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Sample records for 30-day-old obese zucker

  1. Increased in vivo glucose utilization in 30-day-old obese Zucker rat: Role of white adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Krief, S.; Bazin, R.; Dupuy, F.; Lavau, M. )

    1988-03-01

    In vivo whole-body glucose utilization and uptake in multiple individual tissues were investigated in conscious 30-day-old Zucker rats, which when obese are hyperphagic, hyperinsulinemic, and normoglycemic. Whole-body glucose metabolism (assessed by (3-{sup 3}H)glucose) was 40% higher in obese (fa/fa) than in lean (Fa/fa) rats, suggesting that obese rats were quite responsive to their hyperinsulinemia. In obese compared with lean rats, tissue glucose uptake was increased by 15, 12, and 6 times in dorsal, inguinal, perigonadal white depots, respectively; multiplied by 2.5 in brown adipose tissue; increased by 50% in skin from inguinal region but not in that from cranial, thoracic, or dorsal area; and increased twofold in diaphragm but similar in heart in proximal intestine, and in total muscular mass of limbs. The data establish that in young obese rats the hypertrophied white adipose tissue was a major glucose-utilizing tissue whose capacity for glucose disposal compared with that of half the muscular mass. Adipose tissue could therefore play an important role in the homeostasis of glucose in obese rats in the face of their increased carbohydrate intake.

  2. Obesity decreases serum selenium levels in DMBA-induced mammary tumor using Obese Zucker Rat Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, we reported that obese Zucker rats had increased susceptibility to DMBA-induced mammary tumors compared to lean Zucker rats. Several studies suggest that lower serum selenium may play an important role in increasing the risk of several types of cancers (e.g, colon, breast and prostate canc...

  3. Comparison of tissue metal concentrations in Zucker lean, Zucker obese, and Zucker diabetic fatty rats and the effects of chromium supplementation on tissue metal concentrations.

    PubMed

    Staniek, Halina; Rhodes, Nicholas R; Di Bona, Kristin R; Deng, Ge; Love, Sharifa T; Pledger, Leigh Ann; Blount, Jeremy; Gomberg, Emmalea; Grappe, Frances; Cernosek, Chelsea; Peoples, Brittany; Rasco, Jane F; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Vincent, John B

    2013-03-01

    Diabetes results in several metabolic changes, including alterations in the transport, distribution, excretion, and accumulation of metals. While changes have been examined in several rat models of insulin resistance and diabetes, the metal ion concentrations in the tissues of Zucker lean, Zucker obese (an insulin resistance and early stage diabetes model), and Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF, a type 2 diabetes model) have not previously been examined in detail. The concentration of Cu, Zn, Fe, Mg, and Ca were examined in the liver, kidney, heart and spleen, and Cr concentration in the liver and kidney of these rats were examined. Zucker obese rats have a reduction in the concentration of Cu, Zn, Fe, Mg in the liver compared to ZDF and/or lean Zucker rats, presumably as a result of the increased fat content of the liver of the obese rats. ZDF rats have increased concentrations of kidney Cu compared to the lean rats, while kidney Ca concentrations are increased in the Zucker obese rats. Spleen Fe concentrations are decreased in Zucker obese rats compared to the lean rats. No effects on metal concentrations in the heart were observed between the lean, obese, and ZDF rats, and no effects on Cr concentrations were identified. Cr(III) complexes have previously been shown to have beneficial effects on the signs of insulin resistance in Zucker obese and ZDF rats. The effects of daily gavage administration of chromium picolinate ([Cr(pic)(3)]) (1 mg Cr/kg body mass), CrCl(3) (1 mg Cr/kg body mass), and Cr3 ([Cr(3)O(propionate)(6)(H(2)O)(3)](+)) (33 μg and 1 mg Cr/kg body mass) on metal concentrations in these tissues were examined. Treatment with CrCl(3) and Cr3, but not [Cr(pic)(3)], at 1 mg Cr/kg resulted in a statistically significant accumulation of Cr in the kidney of lean and obese but not ZDF rats but resulted in lowering the elevated levels of kidney Cu in ZDF rats, suggesting a beneficial effect on this symptom of type 2 diabetes. PMID:23250541

  4. Leucine and Protein Metabolism in Obese Zucker Rats

    PubMed Central

    She, Pengxiang; Olson, Kristine C.; Kadota, Yoshihiro; Inukai, Ayami; Shimomura, Yoshiharu; Hoppel, Charles L.; Adams, Sean H.; Kawamata, Yasuko; Matsumoto, Hideki; Sakai, Ryosei; Lang, Charles H.; Lynch, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are circulating nutrient signals for protein accretion, however, they increase in obesity and elevations appear to be prognostic of diabetes. To understand the mechanisms whereby obesity affects BCAAs and protein metabolism, we employed metabolomics and measured rates of [1-14C]-leucine metabolism, tissue-specific protein synthesis and branched-chain keto-acid (BCKA) dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) activities. Male obese Zucker rats (11-weeks old) had increased body weight (BW, 53%), liver (107%) and fat (∼300%), but lower plantaris and gastrocnemius masses (−21–24%). Plasma BCAAs and BCKAs were elevated 45–69% and ∼100%, respectively, in obese rats. Processes facilitating these rises appeared to include increased dietary intake (23%), leucine (Leu) turnover and proteolysis [35% per g fat free mass (FFM), urinary markers of proteolysis: 3-methylhistidine (183%) and 4-hydroxyproline (766%)] and decreased BCKDC per g kidney, heart, gastrocnemius and liver (−47–66%). A process disposing of circulating BCAAs, protein synthesis, was increased 23–29% by obesity in whole-body (FFM corrected), gastrocnemius and liver. Despite the observed decreases in BCKDC activities per gm tissue, rates of whole-body Leu oxidation in obese rats were 22% and 59% higher normalized to BW and FFM, respectively. Consistently, urinary concentrations of eight BCAA catabolism-derived acylcarnitines were also elevated. The unexpected increase in BCAA oxidation may be due to a substrate effect in liver. Supporting this idea, BCKAs were elevated more in liver (193–418%) than plasma or muscle, and per g losses of hepatic BCKDC activities were completely offset by increased liver mass, in contrast to other tissues. In summary, our results indicate that plasma BCKAs may represent a more sensitive metabolic signature for obesity than BCAAs. Processes supporting elevated BCAA]BCKAs in the obese Zucker rat include increased dietary intake, Leu and

  5. Circadian rhythms of temperature and activity in obese and lean Zucker rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, D. M.; Horwitz, B. A.; Fuller, C. A.

    1995-01-01

    The circadian timing system is important in the regulation of feeding and metabolism, both of which are aberrant in the obese Zucker rat. This study tested the hypothesis that these abnormalities involve a deficit in circadian regulation by examining the circadian rhythms of body temperature and activity in lean and obese Zucker rats exposed to normal light-dark cycles, constant light, and constant dark. Significant deficits in both daily mean and circadian amplitude of temperature and activity were found in obese Zucker female rats relative to lean controls in all lighting conditions. However, the circadian period of obese Zucker rats did not exhibit differences relative to lean controls in either of the constant lighting conditions. These results indicate that although the circadian regulation of temperature and activity in obese Zucker female rats is in fact depressed, obese rats do exhibit normal entrainment and pacemaker functions in the circadian timing system. The results suggest a deficit in the process that generates the amplitude of the circadian rhythm.

  6. Modulation of olfactory sensitivity and glucose-sensing by the feeding state in obese Zucker rats

    PubMed Central

    Aimé, Pascaline; Palouzier-Paulignan, Brigitte; Salem, Rita; Al Koborssy, Dolly; Garcia, Samuel; Duchamp, Claude; Romestaing, Caroline; Julliard, A. Karyn

    2014-01-01

    The Zucker fa/fa rat has been widely used as an animal model to study obesity, since it recapitulates most of its behavioral and metabolic dysfunctions, such as hyperphagia, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Although it is well established that olfaction is under nutritional and hormonal influences, little is known about the impact of metabolic dysfunctions on olfactory performances and glucose-sensing in the olfactory system of the obese Zucker rat. In the present study, using a behavioral paradigm based on a conditioned olfactory aversion, we have shown that both obese and lean Zucker rats have a better olfactory sensitivity when they are fasted than when they are satiated. Interestingly, the obese Zucker rats displayed a higher olfactory sensitivity than their lean controls. By investigating the molecular mechanisms involved in glucose-sensing in the olfactory system, we demonstrated that sodium-coupled glucose transporters 1 (SGLT1) and insulin dependent glucose transporters 4 (GLUT4) are both expressed in the olfactory bulb (OB). By comparing the expression of GLUT4 and SGLT1 in OB of obese and lean Zucker rats, we found that only SGLT1 is regulated in genotype-dependent manner. Next, we used glucose oxidase biosensors to simultaneously measure in vivo the extracellular fluid glucose concentrations ([Gluc]ECF) in the OB and the cortex. Under metabolic steady state, we have determined that the OB contained twice the amount of glucose found in the cortex. In both regions, the [Gluc]ECF was 2 fold higher in obese rats compared to their lean controls. Under induced dynamic glycemia conditions, insulin injection produced a greater decrease of [Gluc]ECF in the OB than in the cortex. Glucose injection did not affect OB [Gluc]ECF in Zucker fa/fa rats. In conclusion, these results emphasize the importance of glucose for the OB network function and provide strong arguments towards establishing the OB glucose-sensing as a key factor for sensory olfactory processing

  7. The metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone in lean and obese male Zucker rats

    SciTech Connect

    White, B.D.; Corll, C.B.; Porter, J.R.

    1989-06-01

    The obese Zucker rat is an animal model of human juvenile-onset obesity. These rats exhibit numerous endocrine and metabolic abnormalities. Adrenalectomy of obese rats has been shown to reduce or reverse several of these abnormalities, thereby implying that corticosterone may contribute to the expression of obesity in this animal. Furthermore, it has been shown that the circadian rhythm of plasma corticosterone is disturbed in obese Zucker rats resulting in elevated morning plasma corticosterone concentrations in obese rats as compared to lean rats. In a effort to better elucidate the mechanism of the elevated morning levels of plasma corticosterone, the metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone was determined in the morning for lean and obese male Zucker rats (12 to 20 weeks). Additionally, the biliary and urinary excretion of labeled corticosterone and/or its metabolites were determined. The metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone was significantly greater in obese rats than in their lean counterparts. Both the metabolic clearance rate and the volume of compartments significantly correlated with body weight. No correlation was found between body weight and the elimination rate constant. The increased metabolic clearance rate of obese rats appeared to be due to an increase in the physiologic distribution of corticosterone and not to an alteration in the enzymes responsible for corticosterone metabolism. It appears that the metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone in obese Zucker rats does not contribute to elevated morning concentrations of plasma corticosterone previously observed in these animals. It suggests that the adrenal corticosterone secretion rate must actually be greater than one would expect from the plasma corticosterone concentrations alone.

  8. Investigation of oxidant stress and vasodepression to glyceryl trinitrate in the obese Zucker rat in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Laight, David W; Kengatharan, K M; Gopaul, Nitin K; Änggård, Erik E; Carrier, Martin J

    1998-01-01

    We examined the relationship between oxidant stress and the vasodepressor activity of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) in vivo, including rapid GTN tolerance development, in 13-week old obese and age-matched lean Zucker rats which had been maintained for 4 weeks on either control diet or diets enriched with the lipophilic, chain-breaking antioxidants vitamin E (0.5% w w−1) or probucol (0.5% w w−1) or the superoxide anion scavenger tiron (1% w v−1 in drinking water).The basal plasma level of the isoprostane 8-epi-PGF2α, an in vivo marker of lipid peroxidation, was elevated by approximately 5 fold in the obese Zucker rat and markedly reduced by dietary lipophilic antioxidants and depressed by dietary tiron.Vasodepression to bolus does GTN (0.1–100 μg kg−1 i.v.), but not endothelium-dependent vasodepression to bolus dose acetylcholine (ACh, 0.02–2.0 μg kg−1 i.v.), was impaired in obese animals and completely restored by dietary antioxidants.Nitrate tolerance developed in vivo during a 1 h infusion of GTN (40 μg kg−1 min−1 i.v.) appeared more severe in obese animals. However, rapid nitrate tolerance was not affected by dietary antioxidants in either the obese or lean Zucker rat.We therefore provide evidence that elevated oxidant stress in the obese Zucker rat is associated with an impairment in nitrate vasodepressor activity. However, our data are not consistent with either a role for oxidant stress in rapid nitrate tolerance development in the anaesthetized Zucker rat or the aggravation of this tolerance by pre-existing oxidant stress. PMID:9831930

  9. Cold-increase in brown fat thyroxine 5'-monodeiodinase is attenuated in Zucker obese rat

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, S.Y.; Stern, J.S.; Fisher, D.A.; Glick, Z.

    1987-01-01

    In this study the authors examined the possibility that the reduced brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis in the Zucker obese rat may result from a limited capacity for enzymic conversion of thyroxine (T/sub 4/) to triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) in BAT. A total of 34 lean and obese rats, approx.4 mo old were divided into three treatment groups: group 1 (5 lean and 6 obese) was fed Purina rat chow for 21 days, and group two (5 lean and 6 obese) was fed a cafeteria diet for 21 days, and groups 3 (6 lean and 6 obese) was fed Purina rat chow and maintained in the cold (8 +/- 1/sup 0/C) for 7 days. Activity of T/sub 4/ 5'-deiodinase was determined as the rate of T/sub 3/ production from added T/sub 4/ under controlled in vitro conditions. Serum T/sub 4/ and T/sub 3/ were determined by radioimmunoassay. The rate of T/sub 4/-to-T/sub 3/ conversion in BAT was similar in the lean and obese rats maintained at room temperature, whether fed rat chow or a cafeteria diet. However, expressed per scapular BAT depot, lean rats exposed to cold displayed about a fivefold increase in BAT T/sub 3/ production whereas only a small increase was observed in the cold-exposed obese rats. Serum T/sub 3/ levels tended to be reduced in the Zucker obese rats. The data indicate a reduced capacity for T/sub 3/ production of Zucker rat BAT exposed to cold. This defect may account for the reduced tolerance of the obese animals to cold, but it does not account for their reduced diet-induced BAT thermogenesis.

  10. Hepatic denervation and dyslipidemia in obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats.

    PubMed

    Bruinstroop, E; Eliveld, J; Foppen, E; Busker, S; Ackermans, M T; Fliers, E; Kalsbeek, A

    2015-11-01

    Human and animal studies increasingly point toward a neural pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, involving hypothalamic and autonomic nervous system dysfunction. We hypothesized that increased very-low-density lipoprotein-triglyceride (VLDL-TG) secretion by the liver in a rat model for dyslipidemia, that is, the obese Zucker (fa/fa) rat, is due to relative hyperactivity of sympathetic, and/or hypoactivity of parasympathetic hepatic innervation. To test the involvement of the autonomic nervous system, we surgically denervated the sympathetic or parasympathetic hepatic nerve in obese Zucker rats. Our results show that cutting the sympathetic hepatic nerve lowers VLDL-TG secretion in obese rats, finally resulting in lower plasma TG concentrations after 6 weeks. In contrast, a parasympathetic denervation results in increased plasma total cholesterol concentrations. The effect of a sympathetic or parasympathetic denervation of the liver was independent of changes in humoral factors or changes in body weight or food intake. In conclusion, a sympathetic denervation improves the lipid profile in obese Zucker rats, whereas a parasympathetic denervation increases total cholesterol levels. We believe this is a novel treatment target, which should be further investigated. PMID:26134416

  11. Severe Obesity Shifts Metabolic Thresholds but Does Not Attenuate Aerobic Training Adaptations in Zucker Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Thiago S.; Simões, Herbert G.; Rogero, Marcelo M.; Moraes, Milton R.; Denadai, Benedito S.; Arida, Ricardo M.; Andrade, Marília S.; Silva, Bruno M.

    2016-01-01

    Severe obesity affects metabolism with potential to influence the lactate and glycemic response to different exercise intensities in untrained and trained rats. Here we evaluated metabolic thresholds and maximal aerobic capacity in rats with severe obesity and lean counterparts at pre- and post-training. Zucker rats (obese: n = 10, lean: n = 10) were submitted to constant treadmill bouts, to determine the maximal lactate steady state, and an incremental treadmill test, to determine the lactate threshold, glycemic threshold and maximal velocity at pre and post 8 weeks of treadmill training. Velocities of the lactate threshold and glycemic threshold agreed with the maximal lactate steady state velocity on most comparisons. The maximal lactate steady state velocity occurred at higher percentage of the maximal velocity in Zucker rats at pre-training than the percentage commonly reported and used for training prescription for other rat strains (i.e., 60%) (obese = 78 ± 9% and lean = 68 ± 5%, P < 0.05 vs. 60%). The maximal lactate steady state velocity and maximal velocity were lower in the obese group at pre-training (P < 0.05 vs. lean), increased in both groups at post-training (P < 0.05 vs. pre), but were still lower in the obese group at post-training (P < 0.05 vs. lean). Training-induced increase in maximal lactate steady state, lactate threshold and glycemic threshold velocities was similar between groups (P > 0.05), whereas increase in maximal velocity was greater in the obese group (P < 0.05 vs. lean). In conclusion, lactate threshold, glycemic threshold and maximal lactate steady state occurred at similar exercise intensity in Zucker rats at pre- and post-training. Severe obesity shifted metabolic thresholds to higher exercise intensity at pre-training, but did not attenuate submaximal and maximal aerobic training adaptations. PMID:27148063

  12. Changes in individual rates of pancreatic enzyme and isoenzyme biosynthesis in the obese Zucker rat.

    PubMed Central

    Trimble, E R; Rausch, U; Kern, H F

    1987-01-01

    Both alterations of enzyme content and a markedly decreased secretory response to selected physiological stimuli have been demonstrated previously in the pancreas of the obese Zucker rat. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the degree to which alterations of enzyme content could be attributed to changes in enzyme biosynthesis. Amylase content of obese rats was decreased by 50%, whereas lipase and trypsinogens were significantly increased. However, the decrease in amylase content was less than might have been predicted from the rate of amylase biosynthesis (80% decrease), and the increases in content of trypsinogen(s) and lipase were greater than would have been predicted from alterations in the absolute rates of biosynthesis. In view of the rapid turnover of pancreatic enzymes under normal conditions, it seems probable that a markedly decreased secretory response to various stimuli leads to an increased content of some enzymes in the pancreas of the obese rat. Ciglitazone treatment, which decreases insulin resistance in obese animals and leads to normalization of glucose metabolism in their pancreatic tissue, restored the enzyme-synthesis rates towards normal, showing that the abnormalities of enzyme synthesis were linked to the insulin resistance rather than to the obese genotype itself. Lipid inclusion bodies were found in acinar cells of obese rats. These bodies have previously been described in acinar cells of starved animals, which, in common with the acinar tissue of the obese Zucker rat, have decreased glucose metabolism. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:3325041

  13. Pepsin Egg White Hydrolysate Ameliorates Obesity-Related Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Steatosis in Zucker Fatty Rats

    PubMed Central

    Garcés-Rimón, M.; González, C.; Uranga, J. A.; López-Miranda, V.; López-Fandiño, R.; Miguel, M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the administration of egg white hydrolysates on obesity-related disorders, with a focus on lipid metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress, in Zucker fatty rats. Obese Zucker rats received water, pepsin egg white hydrolysate (750 mg/kg/day) or Rhizopus aminopeptidase egg white hydrolysate (750 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks. Lean Zucker rats received water. Body weight, solid and liquid intakes were weekly measured. At the end of the study, urine, faeces, different organs and blood samples were collected. The consumption of egg white hydrolysed with pepsin significantly decreased the epididymal adipose tissue, improved hepatic steatosis, and lowered plasmatic concentration of free fatty acids in the obese animals. It also decreased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and reduced oxidative stress. Pepsin egg white hydrolysate could be used as a tool to improve obesity-related complications. PMID:26985993

  14. Contractile activity restores insulin responsiveness in skeletal muscle of obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, P L; Tapscott, E B; Dorton, P J; Dohm, G L

    1993-01-01

    Both insulin and contraction stimulate glucose transport in skeletal muscle. Insulin-stimulated glucose transport is decreased in obese humans and rats. The aims of this study were (1) to determine if contraction-stimulated glucose transport was also compromised in skeletal muscle of genetically obese insulin-resistant Zucker rats, and (2) to determine whether the additive effects of insulin and contraction previously observed in muscle from lean subjects were evident in muscle from the obese animals. To measure glucose transport, hindlimbs from lean and obese Zucker rats were perfused under basal, insulin-stimulated (0.1 microM), contraction-stimulated (electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve) and combined insulin-(+)contraction-stimulated conditions. One hindlimb was stimulated to contract while the contralateral leg served as an unstimulated control. 2-Deoxyglucose transport rates were measured in the white gastrocnemius, red gastrocnemius and extensor digitorum longus muscles. As expected, the insulin-stimulated glucose transport rate in each of the three muscles was significantly slower (P < 0.05) in obese rats when compared with lean animals. When expressed as fold stimulation over basal, there was no significant difference in contraction-induced muscle glucose transport rates between lean and obese animals. Insulin-(+)contraction-stimulation was additive in skeletal muscle of lean animals, but synergistic in skeletal muscle of obese animals. Prior contraction increased insulin responsiveness of glucose transport 2-5-fold in the obese rats, but had no effect on insulin responsiveness in the lean controls. This contraction-induced improvement in insulin responsiveness could be of clinical importance to obese subjects as a way to improve insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in resistant skeletal muscle. PMID:8424787

  15. Leucine and protein metabolism in obese zucker rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are circulating nutrient signals for protein accretion, however they increase in obesity and appear to prognosticate diabetes onset. To understand the mechanisms whereby obesity affects BCAAs and protein metabolism, we employed metabolomics and measured rates of [1...

  16. OBESITY INCREASES BLOOD PRESSURE, CEREBRAL VASCULAR REMODELING, AND SEVERITY OF STROKE IN THE ZUCKER RAT

    PubMed Central

    Osmond, Jessica M.; Mintz, James D.; Dalton, Brian; Stepp, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for stroke, but the mechanisms by which obesity increases stroke risk are unknown. Because microvascular architecture contributes to the outcome of stroke, we hypothesized that middle cerebral arteries (MCA) from obese Zucker rats (OZR) undergo inward remodeling and develop increased myogenic tone compared to lean Zucker rats (LZR). We further hypothesized that OZR have an increased infarct following cerebral ischemia and that changes in vascular structure and function correlate with the development of hypertension in OZR. Blood pressure was measured by telemetery in LZR and OZR from 6 to 17 weeks of age. Vessel structure and function were assessed in isolated MCAs. Stroke damage was assessed after ischemia was induced for 60 minutes followed by 24 hours of reperfusion. While mean arterial pressure (MAP) was similar between young rats (6–8 weeks old), MAP was higher in adult (14–17 weeks old) OZR than LZR. MCAs from OZR had a smaller lumen diameter and increased myogenic vasoconstriction compared to those from LZR. Following ischemia, infarction was 58% larger in OZR than LZR. Prior to the development of hypertension, MCA myogenic reactity and lumen diameter as well as infarct size were similar between young LZR and OZR. Our results indicate that the MCAs of OZR undergo structural remodeling and that these rats have greater cerebral injury following cerebral ischemia. These cerebrovascular changes correlate with the development of hypertension and suggest that the increased blood pressure may be the major determinant for stroke risk in obese individuals. PMID:19104000

  17. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Cardiac Renin-Angiotensin System in an Obese Zucker Rat Strain

    PubMed Central

    Barretti, Diego Lopes Mendes; Magalhães, Flávio de Castro; Fernandes, Tiago; do Carmo, Everton Crivoi; Rosa, Kaleizu Teodoro; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia; Negrão, Carlos Eduardo; Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes

    2012-01-01

    Objective Obesity and renin angiotensin system (RAS) hyperactivity are profoundly involved in cardiovascular diseases, however aerobic exercise training (EXT) can prevent obesity and cardiac RAS activation. The study hypothesis was to investigate whether obesity and its association with EXT alter the systemic and cardiac RAS components in an obese Zucker rat strain. Methods The rats were divided into the following groups: Lean Zucker rats (LZR); lean Zucker rats plus EXT (LZR+EXT); obese Zucker rats (OZR) and obese Zucker rats plus EXT (OZR+EXT). EXT consisted of 10 weeks of 60-min swimming sessions, 5 days/week. At the end of the training protocol heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), cardiac hypertrophy (CH) and function, local and systemic components of RAS were evaluated. Also, systemic glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and its LDL and HDL fractions were measured. Results The resting HR decreased (∼12%) for both LZR+EXT and OZR+EXT. However, only the LZR+EXT reached significance (p<0.05), while a tendency was found for OZR versus OZR+EXT (p = 0.07). In addition, exercise reduced (57%) triglycerides and (61%) LDL in the OZR+EXT. The systemic angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity did not differ regardless of obesity and EXT, however, the OZR and OZR+EXT showed (66%) and (42%), respectively, less angiotensin II (Ang II) plasma concentration when compared with LZR. Furthermore, the results showed that EXT in the OZR prevented increase in CH, cardiac ACE activity, Ang II and AT2 receptor caused by obesity. In addition, exercise augmented cardiac ACE2 in both training groups. Conclusion Despite the unchanged ACE and lower systemic Ang II levels in obesity, the cardiac RAS was increased in OZR and EXT in obese Zucker rats reduced some of the cardiac RAS components and prevented obesity-related CH. These results show that EXT prevented the heart RAS hyperactivity and cardiac maladaptive morphological alterations in obese Zucker rats

  18. The Prostacyclin Analog Beraprost Sodium Ameliorates Characteristics of Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Zucker (Fatty) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Nahoko; Kaneko, Masayuki; Tamura, Mitsutaka; Kurumatani, Hajimu

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The prostacyclin analog, beraprost sodium (BPS), was examined for its potential to improve the symptoms of obesity-type diabetes (i.e., hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, histopathologic changes, and diabetic complications). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Obese Zucker rats, an experimental model of genetic obesity-induced type 2 diabetes, were repeatedly administered BPS at oral doses of 0.2 or 0.6 mg · kg−1 · day−1 b.i.d. for 12 weeks, and serum chemistry, urinalysis, and histopathologic examination were performed. RESULTS BPS dose-dependently suppressed serum glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels in obese animals. In oral glucose tolerance test, BPS suppressed the post–glucose-loading elevation of serum glucose in a dose-dependent manner. Urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase was significantly lower in BPS-treated obese animals compared with control animals, although no significant differences were observed in urinary protein levels between the BPS-treated groups and the control group. In addition, histopathologic examination revealed significant protective effects of BPS against renal disorder in obese animals. Histopathologically, BPS also inhibited the progression of hepatic steatosis, hypertrophy of adipose tissue, and pancreatic fibrosis. Furthermore, thermographic analysis of the hind limb sole skin surface indicated a significant increase in temperature in BPS-treated animals, compared with control animals, which was likely due to improved blood circulation by administration of BPS. CONCLUSIONS BPS suppressed the pathogenesis and development of diabetes and its complication, nephropathy, which was presumably accompanied by improving glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in obese Zucker rats. PMID:20068136

  19. Obesity augments vasoconstrictor reactivity to angiotensin II in the renal circulation of the Zucker rat.

    PubMed

    Stepp, David W; Boesen, Erika I; Sullivan, Jennifer C; Mintz, James D; Hair, Clark D; Pollock, David M

    2007-10-01

    Obesity is an emerging risk factor for renal dysfunction, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Obese patients show heightened renal vasodilation to blockade of the renin-angiotensin system, suggesting deficits in vascular responses to angiotensin II (ANG II). This study tested the hypothesis that obesity augments renal vasoconstriction to ANG II. Lean (LZR), prediabetic obese (OZR), and nonobese fructose-fed Zucker rats (FF-LZR) were studied to determine the effects of obesity and insulin resistance on reactivity of blood pressure and renal blood flow to vasoconstrictors. OZR showed enlargement of the kidneys, elevated urine output, increased sodium intake, and decreased plasma renin activity (PRA) vs. LZR, and renal vasoconstriction to ANG II was augmented in OZR. Renal reactivity to norepinephrine and mesenteric vascular reactivity to ANG II were similar between LZR and OZR. Insulin-resistant FF-LZR had normal reactivity to ANG II, indicating the insulin resistance was an unlikely explanation for the changes observed in OZR. Four weeks on a low-sodium diet (0.08%) to raise PRA reduced reactivity to ANG II in OZR back to normal levels without effect on LZR. From these data, we conclude that in the prediabetic stages of obesity, a decrease in PRA is observed in Zucker rats that may lead to increased renal vascular reactivity to ANG II. This increased reactivity to ANG II may explain the elevated renal vasodilator effects observed in obese humans and provide insight into early changes in renal function that predispose to nephropathy in later stages of the disease. PMID:17693541

  20. The carbonyl scavenger carnosine ameliorates dyslipidaemia and renal function in Zucker obese rats

    PubMed Central

    Aldini, Giancarlo; Orioli, Marica; Rossoni, Giuseppe; Savi, Federica; Braidotti, Paola; Vistoli, Giulio; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Negrisoli, Gianpaolo; Carini, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The metabolic syndrome is a risk factor that increases the risk for development of renal and vascular complications. This study addresses the effects of chronic administration of the endogenous dipeptide carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine, L-CAR) and of its enantiomer (β-alanyl-D-histidine, D-CAR) on hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, advanced glycation end products, advanced lipoxidation end products formation and development of nephropathy in the non-diabetic, Zucker obese rat. The Zucker rats received a daily dose of L-CAR or D-CAR (30 mg/kg in drinking water) for 24 weeks. Systolic blood pressure was recorded monthly. At the end of the treatment, plasma levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, glucose, insulin, creatinine and urinary levels of total protein, albumin and creatinine were measured. Several indices of oxidative/carbonyl stress were also measured in plasma, urine and renal tissue. We found that both L- and D-CAR greatly reduced obese-related diseases in obese Zucker rat, by significantly restraining the development of dyslipidaemia, hypertension and renal injury, as demonstrated by both urinary parameters and electron microscopy examinations of renal tissue. Because the protective effect elicited by L- and D-CAR was almost superimposable, we conclude that the pharmacological action of L-CAR is not due to a pro-histaminic effect (D-CAR is not a precursor of histidine, since it is stable to peptidic hydrolysis), and prompted us to propose that some of the biological effects can be mediated by a direct carbonyl quenching mechanism. PMID:20518851

  1. Niacin in Pharmacological Doses Alters MicroRNA Expression in Skeletal Muscle of Obese Zucker Rats

    PubMed Central

    Most, Erika; Ringseis, Robert; Eder, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Administration of pharmacological niacin doses was recently reported to have pronounced effects on skeletal muscle gene expression and phenotype in obese Zucker rats, with the molecular mechanisms underlying the alteration of gene expression being completely unknown. Since miRNAs have been shown to play a critical role for gene expression through inducing miRNA-mRNA interactions which results in the degradation of specific mRNAs or the repression of protein translation, we herein aimed to investigate the influence of niacin at pharmacological doses on the miRNA expression profile in skeletal muscle of obese Zucker rats fed either a control diet with 30 mg supplemented niacin/kg diet or a high-niacin diet with 780 mg supplemented niacin/kg diet for 4 wk. miRNA microarray analysis revealed that 42 out of a total of 259 miRNAs were differentially expressed (adjusted P-value <0.05), 20 being down-regulated and 22 being up-regulated, between the niacin group and the control group. Using a biostatistics approach, we could demonstrate that the most strongly up-regulated (log2 ratio ≥0.5) and down-regulated (log2 ratio ≤−0.5) miRNAs target approximately 1,800 mRNAs. Gene-term enrichment analysis showed that many of the predicted target mRNAs from the most strongly regulated miRNAs were involved in molecular processes dealing with gene transcription such as DNA binding, transcription regulator activity, transcription factor binding and in important regulatory pathways such as Wnt signaling and MAPK signaling. In conclusion, the present study shows for the first time that pharmacological niacin doses alter the expression of miRNAs in skeletal muscle of obese Zucker rats and that the niacin-regulated miRNAs target a large set of genes and pathways which are involved in gene regulatory activity indicating that at least some of the recently reported effects of niacin on skeletal muscle gene expression and phenotype in obese Zucker rats are mediated through mi

  2. Estrogen has opposing effects on vascular reactivity in obese, insulin-resistant male Zucker rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks-Asplund, Esther M.; Shoukas, Artin A.; Kim, Soon-Yul; Burke, Sean A.; Berkowitz, Dan E.

    2002-01-01

    We hypothesized that estradiol treatment would improve vascular dysfunction commonly associated with obesity, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance. A sham operation or 17beta-estradiol pellet implantation was performed in male lean and obese Zucker rats. Maximal vasoconstriction (VC) to phenylephrine (PE) and potassium chloride was exaggerated in control obese rats compared with lean rats, but estradiol significantly attenuated VC in the obese rats. Estradiol reduced the PE EC50 in all groups. This effect was cyclooxygenase independent, because preincubation with indomethacin reduced VC response to PE similarly in a subset of control and estrogen-treated lean rats. Endothelium-independent vasodilation (VD) to sodium nitroprusside was similar among groups, but endothelium-dependent VD to ACh was significantly impaired in obese compared with lean rats. Estradiol improved VD in lean and obese rats by decreasing EC50 but impaired function by decreasing maximal VD. The shift in EC50 corresponded to an upregulation in nitric oxide synthase III protein expression in the aorta of the estrogen-treated obese rats. In summary, estrogen treatment improves vascular function in male insulin-resistant, obese rats, partially via an upregulation of nitric oxide synthase III protein expression. These effects are counteracted by adverse factors, such as hyperlipidemia and, potentially, a release of an endothelium-derived contractile agent.

  3. Expression of fourteen novel obesity-related genes in zucker diabetic fatty rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are useful to reveal an association between single nucleotide polymorphisms and different measures of obesity. A multitude of new loci has recently been reported, but the exact function of most of the according genes is not known. The aim of our study was to start elucidating the function of some of these genes. Methods We performed an expression analysis of fourteen genes, namely BDNF, ETV5, FAIM2, FTO, GNPDA2, KCTD15, LYPLAL1, MCR4, MTCH2, NEGR1, NRXN3, TMEM18, SEC16B and TFAP2B, via real-time RT-PCR in adipose tissue of the kidney capsule, the mesenterium and subcutaneum as well as the hypothalamus of obese Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and Zucker lean (ZL) rats at an age of 22 weeks. Results All of our target genes except for SEC16B showed the highest expression in the hypothalamus. This suggests a critical role of these obesity-related genes in the central regulation of energy balance. Interestingly, the expression pattern in the hypothalamus showed no differences between obese ZDF and lean ZL rats. However, LYPLAL1, TFAP2B, SEC16B and FAIM2 were significantly lower expressed in the kidney fat of ZDF than ZL rats. NEGR1 was even lower expressed in subcutaneous and mesenterial fat, while MTCH2 was higher expressed in the subcutaneous and mesenterial fat of ZDF rats. Conclusion The expression pattern of the investigated obesity genes implies for most of them a role in the central regulation of energy balance, but for some also a role in the adipose tissue itself. For the development of the ZDF phenotype peripheral rather than central mechanisms of the investigated genes seem to be relevant. PMID:22553958

  4. Upregulation of orexin receptor in paraventricular nucleus promotes sympathetic outflow in obese Zucker rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jing-Jing; Yuan, Fang; Zhang, Yi; Li, De-Pei

    2015-01-01

    Sympathetic vasomotor tone is elevated in obesity-related hypertension. Orexin importantly regulates energy metabolism and autonomic function. We hypothesized that alteration of orexin receptor in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus leads to elevated sympathetic vasomotor tone in obesity. We used in vivo measurement of sympathetic vasomotor tone and microinjection into brain nucleus, whole-cell patch clamp recording in brain slices, and immunocytochemical staining in obese Zucker rats (OZRs) and lean Zucker rats (LZRs). Microinjection of orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) antagonist SB334867 into the PVN reduced basal arterial blood pressure (ABP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in anesthetized OZRs but not in LZRs. Microinjection of orexin A into the PVN produced greater increases in ABP and RSNA in OZRs than in LZRs. Western blot analysis revealed that OX1R expression levels in the PVN were significantly increased in OZRs compared with LZRs. OX1R immunoreactivity was positive in retrogradely labeled PVN-spinal neurons. The basal firing rate of labeled PVN-spinal neurons was higher in OZRs than in LZRs. SB334867 decreased the basal firing activity of PVN-spinal neurons in OZRs but had no effect in LZRs. Orexin A induced a greater increase in the firing rate of PVN-spinal neurons in OZRs than in LZRs. In addition, orexin A induced larger currents in PVN-spinal neurons in OZRs than in LZRs. These data suggest that upregulation of OX1R in the PVN promotes hyperactivity of PVN presympathetic neurons and elevated sympathetic outflow in obesity. PMID:26277341

  5. Resolution of Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress Rescues Coronary Collateral Growth in Zucker Obese Fatty Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pung, Yuh Fen; Rocic, Petra; Murphy, Michael P; Smith, Robin A J; Hafemeister, Jennifer; Ohanyan, Vahagn; Guarini, Giacinta; Yin, Liya; Chilian, William M

    2014-01-01

    Objective We have previously found abrogated ischemia-induced coronary collateral growth in Zucker obese fatty rats (ZOF) compared to Zucker lean rats (ZLN). Because ZOF have structural abnormalities in their mitochondria suggesting dysfunction, and also show increased production of O2ׄ−, we hypothesized that mitochondrial dysfunction, caused by oxidative stress impairs coronary collateral growth in ZOF. Methods and Results Increased levels of ROS were observed in aortic endothelium and smooth muscle cells in ZOF compared to ZLN. ROS levels were decreased by the mitochondria-targeted antioxidants MitoQuinone (MQ) and MitoTempol (MT) as assessed by MitoSox Red and DHE staining. Lipid peroxides (a marker of oxidized lipids) were increased in ZOF by ∼47 % compared to ZLN. The elevation in oxidative stress was accompanied by increased antioxidant enzymes, except GPx-1, and by increased uncoupling protein-2 in ZOF vs ZLN. In addition, elevated respiration rates were also observed in the obese compared to leans. Administration of MQ significantly normalized the metabolic profiles and reduced lipid peroxides in ZOF to the same level observed in leans. The protective effect of MQ also suppressed the induction of UCP-2 in the obese rats. Resolution of mitochondrial oxidative stress by MQ or MT restored coronary collateral growth to the same magnitude observed in ZLN in response to repetitive ischemia. Conclusions We conclude that mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction play a key role in disrupting coronary collateral growth in obesity and the metabolic syndrome, and elimination of the mitochondrial oxidative stress with MQ or MT rescues collateral growth. PMID:22155454

  6. Metabolic syndrome impairs reactivity and wall mechanics of cerebral resistance arteries in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Steven D; DeVallance, Evan; d'Audiffret, Alexandre C; Frisbee, Stephanie J; Tabone, Lawrence E; Shrader, Carl D; Frisbee, Jefferson C; Chantler, Paul D

    2015-12-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is highly prevalent in the North American population and is associated with increased risk for development of cerebrovascular disease. This study determined the structural and functional changes in the middle cerebral arteries (MCA) during the progression of MetS and the effects of chronic pharmacological interventions on mitigating vascular alterations in obese Zucker rats (OZR), a translationally relevant model of MetS. The reactivity and wall mechanics of ex vivo pressurized MCA from lean Zucker rats (LZR) and OZR were determined at 7-8, 12-13, and 16-17 wk of age under control conditions and following chronic treatment with pharmacological agents targeting specific systemic pathologies. With increasing age, control OZR demonstrated reduced nitric oxide bioavailability, impaired dilator (acetylcholine) reactivity, elevated myogenic properties, structural narrowing, and wall stiffening compared with LZR. Antihypertensive therapy (e.g., captopril or hydralazine) starting at 7-8 wk of age blunted the progression of arterial stiffening compared with OZR controls, while treatments that reduced inflammation and oxidative stress (e.g., atorvastatin, rosiglitazone, and captopril) improved NO bioavailability and vascular reactivity compared with OZR controls and had mixed effects on structural remodeling. These data identify specific functional and structural cerebral adaptations that limit cerebrovascular blood flow in MetS patients, contributing to increased risk of cognitive decline, cerebral hypoperfusion, and ischemic stroke; however, these pathological adaptations could potentially be blunted if treated early in the progression of MetS. PMID:26475592

  7. Potential renoprotective effects of piceatannol in ameliorating the early-stage nephropathy associated with obesity in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Llarena, Marta; Andrade, Fernando; Hasnaoui, Mounia; Portillo, María P; Pérez-Matute, Patricia; Arbones-Mainar, Jose M; Hijona, Elizabeth; Villanueva-Millán, María Jesús; Aguirre, Leixuri; Carpéné, Christian; Aldámiz-Echevarría, Luis

    2016-09-01

    Obesity-associated nephropathy is considered to be a leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Resveratrol supplementation represents a promising therapy to attenuate kidney injury, but the poor solubility and limited bioavailability of this polyphenol limits its use in dietary intervention. Piceatannol, a resveratrol analogue, has been suggested as a better option. In this study, we aimed to provide evidence of a preventive action of piceatannol in very early stages of obesity-associated nephropathy. Thirty obese Zucker rats were divided into three experimental groups: one control and two groups orally treated for 6 weeks with 15 and 45 mg piceatannol/kg body weight/day. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were used to determine renal and urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1), renal fibrosis markers (transforming growth factor β1 and fibronectin) and renal sirtuin-1 protein. Oxidative stress was assessed in the kidney by measuring lipid peroxidation and nitrosative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substrates and 3-nitrotyrosine levels, respectively) together with the activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase. Renal fatty acids profile analysis was performed by thin-layer and gas chromatography. Piceatannol-treated rats displayed lower levels of urinary and renal Kim-1. Renal fibrosis biomarkers and lipid peroxidation exhibited a tendency to decrease in the piceatannol-treated groups. Piceatannol treatment did not modify superoxide dismutase activity or sirtuin-1 protein levels, while it seemed to increase the levels of polyunsaturated and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the kidneys. Our findings suggest a mild renoprotective effect of piceatannol in obese Zucker rats and the need of intervention at early stages of renal damage. PMID:26660756

  8. Soy protein isolate modified metabolic phenotype and hepatic Wnt signaling in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Cain, J; Banz, W J; Butteiger, D; Davis, J E

    2011-10-01

    We have previously shown that soy protein isolate (SPI) with intact phytoestrogen content prevented obesity-related dysfunction. Recent data have suggested that soy ingredients may act as regulators of adipogenic programming in adipose tissue (AT) and liver. Thus, the current study was undertaken to determine whether the beneficial effects of SPI are linked to changes in adipogenic regulators, such as the Wnt signaling cascade. For this, lean (LZR) and obese Zucker (OZR) rats were provided isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets containing SPI, sodium caseinate, or dairy whey protein for 17 weeks. At termination, SPI increased body weight and total adiposity in rodents, which corresponded with an increase in both adipocyte size and number. Furthermore, markers of inflammation, hypercholesterolemia, and hepatic steatosis were all reduced in OZR rats provided SPI. Transcript abundance of several canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling intermediates in liver, but not AT, was distinctly modified by SPI. Collectively, these data confirm the protective SPI attenuated obesity-related metabolic dysfunction conceivably through regulation of adipogenic programming, as evident by changes in AT morphology and hepatic Wnt signaling. Collectively, this study confirmed the potential utilization of soy protein and its bioactive ingredients for prevention and treatment of obesity-related comorbidities. PMID:22009372

  9. Impaired Excitatory Neurotransmission in the Urinary Bladder from the Obese Zucker Rat: Role of Cannabinoid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Blaha, Igor; Recio, Paz; Martínez, María Pilar; López-Oliva, María Elvira; Ribeiro, Ana S. F.; Agis-Torres, Ángel; Martínez, Ana Cristina; Benedito, Sara; García-Sacristán, Albino; Fernandes, Vítor S.; Hernández, Medardo

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a known risk factor for lower urinary tract symptoms. This study investigates whether functional and expression changes of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors are involved in the bladder dysfunction in an obese rat model with insulin resistance. Bladder samples from obese Zucker rat (OZR) and their respective controls lean Zucker rat (LZR) were processed for immunohistochemistry and western blot for studying the cannabinoid receptors expression. Detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) strips from LZR and OZR were also mounted in myographs for isometric force recordings. Neuronal and smooth muscle CB1 and CB2 receptor expression and the nerve fiber density was diminished in the OZR bladder. Electrical field stimulation (EFS) and acetylcholine (ACh) induced frequency- and concentration-dependent contractions of LZR and OZR DSM. ACh contractile responses were similar in LZR and OZR. EFS-elicited contractions, however, were reduced in OZR bladder. Cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists failed to modify the DSM basal tension in LZR and OZR In LZR bladder, EFS responses were inhibited by ACEA and SER-601, CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists, respectively, these effects being reversed by ACEA plus the CB1 antagonist, AM-251 or SER-601 plus the CB2 antagonist, AM-630. In OZR bladder, the inhibitory action of ACEA on nerve-evoked contractions was diminished, whereas that SER-601 did not change EFS responses. These results suggest that a diminished function and expression of neuronal cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, as well as a lower nerve fiber density is involved in the impaired excitatory neurotransmission of the urinary bladder from the OZR. PMID:27285468

  10. Exaggerated sympathoexcitatory reflexes develop with changes in the rostral ventrolateral medulla in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Huber, Domitila A; Schreihofer, Ann M

    2016-08-01

    Obesity leads to altered autonomic reflexes that reduce stability of mean arterial pressure (MAP). Sympathoinhibitory reflexes such as baroreflexes are impaired, but reflexes that raise MAP appear to be augmented. In obese Zucker rats (OZR) sciatic nerve stimulation evokes larger increases in MAP by unknown mechanisms. We sought to determine the autonomic underpinnings of this enhanced somatic pressor reflex and whether other sympathoexcitatory reflexes are augmented. We also determined whether their final common pathway, glutamatergic activation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), was enhanced in male OZR compared with lean Zucker rats (LZR). Sciatic nerve stimulation or activation of the nasopharyngeal reflex evoked larger rises in splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) (79% and 45% larger in OZR, respectively; P < 0.05) and MAP in urethane-anesthetized, ventilated, paralyzed adult OZR compared with LZR. After elimination of baroreflex feedback by pharmacological prevention of changes in MAP and heart rate, these two sympathoexcitatory reflexes were still exaggerated in OZR (167% and 69% larger, respectively, P < 0.05). In adult OZR microinjections of glutamate, AMPA, or NMDA into the RVLM produced larger rises in SNA (∼61% larger in OZR, P < 0.05 for each drug) and MAP, but stimulation of axonal fibers in the upper thoracic spinal cord yielded equivalent responses in OZR and LZR. In juvenile OZR and LZR, sympathoexcitatory reflexes and physiological responses to RVLM activation were comparable. These data suggest that the ability of glutamate to activate the RVLM becomes enhanced in adult OZR and may contribute to the development of exaggerated sympathoexcitatory responses independent of impaired baroreflexes. PMID:27280427

  11. Effect of changing body temperature on the ventilatory and metabolic responses of lean and obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Maskrey, M; Megirian, D; Farkas, G A

    1998-08-01

    We measured body temperature (Tb) and ventilatory and metabolic variables in lean (n = 8) and obese (n = 8) Zucker rats. Measurements were made while rats breathed air, 4% CO2, and 10% O2. Under control conditions, Tb in obese rats was always less than that of their lean counterparts. Obese rats adopted a more rapid, shallow breathing pattern than lean rats in air and had a lower ventilation rate in 4% CO2. Respiration in 10% O2 was similar for the two groups. Metabolic variables did not differ between lean and obese rats whatever the gas breathed. When lean rats were cooled to match Tb in control obese rats with an implanted abdominal heat exchanger, they increased ventilation and metabolism in air; there was no effect of cooling on responses to 4% CO2; and ventilation increased while metabolism decreased in 10% O2. When obese rats were warmed to match Tb in control lean rats, trends in ventilation and metabolism resulted in a tendency toward hyperventilation in air and 4% CO2, but not in 10% O2. Taken overall, matching Tb in lean and obese rats accentuated differences in respiratory and metabolic variables between the two groups. We conclude that differences in respiration between lean and obese Zucker rats are not due to the difference in Tb. PMID:9688690

  12. Cereal based diets modulate some markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in lean and obese Zucker rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The potential of cereals with high antioxidant capacity for reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in obesity is unknown. This study investigated the impact of wheat bran, barley or a control diet (α-cellulose) on the development of oxidative stress and inflammation in lean and obese Zucker rats. Methods Seven wk old, lean and obese male Zucker rats (n = 8/group) were fed diets that contained wheat bran, barley or α-cellulose (control). After 3 months on these diets, systolic blood pressure was measured and plasma was analysed for glucose, insulin, lipids, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase and adipokine concentration (leptin, adiponectin, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, TNFα, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1). Adipokine secretion rates from visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue explants were also determined. Results Obese rats had higher body weight, systolic blood pressure and fasting blood lipids, glucose, insulin, leptin and IL-1β in comparison to lean rats, and these measures were not reduced by consumption of wheat bran or barley based diets. Serum ORAC tended to be higher in obese rats fed wheat bran and barley in comparison to control (p = 0.06). Obese rats had higher plasma malondialdehyde (p < 0.01) and lower plasma glutathione peroxidase concentration (p < 0.01) but these levels were not affected by diet type. PAI-1 was elevated in the plasma of obese rats, and the wheat bran diet in comparison to the control group reduced PAI-1 to levels seen in the lean rats (p < 0.05). These changes in circulating PAI-1 levels could not be explained by PAI-1 secretion rates from visceral or subcutaneous adipose tissue. Conclusions A 3-month dietary intervention was sufficient for Zucker obese rats to develop oxidative stress and systemic inflammation. Cereal-based diets with moderate and high antioxidant capacity elicited modest improvements in indices of

  13. Activity of thyroxine 5' deiodinase in brown fat of lean and obese zucker rats

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, S.Y.; Fisher, D.A.; Stern, J.S.; Glick, Z.

    1986-03-01

    This study examines the possibility that the reduced brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis in the Zucker obese rat may result from a limited capacity for conversion of T/sub 4/ to T/sub 3/ in BAT, through activity of T/sub 4/ 5' deiodinase. Eighteen lean (Fa/.) and 18 age matched obese (fa/fa), about 16 weeks old, were each divided into 3 groups (n=6 per group). Group 1 and 2 were fed Purina Rat Chow and a cafeteria diet respectively for 21 days, and maintained at 22/sup 0/C+/-2. Group 3 was fed rat chow and maintained at 8/sup 0/C+/-1 for 7 days. Activity of T/sub 4/5'deiodinase was determined in vitro. T/sub 3/ was measured by a radioimmunoassay. The rate of T/sub 4/ to T/sub 3/ conversion was similar in the lean and the obese rats maintained at room temperature, whether fed rat chow or a cafeteria diet (about 40 to 50 pmol T/sub 3//scapular BAT depot, per hour). However, lean rats exposed to the cold displayed about a 5 fold increase in T/sub 4/5' deiodinase activity (p<0.0001), with only a small increase displayed by the cold exposed obese rats. Our data suggest that a reduced capacity of the brown rat to produce T/sub 3/ may account for the reduced tolerance of obese animals to cold, but it does not account for their reduced diet induced BAT thermogenesis.

  14. The mitochondrial function of the cerebral vasculature in insulin-resistant Zucker obese rats.

    PubMed

    Merdzo, Ivan; Rutkai, Ibolya; Tokes, Tunde; Sure, Venkata N L R; Katakam, Prasad V G; Busija, David W

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about mitochondrial functioning in the cerebral vasculature during insulin resistance (IR). We examined mitochondrial respiration in isolated cerebral arteries of male Zucker obese (ZO) rats and phenotypically normal Zucker lean (ZL) rats using the Seahorse XFe24 analyzer. We investigated mitochondrial morphology in cerebral blood vessels as well as mitochondrial and nonmitochondrial protein expression levels in cerebral arteries and microvessels. We also measured reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in cerebral microvessels. Under basal conditions, the mitochondrial respiration components (nonmitochondrial respiration, basal respiration, ATP production, proton leak, and spare respiratory capacity) showed similar levels among the ZL and ZO groups with the exception of maximal respiration, which was higher in the ZO group. We examined the role of nitric oxide by measuring mitochondrial respiration following inhibition of nitric oxide synthase withN(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) and mitochondrial activation after administration of diazoxide (DZ). Both ZL and ZO groups showed similar responses to these stimuli with minor variations.l-NAME significantly increased the proton leak, and DZ decreased nonmitochondrial respiration in the ZL group. Other components were not affected. Mitochondrial morphology and distribution within vascular smooth muscle and endothelium as well as mitochondrial protein levels were similar in the arteries and microvessels of both groups. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and ROS levels were increased in cerebral microvessels of the ZO. Our study suggests that mitochondrial function is not significantly altered in the cerebral vasculature of young ZO rats, but increased ROS production might be due to increased eNOS in the cerebral microcirculation during IR. PMID:26873973

  15. A novel experimental model of orthopedic trauma with acute kidney injury in obese Zucker rats

    PubMed Central

    Mittwede, Peter N; Xiang, Lusha; Lu, Silu; Clemmer, John S; Hester, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) after blunt traumatic injury in humans. Because limitations exist in studying trauma in human patients, animal models are necessary to elucidate mechanisms of remote organ injury after trauma. We developed a model of severe orthopedic trauma in lean (LZ) and obese (OZ) Zucker rats, in which OZ develop greater kidney dysfunction after trauma than LZ. Orthopedic trauma was inflicted via bilateral hindlimb soft tissue injury, fibula fracture, and injection of homogenized bone components. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured for 6 h after trauma, and again at 24 h after trauma. Urine was collected for 24 h before and after trauma to measure urine albumin excretion. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma flow (RPF), plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), and renal macrophage infiltration (ED-1 [CD68 Antibody] immunostaining) were measured in animals with and without trauma. MAP and HR were similar between LZ and OZ throughout the study, with the exception that OZ had a 18 mmHg lower pressure 24 h posttrauma. GFR and RPF were decreased significantly (∼50%), while urine albumin excretion, plasma IL-6, and renal ED-1-positive cells were increased in OZ 24 h after trauma compared to both OZ without trauma and LZ after trauma. In conclusion, these data are consistent with studies in humans that show that AKI develops more frequently in obese than in lean individuals. This model will be an important experimental tool to better understand the underlying mechanisms of poor outcomes after trauma in obese patients. PMID:24303169

  16. A diet supplemented with husks of Plantago ovata reduces the development of endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, and obesity by affecting adiponectin and TNF-alpha in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Galisteo, Milagros; Sánchez, Manuel; Vera, Rocío; González, Mercedes; Anguera, Anna; Duarte, Juan; Zarzuelo, Antonio

    2005-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze whether consumption of a fiber-supplemented diet containing 3.5% Plantago ovata husks prevented many of the abnormalities clustered in the metabolic syndrome, including obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. For this purpose, obese Zucker rats, a model of type 2 diabetes, and their lean littermates were studied. Rats consumed a standard control diet or that diet supplemented with 3.5% P. ovata husks for 25 wk. Body weights were measured weekly. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured monthly. At the end of the treatment, plasma concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, FFAs, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) were determined, and studies on vascular function were performed using aortic rings. Rats fed the P. ovata husk-supplemented diet had a significantly reduced body weight gain compared with those fed the standard diet. Decreased endothelium-dependent relaxation in response to acetylcholine (ACh) by aortic rings from obese Zucker rats was improved in those fed the fiber-supplemented diet. The greater SBP, higher plasma concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, FFA, glucose, insulin, and TNF-alpha, and the hypoadinectinemia that occurred in obese Zucker rats that consumed the control diet were significantly improved in those fed the fiber-supplemented diet. We conclude that intake of a P. ovata husk-supplemented diet prevents endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, and obesity development, and ameliorates dyslipidemia and abnormal plasma concentrations of adiponectin and TNF-alpha in obese Zucker rats. PMID:16177203

  17. Xanthohumol lowers body weight and fasting plasma glucose in obese male Zucker fa/fa rats.

    PubMed

    Legette, Leecole L; Luna, Arlyn Y Moreno; Reed, Ralph L; Miranda, Cristobal L; Bobe, Gerd; Proteau, Rosita R; Stevens, Jan F

    2013-07-01

    Obesity contributes to increased risk for several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Xanthohumol, a prenylated flavonoid from hops (Humulus lupulus), was tested for efficacy on biomarkers of metabolic syndrome in 4 week old Zucker fa/fa rats, a rodent model of obesity. Rats received daily oral doses of xanthohumol at 0, 1.86, 5.64, and 16.9 mg/kg BW for 6 weeks. All rats were maintained on a high fat (60% kcal) AIN-93G diet for 3 weeks to induce severe obesity followed by a normal AIN-93G (15% kcal fat) diet for the last 3 weeks of the study. Weekly food intake and body weight were recorded. Plasma cholesterol, glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels were assessed using commercial assay kits. Plasma and liver tissue levels of XN and its metabolites were determined by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma and liver tissue levels of xanthohumol were similar between low and medium dose groups and significantly (p<0.05) elevated in the highest dose group. There was a dose-dependent effect on body weight and plasma glucose levels. The highest dose group (n=6) had significantly lower plasma glucose levels compared to the control group (n=6) in male but not female rats. There was also a significant decrease in body weight for male rats in the highest dose group (16.9 mg/kg BW) compared to rats that received no xanthohumol, which was also not seen for female rats. Plasma cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and MCP-1 as well as food intake were not affected by treatment. The findings suggest that xanthohumol has beneficial effects on markers of metabolic syndrome. PMID:22640929

  18. Effects of salt rich diet in the obese Zucker rats: studies on renal function during isotonic volume expansion.

    PubMed

    Pamidimukkala, Jaya; Jandhyala, Bhagavan S

    2004-01-01

    Obese Zucker rats (OZR) are hyperinsulenemic, hyperglycemic and dyslipidemic and develop salt dependent hypertension. Since salt sensitivity is considered to be due to impaired handling of renal sodium excretion, these studies were conducted in the obese and lean Zucker rats (LZR) anesthetized with Inactin to evaluate renal function under basal conditions and during acute isotonic fluid volume expansion (VE). Mean Arterial blood pressure (MBP), heart rate (HR), renal blood flow(RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were not significantly different between the lean Zucker rats fed normal diet or that fed salt rich diet(8% NaCI). However, basal UV and UNaV were significantly greater in the LZR fed high salt. During VE essentially identical increases occurred in GFR, UV and UNaV in both the lean groups. In the OZR fed salt rich diet also, there were no significant changes in the heart rate, RBF and GFR. However, arterial blood pressure of the OZR fed salt rich diet was significantly greater than that of the OZR on the normal diet as well as that of both the lean groups. Also, as in the LZR, basal UV and UNaV were significantly greater in the salt fed obese rats. During volume expansion there were no impairments in the ability of the obese groups fed normal or salt rich diet to eliminate sodium and water during volume load. In fact, the net sodium and water excretions during and 60 min after VE in both the obese groups were significantly greater than that of corresponding lean groups. Furthermore, these values in the OZR fed salt rich diet were significantly greater than that of the obese rats on normal salt diet perhaps due to the contribution of pressure natriuretic mechanisms'. These data demonstrate that although OZR are salt sensitive, the renal mechanisms that would collectively respond to acute isotonic VE were fully functional. An unexpected and a novel finding in these studies is that the salt rich diet, in addition to increasing arterial blood pressure

  19. Systemic Characterization of an Obese Phenotype in the Zucker Rat Model Defining Metabolic Axes of Energy Metabolism and Host-Microbial Interactions.

    PubMed

    Phetcharaburanin, Jutarop; Lees, Hannah; Marchesi, Julian R; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Holmes, Elaine; Seyfried, Florian; Li, Jia V

    2016-06-01

    The Zucker (fa/fa) rat is a valuable and extensively utilized model for obesity research. However, the metabolic networks underlying the systemic response in the obese Zucker rats remain to be elucidated. This information is important to further our understanding of the circulation of the microbial or host-microbial metabolites and their impact on host metabolism. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-based metabolic profiling was used to probe global metabolic differences in portal vein and peripheral blood plasma, urine and fecal water between obese (fa/fa, n = 12) and lean (fa/+, n = 12) Zucker rats. Urinary concentrations of host-microbial co-metabolites were found to be significantly higher in lean Zucker rats. Higher concentrations of fecal lactate, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), 3-hydroxyphenyl propionic acid and glycerol, and lower levels of valine and glycine were observed in obese rats compared with lean animals. Regardless of phenotype, concentrations of SCFAs, tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, and choline metabolites were higher in portal vein blood compared to peripheral blood. However, higher levels of succinate, phenylalanine and tyrosine were observed in portal vein blood compared with peripheral blood from lean rats but not in obese rats. Our findings indicate that the absorption of propionate, acetate, choline, and trimethylamine is independent of the Zucker rat phenotypes. However, urinary host-microbial co-metabolites were highly associated with phenotypes, suggesting distinct gut microbial metabolic activities in lean and obese Zucker rats. This work advances our understanding of metabolic processes associated with obesity, particularly the metabolic functionality of the gut microbiota in the context of obesity. PMID:27087596

  20. Effects of 2 G on adiposity, leptin, lipoprotein lipase, and uncoupling protein-1 in lean and obese Zucker rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, L. E.; Horwitz, B. A.; Hamilton, J. S.; Fuller, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    Male Zucker rats were exposed to 2 G for 8 wk to test the hypothesis that the leptin regulatory pathway contributes to recovery from effects of 2 G on feeding, growth, and nutrient partitioning. After initial hypophagia, body mass-independent food intake of the lean rats exposed to 2 G surpassed that of the lean rats maintained at 1 G, but food intake of the obese rats exposed to 2 G remained low. After 8 wk at 2 G, body mass and carcass fat were less in both genotypes. Leptin and percent fat were lower in lean rats exposed to 2 G vs. 1 G but did not differ in obese rats exposed to 2 G vs. 1 G. Although exposure to 2 G did not alter uncoupling protein-1 levels, it did elicit white fat pad-specific changes in lipoprotein lipase activity in obese but not lean rats. We conclude that 2 G affects both genotypes but that the lean Zucker rats recover their food intake and growth rate and retain "normal" lipoprotein lipase activity to a greater degree than do the obese rats, emphasizing the importance of a functional leptin regulatory pathway in this acclimation.

