth with necrotic pulp (38.5%; 1.78 ± 1.2, resp.) or of retreated teeth (48.8%; 1.89 ± 1.1, resp.). No statistical relation was found between type of pain (spontaneous or stimulated) and pulp condition. Conclusion. RCT of teeth with vital pulp induced a significantly higher incidence and intensity of PEP compared to teeth with necrotic pulp or retreated teeth. PMID:22505897

  1. Metabolic Bone Disease in Viral Cirrhosis: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Goubraim, Rabia; Kabbaj, Nawal; Salihoun, Mouna; Chaoui, Zakia; Nya, M'Hamed; Amrani, Naima

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim. Metabolic Bone disorders are well-recognized extrahepatic complications of cirrhosis. The aim was to report their prevalence and the associated factors to their development in patients with viral cirrhosis. Patients and Methods. All consecutive patients with viral cirrhosis were prospectively enrolled. Parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, liver function, and phosphocalcic tests were measured in all patients. Bone mineral density was measured at the lumbar spine and total hip by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results. Forty-six cirrhotic patients were included with hepatitis C (87%) and hepatitis B (13%). The Child-Pugh score was grade A in 87% of cases and grade B in 13%. Thirty-seven patients had decreased bone mineral density with osteopenia in 24 patients and osteoporosis in 13 patients. Decreased 25-hydroxyvitamin D was found in 95.6% of cases. Bone disorders were significantly more frequent in old patients with low body mass index, long duration of liver disease, and low 25-hydroxyvitamin D level. None of these factors was an independent factor associated with bone disorders. Conclusion. Our study revealed a high prevalence of metabolic bone disorders among viral cirrhotic patients. Consequently, bone mineral density assessment should be performed systematically in all cirrhotic patients.

  2. Vocal Cord Paralysis and its Etiologies: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Seyed Toutounchi, Seyed Javad; Eydi, Mahmood; Golzari, Samad EJ; Ghaffari, Mohammad Reza; Parvizian, Nashmil

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Vocal cord paralysis is a common symptom of numerous diseases and it may be due to neurogenic or mechanical fixation of the cords. Paralysis of the vocal cords is just a symptom of underlying disease in some cases; so, clinical diagnosis of the underlying cause leading to paralysis of the vocal cords is important. This study evaluates the causes of vocal cord paralysis. Methods: In a prospective study, 45 patients with paralyzed vocal cord diagnosis were examined by tests such as examination of the pharynx, larynx, esophagus, thyroid, cervical, lung, and mediastinum, brain and heart by diagnostic imaging to investigate the cause vocal cord paralysis. The study was ended by diagnosing the reason of vocal cord paralysis at each stage of the examination and the clinical studies. Results: The mean duration of symptoms was 18.95±6.50 months. The reason for referral was phonation changes (97.8%) and aspiration (37.8%) in the subjects. There was bilateral paralysis in 6.82%, left paralysis in 56.82% and right in 63.36% of subjects. The type of vocal cord placement was midline in 52.8%, paramedian in 44.4% and lateral in 2.8% of the subjects. The causes of vocal cords paralysis were idiopathic paralysis (31.11%), tumors (31.11%), surgery (28.89%), trauma, brain problems, systemic disease and other causes (2.2%). Conclusion: An integrated diagnostic and treatment program is necessary for patients with vocal cord paralysis. Possibility of malignancy should be excluded before marking idiopathic reason to vocal cord paralysis. PMID:24753832

  3. Predictors of critical acute pancreatitis: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ke, Lu; Tong, Zhi-hui; Li, Wei-qin; Wu, Congye; Li, Ning; Windsor, John A; Li, Jie-shou; Petrov, Maxim S

    2014-11-01

    Critical acute pancreatitis (CAP) has recently emerged as the most ominous severity category of acute pancreatitis (AP). As such there have been no studies specifically designed to evaluate predictors of CAP. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the accuracy of 4 parameters (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE] II score, C-reactive protein [CRP], D-dimer, and intra-abdominal pressure [IAP]) for predicting CAP early after hospital admission. During the study period, data on patients with AP were prospectively collected and D-dimer, CRP, and IAP levels were measured using standard methods at admission whereas the APACHE II score was calculated within 24 hours of hospital admission. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was applied and the likelihood ratios were calculated to evaluate the predictive accuracy. A total of 173 consecutive patients were included in the analysis and 47 (27%) of them developed CAP. The overall hospital mortality was 11% (19 of 173). APACHE II score ≥11 and IAP ≥13 mm Hg showed significantly better overall predictive accuracy than D-dimer and CRP (area under the ROC curve-0.94 and 0.92 vs. 0.815 and 0.667, correspondingly). The positive likelihood ratio of APACHE II score is excellent (9.9) but of IAP is moderate (4.2). The latter can be improved by adding CRP (5.8). In conclusion, of the parameters studied, APACHE II score and IAP are the best available predictors of CAP within 24 hours of hospital admission. Given that APACHE II score is rather cumbersome, the combination of IAP and CRP appears to be the most practical way to predict critical course of AP early after hospital admission. PMID:25380082

  4. Atypical antipsychotic drugs and pregnancy outcome: a prospective, cohort study.

    PubMed

    Habermann, Frank; Fritzsche, Juliane; Fuhlbrück, Frederike; Wacker, Evelin; Allignol, Arthur; Weber-Schoendorfer, Corinna; Meister, Reinhard; Schaefer, Christof

    2013-08-01

    Women of childbearing age are often affected with psychotic disorders, requiring the use of antipsychotic medication during pregnancy. In the present study, we prospectively followed the pregnancies of 561 women exposed to second-generation antipsychotic agents (SGAs; study cohort) and compared these to 284 pregnant women exposed to first-generation antipsychotic agents (FGAs; comparison cohort I) and to 1122 pregnant women using drugs known as not harmful to the unborn (comparison cohort II). Subjects were enrolled through the Institute's consultation service. Major malformation rates of SGA exposed were higher compared to comparison cohort II (adjusted odds ratio, 2.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-3.91), possibly reflecting a detection bias concerning atrial and ventricular septal defects. Postnatal disorders occurred significantly more often in infants prenatally exposed to SGAs (15.6%) and FGAs (21.6%) compared to 4.2% of comparison cohort II. Cumulative incidences of elective terminations of pregnancy were significantly higher in both the study cohort (17%) and comparison cohort I (21%) compared to comparison cohort II (3%), whereas the rates of spontaneous abortions did not differ. The numbers of stillbirths and neonatal deaths were within the reference range. Preterm birth and low birth weight were more common in infants exposed to FGAs. To conclude, our findings did not reveal a major teratogenic risk for SGAs, making the better studied drugs of this group a treatment option during pregnancy. Because neonates exposed to SGAs or FGAs in the last gestational week are at higher risk of postnatal disorders, delivery should be planned in clinics with neonatal intensive care units. PMID:23764684

  5. Butorphanol in labour analgesia: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Ajay; Agarwal, Rachana

    2013-01-01

    Objective Parenteral opioids can be administered with ease at a very low cost with high efficacy as labour analgesia. However, there are insufficient data available to accept the benefits of parenteral opioids over other proven methods of labour analgesia. Butorphanol, a new synthetic opioid, has emerged as a promising agent in terms of efficacy and a better safety profile. This study investigates the effect of butorphanol as a labour analgesia to gather further evidence of its safety and efficacy to pave the way for its widespread use in low resource settings. Material and Methods One hundred low risk term consenting pregnant women were recruited to take part in a prospective cohort study. Intramuscular injections of butorphanol tartrate 1 mg (Butrum 1/2mg, Aristo, Mumbai, India) were given in the active phase of labour and repeated two hourly. Pain relief was noted on a 10-point visual pain analogue scale (VPAS). Obstetric and neonatal outcome measures were mode of delivery, duration of labour, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit admissions. Collected data were analysed for statistically significant pain relief between pre- and post-administration VPAS scores and also for the incidence of adverse outcomes. Results Pain started to decrease significantly within 15 minutes of administration and reached the nadir (3.08 SD0.51) at the end of two hours. The pain remained below four on the VPAS until the end of six hours and was still significantly low after eight hours. The incidence of adverse outcomes was low in the present study. Conclusion Butorphanol is an effective parenteral opioid analgesic which can be administered with reasonable safety for the mother and the neonate. The study has the drawback of lack of control and small sample size. PMID:24592110

  6. Clinical evaluation of 860 anterior and posterior lithium disilicate restorations: retrospective study with a mean follow-up of 3 years and a maximum observational period of 6 years.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Giacomo; Zarone, Fernando; Dellificorelli, Gianluca; Cannistraro, Giorgio; De Lorenzi, Marco; Mosca, Alberto; Sorrentino, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the clinical performance of lithium disilicate restorations supported by natural teeth or implants. Eight hundred sixty lithium disilicate adhesive restorations, including crowns on natural teeth and implant abutments, veneers, and onlays, were made in 312 patients. Parafunctional patients were included, but subjects with uncontrolled periodontitis and gingival inflammation were excluded. Veneers up to 0.5 mm thick were luted with flowable composite resin or light curing cements, while dual-curing composite systems were used with veneers up to 0.8 mm thick. Onlays up to 2 mm in thickness were luted with flowable composite resins or dual-curing composite cements. Crowns up to 1 mm in thickness were cemented with self-adhesive or dual-curing resin cements. The observational period ranged from 12 to 72 months, with a mean follow-up of 3 years. The mechanical and esthetic outcomes of the restorations were evaluated according to the modified California Dental Association (CDA) criteria. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Twenty-six mechanical complications were observed: 17 porcelain chippings, 5 fractures, and 4 losses of retention. Structural drawbacks occurred mainly in posterior segments, and monolithic restorations showed the lowest number of mechanical complications. The clinical ratings of the successful restorations, both monolithic and layered, were satisfactory according to the modified CDA criteria for color match, porcelain surface, and marginal integrity. The cumulative survival rates of lithium disilicate restorations ranged from 95.46% to 100%, while cumulative success rates ranged from 95.39% to 100%. All restorations recorded very high survival and success rates. The use of lithium disilicate restorations in fixed prosthodontics proved to be effective and reliable in the short- and medium-term. PMID:24600653

  7. Association studies including genotype by environment interactions: prospects and limits

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Association mapping studies offer great promise to identify polymorphisms associated with phenotypes and for understanding the genetic basis of quantitative trait variation. To date, almost all association mapping studies based on structured plant populations examined the main effects of genetic factors on the trait but did not deal with interactions between genetic factors and environment. In this paper, we propose a methodological prospect of mixed linear models to analyze genotype by environment interaction effects using association mapping designs. First, we simulated datasets to assess the power of linear mixed models to detect interaction effects. This simulation was based on two association panels composed of 90 inbreds (pearl millet) and 277 inbreds (maize). Results Based on the simulation approach, we reported the impact of effect size, environmental variation, allele frequency, trait heritability, and sample size on the power to detect the main effects of genetic loci and diverse effect of interactions implying these loci. Interaction effects specified in the model included SNP by environment interaction, ancestry by environment interaction, SNP by ancestry interaction and three way interactions. The method was finally used on real datasets from field experiments conducted on the two considered panels. We showed two types of interactions effects contributing to genotype by environment interactions in maize: SNP by environment interaction and ancestry by environment interaction. This last interaction suggests differential response at the population level in function of the environment. Conclusions Our results suggested the suitability of mixed models for the detection of diverse interaction effects. The need of samples larger than that commonly used in current plant association studies is strongly emphasized to ensure rigorous model selection and powerful interaction assessment. The use of ancestry interaction component brought valuable

  8. Predictors of depressive symptoms following the Great East Japan earthquake: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Tsuboya, Toru; Aida, Jun; Hikichi, Hiroyuki; Subramanian, S V; Kondo, Katsunori; Osaka, Ken; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-07-01

    We sought to investigate prospectively the association between exposure to disaster (the 2011 East Japan Earthquake) and change in depressive symptoms among community-dwelling older adult survivors. We used two waves of data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES), an ongoing population-based, prospective cohort study in Japan. A unique feature of our study was the availability of information about mental health status pre-dating the disaster. Our sample comprised community-dwelling survivors aged 65 and older, who responded to surveys in 2010 (i.e. one year before the disaster) and in 2013 (n = 3464). We categorized disaster exposure according to three types of experiences: loss of family/friends, property damage, and disruption in access to medical service. Our main outcome was change in depressive symptoms, measured by the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS). Among the participants, 917 (26.5%) reported losing a family member to the disaster, while a further 537 (15.5%) reported losing a friend. More than half of the participants reported some damage to their homes. After adjusting for demographics and baseline mental health, people whose homes were completely destroyed had significantly elevated depressive symptom scores three years later (+1.22 points, 95%CI: 0.80, 1.64, p < 0.0001). Disruption of psychiatric care was also associated with change in GDS scores (+2.51 points, 95%CI: 1.28, 3.74, p < 0.0001). By contrast, loss of family/friends was no longer associated with GDS after 3 years; +0.18 points (95%CI: -0.018, 0.37, p = 0.08) for loss of family, and -0.045 points (95%CI: -0.28, 0.19, p = 0.71) for loss of friends. Three years after the disaster, survivors of the 2011 earthquake and tsunami appeared to have recovered from loss of loved ones. By contrast, property loss and disruption of psychiatry care were associated with persistent adverse impact on mental health. PMID:27239707

  9. Factors Associated With Pelvic Fracture-Related Arterial Bleeding During Trauma Resuscitation: A Prospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Laszlo; King, Kate L.; McGrath, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine predictors of pelvic fracture-related arterial bleeding (PFRAB) from the information available in the Emergency Department (ED). Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Single level-1 Trauma Center. Patients: In a 3-year period ending in December 2008, consecutive high-energy pelvic fracture patients older than 18 years were included. Patients who arrived >4 hours after injury or dead on arrival were excluded. Patient management followed advanced trauma life support and institutional guidelines. Collected data included patient demographics, mechanism of injury, vital signs, acid-base status, fluid resuscitation, trauma scores, fracture patterns, procedures, and outcomes. Potential predictors were identified using standard statistical tests: Univariate analysis, Pearson correlation (r), receiver operator characteristic, and decision tree analysis. Intervention: Observational study. Outcome Measures: PFRAB was determined based on angiography or computed tomography angiogram or laparotomy findings. Results: Of the 143 study patients, 15 (10%) had PFRAB. They were significantly older, more severely injured, more hypotensive, more acidotic, more likely to require transfusions in the ED, and had higher mortality rate than non-PFRAB patients. No single variable proved to be a strong predictor but some had a significant correlation with PFRAB. Useful predictors identified were worst base deficit (BD), receiver operator characteristic (0.77, cutoff: 6 mmol/L, r = 0.37), difference between any 2 measures of BD within 4 hours (ΔBD) >2 mmol/L, transfusion in ED (yes/no), and worst systolic blood pressure <104 mm Hg. Demographics, injury mechanism, fracture pattern, temperature, and pH had poor predictive value. Conclusions: BD <6 mmol/L, ΔBD >2 mmol/L, systolic blood pressure <104 mm Hg, and the need for transfusion in ED are independent predictors of PFRAB in the ED. These predictors can be valuable to triage blunt trauma victims for pelvic

  10. Prospects: The Congressionally Mandated Study of Educational Growth and Opportunity. The Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael J.; And Others

    This publication is the first interim report from the Congressionally Mandated Study of Educational Growth and Opportunity (Prospects), and describes students' characteristics and the schools they attend. Prospects is designed to evaluate the short- and long-term consequences of Chapter 1 program participation by following for 5 years large…

  11. An Exploratory Study on the Perspectives of Prospective Computer Teachers following Project-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karaman, Selcuk; Celik, Suat

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates perceptions of 29 prospective teachers about a course based on Project-Based Learning (PBL) approach. The course, "Authoring Languages in PC Environment (B-320)" lasted in 14 weeks in fall semester of 2004-2005. In this course each prospective teacher carried out a project that requires designing and developing courseware…

  12. Prospective Elementary School Teachers' Views about Socioscientific Issues: A Concurrent Parallel Design Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özden, Muhammet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the prospective elementary school teachers' perceptions on socioscientific issues. The research was conducted on prospective elementary school teachers studying at a university located in western Turkey. The researcher first taught the subjects of global warming and nuclear power plants from a perspective…

  13. [Soccer injuries. A prospective epidemiological and socioeconomic study].

    PubMed

    Jensen, K H; Lindblad, B E; Terkelsen, C J; Helleland, H E; Terkelsen, C J

    1993-11-01

    In one year 715 soccer injuries were registered and treated in the casualty ward of Randers City Hospital. We conducted a prospective study of these patients, using a questionnaire in order to determine the most common locations, types, mechanisms and treatments of injury. Financial costs to society and the individual were also examined. Finally, we compared the most common types of injury definition in sports medicine. According to the Abbreviated Injury Scale, A.I.S., 44% of the injuries were classified as minor, 46% as moderate injury and 9% as severe. Fractures accounted for 17% of all injuries. Sprains and contusions were the most frequent injuries, accounting for 46% and 25% respectively. Most injuries (63%) were treated in the casualty ward, whilst 20% were treated as outpatients. 7% were admitted to the hospital immediately, and a further 2% were later admitted from the outpatient clinic. A total of 88% of those hospitalized were treated as inpatients for 1-7 days, and 12% for more than two weeks. 31% of all the soccer players seen in the casualty ward were absent from work, and 12% were absent from work for more than three weeks. 8% of the injured soccer players suffered loss of income. 40% had financial losses between $0-250, 40% between $250-750, seven per cent between $750-1,250, and 14% more than $1,250. From the data presented in this study, we conclude that the injury rate among soccer players increases with age, and the severity of the injuries is greatest in the oldest age groups. Soccer injuries constitute the major part of sports injuries seen in the casualty ward.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8256352

  14. Pain assessment of the intratympanic injections: a prospective comparative study.

    PubMed

    Belhassen, Sarah; Saliba, Issam

    2012-12-01

    The objective of the study is to compare the pain level of three methods of intratympanic (IT) injections using prospective, randomized clinical study in a tertiary care center. 39 patients with Ménière's disease and 30 patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss are included. Excluded were patients treated for a chronic pain or those who took any pain killer for the last 24 h. Each patient received one IT injection a week, for three consecutive weeks. Three methods of IT injections were compared, with the application of EMLA cream on the tympanic membrane filling the external auditory canal 60 min before the procedure, with subcutaneous injection of lidocaine 1% with 1:100,000 epinephrine in the external auditory canal, and finally with an IT injection without any previous anesthesia. The pain intensity was immediately measured at 5 min, and then 45 min after the procedure, each time using four pain rating scales (visual analogue scale, numerical rating scale, verbal rating scale and categorical rating scale). No difference in pain intensity between the three methods of IT injections was detected by the visual analogue scale and numerical rating scale (p > 0.05). 45.8% of patients preferred the IT injection without previous anesthesia. However, methylprednisolone has been associated with pain intensity greater than that of gentamicin 45 min after the injection (p < 0.05). The IT injection performed without any previous anesthesia is an interesting option since it has not been shown to be more painful than the other methods of injections, and spares the patient from disadvantages associated with the anesthesia. PMID:22203120

  15. Prospective studies of infectious mononucleosis in university students

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Jennifer M; Schmeling, David O; Dunmire, Samantha K; Knight, Jennifer A; Mullan, Beth D; Ed, Julie A; Brundage, Richard C; Hogquist, Kristin A; Balfour, Henry H

    2016-01-01

    We performed an intensive prospective study designed to obtain as much data as possible on the incubation and early illness periods of primary Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection. Undergraduate students who lacked EBV antibody and oral EBV DNA (EBV-naive) were seen every 2 weeks during their freshman year. Clinical and behavioral data, oral washes and venous blood were obtained. EBV antibodies were quantified by enzyme immunoassay and viral loads by PCR. During a median 8 months of observation, 14/85 subjects experienced primary EBV infections (24 cases/100 person-years). The only significant risk factor for acquisition of EBV infection was deep kissing (P=0.02). Eleven subjects had infectious mononucleosis with a median duration of 21 days. Two subjects were hospitalized. Infections were initially identified in 12 subjects by finding EBV DNA in oral cells before onset of symptoms and in 2 subjects by symptom reporting. EBV DNA and viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgM and gp350 IgG antibodies were present in the blood before onset of illness. To provide a more robust evaluation of primary EBV infection in undergraduate university students, we combined data on risk factors and antibody responses from this and an earlier study that used the exact same clinical and laboratory methods. The observation that the only significant risk factor for acquisition of EBV infection was deep kissing was confirmed. Most importantly, higher amounts of gp350 antibody correlated significantly with a lower severity of infectious mononucleosis (P<0.0001), which strengthens the rationale for a gp350-based prophylactic EBV vaccine. PMID:27588199

  16. Gender effect on clinical features of achalasia: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Mikaeli, Javad; Farrokhi, Farnoosh; Bishehsari, Faraz; Mahdavinia, Mahboobeh; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2006-01-01

    Background Achalasia is a well-characterized esophageal motor disorder but the rarity of the disease limits performing large studies on its demographic and clinical features. Methods Prospectively, 213 achalasia patients (110 men and 103 women) were enrolled in the study. The diagnosis established by clinical, radiographic, and endoscopic as well as manometry criteria. All patients underwent a pre-designed clinical evaluation before and within 6 months after the treatment. Results Solid dysphagia was the most common clinical symptom in men and women. Chest pain was the only symptom which was significantly different between two groups and was more complained by women than men (70.9% vs. 54.5% P value= 0.03). Although the occurrence of chest pain significantly reduced after treatment in both groups (P < 0.001), it was still higher among women (32% vs. 20.9% P value= 0.04). In both sexes, chest pain did not relate to the symptom duration, LES pressure and type of treatment patients received. Also no significant relation was found between chest pain and other symptoms expressed by men and women before and after treatment. Chest pain was less frequently reported by patients over 56 yrs of age in comparison to those less than 56 yrs (p < 0.05). Conclusion It seems that chest pain is the distinct symptom of achalasia which is affected by sex as well as age and does not relate to the duration of illness, LESP and the type of treatment achalasia patients receive. PMID:16579859

  17. Liquid versus gel handrub formulation: a prospective intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Traore, Ousmane; Hugonnet, Stéphane; Lübbe, Jann; Griffiths, William; Pittet, Didier

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Hand hygiene is one of the cornerstones of the prevention of health care-associated infection, but health care worker (HCW) compliance with good practices remains low. Alcohol-based handrub is the new standard for hand hygiene action worldwide and usually requires a system change for its successful introduction in routine care. Product acceptability by HCWs is a crucial step in this process. Methods We conducted a prospective intervention study to compare the impact on HCW compliance of a liquid (study phase I) versus a gel (phase II) handrub formulation of the same product during daily patient care. All staff (102 HCWs) of the medical intensive care unit participated. Compliance with hand hygiene was monitored by a single observer. Skin tolerance and product acceptability were assessed using subjective and objective scoring systems, self-report questionnaires, and biometric measurements. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between predictors and compliance with the handrub formulation as the main explanatory variable and to adjust for potential risk factors. Results Overall compliance (phases I and II) with hand hygiene practices among nurses, physicians, nursing assistants, and other HCWs was 39.1%, 27.1%, 31.1%, and 13.9%, respectively (p = 0.027). Easy access to handrub improved compliance (35.3% versus 50.6%, p = 0.035). Nurse status, working on morning shifts, use of the gel formulation, and availability of the alcohol-based handrub in the HCW's pocket were independently associated with higher compliance. Immediate accessibility was the strongest predictor. Based on self-assessment, observer assessment, and the measurement of epidermal water content, the gel performed significantly better than the liquid formulation. Conclusion Facilitated access to an alcohol-based gel formulation leads to improved compliance with hand hygiene and better skin condition in HCWs. PMID:17477858

  18. Prospective studies of infectious mononucleosis in university students.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Jennifer M; Schmeling, David O; Dunmire, Samantha K; Knight, Jennifer A; Mullan, Beth D; Ed, Julie A; Brundage, Richard C; Hogquist, Kristin A; Balfour, Henry H

    2016-08-01

    We performed an intensive prospective study designed to obtain as much data as possible on the incubation and early illness periods of primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Undergraduate students who lacked EBV antibody and oral EBV DNA (EBV-naive) were seen every 2 weeks during their freshman year. Clinical and behavioral data, oral washes and venous blood were obtained. EBV antibodies were quantified by enzyme immunoassay and viral loads by PCR. During a median 8 months of observation, 14/85 subjects experienced primary EBV infections (24 cases/100 person-years). The only significant risk factor for acquisition of EBV infection was deep kissing (P=0.02). Eleven subjects had infectious mononucleosis with a median duration of 21 days. Two subjects were hospitalized. Infections were initially identified in 12 subjects by finding EBV DNA in oral cells before onset of symptoms and in 2 subjects by symptom reporting. EBV DNA and viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgM and gp350 IgG antibodies were present in the blood before onset of illness. To provide a more robust evaluation of primary EBV infection in undergraduate university students, we combined data on risk factors and antibody responses from this and an earlier study that used the exact same clinical and laboratory methods. The observation that the only significant risk factor for acquisition of EBV infection was deep kissing was confirmed. Most importantly, higher amounts of gp350 antibody correlated significantly with a lower severity of infectious mononucleosis (P<0.0001), which strengthens the rationale for a gp350-based prophylactic EBV vaccine. PMID:27588199

  19. A Prospective Cohort Study of Mineral Metabolism After Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Myles; Weir, Matthew R.; Kopyt, Nelson; Mannon, Roslyn B.; Von Visger, Jon; Deng, Hongjie; Yue, Susan; Vincenti, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Background Kidney transplantation corrects or improves many complications of chronic kidney disease, but its impact on disordered mineral metabolism is incompletely understood. Methods We performed a multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study of 246 kidney transplant recipients in the United States to investigate the evolution of mineral metabolism from pretransplant through the first year after transplantation. Participants were enrolled into 2 strata defined by their pretransplant levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH), low PTH (>65 to ≤300 pg/mL; n = 112), and high PTH (>300 pg/mL; n = 134) and underwent repeated, longitudinal testing for mineral metabolites. Results The prevalence of posttransplant, persistent hyperparathyroidism (PTH >65 pg/mL) was 89.5%, 86.8%, 83.1%, and 86.2%, at months 3, 6, 9, and 12, respectively, among participants who remained untreated with cinacalcet, vitamin D sterols, or parathyroidectomy. The results did not differ across the low and high PTH strata, and rates of persistent hyperparathyroidism remained higher than 40% when defined using a higher PTH threshold greater than 130 pg/mL. Rates of hypercalcemia peaked at 48% at week 8 in the high PTH stratum and then steadily decreased through month 12. Rates of hypophosphatemia (<2.5 mg/dL) peaked at week 2 and then progressively decreased through month 12. Levels of intact fibroblast growth factor 23 decreased rapidly during the first 3 months after transplantation in both PTH strata and remained less than 40 pg/mL thereafter. Conclusions Persistent hyperparathyroidism is common after kidney transplantation. Further studies should determine if persistent hyperparathyroidism or its treatment influences long-term posttransplantation clinical outcomes. PMID:26177089

  20. Cognitive decline in short and long sleepers: A prospective population-based study (NEDICES)

    PubMed Central

    Benito-León, Julián; Louis, Elan D.; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix

    2013-01-01

    Background It is not clear whether cognitive decline progresses more quickly in long sleepers than in short sleepers or than in participants with usual sleep duration. We assessed cognitive decline as a function of self-reported sleep duration in a prospective population-based cohort (NEDICES). Methods Participants were evaluated at baseline and 3 years later. Baseline demographic variables were recorded and participants indicated their daily sleep usual duration as the sum of nighttime sleep and daytime napping. The average daily total usual sleep duration was grouped into three categories: ≤5 hours (short sleepers), 6 to 8 hours (reference category), and ≥9 hours (long sleepers). At baseline and at follow-up, a 37-item version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (37-MMSE) was administered. Results The final sample, 2,715 participants (72.9±6.1 years), comprised 298 (11%) short sleepers, 1,086 (40%) long sleepers, and 1,331 (49%) in the reference group (6 to 8 hours). During the three year follow-up period, the 37-MMSE declined by 0.5±4.0 points in short sleepers, 0.6±4.3 points in long sleepers, and 0.2±3.8 points in the reference group (p=0.08). The difference between short sleepers and the reference group was not significant (p=0.142); however, the difference between long sleepers and the reference group was significant (p=0.040). In analyses adjusted for baseline age and other potential confounders, this difference remained robust. Conclusions In this study, cognitive test scores among long sleepers declined more rapidly than observed in a reference group. Additional studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:24094933

  1. A prospective cohort study on the relation between meat consumption and the risk of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Goldbohm, R A; van den Brandt, P A; van 't Veer, P; Brants, H A; Dorant, E; Sturmans, F; Hermus, R J

    1994-02-01

    The high incidence of colon cancer in affluent societies has often been attributed to a high fat diet and, more in particular, the consumption of meat. The association of the consumption of meat and the intake of fat with risk of colon cancer was investigated in a prospective cohort study on diet and cancer, which is being conducted in the Netherlands since 1986 among 120,852 men and women, aged 55-69. The analysis was based on 215 incident cases of colon cancer (105 men and 110 women) accumulated in 3.3 years of follow-up, excluding cases diagnosed in the first year of follow-up. Dietary habits were assessed at baseline with a 150-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. No trends in relative rates of colon cancer were detected for intake of energy or for the energy-adjusted intake of fats, protein, fat from meat, and protein from meat. Consumption of total fresh meat, beef, pork, minced meat, chicken, and fish was not associated with risk of colon cancer either. Processed meats, however, were associated with an increased risk in men and women (relative rate, 1.17 per increment of 15 g/day; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.33). The increased risk appeared to be attributable to one of the five questionnaire items on processed meat, which comprised mainly sausages. This study does not support a role of fresh meat and dietary fat in the etiology of colon cancer in this population. As an exception, some processed meats may increase the risk, but the mechanism is not yet clear. PMID:8306333

  2. Low job control and risk of coronary heart disease in Whitehall II (prospective cohort) study.

    PubMed Central

    Bosma, H.; Marmot, M. G.; Hemingway, H.; Nicholson, A. C.; Brunner, E.; Stansfeld, S. A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between adverse psychosocial characteristics at work and risk of coronary heart disease among male and female civil servants. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study (Whitehall II study). At the baseline examination (1985-8) and twice during follow up a self report questionnaire provided information on psychosocial factors of the work environment and coronary heart disease. Independent assessments of the work environment were obtained from personnel managers at baseline. Mean length of follow up was 5.3 years. SETTING: London based office staff in 20 civil service departments. SUBJECTS: 10,308 civil servants aged 35-55 were examined-6895 men (67%) and 3413 women (33%). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: New cases of angina (Rose questionnaire), severe pain across the chest, diagnosed ischaemic heart disease, and any coronary event. RESULTS: Men and women with low job control, either self reported or independently assessed, had a higher risk of newly reported coronary heart disease during follow up. Job control assessed on two occasions three years apart, although intercorrelated, had cumulative effects on newly reported disease. Subjects with low job control on both occasions had an odds ratio for any subsequent coronary event of 1.93 (95% confidence interval 1.34 to 2.77) compared with subjects with high job control at both occasions. This association could not be explained by employment grade, negative affectivity, or classic coronary risk factors. Job demands and social support at work were not related to the risk of coronary heart disease. CONCLUSIONS: Low control in the work environment is associated with an increased risk of future coronary heart disease among men and women employed in government offices. The cumulative effect of low job control assessed on two occasions indicates that giving employees more variety in tasks and a stronger say in decisions about work may decrease the risk of coronary heart disease. PMID:9055714

  3. O3.01PROGRESSION OF CAROTID INTIMA MEDIA THICKNESS AFTER RADIOTHERAPY: A PROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Wilbers, J.; Dorresteijn, L.; Haast, R.; Hoebers, F.; Boogerd, W.; van Werkhoven, E.; Hansen, H.; de Korte, C.; Kappelle, A.; van Dijk, E.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Carotid artery vasculopathy is a long-term complication of radiotherapy (RT) of the neck with an increased risk of cerebrovascular events. We investigated the change in carotid Intima Media Thickness (IMT) and the incidence of ischemic stroke in the first 7 years after RT. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre prospective cohort study among patients treated for Head and Neck Cancer (HNC). We assessed carotid Intima Media Thickness at baseline before and after RT with a median follow-up of 7 years. We also assessed cerebrovascular risk factors and incident vascular events. RESULTS: 48 HNC patients underwent IMT measurement at baseline and follow-up (median age 61 years, range 29-87). Mean IMT of the irradiated common carotid arteries was 0.64 mm at baseline and 0.74mm at follow-up (p = 0.002 for change). Mean delta IMT in the irradiated versus non-irradiated common carotid arteries was 0.11 and 0.02 mm (p = 0.03 for difference), respectively. In a subgroup of unilaterally irradiated patients mean change in common carotid IMT from baseline to follow-up was 0.06 mm in the irradiated artery and 0.02 mm in the non-irradiated artery (p = 0.18 for difference). Within a mean follow-up of 3 years after radiotherapy 10 patients had an ischemic event. In these patients mean common carotid IMT increase was 0.08 mm. CONCLUSION: Our study showed an increase in IMT in irradiated carotid arteries in the first 7 years after treatment of HNC, which was significantly larger than in non-irradiated arteries. Patients treated with RT for HNC have a high risk of future stroke. This knowledge needs to be used to improve diagnostic and preventive strategies.

  4. Evaluation and outcome of antenatal hydronephrosis: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Gökaslan, Filiz; Yalçınkaya, Fatoş; Fitöz, Suat; Özçakar, Z Birsin

    2012-01-01

    Antenatal hydronephrosis (AHN), defined as dilatation of renal pelvis and/or calyces, is the most frequently detected antenatal abnormality. However, postnatal management of AHN is controversial. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical outcomes of infants with AHN and to contribute to the definition of the postnatal evaluation of these patients. One hundred and thirty-six infants with AHN were prospectively followed up to 18 months. Patients were divided into two groups according to the degree of sonographic hydronephrosis (HN) on days 5-7: group I (n = 87, 64%) included patients who had grades 1 and 2 (64%) and group II (n = 49, 36%) included patients who had grade 3 and above HN. The grade of HN was found to be correlated with the increased risk of urologic pathologies. Frequency of vesicoureteral reflux was found to be significantly lower in patients with mild HN (6%) as compared to patients with severe AHN (29%) (p = 0.005). In addition, the risk of urinary tract infection increases with increasing grades of HN (10% vs. 29%, p = 0.006). The frequency of spontaneous resolution in patients with mild AHN (64%) was also significantly higher than in patients with severe HN (29%) (p < 0.001). The degree of AHN can be used for making decision about further diagnostic imaging and treatment. Our results strongly suggest that low-grade HN is a relatively self-limited condition and needs minimal investigation. In contrast, the outcome of more severe degrees of AHN needs clarification. PMID:22506510

  5. Critical Pertussis Illness in Children, A Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Berger, John T.; Carcillo, Joseph A.; Shanley, Thomas P.; Wessel, David L.; Clark, Amy; Holubkov, Richard; Meert, Kathleen L.; Newth, Christopher J.L.; Berg, Robert A.; Heidemann, Sabrina; Harrison, Rick; Pollack, Murray; Dalton, Heidi; Harvill, Eric; Karanikas, Alexia; Liu, Teresa; Burr, Jeri S.; Doctor, Allan; Dean, J. Michael; Jenkins, Tammara L.; Nicholson, Carol E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Pertussis persists in the United States despite high immunization rates. The present report characterizes the presentation and acute course of critical pertussis by quantifying demographic data, laboratory findings, clinical complications, and critical care therapies required among children requiring admission to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Eight PICUs comprising the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network and 17 additional PICUs across the United States. Patients Eligible patients had laboratory confirmation of pertussis infection, were < 18 years of age, and died in the PICU or were admitted to the PICU for at least 24 hours between June 2008 and August 2011. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results 127 patients were identified. Median age was 49 days, and 105 (83%) patients were < 3 months of age. Fifty-five (43%) required mechanical ventilation. Twelve (9.4%) died during initial hospitalization. Pulmonary hypertension was found in 16 patients (12.5%), and was present in 75% of patients who died, compared with 6% of survivors (p< 0.001). Median white blood cell count (WBC) was significantly higher in those requiring mechanical ventilation (p<0.001), those with pulmonary hypertension (p<0.001) and non-survivors (p<0.001). Age, sex and immunization status did not differ between survivors and non-survivors. Fourteen patients received leukoreduction therapy (exchange transfusion (12), leukopheresis (1) or both (1)). Survival benefit was not apparent. Conclusions Pulmonary hypertension may be associated with mortality in pertussis critical illness. Elevated WBC is associated with the need for mechanical ventilation, pulmonary hypertension, and mortality risk. Research is indicated to elucidate how pulmonary hypertension, immune responsiveness, and elevated WBC contribute to morbidity and mortality

  6. Pros and cons of a wandering mind: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ottaviani, Cristina; Couyoumdjian, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Mind wandering (MW) has recently been associated with both adaptive (e.g., creativity enhancement) and maladaptive (e.g., mood worsening) consequences. This study aimed at investigating whether proneness to MW was prospectively associated with negative health outcomes. At time 0, 21 women, 19 men; mean age = 24.5 (4.9) underwent a 5-min baseline electrocardiogram (ECG), a 20-min laboratory tracking task with thought probes, and personality questionnaires. At time 1 (1 year follow-up), the same participants underwent a 24-h Ecological Momentary Assessment characterized by ambulatory ECG recording and electronic diaries. First, we examined if the likelihood of being a “mind wanderer” was associated with specific personality dispositions. Then, we tested if the occurrence of episodes of MW in the lab would be correlated with frequency of MW in daily life. Finally, multiple regression models were used to test if MW longitudinally acted as a risk factor for health, accounting for the effects of biobehavioral variables. Among dispositional traits, the frequency of MW episodes in daily life was inversely associated with the capacity of being mindful (i.e., aware of the present moment and non-judging). There was a positive correlation between frequency of MW in the lab and in daily life, suggesting that it is a stable disposition of the individual. When differentiated from perseverative cognition (i.e., rumination and worry), MW did not predict the presence of health risk factors 1 year later, however, a higher occurrence of episodes of MW was associated with short-term adverse consequences, such as increased 24-h heart rate (HR) on the same day and difficulty falling asleep the subsequent night. Present findings suggest that MW may be associated with short term “side effects” but argue against a long term dysfunctional view of this cognitive process. PMID:23966964

  7. [Treatment of prostate cancer using cryoablation: a prospective study].

