Science.gov

Sample records for 30-km zony chaes

  1. Development of the Chae Optimal Supervision Environment Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chae, Ki Byung

    2013-01-01

    The review of current supervision models and instruments revealed a crucial need for a valid, reliable instrument that assesses the quality of the supervision environment as a venue for promoting counselor development. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was the construction and initial validation of the Chae Optimal Supervision…

  2. Direct solar radiation up to 30 km and stratification of attenuation components in the stratosphere.

    PubMed

    Kondratiev, K Y; Nicolsky, G A; Badinov, I Y; Andreev, S D

    1967-02-01

    The balloon apparatus and some of the results of the direct solar radiation investigations up to 30 km in the middle belt of the Soviet Union in 1961-1965 are briefly described. Measurements of total direct solar radiation showed that the aerosol extinction properties in the free atmosphere are rather considerable, not only up to 30 km but also at the higher levels. The layered character of the stratospheric optical structure is demonstrated. The dynamics of layers and the possible influence of volcanic activity is discussed. Spectral investigations in the 0.35-13 micro region demonstrated that the stratospheric humidity is small, approximating 10(-6)-10(-5) g/g. The measurements in the visible spectrum confirmed that stratospheric aerosol component is essential, the stratospheric optical density being about 10(-4)-10(-3) km(-1). Comparison of the results of spectral and integral investigations indicates that the aerosol ext nction is also dominant above 30 km. PMID:20057727

  3. The effect of creatine supplementation upon inflammatory and muscle soreness markers after a 30km race.

    PubMed

    Santos, R V T; Bassit, R A; Caperuto, E C; Costa Rosa, L F B P

    2004-09-01

    We have evaluated the effect of a creatine supplementation protocol upon inflammatory and muscle soreness markers: creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), prostaglandin E2) (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) after running 30km. Runners with previously experience in running marathons, with their personal best between 2.5-3h were supplemented for 5 days prior to the 30km race with 4 doses of 5g of creatine and 15g of maltodextrine per day while the control group received the same amount of maltodextrine. Pre-race blood samples were collected immediately before running the 30km, and 24h after the end of the test (the post-race samples). After the test, athletes from the control group presented an increase in plasma CK (4.4-fold), LDH (43%), PGE2 6.6-fold) and TNF-alpha (2.34-fold) concentrations, indicating a high level of cell injury and inflammation. Creatine supplementation attenuated the changes observed for CK (by 19%), PGE2 and TNF-alpha (by 60.9% and 33.7%, respectively, p<0.05) and abolished the increase in LDH plasma concentration observed after running 30km, The athletes did not present any side effects such as cramping, dehydration or diarrhea, neither during the period of supplementation, nor during the 30km race. All the athletes finished the race in a time equivalent to their personal best +/- 5.8%. These results indicate that creatine supplementation reduced cell damage and inflammation after an exhaustive intense race. PMID:15306159

  4. Risks from radionuclide migration to groundwater in the Chernobyl 30-km zone.

    PubMed

    Bugai, D A; Waters, R D; Dzhepo, S P; Skal'skij, A S

    1996-07-01

    Remediation of contaminated groundwater in the Chernobyl 30-km evacuation zone is frequently identified as a priority by technical experts and Chernobyl site officials in Ukraine. In order to evaluate the health risk basis for this groundwater remediation, we have estimated both on-site and off-site health risks caused by radionuclide migration to the groundwater and compared these risks with those from exposure to radioactive contamination on the ground surface. A simple and conservative analytical model was developed to assess radionuclide transport to the groundwater from the soil surface contaminated by radioactive fallout. 90Sr, the primary radioactive contaminant of concern for the groundwater-migration exposure pathway, was evaluated in the analysis. The estimated health risk to hypothetical, self-sufficient residents in the 30-km zone is dominated by external and internal irradiation (due primarily to ingestion of agricultural products) from 137Cs, which is present in soils of the 30-km zone in roughly equal proportion with 90Sr. The estimated risk from contaminated groundwater is approximately an order of magnitude lower. Analysis of 90Sr migration via groundwater to surface water and down-river population centers shows that, despite generally unfavorable environmental conditions in the 30-km exclusion zone, radionuclide transport via the groundwater pathway has potential to contribute only marginally to the off-site radiological risk, which is governed by wash-out of radionuclides from the contaminated river flood plain and catchment areas by surface water during spring snowmelt and rains. Health risks due to off-site radionuclide migration via groundwater are below the level requiring application of counter-measures. This analysis implies that, relative to other exposure pathways, there is little current or future health risk basis for the proposed complex and costly groundwater remediation measures in the 30-km zone. Therefore, these activities should

  5. Development and Standardization of Extended ChaeLee Korean Facial Expressions of Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyoung-Uk; Kim, JiEun; Yeon, Bora; Kim, Seung-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Objective In recent years there has been an enormous increase of neuroscience research using the facial expressions of emotion. This has led to a need for ethnically specific facial expressions data, due to differences of facial emotion processing among different ethnicities. Methods Fifty professional actors were asked to pose with each of the following facial expressions in turn: happiness, sadness, fear, anger, disgust, surprise, and neutral. A total of 283 facial pictures of 40 actors were selected to be included in the validation study. Facial expression emotion identification was performed in a validation study by 104 healthy raters who provided emotion labeling, valence ratings, and arousal ratings. Results A total of 259 images of 37 actors were selected for inclusion in the Extended ChaeLee Korean Facial Expressions of Emotions tool, based on the analysis of results. In these images, the actors' mean age was 38±11.1 years (range 26-60 years), with 16 (43.2%) males and 21 (56.8%) females. The consistency varied by emotion type, showing the highest for happiness (95.5%) and the lowest for fear (49.0%). The mean scores for the valence ratings ranged from 4.0 (happiness) to 1.9 (sadness, anger, and disgust). The mean scores for the arousal ratings ranged from 3.7 (anger and fear) to 2.5 (neutral). Conclusion We obtained facial expressions from individuals of Korean ethnicity and performed a study to validate them. Our results provide a tool for the affective neurosciences which could be used for the investigation of mechanisms of emotion processing in healthy individuals as well as in patients with various psychiatric disorders. PMID:23798964

  6. GPS-aided gravimetry at 30 km altitude from a balloon-borne platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazarewicz, Andrew R.; Evans, Alan G.

    1989-01-01

    A balloon-borne experiment, flown at 30 km altitude over New Mexico, was used to test dynamic differential Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking in support of gravimetry at high-altitudes. The experiment package contained a gravimeter (Vibrating String Accelerometer), a full complement of inertial instruments, a TI-4100 GPS receiver and a radar transponder. The flight was supported by two GPS receivers on the ground near the flight path. From the 8 hour flight, about a forty minute period was selected for analysis. Differential GPS phase measurements were used to estimate changes in position over the sample time interval, or average velocity. In addition to average velocity, differential positions and numerical averages of acceleration were obtained in three components. Gravitational acceleration was estimated by correcting for accelerations due to translational motion, ignoring all rotational effects.

  7. Optimum design of 30-km long-distance distributed optical fiber Raman temperature sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zaixuan; Liu, Honglin; Wang, Jianfeng; Yu, Xiangdong; Jin, Yongxing; Kim, Insoo S.; Wu, Xiaobiao

    2005-02-01

    A 30km long distance distributed optical fiber Raman temperature sensor (DOFRTS) system has been made, it use new measuring temperature principle of optical fiber amplified anti-Stokes Raman spontaneous scattering. In the system, 1550nm erbium-doped optical fiber laser, a highness speed data acquisition card and signal processing technique are used. By using these technique, the problem of weak signal detection is resolved and signal to noise ratio is increased. All components of system are put into an intellectualized constant temperature box and work in constant temperature condition. Stability and environment adaptability are improved. By appraisal, performance of the system is listed as follows: length of single mode fiber: 31km, temperature rang:0-100°C (can be expanded), temperature measuring uncertainty:+/-2°C, temperature resolution:0.1°C, measurement time:432s, spatial resolution :3m.

  8. Cardiac Troponin T and I Release After a 30-km Run.

    PubMed

    Klinkenberg, Lieke J J; Luyten, Peter; van der Linden, Noreen; Urgel, Kim; Snijders, Daniëlle P C; Knackstedt, Christian; Dennert, Robert; Kietselaer, Bastiaan L J H; Mingels, Alma M A; Cardinaels, Eline P M; Peeters, Frederique E C M; van Suijlen, Jeroen D E; Ten Kate, Joop; Marsch, Elke; Theelen, Thomas L; Sluimer, Judith C; Wouters, Kristiaan; Bekers, Otto; Bekkers, Sebastiaan C A M; van Loon, Luc J C; van Dieijen-Visser, Marja P; Meex, Steven J R

    2016-07-15

    Prolonged endurance-type exercise is associated with elevated cardiac troponin (cTn) levels in asymptomatic recreational athletes. It is unclear whether exercise-induced cTn release mirrors a physiological or pathological underlying process. The aim of this study was to provide a direct comparison of the release kinetics of high-sensitivity cTnI (hs-cTnI) and T (hs-cTnT) after endurance-type exercise. In addition, the effect of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC), a cardioprotective strategy that limits ischemia-reperfusion injury, was investigated in a randomized controlled crossover manner. Twenty-five healthy volunteers completed an outdoor 30-km running trial preceded by RIPC (4 × 5 min 220 mm Hg unilateral occlusion) or control intervention. hs-cTnT, hs-cTnI, and sensitive cTnI (s-cTnI) concentrations were examined before, immediately after, 2 and 5 hours after the trial. The completion of a 30-km run resulted in a significant increase in circulating cTn (time: all p <0.001), with maximum hs-cTnT, hs-cTnI, and s-cTnI levels of 47 ± 27, 69 ± 62, and 82 ± 64 ng/L (mean ± SD), respectively. Maximum hs-cTnT concentrations were measured in 60% of the participants at 2 hours after exercise, compared with maximum hs-cTnI and s-cTnI concentrations at 5 hours in 84% and 80% of the participants. Application of an RIPC stimulus did not reduce exercise-induced cTn release (time × trial: all p >0.5). In conclusion, in contrast to acute myocardial infarction, maximum hs-cTnT levels after exercise precede maximum hs-cTnI levels. Distinct release kinetics of hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI and the absence of an effect of RIPC favors the concept that exercise-induced cTn release may be mechanistically distinct from cTn release in acute myocardial infarction. PMID:27282835

  9. Clouds in ECMWF's 30 KM Resolution Global Atmospheric Forecast Model (TL639)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, R. F.; Morcrette, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    Global models of the general circulation of the atmosphere resolve a wide range of length scales, and in particular cloud structures extend from planetary scales to the smallest scales resolvable, now down to 30 km in state-of-the-art models. Even the highest resolution models do not resolve small-scale cloud phenomena seen, for example, in Landsat and other high-resolution satellite images of clouds. Unresolved small-scale disturbances often grow into larger ones through non-linear processes that transfer energy upscale. Understanding upscale cascades is of crucial importance in predicting current weather, and in parameterizing cloud-radiative processes that control long term climate. Several movie animations provide examples of the temporal and spatial variation of cloud fields produced in 4-day runs of the forecast model at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) in Reading, England, at particular times and locations of simultaneous measurement field campaigns. model resolution is approximately 30 km horizontally (triangular truncation TL639) with 31 vertical levels from surface to stratosphere. Timestep of the model is about 10 minutes, but animation frames are 3 hours apart, at timesteps when the radiation is computed. The animations were prepared from an archive of several 4-day runs at the highest available model resolution, and archived at ECMWF. Cloud, wind and temperature fields in an approximately 1000 km X 1000 km box were retrieved from the archive, then approximately 60 Mb Vis5d files were prepared with the help of Graeme Kelly of ECMWF, and were compressed into MPEG files each less than 3 Mb. We discuss the interaction of clouds and radiation in the model, and compare the variability of cloud liquid as a function of scale to that seen in cloud observations made in intensive field campaigns. Comparison of high-resolution global runs to cloud-resolving models, and to lower resolution climate models is leading to better

  10. Communication between earthquake clusters separated by over 30 km supports simple volcano plumbing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsdottir, K.; Jonasson, K.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Hensch, M.; Hooper, A. J.; Holohan, E. P.; Sigmundsson, F.; Halldorsson, S. A.; Hognadottir, T.; Magnússon, E.; Pálsson, F.; Walter, T. R.; Ofeigsson, B.; Parks, M.; Roberts, M. J.; Hjorleifsdottir, V.; Cesca, S.; Guðmundsson, G.; Hreinsdottir, S.; Jarosch, A. H.; Dumont, S.; Fridriksdóttir, H. M.; Barsotti, S.; Einarsson, P.

    2015-12-01

    The subglacial Bárðarbunga volcano is composed of a large oval caldera (7x11 km) and fissures extending tens of kilometers away from the caldera along the rift zone, which marks the divergent plate boundary across Iceland. On August 16th, 2014 an intense seismic swarm started below the Bárðarbunga caldera and in the two weeks that followed a dyke migrated some 47 km laterally in the uppermost 6-10 km of the crust along the rift. The dyke propagation terminated in lava fields just north of Vatnajökull glacier, where a major (1.5 km3) six months long eruption took place. Intense earthquake activity in the caldera started in the period August 21-24 with over 70 M5 earthquakes accompanying slow caldera collapse, as verified by various geodetic measurements. The subsidence is likely due to magma withdrawal from a reservoir at depth beneath the caldera. During a five months period, October-February, the seismic activity was separated by over 30 km in two clusters; one along the caldera rims (due to piecewise caldera subsidence) and the other at the far end of the dyke (as a result of small shear movements). Here we present statistical analysis comparing the temporal behaviour of seismicity recorded in the two clusters. By comparing the earthquake rate in the dyke in temporal bins before and after caldera subsidence earthquakes to the rate away from these bins (background rate), we show that the number of dyke earthquakes was significantly higher (p <0.05) in the period 0-3 hours before a large earthquake (>M4.6) in the caldera. Increased dyke seismicity was also observed 0-3 hours following a large caldera earthquake. Elevated seismicity in the dyke before a large caldera earthquake may occur when a constriction in the dyke was reduced, followed by pressure drop in the chamber. Assuming that the large caldera earthquakes occurred when chamber pressure was lowest, the subsiding caldera piston may have caused temporary higher pressure in the dyke and thereby increased

  11. Kinetics of fuel particle weathering and {sup 90}Sr mobility in the Chernobyl 30-km exclusion zone

    SciTech Connect

    Kashparov, V.A.; Zvarich, S.I.; Protsak, V.P.; Levchuk, S.E.; Oughton, D.H.

    1999-03-01

    Weathering of fuel particles and the subsequent leaching of radionuclides causes {sup 90}Sr mobility in Chernobyl soils to increase with time after disposition. Studies of {sup 90}Sr speciation in soils collected in 1995 and 1996 from the Chernobyl 30-km exclusion zone have been used to calculate rates of fuel particles dissolution under natural environmental conditions. Results show that the velocity of fuel particle dissolution is primarily dependent on the physico-chemical characteristics of the particles and partially dependent on soil acidity. Compared to other areas, the fuel particle dissolution rate is significantly lower in the contaminated areas to the west of the Chernobyl reactor where deposited particles were presumably not oxidized prior to release. The data have been used to derive mathematical models that describe the rate of radionuclide leaching from fuel particles in the exclusion zone and changes in soil-to-plant transfer as a function of particle type and soil pH.

  12. Reduction of crop contamination by soil resuspension within the 30-km zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Sauras-Yera, Teresa; Tent, Joana; Ivanov, Yuri; Hinton, T G; Rauret, Gemma; Vallejo, Ramon

    2003-10-15

    A field experiment was conducted within the 30-km zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to analyze whether the application of mulching reduced resuspension of 137Cs contaminated soil in oat (Avena sativa) crops. In 1993, we applied a mulch treatment at a dose of 200 g m(-2), and soil resuspension was measured by estimating soil loadings onto plant surfaces from Ti concentrations in plants. In 1994, two mulch doses were applied, 200 and 50 g m(-2), and we estimated the contribution of soil resuspension by using artificial resuspension collection devices (ARC). In the 1993 experiment between 4.6 and 34.4% of the plant's total 137Cs contamination was attributed to external soil contamination. The mean amount of soil-derived 137Cs attached to vegetation was 124.7 Bq kg(-1)(plant) in control plots and 53.7 Bq kg(-1)(plant) in mulched plots. In the 1994 experiment, covering the soil with a mulch layer decreased the radiocesium content in ARC by about 70%. Results obtained in these experiments suggest that soil resuspension was a significant mechanism for plant contamination and that mulching was effective in reducing that contamination. PMID:14594366

  13. [Long-term follow-up cytogenetic survey and biological dosimetry in persons evacuated from 30-km Chernobyl NPP zone].

    PubMed

    Maznik, N A

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the follow-up cytogenetic survey and biological dosimetry carried out in inhabitants of Pripiat' town and nearby villages, who were departured from the Chernobyl NPP 30-km exclusive zone during first days after the Chernobyl catastrophe. The unstable chromosome aberration level in inhabitants were significantly increased above control in terms up to 1 year after evacuation and declined gardually during next 14 years. In early period the cytogenetic damage frequency in evacuees showed no dependence on gender. The chromosome type aberration level appeared to be lower in young persons comparing with adults. The dicentrics plus centric rings yield had a positive correlation with duration of staying at Chernobyl zone. The average doses of protracted exposure were calculated from the dicentrics and centric rings yields; the dose estimations appeared to be 1.4 times higher in persons evacuated 3-11 days after the accident than that of in persons with shorter departure time. Uing the Bayesian analysis the probabilistic distribution of biological doses was constructed for the studied evacuees group. This distribution was characterized by a mean dose of 360 mGy, the modal doses of 200-450 mGy and 80% of probability density within the dose range 0-1000 mGy, that seems to be sufficient for considering the increased risk of late somatic radiation effects for this cohort. PMID:15571047

  14. Expedition to the 30-km Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and the Utilization of its Experience in Education and Communication

    SciTech Connect

    Aszodi, Attila; Yamaji, Bogdan; Silye, Judit; Pazmandi, Tamas

    2006-07-01

    Between May 28 - June 4, 2005, under the organization of the Hungarian Nuclear Society (HNS) and the Hungarian Young Generation Network (HYGN) - which operates within the framework of the HNS - a scientific expedition visited the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant and the surrounding exclusion zone. The participants were young Hungarian nuclear professionals supervised by more experienced experts. The main scientific goals of the expedition were the followings: Get personal experiences in a direct way about the current status of the Chernobyl Power Plant and its surroundings, the contamination of the environment and about the doses. Gather information about the state of the shut down power plant and the shelter built above the damaged 4. unit. Training of young nuclear experts by performing on site measurements. The Hungarian expedition successfully achieved its objectives by performing wide-range of environmental and dosimetric measurements and collecting numerous biological and soil samples. Within the 30-km exclusion zone the influence of the accident occurred 20 years ago still could be measured clearly; however the level of the radioactivity is manageable in most places. The dosimetric measurements showed that no considerable exposure occurred among the members of the expedition. The analysis of samples has been started at the International Chernobyl Center in Slavutich. During the expedition not only environmental sampling and in-situ measurements were carried out but it was also well documented with photos and video recordings for educational, training and PR purposes. A documentary TV film was recorded during the expedition. The first-hand knowledge acquired during the expedition helps the authentic communication of the accident and its present-day consequences, which is especially important in 2006, 20 years after the Chernobyl accident. Since Ukraine and Hungary are neighbor countries the media constantly discuss the accident, the consequences and the risks of

  15. Can Pacing Be Regulated by Post-Activation Potentiation? Insights from a Self-Paced 30 km Trial in Half-Marathon Runners

    PubMed Central

    Del Rosso, Sebastián; Barros, Edilberto; Tonello, Laís; Oliveira-Silva, Iransé; Behm, David G.; Foster, Carl; Boullosa, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Given the co-existence of post-activation potentiation (PAP) and fatigue within muscle, it is not known whether PAP could influence performance and pacing during distance running by moderating fatigue. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of PAP on pacing, jumping and other physiological measures during a self-paced 30 km trial. Methods Eleven male endurance-trained runners (half-marathon runners) volunteered to participate in this study. Runners participated in a multi-stage 30 km trial. Before the trial started, determination of baseline blood lactate (bLa) and countermovement jump (CMJ) height was performed. The self-paced 30 km trial consisted of 6 × 5 km splits. At the end of each 5 km split (60 s break), data on time to complete the split, CMJ height, Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) and blood lactate were collected while heart rate was continuously monitored. Results There was a significant decrease in speed (e.g. positive pacing strategy after the 4th split, p<0.05) with a progressive increase in RPE throughout the trial. Compared with baseline, CMJ height was significantly (p<0.05) greater than baseline and was maintained until the end of the trial with an increase after the 5th split, concomitant with a significant reduction in speed and an increase in RPE. Significant correlations were found between ΔCMJ and ΔSPEED (r = 0.77 to 0.87, p<0.05) at different time points as well as between RPE and speed (r = -0.61 to -0.82, p<0.05). Conclusion Our results indicates that fatigue and potentiation co-exist during long lasting endurance events, and that the observed increase in jump performance towards the end of the trial could be reflecting a greater potentiation potentially perhaps counteracting the effects of fatigue and preventing further reductions in speed. PMID:26934357

  16. Critical Evaluation of 0-30 km Profile Information in Ground-Based Zenith-Sky and Satellite-Measured Backscattered UV Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, Pawan; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; Deluishi, John; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We now have several decades of experience in deriving vertical ozone profiles from the measurements of diffuse ultraviolet radiation by both ground and satellite-based instruments using Umkehr and BUV techniques. Continuing technological advances are pushing the state-of-the-art of these measurements to high spectral resolution and broader wavelength coverage. These modern instruments include the ground-based Brewer and satellite-based Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) instruments, as well as advanced instruments being developed by ESA(SCIAMACHY), Netherlands(OMI) and Japan(ODUS). However, one of the issues that remains unresolved is the 0-30 km ozone profile information retrievable from these measurements. Though it is commonly believed that both the Umkehr and the satellite-based BUV techniques have very limited profile information below 30 km, there are those who argue that the data from these instruments should continue to be reported in this altitude range for they compare well with ozonesondes and hence there is useful scientific information. Others claim that the limitations of the Umkehr and BUV techniques are largely due to their low spectral resolution, and that the profile information below 30 km can be greatly improved by going to high spectral resolution instruments, such as Brewer and GOME. The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical evaluation of the 0-30 km ozone profile information in the various UV remote sensing techniques. We use a database of individual ozone profiles created using ozonesondes and SAGE and 4D ozone fields generated by data assimilation techniques to simulate radiances measured by the various techniques. We then apply a common inversion approach to all the methods to systematically examine how much profile information is available simply from the knowledge of total ozone, how much additional profile information is added by the traditional Dobson Umkehr and satellite buv techniques, and how much better one can do

  17. Penetration Experiments with 6061-T6511 Aluminum Targets and Spherical-Nose Steel Projectiles at Striking Velocities Between 0.5 and 3.0 km/s

    SciTech Connect

    Forrestal, M.J.; Piekutowski, A.J.

    1999-02-04

    We conducted depth of penetration experiments with 7.11-mm-diameter, 74.7-mm-long, spherical-nose, 4340 steel projectiles launched into 250-mm-diameter, 6061-T6511 aluminum targets. To show the effect of projectile strength, we used projectiles that had average Rockwell harnesses of R{sub c} = 36.6, 39.5, and 46.2. A powder gun and two-stage, light-gas guns launched the 0.023 kg projectiles at striking velocities between 0.5 and 3.0 km/s. Post-test radiographs of the targets showed three response regions as striking velocities increased: (1) the projectiles remained visibly undeformed, (2) the projectiles permanently deformed without erosion, and (3) the projectiles eroded and lost mass. To show the effect of projectile strength, we compared depth-of-penetration data as a function of striking velocity for spherical-nose rods with three Rockwell harnesses at striking velocities ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 km/s. To show the effect of nose shape, we compared penetration data for the spherical-nose projectiles with previously published data for ogive-nose projectiles.

  18. Determination of (129)I and (127)I concentration in soil samples from the Chernobyl 30-km zone by AMS and ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Satoshi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Rühm, Werner

    2009-07-01

    A large amount of radioiodine isotopes (mainly (131)I, t(1/2) = 8 days) was released from the accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) in April-May 1986. An increase in childhood-thyroid cancer in the contaminated areas in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine was demonstrated to be caused by radioiodine released at the time of the accident. However, there is a lack of quantitative data on the (131)I levels in the local environment (e.g. air, plant, soil). At this point, a long-lived iodine isotope, (129)I (t(1/2) = 15.7 million years), also released with a certain ratio to (131)I from CNPP, could be used for estimating the (131)I levels in the environment. In this paper we present analytical results of the (129)I concentrations and (129)I/(127)I atom ratios in soil samples collected from the CNPP exclusion zone (30-km zone), with the aim of assessing current contamination levels and distribution patterns. For the analysis of the iodine fraction in the investigated soil samples, the pyrohydrolysis method was utilized for separation of (127)I and (129)I nuclides, and subsequently their concentration was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), respectively. The concentration of (129)I and the (129)I/(127)I atom ratio in the surface soil samples in the 30 km-zone of CNPP ranged from 4.6 to 170 mBq/kg, and from 1.4 x 10(-6) to 13 x 10(-6), respectively. These values are significantly higher than those from global (129)I fallout, indicating that most of the measured (129)I was due to the deposition of the accident. Stable iodine concentrations in this area were found to be very low (below 1 ppm) for most of the samples, suggesting the environmental iodine levels in this area to be potentially low. The (129)I/(137)Cs activity ratio in surface and sub-surface soils was not so constant, i.e., in the range (7.3-20.2) x 10(-7). This might be due to the different behavior of deposition and/or migration

  19. Formation of continental crust in a temporally linked arc magma system from 5 to 30 km depth: ~ 90 Ma plutonism in the Cascades Crystalline Core composite arc section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratschbacher, B. C.; Miller, J. S.; Kent, A. J.; Miller, R. B.; Anderson, J. L.; Paterson, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Continental crust has an andesitic bulk composition with a mafic lower crust and a granodioritic upper crust. The formation of stratified continental crust in general and the vertical extent of processes active in arc crustal columns leading to the differentiation of primitive, mantle-derived melts entering the lower crust are highly debated. To investigate where in the crustal column magma mixing, fractionation, assimilation and crystal growth occur and to what extent, we study the ~ 90 Ma magmatic flare-up event of the Cascades arc, a magma plumbing system from ~ 5 to 30 km depth. We focus on three intrusive complexes, emplaced at different depths during major regional shortening in an exceptionally thick crust (≥ 55 km1) but which are temporally related: the upper crustal Black Peak intrusion (1-3 kbar at 3.7 to 11 km; ~ 86.8 to 91.7 Ma2), the mid-crustal Mt. Stuart intrusion (3.5-4.0 kbar at 13 to 15 km; 90.8 and 96.3 Ma3) and the deep crustal Tenpeak intrusion (7 to 10 kbar at 25 to 37 km; 89.7 to 92.3 Ma4). These intrusive complexes are well characterized by geochronology showing that they have been constructed incrementally by multiple magma batches over their lifespans and thus allow the monitoring and comparison of geochemical parameters over time at different depths. We use a combination of whole rock major and trace element data and isotopes combined with detailed investigation of amphibole, which has been recognized to be important in the generation of calc-alkaline rocks in arcs to test the following hypotheses: (a) compositional bimodality is produced in the lower crust, whereas upper crustal levels are dominated by mixing to form intermediate compositions, or (b) differentiation occurs throughout the crustal column with different crystallizing phases and their compositions controlling the bulk chemistry. 1. Miller et al. 2009: GSA Special Paper 456, p. 125-149 2. Shea 2014: PhD thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 3. Anderson et al. 2012

  20. Individual, social and physical environmental correlates of ‘never’ and ‘always’ cycling to school among 10 to 12 year old children living within a 3.0 km distance from school

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cycling to school has been identified as an important target for increasing physical activity levels in children. However, knowledge about correlates of cycling to school is scarce as many studies did not make a distinction between walking and cycling to school. Moreover, correlates of cycling to school for those who live within a distance, that in theory would allow cycling to school, stay undiscovered. Therefore, this study examined individual, social and physical environmental correlates of never and always cycling to/from school among 10 to 12 year old Belgian children living within a 3.0 km distance from school. Methods 850 parents completed a questionnaire to assess personal, family, behavioral, cognitive, social and physical environmental factors related to the cycling behavior of their children. Parents indicated on a question matrix how many days a week their child (1) walked, (2) cycled, was (3) driven by car or (4) public transport to and from school during fall, winter and spring. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the correlates. Results Overall, 39.3% of children never cycled to school and 16.5% of children always cycled to school. Children with high levels of independent mobility and good cycling skills perceived by their parents were more likely to always cycle to school (resp. OR 1.06; 95% CI 1.04-1.15 and OR 1.08; 95% CI 1.01-1.16) and less likely to never cycle to school (resp. OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.78-0.91 and OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.7-0.84). Children with friends who encourage them to cycle to school were more likely to always cycle to school (OR 1.08; 95% CI 1.01-1.15) and less likely to never cycle to school (OR 0.9; 95% CI 0.83-1.0). In addition, children with parents who encourage them to cycle to school were less likely to never cycle to school (OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.7-0.87). Regarding the physical environmental factors, only neighborhood traffic safety was significantly associated with cycling: i.e., children were more likely to always cycle to school if neighborhood traffic was perceived as safe by their parents (OR 1.18; 95% CI 1.07-1.31). Conclusion Individual, social and physical environmental factors were associated with children’s cycling behavior to/from school. However, the contribution of the physical environment is limited and highlights the fact that interventions for increasing cycling to school should not focus solely on the physical environment. PMID:23228003

  1. The Case for a Hubble Constant of 30 km s-1 Mpc-1.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, J G; Blanchard, A; Silk, J; Turner, M S

    1995-02-17

    Although recent determinations of the distance to the Virgo cluster based on Cepheid variable stars represent an important step in pinning down the Hubble constant, after 65 years a definitive determination of the Hubble constant still eludes cosmologists. At present, most of the observational determinations place the Hubble constant between 40 and 90 kilometers per second per megaparsec (km s(-1) Mpc(-1)). The case is made here for a Hubble constant that is even smaller than the lower bound of the accepted range on the basis of the great advantages, all theoretical in nature, of a Hubble constant of around 30 kilometers per second per megaparsec. Such a value for the Hubble cures all of the ills of the current theoretical orthodoxy, that is, a spatially flat universe composed predominantly of cold dark matter. PMID:17811436

  2. An innovative rotational Raman lidar to measure the temperature profile from the surface to 30 km altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauchecorne, Alain; Keckhut, Philippe; Mariscal, Jean-François; d'Almeida, Eric; Dahoo, Pierre-Richard; Porteneuve, Jacques

    2016-06-01

    A concept of innovative rotational Raman lidar with daylight measurement capability is proposed to measure the vertical profile of temperature from the ground to the middle stratosphere. The optical filtering is made using a Fabry-Pérot Interferometer with line spacing equal to the line spacing of the Raman spectrum. The detection is made using a linear PMT array operated in photon counting mode. We plan to build a prototype and to test it at the Haute-Provence Observatory lidar facility. to achieve a time resolution permitting the observation of small-scale atmospheric processes playing a role in the troposphere-stratosphere interaction as gravity waves. If successful, this project will open the possibility to consider a Raman space lidar for the global observation of atmospheric temperature profiles.

