Science.gov

Sample records for 3-year randomized placebo-controlled

  1. Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trials in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sandhaus, Robert A

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a condition caused by the inheritance of two mutated SERPINA1 gene alleles. Individuals with AATD are at increased risk of injury to the liver and lungs. The pulmonary manifestations include precocious onset of pulmonary emphysema and bronchiectasis. For nearly three decades, treatment has been available to individuals with emphysema caused by AATD, but this therapy-augmentation of plasma and tissue alpha-1 antitrypsin levels by intravenous administration of human plasma-derived protein-was approved by regulatory authorities based on its biochemical efficacy. This therapy appears to slow the progression of emphysema in patients with AATD. The medical, patient, and regulatory communities have sought assurance that this expensive therapy provides measurable clinical benefit. Documenting such benefit has been difficult because of the slow progression of the underlying lung disease in AATD, the rarity of this genetic condition, and the lack of direct quantitative measurements of emphysema progression. Over the past decade, quantitative computed tomography (CT) densitometry of the lungs has been found to correlate with severity and progression of emphysema. The recent publication of a well-powered, masked, placebo-controlled study using CT densitometry to evaluate the effectiveness of augmentation therapy at slowing the progression of emphysema has provided some assurance of the clinical efficacy of this therapy. PMID:27564674

  2. Working Memory Training in Young Children with ADHD: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dongen-Boomsma, Martine; Vollebregt, Madelon A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Until now, working memory training has not reached sufficient evidence as effective treatment for ADHD core symptoms in children with ADHD; for young children with ADHD, no studies are available. To this end, a triple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed to assess the efficacy of Cogmed Working Memory Training…

  3. Escitalopram in the Treatment of Adolescent Depression: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Multisite Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emslie, Graham J.; Ventura, Daniel; Korotzer, Andrew; Tourkodimitris, Stavros

    2009-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that involves 312 male and female patients aged 12-17 reveal the effectiveness of escitalopram in the treatment of depressed adolescents. Eighty-three percent of the participants or 259 participants completed the 8 weeks therapy period.

  4. A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial of a School-Based Depression Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Sally; McDowell, Heather; Wild, Chris J.; Bir, Julliet; Cunliffe, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To conduct a placebo-controlled study of the effectiveness of a universal school-based depression prevention program. Method: Three hundred ninety-two students age 13 to 15 from two schools were randomized to intervention (RAP-Kiwi) and placebo programs run by teachers. RAP-Kiwi was an 11-session manual-based program derived from…

  5. Improvement of erectile function with Prelox: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Stanislavov, R; Nikolova, V; Rohdewald, P

    2008-01-01

    In a randomly allocated, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 50 patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction (ED) were treated for 1 month with placebo or a combination of L-arginine aspartate and Pycnogenol (Prelox). Patients reported sexual function from diaries. Testosterone levels and endothelial NO synthase (e-NOS) were monitored along with routine clinical chemistry. Intake of Pycnogenol for 1 month restored erectile function to normal. Intercourse frequency doubled. e-NOS in spermatozoa and testosterone levels in blood increased significantly. Cholesterol levels and blood pressure were lowered. No unwanted effects were reported. Prelox is a promising alternative to treat mild to moderate ED. PMID:17703218

  6. The effect of Neuragen PN® on Neuropathic pain: A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the naturally derived topical oil, "Neuragen PN®" for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Methods Sixty participants with plantar cutaneous (foot sole) pain due to all cause peripheral neuropathy were recruited from the community. Each subject was randomly assigned to receive one of two treatments (Neuragen PN® or placebo) per week in a crossover design. The primary outcome measure was acute spontaneous pain level as reported on a visual analog scale. Results There was an overall pain reduction for both treatments from pre to post application. As compared to the placebo, Neuragen PN® led to significantly (p < .05) greater pain reduction. Fifty six of sixty subjects (93.3%) receiving Neuragen PN® reported pain reduction within 30 minutes. This reduction within 30 minutes occurred in only twenty one of sixty (35.0%) subjects receiving the placebo. In a break out analysis of the diabetic only subgroup, 94% of subjects in the Neuragen PN® group achieved pain reduction within 30 minutes vs 11.0% of the placebo group. No adverse events were observed. Conclusions This randomized, placebo controlled, clinical trial with crossover design revealed that the naturally derived oil, Neuragen PN®, provided significant relief from neuropathic pain in an all cause neuropathy group. Participants with diabetes within this group experienced similar pain relief. Trial registration ISRCTN registered: ISRCTN13226601 PMID:20487567

  7. Mavoglurant in fragile X syndrome: Results of two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Des Portes, Vincent; Hagerman, Randi; Jacquemont, Sébastien; Charles, Perrine; Visootsak, Jeannie; Brinkman, Marc; Rerat, Karin; Koumaras, Barbara; Zhu, Liansheng; Barth, Gottfried Maria; Jaecklin, Thomas; Apostol, George; von Raison, Florian

    2016-01-13

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability and autistic spectrum disorder, is typically caused by transcriptional silencing of the X-linked FMR1 gene. Work in animal models has described altered synaptic plasticity, a result of the up-regulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-mediated signaling, as a putative downstream effect. Post hoc analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover phase 2 trial suggested that the selective mGluR5 antagonist mavoglurant improved behavioral symptoms in FXS patients with completely methylated FMR1 genes. We present the results of two phase 2b, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group studies of mavoglurant in FXS, designed to confirm this result in adults (n = 175, aged 18 to 45 years) and adolescents (n = 139, aged 12 to 17 years). In both trials, participants were stratified by methylation status and randomized to receive mavoglurant (25, 50, or 100 mg twice daily) or placebo over 12 weeks. Neither of the studies achieved the primary efficacy end point of improvement on behavioral symptoms measured by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community Edition using the FXS-specific algorithm (ABC-C(FX)) after 12 weeks of treatment with mavoglurant. The safety and tolerability profile of mavoglurant was as previously described, with few adverse events. Therefore, under the conditions of our study, we could not confirm the mGluR theory of FXS nor the ability of the methylation state of the FMR1 promoter to predict mavoglurant efficacy. Preclinical results suggest that future clinical trials might profitably explore initiating treatment in a younger population with longer treatment duration and longer placebo run-ins and identifying new markers to better assess behavioral and cognitive benefits. PMID:26764156

  8. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pseudoephedrine in coryza.

    PubMed

    Latte, Jenny; Taverner, David; Slobodian, Peter; Shakib, Sepehr

    2004-07-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of pseudoephedrine in coryza. 2. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled design, 48 adults with acute coryza received a single oral dose of 60 mg pseudoephedrine (Sudafed; Pfizer Consumer HealthCare Group, Caringbah, NSW, Australia) or matching placebo. Before and after dosing, nasal airway resistance (NAR), nasal volume, the minimum intranasal cross-sectional area (MCA) and the symptom of nasal congestion were measured. 3. Pseudoephedrine produced a significant decrease in NAR (P = 0.005; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.073, 0.383). Nasal volume increased, but this did not reach significance (P = 0.07; 95% CI -0.842, 0.034). There was no change in MCA and symptoms. 4. In conclusion, pseudoephedrine has a moderate effect in decreasing objective measures of nasal congestion in coryza. PMID:15236629

  9. Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Plasma Aldosterone and Renin-A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Grübler, Martin R; Gaksch, Martin; Kienreich, Katharina; Verheyen, Nicolas; Schmid, Johannes; Ó Hartaigh, Bríain W J; Richtig, Georg; Scharnagl, Hubert; Meinitzer, Andreas; Pieske, Burkert; Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; März, Winfried; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Pilz, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Increasing evidence describes a possible interplay between vitamin D insufficiency with increased aldosterone. The authors sought to evaluate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) in patients with hypertension and 25-hydroxyvitamin D[25(OH)D] insufficiency. The Styrian Vitamin D Hypertension Trial was a single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial conducted from 2011 to 2014. Two hundred patients with arterial hypertension and 25(OH)D levels <30 ng/mL were enrolled. Study participants were randomized to receive either 2800 IU of vitamin D3 or placebo. The present investigation is a post hoc analysis using analysis of covariance adjusting for baseline differences. A total of 188 participants (mean±standard deviation age, 60.1±11.3 years; 47% women; 25(OH)D, 21.2±5.6 ng/mL) completed the trial. Mean differences between baseline and follow-up PAC in the control and intervention arm were +3.3 ng/dL and +0.9 ng/dL, respectively (P=.04). The findings indicate that vitamin D3 supplementation significantly decreases PAC in patients with arterial hypertension and 25(OH)D insufficiency. PMID:27098193

  10. Intrathecal Baclofen in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Finding Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoving, Marjanke A.; van Raak, Elisabeth P. M.; Spincemaille, Geert H. J. J.; Palmans, Liesbeth J.; Sleypen, Frans A. M.; Vles, Johan S. H.

    2007-01-01

    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy can be very effective in the treatment of intractable spasticity, but its effectiveness and safety have not yet been thoroughly studied in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aims of this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study were to select children eligible for continuous ITB…

  11. Homeopathic arnica for prevention of pain and bruising: randomized placebo-controlled trial in hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Stevinson, C; Devaraj, V S; Fountain-Barber, A; Hawkins, S; Ernst, E

    2003-02-01

    Homeopathic arnica is widely believed to control bruising, reduce swelling and promote recovery after local trauma; many patients therefore take it perioperatively. To determine whether this treatment has any effect, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial with three parallel arms. 64 adults undergoing elective surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome were randomized to take three tablets daily of homeopathic arnica 30C or 6C or placebo for seven days before surgery and fourteen days after surgery. Primary outcome measures were pain (short form McGill Pain Questionnaire) and bruising (colour separation analysis) at four days after surgery. Secondary outcome measures were swelling (wrist circumference) and use of analgesic medication (patient diary). 62 patients could be included in the intention-to-treat analysis. There were no group differences on the primary outcome measures of pain (P=0.79) and bruising (P=0.45) at day four. Swelling and use of analgesic medication also did not differ between arnica and placebo groups. Adverse events were reported by 2 patients in the arnica 6C group, 3 in the placebo group and 4 in the arnica 30C group. The results of this trial do not suggest that homeopathic arnica has an advantage over placebo in reducing postoperative pain, bruising and swelling in patients undergoing elective hand surgery. PMID:12562974

  12. Homeopathic arnica for prevention of pain and bruising: randomized placebo-controlled trial in hand surgery

    PubMed Central

    Stevinson, C; Devaraj, V S; Fountain-Barber, A; Hawkins, S; Ernst, E

    2003-01-01

    Homeopathic arnica is widely believed to control bruising, reduce swelling and promote recovery after local trauma; many patients therefore take it perioperatively. To determine whether this treatment has any effect, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial with three parallel arms. 64 adults undergoing elective surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome were randomized to take three tablets daily of homeopathic arnica 30C or 6C or placebo for seven days before surgery and fourteen days after surgery. Primary outcome measures were pain (short form McGill Pain Questionnaire) and bruising (colour separation analysis) at four days after surgery. Secondary outcome measures were swelling (wrist circumference) and use of analgesic medication (patient diary). 62 patients could be included in the intention-to-treat analysis. There were no group differences on the primary outcome measures of pain (P=0.79) and bruising (P=0.45) at day four. Swelling and use of analgesic medication also did not differ between arnica and placebo groups. Adverse events were reported by 2 patients in the arnica 6C group, 3 in the placebo group and 4 in the arnica 30C group. The results of this trial do not suggest that homeopathic arnica has an advantage over placebo in reducing postoperative pain, bruising and swelling in patients undergoing elective hand surgery. PMID:12562974

  13. Comparison of Levetiracetam and sodium Valproate in migraine prophylaxis: A randomized placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghian, Homa; Motiei-Langroudi, Rouzbeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Migraine is a chronic and disabling disorder. Treatment of migraine often comprises of symptomatic (abortive) and preventive (prophylactic) treatment. The current drugs used in migraine prophylaxis include antidepressant drugs (Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors, Tricyclic antidepressants), and anti-epileptic drugs (valproate, gabapentin, etc). Objective: The objective of our study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of levetiracetam in adult migraine prophylaxis, compared to valproate and placebo. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study. A total of 85 patients were randomized to receive levetiracetam 500 mg/d (n = 27), valproate 500 mg/d (n = 32) or placebo (n = 26). The patients were evaluated for treatment efficacy after 6 months. Efficacy was assessed as a more than 50% decrease in headache frequency. Results: In levetiracetam group, 17 (63.0%) patients experienced a more than 50% decrease in headache frequency, while this efficacy number was 21 (65.6%) for valproate group and 4 (15.4%) for placebo group. The difference was not statistically significant between levetiracetam and valproate, while it was significant when comparing either levetiracetam or valproate to placebo. Conclusion: Compared to placebo, levetiracetam offers improvement in headache frequency in patients with migraine. The efficacy of levetiracetam in migraine prophylaxis is comparable to currently used drugs such as valproate. PMID:25745310

  14. Safety of polyethylene glycol 3350 solution in chronic constipation: randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    McGraw, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the safety and tolerability of aqueous solution concentrate (ASC) of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 in patients with functional constipation. Patients and methods The patients who met Rome III diagnostic criteria for functional constipation were randomized in this multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind study to receive once daily dose of PEG 3350 (17 g) ASC or placebo solution for 14 days. The study comprised a screening period (visit 1), endoscopy procedure (visits 2 and 3), and followup telephone calls 30 days post-treatment. Safety end points included adverse events (AEs), clinical laboratory evaluations, vital signs, and others. The primary end points were the proportion of patients with abnormalities of the oral and esophageal mucosa, detected by visual and endoscopic examination of the oral cavity and esophagus, respectively, compared with placebo. A secondary objective was to compare the safety and tolerability of ASC by evaluating AEs or adverse drug reactions. Results A total of 65 patients were enrolled in this study, 31 were randomized to PEG 3350 ASC and 34 were randomized to placebo, of which 62 patients completed the study. No patients in either group showed abnormalities in inflammation of the oral mucosa during visit 2 (before treatment) or visit 3 (after treatment). Fewer abnormalities of the esophageal mucosa were observed in the PEG 3350 ASC group than in the placebo group on visit 3, with no significant difference in the proportion of abnormalities between the treatment groups. Overall, 40 treatment-emergent AEs were observed in 48.4% of patients treated with PEG 3350 ASC, and 41 treatment-emergent AEs were observed in 55.9% of patients treated with placebo – nonsignificant difference of −7.5% (95% CI: −21.3, 6.3) between treatment groups. No serious AEs or deaths were reported, and no patient discontinued because of an AE. Conclusion PEG 3350 ASC is safe and well tolerated in patients with functional

  15. Oxytocin Effect on Collective Decision Making: A Randomized Placebo Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Maria; Rutledge, Robb B.; Winston, Joel; Wright, Nicholas; Dolan, Raymond J.; Bahrami, Bahador

    2016-01-01

    Collective decision making often benefits both the individuals and the group in a variety of contexts. However, for the group to be successful, individuals should be able to strike a balance between their level of competence and their influence on the collective decisions. The hormone oxytocin has been shown to promote trust, conformism and attention to social cues. We wondered if this hormone may increase participants’ (unwarranted) reliance on their partners’ opinion, resulting in a reduction in collective benefit by disturbing the balance between influence and competence. To test this hypothesis we employed a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design in which male dyads self-administered intranasal oxytocin or placebo and then performed a visual search task together. Compared to placebo, collective benefit did not decrease under oxytocin. Using an exploratory time dependent analysis, we observed increase in collective benefit over time under oxytocin. Moreover, trial-by-trial analysis showed that under oxytocin the more competent member of each dyad was less likely to change his mind during disagreements, while the less competent member showed a greater willingness to change his mind and conform to the opinion of his more reliable partner. This role-dependent effect may be mediated by enhanced monitoring of own and other’s performance level under oxytocin. Such enhanced social learning could improve the balance between influence and competence and lead to efficient and beneficial collaboration. PMID:27070542

  16. The Effect of Intravenous Lidocaine on Trigeminal Neuralgia: A Randomized Double Blind Placebo Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Argyra, Erifili

    2014-01-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia is the most common neuralgia. Its therapeutic approach is challenging as the first line treatment often does not help, or even causes intolerable side effects. The aim of our randomized double blind, placebo controlled, crossover study was to investigate in a prospective way the effect of lidocaine in patients with trigeminal neuralgia. Twenty patients met our inclusion criteria and completed the study. Each patient underwent four weekly sessions, two of which were with lidocaine (5 mgs/kg) and two with placebo infusions administered over 60 minutes. Intravenous lidocaine was superior regarding the reduction of the intensity of pain, the allodynia, and the hyperalgesia compared to placebo. Moreover, contrary to placebo, lidocaine managed to maintain its therapeutic results for the first 24 hours after intravenous infusion. Although, intravenous lidocaine is not a first line treatment, when first line medications fail to help, pain specialists may try it as an add-on treatment. This trial is registered with NCT01955967. PMID:27335883

  17. Oxytocin Effect on Collective Decision Making: A Randomized Placebo Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Uri; Kelly, Maria; Rutledge, Robb B; Winston, Joel; Wright, Nicholas; Dolan, Raymond J; Bahrami, Bahador

    2016-01-01

    Collective decision making often benefits both the individuals and the group in a variety of contexts. However, for the group to be successful, individuals should be able to strike a balance between their level of competence and their influence on the collective decisions. The hormone oxytocin has been shown to promote trust, conformism and attention to social cues. We wondered if this hormone may increase participants' (unwarranted) reliance on their partners' opinion, resulting in a reduction in collective benefit by disturbing the balance between influence and competence. To test this hypothesis we employed a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design in which male dyads self-administered intranasal oxytocin or placebo and then performed a visual search task together. Compared to placebo, collective benefit did not decrease under oxytocin. Using an exploratory time dependent analysis, we observed increase in collective benefit over time under oxytocin. Moreover, trial-by-trial analysis showed that under oxytocin the more competent member of each dyad was less likely to change his mind during disagreements, while the less competent member showed a greater willingness to change his mind and conform to the opinion of his more reliable partner. This role-dependent effect may be mediated by enhanced monitoring of own and other's performance level under oxytocin. Such enhanced social learning could improve the balance between influence and competence and lead to efficient and beneficial collaboration. PMID:27070542

  18. Influence of oxytocin on emotion recognition from body language: A randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bernaerts, Sylvie; Berra, Emmely; Wenderoth, Nicole; Alaerts, Kaat

    2016-10-01

    The neuropeptide 'oxytocin' (OT) is known to play a pivotal role in a variety of complex social behaviors by promoting a prosocial attitude and interpersonal bonding. One mechanism by which OT is hypothesized to promote prosocial behavior is by enhancing the processing of socially relevant information from the environment. With the present study, we explored to what extent OT can alter the 'reading' of emotional body language as presented by impoverished biological motion point light displays (PLDs). To do so, a double-blind between-subjects randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted, assessing performance on a bodily emotion recognition task in healthy adult males before and after a single-dose of intranasal OT (24 IU). Overall, a single-dose of OT administration had a significant effect of medium size on emotion recognition from body language. OT-induced improvements in emotion recognition were not differentially modulated by the emotional valence of the presented stimuli (positive versus negative) and also, the overall tendency to label an observed emotional state as 'happy' (positive) or 'angry' (negative) was not modified by the administration of OT. Albeit moderate, the present findings of OT-induced improvements in bodily emotion recognition from whole-body PLD provide further support for a link between OT and the processing of socio-communicative cues originating from the body of others. PMID:27442997

  19. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of an NMDA receptor antagonist in sleep-disordered breathing.

    PubMed

    Torvaldsson, Stefan; Grote, Ludger; Peker, Yüksel; Basun, Hans; Hedner, Jan

    2005-06-01

    Hypoxemia is a powerful stimulus of glutamate release in the central nervous system (CNS) and a hallmark phenomenon in sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Glutamate effects that include neuronal damage and apoptosis following hypoxemia and apnea following microinjections in animal models are in part mediated via postjunctional N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. This was a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled single dose cross-over study of the NMDA receptor antagonist AR-R15896AR in 15 male patients with moderate to severe SDB. Seven patients received 120 mg and eight patients received 350 mg AR-R15896AR or corresponding placebo (given by 2 h infusion) starting half an hour before estimated sleep onset. AR-R15896AR concentrations were in line with the predicting kinetic model. A standard polysomnographic montage was applied. Repeated plasma samples were obtained in nine patients for analysis of plasma glutamate. Glutamate concentration in plasma did not change overnight and was unrelated to severity of SDB. Overall AHI (apnea-hypopnea index; primary efficacy variable) or investigated oxygen saturation variables were not significantly changed after AR-R15896AR at either dosage level. Side effects were mostly confined to the higher dose level and included vivid dreams, nightmares as well as in two cases mild hallucinations. The previously postulated role of glutamate in SDB could not be confirmed after AR-R15896AR induced NMDA-receptor blockade. PMID:15910512

  20. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of idebenone in Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Klopstock, Thomas; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos; Rouleau, Jacinthe; Heck, Suzette; Bailie, Maura; Atawan, Alaa; Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Schubert, Marion; Garip, Aylin; Kernt, Marcus; Petraki, Diana; Rummey, Christian; Leinonen, Mika; Metz, Günther; Griffiths, Philip G.; Meier, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Major advances in understanding the pathogenesis of inherited metabolic disease caused by mitochondrial DNA mutations have yet to translate into treatments of proven efficacy. Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy is the most common mitochondrial DNA disorder causing irreversible blindness in young adult life. Anecdotal reports support the use of idebenone in Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy, but this has not been evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. We conducted a 24-week multi-centre double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 85 patients with Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy due to m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A, and m.14484T>C or mitochondrial DNA mutations. The active drug was idebenone 900 mg/day. The primary end-point was the best recovery in visual acuity. The main secondary end-point was the change in best visual acuity. Other secondary end-points were changes in visual acuity of the best eye at baseline and changes in visual acuity for both eyes in each patient. Colour-contrast sensitivity and retinal nerve fibre layer thickness were measured in subgroups. Idebenone was safe and well tolerated. The primary end-point did not reach statistical significance in the intention to treat population. However, post hoc interaction analysis showed a different response to idebenone in patients with discordant visual acuities at baseline; in these patients, all secondary end-points were significantly different between the idebenone and placebo groups. This first randomized controlled trial in the mitochondrial disorder, Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy, provides evidence that patients with discordant visual acuities are the most likely to benefit from idebenone treatment, which is safe and well tolerated. PMID:21788663

  1. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of simvastatin to treat Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Bell, K.L.; Galasko, D.; Galvin, J.E.; Thomas, R.G.; van Dyck, C.H.; Aisen, P.S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lowering cholesterol is associated with reduced CNS amyloid deposition and increased dietary cholesterol increases amyloid accumulation in animal studies. Epidemiologic data suggest that use of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) may decrease the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) and a single-site trial suggested possible benefit in cognition with statin treatment in AD, supporting the hypothesis that statin therapy is useful in the treatment of AD. Objective: To determine if the lipid-lowering agent simvastatin slows the progression of symptoms in AD. Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of simvastatin was conducted in individuals with mild to moderate AD and normal lipid levels. Participants were randomly assigned to receive simvastatin, 20 mg/day, for 6 weeks then 40 mg per day for the remainder of 18 months or identical placebo. The primary outcome was the rate of change in the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale–cognitive portion (ADAS-Cog). Secondary outcomes measured clinical global change, cognition, function, and behavior. Results: A total of 406 individuals were randomized: 204 to simvastatin and 202 to placebo. Simvastatin lowered lipid levels but had no effect on change in ADAS-Cog score or the secondary outcome measures. There was no evidence of increased adverse events with simvastatin treatment. Conclusion: Simvastatin had no benefit on the progression of symptoms in individuals with mild to moderate AD despite significant lowering of cholesterol. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that simvastatin 40 mg/day does not slow decline on the ADAS-Cog. PMID:21795660

  2. Acupuncture for dyspnea in advanced cancer: a randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial [ISRCTN89462491

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Andrew J; Feinstein, Marc B; Deng, Gary E; Cassileth, Barrie R

    2005-01-01

    Background Dyspnea, or shortness of breath, is a common symptom in patients with advanced cancer. Pharmacologic management is of proven benefit, but it does not help all patients. Preliminary data suggest that acupuncture can relieve dyspnea in a variety of populations, including cancer patients. We conducted a pilot study (ISRCTN89462491) preparatory to a fully powered randomized, placebo-controlled trial to determine whether acupuncture reduces dyspnea in patients with lung or breast cancer. Methods The study sample was comprised of forty-seven patients with lung or breast cancer presenting with dyspnea. Patients receiving symptomatic treatments were not excluded as long as no changes in management were planned during the trial. Patients were randomized to receive a single session of true or placebo acupuncture in addition to their existing dyspnea treatments. Semi-permanent acupuncture "studs" were then inserted: patients applied pressure to these studs twice a day to provide ongoing stimulation to acupuncture points. The subjective sensation of dyspnea was assessed with a 0 – 10 numerical rating scale immediately before and after acupuncture treatment and daily for a week thereafter. Results All but two of 47 randomized patients provided follow-up data. Dyspnea scores were slightly higher for patients receiving true versus placebo acupuncture, for both the period immediately following acupuncture treatment and for the daily one week follow-up (differences between means of 0.34, 95% C.I. -0.33, 1.02 and 0.56, 95% C.I. -0.39, 1.51). The 95% confidence interval excludes the prespecified minimum clinically significant difference of a 20% greater improvement in dyspnea for patients receiving acupuncture. Conclusion The acupuncture technique used in this trial is unlikely to have effects on dyspnea importantly larger than placebo for patients with advanced cancer. PMID:16109163

  3. Treatment of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease with Curcumin: A Randomized Placebo-controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Sepideh; Asgary, Sedigheh; Askari, Gholamreza; Keshvari, Mahtab; Hatamipour, Mahdi; Feizi, Awat; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2016-09-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a global health problem. Although many aspects of NAFLD pathogenesis have been understood, there is a paucity of effective treatments to be used as the second line when lifestyle modification is insufficient. Curcumin, a natural polyphenol from turmeric, has been shown to be effective against development of hepatic steatosis and its progression to steatohepatitis, yet these beneficial effects have not been explored in clinical practice. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of curcumin on hepatic fat content as well as biochemical and anthropometric features of patients with NAFLD. In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, patients with ultrasonographic evidence of NAFLD were randomly assigned to receive an amorphous dispersion curcumin formulation (500 mg/day equivalent to 70-mg curcumin) or matched placebo for a period of 8 weeks. Liver fat content (assessed through ultrasonography), glycemic and lipid profile, transaminase levels, and anthropometric indices were evaluated at baseline and at the end of follow-up period. The clinical trial protocol was registered under the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials ID: IRCT2014110511763N18. Compared with placebo, curcumin was associated with a significant reduction in liver fat content (78.9% improvement in the curcumin vs 27.5% improvement in the placebo group). There were also significant reductions in body mass index and serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, glucose, and glycated hemoglobin compared with the placebo group. Curcumin was safe and well tolerated during the course of trial. Findings of the present proof-of-concept trial suggested improvement of different features of NAFLD after a short-term supplementation with curcumin. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27270872

  4. Metabolic and hormonal effects of caffeine: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Todd; Comi, Richard; Sluss, Patrick; Keisari, Ronit; Manwar, Simone; Kim, Janice; Larson, Robin; Baron, John A

    2007-12-01

    In short-term studies, caffeine has been shown to increase insulin levels, reduce insulin sensitivity, and increase cortisol levels. However, epidemiological studies have indicated that long-term consumption of beverages containing caffeine such as coffee and green tea is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is a paucity of randomized studies addressing the metabolic and hormonal effects of consuming caffeine over periods of more than 1 day. We evaluated the effect of oral intake of 200 mg of caffeine taken twice a day for 7 days on glucose metabolism, as well as on serum cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and androstenedione, and on nighttime salivary melatonin. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study with periods of 7 days and washouts of 5 days comparing caffeine with placebo capsules was conducted. Participants were 16 healthy adults aged 18 to 22 years with a history of caffeine consumption. Blood samples from each subject were assayed for glucose, insulin, serum cortisol, DHEA, and androstenedione on the eighth day of each period after an overnight fast. Nighttime salivary melatonin was also measured. Insulin levels were significantly higher (by 1.80 microU/mL; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-3.28) after caffeine intake than after placebo. The homeostasis model assessment index of insulin sensitivity was reduced by 35% (95% confidence interval, 7%-62%) by caffeine. There were no differences in glucose, DHEA, androstenedione, and melatonin between treatment periods. This study provides evidence that daily caffeine intake reduces insulin sensitivity; the effect persists for at least a week and is evident up to 12 hours after administration. PMID:17998023

  5. Prevention of COPD exacerbation by lysozyme: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Fukuchi, Yoshinosuke; Tatsumi, Koichiro; Inoue, Hiromasa; Sakata, Yukinori; Shibata, Kai; Miyagishi, Hideaki; Marukawa, Yasuhiro; Ichinose, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    Background/aim Lysozyme (mucopeptide N-acetyl-muramyl hydrolase) is widely used as a mucolytic and anti-inflammatory agent in Japan. We evaluated the effects of long-term lysozyme administration on COPD exacerbation. Methods In a 1-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial, patients with moderate-to-severe COPD and one or more episodes of COPD exacerbation in the previous year before enrollment were selected. Lysozyme (270 mg) or placebo was administered orally for 52 weeks as an add-on to the standard therapies such as bronchodilators. COPD exacerbation, pulmonary function, and COPD assessment test scores were analyzed. An exacerbation was defined as worsening of more than one symptom of COPD (cough, sputum volume, purulent sputum, or breathlessness) leading to a change in medication. The primary endpoint was exacerbation rate. Results A total of 408 patients were randomly assigned to the lysozyme and placebo groups. The baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups. The exacerbation rate was not significantly different between the two groups (1.4 vs 1.2; P=0.292, Poisson regression). However, a subgroup analysis showed that lysozyme might reduce exacerbation rate in patients with airway-dominant phenotype (1.2 vs 1.6). Moreover, the median time to first exacerbation was longer in patients with airway-dominant phenotype in the lysozyme group than that in the placebo group. The levels of improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second and COPD assessment test scores were not statistically different between the groups, but were always greater in the lysozyme group than in the placebo group over the 52 weeks of the study. Conclusion The effects of using lysozyme as an add-on to standard COPD therapy were not significantly different compared with placebo and were insufficient to prevent COPD exacerbation. PMID:27143873

  6. Pulsed electromagnetic fields in knee osteoarthritis: a double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Miceli, Giovanni; Marino, Natale; Sciortino, Davide; Bagnato, Gian Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This trial aimed to test the effectiveness of a wearable pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) device in the management of pain in knee OA patients. Methods. In this randomized [with equal randomization (1:1)], double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, patients with radiographic evidence of knee OA and persistent pain higher than 40 mm on the visual analog scale (VAS) were recruited. The trial consisted of 12 h daily treatment for 1 month in 60 knee OA patients. The primary outcome measure was the reduction in pain intensity, assessed through VAS and WOMAC scores. Secondary outcomes included quality of life assessment through the 36-item Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form version 2 (SF-36 v2), pressure pain threshold (PPT) and changes in intake of NSAIDs/analgesics. Results. Sixty-six patients were included, and 60 completed the study. After 1 month, PEMF induced a significant reduction in VAS pain and WOMAC scores compared with placebo. Additionally, pain tolerance, as expressed by PPT changes, and physical health improved in PEMF-treated patients. A mean treatment effect of −0.73 (95% CI − 1.24 to − 0.19) was seen in VAS score, while the effect size was −0.34 (95% CI − 0.85 to 0.17) for WOMAC score. Twenty-six per cent of patients in the PEMF group stopped NSAID/analgesic therapy. No adverse events were detected. Conclusion. These results suggest that PEMF therapy is effective for pain management in knee OA patients and also affects pain threshold and physical functioning. Future larger studies, including head-to-head studies comparing PEMF therapy with standard pharmacological approaches in OA, are warranted. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01877278 PMID:26705327

  7. Safety and Efficacy of Methylphenidate for Apathy in Alzheimer's Disease: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Paul B.; Lanctôt, Krista L.; Drye, Lea T.; Herrmann, Nathan; Scherer, Roberta W.; Bachman, David L.; Mintzer, Jacobo E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In a recent crossover trial, methylphenidate treatment decreased apathy in Alzheimer's disease. We further assessed this finding in the Alzheimer's Disease Methylphenidate Trial (ADMET). Method Six-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial enrolling Alzheimer's disease participants (NINCDS-ADRDA criteria) with apathy assigned to methylphenidate 20 mg daily or placebo, conducted from June 2010 to December 2011. Primary outcomes were change in Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) score and modified Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change (ADCS-CGI-C). Secondary outcomes included change in Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) apathy score, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, and safety. Results 60 participants were randomly assigned (29 methylphenidate, 31 placebo). At baseline, mean (SD) age = 76 (8) years, MMSE score = 20 (5), AES score = 51 (12), NPI total score = 16 (8), and 62% of the participants (n = 37) were female. After 6 weeks' treatment, mean (SD) change in AES score was −1.9 (1.5) for methylphenidate and 0.6 (1.4) for placebo (P = .23). Odds ratio for improvement in ADCS-CGI-C was 3.7 (95% CI, 1.3 to 10.8) (P = .02), with 21% of methylphenidate versus 3% of placebo rated as moderately or markedly improved. NPI apathy score improvement was 1.8 points (95% CI, 0.3 to 3.4) greater on methylphenidate than on placebo (P = .02). MMSE trended toward improvement on methylphenidate (P = .06). There were trends toward greater anxiety and weight loss > 2% in the methylphenidate-treated group. Conclusions Methylphenidate treatment of apathy in Alzheimer's disease was associated with significant improvement in 2 of 3 efficacy outcomes and a trend toward improved global cognition with minimal adverse events, supporting the safety and efficacy of methylphenidate treatment for apathy in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24021498

  8. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of resveratrol for Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Ronald G.; Craft, Suzanne; van Dyck, Christopher H.; Mintzer, Jacobo; Reynolds, Brigid A.; Brewer, James B.; Rissman, Robert A.; Raman, Rema; Aisen, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter 52-week phase 2 trial of resveratrol in individuals with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) examined its safety and tolerability and effects on biomarker (plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42, CSF Aβ40, Aβ42, tau, and phospho-tau 181) and volumetric MRI outcomes (primary outcomes) and clinical outcomes (secondary outcomes). Methods: Participants (n = 119) were randomized to placebo or resveratrol 500 mg orally once daily (with dose escalation by 500-mg increments every 13 weeks, ending with 1,000 mg twice daily). Brain MRI and CSF collection were performed at baseline and after completion of treatment. Detailed pharmacokinetics were performed on a subset (n = 15) at baseline and weeks 13, 26, 39, and 52. Results: Resveratrol and its major metabolites were measurable in plasma and CSF. The most common adverse events were nausea, diarrhea, and weight loss. CSF Aβ40 and plasma Aβ40 levels declined more in the placebo group than the resveratrol-treated group, resulting in a significant difference at week 52. Brain volume loss was increased by resveratrol treatment compared to placebo. Conclusions: Resveratrol was safe and well-tolerated. Resveratrol and its major metabolites penetrated the blood–brain barrier to have CNS effects. Further studies are required to interpret the biomarker changes associated with resveratrol treatment. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with AD resveratrol is safe, well-tolerated, and alters some AD biomarker trajectories. The study is rated Class II because more than 2 primary outcomes were designated. PMID:26362286

  9. A Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial of Ibuprofen for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in a Bovine Model

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Paul; Behrens, Nicole; Carvallo Chaigneau, Francisco R.; McEligot, Heather; Agrawal, Karan; Newman, John W.; Anderson, Mark; Gershwin, Laurel J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and hospital admission in infants. An analogous disease occurs in cattle and costs US agriculture a billion dollars a year. RSV causes much of its morbidity indirectly via adverse effects of the host response to the virus. RSV is accompanied by elevated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) which is followed by neutrophil led inflammation in the lung. Ibuprofen is a prototypical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that decreases PGE2 levels by inhibiting cyclooxygenase. Hypotheses We hypothesized that treatment of RSV with ibuprofen would decrease PGE2 levels, modulate the immune response, decrease clinical illness, and decrease the histopathological lung changes in a bovine model of RSV. We further hypothesized that viral replication would be unaffected. Methods We performed a randomized placebo controlled trial of ibuprofen in 16 outbred Holstein calves that we infected with RSV. We measured clinical scores, cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and endocannabinoid products in plasma and mediastinal lymph nodes and interleukin (Il)-4, Il-13, Il-17 and interferon-γ in mediastinal lymph nodes. RSV shedding was measured daily and nasal Il-6, Il-8 and Il-17 every other day. The calves were necropsied on Day 10 post inoculation and histology performed. Results One calf in the ibuprofen group required euthanasia on Day 8 of infection for respiratory distress. Clinical scores (p<0.01) and weight gain (p = 0.08) seemed better in the ibuprofen group. Ibuprofen decreased cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and cytochrome P450 products, and increased monoacylglycerols in lung lymph nodes. Ibuprofen modulated the immune response as measured by narrowed range of observed Il-13, Il-17 and IFN-γ gene expression in mediastinal lymph nodes. Lung histology was not different between groups, and viral shedding was increased in calves randomized to ibuprofen. Conclusions Ibuprofen decreased PGE2, modulated the immune

  10. DOUBLE-BLIND, RANDOMIZED PLACEBO-CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL OF BENFOTIAMINE FOR SEVERE ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Manzardo, Ann M.; He, Jianghua; Poje, Albert; Penick, Elizabeth C.; Campbell, Jan; Butler, Merlin G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence is associated with severe nutritional and vitamin deficiency. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency erodes neurological pathways that may influence the ability to drink in moderation. The present study examines tolerability of supplementation using the high-potency thiamine analogue, benfotiamine (BF), and BF’s effects on alcohol consumption in severely affected, self-identified, alcohol dependent subjects. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 120 non-treatment seeking, actively drinking, alcohol dependent men and women volunteers (mean age=47 years) from the Kansas City area who met DSM-IV-TR criteria current alcohol dependence. Subjects were randomized to receive 600 mg benfotiamine or placebo (PL) once daily by mouth for 24 weeks with 6 follow-up assessments scheduled at 4 week intervals. Side effects and daily alcohol consumption were recorded. Results Seventy (58%) subjects completed 24 weeks of study (N=21 women; N=49 men) with overall completion rates of 55% (N=33) for PL and 63% (N=37) for BF groups. No significant adverse events were noted and alcohol consumption decreased significantly for both treatment groups. Alcohol consumption decreased from baseline levels for 9 of 10 BF treated women after 1 month of treatment compared with 2 of 11 on PL. Reductions in total alcohol consumption over 6 months were significantly greater for BF treated women (BF: N=10, −611±380 Std Dev; PL: N=11, −159±562 Std Dev, p-value=0.02). Conclusions BF supplementation of actively drinking alcohol dependent men and women was well-tolerated and may discourage alcohol consumption among women. The results do support expanded studies of BF treatment in alcoholism. PMID:23992649

  11. Varenicline efficacy and safety among methadone maintained smokers: A randomized placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Nahvi, Shadi; Ning, Yuming; Segal, Kate S.; Richter, Kimber P.; Arnsten, Julia H.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To test the efficacy and safety of varenicline as an aid to smoking cessation in methadone maintained smokers. Design Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with random assignment to 12 weeks of varenicline 1 mg twice daily (n=57) or matched placebo (n=55), with in-person and telephone counseling. Setting Urban methadone programmes in the Bronx, New York City, New York, USA. Participants: Methadone maintenance patients, smoking ≥5 cigarettes/day, interested in quitting, stable in methadone treatment, without current axis I psychiatric disorders, suicidal ideation, or recent suicide attempts. Measurements Seven-day point prevalence abstinence verified by expired carbon monoxide (CO) < 8 p.p.m at week 12 (primary outcome); CO-verified abstinence, cigarettes/day, incident axis I psychiatric illness, suicidal ideation or serious adverse events (SAEs) at weeks 2, 4, 8, 12 or 24 (secondary outcomes). Findings Baseline demographic, smoking and clinical factors were similar between groups. Retention at 24 weeks was 90%. Subjects receiving varenicline were more likely than those receiving placebo to achieve abstinence (10.5% v 0%, p = .03; effect size 10.5%, 95% CI 4.4 – 19.3%) and to reduce smoking (median 5 v 2 cigarettes/day, p<.001) at 12 weeks. These effects were not maintained after drug treatment ceased. Incident psychiatric illness (OR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.16, 4.4) and suicidality (OR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.2, 3.9) were not different between groups. There were no psychiatric or cardiac SAEs. Conclusions Varenicline can aid short-term smoking abstinence in methadone maintained smokers. PMID:24862167

  12. Randomized Placebo-Controlled EPPIC Trials of AST-120 in CKD.

    PubMed

    Schulman, Gerald; Berl, Tomas; Beck, Gerald J; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ritz, Eberhard; Arita, Kiyoshi; Kato, Akira; Shimizu, Miho

    2015-07-01

    Reduced GFR in patients with CKD causes systemic accumulation of uremic toxins, which has been correlated with disease progression and increased morbidity. The orally administered spherical carbon adsorbent AST-120 reduces systemic toxin absorption through gastrointestinal sequestration, which may slow disease progression in these patients. The multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Evaluating Prevention of Progression in CKD (EPPIC)-1 and EPPIC-2 trials evaluated the effects of AST-120 on the progression of CKD when added to standard therapy. We randomly assigned 2035 adults with moderate to severe disease (serum creatinine at screening, 2.0-5.0 mg/dl for men and 1.5-5.0 mg/dl for women) to receive either placebo or AST-120 (9 g/d). The primary end point was a composite of dialysis initiation, kidney transplantation, and serum creatinine doubling. Each trial continued until accrual of 291 primary end points. The time to primary end point was similar between the AST-120 and the placebo groups in both trials (EPPIC-1: hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.84 to 1.27; P=0.78) (EPPIC-2: hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.74 to 1.12; P=0.37); a pooled analysis of both trials showed similar results. The estimated median time to primary end points for the placebo groups was 124 weeks for power calculations, but actual times were 189.0 and 170.3 weeks for EPPIC-1 and EPPIC-2, respectively. Thus, disease progression was more gradual than expected in the trial populations. In conclusion, the benefit of adding AST-120 to standard therapy in patients with moderate to severe CKD is not supported by these data. PMID:25349205

  13. Rhodiola rosea versus sertraline for major depressive disorder: A randomized placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Jun J.; Xie, Sharon X.; Zee, Jarcy; Soeller, Irene; Li, Qing S.; Rockwell, Kenneth; Amsterdam, Jay D.

