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Sample records for 32-0-0 uan solution

  1. An update of corrosion inhibitors for mild steel exposed to 32-0-0 UAN solution

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, D.T.; Nichols, D.E.; Lohry, E.J.

    1994-10-01

    This is a continuation of corrosion studies on the effectiveness of commercial and newly-developed corrosion inhibitors for use with mild steel exposed to urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) solution. This paper provides updated information on five newly-developed corrosion inhibitors. Tests were conducted with mild steel exposed to 32-0-0 UAN solution containing each corrosion inhibitor at ambient temperature and under static conditions. Real-time corrosion of the test specimens was monitored using AC impedance techniques. Corrosion performance of the inhibitors was evaluated based on comparison of the corrosion rate of specimens exposed to 32-0-0 UAN solution with and without a corrosion inhibitor.

  2. Urban Automation Networks: Current and Emerging Solutions for Sensed Data Collection and Actuation in Smart Cities.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Carles; Paradells, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Urban Automation Networks (UANs) are being deployed worldwide in order to enable Smart City applications. Given the crucial role of UANs, as well as their diversity, it is critically important to assess their properties and trade-offs. This article introduces the requirements and challenges for UANs, characterizes the main current and emerging UAN paradigms, provides guidelines for their design and/or choice, and comparatively examines their performance in terms of a variety of parameters including coverage, power consumption, latency, standardization status and economic cost. PMID:26378534

  3. Urban Automation Networks: Current and Emerging Solutions for Sensed Data Collection and Actuation in Smart Cities

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Carles; Paradells, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Urban Automation Networks (UANs) are being deployed worldwide in order to enable Smart City applications. Given the crucial role of UANs, as well as their diversity, it is critically important to assess their properties and trade-offs. This article introduces the requirements and challenges for UANs, characterizes the main current and emerging UAN paradigms, provides guidelines for their design and/or choice, and comparatively examines their performance in terms of a variety of parameters including coverage, power consumption, latency, standardization status and economic cost. PMID:26378534

  4. Electromarking solution

    DOEpatents

    Bullock, Jonathan S.; Harper, William L.; Peck, Charles G.

    1976-06-22

    This invention is directed to an aqueous halogen-free electromarking solution which possesses the capacity for marking a broad spectrum of metals and alloys selected from different classes. The aqueous solution comprises basically the nitrate salt of an amphoteric metal, a chelating agent, and a corrosion-inhibiting agent.

  5. Polymer solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Krawczyk, Gerhard Erich; Miller, Kevin Michael

    2011-07-26

    There is provided a method of making a polymer solution comprising polymerizing one or more monomer in a solvent, wherein said monomer comprises one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomer that is a multi-functional Michael donor, and wherein said solvent comprises 40% or more by weight, based on the weight of said solvent, one or more multi-functional Michael donor.

  6. Sound Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkman, Neal

    2007-01-01

    Poor classroom acoustics are impairing students' hearing and their ability to learn. However, technology has come up with a solution: tools that focus voices in a way that minimizes intrusive ambient noise and gets to the intended receiver--not merely amplifying the sound, but also clarifying and directing it. One provider of classroom audio…

  7. Compatible solutes

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Colin

    2010-01-01

    Recently we reported a role for compatible solute uptake in mediating bile tolerance and increased gastrointestinal persistence in the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes.1 Herein, we review the evolution in our understanding of how these low molecular weight molecules contribute to growth and survival of the pathogen both inside and outside the body, and how this stress survival mechanism may ultimately be used to target and kill the pathogen. PMID:21326913

  8. Solution Leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Tiejun; Zhu, Deqing; Pan, Jian; He, Zhen

    2014-06-01

    Recovery of alumina from magnetic separation tailings of red mud has been investigated by Na2CO3 solution leaching. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that most of the alumina is present as 12CaO·7Al2O3 and CaO·Al2O3 in the magnetic separation tailings. The shrinking core model was employed to describe the leaching kinetics. The results show that the calculated activation energy of 8.31 kJ/mol is characteristic for an internal diffusion-controlled process. The kinetic equation can be used to describe the leaching process. The effects of Na2CO3 concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, and particle size on recovery of Al2O3 were examined.

  9. Life's Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Simon Conway

    2003-09-01

    Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

  10. Life's Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Simon Conway

    2004-11-01

    Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

  11. Alloy solution hardening with solute pairs

    DOEpatents

    Mitchell, John W.

    1976-08-24

    Solution hardened alloys are formed by using at least two solutes which form associated solute pairs in the solvent metal lattice. Copper containing equal atomic percentages of aluminum and palladium is an example.

  12. Thermodynamics of Dilute Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancso, Gabor; Fenby, David V.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses principles and definitions related to the thermodynamics of dilute solutions. Topics considered include dilute solution, Gibbs-Duhem equation, reference systems (pure gases and gaseous mixtures, liquid mixtures, dilute solutions), real dilute solutions (focusing on solute and solvent), terminology, standard states, and reference systems.…

  13. Contact Lens Solution Toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Contact Lens Solution Toxicity Information for adults A A A This image shows a reaction to contact lens solution. The prominent blood vessels and redness ...

  14. Spectroscopic studies of solutes in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Chai, Bing-hua; Zheng, Jian-ming; Zhao, Qing; Pollack, Gerald H

    2008-03-20

    Absorption and fluorescence characteristics of aqueous solutions of salts, sugars, and amino acids were studied using UV-vis spectroscopy and spectrofluorometry. Motivation stemmed from unanticipated absorption spectral and fluorescence features of the "exclusion zone" seen adjacent to various hydrophilic surfaces. Those features implied a structure distinct from that of bulk water (Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 2006, 127, 19). Absorption peaks at approximately 270 nm similar to those observed in the exclusion zone were seen in solutions of the following substances: salts, Nafion 117 solution/film, l-lysine, d-alanine, d-glucose and sucrose. To determine the fate of the absorbed energy, we studied the fluorescence properties of these solutions. The salts showed fluorescence emission around 480-490 nm under different excitation wavelengths. The fluorescence intensity of LiCl was higher than NaCl, which was in turn higher than KCl-the same ordering as the absorption intensities. Fluorescence of Nafion 117 solution/film, l-lysine, d-alanine, d-glucose and sucrose were observed as well, with multiple excitation wavelengths. Hence, at least some of the absorbed energy is released as fluorescence. The results show features closely similar to those observed in the exclusion zone, implying that the aqueous region around the solutes resembles the aqueous zone adjacent to hydrophilic surfaces. Both may be more extensively ordered than previously thought. PMID:18298105

  15. The electromagnetic spike solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nungesser, Ernesto; Lim, Woei Chet

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to use the existing relation between polarized electromagnetic Gowdy spacetimes and vacuum Gowdy spacetimes to find explicit solutions for electromagnetic spikes by a procedure which has been developed by one of the authors for gravitational spikes. We present new inhomogeneous solutions which we call the EME and MEM electromagnetic spike solutions.

  16. Solution deposition assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Roussillon, Yann; Scholz, Jeremy H; Shelton, Addison; Green, Geoff T; Utthachoo, Piyaphant

    2014-01-21

    Methods and devices are provided for improved deposition systems. In one embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system is provided for use with a solution and a substrate. The system comprises of a solution deposition apparatus; at least one heating chamber, at least one assembly for holding a solution over the substrate; and a substrate curling apparatus for curling at least one edge of the substrate to define a zone capable of containing a volume of the solution over the substrate. In another embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system for use with a substrate, the system comprising a solution deposition apparatus; at heating chamber; and at least assembly for holding solution over the substrate to allow for a depth of at least about 0.5 microns to 10 mm.

  17. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Magno, Scott; Wang, Ruiping; Derouane, Eric

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  18. Wormholes in Wyman's solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formiga, J. B.; Almeida, T. S.

    2014-10-01

    The most general solution of the Einstein field equations coupled with a massless scalar field is known as Wyman's solution. This solution is also present in the Brans-Dicke theory and, due to its importance, it has been studied in detail by many authors. However, this solutions has not been studied from the perspective of a possible wormhole. In this paper, we perform a detailed analysis of this issue. It turns out that there is a wormhole. Although we prove that the so-called throat cannot be traversed by human beings, it can be traversed by particles and bodies that can last long enough.

  19. Topical diclofenac solution.

    PubMed

    Moen, Marit D

    2009-01-01

    Topical diclofenac solution (Pennsaid) is a liquid formulation containing the NSAID diclofenac sodium (1.5% w/w). The solution base contains 45% w/w dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to enhance the absorption of diclofenac through the skin. Topical diclofenac solution is applied directly to the knee for treatment of symptoms associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. In well designed 4- to 12-week trials in patients with primary osteoarthritis of the knee, topical diclofenac solution (40 drops four times daily) was significantly more effective than placebo or vehicle control (carrier solution without diclofenac) for improving Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index pain and physical function, and improving patient global assessment (PGA) and/or patient overall health assessment scores from baseline to the final assessments. Topical diclofenac solution (50 drops three times daily) was as effective as oral diclofenac 150 mg/day for improving WOMAC pain and physical function and PGA scores in a 12-week double-blind study in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Topical diclofenac solution was generally well tolerated. The most common treatment-emergent adverse event experienced by topical diclofenac solution recipients was dry skin at the application site. Gastrointestinal adverse events and abnormal laboratory parameters were less common with topical diclofenac solution than with oral diclofenac. PMID:19943711

  20. Nitrogen management research in Louisiana sugarcane production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) is the most limiting nutrient in sugarcane production and is considered the biggest expense among fertilizer inputs. Nitrogen fertilizer remained expensive after a drastic price increase in 2008. The average cost of a ton of N as urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) solution from 2003 to 2007 wa...

  1. Cromolyn Sodium Nasal Solution

    MedlinePlus

    Cromolyn comes as a solution to use with a special nasal applicator. It usually is inhaled three to six times a day to prevent allergy ... first time, read the instructions provided with the solution. Ask your doctor, pharmacist, or respiratory therapist to ...

  2. Solvent wash solution

    DOEpatents

    Neace, J.C.

    1984-03-13

    A process is claimed for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. A wash solution and the solvent extraction solution are combined. The wash solution contains (a) water and (b) up to about, and including, 50 vol % of at least one-polar water-miscible organic solvent based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent. The wash solution also preferably contains at least one inorganic salt. The diluent degradation products dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent and the organic solvent extraction solvent do not dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent. The highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solvent are separated.

  3. Solvent wash solution

    DOEpatents

    Neace, James C.

    1986-01-01

    Process for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. A wash solution and the solvent extraction solution are combined. The wash solution contains (a) water and (b) up to about, and including, 50 volume percent of at least one-polar water-miscible organic solvent based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent. The wash solution also preferably contains at least one inorganic salt. The diluent degradation products dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent and the organic solvent extraction solvent do not dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent. The highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solvent are separated.

  4. Conduction heat transfer solutions

    SciTech Connect

    VanSant, J.H.

    1980-03-01

    This text is a collection of solutions to a variety of heat conduction problems found in numerous publications, such as textbooks, handbooks, journals, reports, etc. Its purpose is to assemble these solutions into one source that can facilitate the search for a particular problem solution. Generally, it is intended to be a handbook on the subject of heat conduction. This material is useful for engineers, scientists, technologists, and designers of all disciplines, particularly those who design thermal systems or estimate temperatures and heat transfer rates in structures. More than 500 problem solutions and relevant data are tabulated for easy retrieval. There are twelve sections of solutions which correspond with the class of problems found in each. Geometry, state, boundary conditions, and other categories are used to classify the problems. A case number is assigned to each problem for cross-referencing, and also for future reference. Each problem is concisely described by geometry and condition statements, and many times a descriptive sketch is also included. At least one source reference is given so that the user can review the methods used to derive the solutions. Problem solutions are given in the form of equations, graphs, and tables of data, all of which are also identified by problem case numbers and source references.

  5. Chemistry of soil solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Elprince, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Designed for advanced undergraduate and graduate students and researchers, this book serves as an introduction to the field of soil chemistry and associated fields such as aquatic chemistry, geochemistry, environmental chemistry, oceanography, and public health. The volume includes discussions on the structure of adsorbed water, adsorption of inorganics, solubility, redox, solute transport, chemical modeling, and sampling and monitoring the soil solution. Important papers on these topics together with editor's comments place each of the carefully chosen papers in the proper context. Because the chemistry of soil solutions requires the knowledge of many aspects of science, introductory information is provided for each topic to cover its history of development, present knowledge, and future prospects.

  6. Isospinning baby Skyrmion solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battye, Richard A.; Haberichter, Mareike

    2013-12-01

    We perform full two-dimensional (2D) numerical relaxations of isospinning soliton solutions in the baby Skyrme model in which the global O(3) symmetry is broken by the 2D analogue of the pion mass term in the Skyrme model. In our calculations we explicitly allow the isospinning solitons to deform and to break the symmetries of the static configurations. We find that stable isospinning baby Skyrme solutions can be constructed numerically for all angular frequencies ω≤min⁡(μ,1), where μ is the mass parameter of the model. Stable, rotationally symmetric baby Skyrmion solutions for higher angular velocities are simply an artefact of the hedgehog approximation. Isospinning multisoliton solutions of topological charge B turn out to be unstable to break up into their B charge-1 constituents at some critical breakup frequency value. Furthermore, we find that for μ sufficiently large the rotational symmetry of charge-2 baby Skyrmions becomes broken at a critical angular frequency ω.

  7. The Conductivity of Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner-Canham, Geoff

    1993-01-01

    Presents historical background and modern explanations for the popular demonstration of showing conductivity of solutions through the insertion of a light-bulb conductivity tester into deionized water and water with salt in it. (PR)

  8. Reflectance of aqueous solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querry, M. R.

    1972-01-01

    The optical properties and optical constants of water and aqueous solutions were studied to develop an accurate tabulation of graphical representations of the optical constants through a broad spectrum. Manuscripts of articles are presented concerning extinction coefficients, relative specular reflectance, and temperature effect on the water spectrum. Graphs of absolute reflectance, phase shifts, index of refraction, and extinction coefficients for water, heavy water and aqueous solutions are included.

  9. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Caliò, Renato; Rongala, Udaya Bhaskar; Camboni, Domenico; Milazzo, Mario; Stefanini, Cesare; de Petris, Gianluca; Oddo, Calogero Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions. PMID:24618725

  10. Conduction heat transfer solutions

    SciTech Connect

    VanSant, J.H.

    1983-08-01

    This text is a collection of solutions to a variety of heat conduction problems found in numerous publications, such as textbooks, handbooks, journals, reports, etc. Its purpose is to assemble these solutions into one source that can facilitate the search for a particular problem solution. Generally, it is intended to be a handbook on the subject of heat conduction. There are twelve sections of solutions which correspond with the class of problems found in each. Geometry, state, boundary conditions, and other categories are used to classify the problems. Each problem is concisely described by geometry and condition statements, and many times a descriptive sketch is also included. The introduction presents a synopsis on the theory, differential equations, and boundary conditions for conduction heat transfer. Some discussion is given on the use and interpretation of solutions. Supplementary data such as mathematical functions, convection correlations, and thermal properties are included for aiding the user in computing numerical values from the solutions. 155 figs., 92 refs., 9 tabs.