  1. Distinct temporal phases of microvascular rarefaction in skeletal muscle of obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Frisbee, Jefferson C; Goodwill, Adam G; Frisbee, Stephanie J; Butcher, Joshua T; Brock, Robert W; Olfert, I Mark; DeVallance, Evan R; Chantler, Paul D

    2014-12-15

    Evolution of metabolic syndrome is associated with a progressive reduction in skeletal muscle microvessel density, known as rarefaction. Although contributing to impairments to mass transport and exchange, the temporal development of rarefaction and the contributing mechanisms that lead to microvessel loss are both unclear and critical areas for investigation. Although previous work suggests that rarefaction severity in obese Zucker rats (OZR) is predicted by the chronic loss of vascular nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, we have determined that this hides a biphasic development of rarefaction, with both early and late components. Although the total extent of rarefaction was well predicted by the loss in NO bioavailability, the early pulse of rarefaction developed before a loss of NO bioavailability and was associated with altered venular function (increased leukocyte adhesion/rolling), and early elevation in oxidant stress, TNF-α levels, and the vascular production of thromboxane A2 (TxA2). Chronic inhibition of TNF-α blunted the severity of rarefaction and also reduced vascular oxidant stress and TxA2 production. Chronic blockade of the actions of TxA2 also blunted rarefaction, but did not impact oxidant stress or inflammation, suggesting that TxA2 is a downstream outcome of elevated reactive oxygen species and inflammation. If chronic blockade of TxA2 is terminated, microvascular rarefaction in OZR skeletal muscle resumes, but at a reduced rate despite low NO bioavailability. These results suggest that therapeutic interventions against inflammation and TxA2 under conditions where metabolic syndrome severity is moderate or mild may prevent the development of a condition of accelerated microvessel loss with metabolic syndrome. PMID:25305181

  2. Repeated electroacupuncture in obese Zucker diabetic fatty rats: adiponectin and leptin in serum and adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Peplow, Philip V

    2015-04-01

    Fasted, male, obese, Zucker, diabetic fatty rats aged 10-16 weeks were anesthetized with 1% halothane in nitrous oxide-oxygen (3:1) on alternate weekdays over 2 weeks. Group 1 (n = 4) did not receive electroacupuncture (controls); Group 2 (n = 4) received electroacupuncture using the Zhongwan and the Guanyuan acupoints; Group 3 (n = 4) received electroacupuncture using the bilateral Zusanli acupoints; Group 4 (n = 6) received neither halothane in nitrous oxide:oxygen nor electroacupuncture. At the end of study, animals were injected with sodium pentobarbitone (60 mg/mL, i.p.), and blood and white adipose tissue were collected. Analysis of variance and Duncan's tests showed that the mean leptin in serum was significantly lower and the adiponectin:leptin ratio was significantly higher in Group 2 than in Group 1 (p < 0.05); for Group 4, the serum leptin was significantly higher than it was for Groups 1-3 (p < 0.05), and the adiponectin:leptin ratio was significantly lower than it was for Group 2 (p < 0.05). Similar changes occurred for the leptin levels in the pelvic adipose tissue. In addition, for Group 2, the mean serum insulin: glucose ratio was significantly higher than it was for Group 1 (p < 0.05); for Group 4 the mean serum insulin and insulin: glucose ratio were significantly higher than they were for Groups 1 and 3 (p < 0.05), but not Group 2 (p > 0.05). No significant differences in the serum or the adipose-tissue measurements between Groups 1 and 3 were observed (p > 0.05). PMID:25952122

  3. Postexercise muscle glycogen resynthesis in obese insulin-resistant Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Bruce, C R; Lee, J S; Hawley, J A

    2001-10-01

    We determined the effect of an acute bout of swimming (8 x 30 min) followed by either carbohydrate administration (0.5 mg/g glucose ip and ad libitum access to chow; CHO) or fasting (Fast) on postexercise glycogen resynthesis in soleus muscle and liver from female lean (ZL) and obese insulin-resistant (ZO) Zucker rats. Resting soleus muscle glycogen concentration ([glycogen]) was similar between genotypes and was reduced by 73 (ZL) and 63% (ZO) after exercise (P < 0.05). Liver [glycogen] at rest was greater in ZO than ZL (334 +/- 31 vs. 247 +/- 16 micromol/g wet wt; P < 0.01) and fell by 44 and 94% after exercise (P < 0.05). The fractional activity of glycogen synthase (active/total) increased immediately after exercise (from 0.22 +/- 0.05 and 0.32 +/- 0.04 to 0.63 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.57 +/- 0.05; P < 0.01 for ZL and ZO rats, respectively) and remained elevated above resting values after 30 min of recovery. During this time, muscle [glycogen] in ZO increased 68% with CHO (P < 0.05) but did not change in Fast. Muscle [glycogen] was unchanged in ZL from postexercise values after both treatments. After 6 h recovery, GLUT-4 protein concentration was increased above resting levels by a similar extent for both genotypes in both fasted (approximately 45%) and CHO-supplemented (approximately 115%) rats. Accordingly, during this time CHO refeeding resulted in supercompensation in both genotypes (68% vs. 44% for ZL and ZO). With CHO, liver [glycogen] was restored to resting levels in ZL but remained at postexercise values for ZO after both treatments. We conclude that the increased glucose availability with carbohydrate refeeding after glycogen-depleting exercise resulted in glycogen supercompensation, even in the face of muscle insulin-resistance. PMID:11568131

  4. Opuntia ficus indica (nopal) attenuates hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress in obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats.

    PubMed

    Morán-Ramos, Sofía; Avila-Nava, Azalia; Tovar, Armando R; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; López-Romero, Patricia; Torres, Nimbe

    2012-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with multiple factors such as obesity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress. Nopal, a cactus plant widely consumed in the Mexican diet, is considered a functional food because of its antioxidant activity and ability to improve biomarkers of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of nopal consumption on the development of hepatic steatosis and hepatic oxidative stress and on the regulation of genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism. Obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats were fed a control diet or a diet containing 4% nopal for 7 wk. Rats fed the nopal-containing diet had ∼50% lower hepatic TG than the control group as well as a reduction in hepatomegaly and biomarkers of hepatocyte injury such as alanine and aspartate aminotransferases. Attenuation of hepatic steatosis by nopal consumption was accompanied by a higher serum concentration of adiponectin and a greater abundance of mRNA for genes involved in lipid oxidation and lipid export and production of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and microsomal TG transfer proteins in liver. Hepatic reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation biomarkers were significantly lower in rats fed nopal compared with the control rats. Furthermore, rats fed the nopal diet had a lower postprandial serum insulin concentration and a greater liver phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAKT):AKT ratio in the postprandial state. This study suggests that nopal consumption attenuates hepatic steatosis by increasing fatty acid oxidation and VLDL synthesis, decreasing oxidative stress, and improving liver insulin signaling in obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats. PMID:23014486

  5. Limited beneficial effects of piceatannol supplementation on obesity complications in the obese Zucker rat: gut microbiota, metabolic, endocrine, and cardiac aspects.

    PubMed

    Hijona, E; Aguirre, L; Pérez-Matute, P; Villanueva-Millán, M J; Mosqueda-Solis, A; Hasnaoui, M; Nepveu, F; Senard, J M; Bujanda, L; Aldámiz-Echevarría, L; Llarena, M; Andrade, F; Perio, P; Leboulanger, F; Hijona, L; Arbones-Mainar, J M; Portillo, M P; Carpéné, C

    2016-09-01

    Resveratrol is beneficial in obese and diabetic rodents. However, its low bioavailability raises questions about its therapeutic relevance for treating or preventing obesity complications. In this context, many related natural polyphenols are being tested for their putative antidiabetic and anti-obesity effects. This prompted us to study the influence of piceatannol, a polyhydroxylated stilbene, on the prevention of obesity complications in Zucker obese rats. A 6-week supplementation was followed by the determination of various markers in plasma, liver, adipose tissue and heart, together with a large-scale analysis of gut microbiota composition. When given in doses of 15 or 45 mg/kg body weight/day, piceatannol did not reduce either hyperphagia or fat accumulation. It did not modify the profusion of the most abundant phyla in gut, though slight changes were observed in the abundance of several Lactobacillus, Clostridium, and Bacteroides species belonging to Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. This was accompanied by a tendency to reduce plasma lipopolysaccharides by 30 %, and by a decrease of circulating non-esterified fatty acids, LDL-cholesterol, and lactate. While piceatannol tended to improve lipid handling, it did not mitigate hyperinsulinemia and cardiac hypertrophy. However, it increased cardiac expression of ephrin-B1, a membrane protein that contributes to maintaining cardiomyocyte architecture. Lastly, ascorbyl radical plasma levels and hydrogen peroxide release by adipose tissue were similar in control and treated groups. Thus, piceatannol did not exhibit strong slimming capacities but did limit several obesity complications. PMID:26792656

  6. Treatment with a novel oleic-acid-dihydroxyamphetamine conjugation ameliorates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Decara, Juan M; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Suárez, Juan; Romero-Cuevas, Miguel; Baixeras, Elena; Vázquez, Mariam; Rivera, Patricia; Gavito, Ana L; Almeida, Bruno; Joglar, Jesús; de la Torre, Rafael; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Serrano, Antonia

    2015-10-01

    Fatty liver disease is one of the main hepatic complications associated with obesity. To date, there are no effective treatments for this pathology apart from the use of classical fibrates. In this study, we have characterized the in vivo effects of a novel conjugation of oleic acid with an amphetamine derivative (OLHHA) in an animal model of genetic obesity. Lean and obese Zucker rats received a daily intraperitoneal administration of OLHHA (5 mg kg(-1)) for 15 days. Plasma and liver samples were collected for the biochemical and molecular biological analyses, including both immunohistochemical and histological studies. The expression of key enzymes and proteins that are involved in lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis was evaluated in the liver samples. The potential of OLHHA to produce adverse drug reactions or toxicity was also evaluated through the monitoring of interactions with hERG channel and liver cytochrome. We found that OLHHA is a drug with a safe pharmacological profile. Treatment for 15 days with OLHHA reduced the liver fat content and plasma triglyceride levels, and this was accompanied by a general improvement in the profile of plasma parameters related to liver damage in the obese rats. A decrease in fat accumulation in the liver was confirmed using histological staining. Additionally, OLHHA was observed to exert anti-apoptotic effects. This hepatoprotective activity in obese rats was associated with an increase in the mRNA and protein expression of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor and a decrease in the expression of the lipogenic enzymes FAS and HMGCR primarily. However, changes in the mRNA expression of certain proteins were not associated with changes in the protein expression (i.e. L-FABP and INSIG2). The present results demonstrate that OLHHA is a potential anti-steatotic drug that ameliorates the obesity-associated fatty liver and suggest the potential use of this new drug for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

  7. Angiotensin II Type 2-Receptor Agonist C21 Reduces Proteinuria and Oxidative Stress in Kidney of High-Salt-Fed Obese Zucker Rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sanket N; Ali, Quaisar; Hussain, Tahir

    2016-05-01

    Oxidative and nitrosative stress have been implicated in high-sodium diet (HSD)-related hypertensive renal injury. In this study, we investigated angiotensin II type 2-receptor-mediated renoprotection in obese Zucker rats fed HSD. Obese Zucker rats were fed normal sodium diet or HSD 4%, for 14 days, with/without angiotensin II type 2-receptor agonist C21, delivered subcutaneously via osmotic pump, 1 mg/kg per day. Compared with normal sodium diet controls, HSD rats exhibited increase in cortical nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity, urinary H2O2, and 8-isoprostanes, which were associated with severe glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate, and an increase in urinary leak and activity ofN-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase, a lysosomal enzyme and a marker of tubular damage. These changes were improved by C21 treatment. Cortical expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, phospho-endothelial nitric oxide synthase (Ser(1177)), and plasma nitrites were reduced after HSD intake, whereas nitrosative stress (3-nitrotyrosine) and enzymatic defense (superoxide dismutase-to-catalase activity) remained unaltered. However, C21 preserved plasma nitrites in HSD-fed obese Zucker rat. C21 treatment reduced protein-to-creatinine, albumin-to-creatinine, as well as fractional excretion of protein and albumin in HSD-fed obese Zucker rat, which is independent of changes in protein recycling receptors, megalin, and cubilin. HSD intake also altered renal excretory and reabsorptive capacity as evident by elevated plasma urea nitrogen-to-creatinine and fractional excretion of urea nitrogen, and reduced urine-to-plasma creatinine, which were modestly, but insignificantly, improved by C21 treatment. Together results demonstrate that angiotensin II type 2-receptor activation protects against HSD-induced kidney damage in obesity plausibly by reducing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity and

  8. Increased vascular thromboxane generation impairs dilation of skeletal muscle arterioles of obese Zucker rats with reduced oxygen tension

    PubMed Central

    Goodwill, Adam G.; James, Milinda E.; Frisbee, Jefferson C.

    2008-01-01

    This study determined if altered vascular prostacyclin (PGI2) and/or thromboxane A2 (TxA2) production with reduced Po2 contributes to impaired hypoxic dilation of skeletal muscle resistance arterioles of obese Zucker rats (OZRs) versus lean Zucker rats (LZRs). Mechanical responses were assessed in isolated gracilis muscle arterioles following reductions in Po2 under control conditions and following pharmacological interventions inhibiting arachidonic acid metabolism and nitric oxide synthase and alleviating elevated vascular oxidant stress. The production of arachidonic acid metabolites was assessed using pooled arteries from OZRs and LZRs in response to reduced Po2. Hypoxic dilation, endothelium-dependent in both strains, was attenuated in OZRs versus LZRs. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition had no significant impact on hypoxic dilation in either strain. Cyclooxygenase inhibition dramatically reduced hypoxic dilation in LZRs and abolished responses in OZRs. Treatment of arterioles from OZRs with polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase improved hypoxic dilation, and this improvement was entirely cyclooxygenase dependent. Vascular PGI2 production with reduced Po2 was similar between strains, although TxA2 production was increased in OZRs, a difference that was attenuated by treatment of vessels from OZRs with polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase. Both blockade of PGH2/TxA2 receptors and inhibition of thromboxane synthase increased hypoxic dilation in OZR arterioles. These results suggest that a contributing mechanism underlying impaired hypoxic dilation of skeletal muscle arterioles of OZRs may be an increased vascular production of TxA2, which competes against the vasodilator influences of PGI2. These results also suggest that the elevated vascular oxidant stress inherent in metabolic syndrome may contribute to the increased vascular TxA2 production and may blunt vascular sensitivity to PGI2. PMID:18689495

  9. Increased vascular thromboxane generation impairs dilation of skeletal muscle arterioles of obese Zucker rats with reduced oxygen tension.

    PubMed

    Goodwill, Adam G; James, Milinda E; Frisbee, Jefferson C

    2008-10-01

    This study determined if altered vascular prostacyclin (PGI(2)) and/or thromboxane A(2) (TxA(2)) production with reduced Po(2) contributes to impaired hypoxic dilation of skeletal muscle resistance arterioles of obese Zucker rats (OZRs) versus lean Zucker rats (LZRs). Mechanical responses were assessed in isolated gracilis muscle arterioles following reductions in Po(2) under control conditions and following pharmacological interventions inhibiting arachidonic acid metabolism and nitric oxide synthase and alleviating elevated vascular oxidant stress. The production of arachidonic acid metabolites was assessed using pooled arteries from OZRs and LZRs in response to reduced Po(2). Hypoxic dilation, endothelium-dependent in both strains, was attenuated in OZRs versus LZRs. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition had no significant impact on hypoxic dilation in either strain. Cyclooxygenase inhibition dramatically reduced hypoxic dilation in LZRs and abolished responses in OZRs. Treatment of arterioles from OZRs with polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase improved hypoxic dilation, and this improvement was entirely cyclooxygenase dependent. Vascular PGI(2) production with reduced Po(2) was similar between strains, although TxA(2) production was increased in OZRs, a difference that was attenuated by treatment of vessels from OZRs with polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase. Both blockade of PGH(2)/TxA(2) receptors and inhibition of thromboxane synthase increased hypoxic dilation in OZR arterioles. These results suggest that a contributing mechanism underlying impaired hypoxic dilation of skeletal muscle arterioles of OZRs may be an increased vascular production of TxA(2), which competes against the vasodilator influences of PGI(2). These results also suggest that the elevated vascular oxidant stress inherent in metabolic syndrome may contribute to the increased vascular TxA(2) production and may blunt vascular sensitivity to PGI(2). PMID:18689495

  10. Beneficial effects of kinin B1 receptor antagonism on plasma fatty acid alterations and obesity in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Sébastien; Dias, Jenny Pena; El Midaoui, Adil; Couture, Réjean

    2016-07-01

    Kinins are the endogenous ligands of the constitutive B2 receptor (B2R) and the inducible B1 receptor (B1R). Whereas B2R prevents insulin resistance, B1R is involved in insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. However, the contribution of B1R in type 2 diabetes associated with obesity remains uncertain. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of 1-week treatment with a selective B1R antagonist (SSR240612, 10 mg/kg per day, by gavage) on hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, leptinemia, body mass gain, and abnormal plasma fatty acids in obese Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Treatment with SSR240612 abolished the body mass gain and reduced polyphagia, polydipsia, and plasma fatty acid alterations in ZDF rats without affecting hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperleptinemia. The present study suggests that the upregulated B1R plays a role in body mass gain and circulating fatty acid alterations in ZDF rats. However, mechanisms other than B1R induction would be implicated in glucose metabolism disorder in ZDF rats, based on the finding that SSR240612 did not reverse hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. PMID:27172260

  11. Treatment with a novel oleic-acid–dihydroxyamphetamine conjugation ameliorates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese Zucker rats

    PubMed Central

    Decara, Juan M.; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Suárez, Juan; Romero-Cuevas, Miguel; Baixeras, Elena; Vázquez, Mariam; Rivera, Patricia; Gavito, Ana L.; Almeida, Bruno; Joglar, Jesús; de la Torre, Rafael; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Serrano, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fatty liver disease is one of the main hepatic complications associated with obesity. To date, there are no effective treatments for this pathology apart from the use of classical fibrates. In this study, we have characterized the in vivo effects of a novel conjugation of oleic acid with an amphetamine derivative (OLHHA) in an animal model of genetic obesity. Lean and obese Zucker rats received a daily intraperitoneal administration of OLHHA (5 mg kg−1) for 15 days. Plasma and liver samples were collected for the biochemical and molecular biological analyses, including both immunohistochemical and histological studies. The expression of key enzymes and proteins that are involved in lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis was evaluated in the liver samples. The potential of OLHHA to produce adverse drug reactions or toxicity was also evaluated through the monitoring of interactions with hERG channel and liver cytochrome. We found that OLHHA is a drug with a safe pharmacological profile. Treatment for 15 days with OLHHA reduced the liver fat content and plasma triglyceride levels, and this was accompanied by a general improvement in the profile of plasma parameters related to liver damage in the obese rats. A decrease in fat accumulation in the liver was confirmed using histological staining. Additionally, OLHHA was observed to exert anti-apoptotic effects. This hepatoprotective activity in obese rats was associated with an increase in the mRNA and protein expression of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor and a decrease in the expression of the lipogenic enzymes FAS and HMGCR primarily. However, changes in the mRNA expression of certain proteins were not associated with changes in the protein expression (i.e. L-FABP and INSIG2). The present results demonstrate that OLHHA is a potential anti-steatotic drug that ameliorates the obesity-associated fatty liver and suggest the potential use of this new drug for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver

  12. Protective Effects of Antioxidant Fortified Diet on Renal Function and Metabolic Profile in Obese Zucker Rat

    PubMed Central

    Slyvka, Yuriy; Inman, Sharon R.; Malgor, Ramiro; Jackson, Edwin J.; Yee, Jennifer; Oshogwemoh, Olusayo; Adame, John; Nowak, Felicia V.

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications, including nephropathy. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that a diet fortified with antioxidants would be beneficial to delay or prevent the progression of this disease. Male and female Zucker fa/fa rats were fed a control or an antioxidant (AO) fortified diet starting at four weeks of age. Metabolic parameters, renal function and renal histopathology were analyzed at 6, 13 and 20 weeks of age. Females on the AO diet had significantly lower blood glucose at 6 and 13 weeks, less severe renal pathology at 20 weeks, and higher glomerular filtration rates (GFR) at 20 weeks than age matched females on the regular diet (p < 0.05). Metabolic parameters including blood glucose, insulin resistance and serum cholesterol, and mean arterial pressure (MAP), worsened with age in both males and females, as expected. GFR decreased and renal pathology also became more severe with age. Finally, females on the AO diet had higher GFRs and lower MAP at 20 weeks than males on the same diet. This may denote a protective effect of the AO diet in females, but not in males. These findings may have implications for the role of antioxidants as therapy in humans with T2DM. PMID:19051067

  13. Joint Feedback Analysis Modeling of Nonesterified Fatty Acids in Obese Zucker Rats and Normal Sprague–Dawley Rats after Different Routes of Administration of Nicotinic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Tapani, Sofia; Almquist, Joachim; Leander, Jacob; Ahlström, Christine; Peletier, Lambertus A; Jirstrand, Mats; Gabrielsson, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Data were pooled from several studies on nicotinic acid (NiAc) intervention of fatty acid turnover in normal Sprague–Dawley and obese Zucker rats in order to perform a joint PKPD of data from more than 100 normal Sprague–Dawley and obese Zucker rats, exposed to several administration routes and rates. To describe the difference in pharmacodynamic parameters between obese and normal rats, we modified a previously published nonlinear mixed effects model describing tolerance and oscillatory rebound effects of NiAc on nonesterified fatty acids plasma concentrations. An important conclusion is that planning of experiments and dose scheduling cannot rely on pilot studies on normal animals alone. The obese rats have a less-pronounced concentration–response relationship and need higher doses to exhibit desired response. The relative level of fatty acid rebound after cessation of NiAc administration was also quantified in the two rat populations. Building joint normal-disease models with scaling parameter(s) to characterize the “degree of disease” can be a useful tool when designing informative experiments on diseased animals, particularly in the preclinical screen. Data were analyzed using nonlinear mixed effects modeling, for the optimization, we used an improved method for calculating the gradient than the usually adopted finite difference approximation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:2571–2584, 2014 PMID:24986056

  14. Fluid deprivation increases isotonic NaCl intake, but not hypertonic salt intake, under normal and heated conditions in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Omouessi, S T; Lemamy, G J; Kiki-Mvouaka, S; Fernette, B; Falconetti, C; Ndeboko, B; Mouecoucou, J; Thornton, S N

    2016-02-01

    In the course of exposure to fluid deprivation and heated environment, mammals regulate their hydromineral balance and body temperature by a number of mechanisms including sweating, water and salt intakes. Here we challenged obese Zucker rats, known to have a predisposition to hypertension, with 0.9%NaCl alone or with 2%NaCl solution + water to drink under fluid deprivation and heated conditions. Food and fluid intakes, body weight, diuresis and natriuresis were measured daily throughout. Serum aldosterone levels and Na(+) concentration were also analyzed. Data showed that obese and lean rats presented similar baseline measurements of food, 0.9%NaCl and fluid intakes, diuresis and fluid balance; whereas hypertonic 2%NaCl consumption was almost absent. Before and during fluid deprivation animals increased isotonic but not hypertonic NaCl intake; the obese showed significant increases in diuresis and Na(+) excretion, whereas, total fluid intake was similar between groups. Heat increased isotonic NaCl intake and doubled natriuresis in obese which were wet on their fur and displayed a paradoxical increase of fluid gain. Fluid deprivation plus heat produced similar negative fluid balance in all groups. Body weight losses, food intake and diuresis reductions were amplified under the combined conditions. Animals exposed to 2%NaCl showed higher circulating levels of aldosterone and obese were lower than leans. In animals which drank 0.9%NaCl, obese showed higher serum levels of Na(+) than leans. We conclude that in spite of their higher sensitivity to high salt and heat obese Zucker rats can control hydromineral balance in response to fluid deprivation and heat by adjusting isotonic NaCl preference with sodium balance and circulating levels of aldosterone. This suggests a key hormonal role in the mechanisms underlying thermoregulation, body fluid homeostasis and sodium intake. PMID:26621332

  15. Mixed Effects Modeling Using Stochastic Differential Equations: Illustrated by Pharmacokinetic Data of Nicotinic Acid in Obese Zucker Rats.

    PubMed

    Leander, Jacob; Almquist, Joachim; Ahlström, Christine; Gabrielsson, Johan; Jirstrand, Mats

    2015-05-01

    Inclusion of stochastic differential equations in mixed effects models provides means to quantify and distinguish three sources of variability in data. In addition to the two commonly encountered sources, measurement error and interindividual variability, we also consider uncertainty in the dynamical model itself. To this end, we extend the ordinary differential equation setting used in nonlinear mixed effects models to include stochastic differential equations. The approximate population likelihood is derived using the first-order conditional estimation with interaction method and extended Kalman filtering. To illustrate the application of the stochastic differential mixed effects model, two pharmacokinetic models are considered. First, we use a stochastic one-compartmental model with first-order input and nonlinear elimination to generate synthetic data in a simulated study. We show that by using the proposed method, the three sources of variability can be successfully separated. If the stochastic part is neglected, the parameter estimates become biased, and the measurement error variance is significantly overestimated. Second, we consider an extension to a stochastic pharmacokinetic model in a preclinical study of nicotinic acid kinetics in obese Zucker rats. The parameter estimates are compared between a deterministic and a stochastic NiAc disposition model, respectively. Discrepancies between model predictions and observations, previously described as measurement noise only, are now separated into a comparatively lower level of measurement noise and a significant uncertainty in model dynamics. These examples demonstrate that stochastic differential mixed effects models are useful tools for identifying incomplete or inaccurate model dynamics and for reducing potential bias in parameter estimates due to such model deficiencies. PMID:25693487

  16. Angiotensin AT2 receptor agonist prevents salt-sensitive hypertension in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Ali, Quaisar; Patel, Sanket; Hussain, Tahir

    2015-06-15

    High-sodium intake is a risk factor for the pathogenesis of hypertension, especially in obesity. The present study is designed to investigate whether angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) activation with selective agonist C21 prevents high-sodium diet (HSD)-induced hypertension in obese animals. Male obese rats were treated with AT2R agonist C21 (1 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), oral) while maintained on either normal-sodium diet (NSD; 0.4%) or HSD (4%) for 2 wk. Radiotelemetric recording showed a time-dependent increase in systolic blood pressure in HSD-fed obese rats, being maximal increase (∼27 mmHg) at day 12 of the HSD regimen. C21 treatment completely prevented the increase in blood pressure of HSD-fed rats. Compared with NSD controls, HSD-fed obese rats had greater natriuresis/diuresis and urinary levels of nitrates, and these parameters were further increased by C21 treatment. Also, C21 treatment improved glomerular filtration rate in HSD-fed rats. HSD-fed rats expressed higher level of cortical ANG II, which was reduced to 50% by C21 treatment. HSD feeding and/or C21 treatment had no effects on cortical renin activity and the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and chymase, which are ANG II-producing enzymes. However, ANG(1-7) concentration and ACE2 activity in the renal cortex were reduced by HSD feeding, and C21 treatment rescued both the parameters. Also, C21 treatment reduced the cortical expression of AT1R in HSD-fed rats, but had no effect of AT2R expression. We conclude that chronic treatment with the AT2R agonist C21 prevents salt-sensitive hypertension in obese rats, and a reduction in the renal ANG II/AT1R and enhanced ACE2/ANG(1-7) levels may play a potential role in this phenomenon. PMID:25855512

  17. The effects of wild blueberry consumption on plasma markers and gene expression related to glucose metabolism in the obese Zucker rat.

    PubMed

    Vendrame, Stefano; Zhao, Alice; Merrow, Thomas; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy

    2015-06-01

    Impaired fasting blood glucose is one of the landmark signs of metabolic syndrome, together with hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and a chronic proinflammatory, pro-oxidative, and prothrombotic environment. This study investigates the effect of wild blueberry (WB) consumption on blood glucose levels and other parameters involved in glucose metabolism in the obese Zucker rat (OZR), an experimental model of metabolic syndrome. Sixteen OZRs and 16 lean littermate controls (lean Zucker rat [LZR]) were fed an 8% enriched WB diet or a control (C) diet for 8 weeks. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin GHbA1c, resistin, and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) were measured. Expression of the resistin, RBP4, and glucose transporter GLUT4 genes was also determined both in the liver and the abdominal adipose tissue (AAT). Plasma glycated hemoglobin HbA1c, RBP4, and resistin concentrations were significantly lower in OZRs following the WB diet (-20%, -22%, and -27%, respectively, compared to C diet, P<.05). Following WB consumption, resistin expression was significantly downregulated in the liver of both OZRs and LZRs (-28% and -61%, respectively, P<.05), while RBP4 expression was significantly downregulated in the AAT of both OZRs and LZRs (-87% and -43%, respectively, P<.05). All other markers were not significantly affected following WB consumption. In conclusion, WB consumption normalizes some markers related to glucose metabolism in the OZR model of metabolic syndrome, but has no effect on fasting blood glucose or insulin concentrations. PMID:25383490

  18. Role of Neural NO Synthase (nNOS) Uncoupling in the Dysfunctional Nitrergic Vasorelaxation of Penile Arteries from Insulin-Resistant Obese Zucker Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Ana; Contreras, Cristina; Martínez, María Pilar; Climent, Belén; Benedito, Sara; García-Sacristán, Albino; Hernández, Medardo; Prieto, Dolores

    2012-01-01

    Objective Erectile dysfunction (ED) is considered as an early sign of vascular disease due to its high prevalence in patients with cardiovascular risk factors. Endothelial and neural dysfunction involving nitric oxide (NO) are usually implicated in the pathophysiology of the diabetic ED, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The present study assessed the role of oxidative stress in the dysfunctional neural vasodilator responses of penile arteries in the obese Zucker rat (OZR), an experimental model of metabolic syndrome/prediabetes. Methods and Results Electrical field stimulation (EFS) under non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) conditions evoked relaxations that were significantly reduced in penile arteries of OZR compared with those of lean Zucker rats (LZR). Blockade of NO synthase (NOS) inhibited neural relaxations in both LZR and OZR, while saturating concentrations of the NOS substrate L-arginine reversed the inhibition and restored relaxations in OZR to levels in arteries from LZR. nNOS expression was unchanged in arteries from OZR compared to LZR and nNOS selective inhibition decreased the EFS relaxations in LZR but not in OZR, while endothelium removal did not alter these responses in either strain. Superoxide anion production and nitro-tyrosine immunostaining were elevated in the erectile tissue from OZR. Treatment with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin or acute incubation with the NOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) restored neural relaxations in OZR to levels in control arteries, while inhibition of the enzyme of BH4 synthesis GTP-cyclohydrolase (GCH) reduced neural relaxations in arteries from LZR but not OZR. The NO donor SNAP induced decreases in intracellular calcium that were impaired in arteries from OZR compared to controls. Conclusions The present study demonstrates nitrergic dysfunction and impaired neural NO signalling due to oxidative stress and nNOS uncoupling in penile arteries under conditions of insulin resistance. This

  19. Oral ingestion of aloe vera phytosterols alters hepatic gene expression profiles and ameliorates obesity-associated metabolic disorders in zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-03-21

    We investigated the effects of the oral administration of lophenol (Lo) and cycloartanol (Cy), two kinds of antidiabetic phytosterol isolated from Aloe vera , on glucose and lipid metabolism in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. We demonstrated that the administrations of Lo and Cy suppressed random and fasting glucose levels and reduced visceral fat weights significantly. It was also observed that treatments with Lo and Cy decreased serum and hepatic lipid concentrations (triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acid, and total cholesterol). Additionally, Lo and Cy treatments resulted in a tendency for reduction in serum monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) level and an elevation in serum adiponectin level. Furthermore, the expression levels of hepatic genes encoding gluconeogenic enzymes (G6 Pase, PEPCK), lipogenic enzymes (ACC, FAS), and SREBP-1 were decreased significantly by the administrations of aloe sterols. In contrast, Lo and Cy administration increased mRNA levels of glycolysis enzyme (GK) in the liver. It was also observed that the hepatic β-oxidation enzymes (ACO, CPT1) and PPARα expressions tended to increase in the livers of the Lo- and Cy-treated rats compared with those in ZDF-control rats. We therefore conclude that orally ingested aloe sterols altered the expressions of genes related to glucose and lipid metabolism, and ameliorated obesity-associated metabolic disorders in ZDF rats. These findings suggest that aloe sterols could be beneficial in preventing and improving metabolic disorders with obesity and diabetes in rats. PMID:22352711

  20. Reduced pancreatic protein secretion in response to cholecystokinin (CCK) in the obese Zucker rat correlates with a reduced receptor capacity for CCK

    SciTech Connect

    Praissman, M.; Izzo, R.S.

    1986-08-01

    Pancreatic membrane receptors for cholecystokinin (CCK) in obese and nonobese Zucker rats were compared with the use of a biologically active (/sup 125/I)iodo-CCK-8 radioprobe. Membrane homogenates from obese rats bound half the amount of radioligand in 2 h as did membranes from lean rats (specifically bound, 7.0% vs. 14.0%; P less than 0.001). The reduced binding in membranes from obese rats did not result from kinetic effects or radioligand degradation; similar rates of association and dissociation of (/sup 125/I)iodo-CCK-8 were obtained in membrane preparations from both, and no differences were found in the extent of radioligand degradation in the two membrane preparations. These differences also did not reflect an effect of cell size, as pancreatic acinar cells from obese and nonobese rats had about the same perimeters (24.6 and 26.3 micron, respectively) and areas (30.1 and 34.2 micron 2, respectively). Scatchard-type plots of competitive displacement data for CCK-binding sites on pancreatic membranes from both genotypes were curvilinear and were analyzed by a two-site binding model. The Kd values for both the high (0.56 vs. 0.45 nM) and low (9.0 vs. 14 nM) affinity sites on membranes from nonobese and obese rats, respectively, were the same (P greater than 0.1), whereas the capacities for CCK in the high (365 vs. 165 fmol/mg protein) and low (1020 vs. 360 fmol/mg protein) affinity regions were significantly different (P less than 0.025). This difference in CCK receptor capacity was reflected by a reduced pancreatic protein secretory response in the obese rat. After injections of 40, 80, 160, and 320 ng CCK/kg BW, total pancreatic protein secretion in nonobese rats increased 5, 12, 19, and 21 times above basal levels, whereas the same doses caused 2-, 6-, 12-, and 13-fold increases in obese rats.

  1. Consumption of polyphenol-rich peach and plum juice prevents risk factors for obesity-related metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease in Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Noratto, Giuliana; Martino, Hercia S D; Simbo, Sunday; Byrne, David; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2015-06-01

    Polyphenols from fruits have been implied in the prevention of risk factors for cardiometabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the consumption of peach and plum juice has a protective effect against obesity and metabolic disorders that promote the development of cardiovascular diseases. Obese Zucker and lean rats were fed with peach, plum juice ad libitum or placebo. Body weight gain, biochemical markers and molecular markers for inflammation and cardiovascular disease in heart tissue were quantified. Results show that peach and plum juice consumption protected against a combination of obesity-induced metabolic disorders including hyperglycemia, insulin and leptin resistance, dyslipidemia and low-density lipoprotein oxidation. This was accompanied by a decreased expression of pro-atherogenic and pro-inflammatory biomarkers in plasma and heart tissues including intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, NF-κB and foam cell adherence to aortic arches. In addition, peach and plum juice consumption decreased the levels of angiotensin II in plasma and its receptor Agtr1 in heart tissues, suggesting a role of peach and plum polyphenols as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonists. Furthermore, only plum juice significantly prevented body weight gain and increased the ratio high-density lipoprotein cholesterol/total cholesterol in plasma. This effect is most likely attributed to the plum's higher content of polyphenols (three times that of peach). Altogether, these results imply that cardioprotective effects can be achieved by replacing drinks high in sugar content with fruit juice rich in polyphenols in a diet. PMID:25801980

  2. Acute effects of food, 2-deoxy-D-glucose and noradrenaline on metabolic rate and brown adipose tissue in normal and atropinised lean and obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, N J; Saville, M E; Stock, M J

    1981-12-01

    1. Intragastric feeding (40 kJ) produced a 17% rise in metabolic rate in lean Zucker rats but only an 8% increase in obese (fa/fa) rats, and both of these responses were significantly reduced by beta-adrenergic blockade with propranolol (10 mg/kg, s.c.). 2. Parasympathetic blockade with atropine (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.) caused a doubling of the response to food in lean rats and a threefold increase in the obese mutants, such that all atropinised animals showed the same increase in metabolic rate after food. 3. Feeding also caused a significant rise in interscapular brown adipose tissue temperature, which was greatest in the lean animals and was enhanced by atropine in both groups. 4. Injection of noradrenaline (250 micrograms/kg, s.c.) caused a similar (40%) rise in metabolic rate in lean and obese animals but this response was unaffected by atropine. 5. 2-Deoxy-D-glucose injection (360 mg/kg, s.c.) depressed oxygen consumption by 25 and 8% in lean and obese rats respectively and this effect was totally abolished by atropine. 6. These results suggest that the rise in metabolic rate after a meal is partly due to sympathetic activation of brown adipose tissue. The reduced thermic response in obese Zucker rats is not due to insensitivity to noradrenaline, but may be partly due to parasympathetic inhibition of thermogenesis and partly to insensitivity to glucose availability. PMID:7322844

  3. The effect of exercise training combined with PPARγ agonist on skeletal muscle glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity in induced diabetic obese Zucker rats

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Exercise training with PPARγ agonist is expected to increase glucose uptake and improve insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle of patients with diabetes. However, its mechanisms to effect glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle are unclear. [Methods] The mechanism of action was determined by co-treatment with PPARγ agonist- rosiglitazone and exercise training in streptozotocin induced-diabetic obese Zucker rats. Exercise training was carried out for 6 weeks (swimming, 1 h/day, 5 times/week, 5% weight/g, 32±1℃) with rosiglitazone treatment (3mg/kg/day, 6weeks). [Results] Glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity was decreased in diabetic than normal animals. Exercise training and rosiglitazone treatment respectively increased the expression of PPAR(peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor)-α, -β/δ, -γ, PGC-1α(PPAR-γ coactivator-1α), adiponectin, GLUT-4(glucose transportor-4) and p-AMPK-α2(phospho-AMP activated protein kinase-α2) in EDL and SOL of diabetic, as compared to normal animals. Interestingly, training combined with rosiglitazone significantly increased glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity, which resulted in high expression of all molecules in diabetic than all other groups. [Conclusion] These results indicated that exercise training combined with rosiglitazone might mediate regulation of glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. Therefore, exercise training combined with rosiglitazone may be recommended as complementary therapies for diabetes. PMID:27508153

  4. AZ 242, a novel PPARalpha/gamma agonist with beneficial effects on insulin resistance and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in ob/ob mice and obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Ljung, Bengt; Bamberg, Krister; Dahllöf, Björn; Kjellstedt, Ann; Oakes, Nicholas D; Ostling, Jörgen; Svensson, Lennart; Camejo, Germán

    2002-11-01

    Abnormalities in fatty acid (FA) metabolism underlie the development of insulin resistance and alterations in glucose metabolism, features characteristic of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes that can result in an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We present pharmacodynamic effects of AZ 242, a novel peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)alpha/gamma agonist. AZ 242 dose-dependently reduced the hypertriglyceridemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia of ob/ob diabetic mice. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp studies showed that treatment with AZ 242 (1 micromol/kg/d) restored insulin sensitivity of obese Zucker rats and decreased insulin secretion. In vitro, in reporter gene assays, AZ 242 activated human PPARalpha and PPARgamma with EC(50) in the micro molar range. It also induced differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells, an established PPARgamma effect, and caused up-regulation of liver fatty acid binding protein in HepG-2 cells, a PPARalpha-mediated effect. PPARalpha-mediated effects of AZ 242 in vivo were documented by induction of hepatic cytochrome P 450-4A in mice. The results indicate that the dual PPARalpha/gamma agonism of AZ 242 reduces insulin resistance and has beneficial effects on FA and glucose metabolism. This effect profile could provide a suitable therapeutic approach to the treatment of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and associated vascular risk factors. PMID:12401884

  5. Effects of dietary CLA on n-3 HUFA score and N-acylethanolamides biosynthesis in the liver of obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Piras, Antonio; Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Lopes, Paula A; Martins, Susana V; Prates, José A M; Banni, Sebastiano

    2015-07-01

    We have recently shown that PPAR alpha agonists induce N-oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and N-palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) biosynthesis. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a known dietary PPAR alpha inducer, may therefore increase OEA and PEA levels and favor docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) biosynthesis by enhancing peroxisomal β-oxidation via induction of liver PPARα. To evaluate whether CLA is able to increase DHA, OEA and PEA levels and thereby influencing liver lipid deposition in a model of visceral obesity-induced fatty liver, Zucker rats were fed a background diet rich in saturated fat with or without 1% of CLA for 4 weeks. Our data showed that CLA intake increased DHA, OEA and PEA levels in the liver by 24%, 31% and 36% respectively, and reduced hepatic lipid accumulation by 16%. We may conclude that dietary CLA is able to influence not only fatty acid metabolism but also the biosynthesis of bioactive mediators such as OEA and PEA which may contribute to ameliorate fatty liver. PMID:25912618

  6. Endocannabinoids may mediate the ability of (n-3) fatty acids to reduce ectopic fat and inflammatory mediators in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Batetta, Barbara; Griinari, Mikko; Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Ligresti, Alessia; Cordeddu, Lina; Giordano, Elena; Sanna, Francesca; Bisogno, Tiziana; Uda, Sabrina; Collu, Maria; Bruheim, Inge; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Banni, Sebastiano

    2009-08-01

    Dietary (n-3) long-chain PUFA [(n-3) LCPUFA] ameliorate several metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, although the mechanisms of these beneficial effects are not fully understood. In this study, we compared the effects of dietary (n-3) LCPUFA, in the form of either fish oil (FO) or krill oil (KO) balanced for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content, with a control (C) diet containing no EPA and DHA and similar contents of oleic, linoleic, and alpha-linolenic acids, on ectopic fat and inflammation in Zucker rats, a model of obesity and related metabolic dysfunction. Diets were fed for 4 wk. Given the emerging evidence for an association between elevated endocannabinoid concentrations and metabolic syndrome, we also measured tissue endocannabinoid concentrations. In (n-3) LCPUFA-supplemented rats, liver triglycerides and the peritoneal macrophage response to an inflammatory stimulus were significantly lower than in rats fed the control diet, and heart triglycerides were lower, but only in KO-fed rats. These effects were associated with a lower concentration of the endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, in the visceral adipose tissue and of anandamide in the liver and heart, which, in turn, was associated with lower levels of arachidonic acid in membrane phospholipids, but not with higher activity of endocannabinoid-degrading enzymes. Our data suggest that the beneficial effects of a diet enriched with (n-3) LCPUFA are the result of changes in membrane fatty acid composition. The reduction of substrates for inflammatory molecules and endocannabinoids may account for the dampened inflammatory response and the physiological reequilibration of body fat deposition in obese rats. PMID:19549757

  7. Alpha-Lipoic Acid Reduces LDL-Particle Number and PCSK9 Concentrations in High-Fat Fed Obese Zucker Rats

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, Bradley; Wen, Shin; Zigouras, Sophia; Browne, Richard W.; Li, Zhuyun; Patel, Mulchand S.; Williamson, David L.; Rideout, Todd C.

    2014-01-01

    We characterized the hypolipidemic effects of alpha-lipoic acid (LA, R-form) and examined the associated molecular mechanisms in a high fat fed Zucker rat model. Rats (n = 8) were assigned to a high fat (HF) diet or the HF diet with 0.25% LA (HF-LA) for 30 days and pair fed to remove confounding effects associated with the anorectic properties of LA. Compared with the HF controls, the HF-LA group was protected against diet-induced obesity (102.5±3.1 vs. 121.5±3.6,% change BW) and hypercholesterolemia with a reduction in total-C (−21%), non-HDL-C (−25%), LDL-C (−16%), and total LDL particle number (−46%) and an increase in total HDL particles (∼22%). This cholesterol-lowering response was associated with a reduction in plasma PCSK9 concentration (−70%) and an increase in hepatic LDLr receptor protein abundance (2 fold of HF). Compared with the HF-fed animals, livers of LA-supplemented animals were protected against TG accumulation (−46%), likely through multiple mechanisms including: a suppressed lipogenic response (down-regulation of hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase expression); enhanced hepatic fat oxidation (increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase Iα expression); and enhanced VLDL export (increased hepatic diacylglycerol acyltransferase and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein expression and elevated plasma VLDL particle number). Study results also support an enhanced fatty acid uptake (2.8 fold increase in total lipase activity) and oxidation (increased CPT1β protein abundance) in muscle tissue in LA-supplemented animals compared with the HF group. In summary, in the absence of a change in caloric intake, LA was effective in protecting against hypercholesterolemia and hepatic fat accumulation under conditions of strong genetic and dietary predisposition toward obesity and dyslipidemia. PMID:24595397

  8. Complementary Cholesterol-Lowering Response of a Phytosterol/α-Lipoic Acid Combination in Obese Zucker Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rideout, Todd C.; Carrier, Bradley; Wen, Shin; Raslawsky, Amy; Browne, Richard W.; Harding, Scott V.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the cholesterol-lowering effectiveness of a phytosterol/α-lipoic acid (PS/αLA) therapy, thirty-two male Zucker rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets for 30 days: (i) high fat diet (HF, 40% energy from fat); (ii) HF diet supplemented with 3% phytosterols; (iii) HF diet supplemented with 0.25% αLA; or (iv) HF diet supplemented with PS (3%) and αLA (0.25%, PS/αLA). Compared with the HF diet, combination PS/αLA proved more effective in reducing non-HDL cholesterol (−55%) than either the PS (−24%) or the αLA (−25%) therapies alone. PS supplementation did not affect LDL particle number, however, αLA supplementation reduced LDL particle number when supplemented alone (−47%) or in combination with PS (−54%). Compared with the HF-fed animals, evidence of increased HDL-particle number was evident in all treatment groups to a similar extent (21–22%). PS-mediated interruption of intestinal cholesterol absorption was evident by increased fecal cholesterol loss (52%) and compensatory increase in HMG-CoA reductase mRNA (1.6 fold of HF), however, αLA supplementation did not affect fecal cholesterol loss. Hepatic mRNA and protein expression patterns suggested that αLA modulated multiple aspects of cholesterol homeostasis including reduced synthesis (HMG-CoA reductase mRNA, 0.7 fold of HF), reduced bile acid synthesis (CYP7a1 expression, 0.17 of HF), and increased cholesterol clearance (reduced PCSK9 mRNA, 0.5 fold of HF; increased LDLr protein, 2 fold of HF). Taken together, this data suggests that PS and αLA work through unique and complementary mechanisms to provide a superior and more comprehensive cholesterol lowering response than either therapy alone. PMID:25664679

  9. Complementary Cholesterol-Lowering Response of a Phytosterol/α-Lipoic Acid Combination in Obese Zucker Rats.

    PubMed

    Rideout, Todd C; Carrier, Bradley; Wen, Shin; Raslawsky, Amy; Browne, Richard W; Harding, Scott V

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the cholesterol-lowering effectiveness of a phytosterol/α-lipoic acid (PS/αLA) therapy, thirty-two male Zucker rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets for 30 days: (i) high fat diet (HF, 40% energy from fat); (ii) HF diet supplemented with 3% phytosterols; (iii) HF diet supplemented with 0.25% αLA; or (iv) HF diet supplemented with PS (3%) and αLA (0.25%, PS/αLA). Compared with the HF diet, combination PS/αLA proved more effective in reducing non-HDL cholesterol (-55%) than either the PS (-24%) or the αLA (-25%) therapies alone. PS supplementation did not affect LDL particle number, however, αLA supplementation reduced LDL particle number when supplemented alone (-47%) or in combination with PS (-54%). Compared with the HF-fed animals, evidence of increased HDL-particle number was evident in all treatment groups to a similar extent (21-22%). PS-mediated interruption of intestinal cholesterol absorption was evident by increased fecal cholesterol loss (+52%) and compensatory increase in HMG-CoA reductase mRNA (1.6 fold of HF), however, αLA supplementation did not affect fecal cholesterol loss. Hepatic mRNA and protein expression patterns suggested that αLA modulated multiple aspects of cholesterol homeostasis including reduced synthesis (HMG-CoA reductase mRNA, 0.7 fold of HF), reduced bile acid synthesis (CYP7a1 expression, 0.17 of HF), and increased cholesterol clearance (reduced PCSK9 mRNA, 0.5 fold of HF; increased LDLr protein, 2 fold of HF). Taken together, this data suggests that PS and αLA work through unique and complementary mechanisms to provide a superior and more comprehensive cholesterol lowering response than either therapy alone. PMID:25664679

  10. LOSS OF CARDIAC METABOLIC ADAPTATION AND DYSFUNCTION OF THE HEART WITH WESTERN DIET IN THE OBESE ZUCKER RAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The normal heart sustains its work output through changing the proportion of substrates it oxidizes depending on fuel supply. This metabolic adaptation is thought to be regulated at a transcriptional level by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha). We proposed that obesity...

  11. Design of small molecule inhibitors of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 and 2 showing reduction of hepatic malonyl-CoA levels in vivo in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Christoffer; Blaho, Stefan; Saitton, David Blomberg; Brickmann, Kay; Broddefalk, Johan; Davidsson, Ojvind; Drmota, Tomas; Folmer, Rutger; Hallberg, Kenth; Hallén, Stefan; Hovland, Ragnar; Isin, Emre; Johannesson, Petra; Kull, Bengt; Larsson, Lars-Olof; Löfgren, Lars; Nilsson, Kristina E; Noeske, Tobias; Oakes, Nick; Plowright, Alleyn T; Schnecke, Volker; Ståhlberg, Pernilla; Sörme, Pernilla; Wan, Hong; Wellner, Eric; Oster, Linda

    2011-05-15

    Inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylases has the potential for modulating long chain fatty acid biosynthesis and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. Hybridization of weak inhibitors of ACC2 provided a novel, moderately potent but lipophilic series. Optimization led to compounds 33 and 37, which exhibit potent inhibition of human ACC2, 10-fold selectivity over inhibition of human ACC1, good physical and in vitro ADME properties and good bioavailability. X-ray crystallography has shown this series binding in the CT-domain of ACC2 and revealed two key hydrogen bonding interactions. Both 33 and 37 lower levels of hepatic malonyl-CoA in vivo in obese Zucker rats. PMID:21515056

  12. Electrospray Quadrupole Travelling Wave Ion Mobility Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for the Detection of Plasma Metabolome Changes Caused by Xanthohumol in Obese Zucker (fa/fa) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wickramasekara, Samanthi I.; Zandkarimi, Fereshteh; Morré, Jeff; Kirkwood, Jay; Legette, LeeCole; Jiang, Yuan; Gombart, Adrian F.; Stevens, Jan F.; Maier, Claudia S.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on the use of traveling wave ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight (ToF) mass spectrometry for plasma metabolomics. Plasma metabolite profiles of obese Zucker fa/fa rats were obtained after the administration of different oral doses of Xanthohumol; a hop-derived dietary supplement. Liquid chromatography coupled data independent tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MSE) and LC-ion mobility spectrometry (IMS)-MSE acquisitions were conducted in both positive and negative modes using a Synapt G2 High Definition Mass Spectrometry (HDMS) instrument. This method provides identification of metabolite classes in rat plasma using parallel alternating low energy and high energy collision spectral acquisition modes. Data sets were analyzed using pattern recognition methods. Statistically significant (p < 0.05 and fold change (FC) threshold > 1.5) features were selected to identify the up-/down-regulated metabolite classes. Ion mobility data visualized using drift scope software provided a graphical read-out of differences in metabolite classes. PMID:24958146

  13. Extrapancreatic effects of incretin hormones: evidence for weight-independent changes in morphological aspects and oxidative status in insulin-sensitive organs of the obese nondiabetic Zucker rat (ZFR).

    PubMed

    Colin, Ides M; Colin, Henri; Dufour, Ines; Gielen, Charles-Edouard; Many, Marie-Christine; Saey, Jean; Knoops, Bernard; Gérard, Anne-Catherine

    2016-08-01

    Incretin-based therapies are widely used to treat type 2 diabetes. Although hypoglycemic actions of incretins are mostly due to their insulinotropic/glucagonostatic effects, they may also influence extrapancreatic metabolism. We administered exendin-4 (Ex-4), a long-acting glucagon-like peptide receptor agonist, at low dose (0.1 nmol/kg/day) for a short period (10 days), in obese nondiabetic fa/fa Zucker rats (ZFRs). Ex-4-treated ZFRs were compared to vehicle (saline)-treated ZFRs and vehicle- and Ex-4-treated lean rats (LRs). Blood glucose levels were measured at days 0, 9, and 10. Ingested food and animal weight were recorded daily. On the day of sacrifice (d10), blood was sampled along with liver, epididymal, subcutaneous, brown adipose, and skeletal muscle tissues from animals fasted for 24 h. Plasma insulin and blood glucose levels, food intake, and body and epididymal fat weight were unchanged, but gross morphological changes were observed in insulin-sensitive tissues. The average size of hepatocytes was significantly lower in Ex-4-treated ZFRs, associated with decreased number and size of lipid droplets and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) staining, a marker of oxidative stress (OS). Myocytes, which were smaller in ZFRs than in LRs, were significantly enlarged and depleted of lipid droplets in Ex-4-treated ZFRs. Weak HNE staining was increased by Ex-4. A similar observation was made in brown adipose tissue, whereas the elevated HNE staining observed in epididymal adipocytes of ZFRs, suggestive of strong OS, was decreased by Ex-4. These results suggest that incretins by acting on OS in insulin-sensitive tissues may contribute to weight-independent improvement in insulin sensitivity. PMID:27511983

  14. Alpha-lipoic acid supplementation reduces mTORC1 signaling in skeletal muscle from high fat fed, obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuyun; Dungan, Cory M; Carrier, Bradley; Rideout, Todd C; Williamson, David L

    2014-12-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is hyperactive in liver, adipose and skeletal muscle tissues of obese rodents. Alpha-lipoic acid (αLA) has been well accepted as a weight-loss treatment, though there are limited studies on its effect on mTOR signaling in high-fat fed, obese rodents. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine mTOR signaling and oxidative protein alterations in skeletal muscle of high-fat fed, obese rats after αLA supplementation. Phosphorylation of the mTOR substrate, eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and eIF4B were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in muscle from αLA supplemented rats. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an mTOR inhibitory kinase, was higher (p < 0.05) in the αLA group. Protein expression of markers of oxidative metabolism, acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), cytochrome c oxidase IV (COX IV), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), and PPAR gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) after αLA supplementation compared to non-supplemented group. Our findings show that αLA supplementation limits the negative ramifications of consuming a high fat diet on skeletal muscle markers of oxidative metabolism and mTORC1 signaling. PMID:25366515

  15. Soluble fiber-enriched diets improve inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers in Zucker fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, David; Quiñones, Mar; Moulay, Leila; Muguerza, Begoña; Miguel, Marta; Aleixandre, Amaya

    2011-07-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of the administration of different soluble fiber enriched-diets on inflammatory and redox state of Zucker fatty rats. Four groups of ten 8 week-old female Zucker fatty rats were used. The four groups were respectively fed the following diets until the 15th week of life: standard diet (obese control), 10% high methoxylated apple pectin (HMAP)-, 5% soluble cocoa fiber (SCF)-, and 10% β-glucan-enriched diets. A group of Zucker lean rats fed the standard diet was also used as control for normal values of this rat strain. The plasma levels of tumoral necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), adiponectin, and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured at the end of treatment. The reduced glutathione liver levels were also obtained at that moment. TNF-α plasma levels decreased somewhat in Zucker fatty rats fed the different fibers, and MDA plasma levels significantly decreased in these animals. Nevertheless, adiponectin plasma levels increased in the Zucker fatty rats fed the SCF enriched diet, but did not change in the HMAP and the β-glucan group. The Zucker fatty rats fed the different fiber showed a trend towards increased the reduced glutathione liver levels, but significant differences with obese control rats were only obtained in the β-glucan group. The results obtained in this study suggest that the intake of the different soluble fiber-enriched diets that we have evaluated could prevent and/or attenuate the inflammatory and/or the prooxidative state of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:21349333

  16. The effects of phenylpropanolamine on Zucker rats selected for fat food preference.

    PubMed

    Svec, F; Muehlenhein, M; Porter, J

    2003-04-01

    Treatments of human and rodent obesity frequently involve administration of amphetamine derivatives, much like phenylpropanolamine, which suppress food intake. The Zucker rat is a commonly employed model of youth-onset obesity in which the homozygous genotype manifests hyperphagia as well as other characteristics that parallel human obesity. Using a macronutrient selection procedure, we examined phenylpropanolamine's differential actions in controlling dietary intake, spontaneous open-field activity, and regional hypothalamic neurotransmitter levels in obese female Zucker rats of varying fat food preference. We hypothesized that phenylpropanolamine would alter hypothalamic monoamine levels differently in low-fat preferring and high-fat preferring Zucker rats, and hence affect feeding behavior and activity differently in these two groups. It was found that in high-fat preferring animals, phenylpropanolamine significantly decreased spontaneous open-field activity, decreased only carbohydrate caloric intake, and increased serotonin and 5-HIAA levels in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). In low-fat preferring animals, phenylpropanolamine decreased carbohydrate, protein, and total caloric intake, had no significant effect of spontaneous activity, and increased serotonin and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid levels in the PVN. Inherent and induced physiological differences of low-fat and high-fat preferring animals are discussed as well as phenylpropanolamine's potential in combination drug therapy for the treatment of human hyperphagic obesity. PMID:12722984

  17. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on glucose metabolism in isolated hepatocytes from Zucker rats

    SciTech Connect

    Finan, A.; Cleary, M.P.

    1986-03-05

    DHEA has been shown to competitively inhibit the pentose phosphate shunt (PPS) enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) when added in vitro to supernatants or homogenates prepared from mammalian tissues. However, no consistent effect on G6PD activity has been determined in tissue removed from DHEA-treated rats. To explore the effects of DHEA on PPS, glucose utilization was measured in hepatocytes from lean and obese male Zucker rats (8 wks of age) following 1 wk of DHEA treatment (0.6% in diet). Incubation of isolated hepatocytes from treated lean Zucker rats with either (1-/sup 14/C) glucose or (6-/sup 14/C) glucose resulted in significant decreases in CO/sub 2/ production and total glucose utilization. DHEA-lean rats also had lowered fat pad weights. In obese rats, there was no effect of 1 wk of treatment on either glucose metabolism or fat pad weight. The calculated percent contribution of the PPS to glucose metabolism in hepatocytes was not changed for either DHEA-lean or obese rats when compared to control rats. In conclusion, 1 wk of DHEA treatment lowered overall glucose metabolism in hepatocytes of lean Zucker rats, but did not selectively affect the PPS. The lack of an effect of short-term treatment in obese rats may be due to differences in their metabolism or storage/release of DHEA in tissues in comparison to lean rats.

  18. Respiratory muscle weakness in the Zucker diabetic fatty rat.

    PubMed

    Allwood, Melissa A; Foster, Andrew J; Arkell, Alicia M; Beaudoin, Marie-Soleil; Snook, Laelie A; Romanova, Nadya; Murrant, Coral L; Holloway, Graham P; Wright, David C; Simpson, Jeremy A

    2015-10-01

    The obesity epidemic is considered one of the most serious public health problems of the modern world. Physical therapy is the most accessible form of treatment; however, compliance is a major obstacle due to exercise intolerance and dyspnea. Respiratory muscle atrophy is a cause of dyspnea, yet little is known of obesity-induced respiratory muscle dysfunction. Our objective was to investigate whether obesity-induced skeletal muscle wasting occurs in the diaphragm, the main skeletal muscle involved in inspiration, using the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat. After 14 wk, ZDF rats developed obesity, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance, compared with lean controls. Hemodynamic analysis revealed ZDF rats have impaired cardiac relaxation (P = 0.001) with elevated end-diastolic pressure (P = 0.006), indicative of diastolic dysfunction. Assessment of diaphragm function revealed weakness (P = 0.0296) in the absence of intrinsic muscle impairment in ZDF rats. Diaphragm morphology revealed increased fibrosis (P < 0.0001), atrophy (P < 0.0001), and reduced myosin heavy-chain content (P < 0.001), compared with lean controls. These changes are accompanied by activation of the myostatin signaling pathway with increased serum myostatin (P = 0.017), increased gene expression (P = 0.030) in the diaphragm and retroperitoneal adipose (P = 0.033), and increased SMAD2 phosphorylation in the diaphragm (P = 0.048). Here, we have confirmed the presence of respiratory muscle atrophy and weakness in an obese, diabetic model. We have also identified a pathological role for myostatin signaling in obesity, with systemic contributions from the adipose tissue, a nonskeletal muscle source. These findings have significant implications for future treatment strategies of exercise intolerance in an obese, diabetic population. PMID:26246509

  19. Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    Morbid obesity; Fat - obese ... is because the body stores unused calories as fat. Obesity can be caused by: Eating more food ... use your BMI to estimate how much body fat you have. Your waist measurement is another way ...

  20. Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories ...

  1. Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... may have less time to exercise. The term eating disorder means a group of medical conditions that have ... obese, follow an unhealthy diet, and have an eating disorder all at the same time. Sometimes, medical problems ...

  2. Obesity.

    PubMed

    Callaway, C W

    1987-01-01

    Obesity is not a single disease, but a variety of conditions resulting from different mechanisms and associated with various types and degrees of risks. To determine who should lose weight, how much weight should be lost, and how to undertake weight loss, the following types of information are needed: personal-demographic data, developmental patterns, family history, energy balance, body composition/fat distribution, psychological/behavioral measures, endocrine/metabolic measures, complications and associated conditions. Weight reduction should be undertaken by women with morbid obesity, with complications secondary to the obesity, with a strong family history of conditions associated with obesity, or with increased abdomen:hip ratios. In contrast, women who have excess weight localized in the hips and thighs and no personal or family history of associated conditions may not benefit from dietary restriction. Low calorie diets result in adaptive changes, "designed" to prolong survival in the face of famine. These include changes in water balance, metabolic rate, and appetite. Metabolic rate declines, allowing the individual to burn fewer and fewer calories. Each time a woman diets she tends to lose weight less rapidly than the time before. "Restrained eating" predisposes binge eating. Indeed, bulimia rarely occurs in the absence of prior caloric restrictions. Current medical definitions of obesity do not consider these nuances. Existing definitions "over-diagnose" obesity in women, in general, and in older women and nonwhite women, in particular. For example, by existing standards, more than 60 percent of black women more than 45 years of age are considered obese. In contrast, the health risks of similar degrees of obesity are substantially greater for men than for women. Part of the problems lies in the fact that many women have pear-shaped fat distribution,a pattern which is not associated with increased health risks.Current cultural definitions of obesity for

  3. Obesity Induces Tissue-Specific Changes in Lipid Peroxidation Defense Enzymes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipid peroxidation is thought to be a component of obesity-induced pathology. However, the tissue-dependent changes in lipid peroxidation (LOOH) and LOOH defense mechanisms in response to obesity are unclear. In this work, we utilized 14-week old male, obese Zucker rats and their control, lean litte...

  4. Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... come from muscle, bone, fat, and/or body water. Both terms mean that a person's weight is greater than what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories than you use. The balance between calories-in and calories-out differs for ...