    2015-01-01

    Background We performed a proof of concept trial to evaluate relative safety and efficacy of Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea) versus sertraline for mild to moderate major depressive disorder. Hypothesis We hypothesize that R. rosea would have similar therapeutic effects as sertraline but with less adverse events. Study Design Phase II randomized placebo controlled clinical trial Methods 57 subjects were randomized to 12 weeks of standardized R. rosea extract, sertraline, or placebo. Changes over time in Hamilton Depression Rating (HAM-D), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Clinical Global Impression Change (CGI/C) scores among groups were examined using mixed-effects models. Results Modest, albeit statistically non-significant, reductions were observed for HAM-D, BDI, and CGI/C scores for all treatment conditions with no significant difference between groups (p=0.79, p=0.28, and p=0.17, respectively). The decline in HAM-D scores was greater for sertraline (−8.2, 95% confidence interval [CI], −12.7 to −3.6) versus R. rosea (−5.1, 95% CI: −8.8 to −1.3) and placebo (−4.6, 95% CI: −8.6 to −0.6). While the odds of improving (versus placebo) were greater for sertraline (1.90 [0.44–8.20]; odds ratio [95% CI]) than R. rosea (1.39 [0.38–5.04]), more subjects on sertraline reported adverse events (63.2%) than R. rosea (30.0%) or placebo (16.7%) (p=0.012). Conclusions Although R. rosea produced less antidepressant effect versus sertraline, it also resulted in significantly fewer adverse events and was better tolerated. These findings suggest that R. rosea, although less effective than sertraline, may possess a more favorable risk to benefit ratio for individuals with mild to moderate depression. PMID:25837277

  14. A dietary supplement to improve the quality of sleep: a randomized placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement containing polyunsaturated fatty acids, in association with Humulus lupulus extract, on the quality of sleep using the Leeds sleep evaluation questionnaire (LSEQ) in subjects with moderate to severe sleep disorders. Methods Randomized placebo-controlled trial, in a Population-based setting. Participants were adult patients 25 to 65 years old with a chronic primary insomnia who volunteered for the study. The tested intervention consisted of two soft gelatine capsules per day, containing either the dietary supplement (active group) or olive oil (placebo group) for a month. Subjects could also volunteer for two ancillary studies on melatonin and actigraphy. Evaluation criteria included i) perception of the quality of sleep at the end of treatment using the LSEQ questionnaire, ii) sleep efficiency measured by one-week actigraphic movement measurement performed before and during the treatment in a subsample of subjects, iii) night melatonin and 6 sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6S) urine rates in a subsample of subjects. Results The average of Leeds score was similar in both groups (p = 0.95). A marked improvement in the quality of sleep was observed in both placebo (62%) and active (65%) group (p = 0.52). The evolution of urinary melatonin, aMT6S, and of the Mel/aMT6S ratio showed no differences between the two groups. Sleep efficiency, as measured by actigraphy, improved similarly in both groups during the treatment period, from 72% to 76% and 75% in the active and placebo group respectively (p = 0.91). Conclusions The dietary supplement had neither effect on the perceived quality of sleep, nor on the melatonin metabolism and sleep-wake cycle. Trial registration: clinical trials.gov:NCT00484497 PMID:20569455

  15. Vaccine for Cocaine Dependence: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Efficacy Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kosten, Thomas R.; Domingo, Coreen B.; Shorter, Daryl; Orson, Frank; Green, Charles; Somoza, Eugene; Sekerka, Rachelle; Levin, Frances R.; Mariani, John J.; Stitzer, Maxine; Tompkins, D. Andrew; Rotrosen, John; Thakkar, Vatsal; Smoak, Benjamin; Kampman, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Aims We evaluated the immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety of succinylnorcocaine conjugated to cholera toxin B protein as a vaccine for cocaine dependence. Methods This 6-site, 24 week Phase III randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial assessed efficacy during weeks 8 to 16. We measured urine cocaine metabolites thrice weekly as the main outcome. Results The 300 subjects (76% male, 72% African-American, mean age 46 years) had smoked cocaine on average for 13 days monthly at baseline. We hypothesized that retention might be better and positive urines lower for subjects with anti-cocaine IgG levels of ≥ 42 μg/mL (high IgG), which was attained by 67% of the 130 vaccine subjects receiving five vaccinations. Almost 3-times fewer high than low IgG subjects dropped out (7% vs 20%). Although for the full 16 weeks cocaine positive urine rates showed no significant difference between the three groups (placebo, high, low IgG), after week 8, more vaccinated than placebo subjects attained abstinence for at least two weeks of the trial (24% vs 18%), and the high IgG group had the most cocaine-free urines for the last 2 weeks of treatment (OR=3.02), but neither were significant. Injection site reactions of induration and tenderness differed between placebo and active vaccine, and the 29 serious adverse events did not lead to treatment related withdrawals, or deaths. Conclusions The vaccine was safe, but it only partially replicated the efficacy found in the previous study based on retention and attaining abstinence. PMID:24793366

  16. Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Green Tea Catechins for Prostate Cancer Prevention.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nagi B; Pow-Sang, Julio; Egan, Kathleen M; Spiess, Philippe E; Dickinson, Shohreh; Salup, Raoul; Helal, Mohamed; McLarty, Jerry; Williams, Christopher R; Schreiber, Fred; Parnes, Howard L; Sebti, Said; Kazi, Aslam; Kang, Loveleen; Quinn, Gwen; Smith, Tiffany; Yue, Binglin; Diaz, Karen; Chornokur, Ganna; Crocker, Theresa; Schell, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Preclinical, epidemiologic, and prior clinical trial data suggest that green tea catechins (GTC) may reduce prostate cancer risk. We conducted a placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of Polyphenon E (PolyE), a proprietary mixture of GTCs, containing 400 mg (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) per day, in 97 men with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) and/or atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP). The primary study endpoint was a comparison of the cumulative one-year prostate cancer rates on the two study arms. No differences in the number of prostate cancer cases were observed: 5 of 49 (PolyE) versus 9 of 48 (placebo), P = 0.25. A secondary endpoint comparing the cumulative rate of prostate cancer plus ASAP among men with HGPIN without ASAP at baseline, revealed a decrease in this composite endpoint: 3 of 26 (PolyE) versus 10 of 25 (placebo), P < 0.024. This finding was driven by a decrease in ASAP diagnoses on the Poly E (0/26) compared with the placebo arm (5/25). A decrease in serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was observed on the PolyE arm [-0.87 ng/mL; 95% confidence intervals (CI), -1.66 to -0.09]. Adverse events related to the study agent did not significantly differ between the two study groups. Daily intake of a standardized, decaffeinated catechin mixture containing 400 mg EGCG per day for 1 year accumulated in plasma and was well tolerated but did not reduce the likelihood of prostate cancer in men with baseline HGPIN or ASAP. PMID:25873370

  17. Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study Evaluating Lateral Branch Radiofrequency Denervation for Sacroiliac Joint Pain

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Steven P.; Hurley, Robert W.; Buckenmaier, Chester C.; Kurihara, Connie; Morlando, Benny; Dragovich, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Background Sacroiliac joint pain is a challenging condition accounting for approximately 20% of cases of chronic low back pain. Currently, there are no effective long-term treatment options for sacroiliac joint pain. Methods A randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 28 patients with injection-diagnosed sacroiliac joint pain. Fourteen patients received L4-5 primary dorsal rami and S1-3 lateral branch radiofrequency denervation using cooling-probe technology following a local anesthetic block, and 14 patients received the local anesthetic block followed by placebo denervation. Patients who failed to respond to placebo injections crossed over and were treated with radiofrequency denervation using conventional technology. Results One, 3 and 6-months post-procedure, 11 (79%), 9 (64%) and 8 (57%) of radiofrequency treated patients experienced ≥ 50% pain relief and significant functional improvement. In contrast, only 2 (14%) patients in the placebo group experienced significant improvement at their 1-month follow-up, and none experienced benefit 3-months post-procedure. In the crossover group (n=11), 7 (64%), 6 (55%) and 4 (36%) patients experienced improvement 1, 3 and 6-months post-procedure. One year after treatment, only 2 (14%) patients in the treatment group continued to demonstrate persistent pain relief. Conclusions These results provide preliminary evidence that L4 and L5 primary dorsal rami and S1-3 lateral branch radiofrequency denervation may provide intermediate-term pain relief and functional benefit in selected patients with suspected sacroiliac joint pain. Larger studies are needed to confirm our results, and determine the optimal candidates and treatment parameters for this poorly understood disorder. PMID:18648237

  18. Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Metoclopramide for Hypersalivation Associated With Clozapine.

    PubMed

    Kreinin, Anatoly; Miodownik, Chanoch; Mirkin, Vitaly; Gaiduk, Yulia; Yankovsky, Yan; Bersudsky, Yuly; Lerner, Paul P; Bergman, Joseph; Lerner, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Hypersalivation is a frequent, disturbing, and uncomfortable adverse effect of clozapine therapy that frequently leads to noncompliance. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of metoclopramide (dopamine D2 antagonist, antiemetic medication) as an option for management of hypersalivation associated with clozapine (HAC). A 3-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in university-based research clinics from January 2012 to May 2014, on 58 inpatients treated with clozapine who were experiencing hypersalivation. The subjects were randomly divided into placebo and metoclopramide groups. The starting dose was 10 mg/d. Participants who did not respond were up-titrated 10 mg/d weekly to a total of 30 mg/d during the third week. The number of placebo capsules was increased accordingly up to 3 capsules per day. Primary outcome was the change from baseline to the end of study in the severity of hypersalivation as measured with the Nocturnal Hypersalivation Rating Scale and the Drooling Severity Scale. Secondary outcomes included Clinical Global Impression of Improvement scale and adverse effect scales. Significant improvement on the Nocturnal Hypersalivation Rating Scale was demonstrated in the metoclopramide group from the end of the second week (P < 0.004), and on the Drooling Severity Scale (P < 0.02) in the third week. Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale scores revealed major improvement. Twenty subjects (66.7%) treated with metoclopramide reported significant decline or total disappearance of HAC in comparison to 8 patients (28.6%) who received placebo (P = 0.031). No adverse effects to metoclopramide were reported. Metoclopramide was found to be safe and effective for the treatment of HAC. PMID:27028980

  19. Curcuminoid treatment for knee osteoarthritis: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Yunes; Rahimnia, Ali-Reza; Sharafi, Mojtaba; Alishiri, Gholamhossein; Saburi, Amin; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2014-11-01

    Treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) is challenging owing to the inefficacy and long-term adverse events of currently available medications including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Curcuminoids are polyphenolic phytochemicals with established anti-inflammatory properties and protective effects on chondrocytes. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical efficacy of curcuminoids in patients suffering from knee OA. A pilot randomized double-blind placebo-control parallel-group clinical trial was conducted among patients with mild-to-moderate knee OA. Patients were assigned to curcuminoids (1500 mg/day in 3 divided doses; n = 19) or matched placebo (n = 21) for 6 weeks. Efficacy measures were changes in Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), visual analogue scale (VAS) and Lequesne's pain functional index (LPFI) scores during the study. There was no significant difference in age, gender, body mass index, and VAS, WOMAC and LPFI scores between the study groups at baseline (p > 0.05). Treatment with curcuminoids was associated with significantly greater reductions in WOMAC (p = 0.001), VAS (p < 0.001) and LPFI (p = 0.013) scores compared with placebo. With respect to WOMAC subscales, there were significant improvements in the pain and physical function scores (p < 0.001) but not stiffness score (p > 0.05). There was no considerable adverse effect in both groups. To conclude, curcuminoids represent an effective and safe alternative treatment for OA. PMID:24853120

  20. Risperidone in children with autism: randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, Ravishankar; Singhi, Pratibha; Malhi, Prahbhjot

    2006-06-01

    Some open-label studies suggest that risperidone can be useful in the treatment of certain target symptoms in children with autism. We aimed to study whether the use of risperidone in comparison with placebo improved functioning in children with autism with regard to behavior (aggressiveness, hyperactivity, irritability), social and emotional responsiveness, and communication skills. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 40 consecutive children with autism, whose ages ranged from 2 to 9 years, who were receiving either risperidone or placebo given orally at a dose of 1 mg/day for 6 months. Autism symptoms were monitored periodically. The outcome variables were total scores on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) after 6 months. Of the 40 children enrolled, 39 completed the trial over a period of 18 months; 19 received risperidone, and 20 received placebo. In the risperidone group, 12 of 19 children showed improvement in the total Childhood Autism Rating Scale score and 17 of 19 children in the Children's Global Assessment Scale score compared with 0 of 20 children for the Childhood Autism Rating Scale score and 2 of 20 children for the Children's Global Assessment Scale score in the placebo group (P < .001 and P = .035, respectively). Risperidone also improved social responsiveness and nonverbal communication and reduced the symptoms of hyperactivity and aggression. Risperidone was associated with increased appetite and a mild weight gain, mild sedation in 20%, and transient dyskinesias in three children. Risperidone improved global functioning and social responsiveness while reducing hyperactivity and aggression in children with autism and was well tolerated. PMID:16948927

  1. Treatments of Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia: Meta-Analysis of 168 Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Papanastasiou, Evangelos; Stahl, Daniel; Rocchetti, Matteo; Carpenter, William; Shergill, Sukhwinder; McGuire, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Existing treatments for schizophrenia can improve positive symptoms, but it is unclear if they have any impact on negative symptoms. This meta-analysis was conducted to assess the efficacy of available treatments for negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Methods: All randomized-controlled trials of interventions for negative symptoms in schizophrenia until December 2013 were retrieved; 168 unique and independent placebo-controlled trials were used. Negative symptom scores at baseline and follow-up, duration of illness, doses of medication, type of interventions, and sample demographics were extracted. Heterogeneity was addressed with the I 2 and Q statistic. Standardized mean difference in values of the Negative Symptom Rating Scale used in each study was calculated as the main outcome measure. Results: 6503 patients in the treatment arm and 5815 patients in the placebo arm were included. No evidence of publication biases found. Most treatments reduced negative symptoms at follow-up relative to placebo: second-generation antipsychotics: −0.579 (−0.755 to −0.404); antidepressants: −0.349 (−0.551 to −0.146); combinations of pharmacological agents: −0.518 (−0.757 to −0.279); glutamatergic medications: −0.289 (−0.478 to −0.1); psychological interventions: −0.396 (−0.563 to −0.229). No significant effect was found for first-generation antipsychotics: −0.531 (−1.104 to 0.041) and brain stimulation: −0.228 (−0.775 to 0.319). Effects of most treatments were not clinically meaningful as measured on Clinical Global Impression Severity Scale. Conclusions and Relevance: Although some statistically significant effects on negative symptoms were evident, none reached the threshold for clinically significant improvement. PMID:25528757

  2. Increased sexual desire with exogenous testosterone administration in men with obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Melehan, K L; Hoyos, C M; Yee, B J; Wong, K K; Buchanan, P R; Grunstein, R R; Liu, P Y

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone (T) deficiency, sexual dysfunction, obesity and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are common and often coexist. T prescriptions have increased worldwide during the last decade, including to those with undiagnosed or untreated OSA. The effect of T administration on sexual function, neurocognitive performance and quality of life in these men is poorly defined. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of T administration on sexual function, quality of life and neurocognitive performance in obese men with OSA. We also secondarily examined whether baseline T might modify the effects of T treatment by dichotomizing on baseline T levels pre-specified at 8, 11 and 13 nmol/L. This was a randomized placebo-controlled study in which 67 obese men with OSA (mean age 49 ± 1.3 years) were randomized to receive intramuscular injections of either 1000 mg T undecanoate or placebo at baseline, week 6 and week 12. All participants were concurrently enrolled in a weight loss program. General and sleep-related quality of life, neurocognitive performance and subjective sexual function were assessed before and 6, 12 and 18 weeks after therapy. T compared to placebo increased sexual desire (p = 0.004) in all men, irrespective of baseline T levels. There were no differences in erectile function, frequency of sexual attempts, orgasmic ability, general or sleep-related quality of life or neurocognitive function (all p = NS). In those with baseline T levels below 8 nmol/L, T increased vitality (p = 0.004), and reduced reports of feeling down (p = 0.002) and nervousness (p = 0.03). Our findings show that 18 weeks of T therapy increased sexual desire in obese men with OSA independently of baseline T levels whereas improvements in quality of life were evident only in those with T levels below 8 nmol/L. These small improvements would need to be balanced against potentially more serious adverse effects of T therapy on breathing. PMID:26610430

  3. Intravenous immunoglobulin and idiopathic secondary recurrent miscarriage: a multicentered randomized placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Mary D.; Kutteh, William H.; Purkiss, Susan; Librach, Cliff; Schultz, Patricia; Houlihan, Edwina; Liao, Chuanhong

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Idiopathic secondary recurrent miscarriage may be associated with an abnormal maternal immune response to subsequent pregnancies. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been studied in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with conflicting results. Therefore, a definitive trial was proposed. METHODS We conducted an investigator-initiated, multicentered, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial comparing IVIG with saline in women with idiopathic secondary recurrent miscarriage, defined as a history of at least one prior ongoing pregnancy followed by three or more consecutive unexplained miscarriages. Subjects received either IVIG 500 mg/kg or the equivalent volume of normal saline. Preconception infusions were administered 14–21 days from the projected next menstrual period. With documentation of pregnancy, the subject received the same infusion every 4 weeks until 18–20 weeks of gestation. The primary outcome was an ongoing pregnancy of at least 20 weeks of gestation. RESULTS A total of 82 patients enrolled, of whom 47 had an index pregnancy. All ongoing pregnancies resulted in live births. Therefore, the live birth rates were 70% (16/23) in the IVIG group and 63% (15/24) in the control group (P = 0.760); odds ratio (OR) 1.37 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41–4.61]. Including only clinical pregnancies (embryo with cardiac activity at 6 weeks of gestation), the live birth rates were equivalent, 94% (16/17) and (15/16), respectively (P > 0.999); OR 1.07 (95% CI 0.06–18.62). Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating IVIG for idiopathic secondary recurrent miscarriage revealed live birth rates of 70% (31/44) in the IVIG group and 62% (28/45) in the control group (P = 0.503); common OR 1.44 (95% CI 0.59–3.48). CONCLUSIONS This is the largest RCT to date in which IVIG was evaluated in women with idiopathic secondary recurrent miscarriage; no treatment benefit was found. The meta-analysis, which combined our study

  4. Randomized Placebo-Controlled Phase II Trial of Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Yolanda; Marín, Pedro; Moreno, Beatriz; Berenguer, Joan; Gabilondo, Iñigo; Martínez-Heras, Eloy; Sola-Valls, Nuria; Arnaiz, Joan-Albert; Andreu, Enrique J.; Fernández, Begoña; Bullich, Santi; Sánchez-Dalmau, Bernardo; Graus, Francesc; Villoslada, Pablo; Saiz, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Objective Uncontrolled studies of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in multiple sclerosis suggested some beneficial effect. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover phase II study we investigated their safety and efficacy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients. Efficacy was evaluated in terms of cumulative number of gadolinium-enhancing lesions (GEL) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 6 months and at the end of the study. Methods Patients unresponsive to conventional therapy, defined by at least 1 relapse and/or GEL on MRI scan in past 12 months, disease duration 2 to 10 years and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 3.0–6.5 were randomized to receive IV 1–2×106 bone-marrow-derived-MSCs/Kg or placebo. After 6 months, the treatment was reversed and patients were followed-up for another 6 months. Secondary endpoints were clinical outcomes (relapses and disability by EDSS and MS Functional Composite), and several brain MRI and optical coherence tomography measures. Immunological tests were explored to assess the immunomodulatory effects. Results At baseline 9 patients were randomized to receive MSCs (n = 5) or placebo (n = 4). One patient on placebo withdrew after having 3 relapses in the first 5 months. We did not identify any serious adverse events. At 6 months, patients treated with MSCs had a trend to lower mean cumulative number of GEL (3.1, 95% CI = 1.1–8.8 vs 12.3, 95% CI = 4.4–34.5, p = 0.064), and at the end of study to reduced mean GEL (−2.8±5.9 vs 3±5.4, p = 0.075). No significant treatment differences were detected in the secondary endpoints. We observed a non-significant decrease of the frequency of Th1 (CD4+ IFN-γ+) cells in blood of MSCs treated patients. Conclusion Bone-marrow-MSCs are safe and may reduce inflammatory MRI parameters supporting their immunomodulatory properties. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01228266 PMID:25436769

  5. Immunomodulatory Effects of ResistAid™: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multidose Study

    PubMed Central

    Udani, Jay K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the ability of a proprietary arabinogalactan extract from the larch tree (ResistAid, Lonza Ltd., Basel, Switzerland) to change the immune response in healthy adults to a standardized antigenic challenge (tetanus and influenza vaccines) in a dose-dependent manner compared to placebo. Methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included 75 healthy adults (18–61 years old). Subjects were randomized to receive either 1.5 or 4.5 g/day of ResistAid or placebo for 60 days. At day 30, subjects were administered both tetanus and influenza vaccines. Serum antigenic response (tetanus immunoglobulin G [IgG], influenza A and B IgG and immunoglobulin M [IgM]) was measured at days 45 (15 days after vaccination) and 60 (30 days after vaccination) of the study and compared to baseline antibody levels. Frequency and intensity of adverse events were monitored throughout the study. Results As expected, all 3 groups demonstrated an expected rise in tetanus IgG levels 15 and 30 days following the vaccine. There was a strongly significant difference in the rise in IgG levels at day 60 in the 1.5 g/day group compared to placebo (p = 0.008). In the 4.5 g/day group, there was significant rise in tetanus IgG at days 45 and 60 compared to baseline (p < 0.01) but these values were not significant compared to placebo. Neither group demonstrated any significant elevations in IgM or IgG antibodies compared to placebo following the influenza vaccine. There were no clinically or statistically significant or serious adverse events. Conclusions ResistAid at a dose of 1.5 g/day significantly increased the IgG antibody response to tetanus vaccine compared to placebo. In conjunction with earlier studies, this validates the effect of ResistAid on the augmentation of the response to bacterial antigens (in the form of vaccine). PMID:24219376

  6. Inosine to increase serum and CSF urate in Parkinson disease: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Importance Convergent biological, epidemiological and clinical data identified urate elevation as a candidate strategy for slowing disability progression in Parkinson disease (PD). Objective To determine the safety, tolerability and urate-elevating capability of the urate precursor inosine in early PD; and to assess its suitability and potential design features for a disease-modification trial. Design The Safety of URate Elevation in PD (SURE-PD) study, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trial of inosine, enrolled participants from 2009–2011 and followed them for up to 25 months. Setting Outpatient visits to 17 credentialed clinical study sites of the Parkinson Study Group across the United States. Participants Seventy-five consenting adults (mean age 62; 55% women) with early PD not yet requiring symptomatic treatment and a serum urate concentration below 6 mg/dL (the approximate population median) were enrolled. Intervention Participants were randomized to one of three treatment arms: placebo or inosine titrated to produce mild (6.1–7.0 mg/dL) or moderate (7.1–8.0 mg/dL) serum urate elevation using 500 mg capsules taken orally up to two thrice daily. They were followed for up to 24 months (median 18) on study drug plus 1 washout month. Main Outcome Measures The pre-specified primary outcomes were absence of unacceptable serious adverse events (safety), continued treatment without adverse event requiring dose reduction (tolerability), and elevation of urate assessed serially in serum and once (at 3 months) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Results Serious adverse events (17), including infrequent cardiovascular events, occurred at the same or lower rates in inosine groups relative to placebo. No participant developed gout and three receiving inosine developed symptomatic urolithiasis. Treatment was tolerated by 95% of participants at 6 months, and no participant withdrew due to an adverse event. Serum urate rose by 2.3 and 3.0 mg/dL in

  7. Flecainide in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis as a Neuroprotective Strategy (FANS): A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Park, Susanna B.; Vucic, Steve; Cheah, Benjamin C.; Lin, Cindy S.-Y.; Kirby, Adrienne; Mann, Kristy P.; Zoing, Margie C.; Winhammar, Jennica; Kiernan, Matthew C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Abnormalities in membrane excitability and Na+ channel function are characteristic of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We aimed to examine the neuroprotective potential, safety and tolerability of the Na+ channel blocker and membrane stabiliser flecainide in ALS. Methods A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trial of flecainide (200 mg/day) for 32-weeks with a 12-week lead-in phase was conducted in participants with probable or definite ALS recruited from multiple Australian centres (ANZCT Registry number ACTRN12608000338369). Patients were reviewed by a cardiologist to rule out cardiac contraindications. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to flecainide or placebo using stratified permuted blocks by a central pharmacy. The primary outcome measure was the slope of decline of the ALS Functional Rating Scale-revised (ALS FRS-r) during the treatment period. Findings Between March 11, 2008 and July 1, 2010, 67 patients were screened, 54 of whom were randomly assigned to receive flecainide (26 patients) or placebo (28 patients). Four patients in the flecainide group and three patients in the placebo group withdrew from the study. One patient in the flecainide group died during the study, attributed to disease progression. Flecainide was generally well tolerated, with no serious adverse events reported in either group. There was no significant difference in the rate of decline in the primary outcome measure ALS-FRS-r between placebo and flecainide treated patients (Flecainide 0.65 [95% CI 0.49 to 0.98]; Placebo 0.81 [0.49 to 2.12] P = 0.50). However, the rate of decline of the neurophysiological index was significantly reduced in the flecainide group (Flecainide 0.06 [0.01 to 0.11]; Placebo 0.14 [0.09 to 0.19], P = 0.02). Placebo-treated patients demonstrated greater CMAP amplitude reduction during the course of the study in the subset of patients with a reduced baseline CMAP amplitude (Flecainide: − 15 ± 12%; Placebo

  8. Perilla Extract improves gastrointestinal discomfort in a randomized placebo controlled double blind human pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort, e.g. bloating or rumbling, is a common symptom in otherwise healthy adults. Approximately 20% of the population, particularly women suffer from gastrointestinal discomfort and this affects quality of life. Recent studies discovered a link between the body and mind, called the gut-brain axis. Psychosocial factors, such as e.g. daily stress may cause altered gut physiology leading to ileum contractions and consequently gastrointestinal symptoms. In vitro and ex vivo studies clearly showed that a Perilla frutescens extract combines prokinetic, antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of the intervention was to investigate the effects of the proprietary Perilla extract on GI discomfort in healthy subjects with gastrointestinal discomfort and reduced bowel movements in comparison to a placebo product. Methods The pilot study was performed according to a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallel design. Fifty healthy subjects with gastrointestinal discomfort and reduced bowel movements, 30-70 years, documented their GI symptoms, stool frequency and consistency daily during a 2-week run-in phase and a 4-week intervention phase with Perilla frutescens extract or placebo. GI symptoms were assessed on a 5-point scale daily and average scores over 14 days intervals were calculated. Results All GI symptoms were significantly improved over time by Perilla frutescens extract during the intervention phase (bloating: -0.44 ± 0.56, p = 0.0003; passage of gas: -0.30 ± 0.66, p = 0.0264; GI rumbling: -0.55 ± 0.87, p = 0.0014; feeling of fullness: -0.36 ± 0.72, p = 0.0152; abdominal discomfort: -0.54 ± 0.75, p = 0.004), whereas in the placebo group only abdominal discomfort was significantly improved (-0.31 ± 0.55, p = 0.0345). In the subgroup of women results were strengthened and a subscore out of bloating and abdominal discomfort was significantly improved

  9. Mentha longifolia syrup in secondary amenorrhea: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Amenorrhea is defined as the cessation of menses. Hormone therapy is the most common treatment. Due to the contraindications and side effects of it and the increasing demand for alternative medicine substitutes, Mentha longifolia L. was used in this study. Mentha longifolia L. is a known medication in Iranian traditional medicine to induce menstrual bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study was conducted in 120 women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. Treatment consisted of sequential oral syrup, 45 ml (15 ml three times a day) for 2 weeks. If the patients did not have menstruation after 2 weeks of taking the medication, we would wait for two more weeks. If the patients had menstruation at each stage of using the drug, we started it one week after the end of menstruation. But if the patients had not menstruate after four weeks (two-week using of drug and waiting for two more weeks), the previous steps were repeated. The drug and placebo were repeated in three cycles of menstruation. Bleeding was documented by the patient on diary cards. The primary outcome variable was the occurrence (yes/no) of bleeding during the first treatment cycle. The secondary efficacy outcome was the regularity of bleeding pattern during the three cycles of the study. Results The number of women with bleeding during the first cycle were higher in the drug group as in the placebo group (68.3% vs. 13.6%; p < 0.001). The regularity of bleeding throughout the study was markedly better in the drug group compared with those given placebo (33.3% vs. 3.3%; p < 0.001). No notable complication or side effect was reported in relation to Mentha longifolia L. syrup. Conclusion In conclusion, Mentha longifolia L. syrup is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective choice in inducing bleeding and maintaining regular bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. PMID

  10. Efficacy of an Iranian herbal preparation (Lax-Asab) in treating functional constipation: A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Bagheri, Masood; Ghojazadeh, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Functional constipation is a common clinical complaint of patients with unsatisfactory treatment outcome. We designed this study to evaluate the efficiency of a traditional herbal preparation (Lax-Asab) in treating chronic constipation. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, participants with chronic constipation (n = 48) were randomly selected to receive either the Lax-Asab powder (n = 24) or placebo (n = 24) on alternative days for 4 weeks. The Lax-Asab powder contains equal amounts of Cassia angustifolia Vahl. (狹葉番瀉葉 xiá yè fān xiè yè), Mentha piperita L. (胡椒薄荷 hú jiāo bò hé), Zingiber officinale Rosc. (生薑 shēng jiāng), Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (甘草 gān cǎo). A total of 40 patients completed the study. We determined the severity of constipation based on defecation frequency (per week) and defecation difficulties. Of the total of 48 patients who participated, 40 completed the trial [24 men (60%), mean age, 21.0 ± 4.2 years; 16 women (40%), mean age, 20.1 ± 4.3 years]. The mean of weekly defecation frequency increased in both groups; from 1.8 ± 0.41 to 4.8 ± 1.12 times in patients who received Lax-Asab and from 1.7 ± 0.44 to 2.2 ± 0.61 times in patients who received placebo. A time–treatment interaction showed that this increase was significantly higher in the intervention group. Defecation difficulties improved significantly more in patients who received Lax-Asab than patients who received placebo. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups with regard to the side effects observed. This study confirms the efficacy and tolerability of an Iranian herbal preparation, Lax-Asab, in treating patients with chronic functional constipation. PMID:26151027

  11. Clinical and microbiological effects of Lactobacillus reuteri probiotics in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: a randomized placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Teughels, Wim; Durukan, Andaç; Ozcelik, Onur; Pauwels, Martine; Quirynen, Marc; Haytac, Mehmet Cenk

    2013-01-01

    Teughels W, Durukan A, Ozcelik O, Pauwels M, Quirynen M, Haytac MC. Clinical and microbiological effects of Lactobacillus reuteri probiotics in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: a randomized placebo-controlled study. J Clin Periodontol 2013; 40: 1025–1035. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12155. AimThe aim of this randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus reuteri-containing probiotic lozenges as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP). Material and MethodsThirty chronic periodontitis patients were recruited and monitored clinically and microbiologically at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks after therapy. All patients received one-stage full-mouth disinfection and randomly assigned over a test (SRP + probiotic, n = 15) or control (SRP + placebo, n = 15) group. The lozenges were used two times a day for 12 weeks. ResultsAt week 12, all clinical parameters were significantly reduced in both groups, while there was significantly more pocket depth reduction (p < 0.05) and attachment gain (p < 0.05) in moderate and deep pockets; more Porphyromonas gingivalis reduction was observed in the SRP + probiotic group. ConclusionsThe results indicate that oral administration of L. reuteri lozenges could be a useful adjunct to SRP in chronic periodontitis. PMID:24164569

  12. Randomized placebo-controlled trials of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in psychiatric disorders: a review of the current literature.

    PubMed

    Politi, Pierluigi; Rocchetti, Matteo; Emanuele, Enzo; Rondanelli, Mariangela; Barale, Francesco

    2013-09-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that omega (ω)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are clinically useful in patients with psychiatric disorders. In the present review, we summarize the findings of randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials that have focused on the potential therapeutic utility of ω-3 PUFAs in patients with mental illnesses. We searched the PubMed database for placebo-controlled clinical trials using the keywords "PUFAs", "omega-3", "eicosapentaenoic acid", and "docosahexaenoic acid" in combination with the following terms: "anxiety disorders", "mood disorders", "autism", "attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder" (ADHD), "personality disorders", and "schizophrenia". The literature review indicated that personality disorders, autism, and anxiety disorders have been investigated less frequently than mood disorders, schizophrenia, and ADHD. Although no definite conclusions can be drawn on the therapeutic efficacy of ω-3 PUFAs in the majority of the psychiatric illnesses examined here, the evidence suggests that these molecules have a potential preventive role in people at extremely high risk for developing psychosis. Future studies in the field should examine ω-PUFAs turnover in neural membranes. Moreover, special attention should be paid to potential confounds, such as smoking and dietary habits. PMID:21838664

  13. Ankle manual therapy for individuals with post-acute ankle sprains: description of a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ankle sprains are common within the general population and can result in prolonged disablement. Limited talocrural dorsiflexion range of motion (DF ROM) is a common consequence of ankle sprain. Limited talocrural DF ROM may contribute to persistent symptoms, disability, and an elevated risk for re-injury. As a result, many health care practitioners use hands-on passive procedures with the intention of improving talocrural joint DF ROM in individuals following ankle sprains. Dosage of passive hands-on procedures involves a continuum of treatment speeds. Recent evidence suggests both slow- and fast-speed treatments may be effective to address disablement following ankle sprains. However, these interventions have yet to be longitudinally compared against a placebo study condition. Methods/Design We developed a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial designed to test the hypotheses that hands-on treatment procedures administered to individuals following ankle sprains during the post-acute injury period can improve short-, intermediate-, and long-term disablement, as well as reduce the risk for re-injury. Discussion This study is designed to measure the clinical effects of hands-on passive stretching treatment procedures directed to the talocrural joint that vary in treatment speed during the post-acute injury period, compared to hands-on placebo control intervention. Trial Registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00888498. PMID:20958995

  14. Intraoperative music reduces perceived pain after total knee arthroplasty: a blinded, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Simcock, Xavier C; Yoon, Richard S; Chalmers, Peter; Geller, Jeffrey A; Kiernan, Howard A; Macaulay, William

    2008-10-01

    Patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) often experience a difficult recovery due to severe postoperative pain. Using a multimodal pain management protocol, a blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of patient-selected music on reducing perceived pain. Thirty patients undergoing primary unilateral TKA were enrolled and randomized into the music group (15 patients) or the control group (15 patients). Postoperative pain scores, assessed with the visual analog scale, indicated the music group experienced less pain at 3 and 24 hours postoperatively than did the nonmusic group (at 3 hours: 1.47+/-1.39 versus 3.87+/-3.44, P=.01; at 24 hours: 2.41+/-1.67 versus 4.03+/-2.89, P=.04). Intraoperative music provides an inexpensive nonpharmacological option to further reduce postoperative pain. PMID:18979928

  15. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of melatonin on breast cancer survivors: impact on sleep, mood, and hot flashes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wendy Y; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Gantman, Kathryn; Savoie, Jennifer; Scheib, Rochelle; Parker, Leroy M; Schernhammer, Eva S

    2014-06-01

    The purpose is to examine the effects of melatonin supplementation on sleep, mood, and hot flashes in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 95 postmenopausal women with a prior history of stage 0-III breast cancer, who had completed active cancer treatment (including hormonal therapy) were randomly assigned 1:1 to either 3 mg oral melatonin (n = 48) or placebo daily (n = 47) for 4 months. Sleep, mood, and hot flashes were assessed at baseline and 4 months via self-administered questionnaire using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D), and the North Central Cancer Treatment Group (NCCTG) hot flash diary, respectively. Eighty-six women (91 %) completed the study and provided pre- and post-questionnaires. At baseline, 52 % of participants reported poor sleep in the month prior to enrollment. Compared to subjects on placebo, subjects randomized to melatonin experienced significantly greater improvements in subjective sleep quality as measured by the PSQI, including domains on sleep quality, daytime dysfunction and total score. For example, the mean change in PSQI score was -0.1 in the placebo group compared to -1.9 in the melatonin group (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in measures of depression or hot flashes. Sleep disturbances are common among breast cancer survivors, even after completion of active cancer treatment. This is the first randomized placebo-controlled study among breast cancer survivors to demonstrate that melatonin was associated with an improvement in subjective sleep quality, without any significant adverse effects. PMID:24718775

  16. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of melatonin on breast cancer survivors: impact on sleep, mood, and hot flashes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wendy Y.; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Gantman, Kathryn; Savoie, Jennifer; Scheib, Rochelle; Parker, Leroy M.; Schernhammer, Eva S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effects of melatonin supplementation on sleep, mood, and hot flashes in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. Methods In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 95 postmenopausal women with a prior history of stage 0-III breast cancer who had completed active cancer treatment (including hormonal therapy) were randomly assigned 1:1 to either 3 mg oral melatonin (n=48) or placebo daily (n=47) for 4 months. Sleep, mood, and hot flashes were assessed at baseline and four months via self-administered questionnaire using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression (CES-D), and the North Central Cancer Treatment Group (NCCTG) hot flash diary, respectively. Results Eighty-six women (91%) completed the study and provided pre and post questionnaires. At baseline, 52% of participants reported poor sleep in the month prior to enrollment. Compared to subjects on placebo, subjects randomized to melatonin experienced significantly greater improvements in subjective sleep quality as measured by the PSQI, including domains on sleep quality, daytime dysfunction and total score. For example, the mean change in PSQI score was −0.1 in the placebo group compared to −1.9 in the melatonin group (p<0.001). There were no significant differences in measures of depression or hot flashes. Conclusions Sleep disturbances are common among breast cancer survivors, even after completion of active cancer treatment. This is the first randomized placebo-controlled study among breast cancer survivors to demonstrate that melatonin was associated with an improvement in subjective sleep quality, without any significant adverse effects. PMID:24718775

  17. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial of Cannabis Cigarettes in Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Wilsey, Barth; Marcotte, Thomas; Tsodikov, Alexander; Millman, Jeanna; Bentley, Heather; Gouaux, Ben; Fishman, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), and the National Institute for Drug Abuse (NIDA) report that no sound scientific studies support the medicinal use of cannabis. Despite this lack of scientific validation, many patients routinely use “medical marijuana,” and in many cases this use is for pain related to nerve injury. We conducted a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study evaluating the analgesic efficacy of smoking cannabis for neuropathic pain. Thirty-eight patients with central and peripheral neuropathic pain underwent a standardized procedure for smoking either high-dose (7%), low-dose (3.5%), or placebo cannabis. In addition to the primary outcome of pain intensity, secondary outcome measures included evoked pain using heat-pain threshold, sensitivity to light touch, psychoactive side effects, and neuropsychological performance. A mixed linear model demonstrated an analgesic response to smoking cannabis. No effect on evoked pain was seen. Psychoactive effects were minimal and well-tolerated, with some acute cognitive effects, particularly with memory, at higher doses. PMID:18403272

  18. Effect of radial shock wave therapy for carpal tunnel syndrome: A prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yung-Tsan; Ke, Ming-Jen; Chou, Yu-Ching; Chang, Chih-Ya; Lin, Ching-Yueh; Li, Tsung-Ying; Shih, Feng-Mei; Chen, Liang-Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Three recent studies demonstrated the positive effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for treating carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). However, none have entirely proved the effects of ESWT on CTS because all studies had a small sample size and lacked a placebo-controlled design. Moreover, radial ESWT (rESWT) has not been used to treat CTS. We conducted a prospective randomized, controlled, double-blinded study to assess the effect of rESWT for treating CTS. Thirty-four enrolled patients (40 wrists) were randomized into intervention and control groups (20 wrists in each). Participants in the intervention group underwent three sessions of rESWT with nightly splinting, whereas those in the control group underwent sham rESWT with nightly splinting. The primary outcome was visual analog scale (VAS), whereas the secondary outcomes included the Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire (BCTQ), cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve, sensory nerve conduction velocity of the median nerve, and finger pinch strength. Evaluations were performed before treatment and at 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the third rESWT session. A significantly greater improvement in the VAS, BCTQ scores, and CSA of the median nerve was noted in the intervention group throughout the study as compared to the control group (except for BCTQ severity at week 12 and CSA at weeks 1 and 4) (p < 0.05). This is the first study to assess rESWT in a randomized placebo-controlled trial and demonstrate that rESWT is a safe and effective method for relieving pain and disability in patients with CTS. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:977-984, 2016. PMID:26610183

  19. Modafinil Improves Real Driving Performance in Patients with Hypersomnia: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Crossover Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Pierre; Chaufton, Cyril; Taillard, Jacques; Capelli, Aurore; Coste, Olivier; Léger, Damien; Moore, Nicholas; Sagaspe, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: Patients with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) are at high risk for driving accidents, and physicians are concerned by the effect of alerting drugs on driving skills of sleepy patients. No study has up to now investigated the effect of modafinil (a reference drug to treat EDS in patients with hypersomnia) on on-road driving performance of patients suffering from central hypersomnia. The objective is to evaluate in patients with central hypersomnia the effect of a wake-promoting drug on real driving performance and to assess the relationship between objective sleepiness and driving performance. Design and Participants: Randomized, crossover, double-blind placebo-controlled trial conducted among 13 patients with narcolepsy and 14 patients with idiopathic hypersomnia. Patients were randomly assigned to receive modafinil (400 mg) or placebo for 5 days prior to the driving test. Each condition was separated by at least 3 weeks of washout. Measurements: Mean number of Inappropriate Line Crossings, Standard Deviation of Lateral Position of the vehicle and mean sleep latency in the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test were assessed. Results: Modafinil reduced the mean number of Inappropriate Line Crossings and Standard Deviation of Lateral Position of the vehicle compared to placebo (F(1,25) = 4.88, P < 0.05 and F(1,25) = 3.87, P = 0.06 tendency). Mean sleep latency at the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test significantly correlated with the mean number of Inappropriate Line Crossings (r = -0.41, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Modafinil improves driving performance in patients with narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia. The Maintenance of Wakefulness Test is a suitable clinical tool to assess fitness to drive in this population. Citation: Philip P; Chaufton C; Taillard J; Capelli A; Coste O; Léger D; Moore N; Sagaspe P. Modafinil improves real driving performance in patients with hypersomnia: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial. SLEEP

  20. Wolbachia endobacteria depletion by doxycycline as antifilarial therapy has macrofilaricidal activity in onchocerciasis: a randomized placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Specht, Sabine; Büttner, Marcelle; Pfarr, Kenneth; Mand, Sabine; Fimmers, Rolf; Marfo-Debrekyei, Yeboah; Konadu, Peter; Debrah, Alexander Yaw; Bandi, Claudio; Brattig, Norbert; Albers, Anna; Larbi, John; Batsa, Linda; Adjei, Ohene; Büttner, Dietrich W.