  11. Efinaconazole 10% Solution

    PubMed Central

    Reece, Barry; Smith, Kathleen; Miller, Terri

    2013-01-01

    Background: Onychomycosis is a chronic condition that often requires long-term management to eradicate the causative fungus, allow a healthy nail to grow, and prevent relapse. As a successful outcome depends highly on patient adherence with treatment, a low risk of periungual skin irritation with topical medication is clinically relevant. Objectives: To study the potential for efinaconazole 10% solution and its corresponding vehicle to induce delayed contact skin sensitization and evaluate its skin irritation potential. Methods: Efinaconazole 10% solution and its vehicle were studied in 239 healthy volunteers for the potential to induce contact skin sensitization. This included a series of induction, challenge, and re-challenge phases. An additional 21-day cumulative irritation study was undertaken in 35 healthy volunteers to compare three concentrations of efinaconazole (1%, 5%, and 10%), vehicle, and positive/negative controls. Results: There was no evidence of induced contact sensitization under occlusive, semi-occlusive, and open (open rub-in) applications of efinaconazole 10% solution. Efinaconazole 1%, 5%, and 10% solutions have mean cumulative irritancy indices of 1.12, 1.26, and 1.18, respectively, where a range of >0 to ≤1 is classified as “mildly irritating.” Results were comparable to vehicle (1.04). Conclusion: Efinaconazole 10% solution did not cause contact sensitization and induced only minimal skin irritation in the studies completed. PMID:23556032

  12. Fissile solution measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Crane, T.W.; Collinsworth, P.R.

    1984-06-11

    An apparatus for determining the content of a fissile material within a solution by detecting delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material after it is temporarily irradiated by a neutron source. The apparatus comprises a container holding the solution and having a portion defining a neutron source cavity centrally disposed within the container. The neutron source cavity temporarily receives the neutron source. The container has portions defining a plurality of neutron detector ports that form an annular pattern and surround the neutron source cavity. A plurality of neutron detectors count delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material. Each neutron detector is located in a separate one of the neutron detector ports.

  13. Decontamination solution development studies

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.P.; Fetrow, L.K.; Kjarmo, H.E.; Pool, K.H.

    1993-09-01

    This study was conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of the Hanford Grout Technology Program (HGTP). The objective of this study was to identify decontamination solutions capable of removing radioactive contaminants and grout from the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) process equipment and to determine the impact of these solutions on equipment components and disposal options. The reference grout used in this study was prepared with simulated double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) and a dry blend consisting of 40 wt % limestone flour, 28 wt % blast furnace slag, 28 wt % fly ash, and 4 wt % type I/II Portland cement.

  14. Plutonium in Concentrated Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Sue B.; Delegard, Calvin H.

    2002-08-01

    Complex, high ionic strength media are used throughout the plutonium cycle, from its processing and purification in nitric acid, to waste storage and processing in alkaline solutions of concentrated electrolytes, to geologic disposal in brines. Plutonium oxidation/reduction, stability, radiolysis, solution and solid phase chemistry have been studied in such systems. In some cases, predictive models for describing Pu chemistry under such non-ideal conditions have been developed, which are usually based on empirical databases describing specific ion interactions. In Chapter 11, Non-Ideal Systems, studies on the behavior of Pu in various complex media and available model descriptions are reviewed.

  15. Dimensionally continued wormhole solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X. School of Science, East China University of Science Technology, Shanghai 200237 )

    1994-09-15

    In this paper we consider wormhole solutions for the action of special Lovelock gravity'' recently discussed by Banados, Teitelboim, and Zanelli. This action is, in odd dimensions, the Chern-Simons form for the anti--de Sitter group and, in even dimensions, the Euler density constructed with the Lorentz part of the anti--de Sitter curvature tensor. We present a systematic study of classical wormhole solutions in the special Lovelock theory with various matter content, including a perfect fluid energy-momentum tensor, axionic field, and conformal scalar field.

  16. Service-based Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Lynda; Winston, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Solutions model used at Shelley High School in Idaho which gives students the opportunity to gain practical experience while tackling community problems. This approach is built on the three fundamentals of an integrated curriculum, a problem-solving focus, and service-based learning. Sample problems include increasing certain trout…

  17. Cells and Hypotonic Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bery, Julia

    1985-01-01

    Describes a demonstration designed to help students better understand the response of plant and animal cells to hypotonic solutions. The demonstration uses a balloon inside a flexible, thin-walled cardboard box. Air going in corresponds to water entering by osmosis, and, like real cells, if stretched enough, the balloon will burst. (DH)

  18. Maintenance Crisis vs Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggard, Susie

    Industrial maintenance in Northeast Georgia is facing an acute crisis. Contributing factors are economic development that is depleting the work force, aging of the population, downsizing of the military, and lack of technical school graduates. Solutions to the crisis fall into three categories: short-term, mid-term, and long-term. For short-term…

  19. Correct Problems, Desperate Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, William A.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the social problems confronting America have been bombarded with ill-conceived and unsuccessful social policy largely driven by fear. Explains that parental licensing is a draconian and unworkable solution. Vouchers for indigent youth to attend Catholic schools, developing after-school and summer programs, and reforming welfare are…

  20. An Inexpensive Solution Calorimeter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Emma; Mindel, Sam; Robertson, Giles; Hughes, D. E. Peter

    2008-01-01

    We describe the construction of a simple solution calorimeter, using a miniature bead thermistor as a temperature-sensing element. This has a response time of a few seconds and made it possible to carry out a thermometric reaction in under a minute, which led to minimal heat losses. Small temperature changes of 1 K associated with enthalpies of…

  1. Knowledge Retrieval Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Kamran

    1998-01-01

    Excalibur RetrievalWare offers true knowledge retrieval solutions. Its fundamental technologies, Adaptive Pattern Recognition Processing and Semantic Networks, have capabilities for knowledge discovery and knowledge management of full-text, structured and visual information. The software delivers a combination of accuracy, extensibility,…

  2. School Solutions for Cyberbullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This article offers solutions and steps to prevent cyberbullying. Schools can improve their ability to handle cyberbullying by educating staff members, students, and parents and by implementing rules and procedures for how to handle possible incidents. Among the steps is to include a section about cyberbullying and expectations in the student…

  3. Software Solutions for ICME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, G. J.; Engstrom, A.; Bernhardt, R.; Prahl, U.; Adam, L.; Seyfarth, J.; Apel, M.; de Saracibar, C. Agelet; Korzhavyi, P.; Ågren, J.; Patzak, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Computational Materials Engineering expert group (ICMEg), a coordination activity of the European Commission, aims at developing a global and open standard for information exchange between the heterogeneous varieties of numerous simulation tools. The ICMEg consortium coordinates respective developments by a strategy of networking stakeholders in the first International Workshop on Software Solutions for ICME, compiling identified and relevant software tools into the Handbook of Software Solutions for ICME, discussing strategies for interoperability between different software tools during a second (planned) international workshop, and eventually proposing a scheme for standardized information exchange in a future book or document. The present article summarizes these respective actions to provide the ICME community with some additional insights and resources from which to help move this field forward.

  4. The sustainability solutions agenda.

    PubMed

    Sarewitz, Daniel; Clapp, Richard; Crumbley, Cathy; Kriebel, David; Tickner, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Progress toward a more sustainable society is usually described in a "knowledge-first" framework, where science characterizes a problem in terms of its causes and mechanisms as a basis for subsequent action. Here we present a different approach-A Sustainability Solutions Agenda (SSA)-which seeks from the outset to identify the possible pathways to solutions. SSA focuses on uncovering paths to sustainability by improving current technological practice, and applying existing knowledge to identify and evaluate technological alternatives. SSA allows people and organizations to transition toward greater sustainability without sacrificing essential technological functions, and therefore does not threaten the interests that depend on those functions. Whereas knowledge-first approaches view scientific information as sufficient to convince people to take the right actions, even if those actions are perceived as against their immediate interests, SSA allows values to evolve toward greater attention to sustainability as a result of the positive experience of solving a problem. PMID:22776577

  5. Solution of Nonlinear Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, L. R.

    1960-01-01

    The problem of solving systems of nonlinear equations has been relatively neglected in the mathematical literature, especially in the textbooks, in comparison to the corresponding linear problem. Moreover, treatments that have an appearance of generality fail to discuss the nature of the solutions and the possible pitfalls of the methods suggested. Probably it is unrealistic to expect that a unified and comprehensive treatment of the subject will evolve, owing to the great variety of situations possible, especially in the applied field where some requirement of human or mechanical efficiency is always present. Therefore we attempt here simply to pose the problem and to describe and partially appraise the methods of solution currently in favor.

  6. A fluorimeter for solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, Mary H.; Warner, E. Ray

    1953-01-01

    description of and complete drawings for the construction of a fluorimeter for the measurement of fluorescence of solutions are given. The instrument is sturdy and versatile. It may be used with various phototubes and measuring devices. It is constructed so that phototubes and filters may be changed readily. Sensitivity is controlled easily over a wide range by limiting the size of either the ultraviolet or fluorescent light beam with standard apertures.

  7. Stabilization of polyaniline solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Wrobleski, D.A.; Benicewicz, B.C.

    1993-12-01

    Adding hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS) to N-methyl- pyrrolidinone (NMP) solutions of polyaniline delays gelation. It is hypothesized that HALS act in some manner other than as traditional antioxidants in preventing gelation; the secondary amine functional group appears to play a critical role, perhaps by disrupting the physical crystallization network that may contribute to gelation. Pyrrolidine, a secondary amine, or ammonia is an effective cosolvent with NMP in dissolving PAn-EB (emeraldine base). 6 refs, 4 figs.

  8. Rapid Regional Centroid Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, S.; Zhan, Z.; Luo, Y.; Ni, S.; Chen, Y.; Helmberger, D. V.

    2009-12-01

    The 2008 Wells Nevada Earthquake was recorded by 164 broadband USArray stations within a distance of 550km (5 degrees) with all azimuths uniformly sampled. To establish the source parameters, we applied the Cut and Paste (CAP) code to all the stations to obtain a mechanism (strike/dip/rake=35/41/-85) at a depth of 9km and Mw=5.9. Surface wave shifts range from -8s to 8s which are in good agreement with ambient seismic noise (ASN) predictions. Here we use this data set to test the accuracy of the number of stations needed to obtain adequate solutions (position of the compressional and tension axis) for mechanism. The stations were chosen at random where combinations of Pnl and surface waves were used to establish mechanism and depth. If the event is bracketed by two stations, we obtain an accurate magnitude with good solutions about 80% of the trials. Complete solutions from four stations or Pnl from 10 stations prove reliable in nearly all situations. We also explore the use of this dataset in locating the event using a combination of surface wave travel times and/or the full waveform inversion (CAPloc) that uses the CAP shifts to refine locations. If the mechanism is known (fixed) only a few stations is needed to locate an event to within 5km if date is available at less than 150km. In contrast, surface wave travel times (calibrated to within one second) produce amazing accurate locations with only 6 stations reasonably distributed. It appears this approach is easily automated as suggested by Scrivner and Helmberger (1995) who discussed travel times of Pnl and surface waves and the evolving of source accuracy as the various phases arrive.

  9. Shuttle Wastewater Solution Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Niklas; Pham, Chau

    2011-01-01

    During the 31st shuttle mission to the International Space Station, STS-129, there was a clogging event in the shuttle wastewater tank. A routine wastewater dump was performed during the mission and before the dump was completed, degraded flow was observed. In order to complete the wastewater dump, flow had to be rerouted around the dump filter. As a result, a basic chemical and microbial investigation was performed to understand the shuttle wastewater system and perform mitigation tasks to prevent another blockage. Testing continued on the remaining shuttle flights wastewater and wastewater tank cleaning solutions. The results of the analyses and the effect of the mitigation steps are detailed in this paper.

  10. Radiographic solution contamination.

    PubMed

    Hardman, P K; Tilmon, M F; Taylor, T S

    1987-06-01

    Contamination of processor solutions adversely affects the image quality of radiographic films. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of developer or fixer contaminant that was necessary to produce a significant densitometric change in the base plus fog, speed, or contrast optical density readings for panoramic film. Significant differences in base plus fog (after 16 mL of fixer contaminant was added to developer), speed index (after 4 mL), and contrast index (after 8 mL) were observed in comparison with control values. PMID:3473399

  11. Generating Problems from Problems and Solutions from Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcavi, Abraham; Resnick, Zippora

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a geometrical solution to a problem that is usually solved geometrically as an example of how alternative solutions may enrich the teaching and learning of mathematics. (Contains 11 figures.)

  12. Dirac solutions for quaternionic potentials

    SciTech Connect

    De Leo, Stefano Giardino, Sergio

    2014-02-15

    The Dirac equation is solved for quaternionic potentials, i V{sub 0} + j W{sub 0} (V{sub 0}∈R , W{sub 0}∈C). The study shows two different solutions. The first one contains particle and anti-particle solutions and leads to the diffusion, tunneling, and Klein energy zones. The standard solution is recovered taking the complex limit of this solution. The second solution, which does not have a complex counterpart, can be seen as a V{sub 0}-antiparticle or |W{sub 0}|-particle solution.

  13. Solute-Filled Syringe For Formulating Intravenous Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Jim; Bindokas, AL; Dudar, Tom; Finley, Mike; Scharf, Mike

    1993-01-01

    Prefilled syringe contains premeasured amount of solute in powder or concentrate form used to deliver solute to sterile interior of large-volume parenteral (LVP) bag. Predetermined amount of sterile water also added to LVP bag through sterilizing filter, and mixed with contents of syringe, yielding sterile intravenous solution of specified concentration.

  14. The Paperless Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    REI Systems, Inc. developed a software solution that uses the Internet to eliminate the paperwork typically required to document and manage complex business processes. The data management solution, called Electronic Handbooks (EHBs), is presently used for the entire SBIR program processes at NASA. The EHB-based system is ideal for programs and projects whose users are geographically distributed and are involved in complex management processes and procedures. EHBs provide flexible access control and increased communications while maintaining security for systems of all sizes. Through Internet Protocol- based access, user authentication and user-based access restrictions, role-based access control, and encryption/decryption, EHBs provide the level of security required for confidential data transfer. EHBs contain electronic forms and menus, which can be used in real time to execute the described processes. EHBs use standard word processors that generate ASCII HTML code to set up electronic forms that are viewed within a web browser. EHBs require no end-user software distribution, significantly reducing operating costs. Each interactive handbook simulates a hard-copy version containing chapters with descriptions of participants' roles in the online process.

  15. 2010 Water & Aqueous Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Dor Ben-Amotz

    2010-08-13

    Water covers more than two thirds of the surface of the Earth and about the same fraction of water forms the total mass of a human body. Since the early days of our civilization water has also been in the focus of technological developments, starting from converting it to wine to more modern achievements. The meeting will focus on recent advances in experimental, theoretical, and computational understanding of the behavior of the most important and fascinating liquid in a variety of situations and applications. The emphasis will be less on water properties per se than on water as a medium in which fundamental dynamic and reactive processes take place. In the following sessions, speakers will discuss the latest breakthroughs in unraveling these processes at the molecular level: Water in Solutions; Water in Motion I and II; Water in Biology I and II; Water in the Environment I and II; Water in Confined Geometries and Water in Discussion (keynote lecture and poster winners presentations).

  16. Internet Business Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Cogent Software, Inc. was formed in January 1995 by David Atkinson and Irene Woerner, both former employees of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Several other Cogent employees also worked at JPL. Atkinson headed JPL's Information Systems Technology section and Woerner lead the Advanced User Interfaces Group. Cogent's mission is to help companies organize and manage their online content by developing advanced software for the next generation of online directories and information catalogs. The company offers a complete range of Internet solutions, including Internet access, Web site design, local and wide-area networks, and custom software for online commerce applications. Cogent also offers DesignSphere Online, an electronic community for the communications arts industry. Customers range from small offices to manufacturers with thousands of employees, including Chemi-Con, one of the largest manufacturers of capacitors in the world.