    PubMed

    Govorov, A V; Vasil'ev, A O; Ivanov, V Iu; Kovylina, M V; Prilepskaia, E A; Pushkar', D Iu

    2014-01-01

    prostate cancer and achieve a high disease-free survival. Our prospective study was aimed to analyze our own results cryoablation of the prostate gland. PMID:25799731

  8. Allergy to complex platinum salts: A historical prospective cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Niezborala, M; Garnier, R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of allergy to complex platinum salts in a platinum refinery. METHODS: A historical prospective cohort study was carried out on 77 workers (67 men) who started work between 1 January 1979 and 31 December 1991 and who were not atopic on skin prick tests to three common allergens at the time of recruitment. Skin prick tests with complex platinum salts were carried out and diagnosis of allergy to complex platinum salts made by the company's doctor. Skin tests and medical examinations were carried out routinely every six months. Follow up was until 30 September 1992 or until leaving refinery work. RESULTS: 18 workers developed a positive result on skin tests and 23 developed symptoms, including all 18 subjects with positive skin tests; the probability of surviving (95% confidence interval (95% CI)) for 72 months after joining the company, with negative skin test results was 0.67 (0.51-0.79) or with no symptoms was 0.63 (0.49-0.75). The incidence of positive skin tests and symptoms was highest during the first two years of work. Symptoms occurred more frequently in September and October than during the other months of the year. The exclusion of atopic subjects did not seem to have resulted in a lower incidence of sensitisation. Smoking was a significant predictive factor for both positive skin tests (estimated relative risk 5.53) and symptoms (4.70). CONCLUSION: The findings confirm that smoking is and that atopy may not be a high risk factor for the development of allergy to complex platinum salts. The high incidence of sensitisation and the available data on the clinical course of sensitised workers show that sensitised workers must be promptly and completely removed from exposure. PMID:8664963

  9. A prospective study of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized children

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Mir, Inocencia; García-López, Mercedes; Palop, Vicente; Ferrer, José M; Rubio, Elena; Morales-Olivas, Francisco J

    1999-01-01

    Aims There are few publications of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among paediatric patients, though ADR incidence is usually stated to be higher during the first year of life and in male patients. We have carried out a prospective study to assess the extent, pattern and profile risk for ADRs in hospitalized patients between 1 and 24 months of age. Methods An intensive events monitoring scheme was used. A total of 512 successive admissions to two medical paediatric wards (47 beds) were analysed. The hospital records were screened daily during two periods (summer, 105 days and winter, 99 days), and adverse clinical events observed were recorded. Results A total of 282 events were detected; of these, 112 were considered to be manifestations of ADRs. The cumulative incidence was 16.6%, no differences being observed between periods. Although there were no differences between patients under and over 12 months of age, risk was found to be significantly higher among girls compared with boys (RR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.03–2.52). The gastro-intestinal system was most frequently affected. The therapeutic group most commonly implicated was anti-infective drugs and vaccines (41.5%). The ADRs were mild or moderate in over 90% of cases. A consistent relationship was noted between the number of drugs administered and the incidence of ADRs. Conclusions Hospitalized patients exhibited an ADR risk profile that included female sex and the number of drugs administered. No particular age predisposition was observed. The most commonly prescribed drugs are those most often implicated in ADRs in paediatric patients. PMID:10383547

  10. Trigeminocardiac reflex in neurosurgical practice: An observational prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Etezadi, Farhad; Orandi, Amir Ali; Orandi, Amir Hosein; Najafi, Atabak; Amirjamshidi, Abbas; Pourfakhr, Pejman; Khajavi, Mohammad Reza; Abbassioun, Kazem

    2013-01-01

    Background: Considering wide variations regarding the incidence of trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR) during cranial neurosurgical procedures, and paucity of reliable data, we intended to design a prospective study to determine the incidence of TCR in patients undergoing standard general anesthesia for surgery of supra/infra-tentorial cranial and skull base lesions. Methods: A total of 190 consecutive patients candidate for elective surgery of supra-tentorial, infra-tentorial, and skull base lesions were enrolled. All the patients were operated in the neurosurgical operating room of a university-affiliated teaching hospital. All surgeries were performed using sufficient depth of anesthesia achieved by titration of propofol–alfentanil mixture, adjusted according to target Cerebral State Index (CSI) values (40-60). All episodes of bradycardia and hypotension indicating the occurrence of TCR during the surgery (sudden decrease of more than 20% from the previous level) were recorded. Results: Four patients, two female and two male, developed episodes of TCR during surgery (4/190; 2.1%). Three patients showed one episode of TCR just at the end of operation when the skin sutures were applied while CSI values were 70-77 and in the last case, when small tumor samples were taken from just beneath the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus TCR episode was seen while the CSI value was 51. Conclusion: TCR is a rare phenomenon during brain surgeries when patient is anesthetized using standard techniques. Keeping the adequate depth of anesthesia using CSI monitoring method may be an advisable strategy during whole period of a neurosurgical procedure. PMID:24083052

  11. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Without Prophylactic Antibiotics: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Nilay; Nandy, Mintu Mohan; Majhi, Jaganmay; Kuiri, Shibshankar; Kumar Ghosh, Pranab; Ghosh, Gautam

    2015-12-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the new gold standard for management of symptomatic gallstones. Prophylactic antibiotics are used in elective surgery by the majority of surgeons, and their role in biliary tract surgery has been well established for a subpopulation of high-risk patients. This consensus has been derived from multiple studies involving biliary tract surgery before and in the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. But the use of prophylactic antibiotics in laparoscopic cholecystectomy especially in the low-risk group is now controversial and varied among the surgeons all over the world. To study the role of prophylactic antibiotics in laparoscopic cholecystectomy in different risk groups of patients, a prospective study was conducted in the Department of Surgery of Bankura Sammilani Medical College and Hospital from January 2010 to July 2011. All patients with symptomatic gallstones who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy during this period are included in this study. One hundred and two patients with symptomatic gallstones were operated on by laparoscopic technique without receiving preoperative antibiotics and studied over a period of 1.5 years. Ages ranged from 11 to 70 years (mean age of 33 years). There were 14 males (13.72 % of the patients) and 88 females (86.27 % of the patients). There was no wound infection (class I) in 99 patients, and class II type of wound infection, i.e., surgical site infection, occurred in three patients (i.e., 2.94 %) out of a total of 102 patients. Swabs were taken for culture and sensitivity; Staphylococcus aureus was found in two patients and Streptococcus viridans in one patient. In all three patients, infection occurred at the umbilical port sites, detected on the 3rd and 4th postoperative days. Antibiotic prophylaxis is not necessary in low-risk patients with symptomatic gallstone disease undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy to prevent postoperative infection

  12. PROSPECTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF ENTERIC DISEASE TRANSMISSION ASSOCIATED WITH SPRINKLER IRRIGATION WITH WASTEWATER: AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report deals with a prospective epidemiological morbidity and serology study, in which the quality of data could be optimally controlled on the possible association between enteric disease incidence and wastewater utilization in agricultural settlements in Israel. The study r...

  13. The impact of early growth patterns and infant feeding on body composition at 3 years of age.

    PubMed

    Ejlerskov, Katrine T; Christensen, Line B; Ritz, Christian; Jensen, Signe M; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2015-07-01

    Early excessive weight gain is positively associated with later obesity, and yet the effect of weight gain during specific periods and the impact of infant feeding practices are debated. The objective of the present study was to examine the impact of weight gain in periods of early childhood on body composition at 3 years, and whether infant feeding modified the relationship between early growth and body composition at 3 years. We studied 233 children from the prospective cohort study, SKOT (in Danish: Småbørns Kost og Trivsel). Birth weight z-scores (BWZ) and change in weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) from 0 to 5, 5 to 9, 9 to 18 and 18 to 36 months were analysed for relations with body composition (anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance) at 3 years by multivariate regression analysis. BWZ and change in WAZ from 0 to 5 months were positively associated with BMI, fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) at 3 years. Full breastfeeding for 6 months (compared to less than 1 month) eliminated the effect of early growth (P = 0.01). Full breastfeeding for 6 months (compared to less than 1 month) also eliminated the positive relation between BWZ and FMI (P = 0.009). No effect modification of infant feeding was found for FFMI. In conclusion, high birth weight and rapid growth from 0 to 5 months were associated with increased FMI and FFMI at 3 years. Longer duration of full breastfeeding reduced the effect of birth weight and early weight gain on fat mass. PMID:26131962

  14. Natural History of Multiple System Atrophy in North America: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Low, Phillip A.; Reich, Stephen G.; Jankovic, Joseph; Shults, Clifford W.; Stern, Matthew B.; Novak, Peter; Tanner, Caroline M.; Gilman, Sid; Marshall, Frederick J.; Wooten, Frederick; Racette, Brad; Chelimsky, Thomas; Singer, Wolfgang; Sletten, David M.; Sandroni, Paola; Mandrekar, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare, fatal neurodegenerative disorder exhibiting a combination of parkinsonism and/or cerebellar ataxia with autonomic failure. We report the first North American prospective natural history study of MSA, and the effects of phenotype and autonomic failure on prognosis. Methods 175 subjects with probable MSA, both MSA-P and MSA-C, were recruited and prospectively followed for 5 years with evaluations every 6 months in 12 centers. Natural history was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. We compared MSA-P with MSA-C and evaluated predictors of outcome. These subjects were evaluated with UMSARS I (a functional score of symptoms and ability to undertake activities of daily living), UMSARS II (neurological motor evaluation), and the Composite Autonomic Symptoms Scale (COMPASS)-select (a measure of autonomic symptoms and autonomic functional status. Findings Mean age of symptom onset was 63.4 (SD 8.57) years. Median survival from symptom onset by Kaplan-Meier analysis was 9.8 years (95% CI 8.8-10.7). Subjects with severe symptomatic autonomic failure (symptomatic orthostatic hypotension, urinary incontinence) at diagnosis had a worse prognosis, surviving 8.0 years (95% CI, 6.5-9.5, n=62) while remaining subjects survived a median of 10.3 years (95% CI, 9.3-11.4, n=113). At baseline MSA-P (n=126) and MSA-C (n=49) were not different in symptoms and function, UMSARS I, 25.2 (8.08) vs 24.6 (8.34), p=0.835; UMSARS II, 26.4 (8.77) vs 25.4 (10.51), p=0.7635; COMPASS_select), 43.5 (18.66) vs 42.8 (19.56), p=0.835. Progression, evaluated by change in UMSARS I, UMSARS II, COMPASS_select over the next 5 years, was not significantly different between MSA-P and MSA-C. Median time to death from enrollment baseline was 1.8 (95% CI, 0.9-2.7) years. Interpretation Probable MSA represents late-stage disease with short survival. Natural history of MSA-P and MSA-C are similar. Severe symptomatic autonomic failure at diagnosis is

  15. Injuries at a Canadian National Taekwondo Championships: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Pieter, Willy

    2004-01-01

    Background The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the injury rates in male and female adult Canadian Taekwondo athletes relative to total number of injuries, type and body part injured. Methods Subjects (219 males, 99 females) participated in the 1997 Canadian National Taekwondo Championships in Toronto, Canada. Injuries were recorded on an injury form to documents any injury seen and treatment provided by the health care team. These data were later used for this study. The injury form describes the athlete and nature, site, severity and mechanism of the injury. Results The overall rate of injuries was 62.9/1,000 athlete-exposures (A-E). The males (79.9/1,000 A-E) sustained significantly more injuries than the females (25.3/1,000 A-E). The lower extremities were the most commonly injured body region in the men (32.0 /1,000 A-E), followed by the head and neck (18.3/1,000 A-E). Injuries to the spine (neck, upper back, low back and coccyx) were the third most often injured body region in males (13.8/1,000 A-E). All injuries to the women were sustained to the lower extremities. The most common type of injury in women was the contusion (15.2/1,000 A-E). However, men's most common type of injury was the sprain (22.8/1,000 A-E) followed by joint dysfunction (13.7/1,000A-E). Concussions were only reported in males (6.9/1,000 A-E). Compared to international counterparts, the Canadian men and women recorded lower total injury rates. However, the males incurred more cerebral concussions than their American colleagues (4.7/1,000 A-E). Conclusions Similar to what was found in previous studies, the current investigation seems to suggest that areas of particular concern for preventive measures involve the head and neck as well as the lower extremities. This is the first paper to identify spinal joint dysfunction. PMID:15279679

  16. Incidence of work-related hand eczema during apprenticeship: first results of a prospective cohort study in the car industry.

    PubMed

    Funke, U; Fartasch, M; Diepgen, T L

    2001-03-01

    Data on the incidence and prevalence of occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) are scarce, and most of our knowledge about OCD is derived from clinical case reports or clinical studies of in-and out-patients. Therefore, we investigated in the epidemiological, prospective Audi cohort study (PACO study) the incidences of work-related hand eczema in different apprenticeships of Audi AG. In total, 2078 apprentices were investigated at the start of their apprenticeship and systematically followed up over a 3-year period. At the end of the study, information on 2042 (98.2% follow-up) apprentices was available. The 1-year cumulative incidences of hand eczema were 9.2% (95%-confidence interval 7.8-10.7) in metalworkers, 8.8% (95%-CI 7.0-10.7) in other blue-collar workers, and 4.6% (95%-CI 2.3-8.1) in white-collar apprentices. The 3-year cumulative incidences of hand eczema were 15.3% (95%-CI 13.6-17.2) in metalworkers, 14.1% (95%-CI 11.8-16.5) in other blue-collar workers, and 6.9% (95%-CI 4.0-10.9) in white-collar apprentices. In females, the cumulative incidence of hand eczema was higher compared to men (1-year incidence 10.1%, 95%-CI 7.7-13.0, versus 8.3%, 95%-CI 7.1-9.5; 3-year incidence 16.1%, 95%-CI 13.1-19.5 versus 13.6%, 95%-CI 12.2-15.2). In some occupations, like cooks, tool mechanics, milling cutters and varnishers, the incidence of hand eczema was significantly increased. In those occupations, however, no job change was necessary, and no notifiable occupational contact dermatitis occurred. The incidence was not uniformly distributed over the 3-year period. Within the first 6 months, a particularly high rate of hand eczema occurred, which then declined and remained steady at a lower rate over the 2nd and the 3rd years. The results of our study give important suggestions for preventive measures at the workplace and effective occupational pre-employment advices. PMID:11217989

  17. Anatomical and functional recurrence after dexamethasone intravitreal implants: a 6-month prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Fortoul, V; Denis, P; Kodjikian, L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and delay of anatomical and functional recurrence after a first intravitreal injection of dexamethasone implant in eyes with cystoid macular edema (CME) secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Methods A 6-month prospective, monocentric and noncomparative case-series of 26 eyes of 26 patients. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central subfield thickness (CST) were measured at baseline and each visit at 1 week, and months 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 after a first treatment. Primary efficacy outcome was the proportion of eyes with a minimum three-line improvement from baseline BCVA at each visit and at 6 months. We also defined different patterns of recurrence: qualitative anatomical recurrence, quantitative anatomical recurrence and functional recurrence. A P-value <5% was considered statistically significant. Results Mean population age was 69.3 years (SD=12.2; range=42–94 years). Mean ME duration before treatment was ~9.2 months (SD=11.43; range=0.4–40 months). Eighty eight percent of eyes achieved a three-line improvement from baseline at 2 months (P=0.02). The mean delay from baseline until qualitative anatomical, functional, or quantitative anatomical recurrence was 4.11 months (±0.86), 4.31 months (±1.33), and 4.40 months (±1.14), respectively. Qualitative anatomical recurrence occurred on average 14.4 days (SD=42.18) before a minimum of one-line BCVA impairment (functional recurrence). Conclusion Dexamethasone intravitreal treatment seems to be effective for ME after RVO even with long-duration ME or poor visual acuity before treatment. Other longer studies should assess the delay of recurrence after second and further treatments with DEX implants or combined therapies for ME after RVO. PMID:25853447

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid leakage and headache after lumbar puncture: a prospective non-invasive imaging study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yen-Feng; Fuh, Jong-Ling; Lirng, Jiing-Feng; Chen, Shih-Pin; Hseu, Shu-Shya; Wu, Jaw-Ching; Wang, Shuu-Jiun

    2015-06-01

    The spatial distribution and clinical correlation of cerebrospinal fluid leakage after lumbar puncture have not been determined. Adult in-patients receiving diagnostic lumbar punctures were recruited prospectively. Whole-spine heavily T2-weighted magnetic resonance myelography was carried out to characterize post-lumbar puncture spinal cerebrospinal fluid leakages. Maximum rostral migration was defined as the distance between the most rostral spinal segment with cerebrospinal fluid leakage and the level of lumbar puncture. Eighty patients (51 female/29 male, mean age 49.4 ± 13.3 years) completed the study, including 23 (28.8%) with post-dural puncture headache. Overall, 63.6% of periradicular leaks and 46.9% of epidural collections were within three vertebral segments of the level of lumbar puncture (T12-S1). Post-dural puncture headache was associated with more extensive and more rostral distributions of periradicular leaks (length 3.0 ± 2.5 versus 0.9 ± 1.9 segments, P = 0.001; maximum rostral migration 4.3 ± 4.7 versus 0.8 ± 1.7 segments, P = 0.002) and epidural collections (length 5.3 ± 6.1 versus 1.0 ± 2.1 segments, P = 0.003; maximum rostral migration 4.7 ± 6.7 versus 0.9 ± 2.4 segments, P = 0.015). In conclusion, post-dural puncture headache was associated with more extensive and more rostral distributions of periradicular leaks and epidural collections. Further, visualization of periradicular leaks was not restricted to the level of dural defect, although two-thirds remained within the neighbouring segments. PMID:25688077

  19. Prospection of Portland cement raw material: A case study in the Marmara region of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özgüner, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    Representative sampling of the raw materials used to make Portland cement, correct calculations for the possible clinker mixtures, sufficient reserves of the raw materials and selection of the correct infrastructure for the location of a cement factory are essential to the protection of the great investment in the factory. The results of chemical analyses of pipe samples taken in the field at right angles to the strikes of favourable limestone, clay, shale, and marl outcrops were used in Kind's lime saturation formula for clinker calculations of the possible mixtures. The cement modulus values were calculated using the corresponding clinker oxide ratios and were confirmed to be within the standard intervals for positive cement raw material mixtures. The most promising raw material source, a double lithologic mixture of limestone and mudstone was found during the prospection in north of Bilecik Province, where rhyolitic tuff outcrops with pozzolanic properties also exist. Some marble quarries nearby have been inclined to dispose of their marble wastes for use in cement production to prevent polluting the environment with them. The nearby Gemlik fertiliser factory provides inexpensive waste gypsum that can be used as a cool cement mixing material. The limestone, mudstone and trass raw material reserves in this area were calculated to be sufficient for the factory's requirements for more than 100 years of operation as results of the detailed geological mapping. The regional infrastructure is most suitable for distribution and marketing of cement products. The cement factory described in this study has been producing cement for the last 3 years, after coring and testing of the raw material reserves.

  20. A prospective study of faecal bile acids and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Haines, A; Hill, M J; Thompson, M H; Owen, R W; Williams, R E; Meade, T W; Wilkes, H; Griffin, M

    2000-10-01

    A prospective study of 7079 people aged 45-74 recruited through general practices in South Wales, Herefordshire and Edinburgh, Scotland was undertaken to test the hypothesis that faecal bile acids are implicated in the causation of large bowel cancer. The population was recruited between 1974 and 1980 and the response rate for stool collection was 67%. Bile acid analyses were performed on those cases that presented by 1990. It was decided in advance to examine the hypothesis separately for left- and right-sided bowel cancer because of known epidemiological differences between the two sites and to exclude the cases presenting within 2 years of the stool sample from the analyses because the cancer could have been present at recruitment and might have possibly affected faecal bile acid concentrations. Each case (n = 51 left-sided and 8 right-sided) was matched with three controls by age (within 5 years), sex, place of residence and time of providing the stool sample (within 3 months). Statistical analyses using conditional logistic regression showed no significant differences between the left-sided cases and controls for any of the concentrations of individual bile acids, total bile acid concentrations, faecal neutral steroids, percentage bacterial conversion and the ratio of lithocholic acid to deoxycholic acid concentrations. There was a statistically significant (P = 0.021) association of the presence of chenodeoxycholic acid (5/8 samples) in the right-sided cases compared with the controls (3/23), odds ratio 6.26 (95% confidence interval 1.19, 32.84). A high proportion of primary bile acids has also been found in other studies of patients with a genetic predisposition to proximal bowel cancer, however this pattern may also occur in low risk groups, such as Indian vegetarians, suggesting that they may predispose to right-sided bowel cancer only in the presence of other, as yet unknown factors. If bile acids are involved in the causation of large bowel cancer, they

  1. Serum erythropoietin and outcome after ischaemic stroke: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Åberg, N David; Stanne, Tara M; Jood, Katarina; Schiöler, Linus; Blomstrand, Christian; Andreasson, Ulf; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Isgaard, Jörgen; Jern, Christina; Svensson, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Erythropoietin (EPO), which is inversely associated with blood haemoglobin (Hb), exerts neuroprotective effects in experimental ischaemic stroke (IS). However, clinical treatment trials have so far been negative. Here, in patients with IS, we analysed whether serum EPO is associated with (1) initial stroke severity, (2) recovery and (3) functional outcome. Design Prospective. Controls available at baseline. Setting A Swedish hospital-initiated study with outpatient follow-up after 3 months. Participants Patients (n=600; 64% males, mean age 56 years, controls n=600) were included from the Sahlgrenska Academy Study on IS (SAHLSIS). Primary and secondary outcome measures In addition to EPO and Hb, initial stroke severity was assessed by the Scandinavian Stroke Scale (SSS) and compared with SSS after 3 months (follow-up) as a measure of recovery. Functional outcome was evaluated using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at follow-up. Serum EPO and SSS were divided into quintiles in the multivariate regression analyses. Results Serum EPO was 21% and 31% higher than in controls at the acute phase of IS and follow-up, respectively. In patients, acute serum EPO was 19.5% higher in severe versus mild IS. The highest acute EPO quintile adjusted for sex, age and Hb was associated with worse stroke severity quintile (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.87), better stroke recovery quintile (OR 1.93, CI 1.09 to 3.41) and unfavourable mRS 3–6 (OR 2.59, CI 1.15 to 5.80). However, the fourth quintile of EPO increase (from acute to follow-up) was associated with favourable mRS 0–2 (OR 3.42, CI 1.46 to 8.03). Only the last association withstood full adjustment. Conclusions The crude associations between EPO and worse stroke severity and outcome lost significance after multivariate modelling. However, in patients in whom EPO increased, the association with favourable outcome remained after adjustment for multiple covariates. PMID:26916692

  2. Association of Maternal Short Sleep Duration with Adiposity and Cardio-Metabolic Status at 3 Years Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Taveras, Elsie M.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Gunderson, Erica P.; Stuebe, Alison M.; Mantzoros, Christos S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of short sleep duration among women in the first year postpartum with adiposity and cardio-metabolic status at 3-years postpartum. We studied 586 women in Project Viva, a prospective cohort. At 6 months and 1 year postpartum, women reported the number of hours they slept in a 24-hour period, from which we calculated a weighted average of daily sleep. We used multivariable regression analyses to predict the independent effects of short sleep duration (≤ 5 h/d v.> 5 h/d) on adiposity, glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and adipokines at 3-years postpartum. Women’s mean (SD) hours of daily sleep in the first year postpartum was 6.7 (0.97) hours. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and excessive gestational weight gain, we found that postpartum sleep ≤ 5 h/d was associated with higher postpartum weight retention (β 1.50 kg; 95% CI: 0.02, 2.86), higher subscapular + triceps skinfold thickness (β 3.94 mm; 95% CI: 1.27, 6.60) and higher waist circumference (β 3.10 cm; 95% CI: 1.25, 4.94) at 3-years postpartum. We did not observe associations of short sleep duration with measures of cardio-metabolic status at 3-years postpartum. In conclusion, short sleep duration in the first year postpartum is associated with higher adiposity at 3-years postpartum. PMID:20489690

  3. Morbidity of harvesting of retromolar bone grafts: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Nkenke, Emeka; Radespiel-Tröger, Martin; Wiltfang, Jörg; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan; Winkler, Gerhard; Neukam, Friedrich Wilhelm

    2002-10-01

    20 retromolar bone grafts were harvested in outpatients for augmentation of the implant site from January to June 2000 (10 female, 10 male, 40.9 +/- 12.8 years, minimum 17 years, maximum 66 years). The aim of the study was to assess typical complications of this procedure in a prospective manner. For the determination of the superficial sensory function of the inferior alveolar and the lingual nerve, an objective method was used. The bone grafts were harvested for single tooth reconstruction. In 14 cases a ridge augmentation and in 6 cases an endoscopically controlled crestal sinus floor elevation was performed. Preoperatively, the height of bone above the cranial aspect of the inferior alveolar nerve in the retromolar region was assessed radiologically with known markers. The maximum mouth opening was determined. The superficial sensory function of the inferior alveolar and the lingual nerve was assessed with the Pointed-Blunt Test, the Two-Point-Discrimination Test and the objective method of the 'Pain and Thermal Sensitivity' Test (PATH Test). Moreover, the pulp sensitivity of the teeth of the donor site was determined by cold vitality testing. All tests were repeated 1 week postoperatively. Intraoperatively, the width of the retromolar region was measured with a caliper. The patients rated the operative strain on a visual analogue scale. The height of bone above the inferior alveolar nerve in the retromolar region was 11.0 +/- 2.2 mm. The width of the retromolar area was 14.2 +/- 1.9 mm. Postoperatively, the maximal mouth opening changed significantly (40.8 +/- 3.5 mm preoperatively, 38.9 +/- 3.7 mm postoperatively, P = 0.006). However, the reduction was not relevant clinically. A direct injury of the inferior alveolar or lingual nerve did not occur. A sensitivity impairment could not be detected for either of the nerves by the different test methods 1 week postoperatively. The operative strain related to the donor site was significantly less than the strain

  4. Mortality of gasworkers—final report of a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Doll, R.; Vessey, M. P.; Beasley, R. W. R.; Buckley, A. R.; Fear, E. C.; Fisher, R. E. W.; Gammon, E. J.; Gunn, W.; Hughes, G. O.; Lee, K.; Norman-Smith, Beatrice

    1972-01-01

    Doll, R., Vessey, M. P., Beasley, R. W. R., Buckley, A. R., Fear, E. C., Fisher, R. E. W., Gammon, E. J., Gunn, W., Hughes, G. O., Lee, K., and Norman-Smith, Beatrice (1972).Brit. J. industr. Med.,29, 394-406. Mortality of gasworkers—final report of a prospective study. The mortality experience of selected groups of gasworkers employed by four area Gas Boards and observed over a period of eight years was described by us in a report in 1965. The present paper adds a further four years' data to those previously collected for men having regular exposure in coal carbonizing plants and for men having exposure only to by-products of the gas-making process. To these we have added data relating to men employed by four additional area Gas Boards who have been observed over periods of seven to eight years. The new data provide confirmation that exposure to the products of coal carbonization can give rise to cancer of the lung and leave little doubt that the risk of bladder cancer is also increased. Two additional deaths from scrotal cancer have been observed; there is evidently still a need for vigilance if this disease is to be treated at a stage early enough to prevent death. With respect to all these cancers, work as a topman appears to be particularly hazardous. The additional data included in the present report fail to settle the question whether the risk of lung cancer is especially associated with the conditions of work in one particular type of retort house; if there are any differences, however, they are likely to be small. In our original report, a highly significant association between death from bronchitis and exposure to the coal carbonizing process was described. The more recent data for the four original Gas Boards offer only limited support to the view that bronchitis is a specific occupational hazard of gasworkers, and the data for the four additional Gas Boards provide no further support whatsoever. The explanation for these discrepancies is obscure, but

  5. Alcohol consumption and fecundability: prospective Danish cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Riis, Anders H; Wise, Lauren A; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Rothman, Kenneth J; Cueto, Heidi T; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate to what extent alcohol consumption affects female fecundability. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Denmark, 1 June 2007 to 5 January 2016. Participants 6120 female Danish residents, aged 21-45 years, in a stable relationship with a male partner, who were trying to conceive and not receiving fertility treatment. Main outcome measures Alcohol consumption was self reported as beer (330 mL bottles), red or white wine (120 mL glasses), dessert wine (50 mL glasses), and spirits (20 mL) and categorized in standard servings per week (none, 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and ≥14). Participants contributed menstrual cycles at risk until the report of pregnancy, start of fertility treatment, loss to follow-up, or end of observation (maximum 12 menstrual cycles). A proportional probability regression model was used to estimate fecundability ratios (cycle specific probability of conception among exposed women divided by that among unexposed women). Results 4210 (69%) participants achieved a pregnancy during follow-up. Median alcohol intake was 2.0 (interquartile range 0-3.5) servings per week. Compared with no alcohol consumption, the adjusted fecundability ratios for alcohol consumption of 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and 14 or more servings per week were 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.03), 1.01 (0.93 to 1.10), 1.01 (0.87 to 1.16) and 0.82 (0.60 to 1.12), respectively. Compared with no alcohol intake, the adjusted fecundability ratios for women who consumed only wine (≥3 servings), beer (≥3 servings), or spirits (≥2 servings) were 1.05 (0.91 to1.21), 0.92 (0.65 to 1.29), and 0.85 (0.61 to 1.17), respectively. The data did not distinguish between regular and binge drinking, which may be important if large amounts of alcohol are consumed during the fertile window. Conclusion Consumption of less than 14 servings of alcohol per week seemed to have no discernible effect on fertility. No appreciable difference in fecundability was observed by level of

  6. Anosognosia for hemiplegia: a clinical-anatomical prospective study.

    PubMed

    Vocat, Roland; Staub, Fabienne; Stroppini, Tiziano; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2010-12-01

    Anosognosia for hemiplegia is a common and striking disorder following stroke. Because it is typically transient and variable, it remains poorly understood and has rarely been investigated at different times in a systematic manner. Our study evaluated a prospective cohort of 58 patients with right-hemisphere stroke and significant motor deficit of the left hemibody, who were examined using a comprehensive neuropsychological battery at 3 days (hyperacute), 1 week (subacute) and 6 months (chronic) after stroke onset. Anosognosia for hemiplegia was frequent in the hyperacute phase (32%), but reduced by almost half 1 week later (18%) and only rarely seen at 6 months (5%). Anosognosia for hemiplegia was correlated with the severity of several other deficits, most notably losses in proprioception, extrapersonal spatial neglect and disorientation. While multiple regression analyses highlighted proprioceptive loss as the most determinant factor for the hyperacute period, and visuospatial neglect and disorientation as more determinant for the subacute phase, patients with both proprioceptive loss and neglect had significantly higher incidence of anosognosia for hemiplegia than those with only one deficit or no deficits (although a few double dissociations were observed). Personal neglect and frontal lobe tests showed no significant relation with anosognosia for hemiplegia, nor did psychological traits such as optimism and mood. Moreover, anosognosia for neglect and prediction of performance in non-motor tasks were unrelated to anosognosia for hemiplegia, suggesting distinct monitoring mechanisms for each of these domains. Finally, by using a voxel-based statistical mapping method to identify lesions associated with a greater severity of anosognosia, we found that damage to the insula (particularly its anterior part) and adjacent subcortical structures was determinant for anosognosia for hemiplegia in the hyperacute period, while additional lesions in the premotor cortex

  7. A Qualitative Case Study of Prospective Chemistry Teachers' Knowledge About Instructional Strategies: Introducing Particulate Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boz, Nihat; Boz, Yezdan

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate prospective chemistry teachers’ knowledge about instructional strategies, one component of pedagogical content knowledge about introducing particulate theory, as well as sources of this knowledge. Twenty-two prospective chemistry teachers participated in the study. Data were collected by the means of a vignette, semistructured interviews, and lesson plans. Analysis showed that concrete objects, computer animations, and expository teaching were the preferred teaching techniques by prospective teachers. Several issues, such as general pedagogical knowledge, subject matter knowledge, and knowledge about students’ difficulties, were found to be the main factors for choosing a teaching strategy to make an introduction to particles.

  8. TRANSMISSION OF ENTERIC DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH WASTEWATER IRRIGATION: A PROSPECTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a prospective epidemiological study of possible enteric disease transmission by aerosolized pathogens from sprinkler irrigation of partially treated wastewater in 20 kibbutzim (colllective agricultural settlements) in Isreal between March 1981 and February 1982. Medi...