    2007-01-01

    In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in Ghana, 67 onchocerciasis patients received 200-mg/day doxycycline for 4–6 weeks, followed by ivermectin (IVM) after 6 months. After 6–27 months, efficacy was evaluated by onchocercoma histology, PCR and microfilariae determination. Administration of doxycycline resulted in endobacteria depletion and female worm sterilization. The 6-week treatment was macrofilaricidal, with >60% of the female worms found dead, despite the presence of new, Wolbachia-containing worms acquired after the administration of doxycycline. Doxycycline may be developed as second-line drug for onchocerciasis, to be administered in areas without transmission, in foci with IVM resistance and in areas with Loa co-infections. PMID:17999080

  1. Valacyclovir therapy does not reverse herpes-associated alterations in cervical immunology: a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Yi, Tae Joon; Shannon, Brett; Chieza, Lisungu; Su, DeSheng; Saunders, Megan; Tharao, Wangari; Huibner, Sanja; Remis, Robert; Raboud, Janet; Kaul, Rupert

    2014-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection is associated with a 3-fold increase in the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition, perhaps through alterations in mucosal HIV-susceptible target cells. We performed a clinical trial to assess the impact of herpes therapy on cervical immunology in HSV-2-infected, HIV-uninfected women from Africa or the Caribbean who were living in Toronto, Canada. Thirty participants received 1 g of valacyclovir orally each day for 2 months in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Valacyclovir did not reduce the number of cervical CD4(+) T cells, the number of dendritic cells, or the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and tended to increase the expression of the HIV coreceptor CCR5 and the activation marker CD69. Short-term valacyclovir therapy did not reverse HSV-2-associated alterations in genital immunology. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00946556. PMID:24664172

  2. Fluoxetine (SSRI) treatment of canine atopic dermatitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, M; Ishimaru, H; Nakatsuji, Y

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated effects of a fluoxetine (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; SSRI, 1 mg/kg) on pruritus in canine atopic dermatitis (CAD). After 4-weeks of base-line observation, 8 dogs with CAD entered a 2-months randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial comparing fluoxetine with placebo. Clinical efficacy was evaluated using a Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI-03) and Pruritus Visual Analog Scale (PVAS). Six dogs completed the study [two out of eight dogs (both of them were Shiba Inu) dropped out from the study due to a depression]. CADESI-03 and PVAS between fluoxetine and placebo showed no significant difference statistically (P > 0.05 and P > 0.05 respectively). Fluoxetine showed no efficacy on pruritus in CAD. Further researches are needed for the treatment on pruritus of CAD. PMID:24988868

  3. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study of spirulina supplementation on indices of mental and physical fatigue in men.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Morgan; Hassinger, Lauren; Davis, Joshua; Devor, Steven T; DiSilvestro, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Spirulina may increase people's ability to resist mental and physical fatigue. This study tested that hypothesis in a randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled study in men. After 1 week, a 3 g/day dose of spirulina produced a small, but statistically significant increase in exercise output (Kcals consumed in 30 min exercise on a cross trainer machine). A mathematical based mental fatigue test showed improved performance 4 h after the first time of supplementation as well as 8 weeks later. Similarly, a subjective survey for a sense of physical and mental fatigue showed improvement within 4 h of the first supplementation as well as 8 weeks later. These results show that spirulina intake can affect fatigue in men. PMID:26888417

  4. Improvement of seminal parameters with Prelox: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Stanislavov, R; Nikolova, V; Rohdewald, P

    2009-03-01

    In a randomly allocated, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, 50 infertile patients were treated for 1 month with placebo or a combination of l-arginine aspartate and Pycnogenol (Prelox). Semen samples were examined at 4 week intervals according to WHO criteria. Treatment with Prelox increased significantly the semen volume, concentration of spermatozoa, percentage of motile spermatozoa and percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology compared with placebo. The placebo had no influence on the parameters of seminological analysis. Intake of Pycnogenol for 1 month improved the fertility index to normal values. After treatment, the fertility index decreased again to infertile status. No unwanted effects were reported. Prelox seems to be a promising alternative to treat patients with mild infertility. PMID:19142978

  5. Wolbachia endobacteria depletion by doxycycline as antifilarial therapy has macrofilaricidal activity in onchocerciasis: a randomized placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Hoerauf, Achim; Specht, Sabine; Büttner, Marcelle; Pfarr, Kenneth; Mand, Sabine; Fimmers, Rolf; Marfo-Debrekyei, Yeboah; Konadu, Peter; Debrah, Alexander Yaw; Bandi, Claudio; Brattig, Norbert; Albers, Anna; Larbi, John; Batsa, Linda; Taylor, Mark J; Adjei, Ohene; Büttner, Dietrich W

    2008-09-01

    In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in Ghana, 67 onchocerciasis patients received 200-mg/day doxycycline for 4-6 weeks, followed by ivermectin (IVM) after 6 months. After 6-27 months, efficacy was evaluated by onchocercoma histology, PCR and microfilariae determination. Administration of doxycycline resulted in endobacteria depletion and female worm sterilization. The 6-week treatment was macrofilaricidal, with >60% of the female worms found dead, despite the presence of new, Wolbachia-containing worms acquired after the administration of doxycycline. Doxycycline may be developed as second-line drug for onchocerciasis, to be administered in areas without transmission, in foci with IVM resistance and in areas with Loa co-infections. PMID:17999080

  6. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial to determine the course of aminotransferase elevation during prolonged acetaminophen administration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acetaminophen administration for more than 4 days causes aminotransferase elevation in some subjects. The objective of this randomized, placebo-controlled trial is to describe the course of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation in subjects administered 4 g/day of acetaminophen for at least 16 days. Methods A randomized, placebo controlled trial of acetaminophen (4 g/day) vs placebo. Subjects were healthy volunteers with normal liver enzymes. The primary outcome was the course of ALT during acetaminophen administration. All subjects were treated for a minimum of 16 days. Subjects with ALT elevation at day 16 were continued on treatment until these elevations resolved up to a maximum of 40 days. Subjects were also evaluated for elevation of INR or serum bilirubin as evidence of hepatic dysfunction. Results 157/205 (77%) completed acetaminophen subjects had no ALT elevation or transient elevations that resolved by day 16. Of the 48 subjects who had ALT elevations at study day 16, 47 continued on acetaminophen and had resolution by study day 40. One acetaminophen subject did not have resolution by study day 40, and the course of aminotransferase elevation suggests an alternative cause. One placebo subject had an ALT elevation at day 16 that resolved by day 22. The highest observed ALT among all acetaminophen subjects was 191 IU/L. The mean ALT at day 16 was 4.4 IU/L higher for the acetaminophen than for the placebo group. No subject developed liver dysfunction. Conclusions A minority of subjects treated with 4 g/day of acetaminophen for 16 days will have low-grade aminotransferase elevations that are not accompanied by liver dysfunction and resolve if administration is continued. Trials registration Clintrials.gov NCT00743093 registered August 26, 2008 PMID:25047090

  7. Common harms from amoxicillin: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials for any indication

    PubMed Central

    Gillies, Malcolm; Ranakusuma, Anggi; Hoffmann, Tammy; Thorning, Sarah; McGuire, Treasure; Glasziou, Paul; Del Mar, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Background: When prescribing antibiotics for common indications, clinicians need information about both harms and benefits, information that is currently available only from observational studies. We quantified the common harms of the most frequently prescribed antibiotic, amoxicillin, from randomized placebo-controlled trials. Methods: For this systematic review, we searched MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, without language restriction, for any randomized, participant-blinded, placebo-controlled trials of amoxicillin or amoxicillin–clavulanic acid for any indication, in any setting. Our main outcome was any reported adverse event. Results: Of 730 studies identified, we included 45 trials: 27 involving amoxicillin, 17 involving amoxicillin–clavulanic acid and 1 involving both. The indications for antibiotic therapy were variable. The risk of bias was low, although only 25 trials provided data suitable for assessment of harms, which suggested under-reporting. Diarrhea was attributed to amoxicillin only in the form of amoxicillin–clavulanic acid (Peto odds ratio [OR] 3.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.23–4.87). The OR for candidiasis (3 trials) was significantly higher (OR 7.77, 95% CI 2.23–27.11). Rashes, nausea, itching, vomiting and abnormal results on liver function tests were not significantly increased. The results were not altered by sensitivity analyses, nor did funnel plots suggest publication bias. The number of courses of antibiotics needed to harm was 10 (95% CI 6–17) for diarrhea with amoxicillin–clavulanic acid and 27 (95% CI 24–42) for candidiasis with amoxicillin (with or without clavulanic acid). Interpretation: Diarrhea was caused by use of amoxicillin–clavulanic acid, and candidiasis was caused by both amoxicillin and amoxicillin–clavulanic acid. Harms were poorly reported in most trials, and their true incidence may have been higher than reported. Nevertheless, these rates of common

  8. Effects of Oral Vitamin C Supplementation on Anxiety in Students: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Ivaldo Jesus Lima; de Souza, Victor Vasconcelos; Motta, Vitor; Da-Silva, Sérgio Leme

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin C ascorbic acid) is a well-known antioxidant that is involved in anxiety, stress, depression, fatigue and mood state in humans. Studies have suggested that oxidative stress may trigger neuropsychological disorders. Antioxidants may play an important therapeutic role in combating the damage caused by oxidative stress in individuals that suffer from anxiety. In this context, it was hypothesized that oral vitamin C supplementation would reduce anxiety. However, few up to date studies have evaluated the consequences of oral vitamin C supplementation on anxiety in humans. The present study examined the effects of oral vitamin C supplements in 42 high school students, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The students were given either vitamin C (500 mg day(-1)) or placebo. Plasma concentrations of vitamin C and blood pressure were measured before the intervention and then one day after the intervention. Anxiety levels were evaluated for each student before and after 14 days following supplementation with the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Results showed that vitamin C reduced anxiety levels and led to higher plasma vitamin C concentration compared to the placebo. The mean heart rates were also significantly different between vitamin C group and placebo control group. Present study results not only provide evidence that vitamin C plays an important therapeutic role for anxiety but also point a possible use for antioxidants in the prevention or reduction of anxiety. This suggests that a diet rich in vitamin C may be an effective adjunct to medical and psychological treatment of anxiety and improve academic performance. PMID:26353411

  9. Pilot Study of the Effects of Lisdexamfetamine on Cocaine Use: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial*

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Marc E.; Herin, David V.; Specker, Sheila; Babb, David; Levin, Frances R.; Grabowski, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Amphetamine analogues have been demonstrated to have some efficacy in reducing use in cocaine dependent individuals. However, these agents also have potential for abuse. Lisdexamfetamine (LDX), a lysine+dextroamphetamine formulation, has been approved for the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and as a prodrug, has less abuse potential. Objective This pilot study sought to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of LDX as a candidate treatment for cocaine dependence. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study served to evaluate LDX in 43 cocaine-dependent individuals: (1) Placebo (PBO; 0 mg, n = 21), (2) LDX (70 mg, n = 22). Participants received medication for 14 weeks. Cocaine use was determined based on urine analysis for benzoylecgonine (BE; a cocaine metabolite). Results Retention rates were higher though not significantly different in the PBO (71.4%) than the LDX condition (57.1%). Compared to those in the PBO condition, those receiving LDX were more likely to report experiencing (ps < .05) diarrhea (45.5% vs. 14.3%), headaches (45.5% vs. 9.5%), and anxiety (31.8% vs. 4.8%). No differences in medication conditions were observed for blood pressure, heart rate, or body weight. In the randomized sample, no differences in cocaine use were seen. Those receiving LDX reported significantly less craving for cocaine than participants receiving PBO. Conclusions LDX did not significantly reduce cocaine use compared to PBO in the randomized sample. PMID:26116930

  10. Low-Magnitude Mechanical Stimulation to Improve Bone Density in Persons of Advanced Age: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Kiel, Douglas P; Hannan, Marian T; Barton, Bruce A; Bouxsein, Mary L; Sisson, Emily; Lang, Thomas; Allaire, Brett; Dewkett, Dawn; Carroll, Danette; Magaziner, Jay; Shane, Elizabeth; Leary, Elizabeth Teng; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Rubin, Clinton T

    2015-07-01

    Nonpharmacologic approaches to preserve or increase bone mineral density (BMD) include whole-body vibration (WBV), but its efficacy in elderly persons is not clear. Therefore, we conducted the Vibration to Improve Bone in Elderly Subjects (VIBES) trial, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 10 minutes of daily WBV (0.3g at 37 Hz) in seniors recruited from 16 independent living communities. The primary outcomes were volumetric BMD of the hip and spine measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and biochemical markers of bone turnover. We randomized 174 men and women (89 active, 85 placebo) with T-scores -1 to -2.5 who were not taking bone active drugs and had no diseases affecting the skeleton (mean age 82 ± 7 years, range 65 to 102). Participants received daily calcium (1000 mg) and vitamin D (800 IU). Study platforms were activated using radio frequency ID cards providing electronic adherence monitoring; placebo platforms resembled the active platforms. In total, 61% of participants in the active arm and 73% in the placebo arm completed 24 months. The primary outcomes, median percent changes (interquartile range [IQR]) in total volumetric femoral trabecular BMD (active group (2.2% [-0.8%, 5.2%]) versus placebo 0.4% [-4.8%, 5.0%]) and in mid-vertebral trabecular BMD of L1 and L2 (active group (5.3% [-6.9%, 13.3%]) versus placebo (2.4% [-4.4%, 11.1%]), did not differ between groups (all p values > 0.1). Changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover (P1NP and sCTX) also were not different between groups (p = 0.19 and p = 0.97, respectively). In conclusion, this placebo-controlled randomized trial of daily WBV in older adults did not demonstrate evidence of significant beneficial effects on volumetric BMD or bone biomarkers; however, the high variability in vBMD changes limited our power to detect small treatment effects. The beneficial effects of WBV observed in previous studies of younger women may not occur to the same extent in

  11. Effectiveness of Ramelteon for Insomnia Symptoms in Older Adults with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gooneratne, Nalaka S.; Gehrman, Philip; Gurubhagavatula, Indira; Al-Shehabi, Erica; Marie, Elisabeth; Schwab, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of ramelteon, a melatonin receptor agonist, for the treatment of insomnia in older adults starting auto-titrating positive airway pressure (APAP) therapy for sleep apnea. Methods: A parallel group, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot effectiveness clinical trial. The study enrolled 21 research study participants who were ≥ 60 years old and had obstructive sleep apnea, defined by an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 5 events/h, with complaints of insomnia. The primary outcome measure was change in sleep onset latency determined from polysomnography at 4 weeks. Research study participants, all of whom were starting on APAP, were randomized to ramelteon 8 mg (n = 8) or placebo (n = 13). Results: Ramelteon treatment was associated with a statistically significant difference in sleep onset latency (SOL) as measured by polysomnography of 28.5 min (± 16.2 min) compared to placebo (95% C.I. 8.5 min to 48.6 min, effect size 1.35, p = 0.008). This was due to a 10.7 (± 17.0) min SOL reduction in the ramelteon arm and a 17.8 (± 23.5) min SOL increase in the placebo arm. No change was noted in subjective sleep onset latency (−1.3 min, ± 19.3 min, 95% C.I.: −21.4 min to 18.7 min). No statistically significant changes were noted in the AHI, sleep efficiency (polysomnography and self-report), APAP adherence, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index global score, or Epworth Sleepiness Scale score when comparing ramelteon vs. placebo. Four adverse events occurred in the ramelteon arm and 2 in the placebo arm; none were considered to be related to treatment. Conclusions: Ramelteon was effective in improving objective, but not subjective, sleep onset latency even in older adults who were starting APAP therapy for sleep apnea. Further research is warranted in examining the role of ramelteon in the care of older adults with insomnia symptoms and sleep apnea. Citation: Gooneratne NS; Gehrman P; Gurubhagavatula I; Al-Shehabi E

  12. Cerebrolysin enhances cognitive recovery of mild traumatic brain injury patients: double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Chung; Wei, Sung-Tai; Tsaia, Shiu-Chiu; Chen, Xian-Xiu; Cho, Der-Yang

    2013-12-01

    In adults, mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) frequently results in impairments of cognitive functions which would lead to psychological consequences in the future. Cerebrolysin is a nootropic drug, and can significantly improve cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer's disease and stroke. The purpose of this study was to investigate how Cerebrolysin therapy enhances cognitive recovery for mild traumatic brain injury patients using a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized phase II pilot study. Patients having head injury within 24 h sent to our hospital were screened and recruited if patients were alert and conscious, and had intracranial contusion haemorrhage. From July 2009 to June 2010, totally, thirty-two patients were recruited in the double-blinded, placebo-controlled, and randomized study. Patients were randomized to receive Cerebrolysin (Group A, once daily intravenous infusion of 30 mL Cerebrolysin over a 60-min period for 5 days) or placebo (Group B, same dosage and administration of normal saline as Group A). The primary outcome measures were differences of cognitive function including Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), and Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) scores between baseline and week 1, between baseline and week 4, and between baseline and week 12. Thirty-two patients completed the trial. For Group A, the CASI score difference between baseline and week 12 was 21.0 ± 20.4, a significantly greater change than that of Group B (7.6 ± 12.1) (p = 0.0461). Besides, drawing function (one of the domains of CASI; p = 0.0066) on week 4 and both drawing function (p = 0.0472) and long-term memory (one of the domains of CASI; p = 0.0256) on week 12 were also found to be significantly improved in the patients receiving Cerebrolysin treatment. Our results suggest that Cerebrolysin improves the cognitive function of the MTBI in patients at 3rd month after injury, especially for long-term memory and drawing function. PMID:23656173

  13. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in the treatment of fresh scaphoid fractures. A multicenter, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The scaphoid bone is the most commonly fractured of the carpal bones. In the Netherlands 90% of all carpal fractures is a fracture of the scaphoid bone. The scaphoid has an essential role in functionality of the wrist, acting as a pivot. Complications in healing can result in poor functional outcome. The scaphoid fracture is a troublesome fracture and failure of treatment can result in avascular necrosis (up to 40%), non-union (5-21%) and early osteo-arthritis (up to 32%) which may seriously impair wrist function. Impaired consolidation of scaphoid fractures results in longer immobilization and more days lost at work with significant psychosocial and financial consequences. Initially Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields was used in the treatment of tibial pseudoarthrosis and non-union. More recently there is evidence that physical forces can also be used in the treatment of fresh fractures, showing accelerated healing by 30% and 71% reduction in nonunion within 12 weeks after initiation of therapy. Until now no double blind randomized, placebo controlled trial has been conducted to investigate the effect of this treatment on the healing of fresh fractures of the scaphoid. Methods/Design This is a multi center, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial. Study population consists of all patients with unilateral acute scaphoid fracture. Pregnant women, patients having a life supporting implanted electronic device, patients with additional fractures of wrist, carpal or metacarpal bones and pre-existing impairment in wrist function are excluded. The scaphoid fracture is diagnosed by a combination of physical and radiographic examination (CT-scanning). Proven scaphoid fractures are treated with cast immobilization and a small Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields bone growth stimulating device placed on the cast. Half of the devices will be disabled at random in the factory. Study parameters are clinical consolidation, radiological consolidation

  14. N-Acetylcysteine in the Treatment of Pediatric Trichotillomania: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Add-On Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Michael H.; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Grant, Jon E.; Pittenger, Christopher; Leckman, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for the treatment of pediatric trichotillomania (TTM) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, add-on study. Method: A total of 39 children and adolescents aged 8 to 17 years with pediatric trichotillomania were randomly assigned to receive NAC or matching placebo for 12 weeks. Our primary…

  15. Safety and Efficacy of ABT-089 in Pediatric Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Results from Two Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilens, Timothy E.; Gault, Laura M.; Childress, Ann; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Bensman, Lindsey; Hall, Coleen M.; Olson, Evelyn; Robieson, Weining Z.; Garimella, Tushar S.; Abi-Saab, Walid M.; Apostol, George; Saltarelli, Mario D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of ABT-089, a novel alpha[subscript 4]beta[subscript 2] neuronal nicotinic receptor partial agonist, vs. placebo in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Two multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group studies of children 6 through 12 years…

  16. Melatonin Treatment in Individuals with Intellectual Disability and Chronic Insomnia: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braam, W.; Didden, R.; Smits, M.; Curfs, L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: While several small-number or open-label studies suggest that melatonin improves sleep in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) with chronic sleep disturbance, a larger randomized control trial is necessary to validate these promising results. Methods: The effectiveness of melatonin for the treatment of chronic sleep…

  17. Sucralfate mouthwash for prevention and treatment of 5-fluorouracil-induced mucositis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nottage, Michelle; McLachlan, Sue-Anne; Brittain, Mary-Anne; Oza, Amit; Hedley, David; Feld, Ronald; Siu, Lillian L; Pond, Gregory; Moore, Malcolm J

    2003-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a sucralfate mouthwash in preventing and alleviating oral mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil (5FU). A total of 81 patients with colorectal cancer were enrolled. Patients were studied during their first cycle of chemotherapy with 5FU and leucovorin (LV) daily for 5 days every 4 weeks (Mayo Clinic schedule). Patients were randomly allocated to receive either a sucralfate suspension or a placebo suspension that was identical in appearance. Patients were instructed to use the suspension as a mouthwash four times daily from the beginning of the chemotherapy cycle. All patients received oral cryotherapy. Patients graded the severity of their own symptoms on a daily basis, and this was the primary outcome measure. There was no difference in the frequency or severity of oral mucositis between the sucralfate- and the placebo-treated group. Some mucositis was reported by 79% of the patient group. Assessment of mucositis by trial staff underestimated the incidence of this problem. Results of this trial do not support the hypothesis that a sucralfate mouthwash can prevent or alleviate oral mucositis induced by 5FU. Patient reporting of mucositis is a more sensitive instrument for assessment of mucositis than review by medical staff. PMID:12527953

  18. Hyaluronic acid and glucosamine sulfate for adult Kashin-Beck disease: a cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chuan-Tao; Yu, Fang-Fang; Ren, Feng-Ling; Fang, Hua; Guo, Xiong

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of hyaluronic acid (HA) and glucosamine sulfate (GS) in alleviating symptoms and improving function of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). A cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 150 patients with KBD. Participants were randomly allocated to receive intra-articular injection hyaluronic acid (IAHA) for 4 weeks, oral GS for 12 weeks, or oral placebo for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measures were 20 % and 50 % reductions in pain from baseline measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) index. Secondary outcome measures included WOMAC index parameters of pain, stiffness, and physical function. The third outcome measure was mean change in Lequence score. HA and GS were effective in reducing WOMAC pain by 20 % (differences of 43.5 % and 25.4 %) and 50 % (differences of 43.4 % and 26.9 %). Both HA and GS significantly reduced WOMAC pain, WOMAC stiffness, and WOMAC normalized score compared with placebo group (all P < 0.05). IAHA was significantly more effective than oral GS in improving WOMAC normalized score (P = 0.034), pain (P = 0.002), stiffness (P = 0.018), and function (P = 0.044). The results indicate that HA and GS were more effective than placebo in treating KBD and HA was more effective than GS. PMID:25388643

  19. Azithromycin therapy of papillomatosis in dogs: a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Yağci, Buğrahan Bekir; Ural, Kerem; Ocal, Naci; Haydardedeoğlu, Ali Evren

    2008-08-01

    Azithromycin, an azalide subclass macrolide antibiotic, is an effective, well-tolerated and safe therapeutic option for treatment of papillomatosis in humans. This study reports the clinical and histopathological results from a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of 17 dogs of various breeds with diagnosis of oral (n = 12) and cutaneous papillomatosis (n = 5) treated with azithromycin. Papillomas appeared as whitish, verrucous, hyperkeratotic papules 1-2.7 mm in size. The cases were randomly assigned to azithromycin (n = 10) and placebo treatment groups (n = 7). Both owners and investigators were blinded to the allocation to the groups. Azithromycin (10 mg/kg) was administered per os every 24 h for 10 days. Clinical evaluations were done by the same investigator throughout the trial. Azithromycin treatment significantly decreased clinical scores (P < 0.001), whereas there was no change seen in the placebo group. In the azithromycin treatment group, skin lesions disappeared in 10-15 days. One case in the placebo had spontaneous regression of its papillomas by day 41, but lesions were still evident at day 50 in the remaining six cases. There was no recurrence of papillomatosis in the azithromycin treated dogs (follow up 8 months). No adverse effects were seen in either group. In conclusion, azithromycin appears to be a safe and effective treatment for canine papillomatosis. PMID:18494759

  20. Treatment of primary perniosis with oral pentoxifylline (a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized therapeutic trial).

    PubMed

    Al-Sudany, Nameer K

    2016-07-01

    Primary perniosis is an annoying cold-induced dermatosis. Many therapeutic agents have been tried with either unsatisfactory or controversial results. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of oral pentoxyfylline in the treatment of primary perniosis. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized therapeutic study conducted in dermatology department of Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq during four winter seasons between 2010 and 2014. The patients were randomly allocated into two equal groups: group A patients were given oral pentoxyfylline 400 mg thrice daily whereas patients in group B were given an identical placebo tablet thrice daily for 3 weeks. Therapeutic response of both groups was clinically assessed weekly for 3 weeks and side-effects were recorded. A total of 110 patients with chilblains completed this therapeutic trial. The mean age was 24.98 ± 9.17 year. Male to female ratio was 1:2.4. All patients presented with erythematous papules, plaques or nodules. Very good therapeutic response was significantly better for group A than that of group B at 7th, 4th, and 21st days of the trial (p-value: 0.0148, 0.0000004, and 0.0000000, respectively). No side effects were encountered in both groups. Pentoxyfylline is an effective and safe drug for treatment of primary perniosis. PMID:26991468

  1. Oral zinc sulphate supplementation for six months in SCA2 patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Pérez, Luis; Rodríguez-Chanfrau, Jorge; García-Rodríguez, Julio Cesar; Sánchez-Cruz, Gilberto; Aguilera-Rodríguez, Raúl; Rodríguez-Labrada, Roberto; Rodríguez-Díaz, Julio Cesar; Canales-Ochoa, Nalia; Gotay, Dennis Almaguer; Almaguer Mederos, Luis E; Laffita Mesa, José M; Porto-Verdecia, Marlene; Triana, Consuelo González; Pupo, Noemí Rodríguez; Batista, Idania Hidalgo; López-Hernandez, Orestes D; Polanco, Iverlis Díaz; Novas, Arelis Jayme

    2011-10-01

    Cuban patients with Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 2 (SCA2) have reduced concentrations of zinc in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). To assess the effect and safety of zinc supplementation, 36 Cuban SCA2 patients were randomly assigned to receive daily either 50 mg ZnSO(4) or placebo, together with neurorehabilitation therapy in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial during 6 months. Outcome measures included the changes of zinc levels in CSF and serum, ataxia score, oxidative stress and saccadic eye movements. At the end of the study, the Zinc-treated group showed: (i) a significant increase of the Zn levels in the CSF, (ii) mild decrease in the ataxia scale subscores for gait, posture, stance and dysdiadochocinesia (iii) reduction of lipid's oxidative damage, and (iv) reduction of saccadic latency when compared with the placebo group. The treatment was safe and well tolerated by all subjects. This study demonstrated the efficacy and safety of Zn supplementation, combined with neurorehabilitation for SCA2 patients and therefore it may encourage further studies on the clinical effect of zinc supplementation in SCA2 based in the conduction of future clinical trials with higher number of subjects. PMID:21562746

  2. Effect of GutGard in the Management of Helicobacter pylori: A Randomized Double Blind Placebo Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Puram, Sreenivasulu; Suh, Hyung Chae; Kim, Seung Un; Bethapudi, Bharathi; Joseph, Joshua Allan; Agarwal, Amit; Kudiganti, Venkateswarlu

    2013-01-01

    A randomized, double blind placebo controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of GutGard (root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra) in the management of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) gastric load. Participants diagnosed with H. pylori infection were randomly assigned to two groups to orally receive 150 mg of GutGard (n = 55) or placebo (n = 52) once daily for 60 days. H. pylori infection was assessed using 13C-urea breath test (13C-UBT) at days 0, 30, and 60. Stool Antigen test (HpSA) was also performed on days 0, 30, and 60. Repeated measures of analysis of variance (RMANOVA), chi-square, and Fisher's exact probability tests were used to compare the treatment outcomes. A significant interaction effect between group and time (P = 0.00) and significant difference in mean Delta Over Baseline (DOB) values between GutGard (n = 50) and placebo (n = 50) treated groups after intervention period were observed. On day 60, the results of HpSA test were negative in 28 subjects (56%) in GutGard treated group whereas in placebo treated group only 2 subjects (4%) showed negative response; the difference between the groups was statistically significant. On day 60, the results of 13C-UBT were negative in 24 (48%) in GutGard treated group and the difference between the groups was statistically significant. The findings suggest GutGard is effective in the management of H. pylori. PMID:23606875

  3. Short-Term Effect of Laser Acupuncture on Lower Back Pain: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jae-Young; Ku, Boncho; Kim, Jaeuk U.; Lee, Yu Jung; Kang, Jae Hui; Heo, Hyun; Choi, Hyo-Joon; Lee, Jun-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. This trial was performed to investigate the efficacy of laser acupuncture for the alleviation of lower back pain. Methods. This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Fifty-six participants were randomly assigned to either the laser acupuncture group (n = 28) or the sham laser acupuncture group (n = 28). Participants in both groups received three treatment sessions over the course of one week. Thirteen acupuncture points were selected. The visual analogue scale for pain, pressure pain threshold, Patient Global Impression of Change, and Euro-Quality-of-Life Five Dimensions questionnaire (Korean version) were used to evaluate the effect of laser acupuncture treatment on lower back pain. Results. There were no significant differences in any outcome between the two groups, although the participants in both groups showed a significant improvement in each assessed parameter relative to the baseline values. Conclusion. Although there was no significant difference in outcomes between the two groups, the results suggest that laser acupuncture can provide effective pain alleviation and can be considered an option for relief from lower back pain. Further studies using long-term intervention, a larger sample size, and rigorous methodology are required to clarify the effect of laser acupuncture on lower back pain. PMID:26516333

  4. Salivary antioxidants of male athletes after aerobic exercise and garlic supplementation on: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Damirchi, Arsalan; Saati Zareei, Alireza; Sariri, Reyhaneh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species is a natural biological event in metabolism. However, the presence of antioxidants can highly reduce the negative effect of free radicals. Thus, the efficiency of antioxidant system in the physiology of exercise is very important. Design Considering the known antioxidant capacity of garlic, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on combining 14 days aerobic exercise till exhaustion with garlic extract supplementation on the antioxidant capacity of saliva. Methods Sixteen young men volunteered to participate in this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study and were randomly placed into two groups, placebo (Group I) and garlic extract (Group II). The participants performed exhaustive aerobic exercise on a treadmill before and after supplementation. Their unstimulated salivary samples were collected before, immediately after, and 1 h after the activity. The antioxidant activity in terms of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) was then measured in the collected samples using their specific substrates. Results A significant increase in salivary antioxidant activity of SOD, POD, and CAT was observed in saliva of the supplement group compared to the placebo group (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion The findings from this study suggest that increased activity of antioxidant enzymes could possibly decrease exercise-induced oxidative damage in male athletes. PMID:26605139

  5. A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Lactobacillus reuteri for Chronic Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhari, Kambiz; Vahedi, Zahra; Kamali Aghdam, Mojtaba; Noemi Diaz, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is one of the most common diseases, and large percentages of children suffer from it. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus reuteri in treatment of children with functional abdominal pain. Patients and Methods: This study was a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Children aged 4 to 16 years with chronic functional abdominal pain (based on Rome III criteria) were enrolled in the study. They were randomly divided into two groups, one receiving probiotic and the other placebo. Results: Forty children received probiotic and forty others placebo. There were no significant differences in age, weight, sex, location of pain, associated symptoms, frequency and intensity of pain between the groups. The severity and frequency of abdominal pain in the first month compared to baseline was significantly less and at the end of the second month, there was no significant difference between both groups compared to the end of the first month. Conclusions: This study showed that the severity of pain was significantly reduced in both groups. There was no significant difference in pain scores between them. The effect of probiotic and placebo can probably be attributed to psychological effect of the drugs. PMID:26635937

  6. A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Efficacy of Oral Acyclovir in the Treatment of Pityriasis Rosea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pityriasis rosea is an acute self-limiting skin disorder of unknown aetiology. Recently human herpes virus 6 and 7 has been hypothesized to be the cause of pityriasis rosea. Objective: To determine the efficacy of acyclovir, an anti-viral drug, in the treatment of pityriasis rosea. Materials and Methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of efficacy of oral acyclovir in the treatment of pityriasis rosea was conducted on 73 patients. Thirty eight randomly selected patients were started on oral acyclovir. Thirty-five patients were prescribed placebo. The patients as well as the chief investigator were unaware of the therapeutic group to which patients belonged (acyclovir or placebo). Patients in both the groups were evaluated clinically after 7 and 14 days following the first visit and the data were analysed. Results: Follow up data of 60 patients was available and these were included in the statistical analysis. 53.33% and 86.66% of the patients belonging to the acyclovir group showed complete resolution on the 7th day and 14th day respectively following the first visit compared to 10% and 33.33% of patients from the placebo group. The findings were statistically significant. Conclusion: The study showed that high dose acyclovir is effective in the treatment of pityriasis rosea. PMID:24995231

  7. Antiobesity effect of caraway extract on overweight and obese women: a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kazemipoor, Mahnaz; Radzi, Che Wan Jasimah Bt Wan Mohamed; Hajifaraji, Majid; Haerian, Batoul Sadat; Mosaddegh, Mohammad Hossein; Cordell, Geoffrey A

    2013-01-01

    Caraway (Carum carvi L.), a potent medicinal plant, is traditionally used for treating obesity. This study investigates the weight-lowering effects of caraway extract (CE) on physically active, overweight and obese women through a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Seventy overweight and obese, healthy, aerobic-trained, adult females were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 35 per group). Participants received either 30 mL/day of CE or placebo without changing their diet or physical activity. Subjects were examined at baseline and after 90 days for changes in body composition, anthropometric indices, and clinical and paraclinical variables. The treatment group, compared with placebo, showed a significant reduction of weight, body mass index, body fat percentage, and waist-to-hip ratio. No changes were observed in lipid profile, urine-specific gravity, and blood pressure of subjects. The results suggest that a dietary CE with no restriction in food intake, when combined with exercise, is of value in the management of obesity in women wishing to lower their weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and body size, with no clinical side effects. In conclusion, results of this study suggest a possible phytotherapeutic approach for caraway extract in the management of obesity. This trial is registered with NCT01833377. PMID:24319489

  8. Antiobesity Effect of Caraway Extract on Overweight and Obese Women: A Randomized, Triple-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Radzi, Che Wan Jasimah Bt wan Mohamed; Hajifaraji, Majid; Haerian, Batoul Sadat; Mosaddegh, Mohammad Hossein; Cordell, Geoffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Caraway (Carum carvi L.), a potent medicinal plant, is traditionally used for treating obesity. This study investigates the weight-lowering effects of caraway extract (CE) on physically active, overweight and obese women through a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Seventy overweight and obese, healthy, aerobic-trained, adult females were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 35 per group). Participants received either 30 mL/day of CE or placebo without changing their diet or physical activity. Subjects were examined at baseline and after 90 days for changes in body composition, anthropometric indices, and clinical and paraclinical variables. The treatment group, compared with placebo, showed a significant reduction of weight, body mass index, body fat percentage, and waist-to-hip ratio. No changes were observed in lipid profile, urine-specific gravity, and blood pressure of subjects. The results suggest that a dietary CE with no restriction in food intake, when combined with exercise, is of value in the management of obesity in women wishing to lower their weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and body size, with no clinical side effects. In conclusion, results of this study suggest a possible phytotherapeutic approach for caraway extract in the management of obesity. This trial is registered with NCT01833377. PMID:24319489

  9. Retreatment with varenicline for smoking cessation in smokers who have previously taken varenicline: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, D; Hajek, P; Pliamm, L; Nackaerts, K; Tseng, L-J; McRae, T D; Treadow, J

    2014-09-01

    The efficacy and safety of retreatment with varenicline in smokers attempting to quit were evaluated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial (Australia, Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States). Participants were generally healthy adult smokers (≥ 10 cigarettes/day) with ≥ 1 prior quit attempt (≥ 2 weeks) using varenicline and no quit attempts in ≤ 3 months; they were randomly assigned (1:1) to 12 weeks' varenicline (n = 251) or placebo (n = 247) treatment, with individual counseling, plus 40 weeks' nontreatment follow-up. The primary efficacy end point was the carbon monoxide-confirmed (≤ 10 ppm) continuous abstinence rate for weeks 9-12, which was 45.0% (varenicline; n = 249) vs. 11.8% (placebo; n = 245; odds ratio: 7.08; 95% confidence interval: 4.34, 11.55; P < 0.0001). Common varenicline group adverse events were nausea, abnormal dreams, and headache, with no reported suicidal behavior. Varenicline is efficacious and well tolerated in smokers who have previously taken it. Abstinence rates are comparable with rates reported for varenicline-naive smokers. PMID:24911368

  10. A randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled trial of oral dydrogesterone supplementation in the management of preterm labor

    PubMed Central

    Areeruk, Wilasinee; Phupong, Vorapong

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral dydrogesterone on the recurrent uterine contraction in preterm labor. The secondary aims were to evaluate latency period, gestational age at delivery, pregnancy outcomes, neonatal outcomes, compliance and side effects. A randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled trial was conducted. Forty-eight pregnant women at 24–34 weeks gestation with preterm labor were either randomized to study group receiving tocolytic treatment combined with oral dydrogesterone (20 mg daily) or to placebo group receiving tocolytic treatment combined with oral placebo. Recurrent rates of uterine contraction were comparable between groups (87.5% vs 91.7%, p = 0.64). Latency periods were not different between dydrogesterone and placebo group (32.7 ± 20.2 days vs 38.2 ± 24.2 days, p = 0.39). There were also no differences in gestational age at delivery, pregnancy outcomes, neonatal outcomes, compliance and side effects. Adjuvant treatment with oral dydrogesterone 20 mg/day could not decrease the rates of recurrent uterine contraction and prolong latency period in preterm labor management when compared to placebo. PMID:26856618

  11. Evaluation of a crataegus-based multiherb formula for dyslipidemia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hu, Miao; Zeng, Weiwei; Tomlinson, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background. We for the first time examined the effects of a multiherb formula containing Crataegus pinnatifida (1 g daily), Alisma orientalis, Stigma maydis, Ganoderma lucidum, Polygonum multiflorum, and Morus alba on plasma lipid and glucose levels in Chinese patients with dyslipidemia. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 42 patients were randomized at a ratio of 1 : 1 to receive the herbal formula or placebo for 12 weeks and 40 patients completed the study. Lipid profiles, glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and laboratory safety parameters were performed before and after treatment. Results. The difference in the changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels between placebo and active treatment (-9%) was significantly (P < 0.05) better with active treatment. HbA1c levels significantly decreased by -3.9% in the active treatment group, but the change was not significantly different from that with placebo (-1.1%) (P = 0.098). There were no apparent adverse effects or changes in laboratory safety parameters with either treatment. Conclusions. The multiherb formula had mild beneficial effects on plasma LDL-C after 12-weeks treatment in subjects with dyslipidemia without any noticeable adverse effects. PMID:24834096

  12. Efficacy of betamethasone valerate medicated plaster on painful chronic elbow tendinopathy: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Frizziero, Antonio; Causero, Araldo; Bernasconi, Stefano; Papalia, Rocco; Longo, Mario; Sessa, Vincenzo; Sadile, Francesco; Greco, Pasquale; Tarantino, Umberto; Masiero, Stefano; Rovati, Stefano; Frangione, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective to investigate the efficacy and safety of a medicated plaster containing betamethasone valerate (BMV) 2.25 mg in patients with chronic elbow tendinopathy. Methods randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with assignment 2:2:1:1 to BMV medicated plaster applied daily for 12 hours, daily for 24 hours or matched placebo. 62 patients aged ≥18 years with chronic lateral elbow tendinopathy were randomized. The primary efficacy variable was pain reduction (VAS) at day 28. Secondary objectives included summed pain intensity differences (SPID), overall treatment efficacy and tolerability. Results mean reduction in VAS pain score at day 28 was greater in both BMV medicated plaster groups, −39.35±27.69 mm for BMV12-h and −36.91±32.50 mm for BMV24-h, than with placebo, −20.20±27.32 mm. Considering the adjusted mean decreases, there was a statistically significant difference between BMV12-h and placebo (p=0.0110). Global pain relief (SPID) and overall treatment efficacy were significantly better with BMV. BMV and placebo plasters had similar local tolerability and there were few treatment-related adverse events. Conclusions BMV plaster was significantly more effective than placebo at reducing pain in patients with chronic elbow tendinopathies. The BMV plaster was safe and well tolerated. PMID:27331041

  13. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of latrepirdine in patients with mild to moderate Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Latrepirdine is an orally administered experimental small molecule that was initially developed as an antihistamine and subsequently was shown to stabilize mitochondrial membranes and function, which might be impaired in Huntington disease. OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of latrepirdine on cognition and global function in patients with mild to moderate Huntington disease. DESIGN Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. SETTING Sixty-four research centers in Australia, Europe, and North America. PATIENTS Four hundred three patients with mild to moderate Huntington disease and baseline cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination score, 10-26). INTERVENTION Latrepirdine (20 mg) vs matching placebo administered orally 3 times daily for 26 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The co-primary outcome measures were cognition as measured by the change in Mini-Mental State Examination score from baseline to week 26 and global function at week 26 as measured by the Clinician Interview-Based Impression of Change, plus carer interview, which ranges from 1 (marked improvement) to 7 (marked worsening). Secondary efficacy outcome measures included behavior, daily function, motor function, and safety. RESULTS The mean change in Mini-Mental State Examination score among participants randomized to latrepirdine (1.5-point improvement) did not differ significantly from that among participants randomized to placebo (1.3-point improvement) (P=.39). Similarly, the distribution of the Clinician Interview-Based Impression of Change, plus carer interview did not differ significantly among those randomized to latrepirdine compared with placebo (P=.84). No significant treatment effects were detected on the secondary efficacy outcome measures. The incidence of adverse events was similar between those randomized to latrepirdine (68.5%) and placebo (68.0%). CONCLUSION In patients with mild to moderate Huntington disease and cognitive impairment, treatment with

  14. A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial of Duloxetine for Central Pain in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Slee, April

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pain is common in multiple sclerosis (MS). Duloxetine has a potential therapeutic role in treating MS-related pain. Methods: Thirty-eight MS patients were randomized 1:1 to receive duloxetine (n = 18) or matched placebo (n = 20). The dosing regimen was 30 mg daily for 1 week, then 60 mg daily for 5 weeks. The primary outcome measure was change in worst pain for week 6 relative to baseline recorded on a daily pain diary. Results: Of 38 randomized patients, 14 (78%) patients randomized to duloxetine and 18 (90%) randomized to placebo completed treatment per protocol. These participants had an average age of 55.5 years, 25% were male, and 66% had relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). Baseline characteristics were similar. Discontinuations were due primarily to drug intolerance. Among those who completed treatment, worst pain at 6 weeks was reduced by 29% (±20%) for duloxetine versus 12% (±18%) for placebo (P = .016). Average daily pain at 6 weeks was reduced by 39% (±29%) in the duloxetine group compared to 10% (±18.8%) in the placebo group (P = .002). There were no significant changes (week 6 vs. baseline) or between-group differences for subject global impression, Beck Depression Inventory, 36-item Short Form Health Status Survey (SF-36), or sleep quality score. Conclusions: Fewer patients could tolerate duloxetine compared to placebo. Among patients who completed 6 weeks of treatment, there were significant reductions in average and worst daily pain scores with duloxetine compared to placebo. This study suggests that duloxetine has a direct pain-relieving effect in MS. PMID:25892978

  15. Predictors of Missed Research Appointments in a Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Stéphanie J.E.; Guitton, Thierry G.; Ring, David

    2014-01-01

    Background: The primary aim of this study was to determine predictors of missed research appointments in a prospective randomized placebo injection-controlled trial with evaluations 1 to 3 and 5 to 8 months after enrollment. Methods: This study represents a secondary use of data from 104 patients that were enrolled in a prospective randomized controlled trial of dexamethasone versus lidocaine (placebo) injection for various diagnoses. Patients were enrolled between June 2003 and February 2008. Sixty-three patients (61%) had lateral epicondylosis, 17 patients (16%) had trapeziometacarpal arthrosis, and 24 patients (23%) had de Quervain syndrome. Each patient completed a set of questionnaires at time of enrollment. Bivariable and multivariable analyses were used to determine factors associated with missed research appointments. Results: Fourteen patients (13%) did not return for the first follow-up and 33 patients (32%) did not return for the second follow-up. The best multivariable logistic regression model for missing the first research visit explained 35% of the variability and included younger age, belief that health can be controlled, and no college education. The best model for missing the second research visit explained 17% of the variability and included greater pain intensity, less personal responsibility for health, and diagnosis (trapeziometacarpal arthrosis and de Quervain syndrome). Conclusions: Younger patients with no college education, who believe their health can be controlled, are more likely to miss a research appointment when enrolled in a randomized placebo injection-controlled trial. PMID:25386581

  16. Maraviroc Intensification of cART in Patients with Suboptimal Immunological Recovery: A 48-Week, Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    van Lelyveld, Steven F. L.; Otto, Sigrid A.; Richter, Clemens; Soetekouw, Robin; Prins, Jan M.; Brinkman, Kees; Mulder, Jan Willem; Kroon, Frank; Middel, Ananja; Symons, Jori; Wensing, Annemarie M. J.; Nijhuis, Monique; Borghans, José A. M.; Tesselaar, Kiki; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The immunomodulatory effects of the CCR5-antagonist maraviroc might be beneficial in patients with a suboptimal immunological response, but results of different cART (combination antiretroviral therapy) intensification studies are conflicting. Therefore, we performed a 48-week placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of maraviroc intensification on CD4+ T-cell counts and immune activation in these patients. Design Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Methods Major inclusion criteria were 1. CD4+ T-cell count <350 cells/μL while at least two years on cART or CD4+ T-cell count <200 cells/μL while at least one year on cART, and 2. viral suppression for at least the previous 6 months. HIV-infected patients were randomized to add maraviroc (41 patients) or placebo (44 patients) to their cART regimen for 48 weeks. Changes in CD4+ T-cell counts (primary endpoint) and other immunological parameters were modeled using linear mixed effects models. Results No significant differences for the modelled increase in CD4+ T-cell count (placebo 15.3 CD4+ T cells/μL (95% confidence interval (CI) [1.0, 29.5] versus maraviroc arm 22.9 CD4+ T cells/μL (95% CI [7.4, 38.5] p = 0.51) or alterations in the expression of markers for T-cell activation, proliferation and microbial translocation were found between the arms. However, maraviroc intensification did increase the percentage of CCR5 expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, and the plasma levels of the CCR5 ligand MIP-1β. In contrast, the percentage of ex-vivo apoptotic CD8+ and CD4+ T-cells decreased in the maraviroc arm. Conclusions Maraviroc intensification of cART did not increase CD4+ T-cell restoration or decrease immune activation as compared to placebo. However, ex-vivo T-cell apoptosis was decreased in the maraviroc arm. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00875368 PMID:26208341

  17. A Randomized, Placebo-controlled Trial of Digestive Enzymes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Khaled; Eltayeb, Azza A.; Mohamad, Ismail L.; Al-Atram, Abdulrahman A.; Elserogy, Yasser; Bjørklund, Geir; El-Houfey, Amira A.; Nicholson, Bubba

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is growing evidence for a gut-brain connection associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This suggests a potential benefit from introduced digestive enzymes for children with ASD. Methods We performed a double-blind, randomized clinical trial on 101 children with ASD (82 boys and 19 girls) aged from 3 to 9 years. ASD patients were diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria. Structured interviews of at least one hour each both with the parents and the child were performed. Later on, another two hours-session was conducted applying the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). ASD patients were randomized to receive digestive enzymes or placebo. Results The ASD group receiving digestive enzyme therapy for 3 months had significant improvement in emotional response, general impression autistic score, general behavior and gastrointestinal symptoms. Our study demonstrated the usefulness of digestive enzyme in our population of ASD patients. Conclusion Digestive enzymes are inexpensive, readily available, have an excellent safety profile, and have mildly beneficial effects in ASD patients. Depending on the parameter measured in our study, we propose digestive enzymes for managing symptoms of ASD. Digestive enzyme therapy may be a possible option in treatment protocols for ASD in the future. PMID:26243847

  18. Olanzapine versus Placebo in Adolescents with Schizophrenia; a 6-Week, Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kryzhanovskaya, Ludmila; Schulz, Charles; McDougle, Christopher; Frazier, Jean; Dittman, Ralf; Robertson-Plouch, Carol; Bauer, Theresa; Xu, Wen; Wang, Wei; Carlson, Janice; Tohen, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of olanzapine in treating schizophrenia was tested through a placebo-controlled trial involving one hundred seven inpatient and outpatients adolescents. Patients who took olanzapine experienced significant symptom improvement.