  17. Immersion lithography bevel solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedeschi, Len; Tamada, Osamu; Sanada, Masakazu; Yasuda, Shuichi; Asai, Masaya

    2008-03-01

    The introduction of Immersion lithography, combined with the desire to maximize the number of potential yielding devices per wafer, has brought wafer edge engineering to the forefront for advanced semiconductor manufactures. Bevel cleanliness, the position accuracy of the lithography films, and quality of the EBR cut has become more critical. In this paper, the effectiveness of wafer track based solutions to enable state-of-art bevel schemes is explored. This includes an integrated bevel cleaner and new bevel rinse nozzles. The bevel rinse nozzles are used in the coating process to ensure a precise, clean film edge on or near the bevel. The bevel cleaner is used immediately before the wafer is loaded into the scanner after the coating process. The bevel cleaner shows promise in driving down defectivity levels, specifically printing particles, while not damaging films on the bevel.

  18. Naturally selecting solutions

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Timmy; Sleator, Roy D; Walsh, Paul

    2013-01-01

    For decades, computer scientists have looked to nature for biologically inspired solutions to computational problems; ranging from robotic control to scheduling optimization. Paradoxically, as we move deeper into the post-genomics era, the reverse is occurring, as biologists and bioinformaticians look to computational techniques, to solve a variety of biological problems. One of the most common biologically inspired techniques are genetic algorithms (GAs), which take the Darwinian concept of natural selection as the driving force behind systems for solving real world problems, including those in the bioinformatics domain. Herein, we provide an overview of genetic algorithms and survey some of the most recent applications of this approach to bioinformatics based problems. PMID:23222169

  19. Knop's Solution Is Not What It Seems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses Knob's solution, which was considered the ideal plant growth solution in 1865, and recommends eliminating Knob's solution from active teaching. Describes solution culture basics including nutrient solutions, containers and aeration, and plants and light. (Contains 12 references.) (YDS)

  20. Various Boussinesq solitary wave solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, G.T.

    1995-12-31

    The generalized Boussinesq (gB) equations have been used to model nonlinear wave evolution over variable topography and wave interactions with structures. Like the KdV equation, the gB equations support a solitary wave solution which propagates without changing shape, and this solitary wave is often used as a primary test case for numerical studies of nonlinear waves using either the gB or other model equations. Nine different approximate solutions of the generalized Boussinesq equations are presented with simple closed form expressions for the wave elevation and wave speed. Each approximates the free propagation of a single solitary wave, and eight of these solutions are newly obtained. The author compares these solutions with the well known KdV solution, Rayleigh`s solution, Laitone`s higher order solution, and ``exact`` numerical integration of the gB equations. Existing experimental data on solitary wave shape and wave speed are compared with these models.

  1. Solutions for Hot Situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    From the company that brought the world an integral heating and cooling food service system after originally developing it for NASA's Apollo Program, comes yet another orbital offshoot: a product that can be as thin as paper and as strong as steel. Nextel Ceramic Textiles and Composites from 3M Company offer space-age protection and innovative solutions for hot situations, ranging from NASA to NASCAR. With superior thermal protection, Nextel fabrics, tape, and sleevings outperform other high temperature textiles such as aramids, carbon, glass, and quartz, permitting engineers and manufacturers to handle applications up to 2,500 F (1,371 C). The stiffness and strength of Nextel Continuous Ceramic Fibers make them a great match for improving the rigidity of aluminum in metal matrix composites. Moreover, the fibers demonstrate low shrinkage at operating temperatures, which allow for the manufacturing of a dimensionally stable product. These novel fibers also offer excellent chemical resistance, low thermal conductivity, thermal shock resistance, low porosity, and unique electrical properties.

  2. Plutonium solution analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded).

  3. Wetting in electrolyte solutions.

    PubMed

    Ibagon, Ingrid; Bier, Markus; Dietrich, S

    2013-06-01

    Wetting of a charged substrate by an electrolyte solution is investigated by means of classical density functional theory applied to a lattice model. Within the present model the pure, i.e., salt-free solvent, for which all interactions are of the nearest-neighbor type only, exhibits a second-order wetting transition for all strengths of the substrate-particle and the particle-particle interactions for which the wetting transition temperature is nonzero. The influences of the substrate charge density and of the ionic strength on the wetting transition temperature and on the order of the wetting transition are studied. If the substrate is neutral, the addition of salt to the solvent changes neither the order nor the transition temperature of the wetting transition of the system. If the surface charge is nonzero, upon adding salt this continuous wetting transition changes to first-order within the wide range of substrate surface charge densities and ionic strengths studied here. As the substrate surface charge density is increased, at fixed ionic strength, the wetting transition temperature decreases and the prewetting line associated with the first-order wetting transition becomes longer. This decrease of the wetting transition temperature upon increasing the surface charge density becomes more pronounced by decreasing the ionic strength. PMID:23758391

  4. Simple de Sitter Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Silverstein, Eva; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2008-01-07

    We present a framework for de Sitter model building in type IIA string theory, illustrated with specific examples. We find metastable dS minima of the potential for moduli obtained from a compactification on a product of two Nil three-manifolds (which have negative scalar curvature) combined with orientifolds, branes, fractional Chern-Simons forms, and fluxes. As a discrete quantum number is taken large, the curvature, field strengths, inverse volume, and four dimensional string coupling become parametrically small, and the de Sitter Hubble scale can be tuned parametrically smaller than the scales of the moduli, KK, and winding mode masses. A subtle point in the construction is that although the curvature remains consistently weak, the circle fibers of the nilmanifolds become very small in this limit (though this is avoided in illustrative solutions at modest values of the parameters). In the simplest version of the construction, the heaviest moduli masses are parametrically of the same order as the lightest KK and winding masses. However, we provide a method for separating these marginally overlapping scales, and more generally the underlying supersymmetry of the model protects against large corrections to the low-energy moduli potential.

  5. Experimental Structural Studies of Solutes in Aqueous Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Persson, Ingmar

    2007-11-29

    The principles of experimental methods to study the structure and the hydrogen bonding of hydrated solutes in aqueous solution are presented, and whether theoretical simulations can produce comparable information as the experimental ones is discussed. Two structure methods, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and large angle X-ray scattering (LAXS), and one method to study the hydrogen bonding in hydrated species in aqueous solution, double difference infrared spectroscopy of HDO, are presented.

  6. Concentration Dependence of Solution Shear Viscosity and Solute Mass Diffusivity in Crystal Growth from Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izmailov, Alexander F.; Myerson, Allan S.

    1995-01-01

    The physical properties of a supersaturated binary solution such as its density rho, shear viscosity eta, and solute mass diffusivity D are dependent on the solute concentration c: rho = rho(c), eta = eta(c), and D = D(c). The diffusion boundary layer equations related to crystal growth from solution are derived for the case of natural convection with a solution density, a shear viscosity, and a solute diffusivity that are all depen- dent on solute concentration. The solution of these equations has demonstrated the following. (1) At the vicinity of the saturation concentration c(sub s) the solution shear viscosity eta depends on rho as eta(sub s) = eta(rho(sub s))varies as square root of rho(c(sub s)). This theoretically derived result has been verified in experiments with several aqueous solutions of inorganic and organic salts. (2) The maximum solute mass transfer towards the growing crystal surface can be achieved for values of c where the ratio of d ln(D(c)/dc) to d ln(eta(c)/dc) is a maximum.

  7. Properties of scintillator solutes

    SciTech Connect

    Fluornoy, J.M.

    1998-06-01

    This special report summarizes measurements of the spectroscopic and other properties of the solutes that were used in the preparation of several new liquid scintillators developed at EG and G/Energy Measurements/Santa Barbara Operations (the precursor to Bechtel Nevada/Special Technologies Laboratory) on the radiation-to-light converter program. The data on the individual compounds are presented in a form similar to that used by Prof. Isadore Berlman in his classic handbook of fluorescence spectra. The temporal properties and relative efficiencies of the new scintillators are presented in Table 1, and the efficiencies as a function of wavelength are presented graphically in Figure 1. In addition, there is a descriptive glossary of the abbreviations used herein. Figure 2 illustrates the basic structures of some of the compounds and of the four solvents reported in this summary. The emission spectra generally exhibit more structure than the absorption spectra, with the result that the peak emission wavelength for a given compound may lie several nm away from the wavelength, {lambda}{sub avg}, at the geometric center of the emission spectrum. Therefore, the author has chosen to list absorption peaks, {lambda}{sub max}, and emission {lambda}{sub avg} values in Figures 3--30, as being most illustrative of the differences between the compounds. The compounds, BHTP, BTPB, ADBT, and DPTPB were all developed on this program. P-terphenyl, PBD, and TPB are commercially available blue emitters. C-480 and the other longer-wavelength emitters are laser dyes available commercially from Exciton Corporation. 1 ref., 30 figs.

  8. Thermodynamics of feldspathoid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sack, Richard O.; Ghiorso, Mark S.

    We have developed models for the thermody-namic properties of nephelines, kalsilites, and leucites in the simple system NaAlSiO4-KAlSiO4-Ca0.5AlSiO4-SiO2-H2O that are consistent with all known constraints on subsolidus equilibria and thermodynamic properties, and have integrated them into the existing MELTS software package. The model for nepheline is formulated for the simplifying assumptions that (1) a molecular mixing-type approximation describes changes in the configurational entropy associated with the coupled exchange substitutions □Si?NaAl and □Ca? Na2 and that (2) Na+ and K+ display long-range non-convergent ordering between a large cation and the three small cation sites in the Na4Al4Si4O16 formula unit. Notable features of the model include the prediction that the mineral tetrakalsilite (``panunzite'', sensu stricto) results from anti-ordering of Na and K between the large cation and the three small cation sites in the nepheline structure at high temperatures, an average dT/dP slope of about 55°/kbar for the reaction over the temperature and pressure ranges 800-1050 °C and 500-5000 bars, roughly symmetric (i.e. quadratic) solution behavior of the K-Na substitution along joins between fully ordered components in nepheline, and large positive Gibbs energies for the nepheline reciprocal reactions and and for the leucite reciprocal reaction

  9. Iodine addition using triiodide solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Muckle, Susan V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    The study develops: a triiodide solution for use in preparing ground service equipment (GSE) water for Shuttle support, an iodine dissolution method that is reliable and requires minimal time and effort to prepare, and an iodine dissolution agent with a minimal concentration of sodium salt. Sodium iodide and hydriodic acid were both found to dissolve iodine to attain the desired GSE iodine concentrations of 7.5 +/- 2.5 mg/L and 25 +/- 5 mg/L. The 1.75:1 and 2:1 sodium iodide solutions produced higher iodine recoveries than the 1.2:1 hydriodic acid solution. A two-hour preparation time is required for the three sodium iodide solutions. The 1.2:1 hydriodic acid solution can be prepared in less than 5 min. Two sodium iodide stock solutions (2.5:1 and 2:1) were found to dissolve iodine without undergoing precipitation.

  10. Cylindrical solutions in mimetic gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momeni, Davood; Myrzakulov, Kairat; Myrzakulov, Ratbay; Raza, Muhammad

    2016-06-01

    This paper is devoted to investigate cylindrical solutions in mimetic gravity. The explicit forms of the metric of this theory, namely mimetic-Kasner (say) have been obtained. In this study we have noticed that the Kasner's family of exact solutions needs to be reconsidered under this type of modified gravity. A no-go theorem is proposed for the exact solutions in the presence of a cosmological constant.

  11. HGMF of 10-L solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Larkin, K.A.

    1994-08-14

    This test plan describes the activities associated with the High Gradient Magnetic Filtration (HGMF) of plutonium-bearing solutions (10-L). The 10-L solutions were received from Argonne National Laboratories in 1972, are highly acidic, and are considered unstable. The purpose of the testing is to show that HGMF is an applicable method of removing plutonium precipitates from solution. The plutonium then can be stored safely in a solid form.

  12. Solute diffusion in liquid metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, B. N.

    1973-01-01

    A gas model of diffusion in liquid metals is presented. In this model, ions of liquid metals are assumed to behave like the molecules in a dense gas. Diffusion coefficient of solute is discussed with reference to its mass, ionic size, and pair potential. The model is applied to the case of solute diffusion in liquid silver. An attempt was made to predict diffusion coefficients of solutes with reasonable accuracy.

  13. Colligative properties of simple solutions.

    PubMed

    Andrews, F C

    1976-11-01

    Vapor pressure lowering, osmotic pressure, boiling point elevation, and freezing point depression are all related quantitatively to the decrease in micro(1)(soln) upon the addition of solute in forming a solution. In any equilibrium system, regardless of whether it is in a gravitational field or whether it contains walls, semipermeable membranes, phase transitions, or solutes, all equilibria are maintained locally, in the small region of the equilibrium, by the equality of micro(1)(soln). If there are several subsystems in a gravitational field, at any fixed height, microi will have the same value in each subsystem into which substance i can get, and microi + M(i)gh is constant throughout the entire system. In a solution, there is no mechanism by which solvent and solute molecules could sustain different pressures. Both the solvent and solute are always under identical pressures in a region of solution, namely, the pressure of the solution in that region. Since nature does not know which component we call the solvent and which the solute, equations should be symmetric in the two (acknowledging that the nonvolatile component, if any, is commonly chosen to be solute). Simple molecular pictures illustrate what is happening to cause pressure (positive or negative) in liquids, vapor pressure of liquids, and the various colligative properties of solutions. The only effect of solute involved in these properties is that it dilutes the solvent, with the resulting increase in S and decrease in micro(1)(soln). Water can be driven passively up a tree to enormous heights by the difference between its chemical potential in the roots and the ambient air. There is nothing mysterious about the molecular bases for any of these phenomena. Biologists can use the well-understood pictures of these phenomena with confidence to study what is happening in the complicated living systems they consider. PMID:17818408

  14. Cylindrical solutions in braneworld gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Khoeini-Moghaddam, S.; Nouri-Zonoz, M.

    2005-09-15

    In this article we investigate exact cylindrically symmetric solutions to the modified Einstein field equations in the braneworld gravity scenarios. It is shown that for the special choice of the equation of state 2U+P=0 for the dark energy and dark pressure, the solutions found could be considered formally as solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations in 4-D general relativity.

  15. Extraordinary vacuum black string solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyeong-Chan; Lee, Jungjai

    2008-01-15

    In addition to the boosted static solution there are two other classes of stationary stringlike solutions of the vacuum Einstein equation in (4+1) dimensions. Each class is characterized by three parameters of mass, tension, and momentum flow along the fifth coordinate. We analyze the metric properties of one of the two classes, which was previously assumed to be naked singular, and show that the solution spectrum contains black string and wormhole in addition to the known naked singularity as the momentum flow to mass ratio increases. Interestingly, there does not exist new zero momentum solution in these cases.

  16. Amine treatment of polysaccharide solution

    SciTech Connect

    Shay, L. K.; Reiter, S. E.

    1984-11-27

    A thermostable, viscous xanthan polysaccharide solution prepared by the process of heating a xanthan polysaccharide solution in the presence of at least one C/sub 1/ to C/sub 10/ alkyl or C/sub 3/ to C/sub 10/ cycloalkyl substituted primary or secondary mono- or diamine having an upper limit of a total of 15 carbon atoms under conditions sufficient to form a thermostable, viscous xanthan polysaccharide solution. The thermostable, viscous xanthan polysaccharide solution may be used as a mobility buffer in a process for the enhanced recovery of oil.