  3. In situ stratospheric measurements of HNO3 and HCl near 30 km using the balloon-borne laser in situ sensor tunable diode laser spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, R. D.; Webster, C. R.

    1989-01-01

    In situ stratospheric measurements of the concentrations of the reservoir species HNO3 and HCl made during two flights of the high-resolution (0.0005/cm) balloon-borne laser in situ sensor instrument from Palestine, Texas, are reported. A measured HNO3 volume mixing ratio of 4.3 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) at 31 km altitude is about 1 ppbv larger than previously reported measurements at 32 deg N. An HCl mixing ratio of 1.6 ppbv at 29 km is in agreement with values obtained from earlier remote sensing techniques within the experimental uncertainties. Upper limits at 31 km of 0.4 ppbv for H2O2 and 0.2 ppbv for HOCl are also derived from analyses of spectra recorded near 1252/cm.

  4. Shackleton Crater Illumination

    NASA Video Gallery

    Simulated illumination conditions near the lunar South Pole. The 30km x 30km region highlights the Shackleton crater. The movie runs for 28 days, centered on the LCROSS impact date on October 9th, ...

  5. Impaired Perception of Emotional Expression in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seong-il; Oh, Ki-Wook; Kim, Hee-Jin; Park, Jin-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose The increasing recognition that deficits in social emotions occur in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is helping to explain the spectrum of neuropsychological dysfunctions, thus supporting the view of ALS as a multisystem disorder involving neuropsychological deficits as well as motor deficits. The aim of this study was to characterize the emotion perception abilities of Korean patients with ALS based on the recognition of facial expressions. Methods Twenty-four patients with ALS and 24 age- and sex-matched healthy controls completed neuropsychological tests and facial emotion recognition tasks [ChaeLee Korean Facial Expressions of Emotions (ChaeLee-E)]. The ChaeLee-E test includes facial expressions for seven emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, disgust, fear, surprise, and neutral. Results The ability to perceive facial emotions was significantly worse among ALS patients performed than among healthy controls [65.2±18.0% vs. 77.1±6.6% (mean±SD), p=0.009]. Eight of the 24 patients (33%) scored below the 5th percentile score of controls for recognizing facial emotions. Conclusions Emotion perception deficits occur in Korean ALS patients, particularly regarding facial expressions of emotion. These findings expand the spectrum of cognitive and behavioral dysfunction associated with ALS into emotion processing dysfunction. PMID:27095526

  6. Lagrangian aspects of the axisymmetric Euler equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, Stephen C.; Sarria, Alejandro

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we are interested in geometric aspects of blowup in the axisymmetric three-dimensional (3D) Euler equations with swirl on a cylinder. Writing the equations in Lagrangian form for the flow derivative along either the axis or the boundary and imposing oddness on the vertical component of the flow, we extend some blowup criteria due to Chae, Constantin and Wu related to assumptions on the sign of the pressure Hessian. In addition. we give a geometric interpretation of the results, both in terms of the local geometry along trajectories and in terms of the Riemannian geometry of the volume-preserving diffeomorphism group.

  7. Construction and commissioning of a position-sensitive ionization chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwag, M. S.; Chae, K. Y.; Cha, S. M.; Kim, A.; Kim, M. J.; Lee, E. J.; Lee, J. H.

    2016-05-01

    A position-sensitive ionization chamber has been constructed and commissioned at the Physics Department of Sungkyunkwan University to extract position information on incident charged particles for future nuclear reaction measurements. By utilizing the newly-designed position-sensitive anodes and the previously-commissioned portable gas-filled ionization chamber by Chae et al., position information on incident particles could be obtained. The device was tested with an 241Am α-emitting source, and the standard deviation of the fitted Gaussian distribution was measured to be 1.76 mm when a collimator with a 2 mm hole was used.

  8. A New Tektite Discovery in the Guangdong Province, China, and the Search for the Source Crater of the Australasian Tektite Strewn Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenkmann, T.; Maier, R. V.; Sturm, S.; Zhu, Meng-Hua.

    2014-09-01

    A new tektite location in South China is presented that belongs to the Australasian tektite strewnfield. We also investigated a 30 km circular structure in the Guangdong and Guangxi Province that might be related to the Australasian impact event.

  9. A rare case of concurrent signet-ring carcinoma of breast and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Lara, Kelly; Bae, Esther; Park, Hanna; Hussain, Farabi

    2016-01-01

    Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) can be an uncommon presentation of an underlying malignancy, most often due to signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC). Additionally, pure SRCC in a breast primary-tumor comprises <2% of all breast cancers (Shin SY, Park H, Chae SW, Woo HY. Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia as the first manifestation of metastatic signet-ring cell carcinoma of unknown origin: a case report and review of literature. Kor J Lab Med 2011;31:157-61). To the best of our knowledge, the combination of these two entities, pure breast primary SRCC along with MAHA, has not been reported. Here, we present such a rare case. We also evaluate the current literature regarding this and similar disease processes, of which evidence is scarce and further research is needed. PMID:27587305

  10. Development of a portable gas-filled ionization chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, K. Y.; Cha, S. M.; Gwak, M. S.

    2014-02-01

    A new portable gas-filled ionization chamber has been designed and constructed at the Physics Department of Sung Kyun Kwan University. To overcome the maximum count rate of ˜105 particles per second of a conventional ionization chamber, which utilizes a Frisch grid, and to enhance the portability of a detector, we adopted the design of multiple electrodes and modified it from the original designs by Kimura et al. and Chae et al. The new design utilizes a stack of multiple electrodes installed perpendicular to the optical beam axis. This configuration provides a fast response time for the detector, which is essential for high-rate counting. The device has been tested with a 241Am ( t 1/2 = 432.2 years) radioactive α source, which mainly emits 5.486-MeV (branching ratio of 85%) and 5.443-MeV (branching ratio of 13%) α particles. An energy resolution of 6.3% was achieved.

  11. A rare case of concurrent signet-ring carcinoma of breast and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia†

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Kelly; Bae, Esther; Park, Hanna; Hussain, Farabi

    2016-01-01

    Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) can be an uncommon presentation of an underlying malignancy, most often due to signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC). Additionally, pure SRCC in a breast primary-tumor comprises <2% of all breast cancers (Shin SY, Park H, Chae SW, Woo HY. Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia as the first manifestation of metastatic signet-ring cell carcinoma of unknown origin: a case report and review of literature. Kor J Lab Med 2011;31:157–61). To the best of our knowledge, the combination of these two entities, pure breast primary SRCC along with MAHA, has not been reported. Here, we present such a rare case. We also evaluate the current literature regarding this and similar disease processes, of which evidence is scarce and further research is needed. PMID:27587305

  12. On 2-D Boussinesq equations for MHD convection with stratification effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Dongfen; Gui, Guilong

    2016-08-01

    This paper is concerned with the two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics-Boussinesq system with the temperature-dependent viscosity, thermal diffusivity and electrical conductivity. The first progress on this topic was made independently by Chae and Hou-Li [8,26] where the Boussinesq system with partial constant viscosity is obtained. Recently, Wang-Zhang [45] considered the temperature-dependent viscosity and thermal diffusivity, and Li-Xu [16] generalized the Wang-Zhang's result to the inviscid case with temperature-dependent thermal diffusivity. In this paper, we include the stratification and magnetic effects and consider the full system, in the framework of low regularity. We prove that, without any smallness assumption on the initial data, the full system is globally well-posed. Moreover, by applying the uniformly bounded generalized Oseen operator, time decay estimate of the solution is obtained.

  13. Magnetic helicity injection in NOAA 11261 associated with flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Haiqing; Zhang, Hongqi; Su, Jiangtao; Ruan, Guiping; liu, Jihong

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic helicity was found important in understanding solar activities such as flares and coronal mass ejections (CME). Berger and field (1984) derived an expression for helicity flux dHm/dt, that can be applied to an individual solar active region (AR) occupying an area S of the photosphere, (1) \\begin{linenomath}dHm/dt=-2\\ints[(\\mathbf{Ap}\\cdot \\mathbf{V})\\mathbf{B}-(\\mathbf{Ap} \\cdot \\mathbf{B})\\mathbf{V}] dS, \\eqno{(1)}\\end{linenomath} where Ap is the vector potential of potential field, and V is the plasma velocity at the surface S. The first term describes the effect of magnetic footpoint motions on the surface S. The second term describes the flux of helicity advected through the surface when already twisted and/or writhed flux ropes emerge. Chae (2001) proposed a method of self-consistently determining magnetic helicity injection rate, dH/dt, using a time series of longitudinal magnetograms only: (2) \\begin{linenomath}dH/dt=-\\int2(\\textbf{A}p\\cdot \\textbf{V}LCT)BndS, \\eqno{(2)}\\end{linenomath} where n is the normal component of magnetic field. Ap is the vector potential computed from Bn by Fourier transform method. V LCT is the horizontal component of velocity determined by the technique of local correlation tracking (LCT). This technique was applied by some scientists (e.g., Chae et al., 2001; Nindos and Zhang, 2002; Romano et al., 2003). Magnetic helicity injection was found to be strongly correlated with the occurrence of major flares (Moon et al. 2002a, 2002b; Park et al., 2008; Labonte et al., 2007; Maeshiro et al., 2009).

  14. Soil organic components distribution in a podzol and the possible relations with the biological soil activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Romero, Marta; Papa, Stefania; Verstraeten, Arne; Curcio, Elena; Cools, Nathalie; Lozano-Garcia, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Coppola, Elio

    2016-04-01

    This research reports the preliminary results of a study based on the SOC (Soil Organic Carbon) fractionation in a pine forest soil (Pinus nigra). Hyperskeletic Albic Podzol soil (P113005, World Reference Base, 2014), described by the following sequence O-Ah-E-Bh-Bs-Cg, was investigated at Zoniën, Belgium. Total (TOC) and extractable (TEC) soil contents were determined by Italian official method of soil analysis. Different soil C fractions were also determined: Humic Acid Carbon (HAC) and Fulvic Acid Carbon (FAC). Not Humic Carbon (NHC) and Humin Carbon (Huc) fractions were obtained by difference. Along the mineral soil profile, therefore, were also tested some enzymatic activities, such as cellulase, xylanase, laccase and peroxidase, involved in the degradation of the main organic substance components, and dehydrogenase activity, like soil microbial biomass index. The results shows a differential TEC fractions distribution in the soil profile along three fronts of progress: (i) An E leaching horizon of TEC; Bh horizon (humic) of humic acids preferential accumulation, morphologically and analytically recognizable, in which humic are more insoluble that fulvic acids, and predominate over the latter; (ii) horizon Bs (spodic) in which fulvic acids are more soluble that humic acid, and predominate in their turn. All enzyme activities appear to be highest in the most superficial part of the mineral profile and decrease towards the deeper layers with different patterns. It is known that the enzymes production in a soil profile reflects the organic substrates availability, which in turn influences the density and the composition of the microbial population. The deeper soil horizons contain microbial communities adapted and specialized to their environment and, therefore, different from those present on the surface The results suggest that the fractionation technique of TEC is appropriate to interpret the podsolisation phenomenon that is the preferential distribution of

  15. High Resolution Regional Climate Modeling of the Irrigation Cooling Effect in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, M. A.; Kueppers, L. M.; O'Brien, T.; Sloan, L. C.

    2007-12-01

    Recent research on the impact of irrigation on climate using regional climate models (RCMs) has revealed the presence of an irrigation cooling effect (ICE). By introducing large amounts of water to the land surface via irrigation there is a substantial decrease in daytime surface air temperatures during the dry season in California. Previous studies of the ICE in California utilized RCMs with horizontal resolution 30 km x 30 km. We have completed new experiments at 10 km x 10 km resolution for an 11-year time period from January 1 1979 to January 1 1990. The higher resolution allows for an improved representation of topography, which plays an important role in influencing the regional and local climate of California. An initial comparison of the 30 km and 10 km experiments reveals interesting similarities and differences in surface air temperature, humidity, and the surface energy budget. We also examined the changes in the winds due to irrigation between the 30 km and 10 km experiments. The cooling induced by irrigation leads to an increase in surface air pressure over the irrigated areas in California's Central Valley, which leads to a decrease in near surface onshore flow during the dry season. This onshore flow plays an important role for many crops, particularly wine grapes. By comparing the 30 km and 10 km experiments we are able to better quantify the uncertainty of the magnitude of changes in onshore flow.

  16. Equivalent strike-slip earthquake cycles in half-space and lithosphere-asthenosphere earth models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    By virtue of the images used in the dislocation solution, the deformation at the free surface produced throughout the earthquake cycle by slippage on a long strike-slip fault in an Earth model consisting of an elastic plate (lithosphere) overlying a viscoelastic half-space (asthenosphere) can be duplicated by prescribed slip on a vertical fault embedded in an elastic half-space. Inversion of 1973-1988 geodetic measurements of deformation across the segment of the San Andreas fault in the Transverse Ranges north of Los Angeles for the half-space equivalent slip distribution suggests no significant slip on the fault above 30 km and a uniform slip rate of 36 mm/yr below 30 km. One equivalent lithosphere-asthenosphere model would have a 30-km thick lithosphere and an asthenosphere relaxation time greater than 33 years, but other models are possible. -from Author

  17. Dust productivity and impact collision of the asteroid (596) Scheila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neslusan, L.; Ivanova, O.; Husarik, M.; Svoren, J.; Krisandova, Z. Seman

    2016-06-01

    Photometric observations of asteroid (596) Scheila were obtained during and after its 2010 outburst. The estimated radius of the body (spherical approximation of the asteroidal body) was 51.2±3.0 km and 50.6±3.0 km for different methods. The ejected dust mass from the asteroid ranged from 2.5 ×107 to 3.4 ×107 kg for different methods. An impact mechanism for triggering Scheila's activity is discussed. A few days before the impact, Scheila passed through the corridors of two potential cometary streams.

  18. High-latitude stratospheric winds near summer solstice - The diurnal and semidiurnal solar tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubert, T.; Iversen, I. B.; Madsen, M. M.; Dangelo, N.

    1983-01-01

    A technique for studying winds and tides at altitudes of approximately 30 km is the continuous and precise tracking of zero-pressure, stratospheric balloons. The CONSOL navigation system allows tracking of a balloon over the North Atlantic for two days or longer. Tidal wind data from 14 balloon trajectories (approximately 670 balloon hours) are presented and compared with theoretical predictions.

  19. Active Learning in the Atmospheric Science Classroom and beyond through High-Altitude Ballooning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Jill S. M.; Mitchell, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of high-altitude balloon (HAB) research into a variety of undergraduate atmospheric science classes as a means of increasing active student engagement in real-world, problem-solving events. Because high-altitude balloons are capable of reaching heights of 80,000-100,000 ft (24-30 km), they provide a…

  20. Aviation weather service requirements, 1980 - 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieurance, N. A.

    1977-01-01

    Future aviation weather needs are discussed. Priority weather requirements and deficiencies existing for weather observations and forecast services in terminal areas are presented. Needs in en route operations up to 30 km are addressed with emphasis on turbulence, presence of suspended ice and water particles, SST to supersonic speeds, solar radiation, ozone, and sonic booms. Some conclusions are drawn and recommendations are presented.

  1. INVESTIGATION OF PHOTOCHEMICAL MODELING OF POINT SOURCE POLLUTANTS WITH EULERIAN GRID AND LAGRANGIAN PLUME APPROACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper, results of Eulerian grid and Lagrangian photochemical model simulations of emissions from a major elevated point source are presented. eries of simulations with grid sizes varying from 30 km to 2 km were performed with the Urban Airshed Model, a photochemical grid ...

  2. Effects of Automobile Commute Characteristics on Affect and Job Candidate Evaluations: A Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, David L.

    2006-01-01

    The current study assesses the effects of the commuting environment on affective states and hiring decisions. A total of 136 undergraduate females were randomly assigned to one of four conditions based on the length (10 km vs. 30 km) and level of congestion (low vs. high) during a commute. Multivariate analyses of variance indicate that affective…

  3. PATHOGENIC PHYTOPHTHORA SPECIES IN SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY IRRIGATION WATER SOURCES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface sources of irrigation water including the Kings River and three canals were assayed for Phytophthora spp. at six locations in the San Joaquin Valley within 30 km of Hanford, CA. Four nylon-mesh bags, each containing three firm, green pear fruits (separated by Styrofoam blocks) as bait for Ph...

  4. Sagebrush wildfire effects on soil chemistry: A temporal and spatial study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In sagebrush ecosystems, surface soil nutrient availability, particularly of N, often increases immediately following wildfire. However, little is known on how soil N availability and other nutrients, change over time post-wildfire. In October 2013, a wildfire approximately 30 km north of Reno, NV o...

  5. The largest neutron-star mass yet recorded has broad implications

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarzschild, Bertram

    2011-01-15

    Neutron stars are presumed to contain the densest matter in the cosmos. These remnants of core-collapse supernovae pack more than the Sun's mass (M{sub {center_dot}}) into a sphere less than 30 km across. There is considerable uncertainty about the character of matter squeezed to such ultrahigh densities, which cannot be reproduced in the laboratory.

  6. Structural response to 3D simulated earthquake motions in San Bernardino Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, E.; Frankel, A.

    1994-01-01

    Structural repsonse to one- and three-dimensional (3D) simulated motions in San Bernardino Valley from a hypothetical earthquake along the San Andreas fault with moment magnitude 6.5 and rupture length of 30km is investigated. The results show that the ground motions and the structural response vary dramatically with the type of simulation and the location. -from Authors

  7. The stratospheric aerosol content above Spitsbergen during winter 1991/92

    SciTech Connect

    Beyerle, G.; Neuber, R. )

    1994-06-22

    This paper summarizes the lidar measurements made at Spitsbergen (79[degrees]N) during the period of EASOE. The lidar can see backscatter and depolarization effects from the tropopause to 30 km. No aerosols were detected above 20 km until the breakup of the polar vortex. Stratospheric loading from the Pinatubo eruption were clearly visible at lower altitudes.

  8. 40 CFR Appendix IV to Part 86 - Durability Driving Schedules

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... speed to 20 m.p.h. followed by light accelerations to the base speed. The 10th lap is run at a constant.... In addition, there are 5 light declerations each lap from the base speed to 30 km/h followed by light... to Part 86—Durability Driving Schedules (a) Durability Driving Schedule for Light-Duty Vehicles...

  9. Stratospheric plume dispersion: Measurements from STS and Titan solid rocket motor exhaust. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Beiting, E.J.

    1999-04-20

    Plume expansion was measured from nine Space Shuttle and Titan IV vehicles at altitudes of 18, 24, and 30 km in the stratosphere. The plume diameters were inferred from electronic images of polarized, near-infrared solar radiation scattered from the exhaust particles, and these diameters were found to increase linearly with time. The expansion rate was measured for as long as 50 min after the vehicle reached altitude. Measurements made simultaneously at multiple altitudes showed that the expansion rate increased with increasing altitude for six measurements made at Cape Canaveral but decreased between 24 and 30 km for the one measurement made at Vandenberg AFB. The average expansion rates for all measurements are 4.3 {+-} 1.0 m/s at 18 km, 6.8 {+-} 1.9 m/s at 24 km, and 8.7 {+-} 2.5 m/s at 30 km. Expansion rates varied from launch to launch by as much as a factor of 1.6 at 18 km, 2.2 at 24 km, and 2.7 at 30 km. No correlation between the expansion rate and wind speed or shear was evident. These data are compared to several models for diffusivity and are used to update a comprehensive particle model of solid rocket motor exhaust in the stratosphere. The expansion rates are required by models to calculate the spatial extent and temporal persistence of the local stratospheric ozone depletion cause by solid rocket exhaust.

  10. ACROSS NORTH AMERICA TRACER EXPERIMENT (ANATEX) MODEL EVALUATION STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three perfluorocarbon tracer gases were released at 2.5-day or 5.0-day intervals from two sites in central North America and sampled for 24-h periods at 77 surface sites. he source-receptor distances ranged from less than 30 km to 3,000 km. he data were used to evaluate the long-...

  11. [Dynamics of tritium content in flood-lands reservoirs of the Pripyat river and cooling pond of the Chernobyl nuclear plant].

    PubMed

    Gudkov, D I

    1999-01-01

    Tritium content in water from natural and artificial reservoirs within 30-km exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP has been determined. The increase of Tritium activity in the involved water reserwous has been registered in May 1994 and April 1995. As supposed the source of the increase, nuclear power plants, equipped with WWER reactors and located in catchment area of Pripyat river. PMID:10689425

  12. Flat-field and Dark Frame Corrections for IRIS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saar, S. H.; Jaeggli, S. A.; Bush, R. I.; Boerner, P.; Wuelser, J.; Tarbell, T. D.; Lites, B. W.; De Pontieu, B.

    2013-12-01

    We discuss the development of flat-field and dark frame corrections for Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) data. Flat-fields for IRIS were taken prior to launch using a lamp filtered to NUV wavelengths; following launch the Sun itself was used as a flat-field source. The solar flat-field for the slit-jaw imagers is constructed using the Chae method, which extracts the moving object and fixed gain patterns from a set of dithered images. The spectrographic flat-fields are produced by significantly defocusing the telescope and averaging many images in a scan to remove solar structure, so that the average spectral profile can be removed. A given dark frame consists of pedestal and dark current components. In IRIS, both are temperature dependent, though they respond to different measured temperatures; the dark current is also exposure time dependent. Each CCD readout port has a slightly different temperature and exposure time response. We have analyzed a series of dark frames over an IRIS orbit to calibrate for these effects. We plan to continue to monitor the flat-field and dark frames regularly for any changes.

  13. Ethics in Prion Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bechtel, Kendra; Geschwind, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is intended to discuss some of the scientific and ethical issues that are created by increased research efforts towards earlier diagnosis, as well as to treatment of, human prion diseases (and related dementias), including the resulting consequences for individuals, their families, and society. Most patients with prion disease currently are diagnosed when they are about 2/3 of the way through their disease course (Geschwind, Kuo et al. 2010; Paterson, Torres-Chae et al. 2012), when the disease has progressed so far that even treatments that stop the disease process would probably have little benefit. Although there are currently no treatments available for prion diseases, we and others have realized that we must diagnose patients earlier and with greater accuracy so that future treatments have hope of success. As approximately 15% of prion diseases have a autosomal dominant genetic etiology, this further adds to the complexity of ethical issues, particularly regarding when to conduct genetic testing, release of genetic results, and when or if to implement experimental therapies. Human prion diseases are both infectious and transmissible; great care is required to balance the needs of the family and individual with both public health needs and strained hospital budgets. It is essential to proactively examine and address the ethical issues involved, as well as to define and in turn provide best standards of care. PMID:23906487

  14. An Experiment to Investigate the Role of Neutrals in Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Eric; Yoo, Jongsoo; Yamada, Masaaki; Ji, Hantao; Dorfman, Seth; Tharp, Tim; Myers, Clayton

    2010-11-01

    Magnetic reconnection in the solar chromosphere has become a topic of recent interest as it may be a source of energy transfer into the corona [1], and observations show evidence of fast reconnection [2]. Unlike the corona, the plasma in the chromosphere is relatively cool (T ˜10^4 K) and is weakly to partially ionized (nn/n ˜10^0-10^4). Furthermore, simulations have shown that the reconnection rate can depend on the ionization fraction and neutral collisionality [3]. Damping due to ion-neutral viscosity may also play a role. In the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX), we plan to study the effects of neutrals on reconnection in a controlled laboratory setting. A optical probe diagnostic is used to measure neutral density, and we plan to develop a UV diagnostic to facilitate comparisons with solar observations. Initial pressure scans have shown that we can access a parameter space relevant to the chromosphere. [4pt] [1] P. A. Sturrock, ApJ 521, 451 (1999).[0pt] [2] J. Chae, et al., J. Korean Astron. Soc., 36, 13 (2003).[0pt] [3] P. D. Smith, et al., A&A 486, 569 (2008).

  15. Simulation of d(7Be,t)6Be with Fresco, and investigation of resonant states of 6Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelham, Timothy

    2008-10-01

    An ongoing study is presented into the resonant states of 6Be via simulation of d(7Be,t)6Be with Fresco to investigate the results of ``Searching for resonances in the unbound 6Be nucleus'' a paper by K.Y. Chae [1]. In this paper the d(7Be,t)6Be reaction was studied to search for resonances in the 6Be nucleus that may be used to increase our knowledge of the 3He(3He,2p)4He reaction. A 100-MeV 7Be beam from the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) was used to bombard CD2 targets, and tritons were detected by the Silicon Detector Array (SIDAR). It was concluded that a combination of reaction mechanisms are necessary to account for the observed triton energy spectrum. This will be further investigated by simulating the various reaction mechanisms with Fresco to try to reproduce and explain these results. Preliminary Results will be presented.

  16. Fast and Accurate Fourier Series Solutions to Gravitational Lensing by a General Family of Two-Power-Law Mass Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Kyu-Hyun

    2002-04-01

    Fourier series solutions to the deflection and magnification by a family of three-dimensional cusped two-power-law ellipsoidal mass distributions are presented. The cusped two-power-law ellipsoidal mass distributions are characterized by inner and outer power-law radial indices and a break (or transition) radius. The model family includes mass models mimicking Jaffe, Hernquist, and η models and dark matter halo profiles from numerical simulations. The Fourier series solutions for the cusped two-power-law mass distributions are relatively simple and allow a very fast calculation, even for a chosen small fractional calculational error (e.g., 10-5). These results will be particularly useful for studying lensed systems that provide a number of accurate lensing constraints and for systematic analyses of large numbers of lenses. Subroutines employing these results for the two-power-law model and the results by Chae, Khersonsky, & Turnshek for the generalized single-power-law mass model are made publicly available.

  17. Robust hermetic packaging techniques for MEMS integrated microsystems.

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, Junseok; Stark, Brian H.; Kuo, Andrew; Oliver, Andrew David; Najafi, Khalil

    2005-03-01

    This work is the result of a Sandia National Laboratories LDRD funded fellowship at the University of Michigan. Although, guidance and suggestions were offered by Sandia, the work contained here is primarily the work of Brian H. Stark, and his advisor, Professor Khalil Najafi. Junseok Chae, Andrew Kuo, and their coworkers at the University of Michigan helped to record some of the data. The following is an abstract of their work. We have developed a vacuum packaging technology using a thick nickel film to seal MEMS structures at the wafer level. The package is fabricated in a three-mask process by electroplating a 40 micro-meter thick nickel film over an 8 micro-meter sacrificial photoresist that is removed prior to package sealing. Implementation of electrical feedthroughs in this process requires no planarization. The large release channel enables an 800x800 micro-meter package to be released in less than three hours. Several mechanisms, based upon localized melting and lead/tin solder bumping, for sealing the release channel have been investigated. We have also developed Pirani gauges, integrated with this package, which can be used to establish the hermeticity of the different sealing technologies. They have measured a sealing pressure of approximately 1.5 Torr. Our work differs from previous Pirani gauges in that we utilize a novel doubly anchored structure that stiffens the structural membrane while not substantially degrading performance in order to measure fine leak rates.

  18. Soil contamination with 90Sr in the near zone of the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Kashparov, V A; Lundin, S M; Khomutinin, Y V; Kaminsky, S P; Levchuk, S E; Protsak, V P; Kadygrib, A M; Zvarich, S I; Yoschenko, V I; Tschiersch, J

    2001-01-01

    Representative large-scale soil sampling on a regular grid of step width about 1 km was carried out for the first time in the near zone of the Chernobyl accident (radius 36 km). An integrated map of terrestrial 90Sr contamination density in the 30 km exclusion zone (scale 1:200,000) has been created from the analysed samples. Maps of the main agrochemical characteristics of the soils, which determine the fuel particle dissolution rates and the contamination of vegetation, were produced. The total contents of 90Sr on the ground surface of the 30 km zone in Ukraine (without the reactor site and the radioactive waste storages) was about 810 TBq (8.1 x 10(+14) Bq) in 1997, which corresponds to 0.4-0.5% of the Chernobyl reactor inventory at the time of the accident. This assessment is 3-4 times lower than previous estimates. PMID:11468820

  19. Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA) scientific objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riese, M.; Oelhaf, H.; Preusse, P.; Blank, J.; Ern, M.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; Fischer, H.; Guggenmoser, T.; Höpfner, M.; Hoor, P.; Kaufmann, M.; Orphal, J.; Plöger, F.; Spang, R.; Suminska-Ebersoldt, O.; Ungermann, J.; Vogel, B.; Woiwode, W.

    2014-07-01

    The upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) represents an important part of the climate system. Even small changes in the composition and dynamic structure of this region have significant radiative effects. Quantifying the underlying physical and chemical processes therefore represents a crucial task. Currently, there is a lack of UTLS observations with sufficient three-dimensional resolution. The Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA) aircraft instrument addresses this observational lack by providing observations of numerous trace constituents as well as temperature and cloud structures with an unprecedented combination of vertical resolution (up to 300 m) and horizontal resolution (about 30 km × 30 km). As a result, important scientific questions concerning stratosphere-troposphere exchange, the occurrence of subvisible cirrus clouds in the lowermost stratosphere (LMS), polar chemistry, and gravity wave processes can be addressed, as reviewed in this paper.

  20. A cosmic dust influx model. III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedinets, V. N.; Begkhanov, M.

    A model of cosmic dust influx is developed using results of radar and photographic studies of meteors and bolides, micrometeor impact data obtained during space missions, and the available experimental data on dust particles as small as 10 to the -17th g. It is shown, in particular, that particles of all sizes occurring above 30 km are mainly of meteor origin. Above 140 km, the earth atmosphere contains only primary cosmic particles of all sizes whose concentrations are equal to those observed in the interplanetary space but whose flux densities are twice as high. Above 30 km and below 100 km, the atmosphere contains primary micrometeor particles with masses less than 10 to the -8th g and particles of the same mass formed as a result of the fragmentation of large meteoric bodies.