  5. Pomegranate flower extract diminishes cardiac fibrosis in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: modulation of cardiac endothelin-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB pathways.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tom H W; Yang, Qinglin; Harada, Masaki; Li, George Q; Yamahara, Johji; Roufogalis, Basil D; Li, Yuhao

    2005-12-01

    The diabetic heart shows increased fibrosis, which impairs cardiac function. Endothelin (ET)-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) interactively regulate fibroblast growth. We have recently demonstrated that Punica granatum flower (PGF), a Unani anti-diabetic medicine, is a dual activator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha and -gamma, and improves hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and fatty heart in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat, a genetic animal model of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Here, we demonstrated that six-week treatment with PGF extract (500 mg/kg, p.o.) in Zucker diabetic fatty rats reduced the ratios of van Gieson-stained interstitial collagen deposit area to total left ventricular area and perivascular collagen deposit areas to coronary artery media area in the heart. This was accompanied by suppression of overexpressed cardiac fibronectin and collagen I and III mRNAs. Punica granatum flower extract reduced the up-regulated cardiac mRNA expression of ET-1, ETA, inhibitor-kappaBbeta and c-jun, and normalized the down-regulated mRNA expression of inhibitor-kappaBalpha in Zucker diabetic fatty rats. In vitro, Punica granatum flower extract and its components oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, and gallic acid inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-kappaB activation in macrophages. Our findings indicate that Punica granatum flower extract diminishes cardiac fibrosis in Zucker diabetic fatty rats, at least in part, by modulating cardiac ET-1 and NF-kappaB signaling. PMID:16306813

  6. Pref-1 and adipokine expression in adipose tissues of GK and Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Barbu, Andreea; Hedlund, Gabriella Persdotter; Lind, Jenny; Carlsson, Carina

    2009-02-27

    In view of the central role of preadipocyte factor-1, adiponectin and leptin in white adipose tissue function, the aim of the present study was to analyze the mRNA expression of these proteins and of the inflammatory markers interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in visceral and subcutaneous fat pads of rats with different metabolic disorders. We demonstrated highly divergent expression of preadipocyte factor-1, upregulated expression of adiponectin, interleukin-6 and TNF-alpha mRNA in adipose tissues of the diabetic Goto Kakizaki rat compared to the obese Zucker rat. This was correlated to an increased number of large adipocytes and serum levels of adiponectin. Furthermore, in all four strains studied (as above plus Wistar Furth and Zucker Lean), significant heterogeneity was evident in adipokine expression within specific adipose tissues previously defined as belonging to the visceral or subcutaneous fat depots. These results suggest that significantly increased levels of inflammation and redistribution of adipocyte size are mechanisms contributing to the development of type 2 diabetes in the GK rat. PMID:19084046

  7. The cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A (Rimonabant) enhances the metabolic benefits of long-term treatment with oleoylethanolamide in Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Antonia; Del Arco, Ignacio; Javier Pavón, Francisco; Macías, Manuel; Perez-Valero, Vidal; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Anandamide and oleoylethanolamide (OEA) are lipid mediators that regulate feeding and lipid metabolism. While anandamide, a cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist, promotes feeding and lipogenesis, oleoylethanolamide, an endogenous agonist of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha), decreases food intake and activates lipid mobilization and oxidation. The treatment with a cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist results in reduction of body weight gain and cholesterol in obese humans and rodents. In the present study, we show the benefits of the treatment of obese Zucker rats with a combination of a cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist (Rimonabant) and oleoylethanolamide. This combinational therapy improved the separate effects of Rimonabant and OEA, and resulted in marked decreases on feeding, body weight gain, and plasma cholesterol levels. Additionally, the treatment with both drugs reduced the hepatic steatosis observed in Zucker rats, decreasing liver fat deposits and damage, as revealed by the levels of alanine aminotransferase activity in serum. The combined treatment inhibits the expression of stearoyl coenzyme-A desaturase-1 (SCD-1), a pivotal enzyme in lipid biosynthesis and triglyceride mobilization that is linked to obesity phenotypes. These results support the use of combined therapies with cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists and PPAR-alpha agonists for the treatment of obesity associated with dyslipemia. PMID:17467748

  8. Cannabinoids alter endothelial function in the Zucker rat model of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Christopher P; Wheal, Amanda J; Randall, Michael D; O'Sullivan, Saoirse E

    2013-11-15

    Circulating levels of anandamide are increased in diabetes, and cannabidiol ameliorates a number of pathologies associated with diabetes. The aim of the present study was to examine how exposure to anandamide or cannabidiol might affect endothelial dysfunction associated with Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats. Age-matched Zucker Diabetic Fatty and Zucker lean rats were killed by cervical dislocation and their arteries mounted on a myograph at 37 °C. Arteries were incubated for 2h with anandamide, cannabidiol or vehicle, contracted, and cumulative concentration-response curves to acetylcholine were constructed. Anandamide (10 µM, 2h) significantly improved the vasorelaxant responses to acetylcholine in aortae and femoral arteries from Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats but not Zucker lean rats. By contrast, anandamide (1 µM, 2h) significantly blunted acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation in third-order mesenteric arteries (G3) from Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats. Cannabidiol incubation (10 µM, 2h) improved acetylcholine responses in the arteries of Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats (aorta and femoral) and Zucker lean (aorta, femoral and G3 mesenteric), and this effect was greater in the Zucker Diabetic Fatty rat. These studies suggest that increased circulating endocannabinoids may alter vascular function both positively and negatively in type 2 diabetes, and that part of the beneficial effect of cannabidiol in diabetes may be due to improved endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. PMID:24120371

  9. Age and microenvironment outweigh genetic influence on the Zucker rat microbiome.

    PubMed

    Lees, Hannah; Swann, Jonathan; Poucher, Simon M; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Holmes, Elaine; Wilson, Ian D; Marchesi, Julian R

    2014-01-01

    Animal models are invaluable tools which allow us to investigate the microbiome-host dialogue. However, experimental design introduces biases in the data that we collect, also potentially leading to biased conclusions. With obesity at pandemic levels animal models of this disease have been developed; we investigated the role of experimental design on one such rodent model. We used 454 pyrosequencing to profile the faecal bacteria of obese (n = 6) and lean (homozygous n = 6; heterozygous n = 6) Zucker rats over a 10 week period, maintained in mixed-genotype cages, to further understand the relationships between the composition of the intestinal bacteria and age, obesity progression, genetic background and cage environment. Phylogenetic and taxon-based univariate and multivariate analyses (non-metric multidimensional scaling, principal component analysis) showed that age was the most significant source of variation in the composition of the faecal microbiota. Second to this, cage environment was found to clearly impact the composition of the faecal microbiota, with samples from animals from within the same cage showing high community structure concordance, but large differences seen between cages. Importantly, the genetically induced obese phenotype was not found to impact the faecal bacterial profiles. These findings demonstrate that the age and local environmental cage variables were driving the composition of the faecal bacteria and were more deterministically important than the host genotype. These findings have major implications for understanding the significance of functional metagenomic data in experimental studies and beg the question; what is being measured in animal experiments in which different strains are housed separately, nature or nurture? PMID:25232735

  10. Age and Microenvironment Outweigh Genetic Influence on the Zucker Rat Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Lees, Hannah; Swann, Jonathan; Poucher, Simon M.; Nicholson, Jeremy K.; Holmes, Elaine; Wilson, Ian D.; Marchesi, Julian R.

    2014-01-01

    Animal models are invaluable tools which allow us to investigate the microbiome-host dialogue. However, experimental design introduces biases in the data that we collect, also potentially leading to biased conclusions. With obesity at pandemic levels animal models of this disease have been developed; we investigated the role of experimental design on one such rodent model. We used 454 pyrosequencing to profile the faecal bacteria of obese (n = 6) and lean (homozygous n = 6; heterozygous n = 6) Zucker rats over a 10 week period, maintained in mixed-genotype cages, to further understand the relationships between the composition of the intestinal bacteria and age, obesity progression, genetic background and cage environment. Phylogenetic and taxon-based univariate and multivariate analyses (non-metric multidimensional scaling, principal component analysis) showed that age was the most significant source of variation in the composition of the faecal microbiota. Second to this, cage environment was found to clearly impact the composition of the faecal microbiota, with samples from animals from within the same cage showing high community structure concordance, but large differences seen between cages. Importantly, the genetically induced obese phenotype was not found to impact the faecal bacterial profiles. These findings demonstrate that the age and local environmental cage variables were driving the composition of the faecal bacteria and were more deterministically important than the host genotype. These findings have major implications for understanding the significance of functional metagenomic data in experimental studies and beg the question; what is being measured in animal experiments in which different strains are housed separately, nature or nurture? PMID:25232735

  11. Obesity Preserves Myocardial Function During Blockade of the Glycolytic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    de Campos, Dijon Henrique Salomé; Leopoldo, André Soares; Lima-Leopoldo, Ana Paula; do Nascimento, André Ferreira; de Oliveira-Junior, Silvio Assis; da Silva, Danielle Cristina Tomaz; Sugizaki, Mario Mateus; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is defined by excessive accumulation of body fat relative to lean tissue. Studies during the last few years indicate that cardiac function in obese animals may be preserved, increased or diminished. Objective Study the energy balance of the myocardium with the hypothesis that the increase in fatty acid oxidation and reduced glucose leads to cardiac dysfunction in obesity. Methods 30-day-old male Wistar rats were fed standard and hypercaloric diet for 30 weeks. Cardiac function and morphology were assessed. In this paper was viewed the general characteristics and comorbities associated to obesity. The structure cardiac was determined by weights of the heart and left ventricle (LV). Myocardial function was evaluated by studying isolated papillary muscles from the LV, under the baseline condition and after inotropic and lusitropic maneuvers: myocardial stiffness; postrest contraction; increase in extracellular Ca2+ concentration; change in heart rate and inhibitor of glycolytic pathway. Results Compared with control group, the obese rats had increased body fat and co-morbities associated with obesity. Functional assessment after blocking iodoacetate shows no difference in the linear regression of DT, however, the RT showed a statistically significant difference in behavior between the control and the obese group, most notable being the slope in group C. Conclusion The energy imbalance on obesity did not cause cardiac dysfunction. On the contrary, the prioritization of fatty acids utilization provides protection to cardiac muscle during the inhibition of glycolysis, suggesting that this pathway is fewer used by obese cardiac muscle. PMID:25352507

  12. Weak production and electroproduction of Δ(1236) in a Zucker-model calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, S. Rai; Dewan, H. K.

    1983-07-01

    Zucker's model for weak production and electroproduction of Δ(1236) is reconsidered in the light of recent experimental data. We find that the disagreement between the predictions of the Zucker model and the experimental data can be significantly reduced by choosing a different form for ω exchange.

  13. Difference in the Pharmacokinetics and Hepatic Metabolism of Antidiabetic Drugs in Zucker Diabetic Fatty and Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin; Rougée, Luc R A; Bedwell, David W; Cramer, Jeff W; Mohutsky, Michael A; Calvert, Nathan A; Moulton, Richard D; Cassidy, Kenneth C; Yumibe, Nathan P; Adams, Lisa A; Ruterbories, Kenneth J

    2016-08-01

    The Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat, an inbred strain of obese Zucker fatty rat, develops early onset of insulin resistance and displays hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. The phenotypic changes resemble human type 2 diabetes associated with obesity and therefore the strain is used as a pharmacological model for type 2 diabetes. The aim of the current study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and hepatic metabolism in male ZDF and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats of five antidiabetic drugs that are known to be cleared via various mechanisms. Among the drugs examined, metformin, cleared through renal excretion, and rosiglitazone, metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P450 2C, did not exhibit differences in the plasma clearance in ZDF and SD rats. In contrast, glibenclamide, metabolized by hepatic CYP3A, canagliflozin, metabolized mainly by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT), and troglitazone, metabolized by sulfotransferase and UGT, exhibited significantly lower plasma clearance in ZDF than in SD rats after a single intravenous administration. To elucidate the mechanisms for the difference in the drug clearance, studies were performed to characterize the activity of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes using liver S9 fractions from the two strains. The results revealed that the activity for CYP3A and UGT was decreased in ZDF rats using the probe substrates, and decreased unbound intrinsic clearance in vitro for glibenclamide, canagliflozin, and troglitazone was consistent with lower plasma clearance in vivo. The difference in pharmacokinetics of these two strains may complicate pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic correlations, given that ZDF is used as a pharmacological model, and SD rat as the pharmacokinetics and toxicology strain. PMID:27217490

  14. Pressor recovery after acute stress is impaired in high fructose-fed Lean Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jennifer A; D'Angelo, Gerard; Mintz, James D; Fulton, David J; Stepp, David W

    2016-06-01

    Insulin resistance is a powerful predictor of cardiovascular disease; however, the mechanistic link remains unclear. This study aims to determine if early cardiovascular changes associated with short-term fructose feeding in the absence of obesity manifest as abnormal blood pressure control. Metabolic dysfunction was induced in Lean Zucker rats by short-term high-fructose feeding. Rats were implanted with telemetry devices for the measurement of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and subjected to air jet stress at 5 and 8 weeks after feeding. Additional animals were catheterized under anesthesia for the determination of MAP and blood flow responses in the hind limb and mesenteric vascular beds to intravenous injection of isoproterenol (0.001-0.5 μm), a β-adrenergic agonist. Metabolic dysfunction in high-fructose rats was not accompanied by changes in 24-h MAP Yet, animals fed a high-fructose diet for 8 weeks exhibited a marked impairment in blood pressure recovery after air-jet stress. Dose-dependent decreases in MAP and peripheral blood flow in response to isoproterenol treatment were significantly attenuated in high-fructose rats. These data suggest that impaired blood pressure recovery to acute mental stress precedes the onset of hypertension in the early stages of insulin resistance. Further, blunted responses to isoproterenol implicate β2-adrenergic sensitivity as a possible mechanism responsible for altered blood pressure control after short-term high-fructose feeding. PMID:27335430

  15. Combining sitagliptin/metformin with a functional fiber delays diabetes progression in Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Raylene A; Grover, Gary J; Koetzner, Lee; Gahler, Roland J; Lyon, Michael R; Wood, Simon

    2014-03-01

    Our primary objective was to determine whether administering the viscous and fermentable polysaccharide PolyGlycopleX (PGX) with metformin (MET) or sitagliptin/metformin (S/MET) reduces hyperglycemia in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats more so than monotherapy of each. Glucose tolerance, adiposity, satiety hormones and mechanisms related to dipeptidyl peptidase 4 activity, gut microbiota and, hepatic and pancreatic histology were examined. Male ZDF rats (9-10 weeks of age) were randomized to: i) cellulose/vehicle (control, C); ii) PGX (5% wt/wt)/vehicle (PGX); iii) cellulose/metformin (200  mg/kg) (MET); iv) cellulose/S/MET (10  mg/kg+200  mg/kg) (S/MET); v) PGX (5%)+MET (200  mg/kg) (PGX+MET); vi) cellulose/sitagliptin/MET (5%)+(10  mg/kg+200  mg/kg) (PGX+S/MET) for 6 weeks. PGX+MET and PGX+S/MET reduced glycemia compared with C and singular treatments (P=0.001). Weekly fasted and fed blood glucose levels were lower in PGX+MET and PGX+S/MET compared with all other groups at weeks 4, 5, and 6 (P=0.001). HbA1c was lower in PGX+S/MET than C, MET, S/MET, and PGX at week 6 (P=0.001). Fat mass was lower and GLP1 was higher in PGX+S/MET compared with all other groups (P=0.001). β-cell mass was highest and islet degeneration lowest in PGX+S/MET. Hepatic lipidosis was significantly lower in PGX+S/MET compared with PGX or S/MET alone. When combined with PGX, both MET and S/MET markedly reduce glycemia; however, PGX+S/MET appears advantageous over PGX+MET in terms of increased β-cell mass and reduced adiposity. Both combination treatments attenuated diabetes in the obese Zucker rat. PMID:24389593

  16. Punica granatum flower extract, a potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, improves postprandial hyperglycemia in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuhao; Wen, Suping; Kota, Bhavani Prasad; Peng, Gang; Li, George Qian; Yamahara, Johji; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2005-06-01

    Postprandial hyperglycemia plays an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes and has been proposed as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The flowering part of Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae) (PGF) has been recommended in Unani literature as a remedy for diabetes. We investigated the effect and action mechanism of a methanolic extract from PGF on hyperglycemia in vivo and in vitro. Oral administration of PGF extract markedly lowered plasma glucose levels in non-fasted Zucker diabetic fatty rats (a genetic model of obesity and type 2 diabetes), whereas it had little effect in the fasted animals, suggesting it affected postprandial hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. In support of this conclusion the extract was found to markedly inhibit the increase of plasma glucose levels after sucrose loading, but not after glucose loading in mice, and it had no effect on glucose levels in normal mice. In vitro, PGF extract demonstrated a potent inhibitory effect on alpha-glucosidase activity (IC50: 1.8 microg/ml). The inhibition is dependent on the concentration of enzyme and substrate, as well as on the length of pretreatment with the enzyme. These findings strongly suggest that PGF extract improves postprandial hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes and obesity, at least in part, by inhibiting intestinal alpha-glucosidase activity. PMID:15894133

  17. Metabolic responses to fasting and refeeding in lean and genetically obese rats.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, N J; Saville, M E; Stock, M J

    1983-05-01

    Injection of norepinephrine (NE) (25 micrograms/100 g body wt) caused a similar rise in metabolic rate in lean and obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats, but 3-day fasting suppressed the response in lean rats and enhanced the rise in obese mutants. Triiodothyronine (T3) injection (10 micrograms/100 g body wt) caused a significantly greater rise in oxygen consumption (Vo2) in obese than lean rats, but the response was attenuated by fasting in all animals. The thermic response to a single meal of either mixed composition, carbohydrate, or protein (40 kJ) was much smaller in obese rats than lean, but the response to the mixed nutrient meal was similar for all rats after a 3-day fast. Refeeding 3-day fasted lean rats with a single carbohydrate meal (40 kJ) caused a rise in plasma T3 levels after 3 h and a delayed increase in metabolic rate 24 h later. Injection of NE instead of refeeding caused a similar delayed rise in metabolic rate. Carbohydrate refeeding had no effect on plasma T3 levels or oxygen consumption in 3-day fasted obese Zuckers, but injection of NE did produce a significant increase in metabolic rate after 24 h. Refeeding 3-day fasted rats with protein (40 kJ) caused a rise in oxygen consumption 24 h later in lean animals but had no effect in obese animals. The data from lean Zucker rats confirm previous findings in Sprague-Dawley rats and suggest that the thermic response to refeeding involves a complex interaction between the sympathetic nervous system and thyroid hormones. Obese Zuckers responded normally to NE and T3, indicating that their reduced thermogenesis after food may be due to insensitivity to nutrient availability or an inability to activate the sympathetic nervous system. PMID:6846570

  18. Danhong Huayu Koufuye combined with metformin attenuated diabetic retinopathy in Zucker diabetic fatty rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Pei; Wang, Yan-Dong; Ma, Yan; Zhang, Zi-Yang; Hu, Lu-Yun; Lin, Jun-Li; Lin, Bao-Qin

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate effects of Danhong Huayu Koufuye (DHK, a Chinese medicinal formulae) alone or combined with metformin on diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, an animal model of obese type-2 diabetes, and then to investigate the mechanisms. METHODS ZDF (fa/fa) rats were administered with vehicle (distilled water), metformin, DHK, and DHK plus metformin. Electrophysiological and histological analysis were applied to evaluated effects of DHK alone or combined with metformin on DR. The levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in blood were measured to evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity of DHK. Furthermore, levels of nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in serum were measured to study effects of DHK on oxidative stress in ZDF rats. In addition, body weight, lipidic indexes and insulin level were also assessed. RESULTS DHK combined with metformin significantly reversed the prolongation of latency times of flash electroretinogram (FERG) and oscillatory potentials (OPs) in diabetic rats. Furthermore, DHK alone or combined with metformin showed a remarkable suppression of retinal neovascularization and amelioration of retinal internal limiting membrane morphology. Moreover, DHK alone or plus metformin reduced FBG (P<0.05), HbA1c (P<0.01) and MDA (P<0.01) levels in diabetic rats. In addition, reductions in levels of triglycerides (TG) (P<0.01) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively) were also observed in diabetic rats treated with DHK alone or plus metformin. CONCLUSION DHK in combination with metformin had a preventive and therapeutic effect on DR in type-2 diabetic rats, and the possible mechanisms may be alleviating hyperglycemia, reducing oxidative stress and improving lipid metabolism. PMID:26682154

  19. [Updates on ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament. Effect of insulin/IGF-1 signals and leptin signals on ossification of the spinal ligament in Zucker fatty rats].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kengo; Kosaka, Taiichi

    2009-10-01

    The involvement of insulin/IGF-1 signals and leptin signals in spinal ligament cells was investigated using Zucker fatty rats (fa/fa) that carry mutation of the leptin receptor gene (fa) and monosodium glutamate-treated (MSG) rats that present obesity due to destruction of the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus. Zucker fatty rats (ZFR) , that have a with functional abnormality of leptin receptors are a spontaneous model of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament that develops sympathetic nerve hypoactivity. (insulin/IGF-1 signals) IRS-1-positive cells, IRS-1 protein were eminent by detected in the cartilage endplate and the enthesis region in ZFR group. On the other hand, IRS-2-positive cells were slightly less in the ZFR group than in the MSG and control groups. The results suggest that IRS-1-mediated signaling for cell proliferation was enhanced in ZFR, which may explain the ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. (Leptin signals) We investigated the effects of leptin on the spinal ligament in ZFR histopathologically and immunohistochemically. Since Ob-R does not play any role due to functional abnormality in ZFR, the direct involvement of leptin in ligament ossification may be slight in ZFR. beta(2)AR expression in the stage preceding ligament ossification was confirmed, suggesting that ossification of the spinal ligament may be inhibited by sympathetic nerve stimulation in ZFR. PMID:19794255

  20. Salacia oblonga root improves postprandial hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: Activation of PPAR-{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Hsun-Wei Huang, Tom; Peng Gang; Qian Li, George; Yamahara, Johji; Roufogalis, Basil D.; Li Yuhao . E-mail: yuhao@pharm.usyd.edu.au

    2006-02-01

    Salacia oblonga (SO) root is an Ayurvedic medicine with anti-diabetic and anti-obese properties. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{alpha}, a nuclear receptor, plays an important role in maintaining the homeostasis of lipid metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that chronic oral administration of the water extract from the root of SO to Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, a genetic model of type 2 diabetes and obesity, lowered plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol (TC) levels, increased plasma high-density lipoprotein levels and reduced the liver contents of triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and the ratio of fatty droplets to total tissue. By contrast, the extract had no effect on plasma triglyceride and TC levels in fasted ZDF rats. After olive oil administration to ZDF the extract also inhibited the increase in plasma triglyceride levels. These results suggest that SO extract improves postprandial hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in ZDF rats. Additionally, SO treatment enhanced hepatic expression of PPAR-{alpha} mRNA and protein, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and acyl-CoA oxidase mRNAs in ZDF rats. In vitro, SO extract and its main component mangiferin activated PPAR-{alpha} luciferase activity in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and lipoprotein lipase mRNA expression and enzyme activity in THP-1 differentiated macrophages; these effects were completely suppressed by a selective PPAR-{alpha} antagonist MK-886. The findings from both in vivo and in vitro suggest that SO extract functions as a PPAR-{alpha} activator, providing a potential mechanism for improvement of postprandial hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in diabetes and obesity.

  1. The effects of obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome on the hydrolytic enzymes of the endocannabinoid system in animal and human adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Circulating endocannabinoid levels are increased in obesity and diabetes. We have shown that fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH, an endocannabinoid hydrolysing enzyme) in subcutaneous adipose tissue positively correlates with BMI in healthy volunteers. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the hydrolytic enzymes of the endocannabinoid system are affected by diabetes or metabolic syndrome in obesity. Methods Using radiolabelled substrates, FAAH and monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) activities were assessed in adipocytes from various adipose depots in Zucker rats (n = 22, subcutaneous abdominal, visceral and epididymal) and bariatric patients (n = 28, subcutaneous abdominal and omental). Results FAAH activity was significantly increased in adipocytes of obese (Zucker Fatty) compared to Zucker lean rats (P < 0.05) but was not raised in the Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats (ZDF). MGL activity was raised in both Zucker Fatty (P < 0.001-0.01) and ZDF rats (P < 0.05) and was positively correlated with body weight and plasma glucose levels (P < 0.01). In bariatric patients (BMI range 37–58 kg.m2), there was a trend for MGL activity to correlate positively with BMI, reaching significance when type 2 diabetic patients were removed. FAAH and MGL activities in obese humans were not correlated with blood pressure, skinfold thicknesses, fasting glucose, insulin, HbA1c, triglycerides or cholesterol levels. Conclusions FAAH in adipocytes is differentially altered in animal models of obesity and diabetes, while MGL activity is increased by both. However, in obese humans, FAAH or MGL activity in adipocytes is not affected by diabetes, dyslipidaemia or other markers of metabolic dysfunction. This suggests increased circulating levels of endocannabinoids are not a result of altered degradation in adipose tissue. PMID:24593280

  2. The Heme Oxygenase System Suppresses Perirenal Visceral Adiposity, Abates Renal Inflammation and Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ndisang, Joseph Fomusi; Jadhav, Ashok; Mishra, Manish

    2014-01-01

    The growing incidence of chronic kidney disease remains a global health problem. Obesity is a major risk factor for type-2 diabetes and renal impairment. Perirenal adiposity, by virtue of its anatomical proximity to the kidneys may cause kidney disease through paracrine mechanisms that include increased production of inflammatory cytokines. Although heme-oxygenase (HO) is cytoprotective, its effects on perirenal adiposity and diabetic nephropathy in Zucker-diabetic fatty rats (ZDFs) remains largely unclear. Upregulating the HO-system with hemin normalised glycemia, reduced perirenal adiposity and suppressed several pro-inflammatory/oxidative mediators in perirenal fat including macrophage-inflammatory-protein-1α (MIP-1α), endothelin (ET-1), 8-isoprostane, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β. Furthermore, hemin reduced ED1, a marker of pro-inflammatory macrophage-M1-phenotype, but interestingly, enhanced markers associated with anti-inflammatory M2-phenotype such as ED2, CD206 and IL-10, suggesting that hemin selectively modulates macrophage polarization towards the anti-inflammatory M2-phenotype. These effects were accompanied by increased adiponectin, HO-1, HO-activity, atrial-natriuretic peptide (ANP), and its surrogate marker, urinary-cGMP. Furthermore, hemin reduced renal histological lesions and abated pro-fibrotic/extracellular-matrix proteins like collagen and fibronectin that deplete nephrin, an important transmembrane protein which forms the scaffolding of the podocyte slit-diaphragm allowing ions to filter but not massive excretion of proteins, hence proteinuria. Correspondingly, hemin increased nephrin expression in ZDFs, reduced markers of renal damage including, albuminuria/proteinuria, but increased creatinine-clearance, suggesting improved renal function. Conversely, the HO-blocker, stannous-mesoporphyrin nullified the hemin effects, aggravating glucose metabolism, and exacerbating renal injury and function. The hemin effects were less-pronounced in Zucker

  3. Glucose transporter levels in tissues of spontaneously diabetic Zucker fa/fa rat (ZDF/drt) and viable yellow mouse (Avy/a).

    PubMed

    Slieker, L J; Sundell, K L; Heath, W F; Osborne, H E; Bue, J; Manetta, J; Sportsman, J R

    1992-02-01

    We used antibodies to the fat/muscle glucose transporter (GLUT4) and the liver glucose transporter (GLUT2) to measure levels of these proteins in various tissues of two rodent models of non-insulin-dependent (type II) diabetes mellitus: the obese spontaneously diabetic male Zucker fa/fa rat (ZDF/drt) and the male viable yellow Avy/a obese diabetic mouse. The ZDF/drt strain generally develops overt diabetes associated with decreased plasma insulin levels. Depending on the age of the animals, the ZDF/drt rats can be arbitrarily segregated into age-matched obese, mildly diabetic (blood glucose less than 11 mM) and obese, and severely diabetic (blood glucose greater than 20 mM) groups. Avy/a mice are comparably hyperglycemic but unlike the ZDF/drt rats are severely hyperinsulinemic. In both groups of diabetic animals, GLUT4 in adipose tissue, heart, and skeletal muscle was reduced 25-55%, and GLUT2 in liver was increased 30-40%, relative to lean, age-matched controls. However, when the mildly diabetic ZDF/drt rats were compared to the lean controls, the only significant difference was a 25% reduction of GLUT4 in heart. Within all of the ZDF/drt rats (excluding the lean controls), GLUT2 in liver and GLUT4 in adipose tissue, heart, and skeletal muscle correlated significantly with glycemia. These data suggest that, in these two models of type II diabetes, glucose transporter levels in muscle, adipose tissue, and liver are regulated in a tissue-selective manner in response to changes in insulin and glucose. Furthermore, at least in the ZDF/drt rat, alterations in GLUT2 and/or GLUT4 protein levels appear not to be associated with obesity per se but appear to be secondary to the severely diabetic state.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1733808

  4. Alterations in Glutathione Redox Metabolism, Oxidative Stress, and Mitochondrial Function in the Left Ventricle of Elderly Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rat Heart

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Haider; John, Annie; Howarth, Frank C.

    2012-01-01

    The Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat is a genetic model in which the homozygous (FA/FA) male animals develop obesity and type 2 diabetes. Morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular complications, due to increased oxidative stress and inflammatory signals, are the hallmarks of type 2 diabetes. The precise molecular mechanism of contractile dysfunction and disease progression remains to be clarified. Therefore, we have investigated molecular and metabolic targets in male ZDF (30–34 weeks old) rat heart compared to age matched Zucker lean (ZL) controls. Hyperglycemia was confirmed by a 4-fold elevation in non-fasting blood glucose (478.43 ± 29.22 mg/dL in ZDF vs. 108.22 ± 2.52 mg/dL in ZL rats). An increase in reactive oxygen species production, lipid peroxidation and oxidative protein carbonylation was observed in ZDF rats. A significant increase in CYP4502E1 activity accompanied by increased protein expression was also observed in diabetic rat heart. Increased expression of other oxidative stress marker proteins, HO-1 and iNOS was also observed. GSH concentration and activities of GSH-dependent enzymes, glutathione S-transferase and GSH reductase, were, however, significantly increased in ZDF heart tissue suggesting a compensatory defense mechanism. The activities of mitochondrial respiratory enzymes, Complex I and Complex IV were significantly reduced in the heart ventricle of ZDF rats in comparison to ZL rats. Western blot analysis has also suggested a decreased expression of IκB-α and phosphorylated-JNK in diabetic heart tissue. Our results have suggested that mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress in ZDF rats might be associated, at least in part, with altered NF-κB/JNK dependent redox cell signaling. These results might have implications in the elucidation of the mechanism of disease progression and designing strategies for diabetes prevention. PMID:23203193

  5. Tissue somatostatin levels in three models of genetic obesity in rats.

    PubMed

    Voyles, N R; Bhathena, S J; Kennedy, B; Wilkins, S D; Michaelis, O E; Zalenski, C M; Timmers, K I; Recant, L

    1987-05-01

    A potential role for somatostatin (SRIF) in the pathogenesis of the hyperinsulinemia of obese rats was considered. SRIF like immunoreactivity (ng/mg protein) was therefore measured in hot 2 N acetic acid extracts of pancreas, stomach, pituitary, and hypothalamus in tissues obtained from three models of genetic obesity in rats. These models included the obese and lean controls of LA/N-cp, SHR/N-cp, and Zucker rats. To assess the effects of diet on SRIF levels, mixed diets were provided ad lib which contained a carbohydrate as either sucrose or starch. Some groups were fed chow diets. No significant dietary effects on tissue levels of SRIF were obtained. However, two of the three models (Zucker and SHR/N-cp) showed phenotypic effects on SRIF levels in pancreas; namely, obese rats showed a significantly greater concentration of SRIF (P less than 0.0005 and less than 0.0002, respectively) than did the lean littermates. These findings were confirmed by measurement of total pancreas SRIF content. Gastric levels were significantly altered only in the obese Zucker rats (P less than 0.005) where obese tissues had lower concentrations than those of lean animals. However similar directional changes in pancreas and stomach were observed in all models. It is concluded that the hyperinsulinemia of the obese animals studied is not due to absolute deficiency in pancreatic SRIF content. It is postulated however that decreased pancreatic SRIF secretion (paracrine or otherwise) relative to pancreatic insulin content could still play a role. PMID:2883660

  6. Effects of Gosha-jinki-gan (Chinese herbal medicine: Niu-Che-Sen-Qi-Wan) on hyperinsulinemia and hypertriglyceridemia in prediabetic Zucker fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Hirotani, Y; Okumura, K; Yoko, U; Myotoku, M

    2013-06-01

    The Chinese herbal medicine, Goshajinki-gan (GJ) (Niu-Che-Sen-Qi-Wan), has been widely used for treating patients with melalgia, lower back pain, numbness, and diabetic neuropathy. We investigated the effects of GJ on the regulation of serum insulin and triglyceride levels in obese Zucker fatty rats (fa/fa; ZFR). We administrated GJ to 6-week-old ZFR and non-obese lean rats (LR) for 12 weeks. Body weight and serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were significantly increased at 18 weeks in ZFR as compared to the LR. GJ treatment in ZFR significantly suppressed elevation in serum glucose, insulin, and triglyceride levels, but no significant differences were observed in body weight and serum cholesterol levels in the ZFR group with GJ treatment compared to the ZFR group without GJ treatment. These results suggest that GJ may improve hyperinsulinemia and hypertriglyceridemia in ZFR and that GJ may be useful for preventing or delaying the onset of diabetes mellitus in a pre-diabetic state. PMID:23917858

  7. Inhibition of Gastric Lipase as a Mechanism for Body Weight and Plasma Lipids Reduction in Zucker Rats Fed a Rosemary Extract Rich in Carnosic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Romo Vaquero, María; Yáñez-Gascón, María-Josefa; García Villalba, Rocío; Larrosa, Mar; Fromentin, Emilie; Ibarra, Alvin; Roller, Marc; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco; Espín de Gea, Juan Carlos; García-Conesa, María-Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Background Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts (REs) exhibit hepatoprotective, anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory properties and are widely used in the food industry. REs are rich in carnosic acid (CA) and carnosol which may be responsible for some of the biological activities of REs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether inhibition of lipase activity in the gut may be a mechanism by which a RE enriched in CA (40%) modulates body weight and lipids levels in a rat model of metabolic disorders and obesity. Methods and Principal Findings RE was administered for 64 days to lean (fa/+) and obese (fa/fa) female Zucker rats and body weight, food intake, feces weight and blood biochemical parameters were monitored throughout the study. Lipase activity (hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylbutyrate) was measured in the gastrointestinal tract at the end of the study and the contents of CA, carnosol and methyl carnosate were also determined. Sub-chronic administration of RE moderately reduced body weight gain in both lean and obese animals but did not affect food intake. Serum triglycerides, cholesterol and insulin levels were also markedly decreased in the lean animals supplemented with RE. Importantly, lipase activity was significantly inhibited in the stomach of the RE-supplemented animals where the highest content of intact CA and carnosol was detected. Conclusions Our results confirm that long-term administration of RE enriched in CA moderates weight gain and improves the plasma lipids profile, primarily in the lean animals. Our data also suggest that these effects may be caused, at least in part, by a significant inhibition of gastric lipase and subsequent reduction in fat absorption. PMID:22745826

  8. Salacia oblonga root improves cardiac lipid metabolism in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: Modulation of cardiac PPAR-{alpha}-mediated transcription of fatty acid metabolic genes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Tom H.-W.; Yang Qinglin; Harada, Masaki; Uberai, Jasna; Radford, Jane; Li, George Q.; Yamahara, Johji; Roufogalis, Basil D.; Li Yuhao . E-mail: yuhao@pharm.usyd.edu.au

    2006-01-15

    Excess cardiac triglyceride accumulation in diabetes and obesity induces lipotoxicity, which predisposes the myocytes to death. On the other hand, increased cardiac fatty acid (FA) oxidation plays a role in the development of myocardial dysfunction in diabetes. PPAR-{alpha} plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis of lipid metabolism. We have previously demonstrated that the extract from Salacia oblonga root (SOE), an Ayurvedic anti-diabetic and anti-obesity medicine, improves hyperlipidemia in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats (a genetic model of type 2 diabetes and obesity) and possesses PPAR-{alpha} activating properties. Here we demonstrate that chronic oral administration of SOE reduces cardiac triglyceride and FA contents and decreases the Oil red O-stained area in the myocardium of ZDF rats, which parallels the effects on plasma triglyceride and FA levels. Furthermore, the treatment suppressed cardiac overexpression of both FA transporter protein-1 mRNA and protein in ZDF rats, suggesting inhibition of increased cardiac FA uptake as the basis for decreased cardiac FA levels. Additionally, the treatment also inhibited overexpression in ZDF rat heart of PPAR-{alpha} mRNA and protein and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, acyl-CoA oxidase and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase mRNAs and restored the downregulated acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA. These results suggest that SOE inhibits cardiac FA oxidation in ZDF rats. Thus, our findings suggest that improvement by SOE of excess cardiac lipid accumulation and increased cardiac FA oxidation in diabetes and obesity occurs by reduction of cardiac FA uptake, thereby modulating cardiac PPAR-{alpha}-mediated FA metabolic gene transcription.

  9. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Banni, Sebastiano; Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Cordeddu, Lina; Giordano, Elena; Sirigu, Anna Rita; Berge, Kjetil; Vik, Hogne; Maki, Kevin C; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Griinari, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown that krill oil (KO), more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats.We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO), which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO) for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects.The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats. PMID:21276269

  10. NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin, improves renal glutathione status in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: a comparison with melatonin.

    PubMed

    Winiarska, Katarzyna; Focht, Dorota; Sierakowski, Bartosz; Lewandowski, Krystian; Orlowska, Marta; Usarek, Michal

    2014-07-25

    Apocynin (4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyacetophenone) is the most commonly used NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibitor. However, its application raises serious controversies, as the compound has been reported to reveal some prooxidative effects. The aim of this study was to elucidate apocynin action on glutathione, the main intracellular antioxidant, metabolism in kidneys of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat, a well established model of diabetes type 2. Additionally, apocynin effects were compared with those of melatonin. The experiments were performed on five groups of animals: (1) untreated lean (?/+) ZDF rats, (2) ZDF ?/+ rats treated with apocynin (2 g/l) in drinking water, (3) untreated obese diabetic (fa/fa) ZDF rats, (4) ZDF fa/fa rats treated with apocynin (2 g/l) in drinking water, and (5) ZDF fa/fa rats treated with melatonin (20 mg/l) in drinking water. After 8weeks of the treatment, the following parameters were measured in kidneys: NADPH oxidase activity, the rate of hydroxyl free radicals (HFR) production, GSH and GSSG content and the activities of the enzymes of glutathione metabolism: γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Compared to ?/+ controls, ZDF fa/fa rats exhibited increased Nox activity, accelerated HFR generation and dramatically lowered GSH/GSSG ratio accompanied by increased GPx and diminished GCS activities. In case of diabetic animals, apocynin treatment resulted in attenuation of both Nox activity and HFR production, restoration of control GSH/GSSG ratio (due to both an increase in GSH and a decline in GSSG content), normalization of GPx activity and a slight increase in GCS activity. Similar observations were made upon melatonin application to ZDF fa/fa rats. Thus, it is concluded that, in the diabetic model studied, apocynin extends a beneficial effect on renal glutathione homeostasis. The mechanism of this phenomenon involves attenuation of glutathione peroxidase activity, which is

  11. Obesity And Laboratory Diets Affects Tissue Malondialdehyde (MDA) Levels In Obese Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Parimal; Scott, Joseph; Holley, Andy; Hakkak, Reza

    2010-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the interaction of obesity and laboratory diets on tissue malondialdehyde levels in rats. Female Zucker obese and lean rats were maintained on either regular grain-based diet or purified casein diet for two weeks, orally gavaged at day 50 with 65 mg/kg DMBA and sacrificed 24 hrs later. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured in blood and harvested tissues. Data were recorded as mean ± SEM and analyzed statistically. Results show that the obese group on purified casein diet had reduction of MDA levels in the brain, duodenum, liver, lung and kidney tissues as compared to lean group, p <0.05. Obese group on grain-based diet showed significant increase in MDA levels only in the duodenum, p <0.05. We conclude that dietary intervention differentially affects the oxidative markers in obese rats. It appears that purified casein diets were more effective than grain-based diet in reduction of oxidative stress in obese rats.

  12. The Preventive Effects of 8 Weeks of Resistance Training on Glucose Tolerance and Muscle Fiber Type Composition in Zucker Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-yeon; Choi, Mi Jung; So, Byunghun; Kim, Hee-jae; Seong, Je Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Background We investigated the therapeutic effects of resistance training on Zucker rats before and after the onset of diabetes to understand the importance of the timing of exercise intervention. We assessed whether 8 weeks of resistance training ameliorated impaired glucose tolerance and altered muscle fiber type composition in Zucker rats. Methods Five-week-old male Zucker rats were divided into Zucker lean control (ZLC-Con), non-exercised Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF-Con), and exercised Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF-Ex) groups. The ZDF-Ex rats climbed a ladder three times a week for 8 weeks. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT) were performed on the 1st and 8th weeks of training, and grip strength was measured during the last week. We also measured glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) expression by Western blot and immunofluorescence. Moreover, immunohistochemistry was performed to assess muscle fiber type composition. Results Fasting glucose levels and area under the curve responses to IPGTTs gradually increased as diabetes progressed in the ZDF-Con rats but decreased in the ZDF-Ex rats. Grip strength decreased in the ZDF-Con rats. However, resistance training did not improve grip strength in the ZDF-Ex rats. GLUT4 expression in the ZLC-Con and the ZDF-Con rats did not differ, but it increased in the ZDF-Ex rats. The proportions of myosin heavy chain I and II were lower and higher, respectively, in the ZDF-Con rats compared to the ZLC-Con rats. Muscle fiber type composition did not change in the ZDF-Ex rats. Conclusion Our results suggest that regular resistance training initiated at the onset of diabetes can improve glucose tolerance and GLUT4 expression without changing muscle morphology in Zucker rats. PMID:26566500

  13. Chronic Running Exercise Alleviates Early Progression of Nephropathy with Upregulation of Nitric Oxide Synthases and Suppression of Glycation in Zucker Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Daisuke; Cao, Pengyu; Kakihana, Takaaki; Sato, Emiko; Suda, Chihiro; Muroya, Yoshikazu; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Hu, Gaizun; Ishii, Tadashi; Ito, Osamu; Kohzuki, Masahiro; Kiyomoto, Hideyasu

    2015-01-01

    Exercise training is known to exert multiple beneficial effects including renal protection in type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. However, the mechanisms regulating these actions remain unclear. The present study evaluated the effects of chronic running exercise on the early stage of diabetic nephropathy, focusing on nitric oxide synthase (NOS), oxidative stress and glycation in the kidneys of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Male ZDF rats (6 weeks old) underwent forced treadmill exercise for 8 weeks (Ex-ZDF). Sedentary ZDF (Sed-ZDF) and Zucker lean (Sed-ZL) rats served as controls. Exercise attenuated hyperglycemia (plasma glucose; 242 ± 43 mg/dL in Sed-ZDF and 115 ± 5 mg/dL in Ex-ZDF) with increased insulin secretion (plasma insulin; 2.3 ± 0.7 and 5.3 ± 0.9 ng/mL), reduced albumin excretion (urine albumin; 492 ± 70 and 176 ± 11 mg/g creatinine) and normalized creatinine clearance (9.7 ± 1.4 and 4.5 ± 0.8 mL/min per body weight) in ZDF rats. Endothelial (e) and neuronal (n) NOS expression in kidneys of Sed-ZDF rats were lower compared with Sed-ZL rats (p<0.01), while both eNOS and nNOS expression were upregulated by exercise (p<0.01). Furthermore, exercise decreased NADPH oxidase activity, p47phox expression (p<0.01) and α-oxoaldehydes (the precursors for advanced glycation end products) (p<0.01) in the kidneys of ZDF rats. Additionally, morphometric evidence indicated renal damage was reduced in response to exercise. These data suggest that upregulation of NOS expression, suppression of NADPH oxidase and α-oxoaldehydes in the kidneys may, at least in part, contribute to the renal protective effects of exercise in the early progression of diabetic nephropathy in ZDF rats. Moreover, this study supports the theory that chronic aerobic exercise could be recommended as an effective non-pharmacological therapy for renoprotection in the early stages of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. PMID:26379244

  14. Diabetic Nephropathy Amelioration by a Low-Dose Sitagliptin in an Animal Model of Type 2 Diabetes (Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rat)

    PubMed Central

    Mega, Cristina; Teixeira de Lemos, Edite; Vala, Helena; Fernandes, Rosa; Oliveira, Jorge; Mascarenhas-Melo, Filipa; Teixeira, Frederico; Reis, Flávio

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the effect of chronic low-dose sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor, on metabolic profile and on renal lesions aggravation in a rat model of type-2 diabetic nephropathy, the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat. Diabetic and obese ZDF (fa/fa) rats and their controls ZDF (+/+) were treated for 6 weeks with vehicle (control) or sitagliptin (10 mg/kg/bw). Blood/serum glucose, HbA1c, insulin, Total-c, TGs, urea, and creatinine were assessed, as well as kidney glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions (interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy), using a semiquantitative rating from 0 (absent/normal) to 3 (severe and extensive damage). Vascular lesions were scored from 0–2. Sitagliptin in the diabetic rats promoted an amelioration of glycemia, HbA1c, Total-c, and TGs, accompanied by a partial prevention of insulinopenia. Furthermore, together with urea increment prevention, renal lesions were ameliorated in the diabetic rats, including glomerular, tubulointerstitial, and vascular lesions, accompanied by reduced lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, chronic low-dose sitagliptin treatment was able to ameliorate diabetic nephropathy, which might represent a key step forward in the management of T2DM and this serious complication. PMID:22203828

  15. Effects of Salsalate Therapy on Recovery From Vascular Injury in Female Zucker Fatty Rats

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Subramanyam N.; Desouza, Cyrus V.; Bost, Neal W.; Hilaire, Rose-Claire St.; Casey, David B.; Badejo, Adeleke M.; Dhaliwal, Jasdeep S.; McGee, Jennifer; McNamara, Dennis B.; Kadowitz, Philip J.; Fonseca, Vivian A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Salsalate is a dimeric form of salicylic acid that has been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity and to reduce glucose levels, insulin resistance, and cytokine expression. However, the effect of salsalate on vascular injury has not been determined. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of salsalate on vascular injury and repair in a rat model of carotid artery balloon catheter injury. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Salsalate treatment was started in female Zucker fatty rats (insulin resistant) 1 week before carotid artery balloon catheter injury and continued for 21 days, at which time the animals were killed and studied. RESULTS Treatment with salsalate significantly decreased the intima-to-media ratio and upregulated the expression of aortic endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), phosphorylated eNOS (p-eNOS) (ser 1177), and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and reduced serum interleukin (IL)-6 with concomitant downregulation of nuclear factor (NF) κB subunit p65 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in the balloon-injured carotid artery of female Zucker fatty rats. CONCLUSIONS The present study shows that salsalate treatment decreases vascular damage caused by balloon catheter injury in female Zucker fatty rats. The beneficial effect of salsalate on vascular injury was associated with upregulation of eNOS, p-eNOS, and MnSOD, which reduce oxidative stress and have anti-inflammatory properties, as evidenced by reduction in serum IL-6 and the downregulation of VEGF and NFκB, which promote inflammation without changing glucose levels. These results suggest that salsalate may be useful in reducing vascular injury and restenosis following interventional revascularization procedures. PMID:20876710

  16. AT2 receptor: Its role in obesity associated hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Quaisar; Hussain, Tahir

    2016-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a hormonal cascade that acts together to regulate blood pressure. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is the major octapeptide of RAS and mediates its cellular and physiological actions by acting on AT1 and AT2 receptor. Most of the cellular and physiological actions of Ang II such as cellular growth and proliferation, vasoconstriction, antinatriuresis and increase in blood pressure are mediated via AT1 receptor. The functions associated with the AT2 receptors are less studied, in part, due to its lower expression in adult tissues. However, AT2 receptor has been suggested as functional antagonist of AT1 receptors and thereby opposes the actions of Ang II mediated via AT1 receptor. Thus, the activation of AT2 receptors has been shown to cause vasodilatation, natriuresis and decrease in blood pressure. After the discovery of the AT2 receptor in various parts of the kidney, including in proximal tubules, there has been an interest in establishing a link between the renal AT2 receptor, renal Na-excretion and blood pressure regulation. Earlier, we have reported that activation of renal AT2 receptors increases urinary Na excretion in obese Zucker rats, in part via inhibiting Na+/K+- ATPase (NKA) activity and stimulating nitric oxide/cGMP pathway in the proximal tubules. An impaired pressure natriuresis and increased AT1 receptor function is believed to be the cause of hypertension in obese Zucker rats and other animal models of obesity. In this review, we are focussing on the role of renin angiotensin system especially AT2 receptors in obesity associated hypertension.

  17. Dietary supplementation with watermelon pomace juice enhances arginine availability and ameliorates the metabolic syndrome in Zucker diabetic fatty rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon is rich in L-citrulline, an effective precursor of L-arginine. This study was conducted to determine whether dietary supplementation with watermelon pomace juice could ameliorate the metabolic syndrome in the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat, an animal model of noninsulin-dependent diabet...

  18. Trouble and Triumph: German Life-Turkish Tradition in Renan Demirkan's "Schwarzer Tee mit drei Stuck Zucker"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Reika

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores Demirkan's narrative strategies in "Schwarzer Tee mit drei Stuck Zucker" to negotiate issues of a life between two cultures and traditions. Based on Bhabha's insights that mainstream culture needs intellectual and artistic infusion from the margins of a society in order to remain vital; and that cultural production itself is a…

  19. Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  20. Obesity management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rates of obesity in the United States have increased dramatically over the past 30 years. Approximately 35% of children and 66% of adults are currently considered overweight or obese. Although obesity is seen in all ethnicities and economic classes, ethnic minorities and those of lower socioeconomic...

  1. Expression of p27Kip1, a cell cycle repressor protein, is inversely associated with potential carcinogenic risk in the genetic rodent models of obesity and long-lived Ames dwarf mice

    PubMed Central

    Eto, Isao

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The association of genetic rodent models of obesity and cancer still remains a controversial issue. Although this controversy has largely been resolved in recent years for homozygous leptin receptor-deficient obese Zucker rats and homozygous long-lived Ames dwarf mice, it is still unresolved for homozygous leptin-deficient obese ob/ob mice. Objective The objective of the present study described below was to investigate whether the expression of the cell cycle repressor protein p27(Kip1) is (a) down-regulated in the tumor-free homozygous leptin receptor-deficient obese Zucker rats as well as tumor-free homozygous leptin-deficient obese ob/ob mice and (b) up-regulated in the tumor-free homozygous long-lived Ames dwarf mice. Methods To achieve this objective, we first performed western immunoblot analysis of the hepatic expression of p27. We then performed western immunoblot analysis and proteomic analysis of the hepatic expression of the proteins involved in the upstream molecular signaling pathways for the expression of p27. Lastly, we analyzed the serum levels of glucose, insulin, and branched-chain amino acids, all of which have been shown to regulate, causally and inversely, the expression of p27. Results/Conclusions The results indicated that the hepatic expression of p27 was down-regulated in the homozygous leptin receptor-deficient obese Zucker rats and up-regulated in the homozygous long-lived Ames dwarf mice as expected. We also found that the hepatic expression of p27 was down-regulated in the homozygous leptin-deficient obese ob/ob mice. This last observation was not completely consistent with all of the results of the published studies where homozygous leptin-deficient obese ob/ob mice were used. PMID:23357529

  2. Childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Dean, Erin

    2016-08-31

    Essential facts Nearly one third of children aged 2-15 in England are overweight or obese. Younger generations are becoming obese at earlier ages and staying so for longer. Reducing obesity levels is a major public health challenge as the condition doubles the risk of dying prematurely. Obese adults are more likely to develop health conditions such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes and depression. Treating conditions related to obesity is a major financial burden on the NHS, costing more than £5 billion a year. PMID:27577286

  3. Abnormal protein turnover and anabolic resistance to exercise in sarcopenic obesity.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Mats I; Dobson, Justin P; Greene, Nicholas P; Wiggs, Michael P; Shimkus, Kevin L; Wudeck, Elyse V; Davis, Amanda R; Laureano, Marissa L; Fluckey, James D

    2013-10-01

    Obesity may impair protein synthesis rates and cause anabolic resistance to growth factors, hormones, and exercise, ultimately affecting skeletal muscle mass and function. To better understand muscle wasting and anabolic resistance with obesity, we assessed protein 24-h fractional synthesis rates (24-h FSRs) in selected hind-limb muscles of sedentary and resistance-exercised lean and obese Zucker rats. Despite atrophied hind-limb muscles (-28% vs. lean rats), 24-h FSRs of mixed proteins were significantly higher in quadriceps (+18%) and red or white gastrocnemius (+22 or +38%, respectively) of obese animals when compared to lean littermates. Basal synthesis rates of myofibrillar (+8%) and mitochondrial proteins (-1%) in quadriceps were not different between phenotypes, while manufacture of cytosolic proteins (+12%) was moderately elevated in obese cohorts. Western blot analyses revealed a robust activation of p70S6k (+178%) and a lower expression of the endogenous mTOR inhibitor DEPTOR (-28%) in obese rats, collectively suggesting that there is an obesity-induced increase in net protein turnover favoring degradation. Lastly, the protein synthetic response to exercise of mixed (-7%), myofibrillar (+6%), and cytosolic (+7%) quadriceps subfractions was blunted compared to the lean phenotype (+34, +40, and +17%, respectively), indicating a muscle- and subfraction-specific desensitization to the anabolic stimulus of exercise in obese animals. PMID:23804240

  4. Effects of estradiol, estrogen receptor subtype-selective agonists and genistein on glucose metabolism in leptin resistant female Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats.

    PubMed

    Weigt, Carmen; Hertrampf, Torsten; Flenker, Ulrich; Hülsemann, Frank; Kurnaz, Pinar; Fritzemeier, Karl Heinrich; Diel, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    The leptin resistant Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats are hyperphagic and become obese, but whereas the males develop type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the females remain euglycaemic. As estrogen deficiency is known to increase the risk of developing T2DM, we evaluated the role of ER subtypes alpha and beta in the development of glucose tolerance in leptin resistant ovariectomized (OVX) ZDF rats. At least six rats per group were treated with either vehicle (OVX), 17β-estradiol (E2), ER subtype-selective agonists (Alpha and Beta), or genistein (Gen) for 17 weeks. At the end of the treatment period a glucose tolerance assay was performed and the metabolic flux of (13)C-glucose for the E2 group was investigated. OVX ZDF rats treated with E2, Alpha, Beta, and Gen tolerated the glucose significantly better than untreated controls. E2 treatment increased absorbance/flux of (13)C-glucose to metabolic relevant tissues such liver, adipose tissue, gastrocnemius, and soleus muscle. Moreover, whereas Alpha treatment markedly increased mRNA expression of GLUT4 in gastrocnemius muscle, Beta treatment resulted in the largest fiber sizes of the soleus muscle. Treatment with Gen increased both the mRNA expression of GLUT 4 and the fiber sizes in the skeletal muscle. In addition, E2 and Alpha treatment decreased food intake and body weight gain. In summary, estrogen-improved glucose absorption is mediated via different molecular mechanisms: while activation of ER alpha seems to stimulate muscular GLUT4 functionality, activation of ER beta results in a hypertrophy of muscle fibers. In addition, selective activation of ER alpha decreased food intake and body weight gain. Our data further indicate that ER subtype-selective agonists and genistein improve systemic glucose tolerance also in the absence of a functional leptin signaling pathway. PMID:26134426

  5. Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Qazi Iqbal; Ahmad, Charoo Bashir; Ahmad, Sheikh Mushtaq

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world. Today it is estimated that there are more than 300 million obese people world-wide. Obesity is a condition of excess body fat often associated with a large number of debilitating and life-threatening disorders. It is still a matter of debate as to how to define obesity in young people. Overweight children have an increased risk of being overweight as adults. Genetics, behavior, and family environment play a role in childhood overweight. Childhood overweight increases the risk for certain medical and psychological conditions. Encourage overweight children to expand high energy activity, minimize low energy activity (screen watching), and develop healthful eating habits. Breast feeding is protective against obesity. Diet restriction is not recommended in very young children. Children are to be watched for gain in height rather than reduction in weight. Weight reduction of less than 10% is a normal variation, not significant in obesity. PMID:21448410

  6. Obesity vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Mariana P

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is one of the largest and fastest growing public health problems in the world. Last century social changes have set an obesogenic milieu that calls for micro and macro environment interventions for disease prevention, while treatment is mandatory for individuals already obese. The cornerstone of overweight and obesity treatment is diet and physical exercise. However, many patients find lifestyle modifications difficult to comply and prone to failure in the long-term; therefore many patients consider anti-obesity drugs an important adjuvant if not a better alternative to behavioral approach or obesity surgery. Since the pharmacological options for obesity treatment remain quite limited, this is an exciting research area, with new treatment targets and strategies on the horizon. This review discusses the development of innovative therapeutic agents, focusing in energy homeostasis regulation and the use of molecular vaccines, targeting hormones such as somatostatin, GIP and ghrelin, to reduce body weight. PMID:24365968

  7. Childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Qazi Iqbal; Ahmad, Charoo Bashir; Ahmad, Sheikh Mushtaq

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world. Today it is estimated that there are more than 300 million obese people world-wide. Obesity is a condition of excess body fat often associated with a large number of debilitating and life-threatening disorders. It is still a matter of debate as to how to define obesity in young people. Overweight children have an increased risk of being overweight as adults. Genetics, behavior, and family environment play a role in childhood overweight. Childhood overweight increases the risk for certain medical and psychological conditions. Encourage overweight children to expand high energy activity, minimize low energy activity (screen watching), and develop healthful eating habits. Breast feeding is protective against obesity. Diet restriction is not recommended in very young children. Children are to be watched for gain in height rather than reduction in weight. Weight reduction of less than 10% is a normal variation, not significant in obesity. PMID:21448410

  8. Obesity Statistics.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kristy Breuhl; Smith, Michael Seth

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease that is strongly associated with an increase in mortality and morbidity including, certain types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, disability, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, osteoarthritis, and stroke. In adults, overweight is defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m(2) to 29 kg/m(2) and obesity as a BMI of greater than 30 kg/m(2). If current trends continue, it is estimated that, by the year 2030, 38% of the world's adult population will be overweight and another 20% obese. Significant global health strategies must reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with the obesity epidemic. PMID:26896205

  9. Childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Seth, Anju; Sharma, Rajni

    2013-04-01

    Childhood obesity is an issue of serious medical and social concern. In developing countries including India, it is a phenomenon seen in higher socioeconomic strata due to the adoption of a western lifestyle. Consumption of high calorie food, lack of physical activity and increased screen time are major risk factors for childhood obesity apart from other genetic, prenatal factors and socio-cultural practices. Obese children and adolescents are at increased risk of medical and psychological complications. Insulin resistance is commonly present especially in those with central obesity and manifests as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, polycystic ovarian syndrome and metabolic syndrome. Obese children and adolescents often present to general physicians for management. The latter play a key role in prevention and treatment of obesity as it involves lifestyle modification of the entire family. This article aims at discussing the approach to diagnosis and work-up, treatment and preventive strategies for childhood obesity from a general physician's perspective. PMID:23255079

  10. Pioglitazone reverses down-regulation of cardiac PPAR{gamma} expression in Zucker diabetic fatty rats

    SciTech Connect

    Pelzer, Theo . E-mail: pelzer_t@klinik.uni-wuerzburg.de; Jazbutyte, Virginija; Arias-Loza, Paula Anahi; Segerer, Stephan; Lichtenwald, Margit; Law, Marilyn P.; Schaefers, Michael; Ertl, Georg; Neyses, Ludwig

    2005-04-08

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) plays a critical role in peripheral glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism, and inhibits cardiac hypertrophy in non-diabetic animal models. The functional role of PPAR{gamma} in the diabetic heart, however, is not fully understood. Therefore, we analyzed cardiac gene expression, metabolic control, and cardiac glucose uptake in male Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF fa/fa) and lean ZDF rats (+/+) treated with the high affinity PPAR{gamma} agonist pioglitazone or placebo from 12 to 24 weeks of age. Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia as well as lower cardiac PPAR{gamma}, glucose transporter-4 and {alpha}-myosin heavy chain expression levels were detected in diabetic ZDF rats compared to lean animals. Pioglitazone increased body weight and improved metabolic control, cardiac PPAR{gamma}, glut-4, and {alpha}-MHC expression levels in diabetic ZDF rats. Cardiac [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake was not detectable by micro-PET studies in untreated and pioglitazone treated ZDF fa/fa rats but was observed after administration of insulin to pioglitazone treated ZDF fa/fa rats. PPAR{gamma} agonists favorably affect cardiac gene expression in type-2 diabetic rats via activation and up-regulation of cardiac PPAR{gamma} expression whereas improvement of impaired cardiac glucose uptake in advanced type-2 diabetes requires co-administration of insulin.