  19. Randomized, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial of an Aerosolized β2-Agonist for Treatment of Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: β2-Adrenergic receptor agonists accelerate resolution of pulmonary edema in experimental and clinical studies. Objectives: This clinical trial was designed to test the hypothesis that an aerosolized β2-agonist, albuterol, would improve clinical outcomes in patients with acute lung injury (ALI). Methods: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial in which 282 patients with ALI receiving mechanical ventilation were randomized to receive aerosolized albuterol (5 mg) or saline placebo every 4 hours for up to 10 days. The primary outcome variable for the trial was ventilator-free days. Measurements and Main Results: Ventilator-free days were not significantly different between the albuterol and placebo groups (means of 14.4 and 16.6 d, respectively; 95% confidence interval for the difference, −4.7 to 0.3 d; P = 0.087). Rates of death before hospital discharge were not significantly different between the albuterol and placebo groups (23.0 and 17.7%, respectively; 95% confidence interval for the difference, −4.0 to 14.7%; P = 0.30). In the subset of patients with shock before randomization, the number of ventilator-free days was lower with albuterol, although mortality was not different. Overall, heart rates were significantly higher in the albuterol group by approximately 4 beats/minute in the first 2 days after randomization, but rates of new atrial fibrillation (10% in both groups) and other cardiac dysrhythmias were not significantly different. Conclusions: These results suggest that aerosolized albuterol does not improve clinical outcomes in patients with ALI. Routine use of β2-agonist therapy in mechanically ventilated patients with ALI cannot be recommended. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00434993). PMID:21562125

  20. Albendazole treatment of HIV-1 and helminth co-infection: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Walson, Judd L.; Otieno, Phelgona A.; Mbuchi, Margaret; Richardson, Barbra A.; Lohman-Payne, Barbara; Macharia, Steve Wanyee; Overbaugh, Julie; Berkley, James; Sanders, Eduard J.; Chung, Michael; John-Stewart, Grace C.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Several co-infections have been shown to impact the progression of HIV-1 infection. We sought to determine if treatment of helminth co-infection in HIV-1 infected adults impacted markers of HIV-1 disease progression. DESIGN To date there have been no randomized trials to examine the effects of soil-transmitted helminth eradication on markers of HIV-1 progression. METHODS A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of albendazole (400mg daily for three days) in antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1 infected adults (CD4 >200 cells/mm3) with soil-transmitted helminth infection was conducted at ten sites in Kenya (Clinical Trials.gov NCT00130910). CD4 and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels at 12 weeks following randomization were compared in the trial arms using linear regression, adjusting for baseline values. RESULTS Of 1,551 HIV-1 infected individuals screened for helminth-infection, 299 were helminth-infected. 234 adults were enrolled and underwent randomization and 208 individuals were included in intent-to-treat analyses. Mean CD4 count was 557 cells/mm3 and mean plasma viral load was 4.75 log10 copies/mL at enrolment. Albendazole therapy resulted in significantly higher CD4 counts among individuals with Ascaris lumbricoides infection after 12 weeks of follow up (+109 cells/mm3; 95% CI +38.9 to +179.0, p=0.003) and a trend for 0.54 log10 lower HIV-1 RNA levels (p=0.09). These effects were not seen with treatment of other species of soil-transmitted helminths. CONCLUSIONS Treatment of A. lumbricoides with albendazole in HIV-1 co-infected adults resulted in significantly increased CD4 counts during 3-month follow-up. Given the high prevalence of A. lumbricoides infection worldwide, deworming may be an important potential strategy to delay HIV-1 progression. PMID:18670219

  1. Can homeopaths detect homeopathic medicines by dowsing? A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    McCarney, R; Fisher, P; Spink, F; Flint, G; van Haselen, R

    2002-04-01

    Dowsing is a method of problem-solving that uses a motor automatism, amplified through a pendulum or similar device. In a homeopathic context, it is used as an aid to prescribing and as a tool to identify miasm or toxin load. A randomized double-blind trial was conducted to determine whether six dowsing homeopaths were able to distinguish between Bryonia in a 12c potency and placebo by use of dowsing alone. The homeopathic medicine Bryonia was correctly identified in 48.1% of bottle pairs (n=156; 95% confidence interval 40.2%, 56.0%; P=0.689). These results, wholly negative, add to doubts whether dowsing in this context can yield objective information. PMID:11934908

  2. Can homeopaths detect homeopathic medicines by dowsing? A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    McCarney, R; Fisher, P; Spink, F; Flint, G; van Haselen, R

    2002-01-01

    Dowsing is a method of problem-solving that uses a motor automatism, amplified through a pendulum or similar device. In a homeopathic context, it is used as an aid to prescribing and as a tool to identify miasm or toxin load. A randomized double-blind trial was conducted to determine whether six dowsing homeopaths were able to distinguish between Bryonia in a 12c potency and placebo by use of dowsing alone. The homeopathic medicine Bryonia was correctly identified in 48.1% of bottle pairs (n=156; 95% confidence interval 40.2%, 56.0%; P=0.689). These results, wholly negative, add to doubts whether dowsing in this context can yield objective information. PMID:11934908

  3. Effects of vitamin D on patients with fibromyalgia syndrome: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wepner, Florian; Scheuer, Raphael; Schuetz-Wieser, Birgit; Machacek, Peter; Pieler-Bruha, Elisabeth; Cross, Heide S; Hahne, Julia; Friedrich, Martin

    2014-02-01

    The role of calcifediol in the perception of chronic pain is a widely discussed subject. Low serum levels of calcifediol are especially common in patients with severe pain and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). We lack evidence of the role of vitamin D supplementation in these patients. To our knowledge, no randomized controlled trial has been published on the subject. Thirty women with FMS according to the 1990 and 2010 American College of Rheumatology criteria, with serum calcifediol levels <32ng/mL (80nmol/L), were randomized to treatment group (TG) or control group (CG). The goal was to achieve serum calcifediol levels between 32 and 48ng/mL for 20weeks via oral supplementation with cholecalciferol. The CG received placebo medication. Re-evaluation was performed in both groups after a further 24weeks without cholecalciferol supplementation. The main hypothesis was that high levels of serum calcifediol should result in a reduction of pain (visual analog scale score). Additional variables were evaluated using the Short Form Health Survey 36, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, and the Somatization subscale of Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. A marked reduction in pain was noted over the treatment period in TG: a 2 (groups)×4 (time points) variance analysis showed a significant group effect in visual analog scale scores. This also was correlated with scores on the physical role functioning scale of the Short Form Health Survey 36. Optimization of calcifediol levels in FMS had a positive effect on the perception of pain. This economical therapy with a low side effect profile may well be considered in patients with FMS. However, further studies with larger patient numbers are needed to prove the hypothesis. PMID:24438771

  4. Donepezil for Irradiated Brain Tumor Survivors: A Phase III Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, Stephen R.; Case, L. Doug; Peiffer, Ann; Naughton, Michelle M.; Chan, Michael D.; Stieber, Volker W.; Moore, Dennis F.; Falchuk, Steven C.; Piephoff, James V.; Edenfield, William J.; Giguere, Jeffrey K.; Loghin, Monica E.; Shaw, Edward G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Neurotoxic effects of brain irradiation include cognitive impairment in 50% to 90% of patients. Prior studies have suggested that donepezil, a neurotransmitter modulator, may improve cognitive function. Patients and Methods A total of 198 adult brain tumor survivors ≥ 6 months after partial- or whole-brain irradiation were randomly assigned to receive a single daily dose (5 mg for 6 weeks, 10 mg for 18 weeks) of donepezil or placebo. A cognitive test battery assessing memory, attention, language, visuomotor, verbal fluency, and executive functions was administered before random assignment and at 12 and 24 weeks. A cognitive composite score (primary outcome) and individual cognitive domains were evaluated. Results Of this mostly middle-age, married, non-Hispanic white sample, 66% had primary brain tumors, 27% had brain metastases, and 8% underwent prophylactic cranial irradiation. After 24 weeks of treatment, the composite scores did not differ significantly between groups (P = .48); however, significant differences favoring donepezil were observed for memory (recognition, P = .027; discrimination, P = .007) and motor speed and dexterity (P = .016). Significant interactions between pretreatment cognitive function and treatment were found for cognitive composite (P = .01), immediate recall (P = .05), delayed recall (P = .004), attention (P = .01), visuomotor skills (P = .02), and motor speed and dexterity (P < .001), with the benefits of donepezil greater for those who were more cognitively impaired before study treatment. Conclusion Treatment with donepezil did not significantly improve the overall composite score, but it did result in modest improvements in several cognitive functions, especially among patients with greater pretreatment impairments. PMID:25897156

  5. Effects of Coriandrum sativum Syrup on Migraine: A Randomized, Triple-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Delavar Kasmaei, Hosein; Ghorbanifar, Zahra; Zayeri, Farid; Minaei, Bagher; Kamali, Seyed Hamid; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein; Amin, Gholamreza; Ghobadi, Ali; Mirzaei, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Migraine is one of the most common and debilitating neurological problems. Although numerous preventive drugs are used to treat migraine, their complications are unavoidable. Application of herbal medicine, especially well-known medicinal plants, to treatment of chronic diseases, like migraine, could be effective. Coriandrum sativum L. (C. sativum) fruit is one of the most commonly prescribed herbs in Persian medicine, which has been used to treat headache. Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the effects of C. sativum syrup on duration, severity and frequency of migraine. Patients and Methods: A total of 68 migraineurs, who had the eligibility criteria, according to international headache society diagnostic criteria, were randomly assigned to intervention group (n = 34) or control group (n = 34). In addition to 500 mg of sodium valproate per day, in intervention group, they received 15 mL of Coriander fruit syrup and 15 mL of placebo syrup, in control group, three times a day, during a month. The subjects were followed for clinical efficacy at weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4. The number of migraine attacks per week, as well as the duration and severity of attacks, were evaluated. Results: Of 68 patients randomized, 66 were included in analysis. The generalized estimating equations analysis showed that the Coriander fruit syrup decreased duration, severity and frequency of migraine, in the intervention group (P < 0.001). To be more precise, the mean migraine duration, severity and frequency, in the intervention group, were 5.7 hours, 3.65 units and about 50% less than control group, respectively. Conclusions: Results of this study showed that C. sativum fruit is efficient in reduction of the duration and frequency of migraine attacks and in diminishing pain degree. PMID:26889386

  6. Eszopiclone Improves Overnight Polysomnography and Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Titration: A Prospective, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lettieri, Christopher J.; Quast, Timothy N.; Eliasson, Arn H.; Andrada, Teotimo

    2008-01-01

    for polysomnography and the need to improve efficiency, the routine use of nonbenzodiazepines as premedication for polysomnography should be considered. Citation: Lettieri CJ; Quast TN; Eliasson AH; Andrada T. Eszopiclone improves overnight polysomnography and continuous positive airway pressure titration: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. SLEEP 2008;31(9):1310-1316. PMID:18788656

  7. Davunetide for Progressive Supranuclear Palsy: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Boxer, Adam L.; Lang, Anthony E.; Grossman, Murray; Knopman, David S.; Miller, Bruce L.; Schneider, Lon S.; Doody, Rachelle S.; Lees, Andrew; Golbe, Lawrence I.; Williams, David R.; Corvol, Jean-Cristophe; Ludolph, Albert; Burn, David; Lorenzl, Stefan; Litvan, Irene; Roberson, Erik D.; Höglinger, Günter U.; Koestler, Mary; Jack, Clifford R.; Van Deerlin, Viviana; Randolph, Christopher; Lobach, Iryna V.; Heuer, Hilary W.; Gozes, Illana; Parker, Lesley; Whitaker, Steve; Hirman, Joe; Stewart, Alistair J.; Gold, Michael; Morimoto, Bruce H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Davunetide (AL-108, NAP) is an eightamino acid peptide that promotes microtubule stability and decreases tau phosphorylation in pre-clinical studies. Since PSP is tightly linked to tau pathology, davunetide could be an effective treatment for PSP.The goals of this study were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of davunetide in PSP. Methods A phase 2/3 double-blind, parallel group, clinical trial of davunetide 30 mg or placebo (randomized 1:1) administered intranasally twice daily for 52 weeks was conducted at 48centers. Participants met modifiedNNIPPS criteria for possible or probable PSP. Co-primary endpointswere the change from baseline in PSP Rating Scale (PSPRS) and Schwab and England ADL(SEADL) scale at up to 52 weeks. Data from all individuals who received at least one dose of medication and had a post-baseline efficacy assessment were compared using a rank-based method.Secondary outcomes included the Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) and the change in regional brain volumeon MRI. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01110720. Findings 360 participants were screened, 313 were randomized and 243 (77.6%) completed the study. There were no group differences in PSPRS (mean difference: 0.49 [95% CI: −1.5, 2.5], p = 0.72) or SEADL (1% [−2, 4%], p = 0.76) change from baseline (CFB) and mean 52 week CFB PSPRS scores were similar between the davunetide (11.3 [9.8,12.8]) and placebo groups (10.9 [9.1, 13.0]). There wereno differences in any of the secondary or exploratory endpoints. There were 11deaths in the davunetide group and tenin the placebo group. There were more nasal adverse events in the davunetide group. Interpretation Davunetide is well tolerated but is not an effective treatment for PSP. Clinical trials of disease modifying therapy are feasible in PSP and should be pursued with other promising tau-directed therapies. Funding Allon Therapeutics PMID:24873720

  8. Oral isoflavone supplementation on endometrial thickness: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Yuan, Feixiang; Gao, Jian; Shan, Boer; Ren, Yulan; Wang, Huaying; Gao, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background Isoflavone from soy and other plants modulate hormonal effects in women, and the hormone disorder might result in different caners including endometrial cancer. However, it's effect on the risk of endometrial cancer is still inconclusive. We aimed to assess the effects of isoflavone on endometrial thickness, a risk factor of endometrial cancer in peri- and post-menopausal women. Methods A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted to evaluate the effect of oral isoflavone supplementation on endometrial thickness in peri- and post-menopausal women. Electronic searches were performed on the PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, web of science, CINAHL, and WHO ICTRP to August 1st, 2015. Reviews and reference lists of relevant articles were also searched to identify more studies. Summary estimates of standard mean differences (SMD's) and 95%CIs were obtained with random-effects models. Heterogeneity was evaluated with meta-regression and stratified analyses. Results A total of 23 trials were included in the current analysis. The overall results did not show significant change of endometrial thickness after oral isoflavone supplementation (23 studies, 2167subjects; SMD:-0.05; 95%CI:-0.23, 0.13; P=0.60). Stratified analysis suggested that a daily dose of more than 54mg could decrease the endometrial thickness for 0.26mm (10 trials, 984subjects; SMD:-0.26; 95%CI:-0.45, −0.07; P=0.007). Furthermore, isoflavone supplementation significantly decrease the endometrial thickness for 0.23mm in North American studies (7 trials, 726 subjects; SMD:-0.23; 95%CI:-0.44, −0.01; P=0.04), but it suggested an increase for 0.23mm in Asian studies (3 trials, 224 subjects; SMD: 0.23; 95%CI:-0.04, 0.50; P=0.10). Conclusion Oral isoflavone supplementation might have different effects in different populations and at different daily doses. Multiple-centre, larger, and long-term trials are deserved to further evaluate its effect. PMID:26967050

  9. A Pilot Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial of Electroacupuncture for Women with Pure Stress Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huanfang; Liu, Baoyan; Wu, Jiani; Du, Ruosang; Liu, Xiaoxu; Yu, Jinna; Liu, Zhishun

    2016-01-01

    Background Acupuncture is a potential conservative therapy for women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). There is limited evidence to support its effectiveness due to the poor quality of existing studies. Methods We performed a pilot randomized, controlled trial to preliminarily assess the efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA) in women with pure SUI. A total of 80 women with pure SUI were randomly assigned to receive EA with deep needling at BL33 and BL35 (n = 40) or sham EA with non-penetrating needling at sham acupoints (n = 40) three sessions per week for 6 weeks. The women were followed for 24 weeks. The primary outcome was the change from baseline in the amount of urine leakage measured by a 1-hour pad test after 6 weeks. The secondary outcomes included the 72-hour incontinence episode frequency (IEF), International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF) score, and patient self-evaluation of therapeutic effect. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored throughout the trial. Results The median decrease from baseline of urine leakage measured by the 1-hour pad test was 2.5 g [interquartile range (IQR): 1.80–14.6 in the EA group, which was greater than the median decrease of 0.05 g (IQR: -2.80–+0.50) in the sham EA group after 6 weeks (p<0.01). The differences between groups in the decrease from baseline of 72-hour IEF became statistically significant at week 30 with a median decrease of 3.25 g (IQR: 1.25–5.69) in the EA group, and a median decrease of 1.00 g (IQR: -0.69–+2.88) in the sham EA group (p = 0.01). The participants in the EA group showed greater decreases in ICIQ-SF score and higher ratings in the help they received from the treatment than those in the sham EA group at weeks 6,18 and 30 (all p<0.05). No obvious AEs were observed in either group. Conclusion EA may effectively and safely relieve urinary incontinence symptoms and improve quality of life in women with pure SUI. EA demonstrated more than a placebo effect. Since

  10. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of flax oil in pediatric bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gracious, Barbara L; Chirieac, Madalina C; Costescu, Stefan; Finucane, Teresa L; Youngstrom, Eric A; Hibbeln, Joseph R

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This clinical trial evaluated whether supplementation with flax oil, containing the omega-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid (α-LNA), safely reduced symptom severity in youth with bipolar disorder. Methods Children and adolescents aged 6-17 years with symptomatic bipolar I or bipolar II disorder (n = 51), manic, hypomanic, mixed, or depressed, were randomized to either flax oil capsules containing 550 mg α-LNA per 1 gram or an olive oil placebo adjunctively or as monotherapy. Doses were titrated to 12 capsules per day as tolerated over 16 weeks. Primary outcomes included changes in the Young Mania Rating Scale, Child Depression Rating Scale-Revised, and Clinical Global Impressions-Bipolar ratings using Kaplan-Meier survival analyses. Results There were no significant differences in primary outcome measures when compared by treatment assignment. However, clinician-rated Global Symptom Severity was negatively correlated with final serum omega-3 fatty acid compositions: % α-LNA (r = −0.45, p < 0.007), % eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (r = −0.47, p < 0.005), and positively correlated with final arachidonic acid (AA) (r = 0.36, p < 0.05) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) n-6 (r = 0.48, p < 0.004). The mean duration of treatment for α-LNA was 11.8 weeks versus 8 weeks for placebo; however, the longer treatment duration for α-LNA was not significant after controlling for baseline variables. Subjects discontinued the study for continued depressive symptoms. Conclusions Studies of essential fatty acid supplementation are feasible and well tolerated in the pediatric population. Although flax oil may decrease severity of illness in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder who have meaningful increases in serum EPA percent levels and/or decreased AA and DPA n-6 levels, individual variations in conversion of α-LNA to EPA and docosahexaenoic acid as well as dosing burden favor the use of fish oil both for clinical trials and clinical practice. Additionally

  11. Fish oil supplementation reduces cortisol basal levels and perceived stress: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in abstinent alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Barbadoro, Pamela; Annino, Isidoro; Ponzio, Elisa; Romanelli, Roberto M L; D'Errico, Marcello M; Prospero, Emilia; Minelli, Andrea

    2013-06-01

    Behavioral distress and dysfunctions of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis play a central role in alcohol abuse. Omega-3 fatty acids are proposed as having antistress, regulatory effects on HPA responsiveness, but a possible protective role in ethanol addiction is unexplored.A randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial was performed in male alcoholics undergoing residential rehabilitation program, to evaluate the effects of 3-week supplementation with fish-oil providing eicosapentaenoic (60 mg/day) and docosahexaenoic acid (252 mg/day) on perceived stress/anxiety and HPA activity, assessed by measuring saliva basal cortisol levels at various daytimes (0730 h, 1130 h, 1600 h, 2000 h, and 2400 h) and the acute cortisol response to Trier Social Stress Test.Results showed that in supplemented subjects, before versus after decrease of stress/anxiety ratings was accompanied by reduction of cortisol basal levels throughout the day; no changes were observed in placebo group. At the end of intervention, amplitude, and duration of stress-evoked cortisol response did not differ between groups; however, the peak of cortisol response was temporally anticipated in supplemented subjects. In conclusion, an elevated omega-3 intake may reduce distress symptoms and basal cortisol secretion in abstinent alcoholics, thus providing a valid subsidiary measure to increase the efficacy of rehabilitation programs in ethanol addicts. PMID:23390041

  12. Intravenous amifostine during chemoradiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer: A randomized placebo-controlled phase III study

    SciTech Connect

    Buentzel, Jens . E-mail: jens.buentzel@shk-ndh.de; Micke, Oliver; Adamietz, Irenaus A.; Monnier, Alain; Glatzel, Michael; Vries, Alexander de

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: Clinical trials demonstrated the efficacy and safety of intravenous (i.v.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) amifostine for reducing xerostomia and mucositis after radiotherapy or radiochemotherapy for head-and-neck cancer. This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, phase III study evaluated the efficacy and safety of i.v. amifostine during radiochemotherapy for head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients from European and American study centers received i.v. amifostine 300 mg/m{sup 2} (n = 67) or placebo (n = 65) before carboplatin 70 mg/m{sup 2} and radiotherapy on Days 1 to 5 and 21 to 25, and i.v. amifostine 200 mg/m{sup 2} or placebo before radiotherapy on other days. Results: Toxicity incidences were (amifostine, placebo, p value): Grade 2 or higher acute xerostomia (39%, 34%, 0.715), Grade 3 or higher acute mucositis (39%, 22%, 0.055), Grade 2 or higher late xerostomia (37%, 24%, 0.235), and Grade 3 or higher treatment-related adverse events (42%, 20%, 0.008). One-year rates of locoregional failure, progression-free survival, and overall survival were not significantly different between treatments. Conclusions: The used amifostine doses were not able to reduce the toxicity of simultaneous radiochemotherapy for head-and-neck cancer. The safety of amifostine and the lack of tumor protection were consistent with previous studies.

  13. Paroxetine Controlled Release for Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: Remission Analysis Following a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pearlstein, Teri B.; Bellew, Kevin M.; Endicott, Jean; Steiner, Meir

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of paroxetine controlled release (CR) (12.5 mg/day or 25 mg/day) versus placebo in premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Method: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted over 3 menstrual cycles in women aged 18–45 years with confirmed DSM-IV PMDD in 47 outpatient centers across the United States and Canada from November 1999 to January 2002. The primary efficacy measure was the visual analog scale (VAS)-Mood, which is the mean of 4 core symptoms: irritability, tension, depressed mood, and affective lability. Results: A statistically significant difference was observed in favor of paroxetine CR 25 mg versus placebo on the VAS-Mood (adjusted mean difference = −12.58 mm, 95% CI = −18.40 to −6.76; p < .001) and for paroxetine CR 12.5 mg versus placebo (adjusted mean difference = −7.51 mm, 95% CI = −13.40 to −1.62; p = .013). Paroxetine CR was generally well tolerated. Conclusion: Paroxetine CR doses of 12.5 mg/day and 25 mg/day are effective in treating PMDD and are well tolerated. PMID:15841196

  14. Efficacy of Dragon's blood cream on wound healing: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Namjoyan, Foroogh; Kiashi, Fatemeh; Moosavi, Zahra Beigom; Saffari, Fatemeh; Makhmalzadeh, Behzad Sharif

    2015-01-01

    The blood-red sap of Dragon's blood has been used in folk medicine for fractures, wounds, inflammation, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatism, blood circulation dysfunctions, and cancer. Existing in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of this herb on different mechanisms of healing shows strong potential of this sap in wound healing. This clinical trial study was designated to evaluate the wound healing effect of Dragon's blood on human wounds. Sixty patients, between the ages of 14–65 years, who were referred to remove their skin tag, were assigned to this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial and received either Dragon's blood or a placebo cream. They were visited on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th, 14th, and 20th day of the trial to check the process of healing and to measure the wound's surface. At the end of trial, there was a significant difference in the mean duration of wound healing between the two groups (p = 0.0001). The phenolic compounds and the alkaloid taspine, which exist in Dragon's-blood resin, are probably the main reasons for the wound healing property of this plant. Being natural accessible, safe, and affordable makes Dragon's blood cream, a good choice for addition to the wound healing armamentarium. Further studies on wounds with different causes and among larger populations are suggested to ensure the effectiveness and safety of Dragon's blood. PMID:26870678

  15. A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial of Balapiravir, a Polymerase Inhibitor, in Adult Dengue Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nguyet Minh; Tran, Chau Nguyen Bich; Phung, Lam Khanh; Duong, Kien Thi Hue; Huynh, Huy le Anh; Farrar, Jeremy; Nguyen, Quyen Than Ha; Tran, Hien Tinh; Nguyen, Chau Van Vinh; Merson, Laura; Hoang, Long Truong; Hibberd, Martin L.; Aw, Pauline P. K.; Wilm, Andreas; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Nguyen, Dung Thi; Pham, Mai Phuong; Nguyen, Truong Thanh; Javanbakht, Hassan; Klumpp, Klaus; Hammond, Janet; Petric, Rosemary; Wolbers, Marcel; Nguyen, Chinh Tran; Simmons, Cameron P.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Dengue is the most common arboviral infection of humans. There are currently no specific treatments for dengue. Balapiravir is a prodrug of a nucleoside analogue (called R1479) and an inhibitor of hepatitis C virus replication in vivo. Methods. We conducted in vitro experiments to determine the potency of balapiravir against dengue viruses and then an exploratory, dose-escalating, randomized placebo-controlled trial in adult male patients with dengue with <48 hours of fever. Results. The clinical and laboratory adverse event profile in patients receiving balapiravir at doses of 1500 mg (n = 10) or 3000 mg (n = 22) orally for 5 days was similar to that of patients receiving placebo (n = 32), indicating balapiravir was well tolerated. However, twice daily assessment of viremia and daily assessment of NS1 antigenemia indicated balapiravir did not measurably alter the kinetics of these virological markers, nor did it reduce the fever clearance time. The kinetics of plasma cytokine concentrations and the whole blood transcriptional profile were also not attenuated by balapiravir treatment. Conclusions. Although this trial, the first of its kind in dengue, does not support balapiravir as a candidate drug, it does establish a framework for antiviral treatment trials in dengue and provides the field with a clinically evaluated benchmark molecule. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01096576. PMID:22807519

  16. The natural course of uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection in women illustrated by a randomized placebo controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ferry, Sven A; Holm, Stig E; Stenlund, Hans; Lundholm, Rolf; Monsen, Tor J

    2004-01-01

    This prospective, multicentre, randomized, double-blind and placebo controlled study was performed to describe the natural course of uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection (UTI). A total of 1143 women 18 y and above, consulting at 18 primary health care centres in northern Sweden for symptoms suggestive of UTI were included. The symptoms urgency, dysuria, suprapubic pain and loin pain were registered, and urine cultures performed at inclusion and follow-up visits 8-10 d and 5-7 weeks later. Associations between all symptoms and bacteriuria or bacterial counts were unpredictable. Eradication of symptoms and bacteriuria and combinations of them were studied in 288 patients placebo treated for 7 d, of whom 39% dropped out after the first follow-up visit. The spontaneous cure rate of symptoms was 28% after the first week, and 37% had neither symptoms nor bacteriuria after 5-7 weeks. Considering the high dropout rate after the first follow-up visit, the spontaneous cure rate of symptoms and bacteriuria was calculated to 24% at the end of study. We conclude that patient near-laboratory tests are required to establish the diagnosis of lower UTI, and the guidelines for diagnosis of UTI need to be revised. PMID:15198188

  17. Oxytocin Affects the Connectivity of the Precuneus and the Amygdala: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Neuroimaging Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Jyothika; Völlm, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although oxytocin is one of the most widely studied neuropeptides in recent times, the mechanistic process by which it modulates social-affective behavior in the brain is not yet clearly understood. Thus, to understand the neurophysiological basis of oxytocin effects, we used resting-state functional MRI to examine the effects of intranasal oxytocin on brain connectivity in healthy males. Methods: Using a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 15 healthy male volunteers received 24 IU intranasal oxytocin or placebo prior to resting-state functional MRI acquisition at 3T. Results: We found that oxytocin significantly reduced the degree centrality of the right precuneus (P<.05). Oxytocin also reduced connectivity between the bilateral amygdalae and between the right precuneus and the right and left amygdala (P<.05). Although there were no significant changes in regional homogeneity at the whole brain level, posthoc results showed a reduction involving the right precuneus (P<.05). Conclusions: These results show that oxytocin affects one of the key centers in the brain for social cognition and introspective processing, the precuneus, and enhances our understanding of how oxytocin can modulate brain networks at rest. An improved understanding of the neurophysiological effects of oxytocin can be important in terms of evaluating the mechanisms that are likely to underlie the clinical responses observed upon long-term oxytocin administration. PMID:25522395

  18. Efficacy of Dragon's blood cream on wound healing: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Namjoyan, Foroogh; Kiashi, Fatemeh; Moosavi, Zahra Beigom; Saffari, Fatemeh; Makhmalzadeh, Behzad Sharif

    2016-01-01

    The blood-red sap of Dragon's blood has been used in folk medicine for fractures, wounds, inflammation, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatism, blood circulation dysfunctions, and cancer. Existing in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of this herb on different mechanisms of healing shows strong potential of this sap in wound healing. This clinical trial study was designated to evaluate the wound healing effect of Dragon's blood on human wounds. Sixty patients, between the ages of 14-65 years, who were referred to remove their skin tag, were assigned to this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial and received either Dragon's blood or a placebo cream. They were visited on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th, 14th, and 20th day of the trial to check the process of healing and to measure the wound's surface. At the end of trial, there was a significant difference in the mean duration of wound healing between the two groups (p = 0.0001). The phenolic compounds and the alkaloid taspine, which exist in Dragon's-blood resin, are probably the main reasons for the wound healing property of this plant. Being natural accessible, safe, and affordable makes Dragon's blood cream, a good choice for addition to the wound healing armamentarium. Further studies on wounds with different causes and among larger populations are suggested to ensure the effectiveness and safety of Dragon's blood. PMID:26870678

  19. Effects of SuperUlam on Supporting Concentration and Mood: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Udani, Jay K

    2013-01-01

    Background. SuperUlam is a proprietary blend of natural ingredients aimed at supporting brain health. We aimed to evaluate the effect of SuperUlam on attention and mood in healthy adults. Methods. Twenty healthy individuals aged 35–65 were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Study duration was 3 weeks and consisted of 3 visits. Measurement of cognitive function included computer-based testing of reaction time, complex attention, working memory, sustained attention, and executive functioning. Mood testing was performed via the profile of mood states (POMS) survey and the Chalder fatigue scale. Results. Cognitive function testing demonstrated a significant improvement from baseline in executive functioning, cognitive flexibility, reaction time, and working memory in the product group only (P < 0.05). When comparing the study product to placebo, the data demonstrated a significant decrease in tension, depression, and anger (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the product and placebo in the other measures of mood, including vigor, fatigue, confusion, and total mood disturbance. No adverse events were reported. Conclusions. Supplementation with SuperUlam is safe to consume with potential benefits to cognitive function and mood. PMID:24371452

  20. Safety and Tolerability of Panax ginseng Root Extract: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Clinical Trial in Healthy Korean Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nam-Hun; Yoo, Sa-Ra; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Cho, Jung-Hyo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Panax ginseng has been extensively used as an adaptogen and is among the top 10 selling herbal supplements in the United States over the past decade. However, there have been few reports about the toxicity of P. ginseng in human studies. Given the lack of toxicological studies in human, this study investigated whether P. ginseng administration causes any noticeable toxic effects in healthy volunteers. Methods This study was designed as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and parallel group trial in healthy volunteers. The subjects were required to be healthy, free from any significant disease, as assessed at screening by physical examination, medical history, and laboratory (hematological and biochemical) tests. Eligible subjects received P. ginseng extract (1 g/day or 2 g/day) or placebo over a 4-week period. Results Although mild adverse events, such as dyspepsia, hot flash, insomnia, and constipation, were reported in both P. ginseng and placebo group, no serious untoward reactions were reported following P. ginseng administration. Nonsignificant changes were observed in hematological and biochemical tests. Conclusions P. ginseng administration for 4 weeks was shown to be safe, tolerable, and free of any untoward toxic effect in healthy male and female volunteers. Future results from ongoing multicenter collaborative efforts to evaluate short- and long-term effects of P. ginseng may contribute to our current understanding of safety and tolerability of this herbal product. PMID:22909282

  1. Deep mineral water accelerates recovery after dehydrating aerobic exercise: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The effect of deep mineral water (DMW) with moderate mineralization on the recovery of physical performance after prolonged dehydrating aerobic exercise in the heat was studied in nine healthy, physically active (VO2max = 45.8 ± 8.4 mL kg−1 min−1) women aged 24.0 ± 3.7 years. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover human study to evaluate the effect of ingestion of natural mineral water extracted from a depth of 689 m on recovery from prolonged fatiguing aerobic running conducted at 30°C. Results Mean body weight decreased by 2.6–2.8% following dehydrating exercise. VO2max was 9% higher after 4 h of recovery after rehydrating with DMW compared with plain water. Leg muscle power recovered better during the slow phase of recovery and was significantly higher after 48 h of recovery after rehydrating with DMW compared with plain water. Conclusions DMW with moderate mineralization was more effective in inducing recovery of aerobic capacity and leg muscle power compared with plain water following prolonged dehydrating aerobic running exercise. PMID:25002835

  2. A randomized placebo controlled trial to evaluate the effects of butamirate and dextromethorphan on capsaicin induced cough in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Faruqi, Shoaib; Wright, Caroline; Thompson, Rachel; Morice, Alyn H

    2014-01-01

    Aims The examination of cough reflex sensitivity through inhalational challenge can be utilized to demonstrate pharmacological end points. Here we compare the effect of butamirate, dextromethorphan and placebo on capsaicin-induced cough in healthy volunteers. Methods In this randomized, placebo-controlled, six way crossover study the effect of dextromethrophan 30 mg, four doses of butamirate and placebo was evaluated on incremental capsaicin challenges performed at baseline and 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h following dosing. The primary end point was the area under the curve (AUC(0,12h)) of log10 C5 from pre-dose to 12 h after dosing. Plasma butamirate metabolites were analyzed to evaluate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationships. Results Thirty-four subjects (13 males, median age 25 years) completed the study. Cough sensitivity decreased from baseline in all arms of the study. Dextromethorphan was superior to placebo (P = 0.01) but butamirate failed to show significant activity with maximum attenuation at the 45 mg dose. There was no apparent relationship between pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters for butamirate. Conclusions We have demonstrated for the first time that dextromethorphan attenuates capsaicin challenge confirming its broad activity on the cough reflex. The lack of efficacy of butamirate could be due to formulation issues at higher doses. PMID:24995954

  3. Ginger Supplementation in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Rahimlou, Mehran; Yari, Zahra; Hekmatdoost, Azita; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver diseases worldwide. The pathogenesis of this disease is closely associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Ginger can have hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects, and act as an insulinsensitizer. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginger supplementation in NAFLD management. Patients and Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 44 patients with NAFLD were assigned to take either two grams per day of a ginger supplement or the identical placebo, for 12 weeks. In both groups, patients were advised to follow a modified diet and physical activity program. The metabolic parameters and indicators of liver damage were measured at study baseline and after the 12 week intervention. Results: Ginger supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase, inflammatory cytokines, as well as the insulin resistance index and hepatic steatosis grade in comparison to the placebo. We did not find any significant effect of taking ginger supplements on hepatic fibrosis and aspartate aminotransferase. Conclusions: Twelve weeks of two grams of ginger supplementation showed beneficial effects on some NAFLD characteristics. Further studies are recommended to assess the long-term supplementation effects. PMID:27110262

  4. Adjunctive lisdexamfetamine in bipolar depression: a preliminary randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Susan L; Martens, Brian E; Mori, Nicole; Blom, Thomas J; Casuto, Leah S; Hawkins, John M; Keck, Paul E

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of lisdexamfetamine (LDX) in the treatment of bipolar depression. Twenty-five outpatients with bipolar I or II disorder and syndromal depression despite at least 4 weeks of stable mood stabilizer and/or antipsychotic therapy were randomized to receive LDX (N=11) or placebo (N=14) in an 8-week, prospective, parallel-group, double-blind study. In the primary longitudinal analysis, LDX and placebo produced similar rates of improvement in depressive symptoms as assessed by the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale. However, LDX was associated with a statistically significantly greater rate of improvement in self-reported depressive symptoms and daytime sleepiness, and with greater reductions in fasting levels of low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol. In the secondary baseline-to-endpoint analysis, LDX was associated with statistically significant improvements in self-reported measures of depression, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and binge eating, as well as with improvements in fasting levels of triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol. LDX was well tolerated and was not associated with any serious adverse events, but there was one case of suspected misuse. The small sample size (because of premature study termination by the funding sponsor) may have limited the detection of important drug-placebo differences. Larger studies on the use of psychostimulants for treatment of bipolar depression seem warranted. PMID:25340384

  5. Baclofen for stroke patients with persistent hiccups: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The results of preclinical studies suggest that baclofen may be useful in the treatment of stroke patients with persistent hiccups. This study was aimed to assess the possible efficacy of baclofen for the treatment of persistent hiccups after stroke. Methods In total, 30 stroke patients with persistent hiccups were randomly assigned to receive baclofen (n = 15) or a placebo (n = 15) in a double-blind, parallel-group trial. Participants in the baclofen group received 10 mg baclofen 3 times daily for 5 days. Participants assigned to the placebo group received 10 mg placebo 3 times daily for 5 days. The primary outcome measure was cessation of hiccups. Secondary outcome measures included efficacy in the two groups and adverse events. Results All 30 patients completed the study. The number of patients in whom the hiccups completely stopped was higher in the baclofen group than in the placebo group (relative risk, 7.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.91–25.62; P = 0.003). Furthermore, efficacy was higher in the baclofen group than in the placebo group (P < 0.01). No serious adverse events were documented in either group. One case each of mild transient drowsiness and dizziness was present in the baclofen group. Conclusions Baclofen was more effective than a placebo for the treatment of persistent hiccups in stroke patients. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trials Register: ChiCTR-TRC-13004554 PMID:25052238

  6. Additional Analgesia for Central Venous Catheter Insertion: A Placebo Controlled Randomized Trial of Dexmedetomidine and Fentanyl.

    PubMed

    Samantaray, Aloka; Hanumantha Rao, Mangu; Sahu, Chitta Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to show that a single preprocedural dose of either dexmedetomidine or fentanyl reduces procedural pain and discomfort and provides clinically acceptable sedation. In this prospective, double-blind study, sixty patients scheduled for elective surgery and requiring planned central venous catheter insertion were randomized to receive dexmedetomidine (1 μg/kg), fentanyl (1 μg/kg), or 0.9% normal saline intravenously over ten minutes followed by local anesthetic field infiltration before attempting central venous catheterization. The primary outcome measures are assessment and analysis of pain, discomfort, and sedation level before, during, and after the central venous catheter insertion at five time points. The median (IQR) pain score is worst for normal saline group at local anaesthetic injection [6 (4-6.7)] which was significantly attenuated by addition of fentanyl [3 (2-4)] and dexmedetomidine [4 (3-5)] in the immediate postprocedural period (P = 0.001). However, the procedure related discomfort was significantly lower in dexmedetomidine group compared to fentanyl group in the first 10 min of procedure after local anaesthetic Injection (P = 0.001). Fentanyl is more analgesically efficient for central venous catheter insertion along with local anaesthetic injection. However, dexmedetomidine has the potential to be superior to fentanyl and placebo in terms of providing comfort to the patients during the procedure. PMID:27200187

  7. Effects of Lornoxicam on Anastomotic Healing: A Randomized, Blinded, Placebo-Control Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Drakopoulou, Stamatoula; Kontis, Elissaios; Pantiora, Eirini; Vezakis, Antonios; Karandrea, Despoina; Aravidou, Eftychia; Konti-Paphiti, Agathi; Argyra, Erifili; Voros, Dionisios; Polydorou, Andreas A; Fragulidis, Georgios P

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Aim. With the implementation of multimodal analgesia regimens, Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) are often administered for optimal pain control and reduction of opioid use. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of lornoxicam, a NSAID, on anastomotic healing employing an animal model. Materials and Methods. A total of 28 Wistar rats were randomly assigned in two groups. All animals underwent ascending colonic transection followed by an end-to-end hand sewn anastomosis. Group 1 received intraperitoneally lornoxicam before and daily after surgery. Group 2 received intraperitoneally an equal volume of placebo. Half of the animals in each group were euthanized on the 3rd pod and the remaining on the 7th pod. Macro- and microscopic indicators of anastomotic healing were compared using a two-tailed Fisher exact test. Results. The lornoxicam group significantly decreased fibroblast in growth and reepithelization of the mucosa at the anastomotic site on the 3rd pod and significantly increased occurrence of deep reaching defects, necrosis, and microabscess on the 7th pod. Conclusion. Lornoxicam administration during the perioperative period adversely affects histologic parameters of intestinal anastomotic healing. These effects of lornoxicam administration were not found to induce significant increase of anastomotic dehiscence in the rat model. PMID:27144224

  8. Effects of Lornoxicam on Anastomotic Healing: A Randomized, Blinded, Placebo-Control Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Drakopoulou, Stamatoula; Vezakis, Antonios; Karandrea, Despoina; Aravidou, Eftychia; Konti-Paphiti, Agathi; Argyra, Erifili; Voros, Dionisios

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Aim. With the implementation of multimodal analgesia regimens, Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) are often administered for optimal pain control and reduction of opioid use. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of lornoxicam, a NSAID, on anastomotic healing employing an animal model. Materials and Methods. A total of 28 Wistar rats were randomly assigned in two groups. All animals underwent ascending colonic transection followed by an end-to-end hand sewn anastomosis. Group 1 received intraperitoneally lornoxicam before and daily after surgery. Group 2 received intraperitoneally an equal volume of placebo. Half of the animals in each group were euthanized on the 3rd pod and the remaining on the 7th pod. Macro- and microscopic indicators of anastomotic healing were compared using a two-tailed Fisher exact test. Results. The lornoxicam group significantly decreased fibroblast in growth and reepithelization of the mucosa at the anastomotic site on the 3rd pod and significantly increased occurrence of deep reaching defects, necrosis, and microabscess on the 7th pod. Conclusion. Lornoxicam administration during the perioperative period adversely affects histologic parameters of intestinal anastomotic healing. These effects of lornoxicam administration were not found to induce significant increase of anastomotic dehiscence in the rat model. PMID:27144224

  9. Additional Analgesia for Central Venous Catheter Insertion: A Placebo Controlled Randomized Trial of Dexmedetomidine and Fentanyl

    PubMed Central

    Samantaray, Aloka; Hanumantha Rao, Mangu; Sahu, Chitta Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to show that a single preprocedural dose of either dexmedetomidine or fentanyl reduces procedural pain and discomfort and provides clinically acceptable sedation. In this prospective, double-blind study, sixty patients scheduled for elective surgery and requiring planned central venous catheter insertion were randomized to receive dexmedetomidine (1 μg/kg), fentanyl (1 μg/kg), or 0.9% normal saline intravenously over ten minutes followed by local anesthetic field infiltration before attempting central venous catheterization. The primary outcome measures are assessment and analysis of pain, discomfort, and sedation level before, during, and after the central venous catheter insertion at five time points. The median (IQR) pain score is worst for normal saline group at local anaesthetic injection [6 (4–6.7)] which was significantly attenuated by addition of fentanyl [3 (2–4)] and dexmedetomidine [4 (3–5)] in the immediate postprocedural period (P = 0.001). However, the procedure related discomfort was significantly lower in dexmedetomidine group compared to fentanyl group in the first 10 min of procedure after local anaesthetic Injection (P = 0.001). Fentanyl is more analgesically efficient for central venous catheter insertion along with local anaesthetic injection. However, dexmedetomidine has the potential to be superior to fentanyl and placebo in terms of providing comfort to the patients during the procedure. PMID:27200187

  10. The effects of repeated administration of camphor-crataegus berry extract combination on blood pressure and on attentional performance - a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Erfurt, L; Schandry, R; Rubenbauer, S; Braun, U

    2014-09-25

    The present study investigated the effects of repeated administration of Korodin(®), a combination of camphor and crataegus berry extract, on blood pressure and attentional functioning. This study was conducted based on a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind design. 54 persons participated (33 female, 21 male) with a mean age of 24.3 years. Blood pressure and body mass index were in the normal range. Participants received 20 drops of either Korodin(®) or a placebo for four times with interjacent time intervals of about 10 min. Blood pressure was measured sphygmomanometrically before and after each administration. Attentional performance was quantified by using two paper-and-pencil tests, the d2 Test of Attention and Digit Symbol Test. Greater increases in blood pressure occurred after the four Korodin(®) administrations in comparison to the four placebo administrations. The performance in two parameters of d2 Test of Attention was consistently superior after the intake of Korodin(®). The excellent tolerability and safety of Korodin(®), even after a total consumption of 80 drops, was confirmed. PMID:25172798

  11. A Randomized, Prospective, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Terlipressin for Type 1 Hepatorenal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    SANYAL, ARUN J.; BOYER, THOMAS; GARCIA–TSAO, GUADALUPE; REGENSTEIN, FREDERICK; ROSSARO, LORENZO; APPENRODT, BEATE; BLEI, ANDRES; GÜLBERG, VEIT; SIGAL, SAMUEL; TEUBER, PETER

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) type 1 is a progressive functional renal failure in subjects with advanced liver disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of terlipressin, a systemic arterial vasoconstrictor, for cirrhosis type 1 HRS. Methods A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of terlipressin was performed. Subjects with type 1 HRS were randomized to terlipressin (1 mg intravenously every 6 hours) or placebo plus albumin in both groups. The dose was doubled on day 4 if the serum creatinine (SCr) level did not decrease by 30% of baseline. Treatment was continued to day 14 unless treatment success, death, dialysis, or transplantation occurred. Treatment success was defined by a decrease in SCr level to ≤1.5 mg/dL for at least 48 hours by day 14 without dialysis, death, or relapse of HRS type 1. Results Fifty-six subjects were randomized to each arm. Treatment success with terlipressin was double that with placebo (25% vs 12.5%, P = .093). SCr level improved from baseline to day 14 on terlipressin (−0.7 mg/dL) as compared with placebo (0 mg/dL), P < .009. Terlipressin was superior to placebo for HRS reversal (34% vs 13%, P= .008), defined by decrease in SCr level ≤1.5 mg/dL. Overall and transplantation-free survival was similar between study groups; HRS reversal significantly improved survival at day 180. One nonfatal myocardial infarction occurred with terlipressin, but the total adverse event rate was similar to placebo. Conclusions Terlipressin is an effective treatment to improve renal function in HRS type 1. PMID:18471513

  12. Consumption of Sutherlandia frutescens by HIV-Seropositive South African Adults: An Adaptive Double-Blind Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Karen; Gerkovich, Mary M.; Gqaleni, Nceba; Syce, James; Bartman, Patricia; Johnson, Quinton; Folk, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sutherlandia frutescens (L.) R. Br. is widely used as an over the counter complementary medicine and in traditional medications by HIV seropositive adults living in South Africa; however the plant’s safety has not been objectively studied. An adaptive two-stage randomized double-blind placebo controlled study was used to evaluate the safety of consuming dried S. frutescens by HIV seropositive adults with CD4 T-lymphocyte count of >350 cells/μL. Methods In Stage 1 56 participants were randomized to S. frutescens 400, 800 or 1,200 mg twice daily or matching placebo for 24 weeks. In Stage 2 77 additional participants were randomized to either 1,200 mg S. frutescens or placebo. In the final analysis data from Stage 1 and Stage 2 were combined such that 107 participants were analysed (54 in the S. frutescens 1,200 mg arm and 53 in the placebo arm). Results S. frutescens did not change HIV viral load, and CD4 T-lymphocyte count was similar in the two arms at 24 weeks; however, mean and total burden of infection (BOI; defined as days of infection-related events in each participant) was greater in the S. frutescens arm: mean (SD) 5.0 (5.5) vs. 9.0 (12.7) days (p = 0.045), attributed to two tuberculosis cases in subjects taking isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT). Conclusion A possible interaction between S. frutescens and IPT needs further evaluation, and may presage antagonistic interactions with other herbs having similar biochemical (antioxidant) properties. No other safety issues relating to consumption of S. frutescens in this cohort were identified. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00549523 PMID:26186450

  13. Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Bevacizumab Therapy for Radiation Necrosis of the Central Nervous System

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, Victor A.; Bidaut, Luc; Hou, Ping; Kumar, Ashok J.; Wefel, Jeffrey S.; Bekele, B. Nebiyou; Prabhu, Sujit; Loghin, Monica; Gilbert, Mark R.; Jackson, Edward F.