  1. Impact on the earth, ocean and atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, Thomas J.; O'Keefe, John D.

    1987-01-01

    On the basis of finite-difference techniques, cratering flow calculations are used to obtain the spatial attenuation of shock pressure with radius along the impact axis for the impact of silicate rock and iron impactors on a silicate half-space at speeds of 5 to 45 km/sec. Upon impact of a 10 to 30 km diameter silicate or water object onto a 5 km deep ocean overlying a silicate half-space planet at 30 km/sec, it is found that from 12 to 15 percent of the incident energy is coupled into the water. The mass of atmosphere lost due to impacts of 1 to 5 km radius projectiles is calculated.

  2. Pure Rotational Raman Lidar for Temperature Measurements from 5-40 Km Over Wuhan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yajuan; Song, Shalei; Yang, Yong; Li, Faquan; Cheng, Xuewu; Chen, Zhenwei; Liu, Linmei; McCormick, M. Patrick; Gong, Shunsheng

    2016-06-01

    In this paper a pure rotational Raman lidar (PRR) was established for the atmospheric temperature measurements from 5 km to 40 km over Wuhan, China (30.5°N, 114.5°E). To extract the expected PRR signals and simultaneously suppress the elastically backscattered light, a high-spectral resolution polychromator for light splitting and filtering was designed. Observational results revealed that the temperature difference measured by PRR lidar and the local radiosonde below 30 km was less than 3.0 K. The good agreement validated the reliability of the PRR lidar. With the 1-h integration and 150-m spatial resolution, the statistical temperature error for PRR lidar increases from 0.4 K at 10 km up to 4 K at altitudes of about 30 km. In addition, the whole night temperature profiles were obtained for study of the long-term observation of atmospheric fluctuations.

  3. Chromospheric, transition layer and X-ray emission for stars with different rotational velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm-Vitense, E.

    1982-01-01

    In agreement with previous findings for the MgII k line emission in F stars an increase of Lya and transition layer emission with increasing V sub r sin i, if v sub r sin i greater than 30 km/sec. was not found. For V sub r sin i 30 km/sec., the measured line intensities are consistent with an increase in emission with increasing V sub r sin i. Such a relation between emission and rotation for single stars is also in agreement with X-ray observations. For the young F stars in the Hyades we find generally enhanced emission independently of rotational velocities. The enhancement is most pronounced for low excitation lines.

  4. Cape Canaveral, Florida range reference atmosphere 0-70 km altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tingle, A. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    The RRA contains tabulations for monthly and annual means, standard deviations, skewness coefficients for wind speed, pressure temperature, density, water vapor pressure, virtual temperature, dew-point temperature, and the means and standard deviations for the zonal and meridional wind components and the linear (product moment) correlation coefficient between the wind components. These statistical parameters are tabulated at the station elevation and at 1 km intervals from sea level to 30 km and at 2 km intervals from 30 to 90 km altitude. The wind statistics are given at approximately 10 m above the station elevations and at altitudes with respect to mean sea level thereafter. For those range sites without rocketsonde measurements, the RRAs terminate at 30 km altitude or they are extended, if required, when rocketsonde data from a nearby launch site are available. There are four sets of tables for each of the 12 monthly reference periods and the annual reference period.

  5. Low-emissivity impact craters on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitz, C. M.; Elachi, C.; Moore, H. J.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Ivanov, B. A.; Schaber, G. G.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis of 144 impact craters on Venus has shown that 11 of these have floors with average emissivities lower than 0.8. The remaining craters have emissivities between 0.8 and 0.9, independent of the specific backscatter cross section of the crater floors. These 144 impact craters were chosen from a possible 164 craters with diameters greater than 30 km as identified by researchers for 89 percent of the surface of Venus. We have only looked at craters below 6053.5 km altitude because a mineralogical change causes high reflectivity/low emissivity above the altitude. We have also excluded all craters with diameters smaller than 30 km because the emissivity footprint at periapsis is 16 x 24 km and becomes larger at the poles.

  6. Research study on neutral thermodynamic atmospheric model. [for space shuttle mission and abort trajectory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargraves, W. R.; Delulio, E. B.; Justus, C. G.

    1977-01-01

    The Global Reference Atmospheric Model is used along with the revised perturbation statistics to evaluate and computer graph various atmospheric statistics along a space shuttle reference mission and abort trajectory. The trajectory plots are height vs. ground range, with height from ground level to 155 km and ground range along the reentry trajectory. Cross sectional plots, height vs. latitude or longitude, are also generated for 80 deg longitude, with heights from 30 km to 90 km and latitude from -90 deg to +90 deg, and for 45 deg latitude, with heights from 30 km to 90 km and longitudes from 180 deg E to 180 deg W. The variables plotted are monthly average pressure, density, temperature, wind components, and wind speed and standard deviations and 99th inter-percentile range for each of these variables.

  7. El Chichon and 'mystery cloud' aerosols between 30 and 55 km Global observations from the SME visible spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, R. T.

    1986-01-01

    Visible limb radiances measured by the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) are used to obtain volume scattering ratios for aerosol loading in the 30-55 km altitude range of the stratosphere. Global maps of these ratios are presented for the period January 1982 to August 1984. Significant aerosol scattering from the 'mystery cloud' and El Chichon aerosol layers are found above 30 km. A timescale of approximately 2 months between the appearance of the aerosol at 30.5 km and at 37.5 km is consistent with vertical transport of aerosol or vapor by eddy diffusion above 30 km. An anticorrelation exists between aerosol scattering and stratospheric temperatures. Periods of lower stratospheric temperatures may account for the formation of aerosol between 40 and 55 km altitude.

  8. [LIFE QUALITY OF CHILDREN WITH SMALL ANOMALIES OF HEART DEVELOPMENT, BORN TO PARENTS IRRADIATED IN CHILDHOOD IN THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT].

    PubMed

    Kondrashova, V G; Dombrovskaya, N S

    2015-01-01

    The study involved 162 children with small anomalies of heart development (SAHD) in core group (children born to parents evacuated from the 30-km zone in childhood) and 39 children in the control group. Quality of life of adolescents was assessed by questionnaire MOS-SF-36 in the Russified version (changed by International reseach centre of life quality, Russia, St. Petersburg, 1998). In children of main group with SAHD, was established systemic pathological process involving not only the cardiovascular system, but also an autonomic nervous systems, hemostasis, upper gastro-intestinal tract, hepatobiliary, urinary system, musculoskeletal system and others, which causes polymorphic clinical picture. Quality of life in children with SAHD, born from parents evacuated from the 30-km Chernobyl zone in childhood was reduced in comparison with practically healthy children. The quality life reduction relate, primarily, physical functioning. Clinical polymorphism and reduced quality of life require the development of approaches to improve diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of these patients. PMID:26118021

  9. The Accidental Tide Gauge: A GPS Reflection Case Study from Kachemak Bay, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Kristine M.; Ray, Richard D.; Nievinski, Felipe G..; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    For the last decade, it has been known that reflected GPS signals observed with specialized instruments could be used to measure sea level. In this letter, data from an existing geodeticquality GPS site near Kachemak Bay, Alaska, are analyzed for a one-year time period. Daily sea-level variations are more than 7 m. Tidal coefficients have been estimated and compared with coefficients estimated from records from a traditional tide gauge at Seldovia Harbor, approximately 30 km away. The GPS and Seldovia estimates of M(sub 2) and S(sub 2) coefficients agree to better than 2%; much of this residual can be attributed to true differences in the tide over 30 km as it propagates up Kachemak Bay. For daily mean sea levels the agreement is 2.3 cm. Because a standard geodetic GPS receiver/antenna is used, this GPS instrument can measure long-term sea-level changes in a stable terrestrial reference frame.

  10. Sizes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composition distributions of nano, ultrafine, fine, and coarse particulates emitted from a four-stroke motorcycle.

    PubMed

    Chien, Shu M; Huang, Yuh J

    2010-11-01

    Thus, this study was undertaken to determine the size distribution, concentration, species, and carcinogenic potency of particulate matter and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from 4-st/mc at various speeds (idle, 15 km/h, 30 km/h). Approximately 80% of the particles emitted from the that is, they are primary inhalable particulates. The particle total number concentrations (TNCs) emitted while idling and at 15 and 30 km/h were 2.07 x 10⁴, 2.35 x 10⁴, and 2.60 x 10⁴ #/cm³, respectively; i.e., they increased at elevated speeds. Notably, most of the particles emitted at 30 km/h had diameters of less than 0.65 μm and contained higher percentages of total PAHs. Excluding incomplete combustion, we suspected that some of the lower-molecular-weight PAHs [phenanthrene (PA), anthracene (Ant), pyrene (Pyr)] obtained in the fine particles at idle originated from unburned 95-octane unleaded fuel. When operated at 15 km/h, pyrolysis of the PAHs dominated, resulting in increased amounts of medium-molecular-weight PAHs {fluorene (FL), Pyr, benz[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (CHR)} in the ultrafine particles. Furthermore, at 30 km/h, more pyrosynthesis products {benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), indeno[1,2,3,-cd]pyrene (IND), dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DBA)}, induced through combustion at the correspondingly higher temperature, were exhausted with the nanoparticles. Although the total concentrations of BaP-equivalent emissions were inconsistent with the total PAHs, the nanoscale-sized particulates emitted from the 4-st/mc at higher speeds had the strongest PAH-related carcinogenic potencies, which should be a great concern. PMID:20924922

  11. Mode-selective optical packet switching in mode-division multiplexing networks.

    PubMed

    Diamantopoulos, N P; Hayashi, M; Yoshida, Y; Maruta, A; Maruyama, R; Kuwaki, N; Takenaga, K; Uemura, H; Matsuo, S; Kitayama, K

    2015-09-01

    A novel mode-selective optical packet switching, based on mode-multiplexers/demultiplexers and multi-port optical micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) switches, has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The experimental demonstration was performed using the LP(01), LP(11a) and LP(11b) modes of a 30-km long mode-division multiplexed few-mode fiber link, utilizing 40 Gb/s, 16-QAM signals. PMID:26368463

  12. Ground vibrations from heavy freight trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawn, T. M.

    1983-03-01

    Ground vibration from heavy freight trains on good quality welded track are found to have only a weak dependence on train speed above 30 km/h. At the site on which these tests were carried out a critical speed was found at which the vibration reached a peak. The frequencies of vibration produced appear to be functions of track and vehicle dimensions and the critical speed occurs at the coincidence of sleeper passage frequency and the total vehicle on track resonance frequency.

  13. Cloud Layers East of the Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This color view of the region just to the East of the Great Red Spot was taken by Voyager 1 on March 4, 1979 at a distance of 1,000,000 miles (1,800,000 km). Differences in cloud color may indicate relative heights of the cloud layers but the exact relationship between color and height has not yet been established. The smallest clouds seen in this picture are approximately 20 miles (30 km) across.

  14. Cloud Layers Southeast of the Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This view of the region just to the Southeast of the Great Red Spot was taken by Voyager 1 on March 4, 1979 at a distance of 1,100,000 miles (1,800,000 km). Differences in cloud color may indicate relative heights of the cloud layers but the exact relationship between color and height has not yet been established. The smallest clouds seen in this picture are approximately 20 miles (30 km) across.

  15. The discrepancy between stratospheric ozone profiles from balloon soundings and from other techniques: A possible explanation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demuer, Dirk; Debacker, Hugo

    1994-01-01

    Regular balloon ozone soundings with electrochemical sondes have been performed at Uccle since 1969. More than 450 ozone soundings between 1985 and 1989 were used to calculate the altitudes Zs from the VIZ radiosonde data and the altitudes Zr deduced from the tracking of the balloon train with a primary wind-finding radar. The values of Zs at fixed times appeared to be systematically too low as compared to Zr. The differences Zr-Zs increase with altitude; at 30 km the annual mean values of Zr-Zs (plus or minus standard deviation) vary between 590 plus or minus 910 m and 1410 plus or minus 1160 m, according to the pressure calibration of different manufacturing series of radiosondes. From these results it is found that around the 30 km level the ozone concentrations calculated from soundings with VIZ sondes are too low by 7.5 to 14 percent, depending upon the manufacturing series of radiosondes. At least part of the discrepancy which has often been found between ozone profiles from balloon soundings and from other techniques such as rocket observations or Umkehr measurements may be explained by this effect. An altitude correction would have important consequences as to the climatology of ozone in the middle stratosphere as adopted at the moment. About half of the day-to-day variability of ozone observed from soundings with VIZ radiosondes above the 30 km level, is induced by the variability of Zr-Zs. The agreement between altitudes calculated from radar data and Vaisala radiosondes is much better; from 34 comparative soundings a mean difference (plus or minus standard deviation) of about -300 plus/minus 180 m was found at 30 km.

  16. West Clearwater, Quebec impact structure. I - Field geology, structure and bulk chemistry. II - Petrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonds, C. H.; Phinney, W. C.; Mcgee, P. E.; Cochran, A.

    1978-01-01

    A field study at the 30-km-diameter West Clearwater impact crater was carried out during the summer of 1977 to identify the nature of the flow of impact melt and less shocked debris during the excavation stage of the cratering process. The present paper investigates: (1) comparisons with other impact craters and lunar samples; (2) generation and emplacement mechanisms of impact melts and associated clastic debris; and (3) the geometry of the transient cavity and the pristine morphology of the crater.

  17. Distributed temperature sensing system using a commercial OTDR and a standard EDFA with controlled gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassan, Fabio R.; Salgado, Felipe C.; Fruett, Fabiano; Rosolem, Joao B.

    2016-05-01

    The distributed temperature sensor system based in the spontaneous Raman backscattering is demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge, using a commercial OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectometer) and a standard erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) with controlled gain. We evaluated this approach in a 30 km of single mode fiber using an OTDR pulse width of 100 ns and an EDFA with 17 dBm of output power.

  18. Detection of two satellites in the Cassini division of Saturn's rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marouf, E. A.; Tyler, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    The presence of two about 10-km-radius satellites within a 100-km-wide gap in the Cassini division of Saturn's rings is inferred from the observation of perturbations of nearby ring material. The perturbations are detected as regular fluctuations in the optical depth profile measured during Voyager radio occultation by the rings and are used to estimate the satellite's orbits and masses. The two satellites appear to 'shepherd' a 30-km-wide ringlet within the gap.

  19. A fully automated digitally controlled 30-inch telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colgate, S. A.; Moore, E. P.; Carlson, R.

    1975-01-01

    A fully automated 30-inch (75-cm) telescope has been successfully designed and constructed from a military surplus Nike-Ajax radar mount. Novel features include: closed-loop operation between mountain telescope and campus computer 30 km apart via microwave link, a TV-type sensor which is photon shot-noise limited, a special lightweight primary mirror, and a stepping motor drive capable of slewing and settling one degree in one second or a radian in fifteen seconds.

  20. Extraction of Aerosol and Rayleigh Components from Doppler Lidar Return Signal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, John E.; Fischer, Ken W.; Abreu, Vincent J.; Skinner, Wilbert R.

    1992-01-01

    One of the most significant problems which limits the applicability of lidar systems for pressure and density profile measurements below 30 km altitude is the presence of atmospheric aerosols which contaminate the molecular or Rayleigh return signal. A new technique is described which allows for the separation of the return signal into aerosol and molecular scattered components. The technique was applied to data from the University of Michigan's High Resolution Doppler Lidar (HRDL).

  1. Development of optical fiber frequency and time distribution systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutes, G.

    1982-01-01

    The development of ultra stable optical fiber distribution systems for the dissemination of frequency and timing references is reported. The ultimate design goals for these systems are a frequency stability of 10 to the -17 power for tau or = 100 sec and time stability of + or - 0.1 ns for 1 year and operation over distances or = 30 km. A prototype system is reviewed and progress is discussed.

  2. Intercomparison between ozone profiles measured above Spitsbergen by lidar and sonde techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabian, Rolf; Vondergathen, Peter; Ehlers, J.; Krueger, Bernd C.; Neuber, Roland; Beyerle, Georg

    1994-01-01

    This paper compares coincident ozone profile measurements by electrochemical sondes and lidar performed at Ny-Alesund/Spitsbergen. A detailed height dependent statistical analysis of the differences between these complementary methods was performed for the overlapping altitude region (13-35 km). The data set comprises ozone profile measurements conducted between Jan. 1989 and Jan. 1991. Differences of up to 25 percent were found above 30 km altitude.

  3. Strong refraction near the Venus surface - Effects observed by descent probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, T. A.

    1982-01-01

    The telemetry signals from Pioneer Venus probes indicated the strong downward refraction of radio waves. As the probes descended, the strength of the direct signal decreased because of absorption and refractive defocusing. During the last 30 km of descent there was a second measured component in addition to the direct signal. Strong atmospheric reaction is important in strengthening echoes that are scattered toward the earth. Such surface-reflected signals are good indicators of horizontal winds.

  4. SAM II aerosol profile measurements, Poker Flat, Alaska; July 16-19, 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Chu, W. P.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Grams, G. W.; Herman, B. M.; Pepin, T. J.; Russell, P. B.; Swissler, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    SAM II satellite measurements during the July 1979 Poker Flat mission, yielded an aerosol extinction coefficient of 0.0004/km at 1.0 micron wavelength, in the region of the stratospheric aerosol mixing ratio peak (12-16 km). The stratospheric aerosol optical depth for these data, calculated from the tropopause through 30 km, is approximately 0.001. These results are consistent with the average 1979 summertime values found throughout the Arctic.

  5. Iridium{reg_sign} worldwide personal communication system

    SciTech Connect

    Helm, J.

    1997-01-01

    The IRIDIUM system is a personal worldwide communication system designed to support portable, low power subscriber units through the use of a constellation of satellites in low earth polar orbit. The satellites are networked together to form a system which provides continuous line-of-sight communications between the IRIDIUM system and any point within 30 km of the earth{close_quote}s surface. The system architecture and operation are described. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Field testing of commercially manufactured capture collars on white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Kunkel, K.E.; Chapman, R.C.; Kreeger, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    We conducted 31 tests of commercially manufactured capture collars on female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the Superior National Forest, Minnesota, under temperatures from -37C to 22C. Deer were recaptured in 28 of the 31 tests; in the 3 failures, we remotely released the collars from the deer. Communication with the collars was achieved from up to 3.0 km on the ground and 26.5 km from the air.

  7. The effect of increased carbon dioxide concentrations on stratospheric ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boughner, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Consideration is given to the influence on ozone of an increased carbon dioxide concentration, for which a measurable growth has been observed in the recent past. Increased carbon dioxide can indirectly affect ozone by perturbing atmospheric temperatures, which will alter ozone production, whose rate displays a fairly strong temperature dependence. This paper presents one-dimensional model results for the steady state ozone behavior when the CO2 concentration is twice its ambient level; the results account for coupling between chemistry and temperature. When the CO2 level doubled, the total ozone burden increased in relation to the ambient burden by 1.2-2.5%, depending on the vertical diffusion coefficient used. Above 30 km, ozone concentrations were larger than the ambient values, a maximum increase of 16% being reached at 43 km. In this region the relative variations were insensitive to the choice of diffusion coefficient. Below 30 km, ozone concentrations were smaller than the unperturbed values and were sensitive to the vertical diffusion profile in this region (10-30 km).

  8. Evaluation of Environmental Contamination and Estimated Radiation Doses for the Return to Residents’ Homes in Kawauchi Village, Fukushima Prefecture

    PubMed Central

    Taira, Yasuyuki; Hayashida, Naomi; Yamaguchi, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Endo, Yuukou; Takamura, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the environmental contamination and radiation exposure dose rates due to artificial radionuclides in Kawauchi Village, Fukushima Prefecture, the restricted area within a 30-km radius from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), the concentrations of artificial radionuclides in soil samples, tree needles, and mushrooms were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Nine months have passed since samples were collected on December 19 and 20, 2011, 9 months after the FNPP accident, and the prevalent dose-forming artificial radionuclides from all samples were 134Cs and 137Cs. The estimated external effective doses from soil samples were 0.42–7.2 µSv/h (3.7–63.0 mSv/y) within the 20-km radius from FNPP and 0.0011–0.38 µSv/h (0.010–3.3 mSv/y) within the 20–30 km radius from FNPP. The present study revealed that current levels are sufficiently decreasing in Kawauchi Village, especially in areas within the 20- to 30-km radius from FNPP. Thus, residents may return their homes with long-term follow-up of the environmental monitoring and countermeasures such as decontamination and restrictions of the intake of foods for reducing unnecessary exposure. The case of Kawauchi Village will be the first model for the return to residents’ homes after the FNPP accident. PMID:23049869

  9. Evaluation of environmental contamination and estimated radiation doses for the return to residents' homes in Kawauchi Village, Fukushima prefecture.

    PubMed

    Taira, Yasuyuki; Hayashida, Naomi; Yamaguchi, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Endo, Yuukou; Takamura, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the environmental contamination and radiation exposure dose rates due to artificial radionuclides in Kawauchi Village, Fukushima Prefecture, the restricted area within a 30-km radius from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), the concentrations of artificial radionuclides in soil samples, tree needles, and mushrooms were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Nine months have passed since samples were collected on December 19 and 20, 2011, 9 months after the FNPP accident, and the prevalent dose-forming artificial radionuclides from all samples were (134)Cs and (137)Cs. The estimated external effective doses from soil samples were 0.42-7.2 µSv/h (3.7-63.0 mSv/y) within the 20-km radius from FNPP and 0.0011-0.38 µSv/h (0.010-3.3 mSv/y) within the 20-30 km radius from FNPP. The present study revealed that current levels are sufficiently decreasing in Kawauchi Village, especially in areas within the 20- to 30-km radius from FNPP. Thus, residents may return their homes with long-term follow-up of the environmental monitoring and countermeasures such as decontamination and restrictions of the intake of foods for reducing unnecessary exposure. The case of Kawauchi Village will be the first model for the return to residents' homes after the FNPP accident. PMID:23049869

  10. Lithospheric thinning associated with rifting in East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wendlandt, R. F.; Morgan, R.

    1982-01-01

    The rate of ascent of the thermal perturbation of eruptive rock types in the Kenya Dome region can be calculated for depths of origin ranging from greater than 170 km to the lower crust (25-30 km) as combined with dated occurrences. An equation is derived and solved iteratively for ascent velocity at 10 km depth intervals from 150-30 km, assuming a thermal diffusivity of 1 sq mm/sec. For radii of 50 and 100 km and constant gradient increases within the range 55-60 C/km over the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) ascent depth range, the calculated rate of upwelling corresponds well with the results of a simple thermal model of lithospheric thinning. A 1 C/km change in gradient results approximately in a 0.55 Myr change in ascent time from 150 to 30 km, due to the increasing differential between the geotherm and the solidus with decreasing depths and the increasing rate of heat loss to the surface. It is suggested by the temporal-spatial-compositional relations of eruptives in the Kenya Dome region that there is a shallowing of magma source regions with time, implying encroachment of a thermal anomaly.

  11. Accuracy estimates for some global analytical models of the Earth's main magnetic field on the basis of data on gradient magnetic surveys at stratospheric balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetkov, Yu. P.; Brekhov, O. M.; Bondar, T. N.; Filippov, S. V.; Petrov, V. G.; Tsvetkova, N. M.; Frunze, A. Kh.

    2014-03-01

    Two global analytical models of the main magnetic field of the Earth (MFE) have been used to determine their potential in deriving an anomalous MFE from balloon magnetic surveys conducted at altitudes of ˜30 km. The daily mean spherical harmonic model (DMSHM) constructed from satellite data on the day of balloon magnetic surveys was analyzed. This model for the day of magnetic surveys was shown to be almost free of errors associated with secular variations and can be recommended for deriving an anomalous MFE. The error of the enhanced magnetic model (EMM) was estimated depending on the number of harmonics used in the model. The model limited by the first 13 harmonics was shown to be able to lead to errors in the main MFE of around 15 nT. The EMM developed to n = m = 720 and constructed on the basis of satellite and ground-based magnetic data fails to adequately simulate the anomalous MFE at altitudes of 30 km. To construct a representative model developed to m = n = 720, ground-based magnetic data should be replaced by data of balloon magnetic surveys for altitudes of ˜30 km. The results of investigations were confirmed by a balloon experiment conducted by Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere, and Radio Wave Propagation of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Moscow Aviation Institute.

  12. Near-field strain observations of the October 2013 Ruisui, Taiwan, earthquake: source parameters and limits of very short-term strain detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canitano, Alexandre; Hsu, Ya-Ju; Lee, Hsin-Ming; Linde, Alan T.; Sacks, Selwyn

    2015-08-01

    Volumetric strain changes associated with the October 2013 M w 6.2 Ruisui earthquake were recorded by a network made up with four borehole Sacks-Evertson dilatometers in eastern Taiwan. These instruments are located within 25-30 km of the seismic source providing also high-resolution near-field observations. Co-seismic offsets larger than a few 102 n ɛ were seen by most of the sensors. We relocated the 30 km × 30 km fault plane through a grid-search approach. The inferred fault parameters (217°, 48°, 49°) are in reasonable agreement with those resulting from the inversions of long-period seismic waves (209°, 59°, 50°) as well as from GPS data inversion (200°, 45°, 42°). Moreover, analysis of the 100-Hz sampling data 10 s before seismic radiations indicate no pre-seismic strain change emergent from the instrumental noise level (from 10 -2 to 10 -1 n ɛ). Such an observation sets limits on any precursory change in a nucleation area, taken to have dimensions of about 250-300 m, seconds before the mainshock. Thus, the upper limit of any pre-seismic moment is about 10 -5 % of the total seismic moment of the Ruisui earthquake.

  13. Variation of the lunar highland surface roughness at baseline 0.15-100 km and the relationship to relative age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Y.; Gwinner, K.; Oberst, J.; Haruyama, J.; Matsunaga, T.; Morota, T.; Noda, H.; Araki, H.; Ohtake, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Gläser, P.; Ishihara, Y.; Honda, C.; Hirata, N.; Demura, H.

    2014-03-01

    We report the surface roughness analysis of the lunar highlands for the baseline range 0.15-100 km. We use the Median Differential Slope αm to investigate the scale dependency of the roughness and derive the global αm distribution from SELENE Laser Altimeter and Terrain Camera data. While αm(l) versus baseline l (km) plots vary among different highland types, all highlands commonly show a peak at 3-30 km. The Pre-Nectarian surface shows a relatively large αm(20-30 km). Our analysis is supported by the simulation of synthetic surface cratering models and crater statistics. In our simulation, a peak of αm(30 km) is successfully reproduced. The actual crater density shows good correlation with an empirical roughness indicator. However, a large part of the Nectarian surface shows a peak at 6-9 km baseline. This peak may be caused by secondary craters and ejecta deposit textures from the Nectarian system basins.

  14. Multiple-Aperture Based Solar Seeing Profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Gang; Ren, Deqing

    2015-08-01

    Characterization of daytime atmospheric turbulence profile up to 30 km above the telescope is crucial for designs and performance estimations of solar Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO) systems. To measure seeing profiles up to 30km, we introduce the Multiple Aperture Seeing Profiler (MASP). It bases on the principle of S-DIMM+ and consists of two portable small telescopes similar to SHABAR. Thus the MASP take the advantages of both S-DIMM+ and SHABAR. It is portable and can be used without big telescope, while it has ability to measure turbulence profile up to 30km. Numerical simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of MASP. We find that for one layer case, MASP can retrieve the seeing with error ~5% using 800 frames of WFS data, which is quite similar with the results of a telescope with diameter of 1120mm. We also simulate profiles with four turbulence layers, and find that our MASP can well retrieve the strengths and heights of the four turbulence layers. Since previous measurements at BBSO showed that daytime turbulence profile typically consists of four layers, MASP we introduced is sufficient for actual seeing measurement.

  15. Time Evolution of Coronal Magnetic Helicity in the Flaring Active Region NOAA 10930

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung-Hong; Jing, J.; Wang, H.

    2010-05-01

    To study the three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field topology and its long-term (a few days) evolution associated with the X3.4 flare of 2006 December 13, we investigate the temporal evolution of the relative coronal magnetic helicity in NOAA active region (AR) 10930 during the time period of December 8, 21:20 UT through December 14, 5:00 UT. The coronal helicity is calculated based on the 3D nonlinear force-free (NLFF) magnetic fields reconstructed by the optimization method (Wheatland et al. 2000) as implemented by Wiegelmann (2004). As the boundary conditions for the force-free reconstruction, we use the preprocessed Hinode Spectropolarimeter (SP) vector magnetograms in which the net Lorentz force and the torque in the photosphere are minimized (see Wiegelmann et al. 2006 for the details). The major findings of this study are: (1) a negative (left-handed) helicity of -5×1043 Mx2 in the AR corona is estimated right before the X3.4 flare; (2) the major flare is preceded by a significantly and consistently large amount of negative helicity injection (-2×1043 Mx2) into the corona over 2 days; (3) the temporal variation of helicity is comparable to that of the rotational speed in the southern sunspot with positive polarity; (4) in general, the time profile of the coronal helicity is well-matched with that of the helicity accumulation by the time integration of the simplified helicity injection rate (Chae 2001) determined by using SOHO MDI magnetograms; (5) at the time period of the channel structure development (December 11, 4:00-8:00 UT) with newly emerging flux and just right before the C5.7 class flare, the time variation of the coronal helicity shows a rapid and huge increase of negative helicity, but that of the helicity accumulation by MDI magnetograms indicates a monotonous increase of negative helicity.

