Science.gov

Sample records for 3038-3052 national ambient

  1. National Ambient Radiation Database

    SciTech Connect

    Dziuban, J.; Sears, R.

    2003-02-25

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently developed a searchable database and website for the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS) data. This site contains nationwide radiation monitoring data for air particulates, precipitation, drinking water, surface water and pasteurized milk. This site provides location-specific as well as national information on environmental radioactivity across several media. It provides high quality data for assessing public exposure and environmental impacts resulting from nuclear emergencies and provides baseline data during routine conditions. The database and website are accessible at www.epa.gov/enviro/. This site contains (1) a query for the general public which is easy to use--limits the amount of information provided, but includes the ability to graph the data with risk benchmarks and (2) a query for a more technical user which allows access to all of the data in the database, (3) background information on ER AMS.

  2. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary ambient air quality... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.8 National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality...

  3. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary ambient air quality... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). Link to...

  4. 77 FR 38760 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 50, 51, 52, 53, and 58 RIN 2060-AO47 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for... revise the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM). This action...: Questions concerning the ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter'' proposed...

  5. 76 FR 14812 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Particle National Ambient Air Quality Standards, 110(k)(6) Correction and Technical Correction Related to... the Annual Fine Particles National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In rule document...

  6. Ambient resonance of Mesa Arch, Canyonlands National Park, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, Alison M.; Moore, Jeffrey R.; Thorne, Michael S.

    2015-08-01

    We analyzed the resonance characteristics of a prominent natural arch in Canyonlands National Park, Mesa Arch, as measured from ambient seismic data. Evaluating spectral and polarization attributes, we distinguished the first four resonant frequencies of the arch, 2.9, 6.0, 6.9, and 8.5 Hz, as well as basic properties of the associated mode shapes. We then affirmed experimental data using 3-D numerical modal analysis, providing estimates of material properties and clarifying vibrational mode shapes. Monitoring resonant frequencies over time, we searched for shifts associated with changing environmental conditions and long-term progressive damage. We measured ~3% direct daily variation in resonant frequency associated with changing rock temperature, thermal stress, and stiffening of the rock matrix. Independent tilt data showed similar diurnal cycles associated with thermoelastic stresses and deformation of the arch. We observed no permanent resonant frequency shifts related to irreversible damage of Mesa Arch during our study period.

  7. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary and secondary ambient... PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.11 National primary and secondary ambient air... national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion...

  8. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS §...

  9. 75 FR 2935 - Extension of Deadline for Promulgating Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ..., 2008, EPA promulgated revised 8-hour primary and secondary ozone NAAQS (73 FR 16436; March 27, 2008... promulgation of a new or revised national ambient air quality standard for any pollutant under section 109, the... a national ambient air quality standard, the Administrator shall promulgate the designations of...

  10. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  11. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.16 Section 50.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) The national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead (Pb) and its compounds are 0.15 micrograms per cubic...

  12. 40 CFR 50.12 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.12 Section 50.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead and its compounds, measured as elemental lead by a reference...

  13. 40 CFR 50.12 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.12 Section 50.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead and its compounds, measured as elemental lead by a reference...

  14. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  15. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  16. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  17. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  18. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  19. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  20. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  1. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  2. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  3. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.16 Section 50.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) The national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead (Pb) and its compounds are 0.15 micrograms per cubic...

  4. 40 CFR 50.12 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.12 Section 50.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead and its compounds, measured as elemental lead by a reference...

  5. 77 FR 39205 - Public Hearings for Proposed Rules-National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Quality Standards for Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... titled, ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter,'' that is scheduled to be... and secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) to...

  6. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  7. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  8. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  9. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  10. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  11. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  12. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  13. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  14. 40 CFR 50.18 - National primary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards for PM2.5. 50.18 Section 50.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... primary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5 are 12.0 micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m3) annual arithmetic mean concentration and 35...

  15. 40 CFR 50.18 - National primary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for PM2.5. 50.18 Section 50.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... primary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5 are 12.0 micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m3) annual arithmetic mean concentration and 35...

  16. PREDICTING THE IMPACT OF TROPOSPHERIC OZONE ON ECOLOGICAL RESOURCES FOR SETTING NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act provides for establishing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public welfare (including crops, forests, ecosystems, and soils) from adverrse effects of air pollutants, including tropospheric ozone. The formulation of policies is science-bas...

  17. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  18. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  19. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  20. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  1. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  2. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  3. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  4. 77 FR 42495 - Release of Draft Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... titled, Policy Assessment for the Review of the Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards: First... Review Plan for the Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards.\\1\\ A draft of the integrated review... Ambient Air Quality Standards: Scope and Methods Plan for Health Risk and Exposure Assessment and...

  5. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  6. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) 1. General (a) This... national ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen as measured by nitrogen dioxide (“NO2...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) 1. General (a) This... national ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen as measured by nitrogen dioxide (“NO2...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) 1. General (a) This... national ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen as measured by nitrogen dioxide (“NO2...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) 1. General (a) This... national ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen as measured by nitrogen dioxide (“NO2...

  11. 40 CFR 50.6 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM10. 50.6 Section 50.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM10. (a) The level of the national... PM10 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 10 micrometers) by: (1)...

  12. 40 CFR 50.6 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM10. 50.6 Section 50.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM10. (a) The level of the national... PM10 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 10 micrometers) by: (1)...

  13. 77 FR 30280 - Final National Recommended Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Carbaryl-2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ...-005a; August 1994); Advanced Notice of Proposed Rule Making (ANPRM), (63 FR 36742; July 7, 1998); Water...; June 1998); and EPA Review and Approval of State and Tribal Water Quality Standards (65 FR 24641; April... AGENCY Final National Recommended Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Carbaryl--2012 AGENCY:...

  14. 77 FR 30087 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ...This rule establishes initial air quality designations for most areas in the United States, including areas of Indian country, for the 2008 primary and secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone. The designations for several counties in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin that the EPA is considering for inclusion in the Chicago nonattainment area will be designated in a......

  15. 76 FR 46083 - Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ...This proposed rule is being issued as required by a consent decree governing the schedule for completion of this review of the air quality criteria and the secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulfur. Based on its review, EPA proposes to retain the current nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) secondary......

  16. NATIONAL PERFORMANCE AUDIT PROGRAM AMBIENT AIR AUDITS OF ANALYTICAL PROFEICIENCY--1988

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of the U.S Environmental Protection Agencys 1988 National Ambient Air Performance Audit Program, Semiannual audits were conducted for lead, nitrate and sulfate on filter strips. ne audit was Conducted for high volume/PM10 size Selective inlet (ssi...

  17. 78 FR 34964 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... Federal Register on June 6, 2013, (78 FR 34178) and is available at: http://www.epa.gov/air/ozonepollution... on June 6, 2013, (78 FR 34178) and is available at http://www.epa.gov/air/ozonepollution/actions.html... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 50, 51, 70 and 71 Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality...

  18. 78 FR 52893 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 50, 51, 70 and 71 RIN 2060-AR34 Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation Plan Requirements Correction In proposed rule...

  19. NATIONAL PERFORMANCE AUDIT PROGRAM--AMBIENT AIR AUDITS OF ANALYTICAL PROFICIENCY--1987

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 1987 National Ambient Air Audit Program by pollutant and by analytical method. Semiannual audits were conducted for CO, Pb, NO3 and S04 (filter strips) and acid rain, and an annual audit was conducted ...

  20. 76 FR 76048 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 RIN 2060-AR17 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In rule document 2011-29460 appearing on pages 72097-72120 in the issues...

  1. 75 FR 71033 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Agency FR Federal Register FRM Federal Reference Method IQ Intelligence Quotient NAAQS National Ambient..., known as the Tribal Authority Rule (TAR), on February 12, 1999. 63 FR 7254, codified at 40 CFR 49 (1999... a notice on July 8, 2010 (75 FR 39254) which invited the public to comment on EPA's...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix K to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter K Appendix K to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. K Appendix K to Part...

  3. 76 FR 20347 - Release of Draft Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... (75 FR 8934). The draft IRP is being made available for consultation with CASAC and for public comment... AGENCY Release of Draft Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead (draft IRP). This document contains the plans for...

  4. 75 FR 10252 - Release of Draft Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... Carbon Monoxide AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Availability of draft documents... Exposure Assessment to Support the Review of the Carbon Monoxide Primary National Ambient Air Quality... draft assessment document: Policy Assessment for the Review of the Carbon Monoxide National Ambient...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2.5

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt... determining when the annual and 24-hour primary and secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS... appendix D of 40 CFR part 58, then 3 years of spatially averaged annual means will be averaged to...

  6. 40 CFR 50.13 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.13 Section 50.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....13 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary... the ambient air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal...

  7. 40 CFR 50.13 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.13 Section 50.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....13 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary... the ambient air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal...

  8. 40 CFR 50.13 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.13 Section 50.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....13 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary... the ambient air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal...

  9. 40 CFR 50.13 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.13 Section 50.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....13 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary... the ambient air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal...

  10. 40 CFR 50.13 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.13 Section 50.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....13 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary... the ambient air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  16. The National Ambient Air Monitoring Stategy: Rethinking the Role of National Networks

    EPA Science Inventory

    A current re-engineering of the United States routine ambient monitoring networks intended to improve the balance in addressing both regulatory and scientific objectives is addressed in this paper. Key attributes of these network modifications include the addition of collocated ...

  17. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-hour standards are codified in 40 CFR part 81. (c) EPA's authority under paragraph (b) of this section... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level...

  18. A Direct sensitivity approach to predict hourly ozone resulting from compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standard

    EPA Science Inventory

    In setting primary ambient air quality standards, the EPA’s responsibility under the law is to establish standards that protect public health. As part of the current review of the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), the US EPA evaluated the health exposure and ...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  3. Projected compliance with the PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, K.; Gardner, R.

    1999-02-01

    In 1997, the State of Maryland had no available ambient Federal Reference Method data on particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) but did have annual ambient data for particulate matter smaller than 10 microns (PM10) at twenty-four sites. The PM10 data was analyzed in conjunction with local annual and seasonal ZIP code-level emission inventories and with speciated PM2.5 data from four nearby monitors in the IMPROVE network (located in the national parks and wilderness areas) in an effort to predict annual average and seasonal high PM2.5 concentrations at the twenty-four PM10 monitor sites operated from 1992 to 1996. All seasonal high concentrations were predicted to be below the 24-hour PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) at the sites operated in Maryland between 1992 and 1996. A geographic analysis of the emission inventories was also performed to evaluate the impact of PM2.5 emissions from Maryland`s power plants on fourteen monitor locations that were predicted to have a reading exceeding the annual NAAQS for any year.

  4. Workshop in Support of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen (NOx) and Sulfur Oxides (SOx)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing a workshop to discuss policy-relevant science to Inform EPA’s "Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur" report. The workshop is being organized by EPA’s Office of Research and Development’s, Nation...

  5. 76 FR 6056 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... Protection Agency FR Federal Register NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards NTTAA National Technology... (74 FR 58688), EPA deferred designations for three areas to evaluate further the reason for their high... November 13, 2009 notice (74 FR 58688), we also announced that our review of 2006-2008 monitoring data...

  6. 40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.7 Section 50.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary and... air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 2.5...

  7. 40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.7 Section 50.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary and... air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 2.5...

  8. 40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.7 Section 50.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary and... air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 2.5...

  9. 40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.7 Section 50.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary and... air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 2.5...

  10. 40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.7 Section 50.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary and... air as PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal 2.5...

  11. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... secondary ambient air quality standards for lead (Pb) and its compounds are 0.15 micrograms per cubic meter, arithmetic mean concentration over a 3-month period, measured in the ambient air as Pb either by: (1) A... primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for Pb are met when the maximum arithmetic...

  12. Key questions for the upcoming review of the national ambient air quality standards for particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Langworthy, L.M.

    1998-12-31

    On July 18, 1997, the Administrator of the US Environmental Protection Agency adopted stringent new National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter measured as PM2.5 as requisite to protect the public health with an adequate margin of safety. At the same time, the President issued a memorandum to the Administrator recognizing that scientific uncertainties remain both concerning the health effects of particulate matter and the means to reduce such effects. The President also endorsed a plan for implementation of the new standards that called for completion of a review of the standards before any areas would be designated as nonattainment and therefore required to adopt new controls related to the standards. Under the Clean Air Act, such a review must be completed by July 2002. This paper identifies key scientific uncertainties related both to the purported health effects of PM2.5 and to the formulation of control strategies that will effectively reduce the health risk posed by ambient PM2.5, focusing on the issues that were raised during the rulemaking to establish the new standards as well as research priorities identified by EPA and others. It summarizes congressional reaction to these uncertainties. Finally, it explains that EPA`s schedule for the next review of the standards provides little opportunity to complete the needed research and suggests an alternative schedule and appropriate means for responding to the uncertainties that will inevitably remain so that the Agency will have a better record on which to determine whether revision of the PM2.5 standards is appropriate and how to implement the standards that are appropriate in order to protect the public health.

  13. Review of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen Dioxide: Risk and Exposure Assessment Planning Document

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting a review of the air quality criteria and the primary (health-based) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The major phases of the process for reviewing NAAQS include the following: (...

  14. 78 FR 47191 - Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Primary National Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... Columbia EO Executive Order EPA Environmental Protection Agency FR Federal Register NAAQS National Ambient..., 2010 (75 FR 35520), and became effective on August 23, 2010. Based on the Administrator's review of the... regulations, known as the Tribal Authority Rule (TAR), on February 12, 1999. 63 FR 7254, codified at 40...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pb-PM 10 Data as Surrogate Pb-TSP Data. (a) As stipulated in section 2.10 of Appendix C to 40 CFR... Air Quality Standards for Lead R Appendix R to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL.... 50, App. R Appendix R to Part 50—Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pb-PM 10 Data as Surrogate Pb-TSP Data. (a) As stipulated in section 2.10 of Appendix C to 40 CFR... collection periods prior to January 1, 2009 (i.e., “pre-rule” data) will also be considered valid for NAAQS... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS...

  17. 75 FR 57220 - Rule To Implement the 1997 8-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard: New Source Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ..., e-mail address, and telephone and fax numbers. Questions concerning the August 24, 2010 (75 FR 51960... holding the public hearing was published in the Federal Register on August 24, 2010 (75 FR 51960), and is... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 51 RIN 2060-AP30 Rule To Implement the 1997 8-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air...

  18. 77 FR 64036 - Determination of Attainment of the 1-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ...EPA is determining that the Sacramento Metro 1-hour ozone nonattainment area (Sacramento Metro Area) has attained the revoked National Ambient Air Quality Standard (1-hour ozone NAAQS or standard), and to exclude certain 2008 data caused by wildfire exceptional events. These air quality determinations were proposed in conjunction with a proposed determination to terminate the State of......

  19. 76 FR 76972 - Release of Final Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... available for public comment (76 FR 20347). The final IRP announced today has been prepared after... was issued on February 26, 2010 (75 FR 8934). Dated: December 5, 2011. Mary E. Henigin, Acting... AGENCY Release of Final Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

  20. 75 FR 44790 - Second Draft Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ...; 75 FR 39253; July 8, 2010). The second draft Policy Assessment builds on the scientific and technical... June 30, 2010 (75 FR 39252, July 8, 2010). However, in finalizing this document, EPA staff identified a... AGENCY Second Draft Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  1. 75 FR 39253 - Release of Second Draft Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ...) on November 30, 2007 (72 FR 63177; November 8, 2007). Comments received from that consultation and... be held on July 26-27, 2010 (75 FR 32763; June 9, 2010). Following the CASAC meeting, EPA will... AGENCY Release of Second Draft Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air...

  2. 77 FR 43521 - Final Rule To Implement the 1997 8-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 RIN 2060-AO96 Final Rule To Implement the 1997 8-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard: Classification of Areas That Were Initially Classified Under Subpart 1; Revision of the Anti-Backsliding Provisions To Address...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix K to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Determinations 2.124-Hour Primary and Secondary Standards (a) Under 40 CFR 50.6(a) the 24-hour primary and... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY... particulate matter data to determine attainment of the 24-hour standards specified in 40 CFR 50.6. For...

  4. 77 FR 65310 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... the 2006 24-hour Fine Particle (PM 2.5 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standards,'' 74 FR 58688... Federal Regulations DC District of Columbia EO Executive Order EPA Environmental Protection Agency FR... EPA finalized designations for the 2006 24-hour PM 2.5 NAAQS (74 FR 58688, November 13, 2009), the...

  5. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion...

  6. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion...

  7. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion...

  8. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion...

  9. 75 FR 20595 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur: First External Review Draft (75 FR 11877; March 12, 2010... AGENCY Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides... a proposal addressing the nitrogen oxides (NO X ) and sulfur oxides (SO X ) secondary...

  10. Integrating Susceptibility into Environmental Policy: An Analysis of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Lead

    PubMed Central

    Chari, Ramya; Burke, Thomas A.; White, Ronald H.; Fox, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    Susceptibility to chemical toxins has not been adequately addressed in risk assessment methodologies. As a result, environmental policies may fail to meet their fundamental goal of protecting the public from harm. This study examines how characterization of risk may change when susceptibility is explicitly considered in policy development; in particular we examine the process used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set a National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for lead. To determine a NAAQS, EPA estimated air lead-related decreases in child neurocognitive function through a combination of multiple data elements including concentration-response (CR) functions. In this article, we present alternative scenarios for determining a lead NAAQS using CR functions developed in populations more susceptible to lead toxicity due to socioeconomic disadvantage. The use of CR functions developed in susceptible groups resulted in cognitive decrements greater than original EPA estimates. EPA’s analysis suggested that a standard level of 0.15 µg/m3 would fulfill decision criteria, but by incorporating susceptibility we found that options for the standard could reasonably be extended to lower levels. The use of data developed in susceptible populations would result in the selection of a more protective NAAQS under the same decision framework applied by EPA. Results are used to frame discussion regarding why cumulative risk assessment methodologies are needed to help inform policy development. PMID:22690184

  11. Research on ambient temperature passive magnetic bearings at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.; Ryitov, D.D.` Smith, J.R.; Tung, L.S.

    1997-04-01

    Research performed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on the equilibrium and stability of a new class of ambient-temperature passive bearing systems is described. The basic concepts involved are: (1) Stability of the rotating system is only achieved in the rotating state. That is, disengaging mechanical systems are used to insure stable levitation at rest (when Earnshaw`s theorem applies). (2) Stable levitation by passive magnetic elements can be achieved if the vector sum of the force derivatives of the several elements of the system is net negative (i.e. restoring) for axial, transverse, and tilt-type perturbations from equilibrium. To satisfy the requirements of (2) using only permanent magnet elements we have employed periodic ``Halbach arrays.`` These interact with passive inductive loaded circuits and act as stabilizers, with the primary forces arising from axially symmetric permanent-magnet elements. Stabilizers and other elements needed to create compact passive magnetic bearing systems have been constructed. Novel passive means for stabilizing classes of rotor-dynamic instabilities in such systems have also been investigated.

  12. Hygroscopic Characteristics of Organic Laden Ambient Aerosols in Yosemite National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, W. C.; Day, D. E.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Collett, J. L.; Carrico, C. M.; Lee, T.; Bench, G.; Carrillo, J.

    2003-12-01

    Water absorption by inorganic compounds can be modeled with some degree of certainty; however, water uptake by ambient organic aerosols remains speculative. To improve the understanding of organic hygroscopicity, an aerosol characterization study was conducted at Yosemite National Park, California, starting in July and ending in the first week of September 2002. High time resolution measurement (15-minute time increments) of PM2.5 ionic species (Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+) were measured using PILS (Particle-Into-Liquid-System)/IC (Ion Chromatography). Commercially available annular denuders and a PM2.5 cyclone (URG) were used upstream of the PILS/IC to remove particles greater than 2.5 μm and acidic and basic gases. A dual wavelength aethalometer and an R&P particulate carbon monitor were used to measure carbon on a semi-continuous basis while a DRUM sampler allowed for semi-continuous estimates of concentrations of elements associated with crustal material. Standard IMPROVE type samplers were used to measure 24-hr integrated samples of these same aerosols. Two nephelometers operated in tandem, one dry and the other with a controlled humidity environment, were used to measure f(RH) = bscat(RH)/bscat,dry, where bscat(RH) is the scattering coefficient measured at some relative humidity and bscat,dry is the scattering coefficient measured at RH <10%. The aerosol composition was highly variable in time, with a strong diurnal cycle. Organic carbon mass was observed to be, on the average, 70% of the fine mass with days where its contribution was well over 95% of the mass. Measurements of carbon isotopes revealed the fraction of carbon from biogenic sources to range from approximately 73 to 95%. Water soluble potassium was highly correlated with carbon mass, suggesting the influence of wood smoke. The ionic fraction of the aerosol consisted primarily of ammonium sulfate and in most cases nitrate was in the form of sodium nitrate. Fine soil mass was

  13. Development, enhancement, and evaluation of aircraft measurement techniques for national ambient air quality standard criteria pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brent, Lacey Cluff

    The atmospheric contaminants most harmful to human health are designated Criteria Pollutants. To help Maryland attain the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for Criteria Pollutants, and to improve our fundamental understanding of atmospheric chemistry, I conducted aircraft measurements in the Regional Atmospheric Measurement Modeling Prediction Program (RAMMPP). These data are used to evaluate model simulations and satellite observations. I developed techniques for improving airborne observation of two NAAQS pollutants, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). While structure and composition of organic aerosol are important for understanding PM formation, the molecular speciation of organic ambient aerosol remains largely unknown. The spatial distribution of reactive nitrogen is likewise poorly constrained. To examine water-soluble organic aerosol (WSOA) during an air pollution episode, I designed and implemented a shrouded aerosol inlet system to collect PM onto quartz fiber filters from a Cessna 402 research aircraft. Inlet evaluation conducted during a side-by-side flight with the NASA P3 demonstrated agreement to within 30%. An ion chromatographic mass spectrometric method developed using the NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1649b Urban Dust, as a surrogate material resulted in acidic class separation and resolution of at least 34 organic acids; detection limits approach pg/g concentrations. Analysis of aircraft filter samples resulted in detection of 8 inorganic species and 16 organic acids of which 12 were quantified. Aged, re-circulated metropolitan air showed a greater number of dicarboxylic acids compared to air recently transported from the west. While the NAAQS for NO2 is rarely exceeded, it is a precursor molecule for ozone, America's most recalcitrant pollutant. Using cavity ringdown spectroscopy employing a light emitting diode (LED), I measured vertical profiles of NO2 (surface to 2.5 km) west (upwind) of the Baltimore

  14. 40 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2.5

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Air Quality Standards for PM2.5 N Appendix N to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... determining when the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for PM2.5 are met, specifically the primary and secondary annual and 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS specified in § 50.7, 50.13, and 50.18. PM2.5...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2.5

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Air Quality Standards for PM2.5 N Appendix N to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... determining when the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for PM2.5 are met, specifically the primary and secondary annual and 24-hour PM2.5 NAAQS specified in § 50.7, 50.13, and 50.18. PM2.5...

  16. REVIEW OF NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS (NAAQS) FOR CARBON MONOXIDE (CO) - EXPOSURE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the review process, a CO Exposure Analysis will also be conducted to assess the extent of human exposure posed by current ambient CO concentrations and, upon meeting the current CO NAAQS. The results of this analysis will be incorporated into the Staff Paper. (This w...

  17. Applicability of ambient toxicity testing to national or regional water-quality assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elder, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Comprehensive assessment of the quality of natural waters requires a multifaceted approach. Based on experimentation designed to monitor responses of organisms to environmental stresses, toxicity testing may have diverse purposes in water quality assessments. These purposes may include identification that warrant further study because of poor water quality or unusual ecological features, verification of other types of monitoring, or assessment of contaminant effects on aquatic communities. A wide variety of toxicity test methods have been developed to fulfill the needs of diverse applications. The methods differ primarily in the full selections made relative to four characteristics: (1) test species, (2) endpoints (acute or chronic), (3) test enclosure type, and (4) test substance (toxicant) that functions as the environmental stress. Toxicity test approachs vary in their capacity to meet the needs of large-scale assessments of existing water quality. Ambient testing is more likely to meet these needs than are the procedures that call for exposure of the test organisms to known concentrations of a single toxicant. However, meaningful interpretation of ambient test results depend on the existence of accompanying chemical analysis of the ambient media. The ambient test substance may be water or sediments. Sediment tests have had limited application, but they are useful because of the fact that most toxicants tend to accumulate in sediments, and many test species either inhabit the sediments or are in frequent contact with them. Biochemical testing methods, which have been developing rapidly in recent years, are likely to be among the most useful procedures for large-scale water quality assessments. They are relatively rapid and simple, and more importantly, they focus on biochemical changes that are the initial responses of virtually all organisms to environmental stimuli. Most species are sensitive to relatively few toxicants and their sensitivities vary as

  18. Estimating contribution of wildland fires to ambient ozone levels in National Parks in the Sierra Nevada, California.

    PubMed

    Preisler, Haiganoush K; Zhong, Shiyuan Sharon; Esperanza, Annie; Brown, Timothy J; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Tarnay, Leland

    2010-03-01

    Data from four continuous ozone and weather monitoring sites operated by the National Park Service in Sierra Nevada, California, are used to develop an ozone forecasting model and to estimate the contribution of wildland fires on ambient ozone levels. The analyses of weather and ozone data pointed to the transport of ozone precursors from the Central Valley as an important source of pollution in these National Parks. Comparisons of forecasted and observed values demonstrated that accurate forecasts of next-day hourly ozone levels may be achieved by using a time series model with historic averages, expected local weather and modeled PM values as explanatory variables. Results on fire smoke influence indicated occurrence of significant increases in average ozone levels with increasing fire activity. The overall effect on diurnal ozone values, however, was small when compared with the amount of variability attributed to sources other than fire. PMID:19914752

  19. 40 CFR Appendix T to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretation of the Primary National... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. T Appendix T to Part 50—Interpretation of the Primary...

  20. Applicability of ambient toxicity testing to national or regional water-quality assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elder, John F.

    1990-01-01

    Comprehensive assessment of the quality of natural waters requires a multifaceted approach. Descriptions of existing conditions may be achieved by various kinds of chemical and hydrologic analyses, whereas information about the effects of such conditions on living organisms depends on biological monitoring. Toxicity testing is one type of biological monitoring that can be used to identify possible effects of toxic contaminants. Based on experimentation designed to monitor responses of organisms to environmental stresses, toxicity testing may have diverse purposes in water-quality assessments. These purposes may include identification of areas that warrant further study because of poor water quality or unusual ecological features, verification of other types of monitoring, or assessment of contaminant effects on aquatic communities. Toxicity-test results are most effective when used as a complement to chemical analyses, hydrologic measurements, and other biological monitoring. However, all toxicity-testing procedures have certain limitations that must be considered in developing the methodology and applications of toxicity testing in any large-scale water-quality-assessment program. A wide variety of toxicity-test methods have been developed to fulfill the needs of diverse applications. The methods differ primarily in the selections made relative to four characteristics: (1) test species, (2) endpoint (acute or chronic), (3) test-enclosure type, and (4) test substance (toxicant) that functions as the environmental stress. Toxicity-test approaches vary in their capacity to meet the needs of large-scale assessments of existing water quality. Ambient testing, whereby the test organism is exposed to naturally occurring substances that contain toxicant mixtures in an organic or inorganic matrix, is more likely to meet these needs than are procedures that call for exposure of the test organisms to known concentrations of a single toxicant. However, meaningful

  1. Chronology of the US national ambient air quality standards. Supplemental tables to A&WMA 2007 Critical Review: Will the circle be unbroken: a history of the U.S. national ambient air quality standards

    SciTech Connect

    John Bachmann

    2007-06-15

    These tables summarize salient aspects of the chronology of the development and periodic revisions of the seven pollutants for which the US Environmental Protection Agency has produced air quality criteria and national ambient air quality standards (NAAAQS) since passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1970. They are intended to provide reference and background to the main body of the 2007 Critical Review. They highlight when key steps in the criteria and NAAQS process occurred and highlight some of the key factors underlying the decisions. Particulates chronicled are: particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone and photochemical oxidants, hydrocarbons, nitrogen dioxide, and lead. The tables are only available to subscribers of the Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association and were issued with the June 2007 issue, vol. 57, No. 6. 259 refs., 7 tabs.

  2. Will the circle be unbroken: a history of the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, John

    2007-06-01

    In celebration of the 100th anniversary of the Air & Waste Management Association, this review examines the history of air quality management (AQM) in the United States over the last century, with an emphasis on the ambient standards programs established by the landmark 1970 Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments. The current CAA system is a hybrid of several distinct air pollution control philosophies, including the recursive or circular system driven by ambient standards. Although this evolving system has resulted in tremendous improvements in air quality, it has been far from perfect in terms of timeliness and effectiveness. The paper looks at several periods in the history of the U.S. program, including: (1) 1900-1970, spanning the early smoke abatement and smog control programs, the first federal involvement, and the development of a hybrid AQM approach in the 1970 CAA; (2) 1971-1976, when the first National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) were set and implemented; (3) 1977-1993, a period of the first revisions to the standards, new CAA Amendments, delays in implementation and decision-making, and key science/policy/legislative developments that would alter both the focus and scale of air pollution programs and how they are implemented; and (4) 1993-2006, the second and third wave of NAAQS revisions and their implementation in the context of the 1990 CAA. This discussion examines where NAAQS have helped drive implementation programs and how improvements in both effects and air quality/control sciences influenced policy and legislation to enhance the effectiveness of the system over time. The review concludes with a look toward the future of AQM, emphasizing challenges and ways to meet them. The most significant of these is the need to make more efficient progress toward air quality goals, while adjusting the system to address the growing intersections between air quality management and climate change. PMID:17608004

  3. A direct sensitivity approach to predict hourly ozone resulting from compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standard.

    PubMed

    Simon, Heather; Baker, Kirk R; Akhtar, Farhan; Napelenok, Sergey L; Possiel, Norm; Wells, Benjamin; Timin, Brian

    2013-03-01

    In setting primary ambient air quality standards, the EPA's responsibility under the law is to establish standards that protect public health. As part of the current review of the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), the US EPA evaluated the health exposure and risks associated with ambient ozone pollution using a statistical approach to adjust recent air quality to simulate just meeting the current standard level, without specifying emission control strategies. One drawback of this purely statistical concentration rollback approach is that it does not take into account spatial and temporal heterogeneity of ozone response to emissions changes. The application of the higher-order decoupled direct method (HDDM) in the community multiscale air quality (CMAQ) model is discussed here to provide an example of a methodology that could incorporate this variability into the risk assessment analyses. Because this approach includes a full representation of the chemical production and physical transport of ozone in the atmosphere, it does not require assumed background concentrations, which have been applied to constrain estimates from past statistical techniques. The CMAQ-HDDM adjustment approach is extended to measured ozone concentrations by determining typical sensitivities at each monitor location and hour of the day based on a linear relationship between first-order sensitivities and hourly ozone values. This approach is demonstrated by modeling ozone responses for monitor locations in Detroit and Charlotte to domain-wide reductions in anthropogenic NOx and VOCs emissions. As seen in previous studies, ozone response calculated using HDDM compared well to brute-force emissions changes up to approximately a 50% reduction in emissions. A new stepwise approach is developed here to apply this method to emissions reductions beyond 50% allowing for the simulation of more stringent reductions in ozone concentrations. Compared to previous rollback methods, this

  4. Areas Nacionales de Estudio Ambiental: Una Guia. (National Environmental Study Area: A Guide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This booklet, the Spanish version of SE 014 817, is a guide for teachers and resource managers who are interested in establishing National Environmental Study Areas (NESA) or interested in receiving NESA recognition for their on-going environmental study area programs. It outlines the characteristics and procedures of the program; the nature,…

  5. NATIONAL PERFORMANCE AUDIT PROGRAM AMBIENT AIR AUDITS OF ANALYTICAL PROFICIENCY - 1983

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 1983 National Audit Program by pollutant and by analytical method. Semiannual audits were conducted for SO2 and NO2 (bubbler methods), Pb, NO3(-) and SO4(=) (filter strips) and CO (continuous monitors)...

  6. NATIONAL PERFORMANCE AUDIT PROGRAM AMBIENT AIR AUDITS OF ANALYTICAL PROFICIENCY - 1984

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents the results of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 1984 National Audit Program by pollutant and by analytical method. Semiannual audits were conducted for Pb, NO3 and SO4 (filter strips) and one audit was conducted for SO2 (bubbler), NO2 (bubbler), CO a...

  7. NATIONAL PERFORMANCE AUDIT PROGRAM: AMBIENT AIR AUDITS OF ANALYTICAL PROFICIENCY, 1986

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents the results of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 1986 National Audit Program by pollutant and by analytical method. Semiannual audits were conducted for Pb, NO3 and SO4 (filter strips) and acid rain, and annual audits were conducted for CO and high vo...

  8. NATIONAL PERFORMANCE AUDIT PROGRAM. AMBIENT AIR AUDITS OF ANALYTICAL PROFICIENCY, 1981

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 1981 National Audit Program, which are summarized by pollutant and by analytical method. Semiannual audits were conducted for SO2 and NO2 (bubbler methods), Pb, NO3(negative 2) and SO4(negative 2) (fil...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waiver of the ozone monitoring requirement would be handled under provisions of 40 CFR, part 58. Some... year unless the appropriate Regional Administrator has granted a waiver under the provisions of 40 CFR... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... waiver of the ozone monitoring requirement would be handled under provisions of 40 CFR, part 58. Some... year unless the appropriate Regional Administrator has granted a waiver under the provisions of 40 CFR... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waiver of the ozone monitoring requirement would be handled under provisions of 40 CFR, part 58. Some... year unless the appropriate Regional Administrator has granted a waiver under the provisions of 40 CFR... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... waiver of the ozone monitoring requirement would be handled under provisions of 40 CFR, part 58. Some... year unless the appropriate Regional Administrator has granted a waiver under the provisions of 40 CFR... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waiver of the ozone monitoring requirement would be handled under provisions of 40 CFR, part 58. Some... year unless the appropriate Regional Administrator has granted a waiver under the provisions of 40 CFR... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection...

  14. Nonradioactive Ambient Air Monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory 2001--2002

    SciTech Connect

    E. Gladney; J.Dewart, C.Eberhart; J.Lochamy

    2004-09-01

    During the spring of 2000, the Cerro Grande forest fire reached Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and ignited both above-ground vegetation and disposed materials in several landfills. During and after the fire, there was concern about the potential human health impacts from chemicals emitted by the combustion of these Laboratory materials. Consequently, short-term, intensive air-monitoring studies were performed during and shortly after the fire. Unlike the radiological data from many years of AIRNET sampling, LANL did not have an adequate database of nonradiological species under baseline conditions with which to compare data collected during the fire. Therefore, during 2001 the Meteorology and Air Quality Group designed and implemented a new air-monitoring program, entitled NonRadNET, to provide nonradiological background data under normal conditions. The objectives of NonRadNET were to: (1) develop the capability for collecting nonradiological air-monitoring data, (2) conduct monitoring to develop a database of typical background levels of selected nonradiological species in the communities nearest the Laboratory, and (3) determine LANL's potential contribution to nonradiological air pollution in the surrounding communities. NonRadNET ended in late December 2002 with five quarters of data. The purpose of this paper is to organize and describe the NonRadNET data collected over 2001-2002 to use as baseline data, either for monitoring during a fire, some other abnormal event, or routine use. To achieve that purpose, in this paper we will: (1) document the NonRadNET program procedures, methods, and quality management, (2) describe the usual origins and uses of the species measured, (3) compare the species measured to LANL and other area emissions, (4) present the five quarters of data, (5) compare the data to known typical environmental values, and (6) evaluate the data against exposure standards.

  15. Do US Ambient Air Lead Levels Have a Significant Impact on Childhood Blood Lead Levels: Results of a National Study

    PubMed Central

    Brink, LuAnn L.; Talbott, Evelyn O.; Sharma, Ravi K.; Marsh, Gary M.; Wu, Wen Chi; Rager, Judith R.; Strosnider, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Although lead paint and leaded gasoline have not been used in the US for thirty years, thousands of US children continue to have blood lead levels (BLLs) of concern. Methods. We investigated the potential association of modeled air lead levels and BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL using a large CDC database with BLLs on children aged 0–3 years. Percent of children with BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL (2000–2007) by county and proportion of pre-50 housing and SES variables were merged with the US EPA's National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) modeled air lead data. Results. The proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 1.24% in the highest air lead counties, and the proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 0.36% in the lowest air lead counties, resulting in a crude prevalence ratio of 3.4. Further analysis using multivariate negative binomial regression revealed that NATA lead was a significant predictor of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL after controlling for percent pre-l950 housing, percent rural, and percent black. A geospatial regression revealed that air lead, percent older housing, and poverty were all significant predictors of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL. Conclusions. More emphasis should be given to potential sources of ambient air lead near residential areas. PMID:23983719

  16. Are the elements of the proposed ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards informed by the best available science?

    PubMed

    Goodman, Julie E; Sax, Sonja N; Lange, Sabine; Rhomberg, Lorenz R

    2015-06-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) issues National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for six criteria pollutants, including ozone. Each standard has four elements: an indicator, level, averaging time, and form. Ozone levels (i.e., air concentrations) alone in scientific studies are not directly comparable to the "level" element of the NAAQS because the standard considers the level in the context of its relation to the remaining elements. Failure to appreciate this has led to misunderstandings regarding NAAQS that would be health-protective. This can be seen with controlled human ozone exposure studies, which often involved small numbers of people exercising quasi-continuously for a long duration at an intensity not common in the general population (and unlikely achievable by most sensitive individuals), under worst-case exposure profiles. In addition, epidemiology studies have used different averaging times and have had methodological limitations that may have biased results. Such considerations can make it difficult to compare ozone levels and results across studies and to appropriately apply them in a NAAQS evaluation. Relating patterns and circumstances of exposure, and exposure measurements, to all elements of the NAAQS can be challenging, but if US EPA fully undertook this, it would be evident that available evidence does not indicate that proposed lower ozone standards would be more health protective than the current one. PMID:25857292

  17. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Interpretation of the Primary... be submitted to EPA's Air Quality System (AQS), or otherwise available to EPA, meeting...

  18. AMBIENT AIR MONITORING STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act requires EPA to establish national ambient air quality standards and to regulate as necessary, hazardous air pollutants. EPA uses ambient air monitoring to determine current air quality conditions, and to assess progress toward meeting these standards and relat...