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: To conduct a controlled trial of bevacizumab for the treatment of symptomatic radiation necrosis of the brain. Methods and Materials: A total of 14 patients were entered into a placebo-controlled randomized double-blind study of bevacizumab for the treatment of central nervous system radiation necrosis. All patients were required to have radiographic or biopsy proof of central nervous system radiation necrosis and progressive neurologic symptoms or signs. Eligible patients had undergone irradiation for head-and-neck carcinoma, meningioma, or low- to mid-grade glioma. Patients were randomized to receive intravenous saline or bevacizumab at 3-week intervals. The magnetic resonance imaging findings 3 weeks after the second treatment and clinical signs and symptoms defined the response or progression. Results: The volumes of necrosis estimated on T{sub 2}-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T{sub 1}-weighted gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging scans demonstrated that although no patient receiving placebo responded (0 of 7), all bevacizumab-treated patients did so (5 of 5 randomized and 7 of 7 crossover) with decreases in T{sub 2}-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T{sub 1}-weighted gadolinium-enhanced volumes and a decrease in endothelial transfer constant. All bevacizumab-treated patients-and none of the placebo-treated patients-showed improvement in neurologic symptoms or signs. At a median of 10 months after the last dose of bevacizumab in patients receiving all four study doses, only 2 patients had experienced a recurrence of magnetic resonance imaging changes consistent with progressive radiation necrosis; one patient received a single additional dose of bevacizumab and the other patient received two doses. Conclusion: The Class I evidence of bevacizumab efficacy from the present study in the treatment of central nervous system radiation necrosis justifies consideration of this treatment option for people with

  14. Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Pilot Study of D-Cycloserine in Chronic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Butler, Andrew J; Kallos, Justiss; Housley, Stephen N; LaPlaca, Michelle C; Traynelis, Stephen F; Wolf, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability in the USA. Up to 60% of patients do not fully recover despite intensive physical therapy treatment. N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDA-R) have been shown to play a role in synaptic plasticity when activated. D-Cycloserine promotes NMDA receptor function by binding to receptors with unoccupied glycine sites. These receptors are involved in learning and memory. We hypothesized that D-cycloserine, when combined with robotic-assisted physiotherapy (RAP), would result in greater gains compared with placebo + RAP in stroke survivors. Participants (n = 14) were randomized to D-cycloserine plus RAP or placebo plus RAP. Functional, cognitive, and quality-of-life measures were used to assess recovery. There was significant improvement in grip strength of the affected hand within both groups from baseline to 3 weeks (95% confidence interval for mean change, 3.95 ± 2.96 to 4.90 ± 3.56 N for D-cycloserine and 5.72 ± 3.98 to 8.44 ± 4.90 N for control). SIS mood domain showed improvement for both groups (95% confidence interval for mean change, 72.6 ± 16.3 to 82.9 ± 10.9 for D-cycloserine and 82.9 ± 13.5 to 90.3 ± 9.9 for control). This preliminary study does not provide evidence that D-cycloserine can provide greater gains in learning compared with placebo for stroke survivors. PMID:26587287

  15. Efficacy of Silexan in mixed anxiety-depression--A randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Siegfried; Volz, Hans-Peter; Dienel, Angelika; Schläfke, Sandra

    2016-02-01

    Mixed anxiety and depressive disorder (MADD; ICD-10 F41.2) is a condition characterized by subsyndromal symptoms of anxiety and depression, neither of which are clearly predominant. Silexan has been demonstrated to be efficacious in subsyndromal and syndromal anxiety disorders and co-morbid depressive symptoms. In this study 318 adult out-patients with MADD according to ICD-10 criteria, a total score ≥18 points on the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA), and at least moderately severe anxious and depressed mood were randomized and received 1×80mg Silexan or placebo in double-blind fashion for a scheduled period of 70 days. Primary outcome measures were the HAMA and Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score changes between baseline and treatment end. The HAMA total score decreased by 10.8±9.6 points for Silexan and by 8.4±8.9 points for placebo (treatment group difference: p<0.01, one-sided; ANCOVA with factors for treatment and centre and the baseline value as covariate), and total score decreases of 9.2±9.9 and 6.1±7.6 points, respectively, were observed for the MADRS (p<0.001). Compared to placebo, the patients treated with Silexan had a better over-all clinical outcome and showed more pronounced improvements of impaired daily living skills and health related quality of life. Eructation was the only adverse event with a substantially higher incidence under Silexan. The study thus demonstrates that Silexan is efficacious and safe in the treatment of MADD. PMID:26718792

  16. Randomized placebo-controlled study of intravenous methylnaltrexone in postoperative ileus

    PubMed Central

    Viscusi, Eugene R.; Rathmell, James P.; Fichera, Alessandro; Binderow, Sander R.; Israel, Robert J.; Galasso, Frank L.; Penenberg, Darryl; Gan, Tong J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This phase 2 study evaluated the safety and activity of intravenous methylnaltrexone on the duration of postoperative ileus in patients undergoing segmental colectomy. Methods Adults (aged 18 years or older) with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status of I, II, or III who underwent segmental colectomy, including partial colectomy, sigmoidectomy, cecectomy, or anterior proctosigmoidectomy, via laparotomy with general anesthesia, received intravenous methylnaltrexone 0.30 mg/kg or placebo every 6 h beginning within 90 min after end of surgery. Treatment continued until 24 h after the patient tolerated solid foods, was discharged, or for 7 d maximum. Efficacy endpoints included measures of gastrointestinal recovery and time to discharge eligibility. Results A total of 65 patients (methylnaltrexone, n = 33; placebo, n = 32) were randomized. Mean time to first bowel movement was accelerated by 20 h (p = 0.038) and time to discharge eligibility was accelerated by 33 h (p = 0.049) with methylnaltrexone vs placebo. Opioid use was similar between groups until postoperative day 4, then fluctuated in the placebo group. Methylnaltrexone was generally well tolerated. Conclusions In this study, intravenous methylnaltrexone significantly decreased time to postoperative bowel recovery and eligibility for hospital discharge by ∼1 d, with an adverse event profile similar to placebo. These were two of several exploratory endpoints; not all efficacy endpoints showed a significant difference between methylnaltrexone and placebo. The efficacy results in this trial were not seen in two subsequent large-scale studies.

  17. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of bupropion for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence

    PubMed Central

    Shoptaw, Steven; Heinzerling, Keith G.; Rotheram-Fuller, Erin; Steward, Trevor; Wang, Jason; Swanson, Aimee-Noelle; De La Garza, Richard; Newton, Tom; Ling, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare bupropion to placebo for reducing methamphetamine (MA) use, increasing retention, and reducing the severity of depressive symptoms and MA cravings. A secondary objective compared bupropion to placebo for reducing cigarette smoking among MA dependent participants. Methods Following a 2-week, non-medication baseline screening period, 73 treatment-seeking MA dependent participants were randomly assigned to bupropion sustained release (150 mg twice daily; N=36) or placebo (twice daily; N=37) for 12-weeks under double blind conditions. Participants attended clinic thrice weekly to provide urine samples analyzed for MA-metabolite, to complete research measures and assessments, and to receive contingency management and weekly cognitive behavioral therapy sessions. Results There were no statistically significant effects for bupropion relative to placebo on MA use verified by urine drug screens, for reducing the severity of depressive symptoms or MA cravings, or on study retention. In a post hoc analysis, there was a statistically significant effect of bupropion treatment on MA use among participants with lighter (0–2 MA-positive urines), but not heavier (3–6 MA-positive urines) MA use during baseline (OR=2.81, 95% CI=1.61–4.93, p<0.001 for MA-free week with bupropion among light users). Bupropion treatment was also associated with significantly reduced cigarette smoking, by almost 5 cigarettes per day (p=0.0002). Conclusion Bupropion was no more effective than placebo in reducing MA use in planned analyses, though bupropion did reduce cigarette smoking. Post hoc findings of an effect for bupropion among baseline light, but not heavy, MA users suggests further evaluation of bupropion for light MA users is warranted. PMID:18468815

  18. Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Pilot Study of D-Cycloserine in Chronic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Andrew J.; Kallos, Justiss; Housley, Stephen N.; LaPlaca, Michelle C.; Traynelis, Stephen F.; Wolf, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability in the USA. Up to 60% of patients do not fully recover despite intensive physical therapy treatment. N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDA-R) have been shown to play a role in synaptic plasticity when activated. D-Cycloserine promotes NMDA receptor function by binding to receptors with unoccupied glycine sites. These receptors are involved in learning and memory. We hypothesized that D-cycloserine, when combined with robotic-assisted physiotherapy (RAP), would result in greater gains compared with placebo + RAP in stroke survivors. Participants (n = 14) were randomized to D-cycloserine plus RAP or placebo plus RAP. Functional, cognitive, and quality-of-life measures were used to assess recovery. There was significant improvement in grip strength of the affected hand within both groups from baseline to 3 weeks (95% confidence interval for mean change, 3.95 ± 2.96 to 4.90 ± 3.56 N for D-cycloserine and 5.72 ± 3.98 to 8.44 ± 4.90 N for control). SIS mood domain showed improvement for both groups (95% confidence interval for mean change, 72.6 ± 16.3 to 82.9 ± 10.9 for D-cycloserine and 82.9 ± 13.5 to 90.3 ± 9.9 for control). This preliminary study does not provide evidence that D-cycloserine can provide greater gains in learning compared with placebo for stroke survivors. PMID:26587287

  19. Sublingual immunotherapy for peanut allergy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial

    PubMed Central

    Fleischer, David M.; Burks, A. Wesley; Vickery, Brian P.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Wood, Robert A.; Jones, Stacie M.; Sicherer, Scott H.; Liu, Andrew H.; Stablein, Donald; Henning, Alice K.; Mayer, Lloyd; Lindblad, Robert; Plaut, Marshall; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2012-01-01

    Background There are presently no available therapeutic options for peanut-allergic patients. Objective To investigate the safety, efficacy, and immunologic effects of peanut sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). Methods After a baseline oral food challenge (OFC) of up to 2g of peanut powder (~50% protein) (median successfully consumed dose [SCD] 46mg), 40 subjects, aged 12–37 (median 15) years, were randomized 1:1 across 5 sites to daily peanut or placebo SLIT. A 5g OFC was performed after 44 weeks followed by unblinding; placebo subjects then crossed over to higher dose peanut SLIT, followed by a subsequent crossover Week 44 5g OFC. Week 44 OFCs from both groups were compared to baseline OFCs; subjects successfully consuming 5g or at least 10-fold more peanut powder than the baseline OFC threshold were considered responders. Results After 44 weeks of SLIT, 14/20 (70%) subjects receiving peanut SLIT were responders compared to 3/20 (15%) subjects receiving placebo (p<0.001). In peanut-SLIT responders, median SCD increased from 3.5mg to 496mg. After 68 weeks of SLIT, median SCD significantly increased to 996mg (compared to week 44, p=0.05). The median SCD at the Week 44 crossover OFC was significantly higher than baseline (603mg vs 71mg; p=0.02). 7/16 (44%) crossover subjects were responders; median SCD increased from 21mg to 496mg among responders. Of 10,855 peanut doses through Week 44 OFCs, 63.1% were symptom-free; excluding oral/pharyngeal symptoms, 95.2% were symptom-free. Conclusions Peanut SLIT safely induced a modest level of desensitization in a majority of subjects compared to placebo. Longer duration of therapy showed statistically significant increases in the SCD. PMID:23265698

  20. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Pregnenolone for Bipolar Depression

    PubMed Central

    Brown, E Sherwood; Park, John; Marx, Christine E; Hynan, Linda S; Gardner, Claire; Davila, Domingo; Nakamura, Alyson; Sunderajan, Prabha; Lo, Alexander; Holmes, Traci

    2014-01-01

    Depression in bipolar disorder (BPD) is challenging to treat. Therefore, additional medication options are needed. In the current report, the effect of the neurosteroid pregnenolone on depressive symptoms in BPD was examined. Adults (n=80) with BPD, depressed mood state, were randomized to pregnenolone (titrated to 500 mg/day) or placebo, as add-on therapy, for 12 weeks. Outcome measures included the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology—Self-Report (IDS-SR), Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HRSA), and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). Serum neurosteroid levels were assessed at baseline and week 12. Data were analyzed using a mixed model ANCOVA with a between factor of treatment assignment, a within factor (repeated) of visit, and the baseline value, as well as age and gender, as covariates. In participants with at least one postbaseline visit (n=73), a significant treatment by week interaction for the HRSD (F(5,288)=2.61, p=0.025), but not IDS-SR, was observed. Depression remission rates were greater in the pregnenolone group (61%) compared with the placebo group (37%), as assessed by the IDS-SR (χ2(1)=3.99, p=0.046), but not the HRSD. Large baseline-to-exit changes in neurosteroid levels were observed in the pregnenolone group but not in the placebo group. In the pregnenolone group, baseline-to-exit change in the HRSA correlated negatively with changes in allopregnanolone (r(22)=−0.43, p=0.036) and pregNANolone (r(22)=−0.48, p=0.019) levels. Pregnenolone was well tolerated. The results suggest that pregnenolone may improve depressive symptoms in patients with BPD and can be safely administered. PMID:24917198

  1. A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Phase IIB Trial of Curcumin in Oral Leukoplakia.

    PubMed

    Kuriakose, Moni Abraham; Ramdas, Kunnambath; Dey, Bindu; Iyer, Subramanya; Rajan, Gunaseelan; Elango, Kalavathy K; Suresh, Amritha; Ravindran, Divya; Kumar, Rajneesh R; R, Prathiba; Ramachandran, Surya; Kumar, Nisha Asok; Thomas, Gigi; Somanathan, Thara; Ravindran, Hiran K; Ranganathan, Kannan; Katakam, Sudhakar Babu; Parashuram, Shivashankar; Jayaprakash, Vijayvel; Pillai, M Radhakrishna

    2016-08-01

    Oral leukoplakia is a potentially malignant lesion of the oral cavity, for which no effective treatment is available. We investigated the effectiveness of curcumin, a potent inhibitor of NF-κB/COX-2, molecules perturbed in oral carcinogenesis, to treat leukoplakia. Subjects with oral leukoplakia (n = 223) were randomized (1:1 ratio) to receive orally, either 3.6 g/day of curcumin (n = 111) or placebo (n = 112), for 6 months. The primary endpoint was clinical response obtained by bi-dimensional measurement of leukoplakia size at recruitment and 6 months. Histologic response, combined clinical and histologic response, durability and effect of long-term therapy for an additional six months in partial responders, safety and compliance were the secondary endpoints. Clinical response was observed in 75 (67.5%) subjects [95% confidence interval (CI), 58.4-75.6] in the curcumin and 62 (55.3%; 95% CI, 46.1-64.2) in placebo arm (P = 0.03). This response was durable, with 16 of the 18 (88.9%; 95% CI, 67.2-96.9) subjects with complete response in curcumin and 7 of 8 subjects (87.5%) in placebo arm, demonstrating no relapse after 6 months follow-up. Difference in histologic response between curcumin and placebo was not significant (HR, 0.88, 95% CI, 0.45-1.71; P = 0.71). Combined clinical and histologic response assessment indicated a significantly better response with curcumin (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.27-0.92; P = 0.02). Continued therapy, in subjects with partial response at 6 months, did not yield additional benefit. The treatment did not raise any safety concerns. Treatment of oral leukoplakia with curcumin (3.6 g for six months), thus was well tolerated and demonstrated significant and durable clinical response for 6 months. Cancer Prev Res; 9(8); 683-91. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27267893

  2. Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Clinical Trial of Donepezil in Vascular Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Román, Gustavo C.; Salloway, Stephen; Black, Sandra E.; Royall, Donald R.; DeCarli, Charles; Weiner, Michael W.; Moline, Margaret; Kumar, Dinesh; Schindler, Rachel; Posner, Holly

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose We sought to assess the efficacy and safety of donepezil in patients with vascular dementia (VaD) fulfilling National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke–Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l’Enseignement en Neurosciences criteria. Methods This international, multicenter, 24-week trial was conducted from March 2003 to August 2005. Patients (N=974; mean age, 73.0 years) with probable or possible VaD were randomized 2:1 to receive donepezil 5 mg/d or placebo. Coprimary outcome measures were scores on the Vascular-Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale–Cognitive Subscale and Clinician’s Interview–Based Impression of Change, plus carer interview. Analyses were performed for the intent-to-treat population with the last-observation-carried-forward method. Results Compared with placebo, donepezil-treated patients showed significant improvement from baseline to end point on the Vascular-Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale–Cognitive Subscale (least-squares mean difference, −1.156; 95% CI, −1.98 to −0.33; P<0.01) but not on the Clinician’s Interview–Based Impression of Change, plus carer interview. Patients with hippocampal atrophy who were treated with donepezil demonstrated stable cognition versus a decline in the placebo-treated group; in those without atrophy, cognition improved with donepezil versus relative stability with placebo. Results on secondary efficacy measures were inconsistent. The incidence of adverse events was similar across groups. Eleven deaths occurred in the donepezil group (1.7%), similar to rates previously reported for donepezil trials in VaD, whereas no deaths occurred in the placebo group. Conclusions Patients treated with donepezil 5 mg/d demonstrated significant improvement in cognitive, but not global, function. Donepezil was relatively well tolerated; adverse events were consistent with current labeling. Mortality in the placebo group was unexpectedly low. The differential

  3. Rifaximin for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Zhu, Wenhua; Liu, Wenhui; Wu, Yingqiao; Wu, Benyan

    2016-01-01

    The current treatments for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are suboptimal. The findings of previous studies of rifaximin treatment for IBS may have differed due to variations in study design. Our study aimed to determine the therapeutic and adverse effects of rifaximin treatment for IBS based on a meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBSCO, Springer, Ovid, and Cochrane Library databases for RCTs investigating the effects of rifaximin on IBS. Data from each selected RCT was evaluated individually based on an intention-to-treat analysis, and a meta-analysis was performed in which the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of clinical outcomes and adverse events were calculated using fixed-effects models. Four eligible studies were identified. Overall relief of IBS symptoms in the rifaximin groups was greater than that in the placebo groups at the ends of both the treatment and follow-up periods (OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.08-1.32 and OR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.18-1.58, respectively, P < 0.05 for both). Significant relief of abdominal distention was observed at the follow-up endpoint (OR = 1.69; 95% Cl: 1.27-2.23; P < 0.05), but not at the treatment endpoint (OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 0.96-1.49; P > 0.05). Abdominal pain (OR = 1.01; 95% CI: 0.98-1.03; P > 0.05), nausea (OR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.98-1.02; P > 0.05), vomiting (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.98-1.01; P > 0.05), and headache (OR = 1.01; 95% CI: 0.98-1.03; P > 0.05) did not differ significantly between the rifaximin and placebo groups. In the RCTs selected, our meta-analysis showed that the efficacy of rifaximin for the resolution of overall IBS symptoms was greater than that of the placebos, and that rifaximin was well-tolerated. The course of relief from abdominal distention in IBS patients treated with rifaximin may be delayed in some patients, compared with that of overall IBS symptom relief. PMID:26825893

  4. Efficacy of tramadol and butorphanol pretreatment in reducing pain on propofol injection: A placebo-controlled randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arvinderpal; Sharma, Geeta; Gupta, Ruchi; Kumari, Anita; Tikko, Deepika

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Pain of propofol injection has been recalled by many patients as the most painful part of the induction of anesthesia. Tramadol and butorphanol are commonly used analgesics for perioperative analgesia in anesthesia practice. However, their potential to relieve propofol injection pain still needs to be explored. Material and Methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 90 American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II adult patients undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia with propofol as an induction agent. Consecutive sampling technique with random assignment was used to allocate three groups of 30 patients each. Group I patients received an injection of normal saline 3 ml intravenously (placebo) while Group II and Group III patients received injection of tramadol 50 mg and butorphanol 1 mg intravenously, respectively. Before induction of anesthesia patients were asked about the intensity of pain on propofol injection by using visual analog scale (VAS) before the loss of consciousness. Descriptive statistics and analysis of variance with Chi-square test were used to analyze the data. The value of P < 0.05 was considered as a significant and P < 0.0001 as highly significant. Results: The incidence of pain in Group I was observed in 80% of the patients, while it was observed in 23.33% and 20% of patients in Group II and III, respectively. Mean VAS scores were 2.27 ± 1.51, 1.14 ± 1.74, and 1.03 ± 1.72 in Group I, II, and Group III patients, respectively. The incidence of pruritus was 10% and 6.7% and erythema in 13.2% and 6.7% in Group II and III, respectively. Conclusion: Pretreatment with both butorphanol and tramadol significantly reduced pain on propofol injection; however, they exhibited comparable efficacy among each other. Thus, either of these two drugs can be considered for pretreatment to reduce propofol injection pain. PMID:27006549

  5. Treatment of age-related memory complaints with Ginkgo biloba extract: a randomized double blind placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Brautigam, M R; Blommaert, F A; Verleye, G; Castermans, J; Jansen Steur, E N; Kleijnen, J

    1998-12-01

    A growing number of people is subject to age-related cognitive impairment due to the proportional increase of the ageing population. Therefore, there is a growing interest in cognition-enhancing substances. The efficacy of an alcohol/water extract of Ginkgo biloba in elderly individuals with memory- and/or concentration complaints was tested in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study by using both subjective and objective parameters. After a wash-out period of 4 weeks 241 non-institutionalised patients in the age range 55-86 years were randomly allocated to receive either Ginkgo biloba alcohol/water extract in a high dose (HD), a low dose (LD) or a placebo (PL) for 24 weeks. Patients were assessed using a psychometric testbattery in the following order: Expended Mental Control Test (EMCT) measuring attention and concentration, Benton Test of Visual Retention-Revised (measures short term visual memory), Rey Test part 1 (measures short term memory and learning curve), Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI) measuring the presence and severeness of a depression in order to exclude depressive patients and Rey Test part 2 (measures long term memory: recognition). Furthermore, subjective perception of memory and concentration was measured. 197 patients completed the study (mean MMSE score: 26.29). In the subjective test, the EMCT, the Rey 1 and Rey 2 no significant differences in improvement in time between the groups were observed. In the Benton test increases of 18%, 26% and 11% (expressed as percentage of baseline scores) were observed in the HD, LD and PL respectively (MANOVA; p = 0.0076). No substantial correlation was observed between subjective perception of the severeness of memory complaints and the objective test results. No differences in the number of (gastrointestinal) side effects were observed between placebo and verum groups. These results indicate that the use of Ginkgo extracts in elderly individuals with cognitive impairment might be promising

  6. Effects of Magnesium Supplementation on Blood Pressure: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Li, Yufeng; Del Gobbo, Liana C; Rosanoff, Andrea; Wang, Jiawei; Zhang, Wen; Song, Yiqing

    2016-08-01

    The antihypertensive effect of magnesium (Mg) supplementation remains controversial. We aimed to quantify the effect of oral Mg supplementation on blood pressure (BP) by synthesizing available evidence from randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. We searched trials of Mg supplementation on normotensive and hypertensive adults published up to February 1, 2016 from MEDLINE and EMBASE databases; 34 trials involving 2028 participants were eligible for this meta-analysis. Weighted mean differences of changes in BP and serum Mg were calculated by random-effects meta-analysis. Mg supplementation at a median dose of 368 mg/d for a median duration of 3 months significantly reduced systolic BP by 2.00 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 0.43-3.58) and diastolic BP by 1.78 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 0.73-2.82); these reductions were accompanied by 0.05 mmol/L (95% confidence interval, 0.03, 0.07) elevation of serum Mg compared with placebo. Using a restricted cubic spline curve, we found that Mg supplementation with a dose of 300 mg/d or duration of 1 month is sufficient to elevate serum Mg and reduce BP; and serum Mg was negatively associated with diastolic BP but not systolic BP (all P<0.05). In the stratified analyses, a greater reduction in BP tended to be found in trials with high quality or low dropout rate (all P values for interaction <0.05). However, residual heterogeneity may still exist after considering these possible factors. Our findings indicate a causal effect of Mg supplementation on lowering BPs in adults. Further well-designed trials are warranted to validate the BP-lowering efficacy of optimal Mg treatment. PMID:27402922

  7. Varenicline and Nicotine Patch Therapies in Young Adults Motivated to Quit Smoking: A Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Tuisku, Anna; Salmela, Merita; Nieminen, Pentti; Toljamo, Tuula

    2016-07-01

    This study compares the nicotine patch to placebo in young adult light smokers, and the nicotine patch to varenicline in heavy smokers. Volunteer daily smokers were recruited into a randomized, placebo-controlled study via community media, colleges and the army (aged 18-26 years). Those subjects with light tobacco dependence were randomized to (i) placebo patch (n = 86) and (ii) nicotine patch 10 mg/16 hr for 8 weeks (n = 94), and those with stronger dependence to (iii) nicotine patch 15 mg/16 hr for 8 weeks (n = 51) and (iv) varenicline for 12 weeks (n = 60). The primary outcome variable was self-reported smoking abstinence at week 12. Secondary outcome variables were self-reported smoking abstinence at weeks 4 and 26, and self-reported abstinence verified by saliva cotinine level at week 12. The prevalence of self-reported smoking abstinence did not differ statistically significantly in light smokers during the follow-up (week 4: 19.8% for placebo patch and 26.6% for nicotine patch 10 mg/16 hr; week 12: 17.4% versus 23.4%; week 26: 15.1% versus 20.2%), but the groups of heavy smokers differed significantly for 12 weeks (week 4: 19.6% for nicotine patch 15 mg/16 hr and 73.3% for varenicline, p < 0.001; week 12: 15.7% versus 36.7%, p = 0.018). This statistically significant difference did not endure for the entire follow-up (week 26: 9.8% versus 18.3%, p = 0.280). However, saliva cotinine verified abstinence at week 12 did not support self-reported abstinence. Varenicline may be more effective than the nicotine patch as a smoking cessation pharmacotherapy among young adult heavy smokers in the short-term. PMID:26709238

  8. An integral topical gel for cellulite reduction: results from a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled evaluation of efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Eric; Journet, Michel; Oula, Marie-Laure; Gomez, Juan; Léveillé, Claude; Loing, Estelle; Bilodeau, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Background Cellulite is a serious cosmetic concern for most of the 90% of women affected by it. Objective To assess the clinical efficacy of a complex integral anti-cellulite gel. Methods This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study involved 44 healthy women, aged 25–55 years. Subjects had a normal to slightly overweight body mass index and presented slight to moderate cellulite on their thighs, buttocks, and/or hips at baseline. Subjects were randomly assigned to either the treated or placebo group and accordingly applied the active product or placebo on their hips, stomach, buttocks, and thighs, twice daily for 3 months. Skin tonicity, orange-peel aspect, and stubborn cellulite were assessed at day 0, 28, 56, and 84. A self-evaluation questionnaire was completed by all volunteers. Results At the end of the study, an average of 81% of the subjects applying the active product presented improvement in their cellulite condition versus 32% for the placebo group (all descriptors and sites combined). At day 84, skin tonicity, orange-peel appearance, and stubborn cellulite were improved in a significant manner (P<0.05) over placebo, on all studied areas. Skin tonicity improved on average by +41% for buttocks, +35% for hips, and +31% for thighs. Orange peel appearance was reduced on average by −25% for buttocks, −22% for hips, and −22% for thighs. Stubborn cellulite was reduced on average by −19% for buttocks, −24% for hips, and −22% for thighs. Circumference measurements decreased in a significant manner (P<0.05) over placebo, for the abdomen (average value of −1.1 cm) and thighs (average value of −0.8 cm). The product was well tolerated and perceived by the volunteers themselves as better performing than placebo on all criteria. Conclusion All results validate the efficacy of the present integral formulation to significantly reduce signs of cellulite and reshape the silhouette. PMID:24600240

  9. Midodrine in patients with spinal cord injury and anejaculation: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Leduc, Bernard E.; Fournier, Christine; Jacquemin, Géraldine; Lepage, Yves; Vinet, Bernard; Hétu, Pierre-Olivier; Chagnon, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of midodrine in the treatment of anejaculation in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). Study design Prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study. Method Men with anejaculation associated with SCI (level of injury above T10) of more than 1 year in duration were approached. Those with no ejaculatory response to one penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) trial were assigned in a double-blind manner to one of the two following interventions once a week for a maximum of 3 weeks or until ejaculation occurred: oral administration of flexible midodrine (7.5–22.5 mg max) followed by PVS (group M), or oral administration of flexible sham-midodrine (placebo) followed by PVS (group P). Sociodemographic data, medical characteristics, and plasma desglymidodrine concentration were collected for all participants. Outcome measure Ejaculation success rate in each group. Results Among the 78 men approached, 23 participants (level of SCI: C4–T9) were randomized. Three participants abandoned the study and 20 completed the study; 10 were assigned to group M, 10 to group P. Ejaculation was reached for one participant of group M and for two participants of group P. Autonomic dysreflexia associated to PVS occurred in three patients. Conclusion In this small sample study, treatment of anejaculation after SCI with midodrine and PVS did not result in a better rate of antegrade ejaculation in 10 men than in 10 men treated with a placebo and PVS. PMID:24969635

  10. A double-blind, randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled, pilot trial with Sativex in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    López-Sendón Moreno, Jose Luis; García Caldentey, Juan; Trigo Cubillo, Patricia; Ruiz Romero, Carolina; García Ribas, Guillermo; Alonso Arias, M A Alonso; García de Yébenes, María Jesús; Tolón, Rosa María; Galve-Roperh, Ismael; Sagredo, Onintza; Valdeolivas, Sara; Resel, Eva; Ortega-Gutierrez, Silvia; García-Bermejo, María Laura; Fernández Ruiz, Javier; Guzmán, Manuel; García de Yébenes Prous, Justo

    2016-07-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease for which there is no curative treatment available. Given that the endocannabinoid system is involved in the pathogenesis of HD mouse models, stimulation of specific targets within this signaling system has been investigated as a promising therapeutic agent in HD. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over pilot clinical trial with Sativex(®), a botanical extract with an equimolecular combination of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. Both Sativex(®) and placebo were dispensed as an oral spray, to be administered up to 12 sprays/day for 12 weeks. The primary objective was safety, assessed by the absence of more severe adverse events (SAE) and no greater deterioration of motor, cognitive, behavioral and functional scales during the phase of active treatment. Secondary objectives were clinical improvement of Unified Huntington Disease Rating Scale scores. Twenty-six patients were randomized and 24 completed the trial. After ruling-out period and sequence effects, safety and tolerability were confirmed. No differences on motor (p = 0.286), cognitive (p = 0.824), behavioral (p = 1.0) and functional (p = 0.581) scores were detected during treatment with Sativex(®) as compared to placebo. No significant molecular effects were detected on the biomarker analysis. Sativex(®) is safe and well tolerated in patients with HD, with no SAE or clinical worsening. No significant symptomatic effects were detected at the prescribed dosage and for a 12-week period. Also, no significant molecular changes were observed on the biomarkers. Future study designs should consider higher doses, longer treatment periods and/or alternative cannabinoid combinations.Clincaltrals.gov identifier: NCT01502046. PMID:27159993

  11. Efficacy of sodium butyrate adjunct therapy in shigellosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Treatment of shigellosis in rabbits with butyrate reduces clinical severity and counteracts the downregulation of cathelicidin (CAP-18) in the large intestinal epithelia. Here, we aimed to evaluate whether butyrate can be used as an adjunct to antibiotics in the treatment of shigellosis in patients. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group designed clinical trial was conducted. Eighty adult patients with shigellosis were randomized to either the Intervention group (butyrate, n = 40) or the Placebo group (normal saline, n = 40). The Intervention group was given an enema containing sodium butyrate (80 mM), twice daily for 3 days, while the Placebo group received the same dose of normal saline. The primary endpoint of the trial was to assess the efficacy of butyrate in improving clinical, endoscopic and histological features of shigellosis. The secondary endpoint was to study the effect of butyrate on the induction of antimicrobial peptides in the rectum. Clinical outcomes were assessed and concentrations of antimicrobial peptides (LL-37, human beta defensin1 [HBD-1] and human beta defensin 3 [HBD-3]) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β [IL-1β] and interleukin-8 [IL-8]) were measured in the stool. Sigmoidoscopic and histopathological analyses, and immunostaining of LL-37 in the rectal mucosa were performed in a subgroup of patients. Results Compared with placebo, butyrate therapy led to the early reduction of macrophages, pus cells, IL-8 and IL-1β in the stool and improvement in rectal histopathology. Butyrate treatment induced LL-37 expression in the rectal epithelia. Stool concentration of LL-37 remained significantly higher in the Intervention group on days 4 and 7. Conclusion Adjunct therapy with butyrate during shigellosis led to early reduction of inflammation and enhanced LL-37 expression in the rectal epithelia with prolonged release of LL-37 in the stool. Trial Registration Clinical

  12. Oral Zinc Sulfate as Adjuvant Treatment in Children With Nephrolithiasis: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Cyrus, Ali; Dorreh, Fatemeh; Rafeie, Mohammad; Sharafkhah, Mojtaba; Frohar, Faryar; Safi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nephrolithiasis in children is associated with a high rate of complications and recurrence. Objectives: Since some evidences reported that zinc has an important place amongst inhibitors of crystallization and crystal growth, we decided to assess the effectiveness of oral zinc sulfate as adjuvant treatment in children with nephrolithiasis. Patients and Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. 102 children in the age range 1 month to 11 years with first nephrolithiasis were recruited. Patients were randomly divided into two equal groups (intervention and control groups). Intervention group received conservative measures for stones and 1 mg/kg/day (maximum 20 mg/day) oral zinc sulfate syrup for 3 months. Control group received placebo in addition to conservative measures, also for 3 months. Patients were followed up by ultrasonography for 9 months, in 5 steps (at the end of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 6th and 9th month after treatment) assessing size and number of stones in the kidneys. Results: Only at the end of the first month, the average number (intervention: 1.15 ± 3.78, control: 1.3 ± 2.84) (P = 0.001) and size (cm) (intervention: 0.51 ± 1.76, control: 0.62 ± 1.39) (P = 0.001) of stones was significantly lower in the intervention group, and in other points there was no significant therapeutic efficacy in oral zinc adjuvant treatment compared to conservative treatment alone. Also, during the 9-month follow-up, the number and size of stones in both groups decreased significantly (both: P < 0.0001) in a way that the decrease in the intervention group showed no difference with the control group. Conclusions: Adjuvant treatment with zinc is not more effective than consecutive treatment in children with nephrolithiasis. However, further studies are recommended due to the lack of clinical evidence in this field. PMID:26635934

  13. Saccharomyces boulardii to Prevent Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea: A Randomized, Double-Masked, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ehrhardt, Stephan; Guo, Nan; Hinz, Rebecca; Schoppen, Stefanie; May, Jürgen; Reiser, Markus; Schroeder, Maximilian Philipp; Schmiedel, Stefan; Keuchel, Martin; Reisinger, Emil C.; Langeheinecke, Andreas; de Weerth, Andreas; Schuchmann, Marcus; Schaberg, Tom; Ligges, Sandra; Eveslage, Maria; Hagen, Ralf M.; Burchard, Gerd D.; Lohse, Ansgar W.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) are common complications of antibiotic use. Data on the efficacy of probiotics to prevent AAD and CDAD are unclear. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii to prevent AAD and CDAD in hospitalized adult patients. Methods. We conducted a multicenter, phase III, double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in hospitalized patients who received systemic antibiotic treatment in 15 hospitals in Germany between July 2010 and October 2012. Participants received Perenterol forte 250 mg capsules or matching placebo twice per day within 24 hours of initiating antibiotic treatment, continued treatment for 7 days after antibiotic discontinuation, and were then observed for 6 weeks. Results. Two thousand four hundred forty-four patients were screened. The trial was stopped early for futility after inclusion of 477 participants. Two hundred forty-six patients aged 60.1 ± 16.5 years and 231 patients aged 56.5 ± 17.8 were randomized to the S boulardii group and the placebo group, respectively, with 21 and 19 AADs in the respective groups (P = .87). The hazard ratio of AAD in the S boulardii group compared with the placebo group was 1.02 (95% confidence interval, .55–1.90; P = .94). Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea occurred in 0.8% of participants (4 of 477). Nine serious adverse events were recorded in the S boulardii group, and 3 serious adverse events were recorded in the placebo group. None were related to study participation. Conclusions. We found no evidence for an effect of S boulardii in preventing AAD or CDAD in a population of hospitalized patients without particular risk factors apart from systemic antibiotic treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier. NCT01143272. PMID:26973849

  14. Taurine Supplementation Lowers Blood Pressure and Improves Vascular Function in Prehypertension: Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qianqian; Wang, Bin; Li, Yingsha; Sun, Fang; Li, Peng; Xia, Weijie; Zhou, Xunmei; Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaojing; Chen, Jing; Zeng, Xiangru; Zhao, Zhigang; He, Hongbo; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming

    2016-03-01

    Taurine, the most abundant, semiessential, sulfur-containing amino acid, is well known to lower blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive animal models. However, no rigorous clinical trial has validated whether this beneficial effect of taurine occurs in human hypertension or prehypertension, a key stage in the development of hypertension. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we assessed the effects of taurine intervention on BP and vascular function in prehypertension. We randomly assigned 120 eligible prehypertensive individuals to receive either taurine supplementation (1.6 g per day) or a placebo for 12 weeks. Taurine supplementation significantly decreased the clinic and 24-hour ambulatory BPs, especially in those with high-normal BP. Mean clinic systolic BP reduction for taurine/placebo was 7.2/2.6 mm Hg, and diastolic BP was 4.7/1.3 mm Hg. Mean ambulatory systolic BP reduction for taurine/placebo was 3.8/0.3 mm Hg, and diastolic BP was 3.5/0.6 mm Hg. In addition, taurine supplementation significantly improved endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation and increased plasma H2S and taurine concentrations. Furthermore, changes in BP were negatively correlated with both the plasma H2S and taurine levels in taurine-treated prehypertensive individuals. To further elucidate the hypotensive mechanism, experimental studies were performed both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that taurine treatment upregulated the expression of hydrogen sulfide-synthesizing enzymes and reduced agonist-induced vascular reactivity through the inhibition of transient receptor potential channel subtype 3-mediated calcium influx in human and mouse mesenteric arteries. In conclusion, the antihypertensive effect of chronic taurine supplementation shows promise in the treatment of prehypertension through improvement of vascular function. PMID:26781281

  15. Botulinum Toxin Type A for Cephalic Cutaneous Allodynia in Chronic Migraine: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hollanda, Luciano; Monteiro, Larissa; Melo, Ailton

    2014-01-01

    Cephalic allodynia (CA) can be observed in 50-70% of patients with chronic migraine (CM). The aim of this trial was to assess the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (Botx-A) in the treatment of CA associated with CM. In this placebo-controlled trial, patients were randomized either into Botx-A or 0.9% saline injections and efficacy measures were assessed every 4 weeks for 3 months. Efficacy endpoints were number of migraine episodes associated with CA, changes from baseline in visual analogical scale scores for pain (VAS) and frequency of common analgesics use for migraine. A total of 38 subjects were randomized to saline (n=18) or Botx-A (n=20). There were no significant differences in baseline between active intervention or placebo groups regarding mean age, number of headache episodes [mean 12.1 (9.22) and 17.00 (9.69) respectively; P=0.12], pain severity as measured by the VAS or frequency of analgesic use for headache episodes. Efficacy analysis showed that Botx-A injections led to an important decrease from baseline in the mean migraine episodes associated with CA after 12 weeks (5.20 versus 11.17; P=0.01). Also, VAS scores and frequency of analgesics use for headache were significantly reduced in the Botx-A group. This study suggests that Botx-A injections are superior to saline in the treatment of CA associated with CM, with mild self limited side effects. PMID:25568735

  16. Gastrointestinal Complications of Ferrous Sulfate in Pregnant Women: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jafarbegloo, Esmat; Ahmari Tehran, Hoda; Dadkhah Tehrani, Tahmineh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Some pregnant women discontinue iron supplements consumption due to Gastrointestinal (GI) complications, whereas pregnancy induces the same complications physiologically. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess GI complications of ferrous sulfate in pregnant women. Patients and Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed on 176 pregnant women referred to prenatal care clinic of Maryam Hospital from April 2011 to February 2012. Pregnant women with Hb ≥ 13.2 gr/dL at 13th - 18th weeks of gestation were selected based on the inclusion criteria and were randomly assigned to the ferrous sulfate and placebo groups. The ferrous sulfate group (n = 90) received a 50-mg ferrous sulfate tablet daily from the 20th week to the end of pregnancy and the placebo group (n = 89) received one placebo tablet in the same way. All participants were visited twice at 24th - 28th and 32nd - 36th weeks to assess the GI complications as well as Hb level to determine the Hb changes in two groups. Chi-square test, t-test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test were used to analyze the data. P value of < 0.05 and confidence level of 95% were considered as statistically significant. Results: None of the GI complications were significantly different between the ferrous sulfate and placebo groups at 24th - 28th and 32nd - 36th weeks. Hemoglobin drop lower than 10.5 gr/dL at 24th - 28th weeks or lower than 11 g/dL at 32nd - 36th weeks was not observed in any cases. Conclusions: It can be concluded that GI complications in pregnant women using ferrous sulfate are mostly caused by physiologic changes of pregnancy rather than ferrous sulfate; therefore, it is not reasonable to stop using ferrous sulfate due to GI complications. PMID:26430520

  17. Ziprasidone Augmentation of Escitalopram for Major Depressive Disorder: Efficacy Results from a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Papakostas, George I.; Fava, Maurizio; Baer, Lee; Swee, Michaela B.; Jaeger, Adrienne; Bobo, William V.; Shelton, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test the efficacy of adjunctive ziprasidone in adults with non-psychotic unipolar major depression experiencing persistent symptoms following 8 weeks of open-label escitalopram. Method This was a multi-center, parallel randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at three academic medical centers in the United States. The participant pool consisted of 139 outpatients with persistent symptoms of major depressive disorder following an 8-week open label trial of escitalopram (phase 1). Subjects were randomized (1:1, n=139) to adjunctive ziprasidone (escitalopram+ziprasidone, n=71) or adjunctive placebo (escitalopram+placebo, n=68), with 8 weekly follow-up assessments. Primary outcome was defined by clinical response according to the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) and determined by a 50% or greater reduction in scale scores. The Hamilton Anxiety Rating scale (HAM-A) and Visual Analogue Scale for Pain were defined a priori as key secondary outcome measures. Results Rates of clinical response (35.2% vs. 20.5%, p=0.04) and mean improvement in HAMD-17 total scores (−6.4 ± 6.4 vs. −3.3 ± 6.2, p=0.04) were significantly greater for the escitalopram+ziprasidone group. Several secondary measures of antidepressant efficacy were also in favor of adjunctive ziprasidone. Escitalopram+ziprasidone also resulted in significantly greater improvement in HAM-A, but not Visual Analogue Scale for Pain scores. Ten (14%) patients discontinued escitalopram+ziprasidone due to intolerance versus none for escitalopram+placebo (p<0.01 versus placebo). Conclusions Adjunctive ziprasidone, when added to escitalopram, demonstrated antidepressant efficacy in adult patients with major depressive disorder experiencing persistent symptoms following 8 weeks of open-label escitalopram. PMID:26085041

  18. Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of Three Regimens for Prevention of Malaria: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial in Ugandan Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Cundill, Bonnie; Clarke, Sian; Kabatereine, Narcis; Rosenthal, Philip J.; Dorsey, Grant; Brooker, Simon; Staedke, Sarah G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) is a promising malaria control strategy; however, the optimal regimen remains unclear. We conducted a randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of a single course of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), amodiaquine + SP (AQ+SP) or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) among schoolchildren to inform IPT. Methods Asymptomatic girls aged 8 to 12 years and boys aged 8 to 14 years enrolled in two primary schools in Tororo, Uganda were randomized to receive one of the study regimens or placebo, regardless of presence of parasitemia at enrollment, and followed for 42 days. The primary outcome was risk of parasitemia at 42 days. Survival analysis was used to assess differences between regimens. Results Of 780 enrolled participants, 769 (98.6%) completed follow-up and were assigned a treatment outcome. The risk of parasitemia at 42 days varied significantly between DP (11.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 7.9, 17.1]), AQ+SP (44.3% [37.6, 51.5]), and SP (79.7% [95% CI: 73.6, 85.2], p<0.001). The risk of parasitemia in SP-treated children was no different than in those receiving placebo (84.6% [95% CI: 79.1, 89.3], p = 0.22). No serious adverse events occurred, but AQ+SP was associated with increased risk of vomiting compared to placebo (13.0% [95% CI: 9.1, 18.5] vs. 4.7% [95% CI: 2.5, 8.8], respectively, p = 0.003). Conclusions DP was the most efficacious and well-tolerated regimen tested, although AQ+SP appears to be a suitable alternative for IPT in schoolchildren. Use of SP for IPT may not be appropriate in areas with high-level SP resistance in Africa. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00852371 PMID:20976051

  19. Efficacy and Safety of Yokukansan in Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia: A Randomized, Multicenter, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Furuya, Motohide; Horiguchi, Jun; Hashioka, Sadayuki; Thoyama, Masaya; Murotani, Kenta; Mori, Norio; Minabe, Yoshio; Iyo, Masaomi; Ueno, Shuichi; Ezoe, Sachiko; Hoshino, Syuzo; Seno, Haruo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed at evaluating both the efficacy and safety of TJ-54 (Yokukansan) in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. This randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted. Methods. One hundred and twenty antipsychotic-treated inpatients were included. Patients were randomized to adjuvant treatment with TJ-54 or placebo. During a 4-week follow-up, psychopathology was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results. TJ-54 showed a tendency of being superior to placebo in reduction total, positive, and general PANSS scores in treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but the difference was not statistically significant in both per-protocol set (PPS) and intention-to-treat (ITT). However, in PPS analysis, compared to the placebo group, the TJ-54 group showed statistically significant improvements in the individual PANSS subscale scores for lack of spontaneity and flow of conversation (TJ-54: −0.23 ± 0.08; placebo: −0.03 ± 0.08, P < 0.018), tension (TJ-54: −0.42 ± 0.09; placebo: −0.18 ± 0.09, P < 0.045), and poor impulse control (TJ-54: −0.39 ± 0.10; placebo: −0.07 ± 0.10, P < 0.037). Conclusions. The results of the present study indicate that TJ-54 showed a tendency of being superior to placebo in reduction PANSS scores in treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but the difference was not statistically significant. However, compared to the placebo group, TJ-54 group showed statistically significant improvements in the individual PANSS subscale scores. PMID:25954314