  11. Obesity-related pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats correlates with increased circulating inflammatory cytokines and lipids and with oxidant damage in the arterial wall but not with hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, David C.; Garat, Chrystelle V.; Crossno, Joseph T.; MacLean, Paul S.; Sullivan, Timothy M.; Erickson, Paul F.; Jackman, Matthew R.; Harral, Julie W.; Reusch, Jane E. B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is causally linked to a number of comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, renal dysfunction, and cancer. Obesity has also been linked to pulmonary disorders, including pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). It was long believed that obesity-related PAH was the result of hypoventilation and hypoxia due to the increased mechanical load of excess body fat. However, in recent years it has been proposed that the metabolic and inflammatory disturbances of obesity may also play a role in the development of PAH. To determine whether PAH develops in obese rats in the absence of hypoxia, we assessed pulmonary hemodynamics and pulmonary artery (PA) structure in the diet-resistant/diet-induced obesity (DR/DIO) and Zucker lean/fatty rat models. We found that high-fat feeding (DR/DIO) or overfeeding (Zucker) elicited PA remodeling, neomuscularization of distal arterioles, and elevated PA pressure, accompanied by right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy. PA thickening and distal neomuscularization were also observed in DIO rats on a low-fat diet. No evidence of hypoventilation or chronic hypoxia was detected in either model, nor was there a correlation between blood glucose or insulin levels and PAH. However, circulating inflammatory cytokine levels were increased with high-fat feeding or calorie overload, and hyperlipidemia and oxidant damage in the PA wall correlated with PAH in the DR/DIO model. We conclude that hyperlipidemia and peripheral inflammation correlate with the development of PAH in obese subjects. Obesity-related inflammation may predispose to PAH even in the absence of hypoxia. PMID:25610600

  12. Differential Effect of Electroacupuncture on Inflammatory Adipokines in Two Rat Models of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Jacqueline J T; Peplow, Philip V

    2016-08-01

    Chronic inflammation is known to be associated with visceral obesity and insulin resistance which are characterized by altered levels of production of pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines. The dysregulation of the production of inflammatory adipokines and their functions in obese individuals leads to a state of chronic low-grade inflammation and may promote obesity-linked metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases such as insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Electroacupuncture (EA) was tested to see if there was a difference in its effect on pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokine levels in the blood serum and the white adipose tissue of obese Zucker fatty rats and high-fat diet-induced obese Long Evans rats. In the two rat models of obesity, on Day 12 of treatment, repeated applications of EA were seen to have had a significant differential effect for serum tumor necrosis factor-α, adiponectin, the adiponectin:leptin ratio, and blood glucose. For the adipose tissue, there was a differential effect for adiponectin that was on the borderline of significance. To explore these changes further and how they might affect insulin resistance would require a modification to the research design to use larger group sizes for the two models or to give a greater number of EA treatments. PMID:27555223

  13. Obesity-associated Gingival Vascular Inflammation and Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, K; Park, K; Mima, A; Katagiri, S; King, G L

    2014-06-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for periodontitis, but the pathogenic mechanism involved is unclear. We studied the effects of insulin in periodontal tissues during the state of obesity-induced insulin resistance. Gingival samples were collected from fatty (ZF) and lean (ZL, control) Zucker rats. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression was decreased, and activities of protein kinase C (PKC) α, ß2, δ, and ϵ isoforms were significantly increased in the gingiva from ZF rats compared with those from ZL rats. Expression of oxidative stress markers (mRNA) and the p65 subunit of NF-κB was significantly increased in ZF rats. Immunohistochemistry revealed that NF-κB activation was also increased in the gingival endothelial cells from transgenic mice overexpressing NF-κB-dependent enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) and on a high-fat vs. normal chow diet. Analysis of the gingiva showed that insulin-induced phosphorylation of IRS-1, Akt, and eNOS was significantly decreased in ZF rats, but Erk1/2 activation was not affected. General PKC inhibitor and an anti-oxidant normalized the action of insulin on Akt and eNOS activation in the gingiva from ZF rats. This provided the first documentation of obesity-induced insulin resistance in the gingiva. Analysis of our data suggested that PKC activation and oxidative stress may selectively inhibit insulin-induced Akt and eNOS activation, causing endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. PMID:24744283

  14. Methodological evaluation of indirect calorimetry data in lean and obese rats.

    PubMed

    Rafecas, I; Esteve, M; Fernández-López, J A; Remesar, X; Alemany, M

    1993-11-01

    1. The applicability of current indirect calorimetry formulae to the study of energy and substrate balances on obese rats has been evaluated. The energy consumption of series of 60-day rats of Wistar, lean and obese Zucker stock were studied by means of direct and indirect calorimetry, and by establishing their energy balance through measurement of food intake and retention. Calorimetric studies encompassed a 24 h period, with gas and heat output measurements every 2 or 5 min, respectively, for direct and indirect calorimetry. 2. The analysis of fat composition (diet, whole rat, and synthesized and oxidized fat) showed only small variations that had only a limited effect on the overall energy equation parameters. 3. A gap in the nitrogen balance, which represents a urinary N excretion lower than the actual protein oxidized, resulted in significant deviations in the estimation of carbohydrate and lipid oxidized when using the equations currently available for indirect calorimetry. 4. Analysis of the amino acid composition of diet and rat protein as well as of the portion actually oxidized, and correcting for the nitrogen gap allowed the establishment of a set of equations that gave better coincidence of the calculated data with the measured substrate balance. 5. The measured heat output of all rats was lower than the estimated values calculated by means of either indirect calorimetry of direct energy balance measurement; the difference corresponded to the energy lost in water evaporation, and was in the range of one-fifth of total energy produced in the three rat stocks. 6. Wistar rats showed a biphasic circadian rhythm of substrate utilization, with alternate lipid synthesis/degradation that reversed that of carbohydrate, concordant with nocturnal feeding habits. Zucker rats did not show this rhythm; obese rats synthesized large amounts of fat during most of the light period, consuming fat at the end of the dark period, which suggests more diurnal feeding habits

  15. Eplerenone prevents salt-induced vascular stiffness in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Aldosterone levels are elevated in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the Zucker Diabetic fatty rat (ZDF). Moreover blood pressure in ZDF rats is salt-sensitive. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the aldosterone antagonist eplerenone on structural and mechanical properties of resistance arteries of ZDF-rats on normal and high-salt diet. Methods After the development of diabetes, ZDF animals were fed either a normal salt diet (0.28%) or a high-salt diet (5.5%) starting at an age of 15 weeks. ZDF rats on high-salt diet were randomly assigned to eplerenone (100 mg/kg per day, in food) (ZDF+S+E), hydralazine (25 mg/kg per day) (ZDF+S+H), or no treatment (ZDF+S). Rats on normal salt-diet were assigned to eplerenone (ZDF+E) or no treatment (ZDF). Normoglycemic Zucker lean rats were also divided into two groups receiving normal (ZL) or high-salt diet (ZL+S) serving as controls. Systolic blood pressure was measured by tail cuff method. The experiment was terminated at an age of 25 weeks. Mesenteric resistance arteries were studied on a pressurized myograph. Specifically, vascular hypertrophy (media-to-lumen ratio) and vascular stiffness (strain and stress) were analyzed. After pressurized fixation histological analysis of collagen and elastin content was performed. Results Blood pressure was significantly higher in salt-loaded ZDF compared to ZDF. Eplerenone and hydralazine prevented this rise similarily, however, significance niveau was missed. Media-to-lumen ratio of mesenteric resistance arteries was significantly increased in ZDF+S when compared to ZDF and ZL. Both, eplerenone and hydralazine prevented salt-induced vascular hypertrophy. The strain curve of arteries of salt-loaded ZDF rats was significantly lower when compared to ZL and when compared to ZDF+S+E, but was not different compared to ZDF+S+H. Eplerenone, but not hydralazine shifted the strain-stress curve to the right indicating a vascular wall composition with less

  16. Childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Han, Joan C; Lawlor, Debbie A; Kimm, Sue Y S

    2010-05-15

    Worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased greatly during the past three decades. The increasing occurrence in children of disorders such as type 2 diabetes is believed to be a consequence of this obesity epidemic. Much progress has been made in understanding of the genetics and physiology of appetite control and from these advances, elucidation of the causes of some rare obesity syndromes. However, these rare disorders have so far taught us few lessons about prevention or reversal of obesity in most children. Calorie intake and activity recommendations need reassessment and improved quantification at a population level because of sedentary lifestyles of children nowadays. For individual treatment, currently recommended calorie prescriptions might be too conservative in view of evolving insight into the so-called energy gap. Although quality of research into both prevention and treatment has improved, high-quality multicentre trials with long-term follow-up are needed. Meanwhile, prevention and treatment approaches to increase energy expenditure and decrease intake should continue. Recent data suggest that the spiralling increase in childhood obesity prevalence might be abating; increased efforts should be made on all fronts to continue this potentially exciting trend. PMID:20451244

  17. Niacin-bound chromium increases life span in Zucker Fatty Rats.

    PubMed

    Preuss, Harry G; Echard, Bobby; Clouatre, Dallas; Bagchi, Debasis; Perricone, Nicholas V

    2011-10-01

    Avoiding insulin resistance (IR) associated with aging might lengthen life span based on previous studies using caloric-restricted animals. We assessed whether consuming niacin-bound chromium (NBC) alone or in a formula containing other so-called "insulin sensitizers" would overcome various manifestations of aging and extend life span in Zucker Fatty Rats (ZFR). We compared many metabolic parameters of ZFR fed NBC alone (n=12) or NBC in a unique formula (n=10) to a control group (n=10). In addition to NBC, the formula contained Allium sativum, Momordica charantia, Trigonella foenum-graecum and Gymnema sylvestre. The formula group received roughly 1/2 as much NBC daily as the NBC group. At week 44, all rats still lived, and no abnormalities in blood count (CBC), renal, or liver functions were found. In the two treatment groups compared to control, circulating glucose levels were significantly lower, with a trend toward lower HbA1C. Relatively elevated cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations occurred in the formula group. Compared to control, the NBC group had increased average lifespan (21.8%), median lifespan (14.1%), 30th percentile survival (19.6%), and maximum lifespan (22%). Despite similar beneficial effects on the glucose and blood pressure systems, a difference in aging was also found when the NBC group was compared to the formula group. When all rats in the other two groups had died, four in the NBC group continued to live at least a month longer. We attribute lack of a similar aging effect in the formula group to either lower dosing of NBC and/or that various ingredients in the formula counteracted the antiaging effect(s) of NBC. PMID:21930012

  18. Brown Norway chromosome 1 congenic reduces symptoms of renal disease in fatty Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Warden, Craig H; Slupsky, Carolyn; Griffey, Stephen M; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Min, Esther; Le, Anh; Fisler, Janis S; Hansen, Susan; Haj, Fawaz; Stern, Judith S

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that a congenic rat with Brown Norway (BN) alleles on chromosome 1 reduces renal disease of 15-week old fatty Zucker rats (ZUC). Development of renal disease in fatty BN congenic and fatty ZUC rats from 9 through 28 weeks is now examined. Analysis of urine metabolites by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy revealed a significantly increased urinary loss of glucose, myo-inositol, urea, creatine, and valine in ZUC. Food intake was lower in the BN congenic rats at weeks 9-24, but they weighed significantly more at 28 weeks compared with the ZUC group. Fasting glucose was significantly higher in ZUC than congenic and adiponectin levels were significantly lower in ZUC, but there was no significant genotype effect on Insulin levels. Glucose tolerance tests exhibited no significant differences between ZUC and congenic when values were normalized to basal glucose levels. Quantitative PCR on livers revealed evidence for higher gluconeogenesis in congenics than ZUC at 9 weeks. Plasma urea nitrogen and creatinine were more than 2-fold higher in 28-week ZUC. Twelve urine protein markers of glomerular, proximal and distal tubule disease were assayed at three ages. Several proteins that indicate glomerular and proximal tubular disease increased with age in both congenic and ZUC. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) level, a marker whose levels decrease with distal tubule disease, was significantly higher in congenics. Quantitative histology of 28 week old animals revealed the most significant genotype effect was for tubular dilation and intratubular protein. The congenic donor region is protective of kidney disease, and effects on Type 2 diabetes are likely limited to fasting glucose and adiponectin. The loss of urea together with a small increase of food intake in ZUC support the hypothesis that nitrogen balance is altered in ZUC from an early age. PMID:24498189

  19. Cannabidiol improves vasorelaxation in Zucker diabetic fatty rats through cyclooxygenase activation.

    PubMed

    Wheal, Amanda J; Cipriano, Mariateresa; Fowler, Christopher J; Randall, Michael D; O'Sullivan, Saoirse Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) decreases insulitis, inflammation, neuropathic pain, and myocardial dysfunction in preclinical models of diabetes. We recently showed that CBD also improves vasorelaxation in the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat, and the objective of the present study was to establish the mechanisms underlying this effect. Femoral arteries from ZDF rats and ZDF lean controls were isolated, mounted on a myograph, and incubated with CBD (10 μM) or vehicle for 2 hours. Subsequent vasorelaxant responses were measured in combination with various interventions. Prostaglandin metabolites were detected using enzyme immunoassay. Direct effects of CBD on cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme activity were measured by oxygraph assay. CBD enhanced the maximum vasorelaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) in femoral arteries from ZDF lean rats (P < 0.01) and especially ZDF rats (P < 0.0001). In ZDF arteries, this enhancement persisted after cannabinoid receptor (CB) type 1, endothelial CB, or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ antagonism but was inhibited by CB2 receptor antagonism. CBD also uncovered a vasorelaxant response to a CB2 agonist not previously observed. The CBD-enhanced ACh response was endothelium-, nitric oxide-, and hydrogen peroxide-independent. It was, however, COX-1/2- and superoxide dismutase-dependent, and CBD enhanced the activity of both purified COX-1 and COX-2. The CBD-enhanced ACh response in the arteries was inhibited by a prostanoid EP4 receptor antagonist. Prostaglandin E2 metabolite levels were below the limits of detection, but 6-keto prostaglandin F1 α was decreased after CBD incubation. These data show that CBD exposure enhances the ability of arteries to relax via enhanced production of vasodilator COX-1/2-derived products acting at EP4 receptors. PMID:25212218

  20. Reversal of islet GIP receptor down-regulation and resistance to GIP by reducing hyperglycemia in the Zucker rat

    SciTech Connect

    Piteau, Shalea; Olver, Amy; Kim, Su-Jin; Winter, Kyle; Pospisilik, John Andrew; Lynn, Francis; Manhart, Susanne; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich; Speck, Madeleine; Pederson, Raymond A.; McIntosh, Christopher H.S.

    2007-11-03

    In type 2 diabetes (T2DM) {beta}-cell responsiveness to glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is reduced. In a model of T2DM, the VDF Zucker rat, GIP receptor mRNA and protein levels were shown to be down-regulated. Possible restoration of responsiveness to GIP in Zucker rats by reducing hyperglycemia has been examined. ZDF rats with extreme hyperglycemia demonstrated greater islet GIP receptor mRNA down-regulation (94.3 {+-} 3.8%) than ZF rats (48.8 {+-} 22.8%). GIP receptor mRNA levels in ZDF rats returned to 83.0 {+-} 17.9% of lean following normalization of hyperglycemia by phlorizin treatment and pancreas perfusions demonstrated markedly improved GIP responsiveness. Treatment of VDF rats with a DP IV inhibitor (P32/98) resulted in improved glucose tolerance and restored sensitivity to GIP in isolated pancreata. These findings support the proposal that GIP receptor down-regulation in rodent T2DM is secondary to chronic hyperglycemia and that normalization of glycemia can restore GIP sensitivity.

  1. Effect of obesity and exercise on the expression of the novel myokines, Myonectin and Fibronectin type III domain containing 5

    PubMed Central

    Mart, Ryan; Bond, Cherie E.

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic dysfunction in skeletal muscle is a major contributor to the development of type 2 diabetes. Endurance exercise training has long been established as an effective means to directly restore skeletal muscle glucose and lipid uptake and metabolism. However, in addition to the direct effects of skeletal muscle on glucose and lipids, there is renewed interest in the ability of skeletal muscle to coordinate metabolic activity of other tissues, such as adipose tissue and liver. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of endurance exercise on the expression level of two novel muscle-derived secreted factors, or myokines, Myonectin and Fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5), the precursor for Irisin. Methods. We performed immunoblot analysis and quantitative real-time PCR analysis of Myonectin and FNDC5 in the diaphragm muscles of obese Zucker rat (OZR) and lean Zucker rat (LZR) with 9 weeks of aerobic training on a motorized treadmill. Results. We show that myonectin gene expression is increased in the OZR model of obesity and decreases with exercise in both lean and obese Zucker rats. Conversely, myonectin protein concentration was elevated with exercise. Similarly, FNDC5 mRNA levels are significantly higher in the OZR, however exercise training had no effect on the expression level of FNDC5 in either the LZR or OZR. We did not observe any difference in muscle protein content of Irisin with obesity or exercise. Conclusion. Our data shows that exercise training does not increase either FNDC5 or myonectin gene expression, indicating that increased transcriptional regulation of these myokines is not induced by exercise. However, our data also indicates a yet to be explored disconnect between myonectin gene expression and protein content. Further, this report highlights the importance of verifying reference genes when completing gene expression analysis. We found that many commonly used reference genes varied significantly by obesity and

  2. Thioredoxin-mimetic peptide CB3 lowers MAPKinase activity in the Zucker rat brain.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Kutner, Moshe; Khomsky, Lena; Trus, Michael; Ben-Yehuda, Hila; Lenhard, James M; Liang, Yin; Martin, Tonya; Atlas, Daphne

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a high risk factor for dementia. High glucose may be a risk factor for dementia even among persons without diabetes, and in transgenic animals it has been shown to cause a potentiation of indices that are pre-symptomatic of Alzheimer's disease. To further elucidate the underlying mechanisms linking inflammatory events elicited in the brain during oxidative stress and diabetes, we monitored the activation of mitogen-activated kinsase (MAPKs), c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 MAP kinases (p38(MAPK)), and extracellular activating kinsae1/2 (ERK1/2) and the anti-inflammatory effects of the thioredoxin mimetic (TxM) peptides, Ac-Cys-Pro-Cys-amide (CB3) and Ac-Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys-amide (CB4) in the brain of male leptin-receptor-deficient Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Daily i.p. injection of CB3 to ZDF rats inhibited the phosphorylation of JNK and p38(MAPK), and prevented the expression of thioredoxin-interacting-protein (TXNIP/TBP-2) in ZDF rat brain. Although plasma glucose/insulin remained high, CB3 also increased the phosphorylation of AMP-ribose activating kinase (AMPK) and inhibited p70(S6K) kinase in the brain. Both CB3 and CB4 reversed apoptosis induced by inhibiting thioredoxin reductase as monitored by decreasing caspase 3 cleavage and PARP dissociation in SH-SY5Y cells. The decrease in JNK and p38(MAPK) activity in the absence of a change in plasma glucose implies a decrease in oxidative or neuroinflammatory stress in the ZDF rat brain. CB3 not only attenuated MAPK phosphorylation and activated AMPK in the brain, but it also diminished apoptotic markers, most likely acting via the MAPK-AMPK-mTOR pathway. These results were correlated with CB3 and CB4 inhibiting inflammation progression and protection from oxidative stress induced apoptosis in human neuronal cells. We suggest that by attenuating neuro-inflammatory processes in the brain Trx1 mimetic peptides could become beneficial for preventing neurological

  3. Thioredoxin-mimetic peptide CB3 lowers MAPKinase activity in the Zucker rat brain☆

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Kutner, Moshe; Khomsky, Lena; Trus, Michael; Ben-Yehuda, Hila; Lenhard, James M.; Liang, Yin; Martin, Tonya; Atlas, Daphne

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a high risk factor for dementia. High glucose may be a risk factor for dementia even among persons without diabetes, and in transgenic animals it has been shown to cause a potentiation of indices that are pre-symptomatic of Alzheimer's disease. To further elucidate the underlying mechanisms linking inflammatory events elicited in the brain during oxidative stress and diabetes, we monitored the activation of mitogen-activated kinsase (MAPKs), c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 MAP kinases (p38MAPK), and extracellular activating kinsae1/2 (ERK1/2) and the anti-inflammatory effects of the thioredoxin mimetic (TxM) peptides, Ac-Cys-Pro-Cys-amide (CB3) and Ac-Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys-amide (CB4) in the brain of male leptin-receptor-deficient Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Daily i.p. injection of CB3 to ZDF rats inhibited the phosphorylation of JNK and p38MAPK, and prevented the expression of thioredoxin-interacting-protein (TXNIP/TBP-2) in ZDF rat brain. Although plasma glucose/insulin remained high, CB3 also increased the phosphorylation of AMP-ribose activating kinase (AMPK) and inhibited p70S6K kinase in the brain. Both CB3 and CB4 reversed apoptosis induced by inhibiting thioredoxin reductase as monitored by decreasing caspase 3 cleavage and PARP dissociation in SH-SY5Y cells. The decrease in JNK and p38MAPK activity in the absence of a change in plasma glucose implies a decrease in oxidative or neuroinflammatory stress in the ZDF rat brain. CB3 not only attenuated MAPK phosphorylation and activated AMPK in the brain, but it also diminished apoptotic markers, most likely acting via the MAPK–AMPK–mTOR pathway. These results were correlated with CB3 and CB4 inhibiting inflammation progression and protection from oxidative stress induced apoptosis in human neuronal cells. We suggest that by attenuating neuro-inflammatory processes in the brain Trx1 mimetic peptides could become beneficial for preventing neurological

  4. Glucose lowering effect of montbretin A in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Violet G; Coleman, John; Withers, Steven G; Andersen, Raymond J; Brayer, Gary D; Mustafa, Sally; McNeill, John H

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is an increasingly prevalent disease state with a global impact. It is important that effective and cost-efficient methods be developed to treat this disease state. Zucker diabetic fatty rats, an animal model of type 2 diabetes, were treated with montbretin A (MbA), a selective human pancreatic α-amylase inhibitor, isolated from the corms of the Crocosmia crocosmiiflora plant that may have potential as a glucose-lowering agent. The study purpose was to determine if MbA was an orally effective treatment for diabetes. The effect of MbA was compared to a current clinical treatment modality, acarbose that is associated with gastrointestinal side effects known to affect patient compliance. MbA and acarbose were administered daily in the drinking water. Body weight and fluid intake were measured daily to calculate dose consumption. Plasma glucose levels were determined twice weekly in both the fed and fasted state. At termination samples were collected to assess increased risk of secondary complications related to diabetes and oxidative stress. There was no effect of either MbA or acarbose treatment on insulin levels. Plasma glucose levels were significantly lower following MbA treatment in the ZT group which persisted throughout the study period (day 49: 12.1 ± 1.2 mM). However, while there was an initial decrease in plasma glucose levels in the acarbose-treated fatty group, this effect was not sustained (day 49: 20.6 ± 1.3 mM) through to termination. MbA improved the oxidative status of the fatty diabetic animals as well as attenuated markers for increased risk of cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes. This study demonstrated that, at a lower dose as compared to acarbose (10 mg/kg/day), chronic oral administration of MbA (7.5 mg/kg/day) was an effective glucose-lowering agent in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26547551

  5. Are there healthy obese?

    PubMed

    Griera Borrás, José Luis; Contreras Gilbert, José

    2014-01-01

    It is currently postulated that not all obese individuals have to be considered as pathological subjects. From 10% to 20% of obese people studied do not show the metabolic changes common in obese patients. The term "healthy obese" has been coined to refer to these patients and differentiate them from the larger and more common group of pathological obese subjects. However, the definition of "healthy obese" is not clear. Use of "healthy obese" as a synonym for obese without metabolic complications is risky. Clinical markers such as insulin resistance are used to identify this pathology. It is not clear that healthy obese subjects have lower morbidity and mortality than pathologically obese patients. According to some authors, healthy obese would represent an early stage in evolution towards pathological obesity. There is no agreement as to the need to treat healthy obese subjects. PMID:24210176

  6. Psychosocial factors in obesity.

    PubMed

    Mustajoki, P

    1987-01-01

    Obese people as a group have similar mental health as normal weight people, and there are no psychiatric features characteristic of obesity in general. However, small subgroups of obese individuals may have psychiatric abnormalities which are specific for obesity, such as body image disturbance or periodic compulsive overeating (bulimia). Obesity is strongly related to sociocultural factors. In western countries obesity is commoner in lower than in higher social classes. Thus, the development of obesity is influenced by social status. However, also the converse is true: recent observations suggest that obese people lose social status. This is probably due to prejudice and discrimination against obese persons in the modern western society. PMID:3477994

  7. Obesity and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer screening among obese adults. National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) NCCOR brings together four of the nation’s leading funders of childhood obesity research: the CDC, NIH, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, ...

  8. Obesity Prevalence Maps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Adult Obesity Prevalence Maps ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  9. Obesity and Hispanic Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  10. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  11. Cocoa-rich diet ameliorates hepatic insulin resistance by modulating insulin signaling and glucose homeostasis in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Cordero-Herrera, Isabel; Martín, María Ángeles; Escrivá, Fernando; Álvarez, Carmen; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia

    2015-07-01

    Insulin resistance is the primary characteristic of type 2 diabetes and results from insulin signaling defects. Cocoa has been shown to exert anti-diabetic effects by lowering glucose levels. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for this preventive activity and whether cocoa exerts potential beneficial effects on the insulin signaling pathway in the liver remain largely unknown. Thus, in this study, the potential anti-diabetic properties of cocoa on glucose homeostasis and insulin signaling were evaluated in type 2 diabetic Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Male ZDF rats were fed a control or cocoa-rich diet (10%), and Zucker lean animals received the control diet. ZDF rats supplemented with cocoa (ZDF-Co) showed a significant decrease in body weight gain, glucose and insulin levels, as well as an improved glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. Cocoa-rich diet further ameliorated the hepatic insulin resistance by abolishing the increased serine-phosphorylated levels of the insulin receptor substrate 1 and preventing the inactivation of the glycogen synthase kinase 3/glycogen synthase pathway in the liver of cocoa-fed ZDF rats. The anti-hyperglycemic effect of cocoa appeared to be at least mediated through the decreased levels of hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and increased values of glucokinase and glucose transporter 2 in the liver of ZDF-Co rats. Moreover, cocoa-rich diet suppressed c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 activation caused by insulin resistance. These findings suggest that cocoa has the potential to alleviate both hyperglycemia and hepatic insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic ZDF rats. PMID:25814291

  12. Effects of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise on body composition, glycaemic and lipid profile and aerobic capacity of obese rats.

    PubMed

    Coll-Risco, Irene; Aparicio, Virginia A; Nebot, Elena; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Martínez, Rosario; Kapravelou, Garyfallia; López-Jurado, María; Porres, Jesús M; Aranda, Pilar

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise in the same training session on body composition, and glycaemic and lipid profile in obese rats. Sixteen lean Zucker rats and sixteen obese Zucker rats were randomly divided into exercise and sedentary subgroups (4 groups, n = 8). Exercise consisted of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise in the same training session. The animals trained 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks. Body composition, lipid and glycaemic profiles and inflammatory markers were assessed. Results showed that fat mass was reduced in both lean and obese rats following the exercise training (effect size (95% confidence interval (CI)) = 1.8 (0.5-3.0)). Plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and fasting glucose were lower in the exercise compared to the sedentary groups (d = 2.0 (0.7-3.2) and 1.8 (0.5-3.0), respectively). Plasma insulin was reduced in exercise compared to sedentary groups (d = 2.1 (0.8-3.4)). Some exercise × phenotype interactions showed that the highest decreases in insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, fasting and postprandial glucose were observed in the obese + exercise group (all, P < 0.01). The findings of this study suggest that interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise would improve body composition, and lipid and glycaemic profiles, especially in obese rats. PMID:26634322

  13. Resistance training inhibits the elevation of skeletal muscle derived-BDNF level concomitant with improvement of muscle strength in zucker diabetic rat

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Jae; So, Byunghun; Son, Jun Seok; Song, Han Sol; Oh, Seung Lyul; Seong, Je Kyung; Lee, Hoyoung; Song, Wook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] In the present study, we investigated the effects of 8 weeks of progressive resistance training on the level of skeletal muscle derived BDNF as well as glucose intolerance in Zucker diabetic rats. [Methods] Six week-old male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and Zucker lean control (ZLC) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sedentary ZLC (ZLC-Con), sedentary ZDF (ZDF-Con), and exercised ZDF (ZDF-Ex). Progressive resistance training using a ladder and tail weights was performed for 8 weeks (3 days/week). [Results] After 8 weeks of resistance training, substantial reduction in body weight was observed in ZDF-Ex compared to ZDF-Con. Though the skeletal muscle volume did not change, grip strength grip strength was significantly higher in ZDF-Ex compared to ZDF-Con. In the soleus, the level of BDNF was increased in ZDF-Con, but was significantly decreased (p<0.05) in ZDF-Ex, showing a training effect. Moreover, we found that there was a negative correlation (r=-0.657; p=0.004) between grip strength and BDNF level whereas there was a positive correlation (r=0.612; p=0.008) between plasma glucose level and BDNF level in skeletal muscle. [Conclusion] Based upon our results, we demonstrated that resistance training inhibited the elevation of skeletal muscle derived-BDNF expression concomitant with the improvement of muscle strength in zucker diabetic rats. In addition, muscle-derived BDNF might be a potential mediator for the preventive effect of resistance training on the progress of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27274460

  14. Managing childhood obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has steadily increased over the last decades, with approximately 35% of children aged 6-19 classified as overweight or obese. Recently, a plateau in the increasing rates of obesity has been observed. Despite this leveling off, overweight and obese children are hea...

  15. Genetics of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Apurva; Srivastava, Neena; Mittal, Balraj

    2016-10-01

    Numerous classical genetic studies have proved that genes are contributory factors for obesity. Genes are directly responsible for obesity associated disorders such as Bardet-Biedl and Prader-Willi syndromes. However, both genes as well as environment are associated with obesity in the general population. Genetic epidemiological approaches, particularly genome-wide association studies, have unraveled many genes which play important roles in human obesity. Elucidation of their biological functions can be very useful for understanding pathobiology of obesity. In the near future, further exploration of obesity genetics may help to develop useful diagnostic and predictive tests for obesity treatment. PMID:27605733

  16. Glucomannan and glucomannan plus spirulina added to pork significantly block dietary cholesterol effects on lipoproteinemia, arylesterase activity, and CYP7A1 expression in Zucker fa/fa rats.

    PubMed

    González-Torres, Laura; Vázquez-Velasco, Miguel; Olivero-David, Raúl; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; González, Rafaela Raposo; González-Muñoz, Ma José; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2015-12-01

    Zucker fa/fa rats easily develop dyslipidemia and obesity. Restructured pork (RP) is a suitable matrix for including functional ingredients. The effects of glucomannan- RP or glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched RP on plasma lipid/lipoprotein levels, cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1) expression, and arylesterase activity in growing fa/fa rats fed high-energy, high-fat cholesterol-enriched diets were tested. Groups of six rats each received diet containing 15% control-RP (C), 15% glucomannan-RP diet (G), 15% glucomannan + spirulina-RP diet (GS), and same diets enriched with 2.4% cholesterol and 0.49% cholic acid (cholesterol-enriched control (HC), cholesterol-enriched glucomannan (HG), and cholesterol-enriched glucomannan + spirulina (HGS) diets) over a 7-week period. C diet induced obesity, severe hyperglycemia, moderate hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Those facts were not significantly modified by G or GS diets. G diet increased CYP7A1 expression but decreased the total cholesterol/high density lipoproteins (HDL)-cholesterol ratio (p < 0.05) vs. C diet. GS vs. G diet increased (p < 0.05) CYP7A1 expression. HC vs. C diet reduced food intake, body weight gain, and plasma glucose (p < 0.01) but increased cholesterolemia (p < 0.01), lipidemia (plasma cholesterol plus triglycerides) (p < 0.001), cholesterol/triglyceride ratio in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), and HDL (p < 0.05), cholesterol transported by VLDL and intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL) + low density lipoproteins (LDL), total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio and CYP7A1 expression (at least p < 0.05). HG and HGS diets vs. HC noticeably reduced lipidemia (p < 0.001), normalized VLDL and IDL + LDL lipid composition, and increased CYP7A1 expression (p < 0.01) but did not modify the cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio. HGS vs. HG decreased triglyceridemia, the triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index and increased arylesterase/HDL-cholesterol activity (p < 0

  17. Therapeutic effect of vagus nerve stimulation on depressive-like behavior, hyperglycemia and insulin receptor expression in Zucker fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaoyuan; Zhai, Xu; Rong, Peijing; McCabe, Michael F; Wang, Xing; Zhao, Jingjun; Ben, Hui; Wang, Shuxing

    2014-01-01

    Depression and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are common comorbid diseases and highly prevalent in the clinical setting with an unclarified mechanism. Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF, fa/fa) rats natively develop T2D with hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. Here we studied whether ZDF rats also innately develop depression, what a correlation is between depression and T2D, whether insulin receptor (IR) expression is involved in, and whether transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) would be beneficial in amelioration of the comorbidity. Six week old male ZDF and Zucker lean (ZL, fa/+) littermates were randomly divided into naïve (ZDF, n = 6; ZL, n = 7) and taVNS (ZDF-taVNS, n = 8; ZL-taVNS, n = 6) groups. Once daily 30 min-taVNS sessions were administrated under anesthesia for 34 consecutive days in taVNS groups. Blood glucose levels were tested weekly, and plasma glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc) level and immobility time in forced swimming test were determined on day 35 in all groups. The expression of insulin receptor (IR) in various tissues was also detected by immunostaining and Western blot. We found that naïve ZDF rats developed hyperglycemia steadily. These ZDF rats showed a strong positive correlation between longer immobility time and higher plasma HbAlC level. Long term taVNS treatment simultaneously prevented the development of depression-like behavior and progression of hyperglycemia in ZDF rats. The expression of IR in various tissues of naïve ZDF rats is lower than in naïve ZL and long-term taVNS treated ZDF rats. Collectively, our results indicate that in ZDF rats, i) depression and T2D develop simultaneously, ii) immobility time and HbAlc concentrations are highly and positively correlated, iii) a low expression of IR may be involved in the comorbidity of depression and T2D, and iv) taVNS is antidiabetic and antidepressive possibly through IR expression upregulation. PMID:25365428

  18. LA and ALA prevent glucose intolerance in obese male rats without reducing reactive lipid content, but cause tissue-specific changes in fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Matravadia, Sarthak; Zabielski, Piotr; Chabowski, Adrian; Mutch, David M; Holloway, Graham P

    2016-04-01

    While the cause of Type 2 diabetes remains poorly defined, the accumulation of reactive lipids within white adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver have been repeatedly implicated as underlying mechanisms. The ability of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to prevent the development of insulin resistance has gained considerable interest in recent years; however, the mechanisms-of-action remain poorly described. Therefore, we determined the efficacy of diets supplemented with either linoleic acid (LA) or α-linolenic acid (ALA) in preventing insulin resistance and reactive lipid accumulation in key metabolic tissues of the obese Zucker rat. Obese Zucker rats displayed impaired glucose homeostasis and reduced n-3 and n-6 PUFA content in the liver and epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT). After the 12-wk feeding intervention, both LA- and ALA-supplemented diets prevented whole body glucose and insulin intolerance; however, ALA had a more pronounced effect. These changes occurred in association with n-3 and n-6 accumulation in all tissues studied, albeit to different extents (EWAT > liver > muscle). Triacylglycerol (TAG), diacylglycerol (DAG), ceramide, and sphingolipid accumulation were not attenuated in obese animals supplemented with either LA or ALA, suggesting that preservation of glucose homeostasis occurred independent of changes in reactive lipid content. However, PUFA-supplemented diets differentially altered the fatty acid composition of TAGs, DAGs, and PLs in a tissue-specific manner, suggesting essential fatty acid metabolism differs between tissues. Together, our results indicate that remodeling of the fatty acid composition of various lipid fractions may contribute to the improved glucose tolerance observed in obese rats fed PUFA-supplemented diets. PMID:26764053

  19. A Metabolomics-driven Elucidation of the Anti-obesity Mechanisms of Xanthohumol*

    PubMed Central

    Kirkwood, Jay S.; Legette, LeeCole L.; Miranda, Cristobal L.; Jiang, Yuan; Stevens, Jan F.

    2013-01-01

    Mild, mitochondrial uncoupling increases energy expenditure and can reduce the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Activation of cellular, adaptive stress response pathways can result in an enhanced capacity to reduce oxidative damage. Together, these strategies target energy imbalance and oxidative stress, both underlying factors of obesity and related conditions such as type 2 diabetes. Here we describe a metabolomics-driven effort to uncover the anti-obesity mechanism(s) of xanthohumol (XN), a prenylated flavonoid from hops. Metabolomics analysis of fasting plasma from obese, Zucker rats treated with XN revealed decreases in products of dysfunctional fatty acid oxidation and ROS, prompting us to explore the effects of XN on muscle cell bioenergetics. At low micromolar concentrations, XN acutely increased uncoupled respiration in several different cell types, including myocytes. Tetrahydroxanthohumol also increased respiration, suggesting electrophilicity did not play a role. At higher concentrations, XN inhibited respiration in a ROS-dependent manner. In myocytes, time course metabolomics revealed acute activation of glutathione recycling and long term induction of glutathione synthesis as well as several other changes indicative of short term elevated cellular stress and a concerted adaptive response. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that XN may ameliorate metabolic syndrome, at least in part, through mitochondrial uncoupling and stress response induction. In addition, time course metabolomics appears to be an effective strategy for uncovering metabolic events that occur during a stress response. PMID:23673658

  20. Anti-inflammatory effect of amlodipine plus atorvastatin treatment on carotid atherosclerosis in zucker metabolic syndrome rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuemei; Tian, Fengfeng; Kawai, Hiromi; Kurata, Tomoko; Deguchi, Shoko; Deguchi, Kentaro; Shang, Jingwei; Liu, Ning; Liu, Wentao; Ikeda, Yoshio; Matsuura, Tohru; Kamiya, Tatsushi; Abe, Koji

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the effects of amlodipine in combination with atorvastatin on carotid atherosclerotic changes in metabolic syndrome, 8-week-old Zucker fatty rats were treated with vehicle, amlodipine, atorvastatin, or amlodipine in combination with atorvastatin for 28 days. Histological studies of common carotid arteries showed that lipid deposition determined by Sudan III staining was significantly reduced in rats treated with amlodipine or atorvastatin alone and was further reduced by amlodipine in combination with atorvastatin. Immunohistochemical studies of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, the arterial calcification initiator bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2, the angiogenic factor Notch1, and the smooth muscle cell marker α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) showed that the high expression of all four protein in vehicle-treated rats was greatly decreased by amlodipine, atorvastatin, or amlodipine in combination with atorvastatin, in ascending order. Double immunostaining showed marked colocalization of TNF-α with bone morphogenetic protein 2 and Notch1 with α-SMA in the vehicle group, which was greatly reduced by amlodipine plus atorvastatin. These data suggest that combination therapy may be more effective in preventing atherosclerotic processes and subsequent carotid vascular events than administrating amlodipine or atorvastatin alone in metabolic syndrome. PMID:24323832

  1. Antioxidant diet and sex interact to regulate NOS isoform expression and glomerular mesangium proliferation in Zucker diabetic rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Slyvka, Yuriy; Malgor, Ramiro; Inman, Sharon R; Ding, Julia; Heh, Victor; Nowak, Felicia V

    2016-03-01

    Oxidative stress contributes substantially to the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Consumption of an antioxidant-fortified (AO) diet from an early age prevents or delays later development of DN in the Zucker rat female with type 2 diabetes. We hypothesize this is due to effects on mesangial matrix and renal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) distribution and to sex-specific differences in NOS responses in the diabetic kidney. Total glomerular tuft area (GTA) and PAS-positive tuft area (PTA), endothelial (e), neuronal (n) and inducible (i) NOS were quantified in males and females on AO or regular (REG) diet at 6 and 20 weeks of age. eNOS was observed in glomeruli and tubules. nNOS predominantly localized to tubular epithelium in both cortex and medulla. iNOS was expressed in proximal and distal tubules and collecting ducts. Sex, diabetes duration and AO diet affected the distribution of the three isoforms. GTA and PTA increased with duration of hyperglycemia and showed a negative correlation with renal levels of all NOS isoforms. AO diet in both genders was associated with less PAS-positive staining and less mesangial expansion than the REG diet, an early increase in cortical iNOS in males, and sex-specific changes in cortical eNOS at 20 weeks. These effects of AO diet may contribute to sex-specific preservation of renal function in females. PMID:26797190

  2. The effect of combined treatment with canagliflozin and teneligliptin on glucose intolerance in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Oguma, Takahiro; Kuriyama, Chiaki; Nakayama, Keiko; Matsushita, Yasuaki; Yoshida, Kumiko; Kiuchi, Satoko; Ikenaga, Yuka; Nakamaru, Yoshinobu; Hikida, Kumiko; Saito, Akira; Arakawa, Kenji; Oka, Kozo; Ueta, Kiichiro; Shiotani, Masaharu

    2015-04-01

    To assess the impact of concomitant inhibition of sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the effect of combined treatment with canagliflozin, a novel SGLT2 inhibitor, and teneligliptin, a DPP4 inhibitor, on glucose intolerance was investigated in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Canagliflozin potently inhibited human and rat SGLT2 and moderately inhibited human and rat SGLT1 activities but did not affect DPP4 activity. In contrast, teneligliptin inhibited human and rat DPP4 activities but not SGLT activities. A single oral treatment of canagliflozin and teneligliptin suppressed plasma glucose elevation in an oral glucose tolerance test in 13 week-old ZDF rats. This combination of agents elevated plasma active GLP-1 levels in a synergistic manner, probably mediated by intestinal SGLT1 inhibition, and further improved glucose intolerance. In the combination-treated animals, there was no pharmacokinetic interaction of the drugs and no further inhibition of plasma DPP4 activity compared with that in the teneligliptin-treated animals. These results suggest that the inhibition of SGLT2 and DPP4 improves glucose intolerance and that combined treatment with canagliflozin and teneligliptin is a novel therapeutic option for glycemic control in T2DM. PMID:25892328

  3. ASP4000, a slow-binding dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor, has antihyperglycemic activity of long duration in Zucker fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Tanaka-Amino, Keiko; Matsumoto, Kazumi; Hatakeyama, Yoshifumi; Takakura, Shoji; Mutoh, Seitaro

    2010-03-01

    ASP4000 ((2S)-1-{[(1R,3S,4S,6R)-6-hydroxy-2-azabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-3-yl]carbonyl}-2-pyrrolidinecarbonitrile hydrochloride) is a novel, potent and selective dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP IV, EC 3.4.14.5) inhibitor (Keiko Tanaka-Amino et al. in Eur J pharmacol 59:444-449, 2008). The aim of the present study was to characterize the kinetic profile of and identify the long duration effect of the antihyperglycemic activity of ASP4000. ASP4000 was found to inhibit human recombinant DPP4 activity with a K(i) of 1.05 nM, a k(on) value of 22.3 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1), and a k (off) of 2.35 x 10(-3) M(-1) s(-1), with higher affinity than that of vildagliptin. The kinetic studies indicate that both the formation and dissociation of ASP4000/DPP4 complex were faster than those of vildagliptin, and that ASP4000 slow-bindingly inhibits DPP4 with a different mode of inhibition than vildagliptin. In addition, ASP4000 augmented the insulin response and ameliorated the glucose excursion during the oral glucose tolerance test in Zucker fatty rats at 4 h post dosing. ASP4000 is expected to be a promising, long duration DPP4 inhibitor for type 2 diabetes. PMID:19238312

  4. Metabolic profile of the hippocampus of Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats assessed by in vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    van der Graaf, Marinette; Janssen, Susan W J; van Asten, Jack J A; Hermus, Ad R M M; Sweep, C G J; Pikkemaat, Jeroen A; Martens, Gerard J M; Heerschap, Arend

    2004-10-01

    Localized in vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to investigate metabolite levels in the brain of adult Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats, an animal model for type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study focussed on the hippocampus, assumed to be one of the main brain areas affected by this disease. Together with an almost 5-fold increase in blood glucose concentration measured by glucose oxidation, significant increases were found in the hippocampal concentrations of glucose (4.93 vs 1.66 mM p < 0.001), myo-inositol (6.52 vs 4.30 mM; p < 0.05), and total creatine (12.71 vs 10.50 mM; p < 0.05) in ZDF rats (n = 5) compared with littermates (n = 5). Although no obvious alterations were detected in the hippocampal levels of other metabolites, including NAA + NAAG and choline-containing compounds in the ZDF rats, the increase in Glc and Ins levels is in line with elevated brain tissue contents of these metabolites in patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:15386626

  5. Effects of antibodies to adipocytes on body weight, food intake, and adipose tissue cellularity in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Flint, D J

    1998-11-01

    Female Wistar rats were fed on a high fat diet for 18 weeks, during which their energy intake increased by 25% and body weight by 50% due to a doubling of adipose tissue tissue stores. Animals were then treated with increasing doses of a sheep polyclonal antiserum to rat adipocytes on days 1-4 and 7 after which they remained untreated for 14 weeks. Antibody treatment reduced body weight by 10% and the weight of parametrial and subcutaneous adipose tissue by 30-40%. This decrease was explicable entirely in terms of a decrease in the number of adipocytes presumably due to adipocyte lysis. These favourable changes in body fat mass were accompanied by improvement in at least one metabolic factor associated with obesity - serum leptin concentrations were significantly reduced in treated animals compared with high fat controls. Genetically obese Zucker rats also showed decreases in the number of adipocytes after treatment with antibodies but in contrast to diet-induced obese rats, they showed a compensatory increase in adipocyte volume which attenuated the effects on body fat mass. These results demonstrate for the first time, the potential to treat diet-induced obesity with antibodies to adipocytes by producing long-term reductions in the number of adipocytes, with minimal side-effects. PMID:9813180

  6. Obesity Disease and Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mulhim, Abdulrahman Saleh; Al-Hussaini, Hessah Abdulaziz; Al-Jalal, Bashaeer Abdullah; Al-Moagal, Rehab Omar; Al-Najjar, Sara Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a medical disease that is increasing significantly nowadays. Worldwide obesity prevalence doubled since 1980. Obese patients are at great risk for complications with physical and psychological burdens, thus affecting their quality of life. Obesity is well known to have higher risk for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, musculoskeletal diseases and shorter life expectancy. In addition, obesity has a great impact on surgical diseases, and elective surgeries in comparison to general population. There is higher risk for wound infection, longer operative time, poorer outcome, and others. The higher the BMI (body mass index), the higher the risk for these complications. This literature review illustrates the prevalence of obesity as a diseases and complications of obesity in general as well as, in a surgical point of view, general surgery perioperative risks and complications among obese patients. It will review the evidence-based updates in these headlines. PMID:26464861

  7. Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter. What Is Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome? Obesity hypoventilation (HI-po-ven-tih-LA-shun) syndrome (OHS) is ... e-DE-mah), pulmonary hypertension (PULL-mun-ary HI-per-TEN-shun), cor pulmonale (pul-meh-NAL- ...

  8. Obesity: Pathophysiology and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Liu, Ju; Yao, Jianliang; Ji, Gang; Qian, Long; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Guansheng; Tian, Jie; Nie, Yongzhan; Zhang, Yi Edi.; Gold, Mark S.; Liu, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for obesity, while gene mutations, endocrine disorders, medication, or psychiatric illnesses may be underlying causes in some cases. The development and maintenance of obesity may involve central pathophysiological mechanisms such as impaired brain circuit regulation and neuroendocrine hormone dysfunction. Dieting and physical exercise offer the mainstays of obesity treatment, and anti-obesity drugs may be taken in conjunction to reduce appetite or fat absorption. Bariatric surgeries may be performed in overtly obese patients to lessen stomach volume and nutrient absorption, and induce faster satiety. This review provides a summary of literature on the pathophysiological studies of obesity and discusses relevant therapeutic strategies for managing obesity. PMID:25412152

  9. Obesity and Anesthesia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Apnea and Anesthesia Smoking and Anesthesia Outpatient Surgery Obesity and Anesthesia More than one-third of Americans ... Sleep Apnea, a chronic medical problem common with obesity, can present with serious breathing problems before, during, ...

  10. Obesity and health (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Obesity increases a person's risk of illness and death due to diabetes, stroke, heart disease, hypertension, high cholesterol, and kidney and gallbladder disease. Obesity may increase the risk for some types of ...

  11. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  12. Defining Overweight and Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Defining Adult Overweight and ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  13. Obesity: pathophysiology and intervention.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Liu, Ju; Yao, Jianliang; Ji, Gang; Qian, Long; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Guansheng; Tian, Jie; Nie, Yongzhan; Zhang, Yi Edi; Gold, Mark S; Liu, Yijun

    2014-11-01

    Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for obesity, while gene mutations, endocrine disorders, medication, or psychiatric illnesses may be underlying causes in some cases. The development and maintenance of obesity may involve central pathophysiological mechanisms such as impaired brain circuit regulation and neuroendocrine hormone dysfunction. Dieting and physical exercise offer the mainstays of obesity treatment, and anti-obesity drugs may be taken in conjunction to reduce appetite or fat absorption. Bariatric surgeries may be performed in overtly obese patients to lessen stomach volume and nutrient absorption, and induce faster satiety. This review provides a summary of literature on the pathophysiological studies of obesity and discusses relevant therapeutic strategies for managing obesity. PMID:25412152

  14. Obesity in children

    MedlinePlus

    Obesity means having too much body fat. It is not the same as overweight, which means a ... they develop more fat cells and may develop obesity. Normally, infants and young children respond to signals ...

  15. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... To help counter the current epidemic of childhood obesity in the United States, five NIH institutes joined together in 2005 to start and promote an obesity-prevention program " We Can! "—"Ways to Enhance Children's ...

  16. Childhood Obesity: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, John J.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…

  17. The Complexity of Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Katti

    2010-01-01

    With Americans fatter and more malnourished than ever--almost two-thirds of the population is considered overweight or obese compared with 56 percent in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and people of color and the poor are the most obese of all--federal and university researchers and outreach workers from various anti-obesity organizations aim to…

  18. Childhood environment and obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    US children are at risk for developing childhood obesity. Currently, 23% of children ages 2–5 are overweight or obese, i.e., at or above the 85th percentile. This prevalence becomes even higher as children age, with 34% of children ages 6–11 being overweight or obese. Ethnic minority children are at...

  19. Obesity, Physical Activity - Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    Childhood obesity starts at a very early age, and preventive measures taken early enough may retard the development of fat cells. It appears that physical activity plays an important role in reducing obesity. The activity program must start early, in preschool days. It is felt that screening children for obesity when they first enter school and…

  20. Obesity and Psychoanalysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Colleen S.; Stunkard, Albert J.

    This report describes a collaborative study undertaken by 72 psychoanalysts in an effort to (1) collect systematic data about obese patients in psychoanalysis and (2) assess the effect of psychoanalysis in the treatment of obesity. A total of 84 obese and 63 normal weight patients was studied. Each analyst completed a detailed questionnaire on his…

  1. Environmental Perturbations: Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Shore, Stephanie A.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity currently affects about one third of the U.S. population, while another one third is overweight. The importance of obesity for certain conditions such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes is well appreciated. The effects of obesity on the respiratory system have received less attention and are the subject of this chapter. Obesity alters the static mechanic properties of the respiratory system leading to a reduction in the functional residual capacity (FRC) and the expiratory reserve volume (ERV). There is substantial variability in the effects of obesity on FRC and ERV, at least some of which is related to the location, rather than the total mass of adipose tissue. Obesity also results in airflow obstruction, which is only partially attributable to breathing at low lung volume, and can also promote airway hyperresponsiveness and asthma. Hypoxemia is common is obesity, and correlates well with FRC, as well as with measures of abdominal obesity. However, obese subjects are usually eucapnic, indicating that hypoventilation is not a common cause of their hypoxemia. Instead, hypoxemia results from ventilation perfusion mismatch caused by closure of dependent airways at FRC. Many obese subjects complain of dyspnea either at rest or during exertion, and the dyspnea score also correlates with reductions in FRC and ERV. Weight reduction should be encouraged in any symptomatic obese individual, since virtually all of the respiratory complications of obesity improve with even moderate weight loss. PMID:23737172

  2. Chronic inhibition of circulating dipeptidyl peptidase IV by FE 999011 delays the occurrence of diabetes in male zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Sudre, Béatrice; Broqua, Pierre; White, Richard B; Ashworth, Doreen; Evans, D Michael; Haigh, Robert; Junien, Jean-Louis; Aubert, Michel L

    2002-05-01

    Acute suppression of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) activity improves glucose tolerance in the Zucker fatty rat, a rodent model of impaired glucose tolerance, through stabilization of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1. This study describes the effects of a new and potent DPP-IV inhibitor, FE 999011, which is able to suppress plasma DPP-IV activity for 12 h after a single oral administration. In the Zucker fatty rat, FE 999011 dose-dependently attenuated glucose excursion during an oral glucose tolerance test and increased GLP-1 (7-36) release in response to intraduodenal glucose. Chronic treatment with FE 999011 (10 mg/kg, twice a day for 7 days) improved glucose tolerance, as suggested by a decrease in the insulin-to-glucose ratio. In the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat, a rodent model of type 2 diabetes, chronic treatment with FE 999011 (10 mg/kg per os, once or twice a day) postponed the development of diabetes, with the twice-a-day treatment delaying the onset of hyperglycemia by 21 days. In addition, treatment with FE 999011 stabilized food and water intake to prediabetic levels and reduced hypertriglyceridemia while preventing the rise in circulating free fatty acids. At the end of treatment, basal plasma GLP-1 levels were increased, and pancreatic gene expression for GLP-1 receptor was significantly upregulated. This study demonstrates that DPP-IV inhibitors such as FE 999011 could be of clinical value to delay the progression from impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes. PMID:11978643

  3. [Obesity and asthma].

    PubMed

    Vázquez García, Juan Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Obesity and asthma are two disorders of high and increasing worldwide prevalence. A consistent association between obesity and asthma has been recently found in case-control, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. This association is more consistent in women after the puberty. Moreover, an improvement in the severity of asthma has been described after weight reduction in obese patients. A causal association between asthma and obesity may represent an additional respiratory work that could increase the morbidity and medical expenditures. The most striking studies which demonstrate association between obesity and asthma and the possible causal mechanisms are reviewed. PMID:12587420

  4. Challenges in obesity research.

    PubMed

    Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M Luisa

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is the main nutritional problem and one of the most important health problems in developed societies. Central to the challenge of obesity prevention and management is a thoroughly understanding of its determinants. Multiple socio-cultural, socio-economic, behavioural and biological factors--often interrelated and many of them still unknown or poorly understood--can contribute to the establishment and perpetuation of obese phenotypes. Here, we address current research challenges regarding basic aspects of obesity and emerging science for its control, including brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and browning of white fat as possible therapeutic targets for obesity, the influence of the microbioma, and genetics, epigenetics, nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics of obesity. We also highlight hot topics in relation to food and lifestyle as determinants of obesity, including the brain mechanisms underlying environmental motivation to eat, the biological control of spontaneous physical activity, the possible role of concrete foods and food components, and the importance of early life nutrition and environment. Challenges regarding the connections of obesity with other alterations and pathologies are also briefly addressed, as well as social and economical challenges in relation to healthy food production and lifestyle for the prevention of obesity, and technological challenges in obesity research and management. The objective is to give a panoramic of advances accomplished and still ahead relevant to the different stakeholders engaged in understanding and combating obesity. PMID:24010755

  5. [Cardiovascular complications of obesity].

    PubMed

    Cascella, Teresa; Giallauria, Francesco; Tafuri, Domenico; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria; Vigorito, Carlo; Orio, Francesco

    2006-12-01

    Obesity is one of the major coronary risk factor representing an increasingly important worldwide health problem. The increased prevalence of obesity among younger population is likely to have long-term implications for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Obesity plays a central role in the insulin resistance syndrome and contributes to increase the risk of atherosclerotic CVD. The present review will examine the relationships among cardiovascular risk factors during the childhood-adolescence-adulthood transition. In fact, the relationship between obesity (especially visceral obesity) and CVD appears to develop at a relatively young age. The foremost physical consequence of obesity is atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and polycystic ovary syndrome represents an intriguing example of obesity-related cardiovascular complications affecting young women. PMID:17312846

  6. Obesity and Gastrointestinal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Ai; Hoteya, Shu; Iizuka, Toshiro; Ogawa, Osamu; Mitani, Toshifumi; Kuroki, Yuichiro; Matsui, Akira; Nakamura, Masanori; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Yamashita, Satoshi; Furuhata, Tsukasa; Yamada, Akihiro; Nishida, Noriko; Arase, Koji; Hashimoto, Mitsuyo; Igarashi, Yoshinori; Kaise, Mitsuru

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in the Japanese population has been increasing dramatically in step with the Westernization of lifestyles and food ways. Our study demonstrated significant associations between obesity and a number of gastrointestinal disorders in a large sample population in Japan. We demonstrated that reflux esophagitis and hiatal hernia were strongly related to obesity (BMI > 25) in the Japanese. In particular, obesity with young male was a high risk for these diseases. On the other hand, it has been reported that obesity is also associated with Barrett's esophagus and colorectal adenoma; however, obesity was not a risk factor for these diseases in our study. The difference of ethnicity of our subjects may partly explain why we found no data to implicate obesity as a risk factor for Barrett's esophagus. Arterial sclerosis associated with advanced age and hyperglycemia was accompanied by an increased risk of colorectal adenoma. PMID:23781242

  7. Endoscopic Devices for Obesity.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Kartik; Dinani, Amreen M; Rothstein, Richard I

    2016-06-01

    The obesity epidemic, recognized by the World Health Organization in 1997, refers to the rising incidence of obesity worldwide. Lifestyle modification and pharmacotherapy are often ineffective long-term solutions; bariatric surgery remains the gold standard for long-term obesity weight loss. Despite the reported benefits, it has been estimated that only 1% of obese patients will undergo surgery. Endoscopic treatment for obesity represents a potential cost-effective, accessible, minimally invasive procedure that can function as a bridge or alternative intervention to bariatric surgery. We review the current endoscopic bariatric devices including space occupying devices, endoscopic gastroplasty, aspiration technology, post-bariatric surgery endoscopic revision, and obesity-related NOTES procedures. Given the diverse devices already FDA approved and in development, we discuss the future directions of endoscopic therapies for obesity. PMID:27115879

  8. Obesity: an emerging disease.

    PubMed

    Ogunbode, A M; Ladipo, Mma; Ajayi, I O; Fatiregun, A A

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is rapidly becoming an emerging disease in developing countries due to the increasing westernization of societies and change in the lifestyle. The etiology of obesity is said to be multifactorial, with a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Literature has been extensively reviewed to provide a broad overview of obesity. Data for this review were obtained from original articles, review articles and textbooks. Internet search engines were also employed. The years searched were from 1993 to 2008. Obesity, classified in terms of the body mass index and the waist-hip ratio, has several associated co-morbidities such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, degenerative osteoarthritis and infertility. In Nigeria, there is limited information on obesity. A literature review on obesity is necessary to improve the knowledge about obesity in developing countries, its prevention and its management. PMID:22248935

  9. Obesity and gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Ai; Hoteya, Shu; Iizuka, Toshiro; Ogawa, Osamu; Mitani, Toshifumi; Kuroki, Yuichiro; Matsui, Akira; Nakamura, Masanori; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Yamashita, Satoshi; Furuhata, Tsukasa; Yamada, Akihiro; Nishida, Noriko; Arase, Koji; Hashimoto, Mitsuyo; Igarashi, Yoshinori; Kaise, Mitsuru

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in the Japanese population has been increasing dramatically in step with the Westernization of lifestyles and food ways. Our study demonstrated significant associations between obesity and a number of gastrointestinal disorders in a large sample population in Japan. We demonstrated that reflux esophagitis and hiatal hernia were strongly related to obesity (BMI > 25) in the Japanese. In particular, obesity with young male was a high risk for these diseases. On the other hand, it has been reported that obesity is also associated with Barrett's esophagus and colorectal adenoma; however, obesity was not a risk factor for these diseases in our study. The difference of ethnicity of our subjects may partly explain why we found no data to implicate obesity as a risk factor for Barrett's esophagus. Arterial sclerosis associated with advanced age and hyperglycemia was accompanied by an increased risk of colorectal adenoma. PMID:23781242

  10. Obesity and obligation.

    PubMed

    Jeppsson, Sofia

    2015-03-01

    The belief that obese people ought to lose weight and keep it off is widespread, and has a profound negative impact on the lives of the obese. I argue in this paper that most obese people have no such obligation, even if obesity is bad, and caused by calorie input exceeding output. Obese people do not have an obligation to achieve long-term weight loss if this is impossible for them, is worse than the alternative, or requires such an enormous effort in relation to what stands to be gained that this option is supererogatory rather than obligatory. It is highly plausible that most obese people fall into one of these three groups. Politicians may still have obligations to fight obesity, but they ought to do so through progressive politics rather than blaming and shaming. PMID:25843121

  11. Gastrointestinal Morbidity in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Andres; Camilleri, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a complex disease that results from increased energy intake and decreased energy expenditure. The gastrointestinal system plays a key role in the pathogenesis of obesity and facilitates caloric imbalance. Changes in gastrointestinal hormones and the inhibition of mechanisms that curtail caloric intake result in weight gain. It is not clear if the gastrointestinal role in obesity is a cause or an effect of this disease. Obesity is often associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Obesity is also associated with gastrointestinal disorders, which are more frequent and present earlier than T2DM and CVD. Diseases such as gastro-esophageal reflux disease, cholelithiasis or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis are directly related to body weight and abdominal adiposity. Our objective is to assess the role of each gastrointestinal organ in obesity and the gastrointestinal morbidity resulting in those organs from effects of obesity. PMID:24602085

  12. Characterization of Micro-RNA Changes during the Progression of Type 2 Diabetes in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    PubMed Central

    Delic, Denis; Eisele, Claudia; Schmid, Ramona; Luippold, Gerd; Mayoux, Eric; Grempler, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present pilot study was the identification of micro-RNA changes over time during the development and progression of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF rats). T2D is a complex metabolic disorder that is characterized, inter alia, by progressive failure of pancreatic β cells to produce insulin, but also by functional or morphological modifications of others organ, such as liver, adipose tissue and the cardiovascular system. Micro-RNAs are a novel class of biomarkers that have the potential to represent biomarkers of disease progression. In this study, the onset and progression of diabetes was followed in ZDF rats from six weeks until 17 weeks of age. After an initial phase of hyperinsulinemia, the animals developed T2D and lost the capacity to produce sufficient insulin. Circulating miRNAs were measured from plasma samples at four time points: pre-diabetes (six weeks of age), hyperinsulinemia (eight weeks), β cell failure (11 weeks) and late-stage diabetes (17 weeks) using TaqMan miRNA arrays. Bioinformatic analysis revealed distinct changes of circulating miRNAs over time. Several miRNAs were found to be increased over the course of the disease progression, such as miR-122, miR-133, miR-210 and miR-375. The most significantly decreased miRNAs were miR-140, miR-151-3p, miR-185, miR-203, miR-434-3p and miR-450a. Some of the miRNAs have also been identified in type 2 diabetic patients recently and, therefore, may have the potential to be useful biomarkers for the disease progression of T2D and/or the treatment response for anti-diabetic medications. PMID:27153060

  13. Characterization of Micro-RNA Changes during the Progression of Type 2 Diabetes in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats.

    PubMed

    Delic, Denis; Eisele, Claudia; Schmid, Ramona; Luippold, Gerd; Mayoux, Eric; Grempler, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present pilot study was the identification of micro-RNA changes over time during the development and progression of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF rats). T2D is a complex metabolic disorder that is characterized, inter alia, by progressive failure of pancreatic β cells to produce insulin, but also by functional or morphological modifications of others organ, such as liver, adipose tissue and the cardiovascular system. Micro-RNAs are a novel class of biomarkers that have the potential to represent biomarkers of disease progression. In this study, the onset and progression of diabetes was followed in ZDF rats from six weeks until 17 weeks of age. After an initial phase of hyperinsulinemia, the animals developed T2D and lost the capacity to produce sufficient insulin. Circulating miRNAs were measured from plasma samples at four time points: pre-diabetes (six weeks of age), hyperinsulinemia (eight weeks), β cell failure (11 weeks) and late-stage diabetes (17 weeks) using TaqMan miRNA arrays. Bioinformatic analysis revealed distinct changes of circulating miRNAs over time. Several miRNAs were found to be increased over the course of the disease progression, such as miR-122, miR-133, miR-210 and miR-375. The most significantly decreased miRNAs were miR-140, miR-151-3p, miR-185, miR-203, miR-434-3p and miR-450a. Some of the miRNAs have also been identified in type 2 diabetic patients recently and, therefore, may have the potential to be useful biomarkers for the disease progression of T2D and/or the treatment response for anti-diabetic medications. PMID:27153060

  14. Effects of glucomannan/spirulina-surimi on liver oxidation and inflammation in Zucker rats fed atherogenic diets.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Velasco, Miguel; González-Torres, Laura; López-Gasco, Patricia; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; González-Muñoz, María José; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2015-12-01

    Cholesterolemia is associated with pro-oxidative and proinflammatory effects. Glucomannan- or glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched surimis were included in cholesterol-enriched high-saturated diets to test the effects on lipemia; antioxidant status (glutathione status, and antioxidant enzymatic levels, expressions and activities); and inflammation biomarkers (endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)) in Zucker fa/fa rats. Groups of eight rats each received diet containing squid-surimi (C), squid-surimi cholesterol-enriched diet (HC), glucomannan-squid-surimi cholesterol-enriched diet (HG), or glucomannan-spirulina-squid-surimi cholesterol-enriched diet (HGS) over a period of 7 weeks. HC diet induced severe hyperlipemia, hepatomegalia, increased inflammation markers, and impaired antioxidant status significantly (at least p < 0.05) vs. C diet. HG diet decreased lipemia and liver size and normalized antioxidant status to C group levels, but increased TNF-α with respect to HC diet (p < 0.05). In general terms, 3 g/kg of spirulina in diet maintained the positive results observed in the HG diet but, in addition, increased inflammation index [eNOS/(eNOS + iNOS)] and decreased plasma TNF-α (both p < 0.05). In conclusion, glucomannan plus a small amount of spirulina blocks negative effects promoted by hypercholesterolemic diets. Although more studies are needed, present results suggest the utility of including glucomannan and/or spirulina as functional ingredients into fish derivates to be consumed by people on metabolic syndrome risk. PMID:26239810

  15. Effects of Whey Proteins on Glucose Metabolism in Normal Wistar Rats and Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gregersen, Soren; Bystrup, Sara; Overgaard, Ann; Jeppesen, Per B.; Sonderstgaard Thorup, Anne C.; Jensen, Erik; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Beneficial effects of milk protein on glucose metabolism have been reported. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that dietary supplementation with specific milk protein fractions could prevent diabetes and differentially alter tissue gene expression. Therefore, we studied the effects of supplementing the diet with whey isolate, whey hydrolysate, Α-lactalbumin, and casein proteins in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats (ZDF) and normal Wistar rats. A chow diet was included as well. METHODS: Six week old male ZDF (n = 60) and Wistar rats (n = 44) were used in a 13 week study. P-glucose, p-insulin, p-glucagon, HbA1c, total-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. Liver, muscle, and adipose samples were used for RT-PCR. One-way ANOVA and multiple comparison tests were performed. RESULTS: HbA1c increased during intervention, and was significantly lower for all milk protein fractions compared to chow in the ZDF rats (p < 0.05). At week 18, iAUCs during OGTT in the ZDF rats were similar for all milk protein-treated groups and significantly lower than in the chow fed group (p < 0.01). In the chow-fed group of ZDF rats, p-glucagon increased significantly compared to all milk protein fed animals. Total and HDL cholesterol were increased in the milk protein-treated ZDF rats compared with the control group. Expression of liver GYS2 and SREBP-2 were downregulated in the milk protein-fed ZDF groups compared with chow. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that milk protein fractions improve glycemic indices in diabetic rats. No major differences were seen between the milk protein fractions. However, the fractions had a differential impact on tissue gene expression, most pronounced in ZDF rats. PMID:24841879

  16. Metformin Protects Kidney Cells From Insulin-Mediated Genotoxicity In Vitro and in Male Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats.