  19. Estimating the national public health burden associated with exposure to ambient PM2.5 and ozone.

    PubMed

    Fann, Neal; Lamson, Amy D; Anenberg, Susan C; Wesson, Karen; Risley, David; Hubbell, Bryan J

    2012-01-01

    Ground-level ozone (O(3)) and fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) are associated with increased risk of mortality. We quantify the burden of modeled 2005 concentrations of O(3) and PM(2.5) on health in the United States. We use the photochemical Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model in conjunction with ambient monitored data to create fused surfaces of summer season average 8-hour ozone and annual mean PM(2.5) levels at a 12 km grid resolution across the continental United States. Employing spatially resolved demographic and concentration data, we assess the spatial and age distribution of air-pollution-related mortality and morbidity. For both PM(2.5) and O(3) we also estimate: the percentage of total deaths due to each pollutant; the reduction in life years and life expectancy; and the deaths avoided according to hypothetical air quality improvements. Using PM(2.5) and O(3) mortality risk coefficients drawn from the long-term American Cancer Society (ACS) cohort study and National Mortality and Morbidity Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS), respectively, we estimate 130,000 PM(2.5) -related deaths and 4,700 ozone-related deaths to result from 2005 air quality levels. Among populations aged 65-99, we estimate nearly 1.1 million life years lost from PM(2.5) exposure and approximately 36,000 life years lost from ozone exposure. Among the 10 most populous counties, the percentage of deaths attributable to PM(2.5) and ozone ranges from 3.5% in San Jose to 10% in Los Angeles. These results show that despite significant improvements in air quality in recent decades, recent levels of PM(2.5) and ozone still pose a nontrivial risk to public health. PMID:21627672

  20. Role of science and judgment in setting national ambient air quality standards: how low is low enough?

    PubMed

    McClellan, Roger O

    2012-06-01

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) requires listing as criteria air pollutants those pollutants that arise from multiple sources and are found across the United States. The original list included carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulate matter, photochemical oxidants (later regulated as ozone), and hydrocarbons. Later, the listing of hydrocarbons was revoked and lead was listed. The CAA requires the EPA Administrator to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for these pollutants using the "latest scientific knowledge" at levels that, in the judgment of the Administrator, are "requisite to protect public health" while "allowing an adequate margin of safety" without considering the cost of implementing the NAAQS. The NAAQS are set using scientific knowledge to inform the Administrator's policy judgments on each NAAQS. Recently, there has been increasing tension and debate over the role of scientific knowledge versus policy judgment in the setting of NAAQS. This paper reviews key elements of this debate drawing on the opinion of Supreme Court Justice Stephen Breyer, in Whitman v. American Trucking Associations, to resolve the conundrum posed by the CAA language. I conclude that scientists should carefully distinguish between their interpretations of scientific knowledge on specific pollutants and their personal preferences as to a given policy outcome (i.e., specific level and form of the NAAQS), recognizing that these are policy judgments as to acceptable levels of risk if the science does not identify a threshold level below which there are no identifiable health risks. These policy judgments are exclusively delegated by the CAA to the EPA Administrator who needs to articulate the basis for their policy judgments on the level and form of the NAAQS and associated level of acceptable risk. PMID:22662024

  1. Review of the national ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide assessment of scientific and technical information. OAQPS staff paper. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, D.J.; McCurdy, T.R.; Richmond, H.M.

    1992-08-01

    The paper evaluates and interprets the updated scientific and technical information that EPA staff believes is most relevant to the review of primary (health) national ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. The assessment is intended to bridge the gap between the scientific review in the EPA criteria document for carbon monoxide and the judgements required of the Administrator in setting ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. The major recommendations of the staff paper include the following: (1) There continues to be a need to control ambient levels of carbon monoxide to protect public health; (2) Both 1-hour and 8-hour averaging times should be retained for primary carbon monoxide standards; (3) Exposure analysis results indicate relatively few individuals with angina pectoris would experience carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels of 2.1% or greater when exposed to carbon monoxide levels in ambient air only if current standards are attained; (4) Public health risk for COHb levels of 2.0% or lower appears to be small, if any; (5) Current 1-hour (35 ppm) and 8-hour (9 ppm) standards for carbon monoxide should be reaffirmed.

  2. Preliminary information on ambient concentrations measured at the Las Vegas National Near-Road MSAT study site

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides preliminary information on the trends in ambient concentrations observed near a heavily traveled highway in Las Vegas, Nevada. As part of a joint effort by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Federal Highway Administration, an air monitoring pro...

  3. 76 FR 4779 - Denial of the Petitions To Reconsider the Final Rule Promulgating the Primary National Ambient...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... under Section 109 of the Clean Air Act (CAA, or Act) (75 FR 35520, June 22, 2010). EPA has considered... ambient air. See 40 CFR 50.17(b) at 75 FR 35592. Modeling can very accurately identify areas of potential daily maximum 1-hour concentrations above the NAAQS. See 75 FR at 35559. Accurate prediction of...

  4. Technical comments on EPA`s proposed revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1997-03-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed new ambient air quality standards specifically for fine particulate matter, regulating concentrations of particles with median aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 2.5}). Two new standards have been proposed: a maximum 24-hr concentration that is intended to protect against acute health effects, and an annual concentration limit that is intended to protect against longer-term health effects. EPA has also proposed a slight relaxation of the 24-hr standard for inhalable particles (PM{sub 10}), by allowing additional exceedances each year. Fine particles are currently being indirectly controlled by means of regulations for PM{sub 10} and TSP, under the Clean Air Act of 1970 and subsequent amendments. Although routine monitoring of PM{sub 2.5} is rare and data are sparse, the available data indicate that ambient concentrations have been declining at about 6% per year under existing regulations.

  5. Comparison of air dispersion modeling results with ambient air sampling data: A case study at Tacoma Landfill, a National Priorities List Site

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, L.R. ); Rutherford, T.L. )

    1994-08-01

    Air dispersion modeling, ambient air sampling, and emissions testing of landfill sources have been performed to evaluate the effects of remedial activities on ambient air surrounding the Tacoma Landfill. In 1983, the Tacoma Landfill was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) as part of the Commencement Bay/South Tacoma Channel Superfund site. Remedial activities completed, or near completion, at the 190 acre (768,903 m[sup 2]) Tacoma Landfill include a groundwater extraction system and air stripping units used to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from groundwater, landfill gas extraction and flare system to control gas migration from the landfill, landfill liner and leachate collection system for an active section of the landfill, and a landfill cap that covers the inactive portions of the landfill. Dispersion modeling was performed with measured stack emission data using Industrial Source Complex (ISC) to determine the groundlevel concentrations of VOCs from the air stripper, flares, and active portion of the landfill for comparison with the measured ambient air data collected during 1992. 9 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Association between children's forced vital capacity and long-term exposure to local ambient temperature in China: A national cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Li, Qin; Wang, Hai-Jun; Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Song, Jie-Yun; Guo, Yuming

    2016-07-01

    It is well documented that short-term exposure to extreme ambient temperature is associated with respiratory disorder. However, few studies have assessed the long-term effect of temperature on children's lung function. The present study aimed to investigate the association between long-term exposure to local ambient temperature and children's forced vital capacity (FVC) in China. We analyzed the FVC data of 71,768 children from the 2010 Chinese National Survey on Students' Construction and Health (CHNSCH), and local annual average ambient temperature, relative humidity, air pollutants data from China Meteorological Administration and Ministry of Environment Protection of China. Generalized additive model (GAM) with non-linear function was used to examine the effect of ambient temperature on children's FVC. The results showed that low temperature was significantly associated with decrease of FVC in Chinese children within certain temperature range while adjusting for individual characteristics, socioeconomic conditions, air pollutants and relative humidity. The largest alteration of FVC related to the annual average temperature difference among cities from 20.4°C to 4.5°C was observed, being 242.7ml (95%CI: 220.0, 265.3) decrease in FVC. The similar association was found in both physically active and inactive children, while the largest alteration of FVC related to the temperature difference reached 329.1ml (95%CI: 296.7, 361.6) in physically active children and 290.5ml (95%CI: 255.7, 325.3) in physically inactive ones. Public health policy should be developed for protecting children's respiratory health during growth and development in some areas with cold weather. Key message What is the key question? Few studies have assessed the long-term effect of temperature on children's forced vital capacity (FVC). We analyzed the Chinese national survey data to clarify the association between children's forced vital capacity and long-term exposure to local ambient

  7. Scientific basis of the national ambient air quality standards for ozone: How do new discoveries and other concerns modify public health risks and expected benefits?

    SciTech Connect

    Vostal, J.J.; Heuss, J.M.; Paul, R.T.; Pezda, S.A.; Ball, J.C.; Wimette, H.J.

    1999-07-01

    The US EPA, in their recent review of the ozone NAAQS, acknowledged that substantial uncertainties exist with respect to the determination of public health risks due to ambient ozone. In particular, the uncertainties focus on considerable differences of opinion among scientists for the possible health effects at ozone levels near the new 8-hr. ozone National Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 0.08 ppm. Information on health or vegetation effects of low ambient ozone levels has been scarce, or extrapolated from studies using levels that are substantially above the new standard level. Uncertainties fall into three categories: (1) the extent of the adversity of public health endpoints; (2) the probability of adverse exposures; and (3) the impact of background levels on the achievability of the new standard. More specifically: (A) Public health effects of low ozone levels have thus far depended primarily on compromised pulmonary function as the biological endpoint of the greatest clinical significance. However, research data published after the standard was promulgated show that the ozone-induced effects represent more a physiological defense mechanism than an adverse effect of low ambient ozone concentrations. In light of these new findings, the alleged ozone action represents only a decline in pulmonary function test performance and not in the vital function of the lungs. This new interpretation not only eliminates the adverse character of pulmonary function decrements, but also largely modifies the proposed estimates of public health risks. (B) Public health risk assessments have indicated that even with compliance of the 1-hour ozone standard, the chances for US populations to encounter an adverse ozone exposure have been practically eliminated.

  8. Comparative study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coral tissues and the ambient sediments from Kenting National Park, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ko, Fung-Chi; Chang, Chiung-Wen; Cheng, Jing-O

    2014-02-01

    Surface sediments and corals (Acropora sp. and Montipora sp.) from the coastline of Kenting were analyzed in 2009 and 2010 for content levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total PAH concentrations (t-PAH) in corasls (143-1715 ng g(-1) dw) were significantly higher than in the ambient sediments (2-59 ng g(-1) dw) indicating the bioaccumulation of PAHs in corals. The spatial and seasonal variation in PAH levels suggested that land-loaded contaminants may be the main source of PAHs in the Kenting coral reefs. Based on molecular indices, PAHs were substantially of petroleum origin. The major PAH components were phenanthrene, pyrene and fluorine, but PAH congeners in corals and sediments still have characteristic composition patterns which would be altered by the bio/accumulation mechanisms. Further study is essential to assess and understand the impacts of these chemicals on coral reefs. PMID:24212232

  9. 75 FR 51960 - Proposed Rule To Implement the 1997 8-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard: New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... (69 FR 23951, April 30, 2004). The rule further provides that an area remains subject to these... National Association of Manufacturers; and (3) the American Petroleum Institute, American Chemistry Council.... \\4\\ 70 FR 30592 (May 26, 2005). In the second reconsideration rulemaking, we proposed and...

  10. 77 FR 28423 - Final Rule To Implement the 1997 8-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... addition to being available in the docket, an electronic copy of this notice is also available on the World... 13211: Actions That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use I. National Technology... rulemaking (74 FR 2936). \\1\\ 74 FR 2936, January 16, 2009. III. This Action A. Classification of 8-Hour...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix T to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) T Appendix T to Part 50 Protection of... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) 1. General (a) This appendix explains... ambient air quality standards for Oxides of Sulfur as measured by Sulfur Dioxide (“SO2 NAAQS”)...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix T to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) T Appendix T to Part 50 Protection of... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) 1. General (a) This appendix explains... ambient air quality standards for Oxides of Sulfur as measured by Sulfur Dioxide (“SO2 NAAQS”)...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix T to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) T Appendix T to Part 50 Protection of... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) 1. General (a) This appendix explains... ambient air quality standards for Oxides of Sulfur as measured by Sulfur Dioxide (“SO2 NAAQS”)...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix T to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) T Appendix T to Part 50 Protection of... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) 1. General (a) This appendix explains... ambient air quality standards for Oxides of Sulfur as measured by Sulfur Dioxide (“SO2 NAAQS”)...

  15. Ambient monitoring of volatile organic compounds at Los Alamos National Laboratory in technical area 54, areas G and L. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mischler, S.; Anderson, E.; Vold, E.L.

    1994-03-15

    Ambient air monitoring for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was conducted at TA-54 to characterize non-radioactive air emissions to determine if the Laboratory`s waste operations are releasing significant amounts of VOCs to the ambient environment. Samples were collected at four locations along the northern fenceline (dominant downwind side) of Areas G & L and at a background site located in Bandelier National Monument. Eight-hour integrated samples were collected in evacuated canisters during daylight hours on each of eight days during the summer of 1994, for a total of 40 samples. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography following EPA Method TO-14 for a target list of 68 analytes. In general, about two dozen volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified in each sample, including those collected at the background site, but the concentration levels were very low (e.g.; < 1 to 10 ppbv). The average total non-methane hydrocarbon (TNMHC) concentration ranged from 4.3 to 22.8 ppbv at the Area G and L sites as compared with an average of 4.2 ppbv at the background site. The measured concentrations were compared with action levels developed by the New Mexico Environment Department and were well below the action levels in all cases. Methanol and benzene were the only compounds that ever exceeded 1 % of the action level. The measured VOC concentrations were collected during the warmest months of the year and therefore should represent worst-case air impacts. Based on the results of this study, VOC emissions from Areas G and L have an insignificant impact on local air quality and pose no health risk to workers or nearby populations.

  16. Ambient air concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, coplanar PCBs, and PAHs at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge, Jackson County, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Hardy, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the levels of selected airborne contaminants in ambient air at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge, Mississippi, that might be affecting the health of endangered cranes living there. Two high-volume air samplers were operated at separate locations on the Refuge during May?September 1991. The sampling media were micro-quartz filters in combination with polyurethane foam plugs. Composite bimonthly samples from each station were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Overall, residue concentrations were low. The toxic PCDD isomer 2,3,7,8-tetra-CDD was not detected, nor was penta-CDD. There was no difference (P>0.05) in residue concentrations between stations or over time and meteorological parameters were not correlated with residue concentrations. Because contaminant levels and patterns may differ seasonally, we recommend that air samples collected during winter months also be analyzed for these same chemical groups.

  17. Addition of PM2.5 into the National Ambient Air Quality Standards of China and the Contribution to Air Pollution Control: The Case Study of Wuhan, China

    PubMed Central

    You, Mingqing

    2014-01-01

    PM2.5 has gradually become a major environmental problem of China with its rapid economic development, urbanization, and increasing of motor vehicles. Findings and awareness of serious PM2.5 pollution make the PM2.5 a new criterion pollutant of the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) revised in 2012. The 2012 NAAQS sets the PM2.5 concentrate limitation with the 24-hour average value and the annual mean value. Wuhan is quite typical among central and southern China in climate, economy, development level, and energy consumption. The data are cited from the official website of Wuhan Environmental Protection Bureau and cover the period from 1 January to 30 June 2013. The data definitely confirm the existence of serious PM2.5 pollution in Wuhan and indicate that the addition of PM2.5 as a criterion pollutant significantly brings down the attainment rate of air quality. The example of Wuhan reveals that local governments should take measures to reduce the emission of PM2.5 if it affects the attainment rate and the performance evaluation value of air quality. The main contribution of 2012 NAAQS is that it brings down the attainment rate of the air quality and forces local governmental officials to take the measures accordingly. PMID:24982994

  18. 2007 Critical Review Discussion -- Will the circle be unbroken: a history of the U.S. national ambient air quality standards

    SciTech Connect

    Judith C. Chow; John G. Watson; Howard J. Feldman

    2007-10-15

    In the review, John D. Bachmann traces the regulatory history of U.S. air pollution from the beginning of the 20th century to the present. The review divides this progress into four segments: (1) 1900-1970, from smoke abatement to federal involvement and the establishment of air quality management (AQM) in the 1970 Clean Air Act (CAA); (2) 1971-1976, when the first National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) were promulgated and implemented; (3) 1977-1993, which included the first NAAQS revisions, major CAA amendments, and the evolution of AQM; and (4) 1993-2006, the second and third waves of NAAQS revisions and their implementation in the context of the 1990 CAA amendments. A discussant's commentary does not necessarily reflect the position of his or her respective organization. This Critical Review Discussion was compiled from written submissions and presentation transcripts. The invited discussants are as follows: Mr. Howard J. Feldman, director of regulatory and scientific affairs for the American Petroleum Institute; Ms. Janice E. Nolen, assistant vice president of national policy and advocacy for the American Lung Association; Dr. Barry Wallerstein, executive officer at the South Coast Air Quality Management District; Dr. John G. Watson, research professor in the Division of Atmospheric Sciences at the Desert Research Institute; Dr. George M. Hidy of Envair/Aerochem; Dr. Paul J. Lioy, Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine; Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry, New Jersey; Dr. Herbert McKee, environmental consultant; Mr. David Mobley of the Atmospheric Modeling Division of the EPA's Office of Research and Development; and Mr. Keith Baugues, P.E., of air services for KERAMIDA Environmental. 127 refs.

  19. The A&WMA 2007 Critical Review. Will the circle be unbroken: a history of the U.S. national ambient air quality standards

    SciTech Connect

    John Bachmann

    2007-06-15

    In celebration of the 100th anniversary of the Air & Waste Management Association, this review examines the history of air quality management (AQM) in the United States over the last century, with an emphasis on the programs established by the 1970 Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments. The current CAA system is a hybrid of several distinct air pollution control philosophies. The paper looks at several periods in the history of the U.S. program, including: (1) 1900-1970, spanning the early smoke abatement and smog control programs, the first federal involvement, and the development of a hybrid AQM approach in the 1970 CAA; (2) 1971-1976, when the first National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) were set and implemented; (3) 1977-1993, a period of the first revisions to the standards, new CAA Amendments, delays in implementation and decision-making, and key science/policy/legislative developments that would alter both the focus and scale of air pollution programs and how they are implemented; and (4) 1993-2006, the second and third wave of NAAQS revisions and their implementation in the context of the 1990 CAA. This discussion examines where NAAQS have helped drive implementation programs and how improvements in both effects and air quality/control sciences influenced policy and legislation to enhance the effectiveness of the system over time. The review concludes with a look toward the future of AQM, emphasizing challenges and ways to meet them. Supplemental tables 1 to 7, available to subscribers at www.awma.org/journals/pdfs/2007/6/10.3155-1047-3289.57.6.652_supplmat erial.pdf present detailed chronology and commentary on the development of criteria and establishing, reviewing, and revising the NAAQS for each of the seven pollutants that were listed and regulated under Sections 108 and 109 between 1971 and 2006. 250 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. NIF Ambient Vibration Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, C.R.; Hoehler, M.S., S.C. Sommer

    1999-11-29

    LLNL has an ongoing research and development project that includes developing data acquisition systems with remote wireless communication for monitoring the vibrations of large civil engineering structures. In order to establish the capability of performing remote sensing over an extended period of time, the researchers needed to apply this technology to a real structure. The construction of the National Ignition Facility provided an opportunity to test the data acquisition system on a large structure to monitor whether the facility is remaining within the strict ambient vibration guidelines. This document will briefly discuss the NIF ambient vibration requirements and summarize the vibration measurements performed during the Spring and Summer of 1999. In addition, a brief description of the sensors and the data acquisition systems will be provided in Appendix B.

  1. PROCEEDINGS: NATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON RECENT ADVANCES IN POLLUTANT MONITORING OF AMBIENT AIR AND STATIONARY SOURCES, HELD AT RADISON PLAZA RALEIGH HOTEL, ON MAY 8-10, 1984

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fourth annual national symposium sponsored by EPA's Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory was held May 8-10, 1984 in Raleigh, North Carolina. In seven sessions over three days, papers and discussions focused on state-of-the-art systems for monitoring source emissions, a...

  2. Ambient ozone effects on gas exchange and total non-structural carbohydrate levels in cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) growing in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ozone-sensitive and -tolerant individuals of the perennial herbaceous cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) were compared for their gas exchange characteristics and total non-structural carbohydrates in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park USA. Net photosynthesis decreased with increased f...

  3. NATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON RECENT ADVANCES IN POLLUTANT MONITORING OF AMBIENT AIR AND STATIONARY SOURCES, HELD AT RALEIGH, NORTH CAROLINA MAY 4-7, 1982

    EPA Science Inventory

    The second national symposium to explore recent developments that may improve the state-of-the-art for monitoring techniques was presented by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory (EMSL), May 4 through May 7, 1982, at the Mission Va...

  4. The future is 'ambient'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugmayr, Artur

    2006-02-01

    The research field of ambient media starts to spread rapidly and first applications for consumer homes are on the way. Ambient media is the logical continuation of research around media. Media has been evolving from old media (e.g. print media), to integrated presentation in one form (multimedia - or new media), to generating a synthetic world (virtual reality), to the natural environment is the user-interface (ambient media), and will be evolving towards real/synthetic undistinguishable media (bio-media or bio-multimedia). After the IT bubble was bursting, multimedia was lacking a vision of potential future scenarios and applications. Within this research paper the potentials, applications, and market available solutions of mobile ambient multimedia are studied. The different features of ambient mobile multimedia are manifold and include wearable computers, adaptive software, context awareness, ubiquitous computers, middleware, and wireless networks. The paper especially focuses on algorithms and methods that can be utilized to realize modern mobile ambient systems.

  5. Ambient Tropospheric Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of solid and liquid particles suspended in ambient air (also known as the atmospheric aerosol). Ambient PM arises from a wide-range of sources and/or processes, and consists of particles of different shapes, sizes, and com...

  6. Ambient levels and temporal trends of VOCs, including carbonyl compounds, and ozone at Cabañeros National Park border, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Florentina; Tapia, Araceli; Notario, Alberto; Albaladejo, José; Martínez, Ernesto

    2014-03-01

    Concentration levels of 15 carbonyls, 17 VOCs and ozone were studied at Cabañeros National Park border, Spain, in an area mainly constituted by holm oaks (Quercus ilex) and cork oaks (Quercus suber), along with scrubland formations such as rock-rose and heather. The compounds were collected by means of diffusive samplers from August-November 2010 and February-August 2011. Carbonyl compounds, VOCs and O3 were analysed by HPLC with diode array UV-Vis detector, GC-FID and by UV-visible spectrophotometry, respectively. The most abundant carbonyls were hexanal, acetone-acrolein, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Seasonal variation was apparent with maximum values observed in summer months. Total carbonyl concentrations ranged from 2.8 to 19.7 μg m-3. Most VOCs studied (using chemically desorbable cartridges) were either not detected or were below their detection limits, however, a parallel sampling using thermally desorbable cartridges, from May 22 to June 19, revealed the presence of much more VOCs, identified using GC-MS. O3 concentration ranged from 27.2 to 90.5 μg m-3, reaching the maximum monthly mean concentration in March (84.4 μg m-3). The analysis of back trajectories indicates the transport of polluted air masses from remote areas, mainly from the Mediterranean basin that should contribute to the high levels of ozone observed.

  7. Ambient Temperature and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Moellering, Douglas R.; Smith, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Homeotherms maintain an optimal body temperature that is most often above their environment or ambient temperature. As ambient temperature decreases, energy expenditure (and energy intake) must increase to maintain thermal homeostasis. With the wide spread adoption of climate control, humans in modern society are buffered from temperature extremes and spend an increasing amount of time in a thermally comfortable state where energetic demands are minimized. This is hypothesized to contribute to the contemporary increase in obesity rates. Studies reporting exposures of animals and humans to different ambient temperatures are discussed. Additional consideration is given to the potentially altered metabolic and physiologic responses in obese versus lean subjects at a given temperature. The data suggest that ambient temperature is a significant contributor to both energy intake and energy expenditure, and that this variable should be more thoroughly explored in future studies as a potential contributor to obesity susceptibility. PMID:24707450

  8. Electric Power From Ambient Energy Sources

    SciTech Connect

    DeSteese, John G.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.

    2000-10-03

    This report summarizes research on opportunities to produce electric power from ambient sources as an alternative to using portable battery packs or hydrocarbon-fueled systems in remote areas. The work was an activity in the Advanced Concepts Project conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Office of Research and Development in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  9. Ambient resonance of rock arches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, Alison Margaret

    Resonant frequencies of structural elements are related to fundamental material properties of mass and stiffness, and monitoring over time can thus serve as an indirect indictor of internal mechanical change. Until now, however, this methodology has not been applied to natural rock structures such as arches and towers. We evaluated the resonance characteristics of four rock arches in southeastern Utah, combining in-situ ambient vibration measurements with numerical modal analysis. At each location, we measured the spectral and polarization attributes of ambient vibrations using up to two broadband seismometers. Ambient vibration spectra measured on the arches showed clear peaks at distinct frequencies (typically between 1-10 Hz), which we interpret as resonant frequencies, as opposed to the relatively flat spectra recorded on nearby bedrock. Polarization analysis helped us identify the orientations of vibration and explore resonant mode shapes. We then verified the measured resonant frequencies through 3D finite-element numerical modal analysis, and in most cases we were able to match the fundamental along with several higher-order modes. Repeat occupation and short-term continuous ambient vibration monitoring were aimed at assessing daily and seasonal changes in resonant frequencies, which in turn may provide evidence of internal mechanical change; Mesa Arch in Canyonlands National Park served as the main focus for our repeat measurements. Results revealed that minor, reversible changes in resonant frequencies can be created by thermal effects, i.e., changes in bulk material stiffness as the arch expands and contracts on daily and seasonal time scales. No irreversible change in the resonant frequency of Mesa Arch was detected over the period of this study. Our research provides the first step towards monitoring the long-term structural health of natural rock arches as they change through time or in the wake of a damaging event. We have shown that the resonance

  10. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than a national standard is not considered part of the plan. ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards....

  11. Ambient Dried Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Steven M.; Paik, Jong-Ah

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for creating aerogel using normal pressure and ambient temperatures. All spacecraft, satellites, and landers require the use of thermal insulation due to the extreme environments encountered in space and on extraterrestrial bodies. Ambient dried aerogels introduce the possibility of using aerogel as thermal insulation in a wide variety of instances where supercritically dried aerogels cannot be used. More specifically, thermoelectric devices can use ambient dried aerogel, where the advantages are in situ production using the cast-in ability of an aerogel. Previously, aerogels required supercritical conditions (high temperature and high pressure) to be dried. Ambient dried aerogels can be dried at room temperature and pressure. This allows many materials, such as plastics and certain metal alloys that cannot survive supercritical conditions, to be directly immersed in liquid aerogel precursor and then encapsulated in the final, dried aerogel. Additionally, the metalized Mylar films that could not survive the previous methods of making aerogels can survive the ambient drying technique, thus making multilayer insulation (MLI) materials possible. This results in lighter insulation material as well. Because this innovation does not require high-temperature or high-pressure drying, ambient dried aerogels are much less expensive to produce. The equipment needed to conduct supercritical drying costs many tens of thousands of dollars, and has associated running expenses for power, pressurized gasses, and maintenance. The ambient drying process also expands the size of the pieces of aerogel that can be made because a high-temperature, high-pressure system typically has internal dimensions of up to 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. In the case of this innovation, the only limitation on the size of the aerogels produced would be in the ability of the solvent in the wet gel to escape from the gel network.

  12. Ambient Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Min-Zong; Yuan, Cheng-Hui; Cheng, Sy-Chyi; Cho, Yi-Tzu; Shiea, Jentaie

    2010-07-01

    Mass spectrometric ionization methods that operate under ambient conditions and require minimal or no sample pretreatment have attracted much attention in such fields as biomedicine, food safety, antiterrorism, pharmaceuticals, and environmental pollution. These technologies usually involve separate ionization and sample-introduction events, allowing independent control over each set of conditions. Ionization is typically performed under ambient conditions through use of existing electrospray ionization (ESI) or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) techniques. Rapid analyses of gas, liquid, and solid samples are possible with the adoption of various sample-introduction methods. This review sorts different ambient ionization techniques into two main subcategories, primarily on the basis of the ionization processes, that are further differentiated in terms of the approach used for sampling.

  13. PILOT STUDY OF AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION AND SURVIVAL FROM CANCER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study was concerned with investigating the potential influence exerted by ambient concentrations of particulate and sulfur dioxide air pollutants upon the length of survival for diagnosed cancer patients. Monitoring data from the National Aerometric Data Bank for particulates...

  14. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, A. T.

    2015-07-01

    Ambient ionization mass spectrometry emerged as a new scientific discipline only about ten years ago. A considerable body of information has been reported since that time. Keeping the sensitivity, performance and informativity of classical mass spectrometry methods, the new approach made it possible to eliminate laborious sample preparation procedures and triggered the development of miniaturized instruments to work directly in the field. The review concerns the theoretical foundations and design of ambient ionization methods. Their advantages and drawbacks, as well as prospects for application in chemistry, biology, medicine, environmetal analysis, etc., are discussed. The bibliography includes 194 references.

  15. AMBIENT CARBON MONOXIDE MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A portable instrument has been designed and two units have been built to monitor the concentration of CO in ambient air. The air flows through a sampling section that is approximately 43 cm long with a 28-pass optical system that produces a total path of 12 meters. Gas-filter cor...

  16. Yellowstone Attenuation Tomography from Ambient Seismic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doungkaew, N.; Seats, K.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study is to create a tomographic attenuation image for the Yellowstone region by analyzing ambient seismic noise. An attenuation image generated from ambient noise should provide more information about the structure and properties beneath Yellowstone, especially the caldera, which is known to be active. I applied the method of Lawrence & Prieto [2011] to examine lateral variations in the attenuation structure of Yellowstone. Ambient noise data were collected from broadband seismic stations located around Yellowstone National Park from 1999-2013. Noise correlation functions derived from cross correlations of the ambient noise at two stations were used to calculate a distance dependent decay (an attenuation coefficient) at each period and distance. An inversion was then performed to isolate and localize the spatial attenuation coefficients within the study area. I observe high amplitude decay of the ambient noise at the Yellowstone caldera, most likely due to elevated temperature and crustal melts caused by volcanism, geothermal heat flow, and hydrothermal activity such as geysers.

  17. IMPACT OF AMBIENT PM ON THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT AND PERSONAL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Why should exposure analysts be interested in personal exposure to ambient PM as opposed to total personal exposure to both ambient and nonambient PM? The National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM are based largely on epidemiologic studies that find a statistical association...

  18. Imaging with ambient noise

    SciTech Connect

    Snieder, Roel; Wapenaar, Kees

    2010-09-15

    Recent developments in seismology, ultrasonics, and underwater acoustics have led to a radical change in the way scientists think about ambient noise--the diffuse waves generated by pressure fluctuations in the atmosphere, the scattering of water waves in the ocean, and any number of other sources that pervade our world. Because diffuse waves consist of the superposition of waves propagating in all directions, they appear to be chaotic and random. That appearance notwithstanding, diffuse waves carry information about the medium through which they propagate.

  19. Cross-correlations of ambient noise recorded by accelerometers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rábade García, S. E.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the ambient noise cross-correlations obtained by using properly corrected accelerometric recordings, and determine velocity structure in central Mexico based on a dispersion analysis. The data used comprise ten months of continuous recordings - from April 2013 to January 2014 - of ambient seismic noise at stations operated by the National Seismological Service of Mexico and the Engineering Strong Ground Motion Network of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The vertical component of ambient noise was base-line corrected, filtered, and properly integrated before extracting Green's functions (GF), which were compared successfully against GF obtained using recordings from broadband velocity sensors. In order to obtain dispersion curves, we estimated group and phase velocities applying the FTAN analysis technique and obtained s-wave velocity profiles at selected regions. We conclude and highlight that the use of widely deployed accelerographs to conduct regional studies using ambient noise tomography is feasible

  20. Ambient Concentrations of Carbon Monoxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator presents trends in ambient carbon monoxide concentrations across the U.S. from 1980 to 2009. By tracking ambient carbon monoxide (CO) – a criteria pollutant with the potential to cause cardiovascular and neurological damage – this dataset shows how a...

  1. Anisotropic Ambient Volume Shading.

    PubMed

    Ament, Marco; Dachsbacher, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel method to compute anisotropic shading for direct volume rendering to improve the perception of the orientation and shape of surface-like structures. We determine the scale-aware anisotropy of a shading point by analyzing its ambient region. We sample adjacent points with similar scalar values to perform a principal component analysis by computing the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the covariance matrix. In particular, we estimate the tangent directions, which serve as the tangent frame for anisotropic bidirectional reflectance distribution functions. Moreover, we exploit the ratio of the eigenvalues to measure the magnitude of the anisotropy at each shading point. Altogether, this allows us to model a data-driven, smooth transition from isotropic to strongly anisotropic volume shading. In this way, the shape of volumetric features can be enhanced significantly by aligning specular highlights along the principal direction of anisotropy. Our algorithm is independent of the transfer function, which allows us to compute all shading parameters once and store them with the data set. We integrated our method in a GPU-based volume renderer, which offers interactive control of the transfer function, light source positions, and viewpoint. Our results demonstrate the benefit of anisotropic shading for visualization to achieve data-driven local illumination for improved perception compared to isotropic shading. PMID:26529745

  2. Time-series analysis for ambient concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Manteiga, W.; Prada-Sánchez, J. M.; Cao, R.; García-Jurado, I.; Febrero-Bande, M.; Lucas-Domínguez, T.

    In this paper we present a dynamic system which has been implemented to predict, every 5 min, the ambient concentrations of SO 2 in the neighbourhood of a power station run by ENDESA, the National Electricity Company of Spain, in As Pontes. This prediction task is very important in order to prevent a high ground-level of concentration of SO 2. For forecasting we use a mixed model which has a parametric component and a nonparametric one. We also construct confidence intervals for future observations using bootstrap and classical techniques.

  3. Detection of hydrazines in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    Hydrazine and monomethylhydrazine, two toxic components of rocket fuel, can pose a health hazard to people involved in various rocket-related activities, including space shuttle and missile site operations. An effective method for their detection at trace levels is thus essential to personnel safety, and researchers at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) are working to develop new methods for determination of both hydrazine and monomethylhdydrazine in ambient air. The project, sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), involves the use of pattern recognition techniques to detect hydrazine vapors using microsensors, development of passive dosimeters, and evaluation of several new technologies for low-level hydrazine detection.

  4. Hanford 200 East Area ambient NO/sub x/ concentrations, February 1968 through February 1969

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1981-09-01

    Ambient concentrations of oxides of nitrogen (NO/sub x/) were measured in the vicinity of the 200 East Area of Hanford from late February 1968 through February 1969. This report contains an analysis of the complete set to document the ambient NO/sub x/ concentrations during time periods when the Purex Plant was emitting NO/sub x/. It is not intended to represent either current ambient NO/sub x/ concentrations or concentrations during Purex Plant operation in the future. However, it does provide a reference for use in comparison of ambient NO/sub x/ concentrations during future periods of Purex emissions with those occurring in past periods. It is also of interest to compare the annual average concentrations estimated from the measurements with the national primary ambient air quality standard for NO/sub 2/, which is 50 parts per billion (ppb) annual arithmetic mean (National primary and secondary ambient air quality standard for nitrogen dioxide, 1971).

  5. Viewpoint-based ambient occlusion.

    PubMed

    González, Francisco; Sbert, Mateu; Feixas, Miquel

    2008-01-01

    A new ambient occlusion technique builds a channel between various viewpoints and an object's polygons, providing the information needed to create an occlusion map with multiple application possibilities. PMID:18350932

  6. METHODOLOGY FOR SITING AMBIENT AIR MONITORS AT THE NEIGHBORHOOD SCALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In siting a monitor to measure compliance with U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter (PM), there is a need to characterize variations in PM concentration within a neighborhood-scale region in order to achieve monitor siting objectives.

    We p...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 58 - Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Methodology

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Methodology C Appendix C to Part 58 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Quality Monitoring Methodology 1.0 Purpose 2.0 SLAMS Ambient Air Monitoring Stations 3.0 NCore Ambient Air... appendix must be submitted to: Director, National Exposure Research Laboratory (MD-D205-03),...

  8. 7 CFR 1466.4 - National priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... quality impairment violations of National Ambient Air Quality Standards; (4) Reduction in soil erosion and... statutory resource concerns that include soil, water, wildlife, air quality, and related resource...

  9. 7 CFR 1466.4 - National priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... quality impairment violations of National Ambient Air Quality Standards; (4) Reduction in soil erosion and... statutory resource concerns that include soil, water, wildlife, air quality, and related resource...

  10. Comments on: Chari, R.; Burke, T.A.; White, R.H.; Fox, M.A. Integrating Susceptibility into Environmental Policy: An Analysis of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Lead. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 1077–1096

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Teresa S.

    2013-01-01

    A recent publication in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health by Chari et al. [1] provides no basis for changing the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for lead in the U.S. to protect children in low socio-economic (SES) populations. The studies selected by Chari et al. for analysis do not provide comparable information on regression coefficients for the blood lead level-IQ relationship. The coefficients differ from one another more on the basis of unequal blood lead metrics, ages of blood lead measurement, and differences in covariate adjustments and standardization, than the difference postulated by Chari et al. to correspond to low vs. high SES populations. PMID:23429754

  11. BIOGENIC CONTRIBUTION TO PM-2.5 AMBIENT AEROSOL FROM RADIOCARBON MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knowledge of the relative contributions of biogenic versus anthropogenic sources to ambient aerosol is of great interest in the formulation of strategies to achieve nationally mandated air quality standards. Radiocarbon (Carbon-14) measurements provide a means to quantify the ...

  12. CONTRIBUTION OF SEMI-VOLATILE PARTICULATE MATTER TO AMBIENT SUSPENDED FINE PARTICLE MASS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scope: The periodic (5 years) review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) and the subsequent determination by EPA and NAS of particulate matter research needs have identified areas of uncertainty including exposure measurement th...

  13. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DESPOSITION DOSE OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT SIZE FRACTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION DOSE OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT SIZE FRACTIONS. Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu**, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711; **IIT Research Institute, Chicago, IL; *S...

  14. Ambient curing fire resistant foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamermesh, C. L.; Hogenson, P. A.; Tung, C. Y.; Sawko, P. M.; Riccitiello, S. R.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of development of an ambient curing foam is described. The thermal stability and flame spread index of the foams were found to be comparable to those of the high-temperature cured polyimide foams by Monsanto two-foot tunnel test and NASA T-3 Fire test. Adaptation of the material to spray in place applications is described

  15. Ocean noise and marine mammals: A summary report of the U.S. National Research Council Committee on Potential Impacts of Ambient Noise in the Ocean on Marine Mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisk, George V.

    2003-04-01

    In 2000, the U.S. National Ocean Partnership Program, with leadership by the Office of Naval Research, requested that the U.S. National Academies examine the potential effects of noise in the sea on marine mammals. A committee of 11 international experts was convened to study this controversial issue. The committee included marine mammals specialists, acousticians, bioacousticians, a geophysical exploration expert, and an expert in vessel engineering. Specifically, the committee was asked to evaluate the human and natural contributions to ocean noise and describe the long-term trends in noise levels, especially from human activities. In the report, the committee outlines the research needed to evaluate the impacts of marine noise from various sources (natural, commercial, naval, and acoustic-based ocean research) on marine mammal species, especially in biologically sensitive areas. The study reviews and identifies gaps in existing marine noise databases and recommends research needed to develop a model of ocean noise that incorporates temporal, spatial, and frequency-dependent variables. The findings and research recommendations of the committee will be presented.

  16. Ambient pressure fuel cell system

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    2000-01-01

    An ambient pressure fuel cell system is provided with a fuel cell stack formed from a plurality of fuel cells having membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs) that are hydrated with liquid water and bipolar plates with anode and cathode sides for distributing hydrogen fuel gas and water to a first side of each one of the MEAs and air with reactant oxygen gas to a second side of each one of the MEAs. A pump supplies liquid water to the fuel cells. A recirculating system may be used to return unused hydrogen fuel gas to the stack. A near-ambient pressure blower blows air through the fuel cell stack in excess of reaction stoichiometric amounts to react with the hydrogen fuel gas.

  17. Structural lubricity under ambient conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cihan, Ebru; İpek, Semran; Durgun, Engin; Baykara, Mehmet Z.