  9. Study protocol title: a prospective cohort study of low back pain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few prospective cohort studies of workplace low back pain (LBP) with quantified job physical exposure have been performed. There are few prospective epidemiological studies for LBP occupational risk factors and reported data generally have few adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study has been incepted to quantify risk factors for LBP and potentially develop improved methods for designing and analyzing jobs. Due to the subjectivity of LBP, six measures of LBP are captured: 1) any LBP, 2) LBP ≥ 5/10 pain rating, 3) LBP with medication use, 4) LBP with healthcare provider visits, 5) LBP necessitating modified work duties and 6) LBP with lost work time. Workers have thus far been enrolled from 30 different employment settings in 4 diverse US states and performed widely varying work. At baseline, workers undergo laptop-administered questionnaires, structured interviews, and two standardized physical examinations to ascertain demographics, medical history, psychosocial factors, hobbies and physical activities, and current musculoskeletal disorders. All workers’ jobs are individually measured for physical factors and are videotaped. Workers are followed monthly for the development of low back pain. Changes in jobs necessitate re-measure and re-videotaping of job physical factors. The lifetime cumulative incidence of low back pain will also include those with a past history of low back pain. Incident cases will exclude prevalent cases at baseline. Statistical methods planned include survival analyses and logistic regression. Discussion Data analysis of a prospective cohort study of low back pain is underway and has successfully enrolled over 800 workers to date. PMID:23497211

  10. Recurrence rates in bipolar disorder: Systematic comparison of long-term prospective, naturalistic studies versus randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Gustavo H; Holtzman, Jessica N; Lolich, María; Ketter, Terence A; Baldessarini, Ross J

    2015-10-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a recurrent, lifelong illness with high risks of disability and excess mortality. Despite many treatment options with demonstrated short-term efficacy, evidence concerning long-term treatment effectiveness in BD remains limited and the relative value of naturalistic studies versus randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) in its assessment, uncertain. Systematic computer-searching yielded 10 naturalistic studies and 15 RCTs suitable for analysis of recurrence rates and their association with treatments and selected clinical factors. In naturalistic studies (3904 BD subjects, 53.3% women, 85.8% BD-I, mean onset age 29.1, followed up to 2.1 years), the pooled recurrence rate was 55.2% (26.3%/year). In RCTs (4828 subjects, 50.9% women, 96.0% BD-I, mean onset age 23.1, followed up to 1.9 years), the pooled recurrence rate was 39.3% (21.9%/year) with mood-stabilizing drug-treatment versus 60.6% (31.3%/year) with placebo; drug-versus-placebo outcomes favored antipsychotics over lithium, and disfavor an approved anticonvulsant. Depressive episode-polarity increased from 27.7% at intake to 52.0% at first-recurrence (p<0.0001). Recurrence rate (%/year) did not differ by study-type, was greater with younger onset and rapid-cycling, and paradoxically declined with longer observation. In short, recurrences of major affective episodes up to two years during putative mood-stabilizing treatment of BD patients in prospective, naturalistic studies and RCTs were substantial and similar (26.3 vs. 21.9%/year). Episode-polarity shifted strongly toward depressive first-recurrences. These findings support the value of naturalistic studies to complement long-term RCTs, and add to indications that control of depression in BD remains particularly unsatisfactory. PMID:26238969

  11. Early Violent Death Among Delinquent Youth: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Teplin, Linda A.; McClelland, Gary M.; Abram, Karen M.; Mileusnic, Darinka

    2005-01-01

    Objective Youth processed in the juvenile justice system are at great risk for early violent death. Groups at greatest risk, ie, racial/ethnic minorities, male youth, and urban youth, are overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. We compared mortality rates for delinquent youth with those for the general population, controlling for differences in gender, race/ethnicity, and age. Methods This prospective longitudinal study examined mortality rates among 1829 youth (1172 male and 657 female) enrolled in the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a study of health needs and outcomes of delinquent youth. Participants, 10 to 18 years of age, were sampled randomly from intake at the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center in Chicago, Illinois, between 1995 and 1998. The sample was stratified according to gender, race/ethnicity (African American, non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, or other), age (10–13 or ≥14 years), and legal status (processed as a juvenile or as an adult), to obtain enough participants for examination of key subgroups. The sample included 1005 African American (54.9%), 296 non-Hispanic white (16.2%), 524 Hispanic (28.17%), and 4 other-race/ethnicity (0.2%) subjects. The mean age at enrollment was 14.9 years (median age: 15 years). The refusal rate was 4.2%. As of March 31, 2004, we had monitored participants for 0.5 to 8.4 years (mean: 7.1 years; median: 7.2 years; interquartile range: 6.5–7.8 years); the aggregate exposure for all participants was 12 944 person-years. Data on deaths and causes of death were obtained from family reports or records and were then verified by the local medical examiner or the National Death Index. For comparisons of mortality rates for delinquents and the general population, all data were weighted according to the racial/ethnic, gender, and age characteristics of the detention center; these weighted standardized populations were used to calculate reported percentages and mortality ratios. We calculated mortality

  12. Lifetime socioeconomic position and mortality: prospective observational study.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, G. D.; Hart, C.; Blane, D.; Gillis, C.; Hawthorne, V.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of socioeconomic position over a lifetime on risk factors for cardiovascular disease, on morbidity, and on mortality from various causes. DESIGN: Prospective observational study with 21 years of follow up. Social class was determined as manual or non-manual at three stages of participants' lives: from the social class of their father's job, the social class of their first job, and the social class of their job at the time of screening. A cumulative social class indicator was constructed, ranging from non-manual social class at all three stages of life to manual social class at all three stages. SETTING: 27 workplaces in the west of Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: 5766 men aged 35-64 at the time of examination. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence and level of risk factors for cardiovascular disease; morbidity; and mortality from broad causes of death. RESULTS: From non-manual social class locations at all three life stages to manual at all stages there were strong positive trends for blood pressure, body mass index, current cigarette smoking, angina, and bronchitis. Inverse trends were seen for height, cholesterol concentration, lung function, and being an ex-smoker. 1580 men died during follow up. Age adjusted relative death rates in comparison with the men of non-manual social class locations at all three stages of life were 1.29 (95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.56) in men of two non-manual and one manual social class; 1.45 (1.21 to 1.73) in men of two manual and one non-manual social class; and 1.71 (1.46 to 2.01) in men of manual social class at all three stages. Mortality from cardiovascular disease showed a similar graded association with cumulative social class. Mortality from cancer was mainly raised among men of manual social class at all three stages. Adjustment for a wide range of risk factors caused little attenuation in the association of cumulative social class with mortality from all causes and from cardiovascular disease

  13. Pre-gravid oral contraceptive use and time to pregnancy: a Danish prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Ellen M.; Riis, Anders H.; Wise, Lauren A.; Hatch, Elizabeth E.; Rothman, Kenneth J.; Toft Sørensen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is there an association between oral contraceptive (OC) use (age at the start of use, duration of use, ethinylestradiol dose and generation) and time to pregnancy (TTP)? SUMMARY ANSWER Although OC use was associated with a transient delay in the return of fertility, we found no evidence that long-term OC use deleteriously affects fecundability. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Studies using retrospective data on TTP have reported a short-term delay in the return of fertility after OC use. However, little is known about the long-term OC use and TTP. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Data were derived from ‘Snart Gravid.dk’, a prospective cohort study that enrolled participants from 1 June 2007 to 31 May 2010. The final study population consisted of 3727 women. PARTICIPANTS, SETTING, METHODS Eligible women were Danish pregnancy planners, aged 18–40 years, who completed a baseline questionnaire and bimonthly follow-up questionnaires until conception or for 12 months, whichever came first. Cohort retention was 80%. We used proportional probability regression models to estimate fecundability ratios (FRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), with adjustment for potential confounders. MAIN RESULTS AND ROLE OF CHANCE Compared with barrier methods, the use of OCs as the last contraception method before attempting to conceive was associated with a short-term delay in return of fertility (FR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.79–0.96). Longer term OC use was associated with higher fecundability: compared with OC use for less than 2 years; FRs were 0.98 (95% CI: 0.83–1.15) for 2–3 years, 1.16 (95% CI: 0.98–1.37) for 4–5 years, 1.10 (95% CI: 0.93–1.29) for 6–7 years, 1.17 (95% CI: 0.99–1.38) for 8–9 years, 1.23 (95% CI: 1.04–1.46) for 10–11 years and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.07–1.53) for ≥12 years of OC use. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Because this was a non-experimental study, where study volunteers provided information about their history of contraceptive use at

  14. The National Children's Study: a 21-year prospective study of 100,000 American children.

    PubMed

    Landrigan, Philip J; Trasande, Leonardo; Thorpe, Lorna E; Gwynn, Charon; Lioy, Paul J; D'Alton, Mary E; Lipkind, Heather S; Swanson, James; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Clark, Edward B; Rauh, Virginia A; Perera, Frederica P; Susser, Ezra

    2006-11-01

    Prospective, multiyear epidemiologic studies have proven to be highly effective in discovering preventable risk factors for chronic disease. Investigations such as the Framingham Heart Study have produced blueprints for disease prevention and saved millions of lives and billions of dollars. To discover preventable environmental risk factors for disease in children, the US Congress directed the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, through the Children's Health Act of 2000, to conduct the National Children's Study. The National Children's Study is hypothesis-driven and will seek information on environmental risks and individual susceptibility factors for asthma, birth defects, dyslexia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, schizophrenia, and obesity, as well as for adverse birth outcomes. It will be conducted in a nationally representative, prospective cohort of 100,000 US-born children. Children will be followed from conception to 21 years of age. Environmental exposures (chemical, physical, biological, and psychosocial) will be assessed repeatedly during pregnancy and throughout childhood in children's homes, schools, and communities. Chemical assays will be performed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and banks of biological and environmental samples will be established for future analyses. Genetic material will be collected on each mother and child and banked to permit study of gene-environment interactions. Recruitment is scheduled to begin in 2007 at 7 Vanguard Sites and will extend to 105 sites across the United States. The National Children's Study will generate multiple satellite studies that explore methodologic issues, etiologic questions, and potential interventions. It will provide training for the next generation of researchers and practitioners in environmental pediatrics and will link to planned and ongoing prospective birth cohort studies in other nations. Data from the National Children's Study will

  15. Optical Simulations and Studies with the PROSPECT-20 Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemen, Nathaniel; Prospect Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The PROSPECT (Precision Reactor Oscillation and SPECTrum) experiment at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will make a precise measurement of the reactor antineutrino spectrum from a highly-enriched uranium nuclear reactor while also probing for short-baseline oscillations as a signature of possible sterile-neutrinos. Two liquid scintillator detectors at distances of 7-10m and 16-20m from the reactor will identify inverse beta decay events initiated by reactor antineutrinos. The near detector will be divided into optically separated segments filled with lithium loaded liquid scintillator read out by photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) on either end. Light guides will be employed to direct photons from the scintillator cells to the active PMT photo-cathodes. An optical simulation was built to optimize the performance of the detectors with respect to both light collection and detector uniformity and guide the design of the scintillator cells. We present experimental data and simulation results from the PROSPECT-20 prototype detector.

  16. Isokinetic lifting strength and occupational injury. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Mostardi, R A; Noe, D A; Kovacik, M W; Porterfield, J A

    1992-02-01

    One hundred seventy-one nurses had their back strength evaluated on an isokinetic lifting device and filled out an epidemiologic questionnaire. They were then followed prospectively for 2 years to determine the incidence of job-related low-back injuries. The data were analyzed to determine if the injury incidence correlated with any of the strength or epidemiologic variables collected during the original evaluation. Average peak force measured during the isokinetic lift was 63.8 kg + 13.6 kg at a lift speed of 30.5 cm/sec and 59.1 kg + 14.9 kg at a lift speed of 45.7 cm/sec. Sixteen nurses reported an occurrence of job-related low-back pain or injury during the 2-year prospective period. Discriminate statistical techniques showed that none of the strength or epidemiologic variables correlated with the incidence of pain or injury or explained significant amounts of variance when the variables were regressed on strength or work calculated from the lift force/lift height data. It was concluded that in this high risk population, in which loads are heavy and lifting postures are variable, the use of low-back strength or prior history of pain or injury are poor predictors as to subsequent low-back pain or injury. PMID:1532461

  17. Tunka-133: Results of 3 year operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosin, V. V.; Berezhnev, S. F.; Budnev, N. M.; Chiavassa, A.; Chvalaev, O. A.; Gress, O. A.; Dyachok, A. N.; Epimakhov, S. N.; Karpov, N. I.; Kalmykov, N. N.; Konstantinov, E. N.; Korobchenko, A. V.; Korosteleva, E. E.; Kozhin, V. A.; Kuzmichev, L. A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B. K.; Lubsandorzhiev, N. B.; Mirgazov, R. R.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Pan'kov, L. V.; Popova, E. G.; Ptuskin, V. S.; Semeney, Yu. A.; Silaev, A. A.; Silaev, A. A.; Skurikhin, A. V.; Spiering, C.; Sveshnikova, L. G.; Yashin, I. V.; Zagorodnikov, A. V.

    2014-08-01

    The EAS Cherenkov light array Tunka-133, with ~3 km2 geometric area, is taking data since 2009. The array permits a detailed study of cosmic ray energy spectrum and mass composition in the PeV energy range. After a short description of the methods of EAS parameter reconstruction, we present the all-particle energy spectrum and results of studying CR composition, based on 3 seasons of array operation. In the last part of the paper, we discuss possible interpretations of the obtained results.

  18. Outcomes of Ilizarov ring fixation in recalcitrant infected tibial non-unions – a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Madhusudhan, Thayur R; Ramesh, Balasundaram; Manjunath, KS; Shah, Harshad M; Sundaresh, Dabir C; Krishnappa, N

    2008-01-01

    Background Infected non-union of long bones is a problem in the developing countries. Persistent infection, deformity, shortening, bone loss, joint stiffness and disability complicate the non-union. Secondary procedures are often required for correction of bone defects and deformity. Ilizarov method addresses all the above problems simultaneously and offers a panacea for infected non-unions. The stability of the fixation and provision for bone transport allows bridging of bone defects, limb lengthening, early weight bearing ambulation and joint mobilisation. Aim of the study To know the suitability of this procedure in recalcitrant infected tibial non-unions in the Indian population and the influence of socio-economic factors in the functional outcome. Method of study This was a 3-year prospective study in 22 consecutive patients with an average follow up of 13 months following fracture union. The results were analysed using the ASAMI scoring system. Results Of 22 patients in the study, 13 patients who underwent external bone transport, had an average bone gap of 4 cms [2–11 cms] with an average duration of fixation of 9.3 months [6.5–13 months]. There were 4 excellent, 3 good, 4 fair and 2 poor bony results and 1 excellent, 3 good, 6 fair and 2 poor results. 1 patient was lost for follow up at final functional analysis. 9 patients who underwent internal bone transport had an average bone gap of 5.4 cms [1.5–9 cms] with an average duration of fixation of 8.5 months [4–11 months]. There were 3 good 4 fair and 2 poor bony results and 1 good, 3 fair, and 2 poor functional results. Good to excellent results were witnessed in well-motivated patients with adequate social and financial support. Patients with fair to poor results preferred amputation to limb salvage despite the fact that they retained their limbs. Conclusion Treatment of infected non-unions of Tibia with Ilizarov ring fixation is effective but for optimal results the treatment needs to be

  19. The Examining of Prospective Teachers? Views about Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Sources: A Case Study of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasiloglu, Mehmet Akif

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine prospective teachers? views about renewable and non-renewable energy sources. To collect data, a questionnaire with 5 open-ended questions was conveyed to 463 prospective teachers selected from Agri Ibrahim Cecen University. The results showed that almost three fourths of the prospective teachers tend to…

  20. The WISTAH hand study: A prospective cohort study of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few prospective cohort studies of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders have been performed. Past studies have provided somewhat conflicting evidence for occupational risk factors and have largely reported data without adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study was incepted to quantify risk factors for distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and potentially develop improved methods for analyzing jobs. Disorders to analyze included carpal tunnel syndrome, lateral epicondylalgia, medial epicondylalgia, trigger digit, deQuervain’s stenosing tenosynovitis and other tendinoses. Workers have thus far been enrolled from 17 different employment settings in 3 diverse US states and performed widely varying work. At baseline, workers undergo laptop administered questionnaires, structured interviews, two standardized physical examinations and nerve conduction studies to ascertain demographic, medical history, psychosocial factors and current musculoskeletal disorders. All workers’ jobs are individually measured for physical factors and are videotaped. Workers are followed monthly for the development of musculoskeletal disorders. Repeat nerve conduction studies are performed for those with symptoms of tingling and numbness in the prior six months. Changes in jobs necessitate re-measure and re-videotaping of job physical factors. Case definitions have been established. Point prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome is a combination of paraesthesias in at least two median nerve-served digits plus an abnormal nerve conduction study at baseline. The lifetime cumulative incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome will also include those with a past history of carpal tunnel syndrome. Incident cases will exclude those with either a past history or prevalent cases at baseline. Statistical methods planned include survival analyses and logistic regression. Discussion A prospective cohort study of

  1. Latent class analysis of alcohol treatment utilization patterns and 3-year alcohol related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mowbray, Orion; Glass, Joseph E; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette L

    2015-07-01

    People who obtain treatment for alcohol use problems often utilize multiple sources of help. While prior studies have classified treatment use patterns for alcohol use, an empirical classification of these patterns is lacking. For the current study, we created an empirically derived classification of treatment use and described how these classifications were prospectively associated with alcohol-related outcomes. Our sample included 257 participants of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) who first received alcohol treatment in the 3-year period prior to their baseline interview. We used latent class analysis to identify classes of treatment users based on their patterns of treatment use of 13 types of alcohol treatment. Regression models examined how classes of treatment use at baseline were associated with alcohol-related outcomes assessed at a 3-year follow-up interview. Outcomes included a continuous measure of the quantity and frequency of alcohol use and DSM-IV alcohol use disorder status. Four classes of treatment users were identified: (1) multiservice users (8.7%), (2) private professional service users (32.8%), (3) alcoholics anonymous (AA) paired with specialty addiction service users (22.0%), and (4) users of AA alone (36.5%). Those who utilized AA paired with specialty addiction services had better outcomes compared to those who used AA alone. In addition to elucidating the most common treatment utilization patterns executed by people seeking help for their alcohol problems, the results from this study suggest that increased efforts may be needed to refer individuals across sectors of care to improve treatment outcomes. PMID:25744651

  2. 3-year real-world outcomes with the Swedish adjustable gastric band™ in France.

    PubMed

    Ribaric, G; Buchwald, J N; d'Orsay, G; Daoud, F

    2013-02-01

    The study objective was to ascertain outcomes with the Swedish adjustable gastric band (SAGB) on an intention-to-treat basis in multiple centers across the French social health insurance system. SAGB results at 3-year follow-up are reported. The noncomparative, observational, prospective, consecutive cohort study design sought a 500-patient minimum recruitment geographically representative of continental France. Safety (adverse events [AEs], device-related morbidity, and mortality) and effectiveness (change in body mass index [BMI, kilograms per square meter], percentage excess weight loss, comorbidities, quality of life [QoL]) were assessed. Adjustable gastric band survival was calculated. Thirty-one surgeons in 28 multidisciplinary teams/sites enrolled patients between September 2, 2007 and April 30, 2008. SAGB was successfully implanted in 517 patients: 88.0 % female; mean age, 37.5 years; obesity duration, 15.3 years (baseline: mean BMI, 41.0; comorbidities, 773 in 74.3 % of patients; Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcome System (BAROS), 1.4; EuroQoL 5-Dimensions (EQ-5D), 0.61; EuroQoL-visual analog scale (EQ-VAS), 52.3). At 3 years: BMI, 32.2 (mean change, -9.0; p < 0.0001); excess weight loss, 47.4 %; comorbidities, 161 in 27.2 %; BAROS, 3.6 (+2.2, p < 0.0001); EQ-5D, 0.84 (+0.22, p < 0.0001); EQ-VAS, 73.4 (+21.4, p < 0.0001). SAGB-induced weight loss was associated with substantially improved QoL. One death occurred and was unrelated to the treatment. No AE was reported in 68.3 % of patients, and no confirmed device-related AE in 77.0 %. Overall AE rate was 0.19 per patient year. Device retention was 87.0 %. Analysis of patients lost to follow-up showed a nonsignificant effect on overall study results. In a prospective, consecutive cohort, "real-world", nationwide study, the Swedish Adjustable Gastric Band was found safe and effective at 3-year follow-up. PMID:23054572

  3. Histoid leprosy: a prospective diagnostic study in 38 patients.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, V N; Srivastava, G

    1988-01-01

    Histoid leprosy is a fascinating expression of multibacillary leprosy, the incidence of which was 3.6%. It was seen predominantly in males of the younger age group, who were on inadequate and irregular dosage of diaminodiphenyl sulfone. Papules, cutaneous and/or subcutaneous nodules and plaques appearing over apparently normal skin were its exquisite prospective clinical features. It was invariably supported by enormous, uniformly solid staining discrete bacilli from the lesions, in contrast to their virtual absence from the surrounding normal-appearing skin. Encapsulated tumorous mass, formed primarily by spindle-shaped histocytes, displayed either in intertwining, criss-cross or whorled fashion in haematoxylin-eosin-stained sections, were supplementary. The morphology of acid-fast bacilli was, however, similar to skin-slit smears. PMID:3224729

  4. PROSPECTIVE RANDOMIZED STUDY COMPARING TWO ANESTHETIC METHODS FOR SHOULDER SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    Ikemoto, Roberto Yukio; Murachovsky, Joel; Prata Nascimento, Luis Gustavo; Bueno, Rogerio Serpone; Oliveira Almeida, Luiz Henrique; Strose, Eric; de Mello, Sérgio Cabral; Saletti, Deise

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of suprascapular nerve block in combination with infusion of anesthetic into the subacromial space, compared with interscalene block. Methods: Forty-five patients with small or medium-sized isolated supraspinatus tendon lesions who underwent arthroscopic repair were prospectively and comparatively evaluated through random assignation to three groups of 15, each with a different combination of anesthetic methods. The efficacy of postoperative analgesia was measured using the visual analogue scale for pain and the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and opioid drug consumption. Inhalation anesthetic consumption during surgery was also compared between the groups. Results: The statistical analysis did not find any statistically significant differences among the groups regarding anesthetic consumption during surgery or postoperative analgesic efficacy during the first 48 hours. Conclusion: Suprascapular nerve block with infusion of anesthetic into the subacromial space is an excellent alternative to interscalene block, particularly in hospitals in which an electrical nerve stimulating device is unavailable. PMID:27022569

  5. Transcrestal guided sinus lift without grafting materials: a 36 months clinical prospective study

    PubMed Central

    SPINELLI, D.; DE VICO, G.; CONDÒ, R.; OTTRIA, L.; ARCURI, C.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Purpose This study describes the ability to perform a technique for bone regeneration in maxillary posterior deficit (TGSL) without the use of bone grafting materials using a highly minimally invasive protocol. Materials and methods Sixty six implants have been inserted in the sinus floor of a total of 39 patients through the transcrestal guided sinus lift technique (TGSL). All patients have been followed for at least three years in function. The drilling protocol was adapted on the basis of bone density of each implant site to achieve a torque between 45 and 55 Ncm. Healing titanium abutments tightened to 35 Ncm have been used. A CAD/CAM metal ceramics final prosthetic restoration has been generated a six months after the tissues healing and the provisional functionalization of the occlusion. Survival rate of implants and prostheses, biological and biomechanical complications, changes in marginal bone levels, and total height of alveolar crest bone before and after surgery have been evaluate and measured by the results obtained in this prospective study. It was also measured the periodontal parameters as well as levels of perception of pain by the patient during the entire recovery period. Results The result of the data of follow-up was 41.96 (24 to 36) months. Cumulative implant survival was 98.53% at 3 years. There were no biological and mechanical complications and there were no prosthetic failures during the whole period of follow-up. The Marginal Bone Loss (MBL) average during the first year of operation was from 0.33 to 0.36 mm, while the 3-year follow-up, the MBL average was 0.51 to 0.29 mm. The average of residual bone height of alveolar ridge before treatment was 6.7 to 1.6 mm (range 5.1 to 9.2 mm), while the average bone height was gained 6,4 – 1.6 mm (range 3.2 to 8.1 mm). All patients reported lower pain levels and found to have normal periodontal parameters. Conclusions This study suggests that the use of guided surgery to perform

  6. Prospective cohort study of mother-to-infant infection and clearance of hepatitis C in rural Egyptian villages.

    PubMed

    Shebl, Fatma M; El-Kamary, Samer S; Saleh, Doa'a A; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed; Mikhail, Nabiel; Allam, Alif; El-Arabi, Hanaa; Elhenawy, Ibrahim; El-Kafrawy, Sherif; El-Daly, Mai; Selim, Sahar; El-Wahab, Ayman Abd; Mostafa, Mohamed; Sharaf, Soraya; Hashem, Mohamed; Heyward, Scott; Stine, O Colin; Magder, Laurence S; Stoszek, Sonia; Strickland, G Thomas

    2009-06-01

    Although persistent transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) from infected mothers to their infants is reported in 4-8%, transient HCV perinatal infection also occurs. This prospective cohort study determined perinatal HCV infection- and early and late clearance-rates in 1,863 mother-infant pairs in rural Egyptian villages. This study found 15.7% and 10.9% of pregnant women had HCV antibodies (anti-HCV) and HCV-RNA, respectively. Among 329 infants born of these mothers, 33 (10.0%) tested positive for both anti-HCV and HCV-RNA 2 months following birth-29 (12.5%) having HCV-RNA positive mothers and 4 (with transient infections) having mothers with only anti-HCV. Fifteen remained HCV-RNA positive at one and/or 2 years (persistent infections), while 18 cleared both virus and antibody by 1 year (transient infections). Among the 15 persistent cases, 7 cleared their infections by 2 or 3 years. At 2- to 6- and at 10- to 12-month maternally acquired anti-HCV was observed in 80% and 5% of infants, respectively. Four perinatally infected and one transiently infected infant were confirmed to be infected by their mothers by the sequence similarity of their viruses. Viremia was 155-fold greater in mothers of infants with persistent than mothers of infants with transient infections. Maternal-infant transmission of HCV is more frequent than generally reported. However, both early and late clearance of infection frequently occurs and only 15 (4.6%) and 8 (2.4%) infants born of HCV-RNA positive mothers had detectable HCV-RNA at one and 2-3 years of age. Investigating how infants clear infection may provide important information about protective immunity to HCV. PMID:19382251

  7. Maternal Depressive Symptoms Not Associated with Reduced Height in Young Children in a US Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ertel, Karen A.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Shorter stature is associated with greater all cause and heart disease mortality, but taller stature with increased risk of cancer mortality. Though childhood environment is important in determining height, limited data address how maternal depression affects linear growth in children. We examined the relationships between antenatal and postpartum depressive symptoms and child height and linear growth from birth to age 3 years in a U.S. sample. Methods Subjects were 872 mother-child pairs in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study. The study population is relatively advantaged with high levels of income and education and low risk of food insecurity. We assessed maternal depression at mid-pregnancy (mean 28 weeks' gestation) and 6 months postpartum with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (score > = 13 on 0–30 scale indicating probable depression). Child outcomes at age 3 were height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and leg length. HAZ was also available at birth and ages 6 months, 1, 2, and 3 years. Findings Seventy (8.0%) women experienced antenatal depression and 64 (7.3%) experienced postpartum depression. The mean (SD) height for children age 3 was 97.2 cm (4.2), with leg length of 41.6 cm (2.6). In multivariable linear regression models, exposure to postpartum depression was associated with greater HAZ (0.37 [95% confidence interval: 0.16, 0.58]) and longer leg length (0.88 cm [0.35, 1.41]). The relationship between postpartum depression and greater HAZ was evident starting at 6 months and continued to age 3. We found minimal relationships between antenatal depression and child height outcomes. Conclusion Our findings do not support the hypothesis that maternal depression is associated with reduced height in children in this relatively advantaged sample in a high-income country. PMID:21048958

  8. Cohort profile: golestan hepatitis B cohort study- a prospective long term study in northern iran ​.

    PubMed

    Poustchi, Hossein; Katoonizadeh, Aezam; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Moossavi, Shirin; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Esmaili, Saeed; Pourshams, Akram; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Besharat, Sima; Merat, Shahin; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; George, Jacob; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-10-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most common cause of end stage liver disease in Iran and in Golestan province. Large-scale population-based prospective cohort studies with long term follow-up are the method of choice to accurately understand the natural course of HBV infection. To date, several studies of HBV epidemiology, natural history, progression to cirrhosis and association with HCC have been reported from other countries. However, few of these are prospective and fewer still are population-based. Moreover, the underlying molecular mechanisms and immunogenetic determinants of the outcome of HBV infection especially in low and middle income countries remains largely unknown. Therefore, the hepatitis B cohort study (HBCS), nested as part of the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS), Golestan, Iran was established in 2008 with the objective to prospectively investigate the natural course of chronic hepatitis B with reference to its epidemiology, viral/host genetic interactions, clinical features and outcome in the Middle East where genotype D HBV accounts for >90% of infections. In 2008, a baseline measurement of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) was performed on stored serum samples of all GCS participants. A sub-cohort of 3,505 individuals were found to be HBsAg positive and were enrolled in the Golestan HBCS. In 2011, all first degree relatives of HBsAg positive subjects including their children and spouses were invited for HBV serology screening and those who were positive for HBsAg were also included in the Golestan HBCS. PMID:25349681

  9. A Prospective Study of Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Colorectal Cancer Risk in Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Murff, Harvey J; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Li, Honglan; Dai, Qi; Kallianpur, Asha; Yang, Gong; Cai, Hui; Wen, Wanqing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2009-01-01

    In animal models of colon cancer, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have anti-neoplastic properties while n-6 PUFAs may promote carcinogenesis. Prior epidemiological studies have been inconsistent regarding the association of PUFAs and colorectal cancer. We prospectively evaluated the association between PUFA intake and colorectal cancer in a cohort of 73242 Chinese women who were interviewed in person at the baseline survey for the Shanghai Women’s Health Study. Dietary fatty acid consumption was derived using data collected from two food frequency questionnaires administered at baseline and 2 to 3 years later. The dietary total n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio was strongly associated with colorectal cancer risk. Compared to women in the lowest quintile group, elevated relative risks were observed for the second (RR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.00–2.32); third (RR = 2.20, 1.41–3.45); fourth (RR= 1.65, 0.99–2.75); and fifth (RR= 1.95, 1.07–3.54) quintile groups. Arachidonic acid was associated with colorectal cancer risk with elevated relative risks of 1.20Q2-Q1 (0.87–1.64), 1.44 Q3-Q1 (1.05–1.98), 1.61 Q4-Q1 (1.17–2.23), and 1.39 Q5-Q1 (0.97–1.99) (Ptrend = 0.03) with increasing dietary quintile. In a subset of 150 cancer cases and 150 controls, we found a statistically significant trend between an increasing n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio and increasing production of prostaglandin E2 as measured by urinary PGE2 metabolites (P = 0.03). These results suggest that dietary PUFA and the ratio of n-6 to n-3 PUFA intake may be positively associated with colorectal cancer risk, and this association may be mediated in part through PGE2 production. PMID:19661088

  10. The Cultural and Linguistic Diversity of 3-Year-Old Children with Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the cultural and linguistic diversity of young children with hearing loss informs the provision of assessment, habilitation, and education services to both children and their families. Data describing communication mode, oral language use, and demographic characteristics were collected for 406 children with hearing loss and their caregivers when children were 3 years old. The data were from the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study, a prospective, population-based study of children with hearing loss in Australia. The majority of the 406 children used spoken English at home; however, 28 other languages also were spoken. Compared with their caregivers, the children in this study used fewer spoken languages and had higher rates of oral monolingualism. Few children used a spoken language other than English in their early education environment. One quarter of the children used sign to communicate at home and/or in their early education environment. No associations between caregiver hearing status and children’s communication mode were identified. This exploratory investigation of the communication modes and languages used by young children with hearing loss and their caregivers provides an initial examination of the cultural and linguistic diversity and heritage language attrition of this population. The findings of this study have implications for the development of resources and the provision of early education services to the families of children with hearing loss, especially where the caregivers use a language that is not the lingua franca of their country of residence. PMID:22942315

  11. The cultural and linguistic diversity of 3-year-old children with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharynne; Ching, Teresa Y C

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the cultural and linguistic diversity of young children with hearing loss informs the provision of assessment, habilitation, and education services to both children and their families. Data describing communication mode, oral language use, and demographic characteristics were collected for 406 children with hearing loss and their caregivers when children were 3 years old. The data were from the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study, a prospective, population-based study of children with hearing loss in Australia. The majority of the 406 children used spoken English at home; however, 28 other languages also were spoken. Compared with their caregivers, the children in this study used fewer spoken languages and had higher rates of oral monolingualism. Few children used a spoken language other than English in their early education environment. One quarter of the children used sign to communicate at home and/or in their early education environment. No associations between caregiver hearing status and children's communication mode were identified. This exploratory investigation of the communication modes and languages used by young children with hearing loss and their caregivers provides an initial examination of the cultural and linguistic diversity and heritage language attrition of this population. The findings of this study have implications for the development of resources and the provision of early education services to the families of children with hearing loss, especially where the caregivers use a language that is not the lingua franca of their country of residence. PMID:22942315

  12. Articular cartilage of the knee 3 years after ACL reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Ji-Hoon; Hosseini, Ali; Wang, Yang; Torriani, Martin; Gill, Thomas J; Grodzinsky, Alan J

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose T1ρ or T2 relaxation imaging has been increasingly used to evaluate the cartilage of the knee. We investigated the cartilage of ACL-reconstructed knees 3 years after surgery using T2 relaxation times. Patients and methods 10 patients with a clinically successful unilateral ACL reconstruction were examined 3 years after surgery. Multiple-TE fast-spin echo sagittal images of both knees were acquired using a 3T MRI scanner for T2 mapping of the tibiofemoral cartilage. T2 values of the superficial and deep zones of the tibiofemoral cartilage were analyzed in sub-compartmental areas and compared between the ACL-reconstructed and uninjured contralateral knees. Results Higher T2 values were observed in 1 or more sub-compartmental areas of each ACL-reconstructed knee compared to the uninjured contralateral side. Most of the T2 increases were observed at the superficial zones of the cartilage, especially at the medial compartment. At the medial compartment of the ACL-reconstructed knee, the T2 values of the femoral and tibial cartilage were increased by 3–81% compared to the uninjured contralateral side, at the superficial zones of the weight-bearing areas. T2 values in the superficial zone of the central medial femoral condyle differed between the 2 groups (p = 0.002). Interpretation The articular cartilage of ACL-reconstructed knees, although clinically satisfactory, had higher T2 values in the superficial zone of the central medial femoral condyle than in the uninjured contralateral side 3 years after surgery. Further studies are warranted to determine whether these patients would undergo cartilage degeneration over time. PMID:25854533

  13. A Pilot Prospective Study of Fetomaternal Hemorrhage Identified by Anemia in Asymptomatic Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Stroustrup, Annemarie; Plafkin, Callie

    2016-01-01

    Background Fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) is a poorly understood condition in which fetal erythrocytes transfer to the maternal circulation via a faulty placental barrier. Little is known about the true incidence, epidemiology, or pathophysiology of FMH in the general pregnant population as existing studies are based on retrospective cohorts and manifest diagnosis and selection bias. Objective To evaluate the practicability of a prospective study of fetomaternal hemorrhage in the general population based on antepartum maternal blood testing and neonatal anemia. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Result Nineteen pregnant women were enrolled prior to the term delivery of twenty well infants. Five neonates were unexpectedly anemic on first postnatal testing. Antenatal maternal blood samples associated with 2 of 5 anemic newborns had positive Kleihauer-Betke testing while no newborn with a normal postnatal blood count had an associated abnormal Kleihauer-Betke test. Conclusion Clinically significant FMH may be more common than previously thought. Prospective epidemiological study of FMH is feasible. PMID:26765555

  14. The Development of Reading and Spelling Abilities in the First 3 Years of Learning Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed, Wessam; Elbert, Thomas; Landerl, Karin

    2011-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study, we investigated the development of fluent reading and spelling in the first 3 years of learning Arabic. The goals of our study were to: (1) validate suitable measures for fluent reading and spelling in the first 3 years of learning Arabic; (2) trace the developmental course of the relationship between fluent reading and…

  15. Prospective Acid Reflux Study of Iran (PARSI): Methodology and study design

    PubMed Central

    Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Razjouyan, Hadi; Alimohamadi, Seyed Maysam; Mamarabadi, Mansoureh; Ghotbi, Mohamad-Hamed; Mostajabi, Pardis; Sohrabpour, Amir-Ali; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Abedi, Behnoush; Mofid, Azadeh; Nouraie, Mehdi; Tofangchiha, Shahnaz; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2007-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a common and chronic disorder but long term, prospective studies of the fate of patients seeking medical advice are scarce. This is especially prominent when looking at non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) patients. Methods We designed a prospective cohort to assess the long term outcome of GERD patients referring to gastroenterologists. Consecutive consenting patients, 15 years of age and older, presenting with symptoms suggestive of GERD referring to our outpatient clinics undergo a 30 minute interview. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is performed for them with protocol biopsies and blood samples are drawn. Patients are then treated according to a set protocol and followed regularly either in person or by telephone for at least 10 years. Discussion Our data show that such a study is feasible and follow-ups, which are the main concern, can be done in a fairly reliable way to collect data. The results of this study will help to clarify the course of various subgroups of GERD patients after coming to medical attention and their response to treatment considering different variables. In addition, the basic symptoms and biological database will fuel further molecular epidemiologic studies. PMID:18028533