  16. Vibronic Emission Spectroscopy of Benzyl-Type Radicals Generated by Corona Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Eun Hye; Yoon, Young; Lee, Sang

    2014-06-01

    Benzyl radical is a prototypical aromatic free radical and has been the subject of numerous spectroscopic studies. On the other hand, ring-substituted benzyl radicals, benzyl-type radicals, have received less attention due to the difficulties associated with production in corona discharge and analysis of spectra. We report vibronic emission spectra of hetero halogen multi-substituted benzyl radicals generated by corona discharge of corresponding toluene derivatives using a pinhole-type glass nozzle, from which visible vibronic emission spectra were recorded using a long-path monochromator. The spectra show nice features of strongest origin band and a series of vibronic bands in the lower energies originating from the vibrationless D_1 state. From the analysis of the spectra observed, we determined the energies of the D_1 → D_0 electronic transition and vibrational mode frequencies in the ground electronic state. On the other hand, all substituted benzyl radicals show the origin bands shifted to red region with respect to the parental benzyl radical at 22002 cm-1. The shifts of multi-substituted benzyl radicals can be well estimated using the method developed from mono-substituted benzyl radicals as well as the positions of nodal point and mutual orientation of substituents, which could be useful for scientists to set a proper scanning range of their spectrometers for the spectroscopic observation of transient molecules. In this presentation, we will discuss the substituent effect on electronic transition energy and the experimental technique developed in this laboratory. Y. W. Yoon and S. K. Lee, J. Phys. Chem. A, 117, 2485 (2013). Y. W. Yoon, S. Y. Chae, and S. K. Lee, Chem. Phys. Lett., 584, 37 (2013). Y. W. Yoon and S. K. Lee, Chem. Phys. Lett., 570, 29 (2013).

  17. Structural domain walls in polar hexagonal manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Yu

    2014-03-01

    The domain structure in the multiferroic hexagonal manganites is currently intensely investigated, motivated by the observation of intriguing sixfold topological defects at their meeting points [Choi, T. et al,. Nature Mater. 9, 253 (2010).] and nanoscale electrical conductivity at the domain walls [Wu, W. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 077203 (2012).; Meier, D. et al., Nature Mater. 11, 284 (2012).], as well as reports of coupling between ferroelectricity, magnetism and structural antiphase domains [Geng, Y. et al., Nano Lett. 12, 6055 (2012).]. The detailed structure of the domain walls, as well as the origin of such couplings, however, was previously not fully understood. In the present study, we have used first-principles density functional theory to calculate the structure and properties of the low-energy structural domain walls in the hexagonal manganites [Kumagai, Y. and Spaldin, N. A., Nature Commun. 4, 1540 (2013).]. We find that the lowest energy domain walls are atomically sharp, with {210}orientation, explaining the orientation of recently observed stripe domains and suggesting their topological protection [Chae, S. C. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 167603 (2012).]. We also explain why ferroelectric domain walls are always simultaneously antiphase walls, propose a mechanism for ferroelectric switching through domain-wall motion, and suggest an atomistic structure for the cores of the sixfold topological defects. This work was supported by ETH Zurich, the European Research Council FP7 Advanced Grants program me (grant number 291151), the JSPS Postdoctoral Fellowships for Research Abroad, and the MEXT Elements Strategy Initiative to Form Core Research Center TIES.

  18. Light emitting transistors: A new route for display pixels (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namdas, Ebinazar B.

    2015-10-01

    Organic light emitting transistors (LEFETs) are an emerging class of light emitting devices that have been successfully demonstrated in single-layer [1] and mutli-layer device structures [2]. LEFETs can simultaneously execute light-emission and standard logic functions (ON/OFF) of a transistor in a single device architecture [1]. This dual functionality of LEFETs has a potential to offer a new route to simplify fabrication of display pixels. However, the key problem of existing LEFETs thus far has been their low external quantum efficiency (EQE) at high brightness, poor ON/OFF ratio, and mobility. More recently, hybrid light emitting transistors [3-4], consisting of solution processed n-type metal oxide (inorganic) as the charge transport layer and light emitting conjugated polymer (organic), have been used to achieve higher mobility, ON/OFF ratio and brightness. In this talk, I will discuss the various factors that currently influence device performance in LEFETs, and will provide insights into our recent progress in developing high-performance hybrid LEFETs. References: (1). E. B. Namdas, J. S. Swensen, P. Ledochowitsch, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, Adv. Mater.,20, 1321 (2008). (2). M. Ullah, K. Tandy, S. D. Yambem, M. Aljada, P. L. Burn, P. Meredith, E. B. Namdas. Adv. Mater. 25, 6213-6218 (2013). (3). B. Walker, M. Ullah, G. J. Chae, P. L Burn, S. Cho, J. Y. Kim, E. B. Namdas, J. H. Seo. Appl Phys Lett, 105, 183302 (2014). (4). K. Muhieddine, M. Ullah, B. N. Pal, P. Burn, E. B. Namdas, Adv. Mater. 26, 6410 (2014).

  19. High grain, low noise organic and nanoelectronic photodetectors (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jinsong

    2015-08-01

    The dramatically reduction of cost of photodetectors without comprising their performance will enable new applications in many fields. In this talk, I will brief our progress in the development of sensitive photodetectors/photon counters using low-cost solution processable organic and nano-electronic materials. Four types of device structures will be compared in terms of device gain, noise, sensitivity, response speed and linear dynamic range: 1) traditional diode structure, 2) a structure combine the photodiode and photoconductor through the interface trap triggered secondary charge injection, 3) an organic phototransistor that has combined photoconductive gain and photovoltaic gain, and 4) quantum dots modulated transistor channel conductance. Broad response spectrum from UV to NIR will be demonstrated, and active material limited performance will be discussed. Solution-Processed Nanoparticle Super-Float-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistor as Un-cooled Ultraviolet and Infrared Photon Counter Yongbo Yuan, Qingfeng Dong, Bin Yang, Fawen Guo, Qi Zhang, Ming Han, and Jinsong Huang*, Scientific Reports, 3, 2707 (2013) A nanocomposite ultraviolet photodetector enabled by interfacial trap-controlled charge injection Fawen Guo, Bin Yang, Yongbo Yuan, Zhengguo Xiao, Qingfeng Dong, Yu Bi, and Jinsong Huang*, Nature Nanotechnology, 7, 798-802, (2012) Large Gain, Low Noise Nanocomposite Ultraviolet Photodetectors with a Linear Dynamic Range of 120 dB Yanjun Fang, Fawen Guo,Zhengguo Xiao, Jinsong Huang*, Advanced Optical Materials, 348-353 (2014) High Gain and Low-Driving-Voltage Photodetectors Based on Organolead Triiodide Perovskites Rui Dong, Yanjun Fang, Jungseok Chae, Jun Dai, Zhengguo Xiao, Qingfeng Dong,Yongbo Yuan, Andrea Centrone,Xiao Cheng Zeng , Jinsong Huang*. ,Advanced Materials, 2015

  20. Crustal structure along the geosciences transect from Altay to Altun Tagh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Y.-X.; Han, G.-H.; Jiang, M.; Yuan, X.-C.; Mooney, W.D.; Coleman, R.G.

    2004-01-01

    Based upon the P- and S-wave data acquired along the geoscience transect from Altay to Altun Tagh in Northwest China, the crustal structures of velocities and Poisson's ratio are determined. The crustal velocity structure features an obvious three-layer structure with velocities of 6. 0 ??? 6. 3km/s, 6. 3 ??? 6. 6km/s and 6.9 ??? 7. Okm/s from surface to depth, respectively. The crustal thickness along the. entire profile is mostly 50km with the thickest crust (56km) beneath the Altay and the thinnest (46km) beneath the Junggar basin. The velocities underlying Moho are 7.7 to 7.8km/s between the Tianshan and the Junggar basin, and 7.9 to 8.0km/s below the Altay Mountains and eastern margin of the Tarim basin. The southern half of the profile, including the eastern Tianshan Mountains and eastern margin of the Tarim basin, shows low P-wave velocities and ?? = 0. 25 to a depth, of 30km, which suggests a quartz-rich, granitic upper crustal composition. The northern half of the profile below the Altay Mountains and Junggar Accretional Belt has a higher Poisson's ratio of ?? = 0.26 ??? 0.27 to a depth of 30km, indicative of an intermediate crustal composition, The entire profile is underlain by a 15 to 30km thick high-velocity (6.9 ??? 7.0km/s; ?? = 0. 26 - 0.28) lower crustal layer that we interpret to have a bulk composition of mafic granulite. At the southern end of the profile a 5km-thick midcrustal low-velocity layer ( Vp, = 5.9km/s, ?? = 0.25) underlies the Tianshan and the region to the south, and may be indicative of granitic intrusive in Late Paleozoic.

  1. First Rosetta Radio Science Bistatic Radar Observations of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andert, Thomas P.; Remus, Stefan; Simpson, Richard A.; Pätzold, Martin; Asmar, Sami W.; Kahan, Daniel S.; Bird, Mike K.; Häusler, Bernd; Tellmann, Silvia

    2015-04-01

    The Rosetta spacecraft was successfully inserted on 6th August 2014 into orbit around comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. In September Rosetta was placed into bound orbits with an initial distance of 30 km and a decreasing distance until the end October. After lander delivery, bound orbits were maintained again at 20 km and 30 km. One of the objectives of the Rosetta Radio Science Investigations (RSI) is to address the dielectric properties, small-scale roughness, and rotational state of the nucleus of the comet, which can be determined by means of a surface scattering experiment, also known as Bistatic Radar. The radio subsystem transmitter located on board the Rosetta spacecraft beams right circularly polarized radio signals at two wavelengths -3.6 cm (X-Band) and 13 cm (S-Band) - toward the nucleus surface. Part of the impinging radiation is then scattered toward a receiver at a ground station on Earth and recorded. On September 29th, 2014 the first Bistatic Radar experiment ever at a comet was successfully conducted. The distance between 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and Rosetta was 20 km and both right circularly polarized (RCP) and left circularly polarized (LCP) reflected signals from the comet's surface in X-Band were detected during the experiment at the Goldstone complex of the NASA Deep Space Network. The ultra-stable oscillator (USO) on board Rosetta served during the experiment as a very stable reference frequency source. The direct and reflected signal were separated during the experiment by only a fraction of 1 Hz. The extreme stability of the USO allowed a detection and separation of the weak signals even on the required long integration times. Five additional Bistatic Radar experiments were conducted successfully between mid-October and mid-December 2014 with the 70-m DSN ground stations in Goldstone and Canberra at different distances to the comet (10 km, 20 km and 30 km) and reflected signals were observed in each case.

  2. Territory contamination with the radionuclides representing the fuel component of Chernobyl fallout.

    PubMed

    Kashparov, V A; Lundin, S M; Zvarych, S I; Yoshchenko, V I; Levchuk, S E; Khomutinin, Y V; Maloshtan, I M; Protsak, V P

    2003-12-30

    The data obtained through a series of experiments were used to specify the correlation of activities of the fuel component radionuclides of Chernobyl fallout and to create the maps of the 30-km Chernobyl zone terrestrial density of contamination with 154Eu, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am (on 01.01.2000). In the year 2000, total inventories of the fuel component radionuclides in the upper 30-cm soil layer of the 30-km Chernobyl zone in Ukraine (outside the ChNPP industrial site, excluding the activity located in the radioactive waste storages and in the cooling pond) were estimated as: 90Sr--7.7 x 10(14) Bq; 137Cs--2.8 x 10(15) Bq; 154Eu--1.4 x 10(13) Bq; 238Pu--7.2 x 10(12) Bq; 239+240Pu--1.5 x 10(13) Bq; 241Am--1.8 x 10(13) Bq. These values correspond to 0.4-0.5% of their amounts in the ChNPP unit 4 at the moment of the accident. The current estimate is 3 times lower than the previous widely-cited estimates. Inventories of the fuel component radionuclides were also estimated in other objects within the 30-km zone and outside it. This allowed more accurate data to be obtained on the magnitude of a relative release of radionuclides in the fuel particles (FP) matrix during the Chernobyl accident outside the ChNPP industrial site. It amounts to 1.5+/-0.5% of these radionuclides in the reactor, which is 2 times lower than the previous estimates. Two-thirds of the radionuclides release in the FP was deposited on the territory of Ukraine. PMID:14630415

  3. Evaluation of tropical channel refinement using MPAS-A aquaplanet simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Martini, Matus N.; Gustafson, Jr., William I.; O'Brien, Travis A.; Ma, Po -Lun

    2015-09-13

    Climate models with variable-resolution grids offer a computationally less expensive way to provide more detailed information at regional scales and increased accuracy for processes that cannot be resolved by a coarser grid. This study uses the Model for Prediction Across Scales–Atmosphere (MPAS22A), consisting of a nonhydrostatic dynamical core and a subset of Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model atmospheric physics that have been modified to include the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) cloud fraction parameterization, to investigate the potential benefits of using increased resolution in an tropical channel. The simulations are performed with an idealized aquaplanet configuration using two quasi-uniform grids, with 30 km and 240 km grid spacing, and two variable-resolution grids spanning the same grid spacing range; one with a narrow (20°S–20°N) and one with a wide (30°S–30°N) tropical channel refinement. Results show that increasing resolution in the tropics impacts both the tropical and extratropical circulation. Compared to the quasi-uniform coarse grid, the narrow-channel simulation exhibits stronger updrafts in the Ferrel cell as well as in the middle of the upward branch of the Hadley cell. The wider tropical channel has a closer correspondence to the 30 km quasi-uniform simulation. However, the total atmospheric poleward energy transports are similar in all simulations. The largest differences are in the low-level cloudiness. The refined channel simulations show improved tropical and extratropical precipitation relative to the global 240 km simulation when compared to the global 30 km simulation. All simulations have a single ITCZ. Furthermore, the relatively small differences in mean global and tropical precipitation rates among the simulations are a promising result, and the evidence points to the tropical channel being an effective method for avoiding the extraneous numerical artifacts seen in earlier

  4. Validation of three different scientific ozone products retrieved from IASI spectra using ozonesondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour, G.; Eremenko, M.; Griesfeller, A.; Barret, B.; Leflochmoën, E.; Clerbaux, C.; Hadji-Lazaro, J.; Coheur, P.-F.; Hurtmans, D.

    2011-08-01

    Three scientific ozone products from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) aboard MetOp-A, retrieved in three different research teams (LA, LATMOS/ULB, LISA) with different retrieval schemes, are characterized and validated using ozonesondes measurements. The three products are mature enough to be used for detailed analyses of atmospheric chemistry and transport in the troposphere. The characteristics of the products are analyzed in terms of retrieval sensitivity, systematic and random errors, and ability to retrieve the natural variability of ozone and focus on different partial columns from the lower troposphere up to 30 km. The validation covers the midlatitudes and the tropics and the period from January to December 2008. The products present degrees of freedom (DOF) in the troposphere between 1 and 1.2 on average in the midlatitudes and between 1 and 1.4 in the tropics. The DOF are distributed differently on the vertical depending on the profiles and the season: summer leading to a better sensitivity to the lower troposphere, as expected. The error estimates range between 10 and 20 % from the lower tropospheric partial columns (0-6 km and 0-8 km for the midlatitudes and the tropics respectively) to the UTLS partial columns (8-16 km and 11-20 km for the midlatitudes and the tropics respectively) for all the products and are about 5 % in the stratosphere (16-30 km) and for the column up to 30 km. The main feature that arises from the comparison with the ozonesondes is a systematic overestimation of ozone in the UTLS (between 10 and 25 %) by the three products in the midlatitudes and the tropics, attributed to the moderate vertical resolution of IASI and possibly to spectroscopic inconsistencies. The ability of the products to reproduce natural variability of tropospheric ozone is fairly good and depends on the considered season and region.

  5. Comparative studies of lunar, Martian, and Mercurian craters and plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberbeck, V. R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Aggarwal, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    The spatial distribution of lunar smooth plains is not consistent with experimental simulations of melt rock emplacement during cratering in layered materials. Nor is it consistent with the location of melt rocks (suevite) near the Ries basin. Lunar smooth plains surrounding Imbrium are most extensive in areas where pre-existing craters are most degraded. This observation suggests that plains form by impact of basin and local primary crater ejecta, together with deposition of debris excavated by the resultant secondary cratering events. Craters within the belt of smooth plains surrounding the Caloris basin on Mercury are most degraded nearest the basin; this suggests that Mercurian smooth plains must, at least in part, be emplaced in a manner similar to plains surrounding the Imbrium basin. Mercurian uplands have a primary crater population deficient in small crater diameters (less than approximately 30 km). Lunar uplands far from major basins also have a crater population deficient in small crater sizes. Martian cratered terrain exhibits a similar crater deficiency, which was previously interpreted as due to obliteration of small craters (less than approximately 30 km) by some surface process. A crater size distribution deficient in small sizes (less than approximately 30 km) on the Mercurian, lunar, and Martian uplands has implications for the origin of debris bombarding the inner solar system during the period recorded by these surfaces. It is proposed that during late heavy bombardment, the inner solar system was inundated with bodies that broke up under tidal fission as they approached the planets. Such a mechanism would lend to production of a crater population deficient in small crater sizes, and it would also explain the large degree of spatial clustering of primary craters on Mercury, the moon, and Mars.

  6. Crustal Structure of Northeastern Sicily, South Italy, From Tomographic Inversion of Local Earthquake Arrival-times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orecchio, B.; Aloisi, M.; Barberi, G.; Neri, G.

    After integrating the databases of the local and national seismic networks relative to lithospheric seismicity that occurred in and around Northeastern Sicily bet ween 1978 and 2001, we selected 932 events for 3D local tomography of P- and S-wave velocity. A dataset of 10241 P and 5597 S arrival times was inverted for Vp, Vs and hypocenter distributions using the SIMULPS12 algorithm. Analysis of the Derivative Weight Sum and Spread Function detected a rather good level of constraint of velocity at nodes of a grid with horizontal and vertical spacing of 10 and 6 km respectively, spanning the upper 30 Km beneath the area including Central and Northeastern Sicily, Southern Calabria and the Southeasternmost Tyrrhenian Sea. Standard deviation of arrival-time residuals after 3D inversion was about 20% lower than obtained by locating the same earthquakes using the minimum 1D model. Four main spatial domains can be distinguished in the obtained velocity structure: i) a high-velocity domain corresponding to Tyrrhenian structural units; ii) low-velocity domain corresponding to Sicilian units; iii) a domain corresponding to the Calabrian Arc characterized by positive velocity anomalies at shallow depth (nodes in the range 0-12 Km) and by negative velocity ones below (18-30 Km); iv) positive anomalies at deep nodes (18-30 Km) and negative anomalies above, in the area including the Etna volcano and the Ionian coast of Sicily near the volcanic edifice. Velocity distributions were analyzed jointly with the geophysical and geological information available in the literature in order to improve our knowledge of the crustal structure in the study area. Furthermore, comparisons were made with the most recent regional geodynamic models and led us to state that the crustal features evidenced in the present investigation match well with the model assuming gravity- induced southeastward roll-back of an Ionian lithospheric slab subducting beneath the Tyrrhenian sea.

  7. Simulation of CO2 release at 800 km altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setayesh, A.

    1993-08-01

    The SOCRATES contamination-interaction code has been used to simulate the reactions of 0 + CO2 yields CO2(v) + O, O + CO2 - CO(v) + O2, and CO2 + H - CO + OH(v) at an altitude of 800 km in both ram and wake directions of the spacecraft. These simulations show that the radiation from these reactions can be measurable for the parameters which have been used in these calculations. The investigation carries out the simulations as much as 30 km from the spacecraft. The radiative intensity of CO(v) and OH(v) show the highest and lowest, respectively.

  8. A ring galaxy in Canes Venatici and related ring galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Wakamatsu, Ken-ichi; Nishida, M.T. Kobe Women's University )

    1991-04-01

    A spectroscopic observation was made of a ring-shaped object in Canes Venatici. A bright knot at the edge of the ring has a recession velocity of 10,960 + or - 30 km/s and so is confirmed as an extragalactic object. It shows no sign of nuclear activity but appears to be an H II region of intermediate excitation class. The linear diameter of the ring is 14.2 + or - 0.8 kpc, a typical size for ring galaxies. Recession velocities of several other ring galaxies are also given. 24 refs.

  9. Mass motions in impulsive flarelike brightenings as observed by OSO 8. [mechanism response for solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, E. C., Jr.; Lites, B. W.

    1979-01-01

    C IV 1548-A line profiles obtained with the University of Colorado spectrometer aboard OSO 8 reveal transient, redshifted brightenings in the chromosphere-corona transition region above active regions and sunspots. In these events the intensity rises by factors of up to 5 in less than the profile sampling interval of 27 sec. These events indicate that the emitting material is moving downward at velocities of up to 30 km/sec. The increase in line intensity and the amount of motion are consistent with the interpretation of these events as pressure waves propagating down magnetic flux loops.

  10. SP.ACE: taking secondary school students' hearts and minds "up, up and away"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Schrijver, Erik

    2005-08-01

    Secondary school students were given the opportunity to build and fly "pongsats" (small experiments weighing under 100 grams each, and packed inside a ping pong ball) on high-altitude balloons bound for 100000 feet, or 30 km: the edge of space. The need to acquire the knowledge and know-how to build successful experiments gave birth to the SP.ACE project. Over their last 3 years of secondary education, students are now learning about flight vehicles, the physical conditions in space, microcontrollers, sensors, programming, data logging, flight path analysis, and much more.

  11. Lidar Observations of Stratospheric Clouds After Volcanic Eruption of Pinatubo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Jinhui; Qiu, Jinhuan; Xia, Qilin; Zhang, Jinding

    1992-01-01

    A very large increase of backscattered light from the stratospheric aerosol layer was observed by using a ruby laser in Beijing (39 degrees 54 minutes N, 116 degrees 27 minutes E) from the end of July 1991 to March 1992. It was concluded that this increase was almost certainly due to the volcanic eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines in June 1991. The measuring instruments used are described. Information is given in graphical form for vertical profiles, fluctuation of the maximum backscattering ratio above 20 km during the nine month period, and the time variation of the integrated backscattering coefficient at a height of 15 to 30 km.

  12. A linear accelerator for simulated micrometeors.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slattery, J. C.; Becker, D. G.; Hamermesh, B.; Roy, N. L.

    1973-01-01

    Review of the theory, design parameters, and construction details of a linear accelerator designed to impart meteoric velocities to charged microparticles in the 1- to 10-micron diameter range. The described linac is of the Sloan Lawrence type and, in a significant departure from conventional accelerator practice, is adapted to single particle operation by employing a square wave driving voltage with the frequency automatically adjusted from 12.5 to 125 kHz according to the variable velocity of each injected particle. Any output velocity up to about 30 km/sec can easily be selected, with a repetition rate of approximately two particles per minute.

  13. The photochemistry of methane in the atmosphere of Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobel, Darrell F.; Summers, Michael E.; Herbert, Floyd; Sandel, Bill R.

    1990-01-01

    The model of Summers and Strobel (1989) for photochemical reactions in the Uranus atmosphere was modified and used for quantitative calculations of methane in the atmosphere of Triton. The principal adjustable parameters in the new model are the surface CH4 concentrations and the vigor of vertical mixing in Triton's lower atmosphere. It is shown the rate of methane photolysis that was calculated is sufficient to generate a smog of condensed C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, and C4H2 particles in the lowest 30 km of Triton's atmosphere, with an optical depth consistent with the Voyager imaging results.

  14. Test and development of inflatable spheres instrumented with miniaturized thermistors, accelerometers and pressure transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luers, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Instrumentation was developed for the high altitude inflatable sphere to measure its skin temperature, acceleration and internal pressure. The sphere without instrumentation has routinely been used over the past 10 years to provide measurements of winds, density, temperature and pressure between 100 Km and 30 Km altitude. With the miniaturized instrumentation package onboard, the system offers the potential for providing meteorological information as well as a better understanding of sphere performance and dynamics during its descent. Of the six launches of instrumented spheres only one provided telemetry data. However, many of the objectives of the program were achieved.

  15. Simulation of the transport of halogen species from the equatorial and mid-latitude stratosphere to the polar stratosphere in a two-dimensional model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yung, Yuk L.; Shia, R. L.; Allen, M.; Zurek, R. W.; Crisp, D.; Wen, J. S.

    1988-01-01

    The bulk of O sub 3 destruction in the Antarctic stratosphere takes place in the lower stratosphere between 15 and 25 km. Both O sub 3 and the halogen reservoir species have their origins in the higher altitude region (20 to 30 km) in the equatorial and mid-latitude stratosphere. Using the Caltech-JPL two-dimensional residual circulation model, researchers investigate the growth of stratospheric halogen due to the increase of CFCl sub 3 and CF sub 2 Cl sub 2.

  16. Melting and differentiation in Venus with a cold start: A mechanism of the thin crust formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomatov, Viatcheslav S.; Stevenson, David J.

    1992-01-01

    Recent works argue that the venusian crust is thin: less than 10-30 km. However, any convective model of Venus unavoidably predicts melting and a fast growth of the basaltic crust, up to its maximum thickness of about 70 km limited, by the gabbro-eclogite phase transition. The crust is highly buoyant due to both its composition and temperature and it is problematic to find a mechanism providing its effective recycling and thinning in the absence of plate tectonics. There are different ways to solve this contradiction. This study suggests that a thin crust can be produced during the entire evolution of Venus if Venus avoided giant impacts.

  17. Impact of an asteroid or comet in the ocean and extinction of terrestrial life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, T. J.; Okeefe, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    Finite difference calculations describing the impact mechanics associated with a 10 to 30 km diameter silicate or water object impacting a 5 km deep ocean overlying a silicate solid planet demonstrate that from 12 to 15% of the bolide energy resides in the water. It is speculated that minimal global tsunami run-up heights on the continents would be 300-400 meters, and that such waves would inundate all low altitude continental areas, and strip and silt-over virtually all vegetation. As a result the terrestrial animal food chain would be seriously perturbed. This could in turn cause extinction of large terrestrial animals.

  18. Observatorio UC at Santa Martina: a small observing facility operated by PUC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baffico, M.; Avila, G.; Baade, D.; Bendek, E.; Guirao, C.; Gonzalez, O.; Marchant, P.; Salas, V.; Toledo, I.; Vasquez, S.; Vanzi, L.

    2008-07-01

    The Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics (DAA) of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (PUC) operates a small observatory at Santa Martina hills located in the outskirts of Santiago. Despite the close distance (about 30 km) from the centre of a very large metropolitan area, the observatory offers excellent conditions in terms of number of clear nights and relatively good conditions in terms of light pollution and image quality. The observatory is mostly used for didactic purposes, however we are evaluating scientific applications as well.

  19. Comparing Water Vapor Mixing Ratio Profiles and Cloud Vertical Structure from Multiwavelength Raman Lidar Retrievals and Radiosounding Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa-Surós, Montserrat; Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Markowicz, Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    A study of comparison of water vapor mixing ratio profiles, relative humidity profiles, and cloud vertical structures using two different instruments, a multiwavelength Aerosol-Depolarization-Raman lidar and radiosoundings, is presented. The observations were taken by the lidar located in Warsaw center and the radiosoundings located about 30km to the North in Legionowo (Poland). We compared the ground-based remote sensing technology with in-situ method in order to improve knowledge about water content thought the atmosphere and cloud formation. The method used for retrieving the cloud vertical structure can be improved comparing the radiosonde results with the lidar observations, which show promising results.

  20. Lunar crater depths from orbiter IV long-focus photographs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arthur, D.W.G.

    1974-01-01

    The paper presents method and results for the determination of the depths of more than 1900 small lunar craters from measures of shadows on the long-focus pictures obtained by Lunar Orbiter IV. The method for converting the measured shadow length into the true length in nature of the shadow hypotenuse is new and is applicable to other planetary bodies provided comparable spacecraft ephemerides are available. The measures were made with a simple surveyor's plotting scale on the standard Orbiter IV photographic enlargements. The results indicate that the smaller lunar (D < 30 km) craters are appreciably deeper than is indicated by earlier work using imagery obtained at terrestrial observatories. ?? 1974.

  1. Infrared and radar signatures of lunar craters - Implications about crater evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Cutts, J. A.; Shorthill, R. W.; Zisk, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    Geological models accounting for the strongly crater size-dependent IR and radar signatures of lunar crater floors are examined. The simplest model involves the formation and subsequent 'gardening' of an impact melt layer on the crater floor, but while adequate in accounting for the gradual fading of IR temperatures and echo strengths in craters larger than 30 km in diameter, it is inadequate for smaller ones. It is concluded that quantitative models of the evolution of rock populations in regoliths and of the interaction of microwaves with regoliths are needed in order to understand crater evolutionary processes.

  2. Gamma ray flashes add to mystery of upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atmospheric electricity research has come a long way since Benjamin Franklin's kite-flying days. But what researchers have been learning lately about above-thunderstorm electricity has wrought a whole new era of mysteries.For a start, last summer a Colorado meteorologist sparked interest in a terrestrial phenomenon that the community first observed more than 100 years ago: optical flashes that occur above thunderstorms—at least 30 km above Earth. Walter Lyons with the Ft. Collins-based Mission Research Corporation, demonstrated that such flashes are not anomalies, as conventional scientific wisdom had held. He filmed hundreds of flashes during a 2-week period.

  3. Present concept on current water protection and remediation activities for the areas contaminated by the 1986 Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Voitsekhovitch, O.; Prister, B.; Nasvit, O.; Los, I.; Berkovski, V.

    1996-07-01

    The results of radiation monitoring data and migration pathway analysis of water bodies within areas affected by the 1986 Chernobyl accident provide a unique opportunity for decision-makers working in other extensively contaminated regions to optimize their approaches to surface and groundwater protection. Most engineering measures within the Chernobyl 30-km exclusion zone were focused on preventing secondary contamination of surface and groundwater from entering the Pripyat River and the Kiev Reservoir. However, implementation of these measures required huge financial and human resources. Therefore, lessons about post-accidental water protection activities can be learned form the Chernobyl example. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Range-wide patterns of greater sage-grouse persistence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aldridge, C.L.; Nielsen, S.E.; Beyer, H.L.; Boyce, M.S.; Connelly, J.W.; Knick, S.T.; Schroeder, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a shrub-steppe obligate species of western North America, currently occupies only half its historical range. Here we examine how broad-scale, long-term trends in landscape condition have affected range contraction. Location: Sagebrush biome of the western USA. Methods: Logistic regression was used to assess persistence and extirpation of greater sage-grouse range based on landscape conditions measured by human population (density and population change), vegetation (percentage of sagebrush habitat), roads (density of and distance to roads), agriculture (cropland, farmland and cattle density), climate (number of severe and extreme droughts) and range periphery. Model predictions were used to identify areas where future extirpations can be expected, while also explaining possible causes of past extirpations. Results: Greater sage-grouse persistence and extirpation were significantly related to sagebrush habitat, cultivated cropland, human population density in 1950, prevalence of severe droughts and historical range periphery. Extirpation of sage-grouse was most likely in areas having at least four persons per square kilometre in 1950, 25% cultivated cropland in 2002 or the presence of three or more severe droughts per decade. In contrast, persistence of sage-grouse was expected when at least 30 km from historical range edge and in habitats containing at least 25% sagebrush cover within 30 km. Extirpation was most often explained (35%) by the combined effects of peripherality (within 30 km of range edge) and lack of sagebrush cover (less than 25% within 30 km). Based on patterns of prior extirpation and model predictions, we predict that 29% of remaining range may be at risk. Main Conclusions: Spatial patterns in greater sage-grouse range contraction can be explained by widely available landscape variables that describe patterns of remaining sagebrush habitat and loss due to cultivation, climatic trends, human

  5. Demographic, agricultural products, and food consumption data for a collective farm in Oranoe District, Ivankov District, Kiev Region, Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Ryabov, I N; Davidenko, G M; Templeton, W L; ,

    1992-07-01

    This report provides some demographic, agricultural and food consumption data for the collective farms ( Kybisheva,'' composed of three villages) in the Oranoe Department, District of Ivankov, Kiev Region. This area is situated approximately 15 km south of the Chernobyl 30-km Exclusion Zone. The levels of {sup 137}Cs are approximately 5--10 curies/km{sup 2}. This data was collected by the Integrated Radioecological Expedition to Chernobyl of the Russian Academy of Sciences as part of the co-operative studies on environmental radiation dose assessment conducted under the US/USSR Joint Co-operative Committee on Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety (JCCCNRS) established in 1989.