  20. Suvorexant for Primary Insomnia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Kishi, Taro; Matsunaga, Shinji; Iwata, Nakao

    2015-01-01

    Objective We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials evaluating suvorexant for primary insomnia. Methods Relevant studies were identified through searches of PubMed, databases of the Cochrane Library, and PsycINFO citations through June 27, 2015. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of suvorexant trial efficacy and safety outcomes. The primary efficacy outcomes were either subjective total sleep time (sTST) or subjective time-to-sleep onset (sTSO) at 1 month. The secondary outcomes were other efficacy outcomes, discontinuation rate, and individual adverse events. The risk ratio, number-needed-to-treat/harm, and weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on a random effects model were calculated. Results The computerized literature database search initially yielded 48 results, from which 37 articles were excluded following a review of titles and abstracts and another eight review articles after full-text review. Thus, we identified 4 trials that included a total of 3,076 patients. Suvorexant was superior to placebo with regard to the two primary efficacy outcomes (sTST: WMD = −20.16, 95% CI = −25.01 to −15.30, 1889 patients, 3 trials, sTSO: WMD = −7.62, 95% CI = −11.03 to −4.21, 1889 patients, 3 trials) and was not different from placebo in trial discontinuations. Suvorexant caused a higher incidence than placebo of at least one side effects, abnormal dreams, somnolence, excessive daytime sleepiness/sedation, fatigue, dry mouth, and rebound insomnia. Conclusions Our analysis of published trial results suggests that suvorexant is effective in treating primary insomnia and is well-tolerated. PMID:26317363

  1. Rhodiola crenulata extract for prevention of acute mountain sickness: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rhodiola crenulata (R. crenulata) is widely used to prevent acute mountain sickness in the Himalayan areas and in Tibet, but no scientific studies have previously examined its effectiveness. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study to investigate its efficacy in acute mountain sickness prevention. Methods Healthy adult volunteers were randomized to 2 treatment sequences, receiving either 800 mg R. crenulata extract or placebo daily for 7 days before ascent and 2 days during mountaineering, before crossing over to the alternate treatment after a 3-month wash-out period. Participants ascended rapidly from 250 m to 3421 m on two separate occasions: December 2010 and April 2011. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of acute mountain sickness, as defined by a Lake Louise score ≥ 3, with headache and at least one of the symptoms of nausea or vomiting, fatigue, dizziness, or difficulty sleeping. Results One hundred and two participants completed the trial. There were no demographic differences between individuals taking Rhodiola-placebo and those taking placebo-Rhodiola. No significant differences in the incidence of acute mountain sickness were found between R. crenulata extract and placebo groups (all 60.8%; adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.69–1.52). The incidence of severe acute mountain sickness in Rhodiola extract vs. placebo groups was 35.3% vs. 29.4% (AOR = 1.42, 95% CI = 0.90–2.25). Conclusions R. crenulata extract was not effective in reducing the incidence or severity of acute mountain sickness as compared to placebo. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01536288. PMID:24176010

  2. Effect of Zolpidem on Sleep Quality of Professional Firefighters; a Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Mehrdad, Ramin; Sadeghniiat Haghighi, Khosro; Naseri Esfahani, Amir Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Professional firefighting is among the most demanding jobs. Prior studies have showed the notable prevalence of poor sleep quality among professional firefighters that may result in catastrophes. The aim of this study was in field confirmation of zolpidem usage (10 mg/PO/bed time) for short term management of poor sleeps quality among professional firefighters. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial among professional firefighters, 27 poor sleepers were assigned randomly to one of the two groups. Two 14 days experimental periods were separated by a 14-day washout phase. Sleep quality was assessed using the Persian version of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Six of the 27 enrolled voluntaries dropped out. Two rare side effects of zolpidem occurred in the study. A significant improvement of the PSQI score was detected in zolpidem period versus placebo in both groups (7.14 ± 3.02 vs 12.38 ± 2.51, P<0.001) although zolpidem had no significant effect on time of waking up (6.76 ± 1.21 vs.6.64 ± 1.27, P=0.89). Zolpidem significantly improved all components of PSQI (Subjective sleep quality, Sleep latency, Sleep duration, Habitual sleep efficiency, Sleep disturbances and Daytime dysfunction) in the current study except the use of sleep medication. Sleep onset latency was the component of PSQI with the greatest degree of abnormality among firefighters in a previous study. Interestingly, sleep latency was the component of PSQI with the most treatment effect of zolpidem in the current study. Zolpidem can be used asa part of treatment regimens in short time management of poor sleep quality among professional firefighters. PMID:26553086

  3. Topiramate for the management of methamphetamine dependence: a pilot randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Farzin; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Mardani, Roya; Hamidi, Seiran; Hassanzadeh, Kambiz

    2016-06-01

    To date, no medication has been approved as an effective treatment for methamphetamine dependence. Topiramate has attracted considerable attention as a treatment for the dependence on alcohol and stimulants. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of topiramate for methamphetamine dependence. This study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. In the present investigation, 62 methamphetamine-dependent adults were enrolled and randomized into two groups, and received topiramate or a placebo for 10 weeks in escalating doses from 50 mg/day to the target maintenance dose of 200 mg/day. Addiction severity index (ASI) and craving scores were registered every week. The Beck questionnaire was also given to each participant at baseline and every 2 weeks during the treatment. Urine samples were collected at baseline and every 2 weeks during the treatment. Fifty-seven patients completed 10 weeks of the trial. There was no significant difference between both groups in the mean percentage of prescribed capsules taken by the participants. At week six, the topiramate group showed a significantly lower proportion of methamphetamine-positive urine tests in comparison with the placebo group (P = 0.01). In addition, there were significantly lower scores in the topiramate group in comparison with the placebo group in two domains of ASI: drug use severity (P < 0.001) and drug need (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the craving score (duration) significantly declined in the topiramate patients compared to those receiving the placebo. In conclusion, the results of this trial suggest that topiramate may be beneficial for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. PMID:26751259

  4. Effects of atorvastatin on plasma matrix metalloproteinase-9 concentration after glial tumor resection; a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Neurosurgical procedures such as craniotomy and brain tumor resection could potentially lead to unavoidable cerebral injuries. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is up-regulated in neurological injuries. Statins have been suggested to reduce MMP- 9 level and lead to neuroprotection. Atorvastatin preoperatively administered to evaluate its neuroprotective effects and outcome assessment in neurosurgical-induced brain injuries after glial tumor resection. In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 42 patients undergoing glial tumor surgery randomly received 40 mg atorvastatin or placebo twice daily from seven days prior to operation and continued for a 3 weeks period. Plasma MMP-9 concentration measured 4 times, immediately before starting atorvastatin or placebo, immediately before surgery, 24 hours and two weeks after the surgery. Karnofsky performance score was assessed before first dose of atorvastatin as a baseline and 2 months after the surgery. Results Karnofsky performance scale after surgery raised significantly more in Atorvastatin group (11.43 +/- 10.62 vs. 4.00 +/- 8.21) (p = 0.03). Atorvastatin did not significantly reduce MMP-9 plasma concentration 24 hours after surgery in comparison to placebo. No statistical significance detected regarding length of hospital stay among the groups. Significant reduction in MMP-9 plasma concentration was recorded in atorvastatin group two weeks after surgery (p = 0.048). Conclusions Significant statistical differences detected with atorvastatin group regarding MMP-9 plasma concentration, clinical outcome and Karnofsky performance score. Consequently, atorvastatin use may lead to better outcome after neurosurgical procedures. PMID:24397933

  5. Ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide in spinal cord injury neuropathic pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Sven R; Bing, Jette; Hansen, Rikke M; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Johannesen, Inger L; Hagen, Ellen Merete; Rice, Andrew S C; Nielsen, Jørgen F; Bach, Flemming W; Finnerup, Nanna B

    2016-09-01

    Neuropathic pain and spasticity after spinal cord injury (SCI) represent significant problems. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), a fatty acid amide that is produced in many cells in the body, is thought to potentiate the action of endocannabinoids and to reduce pain and inflammation. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel multicenter study was performed to investigate the effect of ultramicronized PEA (PEA-um) as add-on therapy on neuropathic pain in individuals with SCI. A pain diary was completed and questionnaires were completed before and after the 12-week treatment with either placebo or PEA-um. The primary outcome measure was the change in mean neuropathic pain intensity from the 1-week baseline period to the last week of treatment measured on a numeric rating scale ranging from 0 to 10. The primary efficacy analysis was the intention to treat (baseline observation carried forward). Secondary outcomes included a per protocol analysis and effects on spasticity, evoked pain, sleep problems, anxiety, depression, and global impression of change. We randomized 73 individuals with neuropathic pain due to SCI, of which 5 had a major protocol violation, and thus 68 were included in the primary analysis. There was no difference in mean pain intensity between PEA-um and placebo treatment (P = 0.46, mean reductions in pain scores 0.4 (-0.1 to 0.9) vs 0.7 (0.2-1.2); difference of means 0.3 (-0.4 to 0.9)). There was also no effect of PEA-um as add-on therapy on spasticity, insomnia, or psychological functioning. PEA was not associated with more adverse effects than placebo. PMID:27227691

  6. Assessment of the Reporting Quality of Placebo-controlled Randomized Trials on the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes With Traditional Chinese Medicine in Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiyan; Zhen, Zhong; Guo, Jing; Zhao, Tianyu; Ye, Ru; Guo, Yu; Chen, Hongdong; Lian, Fengmei; Tong, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Placebo-controlled randomized trials are often used to evaluate the absolute effect of new treatments and are considered gold standard for clinical trials. No studies, however, have yet been conducted evaluating the reporting quality of placebo-controlled randomized trials. The current study aims to assess the reporting quality of placebo-controlled randomized trials on treatment of diabetes with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in Mainland China and to provide recommendations for improvements. China National Knowledge Infrastructure database, Wanfang database, China Biology Medicine database, and VIP database were searched for placebo-controlled randomized trials on treatment of diabetes with TCM. Review, animal experiment, and randomized controlled trials without placebo control were excluded. According to Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) 2010 checklists items, each item was given a yes or no depending on whether it was reported or not. A total of 68 articles were included. The reporting percentage in each article ranged from 24.3% to 73%, and 30.9% articles reported more than 50% of the items. Seven of the 37 items were reported more than 90% of the items, whereas 7 items were not mentioned at all. The average reporting for “title and abstract,” “introduction,” “methods,” “results,” “discussion,” and “other information” was 43.4%, 78.7%, 40.1%, 49.9%, 71.1%, and 17.2%, respectively. The percentage of each section had increased after 2010. In addition, the reporting of multiple study centers, funding, placebo species, informed consent forms, and ethical approvals were 14.7%, 50%, 36.85%, 33.8%, and 4.4%, respectively. Although a scoring system was created according to the CONSORT 2010 checklist, it was not designed as an assessment tool. According to CONSORT 2010, the reporting quality of placebo-controlled randomized trials on the treatment of diabetes with TCM improved after 2010. Future improvements

  7. Protective Effect of Folic Acid on Oxidative DNA Damage: A Randomized, Double-Blind, and Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Cui, Huan; Zhang, Haiyang; Guan, Xiaoju; Zhang, Zheng; Jia, Chaonan; Wu, Jia; Yang, Hui; Qiu, Wenting; Zhang, Chuanwu; Yang, Zuopeng; Chen, Zhu; Mao, Guangyun

    2015-11-01

    Although previous reports have linked DNA damage with both transmissions across generations as well as our own survival, it is unknown how to reverse the lesion. Based on the data from a Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial, this study aimed to assess the efficacy of folic acid supplementation (FAS) on DNA oxidative damage reversal.In this randomized clinical trial (RCT), a total of 450 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned to 3 groups to receive folic acid (FA) 0.4 mg/day (low-FA), 0.8 mg/day (high-FA), or placebo (control) for 8 weeks. The urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and creatinine (Cr) concentration at pre- and post-FAS were measured with modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. A multivariate general linear model was applied to assess the individual effects of FAS and the joint effects between FAS and hypercholesterolemia on oxidative DNA damage improvement. This clinical trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02235948.Of the 438 subjects that received FA fortification or placebo, the median (first quartile, third quartile) of urinary 8-OHdG/Cr for placebo, low-FA, and high-FA groups were 58.19 (43.90, 82.26), 53.51 (38.97, 72.74), 54.73 (39.58, 76.63) ng/mg at baseline and 57.77 (44.35, 81.33), 51.73 (38.20, 71.30), and 50.65 (37.64, 76.17) ng/mg at the 56th day, respectively. A significant decrease of urinary 8-OHdG was observed after 56 days FA fortification (P < 0.001). Compared with the placebo, after adjusting for some potential confounding factors, including the baseline urinary 8-OHdG/Cr, the urinary 8-OHdG/Cr concentration significantly decreased after 56 days FAS [β (95% confidence interval) = -0.88 (-1.62, -0.14) and P = 0.020 for low-FA; and β (95% confidence interval) = -2.68 (-3.42, -1.94) and P < 0.001 for high-FA] in a dose-response fashion (Ptrend < 0.001). Test of

  8. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Phase II, Presurgical Biomarker Trial of Celecoxib Versus Exemestane in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Aristarco, Valentina; Serrano, Davide; Gandini, Sara; Johansson, Harriet; Macis, Debora; Guerrieri-Gonzaga, Aliana; Lazzeroni, Matteo; Feroce, Irene; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Pagani, Gianmatteo; Toesca, Antonio; Caldarella, Pietro; DeCensi, Andrea; Bonanni, Bernardo

    2016-05-01

    In breast cancer presurgical trials, the Ki-67 labeling index predicts disease outcome and offers clues to the preventive potential of drugs. We conducted a placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the activity of exemestane and celecoxib before surgery. The main endpoint was the change in Ki-67. Secondary endpoints were the modulation of circulating biomarkers. Postmenopausal women with histologically confirmed estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer were randomly assigned to exemestane 25 mg/day (n = 50), or celecoxib 800 mg/day (n = 50), or placebo (n = 25) for 6 weeks before surgery. Changes in biomarkers were analyzed through an ANCOVA model adjusting for baseline values. Exemestane showed a median absolute 10% reduction in Ki-67 [from 22 (interquartile range, IQR, 16-27), to 8 (IQR 5-18)], and a 15% absolute reduction in PgR expression [from 50 (IQR 3-90) to 15 (IQR -0-30)] after 6 weeks of treatment. Exemestane significantly increased testosterone [median change 0.21 ng/mL, (IQR 0.12-0.35)], decreased SHBG [median change -14.6 nmol/L, (IQR -23.1 to -8.6)], decreased total and HDL cholesterol by -10 mg/dL (IQR -21-2) and -7 mg/dL, (IQR -14 to -2), respectively. Triglycerides were reduced by both agents [median change -0.5 mg/dL (IQR -17.5-13.5) and -8 mg/dL (IQR -28-9) for celecoxib and exemestane, respectively]. Exemestane showed a remarkable antiproliferative effect on breast cancer, whereas celecoxib did not affect breast cancer proliferation. Given the proven preventive efficacy of exemestane, these findings support the use of Ki-67 to explore the optimal exemestane dose and schedule in the prevention setting. Cancer Prev Res; 9(5); 349-56. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26928670

  9. Protection of Salivary Function by Concomitant Pilocarpine During Radiotherapy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    SciTech Connect

    Burlage, Fred R. Roesink, Judith M.; Kampinga, Harm H.; Coppes, Rob P.; Terhaard, Chris; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Luijk, Peter van; Stokman, Monique A.; Vissink, Arjan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiotherapy for head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) on postradiotherapy xerostomia. Methods and Materials: A prospective, double blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial including 170 patients with HNSCC was executed to study the protective effect of pilocarpine on radiotherapy-induced parotid gland dysfunction. The primary objective endpoint was parotid flow rate complication probability (PFCP) scored 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after radiotherapy. Secondary endpoints included Late Effects of Normal Tissue/Somatic Objective Management Analytic scale (LENT SOMA) and patient-rated xerostomia scores. For all parotid glands, dose-volume histograms were assessed because the dose distribution in the parotid glands is considered the most important prognostic factor with regard to radiation-induced salivary dysfunction. Results: Although no significant differences in PFCP were found for the two treatments arms, a significant (p = 0.03) reduced loss of parotid flow 1 year after radiotherapy was observed in those patients who received pilocarpine and a mean parotid dose above 40 Gy. The LENT SOMA and patient-rated xerostomia scores showed similar trends toward less dryness-related complaints for the pilocarpine group. Conclusions: Concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiotherapy did not improve the PFCP or LENT SOMA and patient-rated xerostomia scores. In a subgroup of patients with a mean dose above 40 Gy, pilocarpine administration resulted in sparing of parotid gland function. Therefore, pilocarpine could be provided to patients in whom sufficient sparing of the parotid is not achievable.

  10. Efficacy of Continuous S(+)-Ketamine Infusion for Postoperative Pain Control: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Miziara, Luiz Eduardo de Paula Gomes; Simoni, Ricardo Francisco; Esteves, Luís Otávio; Cangiani, Luis Henrique; Grillo-Filho, Gil Fernando Ribeiro; Paula, Anderson Garcia Lima e

    2016-01-01

    Aim. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy of continuous intraoperative infusion of S(+)-ketamine under intravenous anesthesia with target-controlled infusion of remifentanil and propofol for postoperative pain control. Methods. Forty-eight patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were assigned to receive continuous S(+)-ketamine infusion at a rate of 0.3 mg·kg−1·h−1 (n = 24, intervention group) or an equivalent volume of saline at the same rate (n = 24, placebo group). The same target-controlled intravenous anesthesia was induced in both groups. Pain was assessed using a 0 to 10 verbal numeric rating scale during the first 12 postoperative hours. Pain scores and morphine consumption were recorded in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) and at 4 and 12 hours after surgery. Results. Pain scores were lower in the intervention group at all time points. Morphine consumption did not differ significantly between groups during PACU stay, but it was significantly lower in the intervention group at each time point after PACU discharge (P = 0.0061). At 12 hours after surgery, cumulative morphine consumption was also lower in the intervention group (5.200 ± 2.707) than in the placebo group (7.525 ± 1.872). Conclusions. Continuous S(+)-ketamine infusion during laparoscopic cholecystectomy under target-controlled intravenous anesthesia provided better postoperative pain control than placebo, reducing morphine requirement. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02421913. PMID:26949390

  11. Efficacy of Continuous S(+)-Ketamine Infusion for Postoperative Pain Control: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Miziara, Luiz Eduardo de Paula Gomes; Simoni, Ricardo Francisco; Esteves, Luís Otávio; Cangiani, Luis Henrique; Grillo-Filho, Gil Fernando Ribeiro; Paula, Anderson Garcia Lima E

    2016-01-01

    Aim. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy of continuous intraoperative infusion of S(+)-ketamine under intravenous anesthesia with target-controlled infusion of remifentanil and propofol for postoperative pain control. Methods. Forty-eight patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were assigned to receive continuous S(+)-ketamine infusion at a rate of 0.3 mg·kg(-1)·h(-1) (n = 24, intervention group) or an equivalent volume of saline at the same rate (n = 24, placebo group). The same target-controlled intravenous anesthesia was induced in both groups. Pain was assessed using a 0 to 10 verbal numeric rating scale during the first 12 postoperative hours. Pain scores and morphine consumption were recorded in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) and at 4 and 12 hours after surgery. Results. Pain scores were lower in the intervention group at all time points. Morphine consumption did not differ significantly between groups during PACU stay, but it was significantly lower in the intervention group at each time point after PACU discharge (P = 0.0061). At 12 hours after surgery, cumulative morphine consumption was also lower in the intervention group (5.200 ± 2.707) than in the placebo group (7.525 ± 1.872). Conclusions. Continuous S(+)-ketamine infusion during laparoscopic cholecystectomy under target-controlled intravenous anesthesia provided better postoperative pain control than placebo, reducing morphine requirement. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02421913. PMID:26949390

  12. Kiwifruit-derived supplements increase stool frequency in healthy adults: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ansell, Juliet; Butts, Christine A; Paturi, Gunaranjan; Eady, Sarah L; Wallace, Alison J; Hedderley, Duncan; Gearry, Richard B

    2015-05-01

    The worldwide growth in the incidence of gastrointestinal disorders has created an immediate need to identify safe and effective interventions. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we examined the effects of Actazin and Gold, kiwifruit-derived nutritional ingredients, on stool frequency, stool form, and gastrointestinal comfort in healthy and functionally constipated (Rome III criteria for C3 functional constipation) individuals. Using a crossover design, all participants consumed all 4 dietary interventions (Placebo, Actazin low dose [Actazin-L] [600 mg/day], Actazin high dose [Actazin-H] [2400 mg/day], and Gold [2400 mg/day]). Each intervention was taken for 28 days followed by a 14-day washout period between interventions. Participants recorded their daily bowel movements and well-being parameters in daily questionnaires. In the healthy cohort (n = 19), the Actazin-H (P = .014) and Gold (P = .009) interventions significantly increased the mean daily bowel movements compared with the washout. No significant differences were observed in stool form as determined by use of the Bristol stool scale. In a subgroup analysis of responders in the healthy cohort, Actazin-L (P = .005), Actazin-H (P < .001), and Gold (P = .001) consumption significantly increased the number of daily bowel movements by greater than 1 bowel movement per week. In the functionally constipated cohort (n = 9), there were no significant differences between interventions for bowel movements and the Bristol stool scale values or in the subsequent subgroup analysis of responders. This study demonstrated that Actazin and Gold produced clinically meaningful increases in bowel movements in healthy individuals. PMID:25931419

  13. IQP-GC-101 Reduces Body Weight and Body Fat Mass: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

    2014-01-01

    IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14 weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30 min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500 kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26 ± 2.37 kg compared with 0.56 ± 2.34 kg for placebo (pU = 0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability. © 2014 InQpharm Group Sdn Bhd. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24797657

  14. Lovastatin for the Treatment of Adult Patients With Dengue: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Whitehorn, James; Nguyen, Chau Van Vinh; Khanh, Lam Phung; Kien, Duong Thi Hue; Quyen, Nguyen Than Ha; Tran, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Hang, Nguyen Thuy; Truong, Nguyen Thanh; Hue Tai, Luong Thi; Cam Huong, Nguyen Thi; Nhon, Vo Thanh; Van Tram, Ta; Farrar, Jeremy; Wolbers, Marcel; Simmons, Cameron P.; Wills, Bridget

    2016-01-01

    Background. Dengue endangers billions of people in the tropical world, yet no therapeutic is currently available. In part, the severe manifestations of dengue reflect inflammatory processes affecting the vascular endothelium. In addition to lipid lowering, statins have pleiotropic effects that improve endothelial function, and epidemiological studies suggest that outcomes from a range of acute inflammatory syndromes are improved in patients already on statin therapy. Methods. Following satisfactory review of a short pilot phase (40 mg lovastatin vs placebo in 30 cases), we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 5 days of 80 mg lovastatin vs placebo in 300 Vietnamese adults with a positive dengue NS1 rapid test presenting within 72 hours of fever onset. The primary outcome was safety. Secondary outcomes included comparisons of disease progression rates, fever clearance times, and measures of plasma viremia and quality of life between the treatment arms. Results. Adverse events occurred with similar frequency in both groups (97/151 [64%] placebo vs 82/149 [55%] lovastatin; P = .13), and were in keeping with the characteristic clinical and laboratory features of acute dengue. We also observed no difference in serious adverse events or any of the secondary outcome measures. Conclusions. We found lovastatin to be safe and well tolerated in adults with dengue. However, although the study was not powered to address efficacy, we found no evidence of a beneficial effect on any of the clinical manifestations or on dengue viremia. Continuing established statin therapy in patients who develop dengue is safe. Chinese Clinical Trials Registration. ISRCTN03147572. PMID:26565005

  15. Psyllium Supplementation in Adolescents Improves Fat Distribution & Lipid Profile: A Randomized, Participant-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    de Bock, Martin; Derraik, José G. B.; Brennan, Christine M.; Biggs, Janene B.; Smith, Greg C.; Cameron-Smith, David; Wall, Clare R.; Cutfield, Wayne S.

    2012-01-01

    Aims We aimed to assess the effects of psyllium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and other parameters of the metabolic syndrome in an at risk adolescent population. Methods This study encompassed a participant-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Subjects were 47 healthy adolescent males aged 15–16 years, recruited from secondary schools in lower socio-economic areas with high rates of obesity. Participants received 6 g/day of psyllium or placebo for 6 weeks, with a two-week washout before crossing over. Fasting lipid profiles, ambulatory blood pressure, auxological data, body composition, activity levels, and three-day food records were collected at baseline and after each 6-week intervention. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the Matsuda method using glucose and insulin values from an oral glucose tolerance test. Results 45 subjects completed the study, and compliance was very high: 87% of participants took >80% of prescribed capsules. At baseline, 44% of subjects were overweight or obese. 28% had decreased insulin sensitivity, but none had impaired glucose tolerance. Fibre supplementation led to a 4% reduction in android fat to gynoid fat ratio (p = 0.019), as well as a 0.12 mmol/l (6%) reduction in LDL cholesterol (p = 0.042). No associated adverse events were recorded. Conclusions Dietary supplementation with 6 g/day of psyllium over 6 weeks improves fat distribution and lipid profile (parameters of the metabolic syndrome) in an at risk population of adolescent males. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000888268 PMID:22848584

  16. Melatonin for sedative withdrawal in older patients with primary insomnia: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lähteenmäki, Ritva; Puustinen, Juha; Vahlberg, Tero; Lyles, Alan; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Partinen, Markku; Räihä, Ismo; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa

    2014-01-01

    Aim We compared the efficacy of melatonin and placebo as adjuvants in the withdrawal of patients from long term temazepam, zopiclone or zolpidem (here ‘BZD’) use. Methods A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted in a primary health care outpatient clinic. Ninety-two men or women (≥55 years) with primary insomnia and chronic BZD use received controlled release melatonin 2 mg (CRM) (n = 46) or placebo (n = 46) during the 1 month withdrawal from BZDs. Psychosocial support was provided. Follow-up continued for up to 6 months. Successful BZD withdrawal by the end of 1 month was confirmed by BZD plasma determinations, while reduction in BZD use and abstinence continuing for 6 months were noted. Results There were two drop-outs on CRM and one on placebo. After a 1 month withdrawal, 31 participants (67%; 95% CI 54, 81) on CRM and 39 (85%; 74, 95) on placebo had withdrawn completely (intention-to-treat analysis between groups, P = 0.051; per protocol P = 0.043). Reduction in BZD use was similar or even more rare in the CRM than in the placebo group (P = 0.052 per protocol). After 6 months, 14 participants in the CRM group and 20 in the placebo group remained non-users of BZD (NS between groups). BZD doses were higher in the CRM than in the placebo group at the end of the 6 month follow-up (P = 0.025). Withdrawal symptoms did not differ between the groups. Conclusions Gradual dose reduction of BZDs combined with CRM or placebo, and psychosocial support produced high short term and moderate long term BZD abstinence. CRM showed no withdrawal benefit compared with placebo. PMID:24286360

  17. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of injected capsaicin for pain in Morton's neuroma.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Claudia M; Diamond, Eric; Schmidt, William K; Kelly, Margaret; Allen, Robert; Houghton, William; Brady, Kerrie L; Campbell, James N

    2016-06-01

    Intermetatarsal neuroma or Morton's neuroma is a painful condition of the foot resulting from an entrapment of the common digital nerve typically in the third intermetatarsal space. The pain can be severe and especially problematic with walking. Treatment options are limited and surgery may lead to permanent numbness in the toes. Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of hot peppers, produces analgesia by inducing retraction of nociceptive afferents from the area of innervation and is effective in treating certain neuropathic pain disorders. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was conducted to test the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of a single 0.1 mg dose of capsaicin vs placebo injected into the region of the neuroma. A total of 58 subjects diagnosed with Morton's neuroma with foot pain ≥4 (0-10 numerical pain rating scale) were injected with 2 mL of lidocaine into the intermetatarsal space proximal to the neuroma to provide local anesthesia. After 5 minutes, 0.1 mg capsaicin or placebo was injected into the intermetatarsal space containing the painful neuroma. Average foot pain was rated for 2 weeks before through 4 weeks after injection. At weeks 1 and 4, the decrease in pain was significantly greater in the subjects treated with capsaicin (P = 0.021 and P = 0.019, respectively). A trend toward significance was noted at weeks 2 and 3. Improvements in functional interference scores and reductions in oral analgesic use were also seen in the capsaicin-treated group. These findings suggest that injection of capsaicin is an efficacious treatment option for patients with painful intermetatarsal neuroma. PMID:26963851

  18. A Preliminary Randomized Double Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Intravenous Immunoglobulin for Japanese Encephalitis in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Rayamajhi, Ajit; Nightingale, Sam; Bhatta, Nisha Keshary; Singh, Rupa; Ledger, Elizabeth; Bista, Krishna Prasad; Lewthwaite, Penny; Mahaseth, Chandeshwar; Turtle, Lance; Robinson, Jaimie Sue; Galbraith, Sareen Elizabeth; Wnek, Malgorzata; Johnson, Barbara Wilmot; Faragher, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Background Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus found across Asia that is closely related to West Nile virus. There is no known antiviral treatment for any flavivirus. Results from in vitro studies and animal models suggest intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) containing virus-specific neutralizing antibody may be effective in improving outcome in viral encephalitis. IVIG’s anti-inflammatory properties may also be beneficial. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a pilot feasibility randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of IVIG containing anti-JEV neutralizing antibody (ImmunoRel, 400mg/kg/day for 5 days) in children with suspected JE at two sites in Nepal; we also examined the effect on serum neutralizing antibody titre and cytokine profiles. 22 children were recruited, 13 of whom had confirmed JE; 11 received IVIG and 11 placebo, with no protocol violations. One child (IVIG group) died during treatment and two (placebo) subsequently following hospital discharge. Overall, there was no difference in outcome between treatment groups at discharge or follow up. Passive transfer of anti-JEV antibody was seen in JEV negative children. JEV positive children treated with IVIG had JEV-specific neutralizing antibody titres approximately 16 times higher than those treated with placebo (p=0.2), which was more than could be explained by passive transfer alone. IL-4 and IL-6 were higher in the IVIG group. Conclusions/Significance A trial of IVIG for JE in Nepal is feasible. IVIG may augment the development of neutralizing antibodies in JEV positive patients. IVIG appears an appealing option for JE treatment that warrants further study. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01856205 PMID:25886645

  19. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of intradiscal methylene blue injection for the treatment of chronic discogenic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Peng, Baogan; Pang, Xiaodong; Wu, Ye; Zhao, Changcheng; Song, Xinghua

    2010-04-01

    A preliminary report of clinical study revealed that chronic discogenic low back pain could be treated by intradiscal methylene blue (MB) injection. We investigated the effect of intradiscal MB injection for the treatment of chronic discogenic low back pain in a randomized placebo-controlled trial. We recruited 136 patients who were found potentially eligible after clinical examination and 72 became eligible after discography. All the patients had discogenic low back pain lasting longer than 6 months, with no comorbidity. Thirty-six were allocated to intradiscal MB injection and 36 to placebo treatment. The principal criteria to judge the effectiveness included alleviation of pain, assessed by a 101-point numerical rating scale (NRS-101), and improvement in disability, as assessed with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) for functional recovery. At the 24-month follow-up, both the groups differed substantially with respect to the primary outcomes. The patients in MB injection group showed a mean reduction in pain measured by NRS of 52.50, a mean reduction in Oswestry disability scores of 35.58, and satisfaction rates of 91.6%, compared with 0.70%, 1.68%, and 14.3%, respectively, in placebo treatment group (p<0.001, p<0.001, and p<0.001, respectively). No adverse effects or complications were found in the group of patients treated with intradiscal MB injection. The current clinical trial indicates that the injection of methylene blue into the painful disc is a safe, effective and minimally invasive method for the treatment of intractable and incapacitating discogenic low back pain. PMID:20167430

  20. Frovatriptan is Effective and Well Tolerated in Korean Migraineurs: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Heui-Soo; Chu, Min Kyung; Park, Jeong Wook; Oh, Kyungmi; Chung, Jae Myun; Cho, Yong Jin; Kim, Eung Gyu; Do, Jin Kuk; Jung, Hyong Gi

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose Frovatriptan is a selective 5-HT1B/1D agonist with a long duration of action and a low incidence of side effects. Although several placebo-controlled trials have documented the clinical efficacy and safety of frovatriptan in adults with migraine, this drug has not previously been studied in Asian including Korean patients. Methods In this double-blind multicenter trial, 229 patients with migraine were randomized to receive frovatriptan 2.5 mg or placebo upon the occurrence of a moderate-to-severe migraine. The primary outcome was the 2-hour headache response rate. Results Frovatriptan significantly increased the 2-hour headache response rate compared with placebo (52.9% vs. 34.0%, p=0.004). The headache response rates at 4, 6, and 12 hours were significantly higher in the frovatriptan group than in the placebo group, as was the pain-free rate at 2 hours (19.0% vs. 5.7%, p=0.004), 4 hours (40.7% vs. 23.0%, p=0.006), and 6 hours (56.1% vs. 34.0%, p=0.002). The median time to a headache response was significantly shorter in the frovatriptan group than in the placebo group (2.00 hours vs. 3.50 hours, p<0.001). The use of rescue medications was more common in the placebo group (p=0.005). Chest tightness associated with triptan was infrequent (2.5%), mild, and transient. Conclusions These results demonstrate that 2.5-mg frovatriptan is effective and well tolerated in Korean migraineurs for acute treatment of migraine attacks. PMID:20386640

  1. Preoperative pain treatment in acute abdomen in Osogbo, Nigeria: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Withholding analgesics in acute abdomen for fear of masking clinical features and impairing diagnosis and decision-making is still being practiced despite recent evidence to the contrary. This study assesses the effect of preoperative analgesia on clinical findings, clinical diagnosis, and decision-making in patients with non-trauma acute abdomen. Method This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study using Tramal, a brand of tramadol, at the ED of LAUTECH Teaching Hospital Osogbo, Nigeria. Ninety-five patients between 18–60 years received Tramal (n = 46) or placebo (n = 49). The pain score, clinical findings, provisional diagnosis, and treatment plan were noted before and 15–20 min after administration of the analgesic or placebo. The final diagnosis arrived at after adequate investigation or operation was considered the gold standard. The pain scores, diagnosis, treatment plan, and decision between the two groups were compared. Statistical analysis was by SPSS 16. Results were considered statistically significant at p < 0.05. Results Demography and case distribution were similar in both groups. The improvement in pain was greater in the Tramal group (p = 0.001). The abdominal palpation findings were also better in the Tramal group (p = 0.02). There were more changes in the diagnosis after use of Tramal (p = 0.01). There were more changes in the decision in the Tramal group (p = 0.03). Most of the changes in diagnosis and decision in the Tramal group were for the better. Conclusion The preoperative use of Tramal in acute abdomen improved the experience of pain and did not adversely affect the accuracy of the diagnosis or decision-making. PMID:23343476

  2. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Rifaximin, a Nonabsorbable Antibiotic, in the Treatment of Tropical Enteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Trehan, Indi; Shulman, Robert J.; Ou, Ching-Nan; Maleta, Kenneth; Manary, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Tropical enteropathy is characterized by an increased urinary lactulose-to-mannitol (L:M) ratio on a site-specific sugar absorption test and is associated with increased intestinal permeability and decreased nutrient absorptive capacity. The etiology of tropical enteropathy is postulated to be intestinal bacterial overgrowth. This study tested the hypothesis that treatment with a nonabsorbable, broad-spectrum antibiotic, rifaximin, reduces the L:M ratio in rural Malawian children, among whom tropical enteropathy is common. METHODS All children aged 3–5 years from one village were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of treatment with rifaximin for 7 days. The L:M ratio was measured before and after treatment, and the change in the L:M ratio was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were changes in the urinary sucrose-to-lactulose (SUC:L) and sucralose-to-lactulose (SCL:L) ratios, as well as changes in the fractions of each test sugar recovered in the urine. RESULTS A total of 144 children participated in this study, of whom 76% had an elevated L:M ratio on enrollment (L:M≥0.10). Children who received rifaximin did not show an improvement in their L:M ratio compared with those who received placebo (−0.01±0.12 vs. 0.02±0.16, respectively, P = 0.51, mean±s.d.), nor were there significant differences between the two groups in excretion of lactulose, mannitol, sucralose, or sucrose, or in the SUC:L and SCL:L ratios. CONCLUSIONS Rifaximin had no effect on the tropical enteropathy of 3–5-year-old Malawian children, suggesting that small-bowel bacterial overgrowth is not an important etiological factor in this condition. PMID:19491826

  3. Effect of rosuvastatin on diabetic polyneuropathy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase IIa study

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ojeda, Jaime; Román-Pintos, Luis Miguel; Rodríguez-Carrízalez, Adolfo Daniel; Troyo-Sanromán, Rogelio; Cardona-Muñoz, Ernesto Germán; Alatorre-Carranza, María del Pilar; Miranda-Díaz, Alejandra Guillermina

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetic neuropathy affects 50%–66% of patients with diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress generates nerve dysfunction by causing segmental demyelinization and axonal degeneration. Antioxidants are considered to be the only etiologic management for diabetic polyneuropathy, and statins such as rosuvastatin increase nitric oxide bioavailability and reduce lipid peroxidation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of rosuvastatin in diabetic polyneuropathy. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase IIa clinical trial in patients with type 2 diabetes and diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) stage ≥1b. We allocated subjects to two parallel groups (1:1) that received rosuvastatin 20 mg or placebo for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were neuropathic symptom score, disability score, and nerve conduction studies, and secondary outcomes were glycemic control, lipid and hepatic profile, lipid peroxidation, and nerve growth factor beta (NGF-β) levels. Results Both groups were of similar age and duration since diagnosis of diabetes and DPN. We observed improvement of DPN in the rosuvastatin group from stage 2a (88.2%) to stage 1b (41.2%), improvement of neuropathic symptom score from 4.5±2 to 2.4±1.8, and significant (P=0.001) reductions of peroneal nerve conduction velocity (from 40.8±2.2 to 42.1±1.6 seconds) and lipid peroxidation (from 25.4±2 to 12.2±4.0 nmol/mL), with no significant change in glycemic control or β-NGF. Conclusion The severity, symptoms, and nerve conduction parameters of DPN improved after 12 weeks of treatment with rosuvastatin. These beneficial effects appear to be attributable to reductions in lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. PMID:25214797

  4. Glucose Metabolism Effects of Vitamin D in Prediabetes: The VitDmet Randomized Placebo-Controlled Supplementation Study

    PubMed Central

    Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Virtanen, Jyrki K.; Voutilainen, Sari; Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; de Mello, Vanessa D. F.; Schwab, Ursula; Hakumäki, Martti; Pulkki, Kari

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests a role for vitamin D in type 2 diabetes prevention. We investigated the effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on glucose metabolism and inflammation in subjects with prediabetes. A 5-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention with three arms (placebo, 40 μg/d, or 80 μg/d vitamin D3) was carried out among sixty-eight overweight (BMI 25–35) and aging (≥60 years) subjects from Finland, with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] < 75 nmol/L and either impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance. Analyses included 66 subjects who completed the trial. Glucose metabolism was evaluated by fasting and 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test-derived indices and glycated hemoglobin. Inflammation was evaluated by high-sensitive C-reactive protein and five cytokines. Although a dose-dependent increase in serum 25(OH)D3 over the supplementation period was observed (P trend < 0.001), there were no other statistically significant differences in changes in the 13 glucose homeostasis indicators between the study groups other than increase in the 120 min glucose concentration (P trend = 0.021) and a decreasing trend both in 30 min plasma insulin (P trend = 0.030) and glycated hemoglobin (P trend = 0.024) concentrations. A borderline statistically significant decreasing trend in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist concentration was observed (P = 0.070). Vitamin D3 supplementation does not improve glucose metabolism in ageing subjects with prediabetes but may have modest anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:26106626

  5. Effect of Kaempferia parviflora Extract on Physical Fitness of Soccer Players: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Promthep, Kreeta; Eungpinichpong, Wichai; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn; Chatchawan, Uraiwan

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical fitness is a fundamental prerequisite for soccer players. Kaempferia parviflora is an herbal plant that has been used in some Asian athletes with the belief that it might prevent fatigue and improve physical fitness. This study aimed to determine the effects of Kaempferia parviflora on the physical fitness of soccer players. Material/Methods Sixty soccer players who routinely trained at a sports school participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial and were randomly allocated to the treatment group or the placebo group. The participants in both groups were given either 180 mg of Kaempferia parviflora extract in capsules or a placebo once daily for 12 weeks. Baseline data were collected using the following 6 tests of physical performance: a sit-and-reach test, a hand grip strength test, a back-and-leg strength test, a 40-yard technical test, a 50-metre sprint test, and a cardiorespiratory fitness test. All of the tests were performed every 4 weeks throughout the 12-week study period. Results The study showed that after treatment with Kaempferia parviflora, the right-hand grip strength was significantly increased at weeks 4, 8, and 12. The left-hand grip strength was significantly increased at week 8. However, the back-and-leg strength, the 40-yard technical test, the sit-and-reach test, the 50-metre sprint test, and the cardiorespiratory fitness test results of the treatment group were not significantly different from those of the placebo group. Conclusions Taking Kaempferia parviflora supplements for 12 weeks may significantly enhance some physical fitness components in soccer players. PMID:25957542

  6. Efficacy of Varenicline to Prompt Quit Attempts in Smokers Not Currently Trying to Quit: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rennard, Stephen I.; Fingar, James R.; Talbot, Sandy K.; Callas, Peter W.; Fagerstrom, Karl O.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Nicotine replacement therapy to aid smoking reduction increases the probability of a future quit attempt among smokers not currently planning to quit smoking. We tested whether varenicline, a partial nicotine agonist, would also increase future quit attempts. Methods: This randomized, placebo-controlled trial recruited 218 smokers who were interested in quitting but had no plans to quit in the next month. Participants used varenicline (2 mg/day) or placebo for 2–8 weeks plus received brief counseling on methods to reduce cigarettes/day. The primary measure was the incidence of a quit attempt within 6 months of study entry. Secondary measures were point prevalence abstinence, motivation to stop smoking, and reduction in cigarettes/day. Results: Varenicline increased the incidence of a quit attempt more than placebo at the Nebraska site (73% vs. 41%; p < .001) but not at the Vermont site (45% vs. 51%; p = .45). Varenicline increased most other measures of quit attempts, motivation and abstinence, independent of site. The beneficial effects of varenicline in quit attempts appeared to be mediated by greater reductions in cigarettes/day, dependence, craving, and cigarette satisfaction. Varenicline had a greater effect on quit attempts in less-dependent smokers, in minority smokers, and in those who had less prior cessation or reduction activity. Adverse events were minimal. Conclusions: Varenicline increased quit attempts in smokers who are not currently trying to quit at one of the two study sites and improved most all secondary outcomes independent of site. This appeared to be due to decreasing cigarettes/day and level of dependence. PMID:21652735

  7. Adductor Canal Block for Postoperative Pain Treatment after Revision Knee Arthroplasty: A Blinded, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Jæger, Pia; Koscielniak-Nielsen, Zbigniew J.; Schrøder, Henrik M.; Mathiesen, Ole; Henningsen, Maria H.; Lund, Jørgen; Jenstrup, Morten T.; Dahl, Jørgen B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Revision knee arthroplasty is assumed to be even more painful than primary knee arthroplasty and predominantly performed in chronic pain patients, which challenges postoperative pain treatment. We hypothesized that the adductor canal block, effective for pain relief after primary total knee arthroplasty, may reduce pain during knee flexion (primary endpoint: at 4 h) compared with placebo after revision total knee arthroplasty. Secondary endpoints were pain at rest, morphine consumption and morphine-related side effects. Methods We included patients scheduled for revision knee arthroplasty in general anesthesia into this blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Patients were allocated to an adductor canal block via a catheter with either ropivacaine or placebo; bolus of 0.75% ropivacaine/saline, followed by infusion of 0.2% ropivacaine/saline. Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT01191593. Results We enrolled 36 patients, of which 30 were analyzed. Mean pain scores during knee flexion at 4 h (primary endpoint) were: 52±22 versus 71±25 mm (mean difference 19, 95% CI: 1 to 37, P = 0.04), ropivacaine and placebo group respectively. When calculated as area under the curve (1–8 h/7 h) pain scores were 55±21 versus 69±21 mm during knee flexion (P = 0.11) and 39±18 versus 45±23 mm at rest (P = 0.43), ropivacaine and placebo group respectively. Groups were similar regarding morphine consumption and morphine-related side effects (P>0.05). Conclusions The only statistically significant difference found between groups was in the primary endpoint: pain during knee flexion at 4 h. However, due to a larger than anticipated dropout rate and heterogeneous study population, the study was underpowered. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01191593 PMID:25386752

  8. Clinical Evidence of Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum HY7714 on Skin Aging: A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Eun; Huh, Chul-Sung; Ra, Jehyeon; Choi, Il-Dong; Jeong, Ji-Woong; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Ryu, Ja Hyun; Seo, Young Kyoung; Koh, Jae Sook; Lee, Jung-Hee; Sim, Jae-Hun; Ahn, Young-Tae

    2015-12-28

    The beneficial effects of probiotics are now widely reported, although there are only a few studies on their anti-aging effects. We have found that Lactobacillus plantarum HY7714 (HY7714) improves skin hydration and has anti-photoaging effects, and in the present study, we have further evaluated the anti-aging effect of HY7714 via a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The trial included 110 volunteers aged 41 and 59 years who have dry skin and wrinkles. Participants took 1 × 10(10) CFU/day of HY7714 (probiotic group) or a placebo (placebo group) for 12 weeks. Skin hydration, wrinkles, skin gloss, and skin elasticity were measured every 4 weeks during the study period. There were significant increases in the skin water content in the face (p < 0.01) and hands (p < 0.05) at week 12 in the probiotic group. Transepidermal water loss decreased significantly in both groups at weeks 4, 8, and 12 (p < 0.001 compared with baseline), and was suppressed to a greater extent in the face and forearm in the probiotic group at week 12. Volunteers in the probiotic group had a significant reduction in wrinkle depth at week 12, and skin gloss was also significantly improved by week 12. Finally, skin elasticity in the probiotic group improved by 13.17% (p < 0.05 vs. controls) after 4 weeks and by 21.73% (p < 0.01 vs. controls) after 12 weeks. These findings are preliminary confirmation of the anti-aging benefit to the skin of L. plantarum HY7714 as a nutricosmetic agent. PMID:26428734

  9. Saffron supplements modulate serum pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance in patients with metabolic syndrome: A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Kermani, Tayyebeh; Mousavi, Seyyed Hadi; Shemshian, Maryam; Norouzy, Abdolreza; Mazidi, Mohsen; Moezzi, Atefeh; Moghiman, Toktam; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; A. Ferns, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We have investigated the effect of a saffron supplement, given at a dose of 100 mg/kg, on prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) in individuals with metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial design was used in 75 subjects with metabolic syndrome who were randomly allocated to one of two study groups: (1) the case group received 100mg/kg saffron and (2) the placebo control group received placebo for 12 weeks. The serum PAB assay was applied to all subjects before (week 0) and after (weeks 6 and 12) the intervention. Results: There was a significant (p=0.035) reduction in serum PAB between week 0 to week 6 and also from week 0 to week 12. Conclusion: Saffron supplements can modulate serum PAB in subjects with metabolic syndrome, implying an improvement in some aspects of oxidative stress or antioxidant protection. PMID:26468462

  10. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial Evaluating Safety and Immunogenicity of the Killed, Bivalent, Whole-Cell Oral Cholera Vaccine in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Sachin N.; Akalu, Zenebe; Teshome, Samuel; Teferi, Mekonnen; Yamuah, Lawrence; Kim, Deok Ryun; Yang, Jae Seung; Hussein, Jemal; Park, Ju Yeong; Jang, Mi Seon; Mesganaw, Chalachew; Taye, Hawult; Beyene, Demissew; Bedru, Ahmed; Singh, Ajit Pal; Wierzba, Thomas F.; Aseffa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Killed whole-cell oral cholera vaccine (OCV) has been a key component of a comprehensive package including water and sanitation measures for recent cholera epidemics. The vaccine, given in a two-dose regimen, has been evaluated in a large number of human volunteers in India, Vietnam, and Bangladesh, where it has demonstrated safety, immunogenicity, and clinical efficacy. We conducted a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial in Ethiopia, where we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine in 216 healthy adults and children. OCV was found to be safe and elicited a robust immunological response against Vibrio cholerae O1, with 81% adults and 77% children demonstrating seroconversion 14 days after the second dose of vaccine. This is the first study to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine in a population outside Asia using a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized study design. PMID:26078323

  11. The effect of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) gel 3% in decreasing hair thickness in idiopathic mild to moderate hirsutism, A randomized placebo controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Akha, Ozra; Rabiei, Khadijeh; Kashi, Zahra; Bahar, Adele; Zaeif-Khorasani, Elham; Kosaryan, Mehrnoush; Saeedi, Majid; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Emadian, Omid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hirsutism is a common symptom presenting to primary care endocrinologists, gynecologists, and dermatologists. Management is usually a long and troublesome process. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of fennel topical gel on mild to moderate idiopathic hirsutism. Methods: The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out from 2009 to 2011, in Sari, Iran. Forty four women with mild to moderate idiopathic hirsutism were randomly divided to case and control groups, each group included 22 cases. The case group received fennel gel 3% and the control group received placebo. The effect of fennel gel 3% was defined as reduction of thickness of facial hair in micrometer by microscope in comparison with placebo. Measurements were performed at zero time and 24 weeks after treatment. This study was registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trial (www.irct.ir) with registration number 138901213672N1. Results: The mean age of patients was 26.9±6.7 and 25.6±4.3 years in case and control groups, respectively. Hair thickness was similar between the two groups before intervention. The hair thickness reduced from 97.9±31.5 to 75.6±26.7 micron in patients receiving fennel gel after 24 weeks (P<0.001). Four patients complained of itching (3 in case group) and 4 patients complained of irritation and itching (3 in case group). However, this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The study indicated that fennel gel 3% is effective in decreasing hair thickness in women with idiopathic mild to moderate hirsutism. PMID:24490010

  12. Transcranial pulsed electromagnetic fields for multiple chemical sensitivity: study protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic condition of unknown etiology. MCS is characterized by recurrent nonspecific symptoms from multiple organ systems in response to chemical exposures in concentrations that are normally tolerated by the majority of the population. The symptoms may have severe impact on patients’ lives, but an evidence-based treatment for the condition is nonexisting. The pathophysiology is unclarified, but several indicators point towards abnormal processing of sensory signals in the central nervous system. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) offer a promising new treatment for refractory depression and can be targeted at the brain, thereby activating biochemical cell processes. Methods/Design In a parallel, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at the Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, the effects of PEMF in MCS patients will be assessed using the Re5 Independent System. Based on sample size estimation, 40 participants will be randomized to either PEMF therapy or placebo. The allocation sequence will be generated by computer. All involved parties (that is, participants, investigators, the research nurse, and the statistician) will be blinded to group allocation. The participants will receive PEMF therapy or placebo applied transcranially 30 minutes twice a day for 7 days a week over 6 consecutive weeks. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, once weekly during treatment, post treatment, and at 2.5-month and 4.5-month follow-up according to a predefined timetable. The primary outcome will be a measurement of the impact of MCS on everyday life. The secondary outcomes will be measurements of MCS symptoms, psychological distress (stress, anxiety or depressive symptoms), capsaicin-induced secondary punctate hyperalgesia, immunological markers in serum, and quality of life. Discussion This trial will assess the effects of PEMF therapy for MCS. Currently, there is no treatment with a

  13. Efficacy of brexpiprazole in patients with acute schizophrenia: Review of three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies.