  16. Prospective associations between childhood low-level lead exposure and adult mental health problems: the Port Pirie cohort study.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Alexander C; Searle, Amelia K; Van Hooff, Miranda; Baghurst, Peter A; Sawyer, Michael G; Galletly, Cherrie; Sim, Malcolm R; Clark, Levina S

    2013-12-01

    Low-level environmental lead exposure during childhood is associated with poorer emotional/behavioural functioning in later childhood and adolescence. Scarce research has examined whether these apparent effects persist into adulthood. This study is the first to examine prospective associations between lead exposure across early childhood and several common adult mental health problems. Childhood data (including blood lead concentrations) and adult data (from mental health questionnaires and psychiatric interviews) were available for 210 participants (44% males, mean age=26.3 years) from the Port Pirie cohort study (1979-1982 birth cohort). Participants had a mean childhood (to 7 years) average blood lead concentration of 17.2μg/dL. Among females, childhood blood lead showed small significant positive associations with lifetime diagnoses of drug and alcohol abuse and social phobia, and with anxiety, somatic and antisocial personality problems. For example: for a 10μg/dL blood lead increase, females were 2.84 times (95% CI 1.10, 7.30) more likely to have an alcohol abuse diagnosis. However, adjustment for childhood covariates - particularly stimulation within the home environment - rendered these associations non-significant. No significant or sizeable unadjusted or adjusted associations were seen for males. The associations between early lead exposure and emotional/behavioural functioning in children might persist into adulthood, at least for females. However, it is unclear whether such results arise from residual confounding, or other mechanisms. Interventions that focus on improving the childhood home environment may have a long-term positive impact on adult mental health outcomes. However, more prospective research using large and representative samples is needed to substantiate these results. PMID:23958641

  17. Lifetime affect and midlife cognitive function: prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Richards, M.; Barnett, J. H.; Xu, M. K.; Croudace, T. J.; Gaysina, D.; Kuh, D.; Jones, P. B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recurrent affective problems are predictive of cognitive impairment, but the timing and directionality, and the nature of the cognitive impairment, are unclear. Aims To test prospective associations between life-course affective symptoms and cognitive function in late middle age. Method A total of 1668 men and women were drawn from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort). Longitudinal affective symptoms spanning age 13-53 years served as predictors; outcomes consisted of self-reported memory problems at 60-64 years and decline in memory and information processing from age 53 to 60-64 years. Results Regression analyses revealed no clear pattern of association between longitudinal affective symptoms and decline in cognitive test scores, after adjusting for gender, childhood cognitive ability, education and midlife socioeconomic status. In contrast, affective symptoms were strongly, diffusely and independently associated with self-reported memory problems. Conclusions Affective symptoms are more clearly associated with self-reported memory problems in late midlife than with objectively measured cognitive performance. PMID:24357571

  18. Teratogen risk counselling by internet: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Han, J-Y; Yang, J H; Chung, J H; Choi, J S; Ahn, H K; Ryu, H M; Kim, M Y; Cho, S I; Nava-Ocampo, A A

    2005-07-01

    Although the internet may play a role in providing proper teratogen-risk counselling for pregnant women, the experience with this type of service has not been reported. We aimed to compare the pregnancy outcome of women counselled by the internet to women that received typically in-clinic teratogen risk counselling in the clinic. In a prospective cohort design, 1,011 patients were counselled in the clinic and 235 patients were counselled via the internet. Teratogen risk counselling was provided according with the information obtained from medical literature and specialised software. Information about pregnancy outcome (delivery, spontaneous abortion, or termination of pregnancy and major malformations) was obtained from 903 (89.3%) patients from the clinic group and 141 (60%) from the internet group. The amount of alcohol, cigarettes smoked, and millirads of X-ray were greater ( p < 0.05) in patients counselled by internet than in clinic. The rate of deliveries, ongoing pregnancies, pregnancy terminations, and spontaneous abortions were similar between clinic and internet (chi2 = 1.32; p = 0.7). Of 498 babies born to mothers counselled in the clinic, major malformations were identified in 3.6%. Of 67 babies born to mothers counselled by internet, major malformations were present in 1.5% ( p = 0.6). Teratogen-risk counselling by internet and clinic seems to have a similar efficacy in pregnancy outcome. PMID:16183573

  19. Benzodiazepine use and risk of incident dementia or cognitive decline: prospective population based study

    PubMed Central

    Dublin, Sascha; Yu, Onchee; Walker, Rod; Anderson, Melissa; Hubbard, Rebecca A; Crane, Paul K; Larson, Eric B

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether higher cumulative use of benzodiazepines is associated with a higher risk of dementia or more rapid cognitive decline. Design Prospective population based cohort. Setting Integrated healthcare delivery system, Seattle, Washington. Participants 3434 participants aged ≥65 without dementia at study entry. There were two rounds of recruitment (1994-96 and 2000-03) followed by continuous enrollment beginning in 2004. Main outcomes measures The cognitive abilities screening instrument (CASI) was administered every two years to screen for dementia and was used to examine cognitive trajectory. Incident dementia and Alzheimer’s disease were determined with standard diagnostic criteria. Benzodiazepine exposure was defined from computerized pharmacy data and consisted of the total standardized daily doses (TSDDs) dispensed over a 10 year period (a rolling window that moved forward in time during follow-up). The most recent year was excluded because of possible use for prodromal symptoms. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine time varying use of benzodiazepine and dementia risk. Analyses of cognitive trajectory used linear regression models with generalized estimating equations. Results Over a mean follow-up of 7.3 years, 797 participants (23.2%) developed dementia, of whom 637 developed Alzheimer’s disease. For dementia, the adjusted hazard ratios associated with cumulative benzodiazepine use compared with non-use were 1.25 (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.51) for 1-30 TSDDs; 1.31 (1.00 to 1.71) for 31-120 TSDDs; and 1.07 (0.82 to 1.39) for ≥121 TSDDs. Results were similar for Alzheimer’s disease. Higher benzodiazepine use was not associated with more rapid cognitive decline. Conclusion The risk of dementia is slightly higher in people with minimal exposure to benzodiazepines but not with the highest level of exposure. These results do not support a causal association between benzodiazepine use and

  20. Cortical thickness in adolescent marijuana and alcohol users: A three-year prospective study from adolescence to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Jacobus, Joanna; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Meruelo, Alejandro D; Castro, Norma; Brumback, Ty; Giedd, Jay N; Tapert, Susan F

    2015-12-01

    Studies suggest marijuana impacts gray and white matter neural tissue development, however few prospective studies have determined the relationship between cortical thickness and cannabis use spanning adolescence to young adulthood. This study aimed to understand how heavy marijuana use influences cortical thickness trajectories across adolescence. Subjects were adolescents with heavy marijuana use and concomitant alcohol use (MJ+ALC, n=30) and controls (CON, n=38) with limited substance use histories. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and comprehensive substance use assessment at three independent time points. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to look at main effects of group, time, and Group × Time interactions on cortical thickness. MJ+ALC showed thicker cortical estimates across the brain (23 regions), particularly in frontal and parietal lobes (ps<.05). More cumulative marijuana use was associated with increased thickness estimates by 3-year follow-up (ps<.05). Heavy marijuana use during adolescence and into young adulthood may be associated with altered neural tissue development and interference with neuromaturation that can have neurobehavioral consequences. Continued follow-up of adolescent marijuana users will help understand ongoing neural changes that are associated with development of problematic use into adulthood, as well as potential for neural recovery with cessation of use. PMID:25953106

  1. A Case of Learning to Teach Social Studies at the Prospect School Teacher Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Carol R.

    2011-01-01

    In this case study, part of a larger study of the Prospect School Teacher Education Program, the author investigates the processes of descriptive inquiry by exploring a moment in their evolution and their effect on the learning of one teacher educator and his students ("interns") as they investigated the teaching of social studies. She also…

  2. Comparing Science Process Skills of Prospective Science Teachers: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farsakoglu, Omer Faruk; Sahin, Cigdem; Karsli, Fethiye

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted with the purpose of examining how Prospective Science Teachers' (PST) Science Process Skills (SPS) develop according to different grades. In this study, a cross-sectional research approach in the form of a case study was used. The sample group consisted of a total number of 102 undergraduate students who were selected from…

  3. Inpatient Treatment in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry--A Prospective Study of Health Gain and Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jonathan; Jacobs, Brian; Beecham, Jennifer; Dunn, Graham; Kroll, Leo; Tobias, Catherine; Briskman, Jackie

    2007-01-01

    Background: Inpatient treatment is a complex intervention for the most serious mental health disorders in child and adolescent psychiatry. This is the first large-scale study into its effectiveness and costs. Previous studies have been criticised for methodological weaknesses. Methods: A prospective cohort study, including economic evaluation,…

  4. Investigating How and What Prospective Teachers Learn through Microteaching Lesson Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Maria Lorelei

    2010-01-01

    Microteaching Lesson Study [MLS] combines elements of Japanese lesson study and microteaching. A case study of MLS was conducted with 18 prospective teachers in an initial course on learning to teach. Various data sources (i.e., pre- and post-lesson plans, MLS lesson plans, videotaped lessons, transcripts of group discussions, observation field…

  5. Psychiatric diagnoses among quitters versus continuing smokers 3 years after their quit day

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Megan E.; Rodock, Matthew; Cook, Jessica W.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Fiore, Michael C; Baker, Timothy B.

    2013-01-01

    Background People with psychiatric disorders are more likely to smoke and smoke more heavily than the general population, and they suffer disproportionally from smoking-related illnesses. However, little is known about how quitting versus continuing to smoke affects mental health and the likelihood of developing a psychiatric diagnosis. This study used data from a large prospective clinical trial to examine the relations of smoking cessation success with psychiatric diagnoses 1 and 3 years after the target quit day. Methods This study enrolled 1504 smokers (83.9% white; 58.2% female) in a cessation trial that involved the completion of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to assess psychiatric diagnoses and biochemical confirmation of point-prevalence abstinence at Baseline and Years 1 and 3. Results Regression analyses showed that, after controlling for pre-quit (past-year) diagnoses, participants who were smoking at the Year 3 follow-up were more likely to have developed and maintained a substance use or major depressive disorder by that time than were individuals who were abstinent at Year 3. Conclusions Quitting smoking does not appear to negatively influence mental health in the long-term and may be protective with respect to depression and substance use diagnoses; this should encourage smokers to make quit attempts and encourage clinicians to provide cessation treatment. PMID:22995766

  6. Incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic Leishmania donovani infections in high-endemic foci in India and Nepal: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Ostyn, Bart; Gidwani, Kamlesh; Khanal, Basudha; Picado, Albert; Chappuis, François; Singh, Shri Prakash; Rijal, Suman; Sundar, Shyam; Boelaert, Marleen

    2011-10-01

    Incidence of Leishmania donovani infection and Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) was assessed in a prospective study in Indian and Nepalese high-endemic villages. DAT-seroconversion was used as marker of incident infection in 3 yearly surveys. The study population was followed up to month 30 to identify incident clinical cases. In a cohort of 9034 DAT-negative individuals with neither active signs nor history of VL at baseline, 42 VL cases and 375 asymptomatic seroconversions were recorded in the first year, giving an infection:disease ratio of 8.9 to 1. In the 18 months' follow-up, 7 extra cases of VL were observed in the seroconverters group (N=375), against 14 VL cases among the individuals who had not seroconverted in the first year (N=8570) (RR=11.5(4.5

  7. Longitudinal study of cognitive abilities and adaptive behavior levels in fragile X males: a prospective multicenter analysis.

    PubMed

    Fisch, G S; Simensen, R; Tarleton, J; Chalifoux, M; Holden, J J; Carpenter, N; Howard-Peebles, P N; Maddalena, A

    1996-08-01

    Retrospective longitudinal studies have noted declines in IQ scores in many but not all fra(X) (fragile X) males and females. We report on a prospective investigation of longitudinal changes in cognitive ability (IQ) and adaptive behavior (DQ) in 24 fra(X) males from four test sites. Individuals who were tested ranged in age from 3-15 years. To determine cognitive ability, all males were administered the Stanford-Binet test (4th Edition). To assess adaptive behavior, all males were evaluated using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Mean interest interval was 2.3 years. Using identical DNA protocols, all subjects were identified as bearing the fra(X) mutation. Results showed declines in IQ scores in 18/24 (75%) males. Four males showed no change in scores. Declines in DQ scores were noted in 22/24 (92%) of those tested. DQ scores were higher than IQ scores in 20/24 (83%) subjects. From a descriptive cohort analysis, decreases in IQ scores appear to follow a well-defined, negatively decelerating function. Declines in DQ were steeper and more nearly linear. Declining scores are not indicative of regression of intellectual and/or social skills, but of a relative inability to keep pace with their age-normed cohort. We conclude that the fra(X) mutation affects cognitive abilities in a uniform, nonlinear manner comparable to outcomes observed in earlier retrospective studies. Adaptive behavior also declines, but in a more linear fashion. PMID:8844080

  8. HPV-16 Detected in One-Fourth Eyes With Retinoblastoma: A Prospective Case-control Study From North India.

    PubMed

    Naru, Jasmine; Aggarwal, Ritu; Singh, Usha; Kakkar, Nandita; Bansal, Deepak

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of nonfamilial retinoblastoma (RB) is believed to be higher in developing countries. The reports on association of human papillomavirus (HPV) with RB are limited and contradictory. The aim was to investigate the prevalence of HPV in RB tumor tissue. In the prospective study, consecutive eyes enucleated for RB from patients lacking a family history of RB were enrolled as cases over a 3-year period. Controls included donor eyes obtained from the eye bank. Normal retinal tissue from the donor eyes and tumor tissue from eyes with RB was subjected to DNA isolation. Polymerase chain reaction followed by dot-blot hybridization was performed to detect 21 HPV genotypes. The study cohort included 39 RB and 42 normal retinal tissues. A positive result for HPV-polymerase chain reaction was obtained in 10 (25.6%) tumor tissues and none of the control eyes. HPV-16 was the only subtype detected. Socioeconomic status (P=0.58) or maternal age (P=0.58) was not associated with presence of HPV. All HPV-positive patients had undergone a vaginal delivery (P=0.60). HPV-16 was detected in one-fourth cases of nonfamilial RB. None of the control cases (donor eyes) tested positive. Implication of the presence of HPV in RB tissue and role in carcinogenesis needs further elucidation. PMID:26989916

  9. Changes in Strength Abilities of Adolescent Girls: The Effect of a 3-Year Physical Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czarniecka, Renata; Milde, Katarzyna; Tomaszewski, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To evaluate changes in strength abilities of adolescent girls that underwent a 3-year physical education curriculum. Material and methods: The research participants comprised 141 girls aged 13.3 plus or minus 0.35 years who participated in a 3-year physical education curriculum (PEC). Evaluation was based on the following EUROFIT…

  10. Allocation of Resources to Collaborators and Free-Riders in 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melis, Alicia P.; Altrichter, Kristin; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that in situations where resources have been acquired collaboratively, children at around 3 years of age share mostly equally. We investigated 3-year-olds' sharing behavior with a collaborating partner and a free-riding partner who explicitly expressed her preference not to collaborate. Children shared more equally with…

  11. Cognitive Function at 3 Years of Age after Fetal Exposure to Antiepileptic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Meador, Kimford J.; Baker, Gus A.; Browning, Nancy; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Combs-Cantrell, Deborah T.; Cohen, Morris; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fetal exposure of animals to antiepileptic drugs at doses lower than those required to produce congenital malformations can produce cognitive and behavioral abnormalities, but cognitive effects of fetal exposure of humans to antiepileptic drugs are uncertain. METHODS Between 1999 and 2004, we enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy who were taking a single antiepileptic agent (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, or valproate) in a prospective, observational, multicenter study in the United States and the United Kingdom. The primary analysis is a comparison of neurodevelopmental outcomes at the age of 6 years after exposure to different antiepileptic drugs in utero. This report focuses on a planned interim analysis of cognitive outcomes in 309 children at 3 years of age. RESULTS At 3 years of age, children who had been exposed to valproate in utero had significantly lower IQ scores than those who had been exposed to other antiepileptic drugs. After adjustment for maternal IQ, maternal age, antiepileptic-drug dose, gestational age at birth, and maternal preconception use of folate, the mean IQ was 101 for children exposed to lamotrigine, 99 for those exposed to phenytoin, 98 for those exposed to carbamazepine, and 92 for those exposed to valproate. On average, children exposed to valproate had an IQ score 9 points lower than the score of those exposed to lamotrigine (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1 to 14.6; P = 0.009), 7 points lower than the score of those exposed to phenytoin (95% CI, 0.2 to 14.0; P = 0.04), and 6 points lower than the score of those exposed to carbamazepine (95% CI, 0.6 to 12.0; P = 0.04). The association between valproate use and IQ was dose dependent. Children’s IQs were significantly related to maternal IQs among children exposed to carbamazepine, lamotrigine, or phenytoin but not among those exposed to valproate. CONCLUSIONS In utero exposure to valproate, as compared with other commonly used antiepileptic drugs, is associated

  12. Testosterone deficiency and quality of life in Australasian testicular cancer survivors: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    O'Carrigan, B; Fournier, M; Olver, I N; Stockler, M R; Whitford, H; Toner, G C; Thomson, D B; Davis, I D; Hanning, F; Singhal, N; Underhill, C; Clingan, P; McDonald, A; Boland, A; Grimison, P

    2014-08-01

    This is the first prospective study in a contemporary Australian/New Zealand population to determine the prevalence of testosterone deficiency in testicular cancer survivors at 12 months from treatment, and any association with poorer quality of life. Hormone assays from 54 evaluable patients in a prospective cohort study revealed biochemical hypogonadism in 18 patients (33%) and low-normal testosterone in 13 patients (24%). We found no association between testosterone levels and quality of life (all P > 0.05). Hypogonadal patients should be considered for testosterone replacement to prevent long-term morbidity. PMID:25081047

  13. Toward Fully Automated Multicriterial Plan Generation: A Prospective Clinical Study

    SciTech Connect

    Voet, Peter W.J.; Dirkx, Maarten L.P.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Fransen, Dennie; Levendag, Peter C.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To prospectively compare plans generated with iCycle, an in-house-developed algorithm for fully automated multicriterial intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) beam profile and beam orientation optimization, with plans manually generated by dosimetrists using the clinical treatment planning system. Methods and Materials: For 20 randomly selected head-and-neck cancer patients with various tumor locations (of whom 13 received sequential boost treatments), we offered the treating physician the choice between an automatically generated iCycle plan and a manually optimized plan using standard clinical procedures. Although iCycle used a fixed “wish list” with hard constraints and prioritized objectives, the dosimetrists manually selected the beam configuration and fine tuned the constraints and objectives for each IMRT plan. Dosimetrists were not informed in advance whether a competing iCycle plan was made. The 2 plans were simultaneously presented to the physician, who then selected the plan to be used for treatment. For the patient group, differences in planning target volume coverage and sparing of critical tissues were quantified. Results: In 32 of 33 plan comparisons, the physician selected the iCycle plan for treatment. This highly consistent preference for the automatically generated plans was mainly caused by the improved sparing for the large majority of critical structures. With iCycle, the normal tissue complication probabilities for the parotid and submandibular glands were reduced by 2.4% ± 4.9% (maximum, 18.5%, P=.001) and 6.5% ± 8.3% (maximum, 27%, P=.005), respectively. The reduction in the mean oral cavity dose was 2.8 ± 2.8 Gy (maximum, 8.1 Gy, P=.005). For the swallowing muscles, the esophagus and larynx, the mean dose reduction was 3.3 ± 1.1 Gy (maximum, 9.2 Gy, P<.001). For 15 of the 20 patients, target coverage was also improved. Conclusions: In 97% of cases, automatically generated plans were selected for treatment because of

  14. Development of Visual Motion Perception for Prospective Control: Brain and Behavioral Studies in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Agyei, Seth B.; van der Weel, F. R. (Ruud); van der Meer, Audrey L. H.

    2016-01-01

    During infancy, smart perceptual mechanisms develop allowing infants to judge time-space motion dynamics more efficiently with age and locomotor experience. This emerging capacity may be vital to enable preparedness for upcoming events and to be able to navigate in a changing environment. Little is known about brain changes that support the development of prospective control and about processes, such as preterm birth, that may compromise it. As a function of perception of visual motion, this paper will describe behavioral and brain studies with young infants investigating the development of visual perception for prospective control. By means of the three visual motion paradigms of occlusion, looming, and optic flow, our research shows the importance of including behavioral data when studying the neural correlates of prospective control. PMID:26903908

  15. Predictors of Cerebral Palsy in Very Preterm Infants: The EPIPAGE Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaino, Ghada; Khoshnood, Babak; Kaminski, Monique; Pierrat, Veronique; Marret, Stephane; Matis, Jacqueline; Ledesert, Bernard; Thiriez, Gerard; Fresson, Jeanne; Roze, Jean-Christophe; Zupan-Simunek, Veronique; Arnaud, Catherine; Burguet, Antoine; Larroque, Beatrice; Breart, Gerard; Ancel, Pierre-Yves

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the independent role of cerebral lesions on ultrasound scan, and several other neonatal and obstetric factors, as potential predictors of cerebral palsy (CP) in a large population-based cohort of very preterm infants. Method: As part of EPIPAGE, a population-based prospective cohort study, perinatal data…

  16. A Study on Teaching Gases to Prospective Primary Science Teachers through Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senocak, Erdal; Taskesenligil, Yavuz; Sozbilir, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the achievement of prospective primary science teachers in a problem-based curriculum with those in a conventional primary science teacher preparation program with regard to success in learning about gases and developing positive attitudes towards chemistry. The subjects of the study were 101 first year…

  17. Peer Victimization in Childhood and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwierzynska, Karolina; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Tanya S.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic childhood experiences have been found to predict later internalizing problems. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether repeated and intentional harm doing by peers (peer victimization) in childhood predicts internalizing symptoms in early adolescence. 3,692 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  18. Asthma and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested an association between asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the temporal relationship was not determined. Using a nationwide population-based prospective case-control cohort study (1:4, age-/gender-matched), we hypothesized that asthma in infanthood or early…

  19. Prenatal, Perinatal, and Neonatal Risk Factors for Specific Language Impairment: A Prospective Pregnancy Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Shelton, W. M. R.; Ing, Caleb; Newnham, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although genetic factors are known to play a causal role in specific language impairment (SLI), environmental factors may also be important. This study examined whether there are prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal factors that are associated with childhood SLI. Method: Participants were members of the Raine Study, a prospective cohort…

  20. A 10-Year Prospective Study of Prodromal Patterns for Bipolar Disorder among Amish Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Jon A.; Egeland, Janice A.; Endicott, Jean; Allen, Cleona R.; Hostetter, Abram M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Prospective study of well children at risk of bipolarity to identify the frequency and pattern of potentially prodromal symptoms/behaviors for bipolar disorder type I (BPI) disorder. Method: A total of 110 at-risk children with a BPI parent and 112 children with well parents were studied. Ten-year data collection used structured and…

  1. 77 FR 72871 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request (60-Day FRN): The Agricultural Health Study: A Prospective...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... Agricultural Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study of Cancer and Other Disease Among Men and Women in... Other Disease Among Men and Women in Agriculture, 0925-0406, Expiration Date 5/31/2013--REVISION...--Estimates Annualized Burden Hours Number of Average time Type of respondent Form Number of responses per...

  2. The Intergenerational Continuity of Observed Early Parenting: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovan, Nikki M.; Chung, Alissa L.; Sroufe, L. Alan

    2009-01-01

    The authors report the results from a prospective, longitudinal study of cross-generational parenting quality in a lower socioeconomic status sample of moderate ethnic diversity (N = 61). The study extends previous research on intergenerational continuity of parenting in several significant ways: (a) Assessments in both generations were based on…

  3. Involvement in Bullying and Suicide-Related Behavior at 11 Years: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Tanya; Zanarini, Mary; Wolke, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the prospective link between involvement in bullying (bully, victim, bully/victim), and subsequent suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior, in preadolescent children in the United Kingdom. Method: A total of 6,043 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were assessed to…

  4. Sustained Effects of Ecstasy on the Human Brain: A Prospective Neuroimaging Study in Novel Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Win, Maartje M. L.; Jager, Gerry; Booij, Jan; Reneman, Liesbeth; Schilt, Thelma; Lavini, Christina; Olabarriaga, Silvia D.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; van den Brink, Wim

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested toxic effects of recreational ecstasy use on the serotonin system of the brain. However, it cannot be excluded that observed differences between users and non-users are the cause rather than the consequence of ecstasy use. As part of the Netherlands XTC Toxicity (NeXT) study, we prospectively assessed sustained…

  5. Prediction of Participation and Sensory Modulation of Late Preterm Infants at 12 Months: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, O.; Shayevits, S.; Gabis, L. V.; Morag, I.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to prospectively assess the differences in participation and sensory modulation between late preterm infants (LPI) and term babies, and to predict it by LPI characteristics. The study population includes 124 late preterm infants at gestational age between 34 and 35 6/7 weeks who were born at the same medical center. The…

  6. Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence, Peer Relations, and Risk for Internalizing Behaviors: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Kathleen; Ehrensaft, Miriam K.; Cohen, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the quality of peer relations as a mediator between exposure to IPV (intimate partner violence) and internalizing behaviors in a sample of 129 preadolescents and adolescents (ages 10-18), who were interviewed via telephone as part of a multigenerational, prospective, longitudinal study. Relational victimization is also…

  7. The Taiwan Birth Panel Study: a prospective cohort study for environmentally- related child health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Taiwan Birth Panel Study (TBPS) is a prospective follow-up study to investigate the development of child health and disease in relation to in-utero and/or early childhood environmental exposures. The rationale behind the establishment of such a cohort includes the magnitude of potential environmental exposures, the timing of exposure window, fatal and children's susceptibility to toxicants, early exposure delayed effects, and low-level or unknown neurodevelopmental toxicants. Methods A total of 486 mother-infant paired was enrolled from April 2004 to January 2005 in this study. Maternal blood before delivery, placenta and umbilical cord blood at birth, and mothers' urine after delivery were collected. The follow-up was scheduled at birth, 4, 6 months, and 1, 2, 3 and 5 years. The children's blood, urine, hair, and saliva were collected at 2 years of age and children's urine was collected at 5 years of age as well. The study has been approved by the ethical committee of National Taiwan University Hospital. All the subjects signed the inform consent on entering the study and each of the follow up. Results Through this prospective birth cohort, the main health outcomes were focused on child growth, neurodevelopment, behaviour problem and atopic diseases. We investigated the main prenatal and postnatal factors including smoking, heavy metals, perfluorinated chemicals, and non-persistent pesticides under the consideration of interaction of the environment and genes. Conclusions This cohort study bridges knowledge gaps and answers unsolved issues in the low-level, prenatal or postnatal, and multiple exposures, genetic effect modification, and the initiation and progression of "environmentally-related childhood diseases." PMID:21838884

  8. Prospective Study of Local Control and Late Radiation Toxicity After Intraoperative Radiation Therapy Boost for Early Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, David W.; Marvelde, Luc te; Chua, Boon H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To report the local recurrence rate and late toxicity of intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) boost to the tumor bed using the Intrabeam System followed by external-beam whole-breast irradiation (WBI) in women with early-stage breast cancer in a prospective single-institution study. Methods and Materials: Women with breast cancer ≤3 cm were recruited between February 2003 and May 2005. After breast-conserving surgery, a single dose of 5 Gy IORT boost was delivered using 50-kV x-rays to a depth of 10 mm from the applicator surface. This was followed by WBI to a total dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions. Patients were reviewed at regular, predefined intervals. Late toxicities were recorded using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring systems. Results: Fifty-five patients completed both IORT boost and external-beam WBI. Median follow-up was 3.3 years (range, 1.4-4.1 years). There was no reported locoregional recurrence or death. One patient developed distant metastases. Grade 2 and 3 subcutaneous fibrosis was detected in 29 (53%) and 8 patients (15%), respectively. Conclusions: The use of IORT as a tumor bed boost using kV x-rays in breast-conserving therapy was associated with good local control but a clinically significant rate of grade 2 and 3 subcutaneous fibrosis.

  9. In Fitness and Health? A Prospective Study of Changes in Marital Status and Fitness in Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Francisco B.; Brown, Wendy J.; Lee, Duck-chul; Baruth, Meghan; Sui, Xuemei; Blair, Steven N.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the prospective associations between marital status transitions and changes in fitness in men and women. Between 1987 and 2005, a total of 8,871 adults (6,900 men) aged 45.6 (standard deviation, 9.1) years were examined at the Cooper Clinic, Dallas, Texas; the median follow-up was ∼3 years. Marital transition categories (from single to married, married to divorced, divorced to remarried) were derived from self-reported marital status at baseline and follow-up. Fitness (maximal oxygen consumption) was assessed by a maximal treadmill test. Analyses were adjusted for baseline levels and changes in body mass index, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and major chronic diseases. Compared with the corresponding “control” groups (remaining single, married, or divorced), transitioning from being single to married was associated with a reduction in fitness in women (P = 0.03); divorce was associated with an increase in fitness in men (P = 0.04); and remarriage was associated with a reduction in fitness in men (P = 0.05). The authors conclude that the transitions to being married (from single to married or from divorced to remarried) are associated with a modest reduction, while divorce is associated with a modest increase in fitness levels in men. Study results suggest that these patterns may be different in women, but further research is required to confirm this. PMID:21123852

  10. Extrinsic Rewards Diminish Costly Sharing in 3-Year-Olds.

    PubMed

    Ulber, Julia; Hamann, Katharina; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Two studies investigated the influence of external rewards and social praise in young children's fairness-related behavior. The motivation of ninety-six 3-year-olds' to equalize unfair resource allocations was measured in three scenarios (collaboration, windfall, and dictator game) following three different treatments (material reward, verbal praise, and neutral response). In all scenarios, children's willingness to engage in costly sharing was negatively influenced when they had received a reward for equal sharing during treatment than when they had received praise or no reward. The negative effect of material rewards was not due to subjects responding in kind to their partner's termination of rewards. These results provide new evidence for the intrinsic motivation of prosociality-in this case, costly sharing behavior-in preschool children. PMID:27084549

  11. Defining safe criteria to diagnose miscarriage: prospective observational multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    Preisler, Jessica; Kopeika, Julia; Ismail, Laure; Vathanan, Veluppillai; Farren, Jessica; Abdallah, Yazan; Battacharjee, Parijat; Van Holsbeke, Caroline; Bottomley, Cecilia; Gould, Deborah; Johnson, Susanne; Stalder, Catriona; Van Calster, Ben; Hamilton, Judith; Timmerman, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To validate recent guidance changes by establishing the performance of cut-off values for embryo crown-rump length and mean gestational sac diameter to diagnose miscarriage with high levels of certainty. Secondary aims were to examine the influence of gestational age on interpretation of mean gestational sac diameter and crown-rump length values, determine the optimal intervals between scans and findings on repeat scans that definitively diagnose pregnancy failure.) Design Prospective multicentre observational trial. Setting Seven hospital based early pregnancy assessment units in the United Kingdom. Participants 2845 women with intrauterine pregnancies of unknown viability included if transvaginal ultrasonography showed an intrauterine pregnancy of uncertain viability. In three hospitals this was initially defined as an empty gestational sac <20 mm mean diameter with or without a visible yolk sac but no embryo, or an embryo with crown-rump length <6 mm with no heartbeat. Following amended guidance in December 2011 this definition changed to a gestational sac size <25 mm or embryo crown-rump length <7 mm. At one unit the definition was extended throughout to include a mean gestational sac diameter <30 mm or embryo crown-rump length <8 mm. Main outcome measures Mean gestational sac diameter, crown-rump length, and presence or absence of embryo heart activity at initial and repeat transvaginal ultrasonography around 7-14 days later. The final outcome was pregnancy viability at 11-14 weeks’ gestation. Results The following indicated a miscarriage at initial scan: mean gestational sac diameter ≥25 mm with an empty sac (364/364 specificity: 100%, 95% confidence interval 99.0% to 100%), embryo with crown-rump length ≥7 mm without visible embryo heart activity (110/110 specificity: 100%, 96.7% to 100%), mean gestational sac diameter ≥18 mm for gestational sacs without an embryo presenting after 70 days’ gestation (907/907 specificity: 100%, 99.6% to

  12. Prospective studies on children with sex chromosome aneuploidy

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliffe, S.G.; Paul, N.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Growth and Development from Early to Midadolescence of Children with X and Y Chromosome Aneuploidy: The Toronto Study; Sex Chromomal Aneuploidy: Perspective and Longitudinal Studies; Psychologic Study of XYY and XXY Men; and Cellular and Molecular Studies in Human Chromosomal Diseases.

  13. UK pneumonectomy outcome study (UKPOS): a prospective observational study of pneumonectomy outcome

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Ellie S; Pearce, Adrian C; Cook, David; Davies, Paul; Bishay, Ehab; Bowler, Geoffrey MR; Gao, Fang

    2009-01-01

    Background In order to assess the short term risks of pneumonectomy for lung cancer in contemporary practice a one year prospective observational study of pneumonectomy outcome was made. Current UK practice for pneumonectomy was observed to note patient and treatment factors associated with major complications. Methods A multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study was performed. All 35 UK thoracic surgical centres were invited to submit data to the study. All adult patients undergoing pneumonectomy for lung cancer between 1 January and 31 December 2005 were included. Patients undergoing pleuropneumonectomy, extended pneumonectomy, completion pneumonectomy following previous lobectomy and pneumonectomy for benign disease, were excluded from the study. The main outcome measure was suffering a major complication. Major complications were defined as: death within 30 days of surgery; treated cardiac arrhythmia or hypotension; unplanned intensive care admission; further surgery or inotrope usage. Results 312 pneumonectomies from 28 participating centres were entered. The major complication incidence was: 30-day mortality 5.4%; treated cardiac arrhythmia 19.9%; unplanned intensive care unit admission 9.3%; further surgery 4.8%; inotrope usage 3.5%. Age, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status ≥ P3, pre-operative diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and epidural analgesia were collectively the strongest risk factors for major complications. Major complications prolonged median hospital stay by 2 days. Conclusion The 30 day mortality rate was less than 8%, in agreement with the British Thoracic Society guidelines. Pneumonectomy was associated with a high rate of major complications. Age, ASA physical status, DLCO and epidural analgesia appeared collectively most associated with major complications. PMID:19643006

  14. Growth and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Growth and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Growth and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old Print A A A ... 4 pounds (1.8 kilograms) and grow about 2 to 3 inches (5 to 8 centimeters). They' ...

  15. Chronic Stress is Prospectively Associated with Sleep in Midlife Women: The SWAN Sleep Study

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Martica H.; Casement, Melynda D.; Troxel, Wendy M.; Matthews, Karen A.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Krafty, Robert T.; Buysse, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Evaluate whether levels of upsetting life events measured over a 9-y period prospectively predict subjective and objective sleep outcomes in midlife women. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Four sites across the United States. Participants: 330 women (46–57 y of age) enrolled in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Upsetting life events were assessed annually for up to 9 y. Trajectory analysis applied to life events data quantitatively identified three distinct chronic stress groups: low stress, moderate stress, and high stress. Sleep was assessed by self-report and in-home polysomnography (PSG) during the ninth year of the study. Multivariate analyses tested the prospective association between chronic stress group and sleep, adjusting for race, baseline sleep complaints, marital status, body mass index, symptoms of depression, and acute life events at the time of the Sleep Study. Women characterized by high chronic stress had lower subjective sleep quality, were more likely to report insomnia, and exhibited increased PSG-assessed wake after sleep onset (WASO) relative to women with low to moderate chronic stress profiles. The effect of chronic stress group on WASO persisted in the subsample of participants without baseline sleep complaints. Conclusions: Chronic stress is prospectively associated with sleep disturbance in midlife women, even after adjusting for acute stressors at the time of the sleep study and other factors known to disrupt sleep. These results are consistent with current models of stress that emphasize the cumulative effect of stressors on health over time. Citation: Hall MH, Casement MD, Troxel WM, Matthews KA, Bromberger JT, Kravitz HM, Krafty RT, Buysse DJ. Chronic stress is prospectively associated with sleep in midlife women: the SWAN Sleep Study. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1645–1654. PMID:26039965

  16. 42 CFR 412.273 - Withdrawing an application, terminating an approved 3-year reclassification, or canceling a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawing an application, terminating an approved 3-year reclassification, or canceling a previous withdrawal or termination. 412.273 Section 412.273 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS...