  6. Native gold and companion minerals in the Cenozoic sediments of the Ural Foredeep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovsky, D. V.; Silaev, V. I.; Zharkov, V. A.; Petrovsky, V. A.

    2012-11-01

    Clastic gold in the Cenozoic sediments of the Ural Foredeep is referred to the apron and aureole dynamic types of alluvial placers, which are formed at a distance of 10-30 km from their sources. The gold grains vary appreciably in size and chemical composition of individuals and are characterized by good round-ness and high degree of alluvial refining. It is suggested that endogenic gold occurrences in mountainous regions of the Polar and Subpolar Urals were the main sources of clastic gold grains.

  7. The Brownell and Ness County (1894) L6 chondrites - Further sorting-out of Ness County meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, A. E.; Read, W. F.

    1984-09-01

    Brownell is a new moderately shocked L6 chondrite from Ness County, KS, that is petrologically distinct from the other L6 chondrites from Ness County. These latter meteorites, Wellmanville, Franklinville, and Ness County (1894), are very similar in their olivine and low-Ca pyroxene compositional distributions, kamacite Co contents, modal abundances of metallic Fe, Ni, and presence of martensitic metallic Fe, Ni (about 14 wt pct Ni). However, their silicates indicate that they have been shocked to different extents. It is suggested that all three probably represent a single heterogeneously-shocked L6 fragmental breccia that fell over a large area over 30 km in length.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: RV and vsini of southern stars (de Medeiros+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Medeiros, J. R.; Alves, S.; Udry, S.; Andersen, J.; Nordstrom, B.; Mayor, M.

    2013-11-01

    Rotational and radial velocities have been measured for 1589 evolved stars of spectral types F, G, and K and luminosity classes IV, III, II, and Ib, based on observations carried out with the CORAVEL spectrometers. The precision in radial velocity is better than 0.30km/s per observation, whereas rotational velocity uncertainties are typically 1.0km/s for subgiants and giants and 2.0km/s for class II giants and Ib supergiants. (1 data file).

  9. Lunar Crustal History Recorded in Lunar Anorthosites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, Laurence E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, D.; Park, J.; Bogard. D.; Garrison, D.; Yamaguchi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Anorthosites occur ubiquitously within the lunar crust at depths of 3-30 km in apparent confirmation of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) hypothesis. We have dated lunar anorthosite 67075, a Feldspathic Fragmental Breccia (FFB) collected near the rim of North Ray Crater by the Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr techniques. We also have dated an anorthositic white clast (WC) in lunar meteorite Dhofar 908 by the Ar-39-Ar-40 technique and measured whole rock (WR) Sm-Nd data for a companion sample. We discuss the significance of the ages determined for these and other anorthosites for the early magmatic and bombardment history of the moon.

  10. ASSESSING THE MERCURY HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS: ISSUES IN ATMOSPHERIC PROCESSES.

    SciTech Connect

    LIPFERT, F.; SULLIVAN, T.; RENNINGER, S.

    2004-03-28

    The rationale for regulating air emissions of mercury from U.S. coal-fired power plants largely depends on mathematical dispersion modeling, including the atmospheric chemistry processes that affect the partitioning of Hg emissions into elemental (Hg{sub 0}) and the reactive (RGM) forms that may deposit more rapidly near sources. This paper considers and evaluates the empirical support for this paradigm. We consider the extant experimental data at three spatial scales: local (< 30 km), regional (< {approx}300 km), and national (multi-state data). An additional issue involves the finding of excess Hg levels in urban areas.

  11. Estimation of Interplate Coupling in the Central and Eastern of Java trench from CGPS Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwan, Meilano; Endra, Gunawan; Susilo, Susilo; Joni, Effendi; Hasanuddin Z., Abidin; Dina, Sarsito

    2015-04-01

    We used three-component surface velocities in the Central and Eastern Java to estimate plate coupling on the subduction interface at the Java subduction zone. The observation period starting from 2009 to 2013 with more than 40 CGPS observation stations. The results show a heterogeneous distribution of interplate coupling from Central to the East of Java trench. Strong coupling at a depth of 10-30 km with rate 3-4 cm/yr is estimated at the south of East Java. The downdip limits of the coupled areas is estimated at 50km. This slip deficit on subduction interface has important implication for seismic hazard of Java Island.

  12. Ganges Landslides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a high resolution view of portions of the lobes of several landslide deposits in Ganges Chasma. Dark material near the bottom (south) end of the image is windblown sand.

    Location near: 8.2oS, 44.3oW Image width: 3.0 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  13. The 1980 stratospheric-tropospheric exchange experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margozzi, A. P. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from the Stratospheric-Tropospheric Water Vapor Exchange Experiment. Measurements were made during 11 flights of the NASA U-2 aircraft which provided data from horizontal traverser and samplings in and about the tops of extensive cirrus-anvil clouds produced by overshooting cumulus turrets. Aircraft measurements were made of water vapor, ozone, ambient and cloud top temperature, fluorocarbons, nitrous oxide, nitric acid, aerosols, and ice crystal populations. Balloonsondes were flown about twice daily providing data on ozone, wind fields, pressure and temperature to altitudes near 30 km. Satellite photography provided detailed cloud and cloud top temperature information. Descriptions of individual experiments and detailed compilations of all results are provided.

  14. The BLISS measurements of NO2 - Some new insights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pyle, J. A.; Webster, C. R.; May, R. D.; Lary, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The present study compares the diurnal variation of NO2 measured near 30 km by the BLISS in situ laser spectrometer with calculations from a photochemical model that includes a detailed description of multiple scattering. Even better agreement is found between the data and the model, both at sunset and during the day. The conclusions of an earlier study that the high-resolution in situ measurements of NO2 facilitated validation of the understanding of the diurnal chemistry of NO2 are confirmed.

  15. Composition and stability of coyote families and territories in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, S.H.; Hastings, J.O.; Kohn, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    Coyote (Canis latrans) families studied in North Dakota during 1976 to 1978 contained three or more adults during the spring-summer season, and they occupied large contiguous, non-overlapping territories. Coyote territories averaged 61 km2 during the spring-summer season and 30 km2 during fall-winter season. Three of four families occupied territories that were similar in size for two consecutive years; however, boundaries changed within individual families when one or both alpha adults were killed. All coyotes replacing dead alpha adults were 1 year old.

  16. An energy-efficient and elastic optical multiple access system based on coherent interleaved frequency division multiple access.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yuki; Maruta, Akihiro; Ishii, Kenji; Akiyama, Yuji; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Naoki; Koguchi, Kazuumi; Nakagawa, Junichi; Mizuochi, Takashi; Kitayama, Ken-ichi

    2013-05-20

    This paper proposes a novel bandwidth-elastic and energy-efficient passive optical network (PON) based on the coherent interleaved frequency division multiple access (IFDMA) scheme. We experimentally demonstrate the coherent IFDMA-PON uplink transmission up-to 30 Gbps over a 30 km standard single-mode fiber with 2 × optical network units (ONUs). A low-complexity digital carrier synchronization technique enables multiple access of the ONUs on the basis of 78.1 MHz narrow band orthogonal subcarriers without any guard-bands. PMID:23736447

  17. INITIAL PLANETESIMAL SIZES AND THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF SMALL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Schlichting, Hilke E.; Fuentes, Cesar I.; Trilling, David E.

    2013-08-01

    The Kuiper Belt is a remnant from the early solar system and its size distribution contains many important constraints that can be used to test models of planet formation and collisional evolution. We show, by comparing observations with theoretical models, that the observed Kuiper Belt size distribution is well matched by coagulation models, which start with an initial planetesimal population with radii of about 1 km, and subsequent collisional evolution. We find that the observed size distribution above R {approx} 30 km is primordial, i.e., it has not been modified by collisional evolution over the age of the solar system, and that the size distribution below R {approx} 30 km has been modified by collisions and that its slope is well matched by collisional evolution models that use published strength laws. We investigate in detail the resulting size distribution of bodies ranging from 0.01 km to 30 km and find that its slope changes several times as a function of radius before approaching the expected value for an equilibrium collisional cascade of material strength dominated bodies for R {approx}< 0.1 km. Compared to a single power-law size distribution that would span the whole range from 0.01 km to 30 km, we find in general a strong deficit of bodies around R {approx} 10 km and a strong excess of bodies around 2 km in radius. This deficit and excess of bodies are caused by the planetesimal size distribution left over from the runaway growth phase, which left most of the initial mass in small planetesimals while only a small fraction of the total mass is converted into large protoplanets. This excess mass in small planetesimals leaves a permanent signature in the size distribution of small bodies that is not erased after 4.5 Gyr of collisional evolution. Observations of the small Kuiper Belt Object (KBO) size distribution can therefore test if large KBOs grew as a result of runaway growth and constrained the initial planetesimal sizes. We find that results from

  18. High Spectral Resolution Lidar Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Eloranta, Ed

    2004-12-01

    The HSRL provided calibrated vertical profiles of optical depth, backscatter cross section and depoloarization at a wavelength of 532 nm. Profiles were acquired at 2.5 second intervals with 7.5 meter resolution. Profiles extended from an altitude of 100 m to 30 km in clear air. The lidar penetrated to a maximum optical depth of ~ 4 under cloudy conditions. Our data contributed directly to the aims of the M-PACE experiment, providing calibrated optical depth and optical backscatter measurements which were not available from any other instrument.

  19. Electrodynamic response of the middle atmosphere to auroral pulsations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, R. A.; Croskey, C. L.; Hale, L. C.; Mitchell, J. D.; Barcus, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    The MAC/EPSILON observational campaign encompassed the use of two Nike Orion rocket payloads which studied the effects of auroral energetics on the middle atmosphere. While one payload was launched during the recovery phase of a moderate magnetic substorm, during fairly stable auroral conditions, the other was launched during highly active postbreakup conditions during which Pc5 pulsations were in progress. The energetic radiation of the first event was composed almost entirely of relativistic electrons below 200 keV, while that of the second was dominated by much softer electrons whose high X-ray fluxes exceeded the cosmic ray background as an ionizing source down to below 30 km.

  20. Discovery of intense gamma-ray flashes of atmospheric origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G. J.; Bhat, P. N.; Mallozzi, R.; Horack, J. M.; Koshut, T.; Kouveliotou, C.; Pendleton, G. N.; Meegan, C. A.; Wilson, R. B.; Paciesas, W. S.

    1994-01-01

    Observations have been made of a new terrestrial phenomenon: brief (approx. millisecond), intense flashes of gamma rays, observed with space-borne detectors. These flashes must originate at altitudes in the atmosphere above at least 30 km in order to be observable by orbiting detectors aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO). At least a dozen events have been detected over the past 2 years. The photon spectra from the events are very hard and are consistent with bremsstrahlung emission from energetic (MeV) electrons. The most likely origin of these high energy electrons, while speculative at this time, is a rare type of high altitude electrical discharge above thunderstorm regions.

  1. Sedimentary Rocks in Melas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a butte and several other landforms eroded into light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock in southern Melas Chasma. Melas is part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system.

    Location near: 11.8oS, 74.6oW Image width: 3.0 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Spring

  2. Sedimentary Rock in Candor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    11 February 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dozens of light- and a few dark-toned sedimentary rock layers exposed by faulting and erosion in western Candor Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system.

    Location near: 6.5oS, 77.0oW Image width: 3.0 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

  3. Retrieval of HCl and HNO3 Profiles from Ground-Based FTIR Data Using SFIT2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connor, Brian; Wood, Stephen W.; Keys, J. Gordon; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Murcray, Frank J.

    1998-01-01

    A recently developed algorithm, SFIT2, is used to assess profile information available in ground-based FTIR measurements of HCl and HNO3 and to analyze spectra recorded at Lauder, New Zealand, and Arrival Heights, Antarctica. It is shown that the altitude range of HCI retrievals may be extended by using multiple spectral lines. A preliminary analysis of a five year record of HNO3 at Lauder shows that the Pinatubo aerosol caused a large increase of HNO3 in a layer at about 20-30 km while having little effect at lower altitude.

  4. 40 CFR 86.528-78 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Shift Speed 1st to 2d gear 19 km/h (11.8 mi/h). 2d to 3d gear 33 km/h (20.5 mi/h). 3d to 4th gear 44 km... to 2d gear 30 km/h (18.6 mi/h). 2d to 3d gear 45 km/h (28.0 mi/h). 3d to 4th gear 60 km/h (37.3...

  5. 40 CFR 86.528-78 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Shift Speed 1st to 2d gear 19 km/h (11.8 mi/h). 2d to 3d gear 33 km/h (20.5 mi/h). 3d to 4th gear 44 km... to 2d gear 30 km/h (18.6 mi/h). 2d to 3d gear 45 km/h (28.0 mi/h). 3d to 4th gear 60 km/h (37.3...

  6. 40 CFR 86.528-78 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Shift Speed 1st to 2d gear 19 km/h (11.8 mi/h). 2d to 3d gear 33 km/h (20.5 mi/h). 3d to 4th gear 44 km... to 2d gear 30 km/h (18.6 mi/h). 2d to 3d gear 45 km/h (28.0 mi/h). 3d to 4th gear 60 km/h (37.3...

  7. 40 CFR 86.528-78 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Shift Speed 1st to 2d gear 19 km/h (11.8 mi/h). 2d to 3d gear 33 km/h (20.5 mi/h). 3d to 4th gear 44 km... to 2d gear 30 km/h (18.6 mi/h). 2d to 3d gear 45 km/h (28.0 mi/h). 3d to 4th gear 60 km/h (37.3...

  8. 40 CFR 86.528-78 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Shift Speed 1st to 2d gear 19 km/h (11.8 mi/h). 2d to 3d gear 33 km/h (20.5 mi/h). 3d to 4th gear 44 km... to 2d gear 30 km/h (18.6 mi/h). 2d to 3d gear 45 km/h (28.0 mi/h). 3d to 4th gear 60 km/h (37.3...

  9. MOLA Global map of surface gradients on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Absolute slopes on 30-km baselines indicate the magnitude of typical regional tilts of that scale. The Northern hemisphere is flatter than the South, and shows some linear slope breaks, for example north of Alba Patera (40N, 250E) and the Tharsis province. The major volcanos display flanks slopes of 2.5-5 degrees, comparable to Hawaiian shields. The southwest rim of the Hellas impact basin appears relatively eroded, with shallower typical slopes. A shaded relief map of the topography is overlaid is monochrome.

  10. The Black Mountain asperity - Seismic hazard of the southern San Francisco Peninsula, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, C. H.

    1985-01-01

    A slip deficit region running 75 km from Black Mountain south of Palo Alto to San Juan Battista is studied to assess earthquake hazard. If this region were ruptured in its entirety, the event would produce a M-sub-s = 6.9 earthquake. The conditional probability of this rupturing in the near future is the highest of any section of the San Andreas fault except Parkfield. This earthquake would rupture 30 km farther northwest and be about 3 times larger than that previously proposed by others (Lindh, 1983, and Sykes and Nishenko, 1984). This constitutes a greater risk to the southern San Francisco Peninsula than previously expected.

  11. Scramjet Research Activities at the Institute of Flight Propulsion of the Technische Universitaet Muenchen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, D.; Kirstein, S.; Fuhrmann, T.; Rocci Denis, S.; Hupfer, A.; Kau, H.-P.

    2009-01-01

    At the Institute of Flight Propulsion (LFA) of the Technische Universitaet Muenchen scramjet research has been carried on since the 70's. Based on the experiences gained during the last decades experimental and numerical studies on scramjet engines are currently conducted within a research training group (GRK1095) funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). The main goal of this program is to design a fixed geometry scramjet engine for a Mach 8 flight at an operating altitude of 30 km. In addition to a historical overview latest research results are presented in this paper.

  12. Multiwavelength lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols above Spitsbergen during winter 1992/93

    SciTech Connect

    Beyerle, G.; Neuber, R.; Schrems, O. ); Wittrock, F. ); Knudsen, B. )

    1994-01-01

    Using a multiwavelength lidar the authors measured aerosols from the tropopause to altitudes of 30 km in the period December 1992 to March 1993. They analyzed backscatter and depolarization measurements to infer information on aerosol size and phase. During most of this period they saw evidence of a liquid drop aerosol layer in the lower stratosphere which was of a volcanic origin. In January they observed polar stratospheric clouds on numerous occasions, and particle size was found to depend strongly on the cooling rate.

  13. A New View on Interstellar Dust - High Fidelity Studies of Interstellar Dust Analogue Tracks in Stardust Flight Spare Aerogel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Postberg F.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Bechtel, H. A.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Bugiel, S.; Burchell, M.; Burghammer, M.; Butterworth, A. L.; Cloetens, P.; Davis, A. M.; Floss, C.; Flynn, G. J.; Frank, D.; Gainsforth, Z.

    2011-01-01

    In 2000 and 2002 the Stardust Mission exposed aerogel collector panels for a total of about 200 days to the stream of interstellar grains sweeping through the solar system. The material was brought back to Earth in 2006. The goal of this work is the laboratory calibration of the collection process by shooting high speed [5 - 30km/s] interstellar dust (ISD) analogues onto Stardust aerogel flight spares. This enables an investigation into both the morphology of impact tracks as well as any structural and chemical modification of projectile and collector material. First results indicate a different ISD flux than previously assumed for the Stardust collection period.

  14. Laser phase noise compensation in long-range OFDR by using an optical fiber delay loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Fan, Xinyu; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Guangyao; Liu, Qingwen; He, Zuyuan

    2016-04-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel technique to compensate the laser phase noise in long-range OFDR by using an optical fiber delay loop, which mainly consists of a delay fiber and a frequency shifter. The delay fiber is used to shorten the optical path difference between two arms of the interferometer, and the frequency shifter works as a counter for taking the number of lightwave circulated in the loop. The preliminary experiment shows a successful compensation effect, and a 10 cm spatial resolution over 30 km measurement range is realized by using this method.

  15. Constraining Enceladus’s ice shell thickness using tidally driven Coulomb failure models of the tiger stripe fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olgin, J. G.; Smith-Konter, B. R.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2009-12-01

    The thickness of Enceladus’s ice shell, and subsequently the depth of its underlying ocean, plays an important role in determining the magnitude and orientation of tidal stresses on the surface of the satellite. The objective of this study is to attempt to constrain Enceladus’s ice shell thickness through assessment of tidally driven Coulomb failure of the tiger stripe fractures, probable sources of tectonic activity that reside along Enceladus’s south polar region. Using the SatStress computational model and assuming a global ocean and uniform ice shell thickness, we compare tidal stresses resulting from a suite of models of variable ice shell thickness (6 km, 24 km, 30 km, 40 km, 50 km, 75 km, and 90 km). Evaluation of the Love numbers for each model (l2, h2 and k2) suggest that ice shell thicknesses greater than a few 10s of km are not capable of generating stress conditions conducive to fault failure on Enceladus. We further investigate the feasibility of tiger stripe failure by applying a Coulomb failure model to the resulting tidal stresses. Based on previous work, we have shown that a 24 km thick ice shell model is capable of generating stress conditions that promote Coulomb failure and strike-slip displacements of ~0.4 m along some portions of the tiger stripe system, assuming a coefficient of friction of 0.2. We compare this reference model to the 6 km, 30 km, 40 km, 50 km, 75 km, and 90 km ice shell models and find that thin to moderate ice shell models do indeed support fault failure, while thick ice shell models do not. Models based on a 6 km ice shell thickness can yield strike-slip displacements on the order of 1 m along all segments of the tiger stripe system. Models based on a 30 km ice shell thickness can also generate strike-slip displacements (~0.1 m), however only on isolated fault segments. Finally, models based on a 40 km ice shell thickness or greater cannot generate stresses capable of Coulomb failure along any of the tiger stripe

  16. Melting and differentiation in Venus with a cold start: A mechanism of the thin crust formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomatov, Viatcheslav S.; Stevenson, David J.

    1992-12-01

    Recent works argue that the venusian crust is thin: less than 10-30 km. However, any convective model of Venus unavoidably predicts melting and a fast growth of the basaltic crust, up to its maximum thickness of about 70 km limited, by the gabbro-eclogite phase transition. The crust is highly buoyant due to both its composition and temperature and it is problematic to find a mechanism providing its effective recycling and thinning in the absence of plate tectonics. There are different ways to solve this contradiction. This study suggests that a thin crust can be produced during the entire evolution of Venus if Venus avoided giant impacts.

  17. The Brownell and Ness County (1894) L6 chondrites - Further sorting-out of Ness County meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, A. E.; Read, W. F.

    1984-01-01

    Brownell is a new moderately shocked L6 chondrite from Ness County, KS, that is petrologically distinct from the other L6 chondrites from Ness County. These latter meteorites, Wellmanville, Franklinville, and Ness County (1894), are very similar in their olivine and low-Ca pyroxene compositional distributions, kamacite Co contents, modal abundances of metallic Fe, Ni, and presence of martensitic metallic Fe, Ni (about 14 wt pct Ni). However, their silicates indicate that they have been shocked to different extents. It is suggested that all three probably represent a single heterogeneously-shocked L6 fragmental breccia that fell over a large area over 30 km in length.

  18. Diurnal variation of stratospheric chlorine monoxide - A critical test of chlorine chemistry in the ozone layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, P. M.; De Zafra, R.; Parrish, A.; Barrett, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Ground-based observations of a mm-wave spectral line at 278 GHz have yielded stratospheric chlorine monoxide column density diurnal variation records which indicate that the mixing ratio and column density of this compound above 30 km are about 20 percent lower than model predictions based on 2.1 parts/billion of total stratospheric chlorine. The observed day-to-night variation is, however, in good agreement with recent model predictions, both confirming the existence of a nighttime reservoir for chlorine and verifying the predicted general rate of its storage and retrieval.

  19. The Chacana caldera complex in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Minard L.; Mothes, Patricia A.

    2008-10-01

    The Chacana caldera, located immediately east of Quito, capital of Ecuador, forms the most-northern edifice of Ecuadorõs rhyolite province. It is a 50X30 km Pleistocene structure that has remained active into historic times. Vitrophyres, welded tuffs, and ignimbrites of rhyolitic and dacitic composition constitute the outer flanks, meantime syngenetic breccias and tuffs, capped later by extensive dacite lava flows and basin sediments, filled the calderaõs depression. A notable resurgence occurred that lifted quiet-water sediments to over 4000 m in elevation. The area has numerous hot springs, and little seismic activity.

  20. The Present and Future of Occultation Surveys of the Outer Solar System: From TAOS to Whipple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Federica; Alcock, C.; Murray, S.; Werner, M.; TAOS Collaboration

    2009-09-01

    We have analyzed new data from the TAOS occultation survey and set new, sensitive upper limits to the number density of KBOs of diameter D<30 km, and of objects in Sedna-like orbits. We present the first constraints on models of the formation and evolution of the Solar System based on occultation survey data. We show what future occultation programs must be able to do in order to survey comprehensively the populations of small bodies in the outer solar system, and describe a Discovery class mission, Whipple, that can achieve these goals.

  1. New evidence for magmatic intrusion beneath the Rio Grande rift, New Mexico.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Towle, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of the geomagnetic variation field across the Rio Grande rift has identified two concentrations of telluric current flow beneath the rift caused by channeling of telluric currents in electrically conductive structures in the crust and upper mantle. A shallow conductor nearly coincides with a very strong reflection in a high-resoltuion seismic-reflection profile across the central Rio Grande graben which has been attributed to a lens at mid-crustal depth. The deep (more than 30 km) conductor is 200 km wide and may indicate anomalously high temperatures and, by inference, a thinning of the lithosphere beneath the rift.-Authors

  2. Two-point attack on the two nonorthogonal states QKD protocol over a fiber optic channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li; Wu, Ling-An

    2005-01-01

    We suggest here a two-point eavesdropping strategy aimed at a two nonorthogonal states protocol of quantum key distribution over a fiber-optic channel. When the single-photon sources and detectors of Alice, Bob and the two Eve are all ideal, the two-point attack can break the two nonorthogonal states protocol if the distance between Alice and Bob is longer than 30 km. However, Bennett's original multi-photon protocol is secure against both two-point and beam splitting attacks, though the protocol is realized with a weak pulsed source.

  3. Uppermantle anisotropy and the oceanic lithosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Regan, J.

    1983-01-01

    Published Rayleigh and Love wave phase and group velocity data have been inverted taking into account sphericity, anelastic dispersion, and transverse isotropy. For a PREM-type modular parameterization, the thickness of the high velocity mantle seismic lithosphere (LID) varies in thickness from about 30 km for young ocean to about 50 km for old ocean, much less than previous estimates based on isotropic inversion of similar data. This LID thickness is comparable to the elastic or flexural thickness found from studies of seamount loading and flexure at trenches, suggesting that the thickness of the lithosphere may be controlled by mineralogy, composition, or crystal orientation rather than by temperature alone.

  4. Present concept on current water protection and remediation activities for the areas contaminated by the 1986 Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Voitsekhovitch, O; Prister, B; Nasvit, O; Los, I; Berkovski, V

    1996-07-01

    The results of radiation monitoring data and migration pathway analysis of water bodies within areas affected by the 1986 Chernobyl accident provide a unique opportunity for decision-makers working in other extensively contaminated regions to optimize their approaches to surface and groundwater protection. Most engineering measures within the Chernobyl 30-km exclusion zone were focused on preventing secondary contamination of surface and groundwater from entering the Pripyat River and the Kiev Reservoir. However, implementation of these measures required huge financial and human resources. Therefore, lessons about post-accidental water protection activities can be learned from the Chernobyl example. PMID:8655324

  5. NGC 2242 - A newly discovered planetary nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maehara, H.; Okamura, S.; Noguchi, T.; He, X. T.; Liu, J. Y.; Huang, Y. W.; Feng, X.-C.

    1987-05-01

    Photometric and spectroscopic analyses are made for the object NGC 2242, which was detected in a survey of emission-line galaxies by Liu et al. (1986). Luminosity and color distributions and a small heliocentric velocity (-30 km s-1) are all inconsistent with previous classifications as a galaxy. NGC 2242 is probably a planetary nebula located at ≡2 kpc from the sun and at ≡500 pc above the galactic plane. Characteristics and physical parameters of NGC 2242 are discussed in some detail.

  6. Design of a three-dimensional site-scale model for the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wittwer, C.S.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Chornack, M.P.; Flint, A.L.; Lewis, B.D.; Spengler, R.W.; Flint, L.E.; Rautman, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    A three-dimensional model of moisture flow within the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being developed. This site-scale model covers an area of about 30 km{sup 2} and is bounded by major faults to the east and west. A detailed numerical grid has been developed based on location of boreholes, different infiltration zones, hydrogeological units and their outcrops, major faults, and water level data. Different maps, such as contour maps and isopachs maps, are presented for the different infiltration zones, and for the base of the Tiva Canyon, the Paintbrush, and the Topopah Spring hydrogeological units.

  7. Design of a three-dimensional site scale model for the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wittwer, C.S.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Chornack, M.P.; Flint, A.L.; Lewis, B.D.; Spengler, R.W.; Flint, L.E.; Rautman, C.A.

    1992-10-01

    This paper discusses a three-dimensional model of moisture flow within the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain which is being developed. The site-scale model covers an area of about 30 km{sup 2} and is bounded by major faults to the east and west. A detailed numerical grid has been developed based on locations of boreholes, different infiltration zones, hydrogeological units and their outcrops, major faults, and water level data. Different maps, such as contour maps and isopachs maps, are presented for the different infiltration zones, and for the base of the Tiva Canyon, the Paintbrush, and the Topopah Spring hydrogeological units.

  8. Titan's Elusive Lakes? Properties and Context of Dark Spots in Cassini TA Radar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenz, R. D.; Elachi, C.; Stiles, B.; West, R.; Janssen, M.; Lopes, R.; Stofan, E.; Paganelli, F.; Wood, C.; Kirk, R.

    2005-01-01

    Titan's atmospheric methane abundance suggests the likelihood of a surface reservoir of methane and a surface sink for its photochemical products, which might also be predominantly liquid. Although large expanses of obvious hydrocarbon seas have not been unambiguously observed, a number of rather radar-dark spots up to approximately 30 km across are observed in the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data acquired during the Cassini TA encounter on October 26th 2004. Here we review the properties and setting of these dark spots to explore whether these may be hydrocarbon lakes.

  9. In-Flight Performance of the TES Loop Heat Pipe Rejection System: Seven Years in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Jose I.; Na-Nakornpanom, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) is an infrared, high spectral resolution Fourier transform spectrometer with a 3.3 to 15.4 micron wavelength coverage. TES is a scanning instrument intended for determining the chemical state of the Earth's lower atmosphere (troposphere) from the surface to 30+ km. TES produces vertical profiles of important pollutant and greenhouse gases such as carbon monoxide, ozone, methane, and water vapor on a global scale every other day. TES was launched into orbit onboard NASA's earth Observing System Aura spacecraft on July 15, 2004 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California.

  10. Alloplastic adjuncts in breast reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Cabalag, Miguel S.; Rostek, Marie; Miller, George S.; Chae, Michael P.; Quinn, Tam; Rozen, Warren M.