    PubMed

    Othman, Eman Maher; Oli, R G; Arias-Loza, Paula-Anahi; Kreissl, Michael C; Stopper, Helga

    2016-02-01

    Hyperinsulinemia is thought to enhance cancer risk. A possible mechanism is induction of oxidative stress and DNA damage by insulin, Here, the effect of a combination of metformin with insulin was investigated in vitro and in vivo. The rationales for this were the reported antioxidative properties of metformin and the aim to gain further insights into the mechanisms responsible for protecting the genome from insulin-mediated oxidative stress and damage. The comet assay, a micronucleus frequency test, and a mammalian gene mutation assay were used to evaluate the DNA damage produced by insulin alone or in combination with metformin. For analysis of antioxidant activity, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial disturbances, the cell-free ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, the superoxide-sensitive dye dihydroethidium, and the mitochondrial membrane potential-sensitive dye 5,5',6,6'tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazol-carbocyanine iodide were applied. Accumulation of p53 and pAKT were analyzed. As an in vivo model, hyperinsulinemic Zucker diabetic fatty rats, additionally exposed to insulin during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, were treated with metformin. In the rat kidney samples, dihydroethidium staining, p53 and pAKT analysis, and quantification of the oxidized DNA base 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine were performed. Metformin did not show intrinsic antioxidant activity in the cell-free assay, but protected cultured cells from insulin-mediated oxidative stress, DNA damage, and mutation. Treatment of the rats with metformin protected their kidneys from oxidative stress and genomic damage induced by hyperinsulinemia. Metformin may protect patients from genomic damage induced by elevated insulin levels. This may support efforts to reduce the elevated cancer risk that is associated with hyperinsulinemia. PMID:26636185

  17. Oleoylethanolamide, an endogenous PPAR-alpha agonist, lowers body weight and hyperlipidemia in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jin; Oveisi, Fariba; Gaetani, Silvana; Lin, Edward; Piomelli, Daniele

    2005-06-01

    The fatty-acid ethanolamide, oleoylethanolamide (OEA), is a naturally occurring lipid that regulates feeding and body weight [Rodriguez de Fonseca, F., Navarro, M., Gomez, R., Escuredo, L., Nava, F., Fu, J., Murillo-Rodriguez, E., Giuffrida, A., LoVerme, J., Gaetani, S., Kathuria, S., Gall, C., Piomelli, D., 2001. An anorexic lipid mediator regulated by feeding. Nature 414, 209-212], and serves as an endogenous agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha) [Fu, J., Gaetani, S., Oveisi, F., Lo Verme, J., Serrano, A., Rodriguez De Fonseca, F., Rosengarth., A., Luecke, H., Di Giacomo, B., Tarzia, G., Piomelli, D., 2003. Oleoylethanolamide regulates feeding and body weight through activation of the nuclear receptor PPAR-alpha. Nature 425, 90-93], a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates several aspects of lipid metabolism [. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: nuclear control of metabolism. Endocr. Rev. 20, 649-688]). OEA reduces food intake in wild-type mice, but not in mice deficient in PPAR-alpha (PPAR-alpha(-/-)), an effect that is also observed with the PPAR-alpha agonists Wy-14643 and GW7647 [Brown, P.J., Chapman, J.M., Oplinger, J.A., Stuart, L.W., Willson, T.M. and Wu, Z., 2000. Chemical compounds as selective activators of PPAR-alpha. PCT Int. Appl., 32; . The PPARs: from orphan receptors to drug discovery. J. Med. Chem. 43, 527-550]. By contrast, specific agonists of PPAR-delta/beta (GW501516) or PPAR-gamma (ciglitazone) have no such effect. In obese Zucker rats, which lack functional leptin receptors, OEA reduces food intake and lowers body-weight gain along with plasma lipid levels. Similar effects are seen in diet-induced obese rats and mice. In the present study, we report that subchronic OEA treatment (5mgkg(-1), intraperitoneally, i.p., once daily for two weeks) in Zucker rats initiates transcription of PPAR-alpha and other PPAR-alpha target genes, including fatty-acid translocase (FAT/CD36), liver fatty

  18. Obesity-related elevations in plasma leucine are associated with alterations in enzymes involved in branched-chain amino acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    She, Pengxiang; Van Horn, Cynthia; Reid, Tanya; Hutson, Susan M; Cooney, Robert N; Lynch, Christopher J

    2007-12-01

    Elevations in branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in human obesity were first reported in the 1960s. Such reports are of interest because of the emerging role of BCAAs as potential regulators of satiety, leptin, glucose, cell signaling, adiposity, and body weight (mTOR and PKC). To explore loss of catabolic capacity as a potential contributor to the obesity-related rises in BCAAs, we assessed the first two enzymatic steps, catalyzed by mitochondrial branched chain amino acid aminotransferase (BCATm) or the branched chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD E1alpha subunit) complex, in two rodent models of obesity (ob/ob mice and Zucker rats) and after surgical weight loss intervention in humans. Obese rodents exhibited hyperaminoacidemia including BCAAs. Whereas no obesity-related changes were observed in rodent skeletal muscle BCATm, pS293, or total BCKD E1alpha or BCKD kinase, in liver BCKD E1alpha was either unaltered or diminished by obesity, and pS293 (associated with the inactive state of BCKD) increased, along with BCKD kinase. In epididymal fat, obesity-related declines were observed in BCATm and BCKD E1alpha. Plasma BCAAs were diminished by an overnight fast coinciding with dissipation of the changes in adipose tissue but not in liver. BCAAs also were reduced by surgical weight loss intervention (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass) in human subjects studied longitudinally. These changes coincided with increased BCATm and BCKD E1alpha in omental and subcutaneous fat. Our results are consistent with the idea that tissue-specific alterations in BCAA metabolism, in liver and adipose tissue but not in muscle, may contribute to the rise in plasma BCAAs in obesity. PMID:17925455

  19. Obesity and asthma.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Peter G

    2013-12-01

    There is a global epidemic of asthma and obesity that is concentrated in Westernized and developed countries. A causal association in some people with asthma is suggested by observations that obesity precedes the onset of asthma and that bariatric surgery for morbid obesity can resolve asthma. The obese asthma phenotype features poor asthma control, limited response to corticosteroids, and an exaggeration of the physiological effects of obesity on lung function, which includes a reduction in expiratory reserve volume and airway closure occurring during tidal breathing. Obesity has important implications for asthma treatment. Increasing corticosteroid doses based on poor asthma control, as currently recommended in guidelines, may lead to overtreatment with corticosteroids in obese asthma. Enhanced bronchodilation, particularly of the small airways, may reduce the component of airway closure due to increased bronchomotor tone and suggests that greater emphasis should be placed on long-acting bronchodilators in obese asthma. The societal implications of this are important: with increasing obesity there will be increasing asthma from obesity, and the need to identify successful individual and societal weight-control strategies becomes a key goal. PMID:24313764

  20. The sociology of obesity.

    PubMed

    Rosengren, Annika; Lissner, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    The current obesity epidemic is largely driven by environmental factors, including nutritional transition towards refined and fatty foods with the growing production of energy-dense food at relatively low cost, increased access to motor vehicles, mechanisation of work and sedentary lifestyles. These influences in modern society are modified by individual characteristics. Ultimately, energy intake in excess of caloric expenditure causes obesity, but why this occurs in some but not all individuals is not known. Obesity is more prevalent in the lower socioeconomic classes but even so, there is a varying relation of socioeconomic status with obesity between countries at different stages of development and, even in the Western world, socioeconomic gradients with respect to obesity are both heterogeneous and in transition. Potential mechanisms for an effect of obesity on subsequent social status have been proposed, the most obvious being related to the stigmatisation experienced by the obese. Obesity seems to be causally related to mood disturbances, whereas there is no conclusive evidence that the reverse is true. When considering psychological aspects of obesity, depressive symptoms are more likely to be consequences, rather than causes of obesity. PMID:18230907

  1. Effects of genetic obesity on rat upper airway muscle and diaphragm contractile properties.

    PubMed

    van Lunteren, E

    1996-10-01

    The contractile properties of pharyngeal respiratory muscle are altered in sleep apnoea and in conditions associated with sleep apnoea, such as ageing. We hypothesized that the contractile properties of the pharyngeal musculature are also altered by obesity, another factor associated with sleep apnoea. Studies compared a pharyngeal muscle, the sternohyoid, with the diaphragm. These were chosen as representative muscles whose contraction has opposing effects on upper airway patency. Both muscles were removed from nine lean and nine obese male Zucker rats (a genetic model of obesity), and isometric contractile properties were studied in vitro at 37 degrees C. For the sternohyoid muscle, in obese compared to lean animals there were no significant differences in isometric contraction time (15.2 +/- 0.3 vs 14.2 +/- 0.6 ms, respectively), half-relaxation time (13.6 +/- 0.5 vs 12.6 +/- 0.9 ms, respectively), twitch-to-tetanic tension ratio (0.22 +/- 0.02 vs 0.24 +/- 0.02, respectively), force-frequency relationship, fatigue resistance (2 min fatigue index 0.20 +/- 0.03 vs 0.18 +/- 0.02, respectively), or maximal degree of force potentiation during repetitive stimulation (52 +/- 11 vs 74 +/- 20% increase, respectively). For the diaphragm, the only significant effect of obesity was a lowering of the twitch-to-tetanic tension ratio (0.25 +/- 0.01 vs 0.29 +/- 0.02, respectively). In obese, as in lean animals, the sternohyoid had faster isometric twitch kinetics, a larger degree of force potentiation, and lower resistance to fatigue, than the diaphragm. In lean, but not obese, animals the sternohyoid twitch-to-tetanic tension ratio was lower than and the force frequency relationship was located to the right of that of the diaphragm. In this study, genetic obesity in rats was not associated with any significant alterations in the contractile properties of the pharyngeal muscle, and only small changes in the relationship between the contractile properties of the sternohyoid and

  2. A Rosemary Extract Rich in Carnosic Acid Selectively Modulates Caecum Microbiota and Inhibits β-Glucosidase Activity, Altering Fiber and Short Chain Fatty Acids Fecal Excretion in Lean and Obese Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Larrosa, Mar; Obiol, María; García-Villalba, Rocío; González-Barrio, Rocío; Issaly, Nicolas; Flanagan, John; Roller, Marc; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A.; García-Conesa, María-Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Background Carnosic acid (CA) and rosemary extracts (RE) show body-weight, energy metabolism and inflammation regulatory properties in animal models but the mechanisms are not yet understood. Gut microbiota plays an important role in the host metabolism and inflammatory status and is modulated by the diet. The aim of this research was to investigate whether a RE enriched in CA affected caecum microbiota composition and activity in a rat model of genetic obesity. Methods and Principal Findings A RE (40% CA) was administered with the diet (0.5% w/w) to lean (fa/+) and obese (fa/fa) female Zucker rats for 64 days. Changes in the microbiota composition and β-glucosidase activity in the caecum and in the levels of macronutrients and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in feces were examined. The RE increased the Blautia coccoides and Bacteroides/Prevotella groups and reduced the Lactobacillus/Leuconostoc/Pediococccus group in both types of animals. Clostridium leptum was significantly decreased and Bifidobacterium increased only in the lean rats. β-Glucosidase activity was significantly reduced and fecal fiber excretion increased in the two genotypes. The RE also increased the main SCFA excreted in the feces of the obese rats but decreased them in the lean rats reflecting important differences in the uptake and metabolism of these molecules between the two genotypes. Conclusions Our results indicate that the consumption of a RE enriched in CA modifies microbiota composition and decreases β-glucosidase activity in the caecum of female Zucker rats while it increases fiber fecal elimination. These results may contribute to explain the body weight gain reducing effects of the RE. The mutated leptin receptor of the obese animals significantly affects the microbiota composition, the SCFA fecal excretion and the host response to the RE intake. PMID:24733124

  3. [The pharmacotherapy of obesity].

    PubMed

    Budai, Kinga Anna; Mirzahosseini, Arash; Noszál Béla; Tóth, Gergő

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is considered the most concerning and blatantly visible--yet most neglected--public health problem by the WHO. The steadily increasing number of overweight and obese people has reached 2.3 billion and 700 million worldwide, respectively. Obesity is a complex condition, one that presents serious health risks with respect to type 2 diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and hypertension, therefore controlling the global obesity epidemic decreases not only health problems, but also expenditure. The underlying cause of obesity is a metabolic disorder of genetic, central nervous system or endocrine etiology that manifests in increased nutritional intake and/or decreased physical activity ultimately leading to excessive lipogenesis. The natural treatment of obesity, that is often advised, is comprised of healthy lifestyle choices, namely low-calorie diet and exercise. However, the pharmaceutic treatment of obesity is just as important; having a better compliance rate, anti-obesity drugs also improve quality of life and patient-care outcome concerning accompanying diseases. In most countries only one drug is currently available against obesity: orlistat, which is a specific and irreversible lipase inhibitor. One of the reasons for the scarce number of anti-obesity drugs is the complex pathomechanism involved in obesity. Interference with the intricate biochemical processes that govern alimentation may lead to widespread adverse effects. The advances of the field however, have prompted novel drug leads. In the past few years FDA has approved new drugs for the treatment of obesity, recently liraglutide in 2014. The approval of drug combinations, such as phentermine/topiramate and bupropion/naltrexone are also noteworthy, the components of which have been previously approved, but not necessarily for obesity as main indication. Furthermore, there are many anti-obesity drug candidates currently in clinical phase trials, with promisingly modest adverse effect profiles; hence

  4. Chronic treatment with krill powder reduces plasma triglyceride and anandamide levels in mildly obese men

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that treatment of Zucker rats and mice with diet-induced obesity with dietary docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids in the form of krill oil reduces peripheral levels of endocannabinoids, ectopic fat formation and hyperglycemia. We reported that such treatment reduces plasma endocannabinoid levels also in overweight and obese human individuals, in whom high triglycerides may correlate with high circulating endocannabinoid levels. In this study, we report the effects of krill powder, which contains proteins (34%) in addition to krill oil (61.8%), on these two parameters. We submitted 11 obese men (average BMI of 32.3 kg/m2, age of 42.6 years and plasma triglycerides of 192.5 ± 96.3 mg/dl) to a 24 week dietary supplementation with krill powder (4 g/day per os) and measured anthropometric and metabolic parameters, as well as blood endocannabinoid (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and esterified DHA and EPA levels. Six subjects were included as control subjects and not given any supplements. The treatment produced, after 12 and 24 weeks, a significant increase in DHA and EPA in total plasma, a 59 and 84% decrease in anandamide plasma levels, and a 22.5 and 20.6% decrease in triglyceride levels, respectively. There was also a significant decrease in waist/hip ratio and visceral fat/skeletal muscle mass ratio at 24 weeks, but no change in body weight. These data confirm that dietary krill powder reduces peripheral endocannabinoid overactivity in obese subjects, and might ameliorate some parameters of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:23706001

  5. Chronic treatment with krill powder reduces plasma triglyceride and anandamide levels in mildly obese men.

    PubMed

    Berge, Kjetil; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Hoem, Nils; Silvestri, Cristoforo; Meyer, Ingo; Banni, Sebastiano; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that treatment of Zucker rats and mice with diet-induced obesity with dietary docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids in the form of krill oil reduces peripheral levels of endocannabinoids, ectopic fat formation and hyperglycemia. We reported that such treatment reduces plasma endocannabinoid levels also in overweight and obese human individuals, in whom high triglycerides may correlate with high circulating endocannabinoid levels. In this study, we report the effects of krill powder, which contains proteins (34%) in addition to krill oil (61.8%), on these two parameters. We submitted 11 obese men (average BMI of 32.3 kg/m², age of 42.6 years and plasma triglycerides of 192.5 ± 96.3 mg/dl) to a 24 week dietary supplementation with krill powder (4 g/day per os) and measured anthropometric and metabolic parameters, as well as blood endocannabinoid (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and esterified DHA and EPA levels. Six subjects were included as control subjects and not given any supplements. The treatment produced, after 12 and 24 weeks, a significant increase in DHA and EPA in total plasma, a 59 and 84% decrease in anandamide plasma levels, and a 22.5 and 20.6% decrease in triglyceride levels, respectively. There was also a significant decrease in waist/hip ratio and visceral fat/skeletal muscle mass ratio at 24 weeks, but no change in body weight. These data confirm that dietary krill powder reduces peripheral endocannabinoid overactivity in obese subjects, and might ameliorate some parameters of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:23706001

  6. Selective Spectrum Antibiotic Modulation of the Gut Microbiome in Obesity and Diabetes Rodent Models.

    PubMed

    Rajpal, Deepak K; Klein, Jean-Louis; Mayhew, David; Boucheron, Joyce; Spivak, Aaron T; Kumar, Vinod; Ingraham, Karen; Paulik, Mark; Chen, Lihong; Van Horn, Stephanie; Thomas, Elizabeth; Sathe, Ganesh; Livi, George P; Holmes, David J; Brown, James R

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract microbiome has been suggested as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic diseases such as obesity and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the relationship between changes in microbial communities and metabolic disease-phenotypes are still poorly understood. In this study, we used antibiotics with markedly different antibacterial spectra to modulate the gut microbiome in a diet-induced obesity mouse model and then measured relevant biochemical, hormonal and phenotypic biomarkers of obesity and T2DM. Mice fed a high-fat diet were treated with either ceftazidime (a primarily anti-Gram negative bacteria antibiotic) or vancomycin (mainly anti-Gram positive bacteria activity) in an escalating three-dose regimen. We also dosed animals with a well-known prebiotic weight-loss supplement, 10% oligofructose saccharide (10% OFS). Vancomycin treated mice showed little weight change and no improvement in glycemic control while ceftazidime and 10% OFS treatments induced significant weight loss. However, only ceftazidime showed significant, dose dependent improvement in key metabolic variables including glucose, insulin, protein tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Subsequently, we confirmed the positive hyperglycemic control effects of ceftazidime in the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat model. Metagenomic DNA sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene regions V1-V3 showed that the microbiomes of ceftazidime dosed mice and rats were enriched for the phylum Firmicutes while 10% OFS treated mice had a greater abundance of Bacteroidetes. We show that specific changes in microbial community composition are associated with obesity and glycemic control phenotypes. More broadly, our study suggests that in vivo modulation of the microbiome warrants further investigation as a potential therapeutic strategy for metabolic diseases. PMID:26709835

  7. Selective Spectrum Antibiotic Modulation of the Gut Microbiome in Obesity and Diabetes Rodent Models

    PubMed Central

    Rajpal, Deepak K.; Klein, Jean-Louis; Mayhew, David; Boucheron, Joyce; Spivak, Aaron T.; Kumar, Vinod; Ingraham, Karen; Paulik, Mark; Chen, Lihong; Van Horn, Stephanie; Thomas, Elizabeth; Sathe, Ganesh; Livi, George P.; Holmes, David J.; Brown, James R.

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract microbiome has been suggested as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic diseases such as obesity and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the relationship between changes in microbial communities and metabolic disease-phenotypes are still poorly understood. In this study, we used antibiotics with markedly different antibacterial spectra to modulate the gut microbiome in a diet-induced obesity mouse model and then measured relevant biochemical, hormonal and phenotypic biomarkers of obesity and T2DM. Mice fed a high-fat diet were treated with either ceftazidime (a primarily anti-Gram negative bacteria antibiotic) or vancomycin (mainly anti-Gram positive bacteria activity) in an escalating three-dose regimen. We also dosed animals with a well-known prebiotic weight-loss supplement, 10% oligofructose saccharide (10% OFS). Vancomycin treated mice showed little weight change and no improvement in glycemic control while ceftazidime and 10% OFS treatments induced significant weight loss. However, only ceftazidime showed significant, dose dependent improvement in key metabolic variables including glucose, insulin, protein tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Subsequently, we confirmed the positive hyperglycemic control effects of ceftazidime in the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat model. Metagenomic DNA sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene regions V1-V3 showed that the microbiomes of ceftazidime dosed mice and rats were enriched for the phylum Firmicutes while 10% OFS treated mice had a greater abundance of Bacteroidetes. We show that specific changes in microbial community composition are associated with obesity and glycemic control phenotypes. More broadly, our study suggests that in vivo modulation of the microbiome warrants further investigation as a potential therapeutic strategy for metabolic diseases. PMID:26709835

  8. Transcriptional Alterations of ET-1 Axis and DNA Damage in Lung Tissue of a Rat Obesity Model

    PubMed Central

    Cabiati, Manuela; Salvadori, Costanza; Guiducci, Letizia; Caselli, Chiara; Prescimone, Tommaso; Facioni, Maria Sole; Azzarà, Alessia; Chiaramonte, Anna; Mazzoni, Stefano; Bruschi, Fabrizio; Giannessi, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been implicated in the development of many cancers. This can lead to genome damage, especially in the form of double-strand break, the presence of which is now easily detected through nuclear phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) focus assay. Recently, the endothelin (ET) axis has also been shown to have a role in the growth and progression of several tumors, including lung cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ET-1 system transcriptional alterations and γ-H2AX in lung tissue of Zucker rats subdivided into obese (O, n=22) and controls (CO, n=18) rats: under either fasting conditions (COfc-Ofc) or acute hyperglycemia (COAH-OAH). Significantly higher prepro-ET-1 (p=0.05) and ET-converting enzyme (ECE)-2 mRNA expression was observed in O with respect to CO. A significant positive association was observed between prepro-ET-1 and ET-A in the whole rat population (p=0.009) or in the obese group alone (p=0.007). The levels of γ-H2AX in O and in OAH rats were significantly higher (p=0.019) than in the corresponding CO and COAH rats (p=0.038). The study shows an inappropriate secretion of ET-1 in O animals with a parallel DNA damage in their lungs, providing novel mechanisms by which ET receptor antagonist may exert organ protection. PMID:25517973

  9. Obesity and obstetric anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Mace, H S; Paech, M J; McDonnell, N J

    2011-07-01

    Obesity is increasing in the population as a whole, and especially in the obstetric population, among whom pregnancy-induced physiological changes impact on those already present due to obesity. In particular, changes in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems during pregnancy further alter the physiological effects and comorbidities of obesity. Obese pregnant women are at increased risk of diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, ischaemic heart disease, congenital malformations, operative delivery postpartum infection and thromboembolism. Regional analgesia and anaesthesia is usually preferred but may be challenging. Obese pregnant women appear to have increased morbidity and mortality associated with caesarean delivery and general anaesthesia for caesarean delivery in particular, and more anaesthesia-related complications. This article summarises the physiological and pharmacological implications of obesity and pregnancy and describes the issues surrounding the management of these women for labour and delivery. PMID:21823371

  10. Obesity in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chu Chin; Mahmood, Tahir

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity has reached alarming proportions globally, and continues to rise in both developed and developing countries. Maternal obesity has become one of the most commonly occurring risk factors in obstetric practice. The 2003-2005 report of the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom highlighted obesity as a significant risk for maternal death [1]. More than half of all women who died from direct or indirect causes were either overweight or obese. For the mother, obesity increases the risk of obstetric complications during the antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal period, as well as contributing to technical difficulties with fetal assessment. The offspring of obese mothers also have a higher rate of perinatal morbidity and an increased risk of long-term health problems. PMID:25702971

  11. Thinking Evolutionarily About Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Genné-Bacon, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome are growing worldwide health concerns, yet their causes are not fully understood. Research into the etiology of the obesity epidemic is highly influenced by our understanding of the evolutionary roots of metabolic control. For half a century, the thrifty gene hypothesis, which argues that obesity is an evolutionary adaptation for surviving periods of famine, has dominated the thinking on this topic. Obesity researchers are often not aware that there is, in fact, limited evidence to support the thrifty gene hypothesis and that alternative hypotheses have been suggested. This review presents evidence for and against the thrifty gene hypothesis and introduces readers to additional hypotheses for the evolutionary origins of the obesity epidemic. Because these alternate hypotheses imply significantly different strategies for research and clinical management of obesity, their consideration is critical to halting the spread of this epidemic. PMID:24910556

  12. Victimization of obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sabrina

    2006-08-01

    Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and teasing as a result of being overweight or obese. The victimization may be overt or relational. Obese adolescents are at risk of victimization, because their peers view them as different and undesirable. Although peer victimization occurs commonly among adolescents, obese adolescents are more susceptible than their average-weight peers. Because school nurses are often the first line of defense for obese adolescents, they are in an excellent position to identify forms of peer victimization and be prepared to intervene with the victims. School nurses can potentially preserve the psychosocial integrity of obese adolescents by promoting healthy peer interactions and experiences. PMID:16856773

  13. Obesity in Children

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past decades all over the world. The majority of obesity in adulthood has its origins in childhood which makes obesity a pediatric concern and the period when interventions should be done. Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in adult life and several adverse consequences in childhood like insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, polycystic ovarian syndrome, pulmonary and orthopedic disorders and psychological problems. Both genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development of obesity. Prevention of obesity is critical, since effective treatment of this disease is limited. Food management and increased physical activity must be encouraged, promoted, and prioritized to protect children. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21318065

  14. Pediatric obesity. An introduction.

    PubMed

    Yanovski, Jack A

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of child and adolescent obesity in the United States increased dramatically between 1970 and 2000, and there are few indications that the rates of childhood obesity are decreasing. Obesity is associated with myriad medical, psychological, and neurocognitive abnormalities that impact children's health and quality of life. Genotypic variation is important in determining the susceptibility of individual children to undue gains in adiposity; however, the rapid increase in pediatric obesity prevalence suggests that changes to children's environments and/or to their learned behaviors may dramatically affect body weight regulation. This paper presents an overview of the epidemiology, consequences, and etiopathogenesis of pediatric obesity, serving as a general introduction to the subsequent papers in this Special Issue that address aspects of childhood obesity and cognition in detail. PMID:25836737

  15. [Obesity and gastrointestinal motility].

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon Seong

    2006-08-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) motility has a crucial role in the food consumption, digestion and absorption, and also controls the appetite and satiety. In obese patients, various alterations of GI motility have been investigated. The prevalence of GERD and esophageal motor disorders in obese patients are higher than those of general population. Gastric emptying of solid food is generally accelerated and fasting gastric volume especially in distal stomach is larger in obese patients without change in accommodation. Contractile activity of small intestine in fasting period is more prominent, but orocecal transit is delayed. Autonomic dysfunction is frequently demonstrated in obese patients. These findings correspond with increased appetite and delayed satiety in obese patients, but causes or results have not been confirmed. Therapeutic interventions of these altered GI motility have been developed using botulinum toxin, gastric electrical stimulation in obese patients. Novel agents targeted for GI hormone modulation (such as ghrelin and leptin) need to be developed in the near future. PMID:16929152

  16. Programming towards childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Tounian, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    There is now considerable evidence that a constitutional susceptibility to fat gain is necessary for children to become obese under the pressure of an obesogenic environment; this is the programming towards obesity. The role of genetics in this programming is dominant. Besides the rare monogenic recessive forms of obesity secondary to mutations in genes involved in the hypothalamic appetite control pathways, obesity linked to mutations in melanocortin 3 and 4 receptors are more frequent due to their dominant mode of transmission. Predisposition to common obesity is polygenic and involves a network of genes; nevertheless, more research is required to elucidate their exact role. Fetal and perhaps early postnatal programming is also possible. Under- and overnutrition, diabetes, and maternal smoking during pregnancy were shown to promote later obesity and may affect the central body weight regulatory system during fetal development. The role of early postnatal factors such as formula-feeding rather than breastfeeding, excess in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids or protein intakes, and excessive weight gain early in life is more questionable and needs further investigation. Taking into consideration that childhood obesity is a programmed disease should modify its clinical management. Childhood obesity should no longer be considered as the result of inappropriate eating habits and/or excessive inactivity in order to relieve the obese children's discrimination and their parents' guilt. Since treatment of obese children requires a substantial motivation to continuously fight against the programmed excessive drive to eat, it seems wiser to wait for children to be old enough, thus more motivated, to initiate energy restriction. Moreover, with the great majority of children being not predisposed to obesity, prevention strategies should not be addressed to the whole pediatric population but targeted to those children at risk. Improvement of knowledge on programming towards

  17. Childhood Overweight and Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources & Publications Reports Prevention Strategies & Guidelines Fact Sheets Social Media Tools ... now affects 1 in 6 children and adolescents in the United States. Childhood Obesity Facts How ...

  18. DBS for Obesity.

    PubMed

    Franco, Ruth; Fonoff, Erich T; Alvarenga, Pedro; Lopes, Antonio Carlos; Miguel, Euripides C; Teixeira, Manoel J; Damiani, Durval; Hamani, Clement

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic, progressive and prevalent disorder. Morbid obesity, in particular, is associated with numerous comorbidities and early mortality. In patients with morbid obesity, pharmacological and behavioral approaches often have limited results. Bariatric surgery is quite effective but is associated with operative failures and a non-negligible incidence of side effects. In the last decades, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been investigated as a neurosurgical modality to treat various neuropsychiatric disorders. In this article we review the rationale for selecting different brain targets, surgical results and future perspectives for the use of DBS in medically refractory obesity. PMID:27438859

  19. Obesity, Inflammation, and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Deng, Tuo; Lyon, Christopher J; Bergin, Stephen; Caligiuri, Michael A; Hsueh, Willa A

    2016-05-23

    Obesity, a worldwide epidemic, confers increased risk for multiple serious conditions, including cancer, and is increasingly recognized as a growing cause of preventable cancer risk. Chronic inflammation, a well-known mediator of cancer, is a central characteristic of obesity, leading to many of its complications, and obesity-induced inflammation confers additional cancer risk beyond obesity itself. Multiple mechanisms facilitate this strong association between cancer and obesity. Adipose tissue is an important endocrine organ, secreting several hormones, including leptin and adiponectin, and chemokines that can regulate tumor behavior, inflammation, and the tumor microenvironment. Excessive adipose expansion during obesity causes adipose dysfunction and inflammation to increase systemic levels of proinflammatory factors. Cells from adipose tissue, such as cancer-associated adipocytes and adipose-derived stem cells, enter the cancer microenvironment to enhance protumoral effects. Dysregulated metabolism that stems from obesity, including insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia, can further impact tumor growth and development. This review describes how adipose tissue becomes inflamed in obesity, summarizes ways these mechanisms impact cancer development, and discusses their role in four adipose-associated cancers that demonstrate elevated incidence or mortality in obesity. PMID:27193454

  20. Treating Obesity As a Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  1. Obesity in Infants to Preschoolers

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  2. Yacon diet (Smallanthus sonchifolius, Asteraceae) improves hepatic insulin resistance via reducing Trb3 expression in Zucker fa/fa rats

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, H; Audrey Nguyen, M T; Kudoh, A; Watanabe, T

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Yacon is a perennial plant forming a clump of >20 big, edible underground tubers. Yacon, which originates from South America, has become increasingly popular in the Japanese diet for tubers have a lower caloric value and a high fiber content. Recent studies have suggested that yacon feeding ameliorates diabetes as indicated by reduced blood glucose. Methods: We fed male Zucker fa/fa rats for 5 weeks with isocaloric normal chow diet containing from 6.5% control aroid or 6.5% yacon. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp study. Results: Body weight was comparable between yacon- and aroid-fed rats. In the basal state, yacon feeding had an effect to lower fasting glucose levels from 184.1±4.1 to 167.8±2.7 mg dl−1 (P<0.01), as well as basal hepatic glucose output (HGO) from 9.9±0.4 to 7.4 ± 0.2 mg kg−1 per min (P<0.01). During the clamp studies, the glucose infusion rate required to maintain euglycemia was increased by 12.3% in yacon-fed rat. The insulin suppression of HGO was also increased in yacon-fed rats compared with control rats (85.3±2.4% vs 77.0±3.0% P<0.05), whereas the glucose disposal rate was not different between the two groups. Consistent with the clamp data, the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt was significantly enhanced in liver but not in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, tribbles 3 (Trb3) expression, which is a negative regulator of Akt activity, was markedly reduced in the liver of yacon-fed rats compared with control rats. Conclusion: These results indicate that the effect of yacon feeding to reduce blood glucose is likely due to its beneficial effects on hepatic insulin sensitivity in the insulin resistant state. PMID:23712282

  3. Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Francisco B; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N

    2016-05-27

    The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide over the past few decades. In 2013, the prevalence of obesity exceeded the 50% of the adult population in some countries from Oceania, North Africa, and Middle East. Lower but still alarmingly high prevalence was observed in North America (≈30%) and in Western Europe (≈20%). These figures are of serious concern because of the strong link between obesity and disease. In the present review, we summarize the current evidence on the relationship of obesity with cardiovascular disease (CVD), discussing how both the degree and the duration of obesity affect CVD. Although in the general population, obesity and, especially, severe obesity are consistently and strongly related with higher risk of CVD incidence and mortality, the one-size-fits-all approach should not be used with obesity. There are relevant factors largely affecting the CVD prognosis of obese individuals. In this context, we thoroughly discuss important concepts such as the fat-but-fit paradigm, the metabolically healthy but obese (MHO) phenotype and the obesity paradox in patients with CVD. About the MHO phenotype and its CVD prognosis, available data have provided mixed findings, what could be partially because of the adjustment or not for key confounders such as cardiorespiratory fitness, and to the lack of consensus on the MHO definition. In the present review, we propose a scientifically based harmonized definition of MHO, which will hopefully contribute to more comparable data in the future and a better understanding on the MHO subgroup and its CVD prognosis. PMID:27230640

  4. [The epidemiology of obesity].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Castillo, Claudia P; Pichardo-Ontiveros, Edgar; López-R, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    In excess of 50% of adult population and nearly one third of children in Mexico have overweight and obesity. This accounts for slightly >32,671,000 million persons, excluding children; thus, total numbers are even more significant. These figures are alarming for those responsible for the economic future and well-being of Mexico. Overweight and obesity lead to higher risk of mortality as well as development of multiple diseases, mainly coronary heart disease, diabetes type 2, cancer, and stroke, which are at present the principal causes of mortality in Mexico. The World Health Organization (WHO) announced that there are throughout the world more than one billion adults with overweight, of whom 300 million have obesity. In addition to the obesity epidemic in Mexico, there is high prevalence of diabetes type 2. Coexistence of both epidemics has been denominated the twin epidemic. As many as 80% of cases of type 2 diabetes are linked with overweight or obesity, particularly abdominal obesity. The disease was once thought to be limited to adults, but obese children are now developing the illness. In Mexico, we are able to refer to at least three epidemics, because not only are obesity and type 2 diabetes advancing rapidly in the country, but also cardiovascular disease, linked with high prevalence of both hypertension and metabolic syndrome as reported by scientists based on Mexican National Health Survey 2000 data. PMID:15641467

  5. Gender, Obesity, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosnoe, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is a health condition, but its consequences extend far beyond the realm of health. To illuminate an important route by which the experience of obesity can filter into the status attainment process, this study drew on nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to test a social psychological…

  6. Effective Obesity Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Lynda H.; Calvin, James E., III; Calvin, James E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    To curb the epidemic of obesity in the United States, revised Medicare policy allows support for efficacious obesity treatments. This review summarizes the evidence from rigorous randomized trials (9 lifestyle trials, 5 drug trials, and 2 surgical trials) on the efficacy and risk-benefit profile of lifestyle, drug, and surgical interventions aimed…

  7. Barriers to obesity treatment.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Marina; Taylor, Valerie; Wharton, Sean; Sharma, Arya M

    2008-05-01

    Obesity, one of the most prevalent health problems in the Western world, is a chronic and progressive condition. Therefore, as with other chronic diseases, patients with obesity require lifelong treatment. Long-term efficacy and effectiveness of obesity treatments is notoriously poor. This may in part be attributable to the substantial barriers that undermine long-term obesity management strategies. These can include lack of recognition of obesity as a chronic condition, low socioeconomic status, time constraints, intimate saboteurs, and a wide range of comorbidities including mental health, sleep, chronic pain, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive and endocrine disorders. Furthermore, medications used to treat some of these disorders may further undermine weight-loss efforts. Lack of specific obesity training of health professionals, attitudes and beliefs as well as coverage and availability of obesity treatments can likewise pose important barriers. Health professionals need to take care to identify, acknowledge and address these barriers where possible to increase patient success as well as compliance and adherence with treatments. Failure to do so may further undermine the sense of failure, low self esteem and self efficacy already common among obese individuals. Addressing treatment barriers can save resources and increase the prospect of long-term success. PMID:18395160

  8. Renal consequences of obesity.

    PubMed

    Naumnik, Beata; Myśliwiec, Michał

    2010-08-01

    The worldwide prevalence of obesity and its associated metabolic and cardiovascular disorders has risen dramatically within the past 2 decades. Our objective is to review the mechanisms that link obesity with altered kidney function. Current evidence suggests that excess weight gain may be responsible for 65-75% of the risk for arterial hypertension. Impaired renal pressure natriuresis, initially due to increased renal tubular sodium reabsorption, is a key factor linking obesity with hypertension. Obesity increases renal sodium reabsorption by activating the renin-angiotensin and sympathetic nervous systems, and by altering intrarenal physical forces. Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ, secreting hormones/cytokines (e.g., leptin) which may trigger sodium retention and hypertension. Additionally, excess visceral adipose tissue may physically compress the kidneys, increasing intrarenal pressures and tubular reabsorption. Eventually, sustained obesity via hyperinsulinemia, due to resistance to insulin, causes hyperfiltration, resulting in structural changes in the kidneys--glomerular hyperthrophy and occasionally focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The consequences of kidney injury are continuous loss of glomerular filtration rate, further increase of arterial pressure and escalation of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. There is a growing awareness of the renal consequences of obesity, and considerable progress is being made in understanding its pathophysiology. Weight reduction results in lowered proteinuria. Aside from low sodium diet and exercises, more widespread use of renoprotective therapy (e.g., ACE inhibitors and statins) in treatment of hypertension in obese subjects should be advocated. Renal protection should result in reducing the cardiovascular complications of obesity. PMID:20671624

  9. Obesity in children

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007508.htm Obesity in children To use the sharing features on this page, ... Preventive Services Task Force, Barton M. Screening for obesity in children and adolescents: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation ...

  10. Obesity: A Bibliographic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Beth

    2012-01-01

    The study of obesity is a relatively new interdisciplinary academic field. The community college library shelves should contain two types of resources. First, several kinds of reference materials, and second, a host of broader materials that place the discussion of obesity within a cultural framework. This overview is divided into two major…

  11. Obesity and kidney protection

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Aravind; Biersmith, Michael; Tolouian, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Context: Obesity, both directly and indirectly, increases the risk for a variety of disease conditions including diabetes, hypertension, liver disease, and certain cancers, which in turn, decreases the overall lifespan in both men and women. Though the cardiovascular risks of obesity are widely acknowledged, less often identified is the relationship between obesity and renal function. Evidence Acquisitions: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, PubMed, EBSCO and Web of Science has been searched. Results: The concept of the “Metabolic Syndrome“ helps us to understand this close link between obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and renal dysfunction. An elevated body mass index has shown to be one of the major determinants of glomerular hyperfiltration that lead to the development of chronic kidney disease. Interestingly, weight loss can lead to attenuation of hyperfiltration in severely obese patients suggesting a possible therapeutic option to combat obesity-related hyperfiltration. Conclusions: Various treatment strategies had been suggested to decrease impact of obesity on kidneys. These are blood pressure controling, inhibition of the renin-angiotensinaldosterone axis, improving glycemic control, improving dyslipidemia, improving protein uriaand lifestyle modifications. Regardless of the numerous pharmacotherapies, the focus should be on the root cause: obesity. PMID:25093156

  12. Childhood Obesity. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, Liane M.

    In this discussion of childhood obesity, the medical and psychological problems associated with the condition are noted. Childhood obesity most likely results from an interaction of nutritional, psychological, familial, and physiological factors. Three factors--the family, low-energy expenditure, and heredity--are briefly examined. Early…

  13. Battling the Obesity Epidemic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Mark; Moag-Stahlberg, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    Describes causes of overweight and obesity in children; cites research linking good nutrition and a child's capacity to learn; includes six Web-based links to resources to help principals and teachers reduce the serious problem of overweight and obese children. (PKP)

  14. Obesity drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Baretić, M

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease, and it requires chronic therapy. Hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are leading causes of mortality in the modern world. All of them are strongly linked to obesity. While treating obesity, those conditions are also managed. Obese patients should always be treated through lifestyle interventions, though the results of such interventions are modest. Pharmacotherapy is a second step in the treatment of obesity, approved only when weight loss targets were not reached through lifestyle intervention. During the history of antiobesity drugs, many of them were withdrawn because of their side effects. Various guidelines recommend prescribing drug therapy for obesity through consideration of the potential benefits and limitations. Orlistat deactivates intestinal lipase and inhibits intestinal fat lipolysis. It is actually the only drug on the European market approved for the treatment of obesity. Orlistat therapy reduces weight to a modest extent, but it reduces the incidence of diabetes beyond the result achieved with lifestyle changes. Recently, some effective antiobesity drugs like sibutramine and rimonabant have been removed from the market due to their side effects. The new combination of topimarate and fentermine is approved in the US but not in Europe. The cost effectiveness of long-term pharmacotherapy of obesity is still an unresolved question. PMID:24126545

  15. Lifestyle management of obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is one of the most significant health concerns in the United States and other countries worldwide. In the United States, 68% of adults and 34% of children are overweight or obese. Prevalence rates continue to rise along with corresponding increases in health consequences. Type 2 diabetes, hy...

  16. Mechanisms by which heme oxygenase rescue renal dysfunction in obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ndisang, Joseph Fomusi; Tiwari, Shuchita

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and excessive inflammation/oxidative stress are pathophysiological forces associated with kidney dysfunction. Although we recently showed that heme-oxygenase (HO) improves renal functions, the mechanisms are largely unclear. Moreover, the effects of the HO-system on podocyte cytoskeletal proteins like podocin, podocalyxin, CD2-associated-protein (CD2AP) and proteins of regeneration/repair like beta-catenin, Oct3/4, WT1 and Pax2 in renal tissue from normoglycemic obese Zucker-fatty rats (ZFs) have not been reported. Treatment with hemin reduced renal histo-pathological lesions including glomerular-hypertrophy, tubular-cast, tubular-atrophy and mononuclear cell-infiltration in ZFs. These were associated with enhanced expression of beta-catenin, Oct3/4, WT1, Pax2 and nephrin, an essential transmembrane protein required for the formation of the scaffoldings of the podocyte slit-diaphragm, permitting the filtration of small ions, but not massive excretion of proteins, hence proteinuria. Besides nephrin, hemin also enhanced other important podocyte-regulators including, podocalyxin, podocin and CD2AP. Correspondingly, important markers of renal dysfunction such as albuminuria and proteinuria were reduced, while creatinine clearance increased, suggesting improved renal function in hemin-treated ZFs. The renoprotection by hemin was accompanied by the reduction of inflammatory/oxidative mediators including, macrophage-inflammatory-protein-1α, macrophage-chemoattractant-protein-1 and 8-isoprostane, whereas HO-1, HO-activity and the total-anti-oxidant-capacity increased. Contrarily, the HO-inhibitor, stannous-mesoporphyrin nullified the reno-protection by hemin. Collectively, these data suggest that hemin ameliorates nephropathy by potentiating the expression of proteins of repair/regeneration, abating oxidative/inflammatory mediators, reducing renal histo-pathological lesions, while enhancing nephrin, podocin, podocalyxin, CD2AP and creatinine clearance, with

  17. [DNA methylation in obesity].

    PubMed

    Pokrywka, Małgorzata; Kieć-Wilk, Beata; Polus, Anna; Wybrańska, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    The number of overweight and obese people is increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the developed and developing countries. Obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, and in consequence for premature death. The development of obesity results from the interplay of both genetic and environmental factors, which include sedentary life style and abnormal eating habits. In the past few years a number of events accompanying obesity, affecting expression of genes which are not directly connected with the DNA base sequence (e.g. epigenetic changes), have been described. Epigenetic processes include DNA methylation, histone modifications such as acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, as well as non-coding micro-RNA (miRNA) synthesis. In this review, the known changes in the profile of DNA methylation as a factor affecting obesity and its complications are described. PMID:25531701

  18. [Obesity in elderly].

    PubMed

    Lechleitner, Monika

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing also in the elderly population. The European Euronut-Seneca study described an obesity prevalence of 12-41% in elderly women and of 8-24% in elderly men. Obesity in the elderly is related to the cardiometabolic risk, but also to degenerative joint diseases and impaired physical functions. Some discrepancies are caused by the description of a so-called obesity paradox with a more favourable prognosis for certain diseases in the presence of overweight compared to normal or reduced body weight. The so-called sarcopenic obesity is associated with the worst prognosis.Preventive and therapeutic regimens should consider the increased risk of malnutrition in elderly. The combinations of individually tailored nutritional recommendations and physical exercise is of advantage for the prognosis of comorbidities and the quality of life. PMID:26820990

  19. Obesity: why be concerned?

    PubMed

    Brown, W Virgil; Fujioka, Ken; Wilson, Peter W F; Woodworth, Kristina A

    2009-04-01

    The obesity epidemic in the United States represents a critical public health issue that has the potential to incur major healthcare costs because of the substantial risks associated with excess body fat. Whereas many recognize the significant risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus associated with excess body fat, a myriad of other health problems can accompany overweight and obesity, potentially leading to early morbidity and mortality. Public recognition of obesity as an important health crisis, and not simply a matter of cosmetics or lifestyle choice, is clearly needed. A greater awareness of the health risks associated with excess weight will facilitate more frequent obesity screenings and discussions about healthy weight management that have the potential to result in a greater commitment of healthcare resources to effective obesity prevention and management strategies. PMID:19410676

  20. Paediatric asthma and obesity.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Sean R; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E

    2006-12-01

    None of the explanations proposed for the increase in paediatric asthma have been adequate. It is becoming apparent that the cause of the increase in asthma must be multi-factorial. Increasing attention has been focused on the role of lifestyle in the development of asthma. Lifestyle changes that have occurred in children are those in diet and decreased physical activity, with obesity being the product of these changes. The increase in asthma, obesity and a sedentary lifestyle have occurred together. However, a temporal relationship between asthma, obesity and decreased physical activity has not been determined in the paediatric literature. Limited data suggest that decreased physical activity could be playing a role in the aetiology of asthma independent of obesity. Furthermore, there has been substantial research on the benefits of exercise programmes for paediatric patients with asthma. Longitudinal trials monitoring physical activity, obesity and the development of asthma are needed. PMID:17098637

  1. Health impacts of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Djalalinia, Shirin; Qorbani, Mostafa; Peykari, Niloofar; Kelishadi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this communication is to provide some evidence linking the overweight/obesity and their impacts on different dimensions of health. We reviewed the related studies published from 1990 up till now through PubMed Central/Medline, which provide evidence linking obesity with health related issues. It is a risk factor for metabolic disorders and leads to serious health consequences for individuals and burden for the health care system as a whole. Literature search showed that it is related to at least 18 co-morbidities which are attributable to overweight and obesity. Moreover obese individuals more often suffer from significant joint pains, disorders and it also has social as well as psychological impairments. It is high time that countries facing the problems of obesity initiate some intervention measures to monitor and control this growing epidemic. PMID:25878654

  2. 10: Management of obesity.

    PubMed

    Proietto, Joseph; Baur, Louise A

    2004-05-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in Australia, with 67.5% of men, 52.1% of women and 19%-23% of children and adolescents being overweight or obese. Genetically predisposed individuals are especially vulnerable to developing obesity in the highly obesogenic environment of 21st century Australia. Obesity causes or contributes to many comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, sleep apnoea, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, orthopaedic problems and polycystic ovary syndrome. Management in the individual requires their complete co-operation and should be tailored to individual needs and complications. Management of obesity in children should consider the family context and involve the parents. All treatment strategies must involve lifestyle modification, with a reduction of energy intake and an increase in physical activity. Some patients may also require the assistance of drug therapy or bariatric surgery. PMID:15115430

  3. Current mapping of obesity.

    PubMed

    Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. The worldwide prevalence of obesity has almost doubled between 1980 and 2008. In some regions, such as Europe, the Eastern Mediterranean and the Americas, more than 50% of women are overweight. Tonga, Nauru and the Cook Islands show the highest prevalence of obesity worldwide, above 60% in men and in women. China and the United States are the countries that experienced the largest absolute increase in the number of overweight and obese people between 1980 and 2008, followed by Brazil and Mexico. The regions with the largest increase in the prevalence of female obesity were Central Latin America, Oceania and Southern Latin America. Updated data provide evidence that the progression of the epidemic has effectively slowed for the past ten years in several countries. In low-income countries obesity is generally more prevalent among the better-off, while disadvantaged groups are increasingly affected as countries grow. Many studies have shown an overall socio-economic gradient in obesity in modern industrialized societies. Rates tend to decrease progressively with increasing socio-economic status. Children obesity rates in Spain are amongst the highest in the OECD. One in 3 children aged 13 to 14 are overweight. Overweight in infants and young children is observed in the upper middle-income countries. However, the fastest growth occurs in the group of lower middle-income countries. There is a growing body of evidence for an inverse association between SES and child obesity in developed countries. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is high in all age groups in many countries, but especially worrying in children and adolescents in developed countries and economies in transition. PMID:24010741

  4. Maternal Obesity at Conception Programs Obesity in the Offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The risk of obesity in adult life is subject to programming during gestation. To examine whether in utero exposure to maternal obesity increases the risk of obesity in the offspring, we have developed an overfeeding-based model of maternal obesity in rats utilizing intragastric feeding of diets via ...

  5. Maternal Obesity at Conception Programs Obesity in the Offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The risk of obesity in adult-life is subject to programming during gestation. To examine whether in utero exposure to maternal obesity increases the risk of obesity in the offspring, we have developed an overfeeding-based model of maternal obesity in rats utilizing intragastric feeding of diets via ...

  6. Epigenetics of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Lopomo, A; Burgio, E; Migliore, L

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a metabolic disease, which is becoming an epidemic health problem: it has been recently defined in terms of Global Pandemic. Over the years, the approaches through family, twins and adoption studies led to the identification of some causal genes in monogenic forms of obesity but the origins of the pandemic of obesity cannot be considered essentially due to genetic factors, because human genome is not likely to change in just a few years. Epigenetic studies have offered in recent years valuable tools for the understanding of the worldwide spread of the pandemic of obesity. The involvement of epigenetic modifications-DNA methylation, histone tails, and miRNAs modifications-in the development of obesity is more and more evident. In the epigenetic literature, there are evidences that the entire embryo-fetal and perinatal period of development plays a key role in the programming of all human organs and tissues. Therefore, the molecular mechanisms involved in the epigenetic programming require a new and general pathogenic paradigm, the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease theory, to explain the current epidemiological transition, that is, the worldwide increase of chronic, degenerative, and inflammatory diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Obesity and its related complications are more and more associated with environmental pollutants (obesogens), gut microbiota modifications and unbalanced food intake, which can induce, through epigenetic mechanisms, weight gain, and altered metabolic consequences. PMID:27288829

  7. [Asthma, obesity and diet].

    PubMed

    Barranco, P; Delgado, J; Gallego, L T; Bobolea, I; Pedrosa, Ma; García de Lorenzo, A; Quirce, S

    2012-01-01

    Asthma and obesity have a considerable impact on public health and their prevalence has increased in recent years. Numerous studies have linked both disorders. Most prospective studies show that obesity is a risk factor for asthma and have found a positive correlation between baseline body mass index (BMI) and the subsequent development of asthma, although these results are not conclusive when studying the association between airway hyperresponsiveness with BMI. Furthermore, several studies suggest that whereas weight gain increases the risk of asthma, weight loss improves the course of the illness. Different factors could explain this association. Obesity is capable of reducing pulmonary compliance, lung volumes and the diameter of peripheral respiratory airways as well as affecting the volume of blood in the lungs and the ventilation-perfusion relationship. Furthermore, the increase in the normal functioning of adipose tissue in obese subjects leads to a systemic proinflammatory state, which produces a rise in the serum concentrations of several cytokines, the soluble fractions of their receptors and chemokines. Many of these mediators are synthesized and secreted by cells from adipose tissue and receive the generic name of adipokines, including IL-6, IL-10, eotaxin, TNF-α, TGF- 1, PCR, leptin y adiponectin. Finally, specific regions of the human genome which are related to both asthma and obesity have been identified. Most studies point out that obesity is capable of increasing the prevalence and incidence of asthma, although this effect appears to be modest. The treatment of obese asthmatics must include a weight control program. PMID:22566313

  8. Obesity and Economic Environments

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Roland; An, Ruopeng

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes our understanding of economic factors during the obesity epidemic and dispels some widely held, but incorrect, beliefs: Rising obesity rates coincided with increases in leisure time (rather than increased work hours), increased fruit and vegetable availability (rather than a decline of healthier foods), and increased exercise uptake. As a share of disposable income, Americans now have the cheapest food available in history, which fueled the obesity epidemic. Weight gain was surprisingly similar across sociodemographic groups or geographic areas, rather than specific to some groups (at every point in time, however, there are clear disparities). It suggests that if we want to understand the role of the environment in the obesity epidemic, we need to understand changes over time affecting all groups, not differences between subgroups at a given time. Although economic and technological changes in the environment drove the obesity epidemic, the evidence for effective economic policies to prevent obesity remains limited. Taxes on foods with low nutritional value could nudge behavior towards healthier diets, as could subsidies/discounts for healthier foods. However, even a large price change for healthy foods could only close a part of the gap between dietary guidelines and actual food consumption. Political support has been lacking for even moderate price interventions in the US and this may continue until the role of environment factors is accepted more widely. As opinion leaders, clinicians play an important role to shape the understanding of the causes of obesity. PMID:24853237

  9. Obesity and economic environments.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Roland; An, Ruopeng

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes current understanding of economic factors during the obesity epidemic and dispels some widely held, but incorrect, beliefs. Rising obesity rates coincided with increases in leisure time (rather than increased work hours), increased fruit and vegetable availability (rather than a decline in healthier foods), and increased exercise uptake. As a share of disposable income, Americans now have the cheapest food available in history, which fueled the obesity epidemic. Weight gain was surprisingly similar across sociodemographic groups or geographic areas, rather than specific to some groups (at every point in time; however, there are clear disparities). It suggests that if one wants to understand the role of the environment in the obesity epidemic, one needs to understand changes over time affecting all groups, not differences between subgroups at a given time. Although economic and technological changes in the environment drove the obesity epidemic, the evidence for effective economic policies to prevent obesity remains limited. Taxes on foods with low nutritional value could nudge behavior toward healthier diets, as could subsidies/discounts for healthier foods. However, even a large price change for healthy foods could close only part of the gap between dietary guidelines and actual food consumption. Political support has been lacking for even moderate price interventions in the United States and this may continue until the role of environmental factors is accepted more widely. As opinion leaders, clinicians play an important role in shaping the understanding of the causes of obesity. PMID:24853237

  10. Sleep and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Beccuti, Guglielmo; Pannain, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review This review summarizes the most recent evidence linking decreased sleep duration and poor sleep quality to obesity, focusing upon studies in adults. Recent findings Published and unpublished health examination surveys and epidemiological studies suggest that the worldwide prevalence of obesity has doubled since 1980. In 2008, 1 in 10 adults was obese, with women more likely to be obese than men. This obesity epidemic has been paralleled by a trend of reduced sleep duration. Poor sleep quality, which leads to overall sleep loss has also become a frequent complaint. Growing evidence from both laboratory and epidemiological studies points to short sleep duration and poor sleep quality as new risk factors for the development of obesity. Summary Sleep is an important modulator of neuroendocrine function and glucose metabolism and sleep loss has been shown to result in metabolic and endocrine alterations, including decreased glucose tolerance, decreased insulin sensitivity, increased evening concentrations of cortisol, increased levels of ghrelin, decreased levels of leptin, and increased hunger and appetite. Recent epidemiological and laboratory evidence confirm previous findings of an association between sleep loss and increased risk of obesity. PMID:21659802

  11. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression is enhanced in renal parietal epithelial cells of zucker diabetic Fatty rats and is induced by albumin in in vitro primary parietal cell culture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; George, Jasmine; Li, Yun; Olufade, Rebecca; Zhao, Xueying

    2015-01-01

    As a subfamily of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), gelatinases including MMP-2 and MMP-9 play an important role in remodeling and homeostasis of the extracellular matrix. However, conflicting results have been reported regarding their expression level and activity in the diabetic kidney. This study investigated whether and how MMP-9 expression and activity were changed in glomerular epithelial cells upon albumin overload. In situ zymography, immunostaining and Western blot for renal MMP gelatinolytic activity and MMP-9 protein expression were performed in Zucker lean and Zucker diabetic rats. Confocal microscopy revealed a focal increase in gelatinase activity and MMP-9 protein in the glomeruli of diabetic rats. Increased glomerular MMP-9 staining was mainly observed in hyperplastic parietal epithelial cells (PECs) expressing claudin-1 in the diabetic kidneys. Interestingly, increased parietal MMP-9 was often accompanied by decreased staining for podocyte markers (nephrin and podocalyxin) in the sclerotic area of affected glomeruli in diabetic rats. Additionally, urinary excretion of podocyte marker proteins was significantly increased in association with the levels of MMP-9 and albumin in the urine of diabetic animals. To evaluate the direct effect of albumin on expression and activity of MMP-9, primary cultured rat glomerular PECs were incubated with rat serum albumin (0.25 - 1 mg/ml) for 24 - 48 hrs. MMP-9 mRNA levels were significantly increased following albumin treatment. Meanwhile, albumin administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in MMP-9 protein and activity in culture supernatants of PECs. Moreover, albumin activated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in PECs. Inhibition of p44/42 MAPK suppressed albumin-induced MMP-9 secretion from glomerular PECs. Taken together, we have demonstrated that an up-regulation of MMP-9 in activated parietal epithelium is associated with a loss of adjacent podocytes in progressive diabetic nephropathy

  12. Update on obesity.

    PubMed

    Bessesen, Daniel H

    2008-06-01

    Endocrinologists have unique skills in evaluating and caring for patients with metabolic diseases. As such, they have a special role to play within the organizations in which they work as leaders in the approach to managing obese patients. Recent epidemiological data demonstrate that the prevalence of obesity is beginning to plateau. However, the rate of severe obesity in adults and the prevalence of overweight among children continue to grow, suggesting that in the future there will be an increasing burden of obesity-related illnesses. A number of recent studies have identified a number of novel mechanisms that predispose to obesity including several newly identified genes, the role of intestinal microflora, and even social networks. The selection of treatment for obese patients remains a complex issue. Recent studies demonstrate that a range of dietary approaches including the Atkins diet can provide modest weight loss, although the key feature appears to be adherence in the dietary strategy. High levels of physical activity appear to be necessary to maintain a reduced state, although modest increases in activity improve fitness. Although the new understanding of biology of weight regulation has provided a wide range of potential drug targets, available pharmacotherapy options remain limited although a number of potential targets show promise. Recent data provides the most enthusiasm for surgical treatment of obesity. Several recent studies demonstrate a reduction in mortality and dramatic benefits in diabetes in obese patients treated surgically. Questions remain as to the best surgical approach and the cost effectiveness. Research advances in obesity continue to move at a rapid pace and raise hopes for more effective management strategies in the future. PMID:18539769

  13. [Sleep apnea syndrome and obesity].

    PubMed

    Laaban, J P

    2002-04-01

    Obesity is a main risk factor for sleep apnea syndrome (SAS). The prevalence of SAS is especially high in massive obesity and in visceral obesity. The mechanisms of obstructive apneas in obesity are poorly known, but an increase in upper airway collapsibility probably plays an important role. Several cardiorespiratory complications of SAS, especially systemic arterial hypertension, diurnal alveolar hypoventilation and pulmonary arterial hypertension, are more frequent and more severe in obese patients. An important weight loss resulting from surgical treatment of obesity is often associated with a dramatic decrease in apnea-hypopnea index in patients with massive obesity. In patients with moderate obesity, dietary weight loss is associated with varying degrees of improvement in SAS. Pharyngoplasty and anterior mandibular positioning devices have a low success rate in patients with massive obesity. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure is often the only effective treatment in obese SAS patients. PMID:12082447

  14. Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Safal

    2015-01-01

    Obesity hypoventilation syndrome is a respiratory consequence of morbid obesity that is characterized by alveolar hypoventilation during sleep and wakefulness. The disorder involves a complex interaction between impaired respiratory mechanics, ventilatory drive and sleep-disordered breathing. Early diagnosis and treatment is important, because delay in treatment is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Available treatment options include non-invasive positive airway pressure (PAP) therapies and weight loss. There is limited long-term data regarding the effectiveness of such therapies. This review outlines the current concepts of clinical presentation, diagnostic and management strategies to help identify and treat patients with obesity-hypoventilation syndromes. PMID:26029497

  15. [Management of childhood obesity].

    PubMed

    Dubern, Béatrice

    2010-09-01

    Endocrine diseases (hypothyroidism, growth hormone deficiency, hypercortisolism) are exceptional in obese children and are searched only in case of short stature. It is not necessary to test systematically glucose tolerance (fasting glucose; oral glucose tolerance test) and lipids in order to look for obesity related comorbidities. Decreased caloric intake is the main goal for the treatment. Ways to succeed need to be adapted to each child with pragmatism and without dogmatism. Goals for treatment are reasonable (stabilization of weight excess). Weight loss surgery in obese children may be discussed in some cases with multidisciplinary expert team (doctors, surgeons, psychologist...) and close collaboration between adults teams and paediatricians. PMID:20615656

  16. Obesity and cancer pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity have reached pandemic levels on a worldwide basis and are associated with increased risk and worse prognosis for many but not all malignancies. Pathophysiologic processes that affect this association are reviewed, with a focus on the relation of type 2 diabetes mellitus with cancer, lessons learned from the use of murine models to study the association, the impact of obesity on pancreatic cancer, the effect of dietary fats and cholesterol as cancer promoters, and the mechanisms by which the intestinal microbiome affects obesity and cancer. PMID:24725147

  17. Thyroid function and obesity.

    PubMed

    Longhi, Silvia; Radetti, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, childhood obesity is one of the biggest health emergencies in the developed countries. Obesity leads to multiple metabolic alterations which increase the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Thyroid function has been often described as altered in obese children, however, it is not clear whether the altered thyroid function is the cause or the consequence of fat excess. On the other hand, thyroid structure seems also to be affected. Nevertheless, both functional and structural alterations seem to improve after weight loss and therefore no treatment is needed. PMID:23149391

  18. Pharmacotherapy for Obesity.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Katherine H; Shukla, Alpana P; Igel, Leon I; Kumar, Rekha B; Aronne, Louis J

    2016-09-01

    Successful treatment of obesity requires a multidisciplinary approach including diet, exercise and behavioral modification. As lifestyle changes are not sufficient for some patients, pharmacologic therapies should be considered as adjuncts to lifestyle interventions. In this article, we review clinical indications, mechanisms of action, dosing/administration, side effects, drug interactions and contraindications for the six most widely prescribed obesity medications. We also summarize the efficacy data from phase 3 trials which led to drug approval. As multiple agents are sometimes required for clinically significant weight loss, the future of obesity medicine will likely involve combinations of agents in addition to behavioral counseling. PMID:27519128

  19. Obesity in women.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Donna H; Braverman-Panza, Jill

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is a common disorder affecting approximately 1 in 3 women. Assessment should consist of measuring BMI and waist circumference, a thorough history regarding nutrition, physical activity, and prior attempts at weight loss, and identification of obesity-related comorbidities. As a chronic disease, obesity requires management using a chronic care model employing multimodal therapy. Behavioral therapy to bring about changes in nutrition and physical activity can be supplemented with long-term use of medications (lorcaserin, orlistat, phentermine/topiramate) to help patients both achieve and maintain meaningful weight loss. PMID:24527479

  20. Dipeptidylpeptidase-IV, a key enzyme for the degradation of incretins and neuropeptides: activity and expression in the liver of lean and obese rats

    PubMed Central

    Tarantola, E.; Bertone, V.; Milanesi, G.; Capelli, E.; Ferrigno, A.; Neri, D.; Vairetti, M.; Barni, S.; Freitas, I.

    2012-01-01

    Given the scarcity of donors, moderately fatty livers (FLs) are currently being considered as possible grafts for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), notwithstanding their poor tolerance to conventional cold preservation. The behaviour of parenchymal and sinusoidal liver cells during transplantation is being studied worldwide. Much less attention has been paid to the biliary tree, although this is considered the Achille's heel even of normal liver transplantation. To evaluate the response of the biliary compartment of FLs to the various phases of OLT reliable markers are necessary. Previously we demonstrated that Alkaline Phosphatase was scarcely active in bile canaliculi of FLs and thus ruled it out as a marker. As an alternative, dipeptidylpeptidase-IV (DPP-IV), was investigated. This ecto-peptidase plays an important role in glucose metabolism, rapidly inactivating insulin secreting hormones (incretins) that are important regulators of glucose metabolism. DPP-IV inhibitors are indeed used to treat Type II diabetes. Neuropeptides regulating bile transport and composition are further important substrates of DPP-IV in the enterohepatic axis. DPP-IV activity was investigated with an azo-coupling method in the liver of fatty Zucker rats (fa/fa), using as controls lean Zucker (fa/+) and normal Wistar rats. Protein expression was studied by immunofluorescence with the monoclonal antibody (clone 5E8). In Wistar rat liver, DPP-IV activity and expression were high in the whole biliary tree, and moderate in sinusoid endothelial cells, in agreement with the literature. Main substrates of DPP-IV in hepatocytes and cholangiocytes could be incretins GLP-1 and GIP, and neuropeptides such as vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and substance P, suggesting that these substances are inactivated or modified through the biliary route. In lean Zucker rat liver the enzyme reaction and protein expression patterns were similar to those of Wistar rat. In obese rat liver the patterns

  1. [Prevention of infant obesity].

    PubMed

    Hernández Cordero, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious public health problem, demanding urgent and clear defined actions in order to stop the rapid increase on its prevalence and all health consequences associated. The best strategy to stop the rapid increase in childhood obesity is to prevent it. In order to do so, multiple defined actions between government, industry, community organizations, schools, families and health-care professionals. The general and family physicians, pediatricians, nurses, dieticians and other clinicians should be engaged, as a key actor, in the prevention of childhood obesity. The health-care professionals have frequent opportunities to inform to children, youth and their parents about the importance of prevention of obesity and to promote and engage them in healthy life styles, particularly, a healthy diet and regular physical activity. PMID:22352128

  2. Obesity in gulf countries.

    PubMed

    ALNohair, Sultan

    2014-01-01

    Globally obesity has reached to epidemic proportions, and the people of the Gulf countries have also affected, especially high-income, oil-producing countries. The prevalence of obesity in Gulf Countries among children and adolescents ranges from 5% to 14% in males and from 3% to 18% in females. In adult females there is a significant increase of obesity with a prevalence of 2%-55% and in adult males 1%-30% in countries of gulf region. Over the last two decades there is increased consumption of fast foods and sugar-dense beverages (e.g., sodas). Simultaneously, technological advances - cars, elevators, escalators, and remotes have lead to a decrease in level of activity. Traditional dependence on locally grown natural products such as dates, vegetables, wheat and has also shifted. Changes in food consumption, socioeconomic and demographic factors, physical activity, and urbanization are being important factors that contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity in the region. PMID:24899882

  3. Overweight and Obesity Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... Resources Additional Reading from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Obesity and Socioeconomic Status in Adults: ...

  4. Disability and Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Findings Disability-Related Documents Resources & Materials Multimedia & Tools Free Materials Grantee Information Information for ... and obesity are both labels for ranges of weight that are greater than what is ...

  5. Maternal obesity and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S R; Kolberg, B H; Varner, M W; Railsback, L D

    1987-05-01

    We examined the risk of maternal obesity in 588 pregnant women weighing at least 113.6 kilograms (250 pounds) during pregnancy. Compared with a control group matched for age and parity, we found a significantly increased risk in the obese patient for gestational diabetes, hypertension, therapeutic induction, prolonged second stage of labor, oxytocin stimulation of labor, shoulder dystocia, infants weighing more than 4,000 grams and delivery after 42 weeks gestation. Certain operative complications were also more common in obese women undergoing cesarean section including estimated blood loss of more than 1,000 milliliters, operating time of more than two hours and wound infection postoperatively. These differences remained significant after controlling for appropriate confounding variables. We conclude that maternal obesity should be considered a high risk factor. PMID:3576419

  6. Health risks of obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... medical condition in which a high amount of body fat increases the chance of developing medical problems. People ... can be used to determine if a person's body fat gives them a higher chance of developing obesity- ...