    2016-01-01

    Despite its fundamental importance, physical mechanisms that govern friction are poorly understood. While a state of ultra-low friction, termed structural lubricity, is expected for any clean, atomically flat interface consisting of two different materials with incommensurate structures, some associated predictions could only be quantitatively confirmed under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions so far. Here, we report structurally lubric sliding under ambient conditions at mesoscopic (∼4,000–130,000 nm2) interfaces formed by gold islands on graphite. Ab initio calculations reveal that the gold–graphite interface is expected to remain largely free from contaminant molecules, leading to structurally lubric sliding. The experiments reported here demonstrate the potential for practical lubrication schemes for micro- and nano-electromechanical systems, which would mainly rely on an atomic-scale structural mismatch between the slider and substrate components, via the utilization of material systems featuring clean, atomically flat interfaces under ambient conditions. PMID:27350035

  18. Analysis of soil-structure interaction due to ambient vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Tabatabaie, M., Sommer, S.C.

    1998-03-27

    This paper presents the results of a study to evaluate the effects of soil-structure interaction (SSI) on the ambient vibration response of the switchyard/target area (S/TA) buildings at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) presently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. This laser facility houses optical and other special equipment whose alignment stability is sensitive to vibrations caused by ambient vibrations or other vibrating sources. In evaluating the deformations and displacements of the S/TA structures, the contribution of the SSI to the overall system flexibility can be very significant. The present study examines the results of fixed-base and SSI analyses of these massive stiff structures to develop an understanding of the potential contribution of SSI to the overall system displacements and deformations. A simple procedure using a set of factors is recommended for scaling the results of fixed-base analyses to approximately account for SSI effects.

  19. Apportionment of ambient primary and secondary fine particulate matter at the Pittsburgh National Energy Laboratory particulate matter characterization site using positive matrix factorization and a potential source contributions function analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Donald V. Martello; Natalie J. Pekney; Richard R. Anderson

    2008-03-15

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations associated with 202 24-hr samples collected at the National Energy Technology Laboratory particulate matter characterization site in south Pittsburgh from October 1999 through September 2001 were used to apportion PM2.5 into primary and secondary contributions using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF2). Input included the concentrations of PM2.5 mass determined with a Federal Reference Method (FRM) sampler, semi-volatile PM2.5 organic material, elemental carbon (EC), and trace element components of PM2.5. A total of 11 factors were identified. The results of potential source contributions function analysis using PMF2 factors and HYSPLIT-calculated back-trajectories were used to identify those factors associated with specific meteorological transport conditions. The 11 factors were identified as being associated with emissions from various specific regions and facilities including crustal material, gasoline combustion, diesel combustion, and three nearby sources high in trace metals. Three sources associated with transport from coal-fired power plants to the southeast, a combination of point sources to the northwest, and a steel mill and associated sources to the west were identified. In addition, two secondary-material-dominated sources were identified, one was associated with secondary products of local emissions and one was dominated by secondary ammonium sulfate transported to the NETL site from the west and southwest. Of these 11 factors, the four largest contributors to PM2.5 were the secondary transported material, local secondary material, diesel combustion emissions, and gasoline combustion emissions. 26 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Apportionment of ambient primary and secondary fine particulate matter at the Pittsburgh National Energy Laboratory particulate matter characterization site using positive matrix factorization and a potential source contributions function analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Martello, Donald V.; Pekney, Natalie J.; Anderson, Richard R.; Davidson, Cliff I.; Hopke, Philip K.; Kim, Eugene; Christensen, William F.; Mangelson, Nolan F.; Eatough, Delbert J.

    2008-03-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations associated with 202 24-hr samples collected at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) particulate matter (PM) characterization site in south Pittsburgh from October 1999 through September 2001 were used to apportion PM2.5 into primary and secondary contributions using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF2). Input included the concentrations of PM2.5 mass determined with a Federal Reference Method (FRM) sampler, semi-volatile PM2.5, organic material, elemental carbon (EC), and trace element components of PM2.5. A total of 11 factors were identified. The results of potential source contributions function (PSCF) analysis using PMF2 factors and HYSPLIT-calculated back-trajectories were used to identify those factors associated with specific meteorological transport conditions. The 11 factors were identified as being associated with emissions from various specific regions and facilities including crustal material, gasoline combustion, diesel combustion, and three nearby sources high in trace metals. Three sources associated with transport from coal-fired power plants to the southeast, a combination of point sources to the northwest, and a steel mill and associated sources to the west were identified. In addition, two secondary-material-dominated sources were identified, one was associated with secondary products of local emissions and one was dominated by secondary ammonium sulfate transported to the NETL site from the west and southwest. Of these 11 factors, the four largest contributors to PM2.5, were the secondary transported material (dominated by ammonium sulfate) (47%), local secondary material (19%), diesel combustion emissions (10%), and gasoline combustion emissions (8%). The other seven factors accounted for the remaining 16% of the PM2.5 mass. The findings are consistent with the major source of PM2.5 in the Pittsburgh area being dominated by ammonium sulfate from distant transport and so decoupled from

  1. Apportionment of Ambient Primary and Secondary Fine Particulate Matter at the Pittsburgh National Energy Laboratory Particulate Matter Characterization Site Using Positive Matrix Factorization and a Potential Source Contributions Function Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Martello, Donald; Pekney, Natalie; Anderson, Richard; Davidson, Cliff; Hopke, Philip; Kim, Eugene; Christensen, William; Mangelson, Nolan; Eatough, Delbert

    2008-03-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations associated with 202 24-hr samples collected at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) particulate matter (PM) characterization site in south Pittsburgh from October 1999 through September 2001 were used to apportion PM2.5 into primary and secondary contributions using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF2). Input included the concentrations of PM2.5 mass determined with a Federal Reference Method (FRM) sampler, semi-volatile PM2.5, organic material, elemental carbon (EC), and trace element components of PM2.5. A total of 11 factors were identified. The results of potential source contributions function (PSCF) analysis using PMF2 factors and HYSPLIT-calculated back-trajectories were used to identify those factors associated with specific meteorological transport conditions. The 11 factors were identified as being associated with emissions from various specific regions and facilities including crustal material, gasoline combustion, diesel combustion, and three nearby sources high in trace metals. Three sources associated with transport from coal-fired power plants to the southeast, a combination of point sources to the northwest, and a steel mill and associated sources to the west were identified. In addition, two secondary-material-dominated sources were identified, one was associated with secondary products of local emissions and one was dominated by secondary ammonium sulfate transported to the NETL site from the west and southwest. Of these 11 factors, the four largest contributors to PM2.5, were the secondary transported material (dominated by ammonium sulfate) (47%), local secondary material (19%), diesel combustion emissions (10%), and gasoline combustion emissions (8%). The other seven factors accounted for the remaining 16% of the PM2.5 mass. The findings are consistent with the major source of PM2.5 in the Pittsburgh area being dominated by ammonium sulfate from distant transport and so decoupled from

  2. Apportionment of ambient primary and secondary fine particulate matter at the Pittsburgh National Energy Laboratory particulate matter characterization site using positive matrix factorization and a potential source contributions function analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Martello, D.V.; Pekney, N.J.; Anderson, R.R.; Davidson, C.I.; Hopke, P.K.; Kim, E.; Christensen, W.F.; Mangelson, N.F.; Eatough, D.J.

    2008-03-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations associated with 202 24-hr samples collected at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) particulate matter (PM) characterization site in south Pittsburgh from October 1999 through September 2001 were used to apportion PM2.5 into primary and secondary contributions using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF2). Input included the concentrations of PM2.5 mass determined with a Federal Reference Method (FRM) sampler, semi-volatile PM2.5 organic material, elemental carbon (EC), and trace element components of PM2.5. A total of 11 factors were identified. The results of potential source contributions function (PSCF) analysis using PMF2 factors and HYSPLIT-calculated back-trajectories were used to identify those factors associated with specific meteorological transport conditions. The 11 factors were identified as being associated with emissions from various specific regions and facilities including crustal material, gasoline combustion, diesel combustion, and three nearby sources high in trace metals. Three sources associated with transport from coal-fired power plants to the southeast, a combination of point sources to the northwest, and a steel mill and associated sources to the west were identified. In addition, two secondary-material-dominated sources were identified, one was associated with secondary products of local emissions and one was dominated by secondary ammonium sulfate transported to the NETL site from the west and southwest. Of these 11 factors, the four largest contributors to PM2.5 were the secondary transported material (dominated by ammonium sulfate) (47%), local secondary material (19%), diesel combustion emissions (10%), and gasoline combustion emissions (8%). The other seven factors accounted for the remaining 16% of the PM2.5 mass. The findings are consistent with the major source of PM2.5 in the Pittsburgh area being dominated by ammonium sulfate from distant transport and so decoupled from

  3. Nonlinear Elasticity in a Deforming Ambient Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavari, Arash; Ozakin, Arkadas; Sadik, Souhayl

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we formulate a nonlinear elasticity theory in which the ambient space is evolving. For a continuum moving in an evolving ambient space, we model time dependency of the metric by a time-dependent embedding of the ambient space in a larger manifold with a fixed background metric. We derive both the tangential and the normal governing equations. We then reduce the standard energy balance written in the larger ambient space to that in the evolving ambient space. We consider quasi-static deformations of the ambient space and show that a quasi-static deformation of the ambient space results in stresses, in general. We linearize the nonlinear theory about a reference motion and show that variation of the spatial metric corresponds to an effective field of body forces.

  4. Comments on: Chari, R.; Burke, T.A.; White, R.H.; Fox, M.A. Integrating Susceptibility into environmental policy: an analysis of the national ambient air quality standard for lead. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 1077-1096.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Deirdre L; Patel, Molini; Kirrane, Ellen; Vinikoor-Imler, Lisa

    2013-02-01

    In their recent article [1], Chari et al. call attention to the important subject of setting National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to provide requisite protection for public health, including the health of sensitive groups, as specified under the Clean Air Act (73 FR 66965) [2]. The authors focus on consideration of susceptibility to inform policy choices, using lead (Pb)-related neurocognitive effects and children from low socioeconomic status (SES) families in the context of alternative Pb standard levels. Our comments focus on the authors' analysis of the scientific evidence and not on policy. We agree with the authors that the health effects evidence for Pb indicates a role (or roles) for SES-related factors in influencing childhood Pb exposure and associated health effects. We disagree, however, with the authors' interpretation of the literature on SES influence on the shape of the concentration-response (C-R) relationship between children's blood Pb and IQ (e.g., steepness of the slope). We further address aspects of the scientific evidence that are important to the consideration of sensitive populations in the context of the Pb NAAQS, and how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considered this evidence in setting the Pb NAAQS in 2008. PMID:23396080

  5. 75 FR 76336 - Notice of Data Availability Regarding Two Studies of Ambient Lead Concentrations Near a General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 58 Notice of Data Availability Regarding Two Studies of Ambient Lead Concentrations..., 2009) that revised the primary and secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for lead and associated monitoring requirements. On December 30, 2009, EPA proposed revisions to the...

  6. Response of macaque bronchiolar epithelium to ambient concentrations of ozone.

    PubMed Central

    Harkema, J. R.; Plopper, C. G.; Hyde, D. M.; St George, J. A.; Wilson, D. W.; Dungworth, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    Recently, we reported that exposure to ambient concentrations of ozone, near the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standard (0.12 ppm), induced significant nasal epithelial lesions in a non-human primate, the bonnet monkey. The present study defines the effects of ambient concentrations of ozone on the surface epithelium lining respiratory bronchioles and on the underlying bronchiolar interstitium in these same monkeys. Bonnet monkeys were exposed to filtered air or to 0.15 or 0.30 ppm ozone 8 hours/day for 6 or 90 days. At the end of exposures, monkeys were anesthetized and killed by exsanguination. Microdissected bronchiolar airways of infusion-fixed lungs were evaluated morphometrically by light microscopy and quantitatively by scanning and transmission electron microscopy for ozone-induced epithelial changes. Hyperplasia of nonciliated, cuboidal epithelial cells and intraluminal accumulation of macrophages characterized ozone-induced lesions in respiratory bronchioles. There were no significant differences in epithelial thickness or cell numbers among ozone-exposed groups. Ozone-exposed epithelium was composed of 80% cuboidal and 20% squamous cells compared with 40% cuboidal and 60% squamous cells in filtered air controls. In addition, the arithmetic mean thickness of the surface epithelium, a measure of tissue mass per unit area of basal lamina, was significantly increased in all of the ozone-exposed groups. The number of cuboidal epithelial cells per surface area of basal lamina was increased above control values by 780% after 6 days exposure to 0.15 ppm, 777% after 90 days to 0.15 ppm, and 996% after 90 days exposure to 0.30 ppm. There was also a significant ozone-induced increase in the thickness of the bronchiolar interstitium that was due to an increase in both cellular and acellular components. These results demonstrate that exposure to low ambient concentrations of ozone, near the current. National Ambient Air Quality Standard, induces pulmonary lesions

  7. Turbine airfoil with ambient cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Jr, Christian X.; Marra, John J.; Marsh, Jan H.

    2016-06-07

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one ambient air cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels configured to receive ambient air at about atmospheric pressure. The ambient air cooling system may have a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of at least 0.5, and in at least one embodiment, may include a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of between about 0.5 and about 3.0. The cooling system may also be configured such that an under root slot chamber in the root is large to minimize supply air velocity. One or more cooling channels of the ambient air cooling system may terminate at an outlet at the tip such that the outlet is aligned with inner surfaces forming the at least one cooling channel in the airfoil to facilitate high mass flow.

  8. Sampling frequency guidance for ambient air toxics monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bortnick, Steven M; Stetzer, Shannon L

    2002-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is in the process of designing a national network to monitor hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), also known as air toxics. The purposes of the expanded monitoring are to (1) characterize ambient concentrations in representative areas; (2) provide data to support and evaluate dispersion and receptor models; and (3) establish trends and evaluate the effectiveness of HAP emission reduction strategies. Existing air toxics data, in the form of an archive compiled by EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS), are used in this paper to examine the relationship between estimated annual average (AA) HAP concentrations and their associated variability. The goal is to assess the accuracy, or bias and precision, with which the AA can be estimated as a function of ambient concentration levels and sampling frequency. The results suggest that, for several air toxics, a sampling schedule of 1 in 3 days (1:3) or 1:6 days maybe appropriate for meeting some of the general objectives of the national network, with the more intense sampling rate being recommended for areas expected to exhibit relatively high ambient levels. PMID:12139351

  9. Prediction of ambient PM2.5 concentrations in Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwell, J.; Walsh, K.; Gardner, R.

    1998-12-31

    In 1997 the State of Maryland had no available ambient Federal Reference Method data on particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) but did have annual ambient data for particulate matter smaller than 10 microns (PM10) at twenty-four sites. The PM10 data was analyzed in conjunction with local annual and seasonal ZIP code-level emission inventories and with speciated PM2.5 data from four nearby monitors in the IMPROVE network (located in the national parks and wilderness areas) in an effort to predict annual average and seasonal high PM2.5 concentrations at the twenty-four PM10 monitor sites operating from 1992 to 1996. All seasonal high concentrations were predicted to be below the 24-hour PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) at the sites operating in Maryland between 1992 and 1996. The projections also indicated that twelve monitor sites might exceed the three-year annual average PM2.5 NAAQS of 15 m g/m3, but Maryland`s air quality shows signs that it has been improving since 1992.

  10. Below-Ambient and Cryogenic Thermal Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Thermal insulation systems operating in below-ambient temperature conditions are inherently susceptible to moisture intrusion and vapor drive toward the cold side. The subsequent effects may include condensation, icing, cracking, corrosion, and other problems. Methods and apparatus for real-world thermal performance testing of below-ambient systems have been developed based on cryogenic boiloff calorimetry. New ASTM International standards on cryogenic testing and their extension to future standards for below-ambient testing of pipe insulation are reviewed.

  11. [Ambient modulation of neuronal excitability].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Zhang

    2016-08-25

    Although the modulation of synaptic activity plays an important role in the modulation of neuronal excitability, the significance of the ambient modulation (AM) of neuronal excitability should be emphasized. The AM refers to the alterations of membrane potential of neuron resulted from distinct neural activities, such as the tonic inhibition and excitation through activation of extra-synaptic receptors, the paracrine actions of nearby neural and non-neural cells, endocrinal actions of blood borne hormones and other active chemical substances. The AM of neuronal excitability may have important bearings on distinct brain functions, such as the regulation and switching of cortical states, the appearance of chaotic and vague feelings, which are usually the characteristic features in many mental and neural disorders. PMID:27546499

  12. 75 FR 2938 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ....gov/ttn/naaqs/standards/ozone/s_o3_cr_fr.html prior to the hearing. Verbatim transcripts of the... a reconsideration of the 2008 O 3 NAAQS final rule (73 FR 16436, March 27, 2008), which revised the... proposed rule (72 FR 37818, July 11, 2007) and the 2008 final rule (73 FR 16436). A....

  13. Tritium monitoring system for near ambient measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Falter, K.G.; Bauer, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the current status of research on an improved tritium measurement system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the US Navy. Present tritium-in-air monitoring systems installed by the Navy can reliably measure to less than 10 {mu}Ci/m{sup 3}, but medical and safety issues are pushing measurement needs to below 1 {mu}Ci/m{sup 3}, which is equivalent to 1--10 nCi/ml in liquid samples, using calcium metal converter. A significant effort has been expended over the past 10 years by the Navy RADIAC Development Program at ORNL on various schemes to improve the detection of tritium in both air and liquid at near ambient levels. One such scheme includes a liquid flow-through system based on an NE102 sponge scintillator with dual photomultiplier tubes for the tube noise rejection. (This document also contains copies of the slides used for presentation of this paper to the IEEE 1991 Nuclear Science Symposium). 4 refs., 17 figs.

  14. Ambient air contamination: Characterization and detection techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nulton, C. P.; Silvus, H. S.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques to characterize and detect sources of ambient air contamination are described. Chemical techniques to identify indoor contaminants are outlined, they include gas chromatography, or colorimetric detection. Organics generated from indoor materials at ambient conditions and upon combustion are characterized. Piezoelectric quartz crystals are used as precision frequency determining elements in electronic oscillators.

  15. INTERPOLATING VANCOUVER'S DAILY AMBIENT PM 10 FIELD

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this article we develop a spatial predictive distribution for the ambient space- time response field of daily ambient PM10 in Vancouver, Canada. Observed responses have a consistent temporal pattern from one monitoring site to the next. We exploit this feature of the field b...

  16. 40 CFR 1033.505 - Ambient conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1033.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS.... Correct NOX emissions as specified in 40 CFR 1065.670. Do not correct any other emissions for humidity... presumed that combustion air will be drawn from the ambient air. Thus, the ambient temperature limits...

  17. 40 CFR 1033.505 - Ambient conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1033.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS.... Correct NOX emissions as specified in 40 CFR 1065.670. Do not correct any other emissions for humidity... presumed that combustion air will be drawn from the ambient air. Thus, the ambient temperature limits...

  18. 40 CFR 1033.505 - Ambient conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 1033.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS.... Correct NOX emissions as specified in 40 CFR 1065.670. Do not correct any other emissions for humidity... presumed that combustion air will be drawn from the ambient air. Thus, the ambient temperature limits...

  19. 40 CFR 1033.505 - Ambient conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1033.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS.... Correct NOX emissions as specified in 40 CFR 1065.670. Do not correct any other emissions for humidity... presumed that combustion air will be drawn from the ambient air. Thus, the ambient temperature limits...

  20. 40 CFR 1033.505 - Ambient conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1033.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS.... Correct NOX emissions as specified in 40 CFR 1065.670. Do not correct any other emissions for humidity... presumed that combustion air will be drawn from the ambient air. Thus, the ambient temperature limits...

  1. Nanotip Ambient Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhenpeng; Lee, Jae Kyoo; Kim, Samuel C; Zare, Richard N

    2016-05-17

    A method called nanotip ambient ionization mass spectrometry (NAIMS) is described, which applies high voltage between a tungsten nanotip and a metal plate to generate a plasma in which ionized analytes on the surface of the metal plate are directed to the inlet and analyzed by a mass spectrometer. The dependence of signal intensity is investigated as a function of the tip-to-plate distance, the tip size, the voltage applied at the tip, and the current. These parameters are separately optimized to achieve sensitivity or high spatial resolution. A partially observable Markov decision process is used to achieve a stabilized plasma as well as high ionization efficiency. As a proof of concept, the NAIMS technique has been applied to phenanthrene and caffeine samples for which the limits of detection were determined to be 0.14 fmol for phenanthrene and 4 amol for caffeine and to a printed caffeine pattern for which a spatial resolution of 8 ± 2 μm, and the best resolution of 5 μm, was demonstrated. The limitations of NAIMS are also discussed. PMID:27087600

  2. Intercomparison of six ambient [CH2O] measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilpin, Tim; Apel, Eric; Fried, Alan; Wert, Bryan; Calvert, Jack; Genfa, Zhang; Dasgupta, Purnendu; Harder, Jerry W.; Heikes, Brian; Hopkins, Brian; Westberg, Hal; Kleindienst, Tad; Lee, Yin-Nan; Zhou, Xianliang; Lonneman, William; Sewell, Scott

    1997-09-01

    From May 29 to June 3, 1995 a blind intercomparison of six ambient formaldehyde measurement techniques took place at a field site near the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado. The continuous measurement methods intercompared were tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy, (TDLAS); coil/2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, (CDNPH); 1,3-cyclohexanedione-diffusion scrubber (CHDDS); and the coil enzyme method (CENZ). In addition, two different cartridge methods were compared: silica gel-2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DPNH) systems and a C-18-DNPH system. The intercomparison was conducted with spiked zero air (part 1) and ambient air (part 2). The CH2O standards for part 1 were calibrated by several independent methods and delivered to participants via a common glass manifold with potential trace gas interférants common to ambient air (O3, SO2, NO2, isoprene, H2O). The TDLAS system was used to confirm the absolute accuracy of the standards and served as a mission reference for part 1. The ambient phase lasted 44 hours with all participants sampling from a common glass tower. Differences between the ambient [CH2O] observed by the TDLAS and the other continuous methods were significant in some cases. For matched ambient measurement times the average ratios (±1σ) [CH2O]measured/[CH2O]TDLAS were: 0.89±0.12 (CDNPH); 1.30±0.02 (CHDDS); 0.63±0.03 (CENZ). The methods showed similar variations but different absolute values and the divergences appeared to result largely from calibration differences (no gas phase standards were used by groups other than NCAR). When the regressions of the participant [CH2O] values versus the TDLAS values, (measured in part 1), were used to normalize all of the results to the common gas phase standards of the NCAR group, the average ratios (±1σ), [CH2O]corrected/[CH2O]TDLAS for the first measurement period were much closer to unity: 1.04±0.14 (CDNPH), 1.00±0.11 (CHDDS), and 0.82±0.08 (CENZ). With the continuous methods

  3. FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROMETRY OF AMBIENT AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry has been evaluated as a method for determining the concentration of selected species present in ambient aerosols collected on Teflon filters. The filters are analyzed by transmission measurements after collection of the fine fraction...

  4. Timelapse: Webb's Ambient Optical Assembly Stand

    NASA Video Gallery

    The clean room at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., has received a giant structural steel frame called "AOAS," the Ambient Optical Assembly Stand that will be used to assemble t...

  5. Forensic applications of ambient ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ifa, Demian R; Jackson, Ayanna U; Paglia, Giuseppe; Cooks, R Graham

    2009-08-01

    This review highlights and critically assesses forensic applications in the developing field of ambient ionization mass spectrometry. Ambient ionization methods permit the ionization of samples outside the mass spectrometer in the ordinary atmosphere, with minimal sample preparation. Several ambient ionization methods have been created since 2004 and they utilize different mechanisms to create ions for mass-spectrometric analysis. Forensic applications of these techniques--to the analysis of toxic industrial compounds, chemical warfare agents, illicit drugs and formulations, explosives, foodstuff, inks, fingerprints, and skin--are reviewed. The minimal sample pretreatment needed is illustrated with examples of analysis from complex matrices (e.g., food) on various substrates (e.g., paper). The low limits of detection achieved by most of the ambient ionization methods for compounds of forensic interest readily offer qualitative confirmation of chemical identity; in some cases quantitative data are also available. The forensic applications of ambient ionization methods are a growing research field and there are still many types of applications which remain to be explored, particularly those involving on-site analysis. Aspects of ambient ionization currently undergoing rapid development include molecular imaging and increased detection specificity through simultaneous chemical reaction and ionization by addition of appropriate chemical reagents. PMID:19241065

  6. 76 FR 67437 - Draft Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Carbaryl-2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... AGENCY Draft Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Carbaryl-- 2011 AGENCY: Environmental...) of the Clean Water Act (CWA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is announcing the availability of draft national recommended water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life...

  7. Ambient and indoor particulate aerosols generated by dairies in the Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives were to quantify and size ambient aerosolized dust in and around the facilities of four Southern High Plains dairies of New Mexico and to determine where health of workers might be vulnerable to particulate aerosols, based on aerosol concentrations that exceed national air quality sta...

  8. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS.
    Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu**, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711; **IIT Research Institute, Chicago, IL; *South...

  9. 77 FR 12482 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... November 12, 2008 (73 FR 66964) and codified at 40 CFR 50.16, ``National primary and secondary ambient air... the Federal Register (73 FR 66964) and codified at 40 CFR 50.16. The primary (health-based) Pb NAAQS... and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not impose an...

  10. A Literature Review of Concentrations and Size Distributions of Ambient Airborne Pb-Containing Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    The final 2008 lead (Pb) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) revision maintains Pb in total suspended particulate matter as the indicator. However, the final rule permits the use of low-volume PM10 (particulate matter sampled with a 50% cut-point of 10 μm) F...

  11. PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLER ERRORS DUE TO THE INTERACTION OF PARTICLE SIZE AND SAMPLER PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS: PM10 AND PM2.5 AMBIENT AIR SAMPLERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural operations across the United States are encountering difficulties in complying with the current air pollution regulations for particulate matter (PM). The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for PM in terms of PM10, are ambient air concentration limits set by EPA that should ...

  12. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  13. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  14. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  15. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  16. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  17. LED illuminant on the ambient light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Anqing; Sandipan, Mishra; Shur, Michael

    2014-09-01

    We develop an approach for combining illuminance and spectral power distribution of the LED and ambient light and apply our technique for developing an LED camera flashlight balancing the illuminance contrast between object and background. Our method uses the closed loop, multiobjective optimization comprising: (1) characterizing the lighting task by illuminance, correlated color temperature (CCT), and statistical color quality indices that include a set of Statistical Color Quality Metrics and the Color Rendition Index (CRI) implemented with indexes of S (saturation) or D (dulling); (2) measuring the illuminance and the spectrum of the ambient light on the target lighting surface, which might depend on all the sources proving illumination and on the reflected light; (3) determining the desired illuminance of the LED source on the target lighting surface; (4) calculating the desired luminous flux of the LED source according to the desired illuminance; (5) constituting the SPD of the LED source; (6) calculating the relative spectra counts of the LED source and the ambient light on the target lighting surface (7) calculating the CCT and statistical color quality indexes of the combined light; (8) repeating the above steps until the resulting SPD is close enough to the expectation. Using the above method, an LED camera flashlight has been designed, which works together with usual fluorescent ambient light and generates working lighting environment with high fidelity and high CCT (6000K). The spectrum and luminous flux of the LED lamp is automatically tunable with a change of the ambient light.

  18. rf-generated ambient-afterglow plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakir, Shariff; Mynampati, Sandhya; Pashaie, Bijan; Dhali, Shirshak K.

    2006-04-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasmas have gained importance due to their potential application in polymer surface treatment, surface cleaning of metals, thin film deposition, and destruction of biological hazards. In this paper a radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure afterglow plasma source in argon and helium is discussed. The light intensity measurement shows that the radio-frequency discharge is continuous in time unlike the intermittent nature of a low frequency dielectric-barrier discharge. The discharge, under ambient conditions, can be generated in argon, helium, and nitrogen. Spectroscopic measurements show that metastables are capable of producing oxygen atoms and other excited species. The argon afterglow, in particular, is capable of dissociating oxygen molecules in the ambient gas. An afterglow model has been developed to study the interaction of the plasma with the ambient gas. Results from applications of the plasma to surface treatment of metals and polymers, and bacterial decontamination are briefly discussed.

  19. Ambient Noise Tomography of the British Isles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolson, H. J.; Curtis, A.; Baptie, B.

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, surface wave tomography using empirical Green’s functions computed via the ambient noise interferometry method has become an established approach to lithospheric imaging problems. To date, ambient noise tomography has been successfully applied to seismometer arrays in the United States, Australia, Iceland, China, South Africa, Europe and the Tibetan Plateau. The basis of the ambient seismic interferometry method is that, by cross-correlating noise data between two seismic stations and stacking over a long enough time period, one can approximate the Green’s Function that would have been recorded at one of the stations if the other had actually been a source. Consequently, one of the main advantages of ambient noise interferometry is that traditional seismic sources such as earthquakes or ballistics are not required; therefore it is ideal for application to seismically quiescent areas such as the British Isles. The British Isles are an archipelago located adjacent to the Eurasian continental shelf in a typically intra-plate setting, formed by a complex amalgamation of several terranes. These range from Laurentian north of the Highland Boundary fault to Avalonian south of the Iapetus Suture and evidence of the regions turbulent geological past can be inferred from its lithospheric structure. Previous studies of the structure of the British Isles considered relatively few seismic stations and/or were limited to using offshore shots, quarry blasts or teleseismic earthquakes as seismic energy sources. We have applied the ambient noise tomography method to noise data recorded on approximately 100 broadband and short period seismometers, including many new stations, in the British Isles and mainland Europe. This dense coverage of the British Isles allows us to image the crust and upper mantle velocity structure with a horizontal resolution in the region of 100km across the North Sea and 30km in the mainland United Kingdom. Here we present the first

  20. Ambient noise analysis of underwater acoustic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Mark A.; Orlin, Pete; Schulte, Annette; Newcomb, Joal

    2003-04-01

    The Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center (LADC) deployed three Environmental Acoustic Recording System (EARS) buoys in the northern Gulf of Mexico during the summers of 2001 and 2002. The buoys recorded frequencies up to 5859 Hz continuously for 36 days in 2001 and for 72 days in 2002. The acoustic signals recorded include sperm whale vocalizations, seismic airguns, and shipping traffic. The variability of the ambient noise is analyzed using spectrograms, time series, and statistical measurements. Variations in ambient noise before, during, and after tropical storm/hurricane passage are also investigated.

  1. Ambient ozone concentration and emergency department visits for panic attacks.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jaelim; Choi, Yoon Jung; Sohn, Jungwoo; Suh, Mina; Cho, Seong-Kyung; Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Changsoo; Shin, Dong Chun

    2015-03-01

    The effect of ambient air pollution on panic disorder in the general population has not yet been thoroughly elucidated, although the occurrence of panic disorder in workers exposed to organic solvents has been reported previously. We investigated the association of ambient air pollution with the risk of panic attack-related emergency department visits. Using health insurance claims, we collected data from emergency department visits for panic attacks in Seoul, Republic of Korea (2005-2009). Daily air pollutant concentrations were obtained using automatic monitoring system data. We conducted a time-series study using a generalized additive model with Poisson distribution, which included spline variables (date of visit, daily mean temperature, and relative humidity) and parametric variables (daily mean air pollutant concentration, national holiday, and day of the week). In addition to single lag models (lag1 to lag3), cumulative lag models (lag0-1 to lag0-3) were constructed using moving-average concentrations on the days leading up to the visit. The risk was expressed as relative risk (RR) per one standard deviation of each air pollutant and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). A total of 2320 emergency department visits for panic attacks were observed during the study period. The adjusted RR of panic attack-related emergency department visits was 1.051 (95% CI, 1.014-1.090) for same-day exposure to ozone. In cumulative models, adjusted RRs were 1.068 (1.029-1.107) in lag0-2 and 1.074 (1.035-1.114) in lag0-3. The ambient ozone concentration was significantly associated with emergency department visits for panic attacks. PMID:25669697

  2. Response of macaque bronchiolar epithelium to ambient concentrations of ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Harkema, J.R.; Plopper, C.G.; Hyde, D.M.; St. George, J.A.; Wilson, D.W.; Dungworth, D.L. )

    1993-09-01

    Recently, we reported that exposure to ambient concentrations of ozone, near the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standard (0.12 ppm), induced significant nasal epithelial lesions in a non-human primate, the bonnet monkey. The present study defines the effects of ambient concentrations of ozone on the surface epithelium lining respiratory bronchioles and on the underlying bronchiolar interstitium in these same monkeys. Bonnet monkeys were exposed to filtered air or to 0.15 or 0.30 ppm ozone 8 hours/day for 6 or 90 days. At the end of exposures, monkeys were anesthetized and killed by exsanguination. Microdissected bronchiolar airways of infusion-fixed lungs were evaluated morphometrically by light microscopy and quantitatively by scanning and transmission electron microscopy for ozone-induced epithelial changes. Hyperplasia of nonciliated, cuboidal epithelial cells and intraluminal accumulation of macrophages characterized ozone-induced lesions in respiratory bronchioles. There were no significant differences in epithelial thickness or cell numbers among ozone-exposed groups. Ozone-exposed epithelium was composed of 80% cuboidal and 20% squamous cells compared with 40% cuboidal and 60% squamous cells in filtered air controls. In addition, the arithmetic mean thickness of the surface epithelium, a measure of tissue mass per unit area of basal lamina, was significantly increased in all of the ozone-exposed groups. The number of cuboidal epithelial cells per surface area of basal lamina was increased above control values by 780% after 6 days exposure to 0.15 ppm, 777% after 90 days to 0.15 ppm, and 996% after 90 days exposure to 0.30 ppm. There was also a significant ozone-induced increase in the thickness of the bronchiolar interstitium that was due to an increase in both cellular and acellular components.

  3. Ozone flux to vegetation and its relationship to plant response and ambient air quality standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musselman, Robert C.; Massman, William J.

    The National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone is based on occurrences of the maximum 8 h average ambient ozone concentration. However, biologists have recommended a cumulative ozone exposure parameter to protect vegetation. In this paper we propose a third alternative which uses quantifiable flux-based numerical parameters as a replacement for cumulative ambient parameters. Herein we discuss the concept of ozone flux as it relates to plant response and the NAAQS, and document information needed before a flux-based ozone NAAQS for vegetation can be implemented. Additional research is needed in techniques for determining plant uptake and in the quantification of plant defensive mechanisms to ozone. Models which include feedback mechanisms should be developed to relate ozone flux, loading, and detoxification with photosynthesis and plant productivity.

  4. Ambient ozone causes upper airways inflammation in children

    SciTech Connect

    Frischer, T.M.; Kuehr, J.; Pullwitt, A.; Meinert, R.; Forster, J.; Studnicka, M.; Koren, H. )

    1993-10-01

    Ozone constitutes a major air pollutant in Western Europe. During the summer national air quality standards are frequently exceeded, which justifies concern about the health effects of ozone at ambient concentrations. We studied upper airways inflammation after ozone exposure in 44 children by repeated nasal lavages from May to October 1991. During this time period five to eight lavages were performed for each child. On 14 days following high ozone exposure (daily maximum > or = 180 micrograms/m3) 148 nasal lavages were performed, and on 10 days following low ozone exposure (daily maximum < or = 140 micrograms/m3) 106 nasal lavages were performed. A significant increase of intra-individual mean polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) counts from low ozone days (median, 20.27 x 10(3)) to high ozone days (median, 27.38 x 10(3); p < 0.01) was observed. Concomitant with a decrease of ozone concentrations in the fall mean PMN counts showed a downward trend. Linear regression analysis of log-PMN counts yielded a significant effect for ozone (p = 0.017). In a subsample humoral markers of inflammation were measured for each child's highest and lowest exposure. A significant increase was observed for eosinophilic cationic protein (median, 77.39 micrograms/L on low ozone days versus 138.6 micrograms/L on high ozone days; p < 0.05). Thus we conclude that ozone at ambient concentrations initiates a reversible inflammatory response of the upper airways in normal children.

  5. Ambient noise levels and detection threshold in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demuth, Andrea; Ottemöller, Lars; Keers, Henk

    2016-07-01

    Ambient seismic noise is caused by a number of sources in specific frequency bands. The quantification of ambient noise makes it possible to evaluate station and network performance. We evaluate noise levels in Norway from the 2013 data set of the Norwegian National Seismic Network as well as two temporary deployments. Apart from the station performance, we studied the geographical and temporal variations, and developed a local noise model for Norway. The microseism peaks related to the ocean are significant in Norway. We, therefore, investigated the relationship between oceanic weather conditions and noise levels. We find a correlation of low-frequency noise (0.125-0.25 Hz) with wave heights up to 900 km offshore. High (2-10 Hz) and intermediate (0.5-5 Hz) frequency noise correlates only up to 450 km offshore with wave heights. From a geographic perspective, stations in southern Norway show lower noise levels for low frequencies due to a larger distance to the dominant noise sources in the North Atlantic. Finally, we studied the influence of high-frequency noise levels on earthquake detectability and found that a noise level increase of 10 dB decreases the detectability by 0.5 magnitude units. This method provides a practical way to consider noise variations in detection maps.

  6. Ambient noise levels and detection threshold in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demuth, Andrea; Ottemöller, Lars; Keers, Henk

    2016-03-01

    Ambient seismic noise is caused by a number of sources in specific frequency bands. The quantification of ambient noise makes it possible to evaluate station and network performance. We evaluate noise levels in Norway from the 2013 data set of the Norwegian National Seismic Network as well as two temporary deployments. Apart from the station performance, we studied the geographical and temporal variations, and developed a local noise model for Norway. The microseism peaks related to the ocean are significant in Norway. We, therefore, investigated the relationship between oceanic weather conditions and noise levels. We find a correlation of low-frequency noise (0.125-0.25 Hz) with wave heights up to 900 km offshore. High (2-10 Hz) and intermediate (0.5-5 Hz) frequency noise correlates only up to 450 km offshore with wave heights. From a geographic perspective, stations in southern Norway show lower noise levels for low frequencies due to a larger distance to the dominant noise sources in the North Atlantic. Finally, we studied the influence of high-frequency noise levels on earthquake detectability and found that a noise level increase of 10 dB decreases the detectability by 0.5 magnitude units. This method provides a practical way to consider noise variations in detection maps.

  7. EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPS): REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies support a participation of fine particulate matter (PM) with a diameter of 0.1 to 2.5 microm in the effects of air pollution particles on human health. The ambient fine particle concentrator is a recently developed technology that can enrich the mass of ambi...

  8. Projection screen having reduced ambient light scattering

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.

    2010-05-11

    An apparatus and method for improving the contrast between incident projected light and ambient light reflected from a projection screen are described. The efficiency of the projection screen for reflection of the projected light remains high, while permitting the projection screen to be utilized in a brightly lighted room. Light power requirements from the projection system utilized may be reduced.

  9. RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    S. Magnuson

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  10. AMBIENT AIR NON-METHANE HYDROCARBON MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A monitor has been developed with adequate sensitivity and accuracy to measure continuously the concentration of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) in ambient air. The monitor consists of pump and manifold system along with two basic instruments, a methane monitor and a flame-ioniza...

  11. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    G. Moridis; Q. Hu

    2001-12-20

    The purpose of Revision 00 of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada.

  12. Anode for rechargeable ambient temperature lithium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Attia, Alan I. (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An ambient room temperature, high density, rechargeable lithium battery includes a Li(x)Mg2Si negative anode which intercalates lithium to form a single crystalline phase when x is up to 1.0 and an amorphous phase when x is from 1 to 2.0. The electrode has good reversibility and mechanical strength after cycling.