    2016-01-01

    Background There has been an increasing role of acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) and synthetic meshes in both single- and two-stage implant/expander breast reconstruction. Numerous alloplastic adjuncts exist, and these vary in material type, processing, storage, surgical preparation, level of sterility, available sizes and cost. However, there is little published data on most, posing a significant challenge to the reconstructive surgeon trying to compare and select the most suitable product. The aims of this systematic review were to identify, summarize and evaluate the outcomes of studies describing the use of alloplastic adjuncts for post-mastectomy breast reconstruction. The secondary aims were to determine their cost-effectiveness and analyze outcomes in patients who also underwent radiotherapy. Methods Using the PRSIMA 2009 statement, a systematic review was conducted to find articles reporting on the outcomes on the use of alloplastic adjuncts in post-mastectomy breast reconstruction. Multiple databases were searched independently by three authors (Cabalag MS, Miller GS and Chae MP), including: Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to present), Embase (1980 to 2015), PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Results Current published literature on available alloplastic adjuncts are predominantly centered on ADMs, both allogeneic and xenogeneic, with few outcome studies available for synthetic meshes. Outcomes on the 89 articles, which met the inclusion criteria, were summarized and analyzed. The reported outcomes on alloplastic adjunct-assisted breast reconstruction were varied, with most data available on the use of ADMs, particularly AlloDerm® (LifeCell, Branchburg, New Jersey, USA). The use of ADMs in single-stage direct-to-implant breast reconstruction resulted in lower complication rates (infection, seroma, implant loss and late revision), and was more cost effective when compared to non-ADM, two-stage reconstruction. The majority of studies demonstrated

  11. The Optical Spectrum of SrOH Re-Visited Zeeman Effect, High-Resolution Spectroscopy and Franck-Condon Factors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Trung; Kokkin, Damian L.; Steimle, Timothy; Kozyryev, Ivan; Doyle, John M.

    2015-06-01

    Motivated by a diverse range of applications in physics and chemistry, currently there is great interest in the cooling of molecules to very low temperatures (≤1 mK). Direct laser cooling has been previously demonstrated for the diatomic radicals SrF, YO, and CaF, and most recently a three-dimensional magneto-optical trap (MOT) of SrF molecules was achieved. To determine the possibility of laser cooling for polyatomic molecules containing three or more atoms, detailed information is required about their Franck-Condon factors (FCFs) for emission from the excited states of interest. Here we report on the high-resolution laser excitation spectra, recorded field-free and in the presence of a static magnetic field, and on the dispersed fluorescence (DF) spectra for the A^2Π1/2 ← X^2σ^+ and B^2σ^+ ← X ^2σ^+ electronic transitions of SrOH. The DF spectra were analyzed to precisely determine FCFs and compared with values predicted using a normal coordinate GF matrix approach. The recorded Zeeman spectra were analyzed to determine the magnetic moments. Implication for proposed laser cooling and trapping experiments for SrOH will be presented. E.S. Shuman, J.F. Barry and D. DeMille, Nature 467, 820 (2010) J.F. Barry, E.S. Shuman, E.B. Norrgard and D. DeMille, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 103002 (2012) M.T. Hummon, M. Yeo, B.K. Stuhl, A.L. Collopy, Y. Xia, and J. Ye, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 143001 (2013) M. Yeo, M.T. Hummon, A.L. Collopy, B. Yan, B. Hemmerling, E. Chae, J.M. Doyle, and J. Ye, arXiv:1501.04683 (2015) V. Zhelyazkova, A. Cournol, T.E. Wall, A. Matsushima, J.J. Hudson, E.A. Hinds, M.R. Tarbutt, and B.E. Sauer, Phys. Rev. A 89, 053416 (2014) J.F. Barry, D.J. McCarron, E.B. Norrgard, M.H. Steinecker and D. DeMille, Nature 512, 286 (2014) D.J. McCarron, E.B. Norrgard, M.H. Steinecker and D. DeMille, arXiv:1412.8220 (2014)

  12. Vibronic Spectroscopy of Hetero Dihalo-Benzyl Radicals Generated by Corona Discharge : Jet-Cooled Chlorofluorobenzyl Radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Young; Lee, Sang

    2015-06-01

    .~Phys. 136, 174306 (2012). S.~Y.~Chae, Y.~W.~Yoon, and S.~K.~Lee, Chem.~Phys.~Lett. 612, 134 (2014).

  13. Tiny Ultraviolet Polarimeter for Earth Stratosphere from Space Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevodovskyi, P. V.; Morozhenko, O. V.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Ivakhiv, O.; Geraimchuk, M.; Zbrutskyi, O.

    2015-09-01

    One of the reasons for climate change (i.e., stratospheric ozone concentrations) is connected with the variations in optical thickness of aerosols in the upper sphere of the atmosphere (at altitudes over 30 km). Therefore, aerosol and gas components of the atmosphere are crucial in the study of the ultraviolet (UV) radiation passing upon the Earth. Moreover, a scrupulous study of aerosol components of the Earth atmosphere at an altitude of 30 km (i.e., stratospheric aerosol), such as the size of particles, the real part of refractive index, optical thickness and its horizontal structure, concentration of ozone or the upper border of the stratospheric ozone layer is an important task in the research of the Earth climate change. At present, the Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) of Ukraine, the National Technical University of Ukraine "KPI"and the Lviv Polytechnic National University are engaged in the development of methodologies for the study of stratospheric aerosol by means of ultraviolet polarimeter using a microsatellite. So fare, there has been created a sample of a tiny ultraviolet polarimeter (UVP) which is considered to be a basic model for carrying out space experiments regarding the impact of the changes in stratospheric aerosols on both global and local climate.

  14. Heat flow and thermal processes in the Jornada delMuerto, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiter, M.

    1985-01-01

    Most heat flow data in rifts are uncertain largely because of hydrologic disturbances in regions of extensive fracturing. Estimates of heat flow in deep petroleum tests within a large basin of the Rio Grande rift, which has suffered little syn-rift fracturing, may begin to provide clearer insight into the relationships between high heat flow and crustal thinning processes. The Jornada del Muerto is a large basin located in the Rio Grande rift of south central New Mexico. The region of interest within the Jornada del Muerto is centered about 30 km east of the town of Truth or Consequences, and is approximately 60 km north-south by 30 km east-west. High heat flows are estimated for the region. Values increase from about 90 mWm(-2) in the northern part of the study area to about 125 mWm(-2) in the southern part. These high heat flows are rather enigmatic because in the immediate vicinities of the sites there is little evidence of Cenozoic volcanism or syn-rift extensional tectonics. It is suggested that the geothermal anomaly in the southern Jornada del Muerto (approx. 125 to approx. 95 mWm(-2) results from some type of mass movement-heat transfer mechanism operating in the crust just below the elastic layer. This conclusion is consistent with the geologic and geophysical data which describe a thin crust, apparently devoid of features indicative of extensional-tectonics in the upper part of the lastic crust.

  15. Implications of extinction due to meteoritic smoke in the upper stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neely, Ryan R., III; English, Jason M.; Toon, Owen B.; Solomon, Susan; Mills, Michael; Thayer, Jeffery P.

    2011-12-01

    Recent optical observations of aerosols in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere show significant amounts of extinction at altitudes above about 40 km where the stratospheric sulfate aerosol layer ends. Recent modeling of this region reveals that meteoritic smoke settling from the mesosphere and its interaction with the upper part of the sulfate aerosol layer is the origin of the observed extinction. Extinction in this region has major implications for the interpretation and analysis of several kinds of aerosol data (satellite and lidar). We compare observations from the SAGE II satellite and from NOAA's lidar located at Mauna Loa, Hawaii to extinction profiles derived from the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) coupled with the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA). Our results show that a major source of extinction exists in the region above about 30 km that must be addressed by all remote sensing instruments that have traditionally used the stratosphere above about 30 km as an aerosol free region to estimate the molecular component of their total extinction. It is also shown that meteoritic smoke not only contributes to but also becomes the dominant source of aerosol extinction above 35 km and poleward of 30 degrees in latitude, as well as above 40 km in the tropics. After addressing the concerns described here, current and past observations of this region could be reanalyzed to further our understanding of meteoritic dust in the upper stratosphere.

  16. Development and validation of satellite based estimates of surface visibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, J.; Pierce, R. B.; Lenzen, A.

    2015-10-01

    A satellite based surface visibility retrieval has been developed using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements as a proxy for Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) data from the next generation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES-R). The retrieval uses a multiple linear regression approach to relate satellite aerosol optical depth, fog/low cloud probability and thickness retrievals, and meteorological variables from numerical weather prediction forecasts to National Weather Service Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) surface visibility measurements. Validation using independent ASOS measurements shows that the GOES-R ABI surface visibility retrieval (V) has an overall success rate of 64.5% for classifying Clear (V ≥ 30 km), Moderate (10 km ≤ V < 30 km), Low (2 km ≤ V < 10 km) and Poor (V < 2 km) visibilities and shows the most skill during June through September, when Heidke skill scores are between 0.2 and 0.4. We demonstrate that the aerosol (clear sky) component of the GOES-R ABI visibility retrieval can be used to augment measurements from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and National Park Service (NPS) Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network, and provide useful information to the regional planning offices responsible for developing mitigation strategies required under the EPA's Regional Haze Rule, particularly during regional haze events associated with smoke from wildfires.

  17. Preliminary validation of refractivity from a new radio occultation sounder GNOS/FY-3C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, M.; Zhang, P.; Yang, G. L.; Bi, Y. M.; Liu, Y.; Bai, W. H.; Meng, X. G.; Du, Q. F.; Sun, Y. Q.

    2015-09-01

    As a new member of space-based radio occultation sounder, the GNOS (Global Navigation Satellite System Occultation Sounder) mounted on FY-3C has been carrying out the atmospheric sounding since 23 September 2013. GNOS takes a daily measurement up to 800 times with GPS (Global Position System) and Chinese BDS (BeiDou navigation satellite) signals. The refractivity profiles from GNOS are compared with the co-located ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) analyses in this paper. Bias and standard deviation have being calculated as the function of altitude. The mean bias is about 0.2 % from the near surface to 35 km. The average standard deviation is within 2 % while it is down to about 1 % in the range 5-30 km where best soundings are usually made. To evaluate the performance of GNOS, COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate) and GRAS/METOP-A (GNSS Receiver for Atmospheric Sounding) data are also compared to ECMWF analyses as the reference. The results show that GNOS/FY-3C meets the requirements of the design well. It possesses a sounding capability similar to COSMIC and GRAS in the vertical range of 0-30 km, though it needs improvement in higher altitude. Generally, it provides a new data source for global NWP (numerical weather prediction) community.

  18. The offshore East African Rift System: Structural framework at the toe of a juvenile rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, Dieter; Jokat, Wilfried; Ladage, Stefan; Stollhofen, Harald; Klimke, Jennifer; Lutz, Ruediger; Mahanjane, Estevão. Stefane; Ehrhardt, Axel; Schreckenberger, Bernd

    2015-10-01

    The Cenozoic East African Rift System (EARS) extends from the Red Sea to Mozambique. Here we use seismic reflection and bathymetric data to investigate the tectonic evolution of the offshore branch of the EARS. The data indicate multiple and time transgressive neotectonic deformations along ~800 km of the continental margin of northern Mozambique. We observe a transition from a mature rift basin in the north to a juvenile fault zone in the south. The respective timing of deformation is derived from detailed seismic stratigraphy. In the north, a ~30 km wide and more than 150 km long, N-S striking symmetric graben initiated as half-graben in the late Miocene. Extension accelerated in the Pliocene, causing a continuous conjugate border fault and symmetric rift graben. Coevally, the rift started to propagate southward, which resulted in a present-day ~30 km wide half-graben, approximately 200 km farther south. Since the Pleistocene, the rift has continued to propagate another ~300 km, where the incipient rift is reflected by subrecent small-scale normal faulting. Estimates of the overall brittle extension of the matured rift range between 5 and 12 km, with an along-strike southward decrease of the extension rate. The offshore portion of the EARS evolves magma poor, similar to the onshore western branch. The structural evolution of the offshore EARS is suggested to be related to and controlled by differing inherited lithospheric fabrics. Preexisting fabrics may not only guide and focus extension but also control rift architecture.

  19. Technical evaluation of proposed Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, R.; Glukhov, A.; Markowski, F.

    1996-06-01

    This technical report is a comprehensive evaluation of the proposal by the Ukrainian State Committee on Nuclear Power Utilization to create a central facility for radioactive waste (not spent fuel) processing. The central facility is intended to process liquid and solid radioactive wastes generated from all of the Ukrainian nuclear power plants and the waste generated as a result of Chernobyl 1, 2 and 3 decommissioning efforts. In addition, this report provides general information on the quantity and total activity of radioactive waste in the 30-km Zone and the Sarcophagus from the Chernobyl accident. Processing options are described that may ultimately be used in the long-term disposal of selected 30-km Zone and Sarcophagus wastes. A detailed report on the issues concerning the construction of a Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility (CRWPF) from the Ukrainian Scientific Research and Design institute for Industrial Technology was obtained and incorporated into this report. This report outlines various processing options, their associated costs and construction schedules, which can be applied to solving the operating and decommissioning radioactive waste management problems in Ukraine. The costs and schedules are best estimates based upon the most current US industry practice and vendor information. This report focuses primarily on the handling and processing of what is defined in the US as low-level radioactive wastes.

  20. Resolution of the Scripps/NOAA Marine Gravity Field from satellite altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Karen M.

    The July 1995 declassification of the entire Geosat GM satellite altimeter data set enabled a joint Scripps/NOAA effort to compute a new (version 7.2) marine gravity field on a 2-minute grid. This gravity field covers the world's oceans between 72°N and 72°S, and is derived from a combination of ERS-1 and Geosat GM and ERM data. An earlier NOAA Geosat-only gravity field solution was confined to the southern latitudes because the 1992 declassification was limited to GM data south of 30°S. A simple coherence analysis between accurately-navigated ship gravity profiles and comparable gravity profiles obtained from the gravity grids reveals that the Scripps/NOAA gravity field is coherent with ship gravity down to ˜≥ 23-30 km. This slight increase in resolution over the previous NOAA Geosat-only gravity field (short-wavelength resolution of ˜26-30 km) implies that the increased spatial coverage provided by the ERS-I altimeter, when combined with Geosat, improves the solution. Coherence analyses between satellite gravity and ship topography, and ship gravity and ship topography, show that even shorter wavelength gravity anomalies (˜13 km) are present in sea-surface measurements made by ship. Even so, the Scripps/NOAA marine gravity field does an excellent job of resolving most of the short-wavelength gravity anomalies covering the world’s oceans.

  1. Aftershocks of the western Argentina (Caucete) earthquake of 23 November 1977: some tectonic implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, C.J.; Bollinger, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    An aftershock survey, using a network of eight portable and two permanent seismographs, was conducted for the western Argentina (Caucete) earthquake (MS 7.3) of November 23, 1977. Monitoring began December 6, almost 2 weeks after the main shock and continued for 11 days. The data set includes 185 aftershock hypocenters that range in the depth from near surface to more than 30 km. The spatial distribution of those events occupied a volume of about 100 km long ??50 km wide ??30 km thick. The volumnar nature of the aftershock distribution is interpreted to be a result of a bimodal distribution of foci that define east- and west-dipping planar zones. Efforts to select which of those zones was associated with the causal faulting include special attention to the determination of the mainshock focal depth and dislocation theory modeling of the coseismic surface deformation in the epicentral region. Our focal depth (25-35 km) and modeling studies lead us to prefer an east-dipping plane as causal. A previous interpretation by other investigators used a shallower focal depth (17 km) and similar modeling calculations in choosing a west-dipping plane. Our selection of the east-dipping plane is physically more appealing because it places fault initiation at the base of the crustal seismogenic layer (rather than in the middle of that layer) which requires fault propagation to be updip (rather than downdip). ?? 1988.

  2. Shock Radiation Tests for Saturn and Uranus Entry Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruden, Brett A.; Bogdanoff, David W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a test series in the Electric Arc Shock Tube at NASA Ames Research Center with the objective of quantifying shock-layer radiative heating magnitudes for future probe entries into Saturn and Uranus atmospheres. Normal shock waves are measured in Hydrogen/Helium mixtures (89:11 by mole) at freestream pressures between 13-66 Pa (0.1-0.5 Torr) and velocities from 20-30 km/s. No shock layer radiation is detected below 25 km/s, a finding consistent with predictions for Uranus entries. Between 25-30 km/s, radiance is quantified from the Vacuum Ultraviolet through Near Infrared, with focus on the Lyman-alpha and Balmer series lines of Hydrogen. Shock profiles are analyzed for electron number density and electronic state distribution. The shocks do not equilibrate over several cm, and distributions are demonstrated to be non-Boltzmann. Radiation data are compared to simulations of Decadal survey entries for Saturn and shown to be significantly lower than predicted with the Boltzmann radiation model.

  3. Vertical profiles of dust and ozone in the Martian atmosphere deduced from solar occultation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blamont, J. E.; Chassefiere, E.; Goutail, J. P.; Mege, B.; Nunes-Pinharanda, M.; Souchon, G.; Krasnopolsky, V. A.; Krysko, A. A.; Moroz, V. I.

    1991-02-01

    The vertical distribution of the ozone content and of the aerosols in the Martian atmosphere at the equinox and near the equator was studied with the aid of a biaxial pointing device, a microprocessor-controlled flat mirror of elliptical shape. An upper limit of 5 x 10 to the 7th mol/cu cm for ozone was obtained above an altitude of 30 km. For the aerosols, a semiquantitative distribution has been obtained between 10 and 50 km of altitude. The scale height is nearly equal to the atmospheric scale height in the 10-20 km region where mixing seems to predominate, and falls rapidly to a thickness of about 2 km at 30 km. In 10 percent of the occultations, a stratified haze has been detected between 40 and 50 km. The particle radius of cloud constituents is estimated and optical thickness per kilometer of these hazes at peak extinction are approximated. An eddy diffusion coefficient and a mixing ratio are estimated for clouds assumed to be at equilibrium.

  4. Atmosphere sounding by GPS radio occultation: First results from TanDEM-X and comparison with TerraSAR-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zus, Florian; Grunwaldt, Ludwig; Heise, Stefan; Michalak, Grzegorz; Schmidt, Torsten; Wickert, Jens

    2014-01-01

    On 21 June 2010 the TerraSAR-X satellite was joined by the TanDEM-X satellite. A Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) experiment using the twin satellites has been carried out to estimate the precision of GPS atmospheric soundings. For the Day Of Year (DOY) 330-336, 2011, we analyze phase and amplitude data recorded by GPS receivers separated by a few hundred meters in a low earth orbit and derive collocated atmospheric refractivity profiles. In the altitude range 10-20 km the standard deviation between TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X refractivity does not exceed 0.15%. The standard deviation is rapidly increasing for lower and higher altitudes; close to the surface and at an altitude of 30 km the standard deviation reaches 0.8% and 0.5%, respectively. Systematic deviations between TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X refractivity in the considered altitude range (0-30 km) are negligible. The results confirm the anticipated high precision of the GPS RO technique. However, the difference in the retrieved refractivity in the lower troposphere for different Open Loop (OL) signal tracking parameters, altered onboard TanDEM-X for DOY 49-55, 2012, calls for an in depth analysis. At the moment we can not exclude that a potential bias in the OL Doppler model introduces a bias in our retrieved refractivity at altitudes <8 km.

  5. Influences of Turbulent Reentry Plasma Sheath on Wave Scattering and Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhiwei; Bao, Weimin; Li, Xiaoping; Shi, Lei; Liu, Donglin

    2016-06-01

    The randomness of turbulent reentry plasma sheaths can affect the propagation and scattering properties of electromagnetic waves. This paper developed algorithms to estimate the influences. With the algorithms and typical reentry data, influences of GPS frequency and Ka frequency are studied respectively. Results show that, in terms of wave scattering, the scattering loss caused by the randomness of the turbulent plasma sheath increases with the increase of the ensemble average electron density, ensemble average collision frequency, electron density fluctuation and turbulence integral scale respectively. Also the scattering loss is much smaller than the dielectric loss. The scattering loss of Ka frequency is much less than that of the GPS frequency. In terms of wave propagation, the randomness arouses the fluctuations of amplitude and phase of waves. The fluctuations change with altitudes that when the altitude is below 30 km, fluctuations increase with altitude increasing, and when the altitude is above 30 km, fluctuations decrease with altitude increasing. The fluctuations of GPS frequency are strong enough to affect the tracking, telemetry, and command at appropriate conditions, while the fluctuations of Ka frequency are much more feeble. This suggests that the Ka frequency suffers less influences of the randomness of a turbulent plasma sheath. supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2014CB340205) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61301173 and 61473228)

  6. Shear wave velocity structure of the lower crust in southern Africa: Evidence for compositional heterogeneity within Archaean and Proterozoic terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kgaswane, Eldridge M.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Juliã, Jordi; Dirks, Paul H. G. M.; Durrheim, Raymond J.; Pasyanos, Michael E.

    2009-12-01

    The nature of the lower crust across the southern African shield has been investigated by jointly inverting receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocities for 89 broadband seismic stations located in Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe. For large parts of both Archaean and Proterozoic terrains, the velocity models obtained from the inversions show shear wave velocities ≥4.0 km/s below ˜20-30 km depth, indicating a predominantly mafic lower crust. However, for much of the Kimberley terrain and adjacent parts of the Kheis Province and Witwatersrand terrain in South Africa, as well as for the western part of the Tokwe terrain in Zimbabwe, shear wave velocities of ≤3.9 km/s are found below ˜20-30 km depth, indicating an intermediate-to-felsic lower crust. The areas of intermediate-to-felsic lower crust in South Africa coincide with regions where Ventersdorp rocks have been preserved, suggesting that the more evolved composition of the lower crust may have resulted from crustal reworking and extension during the Ventersdorp tectonomagmatic event at c. 2.7 Ga.

  7. Model testing using Chernobyl data: III. Atmospheric resuspension of radionuclides in Ukrainian regions impacted by Chernobyl fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Garger, E.K.; Hoffman, F.O.; Miller, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    The {open_quotes}Resuspension{close_quotes} scenario is designed to test models for atmospheric resuspension of radionuclides from contaminated soils. Resuspension can be a secondary source of contamination after a release has stopped, as well as a source of contamination for people and areas not exposed to the original release. The test scenario describes three exposure situations: (1) locations within the highly contaminated 30-km zone at Chernobyl, where exposures to resuspended material are probably dominated by local processes; (2) an urban area (Kiev) outside the 30-km zone, where local processes include extensive vehicular traffic; and (3) a location 40 to 60 km west of the Chernobyl reactor, where upwind sources of contamination are important. Input data include characteristics of the {sup 137}Cs ground contamination around specific sites, climatological data for the sites, characteristics of the terrain and topography, and locations of the sampling sites. Predictions are requested for average air concentrations of {sup 137}Cs at specified locations due to resuspension of Chernobyl fallout and for specified resuspension factors and rates. Test data (field measurements) are available for all endpoints. 9 refs., 4 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. The mean ozone distribution from several series of rocket sounding to 52 km at latitudes from 58 deg S to 64 deg N

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    The results of 21 rocket flights of Arcas optical ozonesondes were combined to produce estimates of the mean ozone distribution and its variability; these estimates apply to a broad range of latitudes. The flights were launched from sites near the equator to 58 S and to 64 N, in the years from 1965 to 1971. The local-noon mean ozone densities in molecules/cubic centimeter are 7.0 to the 10th power at 50 km, 6.7 x 10 to the 11th power at 40 km, 3.1 x 10 to the 12th power at 30 km, and 3.1 x 10 to the 12th power at 20 km. The range of observed densities is about + or - 30 percent of the mean value at 50 km; + or 40 percent at 40 km; + or - 40 percent at 30 km; and +200 percent, -66 percent at 20 km. The variabilities in this set of observations are much smaller than those indicated by previous measurements.

  9. Regional Characterization of Tokyo Metropolitan area using a highly-dense seismic network (MeSO-net)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Naoshi; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Panayotopoulos, Yannis; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Ishibe, Takeo; Kimura, Hisanori; Honda, Ryou

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a dense seismic network, MeSO-net (Metropolitan Seismic Observation network), which consists of about 300 seismic stations, since 2007 in the greater Tokyo urban region(Hirata et al., 2009). Using MeSO-net data, we obtain P- and S- wave velocity tomograms (Nakagawa et al., 2010) and Qp, Qs tomograms (Panayotopoulos et al., 2014) which show a clear image of Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) and PAcific Plate (PAP). A depth to the top of PSP, 20 to 30 km beneath northern part of Tokyo bay, is about 10 km shallower than previous estimates based on the hypocenter distribution (Ishida, 1992). Based on elastic wave velocities of rocks and minerals, we constructed a petrologic model. The Vp steps in subducting Izu forearc crust occurs at a depth of 30km (blueschist or greenschist to garnet amphibolite transformation) and a depth of 50km (garnet amphibolite to eclogite transformation). Both temperatures are estimated to be 500 and 600 degree C, respectively. The high Vp/Vs anomaly (>1.9) implies large amounts of fluid H2O released by garnet amphibolite to eclogite dehydration reactions. This study is supported by MEXT Japan under the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters.

  10. Venus - Crater distributions at low northern latitudes and in the southern hemisphere from new Arecibo observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, D. B.; Stacy, N. J. S.; Hine, A. A.

    1990-01-01

    Arecibo high resolution radar data covering approximately 23 percent of the surface of Venus were analyzed for circular features with crater-like appearances. Overlapping Venera 15/16 radar data, with its more normal to the surface viewing geometry, was used to verify crater diameters measured from the Arecibo data. A comparison of the diameter-frequency distribution of the possible impact features in the Arecibo data for northern latitudes south of 40 deg N and for the southern hemisphere with the distribution from the Venera 15/16 data for the northernmost quarter of the planet indicated similar distributions for large crater-like features with diameters greater than approximately 30 km, but a deficiency of smaller craters in the Arecibo data. One possible process responsible for the density differences of small craters is a difference in the rate of volcanic resurfacing. An increase in the resurfacing rate of approximately 50 percent would explain the lower density of small craters in the area covered by the Arecibo data compared with the Venera data, but would not account for the differences being confined to the less than 30 km crater diameter range.

  11. Cancer Risk in Adult Residents near Nuclear Power Plants in Korea - A Cohort Study of 1992-2010

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhong Min

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated cancer risk for adult residents near Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) in Korea through a valid prospective cohort study during 1992-2010. The study cohort was composed of 11,367 adults living within a five km radius from the NPPs for the exposed and 24,809 adults for the non-exposed or reference cohort set at two different levels of proximity; 5-30 km radius and more than 30 km radius away from NPPs. In 303,542.5 person-years of follow-up, a total of 2,298 cancer cases of all sites, or 1,377 radio-inducible cancers diagnosed during 1992-2008 were ascertained. Multiple adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. There were no epidemiological evidence for increased risk of cancer due to radiation from NPPs. Radiological study results or surveillance data of radiation doses around NPPs could be well documented for risk estimation of radio-inducible cancers, instead of epidemiological study results of the long-time required. Continuous surveillance of quantitative measures of dose levels around NPPs and radiation exposures to the residents is warranted. PMID:22969244

  12. Delayed production of sulfuric acid condensation nuclei in the polar stratosphere from El Chichon volcanic vapors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, D. J.; Rosen, J. M.; Gringel, W.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that measurements of the vertical profiles of atmospheric condensation nuclei (CN) have been conducted since 1973. Studies with a new instrument revealed that the CN concentration undergoes a remarkable annual variation in the 30-km region characterized by a large increase in the late winter/early spring period with a subsequent decay during the remainder of the year. The event particles are observed to be volatile at 150 C, suggesting a sulfuric acid-water composition similar to that found in the normal 20 km aerosol layer. The development of about 10 to the 7th metric tons of sulfuric acid aerosol following the injection of sulfurous gases by El Chichon in April 1982, prompted Hofmann and Rosen (1983) to predict a very large CN event for 1983. The present investigation is concerned with the actual observation of the predicted event. Attention is given to the observation of a very large increase of what appear to be small sulfuric acid droplets at 30-km altitude in January 1983 over Laramie, WY, in January 1983.

  13. Models of lithosphere and asthenosphere anisotropic structure of the Yellowstone hot spot from shear wave splitting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waite, G.P.; Schutt, D.L.; Smith, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    Teleseismic shear wave splitting measured at 56 continuous and temporary seismographs deployed in a 500 km by 600 km area around the Yellowstone hot spot indicates that fast anisotropy in the mantle is parallel to the direction of plate motion under most of the array. The average split time from all stations of 0.9 s is typical of continental stations. There is little evidence for plume-induced radial strain, suggesting that any contribution of gravitationally spreading plume material is undetectably small with respect to the plate motion velocity. Two stations within Yellowstone have splitting measurements indicating the apparent fast anisotropy direction (??) is nearly perpendicular to plate motion. These stations are ???30 km from stations with ?? parallel to plate motion. The 70?? rotation over 30 km suggests a shallow source of anisotropy; however, split times for these stations are more than 2 s. We suggest melt-filled, stress-oriented cracks in the lithosphere are responsible for the anomalous ?? orientations within Yellowstone. Stations southeast of Yellowstone have measurements of ?? oriented NNW to WNW at high angles to the plate motion direction. The Archean lithosphere beneath these stations may have significant anisotropy capable of producing the observed splitting. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Dispersal Patterns of Coastal Fish: Implications for Designing Networks of Marine Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M.; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A.; Guidetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (∼200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (∼30 km) we assessed “site fidelity” (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ∼30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas. PMID:22355388

  15. Estimating dispersed and point source emissions of methane in East Anglia: results and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Neil; Connors, Sarah; Hancock, Ben; Jones, Pip; Murphy, Jonathan; Riddick, Stuart; Robinson, Andrew; Skelton, Robert; Manning, Alistair; Forster, Grant; Oram, David; O'Doherty, Simon; Young, Dickon; Stavert, Ann; Fisher, Rebecca; Lowry, David; Nisbet, Euan; Zazzeri, Guilia; Allen, Grant; Pitt, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    We have been investigating ways to estimate dispersed and point source emissions of methane. To do so we have used continuous measurements from a small network of instruments at 4 sites across East Anglia since 2012. These long-term series have been supplemented by measurements taken in focussed studies at landfills, which are important point sources of methane, and by measurements of the 13C:12C ratio in methane to provide additional information about its sources. These measurements have been analysed using the NAME InTEM inversion model to provide county-level emissions (~30 km x ~30 km) in East Anglia. A case study near a landfill just north of Cambridge was also analysed using a Gaussian plume model and the Windtrax dispersion model. The resulting emission estimates from the three techniques are consistent within the uncertainties, despite the different spatial scales being considered. A seasonal cycle in emissions from the landfill (identified by the isotopic measurements) is observed with higher emissions in winter than summer. This would be expected from consideration of the likely activity of methanogenic bacteria in the landfill, but is not currently represented in emission inventories such as the UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory. The possibility of assessing North Sea gas field emissions using ground-based measurements will also be discussed.