    PubMed

    Correll, Christoph U; Skuban, Aleksandar; Hobart, Mary; Ouyang, John; Weiller, Emmanuelle; Weiss, Catherine; Kane, John M

    2016-07-01

    Brexpiprazole, a serotonin-dopamine activity modulator, is a partial agonist at 5-HT1A and dopamine D2 receptors, and antagonist at 5-HT2A and noradrenaline α1B and α2C receptors, all at similar potency. Efficacy of brexpiprazole was evaluated in patients with acutely exacerbated schizophrenia in three short-term, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. In a Phase 2 study, patients were randomized to brexpiprazole 0.25mg (fixed dose), 1.0±0.5mg, 2.5±0.5mg, 5.0±1mg (flexible-dose ranges), placebo, or aripiprazole 15±5mg. In two Phase 3 studies, patients were randomized to fixed-dose brexpiprazole 0.25mg, 1mg, 2mg, or 4mg, or placebo. For this review, brexpiprazole 2mg and 4mg arms from the Phase 3 studies were combined. Primary efficacy endpoint was change in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score from baseline at week 6; key secondary endpoint was change in Clinical Global Impression-Severity of illness (CGI-S) score at week 6. Primary outcome moderator analyses explored effects of sex, age, race, and illness duration. There were no statistically significant differences vs. placebo in the Phase 2 brexpiprazole and aripiprazole groups for primary and key secondary endpoints. Combined brexpiprazole 2mg (n=359) and 4mg (n=359) were superior to placebo (n=358) in change in PANSS total score (least square mean difference from placebo: -5.46, p=0.0004, and -6.69, p<0.0001, respectively) and CGI-S (-0.25, p=0.0035, and -0.38, p<0.0001, respectively). Changes from baseline in efficacy endpoints were minimal in the 0.25mg group, while the 1mg group exhibited suboptimal improvement. No relevant moderators were identified. Meta-analysis of the pivotal studies indicates brexpiprazole 2mg and 4mg are effective in treating acute schizophrenia. PMID:27157799

  14. Homeopathy for Depression: A Randomized, Partially Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Four-Armed Study (DEP-HOM)

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Ubiratan C.; Krüger, Stephanie; Teut, Michael; Lüdtke, Rainer; Schützler, Lena; Martins, Friederike; Willich, Stefan N.; Linde, Klaus; Witt, Claudia M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The specific clinical benefit of the homeopathic consultation and of homeopathic remedies in patients with depression has not yet been investigated. Aims To investigate the 1) specific effect of individualized homeopathic Q-potencies compared to placebo and 2) the effect of an extensive homeopathic case taking (case history I) compared to a shorter, rather conventional one (case history II) in the treatment of acute major depression (moderate episode) after six weeks. Methods A randomized, partially double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-armed trial using a 2×2 factorial design with a six-week study duration per patient was performed. Results A total of 44 from 228 planned patients were randomized (2∶1∶2∶1 randomization: 16 homeopathic Q-potencies/case history I, 7 placebo/case history I, 14 homeopathic Q-potencies/case history II, 7 placebo/case history II). Because of recruitment problems, the study was terminated prior to full recruitment, and was underpowered for the preplanned confirmatory hypothesis testing. Exploratory data analyses showed heterogeneous and inconclusive results with large variance in the sample. The mean difference for the Hamilton-D after 6 weeks was 2.0 (95%CI −1.2;5.2) for Q-potencies vs. placebo and −3.1 (−5.9;−0.2) for case history I vs. case history II. Overall, no consistent or clinically relevant results across all outcomes between homeopathic Q-potencies versus placebo and homeopathic versus conventional case taking were observed. The frequency of adverse events was comparable for all groups. Conclusions Although our results are inconclusive, given that recruitment into this trial was very difficult and we had to terminate early, we cannot recommend undertaking a further trial addressing this question in a similar setting. Prof. Dr. Claudia Witt had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Trial registration

  15. Omega-3/Omega-6 Fatty Acids for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mats; Ostlund, Sven; Fransson, Gunnar; Kadesjo, Bjorn; Gillberg, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to assess omega 3/6 fatty acids (eye q) in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: The study included a randomized, 3-month, omega 3/6 placebo-controlled, one-way crossover trial with 75 children and adolescents (8-18 years), followed by 3 months with omega 3/6 for all. Investigator-rated ADHD…

  16. Relapse Prevention in Pediatric Patients with ADHD Treated with Atomoxetine: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelson, David; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Danckaerts, Marina; Gillberg, Christopher; Spencer, Thomas J.; Zuddas, Alessandro; Faries, Douglas E.; Zhang, Shuyu; Biederman, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is typically treated over extended periods; however, few placebo-controlled, long-term studies of efficacy have been reported. Method: In a global multicenter study, children and adolescents who responded to an initial 12-week, open-label period of treatment with atomoxetine, a…

  17. Risperidone Improves Behavioral Symptoms in Children with Autism in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandina, Gahan J.; Bossie, Cynthia A.; Youssef, Eriene; Zhu, Young; Dunbar, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    Subgroup analysis of children (5-12 years) with autism enrolled in an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of risperidone for pervasive developmental disorders. The primary efficacy measure was the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability (ABC-I) subscale. Data were available for 55 children given risperidone (n = 27) or placebo (n =…

  18. Mirtazapine for antipsychotic-induced acute akathisia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Kongasseri, Sreejayan; Behere, Rishikesh V.; Sharma, Podila Satya Venkata Narasimha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials of mirtazapine for the treatment of antipsychotic-induced acute akathisia (AIAA). Methods: Studies were identified using online searches of PUBMED/MEDLINE and Cochrane database (CENTRAL), along with websites recording trial information such as www.clinicaltrials.gov, www.controlled-trials.com, and www.clinicalstudyresults.org. The study eligibility criteria were randomized, double-blind clinical trials comparing mirtazapine with placebo for AIAA with standardized rating for akathisia as outcome measure. The methodological quality of included trials was assessed using the Jadad Scale. Separate meta-analyses were undertaken for each outcome (response rate and complete remission) and treatment effects were expressed as Mantel–Haenszel risk ratio (RR). Fixed-effect meta-analysis was performed as heterogeneity was not significant. Number need to treat (NNT) as a measure of relative treatment effectiveness was calculated. Results: A systematic review of the literature revealed six studies that had assessed mirtazapine for the treatment of AIAA. Of these, two studies (n = 86) met the review inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. A meta-analysis was performed to see the effect size of response rate and complete remission. For response rate, RR was 6.67 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.14–20.78], favoring mirtazapine compared with placebo, and the overall effect was significant (p = 0.001, NNT 4, 95% CI 2.6–8.6). For complete remission, RR was 6.20 (95% CI 1.74–22.08), favoring mirtazapine compared with placebo, and the overall effect was significant (p = 0.005, NNT 5, 95% CI 2.9–11.6). Conclusions: Although limited to only two studies and small sample, existing data support the efficacy of mirtazapine for the treatment of AIAA, with one in four patients showing partial response and one in five patients showing complete remission. PMID:26557987

  19. Sleep changes following statin therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled polysomnographic trials

    PubMed Central

    Broncel, Marlena; Gorzelak-Pabiś, Paulina; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Serejko, Katarzyna; Ursoniu, Sorin; Rysz, Jacek; Corina Serban, Maria; Możdżan, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Statin use might be associated with an increased risk of sleep disturbances including insomnia, but the evidence regarding sleep changes following statin therapy has not been conclusive. Therefore we assessed the impact of statin therapy on sleep changes through a systematic review and meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Material and methods We searched MEDLINE and SCOPUS up to October 1, 2014 to identify placebo-controlled RCTs investigating the effect of statin therapy on sleep changes. A meta-analysis was performed using either a fixed-effects or a random-effect model according to the I2 statistic. Effect size was expressed as weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results Overall, the impact of statin therapy on polysomnography (PSG) indices of sleep was reported in 5 trials comprising 9 treatment arms. Overall, statin therapy had no significant effect on total sleep duration (WMD: –7.75 min, 95% CI: –18.98, 3.48, p = 0.176), sleep efficiency (WMD: 0.09%, 95% CI: –2.27, 2.46, p = 0.940), entries to stage I (WMD: 0.36, 95% CI: –0.91, 1.63, p = 0.580), or latency to stage I (WMD: –1.92 min, 95% CI: –4.74, 0.89, p = 0.181). In contrast, statin therapy significantly reduced wake time (WMD: –4.43 min, 95% CI: –7.77, –0.88, p = 0.014) and number of awakenings (WMD: –0.40, 95% CI: –0.46, –0.33, p < 0.001). Meta-regression did not suggest any correlation between changes in wake time and awakening episodes with duration of treatment and LDL-lowering effect of statins. Conclusions The results indicated that statins have no significant adverse effect on sleep duration and efficiency, entry to stage I, or latency to stage I sleep, but significantly reduce wake time and number of awakenings. PMID:26528331

  20. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of escitalopram in patients with social anxiety disorder in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Satoshi; Hayano, Taiji; Hagino, Atsushi; Koyama, Tsukasa

    2016-04-01

    Objective This randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study compared the efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram (10 and 20 mg/day) in Japanese patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Research design and methods Patients aged 18-64 years with a primary diagnosis of DSM-IV-TR defined SAD, a Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Japanese version (LSAS-J) total score ≥60 and a Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) score ≥4 at baseline were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to placebo, escitalopram 10 mg or escitalopram 20 mg. The primary endpoint was change from baseline to Week 12 in the LSAS-J total score for both escitalopram 10 mg and 20 mg versus placebo (ANCOVA, FAS, LOCF), using a hierarchical testing procedure. Pre-specified secondary endpoints included LSAS-J sensitivity analyses. Clinical trial registration This study has the www.japic.or.jp identifier: JapicCTI-121842. Results For the primary efficacy endpoint, the difference from placebo in the LSAS-J was -3.9 (p = 0.089) for escitalopram 10 mg. Since the superiority of escitalopram 10 mg over placebo was not confirmed, an analysis without multiplicity adjustment was made, which showed a difference for escitalopram 20 mg versus placebo of -9.8 (p < 0.001). In pre-specified sensitivity analyses, the difference versus placebo was -4.9 (p = 0.035) (ANCOVA, FAS, OC) and -5.0 (p = 0.028) (MMRM, FAS) (escitalopram 10 mg) and -10.1 (p < 0.001) (ANCOVA, FAS, OC) and -10.6 (p < 0.001) (MMRM, FAS) (escitalopram 20 mg). Common adverse events (incidence ≥5% and significantly different from placebo) were somnolence, nausea and ejaculation disorder. Conclusion Escitalopram was efficacious, safe and well tolerated by patients with SAD in Japan. Study limitations are discussed including patient characteristics. PMID:26808688

  1. Escitalopram in the Treatment of Adolescent Depression: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Extension Trial

    PubMed Central

    Robb, Adelaide; Bose, Anjana

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extended efficacy, safety, and tolerability of escitalopram relative to placebo in adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods Adolescents (12–17 years) who completed an 8-week randomized, double-blind, flexible-dose, placebo-controlled, lead-in study of escitalopram 10–20 mg versus placebo could enroll in a 16–24-week, multisite extension trial; patients maintained the same lead-in randomization (escitalopram or placebo) and dosage (escitalopram 10 or 20 mg/day, or placebo) during the extension. The primary efficacy was Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) change from the lead-in study baseline to treatment week 24 (8-week lead-in study plus 16-week extension); the secondary efficacy was Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) score at week 24. All efficacy analyses used the last observation carried forward (LOCF) approach; sensitivity analyses used observed cases (OC) and mixed-effects model for repeated measures (MMRM). Safety was evaluated via adverse event (AE) reports and the clinician-rated Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS). Results Following lead-in, 165 patients enrolled in the double-blind extension (82 placebo; 83 escitalopram); 40 (48.8%) placebo and 37 (44.6%) escitalopram patients completed treatment. CDRS-R total score improvement was significantly greater for escitalopram than for placebo (p=0.005, LOCF; p=0.014; MMRM). Response rates (CDRS-R ≥40% reduction from baseline [adjusted and unadjusted] and CGI-I ≤2) were significantly higher for escitalopram than for placebo (LOCF); remission rates (CDRS-R ≤28) were 50.6% for escitalopram and 35.7% for placebo (p=0.002). OC analyses were not significantly different between groups. The most frequent escitalopram AEs (≥5% and more frequent than placebo) were headache, nausea, insomnia, vomiting, influenza-like symptoms, diarrhea, and urinary tract infection. Most AEs were

  2. Combination of inositol and alpha lipoic acid in metabolic syndrome-affected women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inositol has been reported to improve insulin sensitivity since it works as a second messenger achieving insulin-like effects on metabolic enzymes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inositol and alpha lipoic acid combination effectiveness on metabolic syndrome features in postmenopausal women at risk of breast cancer. Methods A six-month prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial was carried out on a total of 155 postmenopausal women affected by metabolic syndrome at risk of breast cancer, the INOSIDEX trial. All women were asked to follow a low-calorie diet and were assigned randomly to daily consumption of a combination of inositol and alpha lipoic acid (77 pts) or placebo (78 pts) for six months. Primary outcomes we wanted to achieve were both reduction of more than 20% of the HOMA-IR index and of triglycerides serum levels. Secondary outcomes expected were both the improvement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and the reduction of anthropometric features such as body mass index and waist-hip ratio. Results A significant HOMA-IR reduction of more than 20% was evidenced in 66.7% (P <0.0001) of patients, associated with a serum insulin level decrease in 89.3% (P <0.0000). A decrease in triglycerides was evidenced in 43.2% of patients consuming the supplement (P <0.0001). An increase in HDL cholesterol (48.6%) was found in the group consuming inositol with respect to the placebo group. A reduction in waist circumference and waist-hip ratio was found in the treated group with respect to the placebo group. Conclusions Inositol combined with alpha lipoic acid can be used as a dietary supplement in insulin-resistant patients in order to increase their insulin sensitiveness. Daily consumption of inositol combined with alpha lipoic acid has a significant bearing on metabolic syndrome. As metabolic syndrome is considered a modifiable risk factor of breast tumorigenesis, further studies are required to assess whether inositol combined

  3. Liraglutide's Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics in Pediatric Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Battelino, Tadej; Chatterjee, D.J.; Jacobsen, Lisbeth V.; Hale, Paula M.; Arslanian, Silva

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in youth is increasing. Treatment options beyond metformin and insulin are needed. The safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of liraglutide once daily in youth (10–17 years old) with T2D were investigated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Subjects and Methods: Youth treated with diet/exercise alone or with metformin and having a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level of 6.5–11% were randomized to liraglutide (n=14) or placebo (n=7). Starting at 0.3 mg/day, doses were escalated weekly to 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.8 mg/day (or placebo equivalent) for 5 weeks. Results: Nineteen participants completed the trial. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups, with mean (SD) values for age of 14.8 (2.2) years, weight of 113.2 (35.6) kg (range, 57–214 kg), diabetes duration of 1.7 (1.4) years, and HbA1c level of 8.1% (1.2%). No serious adverse events (AEs), including severe hypoglycemia, occurred. Transient gastrointestinal AEs were most common at lower liraglutide doses during dose escalation. No significant changes in safety and tolerability parameters occurred. There was no evidence of pancreatitis or lipase elevations above three times the upper normal limit; calcitonin levels remained within the normal range. For liraglutide 1.8 mg, mean half-life was 12 h, and clearance was 1.7 L/h. After 5 weeks, the decline in HbA1c level was greater with liraglutide versus placebo (−0.86 vs. 0.04%, P=0.0007), whereas mean body weight remained stable (−0.50 vs. −0.54 kg, P=0.9703). Conclusions: Liraglutide was well tolerated in youth with T2D, with safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic profiles similar to profiles in adults. PMID:25036533

  4. Dietary nitrate improves vascular function in patients with hypercholesterolemia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study123

    PubMed Central

    Velmurugan, Shanti; Gan, Jasmine Ming; Rathod, Krishnaraj S; Khambata, Rayomand S; Ghosh, Suborno M; Hartley, Amy; Van Eijl, Sven; Sagi-Kiss, Virag; Chowdhury, Tahseen A; Curtis, Mike; Kuhnle, Gunter GC; Wade, William G; Ahluwalia, Amrita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The beneficial cardiovascular effects of vegetables may be underpinned by their high inorganic nitrate content. Objective: We sought to examine the effects of a 6-wk once-daily intake of dietary nitrate (nitrate-rich beetroot juice) compared with placebo intake (nitrate-depleted beetroot juice) on vascular and platelet function in untreated hypercholesterolemics. Design: A total of 69 subjects were recruited in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study. The primary endpoint was the change in vascular function determined with the use of ultrasound flow-mediated dilatation (FMD). Results: Baseline characteristics were similar between the groups, with primary outcome data available for 67 patients. Dietary nitrate resulted in an absolute increase in the FMD response of 1.1% (an ∼24% improvement from baseline) with a worsening of 0.3% in the placebo group (P < 0.001). A small improvement in the aortic pulse wave velocity (i.e., a decrease of 0.22 m/s; 95% CI: −0.4, −0.3 m/s) was evident in the nitrate group, showing a trend (P = 0.06) to improvement in comparison with the placebo group. Dietary nitrate also caused a small but significant reduction (7.6%) in platelet-monocyte aggregates compared with an increase of 10.1% in the placebo group (P = 0.004), with statistically significant reductions in stimulated (ex vivo) P-selectin expression compared with the placebo group (P < 0.05) but no significant changes in unstimulated expression. No adverse effects of dietary nitrate were detected. The composition of the salivary microbiome was altered after the nitrate treatment but not after the placebo treatment (P < 0.01). The proportions of 78 bacterial taxa were different after the nitrate treatment; of those taxa present, 2 taxa were responsible for >1% of this change, with the proportions of Rothia mucilaginosa trending to increase and Neisseria flavescens (P < 0.01) increased after nitrate treatment relative to after placebo

  5. Effect of an herbal/botanical supplement on recovery from delayed onset muscle soreness: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We examined the effects of a proprietary herbal/botanical supplement (StemSport, Stemtech, San Clemente, CA.) suggested to increase circulating stem cells, decrease inflammation, and attenuate exercise induced muscle damage on recovery from delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Methods Sixteen subjects (male = 7, female = 9; age 23.8 ± 10 years; height 171.9 ± 10 cm, mass 72.2 ± 15 kg) were randomized in a crossover, double-blind, placebo controlled trial to receive a placebo or StemSport supplement (6150 mg/day) for 14 days. DOMS was induced on day 7 for both placebo and active conditions in the non-dominant elbow flexor group with repeated eccentric repetitions. Muscle swelling (biceps girth), elbow flexor isometric strength (hand held dynamometer), muscle pain/tenderness (visual analog scale), range of motion (active elbow flexion and extension), and inflammation (hsCRP, IL6, and TNF-α) were measured at baseline and at 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 168 h (1 week) post eccentric exercise. The crossover washout period was ≥14 days. Results No significant condition-by-time interactions between placebo and StemSport supplementation were observed with regard to measures of pain (p = 0.59), tenderness (p = 0.71), isometric strength (p = 0.32), elbow flexion (p = 0.45), muscle swelling (p = 0.90), or inflammation (p > 0.90). Decrements in elbow extension range of motion 48 h post-exercise were less after StemSport supplementation (Δ elbow extension 48 h post; StemSport, −2.0 deg; placebo, −10 deg; p = 0.003). Conclusions These data suggest that compared to placebo, StemSport supplementation does not improve outcome measures related to muscle recovery after acute upper-arm induced DOMS. PMID:24966805

  6. Adjuvant interferon gamma in patients with pulmonary atypical Mycobacteriosis: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Milanés-Virelles, María T; García-García, Idrian; Santos-Herrera, Yamilet; Valdés-Quintana, Magalys; Valenzuela-Silva, Carmen M; Jiménez-Madrigal, Gaspar; Ramos-Gómez, Thelvia I; Bello-Rivero, Iraldo; Fernández-Olivera, Norma; Sánchez-de la Osa, Reinaldo B; Rodríguez-Acosta, Carmen; González-Méndez, Lidia; Martínez-Sánchez, Gregorio; López-Saura, Pedro A

    2008-01-01

    Background High antibiotic resistance is described in atypical Mycobacteriosis, mainly by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out in two hospitals to evaluate the effect of interferon (IFN) gamma as immunoadjuvant to chemotherapy on patients with atypical mycobacteria lung disease. Patients received placebo or 1 × 106 IU recombinant human IFN gamma intramuscularly, daily for one month and then three times per week up to 6 months as adjuvant to daily oral azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, ethambutol and rifampin. Sputum samples collection for direct smear observation and culture as well as clinical and thorax radiography assessments were done during treatment and one year after. Cytokines and oxidative stress determinations were carried out in peripheral blood before and after treatment. Results Eighteen patients were included in the IFN group and 14 received placebo. Groups were homogeneous at entry; average age was 60 years, 75% men, 84% white; MAC infection prevailed (94%). At the end of treatment, 72% of patients treated with IFN gamma were evaluated as complete responders, but only 36% in the placebo group. The difference was maintained during follow-up. A more rapid complete response was obtained in the IFN group (5 months before), with a significantly earlier improvement in respiratory symptoms and pulmonary lesions reduction. Disease-related deaths were 35.7% of the patients in the placebo group and only 11.1% in the IFN group. Three patients in the IFN group normalized their globular sedimentation rate values. Although differences in bacteriology were not significant during the treatment period, some patients in the placebo group converted again to positive during follow-up. Significant increments in serum TGF-beta and advanced oxidation protein products were observed in the placebo group but not among IFN receiving patients. Treatments were well tolerated. Flu-like symptoms

  7. Effect of two dietary fibers on satiety and glycemic parameters: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary carbohydrates may affect metabolic and physiologic parameters. The present study evaluated whether a combination of two dietary fibers, oligofructose (OFS) and pectin (P), altered satiety and glycemic parameters. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation for 3 weeks with OFS + P would produce a greater reduction in energy intake of an ad libitum test meal compared to control. Methods This was a single center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study in overweight and obese, otherwise healthy, subjects (N = 96). There were two OFS + P treatment groups: high-dose (30 g/d), low-dose (15 g/d), and a control group (maltodextrin 15 g/d). Energy intake, appetite measures based on Satiety Labeled Intensity Magnitude (SLIM) scale, fasting and post-prandial glucose, and insulin levels and body weight were measured at baseline and at the end of 3 weeks. Adverse events and gastrointestinal tolerability of the treatments were also assessed. Results An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) performed on the primary endpoint change from baseline in energy intake, showed no statistically significant difference in energy intake among the three treatment groups (p = 0.5387). The LS mean changes (SE) in energy intake from baseline to week 3 were −58.3 (42.4) kilocalories (kcal) for the high dose group, −74.2 (43.6) kcal for the low dose group, and −9.0 (42.9) kcal for the control group. For the pairwise comparisons of OFS + P doses and control, confidence intervals were constructed around the difference in LS mean changes. All study products were generally well tolerated. Conclusion There was a directional benefit in ad libitum energy intake for both OFS + P doses compared to control, with a greater reduction in kilocalories in the low dose comparison, but the reductions were not significant. Further studies are warranted. Clinical trial registration GSK Clinical Study

  8. Homeopathy for Depression - DEP-HOM: study protocol for a randomized, partially double-blind, placebo controlled, four armed study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Homeopathy is often sought by patients with depression. In classical homeopathy, the treatment consists of two main elements: the case history and the prescription of an individually selected homeopathic remedy. Previous data suggest that individualized homeopathic Q-potencies were not inferior to the antidepressant fluoxetine in a sample of patients with moderate to severe depression. However, the question remains whether individualized homeopathic Q-potencies and/or the type of the homeopathic case history have a specific therapeutical effect in acute depression as this has not yet been investigated. The study aims to assess the two components of individualized homeopathic treatment for acute depression, i.e., to investigate the specific effect of individualized Q-potencies versus placebo and to investigate the effect of different approaches to the homeopathic case history. Methods/Design A randomized, partially double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-armed trial using a 2 × 2 factorial design with a six-week study duration per patient will be performed. 228 patients diagnosed with major depression (moderate episode) by a psychiatrist will be included. The primary endpoint is the total score on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale after six weeks. Secondary end points are: Hamilton Depression Rating Scale total score after two and four weeks; response and remission rates, Beck Depression inventory total score, quality of life and safety at two, four and six weeks. Statistical analyses will be by intention-to-treat. The main endpoint will be analysed by a two-factorial analysis of covariance. Within this model generalized estimation equations will be used to estimate differences between verum and placebo, and between both types of case history. Discussion For the first time this study evaluates both the specific effect of homeopathic medicines and of a homeopathic case taking in patients with depression. It is an attempt to deal with the

  9. A Randomized, Placebo Controlled Pilot Trial of Botulinum Toxin for Paratonic Rigidity in People with Advanced Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Kleiner-Fisman, Galit; Khoo, Edwin; Moncrieffe, Nikohl; Forbell, Triina; Gryfe, Pearl; Fisman, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluate safety and efficacy of Incobotulinumtoxin A in elderly patients with dementia and paratonia. Setting University-affiliated hospital, spasticity management Clinic. Participants Ten subjects were enrolled. Inclusion criteria: 1) severe cognitive impairment 2) diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, or frontotemporal dementia, and 3) score >3 on the paratonic assessment instrument, with posture in an arm(s) interfering with provision of care. Exclusion criteria: 1) alternate etiologies for increased tone and 2) injection with botulinum toxin within the 6 months preceding the study. Design Single center, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial with two treatment cycles of 16 weeks. Assessments occurred at 2, 6, 12 and16 weeks following injections. Subjects received up to 300 U of Incobotulinumtoxin A in arm(s). Primary and Secondary Outcome Measures Primary outcome measure was the modified caregiver burden scale (mCBS); exploratory secondary outcome measures were also performed. Analysis of variance and mixed modeling techniques were used to evaluate treatment effects. Results Incobotulinumtoxin A treatment produced significant improvement in mCBS total score −1.11 (–2.04 to −0.18) (Treatment effect and 95% CI), dressing sub-score −0.36 (–0.59 to 0.12), and cleaning under the left and right armpits sub-score −0.5 (–0.96 to −0.04), −0.41 (–0.79 to −0.04) respectively. PROM in the left and right elbow increased by 27.67 degrees (13.32–42.02) and 22.07 degrees (9.76–34.39) respectively. PROM in the left and right shoulder increased by 11.92 degrees (5.46–18.38) and 8.58 degrees (3.73–13.43) respectively. No significant treatment effect was found for GAS, VAS and PAINAD scales or change in time to perform care. No adverse drug reactions occurred. Conclusions Administration of Incobotulinumtoxin A in elderly people with advanced dementia and paratonia may be an efficacious and safe

  10. Intravenous lysine clonixinate for the acute treatment of severe migraine attacks: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study☆

    PubMed Central

    Krymchantowski, Abouch Valenty; Silva, Marcus Tulius T

    2003-01-01

    Background Several nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to be effective in the treatment of migraine. However, few commercially available NSAIDs can be administered IV. Lysine clonixinate (LC), an NSAID derived from nicotinic acid, has been proved effective in various algesic syndromes (eg, renal colic, muscular pain, nerve compression, odontalgia). The oral formulation of LC has been shown to be effective in the treatment of migraine of moderate severity. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of the IV formulation of LC in the treatment of severe migraine. Methods This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, prospective study enrolled patients with severe migraine (without aura) as defined by the criteria of the International Headache Society. When patients presented to a neurology hospital with an outpatient headache unit (Instituto de Neurologia Deolindo Couto, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) with a severe migraine attack that had lasted <4 hours, they were randomized to 1 of 2 groups (IV placebo [25 mL of 0.9% saline] or IV LC [21 mL of 0.9% saline plus 4 mL of LC 200 mg]). Headache intensity and adverse effects (AEs) were assessed before (0 minute) and 30, 60, and 90 minutes after study drug administration. Rescue medication was available 2 hours after study drug administration, and its use was compared between groups. Results Thirty-two patients (23 women, 9 men; mean [SD] age, 32 [2] years; range, 18–58 years) entered the study. Twenty-nine patients (21 women, 8 men; mean [SD] age, 32 [2] years; range, 18–56 years) completed the study. Three patients (all in the placebo group) did not complete the study (1 patient was unable to rate the pain severity after drug administration and 2 patients refused IV drug administration). Among study completers, 17 patients received LC and 12 placebo. At 30 minutes, 1 patient (8.3%) in the placebo group and 5 patients (29.4%) in the LC group were pain free

  11. Effect of paricalcitol on renin and albuminuria in non-diabetic stage III-IV chronic kidney disease: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin D receptor activators reduce albuminuria, and may improve survival in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Animal studies suggest that these pleiotropic effects of vitamin D may be mediated by suppression of renin. However, randomized trials in humans have yet to establish this relationship. Methods In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded crossover study, the effect of oral paricalcitol (2 μg/day) was investigated in 26 patients with non-diabetic, albuminuric stage III-IV CKD. After treatment, plasma concentrations of renin (PRC), angiotensin II (AngII) and aldosterone (Aldo) were measured. GFR was determined by 51Cr-EDTA clearance. Assessment of renal NO dependency was performed by infusion of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). Albumin excretion rate (AER) was analyzed in 24-h urine and during 51Cr-EDTA clearance. Results Paricalcitol did not alter plasma levels of renin, AngII, Aldo, or urinary excretion of sodium and potassium. A modest reduction of borderline significance was observed in AER, and paricalcitol abrogated the albuminuric response to L-NMMA. Conclusions In this randomized, placebo-controlled trial paricalcitol only marginally decreased AER and did not alter circulating levels of renin, AngII or Aldo. The abrogation of the rise in albumin excretion by paricalcitol during NOS blockade may indicate that favourable modulation of renal NO dependency could be involved in mediating reno-protection and survival benefits in CKD. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01136564 PMID:23889806

  12. Indacaterol on dyspnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Indacaterol is a novel, once-daily (od), inhaled, long-acting ß2-agonist bronchodilator for maintenance treatment of airflow limitation in patients with COPD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of indacaterol on dyspnea, using available randomized placebo-controlled trials. Methods A systematic search was made of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane trials databases, and a manual search of journals. Randomized placebo-controlled trials of 12 weeks or more comparing indacaterol with placebo were reviewed, and eligible studies were included in a meta-analysis. The odds ratio (OR) for likelihood of achieving TDI score ≥ 1 after 12 weeks of treatment was used as an outcome measure to compare indacaterol to placebo. Results Six trials were included in the analysis. Relative to placebo, the overall ORs for response were: indacaterol 75 μg od 1.784 (95% CI 1.282 to 2.482); indacaterol 150 μg od 2.149 (95% CI 1.746 to 2.645); and indacaterol 300 μg od 2.458 (95% CI 2.010 to 3.006). Overall OR for response in TDI tended to increase with higher indacaterol doses. Conclusions Patients receiving indacaterol had clinically significant improvements in symptoms of dyspnea compared to placebo. Incremental benefits in TDI were observed with increasing doses. Indacaterol may provide patients and physicians with a useful treatment option in symptomatic patients with dyspnea. PMID:23617268

  13. Effects of Dendropanax morbifera Léveille extracts on cadmium and mercury secretion as well as oxidative capacity: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    SEO, JAE SAM; YOO, DAE YOUNG; JUNG, HYO YOUNG; KIM, DONG-WOO; HWANG, IN KOO; LEE, JONG YOUNG; MOON, SEUNG MYUNG

    2016-01-01

    In this randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial, the effects of Dendropanax morbifera (D. morbifera) Léveille on heavy metal (cadmium and mercury) excretion as well as on lipid peroxidation and Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) activity were investigated. For this study, tablets containing placebo or 300 mg of the leaf extract from D. morbifera Léveille were used. A total of 60 eligible healthy subjects were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The differences in cadmium, mercury, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and SOD1 activity were measured in the serum 60 days after treatment with placebo or D. morbifera Léveille extracts. No significant differences between baseline characteristics and biochemical values were identified in subjects in the placebo and D. morbifera Léveille groups. Serum levels of cadmium, mercury and MDA decreased following consumption of D. morbifera Léveille extracts; however, no significant differences were identified. In addition, female, but not male, subjects who consumed D. morbifera Léveille extracts showed a significant increase in SOD1 activity. This result suggests that chronic consumption of D. morbifera Léveille extract can help to facilitate excretion of cadmium and mercury from serum and increase the antioxidant capacity in humans. PMID:27123258

  14. Effects of a Topical Saffron (Crocus sativus L) Gel on Erectile Dysfunction in Diabetics: A Randomized, Parallel-Group, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Mohammadzadeh-Moghadam, Hossein; Nazari, Seyed Mohammad; Shamsa, Ali; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Esmaeeli, Habibollah; Asadpour, Amir Abbas; Khajavi, Abdoljavad

    2015-10-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a man's persistent or recurrent inability to achieve and maintain erection for a satisfactory sexual relationship. As diabetes is a major risk factor for erectile dysfunction, the prevalence of erectile dysfunction among diabetic men has been reported as 35% to 90%. This randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigated the effects of a topical saffron (Crocus sativus L) gel on erectile dysfunction in diabetic men. Patients were randomly allocated to 2 equal groups (with 25 patients each). The intervention group was treated with topical saffron, and the control received a similar treatment with placebo. The 2 groups were assessed using the International Index of Erectile Function Questionnaire before the intervention and 1 month after the intervention. Compared to placebo, the prepared saffron gel could significantly improve erectile dysfunction in diabetic patients (P < .001). This preliminary evidence suggests that saffron can be considered as a treatment option for diabetic men with erectile dysfunction. PMID:25948674

  15. Brief Report: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Proof-of-Concept Trial of Adjunctive Topiramate for Alcohol Use Disorders in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sylvia, Louisa G.; Gold, Alexandra K.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Peckham, Andrew D.; Deckersbach, Thilo; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Weiss, Roger D.; Perlis, Roy H.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Ostacher, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Topiramate is effective for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) among non-psychiatric patients. We examined topiramate for treating comorbid AUDs in bipolar disorder (BD). Methods Twelve participants were randomized to topiramate or placebo for 12 weeks. Results The topiramate group, with two out of five participants (40%) completing treatment, experienced less improvement in drinking patterns than the placebo group, with five out of seven participants (71%) completing treatment. Discussion and Conclusions Topiramate did not improve drinking behavior and was not well-tolerated. This study failed to recruit adequately. Problems surrounding high attrition, a small study sample, and missing data preclude interpretation of study findings. Scientific Significance This is the first randomized, placebo-controlled trial of topiramate for AUDs in BD. PMID:26894822

  16. Interventions That Affect Gastrointestinal Motility in Hospitalized Adult Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trials.