  13. GREEN RIVER AMBIENT MODEL ASSESSMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to the proposed development of the Green River Oil Shale Formation encompassing the areas of southwestern Wyoming, northeastern Utah, and northwestern Colorado, the EPA Region VIII Headquarters in Denver has a specific need for the development of site-specific ambient dispers...

  14. TRIETHYLTIN: AMBIENT TEMPERATURE ALTERS VISUAL SYSTEM TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies have indicated that acute exposure to triethyltin (TET) increases latencies of the flash evoked response (VER) recorded from the rat cortex. TET also produces hypothermia, which may be modified by altering environmental (ambient) temperature. In this study, the r...

  15. Ambient Pressure LIF Instrument for Nitrogen Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra, J.; George, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    Concerns about the health effects of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and its role in forming deleterious atmospheric species have made it desirable to have low-cost, sensitive ambient measurements of NO2. A continuous-wave laser-diode Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) system for NO2 that operates at ambient pressure has been developed, thereby eliminating the need for an expensive pumping system. The use of high quality optical filters has facilitated low-concentration detection of NO2 using atmospheric pressure LIF by providing substantial discrimination against scattered laser photons without the use of time-gated electronics, which add complexity and cost to the LIF instrumentation. This improvement allows operation at atmospheric pressure with a low-cost diaphragm sampling pump. The current prototype system has achieved sensitivity several orders of magnitude beyond previous efforts at ambient pressure (LOD of 2 ppb, 60 s averaging time). Ambient measurements of NO2 were made in Portland, OR using both the standard NO2 chemiluminescence method (CL-NO2) and the LIF instrument and showed good agreement (r2 = 0.92). Our instrument is currently being developed as a “back-end” detector for a more field portable NOy system. In addition, we are currently utilizing this instrument to study surface chemistry involving NO2 at atmospherically relevant concentrations and pressures.

  16. Broadband Finite Frequency Ambient Noise Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, K.; Yang, Y.; Luo, Y.; Xie, J.

    2015-12-01

    Ambient noise tomography (ANT) has become a popular method to study the crustal and uppermost mantle structure of the earth in recent years due to its exclusive capability to extract short-period surface wave signals. Most of ANT are based on ray theory that assumes interstation surface waves from ambient noise are mainly sensitive to a narrow zone alone the ray path from one station to the other. Recently, many studies have demonstrated that long-period Rayleigh wave signal with high SNR can be obtained from cross-correlation of ambient noise data and could be used to do long period surface ware tomography. In order to obtain accurate phase velocity maps using long period surface waves from ambient noise, frequency effects must be considered in tomography. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of finite frequency ANT by calculating 2-D phase sensitivity kernel based on Born approximation. In calculating 2D sensitivity kernels for empirical Green's functions extracted from cross-correlations between a pair of stations, one station is regarded as receiver and the other as virtual source. Based on the 2D finite frequency sensitivity kennels, we develop a finite frequency ambient noise tomography method to construct Rayleigh wave phase velocity maps. To demonstrate the feasibility of our developed method, we apply the method to empirical Green's functions extracted from cross-correlations of USArray noise data to construct phase velocity maps at 20-150 sec periods. Our resulting phase velocity maps are very similar to earthquake-based phase velocity maps with almost zero means and 20-30 m/s stand deviations of differences. Major tectonic features in USA are well revealed in our phase velocity maps.

  17. Serum clara cell protein: a sensitive biomarker of increased lung epithelium permeability caused by ambient ozone.

    PubMed

    Broeckaert, F; Arsalane, K; Hermans, C; Bergamaschi, E; Brustolin, A; Mutti, A; Bernard, A

    2000-06-01

    Ozone in ambient air may cause various effects on human health, including decreased lung function, asthma exacerbation, and even premature mortality. These effects have been evidenced using various clinical indicators that, although sensitive, do not specifically evaluate the O(3)-increased lung epithelium permeability. In the present study, we assessed the acute effects of ambient O(3) on the pulmonary epithelium by a new approach relying on the assay in serum of the lung-specific Clara cell protein (CC16 or CC10). We applied this test to cyclists who exercised for 2 hr during episodes of photochemical smog and found that O(3) induces an early leakage of lung Clara cell protein. The protein levels increased significantly into the serum from exposure levels as low as 0.060-0.084 ppm. Our findings, confirmed in mice exposed to the current U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for O(3) (0.08 ppm for 8 hr) indicate that above the present natural background levels, there is almost no safety margin for the effects of ambient O(3) on airway permeability. The assay of CC16 in the serum represents a new sensitive noninvasive test allowing the detection of early effects of ambient O(3) on the lung epithelial barrier. PMID:10856027

  18. Photometric Ambient Occlusion for Intrinsic Image Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Hauagge, Daniel; Wehrwein, Scott; Bala, Kavita; Snavely, Noah

    2016-04-01

    We present a method for computing ambient occlusion (AO) for a stack of images of a Lambertian scene from a fixed viewpoint. Ambient occlusion, a concept common in computer graphics, characterizes the local visibility at a point: it approximates how much light can reach that point from different directions without getting blocked by other geometry. While AO has received surprisingly little attention in vision, we show that it can be approximated using simple, per-pixel statistics over image stacks, based on a simplified image formation model. We use our derived AO measure to compute reflectance and illumination for objects without relying on additional smoothness priors, and demonstrate state-of-the art performance on the MIT Intrinsic Images benchmark. We also demonstrate our method on several synthetic and real scenes, including 3D printed objects with known ground truth geometry. PMID:26959670

  19. Ambient Intelligence Research Landscapes: Introduction and Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streitz, Norbert

    This paper starts out by introducing the "Landscapes" category at the Joint International Conference on Ambient Intelligence (AmI-2010) and provides an overview over the two sessions. The main part of the paper presents a framework for the role of Ambient Intelligence in the development of the cities of the future. This includes the integration of real and virtual worlds resulting in Hybrid Cities and their transformation into Smart Cities. In the context, it is argued that the technological development has to be monitored by guidelines and goals for maintaining and improving the quality of life leading to what is called Humane Cities, addressing, e.g., social awareness and privacy, trust and identity. The paper closes with proposals for a future research agenda.

  20. Thermal explosion in oscillating ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novozhilov, Vasily

    2016-07-01

    Thermal explosion problem for a medium with oscillating ambient temperature at its boundaries is considered. This is a new problem in thermal explosion theory, not previously considered in a distributed system formulation, but important for combustion and fire science. It describes autoignition of wide range of fires (such as but not limited to piles of biosolids and other organic matter; storages of munitions, explosives, propellants) subjected to temperature variations, such as seasonal or day/night variation. The problem is considered in formulation adopted in classical studies of thermal explosion. Critical conditions are determined by frequency and amplitude of ambient temperature oscillations, as well as by a number of other parameters. Effects of all the parameters on critical conditions are quantified. Results are presented for the case of planar symmetry. Development of thermal explosion in time is also considered, and a new type of unsteady thermal explosion development is discovered where thermal runaway occurs after several periods of temperature oscillations within the medium.

  1. Ambient tectonic stress as fragile geological feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleep, Norman H.

    2014-09-01

    seismic waves produce frictional failure within shallow pervasively cracked rocks. Distributed failure preferentially relaxes ambient tectonic stresses, providing a fragility measure of past strong shaking. Relaxation of the regional fault-normal compression appears to have occurred within granite from 768 m down to ˜1000-1600 m depth at the Pilot Hole near Parkfield, California. Subsequent movements on the main fault have imposed strike-slip stress within the relaxed region. Peak ground velocities of ˜2 m s-1 are inferred for infrequent (few 1000 yr recurrence) past earthquakes from stress relaxation within the granite and from the variation of S wave velocity with depth in the overlying sandstone. Conversely, frequent strong shaking in slowly deforming regions relaxes shallow ambient tectonic stress. This situation is expected beneath Whittier Narrows, where strong Love waves from numerous San Andreas events repeatedly produced nonlinear behavior.

  2. Ambient-temperature co-oxidation catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upchurch, Billy T.; Schryer, David R.; Brown, Kenneth G.; Kielin, Erik J.

    1991-01-01

    Oxidation catalysts which operate at ambient temperature were developed for the recombination of carbon monoxide (CO) and oxygen (O2) dissociation products which are formed during carbon dioxide (CO2) laser operation. Recombination of these products to regenerate CO2 allows continuous operation of CO2 lasers in a closed cycle mode. Development of these catalyst materials provides enabling technology for the operation of such lasers from space platforms or in ground based facilities without constant gas consumption required for continuous open cycle operation. Such catalysts also have other applications in various areas outside the laser community for removal of CO from other closed environments such as indoor air and as an ambient temperature catalytic converter for control of auto emissions.

  3. Ambient Intelligence in the City Overview and New Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhlen, Marc; Frei, Hans

    Ambient intelligence has the potential for improving urban life specifically and the commonwealth in general. As artists and architects working in and with ambient intelligence, our hopes and anxieties towards ambient intelligence are not primarily in the technical domain. Our interest lies in re-making urbanity with pervasive technologies as a means to invigorate urban life. For this we need to take a break, after almost two decades of ambient intelligence related research, and recalibrate all instruments.

  4. Mass Spectrometry Imaging under Ambient Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chunping; Dill, Allison L.; Eberlin, Livia S.; Cooks, R. Graham; Ifa, Demian R.

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has emerged as an important tool in the last decade and it is beginning to show potential to provide new information in many fields owing to its unique ability to acquire molecularly specific images and to provide multiplexed information, without the need for labeling or staining. In MSI, the chemical identity of molecules present on a surface is investigated as a function of spatial distribution. In addition to now standard methods involving MSI in vacuum, recently developed ambient ionization techniques allow MSI to be performed under atmospheric pressure on untreated samples outside the mass spectrometer. Here we review recent developments and applications of MSI emphasizing the ambient ionization techniques of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI), probe electrospray ionization (PESI), desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI), femtosecond laser desorption ionization (fs-LDI), laser electrospray mass spectrometry (LEMS), infrared laser ablation metastable-induced chemical ionization (IR-LAMICI), liquid microjunction surface sampling probe mass spectrometry (LMJ-SSP MS), nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI), and plasma sources such as the low temperature plasma (LTP) probe and laser ablation coupled to flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (LA-FAPA). Included are discussions of some of the features of ambient MSI including the ability to implement chemical reactions with the goal of providing high abundance ions characteristic of specific compounds of interest and the use of tandem mass spectrometry to either map the distribution of targeted molecules with high specificity or to provide additional MS information in the structural identification of compounds. We also describe the role of bioinformatics in acquiring and interpreting the chemical and spatial information obtained through MSI, especially in biological applications for tissue

  5. Ambient temperature sodium-sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Yu, Xingwen

    2015-05-13

    Ambient- or room-temperature sodium-sulfur batteries (RT Na-S) are gaining much attention as a low-cost option for large-scale electrical energy storage applications. However, their adoption is hampered by severe challenges. This concept paper summarizes first the operating principles, history, recent progress, and challenges of RT Na-S battery technology, and then suggests future directions towards enhancing performance in order for it to be a viable technology. PMID:25565554

  6. Improved Ambient Pressure Pyroelectric Ion Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beegle, Luther W.; Kim, Hugh I.; Kanik, Isik; Ryu, Ernest K.; Beckett, Brett

    2011-01-01

    The detection of volatile vapors of unknown species in a complex field environment is required in many different applications. Mass spectroscopic techniques require subsystems including an ionization unit and sample transport mechanism. All of these subsystems must have low mass, small volume, low power, and be rugged. A volatile molecular detector, an ambient pressure pyroelectric ion source (APPIS) that met these requirements, was recently reported by Caltech researchers to be used in in situ environments.

  7. 49 CFR 325.35 - Ambient conditions; highway operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ambient conditions; highway operations. 325.35... MOTOR CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS Measurement of Noise Emissions; Highway Operations § 325.35 Ambient conditions; highway operations. (a)(1) Sound. The ambient A-weighted sound level at the...

  8. 49 CFR 325.35 - Ambient conditions; highway operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ambient conditions; highway operations. 325.35... MOTOR CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS Measurement of Noise Emissions; Highway Operations § 325.35 Ambient conditions; highway operations. (a)(1) Sound. The ambient A-weighted sound level at the...

  9. ASSESSING BIOACCUMULATION FOR DERIVING NATIONAL HUMAN HEALTH WATER QUALITY CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency is revising its methodology for deriving national ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) to protect human health. A component of this guidance involves assessing the potential for chemical bioaccumulation in commonly consumed fish ...

  10. Ambient seismic noise cross-correlations at Romanian broadband stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grecu, Bogdan; Tataru, Dragos; Neagoe, Cristian; Panza, Giuliano; Raileanu, Victor; Radulian, Mircea; Popa, Mihaela; Ionescu, Constantin

    2010-05-01

    In the last years the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP), Romania, has developed its real-time broadband seismic network. At present, NIEP operates 34 stations with both broadband velocity sensors (CMG3ESP, CMG40T, KS2000, STS2) and accelerometer sensors (2gEpi). The data are continuously recorded and transmitted to the Romanian Data Centre where Antelope 4.11 is running for acquisition and processing. The density of the stations produces 560 inter-station pairs for ambient noise cross-correlation analysis. In this study, we used seismic data recorded during a period of 12 months, between January 2009 and December 2009. A nonlinear procedure is applied to lower the influence of the earthquake-related signals and to obtain a symmetric noise cross-correlation function (for details see Cho et al., 2007). The results show good cross-correlation functions for almost all pair of stations. As the vertical components of ambient noise are cross-correlated, only the fundamental mode of the Rayleigh wave is obtained. The FTAN analysis is used to extract the group velocities from the estimated dispersive waves at periods between 6 and 30 sec. This work provides very useful data for future tomographic studies in Romania at crustal level, considering that new data from other broadband stations deployed on the Romanian territory will become available. References: Cho, K.H., R. B. Herrmann, C. J. Ammon and K. Lee. Imaging the Upper Crust of the Korean Peninsula by Surface-Wave Tomography, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (2007) 97, 198-207.

  11. Antimicrobial Applications of Ambient--Air Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovich, Matthew John

    The emerging field of plasma biotechology studies the applications of the plasma phase of matter to biological systems. "Ambient-condition" plasmas created at or near room temperature and atmospheric pressure are especially promising for biomedical applications because of their convenience, safety to patients, and compatibility with existing medical technology. Plasmas can be created from many different gases; plasma made from air contains a number of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, or RONS, involved in various biological processes, including immune activity, signaling, and gene expression. Therefore, ambient-condition air plasma is of particular interest for biological applications. To understand and predict the effects of treating biological systems with ambient-air plasma, it is necessary to characterize and measure the chemical species that these plasmas produce. Understanding both gaseous chemistry and the chemistry in plasma-treated aqueous solution is important because many biological systems exist in aqueous media. Existing literature about ambient-air plasma hypothesizes the critical role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species; a major aim of this dissertation is to better quantify RONS by produced ambient-air plasma and understand how RONS chemistry changes in response to different plasma processing conditions. Measurements imply that both gaseous and aqueous chemistry are highly sensitive to operating conditions. In particular, chemical species in air treated by plasma exist in either a low-power ozone-dominated mode or a high-power nitrogen oxide-dominated mode, with an unstable transition region at intermediate discharge power and treatment time. Ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2, or NOx) are mutually exclusive in this system and that the transition region corresponds to the transition from ozone- to nitrogen oxides-mode. Aqueous chemistry agrees well with to air plasma chemistry, and a similar transition in liquid-phase composition

  12. Source Apportionment of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter in Dearborn, Michigan, using Hourly Resolved PM Chemical Composition Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    High time-resolution aerosol sampling was conducted for one month during July–August 2007 in Dearborn, MI, a non-attainment area for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Measurements of more than 30 PM2.5 species were made using a suite o...

  13. AMBIENT AIR MONITORING AT GROUND ZERO AND LOWER MANHATTAN FOLLOWING THE COLLAPSE OF THE WORLD TRADE CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) collaborated with EPA's Regional offices to establish a monitoring network to characterize ambient air concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and air toxics in lower Manhattan following the collapse of the World Trade...

  14. 75 FR 8698 - Extension of Request for Scientific Views for Draft 2009 Update Aquatic Life Ambient Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... of the request for scientific views. SUMMARY: On December 30, 2009 (74 FR 69086), EPA announced the availability of draft national recommended water quality criteria for ammonia for the ] protection of aquatic... AGENCY Extension of Request for Scientific Views for Draft 2009 Update Aquatic Life Ambient Water...

  15. Ambient Experience in Restitutive Treatment of Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    McClung, Jill S.; Rothi, Leslie J. Gonzalez; Nadeau, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges to language rehabilitation is reconciling the fact that the same therapeutic intervention, provided to different individuals with similar types of stroke-induced aphasia, may result in divergent outcomes. In this paper, the authors reviewed existing literature to identify relevant ambient factors – those outside the control of the clinician – that may potentially influence functional language recovery in aphasia and response to treatment. The goal was to develop a clinical history-taking tool to assist clinicians in gathering information germane to each individual's unique circumstances and environment, elements that may have previously been underestimated, to provide a complete inventory of potentially potent prognostic factors. First, two of the authors, speech–language pathologists experienced in aphasia rehabilitation, identified and categorized factors that seemed likely to influence aphasia outcomes. Then, a wide range of literature was reviewed in an effort to identify factors empirically found to be potent influences on aphasia recovery. Where studies relating these factors to aphasia were not found, relevant research from allied fields that examined recovery from brain injury is reported. Moreover, some factors thought to be potentially potent have yet to be examined. Finally, the ambient factors supported by evidence were categorized as facilitators or barriers to functional improvement, and the Ambient Influences on Outcome Checklist (AOC) was developed, including only those factors shown to be potent in the recovery process. It is hoped that this checklist can be used to more broadly assess potential prognostic influences in aphasia restitution, as well as spawn further research. PMID:21103021

  16. Ambient temperature modelling with soft computing techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Bertini, Ilaria; Ceravolo, Francesco; Citterio, Marco; Di Pietra, Biagio; Margiotta, Francesca; Pizzuti, Stefano; Puglisi, Giovanni; De Felice, Matteo

    2010-07-15

    This paper proposes a hybrid approach based on soft computing techniques in order to estimate monthly and daily ambient temperature. Indeed, we combine the back-propagation (BP) algorithm and the simple Genetic Algorithm (GA) in order to effectively train artificial neural networks (ANN) in such a way that the BP algorithm initialises a few individuals of the GA's population. Experiments concerned monthly temperature estimation of unknown places and daily temperature estimation for thermal load computation. Results have shown remarkable improvements in accuracy compared to traditional methods. (author)

  17. Ambient Noise in an Urbanized Tidal Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, Christopher

    In coastal environments, when topographic and bathymetric constrictions are combined with large tidal amplitudes, strong currents (> 2 m/s) can occur. Because such environments are relatively rare and difficult to study, until recently, they have received little attention from the scientific community. However, in recent years, interest in developing tidal hydrokinetic power projects in these environments has motivated studies to improve this understanding. In order to support an analysis of the acoustic effects of tidal power generation, a multi-year study was conducted at a proposed project site in Puget Sound (WA) are analyzed at a site where peak currents exceeded 3.5 m/s. From these analyses, three noise sources are shown to dominate the observed variability in ambient noise between 0.02-30 kHz: anthropogenic noise from vessel traffic, sediment-generated noise during periods of strong currents, and flow-noise resulting from turbulence advected over the hydrophones. To assess the contribution of vessel traffic noise, one calendar year of Automatic Identification System (AIS) ship-traffic data was paired with hydrophone recordings. The study region included inland waters of the Salish Sea within a 20 km radius of the hydrophone deployment site in northern Admiralty Inlet. The variability in spectra and hourly, daily, and monthly ambient noise statistics for unweighted broadband and M-weighted sound pressure levels is driven largely by vessel traffic. Within the one-year study period, at least one AIS transmitting vessel is present in the study area 90% of the time and over 1,363 unique vessels are recorded. A noise budget for vessels equipped with AIS transponders identifies cargo ships, tugs, and passenger vessels as the largest contributors to noise levels. A simple model to predict received levels at the site based on an incoherent summation of noise from different vessel types yields a cumulative probability density function of broadband sound pressure

  18. Thermal explosion in oscillating ambient conditions

    PubMed Central

    Novozhilov, Vasily

    2016-01-01

    Thermal explosion problem for a medium with oscillating ambient temperature at its boundaries is considered. This is a new problem in thermal explosion theory, not previously considered in a distributed system formulation, but important for combustion and fire science. It describes autoignition of wide range of fires (such as but not limited to piles of biosolids and other organic matter; storages of munitions, explosives, propellants) subjected to temperature variations, such as seasonal or day/night variation. The problem is considered in formulation adopted in classical studies of thermal explosion. Critical conditions are determined by frequency and amplitude of ambient temperature oscillations, as well as by a number of other parameters. Effects of all the parameters on critical conditions are quantified. Results are presented for the case of planar symmetry. Development of thermal explosion in time is also considered, and a new type of unsteady thermal explosion development is discovered where thermal runaway occurs after several periods of temperature oscillations within the medium. PMID:27443235

  19. Thermal explosion in oscillating ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Novozhilov, Vasily

    2016-01-01

    Thermal explosion problem for a medium with oscillating ambient temperature at its boundaries is considered. This is a new problem in thermal explosion theory, not previously considered in a distributed system formulation, but important for combustion and fire science. It describes autoignition of wide range of fires (such as but not limited to piles of biosolids and other organic matter; storages of munitions, explosives, propellants) subjected to temperature variations, such as seasonal or day/night variation. The problem is considered in formulation adopted in classical studies of thermal explosion. Critical conditions are determined by frequency and amplitude of ambient temperature oscillations, as well as by a number of other parameters. Effects of all the parameters on critical conditions are quantified. Results are presented for the case of planar symmetry. Development of thermal explosion in time is also considered, and a new type of unsteady thermal explosion development is discovered where thermal runaway occurs after several periods of temperature oscillations within the medium. PMID:27443235

  20. Characterization of Ambient Black Carbon Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R.; Levy, M. E.; Zheng, J.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-12-01

    Because of the strong absorption over a broad range of the electromagnetic spectra, black carbon (BC) is a key short-lived climate forcer, which contributes significantly to climate change by direct radiative forcing and is the second most important component causing global warming after carbon dioxide. The impact of BC on the radiative forcing of the Earth-Atmosphere system is highly dependent of the particle properties. In this presentation, emphasis will be placed on characterizing BC containing aerosols in at the California-Mexico border to obtain a greater understanding of the atmospheric aging and properties of ambient BC aerosols. A comprehensive set of directly measured aerosol properties, including the particle size distribution, effective density, hygroscopicity, volatility, and several optical properties, will be discussed to quantify the mixing state and composition of ambient particles. In Tijuana, Mexico, submicron aerosols are strongly influenced by vehicle emissions; subsequently, the BC concentration in Tijuana is considerably higher than most US cities with an average BC concentration of 2.71 × 2.65 g cm-3. BC accounts for 24.75 % × 9.44 of the total submicron concentration on average, but periodically accounts for over 50%. This high concentration of BC strongly influences many observed aerosol properties such as single scattering albedo, hygroscopicity, effective density, and volatility.

  1. Ambient pressure photoemission spectroscopy of metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baikie, Iain D.; Grain, Angela C.; Sutherland, James; Law, Jamie

    2014-12-01

    We describe a novel photoemission technique utilizing a traditional Kelvin probe as a detector of electrons/atmospheric ions ejected from metallic surfaces (Au, Ag, Cu, Fe, Ni, Ti, Zn, Al) illuminated by a deep ultra-violet (DUV) source under ambient pressure. To surmount the limitation of electron scattering in air the incident photon energy is rastered rather than applying a variable retarding electric field as is used with UPS. This arrangement can be applied in several operational modes: using the DUV source to determine the photoemission threshold (Φ) with 30-50 meV resolution and also the Kelvin probe, under dark conditions, to measure contact potential difference (CPD) between the Kelvin probe tip and the metallic sample with an accuracy of 1-3 meV. We have studied the relationship between the photoelectric threshold and CPD of metal surfaces cleaned in ambient conditions. Inclusion of a second spectroscopic visible source was used to confirm a semiconducting oxide, possibly Cu2O, via surface photovoltage measurements with the KP. This dual detection system can be easily extended to controlled gas conditions, relative humidity control and sample heating/cooling.

  2. Disseminating ambient assisted living in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Gerhard; Felfernig, Alexander; Fercher, Anton J; Hitz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future. PMID:25068862

  3. A Smart Kitchen for Ambient Assisted Living

    PubMed Central

    Blasco, Rubén; Marco, Álvaro; Casas, Roberto; Cirujano, Diego; Picking, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The kitchen environment is one of the scenarios in the home where users can benefit from Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) applications. Moreover, it is the place where old people suffer from most domestic injuries. This paper presents a novel design, implementation and assessment of a Smart Kitchen which provides Ambient Assisted Living services; a smart environment that increases elderly and disabled people's autonomy in their kitchen-related activities through context and user awareness, appropriate user interaction and artificial intelligence. It is based on a modular architecture which integrates a wide variety of home technology (household appliances, sensors, user interfaces, etc.) and associated communication standards and media (power line, radio frequency, infrared and cabled). Its software architecture is based on the Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi), which allows building a complex system composed of small modules, each one providing the specific functionalities required, and can be easily scaled to meet our needs. The system has been evaluated by a large number of real users (63) and carers (31) in two living labs in Spain and UK. Results show a large potential of system functionalities combined with good usability and physical, sensory and cognitive accessibility. PMID:24445412

  4. Disseminating Ambient Assisted Living in Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Gerhard; Felfernig, Alexander; Fercher, Anton J.; Hitz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future. PMID:25068862

  5. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Shrestha, Som S.; Linkous, Randall Lee; Goetzler, William; Guernsey, Matt; Kassuga, Theo

    2015-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient Temperature Testing Program for Low-GWP Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-Global Warming Potential (low-GWP) alternatives to Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high ambient temperature conditions. This interim working paper describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerants selection process, the test procedures, and the preliminary results.

  6. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Shrestha, Som S.; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Linkous, Randall Lee; Goetzler, William; Guernsey, Matt; Kassuga, Theo

    2015-10-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for low– global warming potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high-ambient-temperature conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerant selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.

  7. The influence of ambient light on the driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinger, Karsten D.; Lemmer, Uli

    2008-04-01

    Increasingly, cars are fitted with interior ambient lighting which is switched on while driving. This special kind of interior light emphasizes the interior design of the car, it makes a car look special and gives the buyers a new option to personalize their automobiles. But how does ambient interior light influence the driver? We conducted a series of over 50 tests to study the influence of interior ambient light on contrast perception under different illumination levels, colors and positions of the illuminated areas. Our tests show that in many cases the ambient lighting can improve the visual contrast for seeing objects in the headlamp beam. But the test persons mentioned that the tested brightness looked too bright and that they felt glared. The measured values instead proved that no disability glare exists. Therefore, provided that the drivers can adjust the intensity of the ambient light to avoid glare, the ambient light has no negative effect on the drivers' contrast perception.

  8. Estimation of ambient PM2.5 concentrations in Maryland and verification by measured values.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kenneth; Sherwell, John

    2002-10-01

    In 1997, Maryland had no available ambient Federal Reference Method data on particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM23), but did have annual ambient data for PM smaller than 10 microm (PM10) at 24 sites. The PM10 data were analyzed in conjunction with local annual and seasonal zip-code-level emission inventories and with speciated PM2.5 data from four nearby monitors in the IMPROVE network (located in the national parks, wildlife refuges, and wilderness areas) in an effort to estimate annual average and seasonal high PM2.5 concentrations at the 24 PM10 monitor sites operating from 1992 to 1996. All seasonal high concentrations were estimated to be below the 24-hr PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) at the sites operating in Maryland between 1992 and 1996. The estimates also indicated that 12 monitor sites might exceed the 3-year annual average PM2.5 NAAQS of 15 microg/m3, but Maryland's air quality shows signs that it has been improving since 1992. The estimates also were compared with actual measurements after the PM2.5 monitor network was installed. The estimates were adequate for describing the chemical composition of the PM2.5, forecasting compliance status with the 24-hr and annual standards, and determining the spatial variations in PM2.5 across central Maryland. PMID:12418728

  9. The Potential for Ambient Plasma Wave Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, James H.; Williams, George J.

    2016-01-01

    A truly robust space exploration program will need to make use of in-situ resources as much as possible to make the endeavor affordable. Most space propulsion concepts are saddled with one fundamental burden; the propellant needed to produce momentum. The most advanced propulsion systems currently in use utilize electric and/or magnetic fields to accelerate ionized propellant. However, significant planetary exploration missions in the coming decades, such as the now canceled Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, are restricted by propellant mass and propulsion system lifetimes, using even the most optimistic projections of performance. These electric propulsion vehicles are inherently limited in flexibility at their final destination, due to propulsion system wear, propellant requirements, and the relatively low acceleration of the vehicle. A few concepts are able to utilize the environment around them to produce thrust: Solar or magnetic sails and, with certain restrictions, electrodynamic tethers. These concepts focus primarily on using the solar wind or ambient magnetic fields to generate thrust. Technically immature, quasi-propellantless alternatives lack either the sensitivity or the power to provide significant maneuvering. An additional resource to be considered is the ambient plasma and magnetic fields in solar and planetary magnetospheres. These environments, such as those around the Sun or Jupiter, have been shown to host a variety of plasma waves. Plasma wave propulsion takes advantage of an observed astrophysical and terrestrial phenomenon: Alfven waves. These are waves that propagate in the plasma and magnetic fields around and between planets and stars. The generation of Alfven waves in ambient magnetic and plasma fields to generate thrust is proposed as a truly propellantless propulsion system which may enable an entirely new matrix of exploration missions. Alfven waves are well known, transverse electromagnetic waves that propagate in magnetized plasmas at

  10. Immune defence under extreme ambient temperature

    PubMed Central

    Seppälä, Otto; Jokela, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    Owing to global climate change, the extreme weather conditions are predicted to become more frequent, which is suggested to have an even greater impact on ecological interactions than the gradual increase in average temperatures. Here, we examined whether exposure to high ambient temperature affects immune function of the great pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis). We quantified the levels of several immune traits from snails maintained in a non-stressful temperature (15°C) and in an extreme temperature (30°C) that occurs in small ponds during hot summers. We found that snails exposed to high temperature had weaker immune defence, which potentially predisposes them to infections. However, while phenoloxidase and antibacterial activity of snail haemolymph were reduced at high temperature, haemocyte concentration was not affected. This suggests that the effect of high temperature on snail susceptibility to infections may vary across different pathogens because different components of invertebrate immune defence have different roles in resistance. PMID:20610417

  11. Head wave correlations in ambient noise.

    PubMed

    Gebbie, John; Siderius, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Ambient ocean noise is processed with a vertical line array to reveal coherent time-separated arrivals suggesting the presence of head wave multipath propagation. Head waves, which are critically propagating water waves created by seabed waves traveling parallel to the water-sediment interface, can propagate faster than water-only waves. Such eigenrays are much weaker than water-only eigenrays, and are often completely overshadowed by them. Surface-generated noise is different whereby it amplifies the coherence between head waves and critically propagating water-only waves, which is measured by cross-correlating critically steered beams. This phenomenon is demonstrated both experimentally and with a full wave simulation. PMID:27475213

  12. Bacterial decontamination using ambient pressure nonthermal discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Birmingham, J.G.; Hammerstrom, D.J.

    2000-02-01

    Atmospheric pressure nonthermal plasmas can efficiently deactivate bacteria in gases, liquids, and on surfaces, as well as can decompose hazardous chemicals. This paper focuses on the changes to bacterial spores and toxic biochemical compounds, such as mycotoxins, after their treatment in ambient pressure discharges. The ability of nonthermal plasmas to decompose toxic chemicals and deactivate hazardous biological materials has been applied to sterilizing medical instruments, ozonating water, and purifying air. In addition, the fast lysis of bacterial spores and other cells has led us to include plasma devices within pathogen detection instruments, where nucleic acids must be accessed. Decontaminating chemical and biological warfare materials from large, high value targets such as building surfaces, after a terrorist attack, are especially challenging. A large area plasma decontamination technology is described.

  13. FRAM 2 Single Channel Ambient Noise Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, R. F.

    1981-11-01

    This document describes the results of a statistical analysis study of FRAM II arctic under-ice ambient noise data. The specific data that were analyzed were recorded on 23-24 April 1980 from a pack ice camp in the Arctic Ocean, located at 86 deg N latitude, 25 deg W longitude. At this location, the bottom depth was approximately 4000 m. The measurement system consisted of a broadband omnidirectional hydrophone, suspended to a depth of 91 m from a sonobuoy located in a lead. Under the influence of arctic currents, the pack ice was slowly moving. This movement caused rifting and cracking of ice, which occurred, at times, throughout the experiments and represented a structured acoustic noise source. Both impulsive and burst noise were identified in the data and were probably created by tensile cracks and rubbing ice masses.

  14. Ambient tremors in a collisional orogenic belt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chuang, Lindsay Yuling; Chen, Kate Huihsuan; Wech, Aaron G.; Byrne, Timothy; Peng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Deep-seated tectonic tremors have been regarded as an observation tied to interconnected fluids at depth, which have been well documented in worldwide subduction zones and transform faults but not in a collisional mountain belt. In this study we explore the general features of collisional tremors in Taiwan and discuss the possible generation mechanism. In the 4 year data, we find 231 ambient tremor episodes with durations ranging from 5 to 30 min. In addition to a coseismic slip-induced stress change from nearby major earthquake, increased tremor rate is also highly correlated with the active, normal faulting earthquake swarms at the shallower depth. Both the tremor and earthquake swarm activities are confined in a small, area where the high attenuation, high thermal anomaly, the boundary between high and low resistivity, and localized veins on the surfaces distributed, suggesting the involvement of fluids from metamorphic dehydration within the orogen.

  15. Ambient and Unobtrusive Cardiorespiratory Monitoring Techniques.

    PubMed

    Bruser, Christoph; Antink, Christoph Hoog; Wartzek, Tobias; Walter, Marian; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring vital signs through unobtrusive means is a goal which has attracted a lot of attention in the past decade. This review provides a systematic and comprehensive review over the current state of the field of ambient and unobtrusive cardiorespiratory monitoring. To this end, nine different sensing modalities which have been in the focus of current research activities are covered: capacitive electrocardiography, seismo- and ballistocardiography, reflective photoplethysmography (PPG) and PPG imaging, thermography, methods relying on laser or radar for distance-based measurements, video motion analysis, as well as methods using high-frequency electromagnetic fields. Current trends in these subfields are reviewed. Moreover, we systematically analyze similarities and differences between these methods with respect to the physiological and physical effects they sense as well as the resulting implications. Finally, future research trends for the field as a whole are identified. PMID:25794396

  16. Radial anisotropy ambient noise tomography of volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordret, Aurélien; Rivet, Diane; Shapiro, Nikolai; Jaxybulatov, Kairly; Landès, Matthieu; Koulakov, Ivan; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The use of ambient seismic noise allows us to perform surface-wave tomography of targets which could hardly be imaged by other means. The frequencies involved (~ 0.5 - 20 s), somewhere in between active seismic and regular teleseismic frequency band, make possible the high resolution imaging of intermediate-size targets like volcanic edifices. Moreover, the joint inversion of Rayleigh and Love waves dispersion curves extracted from noise correlations allows us to invert for crustal radial anisotropy. We present here the two first studies of radial anisotropy on volcanoes by showing results from Lake Toba Caldera, a super-volcano in Indonesia, and from Piton de la Fournaise volcano, a hot-spot effusive volcano on the Réunion Island (Indian Ocean). We will see how radial anisotropy can be used to infer the main fabric within a magmatic system and, consequently, its dominant type of intrusion.

  17. Wireless Sensor Networks for Ambient Assisted Living

    PubMed Central

    Aquino-Santos, Raúl; Martinez-Castro, Diego; Edwards-Block, Arthur; Murillo-Piedrahita, Andrés Felipe

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces wireless sensor networks for Ambient Assisted Living as a proof of concept. Our workgroup has developed an arrhythmia detection algorithm that we evaluate in a closed space using a wireless sensor network to relay the information collected to where the information can be registered, monitored and analyzed to support medical decisions by healthcare providers. The prototype we developed is then evaluated using the TelosB platform. The proposed architecture considers very specific restrictions regarding the use of wireless sensor networks in clinical situations. The seamless integration of the system architecture enables both mobile node and network configuration, thus providing the versatile and robust characteristics necessary for real-time applications in medical situations. Likewise, this system architecture efficiently permits the different components of our proposed platform to interact efficiently within the parameters of this study. PMID:24351665

  18. Verbal memory elicited by ambient odor.

    PubMed

    Smith, D G; Standing, L; de Man, A

    1992-04-01

    This study examined whether an ambient odor can act as a contextual cue for retrieval of verbal stimuli. Subjects (N = 47) learned a list of 24 words while exposed to one of two odors (either jasmine incense or Lauren perfume) and subsequently relearned the list with either the same or the alternative odor present. Superior memory for the word list was found when the odor present during the relearning session was the same one that had been present at the time of initial learning, thereby demonstrating context-dependent memory. There were no differences in initial learning between the two odor conditions. No differences in pleasantness or intensity were found between the odors. PMID:1594391

  19. Spectral analysis of ambient weather patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.V.; Subbarao, K.

    1981-01-01

    A Fourier spectral analysis of ambient weather data, consisting of global and direct solar radiation, dry and wet bulb temperatures, and wind speed, is given. By analyzing the heating and cooling seasons independently, seasonal variations are isolated and a cleaner spectrum emerges. This represents an improvement over previous work in this area, in which data for the entire year were analyzed together. As a demonstration of the efficacy of this method, synthetic data constructed with a small number of parameters are used in typical simulations, and the results are compared with those obtained with the original data. A spectral characterization of fluctuations around the moving average is given, and the changes in the fluctuation from season to season are examined.