  17. Water activity in supersaturated aqueous solutions of organic solutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Han-Soo; Arnold, Stephen; Myerson, Allan S.

    1995-04-01

    Measurements of water activity in supersaturated aqueous organic solutions of glycine, alanine, succinic acid and itaconic acid were made far into the metastable zone by levitating micron-sized droplets electrodynamically in a spherical void electrodynamic levitator trap (SVELT) with a water vapor reservoir. The concentration dependent behavior of the activity was examined in relationship to the molecular interactions for solutions.

  18. High conductivity electrolyte solutions and rechargeable cells incorporating such solutions

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles Austen; Zhang, Sheng-Shui; Xu, Kang

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates generally to electrolyte solvents for use in liquid or rubbery polymer electrolyte solutions as are used, for example, in electrochemical devices. More specifically, this invention relates to sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solvents and sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solutions incorporating such solvents.

  19. High conductivity electrolyte solutions and rechargeable cells incorporating such solutions

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Zhang, S.S.; Xu, K.

    1998-10-20

    This invention relates generally to electrolyte solvents for use in liquid or rubbery polymer electrolyte solutions as are used, for example, in electrochemical devices. More specifically, this invention relates to sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solvents and sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solutions incorporating such solvents. 9 figs.

  20. Big Ideas and Small Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    2004-01-01

    Small solutions solve discrete, well-bounded problems and can be pieces of larger solutions. They can move things forward by mixing and matching available components in new and previously unimagined ways. A number of innovations, which at first glance are completely unrelated, can come together and create important synergics. This article…

  1. Interior Design: Challenges and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Planning and Management, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Presents solutions to architectural challenges in school interior design; these solutions made the indoor environments more conducive and attractive for learning. Addresses four challenges: making a long corridor look less like a tunnel; maintaining tradition and minimizing cost in a new athletic facility; designing a kindergarten that is secure…

  2. Vainshtein solutions without superluminal modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabadadze, Gregory; Kimura, Rampei; Pirtskhalava, David

    2015-06-01

    The Vainshtein mechanism suppresses the fifth force at astrophysical distances, while enabling it to compete with gravity at cosmological scales. Typically, Vainshtein solutions exhibit superluminal perturbations. However, a restricted class of solutions with special boundary conditions was shown to be devoid of the faster-than-light modes. Here we extend this class by finding solutions in a theory of quasidilaton, amended by derivative terms consistent with its symmetries. Solutions with Minkowski asymptotics are not stable, while the ones that exhibit the Vainshtein mechanism by transitioning to cosmological backgrounds are free of ghosts, tachyons, gradient instability, and superluminality, for all propagating modes present in the theory. These solutions require a special choice of the strength and signs of nonlinear terms, as well as a choice of asymptotic cosmological boundary conditions.

  3. TREATMENT OF AMMONIUM NITRATE SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Boyer, T.W.; MacHutchin, J.G.; Yaffe, L.

    1958-06-10

    The treatment of waste solutions obtained in the processing of neutron- irradiated uranium containing fission products and ammonium nitrate is described. The object of this process is to provide a method whereby the ammonium nitrate is destroyed and removed from the solution so as to permit subsequent concentration of the solution.. In accordance with the process the residual nitrate solutions are treated with an excess of alkyl acid anhydride, such as acetic anhydride. Preferably, the residual nitrate solution is added to an excess of the acetic anhydride at such a rate that external heat is not required. The result of this operation is that the ammonium nitrate and acetic anhydride react to form N/sub 2/ O and acetic acid.

  4. Multigrid solution of internal flows using unstructured solution adaptive meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Wayne A.; Blake, Kenneth R.

    1992-11-01

    This is the final report of the NASA Lewis SBIR Phase 2 Contract Number NAS3-25785, Multigrid Solution of Internal Flows Using Unstructured Solution Adaptive Meshes. The objective of this project, as described in the Statement of Work, is to develop and deliver to NASA a general three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code using unstructured solution-adaptive meshes for accuracy and multigrid techniques for convergence acceleration. The code will primarily be applied, but not necessarily limited, to high speed internal flows in turbomachinery.

  5. Effect of chlorides on solution corrosivity of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Rooney, P.C.; Bacon, T.R.; DuPart, M.S.; Willbanks, K.D.

    1997-08-01

    Solution corrosivity of MDEA/water solutions containing added HCl or NaCl have been measured by weight loss coupons at 250 F and by linear polarization resistance (LPR) at 208 F using carbon steel, 304SS, 316SS and 410SS. General corrosion as well as pitting or crevice corrosion tendencies were recorded for each species. Based on these results, recommendations are made for chlorides in MDEA that minimizes corrosion in gas treating operations.

  6. CESIUM RECOVERY FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, R.A.

    1961-06-20

    Cesium may be precipitated from an aqueous solution whose acidity ranges between a pH of 1.5 and a molarity of 5 on cobaltous, zinc, cadmium, nickel, or ferrous cobalticyanide. This precipitation brings about a separation from most fission products. Ruthenium which coprecipitates to a great degree can be removed by dissolving in sulfuric acid and boiling the solution in the presence of periodic acid for volatilization; other coprecipitated fission products can then be precipitated from the sulfuric acid solution with a ferric hydroxide carrier.

  7. Contamination of dental radiographic solutions.

    PubMed

    Tamburus, J R; Pardini, L C; Watanabe, P C

    1995-01-01

    Thirteen groups of periapical radiographic films were evaluated to determine and compare within and between groups the effects of contamination of the fixer solution with developing solution during radiographic processing. An aluminum penetrometer was used as the radiographic object to produce different optical densities. The images were compared using radiographic density and contrast as parameters. There were significant differences between the control groups and the groups processed with a contaminated fixer solution. No statistically significant differences were observed in the intragroup comparisons. PMID:8688649

  8. Analytic Solutions and Resonant Solutions of Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenmaker, Timothy Roger

    This dissertation contains two main subject areas. The first deals with solutions to the wave equation Du/Dt + a Du/Dx = 0, where D/Dt and D/Dx represent partial derivatives and a(t,x) is real valued. The question I studied, which arises in control theory, is whether solutions which are real analytic with respect to the time variable are dense in the space of all solutions. If a is real analytic in t and x, the Cauchy-Kovalevsky Theorem implies that the solutions real analytic in t and x are dense, since it suffices to approximate the initial data by polynomials. The same positive result is valid when a is continuously differentiable and independent of t. This is proved by regularization in time. The hypothesis that a is independent of t cannot be replaced by the weaker assumption that a is real analytic in t, even when it is infinitely smooth. I construct a(t,x) for which the solutions which are analytic in time are automatically periodic in time. In particular these solutions are not dense in the space of all solutions. The second area concerns the resonant interaction of oscillatory waves propagating in a compressible inviscid fluid. An asymptotic description given by Andrew Majda, Rodolfo Rosales, and Maria Schonbek (MRS) involves the genuinely nonlinear quasilinear hyperbolic system Du/Dt + D(uu/2)/Dt + v = 0, Dv/Dt - D(vv/2)/Dt - u = 0. They performed many numerical simulations which indicated that small amplitude solutions of this system tend to evade shock formation, and conjectured that "smooth initial data with a sufficiently small amplitude never develop shocks throughout a long time interval of integration.". I proved that for smooth periodic U(x), V(x) and initial data u(0,x) = epsilonU(x), v(0,x) = epsilonV(x), the solution is smooth for time at least constant times | ln epsilon| /epsilon. This is longer than the lifetime order 1/ epsilon of the solution to the decoupled Burgers equations. The decoupled equation describes nonresonant interaction of

  9. Peritoneal dialysis solution and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Verger, Christian

    2012-01-01

    20-70% of peritoneal dialysis patients have some signs of malnutrition. Anorexia, protein and amino acid losses in dialysate, advanced age of elderly patients, inflammation and cardiac failure are among the main causes. Modern dialysis solutions aim to reduce these causes, but none of them is without side effects: glucose is relatively safe and brings additional energy but induces anorexia and lipid abnormalities, amino acids compensate dialysate losses but may increase uremia and acidosis, icodextrin helps control hyperhydration and chronic heart failure and minimizes glucose side effects, but may sometimes cause inflammation, and poly chamber bags allow the replacement of lactate by bicarbonate and are more biocompatible, decrease GDP, induce less inflammation and have a better effect on nutritional status. However, it appears that the management of nutrition with the different solutions available nowadays necessitates various combinations of solutions adapted to different patient profiles and there is not actually a single universal solution to minimize malnutrition in peritoneal dialysis patients. PMID:22652708

  10. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of pressure solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, F. K.; Bataille, J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the thermodynamic theory of solution and precipitation processes in wet crustal rocks and with the mechanism of steady pressure-solution slip in ‘contact zones,’ such as grain-to-grain contacts, fracture surfaces, and permeable gouge layers, that are infiltrated by a mobile aqueous solution phase. A local dissipation jump condition at the phase boundary is fundamental to identifying the thermodynamic force driving the solution and precipitation process and is used here in setting up linear phenomenological relations to model near-equilibrium phase transformation kinetics. The local thermodynamic equilibrium of a stressed pure solid in contact with its melt or solution phase is governed by Gibbs's relation, which is rederived here, in a manner emphasizing its independence of constitutive assumptions for the solid while neglecting surface tension and diffusion in the solid. Fluid-infiltrated contact zones, such as those formed by rough surfaces, cannot generally be in thermodynamic equilibrium, especially during an ongoing process of pressure-solution slip, and the existing equilibrium formulations are incorrect in overlooking dissipative processes tending to eliminate fluctuations in superficial free energies due to stress concentrations near asperities, defects, or impurities. Steady pressure-solution slip is likely to exhibit a nonlinear dependence of slip rate on shear stress and effective normal stress, due to a dependence of the contact-zone state on the latter. Given that this dependence is negligible within some range, linear relations for pressure-solution slip can be derived for the limiting cases of diffusion-controlled and interface-reaction-controlled rates. A criterion for rate control by one of these mechanisms is set by the magnitude of the dimensionless quantity kδ/2C pD, where k is the interfacial transfer coefficient, δ is the mean diffusion path length, C p is the solubility at pressure p, and D is the mass

  11. Faculty practice: dilemmas and solutions.

    PubMed

    Joachim, G

    1988-05-01

    While nursing educators in university settings teach, carry out research and provide some form of community service, they often do not practise. The reasons for not practising are varied and the consequences vast. Although there are dilemmas which perpetuate the situation of nursing professors not participating in practice, there are solutions. This paper places the issue in an historical perspective, notes its consequences, discusses the dilemmas which are involved and offers solutions to this complex problem. PMID:3417937

  12. Cosmological solution moduli of bigravity

    SciTech Connect

    Yılmaz, Nejat Tevfik

    2015-09-29

    We construct the complete set of metric-configuration solutions of the ghost-free massive bigravity for the scenario in which the g−metric is the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) one, and the interaction Lagrangian between the two metrics contributes an effective ideal fluid energy-momentum tensor to the g-metric equations. This set corresponds to the exact background cosmological solution space of the theory.

  13. Comprehensive Water-Efficiency Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate

    2015-07-15

    Energy performance contracts can be an effective way to integrate comprehensive water-efficient technologies and solutions into energy efficiency projects. Current practices often miss key opportunities to incorporate a full suite of water measures primarily because a comprehensive approach is not taken in the assessment. This article provides information on how to develop a comprehensive water project that leads to innovative solutions and potential for large water reduction.

  14. Monitoring Crystal Growth From Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lal, R. B.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental system for monitoring growth of triglycine sulfate (TGS) crystals from solution is being studied. System consists of outer cell containing distilled water heated and stirred to maintain constant temperature to within plus or minus 0.1 degrees C, inner (growth) cell containing supersaturated solution of TGS, and seed crystal mounted in plastic-covered stainless-steel sting equiped with controlled cooling mechanism and temperature sensors.

  15. Cesium recovery from aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Goodhall, C. A.

    1960-09-13

    A process for recovering cesium from aqueous solutions is given in which precipitation on zinc ferricyanide is used. The precipitation is preferably carried out in solutions containing at least 0.0004M zinc ferricyanide, an acidity ranging from 0.2N mineral acid to 0.61N acid deficiency, and 1 to 2.5M aluminum nitrate. (D.L.C.)

  16. Reuse of hydroponic waste solution.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramasamy Rajesh; Cho, Jae Young

    2014-01-01

    Attaining sustainable agriculture is a key goal in many parts of the world. The increased environmental awareness and the ongoing attempts to execute agricultural practices that are economically feasible and environmentally safe promote the use of hydroponic cultivation. Hydroponics is a technology for growing plants in nutrient solutions with or without the use of artificial medium to provide mechanical support. Major problems for hydroponic cultivation are higher operational cost and the causing of pollution due to discharge of waste nutrient solution. The nutrient effluent released into the environment can have negative impacts on the surrounding ecosystems as well as the potential to contaminate the groundwater utilized by humans for drinking purposes. The reuse of non-recycled, nutrient-rich hydroponic waste solution for growing plants in greenhouses is the possible way to control environmental pollution. Many researchers have successfully grown several plant species in hydroponic waste solution with high yield. Hence, this review addresses the problems associated with the release of hydroponic waste solution into the environment and possible reuse of hydroponic waste solution as an alternative resource for agriculture development and to control environmental pollution. PMID:24838258

  17. Crystallization of supercooled solutions. [atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, K.; Hallett, John

    1988-01-01

    Crystallization of uniformly supercooled solutions (Na2SO4, NaCl, H2SO4, HNO3, HCl) was studied. It is shown how crystal growth velocity and habit depend on solution and concentration. The segregation coefficient for the solute in ice is measured by analysis of ice and solution, separated immediately after initial freezing, at different supercoolings. Subsequent solidification gives ion rejection at a varying rate depending on the geometry of the freezing, and may result in separation of hydrates, particularly when the initial concentration is high, as in haze (inactivated) droplets and low temperatures found in the Antarctic stratosphere. Electrical effects associated with rapid freezing are also investigated. Results suggest that more extensive measurements need to be made in solutions at different supercoolings, and that substantial electrical effects may be present for higher concentrations under these conditions. Damage to vegetation could occur under specific conditions as concentrated solutions (possibly H2SO4) are rejected in the freezing of rime or dew.