  7. The obese pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Aamir, A H

    2016-09-01

    Weight gain in pregnancy is physiological but if a woman is overweight prior to pregnancy, this will put both women and foetus at risk of adverse complications. Obesity can affect women at all the stages of pregnancy. Obese women can be a cause of reduced fertility as compared to a normal weight woman, and a typical example is of the Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The incidence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus ,hypertension and preeclamsia is 2-3 folds higher in obesity particularly with a BMI of> 30kg/m2. The chances of thromboembolism, miscarriage, Caesarian - section and stillbirth are increased as well. Perinatal mortality, increased chances of genetic disorders of the foetus and macrosomia are all increased with obesity. To avoid all these complications health education regarding healthy life style and diet with regular moderate intensity exercise is the cornerstone of the management. PMID:27582157

  8. Obesity and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Kunal; Karssiens, Timothy; Kumar, Vijay; Pandit, Hemant

    2016-07-01

    This paper provides an up-to-date review of obesity and lower limb osteoarthritis (OA). OA is a major global cause of disability, with the knee being the most frequently affected joint. There is a proven association between obesity and knee OA, and obesity is suggested to be the main modifiable risk factor. Obese patients (Body Mass Index, BMI, over 30kg/m(2)) are more likely to require total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The global prevalence of obesity has doubled since 1980; by 2025, 47% of UK men and 36% of women are forecast to be obese. This rising global burden is a key factor in the growing rise in the use of TKA. It is therefore important to appreciate the outcomes of surgery in patients with end-stage OA and a high BMI. This review found that while OA is felt to contribute to weight gain, it is unclear whether TKA facilitates weight reduction. Surgery in obese patients is more technically challenging. This is reflected in the evidence, which suggests higher rates of short- to medium-term complications following TKA, including wound infection and medical complications, resulting in longer hospital stay, and potentially higher rates of malalignment, dislocation, and early revision. However, despite slower initial recovery and possibly lower functional scores and implant survival in the longer term, obese patients can still benefit from TKA in terms of improved function, quality of life and satisfaction. In conclusion, despite higher risks and more uncertain outcomes of surgery, higher BMI in itself should not be a contraindication to TKA; instead, each patient's individual circumstances should be considered. PMID:27180156

  9. Genetics of obesity

    PubMed Central

    O'Rahilly, Stephen; Farooqi, I.Sadaf

    2006-01-01

    Considerable attention is currently being paid to the secular changes in food intake and physical activity that underlie the increase in the prevalence of obesity that is apparent in many societies. While this is laudable it would be unwise to view these environmental factors in isolation from the biological factors that normally control body weight and composition and the compelling evidence that inter-individual differences in susceptibility to obesity have strong genetic determinants. This is particularly important, as it is only in the past decade that we have begun to obtain substantive information regarding the molecular constituents of pathways controlling mammalian energy balance and therefore, for the first time, are in a position to achieve a better mechanistic understanding of this disease. Population-based association and linkage studies have highlighted a number of loci at which genetic variation is associated with obesity and related phenotypes and the identification and characterization of monogenic obesity syndromes has been particularly fruitful. While there is widespread acceptance that hereditary factors might predispose to human obesity, it is frequently assumed that such factors would influence metabolic rate or the selective partitioning of excess calories into fat. However, it is notable that, thus far, all monogenic defects causing human obesity actually disrupt hypothalamic pathways and have a profound effect on satiety and food intake. To conclude, the evidence we have to date suggests that the major impact of genes on human obesity is just as likely (or perhaps more likely) to directly impact on hunger, satiety and food intake rather than metabolic rate or nutrient partitioning. At the risk of oversimplification, it seems that from an aetiological/genetic standpoint, human obesity appears less a metabolic than a neuro-behavioural disease. PMID:16815794

  10. [Obesity and male fertility].

    PubMed

    Martini, Ana C; Molina, Rosa I; Ruiz, Rubén D; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and male infertility have increased in the last decades; therefore, a possible association between these pathologies has been explored. Studies inform that obesity may affect fertility through different mechanisms, which alltogether could exert erectile dysfunction and/or sperm quality impairment. These include: 1) hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPG) axis malfunction: obese hormonal profile is characterized by reduction of testosterone, gonadotrophins, SHBG and/or inhibin B concentrations (marker of Sertoli cells function) and hyperestrogenemy (consequence of aromatase overactivity ascribed to adipose tissue increase); 2) increased release of adipose-derived hormones: leptin increase could be responsible for some of the alterations on the HPG axis and could also exert direct deleterious effects on Leydig cells physiology, spermatogenesis and sperm function; 3) proinflammatory adipokines augmentation, higher scrotal temperature (due to fat accumulation in areas surrounding testes) and endocrine disruptors accumulation in adiposites, all of these responsible for the increase in testes oxidative stress and 4) sleep apnea, frequent in obese patients, suppresses the nocturnal testosterone rise needed for normal spermatogenesis. Finally, although controversial, all the above mentioned factors could comprise gametes quality; i.e. decrease sperm density and motility and increase DNA fragmentation, probably disturbing spermatogenesis and/or epididymal function. In summary, although obesity may impair male fertility by some/all of the described mechanisms, the fact is that only a small proportion of obese men are infertile, probably those genetically predisposed or morbidly obese. Nevertheless, it is likely that because the incidence of obesity is growing, the number of men with reduced fertility will increase as well. PMID:23286540

  11. Preventing Obesity through Schools

    PubMed Central

    Nihiser, Allison; Merlo, Caitlin; Lee, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    PRÉCIS This paper describes highlights from the Weight of the Nation™ 2012 Schools Track. Included is a summary of 16 presentations. Presenters shared key actions for obesity prevention through schools. The information provided at the Weight of the Nation™ can help school health practitioners access tools, apply evidence-based strategies, and model real-world examples to successfully start obesity prevention initiatives in their jurisdiction. PMID:24446995

  12. [Contraception and obesity].

    PubMed

    Lobert, M; Pigeyre, M; Gronier, H; Catteau-Jonard, S; Robin, G

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing massively over several decades in industrialized countries. Obese women are sexually active but they use fewer contraceptive methods and are at high risk of unintended pregnancy. In addition, obesity is an important risk factor for venous thromboembolism events and arterial thrombosis (myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke). All of these data are to be considered in choosing a contraceptive method for obese women. Except depot medroxyprogesterone acetate injection, the progestin-only contraceptives (progestin only pills and etonogestrel subdermal implant) and the intra-uterine devices are the preferred contraceptive methods in obese women. The combined estrogen-progestin contraceptives (pill, patch and vaginal ring) may be proposed in very strict conditions (no other associated vascular risk factor). Obesity does not increase the risk of failure of most contraceptive methods. Bariatric surgery is a complex situation. It requires to program a possible pregnancy and contraception is needed for several months. Some bariatric surgical techniques such as by-pass can induce gastrointestinal malabsorption. In this situation, all oral contraceptives are not recommended because of a higher risk of failure. PMID:26527416

  13. [Clustering of simple obesity].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K; Matsuda, H; Kurita, M; Umetada, Y

    1988-05-01

    An attempt was made to classify persons with simple obesity from the viewpoint of health education. Subjects of the study were 1,278 male workers in a financing company who underwent health examination. At the time of health examinations, questionnaire survey concerning their life styles was carried out on all the subjects. The obese group consisted of 127 subjects whose obesity indices were over 15% and the control group consisted of 342 subjects whose obesity indices ranged from -5 to 5%. Subjects in the obese group were classified into four clusters based on cluster analysis using five life-style parameters; that is, frequency of taking breakfast, frequency of taking staple food, drinking habits, smoking habits, and frequency of exercise. The first cluster (N = 10) included inactive persons, the second cluster (N = 46) non smokers, the third cluster (N = 39) smokers and heavy drinkers, and the fourth cluster (N = 32) smokers and non-drinkers. Comparison of the four clusters of obese persons with the control group revealed the following findings: 1) All the four clusters had significantly high frequencies of abnormal values of triglyceride (TG) and fasting blood sugar (FBS). 2) The first cluster had significantly high frequencies of abnormal values of glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT). 3) The second cluster had significantly high frequencies of abnormal values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, TG, FBS, uric acid, GOT, GPT and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3172544

  14. Abnormalities in the Metabolism of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols in the Liver of the Goto-Kakizaki Rat: A Model for Non-Obese Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Karahashi, Minako; Hirata-Hanta, Yuko; Kawabata, Kohei; Tsutsumi, Daisuke; Kametani, Misaki; Takamatsu, Nanako; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Yamazaki, Tohru; Asano, Satoshi; Mitsumoto, Atsushi; Kawashima, Yoichi; Kudo, Naomi

    2016-08-01

    The Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat is widely used as an animal model for spontaneous-onset type 2 diabetes without obesity; nevertheless, little information is available on the metabolism of fatty acids and triacylglycerols (TAG) in their livers. We investigated the mechanisms underlying the alterations in the metabolism of fatty acids and TAG in their livers, in comparison with Zucker (fa/fa) rats, which are obese and insulin resistant. Lipid profiles, the expression of genes for enzymes and proteins related to the metabolism of fatty acid and TAG, de novo synthesis of fatty acids and TAG in vivo, fatty acid synthase activity in vitro, fatty acid oxidation in liver slices, and very-low-density-lipoprotein (VLDL)-TAG secretion in vivo were estimated. Our results revealed that (1) the TAG accumulation was moderate, (2) the de novo fatty acid synthesis was increased by upregulation of fatty acid synthase in a post-transcriptional manner, (3) fatty acid oxidation was also augmented through the induction of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a, and (4) the secretion rate of VLDL-TAG remained unchanged in the livers of GK rats. These results suggest that, despite the fact that GK rats exhibit non-obese type 2 diabetes, the upregulation of de novo lipogenesis is largely compensated by the upregulation of fatty acid oxidation, resulting in only moderate increase in TAG accumulation in the liver. PMID:27372943

  15. Causes and risks for obesity - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... become obese. No single factor or behavior causes obesity . Obesity is caused by many things, including a person’s ... image. Examples of eating disorders are: Anorexia Bulimia Obesity and eating disorders often occur at the same ...

  16. Update on obesity pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bray, George A; Ryan, Donna H

    2014-04-01

    There are two groups of approved drugs that can be used to manage weight in patients with obesity: medications approved for obesity per se and medications that affect body weight for obese patients who have complications from their obesity and are receiving these medications for chronic disease management. For obesity per se, treatment is with one of the three drugs currently approved for long-term treatment of obesity or one of a few others that can be used for short-term treatment. Among these, orlistat partially blocks intestinal digestion of fat and produces weight loss of 5-8 kg but major limitations are associated gastrointestinal symptoms; lorcaserin, a serotonin-2C agonist with few side effects, produces a mean weight loss of 4-7 kg; and the combination of phentermine and topiramate (extended release) produces a mean weight loss of 8-10 kg, but should only be used after verifying a woman is not pregnant. Failure to lose more than 3% of body weight within 3 months with any of these agents should lead to reevaluation of therapy. The short-term drugs for treating obesity per se are sympathomimetics, with phentermine being most widely used. The second group of drugs is for weight-centric prescribing for patients with a chronic disease such as diabetes, depression, or psychiatric disorders. For each disorder, some drugs produce weight gain, others are weight neutral, but the best choice for these patients is the combination of drugs that treat the underlying condition and also produce weight loss. PMID:24641701

  17. Morbidity of severe obesity.

    PubMed

    Kral, J G

    2001-10-01

    Although obesity is an easy diagnosis to make, its etiologies, pathophysiology, and symptomatology are extraordinarily complex. Progress in surgical technique and anesthesiological management has substantially improved the safety of performing operations on the severely obese in the last 20 years. These improvements have occurred more or less empirically, without a full understanding of etiology or pathophysiology, although this has advanced concomitantly with improvements in practice. This review has attempted to provide a framework to facilitate progress in the neglected areas of patient selection and choice of operation, in an effort to improve long-term outcome. Despite the disparate etiologies of obesity and its diverse comorbidities and complications, there are unifying interdependent pathogenetic mechanisms of great relevance to the practice of antiobesity surgery. The rate of eating, whether driven by HPA dysfunction, ambient stress, or related hereditary susceptibility factors including the increased energy demands of an expanded body fat mass, participates in a cycle that results in disordered satiety (see Fig. 3). This leads to substrate overload, causing extensive metabolic abnormalities such as atherogenesis, insulin resistance, thrombogenesis, and carcinogenesis. This interpretation of the pathophysiology of obesity ironically accords with the original meaning of the word obesity: "to overeat." The ultimate solution to the problem of obesity--preventing it--will not be forthcoming until the food industry is forced to lower production and change its marketing strategies, as the liquor and tobacco industries in the United States were compelled to do. This cannot occur until the large and fast-growing populations of industrialized nations become educated in the personal implications of the energy principle. Regardless of whether school curricula are modified to prioritize health education, the larger problems of cultural and economic change remain for

  18. Energy Balance and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hill, James O.; Wyatt, Holly R.; Peters, John C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the interplay among energy intake, energy expenditure and body energy stores and illustrates how an understanding of energy balance can help develop strategies to reduce obesity. First, reducing obesity will require modifying both energy intake and energy expenditure and not simply focusing on either alone. Food restriction alone will not be effective in reducing obesity if human physiology is biased toward achieving energy balance at a high energy flux (i.e. at a high level of energy intake and expenditure). In previous environments a high energy flux was achieved with a high level of physical activity but in today's sedentary environment it is increasingly achieved through weight gain. Matching energy intake to a high level of energy expenditure will likely be more a more feasible strategy for most people to maintain a healthy weight than restricting food intake to meet a low level of energy expenditure. Second, from an energy balance point of view we are likely to be more successful in preventing excessive weight gain than in treating obesity. This is because the energy balance system shows much stronger opposition to weight loss than to weight gain. While large behavior changes are needed to produce and maintain reductions in body weight, small behavior changes may be sufficient to prevent excessive weight gain. In conclusion, the concept of energy balance combined with an understanding of how the body achieves balance may be a useful framework in helping develop strategies to reduce obesity rates. PMID:22753534

  19. Mood, food, and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Minati

    2014-01-01

    Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA) production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity. PMID:25225489

  20. Time to tackle obesity.

    PubMed

    Savill, Peter

    2011-12-01

    Obesity has been described by the WHO as a global epidemic. Obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) > or = 30 kg/m2 and it is estimated that almost a quarter of the population of England are obese. Lighten Up was a randomised controlled trial that studied 740 obese or overweight men and women identified from GP records in a primary care trust in Birmingham. The study compared a range of commercial or primary care led weight reduction programmes with minimal intervention control for weight loss in obesity. The commercial weight management programmes were more effective and cheaper than the primary care based services studied. The authors calculated that patients lost an average of 1.3 kg/m2 with the most effective intervention which if maintained gives a crude cost per life year saved of 77 pound sterling. This would indicate that providing commercial weight loss programmes as an NHS funded service is a potentially cost-effective intervention. PMID:22272525

  1. Obesity in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Malterud, Kirsti; Ulriksen, Kjersti

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore obese patients' experiences with GPs' management of their weight problems. Methods Focus-group study with a purposive sample of 13 participants (eight women and five men), aged 30–55 years, with BMI above 40, or BMI above 35 with additional weight-related problems. Two focus-group interviews were conducted, inviting the participants to speak about their health care experiences from general practice. Analysis applied Systematic Text Condensation inspired by Giorgi's approach, searching for issues describing or discussing participants' experiences of GPs' obesity management. Results Obese patients want their GPs to put their weight problems on the agenda. When the patient appears reluctant, it may be a sign of embarrassment rather than rejection of the issue. However, restricted attention to obesity could lead to neglect of patients' problems. Participants complained that GPs often demonstrated insufficient engagement and knowledge regarding service resources for obesity treatment, leaving the responsibility for information on available referral resources to the patient. Finally, considerate attitudes in the GPs are needed for follow-up to be experienced as helpful by the patients. Vulnerable feelings of failure could be reinforced by well-intended advice. Degrading attitudes were perceived as especially subversive when they came from doctors. Conclusions The challenge for the GP is to increase his or her competence in individualized and evidence-based counselling, while acknowledging the efforts needed by the patient to achieve permanent change, and shifting attention from shame to coping. PMID:20942741

  2. Mood, food, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Minati

    2014-01-01

    Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA) production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity. PMID:25225489

  3. Endoscopic treatment of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Swidnicka-Siergiejko, Agnieszka; Wróblewski, Eugeniusz; Dabrowski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of obesity and overweight among children and adolescents will be reflected by the imminent increase in the number of obese patients who require more definitive methods of treatment. There is great interest in new, safe, simple, nonsurgical procedures for weight loss. OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of new endoscopic methods for the treatment of obesity. METHODS: An English-language literature search on endoscopic interventions, endoscopically placed devices and patient safety was performed in the MEDLINE and Cochrane Library databases. RESULTS: The literature search yielded the following weight loss methods: space-occupying devices (widely used), gastric capacity reduction, modifying gastric motor function and malabsorptive procedures. A commercially available intragastric balloon was the most commonly used device for weight loss. In specific subgroups of patients, it improved quality of life, decreased comorbidities and served as a bridge to surgery. More evidence regarding the potential benefits and safety of other commercially available intragastric balloons is needed to clarify whether they are superior to the most commonly used one. Moreover, early experiences with transoral gastroplasty, the duodenaljejunal bypass sleeve and an adjustable, totally implantable intragastric prosthesis, indicate that they may be viable options for obesity treatment. Other agents, such as botulinum toxin and a device known as the ‘butterfly’, are currently at the experimental stage. CONCLUSION: New endoscopic methods for weight loss may be valuable in the treatment of obesity; however, more clinical experience and technical improvements are necessary before implementing their widespread use. PMID:22059171

  4. Childhood Obesity for Pediatric Gastroenterologists

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jeannie S.; Barlow, Sarah E.; Quiros-Tejeira, Ruben E.; Scheimann, Ann; Skelton, Joseph; Suskind, David; Tsai, Patrika; Uko, Victor; Warolin, Joshua P.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity in childhood is one of the major health issues in pediatric health care today. As expected, the prevalence of obesity-related comorbidities has risen in parallel with that of obesity. Consultation regarding these concomitant diseases and subsequent management by subspecialists, including pediatric gastroenterologists, is now common and has resulted in obesity being recognized as a chronic disease requiring coordination of care. Although medications and even surgery may provide effective, though often temporary, treatments for obesity and its comorbidities, behavioral interventions addressing healthy dietary and physical activity habits remain a mainstay in the obesity treatment paradigm. Therefore, the issue of weight management must be addressed by both general practitioner and subspecialist alike. In this report, we review select aspects of pediatric obesity and obesity-related management issues because it relates in particular to the field of pediatric gastroenterology and hepatology. PMID:23282941

  5. Reducing Childhood Obesity: We Can!

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Reducing Childhood Obesity We Can! Past Issues / Spring - Summer 2010 Table ... Promotes Healthier Children We Can! is a national childhood obesity prevention program sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, ...

  6. Defining overweight and obesity - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... your child has. Measuring body fat and diagnosing obesity in children is different than measuring these things in adults. ... 44. US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for obesity in ... adolescents: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation ...

  7. [Consequences and complications of obesity].

    PubMed

    Simon-Vermot, I; Keller, U

    2000-08-01

    Obesity increases the risk of metabolic complications such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, systemic hypertension and cardiovascular disease. These are mainly responsible for the increased mortality of obese people. Other metabolic consequences of obesity are: gallstones, steatosis of the liver and the polycystic ovary syndrome. Beside the body mass index the distribution of body fat is important. Centralized obesity, as measured by the waist-to-hip circumference ratio (WHR), is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia seem to play a central role in the pathogenesis of this association. Obesity has not only metabolic complications. There is a relationship between obesity and impaired respiratory function. Furthermore is obesity a risk factor for osteoarthrosis of the knee, the hip and even the hand and for pulmonary embolism and venous thrombosis. Obesity can also lead to psycho-social problems such as depression, social discrimination and isolation. PMID:11026085

  8. Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The aging process is associated with progressive loss of muscle mass and strength, as well as decline in physical functioning. Although consensus diagnosis has not been reached, sarcopenia is increasingly defined by both loss of muscle mass and loss of muscle function or strength. The cause of sarcopenia is suggested as multifactorial, including hormonal changes, inflammatory pathway activation, fatty infiltration, poor nutrition, and decreased physical activity. Sarcopenia is often associated with visceral obesity. Sarcopenic obesity in the elderly impacts metabolic complications and represents a major public health challenge in a rapidly aging society. Further research about sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity may be needed to confront the influence of aging society in Korea. PMID:24396659

  9. Gut microbiota and obesity.

    PubMed

    Gérard, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The human intestine harbors a complex bacterial community called the gut microbiota. This microbiota is specific to each individual despite the existence of several bacterial species shared by the majority of adults. The influence of the gut microbiota in human health and disease has been revealed in the recent years. Particularly, the use of germ-free animals and microbiota transplant showed that the gut microbiota may play a causal role in the development of obesity and associated metabolic disorders, and lead to identification of several mechanisms. In humans, differences in microbiota composition, functional genes and metabolic activities are observed between obese and lean individuals suggesting a contribution of the gut microbiota to these phenotypes. Finally, the evidence linking gut bacteria to host metabolism could allow the development of new therapeutic strategies based on gut microbiota modulation to treat or prevent obesity. PMID:26459447

  10. [Overweight and obesity].

    PubMed

    Haua-Navarro, Karime

    2016-09-01

    Obesity represents nowadays a significant health problem, leading to multiple efforts in order to identify its causal factors and the prophylactic and therapeutic approaches for its attention. Dairy intake is among the dietary factors that have been studied, and they frequently, but not consistently nor conclusively, have shown to be protective factors for the development of overweight, obesity and their comorbidities. Current literature addresses the reason underlying the association between dairy intake and obesity from two explanatory lines: the contribution of these products to total energy intake and the influence of some of their nutritional components -mainly calcium, protein and fat- on the underlying processes for the development of this condition. The objective of this article is to review the current knowledge on these topics. PMID:27603887

  11. Obesity and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Jokinen, E

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality in rich countries and today it has the same meaning for health care as the epidemics of past centuries had for medicine in earlier times: 50% of the population in these countries die of cardiovascular disease. The amount of cardiovascular disease is also increasing in the developing countries together with economic growth. By 2015 one in three deaths will globally be due to cardiovascular diseases. Coronary heart disease is a chronic disease that starts in childhood, even if the symptoms first occur in the middle age. The risks for coronary heart disease are well-known: lipid disorders, especially high serum LDL-cholesterol concentration, high blood pressure, tobacco smoking, obesity, diabetes, male gender and physical inactivity. Obesity is both an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease but is also closely connected with several other risk factors. This review focuses on the connection between overweight or obesity and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25387321

  12. Ambient Temperature and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Moellering, Douglas R.; Smith, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Homeotherms maintain an optimal body temperature that is most often above their environment or ambient temperature. As ambient temperature decreases, energy expenditure (and energy intake) must increase to maintain thermal homeostasis. With the wide spread adoption of climate control, humans in modern society are buffered from temperature extremes and spend an increasing amount of time in a thermally comfortable state where energetic demands are minimized. This is hypothesized to contribute to the contemporary increase in obesity rates. Studies reporting exposures of animals and humans to different ambient temperatures are discussed. Additional consideration is given to the potentially altered metabolic and physiologic responses in obese versus lean subjects at a given temperature. The data suggest that ambient temperature is a significant contributor to both energy intake and energy expenditure, and that this variable should be more thoroughly explored in future studies as a potential contributor to obesity susceptibility. PMID:24707450

  13. Endocrine disruptors and obesity.

    PubMed

    Heindel, Jerrold J; Newbold, Retha; Schug, Thaddeus T

    2015-11-01

    The increasing incidence of obesity is a serious global public health challenge. Although the obesity epidemic is largely fueled by poor nutrition and lack of exercise, certain chemicals have been shown to potentially have a role in its aetiology. A substantial body of evidence suggests that a subclass of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which interfere with endocrine signalling, can disrupt hormonally regulated metabolic processes, especially if exposure occurs during early development. These chemicals, so-called 'obesogens' might predispose some individuals to gain weight despite their efforts to limit caloric intake and increase levels of physical activity. This Review discusses the role of EDCs in the obesity epidemic, the latest research on the obesogen concept, epidemiological and experimental findings on obesogens, and their modes of action. The research reviewed here provides knowledge that health scientists can use to inform their research and decision-making processes. PMID:26391979

  14. Genetic obesity syndromes.

    PubMed

    Goldstone, Anthony P; Beales, Philip L

    2008-01-01

    There are numerous reports of multi-system genetic disorders with obesity. Many have a characteristic presentation and several, an overlapping phenotype indicating the likelihood of a shared common underlying mechanism or pathway. By understanding the genetic causes and functional perturbations of such syndromes we stand to gain tremendous insight into obesogenic pathways. In this review we focus particularly on Bardet-Biedl syndrome, whose molecular genetics and cell biology has been elucidated recently, and Prader-Willi syndrome, the commonest obesity syndrome due to loss of imprinted genes on 15q11-13. We also discuss highlights of other genetic obesity syndromes including Alstrom syndrome, Cohen syndrome, Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (pseudohypoparathyroidism), Carpenter syndrome, MOMO syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, cases with deletions of 6q16, 1p36, 2q37 and 9q34, maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14, fragile X syndrome and Börjeson-Forssman-Lehman syndrome. PMID:18230893

  15. Endoscopy in the obese patient.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, Mitchal A; Fennerty, M Brian

    2010-03-01

    Obese patients present many unique challenges to the endoscopist. Special consideration should be given to these patients, and endoscopists need to be aware of the additional challenges that may be present while performing endoscopic procedures on obese patients. This article reviews the special risks that obese patients face while undergoing endoscopy, endoscopic management of patients postbariatric surgery, and future role of endoscopy in the management of obese patients. PMID:20202582

  16. The Medical Aspects of Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichold, Samuel

    Obesity is one of the leading public health problems in the United States. It is associated with drug abuse and increased mortality. In seeking to differentiate between overweight and obese individuals, it may be said that obesity exists in those individuals who are 40% or more above normal weight as determined on commonly used height and weight…

  17. Fight Obesity in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratsis, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    U.S. health experts declared obesity an epidemic over a decade ago. Schools have tried to implement prevention programs for students, but as budgets shrink, educating students about obesity is increasingly falling to classroom instructors, including science teachers. The good news is that obesity-related classroom activities can be engaging, and…

  18. Childhood Obesity: The Caregiver's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haschke, Bernadette

    2003-01-01

    Describes the role caregivers play in helping young children dealing with obesity. Examines: (1) causes of childhood obesity; (2) caregiver's position; (3) learning nutrition concepts; (4) preparing and serving healthy foods; (5) encouraging physical activity; (6) working with parents; and (7) assisting an obese child. (SD)

  19. Childhood Obesity: Prediction and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael D.

    Obesity in children is a problem both insidious and acute. Childhood obesity has been indicated as a forerunner of adult obesity; it is also an immediate problem for the child. Given the lack of evidence for long term maintenance of any weight loss, this paper investigates the etiology of the disorder as a prelude to prevention. Upon review of the…

  20. Obesity and liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ayloo, Subhashini; Armstrong, John; Hurton, Scott; Molinari, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The percentage of overweight and obese patients (OPs) waiting for a liver transplant continues to increase. Despite the significant advances occurred in bariatric medicine, obesity is still considered a relative contraindication to liver transplantation (LT). The main aim of this review is to appraise the literature on the outcomes of OPs undergoing LT, treatments that might reduce their weight before, during or after surgery, and discuss some of the controversies and limitations of the current knowledge with the intent of highlighting areas where future research is needed. PMID:26421262

  1. Guidelines for Obesity Management.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Donna H

    2016-09-01

    This article addresses current best practices in obesity management, primarily through the discussion of 5 guidelines documents: those sponsored by the US National Institutes of Health and the AHA/ACC/TOS, ENDO, ASBP, AACE, and the United Kingdom's NICE. Common to all of these reports is the emphasis on addressing weight management as a pathway to prevention and optimal management of obesity-associated comorbidities (ie, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases). No one of these documents fits all needs; all have a place. Further, no one of these documents is final. As knowledge advances, all will require updating. PMID:27519126

  2. The Psychosocial Burden of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Sarwer, David B; Polonsky, Heather M

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is associated with several comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea, osteoarthritis, and several forms of cancer. Obesity and its comorbidities also come with a significant psychosocial burden, impacting numerous areas of psychosocial functioning. The evaluation of psychosocial functioning is an important part of the assessment and treatment planning for the patient with obesity. This article provides an overview of the psychosocial burden of obesity. The article also describes the psychological changes typically seen with weight loss. A particular focus is on the psychosocial functioning of individuals with extreme obesity who present for and undergo bariatric surgery. PMID:27519139

  3. Psychological issues in pediatric obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Gurvinder; De Sousa, Avinash; Sonavane, Sushma; Shah, Nilesh

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric obesity is a major health problem and has reached epidemiological proportions today. The present paper reviews major psychological issues in pediatric obesity from a developmental perspective. Research and literature has shown that a number of developmental, family, maternal and child factors are responsible in the genesis of pediatric obesity. Family food habits, early developmental lifestyle of the child, parenting, early family relationships and harmony all contribute towards the growth and development of a child. The present review focuses on the role of developmental psychological factors in the pathogenesis of pediatric obesity and highlights the developmental factors that must be kept in mind when evaluating a case of pediatric obesity. PMID:23766572

  4. Options on obesity.

    PubMed

    Dean, Erin

    Obesity is a major problem, putting increasing pressure on specialists services. Weight-loss programmer provided by multidisciplinary teams and based in hospitals or the community are achieving considerable success, with some candidates for bariatric surgery losing so much weight they no longer seek surgery. Nurses take an important and rewarding role in these services. PMID:23902194

  5. Victimization of Obese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and…

  6. Financial hardship and obesity.

    PubMed

    Averett, Susan L; Smith, Julie K

    2014-12-01

    There is a substantial correlation between household debt and health. Individuals with less healthy lifestyles are more likely to hold debt, yet there is little evidence as to whether this is merely a correlation or if financial hardship actually causes obesity. In this paper, we use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health to test whether financial hardship affects body weight. We divide our sample into two groups: men and women, explore two different types of financial hardship: holding credit card debt and having trouble paying bills, and three outcomes: overweight, obese and body mass index (BMI). We use a variety of econometric techniques: Ordinary Least Squares, Propensity Score Matching, Sibling Fixed Effects, and Instrumental Variables to investigate the relationship that exists between financial hardship and body weight. In addition, we conduct several robustness checks. Although our OLS and PSM results indicate a correlation between financial hardship and body weight these results appear to be largely driven by unobservables. Our IV results suggest that there is no causal relationship between credit card debt and overweight or obesity for either men or women. However, we find suggestive evidence that having trouble paying bills may be a cause of obesity for women. PMID:24411309

  7. Behavioral management of obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The behavioral management of obesity is an approach designed to provide individuals with a set of skills that promote a healthier weight. A number of strategies are used to assist individuals in making gradual changes that can realistically be incorporated into their lives. Evidence is promising f...

  8. Games and childhood obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Videogames can be used to help children change their obesity-related diet and physical activity behaviors. A review of the relevant literature in this special issue of the Games for Health Journal indicated that video games did influence children's adiposity, but only among children who were alread...

  9. [Inflammation and obesity (lipoinflammation)].

    PubMed

    Izaola, Olatz; de Luis, Daniel; Sajoux, Ignacio; Domingo, Joan Carles; Vidal, Montse

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease with multiple origins. It is a widespread global phenomenon carrying potentially serious complications which requires a multidisciplinary approach due to the significant clinical repercussions and elevated health costs associated with the disease. The most recent evidence indicates that it shares a common characteristic with other prevalent, difficult-to-treat pathologies: chronic, low-grade inflammation which perpetuates the disease and is associated with multiple complications. The current interest in lipoinflammation or chronic inflammation associated with obesity derives from an understanding of the alterations and remodelling that occurs in the adipose tissue, with the participation of multiple factors and elements throughout the process. Recent research highlights the importance of some of these molecules, called pro-resolving mediators, as possible therapeutic targets in the treatment of obesity. This article reviews the evidence published on the mechanisms that regulate the adipose tissue remodelling process and lipoinflammation both in obesity and in the mediators that are directly involved in the appearance and resolution of the inflammatory process. PMID:26040339

  10. Pharmacotherapy for obesity.

    PubMed

    Joo, Jong Kil; Lee, Kyu Sup

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important risk factor for metabolic disease and various cancers. Treatments of obesity include lifestyle intervention, pharmacotherapy, and bariatric surgery. If weight loss with lifestyle intervention is only modest, pharmacotherapy might be needed. Pharmacotherapy agents can be grouped by treatment period as short term or long term use agent. Several sympathomimetic drugs such as benzphetamine, diethylpropion, phendimetrazine and phentermine, are approved for short term treatment due to their safety issues. For long term treatment, orlistat, lorcaserin, and combination of phentermine/topiramate are approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Orlistat partially blocks intestinal digestion of fat, therefore producing weight loss. Lorcaserin is a serotonin 2C receptor agonist. The combination of phentermine/topiramate produces a mean weight loss of 8-10 kg. Side effects of each drug are quite different. For obesity patient, side effects are important factor when choosing drugs. The goal of this article is to review currently available anti-obesity drugs. PMID:25580419

  11. Pharmacotherapy for Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Jong Kil

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is an important risk factor for metabolic disease and various cancers. Treatments of obesity include lifestyle intervention, pharmacotherapy, and bariatric surgery. If weight loss with lifestyle intervention is only modest, pharmacotherapy might be needed. Pharmacotherapy agents can be grouped by treatment period as short term or long term use agent. Several sympathomimetic drugs such as benzphetamine, diethylpropion, phendimetrazine and phentermine, are approved for short term treatment due to their safety issues. For long term treatment, orlistat, lorcaserin, and combination of phentermine/topiramate are approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Orlistat partially blocks intestinal digestion of fat, therefore producing weight loss. Lorcaserin is a serotonin 2C receptor agonist. The combination of phentermine/topiramate produces a mean weight loss of 8-10 kg. Side effects of each drug are quite different. For obesity patient, side effects are important factor when choosing drugs. The goal of this article is to review currently available anti-obesity drugs. PMID:25580419

  12. Dietary polyphenols and obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity and their associated metabolic disorders are considered a major threat to the public’s health. While several diet and exercise programs are available for weight loss and prevention of weight regain, progresses often slow and disappointing. Recently, natural b...

  13. Multi-Caused Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Anne C.

    2006-01-01

    Headlines recently were full of studies about the obesity problem of America's children and young people, as if kids became overweight without anyone noticing. An accumulation of both school and family habits, however, have been contributing to the fact that at least 13% of children ages 7 to 11 are overweight, double those of the 1970s (and…

  14. Dermatological complications of obesity.

    PubMed

    García Hidalgo, Linda

    2002-01-01

    Obesity is a health problem of considerable magnitude in the Western world. Dermatological changes have been reported in patients with obesity, including: acanthosis nigricans and skin tags (due to insulin resistance); hyperandrogenism; striae due to over extension; stasis pigmentation due to peripheral vascular disease; lymphedema; pathologies associated with augmented folds; morphologic changes in the foot anatomy due to excess load; and complications that may arise from hospitalization. Acanthosis nigricans plaques can be managed by improved control of hyperinsulinemia; the vitamin D3 analog calcipitriol has also been shown to be effective. Skin tags can be removed by snipping with curved scissors, by cryotherapy or by electrodesiccation. Hyperandrogenism, a result of increased production of endogenous androgens due to increased volumes of adipose tissue (which synthesizes testosterone) and hyperinsulinemia (which increases the production of ovarian androgens) needs to be carefully assessed to ensure disorders such as virilizing tumors and congenital adrenal hyperplasia are treated appropriately. Treatment of hyperandrogenism should be centred on controlling insulin levels; weight loss, oral contraceptive and antiandrogenic therapies are also possible treatment options. The etiology of striae distensae, also known as stretch marks, is yet to be defined and treatment options are unsatisfactory at present; striae rubra and alba have been treated with a pulsed dye laser with marginal success. The relationship between obesity and varicose veins is controversial; symptoms are best prevented by the use of elastic stockings. Itching and inflammation associated with stasis pigmentation, the result of red blood cells escaping into the tissues, can be treated with corticosteroids. Lymphedema is associated with dilatation of tissue channels, reduced tissue oxygenation and provides a culture medium for bacterial growth. Lymphedema treatment is directed towards reducing the

  15. Increased protein aggregation in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rat brain: identification of key mechanistic targets and the therapeutic application of hydrogen sulfide

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes and particularly high blood glucose levels are implicated in neurodegeneration. One of the hallmarks of neurodegeneration is protein aggregation. We investigated the presence of protein aggregation in the frontal brain of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, an animal model for diabetes. Further, the effect of NaHS in suppressing protein aggregation in cultured brain slices from ZDF was assessed. Results The levels of protein synthesis, protein/gene expression, autophagy and anti-oxidant defense were evaluated in ZDF and control (Lean) brains. Compared to Lean, ZDF brains displayed a significant increase in protein aggregates, p-tau, fibronectin expression and protein glycosylation. Increased phosphorylation of mTOR and S6 ribosomal protein in ZDF indicated higher protein synthesis, while the increase in ubiquitinated proteins and LC3-I in ZDF brains accompanied by lower LC3-II expression and LC3-II/LC3-I levels indicated the blockage of proteolytic pathways. CBS (cystathionine beta synthase) protein and mRNA expression and thiol group levels in ZDF brains were lower compared to Lean. ZDF brains show a higher level of reactive oxygen species. In vitro NaHS treatment normalized proteostasis while counteracting oxidative stress. Conclusion Our data demonstrate increased protein synthesis and aggregation in the diabetic ZDF rat brain, which was reversible by NaHS treatment. This is the first report on the potential use of NaHS as a novel strategy against protein aggregation in diabetic brain. PMID:24393531

  16. Combination of 5-aminolevulinic acid and ferrous ion reduces plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Hara, Takeshi; Koda, Aya; Nozawa, Naoko; Ota, Urara; Kondo, Hikaru; Nakagawa, Hitoshi; Kamiya, Atsuko; Miyashita, Kazutoshi; Itoh, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Motowo; Tanaka, Tohru

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a natural amino acid produced only in the mitochondria, is a precursor of heme. Cytochromes that contain heme play an important role in aerobic energy metabolism. Thus, ALA may help reduce T2DM-associated hyperglycemia. In this study, we investigated the effect of ALA combined with sodium ferrous citrate (SFC) on hyperglycemia in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. We found that the gavage administration of ALA combined with SFC (ALA/SFC) for 6 weeks reduced plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels in rats without affecting plasma insulin levels. The glucose-lowering effect depended on the amount of ALA/SFC administered per day. Furthermore, the glucose tolerance was also significantly improved by ALA/SFC administration. Although food intake was slightly reduced in the rats administered ALA/SFC, there was no effect on their body weight. Importantly, ALA/SFC administration induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in white adipose tissue and liver, and the induced expression levels of HO-1 correlated with the glucose-lowering effects of ALA/SFC. Taken together, these results suggest that ALA combined with ferrous ion is effective in reducing hyperglycemia of T2DM without affecting plasma insulin levels. HO-1 induction may be involved in the mechanisms underlying the glucose-lowering effect of ALA/SFC. PMID:27239432

  17. Metabolomics Study of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and the AntiDiabetic Effect of Berberine in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats Using Uplc-ESI-Hdms.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yu; Chen, Yi-Tao; Yang, Yuan-Xiao; Zhou, Xiao-Jie; Dai, Shi-Jie; Tong, Jun-Feng; Shou, Dan; Li, Changyu

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the anti-diabetic effect of berberine in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. A urinary metabolomics analysis was performed with ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization synapt high-definition mass spectrometry. Pattern recognition approaches were integrated to discover differentiating metabolites. We identified 29 ions (13 in negative mode and 16 in positive mode) as 'differentiating metabolites' with this metabolomic approach. A functional pathway analysis revealed that the alterations were mainly associated with glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, pentose and glucuronate interconversions and sphingolipid metabolism. These results indicated that the dysfunctions of glycometabolism and lipometabolism are involved in the pathological process of T2DM. Berberine could decrease the serum levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, total cholesterol and triglyceride and increase the secretion of insulin. The urinary metabolomics analysis showed that berberine could reduce the concentrations of citric acid, tetrahydrocortisol, ribothymidine and sphinganine to a near-normal state. These results suggested that the anti-diabetic effect of berberine occurred mainly via its regulation of glycometabolism and lipometabolism and activation of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase. Our work not only provides a better understanding of the anti-diabetic effect of berberine in ZDF rats but also supplies a useful database for further study in humans and for investigating the pharmacological actions of drugs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26888689

  18. The Estrogen Hypothesis of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Grantham, James P.; Henneberg, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    The explanation of obesity as a simple result of positive energy balance fails to account for the scope of variable responses to diets and lifestyles. It is postulated that individual physiological and anatomical variation may be responsible for developing obesity. Girls in poor families develop greater adiposity than their male siblings, a trend not present in richer environments. This indicates strong influence of estrogen on fat accumulation irrespective of poor socioeconomic conditions. Obesity rates in males and females of developed nations are similar, while in poorer nations obesity is much more prevalent in females. Female to male ratio of obesity correlates inversely with gross domestic product. Therefore, the parity of male and female obesity in developed countries may result from male exposure to environmental estrogen-like substances associated with affluence. These hormonally driven mechanisms may be equally active within both sexes in more developed areas, thereby increasing overall obesity. PMID:24915457

  19. Psychiatric comorbidity of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Kalarchian, Melissa A; Marcus, Marsha D

    2012-06-01

    The onset of psychiatric symptoms and disorders is relatively common in childhood, occurring among youths across the weight spectrum. However, available research suggests that certain psychiatric comorbidities are more prevalent in obese children and adolescents than in healthy weight youths. First, we review research on disordered eating, including evidence to suggest that loss of control eating is associated with weight gain and obesity in youths, as well as poor outcome in family-based treatment of paediatric obesity. Second, we highlight evidence on the relationship between depression and obesity, especially in girls. Third, we present data on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), particularly the symptoms of impulsivity and inattention, and childhood obesity. We also consider that some medical conditions and psychotropic medications contribute to weight gain and obesity in children and adolescents. Throughout the review, we emphasize that psychiatric comorbidity may be a cause or consequence of childhood obesity, or they may share common aetiological factors. PMID:22724645

  20. Pediatric Obesity: Etiology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Melissa K.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis This paper reviews factors that contribute to excessive weight gain in children and outlines current knowledge regarding approaches for treating pediatric obesity. Virtually all of the known genetic causes of obesity primarily increase energy intake. Genes regulating the leptin signaling pathway are particularly important for human energy homeostasis. Obesity is a chronic disorder that requires long-term strategies for management. The foundation for all treatments for pediatric obesity remains restriction of energy intake with lifestyle modification. There are few long-term studies of pharmacotherapeutic interventions for pediatric obesity. Bariatric surgical approaches are the most efficacious obesity treatments but, because of their potential risks, are reserved for those with the most significant complications of obesity. PMID:19717003

  1. No insulating effect of obesity.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Alexander W; Csikasz, Robert I; von Essen, Gabriella; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan

    2016-07-01

    The development of obesity may be aggravated if obesity itself insulates against heat loss and thus diminishes the amount of food burnt for body temperature control. This would be particularly important under normal laboratory conditions where mice experience a chronic cold stress (at ≈20°C). We used Scholander plots (energy expenditure plotted against ambient temperature) to examine the insulation (thermal conductance) of mice, defined as the inverse of the slope of the Scholander curve at subthermoneutral temperatures. We verified the method by demonstrating that shaved mice possessed only half the insulation of nonshaved mice. We examined a series of obesity models [mice fed high-fat diets and kept at different temperatures, classical diet-induced obese mice, ob/ob mice, and obesity-prone (C57BL/6) vs. obesity-resistant (129S) mice]. We found that neither acclimation temperature nor any kind or degree of obesity affected the thermal insulation of the mice when analyzed at the whole mouse level or as energy expenditure per lean weight. Calculation per body weight erroneously implied increased insulation in obese mice. We conclude that, in contrast to what would be expected, obesity of any kind does not increase thermal insulation in mice, and therefore, it does not in itself aggravate the development of obesity. It may be discussed as to what degree of effect excess adipose tissue has on insulation in humans and especially whether significant metabolic effects are associated with insulation in humans. PMID:27189935

  2. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity. PMID:25949965

  3. Orexin: Pathways to obesity resistance?

    PubMed Central

    Butterick, Tammy A.; Billington, Charles J.; Kotz, Catherine M.; Nixon, Joshua P.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has increased in prevalence worldwide, attributed in part to the influences of an obesity-promoting environment and genetic factors. While obesity and overweight increasingly seem to be the norm, there remain individuals who resist obesity. We present here an overview of data supporting the idea that hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin A (OXA; hypocretin 1) may be a key component of brain mechanisms underlying obesity resistance. Prior work with models of obesity and obesity resistance in rodents has shown that increased orexin and/or orexin sensitivity is correlated with elevated spontaneous physical activity (SPA), and that orexin-induced SPA contributes to obesity resistance via increased non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT). However, central hypothalamic orexin signaling mechanisms that regulate SPA remain undefined. Our ongoing studies and work of others support the hypothesis that one such mechanism may be upregulation of a hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α)-dependent pathway, suggesting that orexin may promote obesity resistance both by increasing SPA and by influencing the metabolic state of orexin-responsive hypothalamic neurons. We discuss potential mechanisms based on both animal and in vitro pharmacological studies, in the context of elucidating potential molecular targets for obesity prevention and therapy. PMID:24005942

  4. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity. PMID:25949965

  5. Juvenile Obesity, Physical Activity, and Lifestyle Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-Or, Oded

    2000-01-01

    Because many obese children become obese adults, the recent rapid increase in juvenile obesity poses a major public health challenge. Enhanced physical activity is a cornerstone in a multidisciplinary approach to preventing and treating juvenile obesity. Giving exercise recommendations focused for obese youth is critical. Cutting down on sedentary…

  6. Management of obesity.

    PubMed

    Bray, George A; Frühbeck, Gema; Ryan, Donna H; Wilding, John P H

    2016-05-01

    A modern approach to obesity acknowledges the multifactorial determinants of weight gain and the health benefits to be derived from weight loss. Foundational to any weight loss effort is lifestyle change, diet, and increased physical activity. The approach should be a high quality diet to which patients will adhere accompanied by an exercise prescription describing frequency, intensity, type, and time with a minimum of 150 min moderate weekly activity. For patients who struggle with weight loss and who would receive health benefit from weight loss, management of medications that are contributing to weight gain and use of approved medications for chronic weight management along with lifestyle changes are appropriate. Medications approved in the USA or European Union are orlistat, naltrexone/bupropion, and liraglutide; in the USA, lorcaserin and phentermine/topiramate are also available. Surgical management (gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy, and Roux-en Y gastric bypass) can produce remarkable health improvement and reduce mortality for patients with severe obesity. PMID:26868660

  7. Obesity in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ismail, M N; Chee, S S; Nawawi, H; Yusoff, K; Lim, T O; James, W P T

    2002-08-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the recent data on Malaysian adult body weights and associations of ethnic differences in overweight and obesity with comorbid risk factors, and to examine measures of energy intake, energy expenditure, basal metabolic rate (BMR) and physical activity changes in urban and rural populations of normal weight. Three studies were included (1) a summary of a national health morbidity survey conducted in 1996 on nearly 29 000 adults > or =20 years of age; (2) a study comparing energy intake, BMR and physical activity levels (PALs) in 409 ethnically diverse, healthy adults drawn from a population of 1165 rural and urban subjects 18-60 years of age; and (3) an examination of the prevalence of obesity and comorbid risk factors that predict coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes in 609 rural Malaysians aged 30-65 years. Overweight and obesity were calculated using body mass index (BMI) measures and World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Energy intake was assessed using 3-d food records, BMR and PALs were assessed with Douglas bags and activity diaries, while hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and glucose intolerance were specified using standard criteria. The National Health Morbidity Survey data revealed that in adults, 20.7% were overweight and 5.8% obese (0.3% of whom had BMI values of >40.0 kg m(-2)); the prevalence of obesity was clearly greater in women than in men. In women, obesity rates were higher in Indian and Malay women than in Chinese women, while in men the Chinese recorded the highest obesity prevalences followed by the Malay and Indians. Studies on normal healthy subjects indicated that the energy intake of Indians was significantly lower than that of other ethnic groups. In women, Malays recorded a significantly higher energy intake than the other groups. Urban male subjects consumed significantly more energy than their rural counterparts, but this was not the case in women. In both men and women, fat intakes (%) were

  8. Gut microbiota and obesity.

    PubMed

    Scarpellini, Emidio; Campanale, Mariachiara; Leone, Diana; Purchiaroni, Flaminia; Vitale, Giovanna; Lauritano, Ernesto Cristiano; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2010-10-01

    Intestinal epithelium, mucosal immune system, and bacterial flora represent a morpho-functional system on dynamic balance responsible for the intestinal metabolic and trophic functions, and the regulation of mucosal and systemic host's immunity. Obesity is a pathological condition affecting a growing number of people especially in the Western countries resulting from the failure of the organism's energetic balance based on the perfect equality of income, waste, and storage. Recent evidences explain the mechanisms for the microbial regulation of the host's metabolism both in health and disease. In particular, animal studies have explained how quali-/quantitative changes in microflora composition are able to affect the absorption of the nutrients and the energy distribution. Antibiotics, prebiotics, probiotics, and symbiotics are the instruments utilized in the current clinical practice to modulate the intestinal bacterial flora in man both in health and pathologic conditions with promising preliminary results on prevention and therapy of obesity and related metabolic diseases. PMID:20865475

  9. [Psychological consequences of obesity].

    PubMed

    Müller, Roland

    2013-02-01

    Overweight and obesity is associated with a broad variety of stigmatization and discrimination in every day live. Obese people have more difficulties in finding a job, have a lower income, and are less often seen in leadership positions. In society, responsibility for the weight situation in seen as lying by the individuals affected altogether, leading to chronic stress, problems with self esteem and perception of loss of control. As a consequence, there is an increased risk for developing serious psychological problems such as affective and anxiety disorders. As a reaction, coping strategies to deal with the psychological pressure such as dysfunctional eating behavior, binge eating and physical inactivity are used. Females, people belonging to another ethnic or social minority, adolescents and people with eating disorders are considered at increased risk of psychological distress. Psychological vulnerabilities and the consequences of stigmatization need to be considered. Moreover, perceived behavioral control and self esteem are key aspects of to be addressed on the treatment. PMID:23385186

  10. Obesity and mental health.

    PubMed

    Talen, Mary R; Mann, Misty M

    2009-06-01

    Mental health factors contribute to the onset and maintenance of overweight and obese status in children, adolescents, and adults. Binge eating disorder (BED), body image, self-esteem, mood disorders, and social and family factors affect individuals in different ways and contribute to weight gain and failure in weight loss management. Assessment of these mental health factors and treatment by 1 of several mental health treatment models may not only improve self-worth but also weight loss and maintenance. PMID:19501244

  11. Psychosocial Aspects of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Beck, Amy R

    2016-01-01

    This article is the sixth in a series of the comorbidities of childhood obesity and reviews psychosocial aspects with a focus on weight-based victimization and discrimination stemming from weight bias and stigma. Outcomes from these bullying and discriminatory experiences are pervasive and impact youth across all settings, including school. Lastly, this article provides recommendations on how to reduce bias and stigma to better serve these students in the school environment. PMID:26739931

  12. The Risk of Heart Failure and Cardiometabolic Complications in Obesity May Be Masked by an Apparent Healthy Status of Normal Blood Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Shuchita; Mishra, Manish; Jadhav, Ashok; Gerger, Courtney; Lee, Paul; Weber, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Although many obese individuals are normoglycemic and asymptomatic of cardiometabolic complications, this apparent healthy state may be a misnomer. Since heart failure is a major cause of mortality in obesity, we investigated the effects of heme-oxygenase (HO) on heart failure and cardiometabolic complications in obese normoglycemic Zucker-fatty rats (ZFs). Treatment with the HO-inducer, hemin, reduced markers of heart failure, such as osteopontin and osteoprotegerin, abated left-ventricular (LV) hypertrophy/fibrosis, extracellular matrix/profibrotic proteins including collagen IV, fibronectin, TGF-β1, and reduced cardiac lesions. Furthermore, hemin suppressed inflammation by abating macrophage chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage-inflammatory protein-1 alpha, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β but enhanced adiponectin, atrial-natriuretic peptide (ANP), HO activity, insulin sensitivity, and glucose metabolism. Correspondingly, hemin improved several hemodynamic/echocardiographic parameters including LV-diastolic wall thickness, LV-systolic wall thickness, mean-arterial pressure, arterial-systolic pressure, arterial-diastolic pressure, LV-developed pressure, +dP/dt, and cardiac output. Contrarily, the HO-inhibitor, stannous mesoporphyrin nullified the hemin effect, exacerbating inflammatory/oxidative insults and aggravated insulin resistance (HOMA-index). We conclude that perturbations in insulin signaling and cardiac function may be forerunners to overt hyperglycemia and heart failure in obesity. Importantly, hemin improves cardiac function by suppressing markers of heart failure, LV hypertrophy, cardiac lesions, extracellular matrix/profibrotic proteins, and inflammatory/oxidative mediators, while concomitantly enhancing the HO-adiponectin-ANP axis. PMID:24454978

  13. Quantitative histopathological assessment of retardation of islets of langerhans degeneration in rosiglitazone-dosed obese ZDF rats using combined insulin and collagens (I and III) immunohistochemistry with automated image analysis and statistical modeling.

    PubMed

    Jones, Huw B; Bigley, Alison L; Pemberton, John; Randall, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    Islets of Langerhans represent a heterogeneous population in insulin resistant and diabetic animals and humans as histological appearances and function vary substantially. Mathematical representation that reflects this morphological diversity will assist in assessment of degeneration and regeneration, enabling comparisons between species, strains, and experimental investigations. Our investigative approach used a model of islet degeneration in diabetic male obese Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats and evaluated its prevention using rosiglitazone treatment. Immunohistochemical staining (insulin and collagens I/III) with automated image analysis reliably measured numbers, area, clustering, and staining intensity of β-cells and degree of islet fibrosis. Finite mixture mathematical modeling for the joint probability distribution of seven islet parameters to represent islet numerical data variation provided an automatic procedure for islet category allocations as normal or abnormal. Allocations for obese ZDF controls and rosiglitazone-treated animals were significantly different, with no significant difference between the latter and lean ZDF controls, indicative of differences within islet populations of individual animals, between lean and obese rat strains and following drug treatment. Islet morphology showed clear association with mathematical characterization. Information on islet morphology obtained by histopathological assessment of single pancreatic tissue sections was confirmed by this method showing drug-induced retardation of islet of Langerhans degeneration. PMID:23047688

  14. Thyroid Function and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Laurberg, Peter; Knudsen, Nils; Andersen, Stig; Carlé, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Karmisholt, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Important interaction exists between thyroid function, weight control, and obesity. Several mechanisms seem to be involved, and in studies of groups of people the pattern of thyroid function tests depends on the balance of obesity and underlying thyroid disease in the cohort studied. Obese people with a normal thyroid gland tend to have activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis with higher serum TSH and thyroid hormones in serum. On the other hand, small differences in thyroid function are associated with up to 5 kg difference in body weight. The weight loss after therapy of overt hypothyroidism is caused by excretion of water bound in tissues (myxoedema). Many patients treated for hyperthyroidism experience a gain of more weight than they lost during the active phase of the disease. The mechanism for this excessive weight gain has not been fully elucidated. New studies on the relation between L-T3 therapy and weight control are discussed. The interaction between weight control and therapy of thyroid disease is important to many patients and it should be studied in more detail. PMID:24783015

  15. The obesity of bone

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Emanuela A.; Lenzi, Andrea; Migliaccio, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, obesity and osteoporosis have become important global health problems, and the belief that obesity is protective against osteoporosis has recently come into question. In fact, some recent epidemiologic and clinical studies have shown that a high level of fat mass might be a risk factor for osteoporosis and fragility fractures. Several potential mechanisms have been proposed to explain the complex relationship between adipose tissue and bone. Indeed, adipose tissue secretes various molecules, named adipokines, which are thought to have effects on metabolic, skeletal and cardiovascular systems. Moreover, fat tissue is one of the major sources of aromatase, an enzyme that synthesizes estrogens from androgen precursors, hormones that play a pivotal role in the maintenance of skeletal homeostasis, protecting against osteoporosis. Moreover, bone cells express several specific hormone receptors and recent observations have shown that bone-derived factors, such as osteocalcin and osteopontin, affect body weight control and glucose homeostasis. Thus, the skeleton is considered an endocrine target organ and an endocrine organ itself, likely influencing other organs as well. Finally, adipocytes and osteoblasts originate from a common progenitor, a pluripotential mesenchymal stem cell, which has an equal propensity for differentiation into adipocytes or osteoblasts (or other lines) under the influence of several cell-derived transcription factors. This review will highlight recent insights into the relationship between fat and bone, evaluating both potential positive and negative influences between adipose and bone tissue. It will also focus on the hypothesis that osteoporosis might be considered the obesity of bone. PMID:26623005

  16. Thyroid function and obesity.

    PubMed

    Laurberg, Peter; Knudsen, Nils; Andersen, Stig; Carlé, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Karmisholt, Jesper

    2012-10-01

    Important interaction exists between thyroid function, weight control, and obesity. Several mechanisms seem to be involved, and in studies of groups of people the pattern of thyroid function tests depends on the balance of obesity and underlying thyroid disease in the cohort studied. Obese people with a normal thyroid gland tend to have activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis with higher serum TSH and thyroid hormones in serum. On the other hand, small differences in thyroid function are associated with up to 5 kg difference in body weight. The weight loss after therapy of overt hypothyroidism is caused by excretion of water bound in tissues (myxoedema). Many patients treated for hyperthyroidism experience a gain of more weight than they lost during the active phase of the disease. The mechanism for this excessive weight gain has not been fully elucidated. New studies on the relation between L-T3 therapy and weight control are discussed. The interaction between weight control and therapy of thyroid disease is important to many patients and it should be studied in more detail. PMID:24783015

  17. Obesity and Appetite Control

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Jayasena, Channa N.; Bloom, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is one of the major challenges to human health worldwide; however, there are currently no effective pharmacological interventions for obesity. Recent studies have improved our understanding of energy homeostasis by identifying sophisticated neurohumoral networks which convey signals between the brain and gut in order to control food intake. The hypothalamus is a key region which possesses reciprocal connections between the higher cortical centres such as reward-related limbic pathways, and the brainstem. Furthermore, the hypothalamus integrates a number of peripheral signals which modulate food intake and energy expenditure. Gut hormones, such as peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1, oxyntomodulin, and ghrelin, are modulated by acute food ingestion. In contrast, adiposity signals such as leptin and insulin are implicated in both short- and long-term energy homeostasis. In this paper, we focus on the role of gut hormones and their related neuronal networks (the gut-brain axis) in appetite control, and their potentials as novel therapies for obesity. PMID:22899902

  18. Classical endocrine diseases causing obesity.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Jolanta U

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is associated with several endocrine diseases, including common ones such as hypothyroidism and polycystic ovarian syndrome to rare ones such as Cushing's syndrome, central hypothyroidism and hypothalamic disorders. The mechanisms for the development of obesity vary in according to the endocrine condition. Hypothyroidism is associated with accumulation of hyaluronic acid within various tissues, additional fluid retention due to reduced cardiac output and reduced thermogenesis. The pathophysiology of obesity associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome remains complex as obesity itself may simultaneously be the cause and the effect of the syndrome. Net excess of androgen appears to be pivotal in the development of central obesity. In Cushing's syndrome, an interaction with thyroid and growth hormones plays an important role in addition to an increased adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis. This review also describes remaining rare cases: hypothalamic obesity due to central hypothyroidism and combined hormone deficiencies. PMID:18230905

  19. Leucine in Obesity: Therapeutic Prospects.

    PubMed

    Yao, Kang; Duan, Yehui; Li, Fengna; Tan, Bie; Hou, Yongqing; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2016-08-01

    Obesity develops from an imbalance of energy homeostasis and is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation in white adipose tissues (WAT). Inflammation is involved in the pathophysiology of many obesity-induced disorders including insulin resistance and diabetes. Increasing evidence has shown that dietary leucine supplementation positively affects the parameters associated with obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders. The beneficial effects include increased loss of body weight, reduced WAT inflammation, improved lipid and glucose metabolism, enhanced mitochondrial function, and preserved lean body mass. Although these beneficial effects have not been clearly established, dietary leucine supplementation, either alone or as part of a therapeutic regimen, may be a good nutritional tool in the prevention and management of obesity and obesity-induced metabolic disorders. PMID:27256112

  20. Treatment of Obesity with Celastrol

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junli; Lee, Jaemin; Hernandez, Mario Andres Salazar; Mazitschek, Ralph; Ozcan, Umut

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Despite all modern advances in medicine, an effective drug treatment of obesity has not been found yet. Discovery of leptin two decades ago created hopes for treatment of obesity. However, development of leptin resistance has been a big obstacle, mitigating a leptin-centric treatment of obesity. Here, by using in silico drug screening methods we discovered that Celastrol, a pentacyclic triterpene extracted from the roots of Tripterygium Wilfordi (Thunder of God Vine) plant, is a powerful anti-obesity agent. Celastrol suppresses food intake, blocks reduction of energy expenditure and leads up to 45% weight loss in hyperleptinemic diet-induced obese (DIO) mice by increasing leptin sensitivity, but is ineffective in leptin-deficient (ob/ob) or leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mouse models. These results indicate that Celastrol is a leptin sensitizer and a promising agent for the pharmacological treatment of obesity. PMID:26000480

  1. [Obesity in prehospital emergency care].

    PubMed

    Kruska, Patricia; Kappus, Stefan; Kerner, Thoralf

    2012-09-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased steadily in recent years. Obese people often suffer from diseases which acute decompensation requires a prompt prehospital therapy. The Emergency Medical Service will be confronted with difficulties in clinical diagnostic, therapy and especially with a delayed management of rescue and transport. It is most important to avoid prehospital depreciation in quality and time management. This article reviews the specific requirements of prehospital care of obese persons and discusses possible solutions to optimize the prehospital therapy. PMID:22968983

  2. Obesity in the cardiovascular continuum.

    PubMed

    Persic, Viktor

    2013-05-01

    A higher prevalence of coronary heart disease, cardiac and overall mortality is associated with obesity. The development of obesity appears in different adaptations in the morphology of cardiac structure and function. Obesity causes eccentric hypertrophy and changes in diastolic function of left ventricle. A systolic on diastolic heart dysfunction results from the breakdown of compensatory pace to raised wall stress and dilatation of chambers. Obesity does not possess primary cause and effect relationship with cardiovascular disease, such as LDL cholesterol. It is regarded as a means of facilitating factors such as hypertension, diabetes or cigarette smoking. Adipose tissue in this manner works as the hormone generating tissue, secreting various peptides and secondary messengers and inflammatory cytokines. Pharmacotherapy can be a useful component in the global fight against obesity. Besides repeating re-evaluations of weight loosing drug treatment with respect to efficiency or safety for continuous use, one must not underappreciate the pretreatment risk-assessments and expected benefits of treatment, along with impact on the patient's quality of life and motivation. Pharmacotherapy of obesity is reserved for obese people with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2 but also in individuals with BMI 27 .0 and 29 .9 kg/m2 and obesity related comorbidities as obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension, dyslipidemias, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Although connections between obesity and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are acknowledged for over dozen of years, there is still a lack of scientific research into the field and it is a challenge for future studies. PMID:22950957

  3. Progressive Care of Obese Patients.

    PubMed

    Dambaugh, Lori A; Ecklund, Margaret M

    2016-08-01

    Obese patients have complex needs that complicate their care during hospitalization. These patients often have comorbid conditions, including hypertension, heart failure, obstructive sleep apnea, pressure ulcers, and difficulty with mobility. Obese patients may be well served in the progressive care setting because they may require more intensive nursing care than can be delivered in a general care unit. Progressive care nurses have core competencies that enable them to safely and effectively care for obese patients. A plan of care with interdisciplinary collaboration illustrates the integrative care for obese progressive care patients. (Critical Care Nurse 2016; 36[4]:58-63). PMID:27481802

  4. Causes and risks for obesity - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... and may become obese. No single factor or behavior causes obesity . Obesity is caused by many things, ... we are children may strongly affect our eating behaviors as adults. When we repeat these behaviors over ...