  16. Turbulent transport and deposition of the Ito pyroclastic flow: Determinations using anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, E.M.; Fisher, R.V.; Fuller, M.; Valentine, G.

    1997-10-01

    The Ito pyroclastic flow erupted about 22,000 years ago from Aira caldera in southern Kyushu, Japan. Flow directions were determined by anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), which measured the preferential alignment of magnetite microphenocrysts, usually {le}0.25mm in diameter. The microphenocrysts are aligned with the long axis of the clasts during strain and fracture in the vent. The grains are then deposited parallel to the flow direction with an imbrication. There is no evidence of rolling of clasts or nonflow parallel lineations, and thus AMS can be used to determine flow directions that occurred immediately before deposition. Beyond 30 km from the center of the caldera, flow directions were predominantly down paleogradient, indicating expanded flow and that the depositional system was gravity driven and largely decoupled from the transport system. Within 30 km, measured flow directions are random, indicating that sedimentation occurred from a depositional system that was closely coupled to the turbulent transport system. Individual flow directions at all sites except one varied more than the analytical error, demonstrating that a variety of flow directions existed even within a small area of the flow. This implies that the depositional system was turbulent.{copyright} 1997 American Geophysical Union

  17. Analyses of Bed Topography and Hyporheic Exchange Using a High-Resolution Bathymetric Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKean, J. A.; Tonina, D.; Marzadri, A.; Tiedemann, M.

    2011-12-01

    The hyporheic zone is a critical stream bed ecotone used by microorganisms, macroinvertebrates and spawning fish. Hyporheic exchange often results from differences in the channel near-bed total pressures as they vary in response to interactions between the surface flow and bed topography. The elevation head and the static and dynamic pressure heads are all sensitive to the spacing and amplitude of bed forms. We used a high resolution bathymetric lidar to describe the morphology of 30 km of a mountain river, and then defined the frequency and amplitude of bed forms in the channel with 1D wavelet transforms. We also mapped spatial variations in other important channel attributes, such as width and slope, using the River Bathymetry Toolkit (RBT), a freeware Arc-based GIS toolkit that automatically extracts hydrologic geometry and habitat information from high resolution DEMs of streams (http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/boise/AWAE/projects/river_bathymetry_toolkit.shtml). The wavelet transforms and geometry patterns were exploited to stratify the 30 km domain into hypothesized areas of consistent hyporheic exchange. The accuracy of our form-based hyporheic stratification is being tested with fluid dynamic models of surface and groundwater flow. The biological significance of the strata is also being evaluated by comparison with field samples of macroinvertebrate populations.

  18. Analysis of geophysical well logs obtained in the State 2-14 borehole, Salton Sea geothermal area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    A complete suite of conventional geophysical well logs was obtained in the upper part of a 3220-m-deep borehole drilled into geothermally altered alluvial sediments on the southeastern edge of the Salton Sea. Geophysical logs obtained in the State 2-14 borehole indicate that neutron porosity, gamma-gamma, and deep-induction logs provide useful information on lithologic trends with depth. The natural gamma log contains almost continuous, high-frequency fluctuations that obscure lithologic trends and that may be related to recent radioisotope redistribution and departure from radiometric equilibrium. Acoustic transit time logs give unrealistically low in situ compressional velocities ranging from 1.8 to 3.0 km/s, whereas acoustic waveform logs indicate that sediment compressional velocities range from less than 3.0 km/s shallower than 1000 m in depth to almost 5.0 km/s at depths greater than 2000 m. Analyses indicate that most log values lie between two lithologic end points: an electrically conductive claystone with moderate neutron porosity, but no effective porosity, and an electrically nonconductive, fully cemented siltstone that has small but finite porosity. -from Authors

  19. Information theory lateral density distribution for Earth inferred from global gravity field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    Information Theory Inference, better known as the Maximum Entropy Method, was used to infer the lateral density distribution inside the Earth. The approach assumed that the Earth consists of indistinguishable Maxwell-Boltzmann particles populating infinitesimal volume elements, and followed the standard methods of statistical mechanics (maximizing the entropy function). The GEM 10B spherical harmonic gravity field coefficients, complete to degree and order 36, were used as constraints on the lateral density distribution. The spherically symmetric part of the density distribution was assumed to be known. The lateral density variation was assumed to be small compared to the spherically symmetric part. The resulting information theory density distribution for the cases of no crust removed, 30 km of compensated crust removed, and 30 km of uncompensated crust removed all gave broad density anomalies extending deep into the mantle, but with the density contrasts being the greatest towards the surface (typically + or 0.004 g cm 3 in the first two cases and + or - 0.04 g cm 3 in the third). None of the density distributions resemble classical organized convection cells. The information theory approach may have use in choosing Standard Earth Models, but, the inclusion of seismic data into the approach appears difficult.

  20. Multiple-Aperture-Based Solar Seeing Profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Deqing; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Xi; Dou, Jiangpei; Chen, Rui; Zhu, Yongtian; Yang, Feng

    2015-09-01

    Characterization of day-time atmospheric turbulence profiles up to 30 km above the telescope is crucial for designs and performance estimations of future solar multiconjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) systems. Recently, the S-DIMM+ method has been successfully used to measure the vertical profile of turbulence. However, to measure profile up to 30 km employing the S-DIMM+ method, a telescope with a diameter of at least 1.0 m is needed, which restricts the usage of S-DIMM+, since large telescopes are scarce and their time is limited. To solve this problem, we introduce the multiple-aperture seeing profiler (MASP), which consists of two portable small telescopes instead of a single large aperture. Numerical simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of MASP. We find that for one layer case, MASP can retrieve the seeing with error ~5% using 800 frames of wavefront sensor (WFS) data, which is quite similar to the results of a telescope with diameter of 1120 mm. We also simulate profiles with four turbulence layers, and find that our MASP can effectively retrieve the strengths and heights of the four turbulence layers. Since previous measurements at Big Bear Solar Observatory showed that day-time turbulence profile typically consists of four layers, the MASP we introduced is sufficient for actual seeing measurement.

  1. Development and validation of satellite-based estimates of surface visibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, J.; Pierce, R. B.; Lenzen, A.

    2016-02-01

    A satellite-based surface visibility retrieval has been developed using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements as a proxy for Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) data from the next generation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES-R). The retrieval uses a multiple linear regression approach to relate satellite aerosol optical depth, fog/low cloud probability and thickness retrievals, and meteorological variables from numerical weather prediction forecasts to National Weather Service Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) surface visibility measurements. Validation using independent ASOS measurements shows that the GOES-R ABI surface visibility retrieval (V) has an overall success rate of 64.5 % for classifying clear (V ≥ 30 km), moderate (10 km ≤ V < 30 km), low (2 km ≤ V < 10 km), and poor (V < 2 km) visibilities and shows the most skill during June through September, when Heidke skill scores are between 0.2 and 0.4. We demonstrate that the aerosol (clear-sky) component of the GOES-R ABI visibility retrieval can be used to augment measurements from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and National Park Service (NPS) Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network and provide useful information to the regional planning offices responsible for developing mitigation strategies required under the EPA's Regional Haze Rule, particularly during regional haze events associated with smoke from wildfires.

  2. Seismicity of the Rwenzori Region, Western Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindenfeld, M.; Rümpker, G.; Schumann, A.; Woelbern, I.

    2008-12-01

    The 5000m high Rwenzori Mountains are situated within the western branch of the East African Rift System (EARS), close to the equator at the border between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo. They represent a basement block within the rift whose origin and relation to the development of the EARS are focus of the RiftLink project (www.riftlink.org). To investigate crustal and upper mantle structure in conjunction with seismic activity on a regional and local scale, a temporary seismic network was deployed over an area of roughly 80 x 140 km and operated from May 2006 to the end of September 2007. The analysis of the registered data revealed high microseismic activity in the region. On average more than 800 events per month were located during the registration period with local magnitudes ranging from -0.5 up to 5.1. Few earthquakes are located within the Rwenzori massive itself. Most of the events occur east and west of the mountains with a pronounced concentration of activity at a depth of about 15 km. Vertical sections across the northern parts of the Rwenzories show, that west of the mountains (towards the rift valley) the focal depths range from 10 to 20 km, whereas the hypocenters go as deep as 30 km on the eastern side. This is in good agreement with Moho depths that were derived from receiver functions and are close to 22 km west and 30 km east of the Rwenzories. There is one exception, however. Approximately 30 km east of the northern mountain ridge, we located a cluster of 7 events exhibiting an anomalous depth of about 60 km that occurred within 20 days in September 2006. These events are unique, up to now we located no other earthquakes at similar depths. P-wave polarities were used to determine fault plane solutions of events that were recorded by an adequate number of stations. Nearly all source mechanisms reveal normal faulting with strike directions more or less parallel to the rift axis and extension forces perpendicular to it. However

  3. Medical relief activities, medical resourcing, and inpatient evacuation conducted by Nippon Medical School due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake 2011.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Atsushi; Fuse, Akira; Hagiwara, Jun; Matsumoto, Gaku; Shiraishi, Shinichiro; Masuno, Tomohiko; Miyauchi, Masato; Kawai, Makoto; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, after the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami, the government declared a nuclear emergency following damage to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A second hydrogen explosion occurred on March 14 at the plant's No. 3 reactor and injured 11 people. At that time the prime minister urged people living 20 to 30 km from the Daiichi plant to stay indoors. Under these circumstances, many residents of Iwaki City, which was largely outside the 30-km zone, left the city, making it difficult to get supplies to the remaining residents. The only transportation route open for supplies and medical resources was roads, and many drivers feared the rumor that the city was contaminated by radioactive materials and, so, refused to go there. Nippon Medical School (NMS) heard that medical resources were running short at Iwaki Kyoritsu Hospital, which requested water, medications, food, fuel (gasoline), medical support, and the evacuation of 300 inpatients. As a first step, NMS decided to evaluate the situation at the hospital and, on March 16, the director of the NMS Advanced Emergency Center visited the hospital and helped provide triage for about 200 patients. Critically ill patients receiving ventilatory support were given priority for evacuation because they would be most at risk of not being able to evacuate should the Japanese government order an immediate evacuation of the city. We tried to evacuate the inpatients via an official framework, such as the Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT), but DMAT could not support this mission because this hospital was not within the 30-km evacuation zone. Moreover, the Iwaki City government could not support the evacuation efforts because they were fearful of the rumor that Iwaki was contaminated by radioactive material. Ultimately, we realized that we had to conduct the mission ourselves and, so, contacted our colleagues in the Tokyo metropolitan area to prepare enough hospital beds. We evacuated 15 patients

  4. Seismicity of the 24 May 2014 Mw 7.0 Aegean Sea earthquake sequence along the North Aegean Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görgün, Ethem; Görgün, Burçak

    2015-11-01

    The northern Aegean Sea was hit by a large size (Mw = 7.0) earthquake on 2014 May 24. Centroid moment tensor solutions for 40 events with moment magnitudes (Mw) between 3.3 and 7.0 are computed by applying a waveform inversion method on data from the Turkish and Greek broadband seismic networks. The time span of data covers the period between 2014 May 24 and 2014 June 26. The mainshock is a shallow focus strike-slip event at a depth of 15 km. Focal depths of aftershocks range from 6 to 30 km. The seismic moment (Mo) of the mainshock is estimated as 4.60 × 1019 Nm. The calculated rupture duration of the North Aegean Sea mainshock is 40 s. The focal mechanisms of the aftershocks are mainly strike-slip faulting with a minor normal component. The geometry of focal mechanisms reveals a strike-slip faulting regime with NE-SW trending direction of T-axis in the entire activated region. A stress tensor inversion of focal mechanism data is performed to acquire a more accurate picture of the northern Aegean Sea stress field along the North Aegean Trough. The stress tensor inversion results indicate a predominant strike-slip stress regime with a NW-SE oriented maximum principal compressive stress (σ1). In the development of the North Aegean Trough in Aegean Sea is in good agreement with the resolved stress tensors. With respect the newly determined focal mechanisms, the effect of the propagating of the North Anatolian Fault into Aegean Sea is very clearly pronounced. According to high-resolution hypocenter relocation of the North Aegean Sea seismic sequence, three main clusters are revealed. The aftershock activity in the observation period between 2014 May 24 and 2014 July 31 extends from the mainshock cluster from NE to the SW direction. Seismic cross-sections indicate that a complex pattern of the hypocenter distribution with the activation of seventeen segments. The eastern cluster is associated with a fault plane trending mainly ENE-WSW and dipping vertical, while the

  5. Alpha Ridge: Oceanic or Continental Crust? Constraints from Crustal Thickness Mapping using Gravity Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusznir, N. J.; Alvey, A.

    2010-12-01

    The ocean basins of the Arctic formed during the Late Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary as a series of small distinct ocean basins leading to a complex distribution of oceanic crust, thinned continental crust and rifted continental margins. The structure and origin of the Alpha and Mendeleev Ridges within the Amerasia Basin are contentious; possibilities include thick oceanic crust formed by ocean ridge - mantle plume interaction, micro-continents or thinned continental crust with mantle plume volcanic addition. We use gravity inversion, incorporating a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction, to map Moho depth, crustal thickness and continental lithosphere thinning factor for the Amerasia Basin in order to determine the distribution of oceanic and continental lithosphere and the ocean-continent transition location. Data used in the gravity inversion are gravity data from the NGA (U) Arctic Gravity Project, IBCAO bathymetry and sediment thickness from Laske et al. (1997). Our gravity inversion predicts thin crust (5-10 km thickness) and high continental lithosphere thinning factors in the Makarov, Podvodnikov, Nautilus and Canada Basins consistent with these basins being oceanic or highly thinned continental crust. Larger crustal thicknesses, in the range 20-30 km, are predicted for the Alpha, Mendeleev and Lomonosov Ridges. Moho depths predicted by gravity inversion compare well with estimates from the TransArctica-Arctica seismic profiles. Moho depths from the gravity inversion are dependent on the age of oceanic lithosphere and continental breakup because of the lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction; these ages are uncertain for the Amerasia Basin. Gravity inversion sensitivities to break-up ages between 150 Ma (late Jurassic Triassic) and 60 Ma (early Tertiary) have been examined. Alpha Ridge has in its centre a crustal thickness of 25-30 km and possesses sharp angular edges. While Alpha Ridge has been compared with Iceland for structure and

  6. Range resolution dependence of VHF radar returns from clear-air turbulence and precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Y.-H. Y.-H.; Su, C.-L.

    1999-06-01

    With employing 1.5 h of the data observed by the Chung-Li VHF radar, the range resolution dependences of the VHF backscatter from refractivity fluctuation and precipitation are investigated in this article. It indicates that the atmospheric layer structure of refractivity seems to play a role in governing the range resolution dependence of clear-air turbulent echoes. Observations shows that the VHF clear-air echo power ratios for 4 to 2 μs pulse lengths are close to 3 dB in the middle or bottom side of the layer, while the ratios are significantly greater than 3 dB in the top side of the layer. The analysis of the precipitation echo power ratio for 4 to 2 ms pulse lengths shows that basically the ratios above 3.0 km are close to 3 dB, but enormously smaller than 3 dB below 3.0 km. The feature of extraordinarily small echo power ratios below 3.0 km is also observed for the radar returns from refractivity turbulence. The radar recovery effect is thought to be a primary factor responsible for the severe diminution of the echo power ratios at the lower altitudes. In addition, statistical analysis reveals that the range resolution effect on the first and second moments of the Doppler spectra for the radar echoes from clear-air turbulence and precipitation is insignificant and negligible. The dependences of the coefficient A and power B in the power-law approximation Vt=APBr to the terminal velocity Vt and range-corrected echo power Pr are examined theoretically and experimentally. The results show that the coefficient A (powers B) is inversely (positively) proportional to the range resolution, in a good agreement with the observations. Because of the strong dependence of coefficient A and power B on the radar pulse width, it suggests that great caution should be taken in comparing the power-law expressions Vt=APBr established from the radar returns obtained with different range resolutions.

  7. Evaluation of tropical channel refinement using MPAS-A aquaplanet simulations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Martini, Matus N.; Gustafson, Jr., William I.; O'Brien, Travis A.; Ma, Po -Lun

    2015-09-13

    Climate models with variable-resolution grids offer a computationally less expensive way to provide more detailed information at regional scales and increased accuracy for processes that cannot be resolved by a coarser grid. This study uses the Model for Prediction Across Scales–Atmosphere (MPAS22A), consisting of a nonhydrostatic dynamical core and a subset of Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model atmospheric physics that have been modified to include the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) cloud fraction parameterization, to investigate the potential benefits of using increased resolution in an tropical channel. The simulations are performed with an idealized aquaplanet configurationmore » using two quasi-uniform grids, with 30 km and 240 km grid spacing, and two variable-resolution grids spanning the same grid spacing range; one with a narrow (20°S–20°N) and one with a wide (30°S–30°N) tropical channel refinement. Results show that increasing resolution in the tropics impacts both the tropical and extratropical circulation. Compared to the quasi-uniform coarse grid, the narrow-channel simulation exhibits stronger updrafts in the Ferrel cell as well as in the middle of the upward branch of the Hadley cell. The wider tropical channel has a closer correspondence to the 30 km quasi-uniform simulation. However, the total atmospheric poleward energy transports are similar in all simulations. The largest differences are in the low-level cloudiness. The refined channel simulations show improved tropical and extratropical precipitation relative to the global 240 km simulation when compared to the global 30 km simulation. All simulations have a single ITCZ. Furthermore, the relatively small differences in mean global and tropical precipitation rates among the simulations are a promising result, and the evidence points to the tropical channel being an effective method for avoiding the extraneous numerical artifacts seen in

  8. Perceived environmental and health risks of nuclear energy in Taiwan after Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jung-Chun; Lee, Chiao-Tzu Patricia; Kao, Shu-Fen; Chen, Ruey-Yu; Ieong, Marco C F; Chang, Hung-Lun; Hsieh, Wan-Hua; Tzeng, Chun-Chiao; Lu, Cheng-Fung; Lin, Suei-Loong; Chang, Peter Wushou

    2014-12-01

    After the nuclear disaster in Fukushima in Japan in 2011, a nation-wide survey using a standardized self-administered questionnaire was conducted in Taiwan, with a sample size of 2,742 individuals including the residents who live within and beyond 30 km from a nuclear power plant (NPP), to evaluate the participants' perceived nuclear risk in comparison with their perceived risks from selected environmental hazards and human behaviors. The three leading concerns of nuclear energy were "nuclear accidents (82.2%)," "radioactive nuclear waste disposal (76.9%)" and "potential health effects (73.3%)." Respondents (77.6%) perceived a higher relative risk of cancer incidence for those who live within 30 km from an NPP than those who live outside 30 km from an NPP. All the participants had a higher risk perception of death related to "nuclear power operation and nuclear waste" than cigarette smoking, motorcycling, food poisoning, plasticizer poisoning and traveling by air. Moreover, the residents in Gongliao where the planned fourth NPP is located had a significantly higher perceived risk ratio (PRR) of cancer incidence (adjusted odd ratio (aOR)=1.84, p value=0.017) and perceived risk of death (aOR=4.03, p value<0.001) related to nuclear energy. The other factors such as female gender (aOR/p value, 1.25/0.026 and 1.34/0.001 respectively), lower education levels (aOR/p value: 1.31/0.032; 2.03/<0.001) and the participants' concerns about nuclear accidents (aOR/p value: 1.33/0.022; 1.51/<0.001) and potential health effects (aOR/ p value: 2.95/ <0.001; 2.56/<0.001) were found to be commonly associated with the PRRs of "cancer incidence" and "perceived risk of death" related to nuclear energy, respectively. In addition, the respondents' concerns about nuclear waste disposal and possible eco-environmental damage made significant contributions (aOR/ p value: 1.39/ 0.001; 1.40/<0.001) to predict their perceived risk of death related to nuclear power. These factors are considered as

  9. The crustal structure from the Altai Mountains to the Altyn Tagh fault, northwest China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Y.; Mooney, W.D.; Yuan, X.; Coleman, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    We present a new crustal section across northwest China based on a seismic refraction profile and geologic mapping. The 1100-km-long section crosses the southern margin of the Chinese Altai Mountains, Junggar Accretional Belt and eastern Junggar basin, easternmost Tianshan Mountains, and easternmost Tarim basin. The crustal velocity structure and Poisson's ratio (??), which provide a constraint on crustal composition, were determined from P and S wave data. Despite the complex geology, the crustal thickness along the entire profile is nearly uniform at 50 km. The thickest crust (56 km) occurs at the northern end of the profile beneath the Altai Mountains and the thinnest (46 km) crust is beneath the Junggar basin. Beneath surficial sediments, the crust is found to have three layers with P wave velocities (Vp) of 6.0-6.3, 6.3-6.6, and 6.9-7.0 km/s, respectively. The southern half of the profile, including the eastern Tianshan Mountains and eastern margin of the Tarim basin, shows low P wave velocities and ?? = 0.25 to a depth of 30 km, which suggests a quartz-rich, granitic upper crustal composition. The northern half of the profile below the Altai Mountains and Junggar Accretional Belt has a higher Poisson's ratio of ?? = 0.26-0.27 to a depth of 30 km, indicative of an intermediate crustal composition. The entire 1100-km-long profile is underlain by a 15-30 km thick high velocity (6.9-7.0 km/s; ?? = 0.26-0.28) lower-crustal layer that we interpret to have a bulk composition of mafic granulite. At the southern end of the profile, a 5-km-thick midcrustal low-velocity layer (Vp = 5.9 km/s, ?? = 0.25) underlies the Tianshan and the region to the south, and may be indicative of a near-horizontal detachment interface. Pn velocities are ???7.7-7.8 km/s between the Tianshan and the Junggar basin, and ???7.9-8.0 km/s below the Altai Mountains and eastern margin of the Tarim basin. We interpret the consistent three-layer stratification of the crust to indicate that the crust

  10. Quantitative Estimates of the Numbers of Casualties to be Expected due to Major Earthquakes Near Megacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyss, M.; Wenzel, F.

    2004-12-01

    Defining casualties as the sum of the fatalities plus injured, we use their mean number, as calculated by QUAKELOSS (developed by Extreme Situations Research Center, Moscow) as a measure of the extent of possible disasters due to earthquakes. Examples of cities we examined include Algiers, Cairo, Istanbul, Mumbai and Teheran, with populations ranging from about 3 to 20 million. With the assumption that the properties of the building stock has not changed with time since 1950, we find that the number of expected casualties will have increased about 5 to 10 fold by the year 2015. This increase is directly proportional to the increase of the population. For the assumed magnitude, we used M7 and M6.5 because shallow earthquakes in this range can occur in the seismogenic layer, without rupturing the surface. This means, they could occur anywhere in a seismically active area, not only along known faults. As a function of epicentral distance the fraction of casualties of the population decrease from about 6% at 20 km, to 3% at 30 km and 0.5% at 50 km, for an earthquake of M7. At 30 km distance, the assumed variation of the properties of the building stock from country to country give rise to variations of 1% to 5% for the estimate of the percent of the population that become casualties. As a function of earthquake size, the expected number of casualties drop by approximately an order of magnitude for an M6.5, compared to an M7, at 30 km distance. Because the computer code and database in QUAKELOSS are calibrated based on about 1000 earthquakes with fatalities, and verified by real-time loss estimates for about 60 cases, these results are probably of the correct order of magnitude. However, the results should not be taken as overly reliable, because (1) the probability calculations of the losses result in uncertainties of about a factor of two, (2) the method has been tested for medium size cities, not for megacities, and (3) many assumptions were made. Nevertheless, it is

  11. Sensitivity of the GCM driven summer monsoon simulations to cumulus parameterization schemes in nested RegCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, P.; Mohanty, U. C.; Kar, S. C.; Dash, S. K.; Kumari, S.

    2013-04-01

    The regional climate model (RegCM3) from the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics has been used to simulate the Indian summer monsoon for three different monsoon seasons such as deficit (1987), excess (1988) and normal (1989). Sensitivity to various cumulus parameterization and closure schemes of RegCM3 driven by the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting global spectral model products has been tested. The model integration of the nested RegCM3 is conducted using 90 and 30-km horizontal resolutions for outer and inner domains, respectively. The India Meteorological Department gridded rainfall (1° × 1°) and National Centre for Environment Prediction (NCEP)-Department of Energy (DOE) reanalysis-2 of 2.5° × 2.5° horizontal resolution data has been used for verification. The RegCM3 forced by NCEP-DOE reanalysis-2 data simulates monsoon seasons of 1987 and 1988 reasonably well, but the monsoon season of 1989 is not represented well in the model simulations. The RegCM3 runs driven by the global model are able to bring out seasonal mean rainfall and circulations well with the use of the Grell and Anthes-Kuo cumulus scheme at 90-km resolution. While the rainfall intensity and distribution is brought out well with the Anthes-Kuo scheme, upper air circulation features are brought out better by the Grell scheme. The simulated rainfall distribution is better with RegCM3 using the MIT-Emanuel cumulus scheme for 30-km resolution. Several statistical analyses, such as correlation coefficient, root mean square error, equitable threat score, confirm that the performance of MIT-Emanuel scheme at 30-km resolution is better in simulating all-India summer monsoon rainfall. The RegCM3 simulated rainfall amount is more and closer to observations than that from the global model. The RegCM3 has corrected its driven GCM in terms of rainfall distribution and magnitude over some parts of India during extreme years. This study brings out several

  12. Updated Long Term Fault Slip Rates and Seismic Hazard in the Central Alborz, Iran: New Constraints From InSAR and GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, J. M.; Shirzaei, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Alborz mountain range, located south of the Caspian Sea, accommodates 30% of the 25 mm/yr convergence between Arabia and Eurasia. The resulting shortening and left lateral motion is distributed over several active fault zones within the Central Alborz. Despite earlier efforts using only GPS data, little is known about the long term rate of vertical deformation and aseismic slip. Several historical earthquakes have affected this region, some of the largest of these events occurred on the Mosha fault which is close to the capital city, Tehran, which has a population of over eight million. Thus, constraining the interseismic slip rates in this region is particularly important. In this study we complement existing horizontal velocities from a regional GPS network, with line of sight velocities from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), to provide additional constraints on the vertical deformation and enhance the spatial coverage. Assuming a seismogenic depth of 30 km, based on microseismicity data, we solve for the geometry and long term slip rates on four major fault strands in this region. We obtain a long term slip rate of ~ 3 mm/yr for the Mosha and North Alborz faults, and ~ 10 mm/yr for the Khazar fault and Parchin faults. These rates and fault geometries are in agreement with earlier works, and fit the GPS data well. However, close to the fault traces there are large residuals in the InSAR data, suggesting that there is shallow creep (< 30 km). Therefore, we carry out a subsequent inversion using only the residual InSAR displacements to solve for the distribution of creep within the seismogenic zones on these faults. We find that the Mosha and North Alborz faults remain locked between 0 - 30 km depth, whilst the Parchin and Khazar faults are creeping. This new observation of fault creep has direct implications for the seismic hazard in the region. On the Mosha fault we estimate a slip deficit equivalent to a Mw 7.0 event. The combination of In

  13. Coseismic Deformation From the Haiti Earthquake of January 12, 2010, Detected by ALOS/PALSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Manabu

    2010-05-01

    On January 12, 2010, a Mw7.0 earthquake hit southern Haiti and caused severe damages in and around Prot au Prince. This region has not suffered from strong earthquakes since 18th century, but rather high seismic risk is inferred from GPS observation (Mannaker et al., 2008). This earthquake is considered to have occurred on the Enriquillo fault. It is essential to reveal coseismic deformation from this earthquake and estimate fault parameters for the understanding of earthquake generation process and future seismic hazard evaluation. Unfortunately, no continous GPS data are available at present. Therefore we utilize synthetic aperture radar images. PALSAR (Phased Array type L-band SAR) is a L-band synthetic aperture radar onboard the Japanese satellite named Advanced Land Observation Satellite (hereafter ALOS). ALOS made an urgent observation of PALSAR on January 16 from the Path 138 with the off-nadir angle of 34.3 degree. Performing interferometry with the image acquired on October 11, 2007, we obtained an interferogram with CGIAR hole-filled SRTM DEM. The eastern edge of the obtained image is about 30km west of the epicenter. This area corresponds to an about 30km wide peninsula which extends westward from Port au Prince. However, we found at least three cycles of fringes (~40cm), which show increase of range toward the center of fringes, on the south side of the Enriquillo fault. We also recognized three cycles of fringes on the north side of the fault, but their gradient is much steeper than the south side. This observation implies eastward and/or subsidence of the southern block of the fault, which is consistent with left lateral strike-slip motion on a nearly vertical fault. Very preliminary analysis of fault model suggests that the western edge of the source fault is located about 30km west of the epicenter and slip may reach the surface and be as large as 2m, though there must be a trade off between slip and depth of fault. Observation of ALOS/PALSAR from

  14. Detection of the CO (J = 7 = 6) rotational transition at lambda = 0. 37 millimeters toward Orion

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, G.V.; Durwen, E.J.; Roeser, H.P.; Wattenbach, R.; Sherwood, W.A.

    1985-04-01

    The J = 7 = 6 rotational transition of carbon monoxide has been detected toward the Kleinmann-Low nebula. The peak antenna temperature is 110 + or - 35 K centered at V(LSR) = + 5 km/s; the FWHM line width is 35 + or - 5 km/s, and its optical depth is not greater than 0.3. The integrated intensity of the line between - 20 and + 30 km/s leads to a total flux density of (2.5 + or - 0.5) x 10 to the -14th W/sq m in a beam of 35 + or - 5 arsec. No spike feature is seen at + 9 km/s. 22 references.

  15. Ground testing of the HyShot supersonic combustion flight experiment in HEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, A. D.; Hannemann, K.; Pauli, A.; Steelant, J.

    The first phase of the HyShot supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) flight exper- iment program of The University of Queensland in Australia was designed to provide benchmark data on supersonic combustion for a flight Mach number of approximately M=8. The second flight of the HyShot program, performed on July 30th 2002, was successful and supersonic com- bustion was observed along the specified trajectory range. The operating range of the High Enthalpy Shock Tunnel Göttingen (HEG) of the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) was recently extended. The facility has now the capability of testing a complete scramjet engine with internal combustion and external aerodynamics at M=7.8 flight conditions in altitudes of about 30 km. A post flight analysis of the HyShot flight experiment was performed using an operational scramjet wind tunnel model with a geometry which is identical to that of the flight configuration.