  18. Rheology of clustering protein solutions.

    PubMed

    Dharmaraj, Vishnu L; Godfrin, P Douglas; Liu, Yun; Hudson, Steven D

    2016-07-01

    High viscosity is a major challenge with protein therapeutics at extremely high concentrations. To overcome this obstacle, it is essential to understand the relationship between the concentration of a protein solution and its viscosity as a function of shear rate and temperature. Here, lysozyme is a model charged globular protein having both short-ranged attraction (SA) and long-ranged repulsion (LR) that promote the formation of dynamic clusters at high concentrations. We report viscosity measurements from a micro-capillary rheometer (using only several microliters of solution) over a wide range of lysozyme solution concentrations, shear rates, and temperatures. Solution structural relaxation dynamics are also probed by dynamic light scattering (DLS). As a result of lysozyme's SALR interactions, the viscosity increased dramatically across all shear rates with increasing concentration and decreasing temperature. While most of the solutions exhibited Newtonian behavior, shear thinning was exhibited at the highest concentration (480 g/l) and lowest temperatures at shear rates above approximately 10(4 )s(-1). The onset shear rate for thinning and a structural relaxation rate estimated from a slow-mode measured by DLS are compared. These measurements provide insights into the properties of protein solutions and their microscopic structural origins. PMID:27478524

  19. Organic Solutes in Hyperthermophilic Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Martins, L. O.; Huber, R.; Huber, H.; Stetter, K. O.; Da Costa, M. S.; Santos, H.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the accumulation of organic solutes under optimum growth conditions in 12 species of thermophilic and hyperthermophilic Archaea belonging to the Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Pyrobaculum aerophilum, Thermoproteus tenax, Thermoplasma acidophilum, and members of the order Sulfolobales accumulated trehalose. Pyrococcus furiosus accumulated di-myo-inositol-1,1(prm1)(3,3(prm1))-phosphate and (beta)-mannosylglycerate, Methanothermus fervidus accumulated cyclic-2,3-bisphosphoglycerate and (beta)-mannosylglycerate, while the only solute detected in Pyrodictium occultum was di-myo-inositol-1,1(prm1)(3,3(prm1))-phosphate. Methanopyrus kandleri accumulated large concentrations of cyclic-2,3-bisphosphoglycerate. On the other hand, Archaeoglobus fulgidus accumulated three phosphorylated solutes; prominent among them was a compound identified as di-glycerol-phosphate. This solute increased in concentration as the salinity of the medium and the growth temperature were raised, suggesting that this compound serves as a general stress solute. Di-myo-inositol-1,1(prm1)(3,3(prm1))-phosphate accumulated at supraoptimal temperature only. The relationship between the accumulation of unusual solutes and high temperatures is also discussed. PMID:16535556

  20. Technetium recovery from high alkaline solution

    DOEpatents

    Nash, Charles A.

    2016-07-12

    Disclosed are methods for recovering technetium from a highly alkaline solution. The highly alkaline solution can be a liquid waste solution from a nuclear waste processing system. Methods can include combining the solution with a reductant capable of reducing technetium at the high pH of the solution and adding to or forming in the solution an adsorbent capable of adsorbing the precipitated technetium at the high pH of the solution.

  1. Comparison of non-ideal solution theories for multi-solute solutions in cryobiology and tabulation of required coefficients.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Michal W; McGann, Locksley E; Nychka, John A; Elliott, Janet A W

    2014-10-01

    Thermodynamic solution theories allow the prediction of chemical potentials in solutions of known composition. In cryobiology, such models are a critical component of many mathematical models that are used to simulate the biophysical processes occurring in cells and tissues during cryopreservation. A number of solution theories, both thermodynamically ideal and non-ideal, have been proposed for use with cryobiological solutions. In this work, we have evaluated two non-ideal solution theories for predicting water chemical potential (i.e. osmolality) in multi-solute solutions relevant to cryobiology: the Elliott et al. form of the multi-solute osmotic virial equation, and the Kleinhans and Mazur freezing point summation model. These two solution theories require fitting to only single-solute data, although they can make predictions in multi-solute solutions. The predictions of these non-ideal solution theories were compared to predictions made using ideal dilute assumptions and to available literature multi-solute experimental osmometric data. A single, consistent set of literature single-solute solution data was used to fit for the required solute-specific coefficients for each of the non-ideal models. Our results indicate that the two non-ideal solution theories have similar overall performance, and both give more accurate predictions than ideal models. These results can be used to select between the non-ideal models for a specific multi-solute solution, and the updated coefficients provided in this work can be used to make the desired predictions. PMID:25158101

  2. Acidity of frozen electrolyte solutions.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Carmen; Boxe, C S; Guzman, M I; Colussi, A J; Hoffmann, M R

    2006-04-20

    Ice is selectively intolerant to impurities. A preponderance of implanted anions or cations generates electrical imbalances in ice grown from electrolyte solutions. Since the excess charges are ultimately neutralized via interfacial (H(+)/HO(-)) transport, the acidity of the unfrozen portion can change significantly and permanently. This insufficiently recognized phenomenon should critically affect rates and equilibria in frozen media. Here we report the effective (19)F NMR chemical shift of 3-fluorobenzoic acid as in situ probe of the acidity of extensively frozen electrolyte solutions. The sign and magnitude of the acidity changes associated with freezing are largely determined by specific ion combinations, but depend also on solute concentration and/or the extent of supercooling. NaCl solutions become more basic, those of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) or Na(2)SO(4) become more acidic, while solutions of the 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid zwitterion barely change their acidity upon freezing. We discuss how acidity scales based on solid-state NMR measurements could be used to assess the degree of ionization of weak acids and bases in frozen media. PMID:16610849

  3. Silicon oxidation in fluoride solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sancier, K. M.; Kapur, V.

    1980-01-01

    Silicon is produced in a NaF, Na2SiF6, and Na matrix when SiF4 is reduced by metallic sodium. Hydrogen is evolved during acid leaching to separate the silicon from the accompanying reaction products, NaF and Na2SiF6. The hydrogen evolution reaction was studied under conditions simulating leaching conditions by making suspensions of the dry silicon powder in aqueous fluoride solutions. The mechanism for the hydrogen evolution is discussed in terms of spontaneous oxidation of silicon resulting from the cooperative effects of (1) elemental sodium in the silicon that reacts with water to remove a protective silica layer, leaving clean reactive silicon, and (2) fluoride in solution that complexes with the oxidized silicon in solution and retards formation of a protective hydrous oxide gel.

  4. Protein aggregation in salt solutions

    PubMed Central

    Kastelic, Miha; Kalyuzhnyi, Yurij V.; Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A.; Vlachy, Vojko

    2015-01-01

    Protein aggregation is broadly important in diseases and in formulations of biological drugs. Here, we develop a theoretical model for reversible protein–protein aggregation in salt solutions. We treat proteins as hard spheres having square-well-energy binding sites, using Wertheim’s thermodynamic perturbation theory. The necessary condition required for such modeling to be realistic is that proteins in solution during the experiment remain in their compact form. Within this limitation our model gives accurate liquid–liquid coexistence curves for lysozyme and γ IIIa-crystallin solutions in respective buffers. It provides good fits to the cloud-point curves of lysozyme in buffer–salt mixtures as a function of the type and concentration of salt. It than predicts full coexistence curves, osmotic compressibilities, and second virial coefficients under such conditions. This treatment may also be relevant to protein crystallization. PMID:25964322

  5. Demonstration of FRET in solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Sunil; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Chib, Rahul; Fudala, Rafal; Baxi, Aatmun; Borejdo, Julian; Synak, Anna; Gryczynski, Ignacy

    2016-03-01

    We measured the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from Uranin (U) donor to Rhodamine 101 (R101) acceptor in propylene glycol. Steady-state fluorescence measurements show a significant difference between mixed and unmixed fluorophore solutions. In the solution with mixed fluorophores, fluorescence intensity of the U donor decreases and intensity of R101 fluorescence increases. This is visualized as a color change from green to orange. Fluorescence anisotropy of the mixture solution increases in the donor emission wavelength region and decreases in the acceptor emission wavelengths; which is consistent with FRET occurrence. Time-resolved (lifetime) measurements show a decrease of the U lifetime in the presence of R101 acceptor. In the intensity decay of R101 acceptor appears a negative component indicating excited state process. All these measurements prove the presence of FRET in U/R101 mixture fluorescence.

  6. Ions in hyaluronic acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horkay, Ferenc; Basser, Peter J.; Londono, David J.; Hecht, Anne-Marie; Geissler, Erik

    2009-11-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is an anionic biopolymer that is almost ubiquitous in biological tissues. An attempt is made to determine the dominant features that account for both its abundance and its multifunctional role, and which set it apart from other types of biopolymers. A combination of osmotic and scattering techniques is employed to quantify its dynamic and static properties in near-physiological solution conditions, where it is exposed both to mono- and divalent counterions. An equation of state is derived for the osmotic pressure Π in the semidilute concentration region, in terms of two variables, the polymer concentration c and the ionic strength J of the added salt, according to which Π =1.4×103c9/4/J3/4 kPa, where c and J are expressed in mole. Over the physiological ion concentration range, the effect of the sodium chloride and calcium chloride on the osmotic properties of HA solutions is fully accounted for by their contributions to the ionic strength. The absence of precipitation, even at high CaCl2 concentrations, distinguishes this molecule from other biopolymers such as DNA. Dynamic light scattering measurements reveal that the collective diffusion coefficient in HA solutions exceeds that in aqueous solutions of typical neutral polymers by a factor of approximately 5. This property ensures rapid adjustment to, and recovery from, stress applied to HA-containing tissue. Small angle x-ray scattering measurements confirm the absence of appreciable structural reorganization over the observed length scale range 10-1000 Å, as a result of calcium-sodium ion exchange. The scattered intensity in the transfer momentum range q >0.03 Å-1 varies as 1/q, indicating that the HA chain segments in semidilute solutions are linear over an extended concentration range. The osmotic compression modulus c ∂Π/∂c, a high value of which is a prerequisite in structural biopolymers, is several times greater than in typical neutral polymer solutions.

  7. Catchment controls on solute export

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musolff, Andreas; Schmidt, Christian; Selle, Benny; Fleckenstein, Jan H.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamics of solute export from catchments can be classified in terms of chemostatic and chemodynamic export regimes by an analysis of concentration-discharge relationships. Previous studies hypothesized that distinct export regimes emerge from the presence of solute mass stores within the catchment and their connectivity to the stream. However, so far a direct link of solute export to identifiable catchment characteristics is missing. Here we investigate long-term time series of stream water quality and quantity of nine neighboring catchments in Central Germany ranging from relatively pristine mountain catchments to agriculturally dominated lowland catchments, spanning large gradients in land use, geology, and climatic conditions. Given the strong collinearity of catchment characteristics we used partial least square regression analysis to quantify the predictive power of these characteristics for median concentrations and the metrics of export regime. We can show that median concentrations and metrics of the export regimes of major ions and nutrients can indeed be inferred from catchment characteristics. Strongest predictors for median concentrations were the share of arable land, discharge per area, runoff coefficient and available water capacity in the root zone of the catchments. The available water capacity in the root zone, the share of arable land being artificially drained and the topographic gradient were found to be the most relevant predictors for the metrics of export regime. These catchment characteristics can represent the size of solute mass store such as the fraction of arable land being a measure for the store of nitrate. On the other hand, catchment characteristics can be a measure for the connectivity of these solute stores to the stream such as the fraction of tile drained land in the catchments. This study demonstrates the potential of data-driven, top down analyses using simple metrics to classify and better understand dominant controls of

  8. Thermosensitive aqueous solutions of polyvinylacetone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei-Tai; Wang, Yusong; Shi, Lei; Zhu, Qingren; Pang, Wenmin; Xu, Guoyong; Lu, Fei

    2006-04-01

    The dimethylketals of poly(vinyl alcohol), termed polyvinylacetone (PVKA), of moderate ketalization degree in the range from 0.28 to 0.6 exhibited temperature-induced phase transition in aqueous solution, as revealed by cloud point measurements and electron micrographs, which was then further investigated on molecular level using solution-state 1H NMR measurements. The present phase transition is caused by the amphiphilic characteristics in the polymer chain. Moreover, this finding could be further applied as a novel strategy in the syntheses of thermosensitive polymer by the hydrophobic functionalities of linear polyol.

  9. Schwarzschild Solution: A Historical Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartusiak, Marcia

    2016-03-01

    While eighteenth-century Newtonians had imagined a precursor to the black hole, the modern version has its roots in the first full solution to Einstein's equations of general relativity, derived by the German astronomer Karl Schwarzschild on a World War I battlefront just weeks after Einstein introduced his completed theory in November 1915. This talk will demonstrate how Schwarzschild's solution is linked to the black hole and how it took more than half a century for the physics community to accept that such a bizarre celestial object could exist in the universe.

  10. Electrodialysis operation with buffer solution

    DOEpatents

    Hryn, John N.; Daniels, Edward J.; Krumdick, Greg K.

    2009-12-15

    A new method for improving the efficiency of electrodialysis (ED) cells and stacks, in particular those used in chemical synthesis. The process entails adding a buffer solution to the stack for subsequent depletion in the stack during electrolysis. The buffer solution is regenerated continuously after depletion. This buffer process serves to control the hydrogen ion or hydroxide ion concentration so as to protect the active sites of electrodialysis membranes. The process enables electrodialysis processing options for products that are sensitive to pH changes.

  11. Lump solutions of the BKP equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilson, C. R.; Nimmo, J. J. C.

    1990-07-01

    Rational solutions of the BKP equation which decay to zero in all directions in the plane are obtained. These solutions are analogous to the lump solutions of the KPI equation. Properties of the single lump solution are described and the form of the N-lump solution is given. It is shown that single lump solutions are only non-singular for spectral parameters lying in certain regions of the complex plane.

  12. Numerical Asymptotic Solutions Of Differential Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurston, Gaylen A.

    1992-01-01

    Numerical algorithms derived and compared with classical analytical methods. In method, expansions replaced with integrals evaluated numerically. Resulting numerical solutions retain linear independence, main advantage of asymptotic solutions.

  13. Classroom Management: Problems and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Debra G.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on classroom management in the music classroom. Discusses why a management system is important and how to meet student needs. Addresses types of behavior problems and solutions for four levels of problems related to student behavior. Explores the importance of proactive management on the part of the music teacher. (CMK)

  14. CERN single sign on solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormancey, E.

    2008-07-01

    The need for Single Sign On has always been restricted by the absence of cross platform solutions: a single sign on working only on one platform or technology is nearly useless. The recent improvements in Web Services Federation (WS-Federation) standard enabling federation of identity, attribute, authentication and authorization information can now provide real extended Single Sign On solutions. Various solutions have been investigated at CERN and now, a Web SSO solution using some parts of WS-Federation technology is available. Using the Shibboleth Service Provider module for Apache hosted web sites and Microsoft ADFS as the identity provider linked to Active Directory user, users can now authenticate on any web application using a single authentication platform, providing identity, user information (building, phone...) as well as group membership enabling authorization possibilities. A typical scenario: a CERN user can now authenticate on a Linux/Apache website using Windows Integrated credentials, and his Active Directory group membership can be checked before allowing access to a specific web page.

  15. Sucrose diffusion in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Price, Hannah C; Mattsson, Johan; Murray, Benjamin J

    2016-07-28

    The diffusion of sugar in aqueous solution is important both in nature and in technological applications, yet measurements of diffusion coefficients at low water content are scarce. We report directly measured sucrose diffusion coefficients in aqueous solution. Our technique utilises a Raman isotope tracer method to monitor the diffusion of non-deuterated and deuterated sucrose across a boundary between the two aqueous solutions. At a water activity of 0.4 (equivalent to 90 wt% sucrose) at room temperature, the diffusion coefficient of sucrose was determined to be approximately four orders of magnitude smaller than that of water in the same material. Using literature viscosity data, we show that, although inappropriate for the prediction of water diffusion, the Stokes-Einstein equation works well for predicting sucrose diffusion under the conditions studied. As well as providing information of importance to the fundamental understanding of diffusion in binary solutions, these data have technological, pharmaceutical and medical implications, for example in cryopreservation. Moreover, in the atmosphere, slow organic diffusion may have important implications for aerosol growth, chemistry and evaporation, where processes may be limited by the inability of a molecule to diffuse between the bulk and the surface of a particle. PMID:27364512

  16. Archival storage solutions for PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunn, Timothy

    1997-05-01

    While they are many, one of the inhibitors to the wide spread diffusion of PACS systems has been robust, cost effective digital archive storage solutions. Moreover, an automated Nearline solution is key to a central, sharable data repository, enabling many applications such as PACS, telemedicine and teleradiology, and information warehousing and data mining for research such as patient outcome analysis. Selecting the right solution depends on a number of factors: capacity requirements, write and retrieval performance requirements, scaleability in capacity and performance, configuration architecture and flexibility, subsystem availability and reliability, security requirements, system cost, achievable benefits and cost savings, investment protection, strategic fit and more.This paper addresses many of these issues. It compares and positions optical disk and magnetic tape technologies, which are the predominant archive mediums today. Price and performance comparisons will be made at different archive capacities, plus the effect of file size on storage system throughput will be analyzed. The concept of automated migration of images from high performance, high cost storage devices to high capacity, low cost storage devices will be introduced as a viable way to minimize overall storage costs for an archive. The concept of access density will also be introduced and applied to the selection of the most cost effective archive solution.