  5. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  6. Obese Preschoolers More Likely to Be Hospitalized

    MedlinePlus

    ... are about 60 percent higher for obese kids. "Childhood obesity is a serious public health issue, and is ... Sydney. "In addition to the health impacts of childhood obesity, there are major economic impacts, which may occur ...

  7. Obesity Rates Rising Among Women: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159239.html Obesity Rates Rising Among Women: CDC Though a major ... are another group that continues to struggle with obesity. "Obesity remains a public health concern," said Cynthia ...

  8. Obesity and psoriasis: inflammatory nature of obesity, relationship between psoriasis and obesity, and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Carrascosa, J M; Rocamora, V; Fernandez-Torres, R M; Jimenez-Puya, R; Moreno, J C; Coll-Puigserver, N; Fonseca, E

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, particularly abdominal obesity, is currently considered a chronic low-grade inflammatory condition that plays an active role in the development of the pathophysiologic phenomena responsible for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease through the secretion of proinflammatory adipokines and cytokines. In recent years clear genetic, pathogenic, and epidemiologic links have been established between psoriasis and obesity, with important implications for health. The relationship between the 2 conditions is probably bidirectional, with obesity predisposing to psoriasis and psoriasis favoring obesity. Obesity also has important implications in the treatment of psoriasis, such as a greater risk of adverse effects with conventional systemic drugs and reduced efficacy and/or increased cost with biologic agents, for which dosage should be adjusted to the patient's weight. PMID:23177976

  9. An Investigative Study of Pancreatic Exocrine Biomarkers, Histology, and Histomorphometry in Male Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) Rats Given Dulaglutide by Subcutaneous Injection Twice Weekly for 13 Weeks.

    PubMed

    Usborne, Amy; Byrd, Richard A; Meehan, James; Blackbourne, Jamie L; Sullivan, John; Poitout-Belissent, Florence; Prefontaine, Annick; Martin, Jennifer A; Vahle, John L

    2015-12-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist therapy has been implicated as a possible risk factor for acute pancreatitis in patients with type 2 diabetes. Dulaglutide is a long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonist in development for treatment of type 2 diabetes. The effects of dulaglutide were evaluated in male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats to examine whether dulaglutide may induce or modulate pancreatitis. Rats were randomized to dose groups receiving twice-weekly subcutaneously administered dulaglutide 0.5, 1.5, and 5.0 mg/kg/dose (corresponding human plasma exposures following twice-weekly dosing are 3-, 8-, and 30-fold, respectively) for 13 weeks or to vehicle control. Following termination, serially trimmed sections of pancreases were stained with hematoxylin and eosin or co-stained with an epithelial marker and a marker of either proliferation or apoptosis. Efficacious reductions in glucose and hemoglobin A1c occurred at all dulaglutide doses. Lipase activity was unaffected, and there were modest increases in total and pancreatic amylase activities at all doses without individual microscopic inflammatory correlates. Microscopic dulaglutide-related pancreatic changes included increased interlobular ductal epithelium without ductal cell proliferation (≥0.5 mg/kg), increased acinar atrophy with/without inflammation (≥1.5 mg/kg), and increased incidence/severity of neutrophilic acinar pancreatic inflammation (5.0 mg/kg). In summary, dulaglutide treatment was associated with mild alterations in ductal epithelium and modest exacerbation of spontaneous lesions of the exocrine pancreas typically found in the ZDF rat model. PMID:26269615

  10. Protection against Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury at Onset of Type 2 Diabetes in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats Is Associated with Altered Glucose Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Povlsen, Jonas Agerlund; Løfgren, Bo; Dalgas, Christian; Birkler, Rune Isak Dupont; Johannsen, Mogens; Støttrup, Nicolaj Brejnholt; Bøtker, Hans Erik

    2013-01-01

    Background Inhibition of glucose oxidation during initial reperfusion confers protection against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in the heart. Mitochondrial metabolism is altered with progression of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We hypothesized that the metabolic alterations present at onset of T2DM induce cardioprotection by metabolic shutdown during IR, and that chronic alterations seen in late T2DM cause increased IR injury. Methods Isolated perfused hearts from 6 (prediabetic), 12 (onset of T2DM) and 24 (late T2DM) weeks old male Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF) and their age-matched heterozygote controls were subjected to 40 min ischemia/120 min reperfusion. IR injury was assessed by TTC-staining. Myocardial glucose metabolism was evaluated by glucose tracer kinetics (glucose uptake-, glycolysis- and glucose oxidation rates), myocardial microdialysis (metabolomics) and tissue glycogen measurements. Results T2DM altered the development in sensitivity towards IR injury compared to controls. At late diabetes ZDF hearts suffered increased damage, while injury was decreased at onset of T2DM. Coincident with cardioprotection, oxidation of exogenous glucose was decreased during the initial and normalized after 5 minutes of reperfusion. Metabolomic analysis of citric acid cycle intermediates demonstrated that cardioprotection was associated with a reversible shutdown of mitochondrial glucose metabolism during ischemia and early reperfusion at onset of but not at late type 2 diabetes. Conclusions The metabolic alterations of type 2 diabetes are associated with protection against IR injury at onset but detrimental effects in late diabetes mellitus consistent with progressive dysfunction of glucose oxidation. These findings may explain the variable efficacy of cardioprotective interventions in individuals with type 2 diabetes. PMID:23704975

  11. The sodium glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitor empagliflozin preserves β-cell mass and restores glucose homeostasis in the male zucker diabetic fatty rat.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Henrik H; Jelsing, Jacob; Hansen, Carl Frederik; Hansen, Gitte; Vrang, Niels; Mark, Michael; Klein, Thomas; Mayoux, Eric

    2014-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by impaired β-cell function associated with progressive reduction of insulin secretion and β-cell mass. Evidently, there is an unmet need for treatments with greater sustainability in β-cell protection and antidiabetic efficacy. Through an insulin and β cell-independent mechanism, empagliflozin, a specific sodium glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, may potentially provide longer efficacy. This study compared the antidiabetic durability of empagliflozin treatment (10 mg/kg p.o.) against glibenclamide (3 mg/kg p.o.) and liraglutide (0.2 mg/kg s.c.) on deficient glucose homeostasis and β-cell function in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Empagliflozin and liraglutide led to marked improvements in fed glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels, as well as impeding a progressive decline in insulin levels. In contrast, glibenclamide was ineffective. Whereas the effects of liraglutide were less pronounced at week 8 of treatment compared with week 4, those of empagliflozin remained stable throughout the study period. Similarly, empagliflozin improved glucose tolerance and preserved insulin secretion after both 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. These effects were reflected by less reduction in β-cell mass with empagliflozin or liraglutide at week 4, whereas only empagliflozin showed β-cell sparing effects also at week 8. Although this study cannot be used to dissociate the absolute antidiabetic efficacy among the different mechanisms of drug action, the study demonstrates that empagliflozin exerts a more sustained improvement of glucose homeostasis and β-cell protection in the ZDF rat. In comparison with other type 2 diabetic treatments, SGLT-2 inhibitors may through insulin-independent pathways thus enhance durability of β-cell protection and antidiabetic efficacy. PMID:24993361

  12. Polyphenol-Rich Bilberry Ameliorates Total Cholesterol and LDL-Cholesterol when Implemented in the Diet of Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    PubMed Central

    Brader, Lea; Overgaard, Ann; Christensen, Lars P.; Jeppesen, Per B.; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bilberries and blackcurrants are nutrient sources rich in bioactive components, including dietary fibers, polyphenols, and anthocyanins, which possess potent cardiovascular protective properties. Few studies investigating the cardio-protective effects of natural components have focused on whole bilberries or blackcurrants. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this trial was to investigate whether a diet enriched with bilberries or blackcurrants has beneficial effects on glucose metabolism, lipid profile, blood pressure, and expression of genes related to glucose and lipid metabolism. METHODS: Male Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats (n = 48) were randomly assigned to either a control, bilberry-enriched, blackcurrant-enriched, or fiber-enriched diet for 8 weeks ad libitum. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis was performed on liver, adipose, and muscle tissue. Berry polyphenol content was determined by HPLC and LC-MS analysis. RESULTS: Bilberry enrichment reduced total (-21%, p = 0.0132) and LDL-cholesterol (-60%, p = 0.0229) levels, but increased HDL-cholesterol to a lesser extent than in controls. This may partly be due to the altered hepatic liver X receptor-α expression (-24%, p < 0.001). Neither bilberries nor blackcurrants influenced glucose metabolism or blood pressure. Nevertheless, transcriptional analysis implied a better conservation of hepatic and adipocyte insulin sensitivity by bilberry enrichment. Anthocyanins constituted 91% and 87% of total polyphenol content in bilberries and blackcurrants, respectively. However, total anthocyanin content (3441 mg/100 g) was 4-fold higher in bilberries than in blackcurrants (871 mg/100 g). CONCLUSIONS: Bilberry consumption ameliorated total and LDL-cholesterol levels, but not HDL-cholesterol levels in ZDF rats. Neither bilberry nor blackcurrant enrichment delayed the development of diabetes or hypertension. Thus, in rats, bilberries may be valuable as a dietary preventive agent against hypercholesterolemia, probably by

  13. Perceived Weight Discrimination and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI) by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female) completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58–4.08) and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06–4.97) than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education) and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race) were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity. PMID:23894586

  14. [Obesity, migration and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Chamay-Weber, Catherine; Shehu-Brovina, Shqipe; Narring, Françoise

    2012-06-13

    Weight management interventions during adolescence are challenging. Migration adds complexity to this problem, making migrant families more vulnerable. Teenagers confront families to new values transmitted by the host society: opulence, junk food, video games. Obesity should not be seen as a single issue of calories-excess, but must be considered as being part of a larger problem, which takes into account the context of the familial and societal life of the migrants. The caregivers must have an overall view of the situation to provide appropriate approaches to weight management. PMID:22787729

  15. College Women's Attitudes Toward Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambless, Jim R.; Anderson, Eugene R.

    This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between college women's attitudes toward obesity and their own body weight. Subjects were placed in three categories: (1) acceptable level of body fat, (2) overweight, and (3) obese. Correlational techniques were used to determine the relationship between the subjects percent of body fat and…

  16. Irrational Beliefs of the Obese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Ronald C.; And Others

    The incidence and extent of irrational beliefs in the obese were investigated as well as subsequent changes in such beliefs as a result of participation in a self-monitored weight control program. Subjects were 53 females who were a minimum of 10 pounds and an average of 32 pounds overweight. The obese sample was administered the Irrational…

  17. Television, Obesity, and Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Dietz

    1993-10-01

    Two national survey from the early 1960s indicate that the prevalence of obesity is directly related to the amount of time spent in viewing television in young people aged 6 to 17 years. The author discusses the mechanisms by which television affects obesity and other eating disorders. PMID:10356231

  18. Prepregnancy Obesity and Birth Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Averett, Susan L; Fletcher, Erin K

    2016-03-01

    Objective To investigate the association between prepregnancy obesity and birth outcomes using fixed effect models comparing siblings from the same mother. Methods A total of 7496 births to 3990 mothers from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 survey are examined. Outcomes include macrosomia, gestational length, incidence of low birthweight, preterm birth, large and small for gestational age (LGA, SGA), c-section, infant doctor visits, mother's and infant's days in hospital post-partum, whether the mother breastfed, and duration of breastfeeding. Association of outcomes with maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was examined using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression to compare across mothers and fixed effects to compare within families. Results In fixed effect models we find no statistically significant association between most outcomes and prepregnancy obesity with the exception of LGA, SGA, low birth weight, and preterm birth. We find that prepregnancy obesity is associated with a with lower risk of low birthweight, SGA, and preterm birth but controlling for prepregnancy obesity, increases in GWG lead to increased risk of LGA. Conclusions Contrary to previous studies, which have found that maternal obesity increases the risk of c-section, macrosomia, and LGA, while decreasing the probability of breastfeeding, our sibling comparison models reveal no such association. In fact, our results suggest a protective effect of obesity in that women who are obese prepregnancy have longer gestation lengths, and are less likely to give birth to a preterm or low birthweight infant. PMID:26515472

  19. Obesity Gene Atlas in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Kunej, Tanja; Jevsinek Skok, Dasa; Zorc, Minja; Ogrinc, Ana; Michal, Jennifer J.; Kovac, Milena; Jiang, Zhihua

    2013-01-01

    Obesity in humans has increased at an alarming rate over the past two decades and has become one of the leading public health problems worldwide. Studies have revealed a large number of genes/markers that are associated with obesity and/or obesity-related phenotypes, indicating an urgent need to develop a central database for helping the community understand the genetic complexity of obesity. In the present study, we collected a total of 1,736 obesity associated loci and created a freely available obesity database, including 1,515 protein-coding genes and 221 microRNAs (miRNAs) collected from four mammalian species: human, cattle, rat, and mouse. These loci were integrated as orthologs on comparative genomic views in human, cattle, and mouse. The database and genomic views are freely available online at: http://www.integratomics-time.com/fat_deposition. Bioinformatics analyses of the collected data revealed some potential novel obesity related molecular markers which represent focal points for testing more targeted hypotheses and designing experiments for further studies. We believe that this centralized database on obesity and adipogenesis will facilitate development of comparative systems biology approaches to address this important health issue in human and their potential applications in animals. PMID:25031655

  20. MANAGING OBESITY IN PRIMARY CARE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is a major health problem in the United States and other industrialized nations. Obesity has been traditionally defined as an excess of body fat (i.e., 25% body fat in men and 33% in women. This increased body fat is associated with greater risk for a number of health problems, including c...

  1. Immunotherapy toxic in obese mice.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    New research shows immunotherapy can cause lethal inflammation in both young and aged mice that are obese. Restricting calories in aged mice protected them from toxicity, and giving young obese mice a drug for autoimmune disease prevented the fatal reactions. PMID:25583780

  2. Sociological Factors Affecting Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster-Scott, Latisha

    2007-01-01

    According to data from the National Center for Health Statistics, childhood obesity rates are highest among ethnic minorities. It is very helpful to consider the role of culture when attempting to analyze and explain obesity rates in ethnic minority populations. Culture influences the attitudes and beliefs toward exercise, food and nutrition, and…

  3. Childhood Obesity and Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James B. Hunt Jr. Institute for Educational Leadership and Policy, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Childhood obesity is on the rise across the country and in North Carolina, with four times as many children exhibiting signs of obesity now as they did 20 years ago. The costs in terms of medical expenses are staggering, with one estimate putting the cost to North Carolina at $16 million a year. Some North Carolina legislators have expressed…

  4. Overweight and Obesity. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2005-01-01

    In this world of receiving immediate gratification, being over scheduled, and having access to a myriad of technology, poor nutrition and lack of daily physical activity are two of the results. "Obesity is a silent epidemic," former U.S. Surgeon General David Satcher stated in 2002 (Healthy schools summit weighs in on obesity). Due to the demands…

  5. The Educational Aspects of Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, David A.

    A traditional discussion of obesity considers the number of pounds over what is considered average for one's age, height, and sex, and is based on the assumption that the average weight for a given group of people of the same age, height, and sex is the healthiest status for that group. There is a physiological and biochemical basis for obesity.…

  6. Viral obesity: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Mitra, A K; Clarke, K

    2010-04-01

    The aetiology of obesity is multifactorial. An understanding of the contributions of various causal factors is essential for the proper management of obesity. Although it is primarily thought of as a condition brought on by lifestyle choices, recent evidence shows there is a link between obesity and viral infections. Numerous animal models have documented an increased body weight and a number of physiologic changes, including increased insulin sensitivity, increased glucose uptake and decreased leptin secretion that contribute to an increase in body fat in adenovirus-36 infection. Other viral agents associated with increasing obesity in animals included canine distemper virus, rous-associated virus 7, scrapie, Borna disease virus, SMAM-1 and other adenoviruses. This review attempted to determine if viral infection is a possible cause of obesity. Also, this paper discussed mechanisms by which viruses might produce obesity. Based on the evidence presented in this paper, it can be concluded that a link between obesity and viral infections cannot be ruled out. Further epidemiologic studies are needed to establish a causal link between the two, and determine if these results can be used in future management and prevention of obesity. PMID:19874530

  7. Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Morbid Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Huseini, Mustafa; Wood, G. Craig; Seiler, Jamie; Argyropoulos, George; Irving, Brian A.; Gerhard, Glenn S.; Benotti, Peter; Still, Christopher; Rolston, David D. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several reports have shown an increased prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in obese subjects in community-based studies. To better understand the role of the GI tract in obesity, and because there are limited clinic-based studies, we documented the prevalence of upper and lower GI symptoms in morbidly obese individuals in a clinic setting. Objective: The aim of our study was to compare the prevalence of GI symptoms in morbidly obese individuals in a weight management clinic with non-obese individuals with similar comorbidities as morbidly obese individuals in an Internal Medicine clinic. Methods: Class II and III obese patients BMI >35 kg/m2 (N = 114) and 182 non-obese patients (BMI <25 kg/m2) completed the GI symptoms survey between August 2011 and April 2012 were included in this study. The survey included 24 items pertaining to upper and lower GI symptoms. The participants rated the frequency of symptoms as absent (never, rarely) or present (occasionally, frequently). The symptoms were clustered into five categories: oral symptoms, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, abdominal pain, and bowel habits. Responses to each symptom cluster were compared between obese group and normal weight groups using logistic regression. Results: Of the 24 items, 18 had a higher frequency in the obese group (p < 0.005 for each). After adjusting for age and gender, the obese patients were more likely to have upper GI symptoms: any oral symptom (OR = 2.3, p = 0.0013), dysphagia (OR 2.9, p = 0.0006), and any gastroesophageal reflux (OR 3.8, p < 0.0001). Similarly, the obese patients were more likely to have lower GI symptoms: any abdominal pain (OR = 1.7, p = 0.042) and altered bowel habits (OR = 2.8, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: These observations suggest a statistically significant increase in frequency of both upper and lower GI symptoms in morbidly obese patients when compared to non-obese subjects. PMID:25593922

  8. Phthalate exposure and childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin Hye

    2014-01-01

    Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers and vehicles for cosmetic ingredients. Phthalate metabolites have documented biochemical activity including activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and antiandrogenic effects, which may contribute to the development of obesity. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that phthalates have significant effects on the development of obesity, especially after prenatal exposure at low doses. Although few studies have examined the effects of phthalate on obesity development in humans, some work has shown that phthalates affect humans and animals similarly. In this paper, we review the possible mechanisms of phthalate-induced obesity, and discuss evidence supporting the role of phthalates in the development of obesity in humans. PMID:25077088

  9. [Obesity and thinness in painting].

    PubMed

    Schüller Pérez, Amador

    2004-01-01

    The obesity, serious frequenty sanitary problem, cause of complications that effects to the expectation of life, with aesthetic repercussion and with an increase in the last decades. Admitted the obesity android, gynoide, central or abdominal, wide aesthetic repercussion and physiopathologic like hyperdislipemias, metabolic alterations (diabetes mellitus, etc...), arterial hypertension, column arthrosis and outlying. Ethiopathologics co-factors, sedentariness, genotypic predisposition, endocrine alterations and of the leptina secretion. Illustrative cases of obesity in the painting of those that characteristic models are exposed, from slight grades to intense affecting to both genders. The thinness counterpoint of the obesity, multicausal process, less frequent than the obesity with aesthetic and psychological repercussion. It is the formed aesthetic thinness to the diverse types physiopathologic, without forgetting the constitutional and family form and the anorexy, the serial ones to disasters, wars, famines, etc..., the mystic thinness of saints and ascetics, and the serial one to consuming processes. PMID:15997591

  10. The Genetics of Pediatric Obesity.

    PubMed

    Chesi, Alessandra; Grant, Struan F A

    2015-12-01

    Obesity among children and adults has notably escalated over recent decades and represents a global major health problem. We now know that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to its complex etiology. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed compelling genetic signals influencing obesity risk in adults. Recent reports for childhood obesity revealed that many adult loci also play a role in the pediatric setting. Childhood GWAS have uncovered novel loci below the detection range in adult studies, suggesting that obesity genes may be more easily uncovered in the pediatric setting. Shedding light on the genetic architecture of childhood obesity will facilitate the prevention and treatment of pediatric cases, and will have fundamental implications for diseases that present later in life. PMID:26439977

  11. [Obesity: stigmatization, discrimination, body image].

    PubMed

    Kinzl, Johann F

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is a heterogeneous condition with multifactorial genesis (genetic predisposition, life-style, psychosocial situation), but there is a relatively homogeneous negative stereotype of obese individuals, because overweight and obesity are seen as self-inflicted disorders caused by physical inactivity and disorderd eating behavior. Obese individuals are confronted with far-reaching stigmatization and discrimination. Typical stereotypes are laziness, unattractiveness, work refusal. This negative image by the environment contributes to negative self-awareness and self-stigmatization, accompanied by a poor self-esteem and feelings of poor self-control and reduced self-efficacy, resulting in poor constructive coping strategies for overweight reduction. In addition, a disturbed body image combined with deep dissatisfaction with their own body is often found in many obese individuals. There is not always a close connection between body weight and body dissatisfaction. Young women and individuals with a binge eating disorder often show an increased body dissatisfaction as well. PMID:26883770

  12. Pulmonary function in morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Sugerman, H J

    1987-06-01

    Morbid obesity is not infrequently associated with severe respiratory impairment. In our experience approximately 10 per cent of morbidly obese patients who underwent gastric surgery had severe respiratory impairment. Respiratory insufficiency of obesity can be divided into two primary breathing disorders: the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) and the obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS). In its most severe form, when both SAS and OHS are present, it is called the Pickwickian syndrome. In our series 59 morbidly obese patients with respiratory insufficiency secondary to obesity underwent gastric surgery for weight reduction. Fourteen had OHS, 19 had SAS and 26 had both. Of these, two patients died of postoperative complications and one died at five weeks with an inconclusive autopsy, totalling an operative mortality rate of 3.4 per cent and a total mortality of 5.1 per cent. In our overall experience morbidly obese patients lost 67 per cent of excess weight after gastric procedures. In conclusion, surgically induced weight loss will markedly improve or correct respiratory insufficiency secondary to obesity. It will improve arterial oxygenation, minimize CO2 retention, expand lung volumes, correct polycythemia, and reduce apnea frequency. The magnitude of changes in these variables is clinically significant. Therefore, respiratory insufficiency of obesity should be considered a major indication for an aggressive approach to weight reduction. The jejunoileal bypass and unbanded gastroplasty operations have an unacceptable incidence of complications or failure, respectively. There is a high degree of recidivism following dietary programs. Sweets eaters will not do well with a gastroplasty procedure. Gastric bypass for individuals addicted to sweets or the vertical banded gastroplasty for "gorgers" are currently our procedures of choice and are associated with the average loss of two thirds of excess weight and correction of breathing problems associated with

  13. Food Retailers and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Rosemary A

    2015-03-01

    We live in an 'obesogenic environment' where we are constantly bombarded with choices that encourage us to move less and eat more. Many factors influence our dietary choices, including the expert marketers who advise manufacturers on ways to encourage the population to buy more, especially profitable, palatable 'ultra-processed' foods. Supermarkets themselves have become skilled in manipulating buying behaviour, using their layout and specific product placement as well as advertising to maximise purchases of particular foods. Increasingly, supermarkets push their own 'house' brands. Those marketing fast foods also use persuasive tactics to attract customers, especially children who they entice with non-food items such as promotional or collectable toys. There is no mystery to the increase in obesity: our energy intake from foods and drinks has increased over the same period that energy output has decreased. Obesity has a range of relevant factors, but there is little doubt that marketing from supermarkets and fast food retailers has played a role. PMID:26627090

  14. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Aller, Erik E. J. G.; Abete, Itziar; Astrup, Arne; Martinez, J. Alfredo; van Baak, Marleen A.

    2011-01-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages. PMID:22254101

  15. Treating Child Obesity and Associated Medical Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprio, Sonia

    2006-01-01

    With American children on course to grow into the most obese generation of adults in history, Sonia Caprio argues that it is critical to develop more effective strategies for preventing childhood obesity and treating serious obesity-related health complications. She notes that although pediatricians are concerned about the obesity problem, most…

  16. Obesity: overview of an epidemic.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Nia S; Catenacci, Victoria A; Wyatt, Holly R; Hill, James O

    2011-12-01

    The obesity epidemic in the United States has proven difficult to reverse. We have not been successful in helping people sustain the eating and physical activity patterns that are needed to maintain a healthy body weight. There is growing recognition that we will not be able to sustain healthy lifestyles until we are able to address the environment and culture that currently support unhealthy lifestyles. Addressing obesity requires an understanding of energy balance. From an energy balance approach it should be easier to prevent obesity than to reverse it. Further, from an energy balance point of view, it may not be possible to solve the problem by focusing on food alone. Currently, energy requirements of much of the population may be below the level of energy intake than can reasonably be maintained over time. Many initiatives are underway to revise how we build our communities, the ways we produce and market our foods, and the ways we inadvertently promote sedentary behavior. Efforts are underway to prevent obesity in schools, worksites, and communities. It is probably too early to evaluate these efforts, but there have been no large-scale successes in preventing obesity to date. There is reason to be optimistic about dealing with obesity. We have successfully addressed many previous threats to public health. It was probably inconceivable in the 1950s to think that major public health initiatives could have such a dramatic effect on reducing the prevalence of smoking in the United States. Yet, this serious problem was addressed via a combination of strategies involving public health, economics, political advocacy, behavioral change, and environmental change. Similarly, Americans have been persuaded to use seat belts and recycle, addressing two other challenges to public health. But, there is also reason to be pessimistic. Certainly, we can learn from our previous efforts for social change, but we must realize that our challenge with obesity may be greater. In the

  17. [Obesity and the immune system].

    PubMed

    Muñoz, M; Mazure, R A; Culebras, J M

    2004-01-01

    With an increased prevalence of obesity in developed countries, associated chronic diseases rise in a parallel way. Morbidity secondary to overweight and obesity include type 2 diabetes, dislipemia, hypertension, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, cholelithiasis, osteoarthritis, heart insufficiency, sleep apnoea, menstrual changes, sterility and psychological alterations. There is also a greater susceptibility to suffer some types of cancer, infections, greater risk of bacteremia and a prolonged time of wound healing after surgical operations. All these factors indicate that obesity exerts negative effects upon the immune system. Immune changes found in obesity and their possible interrelations are described in this article. Changes produced during obesity affect both humoral and cellular immunity. It is known that adipose tissue, together with its role as energy reserve in form of triglycerides, has important endocrine functions, producing several hormones and other signal molecules. Immune response can be deeply affected by obesity, playing leptin an important role. Properties of leptin, alterations of leptin levels in different situations and its changes with different medical and surgical therapies for obesity are described in this article. PMID:15672646

  18. Psychological correlates of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Puder, J J; Munsch, S

    2010-12-01

    To enhance the prevention and intervention efforts of childhood obesity, there is a strong need for the early detection of psychological factors contributing to its development and maintenance. Rather than a stable condition, childhood obesity represents a dynamic process, in which behavior, cognition and emotional regulation interact mutually with each other. Family structure and context, that is, parental and familial attitudes, activity, nutritional patterns as well as familial stress, have an important role with respect to the onset and maintenance of overweight and obesity. Behavioral and emotional problems are found in many, though not all, obese children, with a higher prevalence in clinical, treatment-seeking samples. The interrelatedness between obesity and psychological problems seems to be twofold, in that clinically meaningful psychological distress might foster weight gain and obesity may lead to psychosocial problems. The most frequently implicated psychosocial factors are externalizing (impulsivity and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) and internalizing (depression and anxiety) behavioral problems and uncontrolled eating behavior. These findings strengthen the need to further explore the interrelatedness between psychological problems and childhood obesity. PMID:21151145

  19. Cardiovascular consequences of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    McCrindle, Brian W

    2015-02-01

    Childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity is an important and increasingly prevalent public health problem in Canada and worldwide. High adiposity in youth is indicated in clinical practice by plotting body mass index on appropriate percentile charts normed for age and sex, although waist measures might be a further tool. High adiposity can lead to adiposopathy in youth, with associated increases in inflammation and oxidative stress, changes in adipokines, and endocrinopathy. This is manifest as cardiometabolic risk factors in similar patterns to those in noted in obese adults. Obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors have been shown to be associated with vascular changes indicative of early atherosclerosis, and ventricular hypertrophy, dilation, and dysfunction. These cardiovascular consequences are evident in youth, but childhood obesity is also predictive of similar consequences in adulthood. Childhood obesity and risk factors have been shown to track into adulthood and worsen in most individuals. The result is an exponential acceleration of atherosclerosis, which can be predicted to translate into an epidemic of premature cardiovascular disease and events. A change in paradigm is needed toward preventing and curing atherosclerosis and not just preventing cardiovascular disease. This would necessarily create an imperative for preventing and treating childhood obesity. Urgent attention, policy, and action are needed to avoid the enormous future social and health care costs associated with the cardiovascular consequences of obesity in youth. PMID:25661547

  20. Deep Brain Stimulation for Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Eric S; Zhang, Michael; Pendharkar, Arjun V; Azagury, Dan E; Bohon, Cara; Halpern, Casey H

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is now the third leading cause of preventable death in the US, accounting for 216,000 deaths annually and nearly 100 billion dollars in health care costs. Despite advancements in bariatric surgery, substantial weight regain and recurrence of the associated metabolic syndrome still occurs in almost 20-35% of patients over the long-term, necessitating the development of novel therapies. Our continually expanding knowledge of the neuroanatomic and neuropsychiatric underpinnings of obesity has led to increased interest in neuromodulation as a new treatment for obesity refractory to current medical, behavioral, and surgical therapies. Recent clinical trials of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in chronic cluster headache, Alzheimer’s disease, and depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of targeting the hypothalamus and reward circuitry of the brain with electrical stimulation, and thus provide the basis for a neuromodulatory approach to treatment-refractory obesity. In this study, we review the literature implicating these targets for DBS in the neural circuitry of obesity. We will also briefly review ethical considerations for such an intervention, and discuss genetic secondary-obesity syndromes that may also benefit from DBS. In short, we hope to provide the scientific foundation to justify trials of DBS for the treatment of obesity targeting these specific regions of the brain. PMID:26180683

  1. Mechanisms of adverse cardiometabolic consequences of obesity.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Melean, Carlos M; Somers, Virend K; Rodriguez-Escudero, Juan Pablo; Singh, Prachi; Sochor, Ondrej; Llano, Ernesto Manuel; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    Obesity is an epidemic that threatens the health of millions of people worldwide and is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. There are multiple and complex mechanisms to explain how obesity can cause cardiovascular disease. In recent years, studies have shown some limitations in the way we currently define obesity and assess adiposity. This review focuses on the mechanisms involved in the cardiometabolic consequences of obesity and on the relationship between obesity and cardiovascular comorbidities, and provides a brief review of the latest studies focused on normal weight obesity and the obesity paradox. PMID:24048571

  2. Dosing dilemmas in obese children.

    PubMed

    Mulla, H; Johnson, T N

    2010-08-01

    With the epidemic of childhood obesity, it is not uncommon for prescribers to puzzle over an appropriate drug dose for an obese child. Defining the optimum therapeutic dose of a drug relies on an understanding of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Both these processes can be affected by body composition and the physiological changes that occur in obese children. As a rule of thumb, 75% of excess weight in obese subjects is fat mass, and the remainder lean mass. Although it is reasonable to assume that increases in fat mass alter the distribution of lipophilic drugs and increases in lean mass alter drug clearance, good quality and consistent clinical data supporting these assumptions are lacking for the majority of drugs. The relatively few clinical studies that have evaluated the impact of obesity have often been limited by poor design and insufficient sample size. Moreover, clinical studies conducted during drug development rarely include (or are required to include) obese subjects. Guidance on dosing obese children ought to be provided by drug manufacturers. This could be achieved by including obese patients in studies where possible, enabling the effect of body size on pharmacotherapy to be evaluated. This approach could be further augmented by the use of physiologically based-pharmacokinetic models during early (preclinical) development to predict the impact of obesity on drug disposition, and subsequent clinical studies later in development to provide confirmatory proof. In the meantime, for the majority of drugs already prescribed in children, particularly those where the therapeutic range is narrow or there is significant toxicity, the lack of a validated body size descriptor to use at the bedside means the choice of dose will rely on empirical experience and application of the precautionary principle. PMID:20585055

  3. Obesity Prevention in the Nordic Countries.

    PubMed

    Stockmarr, Anders; Hejgaard, Tatjana; Matthiessen, Jeppe

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that mean BMI and prevalences of overweight/obesity and obesity have increased over the last decades in the Nordic countries, despite highly regulated societies with a focus on obesity prevention. We review recent overweight/obesity and obesity prevention initiatives within four of the five Nordic countries: Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland. Moreover, we analyze the current situation based on monitoring data on BMI collected in 2011 and 2014, and obtain overall estimates of overweight/obesity and obesity prevalences for the Nordic Region. Data analysis shows that obesity in adults has increased from 2011 to 2014, while no significant changes were found for children. No significant increases were found for mean BMI and overweight/obesity prevalence. Obesity prevention initiatives among the Nordic countries are highly similar although minor differences are present, which is rooted in transnational Nordic cooperation and comparable societal structures. PMID:27033877

  4. Blood pressure and the obese.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Mindy McCallum

    2015-06-01

    With the prevalence of obesity escalating globally, an increasing number of patients who are obese are seeking elective or requiring emergency surgery. Certified registered nurse anesthetists are challenged to provide vigilant, safe care. The ability to provide supportive therapy and make anesthetic adjustments is often hindered with obesity. Although technological advancements may enhance patient care delivery, health care providers must question why and how specific tasks are performed. Health care providers should challenge themselves to acquire and evaluate current evidence that enables communication with colleagues, dissemination of findings to health care providers worldwide, and implementation of evidence-based practice. PMID:25999068

  5. Childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Bridger, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Many of these children have risk factors for later disease, including cardiovascular disease. For optimal cardiovascular health, health care professionals must be able to identify children and youth at risk and provide appropriate support as needed. The present article reviews the current medical literature on obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the paediatric population, the long-term cardiovascular consequences of childhood obesity and the importance of early life. Recommendations promoting optimal cardiovascular health in all children and youth are discussed. PMID:20190900

  6. Obesity in Special Populations: Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Downs, Danielle Symons

    2016-03-01

    Perinatal overweight and obesity is a major public health and clinical care issue that requires deliberate and immediate attention. Preconception and prenatal assessment and counseling should address the risks associated with obesity, recommendations for weight gain, proper nutrition and dietary intake, and physical activity. Nutrition and exercise guidance should be offered to all perinatal overweight and obese women with an emphasis on effective strategies to overcome barriers. All women should be encouraged to adopt a healthy lifestyle and achieve a healthy weight before becoming pregnant. PMID:26896204

  7. Behavioral management of obesity.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Craig A; Tyler, Chermaine; Foreyt, John P

    2007-12-01

    The behavioral management of obesity is an approach designed to provide individuals with a set of skills that promote a healthier weight. A number of strategies are used to assist individuals in making gradual changes that can realistically be incorporated into their lives. Evidence is promising for behavioral programs, as results demonstrate an 8% to 10% reduction in initial weight during the first 6 months to 1 year of treatment. However, the long-term impact of these treatments remains unclear, as many individuals regain weight lost over time. The Diabetes Prevention Program and the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial are providing strong data on the long-term results of intensive behavioral management interventions. PMID:18377784

  8. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation. PMID:26123250

  9. Pharmacotherapies for Overeating and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Yarnell, S; Oscar-Berman, M; Avena, NM; Blum, K; Gold, MS

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has become pandemic, and the annual cost in related illnesses and loss of productivity is already over $100 billion and rising. Research has shown that obesity can and does cause changes in behavior and in the brain itself that are very similar to changes caused by drugs of abuse. While food addiction is not the causal agent of all obesity, it is clear that many people no longer eat to survive, but instead survive to eat. This review considers the importance of the brain’s reward system in food intake. The review also examines research developments and current treatments for obesity, including diet and exercise, psychotherapy, surgical interventions, and pharmacotherapies. Finally we discuss alterations in American society that are necessary for change to occur, and the diffculties therein. PMID:23826512

  10. The Gut Microbiome and Obesity.

    PubMed

    John, George Kunnackal; Mullin, Gerard E

    2016-07-01

    The gut microbiome consists of trillions of bacteria which play an important role in human metabolism. Animal and human studies have implicated distortion of the normal microbial balance in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Bacteria causing weight gain are thought to induce the expression of genes related to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism thereby leading to greater energy harvest from the diet. There is a large body of evidence demonstrating that alteration in the proportion of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes leads to the development of obesity, but this has been recently challenged. It is likely that the influence of gut microbiome on obesity is much more complex than simply an imbalance in the proportion of these phyla of bacteria. Modulation of the gut microbiome through diet, pre- and probiotics, antibiotics, surgery, and fecal transplantation has the potential to majorly impact the obesity epidemic. PMID:27255389

  11. Pharmacotherapies for Overeating and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Yarnell, S; Oscar-Berman, M; Avena, Nm; Blum, K; Gold, Ms

    2013-04-01

    Obesity has become pandemic, and the annual cost in related illnesses and loss of productivity is already over $100 billion and rising. Research has shown that obesity can and does cause changes in behavior and in the brain itself that are very similar to changes caused by drugs of abuse. While food addiction is not the causal agent of all obesity, it is clear that many people no longer eat to survive, but instead survive to eat. This review considers the importance of the brain's reward system in food intake. The review also examines research developments and current treatments for obesity, including diet and exercise, psychotherapy, surgical interventions, and pharmacotherapies. Finally we discuss alterations in American society that are necessary for change to occur, and the diffculties therein. PMID:23826512

  12. Childhood sexual abuse and obesity.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, T B; Sarwer, D B

    2004-08-01

    The causes of the current obesity epidemic are multifactorial and include genetic, environmental, and individual factors. One potential risk factor may be the experience of childhood sexual abuse. Childhood sexual abuse is remarkably common and is thought to affect up to one-third of women and one-eighth of men. A history of childhood sexual abuse is associated with numerous psychological sequelae including depression, anxiety, substance abuse, somatization, and eating disorders. Relatively few studies have examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and adult obesity. These studies suggest at least a modest relationship between the two. Potential explanations for the relationship have focused on the role of disordered eating, particularly binge eating, as well as the possible "adaptive function" of obesity in childhood sexual abuse survivors. Nevertheless, additional research on the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and obesity is clearly needed, not only to address the outstanding empirical issues but also to guide clinical care. PMID:15245381

  13. CHILDHOOD OBESITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMCALS

    PubMed Central

    La Merrill, Michele; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent rates of obesity and overweight are continuing to increase in much of the world. Risk factors such as diet composition, excess caloric intake, decreased exercise, genetics, and the built environment are active areas of etiologic research. The obesogen hypothesis, which postulates that pre- and peri- natal chemical exposure can contribute to risk of childhood and adolescent obesity, remains relatively under-examined. This review surveys numerous classes of chemicals for which this hypothesis has been explored. We focus on human data where they exist and also discuss the findings of rodent and cell culture studies. Organochlorine chemicals as well as several classes of chemicals that are PPAR agonists are identified as possible risk factors for obesity. Recommendations for future epidemiologic and experimental research on the chemical origins of obesity are also given. PMID:21259261

  14. Innate Immune Activation in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lumeng, Carey N.

    2014-01-01

    The innate immune system is a prewired set of cellular and humoral components that has developed to sense perturbations in normal physiology and trigger responses to restore the system back to baseline. It is now understood that many of these components can also sense the physiologic changes that occur with obesity and be activated. While the exact reasons for this chronic immune response to obesity are unclear, there is strong evidence to suggest that innate inflammatory systems link obesity and disease. Based on this, anti-inflammatory therapies for diseases like type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome may form the core of future treatment plans. This review will highlight the components involved in the innate immune response and discuss the evidence that they contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-associated diseases. PMID:23068074

  15. Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the column is the BMI for that height and weight. Pounds are rounded off. You may also go ... of the column is the BMI at that height and weight. Pounds have been rounded off. Normal Overweight Obese ...

  16. Obesity Prevention in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Stella Lucia; Sukumar, Deeptha; Milliron, Brandy-Joe

    2016-06-01

    The number of older adults living in the USA, 65 years of age and older, has been steadily increasing. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2010, indicate that more than one-third of older adults, 65 years of age and older, were obese. With the increased rate of obesity in older adults, the purpose of this paper is to present research on different methods to prevent or manage obesity in older adults, namely dietary interventions, physical activity interventions, and a combination of dietary and physical activity interventions. In addition, research on community assistance programs in the prevention of obesity with aging will be discussed. Finally, data on federal programs for older adults will also be presented. PMID:27107762

  17. [The social stigma of obesity].

    PubMed

    De Domingo Bartolomé, M; López Guzmán, José

    2014-01-01

    People who are overweight are at increased risk of certain chronic diseases and premature death. However, the physiological consequences are not limited to health symptoms and signs but transcend the social field. In fact, the stigma and discrimination faced by obese people has been proven in multiple areas (work, family, education, etc...). This can contribute to reduce the quality of patients life. From a gender perspective, in the literature there seems to be evidence that the undesirable social effects of obesity affect women more than men. To minimize the obesity impact people adopt proactive methods to lose weight. However the solution to this problem is not on medication but changes in lifestyle and in the proposal of inclusive aesthetic models. Also it is necessary to clear that the complex etiology of obesity can help to reduce the weight stigma and the negative consequences of this condition. PMID:25329415

  18. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy. PMID:24007251

  19. Obesity and Time to Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Law, Dionne C Gesink; Maclehose, Richard F; Longnecker, Matthew P

    2007-01-01

    Background Obesity may reduce fecundity. We examined the obesity-fecundity association in relation to menstrual cycle regularity, parity, smoking habits, and age to gain insight into mechanisms and susceptible subgroups. Methods Data were provided by 7,327 pregnant women enrolled in the Collaborative Perinatal Project at 12 study centers in the United States from 1959 to 1965. Prepregnancy body mass index was analyzed continuously and categorically (underweight (<18.5 kg/m2), optimal weight (18.5 kg/m2 – 24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0 kg/m2 – 29.9 kg/m2), and obese (≥30.0 kg/m2)). Adjusted fecundability odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards modeling for discrete time data. Results Fecundity was reduced for overweight (OR=0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.84, 1.01) and obese (OR=0.82, 95% CI: 0.72, 0.95) women compared to optimal weight women, and was more evident for obese primiparous women (OR=0.66, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.89). Fecundity remained reduced for overweight and obese women with normal menstrual cycles. Neither smoking habits nor age modified the association. Conclusions Obesity was associated with reduced fecundity for all subgroups of women and persisted for women with regular cycles. Our results suggest that weight loss could increase fecundity for overweight and obese women, regardless of menstrual cycle regularity, parity, smoking habits, or age. PMID:17095518

  20. OBESITY AND NUTRITION IN ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Renee D.; Suratt, Benjamin T.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter collectively discusses two important topics related to patients with ARDS: 1) obesity and its potential contribution to clinical outcomes through proposed biologic mechanisms and 2) current literature on provision of nutrition and micronutrients. The prevalence of obesity is rapidly increasing around the world, and more than one third of Americans are now obese. While obesity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the general population, recent literature suggests that among critically ill patients including those with ARDS, the relationship between obesity and outcomes is quite complex. Observational data demonstrate that obese patients may be at greater risk of developing ARDS and of having longer ICU and hospital lengths of stay compared to normal weight patients. However, obesity is also associated with improved survival. Therefore, in contrast to what might be assumed by clinicians, although obesity may confer greater ICU morbidity, it appears to simultaneously decrease mortality. The mechanisms for these findings are not yet clear, but recent biologic data may begin to provide an explanation. Critical illness, and more specifically the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), is a catabolic state where patients demonstrate a profound inflammatory response, multiple organ dysfunction, and hypermetabolism. This is often accompanied by malnutrition, which can lead to further impairment of immune function and increased morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Over the past decade or more, as we have come to better understand immunologic effects of nutrition in critical illness, nutrition has begun to be thought of as therapeutic, rather than purely supportive. Additionally, the concept of pharmaconutrition has emerged. Fortunately, several recent large studies about nutrition in critical care, with some investigations specifically in patients with ARDS, have provided valuable new evidence. PMID:25453416

  1. Obesity pharmacotherapy: What is next?

    PubMed Central

    Colon-Gonzalez, Francheska; Kim, Gilbert W.; Lin, Jieru E.; Valentino, Michael A.; Waldman, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    The increase in obesity in the Unites States and around the world in the last decade is overwhelming. The number of overweight adults in the world surpassed 1 billion in 2008. Health hazards associated with obesity are serious and include heart disease, sleep apnea, diabetes, and cancer. Although lifestyle modifications are the most straightforward way to control weight, a large portion of the population may not be able to rely on this modality alone. Thus, the development of anti-obesity therapeutics represents a major unmet medical need. Historically, anti-obesity pharmacotherapies have been unsafe and minimally efficacious. A better understanding of the biology of appetite and metabolism provides an opportunity to develop drugs that may offer safer and more effective alternatives for weight management. This review discusses drugs that are currently on the market and in development as anti-obesity therapeutics based on their target and mechanism of action. It should serve as a roadmap to establish expectations for the near future for anti-obesity drug development. PMID:23103610

  2. Preventing and managing pediatric obesity

    PubMed Central

    Plourde, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the evidence on prevention and management of childhood obesity and to offer suggestions for family physicians. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE Articles were obtained from a PubMed search. Most studies on pediatric obesity provide level II evidence. There are some level I studies on management. MAIN MESSAGE Pediatric obesity is underdiagnosed and undertreated. Prevention should be initiated as early as pregnancy. Prevention and treatment approaches should include patient and family interventions focusing on nutrition, physical activity, reduced television viewing, and behaviour modification. The effectiveness of such interventions by primary care physicians has not been totally demonstrated, but incorporating them into clinical practice routines is likely to be beneficial. CONCLUSION Family physicians have a role in promoting preventive measures and identifying and treating obesity-related comorbidity. Pediatric obesity is not an individual child’s problem, but a problem that involves the whole family and the community. Recommending a healthy diet and increased physical activity and counseling families on behaviour change is the best approach to preventing and managing childhood obesity. PMID:16572577

  3. Does Metabolically Healthy Obesity Exist?

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Garach, Araceli; Cornejo-Pareja, Isabel; Tinahones, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between obesity and other metabolic diseases have been deeply studied. However, there are clinical inconsistencies, exceptions to the paradigm of “more fat means more metabolic disease”, and the subjects in this condition are referred to as metabolically healthy obese (MHO).They have long-standing obesity and morbid obesity but can be considered healthy despite their high degree of obesity. We describe the variable definitions of MHO, the underlying mechanisms that can explain the existence of this phenotype caused by greater adipose tissue inflammation or the different capacity for adipose tissue expansion and functionality apart from other unknown mechanisms. We analyze whether these subjects improve after an intervention (traditional lifestyle recommendations or bariatric surgery) or if they stay healthy as the years pass. MHO is common among the obese population and constitutes a unique subset of characteristics that reduce metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors despite the presence of excessive fat mass. The protective factors that grant a healthier profile to individuals with MHO are being elucidated. PMID:27258304

  4. Obesity pharmacotherapy: what is next?

    PubMed

    Colon-Gonzalez, Francheska; Kim, Gilbert W; Lin, Jieru E; Valentino, Michael A; Waldman, Scott A

    2013-02-01

    The increase in obesity in the Unites States and around the world in the last decade is overwhelming. The number of overweight adults in the world surpassed 1 billion in 2008. Health hazards associated with obesity are serious and include heart disease, sleep apnea, diabetes, and cancer. Although lifestyle modifications are the most straightforward way to control weight, a large portion of the population may not be able to rely on this modality alone. Thus, the development of anti-obesity therapeutics represents a major unmet medical need. Historically, anti-obesity pharmacotherapies have been unsafe and minimally efficacious. A better understanding of the biology of appetite and metabolism provides an opportunity to develop drugs that may offer safer and more effective alternatives for weight management. This review discusses drugs that are currently on the market and in development as anti-obesity therapeutics based on their target and mechanism of action. It should serve as a roadmap to establish expectations for the near future for anti-obesity drug development. PMID:23103610

  5. Determinants and Consequences of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hruby, Adela; Manson, JoAnn E.; Qi, Lu; Malik, Vasanti S.; Rimm, Eric B.; Sun, Qi; Willett, Walter C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Studies (NHS and NHS II) in addressing hypotheses regarding risk factors for and consequences of obesity. Methods. Narrative review of the publications of the NHS and NHS II between 1976 and 2016. Results. Long-term NHS research has shown that weight gain and being overweight or obese are important risk factors for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, certain types of cancers, and premature death. The cohorts have elucidated the role of dietary and lifestyle factors in obesity, especially sugar-sweetened beverages, poor diet quality, physical inactivity, prolonged screen time, short sleep duration or shift work, and built environment characteristics. Genome-wide association and gene–lifestyle interaction studies have shown that genetic factors predispose individuals to obesity but that such susceptibility can be attenuated by healthy lifestyle choices. This research has contributed to evolving clinical and public health guidelines on the importance of limiting weight gain through healthy dietary and lifestyle behaviors. Conclusions. The NHS cohorts have contributed to our understanding of the risk factors for and consequences of obesity and made a lasting impact on clinical and public health guidelines on obesity prevention. PMID:27459460

  6. [Epidemiology of obesity in Austria].

    PubMed

    Dorner, Thomas E

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article was to compile all existing data regarding the prevalence of obesity in Austria in all age groups, and to perform additional analyses. Prevalence of obesity in the adult Austrian population varies between 8.3 and 19.9% in men, and 9.0 and 19.8% in women with increasing trends over time. Prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents in Austria varies between 3.1 and 9.0% in boys and between 2.2 and 7.3% in girls. Factors associated with obesity include higher age, lower educational level, profession, migration background, living in eastern parts of Austria, lack of social support, and psycho-social pressure. In women, socio-economic parameters are stronger associated with obesity compared to men. Obesity is associated with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis, and low back pain, and deteriorated quality of live, in both sexes, and in men additionally with a history of heart attack, and in women additionally with anxiety/depression. PMID:26650060

  7. Obesity and Asthma: Physiological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Brashier, Bill; Salvi, Sundeep

    2013-01-01

    Obesity induces some pertinent physiological changes which are conducive to either development of asthma or cause of poorly controlled asthma state. Obesity related mechanical stress forces induced by abdominal and thoracic fat generate stiffening of the lungs and diaphragmatic movements to result in reduction of resting lung volumes such as functional residual capacity (FRC). Reduced FRC is primarily an outcome of decreased expiratory reserve volume, which pushes the tidal breathing more towards smaller high resistance airways, and consequentially results in expiratory flow limitation during normal breathing in obesity. Reduced FRC also induces plastic alteration in the small collapsible airways, which may generate smooth muscle contraction resulting in increased small airway resistance, which, however, is not picked up by spirometric lung volumes. There is also a possibility that chronically reduced FRC may generate permanent adaptation in the very small airways; therefore, the airway calibres may not change despite weight reduction. Obesity may also induce bronchodilator reversibility and diurnal lung functional variability. Obesity is also associated with airway hyperresponsiveness; however, the mechanism of this is not clear. Thus, obesity has effects on lung function that can generate respiratory distress similar to asthma and may also exaggerate the effects of preexisting asthma. PMID:23970905

  8. Does Metabolically Healthy Obesity Exist?

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Garach, Araceli; Cornejo-Pareja, Isabel; Tinahones, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between obesity and other metabolic diseases have been deeply studied. However, there are clinical inconsistencies, exceptions to the paradigm of "more fat means more metabolic disease", and the subjects in this condition are referred to as metabolically healthy obese (MHO).They have long-standing obesity and morbid obesity but can be considered healthy despite their high degree of obesity. We describe the variable definitions of MHO, the underlying mechanisms that can explain the existence of this phenotype caused by greater adipose tissue inflammation or the different capacity for adipose tissue expansion and functionality apart from other unknown mechanisms. We analyze whether these subjects improve after an intervention (traditional lifestyle recommendations or bariatric surgery) or if they stay healthy as the years pass. MHO is common among the obese population and constitutes a unique subset of characteristics that reduce metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors despite the presence of excessive fat mass. The protective factors that grant a healthier profile to individuals with MHO are being elucidated. PMID:27258304

  9. How Obesity Affects Tendons?

    PubMed

    Abate, Michele; Salini, Vincenzo; Andia, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Several epidemiological and clinical observations have definitely demonstrated that obesity has harmful effects on tendons. The pathogenesis of tendon damage is multi-factorial. In addition to overload, attributable to the increased body weight, which significantly affects load-bearing tendons, systemic factors play a relevant role. Several bioactive peptides (chemerin, leptin, adiponectin and others) are released by adipocytes, and influence tendon structure by means of negative activities on mesenchymal cells. The ensuing systemic state of chronic, sub-clinic, low-grade inflammation can damage tendon structure. Metabolic disorders (diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and dislipidemia), frequently associated with visceral adiposity, are concurrent pathogenetic factors. Indeed, high glucose levels increase the formation of Advanced Glycation End-products, which in turn form stable covalent cross-links within collagen fibers, modifying their structure and functionality.Sport activities, so useful for preventing important cardiovascular complications, may be detrimental for tendons if they are submitted to intense acute or chronic overload. Therefore, two caution rules are mandatory: first, to engage in personalized soft training program, and secondly to follow regular check-up for tendon pathology. PMID:27535258

  10. Dicarbonyl stress in clinical obesity.

    PubMed

    Masania, Jinit; Malczewska-Malec, Malgorzata; Razny, Urszula; Goralska, Joanna; Zdzienicka, Anna; Kiec-Wilk, Beata; Gruca, Anna; Stancel-Mozwillo, Julita; Dembinska-Kiec, Aldona; Rabbani, Naila; Thornalley, Paul J

    2016-08-01

    The glyoxalase system in the cytoplasm of cells provides the primary defence against glycation by methylglyoxal catalysing its metabolism to D-lactate. Methylglyoxal is the precursor of the major quantitative advanced glycation endproducts in physiological systems - arginine-derived hydroimidazolones and deoxyguanosine-derived imidazopurinones. Glyoxalase 1 of the glyoxalase system was linked to anthropometric measurements of obesity in human subjects and to body weight in strains of mice. Recent conference reports described increased weight gain on high fat diet-fed mouse with lifelong deficiency of glyoxalase 1 deficiency, compared to wild-type controls, and decreased weight gain in glyoxalase 1-overexpressing transgenic mice, suggesting a functional role of glyoxalase 1 and dicarbonyl stress in obesity. Increased methylglyoxal, dicarbonyl stress, in white adipose tissue and liver may be a mediator of obesity and insulin resistance and thereby a risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Increased methylglyoxal formation from glyceroneogenesis on adipose tissue and liver and decreased glyoxalase 1 activity in obesity likely drives dicarbonyl stress in white adipose tissue increasing the dicarbonyl proteome and related dysfunction. The clinical significance will likely emerge from on-going clinical evaluation of inducers of glyoxalase 1 expression in overweight and obese subjects. Increased transcapillary escape rate of albumin and increased total body interstitial fluid volume in obesity likely makes levels of glycation of plasma protein unreliable indicators of glycation status in obesity as there is a shift of albumin dwell time from plasma to interstitial fluid, which decreases overall glycation for a given glycemic exposure. PMID:27338619

  11. Developmental origins of obesity-related hypertension.

    PubMed

    Henry, Sarah L; Barzel, Benjamin; Wood-Bradley, Ryan J; Burke, Sandra L; Head, Geoffrey A; Armitage, James A

    2012-09-01

    1. In the past 30 years the prevalence of obesity and overweight have doubled. It is now estimated that globally over 500 million adults are obese and a further billion adults are overweight. Obesity is a cardiovascular risk factor and some studies suggest that up to 70% of cases of essential hypertension may be attributable, in part, to obesity. Increasingly, evidence supports a view that obesity-related hypertension may be driven by altered hypothalamic signalling, which results in inappropriately high appetite and sympathetic nerve activity to the kidney. 2. In addition to the adult risk factors for obesity and hypertension, the environment encountered in early life may 'programme' the development of obesity, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. In particular, maternal obesity or high dietary fat intake in pregnancy may induce changes in fetal growth trajectories and predispose individuals to develop obesity and related sequelae. 3. The mechanisms underlying the programming of obesity-related hypertension are becoming better understood. However, several issues require clarification, particularly with regard to the role of the placenta in transferring fatty acid to the fetal compartment, the impact of placental inflammation and cytokine production in obesity. 4. By understanding which factors are most associated with the development of obesity and hypertension in the offspring, we can focus therapeutic and behavioural interventions to most efficiently reduce the intergenerational propagation of the obesity cycle. PMID:21801195

  12. Age-related consequences of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Megan M; Zaepfel, Alysia; Bjornstad, Petter; Nadeau, Kristen J

    2014-01-01

    The severity and frequency of childhood obesity has increased significantly over the past three to four decades. The health effects of increased body mass index as a child may significantly impact obese youth as they age. However, many of the long-term outcomes of childhood obesity have yet to be studied. This article examines the currently available longitudinal data evaluating the effects of childhood obesity on adult outcomes. Consequences of obesity include an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and its associated retinal and renal complications, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obstructive sleep apnea, polycystic ovarian syndrome, infertility, asthma, orthopedic complications, psychiatric disease, and increased rates of cancer, among others. These disorders can start as early as childhood, and such early onset increases the likelihood of early morbidity and mortality. Being obese as a child also increases the likelihood of being obese as an adult, and obesity in adulthood also leads to obesity-related complications. This review outlines the evidence for childhood obesity as a predictor of adult obesity and obesity-related disorders, thereby emphasizing the importance of early intervention to prevent the onset of obesity in childhood. PMID:24434909

  13. Antimicrobial Dose in Obese Patient

    PubMed Central

    Kassab, Sawsan; Syed Sulaiman, Syed Azhar; Abdul Aziz, Noorizan

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a chronic disease that has become one of major public health issue in Malaysia because of its association with other disease states including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Despite continuous efforts to educate the public about the health risks associated with obesity, prevalence of the disease continues to increase. Dosing of many medications are based on weight, limited data are available on how antimicrobial agents should be dosed in obesity. The aim of this case presentation is to discuss dose of antibiotic in obese patient. Case report: Patient: GMN, Malay, Female, 45 year old, 150kg, transferred from medical ward to ICU with problems of fever, orthopnea, sepsis secondary to nosocomial pneumonia. She was admitted to hospital a week ago for SOB on exertion, cyanosis, mildly dyspneic, somasthenia, bilateral ankle swelling. There was no fever, cough, chest pain, clubbing, flapping tremor. Her grand father has pre-morbid history of obesity, HPT, DM and asthma. She was non alcoholic, smoker, and not on diet control. The diagnosis Pickwickian syndrome was made. Patient was treated with IV Dopamine 11mcg/kg/min, IV Morphine 4mg/h. IV GTN 15mcg/min, IV Ca gluconate 10g/24h for 3/7, IV Zantac 50mg tds, IV Augmentin 1.2g tds, IV Lasix 40mg od, IV Plasil 10mg tds, S.c heparin 5000IU bd. patient become stable and moved to medical ward to continue her treatment. Discussion: The altered physiologic function seen in obese patients is a concern in patients receiving antimicrobial agents because therapeutic outcomes depend on achieving a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The therapeutic effect of any drug can be altered when any of the 4 pharmacokinetic processes (absorption, distribution, metabolism, or elimination) are altered. Decreased blood flow rates and increased renal clearance in obese patients can affect drug distribution and elimination. Changes in serum protein levels can change the metabolism and distribution of drugs that are

  14. Interaction of obesity and infections.

    PubMed

    Dhurandhar, N V; Bailey, D; Thomas, D

    2015-12-01

    There is evidence that certain infections may induce obesity. Obese persons may also have more severe infections and have compromised response to therapies. The objective of this study is to review the available literature identifying infections that potentially contribute to greater body mass index (BMI) and differential responses of overweight and obese persons to infections. A systematic literature review of human studies examining associations between infections and weight gain, differential susceptibility, severity, and response to prevention and treatment of infection according to BMI status (January 1980-July 2014) was conducted. Three hundred and forty-three studies were eligible for inclusion. Evidence indicated that viral infection by human adenovirus Ad36 and antibiotic eradication of Helicobacter pylori were followed by weight gain. People who were overweight or obese had higher susceptibility to developing post-surgical infections, H1N1 influenza and periodontal disease. More severe infections tended to be present in people with a larger BMI. People with a higher BMI had a reduced response to vaccinations and antimicrobial drugs. Higher doses of antibiotics were more effective in obese patients. Infections may influence BMI, and BMI status may influence response to certain infections, as well as to preventive and treatment measures. These observations have potential clinical implications. PMID:26354800

  15. Kidney transplantation in obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Minh-Ha; Foster, Clarence E; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Ichii, Hirohito

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimated that in 2014, over 600 million people met criteria for obesity. In 2011, over 30% of individuals undergoing kidney transplant had a body mass index (BMI) 35 kg/m2 or greater. A number of recent studies have confirmed the relationship between overweight/obesity and important comorbidities in kidney transplant patients. As with non-transplant surgeries, the rate of wound and soft tissue complications are increased following transplant as is the incidence of delayed graft function. These two issues appear to contribute to longer length of stay compared to normal BMI. New onset diabetes after transplant and cardiac outcomes also appear to be increased in the obese population. The impact of obesity on patient survival after kidney transplantation remains controversial, but appears to mirror the impact of extremes of BMI in non-transplant populations. Early experience with (open and laparoscopic) Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy support excellent weight loss (in the range of 50%-60% excess weight lost at 1 year), but experts have recommended the need for further studies. Long term nutrient deficiencies remain a concern but in general, these procedures do not appear to adversely impact absorption of immunosuppressive medications. In this study, we review the literature to arrive at a better understanding of the risks related to renal transplantation among individuals with obesity. PMID:27011911

  16. An Overview of Sarcopenic Obesity.

    PubMed

    Cauley, Jane A

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenic obesity (SO) refers to the copresence of sarcopenia and obesity. In this condition, a disproportion exists between the amount of lean mass relative to fat mass. Research on SO is important because the presence of both sarcopenia and obesity may have important health consequences. However, SO research has been hampered by the disparate number of definitions of SO. Various definitions of sarcopenia include ratios of appendicular mass to height(2) or body weight, measures of muscle strength, or physical function. More recent definitions incorporate all 3. Obesity is usually defined by high body mass index, but some studies have relied on percent body fat or visceral fat. Depending on the definition, the prevalence of SO ranges from 0% to 41% in older populations. The loss of lean mass and increase in fat mass with advancing age may share common etiologic pathways. Declines in physical activity can lead to poor muscle strength, lower muscle mass, and increased fat infiltration; all of which could lead to increases in fat mass. The increases in fat mass and accompanying increases in adipokines and inflammation may further adversely affect muscle quality. SO has been related to an increased risk of mobility disability, above and beyond sarcopenia, or obesity alone. Additional research is needed to further our understanding of the pathophysiology of SO and its consequences. Interventions aimed at reducing SO may improve physical function as well as reduce disability and death. PMID:26141163

  17. Treatment of obesity in 2015.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Alpana P; Buniak, William I; Aronne, Louis J

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major health priority in the United States, as well as globally. It is associated with multiple comorbidities and reduced life expectancy. Effective management of obesity involves producing an intervention plan tailored to the individual patient. Potential contributory factors to weight gain, including dietary habits, physical inactivity, associated medical conditions, and medications, should be identified and addressed. Lifestyle interventions comprising diet modification, physical activity, and behavior therapy are foundational to the management of obesity. Caloric restriction is the most important component in achieving weight loss through negative energy balance, whereas sustained physical activity is important in maintaining the weight loss. Adjunctive therapies in the form of pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery are required in patients who do not achieve targeted weight loss and health goals with lifestyle interventions. Currently there are 3 drugs approved for long-term management of obesity, orlistat, phentermine/topiramate extended release, and lorcaserin, and there are 2 on the horizon, bupropion/naltrexone and liraglutide. Bariatric surgery is an effective strategy recognized to produce durable weight loss with amelioration of obesity-related comorbidities and should be considered a treatment option in eligible patients. PMID:25714749

  18. The glucocorticoid contribution to obesity.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Sarah J; Tilbrook, Alan

    2011-05-01

    Obesity is fast becoming the scourge of our time. It is one of the biggest causes of death and disease in the industrialized world, and affects as many as 32% of adults and 17% of children in the USA, considered one of the world's fattest nations. It can also cost countries billions of dollars per annum in direct and indirect care, latest estimates putting the USA bill for obesity-related costs at $147 billion in 2008. It is becoming clear that the pathophysiology of obesity is vastly more complicated than the simple equation of energy in minus energy out. A combination of genetics, sex, perinatal environment and life-style factors can influence diet and energy metabolism. In this regard, psychological stress can have significant long-term impact upon the propensity to gain and maintain weight. In this review, we will discuss the ability of psychological stress and ultimately glucocorticoids (GCs) to alter appetite regulation and metabolism. We will specifically focus on (i) GC regulation of appetite and adiposity, (ii) the apparent sexual dimorphism in stress effects on obesity and (iii) the ability of early life stress to programme obesity in the long term. PMID:21294656

  19. [The obesity-hypoventilation syndrome].