  16. Topography of sinuous rilles in the Harbinger Mountains region of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strain, P. L.; El-Baz, F.

    1977-01-01

    Five sinuous rilles in mare basalts in the Harbinger Mountains region of the moon are described. Rille length ranges from 12 to 79 km, width from 0.8 to 4.8 km, and depth from 100 to 300 m. The rilles appear to become shallower to the north, while the southern ends are characterized by circular-to-elongate depressions that occur on a 30-km-in-diameter dome of probable volcanic origin. Longitudinal profiles show that the rille floors have a northward slope of less than one deg, consistent with the general slope of the surrounding mare surface. Structural studies indicate that slope, rather than the regional structural pattern, is the dominant factor controlling rill direction. Topographic data support the theory that the rilles were formed as lave channels or tubes.

  17. Global disturbances of the ionosphere caused by the electric field from the high-altitude nuclear explosion 'Starfish' on July 9, 1962. I, II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsedilina, E. E.; Shashun'kina, V. M.

    1990-10-01

    The theory of the formation of an artifical radiation belt of high-energy electrons in the magnetosphere is used to examine possible ionospheric effects from the electric field generated by the Starfish nuclear test explosion over Johnston Island on July 9, 1962. A region in the Northern Hemisphere is identified where the explosion led to a drop in electron density in the F-region maximum by about 20 percent and a lowering of the layer by 20-30 km in the course of one hour after the explosion. The F-layer gradually came back to normal in the following hour. It is suggested that, in the initial period after the explosion, this effect was associated with the western electric field, which caused the lowering of the F-layer, as well as with changes in the recombination-diffusion balance in this layer.

  18. Observation of ionospheric disturbances following a 5-kt chemical explosion. II - Prolonged anomalies and stratifications in the lower thermosphere after shock passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, Elisabeth; Jacobson, Abram R.

    1989-12-01

    Unusual stratifications and prolonged spectral deformations of radio echoes after the passage through the E region of the shock wave produced by a 5-kt chemical explosion have been observed. The observations were obtained by vertical HF pulsed ionospheric sounding. At the total reflection level of the sounding waves, at a horizontal distance of 30 km from the explosion, the passage of the shock wave generated a complex structure suggesting a significant deformation of the reflecting surface. Irregularities have also been observed in the E region for over 30 min after the shock passage by a network of continuous wave HF ionospheric sounders located 250 km west of the source. The origin of these structures is discussed.

  19. High resolution Halpha spectroscopy and R-band photometry of Swift J1357.2-0933

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casares, Jorge; Torres, Manuel A. P.; Negueruela, Ignacio; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Carlos; Corral-Santana, Jesus M.; Zurita, Cristina; Llano, Sergio Rodriguez

    2011-03-01

    We report on high resolution Halpha spectroscopy and time-resolved photometry of the optical counterpart to the X-ray transient Swift J1357.2-0933 in outburst (Krimm et al. ATEL #3138). SPECTROSCOPY: Six 30-33 min spectra were obtained on the nights of 2011 Feb 25-27 using the IDS Spectrograph on the 2.5m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) at the Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos. The observations were performed with the H1800V grating and a slit width 1.6 arcsec to yield a spectral coverage of 6270-7000 Angs with a 30 km/s FWHM spectral resolution at Halpha..

  20. Aftershocks of the December 7, 2012 intraplate doublet near the Japan Trench axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obana, Koichiro; Kodaira, Shuichi; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Sato, Takeshi; Fujie, Gou; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Yojiro

    2014-12-01

    On December 7, 2012, a pair of large Mw 7.2 intraplate earthquakes occurred near the Japan Trench axis off Miyagi, northeast Japan. This doublet consisted of a deep reverse-faulting event followed by a shallow normal-faulting event. Aftershock observations using conventional and newly developed ultra-deep ocean bottom seismographs in the trench axis area showed that the shallow normal-faulting event occurred in the subducting Pacific plate just landward of the trench axis. The shallow normal-faulting aftershock activity indicated that in-plate tension in the incoming/subducting Pacific plate extends to a depth of at least 30 km, which is deeper than before the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, whereas in-plate compression occurs at depths of more than 50 km. Hence, we concluded that the neutral plane of the in-plate stress is located between depths of 30 and 50 km near the trench axis.

  1. [Accidents of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants and future].

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    A massive earthquake of magnitude 9 terribly happened far out at sea of Tohoku area on 11 March, 2011. After this earthquake the hugest tsunami in the history came to the hundreds km of the seashore of Tohoku area. Due to this tsunami all of the four nuclear power plants of Fukushima Daiichi lost every electric power and, soon after this, loss nuclear fuels from number 1 to 3 reactors melt through their power containers. According to this phenomena, large amount of the radio-activities have been released in the air. There were some releases but major contaminations happened at the time of the two releases in the morning of 15 March, 2011. Due to this, to the direction of the northwest until the Iitate Village over 30km zone was contaminated. In this paper I explain the time course of the accidents and that how contaminated. PMID:24568025

  2. Plume-lithosphere interaction beneath a fast moving plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoraval, Catherine; Tommasi, Andréa; Doin, Marie-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Two-dimensional numerical simulations of mantle convection with temperature and pressure dependent viscosity are used to study plume-lithosphere interaction beneath a fast moving plate. Plumes behavior and, hence, their erosional and melting potential, depend on the Rayleigh number and plume buoyancy flux. Analysis of the balance between large-scale and plume-induced flow and of the ability of the plume to melt allows to put bounds on the upper mantle viscosity (1020, 1021 Pas), on the plumes diameter (<200 km) and temperature anomaly (200-400°C). Within this range of parameters, strongly time-dependent small-scale instabilities form in the plume-lithosphere boundary layer. They lead to thermal rejuvenation of the lithosphere downstream from the plume. The 1200°C isotherm is raised by up to 30km, but the 800°C isotherm is hardly moved, leading to a steep transient geotherm at the base of the plate.

  3. Neotectonics, geodesy, and seismic hazard in the Northern Walker Lane of Western North America: Thirty kilometers of crustal shear and no strike-slip?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesnousky, Steven G.; Bormann, Jayne M.; Kreemer, Corné; Hammond, William C.; Brune, James N.

    2012-05-01

    Roughly 30 km of cumulative right-lateral crustal displacement and 5-6 mm/yr of the ongoing relative right-lateral motion between the Pacific and North American plates are observed in the northern Walker Lane. The right-lateral shear has been accommodated in large part by the development of a set of discontinuous, en echelon, normal fault-bounded basins and perhaps significant vertical axis rotations of the intervening crust. The observations provide an illustrative example of how large amounts of crustal shear may be accommodated in the absence of strike-slip faults and point to difficulties attendant to melding geologic and geodetic observations in the analysis of seismic hazard. In this particular case, the assumption that all geodetically observed shear across the area will be recorded by earthquake displacements may be flawed.

  4. Novel wavelength division multiplex-radio over fiber-passive optical network architecture for multiple access points based on multitone generation and triple sextupling frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Guangming; Guo, Banghong; Liu, Songhao; Huang, Xuguang

    2014-01-01

    An innovative wavelength division multiplex-radio over fiber-passive optical network architecture for multiple access points (AP) based on multitone generation and triple sextupling frequency is proposed and demonstrated. A dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (DD-MZM) is utilized to realize the multitone generation. Even sidebands are suppressed to make the adjacent frequency separation twice the frequency of the local oscillator by adjusting the modulation voltage of the DD-MZM. Due to adopting three fiber Bragg gratings to reflect the unmodulated sidebands for uplink communications source free at optical network unit (ONU), is achieved. The system can support at least three APs at one ONU simultaneously with a 30 km single-mode fiber (SMF) transmission and 5 Gb/s data rate both for uplink and downlink communications. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show the architecture has an excellent performance and will be a promising candidate in future hybrid access networks.

  5. Rapid and widespread dispersal of flood sediment on the northern California margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheatcroft, R.A.; Sommerfield, C.K.; Drake, D.E.; Borgeld, J.C.; Nittrouer, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    The dispersal of flood sediment from small river systems is a poorly studied, yet potentially important aspect of active continental-margin sedimentation. In January 1995, during a flood with a 30 yr return period, the Eel River (northern California) delivered an estimated 25 ?? 3 ?? 106 t (metric tons) of tine-grained (<62 ??m) sediment to the ocean. The flood formed a distinct layer on the sea bed that was centered on the 70 m isobath, extended for 30 km along shelf and 8 km across shelf, and was as thick as 8.5 cm, but contained only 6 ?? 106 t of sediment. Thus, 75% of the flood-derived sediment did not form a recount/able deposit, but was instead rapidly and widely dispersed over the continental margin. Stratigraphic models of, and compilations of sediment flux to, active continental margins need to take the dispersive nature of small river systems into account.

  6. Database for the Geologic Map of Newberry Volcano, Deschutes, Klamath, and Lake Counties, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bard, Joseph A.; Ramsey, David W.; MacLeod, Norman S.; Sherrod, David R.; Chitwood, Lawrence A.; Jensen, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Newberry Volcano, one of the largest Quaternary volcanoes in the conterminous United States, is a broad shield-shaped volcano measuring 60 km north-south by 30 km east-west with a maximum elevation of more than 2 km. Newberry Volcano is the product of deposits from thousands of eruptions, including at least 25 in the past approximately 12,000 years (Holocene Epoch). Newberry Volcano has erupted as recently as 1,300 years ago, but isotopic ages indicate that the volcano began its growth as early as 0.6 million years ago. Such a long eruptive history and recent activity suggest that Newberry Volcano is likely to erupt in the future. This geologic map database of Newberry Volcano distinguishes rocks and deposits based on their composition, age, and lithology.

  7. Reinterpretation of the stratigraphy and structure of the Rancho Las Norias area, central Sonora, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, William R.; Harris, Anita G.; Poole, Forrest G.; Repetski, John E.

    2003-12-01

    New geologic mapping and fossil data in the vicinity of Rancho Las Norias, 30 km east of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, show that rocks previously mapped as Precambrian instead are Paleozoic. Previous geologic maps of the Rancho Las Norias area show northeast-directed, southwest-dipping reverse or thrust faults deforming both Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks. The revised stratigraphy requires reinterpretation of some of these faults as high-angle normal or oblique-slip faults and the elimination of other faults. We agree with earlier geologic map interpretations that compressional structures have affected the Paleozoic rocks in the area, but our mapping suggests that the direction of compression is from southeast to northwest.

  8. Simulation of CO2 release at 800 km altitude. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Setayesh, A.

    1993-08-31

    The SOCRATES contamination-interaction code has been used to simulate the reactions of O + CO2 --> CO2(v) + O, O + CO2 - CO(v) + O2, and CO2 + H - CO + OH(v) at an altitude of 800 km in both ram and wake directions of the spacecraft. These simulations show that the radiation from these reactions can be measurable for the parameters which have been used in these calculations. The investigation carries out the simulations as much as 30 km from the spacecraft. The radiative intensity of CO(v) and OH(v) show the highest and lowest, respectively. Gas plume, CO2, CO, and OH Emissions, Monte Carlo method, Rarefied flows.

  9. The analysis of GEOS-3 altimeter data in the Tasman and Coral seas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, R. S.

    1977-01-01

    A technique was developed for preprocessing GEOS-3 altimetry data to establish a model of the regional sea surface. The algorithms developed models for a 35,000,000 sq km area with an internal precision of + or - 1 m. There were discrepancies between the sea surface model so obtained and GEM6 based geoid profiles with wavelengths of approximately 2500 km and amplitudes of up to 5 m in this region. The amplitudes were smaller when compared with GEM10-based geoid determinations. However, the comparison of 14 pairs of overlapping passes in the region indicated altimeter resolution of the + or - 25 cm level if the wavelength corresponding to the Nyquist frequency were 30 km. The spectral analysis of such comparisons indicated the existence of significant signal strength in the discrepancies after least squares fitting, with wavelengths in excess of 200 km.

  10. Long-term increase in Karenia brevis abundance along the Southwest Florida Coast

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Larry E.; Compton, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Data collected along the southwest coast of Florida between Tampa Bay and Sanibel Island on the abundance of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis from 1954 to 2002 were examined for spatial and temporal patterns. K. brevis was found to be approximately 20-fold more abundant within 5 km of the shoreline than 20-30 km offshore. Overall, K. brevis was approximately 13-18-fold more abundant in 1994-2002 than in 1954-1963. In 1954-1963, K. brevis occurred primarily in the fall months. In 1994-2002, it was more abundant not only in the fall, but also in the winter and spring months. It is hypothesized that greater nutrient availability in the ecosystem is the most likely cause of this increase in K. brevis biomass, and the large increase in the human population and its activities in South Florida over the past half century is a major factor. PMID:18437245

  11. Temporal, latitude and altitude absorbed dose dependences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stozhkov, Y.; Svirzhevsky, N.; Bazilevskaya, G.

    The regular balloon measurements in the Earth's atmosphere are carried on at the Lebedev Physical Institute since 1957. The regular balloon flights have been made at the high latitude stations (near Murmansk - northern hemisphere and Mi ny -r Antarctica) and at the middle latitude (Moscow). Based on these long-term measurements as well as on the latitude data obtained in the several Soviet Antarctic expeditions the calculations of absorbed doses were fulfilled for altitudes of 10, 15, 20 and 30 km. The absorbed dose dependences on the geomagnetic cutoff rigidities and the phase of the 11-year solar cycle were found. The evaluation of the solar proton events and energetic electron precipitation contributions to the absorbed dose enhancements was made.

  12. Mössbauer study of two different aged rock types in the Vredefort structure, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waanders, F. B.; Brink, M. C.; Bisschoff, A. A.

    2005-11-01

    The Vredefort Structure in South Africa was recently inscribed into the list of World Heritage sites as the oldest and largest recognised impact structure on earth. Due to upliftment of more than 30 km of the Archaean basement core and subsequent exposure of the deeply eroded central portion of the crater a unique opportunity exists to study rocks of the crust, especially those that have undergone recrystallization due to various thermal metamorphic events over time. Two rock types occurring in the central uplifted part of the impact structure were studied. One was a typical Archaean iron formation of sedimentary origin. The other rock studied, adjacent to this much older rock, is a homogeneous, medium grained recrystallized norite of immediately pre- or post-impact age, indicating a possible mafic igneous activity related to impact. Microscopy, XRD and Mössbauer analyses were performed on both samples.

  13. Monitoring of crustal movements in the San Andreas fault zone by a satellite-borne ranging system. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, M.

    1976-01-01

    The Close Grid Geodynamic Measurement System is conceived as an orbiting ranging device with a ground base grid of reflectors or transponders (spacing 1.0 to 30 km), which are projected to be of low cost (maintenance free and unattended), and which will permit the saturation of a local area to obtain data useful to monitor crustal movements in the San Andreas fault zone. The system includes a station network of 75 stations covering an area between 36 deg N and 38 deg N latitudes, and 237 deg E and 239 deg E longitudes, with roughly half of the stations on either side of the faults. In addition, the simulation of crustal movements through the introduction of changes in the relative positions between grid stations, weather effect for intervisibility between satellite and station and loss of observations thereof, and comparative evaluation of various observational scheme-patterns have been critically studied.

  14. Strong electric fields from positive lightning strokes in the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzworth, R. H.; McCarthy, M. P.; Thomas, J. N.; Chin, J.; Chinowsky, T. M.; Taylor, M. J.; Pinto, O.

    2005-02-01

    A balloon payload launched in Brazil has measured vector electric fields from lightning at least an order of magnitude larger than previously reported above 30 km in the stratosphere. During the flight hundreds of lightning events were recorded, including several positive cloud to ground lightning strokes. A two stroke flash, with small (15 kA peak current) and moderate (53 kA) positive strokes at a horizontal range of 34 km, produced field changes over 140 V/m at 34 km altitude. On-board optical lightning detection, recorded with GPS timing, coupled with ground based lightning location gives high time resolution for study of the electric field transient propagation. These measurements imply that lightning electric fields in the mesosphere over large thunderstorms may be much larger than previously measured.

  15. The role of iron compounds in fixing heavy metals and arsenic in alluvial and soddy-podzolic soils in the Perm area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.; Vasil'Ev, A. A.; Vlasov, M. N.; Korovushkin, V. V.

    2009-07-01

    In Perm, alluvial soils are strongly contaminated with heavy metals (Zn, Cu, and Ni, in particular) due to the ingress of liquid sewage. The concentration of a number of chemical elements is far higher in Fe-rohrensteins (tubular concretions around plant roots) of alluvial soils as compared to the fine earth. Ni and Cu are associated with Fe in rohrensteins of alluvial soils. The soddy-podzolic soils are in general less contaminated at a distance of 30 km to the northwest of Perm. Their contamination results from aerosols emitted by Perm industrial enterprises. Fe-Mn nodules that concentrate Ni and As are formed in hydromorphic podzolic soils. Mn oxides represent a separate phase carrying heavy metals and metalloids (manganophiles). Oxianions (As, Cr, and P) are closely bound to Fe in nodules, which are formed because of the alternating redox regime in soddy-podzolic soils. However, oxianions are not associated with Fe in rohrensteins of alluvial soils.

  16. Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulations of Equatorial Spread F: Results and Observations in the Pacific Sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aveiro, H. C.; Hysell, D. L.; Caton, R. G.; Groves, K. M.; Klenzing, J.; Pfaff, R. F.; Stoneback, R.; Heelis, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    A three-dimensional numerical simulation of plasma density irregularities in the postsunset equatorial F region ionosphere leading to equatorial spread F (ESF) is described. The simulation evolves under realistic background conditions including bottomside plasma shear flow and vertical current. It also incorporates C/NOFS satellite data which partially specify the forcing. A combination of generalized Rayleigh-Taylor instability (GRT) and collisional shear instability (CSI) produces growing waveforms with key features that agree with C/NOFS satellite and ALTAIR radar observations in the Pacific sector, including features such as gross morphology and rates of development. The transient response of CSI is consistent with the observation of bottomside waves with wavelengths close to 30 km, whereas the steady state behavior of the combined instability can account for the 100+ km wavelength waves that predominate in the F region.

  17. Examining the quasibiennial oscillation of total ozone and ozone concentrations at separate stratospheric levels according to data of TOMS satellite instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazhenov, O. E.; Makeev, A. P.

    2014-11-01

    The pattern of the quasibiennial oscillation of total ozone over northern territories of Russia (1996-2013) and ozone concentrations at separate stratospheric levels over Arctic sites (2005-2013) are analyzed according to data of TOMS satellite instrumentation. It is shown that the entire period of 1996-2013 can be divided into three intervals: before 2002- 2004, interval between 2002-2004 and 2008-2010, and period after 2008-2010. The quasibiennial oscillation is quite clearly manifested in the first and third periods and is distorted in the second period. The time series of the mixing ratio, composed for separate altitudinal levels, exhibit quasibiennial oscillation, which takes shape at heights of ~30 km and weakens in overlying regions.

  18. Kinetics of the reaction OH + H2O2 yields HO2 + H2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridharan, U. C.; Reimann, B.; Kaufman, F.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes an experimental study of the title reaction that uses the discharge-flow technique, laser-induced-fluorescence detection of OH and simultaneous monitoring of O and H atoms in the 250-459 K range. The reaction is normal and free from surface effect interference in Teflon or halocarbon wax-coated tube, but not in clean Pyrex. OH radicals are generated in three ways and at low concentrations to eliminate side reactions. The rate constants were determined at 298 K and over the 250-459 K range, with a factor of two higher at 298 K and factors of 3 to 5 higher at 10 to 30 km altitude in the terrestrial atmosphere than previous studies have indicated. The effect of the higher rate constant on atmospheric processes and on recent laboratory measurements of other reactions is also discussed.

  19. Comparison of Observed Temperature and Wind in Mountainous and Coastal Regions in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y. S.

    2015-12-01

    For more than one year, temperature and wind are observed at several levels in three different environments in Korea. First site is located in a ski jump stadium in a mountain area and observations are performed at 5 heights. Second site is located in an agricultural land 1.4km inland from the seaside and the observing tower is 300m tall. Third site is located in the middle of sea 30km away from the seaside and the tower is 100m tall. The vertical gradients of air temperature are compared on the daily and seasonal bases. Not only the strengths of atmospheric stability are analyzed but also the times when the turnover of the signs of vertical gradients of temperature are occurred. The comparison is also applied to vertical gradients of wind speed and turning of wind direction due to surface slope and sea/land breeze. This study may suggest characteristics of local climate over different environments quantitatively.

  20. Airborne observations of the composition of the 1992 tropical stratosphere by FTIR solar absorption spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, G. C.; Blavier, J.-F.; Solario, J. N.; Szeto, J. T.

    1993-01-01

    Vertical column measurements of the gaseous composition of the tropical stratosphere were made from the NASA DC-8 aircraft early in 1992. As anticipated, the burdens of the stratospheric source gases (e.g., O3, HF, HCl, ClNO3, HNO3) were reduced from their mid-latitude values due to increased uplift and photolysis. The tracers revealed considerably more uplift near the equator than the sub-tropics. For example, the HF burdens at +/- 20 deg latitude were nearly double those at 5 deg N. This, together with results obtained from other long-lived gases (e.g. N2O, CH4, CF2Cl2) indicates that volume mixing ratios found at 22 km altitude at mid-latitudes occurred at 26 km in the sub-tropics and at 30 km in the equatorial zone. This zone of uplift was symmetrical about the equator even though the sun was overhead at 20 deg S.

  1. Remote sensing and spectral analysis of plumes from ocean dumping in the New York Bight Apex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The application of the remote sensing techniques of aerial photography and multispectral scanning in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of plumes from ocean dumping of waste materials is investigated in the New York Bight Apex. Plumes resulting from the dumping of acid waste and sewage sludge were observed by Ocean Color Scanner at an altitude of 19.7 km and by Modular Multispectral Scanner and mapping camera at an altitude of 3.0 km. Results of the qualitative analysis of multispectral and photographic data for the mapping, location, and identification of pollution features without concurrent sea truth measurements are presented which demonstrate the usefulness of in-scene calibration. Quantitative distributions of the suspended solids in sewage sludge released in spot and line dumps are also determined by a multiple regression analysis of multispectral and sea truth data.

  2. Satellite-Based Radar Measurements for Validation of Highresolution Sea State Forecast Models in the German Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleskachevsky, A.; Gebhardt, C.; Rosenthal, W.; Lehner, S.; Hoffmann, P.; Kieser, J.; Bruns, T.; Lindenthal, A.; Jansen, F.; Behrens, A.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data from TerraSAR-X and Tandem-X (TS-X and TD-X) satellites have been used for validation and verification of newly developed coastal forecast models in the German Bight of the North Sea. The empirical XWAVE algorithm for estimation of significant wave height has been adopted for coastal application and implemented for NRT services. All available TS-X images in the German Bight collocated with buoy measurements (6 buoys) since 2013 were processed and analysed (total of 46 scenes/passages with 184 StripMap images). Sea state estimated from series of TS-X images cover strips with length of ~200km and width of 30km over the German Bight from East-Frisian Islands to the Danish coast. The comparisons with results of wave prediction model show a number of local variations due to variety in bathymetry and wind fronts

  3. Observation of a solar flare at the limb with the Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuneta, Saku; Hara, Hirohisa; Shimizu, Toshifumi; Acton, Loren W.; Strong, Keith T.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Ogawara, Yoshiaki

    1992-01-01

    A long-enduring soft X-ray flare at the solar limb was well observed by the Soft X-ray Telescope aboard the Yohkoh spacecraft from the preflare stage through the postflare phase. A 'helmet streamer' arch appears several hours prior to the flare, in association with a continuous expansion and restructuring of the active-region magnetic structure. This arch then starts to flare, and increases its height and footpoint separation at v = 10-30 km/s. The arch has a complex temperature structure in the rising phase, whereas the outer arches have systematically higher temperatures in the decay phase. Magnetic reconnection in a neutral sheet at the loop top, created by preflare magnetic restructuring, would explain this type of flare.

  4. Calculation of total effective dose equivalent and collective dose in the event of a LOCA in Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Raisali, G; Davilu, H; Haghighishad, A; Khodadadi, R; Sabet, M

    2006-01-01

    In this research, total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) and collective dose (CD) are calculated for the most adverse potential accident in Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant from the viewpoint of radionuclides release to the environment. Calculations are performed using a Gaussian diffusion model and a slightly modified version of AIREM computer code to adopt for conditions in Bushehr. The results are comparable with the final safety analysis report which used DOZAM code. Results of our calculations show no excessive dose in populated regions. Maximum TEDE is determined to be in the WSW direction. CD in the area around the nuclear power plant by a distance of 30 km (138 man Sv) is far below the accepted limits. Thyroid equivalent dose is also calculated for the WSW direction (maximum 25.6 mSv) and is below the limits at various distances from the reactor stack. PMID:16785243

  5. Observations of ELF propagation at high latitudes during the sporadic-e conditions of November 1986. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Katan, J.R.; Saleem, D.J.

    1994-08-11

    Researchers in extremely low frequency (ELF) radio propagation have speculated on the effects of disturbed ionospheric conditions. Over the years, it has been observed that, although the propagation of ELF signals is remarkable for its relative stability, these signals are nevertheless influenced by many of the same types of disturbances that afflict higher frequency bands. Some of the early measurements revealed not only ELF's stable, predictive features (e.g., the smooth transitions through daytime and nighttime periods), but also its unexplainable, sudden decreases in nighttime signal strength. One of the most dramatic natural events for the radio propagationist to study is the solar proton event (SPE). During polar-cap absorption (PCA) events, an earthly response to an SPE, energetic protons from the sun penetrate the polar ionosphere. In the process, interactions with a variety of atmospheric constituents result in an increase in the ionization density to altitudes of 30 km or less.

  6. Observation of artificial spread-F and large region ionization enhancement in an HF heating experiment at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Spencer; Snyder, Arnold

    2010-04-01

    A large-scale ionospheric modification by HF heaters was explored via HAARP digisonde operated in a fast mode. The results show that the ionogram virtual heights and the height spread of the ordinary-wave sounding echoes were changed significantly by the O-mode heater; the X-mode heater imposed no noticeable effect on the ionograms. The enhanced virtual height spread exceeds 40 km, more than 15% of sounding echo's average virtual height. The heater downshifted/upshifted the virtual height in the low/high frequency region around the heater frequency by as much as 15 and 7.5 km. The modifications were developing to last more than 10 seconds after the heater was turned off. The perturbed ionosphere took more than 60 seconds to recover. The modified electron density distribution indicates that the electron density and temperature increases exceed 10% and 25% over a large altitude region (>30 Km) from below to above the HF reflection height.

  7. The Tunguska event - No cometary signature in evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1983-01-01

    It is suggested that existing data on the 1908 Tunguska fall precludes an interpretation of the object as an either active or extinct comet fragment. Because a fireball of the Tunguska mass is not efficiently decelerated by the earth's atmosphere, it would at an entry velocity of about 30 km/sec have had to resist aerodynamic pressures greater than one billon dyn/sq cm before disintegrating. The inherently extremely fragile cometary material could not have survived a load of this magnitude. The data on Type II fireballs with prominent terminal flares are extrapolated, to estimate Tunguska's critical dynamic pressure at the same time of explosion as being of the order of 200 million dyn/sq cm, and its preexplosion velocity as about 10 km/sec, thereby ruling out a comet-like orbit. The Tunguska object is most consistently described as a small Apollo-type asteroid, 90-190 m across.

  8. Volatile inventory of Mars-2: Primordial sources and fractionating processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, R. O.

    1987-01-01

    The total volatile inventory of Mars has been modeled using meteoritic and presumed primordial abundances in the early solar system. Evidence is presented which indicates that the elemental abundances of the noble gases on Earth and Mars are similar, and their ratios are comparable to those in average carbonaceous chondrites with the exception of xenon and krypton. In order to account for presently observed variations in gas abundances, two primordial sources were used. One was the solar composition similar to the solar wind, and the other of carbonaceous grains that were the source for trace exotic components. For Mars, a model in which the early, high solar EUV flux with continued hydrogen production by differentiation results in mass fractionation of the primordial atmosphere, early depletion of xenon, and later depletion of gases lighter than krypton. The result is that the primordial Mars water inventory may have been on the order of 20 to 30 km if spread over the planet.

  9. Solar wind interaction with small bodies. 1: Whistler wing signatures near to Gaspra and Ida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Z.; Kivelson, M. G.; Joy, S.; Khurana, K. K.; Polanskey, C.; Southwood, D. J.; Walker, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    Data from Galileo's two asteroid flybys reveal magnetic fluctuations that we interpret as perturbations of the solar wind magnetic field caused by an interaction with the nearby asteroid. The scale sizes of the bodies (approximately 14 km for Gaspra and approximately 30 km for Ida) are intermediate between the ion and electron gyroradii, which implies that the asteroid-imposed perturbations propagate in the whistler mode. Special properties of the whistler mode include phase phase velocities that can exceed the solar wind speed and confinement of the disturbance to directions nearly aligned with the magnetic field. These features of the interaction impose a structure on the solar wind disturbance that differs greatly from the forms familiar for either magnetized or unmagnetized bodies of magnetohydrodynamic spatial scales. We examine both data and computer simulations of the interaction with special attention to what can be inferred about the interaction itself from analysis of the data.

  10. DNS of Turbulent Boundary Layers under Highenthalpy Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Lian; Martín, Pino

    2010-11-01

    To study real-gas effects and turbulence-chemistry interaction, direct numerical simulations (DNS) of hypersonic boundary layers are conducted under typical hypersonic conditions. We consider the boundary layer on a lifting-body consisting of a flat plate at an angle of attack, which flies at altitude 30km with a Mach number 21. Two different inclined angles, 35^o and 8^o, are considered,representing blunt and slender bodies. Both noncatalytic and supercatalytic wall conditions are considered. The DNS data are studied to assess the validity of Morkovin's hypothesis, the strong Reynolds analogy, as well as the behaviors of turbulence structures under high-enthalpy conditions.Relative to low-enthalpy conditions [1], significant differences in typical scalings are observed. [4pt] [1] L. Duan and I. Beekman and M. P. Mart'in, Direct numerical simulation of hypersonic turbulent boundary layers. Part 2: Effect of temperature, J. Fluid Mech. 655 (2010), 419-445.