    PubMed

    Asrani, Varsha M; Yoon, Harry D; Megill, Robin D; Windsor, John A; Petrov, Maxim S

    2016-02-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility is a common complication in acute, critically ill, postoperative, and chronic patients that may lead to impaired nutrient delivery, poor clinical, and patient-reported outcomes. Several pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions to treat GI dysmotility were investigated in dozens of clinical studies. However, they often yielded conflicting results, at least in part, because various (nonstandardized) definitions of GI dysmotility were used and methodological quality of studies was poor. While a universally accepted definition of GI dysmotility is yet to be developed, a systematic analysis of data derived from double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trials may provide robust data on absolute and relative effectiveness of various interventions as the study outcome (GI motility) was assessed in the least biased manner.To systematically review data from double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trials to determine and compare the effectiveness of interventions that affect GI motility.Three electronic databases (MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and EMBASE) were searched. A random effects model was used for meta-analysis. The summary estimates were reported as mean difference (MD) with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI).A total of 38 double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trials involving 2371 patients were eligible for inclusion in the systematic review. These studies investigated a total of 20 different interventions, of which 6 interventions were meta-analyzed. Of them, the use of dopamine receptor antagonists (MD, -8.99; 95% CI, -17.72 to -0.27; P = 0.04) and macrolides (MD, -26.04; 95% CI, -51.25 to -0.82; P = 0.04) significantly improved GI motility compared with the placebo group. The use of botulism toxin significantly impaired GI motility compared with the placebo group (MD, 5.31; 95% CI, -0.04 to 10.67; P = 0.05). Other interventions (dietary factors, probiotics, hormones) did not affect GI motility

  17. Placebo-Controlled Trials in Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Pascal; Grummich, Kathrin; Harnoss, Julian C.; Hüttner, Felix J.; Jensen, Katrin; Braun, Silvia; Kieser, Meinhard; Ulrich, Alexis; Büchler, Markus W.; Diener, Markus K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This systematic review was performed to investigate the ethical justification, methodological quality, validity and safety of placebo controls in randomized placebo-controlled surgical trials. Central, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were systematically searched to identify randomized controlled trials comparing a surgical procedure to a placebo. “Surgical procedure” was defined as a medical procedure involving an incision with instruments. Placebo was defined as a blinded sham operation involving no change to the structural anatomy and without an expectable physiological response in the target body compartment. Ten randomized placebo-controlled controlled surgical trials were included, all of them published in high-ranking medical journals (mean impact factor: 20.1). Eight of 10 failed to show statistical superiority of the experimental intervention. Serious adverse events did not differ between the groups (rate ratio [RR] 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.92–2.06, P = 0.46). None of the trials had a high risk of bias in any domain. The ethical justification for the use of a placebo control remained unclear in 2 trials. Placebo-controlled surgical trials are feasible and provide high-quality data on efficacy of surgical treatments. The surgical placebo entails a considerable risk for study participants. Consequently, a placebo should be used only if justified by the clinical question and by methodological necessity. Based on the current evidence, a pragmatic proposal for the use of placebo controls in future randomized controlled surgical trials is made. PMID:27124060

  18. Effects of High Doses of Cholecalciferol in Normal Subjects: A Randomized Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard, Birgitte; Frandsen, Niels Erik; Brandi, Lisbet; Rasmussen, Knud; Oestergaard, Ove Vyff; Oedum, Lars; Hoeck, Hans Christian; Hansen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitamin D repletion with high doses of vitamin D is often recommended to patients and healthy subjects. The safety, especially concerning changes in urinary calcium excretion is of great importance. Methods In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in 40 healthy volunteers, we examined the changes in mineral metabolism during supplementation with 3000 IU of oral cholecalciferol daily during 4 months. Results Both 25(OH)vitamin D and 1,25(OH)2vitamin D increased significantly in the active treated group as compared to the placebo group (186% versus 14% (P<0.001) and 28% versus – 8% (P<0.001)). No change was observed in urinary calcium excretion in the active group compared to the placebo group (P = 0.891). Fibroblast growth factor 23 increased significantly by 10% (P<0.018) in the active group. However, there was no difference in changes in FGF23 between treatment groups (P = 0.457). Conclusion High dose cholecalciferol significantly increases 25(OH)vitamin D and 1,25(OH)2vitamin D levels compared to placebo. No changes in urinary calcium excretion or other measured components of the mineral metabolism were found between groups. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00952562. PMID:25166750

  19. Weight Maintenance with Litramine (IQP-G-002AS): A 24-Week Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Grube, Barbara; Chong, Pee-Win; Alt, Felix; Uebelhack, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Background. Litramine (IQP-G-002AS) was shown to be effective and safe for weight loss in overweight and obese subjects. However, long-term effectiveness on maintenance of body weight loss has yet to be ascertained. Objective. To assess effect of Litramine on maintenance of body weight loss. Methods. A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial on overweight and obese patients was conducted over two sites in Germany for 24 weeks. Subjects with documented previous weight loss of 3% over the last 3–6 months were randomised to groups given either Litramine (3 g/day) or a matching placebo. Primary endpoints were difference of mean body weight (kg) between baseline and end of study and maintenance of initially lost body weight in verum group, where maintenance is defined as ≤1% weight gain. Results. Subjects who were taking Litramine lost significantly more body weight compared to the subjects taking placebo who gained weight instead (−0.62 ± 1.55 kg versus 1.62 ± 1.48 kg, p < 0.001). More importantly, 92% of subjects in Litramine group were able to maintain their body weight after initial weight loss, versus 25% in placebo group. No serious adverse events were reported throughout. Conclusion. Litramine is effective and safe for long-term body weight maintenance. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01505387. PMID:26435849

  20. Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trials of Antidepressants for Acute Major Depression: Thirty-Year Meta-Analytic Review

    PubMed Central

    Undurraga, Juan; Baldessarini, Ross J

    2012-01-01

    Antidepressant–placebo response-differences (RDs) in controlled trials have been declining, potentially confounding comparisons among older and newer drugs. For clinically employed antidepressants, we carried out a meta-analytic review of placebo-controlled trials in acute, unipolar, major depressive episodes reported over the past three decades to compare efficacy (drug–placebo RDs) of individual antidepressants and classes, and to consider factors associated with year-of-reporting by bivariate and multivariate regression modeling. Observed drug–placebo differences were moderate and generally similar among specific drugs, but larger among older antidepressants, notably tricyclics, than most newer agents. This outcome parallels selective increases in placebo-associated responses as trial-size has increased in recent years. Study findings generally support moderate efficacy of clinically employed antidepressants for acute major depression, but underscore limitations of meta-analyses of controlled trials for ranking drugs by efficacy. We suggest that efficiency and drug–placebo differences may be improved with fewer sites and subjects, and better quality-control of diagnostic and clinical assessments. PMID:22169941

  1. Pentoxifylline treatment in patients with cancer cachexia: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Mehrzad, Valiollah; Afshar, Rohollah; Akbari, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cachexia can occur as part of many end-stage or chronic diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Pentoxifylline in patients with cancer cachexia. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted as a double-blind randomized controlled trial on 70 patients with advanced malignancy who loss of >5% of ideal or preillness body weight in the previous 2 months. Patients were assessed in two groups: case group, under treatment, using Pentoxifylline (400 mg) three times a day, for 2 months, and in the control group, patients received placebo. Age, sex, weight change, change in arm circumference and quality of life were assessed at baseline, week-4 and week-8. Results: The mean age of the patients was 56 ± 17.3 years and 47% were female. Weight and arm circumference decreased during follow-up in both groups, but these differences between case and controls were not statistically significant. Quality of life (QOL) score in the case group improved after 4 weeks then decreased at the end of treatment but in the control group QOL score decreased during 2 month treatment. In week-4 patients in the case group significantly reported higher score of QOL compare to patients in the control group (P = 0.029). Conclusion: Results of this study demonstrated that Pentoxifylline in the treatment of cancer cachexia did not have any effect in weight gain and arm circumference in cachectic patients. But in short-term (1 month) treatment, QOL was improved in these patients. And after 2 month treatment this was not effective compared to placebo. PMID:27135029

  2. A proof-of-concept, randomized, placebo-controlled, multiple cross-overs (n-of-1) study of naftazone in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rascol, Olivier; Ferreira, Joaquim; Nègre-Pages, Laurence; Perez-Lloret, Santiago; Lacomblez, Lucette; Galitzky, Monique; Lemarié, Jean-Christophe; Corvol, Jean-Christophe; Brotchie, Jonathan M; Bossi, Laura

    2012-08-01

    To explore for the first time the tolerability and efficacy of naftazone in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Proof-of-concept, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-cross-over n-of-1 study in patients with PD with wearing-off and dyskinesias. Naftazone was titrated up to 120 mg/day during an initial single-blind dose-finding phase. Seven patients entered the placebo-controlled phase (four consecutive 28-day cross-overs). Three outcome measures were used to collect preliminary indices of efficacy: (i) 48-h ON-OFF diaries; (ii) Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) part III while ON; (iii) seven-point Likert scale to assess "patients' discomfort caused by dyskinesias" (Q1) and 'disability during OFF-periods' (Q2). A 'responder' analysis (proportion of patients with mean treatment effect [naftazone minus placebo] favoring naftazone over the 4 cross-over periods) was used. Treatment effects were derived from mixed-effects anova. On diaries, 5/7 patients responded to naftazone for 'ON-time with troublesome dyskinesia' (reduced time, treatment effect: -49 [95% CI: -93/-4] min, P = 0.03), 6/7 regarding 'ON-time without troublesome dyskinesia' (increased time, treatment effect: 35 [-19/88], P = 0.2). No trend was observed for 'OFF' time. There were 7/7 'responders' regarding UPDRSIII (reduced score, treatment effect: -2.1[-4.5/0.2], P = 0.08). The 7-point scales did not show clear trends in favor of naftazone (3/7 responders for Q1 and 4/7 for Q2). Four of the seven patients reported adverse events after randomization, mostly related to the CNS (mild: 2, severe: 2). These pilot findings are consistent with preclinical data in primates and support the hypothesis that naftazone may have antiparkinsonian and antidyskinetic effects in humans that deserve further clinical investigation. PMID:21585523

  3. Strengths-based positive psychology interventions: a randomized placebo-controlled online trial on long-term effects for a signature strengths- vs. a lesser strengths-intervention

    PubMed Central

    Proyer, René T.; Gander, Fabian; Wellenzohn, Sara; Ruch, Willibald

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing interest in research in positive psychology interventions. There is broad evidence for their effectiveness in increasing well-being and ameliorating depression. Intentional activities that focus on those character strengths, which are most typical for a person (i.e., signature strengths, SS) and encourage their usage in a new way have been identified as highly effective. The current study aims at comparing an intervention aimed at using SS with one on using individual low scoring (or lesser) strengths in a randomized placebo-controlled trial. A total of 375 adults were randomly assigned to one of the two intervention conditions [i.e., using five signature vs. five lesser strengths (LS) in a new way] or a placebo control condition (i.e., early memories). We measured happiness and depressive symptoms at five time points (i.e., pre- and post-test, 1-, 3-, and 6-months follow-ups) and character strengths at pre-test. The main findings are that (1) there were increases in happiness for up to 3 months and decreases in depressive symptoms in the short term in both intervention conditions; (2) participants found working with strengths equally rewarding (enjoyment and benefit) in both conditions; (3) those participants that reported generally higher levels of strengths benefitted more from working on LS rather than SS and those with comparatively lower levels of strengths tended to benefit more from working on SS; and (4) deviations from an average profile derived from a large sample of German-speakers completing the Values-in-Action Inventory of Strengths were associated with greater benefit from the interventions in the SS-condition. We conclude that working on character strengths is effective for increasing happiness and discuss how these interventions could be tailored to the individual for promoting their effectiveness. PMID:25954221

  4. Effect of Melatonin on Sleep in the Perioperative Period after Breast Cancer Surgery: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Michael Tvilling; Hansen, Melissa Voigt; Andersen, Lærke Toftegård; Hageman, Ida; Rasmussen, Lars Simon; Bokmand, Susanne; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate whether administration of an oral dose of 6 mg melatonin before bedtime perioperatively in breast cancer surgery could change sleep outcomes measured by actigraphy. Methods: This paper reports secondary outcomes from a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial where patients received 6 mg melatonin (n = 27) or placebo (n = 21) approximately 60 minutes before bedtime 3 nights preoperatively until at least one week postoperatively. Participants were monitored in the entire period with actigraphy, and were instructed to complete visual analogue scale (VAS) for sleep, and the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) each morning. Results: Administration of 6 mg oral melatonin approximately 1 hour before bedtime resulted in significantly increased sleep efficiency and reduced wake after sleep onset for the entire 2-week postoperative period. No other significant differences for actigraphy determined sleep outcomes or subjective outcome parameters in the perioperative period were found between the groups. Overall, the patients sleep outcomes were within normal ranges and no participants had pathological sleep disturbances. Conclusions: Melatonin significantly changed sleep efficiency and wake after sleep onset after surgery, but had no effects on other objective sleep outcomes or on subjective sleep quality (VAS and KSS). Clinical Trial Registration: The trial was registered on www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01355523) before inclusion of the first patient. Citation: Madsen MT, Hansen MV, Andersen LT, Hageman I, Rasmussen LS, Bokmand S, Rosenberg J, Gögenur I. Effect of melatonin on sleep in the perioperative period after breast cancer surgery: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(2):225–233. PMID:26414973

  5. Otilonium bromide in irritable bowel syndrome: A dose-ranging randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chmielewska-Wilkoń, Danuta; Reggiardo, Giorgio; Egan, Colin Gerard

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To examine the efficacy and safety of otilonium bromide (OB) in treatment-sensitive functional irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) clinical parameters. METHODS: Ninety-three patients (44.8 ± 12.6 years, 69% female) with IBS symptoms complying with Rome II criteria participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, dose-ranging phase I/II study. Patients were administered OB 20 mg (n = 24), 40mg (n = 23) and 80 mg (n = 23) tid or placebo (n = 23) in 4 parallel groups for 4 wk. Primary efficacy variables included abdominal discomfort, intestinal habits, number of daily evacuations and stool consistency. Secondary efficacy measures included return to regular intestinal habits and global discomfort. Safety was also assessed. RESULTS: Baseline clinical characteristics were similar among the 4 groups. Although individual parameters such as intensity and frequency of abdominal discomfort, bloating or pain were reduced by OB over the 4 wk, no significant differences were observed between groups. Similarly, no difference was observed between OB treatment or placebo for mucus in stool and incomplete or difficulty of evacuation. However, evacuation frequency was significantly reduced after 4 wk by 80 mg OB compared to placebo (-8.36% for placebo vs -41.9% for 80 mg OB, P < 0.01). While 21.7% of patients in the placebo group experienced regular intestinal habits after 4 wk, this improvement was greater for patients treated with 40 mg OB (P < 0.01 vs placebo). Furthermore, a dose-dependent reduction in frequency of diarrhoea (χ2-test for trend = 11.5, P < 0.001) and an increase in normal stool frequency was observed. Combining individual variables into a global discomfort index revealed significant improvement among increasing OB doses, favouring 40 mg (P = 0.013) and 80mg OB (P = 0.001) over placebo. No difference was observed between frequency of adverse events for placebo vs OB. CONCLUSION: This dose-ranging study demonstrates that OB at 40 and 80 mg can

  6. Nitroglycerin 0.4% ointment vs placebo in the treatment of pain resulting from chronic anal fissure: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Complications of chronic anal fissure (CAF) treatments are prompting interest in lower-risk therapies. This study was conducted to compare nitroglycerin (NTG) 0.4% ointment with placebo for pain associated with CAF. Methods In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients with one CAF and moderate-to-severe pain (≥50 mm on a 100 mm visual analog scale [VAS]) received 375 mg NTG 0.4% (1.5 mg active ingredient) or 375 mg placebo ointment applied anally every 12 hours for 21 days. The primary end point was change from baseline VAS score in 24-hour pain averaged over days 14–18. Review of data from patients who withdrew early was blinded to treatment. To control for the confounding effects of analgesics, all patients received 650 mg acetaminophen for headache prophylaxis before each application. Results A total of 247 patients were enrolled (NTG, n = 123; placebo, n = 124). The prespecified baseline observation carried forward (BOCF) analysis found no significant difference between groups; however, a last observation carried forward (LOCF) analysis showed a significant advantage for NTG. A post hoc analysis (LOCF/BOCF hybrid) demonstrated a significant adjusted mean difference of −7.0 mm in favor of NTG 0.4% (95% CI −13.6, –0.4; P = .038). Headache was the most common adverse event in the NTG (69.9%) and placebo (47.6%) groups. Conclusions This was the first placebo-controlled study that also controlled for the confounding effects of analgesics used to treat NTG-induced headache. In patients with moderate-to-severe CAF pain, NTG 0.4% ointment effectively reduced CAF pain compared with placebo. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00522041 PMID:23815124

  7. Effects of a mouthwash containing potassium nitrate, sodium fluoride, and cetylpyridinium chloride on dentin hypersensitivity: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the efficacy of a mouthwash containing potassium nitrate (KNO3) as its main component, along with sodium fluoride (NaF) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC). The primary endpoint was the relief of dentin hypersensitivity (DH) against the cold stimuli. The effects on other DH tests and periodontal inflammation were also evaluated. Methods We used a single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized design. A total of 82 patients with DH (40 in the test group, 42 placebo controls) were analyzed using visual analog scales (VASs) for a cold test, a tactile test, a compressive air test, and self-reported pain during daily activities, as well as clinical parameters including plaque index, gingival index, modified sulcular bleeding index (mSBI), gingival recession, and probing depth, which were collected at baseline and after four and six weeks of mouthwash use. Results VAS scores for cold sensations, tactile sensations, the compressive air test, and self-reported pain significantly decreased from baseline during the six weeks in both groups (P<0.01), and no significant differences between the groups were found. In male patients (10 in the test group and 7 in the control group), both groups showed significant reductions in VAS scores for the cold test over the six weeks, and greater reductions were found in the test group than in the control group between four and six weeks (P=0.01) and between baseline and six weeks (P<0.01). In addition, the mSBI in the test group significantly decreased from baseline during the six weeks (P<0.01), and the changes at four and six weeks from baseline were significantly greater in the test group compared to the control group (P=0.03 and P=0.02, respectively). Conclusions A mouthwash containing a mixture of KNO3, NaF, and CPC reduced DH and gingival inflammation, however, the efficacy was comparable to the control group. PMID:26937293

  8. Comparison of the analgesic efficacy of oral ketorolac versus intramuscular tramadol after third molar surgery: A parallel, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Isiordia-Espinoza, Mario-Alberto; Martinez-Rider, Ricardo; Perez-Urizar, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Background Preemptive analgesia is considered an alternative for treating the postsurgical pain of third molar removal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preemptive analgesic efficacy of oral ketorolac versus intramuscular tramadol after a mandibular third molar surgery. Material and Methods A parallel, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out. Thirty patients were randomized into two treatment groups using a series of random numbers: Group A, oral ketorolac 10 mg plus intramuscular placebo (1 mL saline solution); or Group B, oral placebo (similar tablet to oral ketorolac) plus intramuscular tramadol 50 mg diluted in 1 mL saline solution. These treatments were given 30 min before the surgery. We evaluated the time of first analgesic rescue medication, pain intensity, total analgesic consumption and adverse effects. Results Patients taking oral ketorolac had longer time of analgesic covering and less postoperative pain when compared with patients receiving intramuscular tramadol. Conclusions According to the VAS and AUC results, this study suggests that 10 mg of oral ketorolac had superior analgesic effect than 50 mg of tramadol when administered before a mandibular third molar surgery. Key words:Ketorolac, tramadol, third molar surgery, pain, preemptive analgesia. PMID:27475688

  9. Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Trial of Risedronate for the Prevention of Bone Mineral Density Loss in Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy Plus Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Choo, Richard; Lukka, Himu; Cheung, Patrick; Corbett, Tom; Briones-Urbina, Rosario; Vieth, Reinhold; Ehrlich, Lisa; Kiss, Alex; Danjoux, Cyril

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment to radiation therapy (RT) for the management of locally advanced prostate carcinoma. Long-term ADT decreases bone mineral density (BMD) and increases the risk of osteoporosis. The objective of this clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of risedronate for the prevention of BMD loss in nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients undergoing RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. Methods and Materials: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted for nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. All had T scores > −2.5 on dual energy x-ray absorptiometry at baseline. Patients were randomized 1:1 between risedronate and placebo for 2 years. The primary endpoints were the percent changes in the BMD of the lumbar spine at 1 and 2 years from baseline, measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Analyses of the changes in BMD and bone turnover biomarkers were carried out by comparing mean values of the intrapatient changes between the 2 arms, using standard t tests. Results: One hundred four patients were accrued between 2004 and 2007, with 52 in each arm. Mean age was 66.8 and 67.5 years for the placebo and risedronate, respectively. At 1 and 2 years, mean (±SE) BMD of the lumbar spine decreased by 5.77% ± 4.66% and 13.55% ± 6.33%, respectively, in the placebo, compared with 0.12% ± 1.29% at 1 year (P=.2485) and 0.85% ± 1.56% (P=.0583) at 2 years in the risedronate. The placebo had a significant increase in serum bone turnover biomarkers compared with the risedronate. Conclusions: Weekly oral risedronate prevented BMD loss at 2 years and resulted in significant suppression of bone turnover biomarkers for 24 months for patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT.

  10. Antipsychotic Augmentation of Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors in Treatment-Resistant Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An Update Meta-Analysis of Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Dold, Markus; Aigner, Martin; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder do not respond adequately to serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Augmentation with antipsychotic drugs can be beneficial in this regard. However, since new relevant randomized controlled trials evaluating new antipsychotics were conducted, a recalculation of the effect sizes appears necessary. Methods: We meta-analyzed all double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials comparing augmentation of serotonin reuptake inhibitors with antipsychotics to placebo supplementation in treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder. The primary outcome was mean change in the Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale total score. Secondary outcomes were obsessions, compulsions, response rates, and attrition rates. The data collection process was conducted independently by 2 authors. Hedges’s g and risks ratios were calculated as effect sizes. In preplanned meta-regressions, subgroup analyses, and sensitivity analyses, we examined the robustness of the results and explored reasons for potential heterogeneity. Results: Altogether, 14 double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials (n=491) investigating quetiapine (N=4, n=142), risperidone (N=4, n=132), aripiprazole (N=2, n=79), olanzapine (N=2, n=70), paliperidone (N=1, n=34), and haloperidol (N=1, n=34) were incorporated. Augmentation with antipsychotics was significantly more efficacious than placebo in Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale total reduction (N=14, n=478; Hedges’s g=-0.64, 95% CI: -0.87 to -0.41; P=<.01). Aripiprazole (Hedges’s g=-1.35), haloperidol (Hedges’s g=-0.82), and risperidone (Hedges’s g=-0.59) significantly outperformed placebo. Antipsychotics were superior to placebo in treating obsessions, compulsions, and achieving response. There was no between-group difference concerning all-cause discontinuation. The nonsignificant meta-regressions suggest no influence of the antipsychotic dose or baseline symptom severity on the meta

  11. Recombinant Human Growth Hormone and Rosiglitazone for Abdominal Fat Accumulation in HIV-Infected Patients with Insulin Resistance: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Factorial Trial

    PubMed Central

    Glesby, Marshall J.; Albu, Jeanine; Chiu, Ya-Lin; Ham, Kirsis; Engelson, Ellen; He, Qing; Muthukrishnan, Varalakshmi; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Donovan, Daniel; Ernst, Jerry; Lesser, Martin; Kotler, Donald P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) reduces visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume in HIV-infected patients but can worsen glucose homeostasis and lipoatrophy. We aimed to determine if adding rosiglitazone to rhGH would abrogate the adverse effects of rhGH on insulin sensitivity (SI) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volume. Methodology/Principal Findings Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial using a 2×2 factorial design in which HIV-infected subjects with abdominal obesity and insulin resistance were randomized to rhGH 3 mg daily, rosiglitazone 4 mg twice daily, combination rhGH + rosiglitazone, or double placebo (control) for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in SI by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test from entry to week 12. Body composition was assessed by whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dual Xray absorptiometry (DEXA). Seventy-seven subjects were randomized of whom 72 initiated study drugs. Change in SI from entry to week 12 differed across the 4 arms by 1-way ANCOVA (P = 0.02); by pair-wise comparisons, only rhGH (decreasing SI; P = 0.03) differed significantly from control. Changes from entry to week 12 in fasting glucose and glucose area under the curve on 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test differed across arms (1-way ANCOVA P = 0.004), increasing in the rhGH arm relative to control. VAT decreased significantly in the rhGH arms (−17.5% in rhGH/rosiglitazone and −22.7% in rhGH) but not in the rosiglitazone alone (−2.5%) or control arms (−1.9%). SAT did not change significantly in any arm. DEXA results were consistent with the MRI data. There was no significant rhGH x rosiglitazone interaction for any body composition parameter. Conclusions/Significance The addition of rosiglitazone abrogated the adverse effects of rhGH on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance while not significantly modifying the lowering effect of rhGH on VAT. Trial Registration

  12. The Effects of Milnacipran on Sleep Disturbance in Fibromyalgia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Two-Way Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Mansoor; Aamir, Rozina; Jishi, Zahra; Scharf, Martin B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the effects of milnacipran on polysomnographic (PSG) measures of sleep and subjective complaints in patients with fibromyalgia and disturbed sleep. Methods: This was a single-site, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover PSG study. Eligible subjects (aged 28–72 y) were randomized (1:1) to milnacipran (100 mg/d) or placebo for crossover period 1, and vice versa for period 2. Each crossover period comprised a dose-escalation and dose-maintenance phase, with a 2-w taper/washout between periods. In-laboratory PSGs were collected at baseline, and at the end of each treatment period. The primary endpoints were the difference in PSG-recorded wake after sleep onset (WASO), number of awakenings after sleep onset (NAASO), and sleep efficiency (SE) between 4 w of maintenance treatment with milnacipran and placebo. Other PSG measures, subject-rated sleep, fatigue, physical functioning, and pain were assessed. Post hoc analysis was performed in subjects showing at least 25% reduction in pain from baseline in the Brief Pain Inventory Score (responders). Results: Of 19 subjects randomized, 15 completed both periods. Subjects treated with milnacipran showed no significant improvements in WASO and NAASO, but showed reduced SE (p = 0.049). Milnacipran did not show significant improvement in other PSG parameters or subjective endpoints. Two thirds of completers met responder criteria and additionally showed a significant improvement in daily effect of pain (p = 0.043) and subjective sleep quality (p = 0.040). Conclusion: The data suggest that milnacipran is not sedating in most patients with fibromyalgia and improvements in sleep are likely a result of pain improvement. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT01234675 Citation: Ahmed M, Aamir R, Jishi Z, Scharf MB. The effects of milnacipran on sleep disturbance in fibromyalgia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-way crossover study. J Clin Sleep

  13. A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Escitalopram in the Treatment of Pediatric Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Karen Dineen; Jonas, Jeffrey; Findling, Robert L.; Ventura, Daniel; Saikali, Khalil

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Escitalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant indicated for use in adults. This trial examined the efficacy and safety of escitalopram in pediatric depression. Method: Patients (6-17 years old) with major depressive disorder were randomized to receive 8 weeks of double-blind flexibly dosed treatment with…

  14. Reduction of unwanted submental fat with ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid), an adipocytolytic injectable treatment: results from a phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled study*

    PubMed Central

    Rzany, B; Griffiths, T; Walker, P; Lippert, S; McDiarmid, J; Havlickova, B

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Unwanted submental fat (SMF) is aesthetically unappealing, but methods of reduction are either invasive or lack evidence for their use. An injectable approach with ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid) is under investigation. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ATX-101 for the reduction of unwanted SMF. Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III study, 363 patients with moderate/severe SMF were randomized to receive ATX-101 (1 or 2 mg cm−2) or placebo injections into their SMF at up to four treatment sessions ∽28 days apart, with a 12-week follow-up. The co-primary efficacy endpoints were the proportions of treatment responders [patients with ≥ 1-point improvement in SMF on the 5-point Clinician-Reported Submental Fat Rating Scale (CR-SMFRS)] and patients satisfied with their face and chin appearance on the Subject Self-Rating Scale (SSRS). Secondary endpoints included skin laxity, calliper measurements and patient-reported outcomes. Adverse events were monitored. Results Significantly more ATX-101 recipients met the primary endpoint criteria vs. placebo: on the clinician scale, 59·2% and 65·3% of patients treated with ATX-101 1 and 2 mg cm−2, respectively, were treatment responders vs. 23·0% for placebo (CR-SMFRS;P < 0·001); on the patient scale, 53·3% and 66·1%, respectively, vs. 28·7%, were satisfied with their face/chin appearance (SSRS;P < 0·001). Calliper measurements showed a significant reduction in SMF (P < 0·001), skin laxity was not worsened and patients reported improvements in the severity and psychological impact of SMF with ATX-101 vs. placebo. Most adverse events were transient and associated with the treatment area. Conclusions ATX-101 was effective and well tolerated for nonsurgical SMF reduction. What's already known about this topic? Unwanted submental fat (SMF) is considered aesthetically unappealing. Liposuction and face-lift are effective treatments for SMF reduction but are

  15. Effect of Agaricus sylvaticus supplementation on nutritional status and adverse events of chemotherapy of breast cancer: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Valadares, Fabiana; Garbi Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho; Cañete, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer (BC) represents the highest incidence of malignancy in women throughout the world. Medicinal fungi can stimulate the body, reduce side-effects associated with chemotherapy and improve the quality of life in patients with cancer. Aim: To evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of Agaricus sylvaticus on clinical and nutritional parameters in BC patients undergoing chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical trial was carried out at the Oncology Clinic, Hospital of the Federal District-Brazil from September 2007 to July 2009. Forty six patients with BC, Stage II and III, were randomly assigned to receive either nutritional supplement with A. sylvaticus (2.1 g/day) or placebo. Patients were evaluated during treatment period. Results: Patient supplemented with A. sylvaticus improved in clinical parameters and gastrointestinal functions. Poor appetite decreased by 20% with no changes in bowel functions (92.8%), nausea and vomiting (80%). Conclusion: Dietary supplementation with A. sylvaticus improved nutritional status and reduced abnormal bowel functions, nausea, vomiting, and anorexia in patients with BC receiving chemotherapy. PMID:23833361

  16. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of oral nicardipine in treatment of urgent hypertension: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Habib, G B; Dunbar, L M; Rodrigues, R; Neale, A C; Friday, K J

    1995-05-01

    This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of oral nicardipine for the treatment of urgent hypertension in the emergency department. Of 57 patients with urgent hypertension 53 patients were enrolled: 36 men and 17 women, 43 black and 10 white, age range 48 +/- 11 years, and diastolic blood pressure 128 +/- 7 mm Hg. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 30 mg nicardipine or placebo in blind fashion followed by 30 mg open-label nicardipine in nonresponders. Responders to one or two doses of nicardipine received 30 or 40 mg nicardipine three times a day for 1 week after discharge from the emergency department. Adequate blood pressure reduction, defined as a reduction of diastolic blood pressure to less than 100 mm Hg or by at least 20 mm Hg, was achieved in 65% and 22% of patients who received 30 mg nicardipine or placebo (p = 0.002). Adequate blood pressure reduction after administration of open-label nicardipine occurred in 76% of the nonresponders to placebo. Blood pressure reductions were maintained at 1 week after discharge. The drug was well tolerated, and no significant adverse events occurred. We conclude that oral nicardipine is a safe and effective drug for the initial treatment of urgent hypertension. PMID:7732981

  17. Lubiprostone plus PEG electrolytes versus placebo plus PEG electrolytes for outpatient colonoscopy preparation: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sofi, Aijaz A; Nawras, Ali T; Pai, Chetan; Samuels, Qiana; Silverman, Ann L

    2015-01-01

    Bowel preparation using large volume of polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions is often poorly tolerated. Therefore, there are ongoing efforts to develop an alternative bowel cleansing regimen that should be equally effective and better tolerated. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of lubiprostone (versus placebo) plus PEG as a bowel cleansing preparation for colonoscopy. Our study was a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled design. Patients scheduled for screening colonoscopy were randomized 1:1 to lubiprostone (group 1) or placebo (group 2) plus 1 gallon of PEG. The primary endpoints were patient's tolerability and endoscopist's evaluation of the preparation quality. The secondary endpoint was to determine any reduction in the amount of PEG consumed in the lubiprostone group compared with the placebo group. One hundred twenty-three patients completed the study and were included in the analysis. There was no difference in overall cleanliness. The volume of PEG was similar in both the groups. The volume of PEG approached significance as a predictor of improved score for both the groups (P = 0.054). Lubiprostone plus PEG was similar to placebo plus PEG in colon cleansing and volume of PEG consumed. The volume of PEG consumed showed a trend toward improving the quality of the colon cleansing. PMID:23846523

  18. A randomized placebo-controlled trial to evaluate a novel noninjectable anesthetic gel with thermosetting agent during scaling and root planing in chronic periodontitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Dayakar, MM; Akbar, SM

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the efficacy of a noninjectable anesthetic gel with a thermosetting agent in the reduction of pain during scaling and root planing (SRP) in untreated chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: This study is a randomized, double-masked, split-mouth, placebo-controlled trial. Thirty patients were enrolled who underwent SRP in a split-mouth (right side/left side) manner. Before commencement of SRP, both quadrants on each side were isolated and had a randomized gel (either placebo or test gel) placed in the periodontal pockets for 30 s. The pain was measured using numerical rating scale (NRS) and verbal rating scale (VRS). Results: The median NRS pain score for the patients treated with the anesthetic test gel was 1 (range: 0-4) as opposed to 5 (range: 3-7) in the placebo treated patients. The mean rank of pain score using NRS in test gel was 16.18 as compared to 44.82 in placebo treated sites. Hence, significant reduction in pain was found in test gel as compared to placebo using NRS (P < 0.001). The VRS showed that the majority of patients reported no pain or mild pain with a median of 1 as compared to placebo treated sites with a median of 2 suggestive of moderate pain. Conclusions: The NRS and VRS pain scores showed that the side treated with anesthetic gel was statistically more effective than the placebo in reducing pain during SRP. PMID:27051372

  19. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of paracetamol and ketoprofren lysine salt for pain control in children with pharyngotonsillitis cared by family pediatricians

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To evaluate the analgesic effect and tolerability of paracetamol syrup compared to placebo and ketoprofen lysine salt in children with pharyngotonsillitis cared by family pediatricians. Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of a 12 mg/kg single dose of paracetamol paralleled by open-label ketoprofren lysine salt sachet 40 mg. Six to 12 years old children with diagnosis of pharyngo-tonsillitis and a Children's Sore Throat Pain (CSTP) Thermometer score > 120 mm were enrolled. Primary endpoint was the Sum of Pain Intensity Differences (SPID) of the CSTP Intensity scale by the child. Results 97 children were equally randomized to paracetamol, placebo or ketoprofen. Paracetamol was significantly more effective than placebo in the SPID of children and parents (P < 0.05) but not in the SPID reported by investigators, 1 hour after drug administration. Global evaluation of efficacy showed a statistically significant advantage of paracetamol over placebo after 1 hour either for children, parents or investigators. Patients treated in open fashion with ketoprofen lysine salt, showed similar improvement in pain over time. All treatments were well-tolerated. Conclusions A single oral dose of paracetamol or ketoprofen lysine salt are safe and effective analgesic treatments for children with sore throat in daily pediatric ambulatory care. PMID:21958958

  20. Beneficial effects of artichoke leaf extract supplementation on increasing HDL-cholesterol in subjects with primary mild hypercholesterolaemia: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Giacosa, Attilio; Opizzi, Annalisa; Faliva, Milena Anna; Sala, Patrizio; Perna, Simone; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Bombardelli, Ezio

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of artichoke leaf extract (ALE) supplementation (250 mg, 2 b.i.d.) on the lipid pattern. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed on 92 overweight subjects with primary mild hypercholesterolaemia for 8 weeks. Forty-six subjects were randomized to supplementation (age: 54.2 ± 6.6 years, body mass index (BMI): 25.8 ± 3.9 kg/m(2), male/female: 20/26) and 46 subjects to placebo (age: 53.8 ± 9.0 years, BMI: 24.8 ± 1.6 kg/m(2), male/female: 21/25). Verum supplementation was associated with a significant increase in mean high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (p < 0.001) and in mean change in HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) (p = 0.004). A significantly decreased difference was also found for the mean change in total cholesterol (p = 0.033), low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (p < 0.001), total cholesterol/HDL ratio (p < 0.001) and LDL/HDL ratio (p < 0.001), when verum and placebo treatment were compared. These results indicate that ALE could play a relevant role in the management of mild hypercholesterolaemia, favouring in particular the increase in HDL-C, besides decreasing total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. PMID:22746542

  1. A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Duliang Soft Capsule in Patients with Chronic Daily Headache

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shengyuan; Hu, Yueqing; Wan, Qi; Zhou, Jiying; Liu, Xinfeng; Qiao, Xiangyang; Yang, Xiaosu; Feng, Jiachun; Chen, Kangning; Pan, Xiaoping; Yang, Qingwu; Dou, Linsen; Liu, Ming; Chen, Yangmei; Yu, Tingmin; Yu, Juming; Li, Zhiwei; Bai, Xue; Duan, Jingfeng

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine Duliang soft capsule (DSC) in prophylactic treatment for patients with chronic daily headache (CDH). Methods. A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical study was conducted at 18 Chinese clinical centers. The participants received either DSC or placebo for 4 weeks. The primary efficacy measure was headache-free rate (HFR) in a 4-week period between the pretreatment and posttreatment stages. The secondary efficacy measures were the decrease of headache days, the duration of headache attacks, the frequency of analgesic usage, quality of life, disability, and the headache severity (VAS scores). The accompanying symptoms and adverse events were also assessed. Results. Of 584 CDH patients assessed, 468 eligible patients were randomized. 338 patients received DSC, while 111 patients were assigned in the placebo group. Following treatment, there was a 16.56% difference in HFR favoring DSC over placebo (P < 0.01). Significant differences were also observed between DSC and placebo groups in the secondary measures. However, no statistical difference was found between the two groups in the associated symptoms. No severe adverse effects were observed in the study. Conclusions. DSC might be an effective and well-tolerated option for the prophylactic treatment of patients with CDH. PMID:26101536

  2. Prevention of poststroke depression with milnacipran in patients with acute ischemic stroke: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ching-Shu; Wu, Chen-Long; Chou, Shih-Yong; Tsang, Hin-Yeung; Hung, Tai-Hsin; Su, Jian-An

    2011-09-01

    Poststroke depression (PSD) is one of the most frequent neuropsychiatric consequences of stroke. It has been shown to be associated with both impaired recovery and increased mortality. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prophylactic effect of milnacipran in PSD. Ninety-two patients were enrolled in the 12 months of this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. The assessment was performed at baseline, and at the first, third, sixth, ninth and 12th month after enrollment. The definition of PSD was in accordance with the diagnostic criteria of major depressive episode based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, fourth edition. Forty-six patients were randomized to the treatment group with milnacipran and another 46 patients to the placebo group. No significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of sex (P=0.83), age (P=0.08), marital status (P=0.66), occupation (P=0.22), educational level (P=0.29), and drug side-effects (P=0.73). The incidence of depression in the two groups was 2.22% and 15.22%, respectively. Milnacipran was proved to have a statistically significant advantage in preventing PSD (P<0.05). In conclusion, milnacipran could prevent the development of depression in the first year following a stroke and is safe to use without significant adverse effects in stroke patients. PMID:21811172

  3. Effectiveness of low-dose doxycycline (LDD) on clinical symptoms of Sjögren's Syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    Seitsalo, Hubertus; Niemelä, Raija K; Marinescu-Gava, Magdalena; Vuotila, Tuija; Tjäderhane, Leo; Salo, Tuula

    2007-01-01

    Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes that may contribute to tissue destruction in Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Low-dose doxycycline (LDD) inhibits MMPs. We evaluated the efficacy of LDD for the subjective symptoms in primary SS patients. This was a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled cross-over study. 22 patients were randomly assigned to receive either 20 mg LDD or matching placebo twice a day for 10 weeks. The first medication period was followed by 10-week washout period, after which the patient received either LDD or placebo, depending on the first drug received, followed by the second washout period. Stimulated saliva flow rates and pH were measured before and after one and ten weeks of each medication and after washout periods. VAS scale was used to assess the effect of LDD and placebo on following six subjective symptoms: xerostomia; xerophtalmia; difficulty of swallowing; myalgia; arthralgia; and fatigue. The effect was evaluated for each medication and washout period separately. Results Overall, the effects of medications on subjective symptoms were minor. Wilcoxon test demonstrated increased fatigue with LDD during medication (p < 0.05). The differences may, however, reflect normal fluctuation of symptoms in SS patients. Conclusion LDD may not be useful in reducing the primary SS symptoms. PMID:18163919

  4. Impact of Magnesium L-Lactate on Occurrence of Ventricular Arrhythmias in Patients with Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Baker, William L; Kluger, Jeffrey; Coleman, Craig I; White, C Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the antiarrhythmic efficacy and quality of life (QoL) impact of oral magnesium Llactate on patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Methods: This prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial randomized 70 patients with an ICD to receive oral magnesium L-lactate 3 tablets twice daily (504mg elemental magnesium daily) or matching placebo for 12 months. Patients were seen at baseline, 12, 24, 36, and 52 weeks. The primary endpoints were the cumulative occurrence of ICD therapy [either shock or anti-tachycardia pacing (ATP)] or QoL between the groups. Results: Among the 70 randomized patients with a mean ± SD follow-up of 6.4 ± 4.1 months, 10 patients in the placebo group and 8 in the magnesium group experienced either ICD shock or ATP [HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.33 to 2.12; p=0.706]. Without significant arrhythmia suppression, only minimal effects on QoL were seen. Eighty six percent of all patients had serum intracellular magnesium deficiency. Conclusion: In our underpowered trial, patients with ICDs had intracellular magnesium deficiency but oral magnesium Llactate only nonsignificantly reduced the occurrence of ICD therapies and had little impact on HrQoL. PMID:27006710

  5. Double blind randomized placebo-controlled trial on the effects of testosterone supplementation in elderly men with moderate to low testosterone levels: design and baseline characteristics [ISRCTN23688581

    PubMed Central

    Nakhai Pour, Hamid Reza; Emmelot-Vonk, Marielle H; Sukel-Helleman, Marja; Verhaar, Harald JJ; Grobbee, Diederick E; van der Schouw, Yvonne T

    2006-01-01

    In ageing men testosterone levels decline, while cognitive function, muscle and bone mass, sexual hair growth, libido and sexual activity decline and the risk of cardiovascular diseases increase. We set up a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effects of testosterone supplementation on functional mobility, quality of life, body composition, cognitive function, vascular function and risk factors, and bone mineral density in older hypogonadal men. We recruited 237 men with serum testosterone levels below 13.7 nmol/L and ages 60–80 years. They were randomized to either four capsules of 40 mg testosterone undecanoate (TU) or placebo daily for 26 weeks. Primary endpoints are functional mobility and quality of life. Secondary endpoints are body composition, cognitive function, aortic stiffness and cardiovascular risk factors and bone mineral density. Effects on prostate, liver and hematological parameters will be studied with respect to safety. Measure of effect will be the difference in change from baseline visit to final visit between TU and placebo. We will study whether the effect of TU differs across subgroups of baseline waist girth (< 100 cm vs. ≥ 100 cm; testosterone level (<12 versus ≥ 12 nmol/L), age (< median versus ≥ median), and level of outcome under study (< median versus ≥ median). At baseline, mean age, BMI and testosterone levels were 67 years, 27 kg/m2 and 10.72 nmol/L, respectively. PMID:16887030

  6. Preliminary safety evaluation and biochemical efficacy of a Carum carvi extract: results from a randomized, triple-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kazemipoor, Mahnaz; Radzi, Che Wan Jasimah Bt Wan Mohamed; Hajifaraji, Majid; Cordell, Geoffrey A

    2014-10-01

    Carum carvi L. (Apiaceae) is known as caraway, and its derivatives find wide medicinal use for health purposes, including for gastrointestinal problems and obesity. Since there is inconsistency among the reports on the safety of this plant in humans, this research was aimed at assessing the safety of a characterized caraway aqueous extract (CAE) in a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled study. Seventy, overweight and obese, healthy women were randomly assigned into placebo (n = 35) and plant extract (n = 35) groups. Participants received either 30 ml/day of CAE or placebo. Subjects were examined at baseline and after 12 weeks for changes in heart rate, blood pressure, urine test, 25-item blood chemistries, and general health status. No significant changes of blood pressure, heart rate, urine specific gravity, and serum blood tests were observed between the two groups before and after treatment. However, in the complete blood count test, red blood cell levels were significantly (p < 0.01) increased, and platelet distribution width was significantly decreased after the dietary CAE treatment, as compared with placebo. No negative changes were observed in the general health status of the two groups. This preliminary study suggests that the oral intake of CAE appears to be without any adverse effects at a dosage of 30 ml daily for a period of 12 weeks. PMID:24638976

  7. A pilot study of actigraphy as an objective measure of SSRI activation symptoms; results from a randomized placebo controlled psychopharmacological treatment study

    PubMed Central

    Bussing, Regina; Reid, Adam M.; McNamara, Joseph P.H.; Meyer, Johanna M.; Guzick, Andrew G.; Mason, Dana M.; Storch, Eric A.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2015-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are an efficacious and effective treatment for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but have received scrutiny due to a potential side effect constellation called activation syndrome. While recent research introduced a subjective measure of activation syndrome, objective measures have not been tested. This pilot study, using data from a larger randomized-controlled trial, investigated the potential of actigraphy to provide an objective measure of activation symptoms in 44 youths with OCD beginning an SSRI medication regimen. Data were collected over the first four weeks of a multisite, parallel, double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled psychopharmacological treatment study and statistical modeling was utilized to test how activation syndrome severity predicts daily and nightly activity levels. Results indicated that youths with higher activation symptoms had lower daytime activity levels when treatment averages were analyzed; in contrast youths who experienced onset of activation symptoms one week were more likely to have higher daytime and night-time activity ratings that week. Results support actigraphy as a potential objective measure of activation symptoms. Subsequent studies are needed to confirm these findings and test clinical applications for use by clinicians to monitor activation syndrome during SSRI treatment. National Institutes of Health (5UO1 MH078594-01); NCT00382291. PMID:25535011

  8. A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial With Magnesium Oxide to Reduce Intrafraction Prostate Motion for Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lips, Irene M.; Gils, Carla H. van; Kotte, Alexis N.T.J.; Leerdam, Monique E. van; Franken, Stefan P.G.; Heide, Uulke A. van der; Vulpen, Marco van

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether magnesium oxide during external-beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer reduces intrafraction prostate motion in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial. Methods and Materials: At the Department of Radiotherapy, prostate cancer patients scheduled for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (77 Gy in 35 fractions) using fiducial marker-based position verification were randomly assigned to receive magnesium oxide (500 mg twice a day) or placebo during radiotherapy. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with clinically relevant intrafraction prostate motion, defined as the proportion of patients who demonstrated in {>=}50% of the fractions an intrafraction motion outside a range of 2 mm. Secondary outcome measures included quality of life and acute toxicity. Results: In total, 46 patients per treatment arm were enrolled. The primary endpoint did not show a statistically significant difference between the treatment arms with a percentage of patients with clinically relevant intrafraction motion of 83% in the magnesium oxide arm as compared with 80% in the placebo arm (p = 1.00). Concerning the secondary endpoints, exploratory analyses demonstrated a trend towards worsened quality of life and slightly more toxicity in the magnesium oxide arm than in the placebo arm; however, these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Magnesium oxide is not effective in reducing the intrafraction prostate motion during external-beam radiotherapy, and therefore there is no indication to use it in clinical practice for this purpose.

  9. Oats in the diet of children with celiac disease: preliminary results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled multicenter Italian study.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Simona; Caporelli, Nicole; Galeazzi, Tiziana; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Barbato, Maria; Roggero, Paola; Malamisura, Basilio; Iacono, Giuseppe; Budelli, Andrea; Gesuita, Rosaria; Catassi, Carlo; Lionetti, Elena

    2013-11-01

    A gluten-free diet (GFD) is currently the only available treatment for patients with celiac disease (CD). Several clinical trials have demonstrated that most celiac patients can tolerate a medium-high quantity of oats without any negative clinical effects; however, the inclusion of oats in GFD is still a matter of debate. In this study, Italian children with CD were enrolled in a 15-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. Participants were randomized in two groups following either A-B treatment (6 months of diet "A", 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet "B"), or B-A treatment (6 months of diet "B", 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet "A"). A and B diets included gluten-free (GF) products (flour, pasta, biscuits, cakes and crisp toasts) with either purified oats or placebo. Clinical data (Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rate Scale [GSRS] score) and intestinal permeability tests (IPT), were measured through the study period. Although the study is still blinded, no significant differences were found in GSRS score or the urinary lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio between the two groups after 6 months of treatment. These preliminary results suggest that the addition of non-contaminated oats from selected varieties in the treatment of children with CD does not determine changes in intestinal permeability and gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:24264227

  10. Clinical effects of topical antifungal therapy in chronic rhinosinusitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of intranasal fluconazole

    PubMed Central

    Hashemian, Farshad; Hashemian, Farnaz; Molaali, Najmeh; Rouini, Mohammadreza; Roohi, Elnaz; Torabian, Saadat

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have been in favor of fungi as a possible pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS); however, to date, there is no scientific consensus about the use of antifungal agents in disease management. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of intranasal fluconazole in improving disease symptoms and objective outcomes of patients with CRS. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 54 patients who were diagnosed with CRS and had not been responsive to routine medical treatments. They were randomly assigned to receive either fluconazole nasal drop 0.2 % or placebo in addition to the standard regimen for a duration of 8 weeks. Patients' outcomes were evaluated according to Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 20 (SNOT-20), endoscopic scores, and Computed Tomography (CT) scores. No statistically significant difference was found in SNOT-20 (p = 0.201), endoscopic (p = 0.283), and CT scores (p = 0.212) of the patients at baseline and after 8-week course of treatment between drug and placebo group. Similar to many studies, the use of topical antifungal treatment for patients with CRS was not shown to be significantly effective. However, further studies are needed to obtain high levels of consistent evidence in order to arrive at a decision whether antifungal therapy is effective in management of CRS or not. PMID:27065776