  20. Near-ambient solid polymer fuel cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleck, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel cells are extremely attractive for extraterrestrial and terrestrial applications because of their high energy conversion efficiency without noise or environmental pollution. Among the various fuel cell systems the advanced polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells based on sulfonated fluoropolymers (e.g., Nafion) are particularly attractive because they are fairly rugged, solid state, quite conductive, of good chemical and thermal stability and show good oxygen reduction kinetics due to the low specific adsorption of the electrolyte on the platinum catalyst. The objective of this program is to develop a solid polymer fuel cell which can efficiently operate at near ambient temperatures without ancillary components for humidification and/or pressurization of the fuel or oxidant gases. During the Phase 1 effort we fabricated novel integral electrode-membrane structures where the dispersed platinum catalyst is precipitated within the Nafion ionomer. This resulted in electrode-membrane units without interfacial barriers permitting unhindered water diffusion from cathode to anode. The integral electrode-membrane structures were tested as fuel cells operating on H2 and O2 or air at 1 to 2 atm and 10 to 50 C without gas humidification. We demonstrated that cells with completely dry membranes could be self started at room temperature and subsequently operated on dry gas for extended time. Typical room temperature low pressure operation with unoptimized electrodes yielded 100 mA/cm(exp 2) at 0.5V and maximum currents over 300 mA/cm(exp 2) with low platinum loadings. Our results clearly demonstrate that operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells at ambient conditions is feasible. Optimization of the electrode-membrane structure is necessary to assess the full performance potential but we expect significant gains in weight and volume power density for the system. The reduced complexity will make fuel cells also attractive for smaller and portable power supplies and as

  1. The health effects of ambient PM2.5 and potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shaolong; Gao, Dan; Liao, Fen; Zhou, Furong; Wang, Xinming

    2016-06-01

    The impacts of ambient PM2.5 on public health have become great concerns worldwide, especially in the developing countries. Epidemiological and toxicological studies have shown that PM2.5 does not only induce cardiopulmonary disorders and/or impairments, but also contributes to a variety of other adverse health effects, such as driving the initiation and progression of diabetes mellitus and eliciting adverse birth outcomes. Of note, recent findings have demonstrated that PM2.5 may still pose a hazard to public health even at very low levels (far below national standards) of exposure. The proposed underlying mechanisms whereby PM2.5 causes adverse effects to public health include inducing intracellular oxidative stress, mutagenicity/genotoxicity and inflammatory responses. The present review aims to provide an brief overview of new insights into the molecular mechanisms linking ambient PM2.5 exposure and health effects, which were explored with new technologies in recent years. PMID:26896893

  2. Orion ECLSS/Suit System - Ambient Pressure Integrated Suit Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barido, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    The Ambient Pressure Integrated Suit Test (APIST) phase of the integrated system testing of the Orion Vehicle Atmosphere Revitalization System (ARS) technology was conducted for the Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. Crew and Thermal Systems Division performed this test in the eleven-foot human-rated vacuum chamber at the NASA Johnson Space Center. This testing is the first phase of suit loop testing to demonstrate the viability of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) being developed for Orion. APIST is the first in a series, which will consist of testing development hardware including the Carbon dioxide and Moisture Removal Amine Swing-bed (CAMRAS) and the air revitalization loop fan with human test subjects in pressure suits at varying suit pressures. Follow-on testing, to be conducted in 2013, will utilize the CAMRAS and a development regulator with human test subjects in pressure suits at varying cabin and suit pressures. This paper will discuss the results and findings of APIST and will also discuss future testing.

  3. BOREAS TGB-7 Ambient Air Herbicide and Organochlorine Concentration Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waite, Don; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara K. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Trace Gas Biogeochemistry (BOREAS TGB)-7 team measured the concentration and flux of several agricultural pesticides in air, rainwater, and dry deposition samples in order to determine the associated yearly deposition rates. This data set contains information on the ambient air concentration of seven herbicides [2,4- dichlorophenoxyacidic_acid (2,4-D), bromoxynil, dicamb, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), triallate, trifluralin, and diclop-methyl] known to appear in the atmosphere of the Canadian prairies. Also, the concentration of three herbicides (atrazine, alachlor, and metolachlor), two groups of insecticides (lindane and breakdown products and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and breakdown products), and several polychlorinated biphenyls commonly used in the central United States was measured. All of these chemicals are reported, in the literature, to be transported in the atmosphere. Many have been reported to occur in boreal and arctic food chains. The sampling was carried out from 16-Jun to 13-Aug-1993 and 04-May to 20-Jul-1994 at the BOREAS site in the Prince Albert National Park (Waskesiu). The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  4. Ambient Noise Rayleigh Wave Tomography of New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, F.; Ritzwoller, M. H.; Townend, J.; Bannister, S.; Savage, M. K.

    2006-12-01

    We present the first New Zealand-wide study of surface wave dispersion using ambient noise observed at 42 broadband stations in the national seismic network (GeoNet) and the Global Seismic Network (GSN). Year- long vertical-component time series recorded between 1 April 2005 and 31 March 2006 have been correlated with one another to yield estimated fundamental Rayleigh wave Green's functions. We filter these Green's functions to compute Rayleigh wave group dispersion curves at periods of 5--50 s, using frequency--time analysis with phase-matched filters. The uncertainties of the measurements are estimated based on the temporal variation of the dispersion curves revealed by 12 overlapping three-month stacks. After selecting the highest quality dispersion curve measurements, we compute group velocity maps at 7--25 s periods. These maps, and 1--D shear wave velocity models, exhibit clear correlations with major geological structures, including the Taranaki and Canterbury Basins, the Hikurangi accretionary prism, and previously reported basement terrane boundaries.

  5. Ambient noise Rayleigh wave tomography of New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Fan-Chi; Ritzwoller, Michael H.; Townend, John; Bannister, Stephen; Savage, Martha K.

    2007-08-01

    We present the first New Zealand-wide study of surface wave dispersion, using ambient noise observed at 42 broad-band stations in the national seismic network (GeoNet) and the Global Seismic Network (GSN). Year-long vertical-component time-series recorded between 2005 April 1 and 2006 March 31 have been correlated with one another to yield estimated fundamental mode Rayleigh wave Green's functions. We filter these Green's functions to compute Rayleigh wave group dispersion curves at periods of 5-50 s, using a phase-matched filter, frequency-time analysis technique. The uncertainties of the measurements are estimated based on the temporal variation of the dispersion curves revealed by 12 overlapping 3-month stacks. After selecting the highest quality dispersion curve measurements, we compute group velocity maps from 7 to 25 s period. These maps, and 1-D shear wave velocity models at four selected locations, exhibit clear correlations with major geological structures, including the Taranaki and Canterbury Basins, the Hikurangi accretionary prism, and previously reported basement terrane boundaries.

  6. PM4 crystalline silica emission factors and ambient concentrations at aggregate-producing sources in California.

    PubMed

    Richards, John R; Brozell, Todd T; Rea, Charles; Boraston, Geoff; Hayden, John

    2009-11-01

    The California Construction and Industrial Minerals Association and the National Stone, Sand, & Gravel Association have sponsored tests at three sand and gravel plants in California to compile crystalline silica emission factors for particulate matter (PM) of aerodynamic diameter of 4 microm or less (PM4) and ambient concentration data. This information is needed by industrial facilities to evaluate compliance with the Chronic Reference Exposure Level (REL) for ambient crystalline silica adopted in 2005 by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. The REL applies to PM4 respirable PM. Air Control Techniques, P.C. sampled for PM4 crystalline silica using a conventional sampler for PM of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 microm or less (PM2.5), which met the requirements of 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 50, Appendix L. The sample flow rate was adjusted to modify the 50% cut size to 4 microm instead of 2.5 microm. The filter was also changed to allow for crystalline silica analyses using National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 7500. The particle size-capture efficiency curve for the modified Appendix L instrument closely matched the performance curve of NIOSH Method 0600 for PM4 crystalline silica and provided a minimum detection limit well below the levels attainable with NIOSH Method 0600. The results of the tests indicate that PM4 crystalline silica emissions range from 0.000006 to 0.000110 lb/t for screening operations, tertiary crushers, and conveyor transfer points. The PM4 crystalline silica emission factors were proportional to the crystalline silica content of the material handled in the process equipment. Measured ambient concentrations ranged from 0 (below detectable limit) to 2.8 microg/m3. All values measured above 2 microg/m3 were at locations upwind of the facilities being tested. The ambient PM4 crystalline silica concentrations measured during this study were below the California REL of 3 microg/m3

  7. Ambient Noise in an Urbanized Tidal Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, Christopher

    In coastal environments, when topographic and bathymetric constrictions are combined with large tidal amplitudes, strong currents (> 2 m/s) can occur. Because such environments are relatively rare and difficult to study, until recently, they have received little attention from the scientific community. However, in recent years, interest in developing tidal hydrokinetic power projects in these environments has motivated studies to improve this understanding. In order to support an analysis of the acoustic effects of tidal power generation, a multi-year study was conducted at a proposed project site in Puget Sound (WA) are analyzed at a site where peak currents exceeded 3.5 m/s. From these analyses, three noise sources are shown to dominate the observed variability in ambient noise between 0.02-30 kHz: anthropogenic noise from vessel traffic, sediment-generated noise during periods of strong currents, and flow-noise resulting from turbulence advected over the hydrophones. To assess the contribution of vessel traffic noise, one calendar year of Automatic Identification System (AIS) ship-traffic data was paired with hydrophone recordings. The study region included inland waters of the Salish Sea within a 20 km radius of the hydrophone deployment site in northern Admiralty Inlet. The variability in spectra and hourly, daily, and monthly ambient noise statistics for unweighted broadband and M-weighted sound pressure levels is driven largely by vessel traffic. Within the one-year study period, at least one AIS transmitting vessel is present in the study area 90% of the time and over 1,363 unique vessels are recorded. A noise budget for vessels equipped with AIS transponders identifies cargo ships, tugs, and passenger vessels as the largest contributors to noise levels. A simple model to predict received levels at the site based on an incoherent summation of noise from different vessel types yields a cumulative probability density function of broadband sound pressure

  8. Ultrafine ambient particulate matter enhances cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a consistent link between exposure to ambient particulate air pollutant (PM) and the incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The present study was designed to evaluate the cardiac effects of ambient PM. Mice were exposed to 1...

  9. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than...

  10. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than...

  11. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than...

  12. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than...

  13. TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE DOCUMENT FOR THE CALIBRATION OF AMBIENT OZONE MONITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In February, 1979, EPA revised certain parts of the ambient air pollution monitoring regulations (40 CFR Part 50, Appendix D) to specify a new procedure for calibration of ambient ozone analyzers. The new procedure is based on ultraviolet (UV) absorption photometry, and specifies...

  14. COMPARISONS OF MODELS PREDICTING AMBIENT LAKE PHOSPHORUS CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Vollenweider, Dillon, and Larsen/Mercier models for predicting ambient lake phosphorus concentrations and classifying lakes by trophic state are compared in this report. The Dillon and Larsen/Mercier models gave comparable results in ranking 39 lakes relative to known ambient...

  15. WORKSHOP ON SOURCE EMISSION AND AMBIENT AIR MONITORING OF MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    AN EPA/ORD Workshop on Source Emission and Ambient Air Monitoring of Mercury was held on 9/13-14/99, Bloomington, Minnesota. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss the state-of-the-science in source and ambient air mercury monitoring as well as mercury monitoring research and...

  16. Ambient air quality monitoring plan, Cumberland Steam Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, A.E. Jr.; Carter, R.V.

    1981-09-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has conducted ambient air quality monitoring at Cumberland Steam Plant since 1971. The monitoring network was operated to collect background air quality information prior to plant startup (1972) and to document ambient air quality after the plant reached full operating levels in 1973. This monitoring plan presents a new network design for Cumberland Steam Plant.

  17. LIGHT-DUTY DIESEL EMISSION CORRECTION FACTORS FOR AMBIENT CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since emission measurements from passenger cars are performed at one standard set of ambient conditions and since emission rates of HC, CO, and NOx are sensitive to temperature and humidity, it is necessary to determine the influence of ambient conditions on emissions from major ...

  18. Understanding the dynamics of a geyser using seismic ambient noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cros, Estelle; Roux, Philippe; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Kedar, Sharon

    2010-05-01

    Old Faithful Geyser in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, is one of the most studied geysers in the world. The predictability, the repeatability and the short time lag, ~1.5 hour, between 2 eruptions make the study convenient. The surface expression of the geyser is a 4m high, 60m wide mound with an approximately 2m x 1m opening at the top, which permits to deploy a dense network of sensors closed to the orifice. In 1992, Sharon Kedar deployed 96 vertical geophones in a tight grid over the geyser's dome. The geophones recorded the ambient seismic noise during an entire eruptive cycle, including a short period of quiet seismic activity. The survey was completed by seven shots carried out with a sledge hammer. The signal consists in a series of impulsive events, most likely due to bubble collapse in boiling water areas inside the geyser's plumbing system. The aim of this study is to locate the sources of these events. We revisited a 10 minutes-long data set from S. Kedar's records and processed the signal using a Matched Field Processing (MFP) algorithm derived from ocean acoustics. The cross-correlation of the signals recorded by the 96 geophones showed a great level of coherency between the sensors, which is a pre-requisite to use MFP. This method introduced in geophysics by Capon is based on comparing forward modelling solutions of the wave equation in a grid search with acquired data, measured on an array of motion sensors. The process consists in placing a test source at each point of the grid search, computing the acoustic field corresponding at all the elements of the array and then correlating this modelled field with the data. The correlation is maximum when the candidate point source is co-located with the true point source. We used both linear (Bartlett) and non linear (MVDR : Minimum Variance Distorsionless) processors. The MFP processor was performed either incoherently from the raw ambient noise data or coherently from the cross-correlated traces

  19. An update to the ambient ratio method for 1-h NO2 air quality standards dispersion modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podrez, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Nitrogen oxide (NOX) gases are typically emitted by fuel combustion sources in the form of nitric oxide (NO), which then reacts with ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere to convert a portion of the NO to nitrogen dioxide (NO2). EPA has promulgated a 1-h average National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for NO2, and major sources of NOX emissions must estimate their NO2 air quality impacts as part of EPA's air quality permitting programs. The AERMOD dispersion model has been developed by EPA for these air quality impact analyses, and AERMOD contains three different NO to NO2 conversion methods for estimating the ambient concentrations of NO2. This paper describes a refinement to one of the methods, the Ambient Ratio Method version 2 (ARM2). ARM2 is an empirical approach that uses a variable conversion factor, based on an analysis of ambient air measurements of NO and NO2, to estimate the portion of the AERMOD predicted air concentration of total NOX species that is in the form of NO2. The performance of ARM2 has been evaluated and found to compare well to actual ambient measurements and to other more complex EPA conversion methods. EPA has included ARM2 as a "beta-testing" option in AERMOD version 14134, and provided guidance on the use of ARM2 for regulatory modeling analyses in a September 2014 memorandum. This paper also discusses this recent EPA guidance.

  20. Ambient concentrations of 1,3-butadiene in the UK.

    PubMed

    Dollard, G J; Dore, C J; Jenkin, M E

    2001-06-01

    This paper assesses the current knowledge of 1,3-butadiene as an atmospheric pollutant, considers measurement techniques and reviews available data on 1,3-butadiene monitoring and emissions estimates. Atmospheric chemistry, sources of emission, current legislation, measurement techniques and monitoring programmes for 1,3-butadiene are reviewed. There have been comparatively few studies of the products of oxidation of 1,3-butadiene in the atmosphere. However, on the basis of the available information, and by analogy with the oxidation mechanism for the widely-studied and structurally similar natural hydrocarbon isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene), it is possible to define some features of the likely oxidation pathways for 1,3-butadiene. The total UK 1,3-butadiene emission to the atmosphere for 1996 has been estimated at 10.60 kTonnes. 1,3-Butadiene is a product of petrol and diesel combustion; consequently this total is dominated by road transport exhaust emissions (accounting for some 68% of the total). Off-road vehicles and machinery are responsible for 14% of the total UK emission. 1,3-Butadiene is used in the manufacture of numerous rubber compounds, and consequently emissions arise from both the manufacture and use of 1,3-butadiene in industrial processes. Emissions from the chemical industry account for 18% of the UK total emission- 8% from 1,3-butadiene manufacture and 10% from 1,3-butadiene use. The United Kingdom Expert Panel on Air Quality Standards (EPAQS) has published a report on 1,3-butadiene, and recommended a national air quality standard of 1.0 ppb (expressed as an annual rolling mean). This was adopted by the Government as part of the National Air Quality Strategy (NAQS) in 1997, and a target of compliance by 2005 was set. Work conducted for the review of the NAQS (1999) indicated that it was likely that all locations would be compliant with the national standard by the end of 2003. As a result, the review updated the air quality objective for 1

  1. Ambient noise levels in the Taiwan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, W.; Liu, C.; Chen, R.; Huang, B.; Wu, F. T.; Wang, C.

    2008-12-01

    To characterize the island-wide background seismic noise in Taiwan, we estimate the power spectral density (PSD) at broadband stations of both the BATS (Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology) and the TAIGER experiment (Apr. 2006~Apr. 2008) for periods ranging from ~0.2 to 100 seconds. A new approach to calculate the probability density functions of noise power (PDFs, MaNamara and Buland, 2004) is used in this study. The results indicate that the cultural noise at higher frequencies is significant at populated area, which shows diurnal and weekly variation as what we expected. The noise power for microseisms centered at a period of ~5 seconds around the western costal plain show ~20dB higher than what observed at eastern Taiwan. This observation supports the inference that the coastal regions having narrow shelf with irregular coastlines are know to be especially efficient at radiating the predominat microseisms. Results from the linear array across central Taiwan demonstrate that the average noise power is quietest at the eastern Central Range. We have mapped the PDF mode for stations at various periods to see the spatial distribution of ambient noise levels, which could be used as the basic information for future station siting. Temporal variation of noise PSD is also present to provide a quantitative description of the seismic data quality collected by both BATS and TAIGER experiment. Some operational problems like base tilt, sensitivity change can be identified easily as well.

  2. Control of flowering by ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Capovilla, Giovanna; Schmid, Markus; Posé, David

    2015-01-01

    The timing of flowering is a crucial decision in the life cycle of plants since favourable conditions are needed to maximize reproductive success and, hence, the survival of the species. It is therefore not surprising that plants constantly monitor endogenous and environmental signals, such as day length (photoperiod) and temperature, to adjust the timing of the floral transition. Temperature in particular has been shown to have a tremendous effect on the timing of flowering: the effect of prolonged periods of cold, called the vernalization response, has been extensively studied and the underlying epigenetic mechanisms are reasonably well understood in Arabidopsis thaliana. In contrast, the effect of moderate changes in ambient growth temperature on the progression of flowering, the thermosensory pathway, is only starting to be understood on the molecular level. Several genes and molecular mechanisms underlying the thermosensory pathway have already been identified and characterized in detail. At a time when global temperature is rising due to climate change, this knowledge will be pivotal to ensure crop production in the future. PMID:25326628

  3. Massive processing of ambient noise records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briand, Xavier; Boué, Pierre; Brenguier, Florent; Campillo, Michel; Emoto, Kentaro; Roux, Philippe; Takeda, Tetsuya

    2013-04-01

    The ERC Whisper project aims at processing large seismological data set consisting of long ambient noise records. We develop a workflow and adapt it to a grid of clusters to analyse large data sets with size up to several tens of TB. The parallelization is performed for sublists of dates and sublists of stations. We design a first pipeline in order to process the raw traces (quality control, organization of the usable data, instrumentals responses, ..). Then we implement the computation of correlations (quadratic in space) and their analysis in terms of their temporal variations. The data are available by a distributed storage managed by Irods. The transfert increases proportionally with the numbers of sublists of stations (in the worst case). In the framework of the Japanese-French project NAMAZU, we applied this set of codes to large data sets recorded in Japan. The goal is to analyze the temporal change of the Earth's crust associated with the giant 2011 Tohoku earthquake. We present the figures and the performances of our package for this processing together with examples of the scientific results. We also analyze the implementation of a project of correlation at the global scale. We discuss the possibility of integration of these codes in a platform for distributed processing and computing, as considered in the VERCE project.

  4. Development of ambient temperature secondary lithium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbarao, S.; Shen, D. H.; Dawson, S.; Deligiannis, F.; Taraszkiewicz, J.; Halpert, Gerald

    1987-01-01

    JPL is developing ambient temperature secondary lithium cells for future spacecraft applications. Prior studies on experimental laboratory type Li-TiS2 cells yielded promising results in terms of cycle life and rate capability. To further assess the performance of this cell, 5 Ah engineering model cells were developed. Initially baseline cells were designed and fabricated. Each cell had 15 cathodes and 16 anodes and the ratio of anode to cathode capacity is 6:1. A solution of 1.5 molar LiAsF6 in 2Me-THF was used as the electrolyte. Cells were evaluated for their cycle life at C/1 and C/5 discharge rates and 100 percent depth of discharge. The cells were cycled between voltage limits 1.7 and 2.8 volts. The rate of charge in all cases is C/10. The results obtained indicate that cells can operate at C/10 to C/2 discharge rates and have an initial energy density of 70 Wh/kg. Cells delivered more than 100 cycles at C/2 discharge rate. The details of cell design, the test program, and the results obtained are described.

  5. Effect of ambient temperature on female endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Renberg, Julie; Sandsund, Mariann; Wiggen, Øystein Nordrum; Reinertsen, Randi Eidsmo

    2014-10-01

    Ambient temperature can affect physical performance, and an ambient temperature range of -4 °C to 11 °C is optimal for endurance performance in male athletes. The few similar studies of female athletes appear to have found differences in response to cold between the genders. This study investigated whether ambient temperature affects female endurance performance. Nine athletes performed six tests while running on a treadmill in a climatic chamber at different ambient temperatures: 20, 10, 1, -4, -9 and -14 °C and a wind speed of 5 m s(-1). The exercise protocol consisted of a 10-min warm-up, followed by four 5-min intervals at increasing intensities at 76%, 81%, 85%, and 89% of maximal oxygen consumption. This was followed by an incremental test to exhaustion. Although peak heart rate, body mass loss, and blood lactate concentration after the incremental test to exhaustion increased as the ambient temperature rose, no changes in time to exhaustion, running economy, running speed at lactate threshold or maximal oxygen consumption were found between the different ambient temperature conditions. Endurance performance during one hour of incremental exercise was not affected by ambient temperature in female endurance athletes. PMID:25436945

  6. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    G. Moridis; Q. Hu

    2000-03-12

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. This is in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan U0060, Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). This AMR documents the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model (RTM). This model considers: the transport of radionuclides through fractured tuffs; the effects of changes in the intensity and configuration of fracturing from hydrogeologic unit to unit; colloid transport; physical and retardation processes and the effects of perched water. In this AMR they document the capabilities of the UZ RTM, which can describe flow (saturated and/or unsaturated) and transport, and accounts for (a) advection, (b) molecular diffusion, (c) hydrodynamic dispersion (with full 3-D tensorial representation), (d) kinetic or equilibrium physical and/or chemical sorption (linear, Langmuir, Freundlich or combined), (e) first-order linear chemical reaction, (f) radioactive decay and tracking of daughters, (g) colloid filtration (equilibrium, kinetic or combined), and (h) colloid-assisted solute transport. Simulations of transport of radioactive solutes and colloids (incorporating the processes described above) from the repository horizon to the water table are performed to support model development and support studies for Performance Assessment (PA). The input files for these simulations include transport parameters obtained from other AMRs (i.e., CRWMS M and O 1999d, e, f, g, h; 2000a, b, c, d). When not available, the parameter values used are obtained from the literature. The results of the simulations are used to evaluate the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids, and

  7. Do ambient urban odors evoke basic emotions?

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Sandra T.; Lingg, Elisabeth; Heuberger, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Fragrances, such as plant odors, have been shown to evoke autonomic response patterns associated with Ekman's (Ekman et al., 1983) basic emotions happiness, surprise, anger, fear, sadness, and disgust. Inducing positive emotions by odors in highly frequented public spaces could serve to improve the quality of life in urban environments. Thus, the present study evaluated the potency of ambient odors connoted with an urban environment to evoke basic emotions on an autonomic and cognitive response level. Synthetic mixtures representing the odors of disinfectant, candles/bees wax, summer air, burnt smell, vomit and musty smell as well as odorless water as a control were presented five times in random order to 30 healthy, non-smoking human subjects with intact sense of smell. Skin temperature, skin conductance, breathing rate, forearm muscle activity, blink rate, and heart rate were recorded simultaneously. Subjects rated the odors in terms of pleasantness, intensity and familiarity and gave verbal labels to each odor as well as cognitive associations with the basic emotions. The results showed that the amplitude of the skin conductance response (SCR) varied as a function of odor presentation. Burnt smell and vomit elicited significantly higher electrodermal responses than summer air. Also, a negative correlation was revealed between the amplitude of the SCR and hedonic odor valence indicating that the magnitude of the electrodermal response increased with odor unpleasantness. The analysis of the cognitive associations between odors and basic emotions showed that candles/bees wax and summer air were specifically associated with happiness whereas burnt smell and vomit were uniquely associated with disgust. Our findings suggest that city odors may evoke specific cognitive associations of basic emotions and that autonomic activity elicited by such odors is related to odor hedonics. PMID:24860522

  8. Relationship Between Vortex Meander and Ambient Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.; Hardy, Gordon H.; Meyn, Larry A.

    2006-01-01

    Efforts are currently underway to increase the capacity of airports by use of closely-spaced parallel runways. If such an objective is to be achieved safely and efficiently during both visual and instrument flight conditions, it will be necessary to develop more precise methods for the prediction of the motion and spread of the hazard posed by the lift-generated vortex-wakes of aircraft, and their uncertainties. The purpose of the present study is to relate the motion induced in vortex filaments by turbulence in the ambient flow field to the measured turbulence in the flow field. The problem came about when observations made in the two largest NASA wind tunnels indicated that extended exposure of vortex wakes to the turbulence in the wind tunnel air stream causes the centers of the vortices to meander about with time at a given downstream station where wake measurements are being made. Although such a behavior was expected, the turbulence level based on the maximum amplitude of meander was much less than the root-mean-squared value measured in the free-stream of the wind tunnel by use of hot-film anemometers. An analysis of the time-dependent motion of segments of vortex filaments as they interact with an eddy, indicates that the inertia of the filaments retards their motion enough in the early part of their travel to account for a large part of the difference in the two determinations of turbulence level. Migration of vortex filaments from one turbulent eddy to another (probably with a different orientation), is believed to account for the remainder of the difference. Methods that may possibly be developed for use in the measurement of the magnitude of the more intense eddies in turbulent flow fields and how they should be adjusted to predict vortex meander are then discussed.

  9. Ambient Intelligence Systems for Personalized Sport Training

    PubMed Central

    Vales-Alonso, Javier; López-Matencio, Pablo; Gonzalez-Castaño, Francisco J.; Navarro-Hellín, Honorio; Baños-Guirao, Pedro J.; Pérez-Martínez, Francisco J.; Martínez-Álvarez, Rafael P.; González-Jiménez, Daniel; Gil-Castiñeira, Felipe; Duro-Fernández, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Several research programs are tackling the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) at specific fields, such as e-Health, e-Inclusion or e-Sport. This is the case of the project “Ambient Intelligence Systems Support for Athletes with Specific Profiles”, which intends to assist athletes in their training. In this paper, the main developments and outcomes from this project are described. The architecture of the system comprises a WSN deployed in the training area which provides communication with athletes’ mobile equipments, performs location tasks, and harvests environmental data (wind speed, temperature, etc.). Athletes are equipped with a monitoring unit which obtains data from their training (pulse, speed, etc.). Besides, a decision engine combines these real-time data together with static information about the training field, and from the athlete, to direct athletes’ training to fulfill some specific goal. A prototype is presented in this work for a cross country running scenario, where the objective is to maintain the heart rate (HR) of the runner in a target range. For each track, the environmental conditions (temperature of the next track), the current athlete condition (HR), and the intrinsic difficulty of the track (slopes) influence the performance of the athlete. The decision engine, implemented by means of (m, s)-splines interpolation, estimates the future HR and selects the best track in each fork of the circuit. This method achieves a success ratio in the order of 80%. Indeed, results demonstrate that if environmental information is not take into account to derive training orders, the success ratio is reduced notably. PMID:22294931

  10. Parametrization of ambient energy harvesters for complementary balanced electronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbelen, Yannick; Braeken, An; Touhafi, Abdellah

    2013-05-01

    The specific technical challenges associated with the design of an ambient energy powered electronic system currently requires thorough knowledge of the environment of deployment, energy harvester characteristics and power path management. In this work, a novel flexible model for ambient energy harvesters is presented that allows decoupling of the harvester's physical principles and electrical behavior using a three dimensional function. The model can be adapted to all existing harvesters, resulting in a design methodology for generic ambient energy powered systems using the presented model. Concrete examples are included to demonstrate the versatility of the presented design in the development of electronic appliances on system level.

  11. Recognizing the impact of ambient air pollution on skin health.

    PubMed

    Mancebo, S E; Wang, S Q

    2015-12-01

    Ambient air pollution is a known public health hazard that negatively impacts non-cutaneous organs; however, our knowledge regarding the effects on skin remains limited. Current scientific evidence suggests there are four mechanisms by which ambient air pollutants cause adverse effects on skin health: (i) generation of free radicals, (ii) induction of inflammatory cascade and subsequent impairment of skin barrier, (iii) activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and (iv) alterations to skin microflora. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview on ambient air pollutants and their relevant sources, and highlight current evidence of the effects on skin. PMID:26289769

  12. Analysis of the ambient seismic noise at Bulgarian seismic stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, Liliya; Nikolova, Svetlana

    2010-05-01

    Modernization of Bulgarian National Seismological Network has been performed during a month in 2005. Broadband seismometers and 24-bits digital acquisition systems with dynamic range more than 132dB type DAS130-01 produced by RefTek Inc. were installed at the seismic stations from the existing analog network. In the present study the ambient seismic noise at Bulgarian National Digital Seismological Network (BNDSN) stations is evaluated. In order to compare the performance of the network against international standards the detail analysis of the seismic noise was performed using software and models that are applied in the international practice. The method of McNamara and Bulland was applied and the software code PDFSA was used to determine power spectral density function (PSD) of the background noise and to evaluate the probability density function (PDF). The levels of the ambient seismic noise were determined and the full range of the factors influencing the quality of the data and the performance of a seismic station was analyzed. The estimated PSD functions were compared against two models for high (NHNM) and low (NLNM) noise that are widely used in seismological practice for seismic station monitoring qualities assessment. The mode PDF are used to prepare annual, seasonal, diurnal and frequency analyses of the noise levels at BNDSN stations. The annual analysis shows that the noise levels at the Northern Bulgarian stations are higher than the ones at Central and Southern stations for the microseisms' periods (1sec -7sec). It is well observable at SS PRV and PSN located near Black sea. This is due to the different geological conditions of the seismic stations as well. For the periods of "cultural" noise the power distribution depends on the type of noise sources and as a rule is related to human activities at or near the Earth surface. Seismic stations MPE, VTS and MMB have least mode noise levels and the noisiest stations are PGB, PVL и JMB. The seasonal

  13. The TOMPs ambient air monitoring network - Continuous data on UK air quality for over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Graf, Carola; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2016-10-01

    Long-term air monitoring datasets are needed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to assess the effectiveness of source abatement measures and the factors controlling ambient levels. The Toxic Organic Micro Pollutants (TOMPs) Network, which has operated since 1991, collects ambient air samples at six sites across England and Scotland, using high-volume active air samplers. The network provides long-term ambient air trend data for a range of POPs at both urban and rural locations. Data from the network provides the UK Government, regulators and researchers with valuable information on emission/source controls and on the effectiveness of international chemicals regulation such as the Stockholm Convention and UN/ECE Protocol on POPs. The target chemicals of TOMPs have been polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and, since 2010, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The continuous monitoring of these compounds demonstrates the constant decline in UK air concentrations over the last two decades, with average clearance rates for PCDD/Fs in urban locations of 5.1 years and for PCBs across all sites 6.6 years. No significant declines in rural locations for PCDD/Fs have been observed. There is a strong observable link between the declining ambient air concentrations and the emission reductions estimated in the annually produced National Atmospheric Emission Inventory (NAEI) dataset. These findings clearly demonstrate the unique strengths of long-term consistent datasets for the evaluation of the success of chemical regulation and control. PMID:26843028

  14. Association between ambient ultraviolet radiation and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Tran, Bich; Jordan, Susan J; Lucas, Robyn; Webb, Penelope M; Neale, Rachel

    2012-11-01

    Evidence is accumulating to suggest that higher exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is associated with decreased risk of internal cancers, but data for ovarian cancer are unclear. We aimed to examine the association between lifetime ambient UVR and ovarian cancer in a population-based-case-control study. The study included women aged 18 to 79 years with a new diagnosis of invasive (n = 1,215) or borderline (n = 285) epithelial ovarian cancer identified through a network of clinics and state cancer registries throughout Australia. Controls (n = 1,459), frequency matched to cases by age (5-year groups) and state of residence, were randomly selected from the National Electoral Roll. We asked participants to report where they had lived at different periods of their life and assigned an estimate of UVR using data from NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer database (1997-2003). We estimated the association between ambient UVR and risk of ovarian cancer using conditional logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders. Women in the highest third of average daily ambient UVR over their lifetime were at significantly lower risk of all epithelial ovarian cancers than those in the lowest third [OR, 0.70; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.56-0.88]. The inverse association was stronger for borderline tumors (0.47, 0.31-0.71) than invasive tumors (0.78, 0.61-1.00). The effect sizes for overall and borderline tumors were unchanged after adjusting for confounders, whereas the inverse association for invasive tumors was attenuated. These data suggest that exposure to ambient UVR may reduce the risk of ovarian cancer. PMID:23034146

  15. MetNH3: Metrology for ammonia in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braban, Christine; Twigg, Marsailidh; Tang, Sim; Leuenberger, Daiana; Ferracci, Valerio; Martin, Nick; Pascale, Celine; Hieta, Tuomas; Pogany, Andrea; Persijn, Stefan; van Wijk, Janneke; Gerwig, Holger; Wirtze, Klaus; Tiebe, Carlo; Balslev-Harder, David; Niederhausen, Bernhardt

    2015-04-01

    Measuring ammonia in ambient air is a sensitive and priority issue due to its harmful effects on human health and ecosystems. The European Directive 2001/81/EC on 'National Emission Ceilings for Certain Atmospheric Pollutants (NEC)' regulates ammonia emissions in the member states. However, there is a lack of regulation to ensure reliable ammonia measurements namely in applicable analytical technology, maximum allowed uncertainty, quality assurance and quality control (QC/QA) procedures as well as in the infrastructure to attain metrological traceability. Validated ammonia measurement data of high quality from air monitoring networks are vitally important for identifying changes due to implementations of environment policies, for understanding where the uncertainties in current emission inventories are derived from and for providing independent verification of atmospheric model predictions. The new EURAMET project MetNH3 aims to develop improved reference gas mixtures by static and dynamic gravimetric generation methods, develop and characterise laser based optical spectrometric standards and establish the transfer from high-accuracy standards to field applicable methods. MetNH3started in June 2014 and in this presentation the first results from the metrological characterisation of a commercially available cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) will be discussed. Also first tests and results from a new design, Controlled Atmosphere Test Facility (CATFAC), which is to be characterised and used to validate the performance of diffusive samplers, denuders and on-line instruments, will be reported. CAFTEC can be used to control test parameters such as ammonia concentration, relative humidity and wind speed. Outline plans for international laboratory and field intercomparisons in 2016 will be presented.

  16. Stability Issues in Ambient-Temperature Passive Magnetic Bearing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.

    2000-02-17

    The ambient-temperature passive magnetic bearing system developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory achieves rotor-dynamic stability by employing special combinations of levitating and stabilizing elements. These elements, energized by permanent magnet material, create the magnetic and electrodynamic forces that are required for the stable levitation of rotating systems, such as energy-storage flywheels. Stability criteria, derived from theory, describe the bearing element parameters, i.e., stiffnesses and damping coefficients, that are required both to assure stable levitation (''Earnshaw-stability''), and stability against whirl-type rotor-dynamic instabilities. The work described in this report concerns experimental measurements and computer simulations that address some critical aspects of this overall stability problem. Experimentally, a test device was built to measure the damping coefficient of dampers that employ eddy currents induced in a metallic disc. Another test device was constructed for the purpose of measuring the displacement-dependent drag coefficient of annular permanent magnet bearing elements. In the theoretical developments a computer code was written for the purpose of simulating the rotor-dynamics of our passive bearing systems. This code is capable of investigating rotor-dynamic stability effects for both small-amplitude transient displacements (i.e., those within the linear regime), and for large-amplitude displacements, where non-linear effects can become dominant. Under the latter conditions a bearing system that is stable for small-amplitude displacements may undergo a rapidly growing rotor-dynamic instability once a critical displacement is exceeded. A new result of the study was to demonstrate that stiffness anisotropy of the bearing elements (which can be designed into our bearing system) is strongly stabilizing, not only in the linear regime, but also in the non-linear regime.

  17. THE GENOTOXICITY OF AMBIENT OUTDOOR AIR, A REVIEW: SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The genotoxicity of ambient outdoor air, a review: Salmonella mutagenicity

    Abstract
    Mutagens in urban air pollution come from anthropogenic sources (especially combustion sources) and are products of airborne chemical reactions. Bacterial mutation tests have been used ...

  18. The effects of ambient impurities on the surface tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce-Torres, A.; Vega, E. J.

    2016-03-01

    A liquid bridge is a liquid column held captive between two coaxial and parallel solid disks. It is an excellent test bench where measuring the surface tension. In this paper, we used this fluid configuration to examine experimentally the effects of ambient impurities on the surface tension over time. For this purpose, the liquid bridge equilibrium shape was analyzed when the liquid bridge was surrounded by three environments: the uncontrolled ambient, and both air and argon encapsulated in a small glass cover. Ambient contamination produced a sharp decrease of the surface tension of ultra-pure water. The presence of an anionic surfactant in the free surface of an aqueous solution did not inhibit the action of impurities coming from the ambient. Impurities can influence the dynamical behavior of the free surface in flows dominated by the surface tension. Therefore, a careful control of that influence can be crucial in many applications of fluid mechanics.

  19. ADVANCES IN THE MEASUREMENT OF AMBIENT CARBON FIBERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methodologies that have been used in a number of passive collectors and active detectors for measuring ambient carbon fibers are summarized. The need for improved performance in terms of specificity, sensitivity, detection efficiency, accuracy, precision, speed, stability and ser...

  20. Effect of ambient particulate matter expousre on hemostasis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked levels of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air to cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Thrombus formation plays a primary role in potentiating acute cardiovascular events, and this study was...

  1. AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER DECREASED IN HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACHROPHAGE CYTOKINE RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure to ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity, including increased hospitalizations for lung infection. Normal lung immune responses to bacterial infection include alveolar macrophage cytokine production and...

  2. IMPLEMENTATION GUIDANCE FOR AMBIENT WATER QUALITY CRITERIA FOR BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Implementation Guidance for Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Bacteria is a guidance document to assist state, territory, and authorized tribal water quality programs in adopting and implementing bacteriological water quality criteria into their water quality standards to pr...

  3. *Ambient Particluate Matter Supresses Alveolar Macrophage Cytokine Response to Lipopolysaccharide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reports link ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure with cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity, including the exacerbation of inflammatory disease and increased hospitalization for lung infections. Alveolar macrophages (AM) play an important defense role against infections v...

  4. HUMAN CLINICAL STUDIES OF CONCENTRATED AMBIENT ULTRAFINE AND FINE PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Confirmation of our hypothesis that exposure to ambient ultrafine and fine particles promotes coagulation and alters cardiac function will have important implications for air pollution regulatory efforts, and will provide new approaches for the prevention of cardiovascular hea...

  5. DYNAMIC DILUTION SYSTEM FOR AUDITING AMBIENT SULFUR DIOXIDE ANALYZERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the development, evaluation, and field performance of a device designed to provide accurate sulfur dioxide concentration standards suitable for auditing the accuracy of continuous, ambient SO2 monitors. This compact, lightweight, device has been subjected to ...