  17. Predicting Changes in Eating Disorder Symptoms among Adolescents in China: An 18-Month Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2008-01-01

    This 18-month prospective study investigated factors that contributed to changes in eating disorder symptoms among adolescents living in the People's Republic of China. Five hundred forty-one Chinese middle school and high school students (182 boys, 359 girls) completed measures of eating disorder symptoms; body dissatisfaction; appearance ideal…

  18. How Can Perceived Autonomy Support Influence Enrollment in Elective Physical Education? A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    This prospective study was designed to investigate the influence of high students' perceived teacher autonomy support in mandatory physical education on their intention and actual enrollment in elective physical education. Participants included 545 ninth-grade students enrolled in three suburban high schools in a major midwestern metropolitan…

  19. Clinical Observed Performance Evaluation: A Prospective Study in Final Year Students of Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markey, G. C.; Browne, K.; Hunter, K.; Hill, A. D.

    2011-01-01

    We report a prospective study of clinical observed performance evaluation (COPE) for 197 medical students in the pre-qualification year of clinical education. Psychometric quality was the main endpoint. Students were assessed in groups of 5 in 40-min patient encounters, with each student the focus of evaluation for 8 min. Each student had a series…

  20. PROSPECTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH WASTEWATER UTILIZATION IN AGRICULTURE (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A prospective epidemiological morbidity and serology study was carried out in Israel in 1980/82 on the association between enteric disease incidence and wastewater utilization in 29 kibbutzim. Analysis of morbidity data indicate that no significant excess of enteric disease episo...

  1. The "Prospects" Study of Educational Growth and Opportunity: Implications for Policy and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael J.

    This paper examines results from the Prospects study--a research agenda that explored the federal Title I program's impact on the academic and socio-emotional development of disadvantaged children. The document focuses on the program's strengths and limitations, offering a brief review of educational research and highlighting what may or may not…

  2. Mediating Mechanisms for the Intergenerational Transmission of Constructive Parenting: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zeng-yin; Liu, Ruth X.; Kaplan, Howard B.

    2008-01-01

    Based on a prospective longitudinal panel data set that was collected at three developmental stages--early adolescence, young adulthood, and middle adulthood--this study investigates marital satisfaction and educational attainment as mediating mechanisms as well as gender's moderating effect for the intergenerational transmission of constructive…

  3. Father Locus of Control and Child Emotional and Behavioral Outcomes: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tone, Erin B.; Goodfellow, Stephanie; Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In a prospective longitudinal study the authors examined the associations between parent locus of control of reinforcement (LOCR), measured before the birth of a child, and behavioral-emotional outcomes in that child at age 7 years. A total of 307 couples completed questionnaires regarding their emotional status and LOCR at their first prenatal…

  4. Keeping Friends Safe: A Prospective Study Examining Early Adolescent's Confidence and Support Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, L.; Chapman, R. L.; Sheehan, M.; Cunningham, L.

    2012-01-01

    There is a continued need to consider ways to prevent early adolescent engagement in a variety of harmful risk-taking behaviours for example, violence, road-related risks and alcohol use. The current prospective study examined adolescents' reports of intervening to try and stop friends' engagement in such behaviours among 207 early adolescents…

  5. Beliefs of Applied Studio Faculty on Desirable Traits of Prospective Music Education Majors: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royston, Natalie Steele; Springer, D. Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the beliefs of applied music faculty on desirable traits of prospective music education majors. Researcher-designed surveys were sent electronically to applied music faculty at 12 National Association of Schools of Music-accredited institutions randomly selected from each of the four major divisions…

  6. A Prospective Longitudinal Study of High School Dropouts: Examining Multiple Predictors across Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimerson, Shane; Egeland, Byron; Sroufe, L. Alan; Carlson, Betty

    2000-01-01

    Utilizes data from a prospective longitudinal study of at-risk children to explore multiple predictors of high school dropouts across development. Results reveal association of early home environment, quality of early caregiving, socioeconomic status, IQ, behavior problems, academic achievement, peer relations, and parent involvement with dropping…

  7. Psychological and Behavioral Risk Factors for Obesity Onset in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Shaw, Heather; Rohde, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Because little is known about risk factors for obesity, the authors tested whether certain psychological and behavioral variables predicted future onset of obesity. The authors used data from a prospective study of 496 adolescent girls who completed a baseline assessment at age 11-15 years and 4 annual follow-ups. Self-reported dietary restraint,…

  8. A One Year Prospective Study of Neurogenic Stuttering Following Stroke: Incidence and Co-Occurring Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theys, C.; van Wieringen, A.; Sunaert, S.; Thijs, V.; De Nil, L. F.

    2011-01-01

    In this prospective study, data on incidence, stuttering characteristics, co-occurring speech disorders, and recovery of neurogenic stuttering in a large sample of stroke participants were assessed. Following stroke onset, 17 of 319 participants (5.3%; 95% CI, 3.2-8.3) met the criteria for neurogenic stuttering. Stuttering persisted in at least…

  9. Prospective Predictors of Body Dissatisfaction in Adolescent Girls and Boys: A Five-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Susan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated prospective risk factors for increases in body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls and boys in the Eating Among Teens Project. At the time of first assessment (Time 1), participants were a cohort of early adolescent girls (N = 440) and boys (N = 366) and a cohort of middle adolescent girls (N = 946) and boys (N = 764).…

  10. A prospective study of marine phytoplankton and reported illness among recreational beachgoers in Puerto Rico, 2009

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Blooms of marine phytoplankton may adversely affect human health. The potential public health impact of low-level exposures is not well established, and few prospective cohort studies of recreational exposures to marine phytoplankton have been conducted.OBJECTIVE: We ...

  11. A Study of Prospective Turkish Science Teachers' Knowledge at the Popular Biotechnological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darcin, Emine Selcen; Turkmen, Lutfullah

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge level of popular biotechnological issues of prospective Turkish science teachers. A questionnaire was administered during 2005-2006 academic year to 194 students in the Department of Science Education of a university in Turkey. The questionnaire covered six biotechnological issues such as…

  12. How Can We Get the Information about Democracy? The Example of Social Studies Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonga, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    In this research, the information about democracy, which social studies prospective teachers have, and interpretation of the information sources are aimed. The research was planned as a survey research methodology and the participants were determined with criterion sampling method. The data were collected through developed open-ended questions…

  13. A Prospective Study of Mexican American Adolescents' Academic Success: Considering Family and Individual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roosa, Mark W.; O'Donnell, Megan; Cham, Heining; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Zeiders, Katherine H.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Mexican American youth are at greater risk of school failure than their peers. To identify factors that may contribute to academic success in this population, this study examined the prospective relationships from 5th grade to 7th grade of family (i.e., human capital [a parent with at least a high school education], residential stability,…

  14. Rumination and Depression in Adolescence: Investigating Symptom Specificity in a Multiwave Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2008-01-01

    A ruminative response style has been shown to predict depressive symptoms among youth and adults, but it is unclear whether rumination is associated specifically with depression compared with co-occurring symptoms of anxiety and externalizing behaviors. This prospective, multiwave study investigated whether baseline rumination predicted…

  15. The Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes of Prospective Teachers: A Quantitative and Heuristic Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Rotha M.

    2012-01-01

    Moule (2005) suggest diverse students suffer isolation, invisibility and inappropriate labeling in many educational institutions. This mixed method study explores the multicultural awareness, knowledge, skills, and attitudes of prospective teachers. The research questions are: (1) what are the multicultural awareness, knowledge, skills and…

  16. A Prospective Study of Risk Factors for the Development of Depression and Disordered Eating in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that females display higher levels of depressive symptoms and disordered eating than males from adolescence onward. This study examined whether different risk factors and their interaction with sex (moderator effect) prospectively predicted depressive symptoms and disordered eating in adolescents. A total of 415 female…

  17. The Interpersonal Antecedents of Supportive Parenting: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study from Infancy to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, K. Lee; Lawler, Jamie M.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Hesemeyer, Paloma S.; Collins, W. Andrew; Sroufe, L. Alan

    2015-01-01

    This study drew on prospective, longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that the intergenerational transmission of positive parenting is mediated by competence in subsequent relationships with peers and romantic partners. Interview-based ratings of supportive parenting were completed with a sample of 113 individuals (46% male) followed from birth…

  18. The Effects of Divorce and Parental Conflict on Children's Adjustment: A Prospective Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Daniel

    Replicating the methodology used by Block, Block, and Gjerde (1986), a prospective, longitudinal examination was made of relations between divorce and children's adjustment. Data from the New York Longitudinal Study (NYLS), originally collected by Thomas, Chess, and Birch (1963, 1968, 1977, 1983, 1984) was analyzed. The NYLS assessed children's…

  19. The Short-Term Impact of Involuntary Migration in China's Three Gorges: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Sean-Shong; Cao, Yue; Xi, Juan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to measure the short-term impact of involuntary migration resulting from China's Three Gorges Dam project on the 1.3 million persons being displaced. We focus on the social, economic, and mental and physical health impact using three sets of indicators. Using a prospective research design, we gathered information about…

  20. Predictors and Health-Related Outcomes of Positive Body Image in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential…

  1. Predicting Dyslexia in a Transparent Orthography from Grade 1 Literacy Skills: A Prospective Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Pinto, Giuliana; Accorti Gamannossi, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this prospective cohort study to explore the predictability of dyslexia from 1st-grade literacy skills in Italian students. We followed 407 Italian students in primary school from the 1st through the 3rd grades. Students were diagnosed with dyslexia in the 3rd grade. We retrospectively tested participants' 1st-grade performance in…

  2. Risk and Protective Factors Predictive of Adolescent Pregnancy: A Longitudinal, Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Patricia L.; Khoo, Siek Toon; Reyes, Barbara T.

    2006-01-01

    One hundred twenty-eight Latina and African American girls from high-risk environments (e.g., poverty, family history of teen parenting, etc.) were studied from age 13 through age 19 to prospectively identify the protective factors that might guard against teenage pregnancy. Results indicated that involved and strict parenting during early…

  3. Cognitive Coping Strategies and Stress in Parents of Children with Down Syndrome: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Veek, Shelley M. C.; Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the cross-sectional and prospective relationships between cognitive coping strategies and parental stress in parents of children with Down syndrome. A total of 621 participants filled out questionnaires, including the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire to measure cognitive coping and the Nijmeegse…

  4. Procedures for assessing psychological predictors of injuries in circus artists: a pilot prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Research on psychological risk factors for injury has focused on stable traits. Our objective was to test the feasibility of a prospective longitudinal study designed to examine labile psychological states as risk factors of injury. Methods We measured psychological traits at baseline (mood, ways of coping and anxiety), and psychological states every day (1-item questions on anxiety, sleep, fatigue, soreness, self-confidence) before performances in Cirque du Soleil artists of the show “O”. Additional questions were added once per week to better assess anxiety (20-item) and mood. Questionnaires were provided in English, French, Russian and Japanese. Injury and exposure data were extracted from electronic records that are kept as part of routine business practices. Results The 43.9% (36/82) recruitment rate was more than expected. Most artists completed the baseline questionnaires in 15 min, a weekly questionnaire in <2 min and a daily questionnaire in <1 min. We improved the formatting of some questions during the study, and adapted the wording of other questions to improve clarity. There were no dropouts during the entire study, suggesting the questionnaires were appropriate in content and length. Results for sample size calculations depend on the number of artists followed and the minimal important difference in injury rates, but in general, preclude a purely prospective study with daily data collection because of the long follow-up required. However, a prospective nested case-crossover design with data collection bi-weekly and at the time of injury appears feasible. Conclusion A prospective study collecting psychological state data from subjects who train and work regularly together is feasible, but sample size calculations suggest that the optimal study design would use prospective nested case-crossover methodology. PMID:24920527

  5. Retrospect and Prospect of Studies of Teacher Efficacy in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Ning; Miao, Danmin

    2006-01-01

    Teacher efficacy is a powerful variable in educational and psychological studies. And it aroused much attention and interest from Chinese scholars in the past decade, which led to an accumulation of documents in this field. Following an introduction of efficacy studies in the west, the article reviews the brief history of those in China,…

  6. CHLORINE DIOXIDE WATER DISINFECTION: A PROSPECTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An epidemiologic study of 198 persons exposed for 3 months to drinking water disinfected with chlorine dioxide was conducted in a rural village. A control population of 118 nonexposed persons was also studied. Pre-exposure hematologic and serum chemical parameters were compared w...

  7. Antecedents of Aggression and Peer Victimization: A Prospective Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, David

    As part of a longitudinal study of children's social development, this study explored preschool home environments of elementary school children who were persistently bullied and victimized by their peers. Subjects included approximately 200 children randomly sampled from predominantly lower and middle socioeconomic populations. One-fourth of the…

  8. A Case Study: Employment Prospects for Female Technology Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Dewayne L.

    1978-01-01

    Findings from a three-year study to determine the ratio of male and female graduates employed in industrial-related jobs after completing industrial technology programs at Black Hawk College, Moline, Illinois, show no significant difference in the employability rate. Several factors may limit the study validity. (MF)

  9. Prospects and pitfalls in whole genome association studies

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Robert W; Evans, David M; Cardon, Lon R

    2005-01-01

    Recent large-scale studies of common genetic variation throughout the human genome are making it feasible to conduct whole genome studies of genotype–phenotype associations. Such studies have the potential to uncover novel contributors to common complex traits and thus lead to insights into the aetiology of multifactorial phenotypes. Despite this promise, it is important to recognize that the availability of genetic markers and the ability to assay them at realistic cost does not guarantee success of this approach. There are a number of practical issues that require close attention, some forms of allelic architecture are not readily amenable to the association approach with even the most rigorous design, and doubtless new hurdles will emerge as the studies begin. Here we discuss the promise and current challenges of the whole genome approach, and raise some issues to consider in interpreting the results of the first whole genome studies. PMID:16096108

  10. Effects of Aversive Stimuli on Prospective Memory. An Event-Related fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Rea, Massimiliano; Kullmann, Stephanie; Veit, Ralf; Casile, Antonino; Braun, Christoph; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Birbaumer, Niels; Caria, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) describes the ability to execute a previously planned action at the appropriate point in time. Although behavioral studies clearly showed that prospective memory performance is affected by the emotional significance attributed to the intended action, no study so far investigated the brain mechanisms subserving the modulatory effect of emotional salience on PM performance. The general aim of the present study was to explore brain regions involved in prospective memory processes when PM cues are associated with emotional stimuli. In particular, based on the hypothesised critical role of the prefrontal cortex in prospective memory in the presence of emotionally salient stimuli, we expected a stronger involvement of aPFC when the retrieval and execution of the intended action is cued by an aversive stimulus. To this aim BOLD responses of PM trials cued by aversive facial expressions were compared to PM trials cued by neutral facial expressions. Whole brain analysis showed that PM task cued by aversive stimuli is differentially associated with activity in the right lateral prefrontal area (BA 10) and in the left caudate nucleus. Moreover a temporal shift between the response of the caudate nucleus that preceded that of aPFC was observed. These findings suggest that the caudate nucleus might provide an early analysis of the affective properties of the stimuli, whereas the anterior lateral prefrontal cortex (BA10) would be involved in a slower and more deliberative analysis to guide goal-directed behaviour. PMID:22022589

  11. Incidences of Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia in Japanese Adults Aged 50 Years and Older From a Community-based Prospective Cohort Study: The SHEZ Study

    PubMed Central

    Takao, Yukiko; Miyazaki, Yoshiyuki; Okeda, Masayuki; Onishi, Fumitake; Yano, Shuichiro; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Toyokazu; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Mori, Yasuko; Asada, Hideo; Yamanishi, Koichi; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    Background Many cross-sectional studies have examined the incidences of herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), but prospective studies in Japanese older adults are lacking. Therefore, we conducted a community-based prospective cohort study to determine the incidence in Japanese adults aged ≥50 years. Methods We recruited 12 522 participants from Shozu County, Kagawa Prefecture, between December 2008 and November 2009 and followed participants for 3 years. When a subject presented with symptoms suggestive of HZ, they were examined at collaborating medical institutions and cooperated with onset and recovery surveys (eg, measurement of varicella zoster virus-specific immunity and a pain survey). The hazard ratios (HRs) of HZ and PHN according to sex and age were analyzed by Cox regression analysis with a significance level of 5%. Results The incidence of HZ was 10.9/1000 person-years (men: 8.5/1000 person-years; women: 12.8/1000 person-years) and was significantly higher in women than in men (HR 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.2–1.8). The incidence of PHN was 2.1/1000 person-years (men: 1.7/1000 person-years; women: 2.4/1000 person-years), with no significant sex differences. A total of 19% of HZ cases progressed to PHN; no sex-specific difference in the proportion of PHN cases was observed. Conclusions We clarified the accurate incidences of HZ and PHN in a population of Japanese older adults. These incidences increased with age. HZ incidence was higher in women than in men, while PHN incidence did not differ markedly between the sexes. PMID:26399445

  12. Mortality in Autism: A Prospective Longitudinal Community-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva; Sundh, Valter; Gillberg, I. Carina

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to establish the mortality rate in a representative group of individuals (n = 120) born in the years 1962-1984, diagnosed with autism/atypical autism in childhood and followed up at young adult age (greater than or equal to 18 years of age), and examine the risk factors and causes of death. The study group,…

  13. Prospects for the Study of Evolution in the Deep Biosphere

    PubMed Central

    Biddle, Jennifer F.; Sylvan, Jason B.; Brazelton, William J.; Tully, Benjamin J.; Edwards, Katrina J.; Moyer, Craig L.; Heidelberg, John F.; Nelson, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Since the days of Darwin, scientists have used the framework of the theory of evolution to explore the interconnectedness of life on Earth and adaptation of organisms to the ever-changing environment. The advent of molecular biology has advanced and accelerated the study of evolution by allowing direct examination of the genetic material that ultimately determines the phenotypes upon which selection acts. The study of evolution has been furthered through examination of microbial evolution, with large population numbers, short generation times, and easily extractable DNA. Such work has spawned the study of microbial biogeography, with the realization that concepts developed in population genetics may be applicable to microbial genomes (Martiny et al., 2006; Manhes and Velicer, 2011). Microbial biogeography and adaptation has been examined in many different environments. Here we argue that the deep biosphere is a unique environment for the study of evolution and list specific factors that can be considered and where the studies may be performed. This publication is the result of the NSF-funded Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) theme team on Evolution (www.darkenergybiosphere.org). PMID:22319515

  14. Exploring the Impact of Phonological Awareness, Visual-Spatial Working Memory, and Preschool Quantity--Number Competencies on Mathematics Achievement in Elementary School: Findings from a 3-year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krajewski, Kristin; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored the importance of kindergarten measures of phonological awareness, working memory, and quantity-number competencies (QNC) for predicting mathematical school achievement in third graders (mean age 8 years 8 months). It was found that the impact of phonological awareness and visual-spatial working memory, assessed at…

  15. Prospects for HERMES-spin structure studies at HERA

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, H.E.

    1994-12-31

    HERMES (HERA Measurement of Spin), is a second generation experiment to study the spin structure of the nucleon by using polarized internal gas targets in the HERA 35-GeV electron storage ring. Scattered electrons and coincident hadrons will be detected in an open geometry spectrometer which will include particle identification. Measurements are planned for each of the inclusive structure functions, g{sub 1},(x), g{sub 2}(x), b{sub 1}(x) and A(x), as well as the study of semi-inclusive pion and kaon asymmetries. Targets of hydrogen, deuterium and {sup 3}He will be studied. The accuracy of data for the inclusive structure functions will equal or exceed that of current experiments. The semi-inclusive asymmetries will provide a unique and sensitive probe of the flavor dependence of quark helicity distributions and properties of the quark sea. Monte Carlo simulations of HERMES data for experiment asymmetries and polarized structure functions are discussed.

  16. Transoral robotic surgery for hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: 3-year oncologic and functional analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Min; Kim, Won Shik; De Virgilio, Armando; Lee, So Yoon; Seol, Jeong Hun; Kim, Se-Heon

    2012-06-01

    The recent trend in treatment of hypopharyngeal cancer is organ preservation in order to maintain swallowing and speech function as well as improve quality of life. Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) can remove hypopharyngeal lesions successfully without an external incision, preserving physiologic functions of affected organs. However, studies have yet to assess the oncologic and functional results of TORS for the treatment of hypopharyngeal cancer. This prospective study evaluated the oncologic and functional results of TORS for the treatment of hypopharyngeal cancer obtained at our institution over a period of 3 years and confirmed the validity of TORS as a surgical organ-preserving strategy. Between April 2008 and September 2011, 23 patients who were diagnosed with hypopharyngeal cancer underwent TORS for removal of a primary lesion. The da Vinci Robotic system (Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, California) was used to remove the lesion. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze overall survival and disease-free survival. Videopharyngogram study (VEF) was performed and functional outcome swallowing scale (FOSS) was utilized to measure and evaluate swallowing function. Acoustic wave form analysis was conducted to evaluate voice status. Overall survival at 3 years was 89% and disease-free survival was 84%. On the VEF study, serious aspiration or delay of swallowing was not observed during the pharyngeal stage of the swallowing process. Overall, 96% of the patients showed favorable swallowing abilities with an FOSS score ranging from 0 to 2. The fundamental frequency variation (vF0) and jitter were increased upon acoustic waveform analysis (vF0=2.71 ± 0.063, Jitter=2.01 ± 0.034), but the harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR) and shimmer were maintained close to the normal range (HNR=1.28 ± 0.001, Shim=1.74 ± 0.036). The oncologic and functional results of TORS were quite acceptable for the treatment of hypopharyngeal cancer. TORS is a valid treatment option as a

  17. Genomewide association studies: History, rationale and prospects for psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective We review the history and empirical basis of genomewide association studies (GWAS), the rationale for GWAS of psychiatric disorders, results to date, limitations, and plans for GWAS meta-analyses. Method Literature review, power analysis, discussion of issues and description of planned studies. Results Most of the genomic DNA sequence differences between any two people are common (frequency > 5%) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Because of localized patterns of correlation (linkage disequilibrium), 500,000-1,000,000 of these SNPs can test the hypothesis that one or more common variants explain part of the genetic risk for a disease. GWAS technologies can also detect some of the copy number variants (CNVs; deletions and duplications) in the genome. Systematic study of rare variants will require large-scale resequencing studies. GWAS methods have detected a remarkable number of robust genetic associations for dozens of common diseases and traits, leading to new pathophysiological hypotheses, although only small proportions of genetic variance have been explained so far, and therapeutic applications will require substantial further effort. Study design issues, power and limitations are discussed. For psychiatric disorders, there are initial significant findings for common SNPs and rare CNVs. Many other studies are in progress. Conclusion GWAS of large samples have detected associations of common SNPs and of rare CNVs to psychiatric disorders. More findings are likely -- larger GWAS samples detect larger numbers of common susceptibility variants (with smaller effects). The Psychiatric GWAS Consortium (of 110 researchers from 54 institutions) is carrying out GWAS meta-analyses for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Based on results for other diseases, larger samples will be required. The contribution of GWAS will depend on the true genetic architecture of each disorder. PMID

  18. A Study on Prospective Science Teachers' Knowledge and Achievement Levels in Mathematical Logic in Electricity-Related Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to reveal prospective science teachers' knowledge and achievement levels in electricity-related subjects. The data for the study were collected from 44 prospective teachers using three measurement tools. The data were then analyzed using software developed for the Probability and Possibility Calculation Statistics…

  19. 75 FR 72816 - Public Input for the Study Regarding the Oversight of Existing and Prospective Carbon Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... COMMISSION Public Input for the Study Regarding the Oversight of Existing and Prospective Carbon Markets... Commission (the ``CFTC''), to conduct a study on the oversight of existing and prospective carbon markets to ensure an efficient, secure, and transparent carbon market, including oversight of spot markets...

  20. A Study on Prospective Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs Regarding the Implementation of Constructivist Approach (A Case of Konya)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ektem, Isil Sönmez

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal prospective teachers' perceptions and views about the implementation of the constructivist approach. The study was conducted on 528 prospective teachers in their 4th year at Necmettin Erbakan University Ahmet Kelesoglu Education Faculty and Selcuk University Faculty of Science and Faculty of Letters in the…

  1. Parametric study of prospective early commercial OCMHD power plants /PSPEC/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, C. H.; Bender, D. J.; Hnat, J. G.; Dellinger, T. C.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents a parametric study conducted to obtain the performance, economics, natural resource requirements, and environmental impact of moderate technology MHD/steam power plants that do not require development of direct-fired high-temperature air heaters. The study was divided into three base cases, each with a reference case and parametric variations. The case using recuperative air preheat in the range of 1000 F to 1300 F, combined with O2 enrichment to 42% by volume has been selected for conceptual design.

  2. Shyness Predicts Depressive Symptoms among Adolescents : A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murberg, Terje A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relation between shyness, social support and depressive symptoms in a sample of 259 students (aged 14-16 years) in two secondary schools. Results at both time-points showed positive associations of depressive symptoms with shyness and with being female and negative associations of depressive symptoms with social support and…

  3. A Comprehensive Prospective Clinical Study of Hydatid Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kayal, Ankit; Hussain, Akhlak

    2014-01-01

    The actual prevalence of hydatid disease in northern part of India is found more than usually interpreted. The present study has been done on 25 patients suffering from hydatid disease of various sites and treated during June 2009 to November 2011 at JLN Medical College and Hospital, Ajmer, with the aim of studying the clinical manifestations of hydatid disease of different sites and/or organ system and of analysing the morbidity and mortality of hydatid disease. The age, sex, h/o dog contact, duration of hospital stay, clinical presentation, treatment advised, findings and difficulties encountered during operation, and postoperative management of patients as well as morbidity and mortality were recorded and analysed. We observed that the mean age was 40 years. The sex incidence revealed female preponderance in the study (M : F: 1 : 2). Duration of illness in the present study varied from 1 month to 6 years in case of liver hydatid disease. Majority of patients were from rural areas (21) and the remaining (4) from urban areas. Swelling was the most common presenting feature. Incidence of hydatid disease at unusual sites in India is higher than in other parts of the world. PMID:24734188

  4. The "New Social Studies"--Retrospect and Prospect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massialas, Byron G.

    2009-01-01

    When he looks back to the 1960s, the author feels sentimental about the New Social Studies movement that began very strong and then suddenly disintegrated. At the time of the genesis of the movement, there was a group of professionals, representing both the social sciences and education, who felt they had a vision of what was needed to revitalize…

  5. Preschool Predictors of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Prospective Community Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichstrøm, Lars; Belsky, Jay; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders are often present at preschool age. Research on older children and studies contrasting preschoolers with high versus low behavioral inhibition (BI) highlight several risk factors, but these have not been investigated in community samples of young children. Child, parent, and peer factors at age 4 were therefore…

  6. Child and Adolescent Abuse and Subsequent Victimization: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Cindy L.; Gidycz, Christine A.; Warkentin, Jennifer B.; Loh, Catherine; Weiland, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the possible reciprocal relationship between victimization experiences and psychological functioning by assessing abuse experiences in childhood, adolescence, and during a 2-month follow-up period. Method: At the beginning of the study (Time 1), abuse histories, trauma and depressive symptoms, and interpersonal…

  7. Mineral resources of the Prospect Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Carbon County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    du Bray, E.A.; Bankey, V.; Hill, R.H.; Ryan, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    The Prospect Mountain Wilderness Study Area is about 20 mi east-southeast of Encampment in Carbon County, Wyoming. This study area is underlain by middle Proterozoic gabbro, granite, and hornblende gneiss, which is locally cut by pegmatite dikes. There are no identified resources and no potential for undiscovered energy resources in this study area. Resource potential for all undiscovered metallic commodities and for industrial mineral is low.

  8. The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire: a population-based random sampling study.

    PubMed

    Piauilino, D C; Bueno, O F A; Tufik, S; Bittencourt, L R; Santos-Silva, R; Hachul, H; Gorenstein, C; Pompéia, S

    2010-05-01

    The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) has been shown to have acceptable reliability and factorial, predictive, and concurrent validity. However, the PRMQ has never been administered to a probability sample survey representative of all ages in adulthood, nor have previous studies controlled for factors that are known to influence metamemory, such as affective status. Here, the PRMQ was applied in a survey adopting a probabilistic three-stage cluster sample representative of the population of Sao Paulo, Brazil, according to gender, age (20-80 years), and economic status (n=1042). After excluding participants who had conditions that impair memory (depression, anxiety, used psychotropics, and/or had neurological/psychiatric disorders), in the remaining 664 individuals we (a) used confirmatory factor analyses to test competing models of the latent structure of the PRMQ, and (b) studied effects of gender, age, schooling, and economic status on prospective and retrospective memory complaints. The model with the best fit confirmed the same tripartite structure (general memory factor and two orthogonal prospective and retrospective memory factors) previously reported. Women complained more of general memory slips, especially those in the first 5 years after menopause, and there were more complaints of prospective than retrospective memory, except in participants with lower family income. PMID:20408038

  9. Personality disorders in previously detained adolescent females: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Krabbendam, Anne A; Colins, Olivier F; Doreleijers, Theo A H; van der Molen, Elsa; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the predictive value of trauma and mental health problems for the development of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in previously detained women. The participants were 229 detained adolescent females who were assessed for traumatic experiences and mental health problems (mean age = 15.5 years). Three to 6 years later (M = 4.5; SD = 0.6), ASPD and BPD were diagnosed with a semistructured interview. Forty percent of the women had a personality disorder (i.e., ASPD 15.8%, BPD 9.2%, or both ASPD and BPD 15.2%). Posttraumatic stress, depressive symptoms, and dissociation during detention increased the risk for BPD in adulthood. Surprisingly, neither conduct problems nor substance dependence predicted ASPD; these findings require further study because they add to the controversy surrounding ASPD in females. The high prevalence rates of personality disorders indicate the need for intervention programs that target these unwanted outcomes. PMID:25420142

  10. Neuronal involvement in cisplatin neuropathy: prospective clinical and neurophysiological studies.

    PubMed

    Krarup-Hansen, A; Helweg-Larsen, S; Schmalbruch, H; Rørth, M; Krarup, C

    2007-04-01

    Although it is well known that cisplatin causes a sensory neuropathy, the primary site of involvement is not established. The clinical symptoms localized in a stocking-glove distribution may be explained by a length dependent neuronopathy or by a distal axonopathy. To study whether the whole neuron or the distal axon was primarily affected, we have carried out serial clinical and electrophysiological studies in 16 males with testicular cancer before or early and late during and after treatment with cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin at limited (<400 mg/m2 cisplatin), conventional (approximately 400 mg/m2 cisplatin) or high (>400 mg/m2 cisplatin) doses. At cumulative doses of cisplatin higher than 300 mg/m2 the patients lost distal tendon and H-reflexes and displayed reduced vibration sense in the feet and the fingers. The amplitudes of sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) from the fingers innervated by the median nerve and the dorsolateral side of the foot innervated by the sural nerve were 50-60% reduced, whereas no definite changes occurred at lower doses. The SNAP conduction velocities were reduced by 10-15% at cumulative doses of 400-700 mg/m2 consistent with loss of large myelinated fibres. SNAPs from primarily Pacinian corpuscles in digit 3 and the dorsolateral side of the foot evoked by a tactile probe showed similar changes to those observed in SNAPs evoked by electrical stimulation. At these doses, somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) from the tibial nerve had increased latencies of peripheral, spinal and central responses suggesting loss of central processes of large dorsal root ganglion cells. Motor conduction studies, autonomic function and warm and cold temperature sensation remained unchanged at all doses of cisplatin treatment. The results of these studies are consistent with degeneration of large sensory neurons whereas there was no evidence of distal axonal degeneration even at the lowest toxic doses of cisplatin. PMID:17301082

  11. Studies of compact objects with Einstein - Review and prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindlay, Jonathan E.

    1990-01-01

    X-ray images and spectra of a wide range of systems containing compact objects were obtained with the Einstein X-ray Observatory. Accreting white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes were observed in binary systems in the Galaxy, and new constraints were derived for their formation, nature and evolution. Massive black holes were studied in active galactic nuclei, and X-ray spectra (and evolution) of AGN have led to a new model for the diffuse X-ray background.

  12. A Prospective Study of Fitness, Fatness, and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Becofsky, Katie M.; Sui, Xuemei; Lee, Duck-chul; Wilcox, Sara; Zhang, Jiajia; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Being overweight or obese might be a risk factor for developing depression. It is also possible that low cardiorespiratory fitness, rather than overweight or obesity, is the better predictor of depressive symptom onset. Adults in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (Dallas, Texas) underwent fitness and fatness assessments between 1979 and 1998 and later completed a questionnaire about depressive symptoms in 1990, 1995, or 1999. Separate logistic regression models were used to test the associations between 3 fatness measures (body mass index, waist circumference, and percentage of body fat) and the onset of depressive symptoms. Analyses were repeated using fitness as the predictor variable. Additional analyses were performed to study the joint association of fatness and fitness with the onset of depressive symptoms. After controlling for fitness, no measure of fatness was associated with the onset of depressive symptoms. In joint analyses, low fitness was more strongly associated with the onset of elevated depressive symptoms than was fatness, regardless of the measure of fatness used. Overall, results from the present study suggest that low fitness is more strongly associated with the onset of elevated depressive symptoms than is fatness. To reduce the risk of developing depression, individuals should be encouraged to improve their fitness regardless of body fatness. PMID:25693775

  13. Prospects for Chronological Studies of Martian Rocks and Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C-Y.; Reese, Y. D.

    2008-01-01

    Chronological information about Martian processes comes from two sources: Crater-frequency studies and laboratory studies of Martian meteorites. Each has limitations that could be overcome by studies of returned Martian rocks and soils. Chronology of Martian volcanism: The currently accepted chronology of Martian volcanic surfaces relies on crater counts for different Martian stratigraphic units [1]. However, there is a large inherent uncertainty for intermediate ages near 2 Ga ago. The effect of differing preferences for Martian cratering chronologies [1] is shown in Fig. 1. Stoeffler and Ryder [2] summarized lunar chronology, upon which Martian cratering chronology is based. Fig. 2 shows a curve fit to their data, and compares to it a corresponding lunar curve from [3]. The radiometric ages of some lunar and Martian meteorites as well as the crater-count delimiters for Martian epochs [4] also are shown for comparison to the craterfrequency curves. Scaling the Stoeffler-Ryder curve by a Mars/Moon factor of 1.55 [5] places Martian shergottite ages into the Early Amazonian to late Hesperian epochs, whereas using the lunar curve of [3] and a Mars/Moon factor 1 consigns the shergottites to the Middle-to-Late Amazonian, a less probable result. The problem is worsened if a continually decreasing cratering rate since 3 Ga ago is accepted [6]. We prefer the adjusted St ffler-Ryder curve because it gives better agreement with the meteorite ages (Fig.

  14. Prospects for studying penguin decays in LHCb experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Barsuk, S. Ya. Pakhlova, G. V. Belyaev, I. M.

    2006-04-15

    Investigation of loop penguin decays of beauty hadrons seems promising in testing the predictions of the Standard Model of electroweak and strong interactions and in seeking new phenomena beyond the Standard Model. The possibility of studying the radiative penguin decays B{sup 0} {sup {yields}} K*{sup 0}{gamma}, B{sup 0}{sub s} {sup {yields}} {phi}{gamma}, and B{sup 0} {sup {yields}} {omega}{gamma} and the gluonic penguin decays B{sup 0} {sup {yields}} {phi}K{sup 0}{sub S} and B{sup 0}{sub s} {sup {yields}} {phi}{phi} in LHCb experiments is discussed.