  17. Solution-Assisted Optical Contacting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaddock, Daniel; Abramovici, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    A modified version of a conventional optical-contact procedure has been found to facilitate alignment of optical components. The optical-contact procedure (called simply optical contacting in the art) is a standard means of bonding two highly polished and cleaned glass optical components without using epoxies or other adhesives. In its unmodified form, the procedure does not involve the use of any foreign substances at all: components to be optically contacted are dry. The main disadvantage of conventional optical contacting is that it is difficult or impossible to adjust the alignment of the components once they have become bonded. In the modified version of the procedure, a drop of an alcohol-based optical cleaning solution (isopropyl alcohol or similar) is placed at the interface between two components immediately before putting the components together. The solution forms a weak bond that gradually strengthens during a time interval of the order of tens of seconds as the alcohol evaporates. While the solution is present, the components can be slid, without loss of contact, to perform fine adjustments of their relative positions. After about a minute, most of the alcohol has evaporated and the optical components are rigidly attached to each other. If necessary, more solution can be added to enable resumption or repetition of the adjustment until the components are aligned to the required precision.

  18. CESIUM RECOVERY FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Goodall, C.A.

    1960-09-13

    A process is given for precipitating cesium on zinc ferricyanide (at least 0.0004 M) from aqueous solutions containing mineral acid in a concentration of from 0.2 N acidity to 0.61 N acid-deficiency and advantageously, but not necessarily, also aluminum nitrate in a concentration of from l to 2.5 M.

  19. Optimized solution of Kepler's equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, J. M.; Layton, L.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of KEPLER, an IBM 360 computer program used for the solution of Kepler's equation for eccentric anomaly. The program KEPLER employs a second-order Newton-Raphson differential correction process, and it is faster than previously developed programs by an order of magnitude.

  20. Solar Energy - Solution or Pipedream?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polk, Joyce

    This series of lessons and class activities is designed for presentation in a sequence of nine class days. The collection is intended to provide the student in advanced science classes with awareness of the possibilities and limitations of solar energy as a potential solution to the energy crisis. Included are discussion of the following: (1)…

  1. RESISTIVE SOLUTIONS FOR PULSAR MAGNETOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jason; Spitkovsky, Anatoly; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander

    2012-02-10

    The current state of the art in the modeling of pulsar magnetospheres invokes either the vacuum or force-free limits for the magnetospheric plasma. Neither of these limits can simultaneously account for both the plasma currents and the accelerating electric fields that are needed to explain the morphology and spectra of high-energy emission from pulsars. To better understand the structure of such magnetospheres, we combine accelerating fields and force-free solutions by considering models of magnetospheres filled with resistive plasma. We formulate Ohm's law in the minimal velocity fluid frame and construct a family of resistive solutions that smoothly bridges the gap between the vacuum and the force-free magnetosphere solutions. The spin-down luminosity, open field line potential drop, and the fraction of open field lines all transition between the vacuum and force-free values as the plasma conductivity varies from zero to infinity. For fixed inclination angle, we find that the spin-down luminosity depends linearly on the open field line potential drop. We consider the implications of our resistive solutions for the spin-down of intermittent pulsars and sub-pulse drift phenomena in radio pulsars.

  2. Hydrophobic Solvation: Aqueous Methane Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrod, Oliver; Lankau, Timm

    2007-01-01

    A basic introduction to concept of a solvation shell around an apolar solute as well as its detection is presented. The hydrophobic solvation of toluene is found to be a good teaching example which connects macroscopic, phenomenological thermodynamic results with an atomistic point of view.

  3. Boggle Logic Puzzles: Minimal Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needleman, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Boggle logic puzzles are based on the popular word game Boggle played backwards. Given a list of words, the problem is to recreate the board. We explore these puzzles on a 3 x 3 board and find the minimum number of three-letter words needed to create a puzzle with a unique solution. We conclude with a series of open questions.

  4. Graphical Solution of Polynomial Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grishin, Anatole

    2009-01-01

    Graphing utilities, such as the ubiquitous graphing calculator, are often used in finding the approximate real roots of polynomial equations. In this paper the author offers a simple graphing technique that allows one to find all solutions of a polynomial equation (1) of arbitrary degree; (2) with real or complex coefficients; and (3) possessing…

  5. Complete solution of Boolean equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapia, M. A.; Tucker, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    A method is presented for generating a single formula involving arbitary Boolean parameters, which includes in it each and every possible solution of a system of Boolean equations. An alternate condition equivalent to a known necessary and sufficient condition for solving a system of Boolean equations is given.

  6. Universities Becoming the Outsourcing Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohley, Katharine A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a road map for universities to follow in responding to corporations that are in need of a solution to the dilemma of building an executive development program and simultaneously providing their executives with a high quality MBA degree. Difficulties experienced by many corporations are complicated by the fact that MBA programs…

  7. Microheterogeneity in Frozen Protein Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Twomey, Alan; Kurata, Kosaku; Nagare, Yutaka; Takamatsu, Hiroshi; Aksan, Alptekin

    2015-01-01

    In frozen and lyophilized systems, the biological to be stabilized (e.g. therapeutic protein, biomarker, drug-delivery vesicle) and the cryo-/lyoprotectant should be co-localized for successful stabilization. During freezing and drying, many factors cause physical separation of the biological from the cryo-/lyoprotectant, called microheterogeneity (MH), which may result in poor stabilization efficiency. We have developed a novel technique that utilized confocal Raman microspectroscopy in combination with counter-gradient freezing to evaluate the effect of a wide range of freezing temperatures (−20 < TF < 0°C) on the MH generated within a frozen formulation in only a few experiments. The freezing experiments conducted with a model system (albumin and trehalose) showed the presence of different degrees of MH in the freeze-concentrated liquid (FCL) in all solutions tested. Mainly, albumin tended to accumulate near the ice interface, where it was physically separated from the cryoprotectant. In frozen 10 wt% trehalose solutions, heterogeneity in FCL was relatively low at any TF. In frozen 20 wt% trehalose solutions, the optimum albumin to trehalose ratio in the FCL can only be ensured if the solution was frozen within a narrow range of temperatures (−16 < TF < −10°C). In the 30 wt% trehalose solutions, freezing within a much more narrow range (−12 < TF < −10°C) was needed to ensure a fairly homogeneous FCL. The method developed here will be helpful for the development of uniformly frozen and stable formulations and freezing protocols for biological as MH is presumed to directly impact stability. PMID:25888798

  8. Microheterogeneity in frozen protein solutions.

    PubMed

    Twomey, Alan; Kurata, Kosaku; Nagare, Yutaka; Takamatsu, Hiroshi; Aksan, Alptekin

    2015-06-20

    In frozen and lyophilized systems, the biological to be stabilized (e.g. therapeutic protein, biomarker, drug-delivery vesicle) and the cryo-/lyo-protectant should be co-localized for successful stabilization. During freezing and drying, many factors cause physical separation of the biological from the cryo-/lyo-protectant, called microheterogeneity (MH), which may result in poor stabilization efficiency. We have developed a novel technique that utilized confocal Raman microspectroscopy in combination with counter-gradient freezing to evaluate the effect of a wide range of freezing temperatures (-20solutions tested. Mainly, albumin tended to accumulate near the ice interface, where it was physically separated from the cryoprotectant. In frozen 10wt% trehalose solutions, heterogeneity in FCL was relatively low at any TF. In frozen 20wt% trehalose solutions, the optimum albumin to trehalose ratio in the FCL can only be ensured if the solution was frozen within a narrow range of temperatures (-16solutions, freezing within a much more narrow range (-12

  9. Solute strengthening at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyson, G. P. M.; Curtin, W. A.

    2016-08-01

    The high temperature behavior of solute strengthening has previously been treated approximately using various scaling arguments, resulting in logarithmic and power-law scalings for the stress-dependent energy barrier Δ E(τ ) versus stress τ. Here, a parameter-free solute strengthening model is extended to high temperatures/low stresses without any a priori assumptions on the functional form of Δ E(τ ) . The new model predicts that the well-established low-temperature, with energy barrier Δ {{E}\\text{b}} and zero temperature flow stress {τy0} , transitions to a near-logarithmic form for stresses in the regime 0.2<τ /{τy0}≤slant 0.5 and then transitions to a power-law form at even lower stresses τ /{τy0}<0.03 . Δ {{E}\\text{b}} and {τy0} remains as the reference energy and stress scales over the entire range of stresses. The model is applied to literature data on solution strengthening in Cu alloys and captures the experimental results quantitatively and qualitatively. Most importantly, the model accurately captures the transition in strength from the low-temperature to intermediate-temperature and the associated transition for the activation volume. Overall, the present analysis unifies the different qualitative models in the literature and, when coupled with the previous parameter-free solute strengthening model, provides a single predictive model for solute strengthening as a function of composition, temperature, and strain rate over the full range of practical utility.

  10. Analysis of the Fisher solution

    SciTech Connect

    Abdolrahimi, Shohreh; Shoom, Andrey A.

    2010-01-15

    We study the d-dimensional Fisher solution which represents a static, spherically symmetric, asymptotically flat spacetime with a massless scalar field. The solution has two parameters, the mass M and the 'scalar charge' {Sigma}. The Fisher solution has a naked curvature singularity which divides the spacetime manifold into two disconnected parts. The part which is asymptotically flat we call the Fisher spacetime, and another part we call the Fisher universe. The d-dimensional Schwarzschild-Tangherlini solution and the Fisher solution belong to the same theory and are dual to each other. The duality transformation acting in the parameter space (M,{Sigma}) maps the exterior region of the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole into the Fisher spacetime which has a naked timelike singularity, and interior region of the black hole into the Fisher universe, which is an anisotropic expanding-contracting universe and which has two spacelike singularities representing its 'big bang' and 'big crunch'. The big bang singularity and the singularity of the Fisher spacetime are radially weak in the sense that a 1-dimensional object moving along a timelike radial geodesic can arrive to the singularities intact. At the vicinity of the singularity the Fisher spacetime of nonzero mass has a region where its Misner-Sharp energy is negative. The Fisher universe has a marginally trapped surface corresponding to the state of its maximal expansion in the angular directions. These results and derived relations between geometric quantities of the Fisher spacetime, the Fisher universe, and the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole may suggest that the massless scalar field transforms the black hole event horizon into the naked radially weak disjoint singularities of the Fisher spacetime and the Fisher universe which are 'dual to the horizon'.

  11. The Coupling of Solute Fluxes in Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Galey, William R.; Van Bruggen, J. T.

    1970-01-01

    Our previous description of solute drag on a synthetic membrane has been extended to include the solutes mannitol, sucrose, raffinose, inulin, and dextran. Labeled and nonlabeled forms of these solutes were used in pairs to quantitate solute flux interaction. Three membranes with pore sizes of 350, 80, and 20 A, respectively, have been utilized. It is shown that solute flux interaction occurs with all the solutes and that the extent of interaction is related directly to solute permeability, concentration, and molecular size. The magnitude of solute interaction is reciprocally related to the radii of the membrane pores, greater interaction occurring with small pored membranes. Solute drag is seen as an increased flux of tracer solute in the direction of the diffusion gradient of a second solute as well as a decreased tracer flux into the diffusion gradient. Values are given for self-diffusion and interaction coefficients as well as for a new coefficient, the "effectiveness coefficient." PMID:5413079

  12. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, W.W.

    1959-08-01

    The removal of chlorides from aqueons solutions is described. The process involves contacting the aqueous chloride containing solution with a benzene solution about 0.005 M in phenyl mercuric acetate whereby the chloride anions are taken up by the organic phase and separating the organic phase from the aqueous solutions.

  13. Volatile hydrocarbons in pharmaceutical solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kroneld, R. )

    1991-07-01

    Volatile pollutants such as hydrocarbons have, during many years, been analysed in small concentrations in air, water, food, pharmaceutical solutions, and human blood and tissues. It has also been shown that such substances have unexpected consequences for cell cultures and scientific experiments. These substances also accumulate in patients receiving haemodialysis and these patients are exposed to quite high concentrations. The knowledge of the toxicity of such compounds has led to the development of maximum limit concentrations with the aim to decrease the exposure of humans. This paper discusses the problems of human exposure in general and especially through pharmaceutical solutions, and the possibilities of eliminating such compounds with the aim of decreasing the exposure as a hygienic challenge.

  14. Fissile solution dynamics: Student research

    SciTech Connect

    Hetrick, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    There are two research projects in criticality safety at the University of Arizona: one in dynamic simulation of hypothetical criticality accidents in fissile solutions, and one in criticality benchmarks using transport theory. We have used the data from nuclear excursions in KEWB, CRAC, and SILENE to help in building models for solution excursions. An equation of state for liquids containing gas bubbles has been developed and coupled to point-reactor dynamics in an attempt to predict fission rate, yield, pressure, and kinetic energy. It appears that radiolytic gas is unimportant until after the first peak, but that it does strongly affect the shape of the subsequent power decrease and also the dynamic pressure.

  15. Predict amine solution properties accurately

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, S.; Meisen, A.; Chakma, A.

    1996-02-01

    Improved process design begins with using accurate physical property data. Especially in the preliminary design stage, physical property data such as density viscosity, thermal conductivity and specific heat can affect the overall performance of absorbers, heat exchangers, reboilers and pump. These properties can also influence temperature profiles in heat transfer equipment and thus control or affect the rate of amine breakdown. Aqueous-amine solution physical property data are available in graphical form. However, it is not convenient to use with computer-based calculations. Developed equations allow improved correlations of derived physical property estimates with published data. Expressions are given which can be used to estimate physical properties of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), monoethanolamine (MEA) and diglycolamine (DGA) solutions.

  16. Spinning of hydroalcoholic chitosan solutions.

    PubMed

    Desorme, Mylène; Montembault, Alexandra; Lucas, Jean-Michel; Rochas, Cyrille; Bouet, Thierry; David, Laurent

    2013-10-15

    We investigated the spinning of hydroalcoholic chitosan solutions. The dope composition was optimized in order to obtain a continuous alcogel fiber by water evaporation on heating the extruded hydroalcoholic solution. This alcogel fiber was then neutralized in aqueous alkali baths and washed in water to eliminate the residual alcohol and salts before final drying. Depending on the alcohol content in the filament at the neutralization step, on specific alcohol-chitosan interactions and on the nature and concentration of the coagulation base, the process yielded semicrystalline chitosan fibers with different proportions of anhydrous and hydrated allomorphs. Contrarily to the classical annealing method, the formation of mainly anhydrous crystals was obtained without significant molecular weight decrease by neutralizing the polymer in hydrophobic conditions. The control of allomorph content was shown to be related to the hydrophobicity of the solvent (alcohol fraction) at the neutralization step. PMID:23987316

  17. Strong shock implosion, approximate solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Y.; Mishkin, E. A.; Alejaldre, C.