  6. Sampling of nitrates in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, B. R.; Tokiwa, Y.; Haik, M.

    Methods for the measurement of nitric acid, particulate nitrate and total inorganic nitrate (i.e. HNO 3 plus particulate nitrate) are compared using atmospheric samples from the Los Angeles Basin. Nitric acid was measured by (1) the nitrate collected on nylon or NaCl-impregnated cellulose filters after removal of particulate matter with Teflon prefilters, (2) long-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) performed by a collaborating investigator, and (3) the difference between total inorganic nitrate (TIN) and particulate nitrate (PN). TIN was measured by the sum of the nitrate collected with a Teflon prefilter and nylon or NaCl-impregnated after-filter. PN was measured by the nitrate able to penetrate a diffusion dénuder coated to remove acidic gases (e.g. HNO 3). Losses of nitrate from Teflon prefilters were determined by comparing the nitrate retained by these filters to the nitrate penetrating the acid gas denuder. TIN and the nitrate collected with glass fiber filters were compared to assess the origin of the artifact particulate nitrate on the latter. Nitric acid measurements using nylon or NaCl-impregnated after-filters were substantially higher than those by the difference technique. This correlated with losses of nitrate from the Teflon prefilters, which exceeded 50 % at high ambient temperature and low relative humidity. Nitric acid by the difference method exceeded that by FTIR by, on average, 20 %. Thus errors inferred in HNO 3 measurements by comparison to the difference measurements are considered minimum values. The high values for HNO 3 by the difference method are consistent with the partial loss of PN in the acid gas denuder. However, no loss of 0.1 μm to 3 μm diameter NH 4NO 3 particles was observed. Thus, if significant, such loss is restricted to coarse particulate nitrate. Heating the filter samplers was shown to increase sampling errors. Nitrate results obtained in short-term, low volume sampling with Gelman A glass fiber

  7. Ambient-Temperature Sputtering Of Composite Oxide Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita

    1992-01-01

    Technique for deposition of homogeneous films of multicomponent oxides on substrates at ambient temperature based on sequential sputter deposition of individual metal components, as alternating ultra-thin layers, from multiple targets. Substrates rotated over sputtering targets of lead, zirconium, and titanium. Dc-magnetron sputtering of constituent metals in reactive ambient of argon and oxygen leads to formation of the respective metal oxides intermixed on extremely fine scale in desired composition. Compatible with low-temperature microelectronic processing.

  8. Biogenic contribution to PM-2.5 ambient aerosol from radiocarbon measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, C.; Klouda, G.; Ellenson, W.

    2003-04-01

    Knowledge of the relative contributions of biogenic versus anthropogenic sources to ambient aerosol is of great interest in the formulation of strategies to achieve nationally mandated air quality standards. Radiocarbon (14C) measurements provide a means to quantify the biogenic fraction of any carbon-containing sample of ambient aerosol. In the absence of an impact from biomass burning (e.g., during summertime) such measurements can provide an estimate of the contribution of biogenic secondary organic aerosol, from biogenic volatile organic compound precursors. Radiocarbon results for 11.5-h PM-2.5 samples collected near Nashville, Tennessee, USA, during summer 1999 will be presented. On average the measured biogenic fraction was surprisingly large (more than half), with the average biogenic fraction for night samples being only slightly smaller than for day samples. Discussion will include (a) description of the radiocarbon methodology, (b) use of radiocarbon measurements on local vegetation and fuel samples as calibration data, (c) concurrent measurements of organic carbon and elemental carbon ambient concentrations, (d) assessment of organic aerosol sampling artifact through use of organic vapor denuders, variable face velocities, and filter extraction, and (e) comparison with published radiocarbon results obtained in Houston, Texas in a similar study. Disclaimer: This work has been funded wholly or in part by the United States Environmental Protection Agency under Interagency Agreement No. 13937923 to the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and Contract No. 68-D5-0049 to ManTech Environmental Tecnology, Inc. It has been subjected to Agency review and approved for publication.

  9. STUDY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE EXPOSURE COMPONENT OF THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ideal strategy for the exposure monitoring component of the planned National Children's Study (NCS) is to measure indoor and outdoor concentrations and personal exposures of children to a variety of pollutants, including ambient particulate and gaseous pollutants, biologicals,...

  10. ESTIMATED HOURLY PERSONAL EXPOSURES TO AMBIENT AND NON-AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER AMONG SENSITIVE POPULATIONS IN SEATTLE, WASHINGTON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies of particulate matter (PM) routinely use concentrations measured with stationary outdoor monitors as surrogates for personal exposure. Despite the frequently reported poor correlations between ambient concentrations and total personal exposure, the epidemi...

  11. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS.
    Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu*, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ...

  12. Brookhaven National Laboratory site environmental report for calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Naidu, J.R.; Royce, B.A.

    1995-05-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Monitoring Program at Brookhaven National Laboratory and presents summary information about environmental compliance for 1994. To evaluate the effect of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s operations on the local environment, measurements of direct radiation, and a variety of radionuclides and chemical compounds in ambient air, soil, sewage effluent, surface water, groundwater, fauna and vegetation were made at the Brookhaven National Laboratory site and at sites adjacent to the Laboratory.

  13. Rayleigh and Love waves phase velocity measurements in central Europe from seismic ambient noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbeke, J.; Fry, B.; Boschi, L.; Kissling, E. H.

    2009-12-01

    We present a new database of surface-wave phase-velocity dispersion curves derived from seismic ambient noise, cross-correlating continuous seismic recordings from the Swiss Network, the German Regional Seismological Network (GRSN), and from the Italian national broadband network operated by the the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), plus some stations from the Mediterranean Very Broadband Seismographic Network (MedNet) and from the Austrian Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG). In order to increase the aperture of the station array, additional measurements from the French, Bulgarian, Hungarian, Romanian and Greek stations obtained throught Orfeus are also included. The ambient noise we are using to assemble our database was recorded at the mentioned stations between January 2006 and December 2007. The Green function method, applied to continuous signal recorded at pairs of stations allows to extract from ambient noise coherent surface-wave signal travelling between the two stations. Usually the ambient-noise cross-correlation technique allows to have infomation at periods of 30 s or shorter. Our efforts are focused on extending this technique to longer periods. At this point we are able to obtain coherent dispersion curves at periods from 8 to 35 s. At a second stage, the data set of phase delays associated with a certain frequency of Rayleigh or Love waves are inverted, to determine 2-dimensional phase-velocity maps of the European region. Inversions are conducted by means of a linearized tomographic inversion algorithm. We are now able to obtain 2D Rayleighs and Loves waves phase-velocity maps at periods between 8 and 35 s. We compare these maps with those that we obtain from teleseismic measurements made at the same stations, and with independantly observed geological features in Europe and the Moho depth. Combining ambient-noise and teleseismic observations, our efforts will help to determine a 3D consensus model of the

  14. Culinary nationalism.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Priscilla Parkhurst

    2010-01-01

    Culinary consciousness raisers, cooking texts often serve as vehicles of national identification. From Pampille (Marthe Allard Daudet) and her cookbook, Les Bons Plats de France, in 1913 to the international culinary competitions of today such as the Bocuse d'or, culinary distinction promotes national interests. In contrast to the strident nationalism of the early twentieth century, culinary nationalism today operates in an increasingly globalized world. National culinary distinction defines the nation and sells its products in a highly competitive international arena. A recent culinary text, the South Korean film Le Grand Chef [Sik Gaek ] (2007), illustrates the phenomenon, subsuming national culinary promotion in a mega culinary competition, all in the service of Korean culinary achievement. PMID:21539054

  15. National Intelligence and National Prosperity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Earl; Wittmann, Werner

    2008-01-01

    What is the relation between the cognitive competence of a national population that nation's economic prosperity? Lynn and Vanhanen [Lynn, R. & Vanhanen, T. (2002). "IQ and the wealth of nations." Westport, CT: Praeger.] presented data pointing to an exceptionally strong relationship between IQ scores and Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDP/c).…

  16. Volatile organic compounds in untreated ambient groundwater of the United States, 1985-1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Squillace, P.J.; Moran, M.J.; Lapham, W.W.; Price, C.V.; Clawges, R.M.; Zogorski, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey, an assessment of 60 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in untreated, ambient groundwater of the conterminous United States was conducted based on samples collected from 2948 wells between 1985 and 1995. The samples represent urban and rural areas and drinking-water and nondrinking-water wells. A reporting level of 0.2 μg/L was used with the exception of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, which had a reporting level of 1.0 μg/L. Because ambient groundwater was targeted, areas of known point-source contamination were excluded from this assessment. VOC concentrations generally were low; 56% of the concentrations were less than 1 μg/L. In urban areas, 47% of the sampled wells had at least one VOC, and 29% had two or more VOCs; furthermore, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water criteria were exceeded in 6.4% of all sampled wells and in 2.5% of the sampled drinking-water wells. In rural areas, 14% of the sampled wells had at least one VOC; furthermore, drinking-water criteria were exceeded in 1.5% of all sampled wells and in 1.3% of the sampled drinking-water wells. Solvent compounds and the fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether were among the most frequently detected VOCs in urban and rural areas. It was determined that the probability of finding VOCs in untreated groundwater can be estimated on the basis of a logistic regression model by using population density as an explanatory variable. Although there are limitations to this national scale model, it fit the data from 2354 wells used for model development and adequately estimated the VOC presence in samples from 589 wells used for model validation. Model estimates indicate that 7% (6−9% on the basis of one standard error) of the ambient groundwater resources of the United States probably contain at least one VOC at a reporting level of 0.2 μg/L. Groundwater is used in these areas by 42 million people (35−50

  17. Ambient Temperature and Morbidity: A Review of Epidemiological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiaofang; Wolff, Rodney; Yu, Weiwei; Vaneckova, Pavla; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In this paper, we review the epidemiological evidence on the relationship between ambient temperature and morbidity. We assessed the methodological issues in previous studies and proposed future research directions. Data sources and data extraction: We searched the PubMed database for epidemiological studies on ambient temperature and morbidity of noncommunicable diseases published in refereed English journals before 30 June 2010. Forty relevant studies were identified. Of these, 24 examined the relationship between ambient temperature and morbidity, 15 investigated the short-term effects of heat wave on morbidity, and 1 assessed both temperature and heat wave effects. Data synthesis: Descriptive and time-series studies were the two main research designs used to investigate the temperature–morbidity relationship. Measurements of temperature exposure and health outcomes used in these studies differed widely. The majority of studies reported a significant relationship between ambient temperature and total or cause-specific morbidities. However, there were some inconsistencies in the direction and magnitude of nonlinear lag effects. The lag effect of hot temperature on morbidity was shorter (several days) compared with that of cold temperature (up to a few weeks). The temperature–morbidity relationship may be confounded or modified by sociodemographic factors and air pollution. Conclusions: There is a significant short-term effect of ambient temperature on total and cause-specific morbidities. However, further research is needed to determine an appropriate temperature measure, consider a diverse range of morbidities, and to use consistent methodology to make different studies more comparable. PMID:21824855

  18. Associations between summertime ambient pollutants and respiratory morbidity in New York City: Comparison of results using ambient concentrations versus predicted exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological analyses of air quality often estimate human exposure from ambient monitoring data, potentially leading to exposure misclassification and subsequent bias in estimated health risks. To investigate this, we conducted a case-crossover study of summertime ambient ozon...

  19. Ambient pyrite in precambrian chert: new evidence and a theory.

    PubMed

    Knoll, A H; Barghoorn, E S

    1974-06-01

    Ambient pyrites of two distinct types were described from middle Precambrian rocks of the Lake Superior area. A new class of this phenomenon is here described from middle Precambrian chert from western Australia. The newly found ambient pyrites are quite minute and characteristically occur in groups forming a "starburst" pattern. All three types of ambient pyrite may be explained in terms of pressure solution initiated by gas evolution from organic material attached to the pyrite. Thermal degradation of the kerogen produces the gases which, due to the impermeability of the encompassing chert, build up the pressures necessary to initiate solution. Pyrite appendages bear a striking resemblance to micro-organisms and, thus, constitute the smallest pseudofossils known. PMID:16592159

  20. Designing for Persuasion: Toward Ambient Eco-Visualization for Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tanyoung; Hong, Hwajung; Magerko, Brian

    When people are aware of their lifestyle's ecological consequences, they are more likely to adjust their behavior to reduce their impact. Persuasive design that provides feedback to users without interfering with their primary tasks can increases the awareness of neighboring problems. As a case study of design for persuasion, we designed two ambient displays as desktop widgets. Both represent a users' computer usage time, but in different visual styles. In this paper, we present the results of a comparative study of two ambient displays. We discuss the gradual progress of persuasion supported by the ambient displays and the differences in users' perception affected by the different visualization styles. Finally, Our empirical findings lead to a series of design implications for persuasive media.

  1. Retinal output changes qualitatively with every change in ambient illuminance

    PubMed Central

    Seitter, Hartwig; Hovhannisyan, Anahit; Procyk, Christopher A.; Allen, Annette E.; Schenk, Martin; Lucas, Robert J.; Münch, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    The collective activity pattern of retinal ganglion cells, the retinal code, underlies higher visual processing. How does the ambient illuminance of the visual scene influence this retinal output? We recorded from isolated mouse and pig retina and from mouse dLGN in-vivo at up to seven ambient light levels covering the scotopic to photopic regimes. Across each luminance transition, the majority of ganglion cells exhibited qualitative response changes, while maintaining stable responses within each luminance. Strikingly, we commonly observed the appearance and disappearance of ON responses in OFF cells and vice versa. Such qualitative response changes occurred for a variety of stimuli, including full-field and localized contrast steps, and naturalistic movies. Our results suggest that the retinal code is not fixed but varies with every change of ambient luminance. This finding raises new questions about signal processing within the retina and has intriguing implications for visual processing in higher brain areas. PMID:25485757

  2. Monoclinic deformation of calcite crystals at ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przeniosło, R.; Fabrykiewicz, P.; Sosnowska, I.

    2016-09-01

    High resolution synchrotron radiation powder diffraction shows that the average crystal structure of calcite at ambient conditions is described with the trigonal space group R 3 bar c but there is a systematic hkl-dependent Bragg peak broadening. A modelling of this anisotropic peak broadening with the microstrain model from Stephens (1999) [15] is presented. The observed lattice parameters' correlations can be described by assuming a monoclinic-type deformation of calcite crystallites. A quantitative model of this monoclinic deformation observed at ambient conditions is described with the space group C 2 / c . The monoclinic unit cell suggested at ambient conditions is related with the monoclinic unit cell reported in calcite at high pressure (Merrill and Bassett (1975) [10]).

  3. Ambient air measurements of monoterpenes, oxygenated terpenes, and sesquiterpenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier-Brown, N. C.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2007-12-01

    Chemical ozone loss within the forest canopy and the presence of biogenic VOC (BVOC) oxidation products in and above the canopy indirectly suggest the presence of very reactive BVOCs at Blodgett Forest. As a part of the 2007 BEARPEX campaign at this coniferous forest in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California (1300 m elevation, 38.90° N, 120.63° W,), we quantified ambient concentrations of terpenes using a modified in-situ gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometer and a flame ionization detector (GC-MS-FID). The range of terpenes observed in ambient air matched enclosure based measurements of branch level emissions. To our knowledge, these observations represent the first quantification of the oxygenated monoterpene methyl chavicol and various sesquiterpenes in ambient air. Details of the instrument modifications, diurnal profiles of the terpenes, and comparison to branch level emissions will be presented.

  4. Ambient Radon-222 Monitoring in Amargosa Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    L.H. Karr; J.J. Tappen; D. Shafer; K.J. Gray

    2008-06-05

    As part of a program to characterize and baseline selected environmental parameters in the region around the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, ambient radon-222 monitoring was conducted in the rural community of Amargosa Valley, the community closest to the proposed repository site. Passive integrating radon monitors and a continuous radon monitoring instrument were deployed adjacent to the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) (http://www.cemp.dri.edu/index.html) station located in the Amargosa Valley Community Center near the library. The CEMP station provided real-time ambient gamma exposure and meteorological data used to correct the integrated radon measurements as well as verify meteorological data collected by the continuous radon monitoring instrument. Additionally, different types of environmental enclosures that housed the monitors and instrument were used to determine if particular designs influenced the ambient radon measurements.

  5. Visual attention for a desktop virtual environment with ambient scent

    PubMed Central

    Toet, Alexander; van Schaik, Martin G.

    2013-01-01

    In the current study participants explored a desktop virtual environment (VE) representing a suburban neighborhood with signs of public disorder (neglect, vandalism, and crime), while being exposed to either room air (control group), or subliminal levels of tar (unpleasant; typically associated with burned or waste material) or freshly cut grass (pleasant; typically associated with natural or fresh material) ambient odor. They reported all signs of disorder they noticed during their walk together with their associated emotional response. Based on recent evidence that odors reflexively direct visual attention to (either semantically or affectively) congruent visual objects, we hypothesized that participants would notice more signs of disorder in the presence of ambient tar odor (since this odor may bias attention to unpleasant and negative features), and less signs of disorder in the presence of ambient grass odor (since this odor may bias visual attention toward the vegetation in the environment and away from the signs of disorder). Contrary to our expectations the results provide no indication that the presence of an ambient odor affected the participants’ visual attention for signs of disorder or their emotional response. However, the paradigm used in present study does not allow us to draw any conclusions in this respect. We conclude that a closer affective, semantic, or spatiotemporal link between the contents of a desktop VE and ambient scents may be required to effectively establish diagnostic associations that guide a user’s attention. In the absence of these direct links, ambient scent may be more diagnostic for the physical environment of the observer as a whole than for the particular items in that environment (or, in this case, items represented in the VE). PMID:24324453

  6. Passive radiative cooling below ambient air temperature under direct sunlight.

    PubMed

    Raman, Aaswath P; Anoma, Marc Abou; Zhu, Linxiao; Rephaeli, Eden; Fan, Shanhui

    2014-11-27

    Cooling is a significant end-use of energy globally and a major driver of peak electricity demand. Air conditioning, for example, accounts for nearly fifteen per cent of the primary energy used by buildings in the United States. A passive cooling strategy that cools without any electricity input could therefore have a significant impact on global energy consumption. To achieve cooling one needs to be able to reach and maintain a temperature below that of the ambient air. At night, passive cooling below ambient air temperature has been demonstrated using a technique known as radiative cooling, in which a device exposed to the sky is used to radiate heat to outer space through a transparency window in the atmosphere between 8 and 13 micrometres. Peak cooling demand, however, occurs during the daytime. Daytime radiative cooling to a temperature below ambient of a surface under direct sunlight has not been achieved because sky access during the day results in heating of the radiative cooler by the Sun. Here, we experimentally demonstrate radiative cooling to nearly 5 degrees Celsius below the ambient air temperature under direct sunlight. Using a thermal photonic approach, we introduce an integrated photonic solar reflector and thermal emitter consisting of seven layers of HfO2 and SiO2 that reflects 97 per cent of incident sunlight while emitting strongly and selectively in the atmospheric transparency window. When exposed to direct sunlight exceeding 850 watts per square metre on a rooftop, the photonic radiative cooler cools to 4.9 degrees Celsius below ambient air temperature, and has a cooling power of 40.1 watts per square metre at ambient air temperature. These results demonstrate that a tailored, photonic approach can fundamentally enable new technological possibilities for energy efficiency. Further, the cold darkness of the Universe can be used as a renewable thermodynamic resource, even during the hottest hours of the day. PMID:25428501

  7. Uptake of Ambient Organic Gases to Acidic Sulfate Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liggio, J.; Li, S.

    2009-05-01

    The formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere has been an area of significant interest due to its climatic relevance, its effects on air quality and human health. Due largely to the underestimation of SOA by regional and global models, there has been an increasing number of studies focusing on alternate pathways leading to SOA. In this regard, recent work has shown that heterogeneous and liquid phase reactions, often leading to oligomeric material, may be a route to SOA via products of biogenic and anthropogenic origin. Although oligomer formation in chamber studies has been frequently observed, the applicability of these experiments to ambient conditions, and thus the overall importance of oligomerization reactions remain unclear. In the present study, ambient air is drawn into a Teflon smog chamber and exposed to acidic sulfate aerosols which have been formed in situ via the reaction of SO3 with water vapor. The aerosol composition is measured with a High Resolution Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), and particle size distributions are monitored with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The use of ambient air and relatively low inorganic particle loading potentially provides clearer insight into the importance of heterogeneous reactions. Results of experiments, with a range of sulfate loadings show that there are several competing processes occurring on different timescales. A significant uptake of ambient organic gases to the particles is observed immediately followed by a slow shift towards higher m/z over a period of several hours indicating that higher molecular weight products (possibly oligomers) are being formed through a reactive process. The results suggest that heterogeneous reactions can occur with ambient organic gases, even in the presence of ammonia, which may have significant implications to the ambient atmosphere where particles may be neutralized after their formation.

  8. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging under ambient light.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinxin; Liao, Chien-Sheng; Hong, Weili; Huang, Kai-Chih; Yang, Huaidong; Jin, Guofan; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2016-08-15

    We demonstrate an ambient light coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscope that allows CARS imaging to be operated under environmental light for field use. The CARS signal is modulated at megahertz frequency and detected by a photodiode equipped with a lab-built resonant amplifier, then extracted through a lock-in amplifier. The filters in both the spectral domain and the frequency domain effectively blocked the room light contamination of the CARS image. In situ hyperspectral CARS imaging of tumor tissue under ambient light is demonstrated. PMID:27519113

  9. REVIEW ARTICLE: Sensor communication technology towards ambient intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delsing, J.; Lindgren, P.

    2005-04-01

    This paper is a review of the fascinating development of sensors and the communication of sensor data. A brief historical introduction is given, followed by a discussion on architectures for sensor networks. Further, realistic specifications on sensor devices suitable for ambient intelligence and ubiquitous computing are given. Based on these specifications, the status and current frontline development are discussed. In total, it is shown that future technology for ambient intelligence based on sensor and actuator devices using standardized Internet communication is within the range of possibilities within five years.

  10. Human UVA exposures estimated from ambient UVA measurements.

    PubMed

    Kimlin, Michael G; Parisi, Alfio V; Downs, Nathan D

    2003-04-01

    The methods presented in this paper allow for the estimation of human UVA exposure using measured UVA irradiance values. Using measured broadband UVA irradiances over the period of a year, it was estimated that for humans in an upright posture and not moving the head with respect to the body, the nose received 26.5% of the available ambient UVA radiation, whilst the shoulders and vertex of the head received 81% and 100% respectively of the available ambient UVA radiation. Measurement of the exposure ratios for a series of solar zenith angles between 90 degrees and 0 degrees will allow extension of this technique to other latitudes. PMID:12760531

  11. Implicit Interaction: A Modality for Ambient Exercise Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, J.; O'Grady, M. J.; O'Hare, G. M. P.

    Ambient Exercise refers to the implicit exercise that people undertake in the course of their everyday duties - a simple example being climbing stairs. Increasing awareness of the potential health benefits of such activities may well contribute to an increase in a person’s well-being. Initially, it is necessary to monitor and quantify such exercise so that personalized fitness plans may be constructed. In this paper, the implicit interaction modality is harnessed to enable the capturing of ambient exercise activity thereby facilitating its subsequent quantification and interpretation. The novelty of the solution proposed lies in its ubiquity and transparency.

  12. Ambient Assisted Nutritional Advisor for elderly people living at home.

    PubMed

    Lazaro, Juan P; Fides, Alvaro; Navarro, Ana; Guillen, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Nutrition is a critical aspect when getting older because bad nutrition habits can accelerate the process of degradation of the physical condition of the old person. In order to mitigate this problem, an Ambient Assisted Living service has been developed. Research with this service is focused on demonstrating that with an Ambient Intelligence systems it is possible to make the nutritional management much more effective by influencing the user, by automatically and seamlessly monitoring and by facilitating tools for nutritional management for people that want to be autonomous. In this paper both requirement acquisition and development processes are described as well. PMID:21097180

  13. AMBIENT PM2.5 SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-10-01

    This report summarizes observations and tentative conclusions drawn from evaluations of the data captured to date from the operation of the ambient PM{sub 2.5} speciation sites in a geographical area encompassing southeastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania, and northwestern West Virginia. The overall goal of this program, called the Upper Ohio River Valley Project (UORVP), is to better understand the relationship between coal-based power system emissions and ambient air quality in the upper Ohio River Valley region through the collection of chemically resolved or speciated data.

  14. The DFKI Competence Center for Ambient Assisted Living

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Jochen; Stahl, Christoph; Röfer, Thomas; Krieg-Brückner, Bernd; Alexandersson, Jan

    The DFKI Competence Center for Ambient Assisted Living (CCAAL) is a cross-project and cross-department virtual organization within the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence coordinating and conducting research and development in the area of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL). Our demonstrators range from multimodal speech dialog systems to fully instrumented environments allowing the development of intelligent assistant systems, for instance an autonomous wheelchair, or the recognition and processing of everyday activities in a smart home. These innovative technologies are then tested, evaluated and demonstrated in DFKI's living labs.

  15. Exposure to ambient bioaerosols is associated with allergic skin diseases in Greater Taipei residents.

    PubMed

    Kallawicha, Kraiwuth; Chuang, Ying-Chih; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Han, Bor-Cheng; Ting, Yi-Fang; Chao, Hsing Jasmine

    2016-09-01

    Allergic skin diseases may result from various types of chemical and biological allergens. This study investigated the association between ambient bioaerosol exposure and allergic skin diseases by using the exposure data obtained from land use regression models and interpolated data. Data on daily average outpatient visits for atopic dermatitis (ICD-9-CM 691.8) and contact dermatitis and other eczema (ICD-9-CM 692.9) between November 2011 and August 2012 were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database. A generalized estimating equation was used to analyze the associations between the skin diseases and ambient bioaerosol levels. The results indicated that during the study period, contact dermatitis and other eczema were more prevalent than atopic dermatitis in the study area. Most cases were observed in districts of Taipei City and 3 major districts of New Taipei City, namely Xinzhuang, Banqiao, and Xindian. In univariate analysis, most bioaerosols were positively associated with both skin diseases. After adjustment for air pollution and sociodemographic factors, exposure to total fungal spores was significantly associated with atopic dermatitis in males (relative risk [RR] = 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-1.19). Contact dermatitis and other eczema had significant relationships with Cladosporium in males (RR = 1.07; 95% CI = 1.02-1.14) and with Aspergillus/Penicillium in females (RR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.02-1.07). Meteorological parameters, namely wind speed, temperature, and rainfall, were also significantly associated with skin diseases. Our findings reveal that exposure to ambient bioaerosols is a significant and independent risk factor for allergic skin diseases. PMID:27389548

  16. Ambient Seismic Noise Tomography of Southern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, Andreas; Weidle, Christian; Maupin, Valerie

    2010-05-01

    The noise cross-correlation technique is especially useful in regions like southern Norway since local seismicity is rare and teleseismic records are not able to resolve the upper crust. Within the TopoScandiaDeep project, which aims to investigate the relation between surface topography and lithosphere-asthenosphere structure, we process seismic broadband data from the temporary MAGNUS network in Southern Norway. The receivers were recording 20 months of continuous data between September 2006 and June 2008. Additionally, permanent stations of the National Norwegian Seismic Network, NORSAR and GSN stations in the region are used. After usual preprocessing steps (filtering, prewhitening, temporal normalization), we compute 820 cross-correlation functions from 41 receivers for three month time windows. Evaluation of the azimuthal and temporal variation of signal to noise ratios and f-k analysis of NORSAR array data shows that the dominant propagation direction of seismic noise is south-west to north, corresponding well to the Norwegian coast line. During summer months, the signal to noise ratios decrease and the azimuthal distribution becomes smoother. Time-frequency analysis is applied to measure Rayleigh and Love wave group velocity dispersion curves between each station pair for each three-month correlation stack. The mean and variance of all dispersion curves is computed for each path. After rejection of low-quality data using a signal to noise ratio, minimum wavelength and velocity variance criterion, we obtain a large number of reliable velocity estimates (about 600) for periods between 2 and 15 seconds, which we invert for group velocity maps at respective periods. At all inverted periods, we find positive and negative velocity anomalies for Rayleigh and Love waves that correlate very well with local surface geology. While higher velocities (+5%) can be associated with the Caledonian nappes in the central part of southern Norway, the Oslo Graben is reflected

  17. Characterization of PM 2.5, PM 2.5-10 and PM > 10 in ambient air, Yokohama, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Md. Firoz; Shirasuna, Yuichiro; Hirano, Koichiro; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2010-04-01

    This study elucidated the characteristics of ambient PM 2.5, PM 2.5-10 and PM > 10 with water soluble ions, i.e., Cl -, NO 3-, SO 42-, Na +, NH 4+, K +, Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ and carbonaceous aerosol, i.e., EC and OC in above size fractions from the samples collected for the period of 2007-2008. The total numbers of PM 2.5, PM 2.5-10 and PM > 10 samples collected with MCI sampler were 91, 87 and 79, respectively. The ambient particulate samples were collected twice in a week for a period of 24 h at the roof of a three-storied building in Yokohama National University. The annual arithmetic mean concentrations of PM 2.5, PM 2.5-10 and PM > 10 were 20.6, 9.6 and 5.1 µg m - 3 , respectively. The results of the daily PM 2.5 concentrations indicated that 67% of the daily PM 2.5 exceeded USEPA National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) (15 µg m - 3 ) while 95% in respect of WHO ambient air quality guidelines (10 µg m - 3 ). The concentrations of water soluble ions in PM 2.5, PM 2.5-10 and PM > 10 accounted for 40%, 31% and 19%, respectively. The estimation of non-sea-salt particles implies that the major sources of water soluble ions in PM 2.5 are anthropogenic. On the other hand, a large proportion of sea salt particles contributes to PM 2.5-10 and PM > 10 . Spearman correlation indicated that the concentrations of OC and EC in PM 2.5 can originate from similar type of sources. However, the concentration of OC and EC in PM 2.5-10 and PM > 10 can have multiple sources. In addition, some atmospheric reactions were also characterized in this study.

  18. 77 FR 38889 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... the original air quality criteria document (DHEW, 1969; 36 FR 8186, April 30, 1971). The reference... standards were promulgated in 1987 (52 FR 24634, July 1, 1987). In that decision, the EPA changed the... Level Form 1971--36 FR 8186 April 30, TSP 24-hour 260 g/m\\3\\ Not to be exceeded 1971. (primary),...

  19. 78 FR 3085 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... proposed revisions to the primary and secondary PM NAAQS on June 29, 2012 (77 FR 38890). This final... Final rule Indicator time Level Form 1971--36 FR 8186 April 30, TSP 24-hour...... 260 g/m\\3\\ Not to be.../m\\3\\....... Annual average. (primary) 1987--52 FR 24634 July 1, PM10......... 24-hour...... 150...

  20. 77 FR 20217 - Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... 1971. These standards were set at a level of 0.053 parts per million (ppm) as an annual average (36 FR... EPA proposed to retain the standards set in 1971 (49 FR 6866). After taking into account public comments, the EPA published the final decision to retain these standards in June 1985 (50 FR 25532)....

  1. 75 FR 6473 - Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen Dioxide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... parts per million (ppm) (53 ppb), annual average (36 FR 8186). EPA completed reviews of the air quality criteria and NO 2 standards in 1985 and 1996 with decisions to retain the standard (50 FR 25532, June 19, 1985; 61 FR 52852, October 8, 1996). EPA initiated the current review of the air quality criteria...

  2. 75 FR 35519 - Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Sulfur Dioxide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ..., the EPA promulgated primary SO 2 NAAQS (36 FR 8187). These primary standards, which were based on the... standards (53 FR 14926) (April 26, 1988). However, EPA specifically requested public comment on the..., 1994 (59 FR 58958). The 1994 re-proposal was based in part on a supplement to the second addendum...

  3. 76 FR 8157 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... average, neither to be exceeded more than once per year (36 FR 8186). In the 1971 decision, the... criteria and standards for CO (50 FR 37484). In that review, EPA updated the scientific criteria upon which... published on August 18, 1980 (45 FR 55066). Delays due to uncertainties regarding the scientific basis...

  4. 77 FR 30160 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: Nonattainment Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... areas for the 2008 ozone NAAQS until March 12, 2011, pending the NAAQS reconsideration.\\2\\ See 75 FR... apply to the areas that are designated as nonattainment for the 2008 ozone NAAQS. See 77 FR 8197. The... table for the 1997 ozone NAAQS. See 77 FR at 8201-02. \\7\\ The upper thresholds of the Marginal,...

  5. 78 FR 44485 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... for Ozone: State Implementation Plan Requirements AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Standards for Ozone: State Implementation Plan Requirements'' (June 6, 2013). The EPA is extending the...) and nitrogen oxides (NO X )) that contribute to ground-level ozone formation. B. What should...

  6. 77 FR 8197 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: Nonattainment Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... set at a more stringent level. \\1\\ See 73 FR 16436. \\2\\ The secondary ozone standard, designed to... 1-hour ozone NAAQS, see 56 FR 56694. \\8\\ See 40 CFR Appendix I. \\9\\ Referred to as the Phase 1 Rule... the 1997 ozone NAAQS. (See 69 FR 23954). The Phase 1 rule also established comprehensive...

  7. 78 FR 34177 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... FR 16436. \\2\\ For a detailed explanation of the calculation of the 3-year 8-hour average, see 40 CFR.... \\6\\ 77 FR 30160, May 21, 2012. In this action, the EPA proposes a rule to address the steps states... Recovery: In a separate Federal Register notice (77 FR 28772; May 16, 2012), the EPA determined...

  8. 76 FR 54293 - Review of National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... average, and 35 ppm, as a 1-hour average, neither to be exceeded more than once per year (36 FR 8186). In... first periodic review of the criteria and standards for CO (50 FR 37484). In that review, EPA updated... proposed rulemaking which was published on August 18, 1980 (45 FR 55066). Delays due to...

  9. Will the circle be unbroken: a history of the US national ambient air quality standards

    SciTech Connect

    Bachmann, J.

    2007-06-15

    The 2007 Critical Review coincides with the celebration of A&WMA's 100th anniversary and examines more than 100 years of US air pollution history in an effort to illuminate how we arrived at the particular approaches to managing air quality reflected in the Clean Air Act (CAA). A detailed chronology and commentary on the history of the NAAQS appears to seven tables available online at www.awma.org/journal/pdfs/2007/6/10.3155-1047-3289.57.6.652_supplmate rial.pdf (abstracted separately in the Coal Abstracts database), available to members of the AWMA or to government subscribers only. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. DEFINITION OF ADVERSE EFFECTS FOR THE PURPOSE OF ESTABLISHING SECONDARY NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Before the public can freely and fairly contribute to the environmental decision process, education on the importance of ecological and genetic diversity is needed. ducation will assist the public in assigning both cost and quality of live values to environmental effects as part ...

  11. 76 FR 72097 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... Environmental Protection Agency FR Federal Register FEM Federal Equivalent Method FRM Federal Reference Method... lowering the emission threshold for source-oriented monitoring to 0.5 tpy. See 75 FR 81127 (Dec. 27, 2010... (TAR), on February 12, 1999. 63 FR 7254, codified at 40 CFR part 49 (1999). That rule specifies...

  12. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the hourly average for the 8-hour period are available. In the event that only six (or seven) hourly... per million shall be made in terms of integers with fractional parts of 0.5 or greater rounding up....

  13. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the hourly average for the 8-hour period are available. In the event that only six (or seven) hourly... per million shall be made in terms of integers with fractional parts of 0.5 or greater rounding up....

  14. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the hourly average for the 8-hour period are available. In the event that only six (or seven) hourly... per million shall be made in terms of integers with fractional parts of 0.5 or greater rounding up....

  15. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the hourly average for the 8-hour period are available. In the event that only six (or seven) hourly... per million shall be made in terms of integers with fractional parts of 0.5 or greater rounding up....

  16. Survey of ambient electromagnetic and radio-frequency interference levels in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.; Moore, M.R.; Blakeman, E.D.; Ewing, P.D.; Wood, R.T.

    1996-11-01

    This document reports the results of a survey of ambient electromagnetic conditions in representative nuclear power plants. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research engaged the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to perform these measurements to characterize the electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio-frequency interference (RFI) levels that can be expected in nuclear power plant environments. This survey is the first of its kind, being based on long-term unattended observations. The data presented in this report were measured at eight different nuclear units and required 14 months to collect. A representative sampling of power plant conditions (reactor type, operating mode, site location) monitored over extended observation periods (up to 5 weeks) were selected to more completely determine the characteristic electromagnetic environment for nuclear power plants. Radiated electric fields were measured over the frequency range of 5 MHz to 8 GHz. Radiated magnetic fields and conducted EMI events were measured over the frequency range of 305 Hz to 5 MHz. Highest strength observations of the electromagnetic ambient environment across all measurement conditions at each site provide frequency-dependent profiles for EMI/RFI levels in nuclear power plants.

  17. Experimental fault tolerant universal quantum gates with solid-state spins under ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Xing

    Quantum computation provides great speedup over classical counterpart for certain problems, such as quantum simulations, prime factoring and database searching. One of the challenges for realizing quantum computation is to execute precise control of the quantum system in the presence of noise. Recently, high fidelity control of spin-qubits has been achieved in several quantum systems. However, control of the spin-qubits with the accuracy required by the fault tolerant quantum computation under ambient conditions remains exclusive. Here we demonstrate a universal set of logic gates in nitrogen-vacancy centers with an average single-qubit gate fidelity of 0.99995 and two qubit gate fidelity of 0.992. These high control fidelities have been achieved in the C naturally abundant diamonds at room temperature via composite pulses and optimal control method. This experimental implementation of quantum gates with fault tolerant control fidelity sets an important step towards the fault-tolerant quantum computation under ambient conditions. National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB921800).

  18. Characterization of ambient fine particles in the northwestern area and Anchorage, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eugene; Hopke, Philip K

    2008-10-01

    Ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter) in the northwestern United States and Alaska is dominated by carbonaceous compounds associated with wood burning and transportation sources. PM2.5 source characterization studies analyzing recent PM2.5 speciation data have not been previously reported for these areas. In this study, ambient PM2.5 speciation samples collected at two monitoring sites located in the northwestern area, Olympic Peninsula, WA, and Portland, OR, and one monitoring site located in Anchorage, AK, were characterized through source apportionments. Gasoline vehicle, secondary sulfate, and wood smoke were the largest sources of PM2.5 collected at the Anchorage, Olympic, and Portland monitoring sites, respectively. Secondary sulfates showed an April peak at Anchorage and a November peak at Portland that are likely related to the increased photochemical reaction and long-range transport in Anchorage and meteorological stagnation in Portland. Secondary nitrate at the Olympic site showed a weak summer high peak that could be caused by seasonal tourism in the national park. Backward trajectories suggested that the elevated aged sea salt concentrations at the Portland monitoring site could be regional transport of sea salt that passed through other contaminated air sheds along the coast. Oil combustion emissions that might originate from ships and ferries were observed at the Olympic monitoring site. PMID:18939780

  19. Ambient Concentrations of Metabolic Disrupting Chemicals and Children's Academic Achievement in El Paso, Texas.

    PubMed

    Clark-Reyna, Stephanie E; Grineski, Sara E; Collins, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about children's weight have steadily risen alongside the manufacture and use of myriad chemicals in the US. One class of chemicals, known as metabolic disruptors, interfere with human endocrine and metabolic functioning and are of specific concern to children's health and development. This article examines the effect of residential concentrations of metabolic disrupting chemicals on children's school performance for the first time. Census tract-level ambient concentrations for known metabolic disruptors come from the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Air Toxics Assessment. Other measures were drawn from a survey of primary caretakers of 4th and 5th grade children in El Paso Independent School District (El Paso, TX, USA). A mediation model is employed to examine two hypothetical pathways through which the ambient level of metabolic disruptors at a child's home might affect grade point average. Results indicate that concentrations of metabolic disruptors are statistically significantly associated with lower grade point averages directly and indirectly through body mass index. Findings from this study have practical implications for environmental justice research and chemical policy reform in the US. PMID:27598179

  20. Modulated corona nanosecond discharge in air under ambient pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepekhin, N. M.; Priseko, Yu. S.; Filippov, V. G.; Bulatov, M. U.; Sukharevskii, D. I.; Syssoev, V. S.