  15. Religious Confession and Symptom Severity: A Prospective Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Rana, Madiha; Rana, Majeed; Herzberg, Philipp Y; Krause, Christin

    2015-12-01

    Little research has been done on comparing confessions regarding mental health. In the present study, 320 people (78 Buddhists, 77 Catholics, 89 Protestants and 79 Muslims) were compared in terms of their symptom severity. Buddhists and Protestants had lower scores than Catholics and Muslims for obsessive-compulsive behavior and hostility. Muslim group had the highest comparative scores for psychoticism. Buddhists and Protestants had comparatively low scores for paranoid ideation and overall symptom severity, with Catholics and Muslims having high ones. Results reveal that confession should be taken in account in psychological research and diagnosis, since it is explicitly associated with psychological well-being. PMID:25204789

  16. Guideline adaptation and implementation planning: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adaptation of high-quality practice guidelines for local use has been advanced as an efficient means to improve acceptability and applicability of evidence-informed care. In a pan-Canadian study, we examined how cancer care groups adapted pre-existing guidelines to their unique context and began implementation planning. Methods Using a mixed-methods, case-study design, five cases were purposefully sampled from self-identified groups and followed as they used a structured method and resources for guideline adaptation. Cases received the ADAPTE Collaboration toolkit, facilitation, methodological and logistical support, resources and assistance as required. Documentary and primary data collection methods captured individual case experience, including monthly summaries of meeting and field notes, email/telephone correspondence, and project records. Site visits, process audits, interviews, and a final evaluation forum with all cases contributed to a comprehensive account of participant experience. Results Study cases took 12 to >24 months to complete guideline adaptation. Although participants appreciated the structure, most found the ADAPTE method complex and lacking practical aspects. They needed assistance establishing individual guideline mandate and infrastructure, articulating health questions, executing search strategies, appraising evidence, and achieving consensus. Facilitation was described as a multi-faceted process, a team effort, and an essential ingredient for guideline adaptation. While front-line care providers implicitly identified implementation issues during adaptation, they identified a need to add an explicit implementation planning component. Conclusions Guideline adaptation is a positive initial step toward evidence-informed care, but adaptation (vs. ‘de novo’ development) did not meet expectations for reducing time or resource commitments. Undertaking adaptation is as much about the process (engagement and capacity building) as it

  17. Impact of Caregiver Type for 3-Year-Old Children on Subsequent Between-Meal Eating Habits and Being Overweight From Childhood to Adulthood: A 20-Year Follow-up of the Ibaraki Children’s Cohort (IBACHIL) Study

    PubMed Central

    Sata, Mizuki; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Ikeda, Ai; Irie, Fujiko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Iso, Hiroyasu; Ota, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Because of the increasing number of mothers who continue to work after childbirth, participation in childcare has diversified. However, the impact of the main caregiver on children’s habits has not been determined. We sought to examine the effect of caregiver differences on childhood habituation of between-meal eating and body mass index (BMI). Methods The Ibaraki Children’s Cohort Study involved 4592 Japanese children whose parents answered health questionnaires at age 3. Follow-up questionnaires were distributed to parents when children were 6 and 12 years old and to study subjects directly when they were 22 years old. We compared prevalence of between-meal eating and overweight as well as mean BMI at ages 6, 12, and 22 years, by their main daytime caregiver at age 3. Results Compared to children cared for by mothers, those cared for by grandparents had a higher prevalence of between-meal eating before dinner for boys and girls at ages 6 and 12 years. At age 22 years, boys cared for by grandparents had a higher prevalence of overweight than those cared for by mothers (18.5% versus 11.2%, P = 0.037), but no such difference was noted in girls. However, both boys and girls cared for by grandparents had higher mean BMI over time than those cared for by mothers (coefficient = 0.47 kg/m2 for boys and coefficient = 0.35 kg/m2 for girls). Conclusions Being cared for by grandparents at age 3 was associated with subsequent between-meal eating habits, being overweight, and increased mean BMI from childhood to adulthood. PMID:26310570

  18. Optical magnification devices in tonsillectomy: a prospective randomised clinical study.

    PubMed

    Schrötzlmair, F; Geerke, L; Kisser, U; Reichel, C; Vögele, S; Stelter, K

    2015-10-01

    Tonsillectomy is one of the most common surgical procedure in otorhinolaryngology. A plethora of approaches has been undertaken so far to limit postoperative pain, one of the major problems patients are concerned with. Thermal damages of the surrounding tissue caused by coagulation during surgery are discussed to correlate with postoperative pain. Therefore, we studied whether the use of magnification devices reduced coagulation procedures and consequently limited post-operative pain. Following an intraindividual design, we performed tonsillectomy on one side using a microscope or magnifying glasses whereas the opposite side was operated with unsupported vision. As verified by a visual analogue scale, our study shows that neither the use of a microscope, nor the use of magnifying glasses leads to less post-operative pain. Other parameters like post-operative bleeding, duration of surgery, and total applied energy by bipolar coagulation were also comparable in the different treatment groups. Taken together, magnification-supported tonsillectomy does not seem to be appropriate for limiting complications of tonsillectomy, especially not for reducing post-operative pain. PMID:25245863

  19. Impact of childhood trauma on postpartum depression: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    De Venter, Maud; Smets, Jorien; Raes, Filip; Wouters, Kristien; Franck, Erik; Hanssens, Myriam; Jacquemyn, Yves; Sabbe, Bernard G C; Van Den Eede, Filip

    2016-04-01

    Studies on the impact of childhood trauma on postpartum depression show inconsistencies and methodological limitations. The present study examines the effect of childhood trauma on depression 12 and 24 weeks after childbirth, while controlling for history of depression, depression symptoms during pregnancy and type D personality. During the third trimester of pregnancy, 210 women completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression (current and/or past episodes), childhood trauma and type D personality, of whom 187 participated in the postpartum follow-up, with depression symptoms being reassessed at 12 and 24 weeks after delivery with three depression outcome measures. Eventually, 183 participants were retained for analysis. Results indicated no predictive value of childhood trauma on postpartum depression in the univariate analyses, nor after controlling for previous depression, depression symptoms during pregnancy and type D personality. However, past depression and depression symptoms during pregnancy did independently and convincingly predict postpartum depression, especially at 12 weeks and to a lesser extent at 24 weeks following childbirth. Overall, we found no significant association between childhood trauma and postpartum depression. Past depression and depression symptoms during pregnancy are more relevant factors to assess before childbirth. PMID:26189446

  20. Prospects for Pulsar Studies with the GLAST Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2007-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), due to launch in November 2007, will have unprecedented sensitivity and energy resolution for gamma-rays in the range of 30 MeV to 200 GeV. GLAST is therefore expected to provide major advances in the understanding of high-energy emission from rotation-powered pulsars. As the only presently known galactic GeV source class; pulsars will be one of the most important sources for study with GLAST. The main science goals of the LAT for pulsar studies include an increase in the number of detected radio-loud and radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars, including millisecond pulsars, giving much better statistics for elucidating population characteristics, measurement of the high-energy spectrum and the shape of spectral cutoffs and determining pulse profiles for a variety of pulsars of different age. Further, measurement of phase-resolved spectra and energy dependent pulse profiles of the brighter pulsars should allow detailed tests of magnetospheric particle acceleration and radiation mechanisms, by comparing data with theoretical models that have been developed. Additionally, the LAT will have the sensitivity to allow blind pulsation searches of nearly all unidentified EGRET sources, to possibly uncover more radio-quiet Geminga-like pulsars.

  1. Prospects for Pulsar Studies with the GLAST Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2007-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), due to launch in November 2007, will have unprecedented sensitivity and energy resolution for gamma-rays in the range of 30 MeV to 200 GeV. GLAST is therefore expected to provide major advances in the understanding of high-energy emission from rotation-powered p ulsars. As the only presently known galactic GeV source class, pulsar s will be one of the most important sources for study with GLAST. The main science goals of the LAT for pulsar studies include an increase in the number of detected radio-loud and radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsar s, including millisecond pulsars, giving much better statistics for e lucidating population characteristics, measurement of the high-energy spectrum and the shape of spectral cutoffs and determining pulse profiles for a variety of pulsars of different age. Further, measurement of phase-resolved spectra and energy dependent pulse profiles of the brighter pulsars should allow detailed tests of magnetospheric partic le acceleration and radiation mechanisms, by comparing data with theo retical models that have been developed. Additionally, the LAT will have the sensitivity to allow blind pulsation searches of nearly all un identified EGRET sources, to possibly uncover more radio-quiet Geming a-like pulsars.

  2. Prospects for Pulsar Studies with the GLAST Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2006-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) will have unprecedented sensitivity and energy resolution for gamma-rays in the range of 30 MeV to 200 GeV. GLAST is therefore expected to provide major advances in the understanding of high-energy emission from rotation-powered pulsars. As the only presently known galactic GeV source class, pulsars will be one of the most important sources for study with GLAST. The main science goals of the LAT for pulsar studies include an increase in the number of detected radio-loud and radio-quiet gamma ray pulsars, including millisecond pulsars, giving much better statistics for elucidating population characteristics, measurement of the high-energy spectrum and the shape of spectral cutoffs and determining pulse profiles for a variety of pulsars of different age. Further, measurement of phase-resolved spectra and energy dependent pulse profiles of the brighter pulsars should allow detailed tests of magnetospheric particle acceleration and radiation mechanisms, by comparing data with theoretical models that have been developed. Additionally, the LAT will have the sensitivity to allow blind pulsation searches of nearly all unidentified EGRET sources, to possibly uncover more radio-quiet Geminga-like pulsars.

  3. Effect of hormonal contraceptives on serum lipids: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Dilshad, Huma; Ismail, Rabia; Naveed, Safila; Usmanghani, Khan; Alam, M Tanweer; Sarwar, Ghulam

    2016-07-01

    To estimate the effects of using hormonal contraceptives on serum lipoprotein levels. Lipid profile was measured at baseline and afterward at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. 1391 Pakistani females taking COCs, DMPA, or non hormonal (NH) contraceptives. The results were calculated by repeated measure ANOVA subsequent to tukey's post hoc test for the multiple comparisons. Statistical examination revealed that differences in lipid profile were significant (p <0.001) among all treated group in comparison with control. DMPA also caused significant rise in Castelli index-I and Castelli index-II as compared to COCs group and control group. This study demonstrated raise in total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) as well as very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Whereas, an obvious decrease was observed in high density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the DMPA-treated group. We concluded that, this inductive study specifies atherogenic cardiovascular risk in women using DMPA on long term basis. PMID:27592475

  4. Implant-supported overdentures: a longitudinal prospective study.

    PubMed

    Bergendal, T; Engquist, B

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical function and long-term prognosis of overdentures retained by a small number of implants in the maxilla and mandible using one of two different attachment systems. Included in the study were all patients referred to specialty clinics in Jönköping and Linköping, Sweden, during the treatment period who needed an overdenture and could be provided with a minimum number of two bilaterally-placed implants. Excluded were patients with bone-grafted jaws, irradiated cancer patients, heavy bruxers, and patients who had lost a fixed prosthesis because of implant losses. The patients were randomly assigned to receive one retentive system, either a round 2-mm-diameter bar with clips or ball attachments (Nobel Biocare). Eighteen overdentures were placed in maxillae and 32 in mandibles, supported by a total of 115 Brånemark implants. Of the implants placed, 86.1% were continuously osseointegrated. The cumulative implant survival rates after 7 years of loading were 75.4% in the maxillae and 100% in the mandibles. There was no difference in implant survival rate between the attachment systems. Patients with implant losses were characterized by severely resorbed maxillary ridges and inferior bone quality, together with unfavorable loading circumstances such as short implants combined with long leverages. Complications and prosthetic adjustments were mostly resolved early and easily. PMID:9581412

  5. Diet and kwashiorkor: a prospective study from rural DR Congo.

    PubMed

    Kismul, Hallgeir; Van den Broeck, Jan; Lunde, Torleif Markussen

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of kwashiorkor remains enigmatic and longitudinal studies examining potential causes of kwashiorkor are scarce. Using historical, longitudinal study data from the rural area of Bwamanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, we investigated the potential causal association between diet and the development of kwashiorkor in 5 657 preschool children followed 3-monthly during 15 months. We compared dietary risk factors for kwashiorkor with those of marasmus. Kwashiorkor was diagnosed as pitting oedema of the ankles; marasmus as abnormal visibility of skeletal structures and palpable wasting of the gluteus muscle. A 24-h recall was administered 3-monthly to record the consumption of the 41 locally most frequent food items. We specified Hanley-Miettinen smooth-in-time risk models containing potential causal factors, including food items, special meals prepared for the child, breastfeeding, disease status, nutritional status, birth rank, age, season and number of meals. Bayesian Information Criteria identified the most plausible causal model of why some children developed kwashiorkor. In a descriptive analysis of the diet at the last dietary assessment prior to development of kwashiorkor, the diet of children who developed kwashiorkor was characterized by low consumption of sweet potatoes, papaya and "other vegetables" [0.0% , 2.3% (95% CI [0.4, 12.1]) and 2.3% (95% CI [0.4, 12.1])] in comparison with children who did not develop kwashiorkor [6.8% (95% CI [6.4, 7.2]), 15.5% (95% CI [15, 16.1]) and 15.1% (95% CI [14.6, 15.7])] or children who developed marasmus [4.5% (95% CI [2.6, 7.5]) 11.8% (95% CI [8.5, 16.0]) and 17.6% (95% CI [13.7, 22.5])]. Sweet potatoes and papayas have high β-carotene content and so may some of "the other vegetables". We found that a risk model containing an age function, length/height-for age Z-score, consumption of sweet potatoes, papaya or other vegetables, duration of this consumption and its interaction term, was the most plausible

  6. Bulbar dysfunction in normal pressure hydrocephalus: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Chankaew, Ekawut; Srirabheebhat, Prajak; Manochiopinig, Sriwimon; Witthiwej, Theerapol; Benjamin, Itsara

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is clinically characterized by gait disturbance, cognitive impairment, and urinary incontinence, as well as enlargement of the ventricles. To the best of the authors' knowledge, there have been no previous publications regarding the correlation between bulbar dysfunction and NPH. The primary objective of this study was to compare preoperative and postoperative prevalence of bulbar dysfunction in patients with NPH. Secondary objectives included assessing the results of surgery for swallowing, speech, gait, cognition, and urination, and evaluating the correlation between bulbar dysfunction and triad symptoms. METHODS Fifty-three patients with NPH who underwent shunt placement surgery at Siriraj Hospital were included in the study. Patients were evaluated for gait, cognition, urination, swallowing, and speech before and 6 months after shunt placement. Triad symptoms were assessed using standard methods. Bulbar dysfunctions were assessed using the Swallowing Problem Questionnaire, Thai Articulation Test, Resonation Screening Test (RST), and Thai Nasality Test. The Thai Speech Assessment Program and nasometer were used for objective speech measurement. RESULTS Preoperatively, 86% (43/50) of patients had swallowing problems and 75% (37/49) had speech problems, as measured by the RST. Postoperatively, there was significant improvement in swallowing (p < 0.001), speech problems by RST (p = 0.008), and voice volume (p = 0.009), but no significant change in the nasometer test. All triad symptoms were improved. There were significant correlations between swallowing impairment and gait disturbance (r = 0.358, p = 0.009), and RST and cognitive impairment (r = -0.502, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS This is the first study of bulbar dysfunction in patients with NPH. The results showed that the prevalence of bulbar dysfunction is very high. The correlation between bulbar dysfunction and the classic NPH triad has been documented and published

  7. A prospective study of asthma in a rural community.

    PubMed

    Schachter, E N; Doyle, C A; Beck, G J

    1984-05-01

    Changes in symptoms and pulmonary function among asthmatic subjects in the general population remain poorly characterized. We studied 1,303 white residents aged seven years and older in Lebanon, Conn, a rural community largely unaffected by air pollution or major occupational exposures. These residents were examined in 1972 and again in 1978. There were 73 asthmatic subjects seen in 1972 who were followed. In addition, we identified 278 persons in 1972 who complained of wheezing who were also seen in 1978. Of the original asthmatic subjects, 50 (68 percent) were in remission; and from the original nonasthmatic population, 19 (1.4 percent) new asthmatic subjects were identified. Similarly, the condition of 215 (77 percent) of those who initially complained of wheeze had improved, whereas 56 (4.6 percent) of those initially studied either developed new wheeze or saw their wheezing worsen. When the groups of persons complaining of wheeze and the asthmatic subjects were analyzed for the presence of chronic bronchitis, we found a significant correlation between wheeze and chronic bronchitis in individuals aged 18 years and older (p less than 0.001) for both men and women, and a significant correlation (p less than 0.001) between asthma and chronic bronchitis in women aged 18 years and older. Loss of pulmonary function over time measured in terms of the forced expiratory volume in one second and the forced expiratory flow at 50 percent of total lung capacity was consistently greater for asthmatic adults than for nonasthmatic adults. Furthermore, when individuals were studied by the severity and duration of their asthmatic symptoms, a trend of worse pulmonary function was seen in those individuals with chronic asthma. We conclude that remission rates among asthmatic subjects and persons with wheeze are high in individuals aged seven years and older, that chronic bronchitis is frequently associated with wheezing and a history of asthma in adults, and that significant

  8. Contribution of Quadriceps Weakness to Fragility Fracture: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hanh M; Nguyen, Nguyen D; Center, Jacqueline R; Eisman, John A; Nguyen, Tuan V

    2016-01-01

    The association between muscle weakness and fracture is not well understood. This study sought to examine the contribution of muscle strength at baseline and change in muscle strength to the observed risk of fragility fracture in older people. The study involved 595 men and 1066 women aged 60+ years (median 69 years) who had been followed for a median of 11 years (range, 4 to 22 years). Quadriceps isometric muscle strength (MS) measured at baseline and biennially was adjusted for height. Femoral neck bone mineral density (FNBMD) was measured by DXA. Low-trauma fracture was ascertained from X-ray reports and interview. The relationship between baseline MS and serial MS and fracture assessed by time-invariant and time-variant Cox's regression models was expressed as hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). During the follow-up period, 282 (26%) women and 89 (15%) men sustained a fragility fracture. From age 60 years, women lost 0.28 kg/m (1.6%) of MS per year, whereas men lost 0.39 kg/m (1.5%) of MS per year. In the time-variant model, using serial MS, each 1 SD (4.7 kg/m) lower MS was associated with a 27% increase in the risk of fracture in women (HR 1.27; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.43); and 46% increase in men (HR 1.46; 95% CI, 1.22 to 1.75). After adjusting for FNBMD, age and prior fracture, history of fall and smoking, HR per SD of lower MS was 1.13 (95% CI, 0.99 to 1.28) for women and 1.35 (95% CI, 1.18 to 1.64) for men. These data indicate that muscle weakness is an independent determinant of fracture risk in men, but not in women. This sex difference suggests that apart from mechanical load effect of muscle on bone, there are other muscle-bone interactions that need to be investigated in future studies. The accuracy of fracture risk prediction for men may be improved by incorporating muscle strength. PMID:26174768

  9. Retinal Detachment in Southwest Ethiopia: A Hospital Based Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Asaminew, Tsedeke; Gelaw, Yeshigeta; Bekele, Sisay; Solomon, Berhan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The incidence of retinal detachment in Blacks is generally considered to be low though there are few supporting studies in Africa. This study, thus, aimed at describing the clinical profile of patients with retinal detachment in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based study was done on all consecutive retinal detachment patients who presented to Jimma University Hospital over six months period. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect patients’ sociodemographic characteristics and clinical history. Comprehensive anterior and posterior segment eye examinations were done and risk factors were sought for. Statistical tests were considered significant if P < 0.05. Results A total of 94 eyes of 80 patients (1.5%) had retinal detachment (RD) and about 69% of patients were symptomatic for over a month before presentation. The mean age was 41.4 years (SD ±16.5). Fourteen patients (17.5%) had bilateral RD. At presentation, 61 eyes (64.9%) were blind from RD and 11 (13.8%) patients were bilaterally blind from RD. Rhegmatogenous RD was seen in 55 eyes (58.5%) and tractional RD in 22 eyes (23.4%). The most common risk factors were ocular trauma (32 eyes, 34.0%), myopia (23 eyes, 24.5%), posterior uveitis (13 eyes, 13.8%) and diabetic retinopathy (9 eyes, 9.6%). Most retinal breaks (25 eyes, 43.1%) were superotemporal and horse-shoe tear was the most common (19 eyes, 20.2%). Macula was off in 77 eyes (81.9%) and 38 eyes (69.1% of RRD eyes) had grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Macular status was significantly associated with PVR (P=0.011), and duration of symptoms (RR=1.25, 95%CI: 1.059-1.475, P=0.040). Conclusions A significant numbers of patients with ocular problem had retinal detachment, and nearly two third of the patients presented late. Trauma and myopia were the most important risk factors. People should be educated to improve their health seeking behavior and use eye safety precautions to prevent ocular trauma. PMID:24086614

  10. Effects of a 3-Year Nurse-Based Case Management in Aged Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction on Rehospitalisation, Mortality, Risk Factors, Physical Functioning and Mental Health. A Secondary Analysis of the Randomized Controlled KORINNA Study

    PubMed Central

    Kirchberger, Inge; Hunger, Matthias; Stollenwerk, Björn; Seidl, Hildegard; Burkhardt, Katrin; Kuch, Bernhard; Meisinger, Christa; Holle, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Background Home-based secondary prevention programs led by nurses have been proposed to facilitate patients’ adjustment to acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The objective of this study was to conduct secondary analyses of the three-year follow-up of a nurse-based case management for elderly patients discharged from hospital after an AMI. Methods In a single-centre randomized two-armed parallel group trial of hospitalized patients with AMI ≥65 years, patients hospitalized between September 2008 and May 2010 in the Hospital of Augsburg, Germany, were randomly assigned to case management or usual care. The case-management intervention consisted of a nurse-based follow-up for three years including home visits and telephone calls. Study endpoints were time to first unplanned readmission or death, clinical parameters, functional status, depressive symptoms and malnutrition risk. Persons who assessed three-year outcomes and validated readmission data were blinded. The intention-to-treat approach was applied to the statistical analyses which included Cox Proportional Hazards models. Results Three hundred forty patients were allocated to receive case-management (n = 168) or usual care (n = 172). During three years, in the intervention group there were 80 first unplanned readmissions and 6 deaths, while the control group had 111first unplanned readmissions and 3 deaths. The intervention did not significantly affect time to first unplanned readmission or death (Hazard Ratio 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67–1.19; p = 0.439), blood pressure, cholesterol level, instrumental activities of daily life (IADL) (only for men), and depressive symptoms. However, patients in the intervention group had a significantly better functional status, as assessed by the HAQ Disability Index, IADL (only for women), and hand grip strength, and better SCREEN-II malnutrition risk scores than patients in the control group. Conclusions A nurse-based management among elderly patients with

  11. Intergenerational Transmission of Relationship Aggression: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ming; Durtschi, Jared A.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether physical and verbal aggression in the family of origin were associated with similar patterns of aggression in young adult couples. Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 213 focal individuals who were followed from adolescence to adulthood. Results suggested that aggression in the family when focal participants were adolescents predicted aggression with romantic partners when participants were adults. The association between interparental aggression and later aggression in adult romantic unions was partially mediated through parents’ aggression to focal participants when they were adolescents. Both physical and verbal aggression revealed the same pattern of findings. All together, these findings are consistent with a developmental-interactional perspective (Capaldi & Gorman-Smith, 2003) concerning the developmental origins of aggression in intimate relationships. PMID:21171767

  12. A prospective study of behavioral and emotional symptoms in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Klein, Annette M; Otto, Yvonne; Fuchs, Sandra; Reibiger, Ina; von Klitzing, Kai

    2015-03-01

    A substantial number of preschool children exhibit psychological symptoms that have an impact on their own and their families' lives. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence, stability and increase/decrease in emotional and behavioral symptoms and the resultant impairment at two assessment points at preschool age. The sample consisted of 1,034 children drawn from the general population with a mean age of 51 months at t1 and 72 months at t2. Parents completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire extended version (Goodman, J Child Psychol Psychiatry 38(5):581-586, 1997; Goodman, J Child Psychol Psychiatry 40(5):791-799, 1999). At t1, 6.9 % of the preschoolers had a total difficulties and 6.8 % a total impact score within the abnormal range. At t2, these scores were 5.7 and 6.2 %, respectively. We found moderate stability of symptoms. From t1 to t2, emotional symptoms and prosocial behavior significantly increased, while hyperactivity, conduct problems, peer problems and total difficulties decreased. The mean total impact score did not change. Boys showed higher levels of symptoms (except emotional symptoms) and impact, and lower prosocial behavior, than girls. Moreover, there was a significant time × gender interaction, with girls showing a larger decrease in hyperactivity/inattention and in total difficulties than boys. The stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the total impact score at baseline, male gender, conduct problems, hyperactivity and peer problems significantly contributed to the explained variance of the total impact score at follow-up. This is one of very few studies to examine the stability and change of psychological symptoms in a large community sample of preschoolers, assessed twice during preschool age. PMID:24972693

  13. Maternal Caffeine Consumption and Infant Nighttime Waking: Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Iná S.; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Coffee and other caffeinated beverages are commonly consumed in pregnancy. In adults, caffeine may interfere with sleep onset and have a dose-response effect similar to those seen during insomnia. In infancy, nighttime waking is a common event. With this study, we aimed to investigate if maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy and lactation leads to frequent nocturnal awakening among infants at 3 months of age. METHODS: All children born in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, during 2004 were enrolled on a cohort study. Mothers were interviewed at delivery and after 3 months to obtain information on caffeine drinking consumption, sociodemographic, reproductive, and behavioral characteristics. Infant sleeping pattern in the previous 15 days was obtained from a subsample. Night waking was defined as an episode of infant arousal that woke the parents during nighttime. Multivariable analysis was performed by using Poisson regression. RESULTS: The subsample included 885 of the 4231 infants born in 2004. All but 1 mother consumed caffeine in pregnancy. Nearly 20% were heavy consumers (≥300 mg/day) during pregnancy and 14.3% at 3 months postpartum. Prevalence of frequent nighttime awakeners (>3 episodes per night) was 13.8% (95% confidence interval: 11.5%–16.0%). The highest prevalence ratio was observed among breastfed infants from mothers consuming ≥300 mg/day during the whole pregnancy and in the postpartum period (1.65; 95% confidence interval: 0.86–3.17) but at a nonsignificant level. CONCLUSIONS: Caffeine consumption during pregnancy and by nursing mothers seems not to have consequences on sleep of infants at the age of 3 months. PMID:22473365

  14. Predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential predictors, and a range of health outcomes, at 2 time points separated by 1 year. Longitudinal change regression models showed that perceived body acceptance by others (positively), self-objectification and social comparison (negatively), and body appreciation (positively) prospectively predicted intuitive eating 1 year later, consistent with the acceptance model of intuitive eating. Perceived body acceptance by others was the only proposed predictor to prospectively predict an increase in body appreciation over time. Time 1 body appreciation prospectively predicted a decrease in dieting, alcohol, and cigarette use, and an increase in physical activity 1 year later. In particular, girls with low body appreciation were more likely than girls with high body appreciation to take up alcohol and cigarette use between time points. The results highlight body appreciation as an important target for interventions designed to prevent or delay the uptake of alcohol and cigarette consumption among girls. More broadly, they suggest that a positive body image can confer considerable benefit for adolescent girls. PMID:26727595

  15. The effect of natural UV-B radiation on a perennial Salicornia salt-marsh in Bahía San Sebastián, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina: a 3-year field study.

    PubMed

    Bianciotto, O A; Pinedo, L B; San Roman, N A; Blessio, A Y; Collantes, M B

    2003-07-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole and a general depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer cause increased levels of ultraviolet-B solar radiation (UV-B) over Tierra del Fuego, the southernmost tip of South America. For three consecutive growing seasons (1997-2000), we studied the biological impacts (morphology, physiology, demography and phenology) of natural UV-B radiation on a perennial Salicornia ambigua Michx. community in San Sebastian Bay (53 degrees S and 68 degrees W), Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. This is the first UV-B screening experiment on a subantarctic halophytic community. The shortwave UV-B spectrum (280 to 320 nm) was excluded by covering plots with UV-B blocking film (Mylar). These plots were compared to controls covered with UV-B transparent (Aclar) plastic screens, and unscreened plots. Shoot length in Salicornia was not affected by UV-B. Exposure to natural UV-B reduced biomass and density (by 17% and 38%, respectively). Concentration of UV-shielding pigments and cuticle thickness were both significantly higher (25-48% and 21-40%, respectively) in plants receiving ambient UV-B. The increase in cuticle thickness persisted throughout the growing season, whereas pigment concentration was higher at the beginning of the growing season. Also, the number of dead shoots was higher in plants exposed to UV-B. At the end of the growing season (March) shoot mortality was higher in plants exposed to ambient UV-B, and post-flowering senescence was 30 days earlier. Slight changes in the relative composition of Salicornia to Puccinellia were seen. The reduction observed in Salicornia shoot density under ambient UV-B was cumulative over time; 23% in the first growing-season, rising to 38% by the third growing-season. A similar incremental increase in pigment absorption at 305 nm was seen; 25% in the first and 48% in the third growing season. PMID:12962642

  16. Prospects of photon counting lidar for savanna ecosystem structural studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwenzi, D.; Lefsky, M. A.

    2014-11-01

    Discrete return and waveform lidar have demonstrated a capability to measure vegetation height and the associated structural attributes such as aboveground biomass and carbon storage. Since discrete return lidar (DRL) is mainly suitable for small scale studies and the only existing spaceborne lidar sensor (ICESat-GLAS) has been decommissioned, the current question is what the future holds in terms of large scale lidar remote sensing studies. The earliest planned future spaceborne lidar mission is ICESat-2, which will use a photon counting technique. To pre-validate the capability of this mission for studying three dimensional vegetation structure in savannas, we assessed the potential of the measurement approach to estimate canopy height in a typical savanna landscape. We used data from the Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL), an airborne photon counting lidar sensor developed by NASA Goddard. MABEL fires laser pulses in the green (532 nm) and near infrared (1064 nm) bands at a nominal repetition rate of 10 kHz and records the travel time of individual photons that are reflected back to the sensor. The photons' time of arrival and the instrument's GPS positions and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) orientation are used to calculate the distance the light travelled and hence the elevation of the surface below. A few transects flown over the Tejon ranch conservancy in Kern County, California, USA were used for this work. For each transect we extracted the data from one near infrared channel that had the highest number of photons. We segmented each transect into 50 m, 25 m and 10 m long blocks and aggregated the photons in each block into a histogram based on their elevation values. We then used an expansion window algorithm to identify cut off points where the cumulative density of photons from the highest elevation resembles the canopy top and likewise where such cumulative density from the lowest elevation resembles mean ground elevation. These cut off

  17. PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS C IN DIABETIC PATIENTS: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY.