    1983-01-01

    The self-similar, center-bound motion of a strong spherical, or cylindrical, shock wave moving through an ideal gas with a constant, γ= cp/ cv, is considered and a linearized, approximate solution is derived. An X, Y phase plane of the self-similar solution is defined and the representative curved of the system behind the shock front is replaced by a straight line connecting the mappings of the shock front with that of its tail. The reduced pressure P(ξ), density R(ξ) and velocity U1(ξ) are found in closed, quite accurate, form. Comparison with numerically obtained results, for γ= {5}/{3} and γ= {7}/{5}, is shown.

  18. DNA denaturation in ionic solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, Arghya; Singh, Amar; Singh, Navin

    2016-05-01

    Salt or cations, present in solution play an important role in DNA denaturation and folding kinetics of DNA helix. In this work we study the thermal melting of double stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecule using Peyrard Bishop Dauxois (PBD) model. We modify the potential of H-bonding between the bases of the complimentary strands to introduce the salt and solvent effect. We choose different DNA sequences having different contents of GC pairs and calculate the melting temperatures. The melting temperature increases logarithmically with the salt concentration of the solution. The more GC base pairs in the chain enhance the stability of DNA chain at a fix salt concentration. The obtained results are in good accordance with experimental findings.

  19. Analysis of earth rotation solution from Starlette

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, B. E.; Cheng, M. K.; Shum, C. K.; Eanes, R. J.; Tapley, B. D.

    1989-01-01

    Earth rotation parameter (ERP) solutions were derived from the Starlette orbit analysis during the Main MERIT Campaign, using a technique of a consider-covariance analysis to assess the effects of errors on the polar motion solutions. The polar motion solution was then improved through the simultaneous adjustment of some dynamical parameters representing identified dominant perturbing sources (such as the geopotential and ocean-tide coefficients) on the polar motion solutions. Finally, an improved ERP solution was derived using the gravity field model, PTCF1, described by Tapley et al. (1986). The accuracy of the Starlette ERP solution was assessed by a comparison with the LAGEOS-derived ERP solutions.

  20. Intravenous Solutions for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Fletcher J.; Niederhaus, Charles; Barlow, Karen; Griffin, DeVon

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the intravenous (IV) fluids requirements being developed for medical care during NASA s future exploration class missions. Previous research on IV solution generation and mixing in space is summarized. The current exploration baseline mission profiles are introduced, potential medical conditions described and evaluated for fluidic needs, and operational issues assessed. We briefly introduce potential methods for generating IV fluids in microgravity. Conclusions on the recommended fluid volume requirements are presented.

  1. Clean Energy Solutions Center (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Reategui, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Clean Energy Ministerial launched the Clean Energy Solutions Center in April, 2011 for major economy countries, led by Australia and U.S. with other CEM partners. Partnership with UN-Energy is extending scope to support all developing countries: 1. Enhance resources on policies relating to energy access, small to medium enterprises (SMEs), and financing programs; 2. Offer expert policy assistance to all countries; 3. Expand peer to peer learning, training, and deployment and policy data for developing countries.

  2. Stabilized aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution

    SciTech Connect

    Malin, M.J.; Sciafani, L.D.

    1988-05-17

    This patent describes a stabilized aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution having a pH below 7 and an amount of Ferric ion up to about 2 ppm comprising hydrogen peroxide, acetanilide having a concentration which ranges between 0.74 M Mol/L and 2.22 mMol/L, and o-benzene disulfonic acid or salt thereof at a concentration between about 0.86 mMol/L to about 1.62 mMol/L.

  3. Electrochromic salts, solutions, and devices

    DOEpatents

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Warner, Benjamin P.; McClesky,7,064,212 T. Mark

    2006-06-20

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  4. Viscosity-stabilized aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Wier, D. R.

    1981-01-27

    Thiourea functions as a solution viscosity stabilizer in aqueous compositions comprising thiourea, nonionic polymers such as polyalkylene oxides and anionic surfactants such as petroleum sulfonates. The aqueous compositions are useful in connection with fluid-drive oil recovery processes, processes for drilling, completing, or working over wells, or the like processes in which a thickened fluid is injected into or brought into contact with a subterranean earth formation.

  5. Myochrysine Solution Structure and Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Jones, William B.; Zhao, Zheng; Dorsey, John G.; Tepperman, Katherine

    1994-01-01

    We have determined the framework structure of Myochrysine (disodium gold(I)thiomalate) in the solid state and extremely concentrated aqueous solution, previously. It consists of an open chain polymer with linear gold coordination to two thiolates from the thiomalic acid moieties which bridge between pairs of gold atoms providing an Au-S-Au angle of 95°. The question remained: was this structure relevant to the dilute solutions of drugs administered and the still lower concentrations of gold found in the bodies of patients (typically 1 ppm Au in blood and urine or 5 μM in Au). We have provided an answer to that question using extended X-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS) and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). EXAFS studies confirm that the polymeric structure with two sulfur atoms per gold atom persists from molar concentrations down to millimolar concentrations. CZE is able to separate and detect Myochrysine at millimolar levels. More importantly, at micromolar levels Myochrysine solutions exhibit identical CZE behavior to that measured at millimolar levels. Thus, aqueous solutions of the drug remain oligomeric at concentrations commensurate with those found in patient blood and urine. The reactivity of Myochrysine with cyanide, a species especially prevalent in smoking patients, was explored using CZE. Cyanide freely replaces thiomalic acid to form [Au(CN)2]- and thiomalic acid via a mixed ligand intermediate. The overall apparent equilibrium constant (Kapp) for the reaction is 6×10-4M-1. Further reaction of [Au(CN)2]- with a large excess of L, where L is cysteine, N-acetylcysteine, or glutathione, shows that these amino acids readily replace cyanide to form [AuL2]-. These species are thus potential metabolites and could possibly be active forms of gold in vivo. That all of these species are readily separated and quantified using CZE demonstrates that capillary electrophoresis is an accessible and powerful tool to add to those used for the study of gold

  6. Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices

    DOEpatents

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Warner, Benjamin P.; McClesky, T. Mark

    2008-10-14

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  7. Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices

    DOEpatents

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Warner, Benjamin P.; McClesky, T. Mark

    2008-11-11

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  8. Dynamics in Multicomponent Polyelectrolyte Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Michihiro

    2010-03-01

    Double-network hydrogels (DN-gel) prepared from the combination of a moderately cross-linked anionic polyelectrolyte (poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid), PAMPS) and an un-cross-linked linear polymer (polyacrylamide, PAAm) solution show strong mechanical properties far superior to that of their individual constituents [1]. To determine the origin of the superior properties of DN-gels, we investigated the structure and the chain dynamics of model PAMPS/PAAm solution blends using small-angle neutron scattering and neutron spin-echo measurements [2]. Akcasu's dynamic scattering theory for a multicomponent system [3] is modified to include polyelectrolytes, and the resulting equation describes well the neutron spin-echo results over the entire wavevector range covered in our experiments. Parameters such as effective solvent viscosity were deduced from the measured data using the modified Akcasu equation. Both the relaxation time at large length scales (10-100 nm) and the segmental diffusion coefficient at short length scales (0.1-1 nm) or the effective solvent viscosity show good accordance with the macroscopic rheological behavior of the solution blends. [4pt] [1] J.P. Gong et al., Adv. Mater. 15, 1155 (2003). [0pt] [2] S. Lee et al., Macromolecules 42, 1293 (2009). [0pt] [2] A.Z. Akcasu, in Dynamic Liht Scattering, The Method and Some Applications; W. Brown Ed. (Oxford University Press, London 1992).

  9. Solute transport at fracture intersections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourzenko, V. V.; Yousefian, F.; Kolbah, B.; Thovert, J.-F.; Adler, P. M.

    2002-01-01

    A numerical study of three-dimensional solute transportat fracture intersections by using a particle tracking technique is presented.Two models of orthogonal fracture intersection are considered, namely, twoparallel-walled channels and two rough-walled Gaussian fractures. The fluidvelocity is calculated by solving the three-dimensional Stokes equation withno-slip boundary condition at the solid wall. Examples of individual trajectoriesof particles are first given in order to illustrate the main features of thephenomenon. Solute mass partitioning between outgoing fracture branches isconsidered for various transport regimes, characterized by the local Pécletnumber, and for various ratios of the flow rates in the intersecting channels.Generally speaking, it can be said that at dominant diffusion the influenceof the flow rates ratio is weak, while it is important in the opposite situation.Validity of the classical models of solute mixing, stream tube routing, andperfect mixing is analyzed by comparing their predictions with the numericaldata. Preliminary recommendations are made for the use of these results inlarge-scale modeling.

  10. Soft confinement for polymer solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Yutaka; Kawakatsu, Toshihiro

    2014-07-01

    As a model of soft confinement for polymers, we investigated equilibrium shapes of a flexible vesicle that contains a phase-separating polymer solution. To simulate such a system, we combined the phase field theory (PFT) for the vesicle and the self-consistent field theory (SCFT) for the polymer solution. We observed a transition from a symmetric prolate shape of the vesicle to an asymmetric pear shape induced by the domain structure of the enclosed polymer solution. Moreover, when a non-zero spontaneous curvature of the vesicle is introduced, a re-entrant transition between the prolate and the dumbbell shapes of the vesicle is observed. This re-entrant transition is explained by considering the competition between the loss of conformational entropy and that of translational entropy of polymer chains due to the confinement by the deformable vesicle. This finding is in accordance with the recent experimental result reported by Terasawa et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 108 (2011) 5249).

  11. Axially Symmetric Brans-Dicke-Maxwell Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, S.

    1981-05-01

    Following a method of John and Goswami new solutions of coupled Brans-Dicke-Maxwell theory are generated from Zipoy's solutions in oblate and prolate spheroidal coordinates for source-free gravitational field. All these solutions become Euclidean at infinity. The asymptotic behavior and the singularity of the solutions are discussed and a comparative study made with the corresponding Einstein-Maxwell solutions. The possibility of a very large red shift from the boundary of the spheroids is also discussed.

  12. Functionalized polymers for binding to solutes in aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robison, Thomas W.

    2006-11-21

    A functionalized polymer for binding a dissolved molecule in an aqueous solution is presented. The polymer has a backbone polymer to which one or more functional groups are covalently linked. The backbone polymer can be such polymers as polyethylenimine, polyvinylamine, polyallylamine, and polypropylamine. These polymers are generally water-soluble, but can be insoluble when cross-linked. The functional group can be for example diol derivatives, polyol derivatives, thiol and dithiol derivatives, guest-host groups, affinity groups, beta-diphosphonic acids, and beta-diamides

  13. Commercial Lighting Solutions Webtool Peer Review Report, Office Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Beeson, Tracy A.; Jones, Carol C.

    2010-02-01

    The Commercial Lighting Solutions (CLS) project directly supports the U.S. Department of Energy’s Commercial Building Energy Alliance efforts to design high performance buildings. CLS creates energy efficient best practice lighting designs for widespread use, and they are made available to users via an interactive webtool that both educates and guides the end user through the application of the Lighting Solutions. This report summarizes the peer review of the CLS webtool for offices. The methodology for the peer review process included data collection (stakeholder input), analysis of the comments, and organization of the input into categories for prioritization of the comments against a set of criteria. Based on this process, recommendations were developed for the release of version 2.0 of the webtool at the Lightfair conference in Las Vegas in May 2010. The report provides a list of the top ten most significant and relevant improvements that will be made within the webtool for version 2.0 as well as appendices containing the comments and short-term priorities in additional detail. Peer review comments that are considered high priority by the reviewers and the CLS team but cannot be completed for Version 2.0 are listed as long-term recommendations.

  14. Stochastic solution to quantum dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    John, Sarah; Wilson, John W.

    1994-01-01

    The quantum Liouville equation in the Wigner representation is solved numerically by using Monte Carlo methods. For incremental time steps, the propagation is implemented as a classical evolution in phase space modified by a quantum correction. The correction, which is a momentum jump function, is simulated in the quasi-classical approximation via a stochastic process. The technique, which is developed and validated in two- and three- dimensional momentum space, extends an earlier one-dimensional work. Also, by developing a new algorithm, the application to bound state motion in an anharmonic quartic potential shows better agreement with exact solutions in two-dimensional phase space.

  15. Aqueous Solutions and their Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Voth, Gregory A.

    2009-04-02

    Preface of the special issue of the Journal of Physical Chemistry in conjunction with the international workshop "Aqueous Solutions and their Interfaces". The topics include the structure of liquid water, the analysis of X-ray and neutron scattering experimental data, the vibrational spectroscopy of liquid water, the structure and spectroscopy of aqueous interfaces and the development of theoretical approaches to model the structure and spectra of liquid water and interfaces. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences program. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  16. Euclid Data Handling Design Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogiatto, Roberto; Tramutola, Antonio; Maddaleno, Corrado; Maiorano, Elena; Colombo, Cyril

    2014-08-01

    Euclid is the next medium-class mission of ESA's Science Programme, to be launched by 2020. The objective of Euclid is to investigate dark energy and dark matter, essential but mysterious components of today's standard model of cosmology. The complete survey will comprise hundreds of thousands of images and several tens of Petabytes of data. The significant amount of scientific data to be stored on-board and transmitted to Ground, imposes some challenging spacecraft requirements leading to innovative design solutions for the data handling and on-board communications. After the mission presentation, the paper provides an overview of the Spacecraft avionics architecture and deepens the Euclid data handling design concept.

  17. Analytic solutions of the relativistic Boltzmann equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatta, Yoshitaka; Martinez, Mauricio; Xiao, Bo-Wen

    2015-04-01

    We present new analytic solutions to the relativistic Boltzmann equation within the relaxation time approximation. We first obtain spherically expanding solutions which are the kinetic counterparts of the exact solutions of the Israel-Stewart equation in the literature. This allows us to compare the solutions of the kinetic and hydrodynamic equations at an analytical level. We then derive a novel boost-invariant solution of the Boltzmann equation which has an unconventional dependence on the proper time. The existence of such a solution is also suggested in second-order hydrodynamics and fluid-gravity correspondence.

  18. Solution assembly of conjugated polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokel, Felicia A.

    This dissertation focuses on the solution-state polymer assembly of conjugated polymers with specific attention to nano- and molecular-scale morphology. Understanding how to control these structures holds potential for applications in polymer-based electronics. Optimization of conjugated polymer morphology was performed with three objectives: 1) segregation of donor and acceptor materials on the nanometer length-scale, 2) achieving molecular-scale ordering in terms of crystallinity within distinct domains, and 3) maximizing the number and quality of well-defined donor/acceptor interfaces. Chapter 1 introduces the development of a mixed solvent method to create crystalline poly(3-hexyl thiophene) (P3HT) fibrils in solution. Chapter 2 describes fibril purification and approaches to robust and functional fibrils, while chapters 3 and 4 demonstrate the formation of hybrid nanocomposite wires of P3HT and cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles by two methods: 1) co-crystallization of free and P3HT-grafted CdSe for composite nanowires and 2) direct attachment of CdSe nanoparticles at fibril edges to give superhighway structures. These composite structures show great potential in the application of optoelectronic devices, such as the active layer of solar cells. Finally, ultrafast photophysical characterization of these polymers, using time-resolved photoluminescence and transient absorption, was performed to determine the aggregation types present in suspended fibrils and monitor the formation and decay of charged species in fibrils and donor-acceptor systems.