    PubMed

    Rabec, C; Cuvelier, A

    2009-08-01

    Obesity, well-known as a cardiovascular risk factor is also a "respiratory" risk factor and can have profound adverse effects on the respiratory system, such as alterations in pulmonary function tests, respiratory mechanics, respiratory muscle strength and endurance, gas exchange, control of breathing and exercise capacity. ABG are frequently altered in obese subjects and abnormalities are directly proportional to BMI. Two main pathophysiological mechanisms may account for gas exchange abnormalities: V/Q inequality, responsible for isolated hypoxemia, and alveolar hypoventilation responsible for the also called "obesity hypoventilation syndrome" (OHS). Hypoventilation in obese patients includes a diversity of mechanisms frequently imbricated, among which the two most frequent are mechanical limitation and blunted ventilatory drive. Two other clinical entities (COPD and OSA) frequently present in the obese patients may potentiate or aggravate this hypoventilation. OHS is frequently underappreciated and diagnosis is rarely made at the steady state. Such diagnosis is frequently made in two situations: either during an exacerbation or when in front of symptoms of respiratory sleep disturbances. The patient is referred to sleep laboratory for screening for OSA. Ventilatory management of these patients will depend on the patient's underlying condition and on sleep study results. It includes CPAP or NIPPV but frequently additional O(2) addition is necessary. OHS represents today one of the most frequent indications of NIV worldwide. PMID:19789049

  20. Obesity and multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Friedman, G D; Herrinton, L J

    1994-09-01

    An exploratory study was conducted of common clinical conditions as predictors of subsequent cancer in 143,574 outpatients of a health maintenance organization (in California, USA). An association was noted between obesity, diagnosed in 14,388 patients, and the subsequent development of multiple myeloma (MM) in up to 21 years (33 cases observed, 21.3 expected based on the experience of the entire cohort; standardized morbidity ratio = 1.55, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 1.06-2.17). This association was evaluated further in a second cohort of 163,561 multiphasic-checkup examinees followed up for as many as 24 years. Body mass index (BMI) at entry examination was associated positively with the incidence of MM in White men (e.g., relative risk [RR] = 1.07, CI = 1.01-1.15 per unit increase in BMI; and RR = 1.68, CI = 0.75-3.78, comparing the highest with lowest quartile). This association was absent in White women, partially confirmed in Black men and women (BMI quartiles two, three, and four showed higher risk than quartile one), and not explained by the presence of diabetes mellitus. The association was reduced or absent with BMI based on reported greatest adult-weight, and in White women was inverse with BMI based on reported lowest adult-weight. Among subjects with more than one checkup, increased risk was associated directly with weight loss among White men and associated inversely with weight gain among Black women. These findings suggest that body build or nutritional status may be involved in the development of MM by mechanisms that are presently unknown.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7999970

  1. There's Something about Obesity: Culture, Contagion, Rationality, and Children's Responses to Drinks "Created" by Obese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaczynski, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    Theories of the development of obesity stereotypes cannot easily explain the stigma associated with being obese. Evidence that important similarities exist between the symptoms of obesity and contagious illnesses, young children have "theories" of illnesses, and obesity stereotypes are among the earliest that children develop led to the hypothesis…

  2. Rising Blood Sugar Hitting More Obese Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159853.html Rising Blood Sugar Hitting More Obese Adults To curb diabetes, researchers ... HealthDay News) -- Among obese American adults, control of blood sugar is worsening, leading to more diabetes and heart ...

  3. How Can Overweight and Obesity Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Overweight and Obesity Be Prevented? Following a healthy lifestyle can help ... Human Services. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Obesity happens one pound at a time. So does ...

  4. Hormone May Be Linked to Teenage Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159014.html Hormone May Be Linked to Teenage Obesity Researchers suspect low levels of spexin might play ... reduced levels of this hormone in adults with obesity. Overall, our findings suggest spexin may play a ...

  5. Family Key to Helping Teens Avoid Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159681.html Family Key to Helping Teens Avoid Obesity Good relationship with parents, especially between fathers and ... develop healthy habits that may protect them against obesity, a new study suggests. The researchers also found ...

  6. Alcohol, Obesity Could Raise Esophageal Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160133.html Alcohol, Obesity Could Raise Esophageal Cancer Risk A third of ... at the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR). "Obesity is now linked to 11 types of cancer ...

  7. Psoriasis Tied to Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_158526.html Psoriasis Tied to Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes A genetic link is one ... prove that psoriasis causes type 2 diabetes or obesity or vice versa, Lonnberg added. However, the study ...

  8. Clinical Implications of Sarcopenic Obesity in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Isabella P; Mazurak, Vera C; Prado, Carla M

    2016-10-01

    Sarcopenia has been associated with several negative clinical outcomes in cancer. However, the consequences of sarcopenic obesity, a condition of combined sarcopenia and obesity burden, have been less extensively investigated. The aim of this paper was to review the current evidence on the prevalence and clinical implications of sarcopenic obesity in cancer. A total of 14 studies linking sarcopenic obesity to a clinical outcome in cancer were included. There is considerable inconsistency in methods used to evaluate body composition as well as in the criteria used to define sarcopenic obesity, which limits comparison among studies. Therefore, the prevalence of sarcopenic obesity varied substantially: between 1 and 29 % in studies including individuals from all body mass index categories and between 15 and 36 % for those including obese individuals only. Negative clinical outcomes reported to be associated with sarcopenic obesity included higher risk of dose-limiting toxicity, surgical complications, physical disability, and shorter survival. PMID:27541923

  9. Behavioral management of the obese patient

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite countless diets, exercise regimens, drugs, and behavior modification strategies, the prevalence of obesity continues its relentless increase in both developed and developing nations. Although many necessary components to treat obesity have been identified, behavior modification remains the b...

  10. Obesity in childhood and adolescence, genetic factors.

    PubMed

    Memedi, Rexhep; Tasic, Velibor; Nikolic, Erieta; Jancevska, Aleksandra; Gucev, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and overweight are a pandemic phenomenon in the modern world. Childhood and adolescent obesity often ends up in obesity in adults. The costs of obesity and its consequences are staggering for any society, crippling for countries in development. The etiology is complex, but most often idiopathic. Hormonal, syndromic and medication-induced obesity are well investigated. Genetic causes are increasingly described. Novel technologies such as whole exome sequencing identify ever more candidate genes influencing or causing obesity. All insights into the complex problem of obesity in a team approach to treatment: diet, psychology, medications and surgery. We briefly review epidemiology, etiology, consequences and treatment approaches in childhood and adolescent obesity, with special emphasis on emerging knowledge of its genetics. PMID:24296635

  11. Child's Obesity Tied to Mom's Pregnancy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... the baby's metabolism to 'imprint' the baby for childhood obesity," said study lead author Dr. Teresa Hillier. She's ... born to determine and address the impact on childhood obesity," Hillier said. "We need to intervene during the ...

  12. MedlinePlus: Obesity in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatrics) Related Issues Is My Child's Appetite Normal? (Food and Nutrition Service) - PDF Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders (American Academy of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery) Specifics Organic Causes of Weight Gain and Obesity (American Academy ...

  13. Psoriasis Tied to Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158526.html Psoriasis Tied to Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes A genetic link is one ... prove that psoriasis causes type 2 diabetes or obesity or vice versa, Lonnberg added. However, the study ...

  14. Teen Obesity May Mean Liver Disease Later

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159416.html Teen Obesity May Mean Liver Disease Later Study found risk ... Overweight is defined as a BMI above 25. Obesity is defined as a BMI above 30, according ...

  15. Teen Obesity May Mean Liver Disease Later

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159416.html Teen Obesity May Mean Liver Disease Later Study found risk increased as weight went ... obese could be at increased risk for severe liver disease later in life, a new study suggests. The ...

  16. [Extensive conservative treatment of obesity].

    PubMed

    Buri, Caroline; Laederach, Kurt

    2013-02-01

    The treatment of obesity is complex due to the multifactorial etiology. A modern therapy concept must therefore be tailored to the individual needs and problems and depends on various factors such as degree of obesity, the presence of physical complications, psychological co-morbidities, any treatment measures the patient underwent up to now as well as on motivational factors. Before deciding on a therapeutic measure a structured multidisciplinary cooperation is essential including psychosomatic medicine/psychiatry/psychotherapy, endocrinology, sports medicine, nutritional medicine and surgery as well. The treatment must be carried out in a multidisciplinary team and includes an adequate therapy of comorbidities and sometimes a psychopharmacological support. The success of a conservative treatment of obesity is remarkable and long-lasting and can be straightforwardly compared to bariatric surgery in financial as well as ethical terms, although for patients and their physicians the latter often carries the allure of quick success. PMID:23385187

  17. Is obesity a brain disease?

    PubMed

    Shefer, Gabi; Marcus, Yonit; Stern, Naftali

    2013-12-01

    That the brain is involved in the pathogenesis and perpetuation of obesity is broadly self-intuitive, but traditional evaluation of this relationship has focused on psychological and environment-dependent issues, often referred to as the "it's all in the head" axiom. Here we review evidence that excessive nutrition or caloric flux, regardless of its primary trigger, elicits a biological trap which imprints aberrant energy control circuits that tend to worsen with the accumulation of body fat. Structural and functional changes in the brain can be recognized, such as hypothalamic inflammation and gliosis, reduction in brain volume, reduced regional blood flow or diminished hippocampal size. Such induced changes collectively translate into a vicious cycle of deranged metabolic control and cognitive deficits, some of which can be traced back even to childhood or adolescence. Much like other components of the obese state, brain disease is inseparable from obesity itself and requires better recognition to allow future therapeutic targeting. PMID:23911925

  18. Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Naderpoor, N; Shorakae, S; Joham, A; Boyle, J; De Courten, B; Teede, H J

    2015-03-01

    Obesity is now a major international health concern. It is increasingly common in young women with reproductive, metabolic and psychological health impacts. Reproductive health impacts are often poorly appreciated and include polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), infertility and pregnancy complications. PCOS is the most common endocrine condition in women and is underpinned by hormonal disturbances including insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism. Obesity exacerbates hormonal and clinical features of PCOS and women with PCOS appear at higher risk of obesity, with multiple underlying mechanisms linking the conditions. Lifestyle intervention is first line in management of PCOS to both prevent weight gain and induce weight loss; however improved engagement and sustainability remain challenges with the need for more research. Medications like metformin, orlistat, GLP1 agonists and bariatric surgery have been used with the need for large scale randomised clinical trials to define their roles. PMID:25411807

  19. Obesity. Part I--Pathogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Bray, G A; Gray, D S

    1988-01-01

    Obesity--defined by a body mass index above 30 kg per m2--is a major problem for affluent nations. Its prevalence is higher in North America than in Europe--between 9% and 12% of the population. Reduced energy expenditure from exercise or metabolism or both may be an important contributory factor in the development of obesity because of a failure to reduce food intake sufficiently to maintain energy balance. A high ratio of abdominal circumference relative to gluteal circumference carries a twofold or greater risk of heart attack, stroke, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, gallbladder disease, and death. The effect of increased quantities of abdominal fat is greater than that of a similar increase in total body fat on the risks of ill health associated with obesity. Genetic factors appear to contribute about 25% to its etiology. Images PMID:3067447

  20. Promoting positive outcomes in obese patients.

    PubMed

    Troia, Cecilia

    2002-01-01

    Obese patients are seen in every practice setting. Obesity is a chronic disease that may lead to physical and emotional problems, which may have an impact on the social and psychological functioning of the patient. With appropriate preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative precautions; monitoring; and restructuring the environment to promote care and safety, the incidence of poor surgical outcomes can be minimized. This paper will address the significance of obesity, related diseases, and proper care of the obese patient. PMID:12035338

  1. Lateral sacral imaging in the morbidly obese.

    PubMed

    Miller, Anna N; Krieg, James C; Chip Routt, Milton L

    2013-05-01

    Obesity can complicate surgical procedures by both adding to difficulty intraoperatively and increasing postoperative complications. Intraoperative imaging can be difficult on morbidly obese patients. We have noted specifically that in morbidly obese patients where the lateral sacrum cannot be visualized on the pre-operative scout computed tomography image, the lateral sacrum will not be able to be seen on intraoperative fluoroscopy. This is an important component of preoperative planning in morbidly obese patients with pelvic ring injuries. PMID:22648043

  2. [Association of obesity and depression].

    PubMed

    Rihmer, Zoltán; Purebl, György; Faludi, Gábor; Halmy, László

    2008-10-01

    It has been long known that the frequency of overweight and obese people is higher among depressed and bipolar patients than in the general population. The marked alteration of body weight (and appetite) is one of the most frequent of the 9 symptoms of major depressive episode, and these symptoms occur during recurrent episodes of depression with a remarkably high consequence. According to studies with representative adult population samples, in case of obesity (BMI over 30) unipolar or bipolar depression is significantly more frequently (20-45%) observable. Since in case of depressed patients appetite and body weight reduction is observable during the acute phase, the more frequent obesity in case of depressed patients is related (primarily) not only to depressive episodes, but rather to lifestyle factors, to diabetes mellitus also more frequently occurring in depressed patients, to comorbid bulimia, and probably to genetic-biological factors (as well as to pharmacotherapy in case of medicated patients). At the same time, according to certain studies, circadian symptoms of depression give rise to such metabolic processes in the body which eventually lead to obesity and insulin resistance. According to studies in unipolar and bipolar patients, 57-68% of patients is overweight or obese, and the rate of metabolic syndrome was found to be between 25-49% in bipolar patients. The rate of metabolic syndrome is further increased by pharmacotherapy. Low total and HDL cholesterol level increases the risk for depression and suicide and recent studies suggest that omega-3-fatty acids possess antidepressive efficacy. Certain lifestyle factors relevant to healthy metabolism (calorie reduction in food intake, regular exercise) may be protective factors related to depression as well. The depression- and possibly suicide-provoking effect of sibutramine and rimonabant used in the pharmacotherapy of obesity is one of the greatest recent challenges for professionals and patients

  3. An overview of pediatric obesity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Warren W R

    2007-12-01

    Pediatric obesity is increasing worldwide and disproportionately affects the economically and socially disadvantaged. Obese children are at risk of developing the (dys)metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, early-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovarian syndrome, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obstructive sleep apnoea. Those with diabetes may have mixed features of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pediatric obesity is the result of persistent adverse changes in food intake, lifestyle, and energy expenditure. It may be because of underlying a genetic syndrome or a conduct disorder. Children living in urban settings often lack safe, affordable, and accessible recreational facilities. Tight educational schedules mean less free time, while computer games and television have become preferred recreational activities. More families are eating out or eating take-out meals and processed foods at home because of pressures of work and time constraints. Consumer advertising targeted at children and the ready availability of vending machines encourage unwise food choices. Some children eat excessively because they are depressed, anxious, sad, or lonely. Often families and obese children are aware of the need for healthy eating and exercise but are unable to translate knowledge into weight loss. Population-based measures such as public education, school meal reforms, child-safe exercise friendly environments, and school-based and community-based exercise programs have been shown to be successful to varying degrees, but there remain individuals who will need special help to overcome obesity. Overeating (e.g. binge eating) may be a manifestation of disordered coping behavior but may also be because of defects in the neural and hormonal control of appetite and satiety. New pharmacological approaches are targeting these areas. We need a coordinated approach involving government, communities, and healthcare providers to provide a continuum of population

  4. The Consequences of Childhood Overweight and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers are only gradually becoming aware of the gravity of the risk that overweight and obesity pose for children's health. In this article Stephen Daniels documents the heavy toll that the obesity epidemic is taking on the health of the nation's children. He discusses both the immediate risks associated with childhood obesity and the…

  5. Adenovirus 36 and Obesity: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Ponterio, Eleonora; Gnessi, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    There is an epidemic of obesity starting about 1980 in both developed and undeveloped countries definitely associated with multiple etiologies. About 670 million people worldwide are obese. The incidence of obesity has increased in all age groups, including children. Obesity causes numerous diseases and the interaction between genetic, metabolic, social, cultural and environmental factors are possible cofactors for the development of obesity. Evidence emerging over the last 20 years supports the hypothesis that viral infections may be associated with obesity in animals and humans. The most widely studied infectious agent possibly linked to obesity is adenovirus 36 (Adv36). Adv36 causes obesity in animals. In humans, Adv36 associates with obesity both in adults and children and the prevalence of Adv36 increases in relation to the body mass index. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that the viral E4orf1 protein (early region 4 open reading frame 1, Adv) mediates the Adv36 effect including its adipogenic potential. The Adv36 infection should therefore be considered as a possible risk factor for obesity and could be a potential new therapeutic target in addition to an original way to understand the worldwide rise of the epidemic of obesity. Here, the data indicating a possible link between viral infection and obesity with a particular emphasis to the Adv36 will be reviewed. PMID:26184280

  6. Metabolically healthy obesity: origins and implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When humans eat more and exercise less, they tend to become obese and unhealthy. The molecular pathways that link obesity to serious diseases like Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease have become a subject of intensive scientific investigation because the exploding prevalence of obesity worldw...

  7. Paternalism, Obesity, and Tolerable Levels of Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity describes an abnormally high fat accumulation that impairs health. It is crudely measured by a body mass index (BMI) of greater than 30 kg/sq meters. Obesity now ranks among the highest of concerns by the World Health Organization (WHO) and not only in countries of affluence; the figures of obesity worldwide have doubled since 1980 and the…

  8. Do School Lunches Contribute to Childhood Obesity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses whether school lunches contribute to childhood obesity. I employ two methods to isolate the causal impact of school lunches on obesity. First, using panel data, I ?nd that children who consume school lunches are more likely to be obese than those who brown bag their lunches even though they enter kindergarten with the same…

  9. Might video games help remedy childhood obesity?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is the most prevalent health problem among children in the United States and globally, leading to diverse health problems and staggering costs. Most child obesity prevention interventions are not working well, or not at all. Part of the problem is that the causes of child obesity are not cle...

  10. Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeater, Rachel

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the scope of the problem of obesity in the United States, noting the health risks associated with being overweight or obese (e.g., gallstones, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea, and colon cancer); discussing the association of type-II diabetes mellitus with obesity; examining the effects of exercise on metabolic disease; and looking at…

  11. Rehabilitation Counseling Student Perceptions of Obese Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Steven P.; Thomas, Kenneth R.

    1981-01-01

    Investigated whether stigmatization of obese persons has affected rehabilitation counseling students' perceptions of such clients. Results suggest that rehabilitation students perceive obese clients more negatively. If a counselor's first impression of an obese client is that he is less competent and less attractive, rehabilitation outcome could…

  12. Obesity and Poverty: A Growing Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Dianne Yow; Queen, J. Allen; Schumacher, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This research study addresses the childhood obesity epidemic, which has seen the number of overweight children from the ages of 6 to 11 triple since the mid-1970s. The authors note that there are more than twice as many poor and obese adolescents compared with more affluent youths, and examine a number of factors linking obesity and poverty.…

  13. Psychological Theory Seeks to Define Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgard, Debby

    1993-01-01

    Examines various psychodynamic and behavioral theories in a discussion about obesity and mental health. It is revealed that modern theory finds no identifiable personality profile, behavior, or family structure influencing large weight gain thus discounting psychopathology as the cause of obesity. Individual assessments for causes of obesity are…

  14. Overweight and obesity management strategies.

    PubMed

    Kahan, Scott

    2016-06-01

    Comprehensive lifestyle interventions, including nutrition, physical activity, and behavioral therapy, are the foundation for clinical obesity management. New tools and treatment approaches help clinicians provide these interventions and support weight management in the primary care setting. Escalating treatment, such as using pharmacotherapy, medical devices, or bariatric surgery, are important considerations for appropriate patients who do not respond to lifestyle counseling. This article provides a review of obesity treatment in primary care and managed care settings. Principles of lifestyle changes for weight management, behavioral counseling, and options for pharmacotherapy, medical devices, and bariatric surgery are discussed. PMID:27356116

  15. Childhood obesity and the media.

    PubMed

    Hingle, Melanie; Kunkel, Dale

    2012-06-01

    This article assesses the role played by media in contributing to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. Electronic media use, often referred to as screen time, is significantly correlated with child adiposity. Although the causal mechanism that accounts for this relationship is unclear, it is well established that reducing screen time improves weight status. Media advertising for unhealthy foods contributes to obesity by influencing children's food preferences, requests, and diet. Industry efforts have failed to improve the nutritional quality of foods marketed on television to children, leading public health advocates to recommend government restrictions on child-targeted advertisements for unhealthy foods. PMID:22643173

  16. Health visitors tackle childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Vassie, Athena

    One of Public Health England's priorities is to tackle obesity, particularly in children. Health visitors are ideally placed to identify and support families of children at risk from obesity, but research shows they lack the training and confidence to do so. This article describes a short-term local scheme that offered support by a specially trained health visitor to families in their own homes. The health visitor was trained using a family partnership model that teaches how to work with parents and carers to help them implement their own solutions. PMID:26548260

  17. Infant feeding practices and obesity.

    PubMed

    Himes, J H

    1979-08-01

    Selected assumptions regarding associations between artificial feeding and infantile obesity are examined. Although some artificial baby foods (desserts, meats, egg yolks) have considerably greater caloric density than breast milk, a large class of baby foods and most milks and formulas are comparable to breast milk in caloric density. The intake of infant foods seems to be related more to caloric density than volume. Modern day artificial feeding in developed countries tends to produce larger weight gains than breast feeding, although no good data exist to evaluate the composition of these weight gains. Many more data from well planned studies are needed to fully elucidate possible mechanisms of infantile obesity. PMID:458075

  18. Angiogenesis in Diabetes and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Rui; Ma, Jian-xing

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and obesity continues to increase globally. Diabetic vascular complications are the main chronic diabetic complications and associated with mortality and disability. Angiogenesis is a key pathological characteristic of diabetic microvascular complications. However, there are two tissue-specific paradoxical changes in the angiogenesis in diabetic microvascular complications: an excessive uncontrolled formation of premature blood vessels in some tissues, such as the retina, and a deficiency in the formation of small blood vessels in peripheral tissues, such as the skin. This review will discuss the paradoxical phenomena of angiogenesis and its underlying mechanism in obesity, diabetes and diabetic complications. PMID:25663658

  19. Obesity and carotid artery remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Kozakova, M; Palombo, C; Morizzo, C; Højlund, K; Hatunic, M; Balkau, B; Nilsson, P M; Ferrannini, E

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective: The present study tested the hypothesis that obesity-related changes in carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) might represent not only preclinical atherosclerosis but an adaptive remodeling meant to preserve circumferential wall stress (CWS) in altered hemodynamic conditions characterized by body size-dependent increase in stroke volume (SV) and blood pressure (BP). Subjects/Methods: Common carotid artery (CCA) luminal diameter (LD), IMT and CWS were measured in three different populations in order to study: (A) cross-sectional associations between SV, BP, anthropometric parameters and CCA LD (266 healthy subjects with wide range of body weight (24–159 kg)); (B) longitudinal associations between CCA LD and 3-year IMT progression rate (ΔIMT; 571 healthy non-obese subjects without increased cardiovascular (CV) risk); (C) the impact of obesity on CCA geometry and CWS (88 obese subjects without CV complications and 88 non-obese subjects matched for gender and age). Results: CCA LD was independently associated with SV that was determined by body size. In the longitudinal study, baseline LD was an independent determinant of ΔIMT, and ΔIMT of subjects in the highest LD quartile was significantly higher (28±3 μm) as compared with those in the lower quartiles (8±3, 16±4 and 16±3 μm, P=0.001, P<0.05 and P=0.01, respectively). In addition, CCA CWS decreased during the observational period in the highest LD quartile (from 54.2±8.6 to 51.6±7.4 kPa, P<0.0001). As compared with gender- and age-matched lean individuals, obese subjects had highly increased CCA LD and BP (P<0.0001 for both), but only slightly higher CWS (P=0.05) due to a significant increase in IMT (P=0.005 after adjustment for confounders). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that in obese subjects, the CCA wall thickens to compensate the luminal enlargement caused by body size-induced increase in SV, and therefore, to normalize the wall stress. CCA diameter in obesity could

  20. Obesity and the lung: 3 · Obesity, respiration and intensive care

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, A; Hillman, D

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a major problem from a public health perspective and a difficult practical matter for intensivists. The obesity pandemic has required treating clinicians to develop an appreciation of the substantial pathophysiological effects of obesity on the various organ systems. The important physiological concepts are illustrated by focusing on obstructive sleep apnoea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, abdominal compartment syndrome and ventilatory management of the obese patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:18820119

  1. Postpartum Obesity: The Root Problem of Childhood Obesity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keen, Valencia Browning; Potts, Claudia Sealey

    2011-01-01

    Remedying childhood obesity cannot take place without first identifying relevant issues commonly influencing gatekeepers of food for children as well as the role modeling for encouraging or discouraging daily activities. Children cannot drive to the store, form grocery lists or complete menu management tasks without adult assistance. Excessive…

  2. Gut Microbiome and Obesity: A Plausible Explanation for Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sanmiguel, Claudia; Gupta, Arpana; Mayer, Emeran A.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disorder that results in excessive accumulation of adipose tissue. Although obesity is caused by alterations in the energy consumption/expenditure balance, the factors promoting this disequilibrium are incompletely understood. The rapid development of new technologies and analysis strategies to decode the gut microbiota composition and metabolic pathways has opened a door into the complexity of the guest-host interactions between the gut microbiota and its human host in health and in disease. Pivotal studies have demonstrated that manipulation of the gut microbiota and its metabolic pathways can affect host’s adiposity and metabolism. These observations have paved the way for further assessment of the mechanisms underlying these changes. In this review we summarize the current evidence for possible mechanisms underlying gut microbiota induced obesity. The review addresses some well-known effects of the gut microbiota on energy harvesting and changes in metabolic machinery, on metabolic and immune interactions and on possible changes in brain function and behavior. Although there is limited understanding on the symbiotic relationship between us and our gut microbiome, and how disturbances of this relationship affects our health, there is compelling evidence for an important role of the gut microbiota in the development and perpetuation of obesity. PMID:26029487

  3. Food Types in the Diet and the Nutrient Intake of Obese and Non−Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Garipağaoğlu, Muazzez; Budak, Nurten; Akdikmen, Öznur; Altan, Tuğçe; Baban, Melis

    2008-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions world−wide. Objective: To compare the types of food in the diet and the nutrient intake of obese children with those of non−obese children. Methods: A total of 95 obese and 592 non−obese children aged between 6 and 10 years participated in the study. A body mass index (BMI) value exceeding the 95th percentile for age and gender was taken as the criterion for obesity. Three−day food consumption was recorded and evaluated according to standard international recommendations. Results: Macronutrient intake was adequate in both obese and non−obese children. Energy intake of the obese children was significantly higher than that of the non−obese children. Micronutrient intake except fiber of both groups, calcium intake of obese children and vitamin A intake of non−obese children were higher than recommended amounts. The obese children consumed excessive fat and sugar, but less fruit and vegetables as compared to the non−obese children, and less than the recommendations of the food guide pyramid as adopted by the US Department of Food and Agriculture and the Department of Health and Human Services. Conclusion: The implementation of educational programs on nutrition may be important for promoting knowledge about healthy eating among obese children. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21318061

  4. Free Fatty Acids, Lipopolysaccharide and IL-1α Induce Adipocyte Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Which Is Increased in Visceral Adipose Tissues of Obese Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Krautbauer, Sabrina; Eisinger, Kristina; Neumeier, Markus; Hader, Yvonne; Buettner, Roland; Schmid, Peter M.; Aslanidis, Charalampos; Buechler, Christa

    2014-01-01

    Excess fat storage in adipocytes is associated with increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and impaired activity of antioxidant mechanisms. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a mitochondrial enzyme involved in detoxification of ROS, and objective of the current study is to analyze expression and regulation of MnSOD in obesity. MnSOD is increased in visceral but not subcutaneous fat depots of rodents kept on high fat diets (HFD) and ob/ob mice. MnSOD is elevated in visceral adipocytes of fat fed mice and exposure of differentiating 3T3-L1 cells to lipopolysaccharide, IL-1α, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated free fatty acids (FFA) upregulates its level. FFA do not alter cytochrome oxidase 4 arguing against overall induction of mitochondrial enzymes. Upregulation of MnSOD in fat loaded cells is not mediated by IL-6, TNF or sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 which are induced in these cells. MnSOD is similarly abundant in perirenal fat of Zucker diabetic rats and non-diabetic animals with similar body weight and glucose has no effect on MnSOD in 3T3-L1 cells. To evaluate whether MnSOD affects adipocyte fat storage, MnSOD was knocked-down in adipocytes for the last three days of differentiation and in mature adipocytes. Knock-down of MnSOD does neither alter lipid storage nor viability of these cells. Heme oxygenase-1 which is induced upon oxidative stress is not altered while antioxidative capacity of the cells is modestly reduced. Current data show that inflammation and excess triglyceride storage raise adipocyte MnSOD which is induced in epididymal adipocytes in obesity. PMID:24475187

  5. Chronic IL-6 Administration Desensitizes IL-6 Response in Liver, Causes Hyperleptinemia and Aggravates Steatosis in Diet-Induced-Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gavito, Ana Luisa; Bautista, Dolores; Suarez, Juan; Badran, Samir; Arco, Rocío; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Serrano, Antonia; Rivera, Patricia; Decara, Juan; Cuesta, Antonio Luis; Rodríguez-de-Fonseca, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    High-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) is associated with fatty liver and elevated IL-6 circulating levels. IL-6 administration in rodents has yielded contradictory results regarding its effects on steatosis progression. In some models of fatty liver disease, high doses of human IL-6 ameliorate the liver steatosis, whereas restoration of IL-6 in DIO IL-6-/- mice up-regulates hepatic lipogenic enzymes and aggravates steatosis. We further examined the effects of chronic low doses of murine IL-6 on hepatic lipid metabolism in WT mice in DIO. IL-6 was delivered twice daily in C57BL/6J DIO mice for 15 days. The status and expression of IL-6-signalling mediators and targets were investigated in relation to the steatosis and lipid content in blood and in liver. IL-6 administration in DIO mice markedly raised circulating levels of lipids, glucose and leptin, elevated fat liver content and aggravated steatosis. Under IL-6 treatment there was hepatic Stat3 activation and increased gene expression of Socs3 and Tnf-alpha whereas the gene expression of endogenous IL-6, IL-6-receptor, Stat3, Cpt1 and the enzymes involved in lipogenesis was suppressed. These data further implicate IL-6 in fatty liver disease modulation in the context of DIO, and indicate that continuous stimulation with IL-6 attenuates the IL-6-receptor response, which is associated with high serum levels of leptin, glucose and lipids, the lowering levels of lipogenic and Cpt1 hepatic enzymes and with increased Tnf-alpha hepatic expression, a scenario evoking that observed in IL-6-/- mice exposed to DIO and in obese Zucker rats. PMID:27333268

  6. Chronic IL-6 Administration Desensitizes IL-6 Response in Liver, Causes Hyperleptinemia and Aggravates Steatosis in Diet-Induced-Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Gavito, Ana Luisa; Bautista, Dolores; Suarez, Juan; Badran, Samir; Arco, Rocío; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Serrano, Antonia; Rivera, Patricia; Decara, Juan; Cuesta, Antonio Luis; Rodríguez-de-Fonseca, Fernando; Baixeras, Elena

    2016-01-01

    High-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) is associated with fatty liver and elevated IL-6 circulating levels. IL-6 administration in rodents has yielded contradictory results regarding its effects on steatosis progression. In some models of fatty liver disease, high doses of human IL-6 ameliorate the liver steatosis, whereas restoration of IL-6 in DIO IL-6-/- mice up-regulates hepatic lipogenic enzymes and aggravates steatosis. We further examined the effects of chronic low doses of murine IL-6 on hepatic lipid metabolism in WT mice in DIO. IL-6 was delivered twice daily in C57BL/6J DIO mice for 15 days. The status and expression of IL-6-signalling mediators and targets were investigated in relation to the steatosis and lipid content in blood and in liver. IL-6 administration in DIO mice markedly raised circulating levels of lipids, glucose and leptin, elevated fat liver content and aggravated steatosis. Under IL-6 treatment there was hepatic Stat3 activation and increased gene expression of Socs3 and Tnf-alpha whereas the gene expression of endogenous IL-6, IL-6-receptor, Stat3, Cpt1 and the enzymes involved in lipogenesis was suppressed. These data further implicate IL-6 in fatty liver disease modulation in the context of DIO, and indicate that continuous stimulation with IL-6 attenuates the IL-6-receptor response, which is associated with high serum levels of leptin, glucose and lipids, the lowering levels of lipogenic and Cpt1 hepatic enzymes and with increased Tnf-alpha hepatic expression, a scenario evoking that observed in IL-6-/- mice exposed to DIO and in obese Zucker rats. PMID:27333268

  7. Obesity, employment and wages in Europe.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jaume; Quintana-Domeque, Climent

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the associations between obesity, employment status and wages for several European countries. Our results provide weak evidence that obese workers are more likely to be unemployed or tend to be more segregated in self-employment jobs than their non-obese counterparts. We also find difficult to detect statistically significant relationships between obesity and wages. As previously reported in the literature, the associations between obesity, unemployment and wages seem to be different for men and women. Moreover, heterogeneity is also found across countries. Such heterogeneity can be somewhat explained by some labor market institutions, such as collective bargaining coverage and employer-provided health insurance. PMID:19548553

  8. Postpartum Care and Contraception in Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Maclean, Courtney C; Thompson, Ivana S

    2016-03-01

    Postpartum obese women have an increased risk of breastfeeding difficulties and depression. Retaining the pregnancy weight at 6 months postpartum predicts long-term obesity. Risks for weight retention include excessive gestational weight gain, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, diet, exercise, depression, and duration of breastfeeding. Exercise and reducing total caloric intake promote postpartum weight loss. Intrauterine devices and contraceptive implants are the most effective contraceptives for obese women. Contraceptive pills, patches, and vaginal rings are effective options; however, obese women should be made aware of a potential increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Vasectomy and hysteroscopic sterilization carry the least surgical risk for obese women. PMID:26694498

  9. Childhood obesity: a Wilsonian concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Carolyn; Lobo, Marie L

    2011-10-01

    The rate of childhood obesity in the United States has tripled since 1980, with approximately 17% of U.S. children between the ages of 2 and 19 years currently identified as obese. Although a multitude of programs have been implemented to prevent and treat childhood obesity, no single strategy has been identified as the most effective method. Part of the problem in identifying successful interventions is clarifying what is meant by the term obesity as it applies to children. This article provides a concept analysis of the term obesity in relation to children using a Wilsonian approach. PMID:21930033

  10. Pediatric obesity: Causes, symptoms, prevention and treatment

    PubMed Central

    XU, SHUMEI; XUE, YING

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric or childhood obesity is the most prevalent nutritional disorder among children and adolescents worldwide. Approximately 43 million individuals are obese, 21–24% children and adolescents are overweight, and 16–18% of individuals have abdominal obesity. The prevalence of obesity is highest among specific ethnic groups. Obesity increases the risk of heart diseases in children and adults. Childhood obesity predisposes the individual to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, liver and kidney diseases and causes reproductive dysfunction in adults. Obesity in children is a major health concern of the developed world. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey has reported that the prevalence of obesity is on the increase in all the pediatric age groups, in males and females, and in various ethnic and racial groups. Factors, such as eating habits, genetics, environment, metabolism, and lifestyle play an important role in the development of obesity. Over 90% of obesity cases are idiopathic and less than 10% are associated with genetic and hormonal causes. Obesity occurs when the body consumes more calories than it burns, through overeating and underexercising. The symptoms of obesity include breathing disorders, sleep apnea, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, certain types of cancer such as prostate, bowel, breast and uterine, coronary heart disease, diabetes (type 2 in children), depression, liver and gallbladder problems, gastro-esophageal reflux disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, stroke, and joint diseases such as osteoarthritis, pain in knees and lower back. Environmental, behavioral such as consumption of convenience foods, genetic, and family factors contribute to pediatric obesity. Obesity can be countered through lower calorie consumption, weight loss and diet programs, as well as increased physical activity. A number of endogenous molecules including leptin, hypothalamic melanocortin 4 receptor

  11. Brain orexin promotes obesity resistance.

    PubMed

    Kotz, Catherine; Nixon, Joshua; Butterick, Tammy; Perez-Leighton, Claudio; Teske, Jennifer; Billington, Charles

    2012-08-01

    Resistance to obesity is becoming an exception rather than the norm, and understanding mechanisms that lead some to remain lean in spite of an obesigenic environment is critical if we are to find new ways to reverse this trend. Levels of energy intake and physical activity both contribute to body weight management, but it is challenging for most to adopt major long-term changes in either factor. Physical activity outside of formal exercise, also referred to as activity of daily living, and in stricter form, spontaneous physical activity (SPA), may be an attractive modifiable variable for obesity prevention. In this review, we discuss individual variability in SPA and NEAT (nonexercise thermogenesis, or the energy expended by SPA) and its relationship to obesity resistance. The hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin (hypocretin) may play a key role in regulating SPA and NEAT. We discuss how elevated orexin signaling capacity, in the context of a brain network modulating SPA, may play a major role in defining individual variability in SPA and NEAT. Greater activation of this SPA network leads to a lower propensity for fat mass gain and therefore may be an attractive target for obesity prevention and therapy. PMID:22803681

  12. Childhood Obesity: A Heavy Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costley, Kevin C.; Leggett, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    The youth of today are faced with a big problem; they are becoming more obese every day. The time of children playing outside all day and being extremely active has been overtaken by the television and video games. The days of sitting down as a family and eating a good healthy meal has been replaced by the rush to the nearest fast food…

  13. Markets and Childhood Obesity Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawley, John

    2006-01-01

    In examining the childhood obesity epidemic from the perspective of economics, John Cawley looks at both possible causes and possible policy solutions that work through markets. The operation of markets, says Cawley, has contributed to the recent increase in childhood overweight in three main ways. First, the real price of food fell. In…

  14. Childhood Obesity Demands New Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satter, Ellyn

    1991-01-01

    Health professionals suggest creating achievable goals in childhood obesity. The article recommends correcting factors that distort normal growth and providing positive eating and exercise management to slow weight gain. Rather than trying for weight loss, children must learn positive lifelong eating and exercise patterns and attitudes toward self…

  15. Childhood Obesity: Problems and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Staveren, Tonia; Dale, Darren

    2004-01-01

    Schools and homes both play a role in contributing to the rising numbers of obese children. School teachers and administrators must do all they can to create a school environment that is conducive to children maintaining a healthy weight. Legislation designed to add quality physical education time to the school curriculum is imperative. Changes to…

  16. Obesity, metabolic syndrome and adipocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome are examples whereby excess energy consumption and energy flux disruptions are causative agents of increased fatness. Because other, as yet elucidated, cellular factors may be involved and because potential treatments of these metabolic problems involve systemic agents...

  17. Is Obesity Associated with Altered Energy Expenditure?

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Isabella P; Elliott, Sarah A; Siervo, Mario; Padwal, Raj; Bertoli, Simona; Battezzati, Alberto; Prado, Carla M

    2016-05-01

    Historically, obese individuals were believed to have lower energy expenditure (EE) rates than nonobese individuals (normal and overweight), which, in the long term, would contribute to a positive energy balance and subsequent weight gain. The aim of this review was to critically appraise studies that compared measures of EE and its components, resting EE (REE), activity EE (AEE), and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), in obese and nonobese adults to elucidate whether obesity is associated with altered EE. Contrary to popular belief, research has shown that obese individuals have higher absolute REE and total EE. When body composition (namely the metabolically active component, fat-free mass) is taken into account, these differences between obese and nonobese individuals disappear, suggesting that EE in obese individuals is not altered. However, an important question is whether AEE is lower in obese individuals because of a decrease in overall physical activity or because of less energy expended while performing physical activity. AEE and DIT could be reduced in obese individuals, mostly because of unhealthy behavior (low physical activity, higher intake of fat). However, the current evidence does not support the hypothesis that obesity is sustained by lower daily EE or REE. Future studies, comparing EE between obese and nonobese and assessing potential physiologic abnormalities in obese individuals, should be able to better answer the question of whether these individuals have altered energy metabolism. PMID:27184275

  18. Obesity in pregnancy: risks and management

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimons, Kate J; Modder, Jo; Greer, Ian A

    2009-01-01

    Maternal obesity is now considered one of the most commonly occurring risk factors seen in obstetric practice. Compared with women with a healthy pre-pregnancy weight, women with obesity are at increased risk of miscarriage, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, venous thromboembolism, induced labour, caesarean section, anaesthetic complications and wound infections, and they are less likely to initiate or maintain breastfeeding. Babies of obese mothers are at increased risk of stillbirth, congenital anomalies, prematurity, macrosomia and neonatal death. Intrauterine exposure to obesity is also associated with an increased risk of developing obesity and metabolic disorders in childhood. This article reviews the prevalence of obesity in pregnancy and the associated maternal and fetal complications. Recommendations and suggestions for pre-conception, antenatal and postnatal care of women with obesity are presented, and current research in the UK and future research priorities are considered.

  19. Metabolically healthy obesity--does it exist?

    PubMed

    Boonchaya-anant, Patchaya; Apovian, Caroline M

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of obesity has been increasing worldwide over the past 30 years and is a major public health concern. Obesity is known to be associated with metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance and inflammation; however, there is a subset of obese subjects who have normal metabolic profiles, and they have been identified as the metabolically healthy obese (MHO). Several studies have described MHO as obese individuals who have high levels of insulin sensitivity and the absence of diabetes, dyslipidemia, or hypertension. The prevalence of MHO varies from 20 to 30% among obese individuals. This review will discuss the MHO phenotype; the differences between MHO and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) individuals; and the possible underlying mechanisms including adipocyte differentiation, immune regulation, and cellular energy metabolism. PMID:25092577

  20. The Obesity Paradox in Cancer: a Review.

    PubMed

    Lennon, Hannah; Sperrin, Matthew; Badrick, Ellena; Renehan, Andrew G

    2016-09-01

    There is a common perception that excess adiposity, commonly approximated by body mass index (BMI), is associated with reduced cancer survival. A number of studies have emerged challenging this by demonstrating that overweight and early obese states are associated with improved survival. This finding is termed the "obesity paradox" and is well recognized in the cardio-metabolic literature but less so in oncology. Here, we summarize the epidemiological findings related to the obesity paradox in cancer. Our review highlights that many observations of the obesity paradox in cancer reflect methodological mechanisms including the crudeness of BMI as an obesity measure, confounding, detection bias, reverse causality, and a specific form of the selection bias, known as collider bias. It is imperative for the oncologist to interpret the observation of the obesity paradox against the above methodological framework and avoid the misinterpretation that being obese might be "good" or "protective" for cancer patients. PMID:27475805

  1. Economic causes and consequences of obesity.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Eric A; Ruhm, Christopher J; Kosa, Katherine M

    2005-01-01

    Obesity is not only a health but also an economic phenomenon. This chapter (a) examines underlying economic causes, such as technological advancements, behind the obesity epidemic; (b) describes economic consequences of obesity, including increasing obesity-related medical expenditures; and (c) discusses the role of government in combating the obesity epidemic. Because of the high costs of obesity, and the fact that the majority of these costs are financed by taxpayers, there is a clear motivation for government to try to reduce these costs. However, because obesity may result from poor information and addictive behavior and/or as a result of living in an increasingly obesogenic environment, interventions will need to be multifaceted to ensure the best chance of success. PMID:15760288

  2. Cardiovascular complications of obesity in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Orio, F; Palomba, S; Cascella, T; Savastano, S; Lombardi, G; Colao, A

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is an increasingly important worldwide health problem, representing the major risk factor for coronary heart disease. The increase in the prevalence of obesity, particularly among younger age groups, is likely to have long-term implications for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the years to come, especially at a young age. Obesity plays a central role in the insulin resistance (IR) syndrome and increases the risk of atherosclerotic CVD. The present review will examine the relationships among cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors during the childhood-adolescence-adulthood transition. In fact, the relation between obesity, in particular visceral obesity and CVD, appears to develop at a relatively young age. The foremost physical consequence of obesity is atherosclerotic CVD, and an intriguing example of obesity-related cardiovascular complications affecting young women is the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PMID:17318026

  3. Obesity-related asthma in adults.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Nikunj A; Lazarus, Angeline

    2016-08-01

    Obesity as a risk factor for asthma has been identified in previous studies. Additionally, a disproportionate number of patients with severe or difficult-to-control asthma are obese. Patients with obesity-related asthma tend to have worse asthma control and quality of life disproportionate to their pulmonary function tests, are less responsive to corticosteroid therapy, and are more likely to have obesity-related comorbidities such as obstructive sleep apnea and gastroesophageal disease that complicate asthma treatment. With the increasing prevalence of obesity, the prevalence of asthma is anticipated to grow proportionally. Addressing weight loss and encouraging activity is essential in the management of obesity-related asthma. This article briefly overviews the epidemiology, unique distinguishing features, potential mechanisms, and approach to management of patients with obesity-related asthma in adults. PMID:27336439

  4. Preventing Obesity and Eating Disorders in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Golden, Neville H; Schneider, Marcie; Wood, Christine

    2016-09-01

    Obesity and eating disorders (EDs) are both prevalent in adolescents. There are concerns that obesity prevention efforts may lead to the development of an ED. Most adolescents who develop an ED did not have obesity previously, but some teenagers, in an attempt to lose weight, may develop an ED. This clinical report addresses the interaction between obesity prevention and EDs in teenagers, provides the pediatrician with evidence-informed tools to identify behaviors that predispose to both obesity and EDs, and provides guidance about obesity and ED prevention messages. The focus should be on a healthy lifestyle rather than on weight. Evidence suggests that obesity prevention and treatment, if conducted correctly, do not predispose to EDs. PMID:27550979

  5. The worldwide epidemic of female obesity.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sheona; Shaw, Dorothy

    2015-04-01

    The rapidly rising number of individuals who are overweight and obese has been called a worldwide epidemic of obesity with >35% of adults today considered to be overweight or obese. Women are more likely to be overweight and obese than their male counterparts, which has far-reaching effects on reproductive health and specifically pregnancy, with obese women facing an increased risk of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, operative delivery, fetal macrosomia, and neonatal morbidity. The etiology of obesity is highly complex encompassing genetic, environmental, physiologic, cultural, political, and socioeconomic factors, making it challenging to develop effective interventions on both a local and global scale. This article describes the extent and the cost of the obesity epidemic, which, although historically seen as a disease of high-income countries, is now clearly a global epidemic that impacts low- and middle-income countries and indigenous groups who bear an ever-increasing burden of this disease. PMID:25487257

  6. Lorcaserin. In obesity: unacceptable risks.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    Treatment of obesity and overweight is based primarily on dietary measures and physical exercise.There are still no drugs with a favourable harm-benefit balance in this setting. Lorcaserin, a "selective" 5HT2C serotonin receptor agonist, has been refused marketing authorisation in the European Union despite approval in the United States. Clinical evaluation of lorcaserin is based on three placebo-controlled trials, each lasting one year, in a total of about 6000 patients. Two trials involved obese patients, and one obese patients with type 2 diabetes. The results of these trials are undermined by the large proportion (40% to 50%) of patients who were lost to follow-up before the end of the trial. None of the trials examined the impact of lorcaserin on the clinical complications of obesity. From an average initial weight of about 100 kg, patients taking lorcaserin lost only about 3 kg more than those in the placebo groups.The patients put on weight again after lorcaserin was discontinued. Adverse effects observed in clinical trials were mainly gastrointestinal (dry mouth, nausea) and neuropsychiatric (dizziness, fatigue, headache, euphoria). The incidence of cardiac valve disorders was higher with lorcaserin than with placebo. These trials were too short in duration to exclude a risk of cancer (breast cancer and astrocytoma) that was reported in experimental animals. This serotonin agonist is metabolised by the liver, creating a risk of multiple drug interactions. In practice, lorcaserin has not been shown to prevent complications of obesity or even lead to substantial weight loss.There is therefore no justification for exposing patients to the risk of adverse effects. PMID:24926508

  7. Attitudes toward obesity in obese persons: a matched comparison of obese women with and without binge eating.

    PubMed

    Puhl, R M; Masheb, R M; White, M A; Grilo, C M

    2010-09-01

    No research has compared expressions of weight bias across different subgroups of obese individuals. This study compared attitudes toward and beliefs about obesity in women with and without binge eating disorder (BED) and examined whether these attitudes are related to psychological factors. Fifty obese women with BED were compared with an age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched group of 50 obese women without BED on a battery of established measures of anti-fat attitudes and beliefs about weight controllability and psychological factors (self-esteem, depression, and eating disorder features). The ageand BMI-matched groups did not differ with respect to beliefs about obesity or attitudes toward obese persons, or in self-esteem or depression. Correlational analyses conducted separately within each group revealed that women with BED who reported more favorable attitudes towards obese persons had higher self-esteem and lower levels of depression, whereas there were no significant associations between these variables among women without BED. In addition, weight controllability beliefs and eating disorder features were unrelated to self-esteem and depression in both groups. These findings suggest that stigmatizing attitudes endorsed by obese persons are neither tempered nor worsened by psychological distress or eating pathology. Given that stigmatizing attitudes did not differ between obese women with and without BED, it may be that obesity itself, rather than psychological features or disordered eating, increases vulnerability to negative weight-based attitudes. Potential implications for stigma reduction efforts and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:20124783

  8. Treatment modalities of obesity: what fits whom?

    PubMed

    Hainer, Vojtech; Toplak, Hermann; Mitrakou, Asimina

    2008-02-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing in both developed and developing countries, with rates reaching approximately 10-35% among adults in the Euro-American region. Obesity is associated with increased risks of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, arthritis, and some type of cancers. Obesity significantly affects the quality of life and reduces the average life expectancy. The effective treatment of obesity should address both the medical and the social burden of this disease. Obesity needs to be treated within the health care system as any other complex disease, with empathy and without prejudice. Both health care providers and patients should know that the obesity treatment is a lifelong task. They should also set realistic goals before starting the treatment, whereas keeping in mind that even a modest weight loss of 5-15% significantly reduces obesity-related health risks. Essential treatment of obesity includes low-calorie low-fat diets, increased physical activity, and strategies contributing to the modification of lifestyle. Anti-obesity drugs facilitate weight loss and contribute to further amelioration of obesity-related health risks. A short-term weight loss, up to 6 months, is usually achieved easily. However, the long-term weight management is often associated with a lack of compliance, failures, and a high dropout rate. Regular physical activity, cognitive behavioral modification of lifestyle, and administration of anti-obesity drugs improve weight loss maintenance. Bariatric surgery is an effective strategy to treat severely obese patients. Bariatric surgery leads to a substantial improvement of comorbidities as well as to a reduction in overall mortality by 25-50% during the long-term follow-up. Obesity treatment should be individually tailored and the following factors should be taken into account: sex, the degree of obesity, individual health risks, psychobehavioral and metabolic characteristics, and the outcome of previous weight loss

  9. The Critical Care Obesity Paradox and Implications for Nutrition Support.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jayshil J; Rosenthal, Martin D; Miller, Keith R; Codner, Panna; Kiraly, Laszlo; Martindale, Robert G

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is a leading cause of preventable death worldwide. The prevalence of obesity has been increasing and is associated with an increased risk for other co-morbidities. In the critical care setting, nearly one third of patients are obese. Obese critically ill patients pose significant physical and on-physical challenges to providers, including optimization of nutrition therapy. Intuitively, obese patients would have worse critical care-related outcome. On the contrary, emerging data suggests that critically ill obese patients have improved outcomes, and this phenomenon has been coined "the obesity paradox." The purposes of this review will be to outline the historical views and pathophysiology of obesity and epidemiology of obesity, describe the challenges associated with obesity in the intensive care unit setting, review critical care outcomes in the obese, define the obesity-critical care paradox, and identify the challenges and role of nutrition support in the critically ill obese patient. PMID:27422122

  10. Obesity and late-onset hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Corona, G; Vignozzi, L; Sforza, A; Mannucci, E; Maggi, M

    2015-12-15

    Obesity and male hypogonadism (HG) are often associated, as demonstrated in all cross-sectional studies. Prospective studies have indicated that i) having HG at baseline increases the risk of visceral obesity (and metabolic syndrome) and that ii) obesity induces incident HG. Hence, there is a bidirectional relationship between the two conditions. This is the main topic of this review, along with some pathogenic considerations. Meta-analysis of intervention studies indicates that treating obesity is a very efficient treatment for obesity-induced HG. The mechanism by which obesity induces HG has not yet been completely understood, but dietary-induced hypothalamic inflammation, along with a decreased GnRH release, is plausible. Among patients seeking medical care for obesity, the proportion of HG is relatively high. The prevalence of obesity among patients referring for sexual dysfunction is also elevated. Hence, in symptomatic, obese, hypogonadal subjects, testosterone supplementation (TS) can be considered. Whereas long-term uncontrolled register studies suggest that TS could decrease weight, analysis of controlled studies only support a parallel increase in lean mass and decrease in fat mass, with a resulting null effect on weight. Considering that T induces an increase in muscle mass, it is conceivable that the amount of activity obese people can undertake after TS will increase, allowing a closer adherence to physical exercise programs. Some studies, here meta-analyzed, support this concept. PMID:26143633

  11. Obesity and Asthma: Microbiome-Metabolome Interactions.

    PubMed

    Shore, Stephanie A; Cho, Youngji

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for asthma, but obese subjects with asthma respond poorly to standard asthma drugs. Obesity also alters gut bacterial community structure. Obesity-related changes in gut bacteria contribute to weight gain and other obesity-related conditions, including insulin resistance and systemic inflammation. Here, we review the rationale for the hypothesis that obesity-related changes in gut bacteria may also play a role in obesity-related asthma. The metabolomes of the liver, serum, urine, and adipose tissue are altered in obesity. Gut bacteria produce a large number of metabolites, which can reach the blood and circulate to other organs, and gut bacteria-derived metabolites have been shown to contribute to disease processes outside the gastrointestinal tract, including cardiovascular disease. Here, we describe the potential roles for two such classes of metabolites in obesity-related asthma: short-chain fatty acids and bile acids. Greater understanding of the role of microbiota in obesity-related asthma could lead to novel microbiota-based treatments for these hard-to-treat patients. PMID:26949916

  12. Divergent effects of obesity on fragility fractures

    PubMed Central

    Caffarelli, Carla; Alessi, Chiara; Nuti, Ranuccio; Gonnelli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Obesity was commonly thought to be advantageous for maintaining healthy bones due to the higher bone mineral density observed in overweight individuals. However, several recent studies have challenged the widespread belief that obesity is protective against fracture and have suggested that obesity is a risk factor for certain fractures. The effect of obesity on fracture risk is site-dependent, the risk being increased for some fractures (humerus, ankle, upper arm) and decreased for others (hip, pelvis, wrist). Moreover, the relationship between obesity and fracture may also vary by sex, age, and ethnicity. Risk factors for fracture in obese individuals appear to be similar to those in nonobese populations, although patterns of falling are particularly important in the obese. Research is needed to determine if and how visceral fat and metabolic complications of obesity (type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, chronic inflammation, etc) are causally associated with bone status and fragility fracture risk. Vitamin D deficiency and hypogonadism may also influence fracture risk in obese individuals. Fracture algorithms such as FRAX® might be expected to underestimate fracture probability. Studies specifically designed to evaluate the antifracture efficacy of different drugs in obese patients are not available; however, literature data may suggest that in obese patients higher doses of the bisphosphonates might be required in order to maintain efficacy against nonvertebral fractures. Therefore, the search for better methods for the identification of fragility fracture risk in the growing population of adult and elderly subjects with obesity might be considered a clinical priority which could improve the prevention of fracture in obese individuals. PMID:25284996

  13. Redrawing the US Obesity Landscape: Bias-Corrected Estimates of State-Specific Adult Obesity Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Zachary J.; Long, Michael W.; Resch, Stephen C.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Cradock, Angie L.; Giles, Catherine; Hsiao, Amber; Wang, Y. Claire

    2016-01-01

    Background State-level estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) underestimate the obesity epidemic because they use self-reported height and weight. We describe a novel bias-correction method and produce corrected state-level estimates of obesity and severe obesity. Methods Using non-parametric statistical matching, we adjusted self-reported data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) 2013 (n = 386,795) using measured data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (n = 16,924). We validated our national estimates against NHANES and estimated bias-corrected state-specific prevalence of obesity (BMI≥30) and severe obesity (BMI≥35). We compared these results with previous adjustment methods. Results Compared to NHANES, self-reported BRFSS data underestimated national prevalence of obesity by 16% (28.67% vs 34.01%), and severe obesity by 23% (11.03% vs 14.26%). Our method was not significantly different from NHANES for obesity or severe obesity, while previous methods underestimated both. Only four states had a corrected obesity prevalence below 30%, with four exceeding 40%–in contrast, most states were below 30% in CDC maps. Conclusions Twelve million adults with obesity (including 6.7 million with severe obesity) were misclassified by CDC state-level estimates. Previous bias-correction methods also resulted in underestimates. Accurate state-level estimates are necessary to plan for resources to address the obesity epidemic. PMID:26954566

  14. Emotion in obesity discourse: understanding public attitudes towards regulations for obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Lucy C; Warin, Megan J; Moore, Vivienne M; Street, Jackie M

    2016-05-01

    Intense concern about obesity in the public imagination and in political, academic and media discourses has catalysed advocacy efforts to implement regulatory measures to reduce the occurrence of obesity in Australia and elsewhere. This article explores public attitudes towards the possible implementation of regulations to address obesity by analysing emotions within popular discourses. Drawing on reader comments attached to obesity-relevant news articles published on Australian news and current affairs websites, we examine how popular anxieties about the 'obesity crisis' and vitriol directed at obese individuals circulate alongside understandings of the appropriate role of government to legitimise regulatory reform to address obesity. Employing Ahmed's theorisation of 'affective economies' and broader literature on emotional cultures, we argue that obesity regulations achieve popular support within affective economies oriented to neoliberal and individualist constructions of obesity. These economies preclude constructions of obesity as a structural problem in popular discourse; instead positioning anti-obesity regulations as a government-endorsed vehicle for discrimination directed at obese people. Findings implicate a new set of ethical challenges for those championing regulatory reform for obesity prevention. PMID:26564262

  15. Severe Obesity in Cancer Care.

    PubMed

    Streu, Erin

    2016-05-01

    Increasing weight and body fat composition has an impact on cancer detection and staging. Obese women are less likely to engage in breast and cervical screening practices. Excessive adipose tissue makes physical assessment more difficult, and patients with a BMI greater than 35 kg/m2 may have deeper and wider pelvic structures, which make internal examinations problematic. A retrospective review of 324 primary surgical patients found that patients with a BMI greater than 40 kg/m2 are seven times less likely to undergo complete surgical staging for endometrial cancer compared with individuals with a BMI less than 40 kg/m2. In addition, healthcare provider bias against the need for screening, feelings of discomfort and embarrassment, as well as patient's fears of guilt, humiliation, and shame pose significant barriers to addressing the issue of obesity in clinical care with patients and family members. 
. PMID:27105188

  16. [Obesity disease with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Nagamine, Kazuhiro; Ueno, Hiroaki; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2015-12-01

    Obesity has been increasing not only in Japan but also in both developed and developing countries. Mean body mass index of Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes has been increasing, and it reached 25.0 in 2013. If body weight decreases more than 3% of initial body weight in patients with metabolic syndrome, not only glucose metabolism but also dyslipidemia and hypertension improve. To reduce the excess body weight, behavior therapy, calorie restriction, and exercise are necessary. The next strategies are drugs including mazindol, glucose-like peptide-1 receptor agonist and sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, and bariatric surgery. Because it is often difficult to reduce body weight using only present non-invasive therapies, clarification of appetite mechanisms and development of novel anti-obesity drugs with few side effects are needed. PMID:26666154

  17. Obesity. Part II--Treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Bray, G A; Gray, D S

    1988-01-01

    Conventional diets and increased exercise are the cornerstones of traditional therapy for obesity, but available data suggest that the most important component of any program is the associated behavior modification through which new ways of dealing with old problems can be learned and continually applied. This combined with very-low-calorie diets--less than 800 kcal per day--are in wide use, mostly under medical supervision. The currently available appetite-suppressing drugs are of limited efficacy, but many new ones are under active development and hold promise for the future. The most effective surgical intervention appears to be the gastric bypass operation, but this should be reserved for those who are at high risk from their obesity. Images PMID:3074556

  18. [Sexuality in overweight and obesity].

    PubMed

    Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra

    2016-03-01

    The association between obesity and sexual dysfunction has been described in many studies. Neurobiological, hormonal, vascular and mental disturbances are the main reasons in male and in female gender. Sexual interest and desire, sexual arousal, orgasm, painful intercourse and premature ejaculation can be involved. Data for prevalence of sexual function disturbances in obese people are scarce and most studies were small. For screening of sexual function we recommend the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-Score, which contains 15 Items for males and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), which contains 19 items for females. Treatment of sexual function disturbances include lifestyle changes with an increase of physical activity, weight control, healthy eating and smoking cessation. Testosterone substitution in cases of real hypogonadism and treatment with PDE-5 inhibitors are well documented treatment options in male individuals. New treatment options for female patients with variable effectiveness are fibanserin, testosterone, bupropione and oxytocin. PMID:26811242

  19. Markets and childhood obesity policy.

    PubMed

    Cawley, John

    2006-01-01

    In examining the childhood obesity epidemic from the perspective of economics, John Cawley looks at both possible causes and possible policy solutions that work through markets. The operation of markets, says Cawley, has contributed to the recent increase in childhood overweight in three main ways. First, the real price of food fell. In particular, energy-dense foods, such as those containing fats and sugars, became relatively cheaper than less energy-dense foods, such as fresh fruits and vegetables. Second, rising wages increased the "opportunity costs" of food preparation for college graduates, encouraging them to spend less time preparing meals. Third, technological changes created incentives to use prepackaged food rather than to prepare foods. Several economic rationales justify government intervention in markets to address these problems. First, because free markets generally under-provide information, the government may intervene to provide consumers with nutrition information they need. Second, because society bears the soaring costs of obesity, the government may intervene to lower the costs to taxpayers. Third, because children are not what economists call "rational consumers"--they cannot evaluate information critically and weigh the future consequences of their actions-the government may step in to help them make better choices. The government can easily disseminate information to consumers directly, but formulating policies to address the other two rationales is more difficult. In the absence of ideal policies to combat obesity, the government must turn to "second-best" policies. For example, it could protect children from advertisements for "junk food." It could implement taxes and subsidies that discourage the consumption of unhealthful foods or encourage physical activity. It could require schools to remove vending machines for soda and candy. From the economic perspective, policymakers should evaluate these options on the basis of cost

  20. Obesity management: what brings success?

    PubMed

    Lagerros, Ylva Trolle; Rössner, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The upward trend in obesity prevalence across regions and continents is a worldwide concern. Today a majority of the world's population live in a country where being overweight or obese causes more deaths than being underweight. Only a portion of those qualifying for treatment will get the health care they need. Still, a minor weight loss of 5-10% seems to be sufficient to provide a clinically significant health benefit in terms of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Diet, exercise and behavior modifications remain the current cornerstones of obesity treatment. Weight-loss drugs play a minor role. Drugs which were available and reasonably effective have been withdrawn because of side effects. The fact that the 'old' well known, but pretty unexciting tools remain the basic armamentarium causes understandable concern and disappointment among both patients and therapists. Hence, bariatric surgery has increasingly been recognized and developed, as it offers substantial weight loss and prolonged weight control. The present review highlights the conventional tools to counter obesity, lifestyle modification, pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery, including some of the barriers to successful weight loss: (1) unrealistic expectations of success; (2) high attrition rates; (3) cultural norms of self-acceptance in terms of weight and beliefs of fat being healthy; (4) neighborhood attributes such as a lack of well-stocked supermarkets and rather the presence of convenience stores with low-quality foods; and (5) the perception of the neighborhood as less safe and with low walkability. Prevention is the obvious key. Cost-effective societal interventions such as a tax on unhealthy food and beverages, front-of-pack traffic light nutrition labeling and prohibition of advertising of junk food and beverages to children are also discussed. PMID:23320052