    PubMed

    Kanwal, Nosheen; Nasir, Bushra; Abrar, Muhammad Asad; Kaukab, Iram; Nawaz, Ahmad; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2016-01-01

    There is a strong evidence of the relationship between diabetes and hepatitis C however, there are certain gaps in the literature. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the prevalence of hepatitis C in diabetic patients and risk factors associated with it, to evaluate the presence of possible relationship between hepatitis C and diabetes. Serological testing for anti HCV antibody was carried out on a sample of 100 diabetic patients visiting the diabetic clinic Nishtar Medical College and Hospital Multan. An anti HCV antibody test was carried out on HCV ELISA 3.0 (third generation) kit, locally purchased. Data about demographic information and history of risk factors for HCV was collected from diabetic patients using a structured questionnaire as an experimental tool, after taking informed consent. Data of about 100 non diabetic subjects (volunteer blood donors) was taken from the blood bank of that hospital. Prevalence rate of HCV infection among diabetic patients was recorded 19% and in the control group (non-diabetics) was 3%. Prevalence of HCV infection is higher in type 2 diabetic patients as compared to type 1 diabetic patients (84% vs. 16%). Diabetic patients between age group 46-55 years of age has high prevalence rates (47%) as compared to healthy individuals. Female diabetic patients have higher seropositivity (74%) as compared to male diabetic patients (26%). High prevalence of HCV infection has been reported among diabetic patients with duration of disease = 11 years (47%). Most of the patients were married (95%) and from urban locality (89%) and almost all were poor (99%). HCV positive diabetic patients have also history of blood transfusion (16%), hospital admissions (84%), major surgical procedure (63%), family history of hepatitis C (16%), razor sharing among males (16%) and comb sharing (79%). There was not any I/V drug addict (or history of I/V drug addiction), and tattooing, nose/ear piercing from contaminated needle and toothbrush

  18. Plasma Carotenoids and Tocopherols and Cognitive Function: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jae Hee; Grodstein, Francine

    2008-01-01

    As a site of high metabolic activity, the brain is particularly susceptible to oxidative damage. We explored the association between plasma antioxidants and cognition. In 858 female participants of the Nurses’ Health Study, aged 70+ years, we measured plasma carotenoids and tocopherols in 1989–1990, and assessed cognitive function by telephone beginning in 1995–2001; assessments were repeated twice at two-year intervals. We used linear regression to estimate multivariable-adjusted mean cognitive performance at the initial assessment by quartile of antioxidants, and longitudinal models for analyzing cognitive decline over four years. Higher antioxidant levels were not associated with initial performance or decline. Mean difference in initial global composite score (averaging all 6 cognitive tests) for the top versus bottom quartile of total carotenoids was −0.05 standard units (95% confidence interval [CI] −0.19, 0.09), and 0.04 units for total tocopherols (95% CI −0.10, 0.18). Individual antioxidants were not associated with cognition. Overall, total plasma carotenoids or tocopherols were not related to cognition in women. PMID:17433501

  19. European Maxillofacial Trauma (EURMAT) project: a multicentre and prospective study.

    PubMed

    Boffano, Paolo; Roccia, Fabio; Zavattero, Emanuele; Dediol, Emil; Uglešić, Vedran; Kovačič, Žiga; Vesnaver, Aleš; Konstantinović, Vitomir S; Petrović, Milan; Stephens, Jonny; Kanzaria, Amar; Bhatti, Nabeel; Holmes, Simon; Pechalova, Petia F; Bakardjiev, Angel G; Malanchuk, Vladislav A; Kopchak, Andrey V; Galteland, Pål; Mjøen, Even; Skjelbred, Per; Koudougou, Carine; Mouallem, Guillaume; Corre, Pierre; Løes, Sigbjørn; Lekven, Njål; Laverick, Sean; Gordon, Peter; Tamme, Tiia; Akermann, Stephanie; Karagozoglu, K Hakki; Kommers, Sofie C; Forouzanfar, Tymour

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the demographics, causes and characteristics of maxillofacial fractures managed at several European departments of oral and maxillofacial surgery over one year. The following data were recorded: gender, age, aetiology, site of facial fractures, facial injury severity score, timing of intervention, length of hospital stay. Data for a total of 3396 patients (2655 males and 741 females) with 4155 fractures were recorded. The mean age differed from country to country, ranging between 29.9 and 43.9 years. Overall, the most frequent cause of injury was assault, which accounted for the injuries of 1309 patients; assaults and falls alternated as the most important aetiological factor in the various centres. The most frequently observed fracture involved the mandible with 1743 fractures, followed by orbital-zygomatic-maxillary (OZM) fractures. Condylar fractures were the most commonly observed mandibular fracture. The results of the EURMAT collaboration confirm the changing trend in maxillofacial trauma epidemiology in Europe, with trauma cases caused by assaults and falls now outnumbering those due to road traffic accidents. The progressive ageing of the European population, in addition to strict road and work legislation may have been responsible for this change. Men are still the most frequent victims of maxillofacial injuries. PMID:25457465

  20. Myopathies of endocrine disorders: A prospective clinical and biochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vikas; Borah, Papori; Basumatary, Lakshya J.; Das, Marami; Goswami, Munindra; Kayal, Ashok K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Major categories of endocrine myopathy include those associated with: Adrenal dysfunction (as in Cushing's disease or steroid myopathy); thyroid dysfunction (as in myxedema coma or thyrotoxic myopathy); vitamin D deficiency; parathyroid dysfunction; and pituitary dysfunction. Steroid myopathy is the most common endocrine myopathy. Objective: To study the etiology, varied presentations, and outcome after therapy of patients with endocrine myopathies. Materials and Methods: Myopathy was evaluated by the standard clinical procedures: Detailed clinical history, manual muscle strength testing, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK). Endocrine disorders were diagnosed as per clinical features and biochemical parameters. The treatment was given to patients as per underlying endocrine disease. Myopathy was assessed before and after treatment. Results: Out of the 37 patients who were diagnosed with endocrine myopathies, thyroid dysfunction was the most common cause (17 cases), followed by vitamin D deficiency in nine, adrenal dysfunction in six, parathyroid dysfunction in three, and pituitary dysfunction in two. Some patients had atypical presentation (repeated falls in one, tongue fasciculations in one, neck weakness in five, one with ptosis and facial weakness, asymmetrical onset in one, and calf hypertrophy in one. The serum creatine kinase (CK) concentration did not correlate with muscle weakness. Following the treatment regimen which was specific for a given myopathy, 26 patients recovered fully. Conclusion: We found varied clinical presentations of endocrine myopathies. All the patients with neuromuscular complaints should be investigated for endocrine causes because significant number of them recovers fully with specific treatment. PMID:25221399

  1. Effect of Nasal Allergy Over Spirometric Parameters: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Poorey, Vijay Kumar; Soni, Smita; Thakur, Pooja; Gupta, Alok

    2016-03-01

    Nasal allergy is characterized by an IgE mediated inflammatory response of nasal mucosa to allergens and it has a close association with Asthma. Nasal allergy has been demonstrated to be a strong risk factor for the onset of asthma in adults. Spirometric parameters like Forced expiratory volume at timed interval of 1 s (FEV1) and forced expiratory flow (FEF25-75 %) are impaired in patients with nasal allergy or allergic rhinitis. The FEF25-75 % has been evidenced to be a reliable marker of early bronchial impairment in nasal allergy. Nasal allergy may be considered as the first step of the progression of respiratory allergy towards asthma. It has been demonstrated that FEF25-75 % is useful in predicting the presence of airway hyper responsiveness.It may be a more sensitive indicator of chronic airway obstruction than FEV1 and is considered as a risk factor for the persistence of respiratory symptoms in asthmatic patients. The impact of allergic rhinitis or nasal allergy on asthma (ARIA) guidelines, clearly underlined the role of allergic rhinitis as risk factor for asthma development. The possible presence of spirometric abnormalities in patient with allergic rhinitis has been well documented. So keeping this in mind, present study is undertaken to evaluate the impairment of spirometric parameters, like FEV1, FEF25-75 %, and forced vital capacity, in patients with nasal allergy and to predict the presence of airway hyper responsiveness. PMID:27066401

  2. Yoga therapy for breast cancer patients: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sudarshan, Monisha; Petrucci, Andrea; Dumitra, Sinziana; Duplisea, Jodie; Wexler, Sharon; Meterissian, Sarkis

    2013-11-01

    We sought to study the impact of yoga therapy on anxiety, depression and physical health in breast cancer patients. Stage I-III post-operative breast cancer patients were recruited with twelve 1-h weekly yoga sessions completed with an experienced yoga instructor. Before and after each module completion, assessments were obtained with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS), the Dallas pain scale and shoulder flexibility measurements. Fourteen patients completed the entire yoga session with 42.8% having a total mastectomy and 15.4% having breast reconstruction. Both right and left shoulder abduction flexibility significantly improved (p = 0.004; p = 0.015 respectively) as well as left shoulder flexion (p = 0.046). An improvement trend in scores for the HADS and Dallas questionnaires pre- and post-intervention was found, although it was not statistically significant. Our data indicates an improvement in physical function in addition to a consistent amelioration in anxiety, depression and pain symptoms after a yoga intervention. PMID:24199978

  3. Plasma carotenoids and tocopherols and cognitive function: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jae Hee; Grodstein, Francine

    2008-09-01

    As a site of high metabolic activity, the brain is particularly susceptible to oxidative damage. We explored the association between plasma antioxidants and cognition. In 858 female participants of the Nurses' Health Study, aged 70+ years, we measured plasma carotenoids and tocopherols in 1989-1990, and assessed cognitive function by telephone beginning in 1995-2001; assessments were repeated twice at 2-year intervals. We used linear regression to estimate multivariable-adjusted mean cognitive performance at the initial assessment by quartile of antioxidants, and longitudinal models for analyzing cognitive decline over 4 years. Higher antioxidant levels were not associated with initial performance or decline. Mean difference in initial global composite score (averaging all six cognitive tests) for the top versus bottom quartile of total carotenoids was -0.05 standard units (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.19, 0.09), and 0.04 units for total tocopherols (95% CI -0.10, 0.18). Individual antioxidants were not associated with cognition. Overall, total plasma carotenoids or tocopherols were not related to cognition in women. PMID:17433501

  4. Dieting and food craving. A descriptive, quasi-prospective study.

    PubMed

    Massey, Anna; Hill, Andrew J

    2012-06-01

    Evidence linking food restriction and food craving is equivocal. This study investigated whether dieting was associated with a greater frequency of food craving. Dieting to lose weight was distinguished from watching so as not to gain weight. Participants were 129 women (mean age=41 yrs): 52 were currently dieting to lose weight, 40 were watching their weight, and 37 were non-dieters. They completed a food craving record after every food craving, a food diary, and a daily mood assessment over 7-days. Of the 393 craving incidents recorded, dieters experienced significantly more food cravings than non-dieters, with watchers intermediate. Chocolate was the most craved food (37% of cravings) but neither the types of food, the proportion of cravings leading to eating (∼70%), the situations in which cravings occurred, nor the time since the last eating episode differed between groups. Compared with non-dieters, dieters experienced stronger cravings that were more difficult to resist, and for foods they were restricting eating. Watchers showed similarities in experience both to dieters (low hunger) and non-dieters (lower craving intensity). These results support an association between dieting and food craving, the usefulness of distinguishing dieting to lose weight and watching, and suggest a need for further experimental investigation of actual food restriction on food craving experiences. PMID:22306437

  5. Wealth and mortality at older ages: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Demakakos, Panayotes; Biddulph, Jane P; Bobak, Martin; Marmot, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of socioeconomic position for survival, total wealth, which is a measure of accumulation of assets over the life course, has been underinvestigated as a predictor of mortality. We investigated the association between total wealth and mortality at older ages. Methods We estimated Cox proportional hazards models using a sample of 10 305 community-dwelling individuals aged ≥50 years from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Results 2401 deaths were observed over a mean follow-up of 9.4 years. Among participants aged 50–64 years, the fully adjusted HRs for mortality were 1.21 (95% CI 0.92 to 1.59) and 1.77 (1.35 to 2.33) for those in the intermediate and lowest wealth tertiles, respectively, compared with those in the highest wealth tertile. The respective HRs were 2.54 (1.27 to 5.09) and 3.73 (1.86 to 7.45) for cardiovascular mortality and 1.36 (0.76 to 2.42) and 2.53 (1.45 to 4.41) for other non-cancer mortality. Wealth was not associated with cancer mortality in the fully adjusted model. Similar but less strong associations were observed among participants aged ≥65 years. The use of repeated measurements of wealth and covariates brought about only minor changes, except for the association between wealth and cardiovascular mortality, which became less strong in the younger participants. Wealth explained the associations between paternal occupation at age 14 years, education, occupational class, and income and mortality. Conclusions There are persisting wealth inequalities in mortality at older ages, which only partially are explained by established risk factors. Wealth appears to be more strongly associated with mortality than other socioeconomic position measures. PMID:26511887

  6. Studies of charmed hadronic B decays with the early LHCb data and prospects for {gamma} measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Nardulli, J.

    2010-12-22

    We present the first studies of decays of the type B{yields}DX, where D represents a charmed meson (D{sup 0}, D{sup (*)+}, or D{sub s}) from the LHCb experiment at CERN. Our studies use data accumulated during the 2010 run of the LHC. This work represents the first steps on a programme towards a precision measurement of the angle {gamma} of the CKM Unitarity Triangle. The prospects for this {gamma} measurement will be reviewed.

  7. Enhancing life prospects of socially vulnerable youth through sport participation: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sport participation has been associated with improved life prospects such as academic performance and employability prospects. As such, promoting sport participation might be a way to increase life prospects, especially for socially vulnerable youth because they are less physically active than their peers. However, the evidence for the causal effect of sport participation on these outcomes is still limited and little is known about factors that play a role in this possible effect. The aim of this study is four-fold. First, the causal effect of sport participation on life prospects is studied and the underlying mechanisms of this relation are explored. Secondly, the life experiences of the youngsters in the sport context, that may contribute to skill development, are studied. Thirdly, social conditions for a positive effect are explored, as sport is likely to have a positive effect under specific conditions. Fourthly, this study aims to provide insights on the elements of successful partnerships between youth care organisations and local sport clubs. Methods and design This protocol reports on a mixed method study. An intervention that aims to increase the sport participation of socially vulnerable youth, between 12–23 years old, is implemented in three regions of a Rotterdam youth care organisation. The youngsters in the two control regions receive care-as-usual. The main outcome variables, collected via questionnaires, are the life prospect, sense of coherence and self-regulation skills of the youngsters after 6 and 18 months of follow-up. The Motivational Climate Scale is administered to explore the social conditions for a positive effect and interviews are conducted with sport coaches to explore their role in skill development. Interviews with the youngsters are conducted to gain insight on the life experiences that may lead to skill development. The elements of successful partnerships are collected during interviews with youth care professionals

  8. Physical activity and risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Valentina; Vanacore, Nicola; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brayne, Carol; Pearce, Neil; Wark, Petra A; Ward, Heather A; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Andersen, Peter M; Wennberg, Patrik; Wareham, Nicholas; Katzke, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Peeters, Petra H; Mattiello, Amalia; Pala, Valeria; Barricante, Aurelio; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Travier, Noémie; Travis, Ruth C; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Pessah-Rasmussen, Hélène; Petersson, Jesper; Tjønneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; Quiros, Jose Ramon; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kyrozis, Andreas; Oikonomidou, Despoina; Masala, Giovanna; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Arriola, Larraitz; Boeing, Heiner; Vigl, Matthaeus; Claver-Chapelon, Francoise; Middleton, Lefkos; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Previous case-control studies have suggested a possible increased risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) with physical activity (PA), but this association has never been studied in prospective cohort studies. We therefore assessed the association between PA and risk of death from ALS in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. A total of 472,100 individuals were included in the analysis, yielding 219 ALS deaths. At recruitment, information on PA was collected thorough standardised questionnaires. Total PA was expressed by the Cambridge Physical Activity Index (CPAI) and analysed in relation to ALS mortality, using Cox hazard models. Interactions with age, sex, and anthropometric measures were assessed. Total PA was weakly inversely associated with ALS mortality with a borderline statistically significant trend across categories (p = 0.042), with those physically active being 33% less likely to die from ALS compared to those inactive: HR = 0.67 (95% CI 0.42-1.06). Anthropometric measures, sex, and age did not modify the association with CPAI. The present study shows a slightly decreased-not increased like in case-control studies-risk of dying from ALS in those with high levels of total PA at enrolment. This association does not appear confounded by age, gender, anthropometry, smoking, and education. Ours was the first prospective cohort study on ALS and physical activity. PMID:26968841

  9. School neighborhood disadvantage as a predictor of long-term sick leave among teachers: prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Ahola, Kirsi; Linna, Anne; Kouvonen, Anne; Salo, Paula; Vahtera, Jussi

    2010-04-01

    This ongoing prospective study examined characteristics of school neighborhood and neighborhood of residence as predictors of sick leave among school teachers. School neighborhood income data for 226 lower-level comprehensive schools in 10 towns in Finland were derived from Statistics Finland and were linked to register-based data on 3,063 teachers with no long-term sick leave at study entry. Outcome was medically certified (>9 days) sick leave spells during a mean follow-up of 4.3 years from data collection in 2000-2001. A multilevel, cross-classified Poisson regression model, adjusted for age, type of teaching job, length and type of job contract, school size, baseline health status, and income level of the teacher's residential area, showed a rate ratio of 1.30 (95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.63) for sick leave among female teachers working in schools located in low-income neighborhoods compared with those working in high-income neighborhoods. A low income level of the teacher's residential area was also independently associated with sick leave among female teachers (rate ratio = 1.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.18, 1.91). Exposure to both low-income school neighborhoods and low-income residential neighborhoods was associated with the greatest risk of sick leave (rate ratio = 1.71, 95% confidence interval: 1.27, 2.30). This study indicates that working and living in a socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with increased risk of sick leave among female teachers. PMID:20179159

  10. Statins and morbidity and mortality in COPD in the COMIC study: a prospective COPD cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Citgez, Emanuel; van der Palen, Job; Koehorst-ter Huurne, Kirsten; Movig, Kris; van der Valk, Paul; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein

    2016-01-01

    Background Both chronic inflammation and cardiovascular comorbidity play an important role in the morbidity and mortality of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Statins could be a potential adjunct therapy. The additional effects of statins in COPD are, however, still under discussion. The aim of this study is to further investigate the association of statin use with clinical outcomes in a well-described COPD cohort. Methods 795 patients of the Cohort of Mortality and Inflammation in COPD (COMIC) study were divided into statin users or not. Statin use was defined as having a statin for at least 90 consecutive days after inclusion. Outcome parameters were 3-year survival, based on all-cause mortality, time until first hospitalisation for an acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) and time until first community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). A sensitivity analysis was performed without patients who started a statin 3 months or more after inclusion to exclude immortal time bias. Results Statin use resulted in a better overall survival (corrected HR 0.70 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.96) in multivariate analysis), but in the sensitivity analysis this association disappeared. Statin use was not associated with time until first hospitalisation for an AECOPD (cHR 0.95, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.22) or time until first CAP (cHR 1.1, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.47). Conclusions In the COMIC study, statin use is not associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality, time until first hospitalisation for an AECOPD or time until first CAP in patients with COPD. PMID:27403321

  11. Teamwork and Communication: A 3-Year Case Study of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Susan R.

    1994-01-01

    Assesses the effectiveness of a teambuilding intervention among a group of department leaders. Finds that, three years after the intervention began, group members reported an increase in ability to raise issues and manage conflict; increases in mutual praise, support, and cooperation; clarification of roles and responsibilities; and a long-term…

  12. Biomarker research with prospective study designs for the early detection of cancer.

    PubMed

    Pesch, B; Brüning, T; Johnen, G; Casjens, S; Bonberg, N; Taeger, D; Müller, A; Weber, D G; Behrens, T

    2014-05-01

    This article describes the principles of marker research with prospective studies along with examples for diagnostic tumor markers. A plethora of biomarkers have been claimed as useful for the early detection of cancer. However, disappointingly few biomarkers were approved for the detection of unrecognized disease, and even approved markers may lack a sound validation phase. Prospective studies aimed at the early detection of cancer are costly and long-lasting and therefore the bottleneck in marker research. They enroll a large number of clinically asymptomatic subjects and follow-up on incident cases. As invasive procedures cannot be applied to collect tissue samples from the target organ, biomarkers can only be determined in easily accessible body fluids. Marker levels increase during cancer development, with samples collected closer to the occurrence of symptoms or a clinical diagnosis being more informative than earlier samples. Only prospective designs allow the serial collection of pre-diagnostic samples. Their storage in a biobank upgrades cohort studies to serve for both, marker discovery and validation. Population-based cohort studies, which may collect a wealth of data, are commonly conducted with just one baseline investigation lacking serial samples. However, they can provide valuable information about factors that influence the marker level. Screening programs can be employed to archive serial samples but require significant efforts to collect samples and auxiliary data for marker research. Randomized controlled trials have the highest level of evidence in assessing a biomarker's benefit against usual care and present the most stringent design for the validation of promising markers as well as for the discovery of new markers. In summary, all kinds of prospective studies can benefit from a biobank as they can serve as a platform for biomarker research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biomarkers: A Proteomic Challenge. PMID:24361552

  13. Preliminary Results From a Prospective Study Using Limited Margin Radiotherapy in Pediatric and Young Adult Patients With High-Grade Nonrhabdomyosarcoma Soft-Tissue Sarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Krasin, Matthew J.; Davidoff, Andrew M.; Xiong Xiaoping; Wu Shengjie; Hua, C.-H.; Navid, Fariba; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Rao, Bhaskar N.; Hoth, Kelly A.; Neel, Michael D.; Merchant, Thomas E.; Kun, Larry E.; Spunt, Sheri L.

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the safety and efficacy of limited margin radiotherapy in the local control of pediatric and young adult patients with high-grade nonrhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcoma (NRSTS). Methods and Materials: Pediatric patients with high-grade NRSTS requiring radiation were treated on an institutional review board approved prospective institutional study of conformal/intensity-modulated/interstitial brachytherapy using a 2-cm anatomically constrained margin. Results: A total of 32 patients (median age, 15.3 years; range, 2-22 years) received adjuvant (27 patients) or definitive (5 patients) irradiation. With a median follow-up of 32 months, the 3-year cumulative incidence of local failure was 3.7% for patients undergoing irradiation after surgical resection. Four patients experienced local failure; the mean dose to the volume of recurrence was >=97% of the prescribed dose. Conclusions: Delivery of limited margin radiotherapy using external beam or brachytherapy provides a high rate of local tumor control without marginal failure. Further follow-up is required to determine whether normal tissue effects are minimized using this approach.

  14. Predicting caregiver-reported behavior problems in cocaine-exposed children at 3 years.

    PubMed

    Warner, Tamara Duckworth; Behnke, Marylou; Hou, Wei; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson; Wobie, Kathleen; Eyler, Fonda Davis

    2006-04-01

    Predictors of caregiver-reported behavior problems for 3-year-olds with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) and matched controls were examined using structural equation modeling. We tested whether PCE had a direct effect on child behavior problems in a model that included other prenatal drug exposure, child sex, caregiver depression, and the quality of the child's home environment. The sample (N = 256) was drawn from a longitudinal, prospective study of children of (predominantly crack) cocaine-using women and controls matched on race, socioeconomic status, parity, and pregnancy risk. Child Behavior Problems was modeled as a latent variable composed of the 48-item Conners' Parent Report Scale Conduct Problem and Impulsive-Hyperactive scales and the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory Intensity scale. Caregiver depression was the only significant predictor of Child Behavior Problems. Mean levels of caregiver self-reported depression and reported child behavior problems did not differ between groups. Mean depression scores were well above the recommended clinical cutoff while mean child behavior problems scores were within normal limits. The model explained 21% of the variance in caregiver-reported child behavior problems in our sample of rural African American, low SES youngsters. Non-maternal caregivers of cocaine-exposed children had significantly lower mean depression scores and mean child behavior problems ratings for 2 of 3 scales used in the study compared to biological mothers of children with PCE and controls. For all groups, much larger proportions of children were rated as having clinically significant behavior problems than would be expected based on the prevalence of behavior problems in the general population. PMID:16682870

  15. Children living near chipboard and wood industries are at an increased risk of hospitalization for respiratory diseases: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Pierpaolo; Marcon, Alessandro; Pesce, Giancarlo; Paolo, Girardi; Guarda, Linda; Pironi, Vanda; Fracasso, Maria Enrica; Ricci, Paolo; de Marco, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Pollutants emitted from wood processing factories may be harmful to the health of the population. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate whether proximity to wood factories was associated with the risk of hospital admissions in children living in the Viadana district (Italy), where two big chipboard industries and other smaller wood factories (sawmills, multi-strata layer manufacturing) are located. In 2006, children (3-14 years) living in the Viadana district were surveyed through a parental questionnaire (n=3854), their home/school addresses were geocoded and the distances to the wood industries were calculated. Hospital discharge records for the years 2007-2009 were obtained. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the association between hospitalization rates and distance to the factories, adjusting for sex, age, nationality, parents' education, exposure to passive smoking and reported traffic near home. During the 3-year follow-up, the risk of hospitalization for all diagnoses (Hospitalization Hazard Ratio, HHR=1.55; 95% CI: 1.24-1.95) and for respiratory diseases (HHR=1.80; 95% CI: 1.14-2.86) was greater in the children living close (<2 km) to the chipboard industries, with respect to the children who lived at ≥2 km from any wood factory. The children living close to the smaller wood factories were also at increased risk of hospitalization for respiratory diseases (HHR=1.74; 95% CI: 1.06-2.85). This study highlights a health problem for the children living close to chipboard and wood factories in the Viadana district. Further research should develop accurate exposure models based on objective measurements of air pollution in order to confirm these findings. PMID:23628305

  16. Alcohol and Exercise Affect Declining Kidney Function in Healthy Males Regardless of Obesity: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Although lifestyle is associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases, there has been no sufficient evidence of lifestyles on incident chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this prospective cohort study is to investigate the effects of lifestyles on kidney function in healthy people. Methods A total of 7473 healthy people were enrolled in this Saitama Cardiometabolic Disease and Organ Impairment Study, Japan. Data on alcohol consumption, exercise frequency, and sleep duration were collected. The outcome event was incident CKD or decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by >25% in 3 years. Results Subjects were classified into four groups according to body mass index and gender. Mean ± standard deviation of age was 38.8±10.5 years; eGFR, 78.1±15.2 ml/min/1.73m2. In the male groups, multivariate logistic regression models showed that the outcome events were associated with a small amount of alcohol consumed (20 to 140g of alcohol/week) (ref. more than 140g of alcohol/week); non-obese male, adjusted odds ratio 1.366 (95% confidence interval, 1.086, 1.718); obese male (body mass index ≥25), 1.634 (1.160, 2.302); and with frequent exercise (twice a week or more) (ref. no exercise); non-obese male, 1.417 (1.144, 1.754); obese male, 1.842 (1.317, 2.577). Sleep duration was not associated with the outcome events. Conclusion These findings suggest that, regardless of obesity, a small amount of alcohol consumed and high exercise frequency were associated with the increased risk of loss of kidney function in the male groups. PMID:26237314

  17. Population-Based Assessment of Cancer Survivors' Financial Burden and Quality of Life: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Zafar, S. Yousuf; McNeil, Rebecca B.; Thomas, Catherine M.; Lathan, Christopher S.; Ayanian, John Z.; Provenzale, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The impact of financial burden among patients with cancer has not yet been measured in a way that accounts for inter-relationships between quality of life, perceived quality of care, disease status, and sociodemographic characteristics. Patients and Methods: In a national, prospective, observational, population- and health care systems–based cohort study, patients with colorectal or lung cancer were enrolled from 2003 to 2006 within 3 months of diagnosis. For this analysis, surviving patients who were either disease free or had advanced disease were resurveyed a median 7.3 years from diagnosis. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate relationships between financial burden, quality of life, perceived quality of care, and sociodemographic characteristics. Results: Among 1,000 participants enrolled from five geographic regions, five integrated health care systems, or 15 Veterans Administration Hospitals, 89% (n = 889) were cancer free, and 11% (n = 111) had advanced cancer. Overall, 48% (n = 482) reported difficulties living on their household income, and 41% (n = 396) believed their health care to be “excellent.” High financial burden was associated with lower household income (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.61 per $20k per year, P < .001) and younger age (adjusted OR = 0.63 per 10 years; P < .001). High financial burden was also associated with poorer quality of life (adjusted beta = −0.06 per burden category; P < .001). Better quality of life was associated with fewer perceptions of poorer quality of care (adjusted OR = 0.85 per 0.10 EuroQol units; P < .001). Conclusion: Financial burden is prevalent among cancer survivors and is related to patients' health-related quality of life. Future studies should consider interventions to improve patient education and engagement with regard to financial burden. PMID:25515717

  18. Prospective cohort studies of dengue viral transmission and severity of disease.

    PubMed

    Endy, Timothy P; Yoon, In-Kyu; Mammen, Mammen P

    2010-01-01

    As the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) systematically spread throughout the tropical and subtropical regions globally, dengue is increasingly contributing to the overall morbidity and mortality sustained by populations and thereby challenging the health infrastructures of most endemic countries. DENV-human host-mosquito vector interactions are complex and cause in humans either asymptomatic or subclinical DENV infection, mild to severe dengue fever (DF), severe dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Over the past decade, we have seen an increase in research funding and public health efforts to offset the effects of this pandemic. Though multiple vaccine development efforts are underway, the need remains to further characterize the determinants of varying severities of clinical outcomes. Several long-term prospective studies on DENV transmission and dengue severity have sought to define the epidemiology and pathogenesis of this disease. Yet, more studies are required to quantify the disease burden on different populations, explore the impact of DENV serotype-specific transmission on host-responses and dengue severity and measure the economic impact of dengue on a population. In this section, we will review the critical past and recent findings of dengue prospective studies on our understanding of the disease and the potential role of future prospective cohort studies in advancing issues required for vaccine field evaluations. PMID:19802574

  19. Higher Cognitive Performance Is Prospectively Associated with Healthy Dietary Choices: The Maine Syracuse Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, G.E.; Elias, M.F.; Davey, A.; Alkerwi, A.; Dore, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Few studies have examined whether cognitive function predicts dietary intake. The majority of research has focused on how diet can influence cognitive performance or risk for cognitive impairment in later life. The aim of this study was to examine prospective relationships between cognitive performance and dietary intake in participants of the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. DESIGN A prospective study with neuropsychological testing at baseline and nutritional assessments measured a mean of 18 years later. SETTING Community-dwelling individuals residing in central New York state. PARTICIPANTS 333 participants free of dementia and stroke. MEASUREMENTS The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) was assessed at baseline and dietary intake was measured using the Nutrition and Health Questionnaire. RESULTS Higher WAIS Scores at baseline were prospectively associated with higher intakes of vegetables, meats, nuts and legumes, and fish, but inversely associated with consumption of total grains and carbonated soft drinks. After adjustment for sample selection, socioeconomic indicators, lifestyle factors (smoking and physical activity), and cardiovascular risk factors, the relations between higher cognitive performance and greater consumption of vegetables, meat, and fish, and lower consumption of grains remained significant. CONCLUSION These data suggest that cognition early in life may influence dietary choices later in life. PMID:26878011

  20. Quality of early care and childhood trauma: a prospective study of developmental pathways to dissociation.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Lissa; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Holmes, Bjarne; Lyubchik, Amy; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2009-06-01

    Kihlstrom (2005) has recently called attention to the need for prospective longitudinal studies of dissociation. The present study assesses quality of early care and childhood trauma as predictors of dissociation in a sample of 56 low-income young adults followed from infancy to age 19. Dissociation was assessed with the Dissociative Experiences Scale; quality of early care was assessed by observer ratings of mother-infant interaction at home and in the laboratory; and childhood trauma was indexed by state-documented maltreatment, self-report, and interviewer ratings of participants' narratives. Regression analysis indicated that dissociation in young adulthood was significantly predicted by observed lack of parental responsiveness in infancy, while childhood verbal abuse was the only type of trauma that added to the prediction of dissociation. Implications are discussed in the context of previous prospective work also pointing to the important contribution of parental emotional unresponsiveness in the development of dissociation. PMID:19525736

  1. 77 FR 48993 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; The Sister Study: A Prospective Study of the Genetic and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... Environmental Risk Factors for Breast Cancer SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement of Section 3506(c)(2)(A... Prospective Study of the Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Breast Cancer. Type of Information... breast cancer in a high-risk cohort of sisters of women who have had breast cancer. The etiology...

  2. 77 FR 66851 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Sister Study: A Prospective Study of the Genetic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ...: A Prospective Study of the Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Breast Cancer SUMMARY: Under... Breast Cancer. Type of Information Collection Request: Revision. Need and Use of Information Collection... risk factors for the development of breast cancer in a high-risk cohort of sisters of women who...

  3. Breathing easy: a prospective study of optimism and pulmonary function in the normative aging study.

    PubMed

    Kubzansky, Laura D; Wright, Rosalind J; Cohen, Sheldon; Weiss, Scott; Rosner, Bernard; Sparrow, David

    2002-01-01

    Although there is good evidence that emotions are associated with chronic airways obstruction, evidence for the influence of psychological factors on the level and decline of pulmonary function is sparse. Optimism has been linked to enhanced well-being, whereas pessimism has been identified as a risk factor for poor physical health. This investigation examines prospectively the effects of optimism versus pessimism on pulmonary function. Data are from the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study, an ongoing cohort of older men. In 1986, 670 men completed the revised Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory from which we derived the bipolar Revised Optimism-Pessimism Scale. During an average of 8 years of follow-up, an average of 3 pulmonary function exams were obtained. Men with a more optimistic explanatory style had significantly higher levels of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (both p < .01). Interactions between time and optimism suggested that rate of decline in FEV1 over time was slower in men with a more optimistic explanatory style relative to men who were more pessimistic. These data are the first to link optimism with higher levels of pulmonary function and slower rate of pulmonary function decline in older men, a protective effect that is independent of smoking. PMID:12434946

  4. Community paediatric respiratory infection surveillance study protocol: a feasibility, prospective inception cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Emma C; Ingle, Suzanne Marie; Muir, Peter; Beck, Charles; Finn, Adam; Leeming, John Peter; Cabral, Christie; Kesten, Joanna May; Hay, Alastair D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Paediatric respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are common reasons for primary care consultations and antibiotic prescribing. Locally relevant syndromic and microbiological surveillance information has the potential to improve the care of children with RTIs by normalising illness (parents) and reducing uncertainty (clinicians). Currently, most RTI studies are conducted at the point of healthcare service consultation, leaving the community burden, microbiology, symptom duration and proportion consulting largely unknown. This study seeks to establish the feasibility of (mainly online) participant recruitment and retention, and the acceptability/comparability of parent versus nurse-collected microbiological sampling, to inform the design of a future surveillance intervention study. Evidence regarding consultation rates and symptom duration is also sought. Methods and analysis A community-based, feasibility prospective inception cohort study, recruiting children aged ≥3 months and <16 years and their parents via general practitioner surgery invitation letter, aiming to collect data on 300 incident RTIs by July 2016. Following informed consent, parents provide baseline (demographic) data online, and respond to weekly emails to confirm the absence/presence of new RTI symptoms. Once symptomatic, parents provide daily data online (RTI symptoms, school/day-care attendance, time off work, health service use, medication), and a research nurse visits to collect clinical examination data and microbiological (nasal and saliva) swabs. Parents are invited to provide symptomatic (at nurse visit, but without nurse assistance) and asymptomatic (alone) swabs on recovery. A review of primary care medical notes will gather medical history, health service utilisation, referral and antibiotic prescribing rates. Feasibility will be assessed using recruitment and retention rates, data completeness; and acceptability by quantitative survey and qualitative interviews

  5. Risk factors for sleep disturbances in older adults: Evidence from prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Smagula, Stephen F; Stone, Katie L; Fabio, Anthony; Cauley, Jane A

    2016-02-01

    No systematic review of epidemiological evidence has examined risk factors for sleep disturbances among older adults. We searched the PubMed database combining search terms targeting the following domains 1) prospective, 2) sleep, and 3) aging, and identified 21 relevant population-based studies with prospective sleep outcome data. Only two studies utilized objective measures of sleep disturbance, while six used the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and thirteen used insomnia symptoms or other sleep complaints as the outcome measure. Female gender, depressed mood, and physical illness were most consistently identified as risks for future sleep disturbances. Less robust evidence implicated the following as potentially relevant predictors: lower physical activity levels, African-American race, lower economic status, previous manual occupation, widowhood, marital quality, loneliness and perceived stress, preclinical dementia, long-term benzodiazepine and sedative use, low testosterone levels, and inflammatory markers. Chronological age was not identified as a consistent, independent predictor of future sleep disturbances. In conclusion, prospective studies have identified female gender, depressed mood, and physical illness as general risk factors for future sleep disturbances in later life, although specific physiological pathways have not yet been established. Research is needed to determine the precise mechanisms through which these factors influence sleep over time. PMID:26140867

  6. A 3-Year Retrospective Evaluation of the Clinical Performance of Fiber Posts.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Marina; Coppo, Priscilla Pessin; Rosalem, Cíntia Gonçalves Carvalho; Suaid, Fabricia Ferreira; Guerra, Selva Maria Gonçalves

    2015-12-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the clinical outcome of 139 teeth restored with carbon fiber posts after 3 years of placement, considering the amount of remaining dentin as the main variable. Eighty-one patients received the fiber posts within a period of 16 months and were recalled after 3 years. The tooth type, amount of remaining dentin, and prosthetic crown material were evaluated. No loss of post or core retention was detected after 3 years of follow up. During the observed time, root or post fracture and secondary caries were not recorded. Only one failure concerning endodontic treatment was detected. The amount of remaining dentin was not an important characteristic in the restorative failure of endodontically treated teeth restored with carbon fiber posts within 3 years. PMID:26963206

  7. Enhancing the executive functions of 3-year-olds in the dimensional change card sort task

    PubMed Central

    Perone, Sammy; Molitor, Stephen; Buss, Aaron T.; Spencer, John P.; Samuelson, Larissa K.