    2015-04-01

    A unique type of corona discharge-modulated corona nanosecond discharge-has been obtained, the parameters of which have been determined in a geometric system of electrodes with a sharply heterogeneous electric field in air under ambient pressure and natural humidity.

  1. Applying Formal Verification Techniques to Ambient Assisted Living Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benghazi, Kawtar; Visitación Hurtado, María; Rodríguez, María Luisa; Noguera, Manuel

    This paper presents a verification approach based on timed traces semantics and MEDISTAM-RT [1] to check the fulfillment of non-functional requirements, such as timeliness and safety, and assure the correct functioning of the Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) systems. We validate this approach by its application to an Emergency Assistance System for monitoring people suffering from cardiac alteration with syncope.

  2. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN THE AMBIENT AIR OF MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent and past use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in Mexico has resulted in concentrations in ambient air that are 1-2 orders of magnitude above levels in the Great Lakes region. Atmospheric transport from Mexico and Central America may be contributing significant amounts ...

  3. Los plaguicidas y la contaminacion del medio ambiente Venezolano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; Stickel, W.H.

    1972-01-01

    RESUMEN DE RECOMENDACIONES Recomendaciones para el Programa de Investigacion: 1. Establecer un sistema de muestreo biologico para detectar los niveles tendencias de los productos quimicos toxicos en un peque?o numero de si tios representativos. 2. Mantener continua vigilancia de la contaminacion ambiental, mediante la seleccion acertadamente dirigida de las zonas afectadas y de las fuentes de contaminacion. 3. Realizar estudios acerca de las poblaciones de animales silvestres, y del exito de los procesos reproductivos de las especies o grupos clayes de animales que se consideran mas gravemente afectados. 4. Preparar recomendaciones para una accion gubernamental de proteccion al hombre, a la fauna silvestre y al medio ambiente. Recomendaciones para la Accion Administrativa: 1. Establecer limites a la tolerancia de los residuos de plaguicidas en los alimentos. Constituye una medida clave para disminuir la contaminacion ambiental. 2. Establecer normas de calidad del agua para las corrientes, represas, la gos y otros cuerpos. Es la segunda medida clave para reducir la contaminacion del ambiente 3. Exigir un tratamiento adecuado de los efluentes industriales, especialmente antes de que se construyan las nuevas plantas. 4. Exigir a los agricultores que en el uso de plaguicidas sigan los consejos tecnicos autorizados y negar a los vendedores el derecho a recomendar productos por su cuenta. 5. Tomar medidas para recoger y eliminar los recipientes y sobrantes de los plaguicidas.

  4. Urban-scale variability of ambient particulate matter attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiman, M. T.; Hirshel, N.; Broday, D. M.

    Real-time sampling of ambient particulate matter (PM) in the size range 0.23-10 μm and of carbonaceous matter concentrations has been carried out in a carefully designed field campaign in proximate paired neighborhoods in Haifa, Israel. The paired sites are characterized by a similar population density and neighborhood-wise socioeconomic (deprivation) index but show distinct canopy coverage. The data indicate clear sub-urban (neighborhood) scale variations in any measured PM attribute, such as concentrations, size distribution, and carbonaceous matter content. Mean ambient PM levels were comparatively higher than in other urban studies whereas carbonaceous airborne PM concentrations were lower. On top of the diurnal and seasonal variability and in spite of the significant regional effect of the semi-arid climate, local emissions and removal processes affect the PM concentrations to which people residing in urbanized regions are exposed. Analysis of possible mechanisms that could affect the observed spatial sub-urban PM differences, including local meteorology and emissions, reveal that sub-urban variability of removal processes has a major influence on ambient PM levels. Observations suggest that on top of the regional air masses which affect the city air quality and emissions from local sources, a normally unnoticed removal process, showing urban scale variability, is interception by trees and dense vegetation. In particular, the observed sub-urban variability in ambient PM concentrations is attributed, in part, to local variation of removal processes, among them the neighborhood-wise deposition on available surfaces, including canopy.

  5. Composing in Public: The Ambient Audiences of a Writing Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Although scholars have investigated the ways youths individually enact composing practices and the impact of audience on these practices, this study examines the impact of an audience physically present while composing in a shared, public space--an ambient audience. Blurring the line between traditional notions of audience and collaborator through…

  6. COLLECTION, CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION, AND MUTAGENICITY BIOASSAY OF AMBIENT AIR PARTICULATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of industrialization and consequent increased concentration of urban particulate matter on the incidence of cancer has long been a concern. The first bioassays used to evaluate complex ambient air samples were whole-animal carcinogenesis bioassays. In these studies,...

  7. Is anthropogenic ambient noise in the ocean increasing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Elena; Miller, James H.

    2002-11-01

    It is commonly accepted that the ocean's ambient noise levels are rising due to increased human activities in coastal and offshore areas. It has been estimated that low-frequency noise levels increased more than 10 dB in many parts of the world between 1950 and 1975. [Ross, Acoustics Bulletin, Jan/Feb (1993)]. Several other sources cite an increase in manmade, or anthropogenic, noise over the past few decades. [D. A. Croll et al., Animal Conservation 4(1) (2001); Marine Mammal Commission Report to Congress (1999); C. W. Turl, NOSC Tech. Report 776 (1982)]. However, there are few historical records of ambient noise data to substantiate these claims. This paper examines several sectors of anthropogenic activities to determine their contributions to ambient noise. These activities include shipping, oil and gas exploration, military sonar development, and academic research. A series of indices for each of these industries is developed to predict ambient noise trends in the sea. It is found that the amount of noise generated by individual activities may have decreased overall due to new technologies and improved efficiency even if the intensity of such activities has increased.

  8. Acclimatization of plantlets from in vitro to the ambient environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acclimatizing, hardening-off, or conditioning plantlets from the in vitro to the ambient environment can be a challenge that may result in death or damage to a large percentage of micropropagated plants. When grown in the high humidity, low light environment often encountered in vitro, leaves have a...

  9. LUNG INJURY CAUSED BY AMBIENT LEVELS OF OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposures to low levels of 03 cause epithelial and interstitial injury in the proximal alveolar region. he sequential development of this lesion caused by a simulated ambient pattern of 03 was studied by exposing Fisher 344 rats to 0.06 ppm 03 overnight with an 8 hr daytime expos...

  10. RADIOCARBON MEASUREMENTS ON PM-2.5 AMBIENT AEROSOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radiocarbon (14C) measurements provide an estimate of the fraction of carbon in a sample that is biogenic. The methodology has been extensively used in past wintertime studies to quantify the contribution of wood smoke to ambient aerosol. In summertime such measurements can p...

  11. TECHNIQUE FOR MEASURING REDUCED FORMS OF SULFUR IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new technique for measuring low concentrations of volatile sulfur compounds in ambient air is discussed. The technique consists of preconcentration of sulfur compounds by chemisorption on gold metal coated sand or gold foil surface followed by thermal desorption, separation, an...

  12. INTERCOMPARISON OF ATMOSPHERIC NITRIC ACID MEASUREMENTS AT ELEVATED AMBIENT CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several methods for measurement of ambient HNO3 were compared over a 9-day period during the Carbonaceous Species Methods Comparison Study at Glendora, CA, in August 1986. ourly averaged HNO3 concentrations were in the range 0.5-25 ppbv, with hourly maxima each day in excess of 1...

  13. An Ambient Awareness Tool for Supporting Supervised Collaborative Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alavi, H. S.; Dillenbourg, P.

    2012-01-01

    We describe an ambient awareness tool, named "Lantern", designed for supporting the learning process in recitation sections, (i.e., when students work in small teams on the exercise sets with the help of tutors). Each team is provided with an interactive lamp that displays their work status: the exercise they are working on, if they have called…

  14. THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY FOUR CORNERS AMBIENT AIR MONITORING NETWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This ambient air monitoring program was initiated with the overall objective of establishing an air quality base line for the Four Corners area of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. The base line will be used in assessing the impact of the development of coal deposits and t...

  15. AMBIENT HYDROCARBON AND OZONE CONCENTRATIONS NEAR A REFINERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ambient air monitoring study to characterize airborne emissions from petroleum refineries was conducted near the Marathon oil refinery at Robinson, Illinois during June 17 - July 29, 1977. Ground-level sampling facilities and an airplane equipped with air pollutant monitoring ...

  16. Effectiveness of street sweeping and washing for controlling ambient TSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yu-Min; Chou, Chih-Mei; Su, Kuo-Tung; Tseng, Chao-Heng

    Effectiveness of street sweeping and washing (S/W) for controlling ambient "total suspended particles (TSP)" was evaluated by TSP measurements and determining silt load from active traffic streets. A modified regenerative-air vacuum sweeper (RAVS) and a washer were used in this study. The sweeper made a pass followed by the washer. The S/W efficiencies (η,η) were obtained based on the experimental data of silt loading and TSP. It was found that the direct impact of sweeping on ambient TSP emissions was short-lived lasting no more than 3-4 h. When a vacuum sweeper and a washer, respectively, did a good job collecting or cleaning the visible fine particles on roads, the method of S/W tested in this work was effective at removing the sources of the road dust particles. This paper concludes that street sweeping followed by washing was found to offer a measurable reduction in TSP emission potentials. Typically, the reduction efficiency of ambient TSP is up to 30%. Finally, correlated with η (based on silt loading), a useful equation is proposed to estimate the S/W efficiency, η (based on TSP) with a standard error of ±20%. It seems feasible to predict the reduction efficiency of ambient TSP controlled by the regenerative-air vacuum sweeper and washer used in this work for engineering applications. Effects of traffic volume and wind velocity on the S/W efficiencies are also discussed in the paper.

  17. Songs as Ambient Language Input in Phonology Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Terry Kit-fong

    2013-01-01

    Children cannot learn to speak a language simply from occasional noninteractive exposure to native speakers' input (e.g., by hearing television dialogues), but can they learn something about its phonology? To answer this question, the present study varied ambient hearing experience for 126 5- to 7-year-old native Cantonese-Chinese speakers…

  18. Adaptive Ambient Illumination Based on Color Harmony Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Ayano; Hirai, Keita; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Tsumura, Norimichi; Miyake, Yoichi

    We investigated the relationship between ambient illumination and psychological effect by applying a modified color harmony model. We verified the proposed model by analyzing correlation between psychological value and modified color harmony score. Experimental results showed the possibility to obtain the best color for illumination using this model.

  19. Potential Ambient Energy-Harvesting Sources and Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, Faruk

    2009-01-01

    Ambient energy harvesting is also known as energy scavenging or power harvesting, and it is the process where energy is obtained from the environment. A variety of techniques are available for energy scavenging, including solar and wind powers, ocean waves, piezoelectricity, thermoelectricity, and physical motions. For example, some systems…

  20. RECEPTOR MODELS RELATING AMBIENT SUSPENDED PARTICULATE MATTER TO SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the use of receptor models to determine the source contributions to ambient particulate matter loadings at sampling sites, based on common properties between sources and receptors. (This is in contrast to using source models which start with emission rates an...

  1. Brady 1D seismic velocity model ambient noise prelim

    DOE Data Explorer

    Mellors, Robert J.

    2013-10-25

    Preliminary 1D seismic velocity model derived from ambient noise correlation. 28 Green's functions filtered between 4-10 Hz for Vp, Vs, and Qs were calculated. 1D model estimated for each path. The final model is a median of the individual models. Resolution is best for the top 1 km. Poorly constrained with increasing depth.

  2. Design of Affectively Evocative Smart Ambient Media for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Ron Chi-Wai; Cheng, Shuk Han; Ip, Horace Ho-Shing; Kong, Joseph Siu-Lung

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a teaching and research initiative, named SAMAL (Smart AMbience for Affective Learning) that will provide a unique ambient mediated environment for integrating cognitive and affective approaches to enhance learning. Also, this study illustrates a design of SAMAL classroom with affectively evocative scenarios for learning de…

  3. CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATE STUDIES IN HEALTHY AND COMPROMISED RODENTS

    EPA Science Inventory


    CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATE STUDIES IN HEALTHY AND COMPROMISED RODENTS. WP Watkinson1, LB Wichers2, JP Nolan1, DW Winsett1, UP Kodavanti1, MCJ Schladweiler1, LC Walsh1, ER Lappi1, D Terrell1, R Slade1, AD Ledbetter1, and DL Costa1. 1USEPA, ORD/NHEERL/ETD/PTB, RTP, NC, US...

  4. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the photochemical... nonattainment area on September 10, 1993. This SIP submittal satisfies 40 CFR 58.20(f), which requires the...

  5. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the photochemical... nonattainment area on September 10, 1993. This SIP submittal satisfies 40 CFR 58.20(f), which requires the...

  6. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the photochemical... nonattainment area on September 10, 1993. This SIP submittal satisfies 40 CFR 58.20(f), which requires the...

  7. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the photochemical... nonattainment area on September 10, 1993. This SIP submittal satisfies 40 CFR 58.20(f), which requires the...

  8. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the photochemical... nonattainment area on September 10, 1993. This SIP submittal satisfies 40 CFR 58.20(f), which requires the...

  9. VOCS IN AMBIENT AIR NEAR WORLD TRADE CENTER SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beginning on September 22, 2001 and continuing through February 2002, ambient air samples were collected at three sites within a block of ground zero and at a fourth site on the 16th floor of a building at 290 Broadway. Grab samples were collected in evacuated, electro-polished...

  10. A Survey on Ambient Intelligence in Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Acampora, Giovanni; Cook, Diane J.; Rashidi, Parisa; Vasilakos, Athanasios V.

    2013-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a new paradigm in information technology aimed at empowering people’s capabilities by the means of digital environments that are sensitive, adaptive, and responsive to human needs, habits, gestures, and emotions. This futuristic vision of daily environment will enable innovative human-machine interactions characterized by pervasive, unobtrusive and anticipatory communications. Such innovative interaction paradigms make ambient intelligence technology a suitable candidate for developing various real life solutions, including in the health care domain. This survey will discuss the emergence of ambient intelligence (AmI) techniques in the health care domain, in order to provide the research community with the necessary background. We will examine the infrastructure and technology required for achieving the vision of ambient intelligence, such as smart environments and wearable medical devices. We will summarize of the state of the art artificial intelligence methodologies used for developing AmI system in the health care domain, including various learning techniques (for learning from user interaction), reasoning techniques (for reasoning about users’ goals and intensions) and planning techniques (for planning activities and interactions). We will also discuss how AmI technology might support people affected by various physical or mental disabilities or chronic disease. Finally, we will point to some of the successful case studies in the area and we will look at the current and future challenges to draw upon the possible future research paths. PMID:24431472

  11. ARE MALES MORE SUSCEPTIBLE TO AMBIENT PM THAN FEMALES?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent epidemiologic studies of modern air pollution show statistically significant relationships between fluctuations of daily non-trauma mortality and fluctuations of daily ambient particulate matter (PM) levels at low concentrations. A review of historic smoke-fog (smog)episo...

  12. METHODOLOGY OF AMBIENT AIR MONITORING FOR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the last decade, several studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in ambient air in the U.S. specifically investigated (1) the sampling efficiency of two sorbents for PAH in air: XAD-2 and polyurethane foam (PUP); (2) the storage stability of PAH on quartz fiber fil...

  13. Warmer ambient temperatures depress liver function in a mammalian herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Kurnath, Patrice; Dearing, M. Denise

    2013-01-01

    Diet selection in mammalian herbivores is thought to be mainly influenced by intrinsic factors such as nutrients and plant secondary compounds, yet extrinsic factors like ambient temperature may also play a role. In particular, warmer ambient temperatures could enhance the toxicity of plant defence compounds through decreased liver metabolism of herbivores. Temperature-dependent toxicity has been documented in pharmacology and agriculture science but not in wild mammalian herbivores. Here, we investigated how ambient temperature affects liver metabolism in the desert woodrat, Neotoma lepida. Woodrats (n = 21) were acclimated for 30 days to two ambient temperatures (cool = 21°C, warm = 29°C). In a second experiment, the temperature exposure was reduced to 3.5 h. After temperature treatments, animals were given a hypnotic agent and clearance time of the agent was estimated from the duration of the hypnotic state. The average clearance time of the agent in the long acclimation experiment was 45% longer for animals acclimated to 29°C compared with 21°C. Similarly, after the short exposure experiment, woodrats at 29°C had clearance times 26% longer compared with 21°C. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that liver function is reduced at warmer environmental temperatures and may provide a physiological mechanism through which climate change affects herbivorous mammals. PMID:24046878

  14. Low ambient temperature and neuroendocrine response to hypoglycemia in men.

    PubMed

    Jezová, D; Juránková, E; Kvetnanský, R; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H; Nazar, K; Vigas, M

    1995-12-01

    Nutritional factors, such as an excess or a deficiency of glucose, play an important role in neuroendocrine regulations. Hormonal and metabolic responses to hypoglycemia were examined in healthy non-obese volunteers under conditions of low ambient temperature. Hypoglycemia was induced by intravenous injection of insulin in two randomized trials performed at room temperature and at 4 degrees C. At room temperature, the typical neuroendocrine response to hypoglycemia was established. The increases of ACTH, beta-endorphin, growth hormone and cortisol in response to insulin hypoglycemia failed to be modified by low ambient temperature. Acute cold exposure significantly reduced epinephrine and totally inhibited prolactin response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. In spite of significant changes in epinephrine response to hypoglycemia at low ambient temperature, no striking differences in plasma glucose levels compared to those measured at room temperature were observed. However, under conditions of low temperature the reestablishment of normoglycemia was delayed. No changes in free fatty acids were found under our experimental conditions. The presented data show that low ambient temperature exerts selective effects on some neuroendocrine and metabolic parameters. PMID:8653553

  15. Mound ambient air surveillance program: Description and path forward

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, L R

    1992-08-01

    The ambient air monitoring program in place at Mound has undergone a number of changes since its installation. These changes have resulted from revisions to prevailing environmental regulations and guidance. Additional voluntary upgrades and modifications are planned. This report serves to update information on sampling station locations, equipment designs, operational criteria, and planned upgrades.

  16. Cognitions and 'placebos' in behavioral research on ambient noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harcum, E. R.; Monti, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    Investigation of the effects of noise on visual and psychomotor tasks, with special attention to influences of certain cognitive variables. The results include the finding that 100-dB ambient noise has no effects per se, though cognitive variables in the testing situation affect both performance and ratings of disturbance.

  17. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS METHODS FOR AMBIENT PM-10 AEROSOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods are described for obtaining ambient PM-10 aerosol data for use in receptor models. haracteristics of PM-10 sampling devices, filter media and laboratory analysis procedures are described. he latter include x-ray fluorescence, neutron activation, optical spectroscopy, pyro...

  18. Ocean ambient sound south of Bermuda and Panama Canal traffic.

    PubMed

    Širović, Ana; Hildebrand, John A; McDonald, Mark A

    2016-05-01

    Comparisons of current and historic ocean ambient noise levels are rare, especially in the North Atlantic. Recent (2013-2014) monthly patterns in ocean ambient sound south of Bermuda were compared to those recorded at the same location in 1966. Additionally, trends in ocean traffic, in particular, Panama Canal traffic, over this time were also investigated. One year of ocean ambient noise measurements were collected in 1966 using cabled, omnidirectional hydrophones at the U.S. Navy Tudor Hill Laboratory in Bermuda, and repeat measurements were collected at the same location from June 2013-May 2014 using a High-frequency Acoustic Recording Package. Average monthly pressure spectrum levels at 44 Hz increased 2.8 ± 0.8 dB from 1966 to 2013, indicating an average increase of 0.6 dB/decade. This low level of increase may be due to topographic shielding at this site, limiting it to only southern exposure, and the limit in the number of ship transits through the Panama Canal, which did not change substantially during this time. The impending expansion of the Canal, which will enable the transit of larger ships at twice the current rate, is likely to lead to a substantial increase in ocean ambient sound at this location in the near future. PMID:27250138

  19. Dense microarrays for ambient noise tomography at Solfatara (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilz, Marco; Parolai, Stefano; Festa, Gaetano; Woith, Heiko

    2014-05-01

    Imaging shallow subsurface structures and monitoring related temporal variations are two of the main tasks for modern seismology. Although many observations have reported temporal velocity changes e.g. in volcanic areas and on landslides, new methods based on passive sources like ambient seismic noise can provide accurate information on the velocity structure and on velocity changes. The success of these passive applications is explained by the fact that these methods are based on surface waves which are always present in the ambient seismic noise wave field because they are excited preferentially by superficial sources. These waves can easily be extracted because they dominate the Green's function between receivers located at the surface. For imaging the shallow velocity structure of the Solfatara crater, one the forty volcanoes in the Campi Flegrei area characterized by an intense hydrothermal shallow activity due to the interaction of deep convection and meteoric water, we have installed a dense network of wireless seismological sensing units covering the whole surface area in the framework of the European project MED-SUV. On four consecutive days continuous recordings of the ambient seismic noise using different microarray configurations were performed. Based on a weighted inversion procedure for the passive imaging using ambient noise cross-correlations we will present a preliminary velocity model of the structure beneath Solfatara.

  20. Ambient Concentrations of Manganese Compounds in EPA Region 5

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator presents trends in ambient concentrations of manganese in EPA Region 5 from 2000 to 2009. This information shows how concentrations of manganese, a hazardous air pollutant that can harm human health in exposed populations, have changed in the last 10 years in a ...

  1. MEASUREMENTS OF HAZARDOUS ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN THE AMBIENT ATMOSPHERE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analytical methods were refined and applied to the ambient analysis of 44 organic chemicals, many of which are bacterial mutagens or suspected carcinogens. On-site field collection programs, based on single site studies of 9 to 11 days duration each, were conducted in 10 U.S. cit...

  2. Twelve-year trends in ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds in a community of the Alberta Oil Sands Region, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bari, Md Aynul; Kindzierski, Warren B; Spink, David

    2016-05-01

    Environmental exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air is one of a number of concerns that the First Nation Community of Fort McKay, Alberta has related to development of Canada's oil sands. An in-depth investigation of trends in ambient air VOC levels in Fort McKay was undertaken to better understand the role and possible significance of emissions from Alberta's oil sands development. A non-parametric trend detection method was used to investigate trends in emissions and ambient VOC concentrations over a 12-year (2001-2012) period. Relationships between ambient VOC concentrations and production indicators of oil sands operations around Fort McKay were also examined. A weak upward trend (significant at 90% confidence level) was found for ambient concentrations of total VOCs based on sixteen detected species with an annual increase of 0.64μg/m(3) (7.2%) per year (7.7μg/m(3) increase per decade). Indicators of production (i.e., annual bitumen production and mined oil sands quantities) were correlated with ambient total VOC concentrations. Only one of 29 VOC species evaluated (1-butene) showed a statistically significant upward trend (p=0.05). Observed geometric (arithmetic) mean and maximum ambient concentrations of selected VOCs of public health concern for most recent three years of the study period (2010-2012) were below chronic and acute health risk screening criteria of the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Thirty-two VOCs are recommended for tracking in future air quality investigations in the community to better understand whether changes are occurring over time in relation to oil sands development activities and to inform policy makers about whether or not these changes warrant additional attention. PMID:26909813

  3. Ambient Ammonia Monitoring in the Central United States Using Passive Diffusion Samplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caughey, M.; Gay, D.; Sweet, C.

    2008-12-01

    Environmental scientists and governmental authorities are increasingly aware of the need for more comprehensive measurements of ambient ammonia in urban, rural and remote locations. As the predominant alkaline gas, ammonia plays a critical role in atmospheric chemistry by reacting readily with acidic gases and particles. Ammonium salts often comprise a major portion of the aerosols that impair visibility, not only in urban areas, but also in national parks and other Class I areas. Ammonia is also important as a plant nutrient that directly or indirectly affects terrestrial and aquatic biomes. Successful computer simulations of important environmental processes require an extensive representative data set of ambient ammonia measurements in the range of 0.1 ppbv or greater. Generally instruments with that level of sensitivity are not only expensive, but also require electrical connections, an enclosed shelter and, in many instances, frequent attention from trained technicians. Such requirements significantly restrict the number and locations of ambient ammonia monitors that can be supported. As an alternative we have employed simple passive diffusion samplers to measure ambient ammonia at 9 monitoring sites in the central U.S. over the past 3 years. Passive samplers consist of a layer of an acidic trapping medium supported at a fixed distance behind a microporous barrier for which the diffusive properties are known. Ammonia uptake rates are determined by the manufacturer under controlled laboratory conditions. (When practical, field results are compared against those from collocated conventional samplers, e.g., pumped annular denuders.) After a known exposure time at the sampling site, the sampler is resealed in protective packaging and shipped to the analytical laboratory where the ammonia captured in the acidic medium is carefully extracted and quantified. Because passive samplers are comparatively inexpensive and do not require electricity or other facilities they

  4. High mortality of Red Sea zooplankton under ambient solar radiation.

    PubMed

    Al-Aidaroos, Ali M; El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M O; Satheesh, Sathianeson; Mantha, Gopikrishna; Agustī, Susana; Carreja, Beatriz; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-01-01

    High solar radiation along with extreme transparency leads to high penetration of solar radiation in the Red Sea, potentially harmful to biota inhabiting the upper water column, including zooplankton. Here we show, based on experimental assessments of solar radiation dose-mortality curves on eight common taxa, the mortality of zooplankton in the oligotrophic waters of the Red Sea to increase steeply with ambient levels of solar radiation in the Red Sea. Responses curves linking solar radiation doses with zooplankton mortality were evaluated by exposing organisms, enclosed in quartz bottles, allowing all the wavelengths of solar radiation to penetrate, to five different levels of ambient solar radiation (100%, 21.6%, 7.2%, 3.2% and 0% of solar radiation). The maximum mortality rates under ambient solar radiation levels averaged (±standard error of the mean, SEM) 18.4±5.8% h(-1), five-fold greater than the average mortality in the dark for the eight taxa tested. The UV-B radiation required for mortality rates to reach ½ of maximum values averaged (±SEM) 12±5.6 h(-1)% of incident UVB radiation, equivalent to the UV-B dose at 19.2±2.7 m depth in open coastal Red Sea waters. These results confirm that Red Sea zooplankton are highly vulnerable to ambient solar radiation, as a consequence of the combination of high incident radiation and high water transparency allowing deep penetration of damaging UV-B radiation. These results provide evidence of the significance of ambient solar radiation levels as a stressor of marine zooplankton communities in tropical, oligotrophic waters. Because the oligotrophic ocean extends across 70% of the ocean surface, solar radiation can be a globally-significant stressor for the ocean ecosystem, by constraining zooplankton use of the upper levels of the water column and, therefore, the efficiency of food transfer up the food web in the oligotrophic ocean. PMID:25309996

  5. Relationship between prostate-specific antigen levels and ambient temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohwaki, Kazuhiro; Endo, Fumiyasu; Hattori, Kazunori; Muraishi, Osamu

    2014-07-01

    We examined the association between prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and daily mean ambient temperature on the day of the test in healthy men who had three annual checkups. We investigated 9,694 men who visited a hospital for routine health checkups in 2007, 2008, and 2009. Although the means and medians of ambient temperature for the three years were similar, the mode in 2008 (15.8 °C) was very different from those in 2007 and 2009 (22.4 °C and 23.2 °C). After controlling for age, body mass index, and hematocrit, a multiple regression analysis revealed a U-shaped relationship between ambient temperature and PSA in 2007 and 2009 ( P < 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively), but not in 2008 ( P = 0.779). In 2007, PSA was 13.5 % higher at 5 °C and 10.0 % higher at 30 °C than that at 18.4 °C (nadir). In 2009, PSA was 7.3 % higher at 5 °C and 6.8 % at 30 °C compared with the level at 17.7 °C (nadir). In logistic regression analysis, a U-shaped relationship was found for the prevalence of a higher PSA (> 2.5 ng/mL) by ambient temperature, with the lowest likelihood of having a high PSA at 17.8 °C in 2007 ( P = 0.038) and 15.5 °C in 2009 ( P = 0.033). When tested at 30 °C, there was a 57 % excess risk of having a high PSA in 2007 and a 61 % higher risk in 2009 compared with those at each nadir temperature. We found a U-shaped relationship between PSA and ambient temperature with the lowest level of PSA at 15-20 °C.

  6. Effects of ambient conditions on fuel cell vehicle performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haraldsson, K.; Alvfors, P.

    Ambient conditions have considerable impact on the performance of fuel cell hybrid vehicles. Here, the vehicle fuel consumption, the air compressor power demand, the water management system and the heat loads of a fuel cell hybrid sport utility vehicle (SUV) were studied. The simulation results show that the vehicle fuel consumption increases with 10% when the altitude increases from 0 m up to 3000 m to 4.1 L gasoline equivalents/100 km over the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC). The increase is 19% on the more power demanding highway US06 cycle. The air compressor is the major contributor to this fuel consumption increase. Its load-following strategy makes its power demand increase with increasing altitude. Almost 40% of the net power output of the fuel cell system is consumed by the air compressor at the altitude of 3000 m with this load-following strategy and is thus more apparent in the high-power US06 cycle. Changes in ambient air temperature and relative humidity effect on the fuel cell system performance in terms of the water management rather in vehicle fuel consumption. Ambient air temperature and relative humidity have some impact on the vehicle performance mostly seen in the heat and water management of the fuel cell system. While the heat loads of the fuel cell system components vary significantly with increasing ambient temperature, the relative humidity did not have a great impact on the water balance. Overall, dimensioning the compressor and other system components to meet the fuel cell system requirements at the minimum and maximum expected ambient temperatures, in this case 5 and 40 °C, and high altitude, while simultaneously choosing a correct control strategy are important parameters for efficient vehicle power train management.

  7. Relationship between prostate-specific antigen levels and ambient temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohwaki, Kazuhiro; Endo, Fumiyasu; Hattori, Kazunori; Muraishi, Osamu

    2013-05-01

    We examined the association between prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and daily mean ambient temperature on the day of the test in healthy men who had three annual checkups. We investigated 9,694 men who visited a hospital for routine health checkups in 2007, 2008, and 2009. Although the means and medians of ambient temperature for the three years were similar, the mode in 2008 (15.8 °C) was very different from those in 2007 and 2009 (22.4 °C and 23.2 °C). After controlling for age, body mass index, and hematocrit, a multiple regression analysis revealed a U-shaped relationship between ambient temperature and PSA in 2007 and 2009 (P < 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively), but not in 2008 (P = 0.779). In 2007, PSA was 13.5 % higher at 5 °C and 10.0 % higher at 30 °C than that at 18.4 °C (nadir). In 2009, PSA was 7.3 % higher at 5 °C and 6.8 % at 30 °C compared with the level at 17.7 °C (nadir). In logistic regression analysis, a U-shaped relationship was found for the prevalence of a higher PSA (> 2.5 ng/mL) by ambient temperature, with the lowest likelihood of having a high PSA at 17.8 °C in 2007 (P = 0.038) and 15.5 °C in 2009 (P = 0.033). When tested at 30 °C, there was a 57 % excess risk of having a high PSA in 2007 and a 61 % higher risk in 2009 compared with those at each nadir temperature. We found a U-shaped relationship between PSA and ambient temperature with the lowest level of PSA at 15-20 °C.

  8. PREDICTING THE IMPACT OF TROPOSPHERIC OZONE ON PLANTS AND ECOSYSTEMS AS A BASIS FOR SETTING NATIONAL AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act provides for establishing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public welfare (including crops, forests, ecosystems, and soils) from adverse effects of air pollutants, including tropospheric ozone. The formulation of policies is science-base...

  9. [Techniques of on-line monitoring volatile organic compounds in ambient air with optical spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Du, Zhen-Hui; Zhai, Ya-Qiong; Li, Jin-Yi; Hu, Bo

    2009-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are harmful gaseous pollutants in the ambient air. The techniques of on-line monitoring VOCs are very significant for environment protection. Until now, there is no single technology that can meet all the needs of monitoring various VOCs. The characteristics and present situation of several optical methods, which can be applied to on-line monitoring VOCs, including non dispersive infrared (NDIR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), and laser spectroscopy were reviewed. Comparison was completed between the national standard methods and spectroscopic method for measuring VOCs. The main analysis was focused on the status and trends of tuning diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) technology. PMID:20210131

  10. National Anthem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A montage of video clips over the years, footage shows the spacecrews, launch, and landing for different orbiters and missions. Clips include the Endeavour and Atlantis Orbiters and are shown to the music of the American National Anthem.

  11. National Biobanks

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The development of genomics has dramatically expanded the scope of genetic research, and collections of genetic biosamples have proliferated in countries with active genomics research programs. In this essay, we consider a particular kind of collection, national biobanks. National biobanks are often presented by advocates as an economic “resource” that will be used by both basic researchers and academic biologists, as well as by pharmaceutical diagnostic and clinical genomics companies. Although national biobanks have been the subject of intense interest in recent social science literature, most prior work on this topic focuses either on bioethical issues related to biobanks, such as the question of informed consent, or on the possibilities for scientific citizenship that they make possible. We emphasize, by contrast, the economic aspect of biobanks, focusing specifically on the way in which national biobanks create biovalue. Our emphasis on the economic aspect of biobanks allows us to recognize the importance of what we call clinical labor—that is, the regularized, embodied work that members of the national population are expected to perform in their role as biobank participants—in the creation of biovalue through biobanks. Moreover, it allows us to understand how the technical way in which national biobanks link clinical labor to databases alters both medical and popular understandings of risk for common diseases and conditions. PMID:20526462

  12. A hybrid downscaling procedure for estimating the vertical distribution of ambient temperature in local scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiannikopoulou, I.; Philippopoulos, K.; Deligiorgi, D.

    2012-04-01

    The vertical thermal structure of the atmosphere is defined by a combination of dynamic and radiation transfer processes and plays an important role in describing the meteorological conditions at local scales. The scope of this work is to develop and quantify the predictive ability of a hybrid dynamic-statistical downscaling procedure to estimate the vertical profile of ambient temperature at finer spatial scales. The study focuses on the warm period of the year (June - August) and the method is applied to an urban coastal site (Hellinikon), located in eastern Mediterranean. The two-step methodology initially involves the dynamic downscaling of coarse resolution climate data via the RegCM4.0 regional climate model and subsequently the statistical downscaling of the modeled outputs by developing and training site-specific artificial neural networks (ANN). The 2.5ox2.5o gridded NCEP-DOE Reanalysis 2 dataset is used as initial and boundary conditions for the dynamic downscaling element of the methodology, which enhances the regional representivity of the dataset to 20km and provides modeled fields in 18 vertical levels. The regional climate modeling results are compared versus the upper-air Hellinikon radiosonde observations and the mean absolute error (MAE) is calculated between the four grid point values nearest to the station and the ambient temperature at the standard and significant pressure levels. The statistical downscaling element of the methodology consists of an ensemble of ANN models, one for each pressure level, which are trained separately and employ the regional scale RegCM4.0 output. The ANN models are theoretically capable of estimating any measurable input-output function to any desired degree of accuracy. In this study they are used as non-linear function approximators for identifying the relationship between a number of predictor variables and the ambient temperature at the various vertical levels. An insight of the statistically derived input

  13. Cardiopulmonary Toxicity Induced by Ambient Particulate Matter (BI City Concentrated Ambient Particle Study)

    SciTech Connect

    Annette Rohr; James Wagner Masako Morishita; Gerald Keeler; Jack Harkema

    2010-06-30

    Alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) have been reported in rodents exposed to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) from different regions of the United States. The goal of this study was to compare alterations in cardiac function induced by CAPs in two distinct regional atmospheres. AirCARE 1, a mobile laboratory with an EPA/Harvard fine particle (particulate matter <2.5 {micro}m; PM{sub 2.5}) concentrator was located in urban Detroit, MI, where the PM mixture is heavily influenced by motor vehicles, and in Steubenville, OH, where PM is derived primarily from long-range transport and transformation of power plant emissions, as well as from local industrial operations. Each city was studied during both winter and summer months, for a total of four sampling periods. Spontaneously hypertensive rats instrumented for electrocardiogram (ECG) telemetry were exposed to CAPs 8 h/day for 13 consecutive days during each sampling period. Heart rate (HR), and indices of HRV (standard deviation of the average normal-to-normal intervals [SDNN]; square root of the mean squared difference of successive normal-to-normal intervals [rMSSD]), were calculated for 30-minute intervals during exposures. A large suite of PM components, including nitrate, sulfate, elemental and organic carbon, and trace elements, were monitored in CAPs and ambient air. In addition, a unique sampler, the Semi-Continuous Elements in Air Sampler (SEAS) was employed to obtain every-30-minute measurements of trace elements. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) methods were applied to estimate source contributions to PM{sub 2.5}. Mixed modeling techniques were employed to determine associations between pollutants/CAPs components and HR and HRV metrics. Mean CAPs concentrations in Detroit were 518 and 357 {micro}g/m{sup 3} (summer and winter, respectively) and 487 and 252 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in Steubenville. In Detroit, significant reductions in SDNN were observed in the summer in association with cement

  14. Insights into electrochemical reactions from ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Stoerzinger, Kelsey A; Hong, Wesley T; Crumlin, Ethan J; Bluhm, Hendrik; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2015-11-17

    The understanding of fundamental processes in the bulk and at the interfaces of electrochemical devices is a prerequisite for the development of new technologies with higher efficiency and improved performance. One energy storage scheme of great interest is splitting water to form hydrogen and oxygen gas and converting back to electrical energy by their subsequent recombination with only water as a byproduct. However, kinetic limitations to the rate of oxygen-based electrochemical reactions hamper the efficiency in technologies such as solar fuels, fuel cells, and electrolyzers. For these reactions, the use of metal oxides as electrocatalysts is prevalent due to their stability, low cost, and ability to store oxygen within the lattice. However, due to the inherently convoluted nature of electrochemical and chemical processes in electrochemical systems, it is difficult to isolate and study individual electrochemical processes in a complex system. Therefore, in situ characterization tools are required for observing related physical and chemical processes directly at the places where and while they occur and can help elucidate the mechanisms of charge separation and charge transfer at electrochemical interfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), also known as ESCA (electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis), has been used as a quantitative spectroscopic technique that measures the elemental composition, as well as chemical and electronic state of a material. Building from extensive ex situ characterization of electrochemical systems, initial in situ studies were conducted at or near ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions (≤10(-6) Torr) to probe solid-state electrochemical systems. However, through the integration of differential-pumping stages, XPS can now operate at pressures in the torr range, comprising a technique called ambient pressure XPS (AP-XPS). In this Account, we briefly review the working principles and current status of AP-XPS. We use several recent

  15. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF OIL FLY ASH AND RELEVANCE TO AMBIENT AIR PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated increased human morbidity and mortality with elevations in the concentration of ambient air particulate matter (PM). Fugitive fly ash from the combustion of oil and residual fuel oil significantly contributes to the ambient air particle bur...

  16. The effects of ambient particulate matter on human alveolar machrophage oxidative and inflammatory responses

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic and occupational studies demonstrate that ambient PM and DEP have deleterious effects on human cardiopulmonary health including exacerbation of pre-existing lung disease and development of respiratory infections. The effects of ambient PM on lung cell responsivenes...

  17. Ultrastructural alterations in the mouse lung caused by real-life ambient PM10 at urban traffic sites.

    PubMed

    Samara, Constantini; Kouras, Athanasios; Kaidoglou, Katerina; Emmanouil-Nikoloussi, Elpida-Niki; Simou, Chrysanthi; Bousnaki, Maria; Kelessis, Apostolos

    2015-11-01

    Current levels of ambient air particulate matter (PM) are associated with mortality and morbidity in urban populations worldwide. Nevertheless, current knowledge does not allow precise quantification or definitive ranking of the health effects of individual PM components and indeed, associations may be the result of multiple components acting on different physiological mechanisms. In this paper, healthy Balb/c mice were exposed to ambient PM10 at a traffic site of a large city (Thessaloniki, northern Greece), in parallel to control mice that were exposed to filtered air. Structural damages were examined in ultrafine sections of lung tissues by Transmission Electronic Microscopy (TEM). Ambient PM10 samples were also collected during the exposure experiment and characterized with respect to chemical composition and oxidative potential. Severe ultrastructural alterations in the lung tissue after a 10-week exposure of mice at PM10 levels often exceeding the daily limit of Directive 2008/50/EC were revealed mainly implying PM-induced oxidative stress. The DTT-based redox activity of PM10 was found within the range of values reported for traffic sites being correlated with traffic-related constituents. Although linkage of the observed lung damage with specific chemical components or sources need further elucidation, the magnitude of biological responses highlight the necessity for national and local strategies for mitigation of particle emissions from combustion sources. PMID:26081735

  18. Ambient-Light-Canceling Camera Using Subtraction of Frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morookian, John Michael

    2004-01-01

    The ambient-light-canceling camera (ALCC) is a proposed near-infrared electronic camera that would utilize a combination of (1) synchronized illumination during alternate frame periods and (2) subtraction of readouts from consecutive frames to obtain images without a background component of ambient light. The ALCC is intended especially for use in tracking the motion of an eye by the pupil center corneal reflection (PCCR) method. Eye tracking by the PCCR method has shown potential for application in human-computer interaction for people with and without disabilities, and for noninvasive monitoring, detection, and even diagnosis of physiological and neurological deficiencies. In the PCCR method, an eye is illuminated by near-infrared light from a lightemitting diode (LED). Some of the infrared light is reflected from the surface of the cornea. Some of the infrared light enters the eye through the pupil and is reflected from back of the eye out through the pupil a phenomenon commonly observed as the red-eye effect in flash photography. An electronic camera is oriented to image the user's eye. The output of the camera is digitized and processed by algorithms that locate the two reflections. Then from the locations of the centers of the two reflections, the direction of gaze is computed. As described thus far, the PCCR method is susceptible to errors caused by reflections of ambient light. Although a near-infrared band-pass optical filter can be used to discriminate against ambient light, some sources of ambient light have enough in-band power to compete with the LED signal. The mode of operation of the ALCC would complement or supplant spectral filtering by providing more nearly complete cancellation of the effect of ambient light. In the operation of the ALCC, a near-infrared LED would be pulsed on during one camera frame period and off during the next frame period. Thus, the scene would be illuminated by both the LED (signal) light and the ambient (background) light

  19. The Operator Guide: An Ambient Persuasive Interface in the Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschtscherjakov, Alexander; Reitberger, Wolfgang; Pöhr, Florian; Tscheligi, Manfred

    In this paper we introduce the context of a semiconductor factory as a promising area for the application of innovative interaction approaches. In order to increase efficiency ambient persuasive interfaces, which influence the operators' behaviour to perform in an optimized way, could constitute a potential strategy. We present insights gained from qualitative studies conducted in a specific semiconductor factory and provide a description of typical work processes and already deployed interfaces in this context. These findings informed the design of a prototype of an ambient persuasive interface within this realm - the "Operator Guide". Its overall aim is to improve work efficiency, while still maintaining a minimal error rate. We provide a detailed description of the Operator Guide along with an outlook of the next steps within a user-centered design approach.

  20. Photoelectron Spectroscopy under Ambient Pressure and Temperature Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ogletree, D. Frank; Bluhm, Hendrik; Hebenstreit, Eleonore B.; Salmeron, Miquel

    2009-02-27

    We describe the development and applications of novel instrumentation for photoemission spectroscopy of solid or liquid surfaces in the presence of gases under ambient conditions or pressure and temperature. The new instrument overcomes the strong scattering of electrons in gases by the use of an aperture close to the surface followed by a differentially-pumped electrostatic lens system. In addition to the scattering problem, experiments in the presence of condensed water or other liquids require the development of special sample holders to provide localized cooling. We discuss the first two generations of Ambient Pressure PhotoEmission Spectroscopy (APPES) instruments developed at synchrotron light sources (ALS in Berkeley and BESSY in Berlin), with special focus on the Berkeley instruments. Applications to environmental science and catalytic chemical research are illustrated in two examples.

  1. Damage localization under ambient vibration using changes in flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yong; Spencer, B. F.

    2002-06-01

    In recent years, Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) has emerged as a new research area in civil engineering. Most existing health monitoring methodologies require direct measurement of input excitation for implementation. However, in many cases, there is no easy way to measure these inputs - or alternatively to externally excite the structure. Therefore, SHM methods based on ambient vibration have become important in civil engineering. In this paper, an approach is proposed based on the Damage Location Vector (DLV) method to handle the ambient vibration case. Here, this flexibility-matrix-based damage localization method is combined with a modal expansion technique to eliminate the need to measure the input excitation. As a by-product of this approach, in addition to determining the location of the damage, an estimate of the damage extent also can be determined. Finally, a numerical example analyzing a truss structure with limited sensors and noisy measurement is provided to verify the efficacy of the proposed approach.

  2. Plasma-based ambient ionization mass spectrometry in bioanalytical sciences.

    PubMed

    Smoluch, Marek; Mielczarek, Przemyslaw; Silberring, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Plasma-based ambient ionization mass spectrometry techniques are gaining growing interest due to their specific features, such as the need for little or no sample preparation, its high analysis speed, and the ambient experimental conditions. Samples can be analyzed in gas, liquid, or solid forms. These techniques allow for a wide range of applications, like warfare agent detection, chemical reaction control, mass spectrometry imaging, polymer identification, and food safety monitoring, as well as applications in biomedical science, e.g., drug and pharmaceutical analysis, medical diagnostics, biochemical analysis, etc. Until now, the main drawback of plasma-based techniques is their quantitative aspect, but a lot of efforts have been done to improve this obstacle. PMID:25988731

  3. The power laws of nanoscale forces in ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiesa, Matteo; Santos, Sergio; Lai, Chia-Yun

    Power laws are ubiquitous in the physical sciences and indispensable to qualitatively and quantitatively describe physical phenomena. A nanoscale force law that accurately describes the phenomena observed in ambient conditions at several nm or fractions of a nm above a surface however is still lacking. Here we report a power law derived from experimental data and describing the interaction between an atomic force microscope AFM tip modelled as a sphere and a surface in ambient conditions. By employing a graphite surface as a model system the resulting effective power is found to be a function of the tip radius and the distance. The data suggest a nano to mesoscale transition in the power law that results in relative agreement with the distance-dependencies predicted by the Hamaker and Lifshitz theories for van der Waals forces for the larger tip radii only

  4. AMBIENT PM2.5 SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-10-31

    This interim report summarizes detailed findings and conclusions drawn from evaluations of data obtained from the operation of ambient PM{sub 2.5} speciation sites in a geographical area encompassing southeastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania and northwestern West Virginia. The overall goal of this program, called the Upper Ohio River Valley Project (UORVP), is to better understand the relationship between coal-based power system emissions and ambient air quality in the Upper Ohio River Valley region through the collection of chemically resolved or speciated data. A summary of the sampling activities, sample analyses and the correlation and interpretation of data acquired from February 1999 through March of 2001 are reported. Mass and speciated data from urban and rural sources are compared and seasonal variations in PM{sub 2.5} distribution are also examined. Correlations between meteorological parameters and total PM{sub 2.5} mass are also presented.

  5. AMBIENT PM2.5 SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-04-30

    This is the third semi-annual technical progress report summarizing observations and tentative conclusions drawn from evaluations of the data captured to date from the operation of the ambient PM{sub 2.5} speciation sites in a geographical area encompassing southeastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania, and northwestern West Virginia. The overall goal of this program, called the Upper Ohio River Valley Project (UORVP), is to better understand the relationship between coal-based power system emissions and ambient air quality in the upper Ohio River Valley region through the collection of chemically resolved or speciated data. In order to provide a ''stand alone'' document, this report contains updated versions of Section 1 (Introduction) and Section 2 (Experimental) in their entirety from the first report.

  6. AMBIENT PM2.5 SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-10-31

    This interim report summarizes detailed findings and conclusions drawn from evaluations of data obtained from the operation of ambient PM{sub 2.5} speciation sites in a geographical area encompassing southeastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania and northwestern West Virginia. The overall goal of this program, called the Upper Ohio River Valley Project (UORVP), is to better understand the relationship between coal-based power system emissions and ambient air quality in the Upper Ohio River Valley region through the collection of chemically resolved or speciated data. A summary of the sampling activities, sample analyses and the correlation and interpretation of data acquired from February 1999 through March of 2001 are reported. Mass and speciated data from urban and rural sources are compared and seasonal variations in PM{sub 2.5} distribution are also examined. Correlations between meteorological parameters and total PM{sub 2.5} mass are also presented.

  7. Ambient ultraviolet radiation causes mortality in salamander eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Blaustein, A.R.; Edmond, B.; Kiesecker, J.M.

    1995-08-01

    Previous research has shown that amphibian species have differential sensitivity to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation. In some anuran species, ambient levels of UV-B cause mortality in embryonic stages and hatching success is significantly reduced. Projected increases in UV-B may affect an increasing number of species. The adverse effects of UV-B may eventually be manifested at the population level and may ultimately contribute to population declines. Using field experiments, we investigated the effects of ambient UV-B on salamander (Ambystoma gracile) embryos developing at natural oviposition sites. We show that the hatching success of eggs of A. gracile shielded from UV-B is significantly higher than those not shielded from UV-B. 27 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Cognitions and 'placebos' in behavioral research on ambient noise.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harcum, E. R.; Monti, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    The study investigated effects of noise on visual and psychomotor tasks, with particular concern for influences of certain cognitive variables. A first experiment, using visual and card-sorting tasks, found no effects of 100 dB ambient noise per se, although cognitive variables in the testing situation affected both performance and ratings of disturbance. In two subsequent experiments some of the subjects were told that a noise was extraneous to their task of reproducing tachistoscopic patterns, and others were told that effects of the noise were being studied. It appears that in the absence of an adequate 'placebo' to control for cognitive factors, deceptive instructions may always be necessary in studies of ambient noise.

  9. Oceanic ambient noise as a background to acoustic neutrino detection

    SciTech Connect

    Kurahashi, Naoko; Gratta, Giorgio

    2008-11-01

    Ambient noise measured in the deep ocean is studied in the context of a search for signals from ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray neutrinos. The spectral shape of the noise at the relevant high frequencies is found to be very stable for an extensive data set collected over several months from 49 hydrophones mounted near the bottom of the ocean at {approx}1600 m depth. The slopes of the ambient noise spectra above 15 kHz are found to roll off faster than the -6 dB/octave seen in Knudsen spectra. A model attributing the source to a uniform distribution of surface noise that includes frequency-dependent absorption at large depth is found to fit the data well up to 25 kHz. This depth-dependent model should therefore be used in analysis methods of acoustic neutrino pulse detection that require the expected noise spectra.

  10. Effect of ambient humidity on ionic electroactive polymer actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vunder, Veiko; Hamburg, Edgar; Johanson, Urmas; Punning, Andres; Aabloo, Alvo

    2016-05-01

    Comparable electromechanical measurements were carried out with carbon-based ionic electroactive polymer actuators in vacuum, dry inert, and in ambient air environment. The results bring forward the effect of ambient humidity on the electrical and mechanical parameters of the laminates of this type. Presence of water decreases the Young’s modulus of the polymer and lowers the viscosity of the ionic liquid, which, in turn, is accompanied by the increase of ionic conductivity of the electrolyte. The factual bending behavior of the actuator is a result of the combined effect of these factors. A four-parameter model was developed for the quantitative estimation of the rates of forward-actuation and back-relaxation as well as the electrical parameters. An important outcome of the experiments is the observation that there is nearly no back-relaxation in vacuum and in dry inert environment.

  11. Ambient acceleration dependence of single-bubble sonoluminescence.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Charles R; Roy, Ronald A; Holt, R Glynn

    2011-11-01

    Much of the research performed to study SBSL deals with the influence of external parameters (e.g., the host water temperature, the ambient pressure, the type and amount of dissolved gas in the liquid, to name a few) on the bubble dynamics and light emission. In the current paper, work carried out to study the influence of another external parameter-ambient acceleration-is described. The experiments described here were performed on the NASA KC-135 which provided both periods of reduced gravity (10(-3) g) and increased gravity (1.8 g) by flying repeated parabolic maneuvers. The resulting measurements are compared with the predictions of a numerical model and can be understood in the context of the changing hydrostatic head pressure and buoyant force acting on the bubble. PMID:22088000

  12. Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog Input/Output Module Ambient Temperature Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Mark D. McKay

    2011-02-01

    Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog input/output Module Ambient Temperature Testing A series of three ambient temperature tests were conducted for the Water Power Calculator development using the INL Calibration Laboratory’s Tenney Environmental Chamber. The ambient temperature test results demonstrate that the Moore Industries Temperature Input Modules, Analog Input Module and Analog Output Module, ambient temperature response meet or exceed the manufactures specifications

  13. A configurable sensor network applied to ambient assisted living.

    PubMed

    Villacorta, Juan J; Jiménez, María I; Del Val, Lara; Izquierdo, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The rising older people population has increased the interest in ambient assisted living systems. This article presents a system for monitoring the disabled or older persons developed from an existing surveillance system. The modularity and adaptability characteristics of the system allow an easy adaptation for a different purpose. The proposed system uses a network of sensors capable of motion detection that includes fall warning, identification of persons and a configurable control system which allows its use in different scenarios. PMID:22346668

  14. Freeband: the research program for ambient intelligent communication.

    PubMed

    Velthausz, Daan

    2005-01-01

    People today are surrounded by communication means. The last few decades have lead to an explosion of different means of communication. We are on the edge of a new 'paradigm change' which will move the centre of information control to the individual. He will become surrounded by "intelligent" electronic equipment that can provide almost all of their information and communication needs on demand: an ambient intelligent environment. PMID:15923775

  15. Analysis of Anions in Ambient Aerosols by Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yan; MacDonald, David A.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Hering, Susanne V.; Collett, Jeffrey L.; Henry, Charles S.

    2006-10-01

    We describe a microchip capillary electrophoresis method for the analysis of nitrate and sulfate in ambient aerosols. Investigating the chemical composition of ambient aerosol particles is essential for understanding their sources and effects. Significant progress has been made towards developing mass spectrometry-based instrumentation for rapid qualitative analysis of aerosols. Alternative methods for rapid quantification of selected high abundance compounds are needed to augment the capacity for widespread routine analysis. Such methods could provide much higher temporal and spatial resolution than can be achieved currently. Inorganic anions comprise a large percentage of particulate mass with nitrate and sulfate among the most abundant species. While ion chromatography has proven very useful for analyzing extracts of time-integrated ambient aerosol samples collected on filters and for semi-continuous, on-line particle composition measurements, there is a growing need for development of new compact, inexpensive approaches to routine on-line aerosol ion analysis for deployment in spatially dense, atmospheric measurement networks. Microchip capillary electrophoresis provides the necessary speed and portability to address this need. In this report, on-column contact conductivity detection is used with hydrodynamic injection to create a simple microchip instrument for analysis of nitrate and sulfate. On-column contact conductivity detection was achieved using a Pd decoupler placed upstream from the working electrodes. Microchips containing two Au or Pd working electrodes showed a good linear range (5-500 µM) and low limits-of-detection for sulfate and nitrate with Au providing the lowest detection limits (1 µM) for both ions. The completed microchip system was used to analyze ambient aerosol filter samples. Nitrate and sulfate concentrations measured by the microchip matched the concentrations measured by ion chromatography.

  16. Low Ambient Temperature and Intracerebral Hemorrhage: The INTERACT2 Study

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Danni; Arima, Hisatomi; Sato, Shoichiro; Gasparrini, Antonio; Heeley, Emma; Delcourt, Candice; Lo, Serigne; Huang, Yining; Wang, Jiguang; Stapf, Christian; Robinson, Thompson; Lavados, Pablo; Chalmers, John; Anderson, Craig S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Rates of acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) increase in winter months but the magnitude of risk is unknown. We aimed to quantify the association of ambient temperature with the risk of ICH in the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Haemorrhage Trial (INTERACT2) participants on an hourly timescale. Methods INTERACT2 was an international, open, blinded endpoint, randomized controlled trial of patients with spontaneous ICH (<6h of onset) and elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP, 150–220 mmHg) assigned to intensive (target SBP <140 mmHg) or guideline-recommended (SBP <180 mmHg) BP treatment. We linked individual level hourly temperature to baseline data of 1997 participants, and performed case-crossover analyses using a distributed lag non-linear model with 24h lag period to assess the association of ambient temperature and risk of ICH. Results were presented as overall cumulative odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI. Results Low ambient temperature (≤10°C) was associated with increased risks of ICH: overall cumulative OR was 1.37 (0.99–1.91) for 10°C, 1.92 (1.31–2.81) for 0°C, 3.13 (1.89–5.19) for -10°C, and 5.76 (2.30–14.42) for -20°C, as compared with a reference temperature of 20°C.There was no clear relation of low temperature beyond three hours after exposure. Results were consistent in sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Exposure to low ambient temperature within several hours increases the risk of ICH. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00716079 PMID:26859491

  17. Ambient methods and apparatus for rapid laser trace constituent analysis

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Stuart C.; Partin, Judy K.; Grandy, Jon D.; Jeffery, Charles L.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for measuring trace amounts of constituents in samples by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence under ambient conditions. The laser induced fluorescence is performed at a selected wavelength corresponding to an absorption state of a selected trace constituent. The intensity value of the emission decay signal which is generated by the trace constituent is compared to calibrated emission intensity decay values to determine the amount of trace constituent present.

  18. A Configurable Sensor Network Applied to Ambient Assisted Living

    PubMed Central

    Villacorta, Juan J.; Jiménez, María I.; del Val, Lara; Izquierdo, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The rising older people population has increased the interest in Ambient Assisted Living systems. This article presents a system for monitoring the disabled or older persons developed from an existing surveillance system. The modularity and adaptability characteristics of the system allow an easy adaptation for a different purpose. The proposed system uses a network of sensors capable of motion detection that includes fall warning, identification of persons and a configurable control system which allows its use in different scenarios. PMID:22346668

  19. A Study on the Air flow outside Ambient Vaporizer Fin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, G.; Lee, T.; Jeong, H.; Chung, H.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we interpreted Fog's Fluid that appear in the Ambient Vaporizer and predict the point of change Air to Fog. We interpreted using Analysis working fluid was applied to LNG and Air. We predict air flow when there is chill of LNG in the air Temperature and that makes fog. Also, we interpreted based on Summer and Winter criteria in the air temperature respectively. Finally, we can check the speed of the fog when fog excreted.

  20. Shear velocity of the Rotokawa geothermal field using ambient noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civilini, F.; Savage, M. K.; Townend, J.

    2014-12-01

    Ambient noise correlation is an increasingly popular seismological technique that uses the ambient seismic noise recorded at two stations to construct an empirical Green's function. Applications of this technique include determining shear velocity structure and attenuation. An advantage of ambient noise is that it does not rely on external sources of seismic energy such as local or teleseismic earthquakes. This method has been used in the geothermal industry to determine the depths at which magmatic processes occur, to distinguish between production and non-production areas, and to observe seismic velocity perturbations associated with fluid extraction. We will present a velocity model for the Rotokawa geothermal field near Taupo, New Zealand, produced from ambient noise cross correlations. Production at Rotokawa is based on the "Rotokawa A" combined cycle power station established in 1997 and the "Nga Awa Purua" triple flash power plant established in 2010. Rotokawa Joint Venture, a partnership between Mighty River Power and Tauhara North No. 2 Trust currently operates 174 MW of generation at Rotokawa. An array of short period seismometers was installed in 2008 and occupies an area of roughly 5 square kilometers around the site. Although both cultural and natural noise sources are recorded at the stations, the instrument separation distance provides a unique challenge for analyzing cross correlations produced by both signal types. The inter-station spacing is on the order of a few kilometers, so waves from cultural sources generally are not coherent from one station to the other, while the wavelength produced by natural noise is greater than the station separation. Velocity models produced from these two source types will be compared to known geological models of the site. Depending on the amount of data needed to adequately construct cross-correlations, a time-dependent model of velocity will be established and compared with geothermal production processes.

  1. Stirling, near-ambient temperature refrigerators - Innovative compact designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, G.; Reader, G.; Fauvel, R.; Bingham, E. R.

    Opportunities for the development and application of 'near-ambient' temperature refrigerating systems in connection with public concern over the impact of Freon refrigerants on the earth's ozone layer are examined. Previous work is reviewed, and recent innovative concepts and designs for compact Stirling refrigerators that could be the basis for alternatives for Freon-free refrigeration are presented. The advantages offered by Stirling refrigerators are high thermodynamic performance, simplicity, compactness, low weight and low cost.

  2. Parkinson’s disease risk from ambient exposure to pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Anthony; Costello, Sadie; Cockburn, Myles; Zhang, Xinbo; Bronstein, Jeff; Ritz, Beate

    2013-01-01

    Due to the heavy and expanding agricultural use of neurotoxic pesticides suspected to affect dopaminergic neurons, it is imperative to closely examine the role of pesticides in the development of Parkinson’s disease (PD). We focus our investigation on pesticide use in California’s heavily agricultural central valley by utilizing a unique pesticide use reporting system. From 2001 to 2007, we enrolled 362 incident PD cases and 341 controls living in the Central Valley of California. Employing our geographic information system model, we estimated ambient exposures to the pesticides ziram, maneb, and paraquat at work places and residences from 1974 to 1999. At workplaces, combined exposure to ziram, maneb, and paraquat increased risk of PD three-fold (OR: 3.09; 95% CI: 1.69, 5.64) and combined exposure to ziram and paraquat, excluding maneb exposure, was associated with a 80% increase in risk (OR:1.82; 95% CI: 1.03, 3.21). Risk estimates for ambient workplace exposure were greater than for exposures at residences and were especially high for younger onset PD patients and when exposed in both locations. Our study is the first to implicate ziram in PD etiology. Combined ambient exposure to ziram and paraquat as well as combined ambient exposure to maneb and paraquat at both workplaces and residences increased PD risk substantially. Those exposed to ziram, maneb, and paraquat together experienced the greatest increase in PD risk. Our results suggest that pesticides affecting different mechanisms that contribute to dopaminergic neuron death may act together to increase the risk of PD considerably. PMID:21505849

  3. Multi-Agent Ambient Intelligence for Elderly Care and Assistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadri, Fariba

    2008-11-01

    In this paper we explore the application of an agent based model to designing ambient intelligence for use by the elderly in their own homes. The agent model used is based on abductive logic programming. It utilises personalised knowledge, interacts with the user and other agents and devices, and, while autonomous, incorporates user preferences when deciding whether or not to act, and what action to take.

  4. Composition for producing polyurethane resin at ambient temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Kamatani, Y.; Nishino, K.; Tanaka, M.; Yamazaki, K.

    1984-06-26

    Disclosed is a composition for polyurethane resins which is ordinarily of two-package type and curable at ambient temperature and which comprises an isocyanate component having oxadiazinetrione ring as a curing agent and a polyol component, having in the molecule, at least one of a tertiary amino group, a quaternary ammonium group and a salt-formed carboxyl group as a main component. The composition has excellent curability and provides cured products excellent in adhesiveness and physical properties.

  5. Impact of ambient pressure on performance of desiccant cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaran, A. A.

    1991-12-01

    The impact of ambient pressure on the performance of the ventilation cycle desiccant cooling system and its components was studied using computer simulations. The impact of ambient pressure depended on whether the system was designed for fixed-mass flow rate or fixed-volume flow rate operation. As ambient pressure decreased from 1.0 to 0.8 atm, the system thermal coefficient of performance increased by 8 pct. for both fixed-mass and fixed-volume flow rate, the cooling capacity of the system (in kW) was decreased by 14 pct. for the fixed-volume flow rate system and increased by 7 pct. for the fixed-mass flow rate system, the electric power requirements for the system with fixed-volume flow rate did not change, and the electric power requirement for the fixed-mass flow rate system increased by 44 pct. The overall coefficient of performance increased up to 5 pct. for the fixed-volume flow rate systems, and decreased up to 4 pct. for the fixed-mass flow rate system.

  6. Ambient temperature cadmium zinc telluride radiation detector and amplifier circuit

    DOEpatents

    McQuaid, James H.; Lavietes, Anthony D.

    1998-05-29

    A low noise, low power consumption, compact, ambient temperature signal amplifier for a Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) radiation detector. The amplifier can be used within a larger system (e.g., including a multi-channel analyzer) to allow isotopic analysis of radionuclides in the field. In one embodiment, the circuit stages of the low power, low noise amplifier are constructed using integrated circuit (IC) amplifiers , rather than discrete components, and include a very low noise, high gain, high bandwidth dual part preamplification stage, an amplification stage, and an filter stage. The low noise, low power consumption, compact, ambient temperature amplifier enables the CZT detector to achieve both the efficiency required to determine the presence of radio nuclides and the resolution necessary to perform isotopic analysis to perform nuclear material identification. The present low noise, low power, compact, ambient temperature amplifier enables a CZT detector to achieve resolution of less than 3% full width at half maximum at 122 keV for a Cobalt-57 isotope source. By using IC circuits and using only a single 12 volt supply and ground, the novel amplifier provides significant power savings and is well suited for prolonged portable in-field use and does not require heavy, bulky power supply components.

  7. Ambient temperature cadmium zinc telluride radiation detector and amplifier circuit

    DOEpatents

    McQuaid, J.H.; Lavietes, A.D.

    1998-05-26

    A low noise, low power consumption, compact, ambient temperature signal amplifier for a Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) radiation detector is disclosed. The amplifier can be used within a larger system (e.g., including a multi-channel analyzer) to allow isotopic analysis of radionuclides in the field. In one embodiment, the circuit stages of the low power, low noise amplifier are constructed using integrated circuit (IC) amplifiers , rather than discrete components, and include a very low noise, high gain, high bandwidth dual part preamplification stage, an amplification stage, and an filter stage. The low noise, low power consumption, compact, ambient temperature amplifier enables the CZT detector to achieve both the efficiency required to determine the presence of radionuclides and the resolution necessary to perform isotopic analysis to perform nuclear material identification. The present low noise, low power, compact, ambient temperature amplifier enables a CZT detector to achieve resolution of less than 3% full width at half maximum at 122 keV for a Cobalt-57 isotope source. By using IC circuits and using only a single 12 volt supply and ground, the novel amplifier provides significant power savings and is well suited for prolonged portable in-field use and does not require heavy, bulky power supply components. 9 figs.

  8. Effect of ambient pressure on liquid swirl injector flow dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Yang, Vigor

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a combined theoretical and numerical analysis is performed to study the internal and external flowfields of a liquid swirl injector. The effect of ambient pressure on the injector dynamics is explored systematically over a range of 1-50 atm. An increase in the ambient pressure increases the liquid film thickness, but decreases the spreading angle. This phenomenon can be attributed to the modification of the velocity profiles within the liquid film near the gas-liquid interface due to the alteration of the gas-phase shear stresses with pressure. The friction force at the interface plays a minor role. The generation and existence of stationary waves in the injector nozzle is also considered. At a higher ambient pressure, the pressure drop across the liquid sheet downstream of the injector exit increases, thereby suppressing the spreading of the liquid sheet. This in turn increases the thickness of the liquid sheet, and subsequently increases the breakup length at higher pressure. A semi-empirical model is developed to relate the velocity and pressure distributions near the surface of the liquid sheet. Good agreement is achieved between the measured and predicted shape and spreading angle of the liquid sheet.

  9. Direct and Convenient Mass Spectrometry Sampling with Ambient Flame Ionization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-Pan; Wang, Hao-Yang; Zhang, Jun-Ting; Wu, Meng-Xi; Qi, Wan-Shu; Zhu, Hui; Guo, Yin-Long

    2015-01-01

    Recent innovations in ambient ionization technology for the direct analysis of various samples in their native environment facilitate the development and applications of mass spectrometry in natural science. Presented here is a novel, convenient and flame-based ambient ionization method for mass spectrometric analysis of organic compounds, termed as the ambient flame ionization (AFI) ion source. The key features of AFI ion source were no requirement of (high) voltages, laser beams and spray gases, but just using small size of n-butane flame (height approximately 1 cm, about 500 oC) to accomplish the rapid desorption and ionization for direct analysis of gaseous-, liquid- and solid-phase organic compounds, as well as real-world samples. This method has high sensitivity with a limit of detection of 1 picogram for propyphenazone, which allows consuming trace amount of samples. Compared to previous ionization methods, this ion source device is extremely simple, maintain-free, low-cost, user–friendly so that even an ordinary lighter (with n-butane as fuel) can achieve efficient ionization. A new orientation to mass spectrometry ion source exploitation might emerge from such a convenient, easy and inexpensive AFI ion source. PMID:26582511

  10. Direct and Convenient Mass Spectrometry Sampling with Ambient Flame Ionization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Pan; Wang, Hao-Yang; Zhang, Jun-Ting; Wu, Meng-Xi; Qi, Wan-Shu; Zhu, Hui; Guo, Yin-Long

    2015-01-01

    Recent innovations in ambient ionization technology for the direct analysis of various samples in their native environment facilitate the development and applications of mass spectrometry in natural science. Presented here is a novel, convenient and flame-based ambient ionization method for mass spectrometric analysis of organic compounds, termed as the ambient flame ionization (AFI) ion source. The key features of AFI ion source were no requirement of (high) voltages, laser beams and spray gases, but just using small size of n-butane flame (height approximately 1 cm, about 500 (o)C) to accomplish the rapid desorption and ionization for direct analysis of gaseous-, liquid- and solid-phase organic compounds, as well as real-world samples. This method has high sensitivity with a limit of detection of 1 picogram for propyphenazone, which allows consuming trace amount of samples. Compared to previous ionization methods, this ion source device is extremely simple, maintain-free, low-cost, user-friendly so that even an ordinary lighter (with n-butane as fuel) can achieve efficient ionization. A new orientation to mass spectrometry ion source exploitation might emerge from such a convenient, easy and inexpensive AFI ion source. PMID:26582511

  11. Characteristics of 2-methyltetrols in ambient aerosol in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Linlin; Engling, Guenter; Duan, Fengkui; Cheng, Yuan; He, Kebin

    2012-11-01

    PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected from November, 2010 to October, 2011 at Tsinghua University in Beijing. Various carbohydrates were quantified by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD), including the 2-methyltetrols (2-methylthreitol and 2-methylerythritol). A clear seasonal variation in the ambient 2-methyltetrol concentrations was observed, with the highest levels occurring in the summer, followed by autumn, spring and winter. The average concentrations of the 2-methyltetrols in PM10 and PM2.5 were 17.5 ± 15.4 ng m-3 and 13.8 ± 12.2 ng m-3, respectively. The 2-methyltetrols exhibited significant positive correlations with ambient relative humidity and temperature, likely due to the higher isoprene emission strength and enhanced formation yield under higher temperature and humidity conditions. In contrast, there was no relationship between the concentration of 2-methyltetrols and sunshine duration. The significant positive correlation (R2 = 0.76) between 2-methyltetrols and SO42- indicated that high concentrations of SO42- can increase the formation rate of 2-methyltetrols from isoprene. Moreover, 2-methyltetrols were also observed in the winter time in Beijing, illustrating the enhancement of the 2-methyltetrol formation rate by high concentrations of pollutants in ambient aerosol.

  12. Industrial hygiene sampling and applications to ambient silica monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hearl, F J

    1997-01-01

    Interest in ambient exposures to silica has prompted an evaluation of the applicability of the industrial hygiene sampling and analysis experience. Exposure to excessive levels of silica in the workplace has long been recognized as a risk factor for the development of a variety of disabling and sometimes fatal lung diseases. Initial efforts to control occupational exposure to dust were based on reducing exposures as measured by particle-counting techniques. Because silicosis, the disease resulting from exposure to silica, occurs in the lower airways, which can be reached only by small "respirable dust" particles, size selective sampling procedures were introduced for dust monitoring. The analysis of silica in collected dust samples also has undergone development. Initial methods used involved acid digestion of soluble silicates, with subsequent chemical analysis of the insoluble "free silica" fraction. Current methodology relies on the use of X-ray diffraction and infrared technologies to quantify these materials. However, these methods are sensitive to the particle size distribution of the samples. Standard reference materials (SRMs) have been developed for use with respirable size dust samples. Ambient particulate matter is now measured using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sampling methods for particulate matter < or = 10 microns, which approximate the collection efficiency for thoracic fraction samplers. Because the existing calibration SRMs were produced for the measurement of occupational crystalline silica, the need to develop appropriate standards and methods for ambient silica measurements should be evaluated. PMID:9246591

  13. On the limitations of interstation distances in ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yinhe; Yang, Yingjie; Xu, Yixian; Xu, Hongrui; Zhao, Kaifeng; Wang, Kai

    2015-05-01

    Ambient noise tomography (ANT) has recently become a popular tomography method to study crustal structures thanks to its unique capability to extract short-period surface waves. Empirically, in order to reliably measure surface wave dispersion curves from time-domain cross-correlations, interstation distances between a pair of stations have to be longer than two/three wavelengths. This requirement imposed a strong constraint on the use of ANT at the long-period end at local- and regional-scale tomography studies. In this study, we use ambient noise data from USArray/Transportable Array recorded during 2007-2012 to investigate whether dispersion measurements from cross-correlations of ambient noise at short interstation distances are consistent with those at long distances and whether the short-path dispersion measurements can be used in tomography, especially in local- and regional-scale tomography. Our results show that: (1) surface wave phase velocity dispersion curves measured by a frequency-time analysis technique (FTAN) from time-domain cross-correlations are consistent with those measured by a spectral method tracing the zero crossings of the real part of cross-spectrum functions in frequency domain; (2) dispersion measurements from time-domain cross-correlations with short interstation distances, up to only one wavelength, are consistent with and also reliable as those with interstation distances longer than three wavelengths and (3) these short-path measurements can be included in ANT to improve path coverage and resolution.

  14. Ambient temperature influences birds' decisions to eat toxic prey☆

    PubMed Central

    Chatelain, M.; Halpin, C.G.; Rowe, C.

    2013-01-01

    Aposematic prey warn predators of their toxicity using conspicuous signals. However, predators regularly include aposematic prey in their diets, particularly when they are in a poor energetic state and in need of nutrients. We investigated whether or not an environmental factor, ambient temperature, could change the energetic state of predators and lead to an increased intake of prey that they know to contain toxins. We found that European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, increased their consumption of mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, prey containing quinine (a mild toxin) when the ambient temperature was reduced below their thermoneutral zone from 20 °C to 6 °C. The birds differed in their sensitivity to changes in ambient temperature, with heavier birds increasing the number of toxic prey they ate more rapidly with decreasing temperature compared to birds with lower body mass. This could have been the result of their requiring more nutrients at lower temperatures or being better able to detoxify quinine. Taken together, our results suggest that conspicuous coloration may be more costly at lower temperatures, and that aposematic prey may need to invest more in chemical defences as temperatures decline. Our study also provides novel insights into what factors affect birds' decisions to eat toxic prey, and demonstrates that selection pressures acting on prey defences can vary with changing temperature across days, seasons, climes, and potentially in response to climate change. PMID:24109148

  15. An environmental study of mercury speciation in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Gottfried, T.; Koenig, M.; Koprivcia, V.; Lover, A.; Stephens, O.

    1996-10-01

    Mercury is a highly toxic environmental pollutant that is emitted to the atmosphere primarily from power plants and is then deposited to the earth as a water soluble species in rain and snow. One of the important unanswered questions in the atmospheric chemistry of mercury is whether gas-phase ionic Hg{sup 2+} species exist and under what conditions they are formed. This paper will describe a novel technique for measuring atmospheric Hg{sup 2+} using a high-flow refluxing mist chamber to trap water-soluble Hg(II) from ambient air, coupled with an ultra-sensitive atomic fluorescence method for mercury quantitation. Various tests and refinement of the technique will be described, along with representative measurements in ambient air. The data show a strong diurnal trend in Hg(II) concentrations. Evidence suggests that some Hg(II) is formed within the mist chamber, most probably by aqueous-phase reaction of ozone with the Hg{sup O} present in ambient air.

  16. Direct and Convenient Mass Spectrometry Sampling with Ambient Flame Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Pan; Wang, Hao-Yang; Zhang, Jun-Ting; Wu, Meng-Xi; Qi, Wan-Shu; Zhu, Hui; Guo, Yin-Long

    2015-11-01

    Recent innovations in ambient ionization technology for the direct analysis of various samples in their native environment facilitate the development and applications of mass spectrometry in natural science. Presented here is a novel, convenient and flame-based ambient ionization method for mass spectrometric analysis of organic compounds, termed as the ambient flame ionization (AFI) ion source. The key features of AFI ion source were no requirement of (high) voltages, laser beams and spray gases, but just using small size of n-butane flame (height approximately 1 cm, about 500 oC) to accomplish the rapid desorption and ionization for direct analysis of gaseous-, liquid- and solid-phase organic compounds, as well as real-world samples. This method has high sensitivity with a limit of detection of 1 picogram for propyphenazone, which allows consuming trace amount of samples. Compared to previous ionization methods, this ion source device is extremely simple, maintain-free, low-cost, user-friendly so that even an ordinary lighter (with n-butane as fuel) can achieve efficient ionization. A new orientation to mass spectrometry ion source exploitation might emerge from such a convenient, easy and inexpensive AFI ion source.

  17. Stable Calcium Nitrides at Ambient and High Pressures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shuangshuang; Peng, Feng; Liu, Hanyu; Majumdar, Arnab; Gao, Tao; Yao, Yansun

    2016-08-01

    The knowledge of stoichiometries of alkaline-earth metal nitrides, where nitrogen can exist in polynitrogen forms, is of significant interest for understanding nitrogen bonding and its applications in energy storage. For calcium nitrides, there were three known crystalline forms, CaN2, Ca2N, and Ca3N2, at ambient conditions. In the present study, we demonstrated that there are more stable forms of calcium nitrides than what is already known to exist at ambient and high pressures. Using a global structure searching method, we theoretically explored the phase diagram of CaNx and discovered a series of new compounds in this family. In particular, we found a new CaN phase that is thermodynamically stable at ambient conditions, which may be synthesized using CaN2 and Ca2N. Four other stoichiometries, namely, Ca2N3, CaN3, CaN4, and CaN5, were shown to be stable under high pressure. The predicted CaNx compounds contain a rich variety of polynitrogen forms ranging from small molecules (N2, N4, N5, and N6) to extended chains (N∞). Because of the large energy difference between the single and triple nitrogen bonds, dissociation of the CaNx crystals with polynitrogens is expected to be highly exothermic, making them as potential high-energy-density materials. PMID:27428707

  18. Overview of the new National Near-Road Air Quality Monitoring Network

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2010, EPA promulgated new National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2). As part of this new NAAQS, EPA required the establishment of a national near-road air quality monitoring network. This network will consist of one NO2 near-road monitoring st...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ambient air temperature and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient air temperature and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...

  20. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to simulate the impact of an ambient heat load on the power requirements of the vehicle's air... elements that are discussed are ambient air temperature and humidity, minimum test cell size, solar heating... be shown that all of the ambient test condition performance requirements are satisfied. (d)...