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) enable flexible thinking, something young children are notoriously bad at. For instance, in the dimensional change card sort (DCCS) task, 3-year-olds can sort cards by one dimension (shape), but continue to sort by this dimension when asked to switch (to color). This study tests a prediction of a Dynamic Neural Field (DNF) model that prior experience with the post-switch dimension can enhance 3-year-old’s performance in the DCCS task. In Experiment 1A, a matching game was used to pre-expose 3-year-olds (n=36) to color. This facilitated switching from sorting by shape to color. In Experiment 1B, 3-year-olds (n=18) were pre-exposed to shape. This did not facilitate switching from sorting by color to shape. The DNF model was used to provide a mechanistic explanation for this asymmetry. PMID:25441395

  8. Aboriginal birth cohort (ABC): a prospective cohort study of early life determinants of adiposity and associated risk factors among Aboriginal people in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aboriginal people living in Canada have a high prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). To better understand the pre and postnatal influences on the development of adiposity and related cardio-metabolic factors in adult Aboriginal people, we will recruit and follow prospectively Aboriginal pregnant mothers and their children – the Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC) study. Methods/design We aim to recruit 300 Aboriginal pregnant mothers and their newborns from the Six Nations Reserve, and follow them prospectively to age 3 years. Key details of environment and health including maternal nutrition, glucose tolerance, physical activity, and weight gain will be collected. At birth, cord blood and placenta samples will be collected, as well as newborn anthropometric measurements. Mothers and offspring will be followed annually with serial measurements of diet and physical activity, growth trajectory, and adiposity. Discussion There is an urgent need to understand maternal and child factors that underlie the early development of adiposity and type 2 diabetes in Aboriginal people. The information generated from this cohort will assist the Six Nations community in developing interventions to prevent early adiposity in Aboriginal children. PMID:23800270

  9. Everolimus and early calcineurin inhibitor withdrawal: 3-year results from a randomized trial in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sterneck, M; Kaiser, G M; Heyne, N; Richter, N; Rauchfuss, F; Pascher, A; Schemmer, P; Fischer, L; Klein, C G; Nadalin, S; Lehner, F; Settmacher, U; Neuhaus, P; Gotthardt, D; Loss, M; Ladenburger, S; Paulus, E M; Mertens, M; Schlitt, H J

    2014-03-01

    The feasibility of de novo everolimus without calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) therapy following liver transplantation was assessed in a multicenter, prospective, open-label trial. Liver transplant patients were randomized at 4 weeks to start everolimus and discontinue CNI, or continue their current CNI-based regimen. The primary endpoint was adjusted estimated GFR (eGFR; Cockcroft-Gault) at month 11 post randomization. A 24-month extension phase followed 81/114 (71.1%) of eligible patients to month 35 post randomization. The adjusted mean eGFR benefit from randomization to month 35 was 10.1 mL/min (95% confidence interval [CI] -1.3, 21.5 mL/min, p = 0.082) in favor of CNI-free versus CNI using Cockcroft-Gault, 9.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (95% CI -0.4, 18.9, p = 0.053) with Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (four-variable) and 9.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (95% CI -1.1, 17.9, p = 0.028) using Nankivell. The difference in favor of the CNI-free regimen increased gradually over time due to a small progressive decline in eGFR in the CNI cohort despite a reduction in CNI exposure. Biopsy-proven acute rejection, graft loss and death were similar between groups. Adverse events led to study drug discontinuation in five CNI-free patients and five CNI patients (12.2% vs. 12.5%, p = 1.000) during the extension phase. Everolimus-based CNI-free immunosuppression is feasible following liver transplantation and patients benefit from sustained preservation of renal function versus patients on CNI for at least 3 years. PMID:24502384

  10. Lung cancer drug therapy in Hungary – 3-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Moldvay, Judit; Rokszin, György; Abonyi-Tóth, Zsolt; Katona, Lajos; Fábián, Katalin; Kovács, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    Hungary is a world leader in lung cancer deaths, so it is of crucial importance that patients have access to modern treatments. The aim of our analysis was to explore how drug treatments are used in Hungary and how they are compatible with international practice. The inpatient and prescription database of the National Health Insurance Fund Administration of Hungary was used to study the frequency of certain chemotherapy protocols and duration of therapies during a 3-year period (2008–2010). During the study period, 12,326 lung cancer patients received first-line chemotherapy, a third of those (n=3,791) received second-line treatment, and a third of the latter (n=1,174) received third-line treatment. The average treatment duration was between 3 and 4 months. The first-line treatment of non-small-cell lung carcinoma mainly consisted of platinum treatment in combination with third-generation cytotoxic agents. A downward trend of gemcitabine, still the most common combination compound, was observed, in parallel with a significantly increased use of paclitaxel, and as a consequence carboplatin replaced cisplatin. Among the new agents, the use of pemetrexed and bevacizumab increased. Pemetrexed appeared mainly in second-line treatment, while erlotinib appeared also in second-line but mostly in third-line treatments. The first-line treatment of small-cell lung carcinoma consisted of a platinum–etoposide combination, while in the second-line setting topotecan was the most commonly used drug. According to our results, the chemotherapeutic combinations and sequencing are in accordance with international and national recommendations. Further detailed analysis of the available data may help to obtain a more accurate picture of the efficacy of lung cancer treatments as well. PMID:25999737

  11. Three-year outcome analysis of alpha 1-blocker naftopidil for patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia in a prospective multicenter study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Masumori, Naoya; Tsukamoto, Taiji; Shibuya, Akihiko; Miyao, Noriomi; Kunishima, Yasuharu; Iwasawa, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Our aim was to prospectively analyze the 3-year outcomes of naftopidil treatment for patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), including those who dropped out during follow-up and had retreatment for BPH after termination of the drug within 3 years. Patients and methods Naftopidil, 50 mg/d or 75 mg/d, was given to 117 patients having BPH aged 50 years and older who had international prostate symptom scores (IPSS) ≥8. They were prospectively followed for 3 years with periodic evaluation. If naftopidil was terminated, the reason was determined. For patients with termination, an outcome survey was done to evaluate the status of retreatment for BPH at 3 years. Results Twenty-five patients (21.4%) continued the same medication for 3 years. The total IPSS, quality of life index, BPH problem index, and maximum flow rate were significantly improved during 3 years. Treatment failure defined as symptomatic progression (an increase in the IPSS of ≥4 points compared to the baseline value), development of acute urinary retention, conversion to other α1-blockers, add-on of a 5α-reductase inhibitor, or conversion to surgery was observed in 41 patients (35.0%). In the univariate analysis, age, prostate volume, and serum prostate-specific antigen were predictors of treatment failure. Of the 50 patients who discontinued naftopidil during the follow-up, only 13 (26%) patients reported that they needed retreatment with α1-blockers and/or surgery within 3 years. Conclusion Long-term efficacy of naftopidil was observed, although older age, increased prostate volume, and elevated prostate-specific antigen at baseline were highly likely to result in treatment failure. Even after termination for various reasons, only a small portion of the patients needed retreatment for BPH within 3 years. PMID:27524886

  12. Antecedents of Intact Cognition and Dementia at Age 90: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaillant, George E.; Okereke, Olivia I; Mukamal, Kenneth; Waldinger, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the possible antecedents of both dementia and sustained intact cognition at age 90 among men who underwent a prospective, multidisciplinary assessment from age 19 to 90, with little attrition. Methods A prospective 20-year reassessment of the 196 (out of 268) former Harvard College sophomores who survived until age 70. Begun in 1939 the Study gathered measurements of childhood environment, dominant personality traits, and objective mental and physical health over time, smoking in pack years, alcohol abuse and depression. Questionnaires were obtained every two years and physical exams every five years. Cognitive status was assessed at ages 80, 85 and 90. Results Despite addressing a wide variety health, behavioral and social factors over the lifespan, we observed few predictors with strong association with either intact cognition at age 90 (n = 40) or dementia (n = 44). Univariate analysis revealed seven suggestive predictors of intact cognition at age 90 or of dementia: warm childhood relationship with mother, exercise at age 60, high maternal education, young age of mother at subject’s birth, low BMI, good physical health at 60, and late retirement. Only the first 3 variables: warm childhood relationship with mother, exercise at age 60, and high maternal education remained significant with logistic regression. Conclusions In this prospective study of long-lived, highly educated men several well-known putative predictors of AD did not distinguish those who over the next 20 years developed dementia from those with unimpaired cognition until age 90. PMID:24733646

  13. Are Prospective Elementary School Teachers' Social Studies Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Related to Their Learning Approaches in a Social Studies Teaching Methods Course?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dündar, Sahin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to contribute to the growing literature on learning approaches and teacher self-efficacy beliefs by examining associations between prospective elementary school teachers' learning approaches in a social studies teaching methods course and their social studies teaching efficacy beliefs. One hundred ninety-two prospective elementary…

  14. A prospective study of the LMB regimen for diffuse large cell non Hodgkin's lymphoma in adults.

    PubMed

    Voog, E; Sebban, C; Biron, P; Philip, T; Blay, J Y

    2000-02-01

    Although the CHOP regimen remains a standard first line chemotherapy for diffuse large cell lymphoma (DLCL) in adults, a majority of these patients will still experience disease progression after the completion of this treatment. The LMB protocol is an intensive chemotherapy regimen which yields high survival rates in Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) and diffuse large cell lymphoma (DLCL) in children, as well as in primary cerebral DLCL (PCL) of adults. Here, we report the long term results of this regimen in a prospective series of 22 adult patients with DLCL excluding PCL. Fifteen male and 7 female patients with a median age of 30 years (range: 20-55) were treated prospectively between 1988 and 1993. 16 (72%) patients had an age adjusted International Pronostic Index (IPI) > or = 1. The median duration of the treatment was 15 weeks (range 13-19). Nineteen of the 22 patients (87%) experienced an objective response (14 complete, and 5 partial responses) at the end of the protocol. The predominant toxicity was myelosuppression: 89% of the COPADEM courses were followed by grade IV neutropenia and 5% with grade IV infection. One patient died (4%) of treatment related toxicity. With a median follow-up of 94 months and a minimum follow-up of 65 months, 8-year overall and progression-free survival are 73% and 67% respectively. The 8 year overall survival were 100%, 78% and 42% in patients with an IPI 0, 1, and 2-3 respectively. This short intensive regimen yields promising long term survival rates in this monocentric prospective study and may deserve to be tested in a larger multicentric prospective study comparing it to the CHOP regimen. PMID:10784397

  15. The Structure of Executive Function in 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Sandra A.; Sheffield, Tiffany; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Clark, Caron A. C.; Chevalier, Nicolas; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2011-01-01

    Although the structure of executive function (EF) during adulthood is characterized by both unity and diversity, recent evidence suggests that preschool EF may be best described by a single factor. The latent structure of EF was examined in 228 3-year-olds using confirmatory factor analysis. Children completed a battery of executive tasks that…

  16. Aetiology of community acquired pneumonia in Valencia, Spain: a multicentre prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Blanquer, J; Blanquer, R; Borrás, R; Nauffal, D; Morales, P; Menéndez, R; Subías, I; Herrero, L; Redón, J; Pascual, J

    1991-01-01

    A year long multicentre prospective study was carried out in the Valencia region of Spain, to determine the cause of community acquired pneumonia. The study was based on 510 of 833 patients with pneumonia. Of these, 462 were admitted to hospital, where 31 patients died. A cause was established in only 281 cases--208 of bacterial, 60 of viral, and 13 of mixed infection. The most common microorganisms were Streptococcus pneumoniae (14.5%), Legionella sp (14%), Influenza virus (8%), and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (4%). There was a higher incidence of Legionella sp than in other studies. PMID:1908605

  17. Prospective observational studies of the management and outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hersi, Ahmad S.; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A.; Zubaid, Mohammad; Al Suwaidi, Jassim

    2012-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major global public health problem. Observational studies are necessary to understand patient characteristics, management, and outcomes of this common arrhythmia. Accordingly, our objective was to describe the current status of published prospective observational studies of AF. Methods and results MEDLINE and EMBASE (to June 2012) and reference lists of eligible studies were searched for English-language prospective observational registries of AF (n ⩾ 100 and follow-up ⩾6 months). Two reviewers independently extracted data. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Eight prospective studies enrolled a total of 17,924 patients with AF (total 41,306 patient-years of exposure; follow-up 11 months to 9.9 years). The majority of subjects were enrolled in Europe (74%) or North America (21%), and 0.3% had rheumatic AF. The most consistently reported comorbidities were diabetes mellitus (range 5–18%), hypertension (39–68%), heart failure (5–58%), and prior stroke (4–17%). Three studies did not report all the variables necessary to calculate the currently recommended stroke risk assessment score, and no study reported all the variables required to calculate a recently validated bleeding risk score. The most consistently reported management features were oral anticoagulation (32–64%) and aspirin (28–61%) use. Calcium channel blockers were less frequently used than other rate controlling agents, and digoxin was most common in the single study from Africa (63%). Total mortality was reported in all studies, while data on stroke/systemic embolism, hospitalizations, and major hemorrhage rates were not always reported. Conclusions Current literature on real-world management of AF is relatively limited with inadequate data to allow detailed comparisons among reports. Data on rheumatic AF and from Africa and the developing world in general are sparse. PMID:24174832

  18. Does sexual victimization predict subsequent alcohol consumption? A prospective study among a community sample of women.

    PubMed

    Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A; Hoffman, Joseph H

    2007-12-01

    Although rape and sexual victimization experiences have been hypothesized to contribute to subsequent heavy drinking and alcohol problems among women, little prospective evidence exists. The present prospective study examined whether sexual victimization contributes to subsequent heavy drinking among a community sample of women, 18-30 years of age (n=927). Using three waves of data, 12 months apart, we examined the impact of T1 sexual victimization on T2 heavy drinking, and of T2 sexual victimization on T3 heavy drinking. There were significant bivariate differences between sexually victimized and non-victimized women on heavy drinking both concurrently and prospectively. However, after controlling for prior heavy drinking and demographic variables, most differences disappeared. We also tested the hypothesis that Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms would mediate the relationship between T2 sexual victimization and T3 heavy drinking. Although T2 sexual victimization predicted T2 PTSD symptoms, PTSD did not contribute to subsequent heavy drinking. Findings suggest that heavy drinking is relatively stable over time and that sexual victimization does not make a substantial independent contribution to heavy drinking among women in the general population. PMID:17597304

  19. Pharmacovigilance study of Ayurvedic medicine in Ayurvedic Teaching Hospital: A prospective survey study

    PubMed Central

    Ajanal, Manjunath N.; Nayak, Shradda U.; Kadam, Avinash P.; Prasad, B. S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Though Ayurveda is practiced in the Indian subcontinent since centuries, there is a paucity of systematic documentation related to the occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADR) and other issues regarding the safety of Ayurveda medicines. Aim: To monitor and analyze the pattern and frequency of ADR to Ayurvedic medicines in an Ayurvedic hospital setup. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, ADR monitoring was done in KLE Ayurveda Secondary Care Hospital, Belgaum, Karnataka, India by spontaneous and intensive monitoring technique for a span of 1-year (June 2010 to May 2011). Data pertaining to patient demography, drug and reaction characteristics, organ system involved and reaction outcomes were collected and evaluated. The reaction severity and predisposing factors were also assessed. Results: In a span of one year, 84 adverse drug events were reported out of which 52 confirmed as ADR. The overall incidence of ADR in the patient population was 1.14%, out of which 23 (44.23%) were related to Panchakarma (detoxification process), 13 (25.00%) related to the herbal formulations and 06 (11.53%) were of Rasa Aushadhi (mineral or herbo-mineral formulations). The commonly affected organ systems were gastrointestinal system 24 (46.15%) and skin 15 (28.84%). The majority of the reactions were moderate 30 (57.69%) to mild 20 (38.46%) in severity. Most patients recovered from the incidence. Conclusion: The present work has documented the incidence and characteristic of ADR to Ayurvedic medicine in a typical Ayurveda hospital setup. This will help in developing various strategies for boosting pharmacovigilance in Ayurveda, thereby ensuring safer use of Ayurveda medicines. PMID:27011712

  20. The Netherlands study of depression in older persons (NESDO); a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To study late-life depression and its unfavourable course and co morbidities in The Netherlands. Methods We designed the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO), a multi-site naturalistic prospective cohort study which makes it possible to examine the determinants, the course and the consequences of depressive disorders in older persons over a period of six years, and to compare these with those of depression earlier in adulthood. Results From 2007 until 2010, the NESDO consortium has recruited 510 depressed and non depressed older persons (≥ 60 years) at 5 locations throughout the Netherlands. Depressed persons were recruited from both mental health care institutes and general practices in order to include persons with late-life depression in various developmental and severity stages. Non-depressed persons were recruited from general practices. The baseline assessment included written questionnaires, interviews, a medical examination, cognitive tests and collection of blood and saliva samples. Information was gathered about mental health outcomes and demographic, psychosocial, biological, cognitive and genetic determinants. The baseline NESDO sample consists of 378 depressed (according to DSM-IV criteria) and 132 non-depressed persons aged 60 through 93 years. 95% had a major depression and 26.5% had dysthymia. Mean age of onset of the depressive disorder was around 49 year. For 33.1% of the depressed persons it was their first episode. 41.0% of the depressed persons had a co morbid anxiety disorder. Follow up assessments are currently going on with 6 monthly written questionnaires and face-to-face interviews after 2 and 6 years. Conclusions The NESDO sample offers the opportunity to study the neurobiological, psychosocial and physical determinants of depression and its long-term course in older persons. Since largely similar measures were used as in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA; age range 18-65 years), data

  1. Cognitive Shifting as a Predictor of Progress in Social Understanding in High-Functioning Adolescents with Autism: A Prospective Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Hans J. C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This prospective study of 17 high-functioning residentially treated adolescents with autism found that cognitive shifting, as measured by card sorting tests, was the only significant factor in predicting progress in social understanding. (Author/JDD)

  2. Evidence for prospective associations among depression and obesity in population-based studies.

    PubMed

    Faith, M S; Butryn, M; Wadden, T A; Fabricatore, A; Nguyen, A M; Heymsfield, S B

    2011-05-01

    Obesity may lead to depression or be one of its consequences. We reviewed population-based studies in order to, first, identify the most commonly used research methods, and, second, to evaluate the strength of evidence for prospective associations among obesity and depression. We examined 25 studies, of which 10 tested 'obesity-to-depression' pathways, and 15 tested 'depression-to-obesity' pathways. Descriptive statistics summarized the frequency with which various measurements, designs and data analytic strategies were used. We tallied the number of studies that reported any vs. no statistically significant associations, and report on effect sizes, identified moderating variables within reports, and sought common findings across studies. Results indicated considerable methodological heterogeneity in the literature. Depression was assessed by clinical interview in 44% of studies, weight and height were directly measured in 32%, and only 12% used both. In total, 80% of the studies reported significant obesity-to-depression associations, with odds ratios generally in the range of 1.0 to 2.0, while only 53% of the studies reported significant depression-to-obesity associations. Sex was a common moderating variable. Thus, there was good evidence that obesity is prospectively associated with increased depression, with less consistent evidence that depression leads to obesity. Recommendations for future research regarding study samples, measurement and data analysis are provided. PMID:21414128

  3. Intake of coffee and tea and risk of ovarian cancer: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Silvera, Stephanie A N; Jain, Meera; Howe, Geoffrey R; Miller, Anthony B; Rohan, Thomas E

    2007-01-01

    There is some evidence from case-control studies that coffee consumption might be positively associated with ovarian cancer risk, whereas the epidemiologic evidence regarding tea consumption and ovarian cancer is inconsistent. To date, there have been few prospective studies of these associations. Therefore, we examined ovarian cancer risk in association with both coffee and tea intake in a prospective cohort study of 49,613 Canadian women enrolled in the National Breast Screening Study (NBSS) who completed a self-administered food frequency questionnaire between 1980 and 1985. Linkages to national mortality and cancer databases yielded data on deaths and cancer incidence, with follow-up ending between 1998 and 2000. Data from the food frequency questionnaire were used to estimate daily intake of coffee and tea. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between categories of coffee and tea intake and ovarian cancer risk. During a mean 16.4 years of follow-up, we observed 264 incident ovarian cancer cases. Tea intake was not associated with ovarian cancer risk in our study population. In contrast, a borderline positive association was observed among women who drank > 4 cups coffee/day compared to women who did not drink coffee (HR = 1.62, 95% CI = 0.95-2.75, P(trend) = 0.06). Given the pervasive use of these beverages, the associations between coffee and tea consumption and ovarian cancer risk warrant investigation in further prospective studies. PMID:17571963

  4. Electroencephalographic source imaging: a prospective study of 152 operated epileptic patients

    PubMed Central

    Brodbeck, Verena; Spinelli, Laurent; Lascano, Agustina M.; Wissmeier, Michael; Vargas, Maria-Isabel; Vulliemoz, Serge; Pollo, Claudio; Schaller, Karl; Michel, Christoph M.

    2011-01-01

    Electroencephalography is mandatory to determine the epilepsy syndrome. However, for the precise localization of the irritative zone in patients with focal epilepsy, costly and sometimes cumbersome imaging techniques are used. Recent small studies using electric source imaging suggest that electroencephalography itself could be used to localize the focus. However, a large prospective validation study is missing. This study presents a cohort of 152 operated patients where electric source imaging was applied as part of the pre-surgical work-up allowing a comparison with the results from other methods. Patients (n = 152) with >1 year postoperative follow-up were studied prospectively. The sensitivity and specificity of each imaging method was defined by comparing the localization of the source maximum with the resected zone and surgical outcome. Electric source imaging had a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 88% if the electroencephalogram was recorded with a large number of electrodes (128–256 channels) and the individual magnetic resonance image was used as head model. These values compared favourably with those of structural magnetic resonance imaging (76% sensitivity, 53% specificity), positron emission tomography (69% sensitivity, 44% specificity) and ictal/interictal single-photon emission-computed tomography (58% sensitivity, 47% specificity). The sensitivity and specificity of electric source imaging decreased to 57% and 59%, respectively, with low number of electrodes (<32 channels) and a template head model. This study demonstrated the validity and clinical utility of electric source imaging in a large prospective study. Given the low cost and high flexibility of electroencephalographic systems even with high channel counts, we conclude that electric source imaging is a highly valuable tool in pre-surgical epilepsy evaluation. PMID:21975586

  5. Predictors of grief in bereaved family caregivers of person's with Alzheimer's disease: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Romero, Melissa M; Ott, Carol H; Kelber, Sheryl T

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to identify factors in 66 spouses and adult child caregivers of person's with Alzheimer's disease prior to the death that predicted higher levels of grief in bereavement. A hierarchical regression model was tested. Predeath grief, dysfunctional coping, depression, social support, and decreased positive states of mind explained 54.7% of the variance in postdeath grief. Factors that contributed significantly to postdeath grief included predeath grief and depression. Results from this study indicate that risk factors for postdeath grief can be predicted prior to the death. PMID:24666146

  6. Psychological and Social Work Factors as Predictors of Mental Distress: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Finne, Live Bakke; Christensen, Jan Olav; Knardahl, Stein

    2014-01-01

    Studies exploring psychological and social work factors in relation to mental health problems (anxiety and depression) have mainly focused on a limited set of exposures. The current study investigated prospectively a broad set of specific psychological and social work factors as predictors of potentially clinically relevant mental distress (anxiety and depression), i.e. “caseness” level of distress. Employees were recruited from 48 Norwegian organizations, representing a wide variety of job types. A total of 3644 employees responded at both baseline and at follow-up two years later. Respondents were distributed across 832 departments within the 48 organizations. Nineteen work factors were measured. Two prospective designs were tested: (i) with baseline predictors and (ii) with average exposure over time ([T1+T2]/2) as predictors. Random intercept logistic regressions were conducted to account for clustering of the data. Baseline “cases” were excluded (n = 432). Age, sex, skill level, and mental distress as a continuous variable at T1 were adjusted for. Fourteen of 19 factors showed some prospective association with mental distress. The most consistent risk factor was role conflict (highest odds ratio [OR] 2.08, 99% confidence interval [CI]: 1.45–3.00). The most consistent protective factors were support from immediate superior (lowest OR 0.56, 99% CI: 0.43–0.72), fair leadership (lowest OR 0.52, 99% CI: 0.40–0.68), and positive challenge (lowest OR 0.60, 99% CI: 0.41–0.86). The present study demonstrated that a broad set of psychological and social work factors predicted mental distress of potential clinical relevance. Some of the most consistent predictors were different from those traditionally studied. This highlights the importance of expanding the range of factors beyond commonly studied concepts like the demand-control model and the effort-reward imbalance model. PMID:25048033

  7. Serum Lipids and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Epidemiologic studies exploring causal associations between serum lipids and breast cancer risk have reported contradictory results. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to evaluate these associations. Methods Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE through April 2015. We included prospective cohort studies that reported relative risk (RR) estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations of specific lipid components (i.e., total cholesterol [TC], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], and triglycerides [TG]) with breast cancer risk. Either a fixed- or a random-effects model was used to calculate pooled RRs. Results Fifteen prospective cohort studies involving 1,189,635 participants and 23,369 breast cancer cases were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled RRs of breast cancer for the highest versus lowest categories were 0.96 (95% CI: 0.86–1.07) for TC, 0.92 (95% CI: 0.73–1.16) for HDL-C, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.77–1.06) for LDL-C, and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.86–1.00) for TG. Notably, for HDL-C, a significant reduction of breast cancer risk was observed among postmenopausal women (RR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.64–0.93) but not among premenopausal women. Similar trends of the associations were observed in the dose-response analysis. Conclusions Our findings suggest that serum levels of TG but not TC and LDL-C may be inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Serum HDL-C may also protect against breast carcinogenesis among postmenopausal women. PMID:26554382

  8. Education and Risk of Dementia: Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Tan, Lan; Wang, Hui-Fu; Tan, Meng-Shan; Tan, Lin; Li, Jie-Qiong; Zhao, Qing-Fei; Yu, Jin-Tai

    2016-07-01

    Educational level has been regarded as one of the most widely accepted risk factors in the epidemiological studies for dementia, despite with discordant qualitative results. However, the dose-response relation between education and incident dementia was still unknown. To quantitatively evaluate the association between exposure level to high and low education and risk of dementia, we searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library up to November 2014 and references of retrieved literatures. Specific prospective cohort studies, in which educational attainment was categorized into at least three levels, were included. Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to assess the quality of included studies. Fifteen prospective cohort studies with 55655 for low education and eight prospective cohort studies with 20172 for high education were included. In the qualitative analysis, both low and high education showed a dose-response trend with risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the quantitative analysis, the dementia risk was reduced by 7 % for per year increase in education (RR, 0.93; 95 % CI, 0.92-0.94; p for overall trend = 0.000; p for nonlinearity = 0.0643). Nonetheless, we did not find statistically significant association between per year decrease in education and dementia (RR, 1.03; 95 % CI, 0.96-1.10; p for overall trend = 0.283; p for nonlinearity = 0.0041) or AD (RR, 1.03; 95 % CI, 0.97-1.10; p for overall trend = 0.357; p for nonlinearity = 0.0022). Both low and high education showed a trend of dose-response relation with risk of dementia and AD. The dementia risk was reduced by 7 % for per year increase in education. PMID:25983035

  9. Dietary fiber intake and mortality among survivors of myocardial infarction: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Flint, Alan; Pai, Jennifer K; Forman, John P; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Rimm, Eric B

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the associations of dietary fiber after myocardial infarction (MI) and changes in dietary fiber intake from before to after MI with all cause and cardiovascular mortality. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Two large prospective cohort studies of US women and men with repeated dietary measurements: the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Participants 2258 women and 1840 men who were free of cardiovascular disease, stroke, or cancer at enrollment, survived a first MI during follow-up, were free of stroke at the time of initial onset of MI, and provided food frequency questionnaires pre-MI and at least one post-MI. Main outcome measures Associations of dietary fiber post-MI and changes from before to after MI with all cause and cardiovascular mortality using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for drug use, medical history, and lifestyle factors. Results Higher post-MI fiber intake was significantly associated with lower all cause mortality (comparing extreme fifths, pooled hazard ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.97). Greater intake of cereal fiber was more strongly associated with all cause mortality (pooled hazard ratio 0.73, 0.58 to 0.91) than were other sources of dietary fiber. Increased fiber intake from before to after MI was significantly associated with lower all cause mortality (pooled hazard ratio 0.69, 0.55 to 0.87). Conclusions In this prospective study of patients who survived MI, a greater intake of dietary fiber after MI, especially cereal fiber, was inversely associated with all cause mortality. In addition, increasing consumption of fiber from before to after MI was significantly associated with lower all cause and cardiovascular mortality. PMID:24782515

  10. Clinical and functional outcomes of the PCCP study: a multi-center prospective study in Italy.

    PubMed

    Antonini, G; Giancola, R; Berruti, D; Blanchietti, E; Pecchia, P; Francione, V; Greco, P; Russo, T C; Pietrogrande, L

    2013-04-01

    The standard surgical management of hip fractures is associated with tissue trauma and bleeding which are added to the fracture injury. The percutaneous compression plate (PCCP) is a minimally invasive device that has been demonstrated in previous studies to reduce postoperative complications and blood loss. This prospective, multi-center, observational study assessed clinical and functional outcomes with PCCP as treatment for trochanteric fractures. Patients with a stable or unstable proximal femoral fracture of type AO 31.A1 or 31.A2 were enrolled in eight hospitals in Italy. The primary outcome of interest was the recovery of the pre-fracture functional status at 1-year follow-up; secondary outcomes of interest included blood transfusions, surgical time, complications, and mortality. A total of 273 patients were enrolled. The ASA score was 3 or 4 in 72.5 % of patients. The mean surgical time was 44.1 min; the mean post-surgery blood transfusions was 0.9 units. At 1 year, 48 patients (17.6 %) died, 28 (10.2 %) were lost to follow-up, 4 patients (1.5 %) were excluded, hence 193 patients (70.3 %) were available for final evaluation. At the 1-year follow-up visit, 51.9 % of patients recovered or improved their pre-fracture modified Harris Hip Score, 49.1 % of patients improved or maintained their walking abilities, and 66.6 % of patients residing at home pre-surgery maintained their domicile. The overall mortality rate was 17.6 %. Major complications included two fracture collapses, one excessive sliding of the cephalic screw leading to a partial fracture collapse and one back-out of the diaphyseal screw. This study demonstrates that treatment of trochanteric fractures with PCCP gives good outcomes and significant advantages such as low blood loss, short surgical time, low risk of complications, and good functional recovery in the majority of the patients. PMID:23543403

  11. Of decrements and disorders: assessing impairments in neurodevelopment in prospective studies of environmental toxicant exposures.

    PubMed

    Sagiv, Sharon K; Kalkbrenner, Amy E; Bellinger, David C

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal and early life neurodevelopment is exquisitely sensitive to insult from environmental exposures. Identifying the effects of environmental toxicants on neurodevelopmental disorders is particularly important from a public health perspective because many of these exposures are modifiable and may be targeted for intervention. Studying these associations in prospective cohort studies that measure quantitative, dimensional traits related to neurodevelopmental disorders, using standardized instruments such as psychometric tests or rating scales, mitigates many of the challenges that arise when studying clinically diagnosed disorders. We consider validity and feasibility impacts resulting from this design approach, including: 1) enhanced prospective exposure assessment with high quality environmental measures during developmentally relevant windows; 2) reduced bias because studies of continuous outcomes do not recruit cases and controls and are therefore not vulnerable to control selection bias; 3) enhanced statistical power because traits are measured on all individuals in the cohort and power is not limited by the number of cases; 4) reduced outcome misclassification because measuring quantitative traits avoids lumping together individuals with very heterogeneous phenotypes into one category. We use autism spectrum disorders (ASD) as an example to illustrate the advantages of this approach. Investigating the determinants of neurodevelopmental disorders - particularly modifiable determinants such as environmental toxicant exposures - is of great public health importance, given the apparent substantial rise of disorders like ASD over the past few decades. The use of prospective designs measuring quantitative, dimensional traits offers a powerful opportunity to provide important clues to the etiology of these disorders and is likely to accelerate our understanding of the role of environmental toxicant exposures as risk factors. PMID:25609433

  12. Prospective study of dietary acrylamide and risk of colorectal cancer among women.

    PubMed

    Mucci, Lorelei A; Adami, Hans-Olov; Wolk, Alicja

    2006-01-01

    There has been considerable discourse about whether exposure to acrylamide in foods could increase the risk of human cancer. Acrylamide is classified as a probable human carcinogen, and animal studies have demonstrated an increased incidence of tumors in rats exposed to very high levels. Still, epidemiologic data of the effect of dietary acrylamide remain scant. We have undertaken the first prospective study of acrylamide in food and risk of colon and rectal cancers using prospective data from the Swedish Mammography Cohort. The cohort comprised 61,467 women at baseline between 1987 and 1990. Through 2003, the cohort contributed 823,072 person-years, and 504 cases of colon and 237 of rectal cancer occurred. Mean intake of acrylamide through diet was 24.6 mug/day (Q25-70 = 18.7-29.9). Coffee (44%), fried potato products (16%), crisp bread (15%) and other breads (12%) were the greatest contributors. After adjusting for potential confounders, there was no association between estimated acrylamide intake and colorectal cancer. Comparing extreme quintiles, the adjusted relative risks (95% CI; p for trend) were for colorectal cancer 0.9 (0.7-1.3; p = 0.80), colon cancer 0.9 (0.6-1.4; p = 0.83) and rectal cancer 1.0 (0.6-1.8; p = 0.77). Furthermore, intake of specific food items with elevated acrylamide (e.g., coffee, crisp bread and fried potato products) was not associated with cancer risk. In this large prospective study, we found no evidence that dietary intake of acrylamide is associated with cancers of the colon or rectum. Epidemiologic studies play an important role in assessing the possible health effects of acrylamide intake through food. PMID:16003738

  13. Prescription pain reliever misuse and levels of pain impairment: 3-year course in a nationally representative outpatient sample of US adults

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Scott P; Glasheen, Cristie; Roland, Carl L

    2016-01-01

    Background The primary aim of this work was to present the prevalence data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a representative 3-year longitudinal survey (ages 18+ years) that captured information on patterns of self-reported pain interference and prescription pain reliever misuse. A second aim was to assess the degree to which the risk of various types of opioid misuse (onset, desistance, and incidence of dependence) was related to the longitudinal course of self-reported pain interference over the 3-year period. Methods We used a two-wave, nationally representative sample of adults (aged 18+ years) in which the baseline data were collected during 2001–2002 and a single follow-up was obtained ~3 years later (2004–2005 with 34,332 respondents with complete data on study variables for both waves). Results Our findings indicated that ~10% reported high pain interference in the past month at each wave. There was tremendous stability in levels of pain, with ~5% reporting consistent levels of high impairment over the 3-year study, a proxy for chronic pain. Levels of pain were more strongly associated with prescription pain reliever misuse concurrently rather than prospectively, and the association was largely linear, with the likelihood of misuse increasing with levels of pain. Finally, health service factors were also prominent predictors of onset, but not the outcomes, of desistance or transitions to problem use. Conclusion This study is the first to use a nationally representative sample with measures of pain and drug use history collected over an extended period. These results may help provide clinicians with an understanding that the risk of misuse is greatest when pain is active and may help guide the selection of appropriate intervention materials and monitor strategies for those at greatest risk. PMID:27418863

  14. Hemophagocytic syndrome after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Abdelkefi, Abderrahman; Ben Jamil, Wassim; Torjman, Lamia; Ladeb, Saloua; Ksouri, Habib; Lakhal, Amel; Ben Hassen, Assia; Ben Abdeladhim, Abdeladhim; Ben Othman, Tarek

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the incidence of hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Between July 2006 and December 2007, all patients who received a HSCT in our institution were included in this study. All the following criteria were needed for the diagnosis of HPS: sustained fever over 7 days; cytopenia (neutropenia and/or thrombocytopenia); presence of more than 3% mature macrophages in bone marrow; hyperferritinaemia (>1,000 ng/mL). During this study, 171 patients received a HSCT (68 allogeneic and 103 autologous). The median age was 32 years (3-62). We observed six cases of HPS (6/68; 8.8%) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT): one case of EBV-related HPS, two cases of CMV-related HPS, and three cases with no evidence of bacterial, fungal or viral infections. We observed only one case of CMV-related HPS (1/103; 0.9%) after autologous stem cell transplantation. Four patients died despite aggressive supportive care. To our knowledge, this is the first prospective observational study conducted with the aim to evaluate the incidence of HPS after HSCT. This study provides a relatively high incidence of HPS after ASCT. When sustained fever with progressive cytopenia and hyperferritinaemia are observed, HPS should be suspected, and bone marrow aspirate considered. The rapid diagnosis of HPS and the early initiation of an appropriate treatment are essential for patient management. PMID:19252966

  15. Comorbidity and survival among women with ovarian cancer: evidence from prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yi-Sheng; Gong, Ting-Ting; Wang, Yong-Lai; Wu, Qi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between comorbidity and ovarian cancer survival has been controversial so far. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the existing evidence from prospective studies on this issue. Relevant studies were identified by searching the PubMed, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Science databases through the end of January 2015. Two authors independently performed the eligibility evaluation and data abstraction. Random-effects models were used to estimate summary hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for overall survival. Eight prospective studies involving 12,681 ovarian cancer cases were included in the present study. The summarized HR for presence versus absence of comorbidity was 1.20 (95% CI = 1.11-1.30, n = 8), with moderate heterogeneity (I(2) = 31.2%, P = 0.179). In addition, the summarized HR for the highest compared with the lowest category of the Charlson's comorbidity index was 1.68 (95% CI = 1.50-1.87, n = 2), without heterogeneity (I(2) = 0%, P = 0.476). Notably, a significant negative impact of comorbidity on ovarian cancer survival was observed in most subgroup analyses stratified by the study characteristics and whether there was adjustment for potential confounders. In conclusion, the findings of this meta-analysis suggest that underlying comorbidity is consistently associated with decreased survival in patients with ovarian cancer. Comorbidity should be taken into account when managing these patients. PMID:26118971

  16. Incidence of adverse cutaneous drug reactions in 22,866 Chinese inpatients: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiao-Yin; Liu, Bing; Shi, Hao; Zhao, Zi-Ran; Zhou, Xi-Ping; Zhang, Tao; Sun, Qiu-Ning; Zuo, Ya-Gang

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are common. However, no prospective study assessing cutaneous ADRs is available for Chinese populations. This study aimed to assess the incidence, manifestations, causative drugs, and other factors related to cutaneous ADRs. A total of 22,866 inpatients were surveyed prospectively from January to April 2012 at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Only cutaneous ADRs induced by systemic drugs were considered. Fifty cases were confirmed as cutaneous ADRs, for an estimated incidence of 2.2 per 1000 during this period (95 % confidence interval 1.6-2.8). Cases of cutaneous ADRs comprised 69 % females, while 63 % of all inpatients were female (χ (2) = 0.641, P = 0.427). The department of infectious diseases was the most frequently involved department.