  19. Speech privacy: Beyond architectural solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazer, Susan

    2005-09-01

    HIPAA regulations have brought unparalleled pressures on healthcare organizations to protect private and confidential information from reaching third parties. Yet, as this paper explains, often in the middle of noisy corridors and waiting rooms, this same information needs to be quickly transferred from physician to nurse to family member to others for the care of patients. Research and examples are presented that show that when families, patients, staff are participating together, although independently, in the same or adjacent spaces, the ``caf effect'' produces rising noise levels as each person competes to be heard. This threatens the very confidentiality demanded by HIPAA. Solutions to this problem are not easy or completely resolved by engineering or design specifications. This paper makes the case that it is ultimately the culture of a healthcare organization that determines the ``sound'' of a hospital, and any other organization that battles openness with privacy. It presents and discusses proven solutions to address culture in tandem with architectural and acoustic design interventions.

  20. Turning Disciplinary Knowledge into Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Gehlert, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Turning disciplinary knowledge about preadolescents’ and adolescents’ exposure to risk factors for cancer as adults into solutions for preventing such an outcome requires that investigators from a variety of backgrounds and disciplines come together to share knowledge. Optimally, these collaborations would occur across two dimensions: (1) transdisciplinary, from the molecular or cellular level (e.g., animal studies of endocrine disruption) to the societal level (e.g., economic studies related to state tobacco policies), and (2) translational, using basic research findings in clinical and other sciences to implement prevention programs and public policy. Only when collaboration is commonplace can the disparate groups of investigators working on cancer prevention during pre-adolescence and adolescence gain a holistic picture of the risk factors, inform one another’s work, and learn what we need to know to devise successful interventions for preventing cancer. Working transdisciplinarily also helps to ensure that messages to health professionals, policymakers, the news media, and the public are consistent and coordinated. At present, those investigating preadolescent and adolescent risk for adult cancer disseminate their knowledge individually, thus missing the opportunity to synthesize knowledge, coordinate dissemination, and implement prevention programs. In this paper, we distinguish multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary, and transdisciplinary approaches, argue for the benefits of a transdisciplinary approach to devising successful solutions and how to achieve transdisciplinary functioning. PMID:23601619

  1. Ultrafast studies of solution dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, W.H.; Dyer, R.B.; Callender, R.H.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Fast chemical dynamics generally must be initiated photochemically. This limits the applicability of modern laser methods for following the structural changes that occur during chemical and biological reactions to those systems that have an electronic chromophore that has a significant yield of photoproduct when excited. This project has developed a new and entirely general approach to ultrafast initiation of reactions in solution: laser-induced temperature jump (T-jump). The results open entire new fields of study of ultrafast molecular dynamics in solution. The authors have demonstrated the T-jump technique on time scales of 50 ps and longer, and have applied it to study of the fast events in protein folding. They find that a general lifetime of alpha-helix formation is ca 100 ns, and that tertiary folds (in apomyoglobin) form in ca 100 {mu}s.

  2. Simple Solutions for Treating Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    Patient Education Sheet Simple Solutions for Treating Dry Mouth Clinicians: Please make as many copies of this ... Philadelphia, for authoring “Simple Solutions for Treating Dry Mouth.” Ask your family doctor to discontinue or provide ...

  3. Polycondensation kinetics of furfuryl alcohol solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zherebtsov, D. A.; Galimov, D. M.; Zagorul'ko, O. V.; Frolova, E. V.; Bol'shakov, O. I.; Zakharov, V. G.; Mikhailov, G. G.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the viscosity, electrical conductivity, monomer concentration, and the size of growing molecules of polycondensed furfuryl alcohol are studied in solutions containing triethylene glycol and isooctylphenyldecaethylene glycol. The effect the solution compositions have on the condensation kinetics is considered.

  4. Static solutions for fourth order gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, William

    2010-11-15

    The Lichnerowicz and Israel theorems are extended to higher order theories of gravity. In particular it is shown that Schwarzschild is the unique spherically symmetric, static, asymptotically flat, black-hole solution, provided the spatial curvature is less than the quantum gravity scale outside the horizon. It is then shown that in the presence of matter (satisfying certain positivity requirements), the only static and asymptotically flat solutions of general relativity that are also solutions of higher order gravity are the vacuum solutions.

  5. Bag For Formulating And Dispersing Intravenous Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kipp, Jim; Owens, Jim; Scharf, Mike; Finley, Mike; Dudar, Tom; Veillon, Joe; Ogle, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Large-volume parenteral (LVP) bag in which predetermined amount of sterile solution formulated by combining premeasured, prepackaged amount of sterile solute with predetermined amount of water. Bag designed to hold predetermined amount, typically 1 L, of sterile solution. Sterility of solution maintained during mixing by passing water into bag through sterilizing filter. System used in field or hospitals not having proper sterile facilities, and in field research.

  6. Exact solutions and singularities in string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, G.T. ); Tseytlin, A.A. )

    1994-10-15

    We construct two new classes of exact solutions to string theory which are not of the standard plane wave of gauged WZW type. Many of these solutions have curvature singularities. The first class includes the fundamental string solution, for which the string coupling vanishes near the singularity. This suggests that the singularity may not be removed by quantum corrections. The second class consists of hybrids of plane wave and gauged WZW solutions. We discuss a four-dimensional example in detail.

  7. Engineering report (conceptual design) PFP solution stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Witt, J.B.

    1997-07-17

    This Engineering Report (Conceptual Design) addresses remediation of the plutonium-bearing solutions currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The recommendation from the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is that the solutions be treated thermally and stabilized as a solid for long term storage. For solutions which are not discardable, the baseline plan is to utilize a denitration process to stabilize the solutions prior to packaging for storage.

  8. Thermodynamics of rock forming crystalline solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, S. K.

    1971-01-01

    Analysis of phase diagrams and cation distributions within crystalline solutions as means of obtaining thermodynamic data on rock forming crystalline solutions is discussed along with some aspects of partitioning of elements in coexisting phases. Crystalline solutions, components in a silicate mineral, and chemical potentials of these components were defined. Examples were given for calculating thermodynamic mixing functions in the CaW04-SrW04, olivine-chloride solution, and orthopyroxene systems.

  9. ELECTROLYTIC REDUCTION OF NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Alter, H.W.; Barney, D.L.

    1958-09-30

    A process is presented for the treatment of radioactivc waste nitric acid solutions. The nitric acid solution is neutralized with an alkali metal hydroxide in an amount sufficient to precipitate insoluble hydroxides, and after separation of the precipitate the solution is electrolyzed to convert the alkali nitrate formed, to alkali hydroxide, gaseous ammonla and oxygen. The solution is then reusable after reducing the volume by evaporating the water and dissolved ammonia.

  10. Subharmonic Solutions of Order One-Third

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.

    2005-01-01

    Finding a periodic solution to a nonlinear ordinary differential equation is in general a difficult task. Only in a very few cases can direct methods be applied to an equation to find initial values leading to a solution of the corresponding initial value problem that is periodic. Oscillatory periodic solutions have such practical importance that…

  11. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  12. 21 CFR 522.1020 - Gelatin solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gelatin solution. 522.1020 Section 522.1020 Food... Gelatin solution. (a) Specifications. It is sterile and each 100 cubic centimeters contains 8 grams of gelatin in an 0.85 percent sodium chloride solution. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of...

  13. 21 CFR 522.1020 - Gelatin solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gelatin solution. 522.1020 Section 522.1020 Food... Gelatin solution. (a) Specifications. It is sterile and each 100 cubic centimeters contains 8 grams of gelatin in an 0.85 percent sodium chloride solution. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of...

  14. 21 CFR 522.1020 - Gelatin solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gelatin solution. 522.1020 Section 522.1020 Food... Gelatin solution. (a) Specifications. It is sterile and each 100 cubic centimeters contains 8 grams of gelatin in an 0.85 percent sodium chloride solution. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of...

  15. 21 CFR 522.1450 - Moxidectin solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Moxidectin solution. 522.1450 Section 522.1450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Moxidectin solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 10 milligrams (mg)...

  16. 21 CFR 522.1086 - Guaifenesin solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Guaifenesin solution. 522.1086 Section 522.1086 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Guaifenesin solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 50 milligrams (mg)...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1454 - Moxidectin solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Moxidectin solution. 520.1454 Section 520.1454... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1454 Moxidectin solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains 1 milligram (mg) moxidectin. (b) Sponsor. See...

  18. 21 CFR 522.1450 - Moxidectin solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Moxidectin solution. 522.1450 Section 522.1450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Moxidectin solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 10 milligrams (mg)...

  19. 21 CFR 522.1156 - Imidocarb solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Imidocarb solution. 522.1156 Section 522.1156 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Imidocarb solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 120 milligrams (mg)...

  20. 21 CFR 522.1450 - Moxidectin solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Moxidectin solution. 522.1450 Section 522.1450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Moxidectin solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 10 milligrams (mg)...

  1. 21 CFR 520.1454 - Moxidectin solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Moxidectin solution. 520.1454 Section 520.1454... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1454 Moxidectin solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains 1 milligram (mg) moxidectin. (b) Sponsor. See...

  2. The Classification of Highly Supersymmetric Supergravity Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Gran, U.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.; Roest, D.

    2009-02-02

    The spinorial geometry method is an effective method for constructing systematic classifications of supersymmetric supergravity solutions. Recent work on analysing highly supersymmetric solutions in type IIB supergravity using this method is reviewed. It is shown that all supersymmetric solutions of IIB supergravity with more than 28 Killing spinors are locally maximally supersymmetric.

  3. Exact Interior Solutions for Charged Fluid Spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, L. K.; Tikekar, R.; Sabu, M. C.

    1997-04-01

    A new method is discussed to obtain the interior solution of Einstein-Maxwell equations for a charged static sphere from a known particular solutions of a similar kind. Beginning with a charged fluid interior solution reported by Patel and Pandya [11], a new interior Reissner-Nordström metric is obtained using this method and physical aspects of it are extensively discussed.

  4. 27 CFR 21.119 - Nicotine solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nicotine solution. 21.119....119 Nicotine solution. (a) Composition. Five gallons of an aqueous solution containing 40 percent nicotine; 3.6 avoirdupois ounces of methylene blue, U.S.P.; water sufficient to make 100 gallons. (b)...

  5. 27 CFR 21.119 - Nicotine solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nicotine solution. 21.119....119 Nicotine solution. (a) Composition. Five gallons of an aqueous solution containing 40 percent nicotine; 3.6 avoirdupois ounces of methylene blue, U.S.P.; water sufficient to make 100 gallons. (b)...

  6. 27 CFR 21.119 - Nicotine solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nicotine solution. 21.119....119 Nicotine solution. (a) Composition. Five gallons of an aqueous solution containing 40 percent nicotine; 3.6 avoirdupois ounces of methylene blue, U.S.P.; water sufficient to make 100 gallons. (b)...

  7. 27 CFR 21.119 - Nicotine solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nicotine solution. 21.119....119 Nicotine solution. (a) Composition. Five gallons of an aqueous solution containing 40 percent nicotine; 3.6 avoirdupois ounces of methylene blue, U.S.P.; water sufficient to make 100 gallons. (b)...

  8. 27 CFR 21.119 - Nicotine solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nicotine solution. 21.119....119 Nicotine solution. (a) Composition. Five gallons of an aqueous solution containing 40 percent nicotine; 3.6 avoirdupois ounces of methylene blue, U.S.P.; water sufficient to make 100 gallons. (b)...

  9. 21 CFR 522.690 - Dinoprost solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dinoprost solution. 522.690 Section 522.690 Food... Dinoprost solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains dinoprost tromethamine... skin should be washed off immediately with soap and water. (d) Conditions of use—(1) Horses—(i)...

  10. 21 CFR 522.690 - Dinoprost solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dinoprost solution. 522.690 Section 522.690 Food... Dinoprost solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains dinoprost tromethamine... skin should be washed off immediately with soap and water. (d) Conditions of use—(1) Horses—(i)...

  11. 21 CFR 522.690 - Dinoprost solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dinoprost solution. 522.690 Section 522.690 Food... Dinoprost solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains dinoprost tromethamine... skin should be washed off immediately with soap and water. (d) Conditions of use—(1) Horses—(i)...

  12. 21 CFR 522.900 - Euthanasia solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Euthanasia solution. 522.900 Section 522.900 Food... Euthanasia solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains: (1) 390 milligrams (mg.... For humane, painless, and rapid euthanasia. (2) Amount. One mL per 10 pounds of body weight....

  13. 21 CFR 522.900 - Euthanasia solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Euthanasia solution. 522.900 Section 522.900 Food... Euthanasia solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains: (1) 390 milligrams (mg.... For humane, painless, and rapid euthanasia. (2) Amount. One mL per 10 pounds of body weight....

  14. 21 CFR 522.900 - Euthanasia solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Euthanasia solution. 522.900 Section 522.900 Food... Euthanasia solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains: (1) 390 milligrams (mg.... For humane, painless, and rapid euthanasia. (2) Amount. One mL per 10 pounds of body weight....

  15. 21 CFR 522.900 - Euthanasia solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Euthanasia solution. 522.900 Section 522.900 Food... Euthanasia solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains: (1) 390 milligrams (mg.... For humane, painless, and rapid euthanasia. (2) Amount. One mL per 10 pounds of body weight....

  16. 21 CFR 522.900 - Euthanasia solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Euthanasia solution. 522.900 Section 522.900 Food... Euthanasia solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains: (1) 390 milligrams (mg.... For humane, painless, and rapid euthanasia. (2) Amount. One mL per 10 pounds of body weight....

  17. Singlet exciton fission in solution.

    PubMed

    Walker, Brian J; Musser, Andrew J; Beljonne, David; Friend, Richard H

    2013-12-01

    Singlet exciton fission, the spin-conserving process that produces two triplet excited states from one photoexcited singlet state, is a means to circumvent the Shockley-Queisser limit in single-junction solar cells. Although the process through which singlet fission occurs is not well characterized, some local order is thought to be necessary for intermolecular coupling. Here, we report a triplet yield of 200% and triplet formation rates approaching the diffusion limit in solutions of bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl (TIPS)) pentacene. We observe a transient bound excimer intermediate, formed by the collision of one photoexcited and one ground-state TIPS-pentacene molecule. The intermediate breaks up when the two triplets separate to each TIPS-pentacene molecule. This efficient system is a model for future singlet-fission materials and for disordered device components that produce cascades of excited states from sunlight. PMID:24256865

  18. Compressor solves solution gas bottleneck

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, K.J.; Lowe, F.

    1996-08-05

    A new turbine-driven, centrifugal compressor installation increased gas handling capacity in the Westerose D-3 oil reservoir, about 100 km south of Edmonton. Gulf Canada Resources Ltd.`s Westerose D-3 oil reservoir has prolifically produced oil for the last 3 decades. Produced gas has been reinjected into the gas cap to maintain heterogeneity and reservoir fluid interfaces. As oil production continues, increased quantities of solution gas must be handled by the Westerose facility. The cost-effective design of the new compressor installation was based on Gulf`s aggressive drilling program for recovering oil as quickly and economically as possible to reach full blowdown. The paper describes the design considerations, auxiliary equipment, costs, process flow, construction contracts, equipment and systems, and startup.

  19. Transport solutions for cleaner air.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Frank J; Zhu, Tong

    2016-05-20

    In cities across the globe, road transport remains an important source of air pollutants that are linked with acute and chronic health effects. Decreasing vehicle emissions--while maintaining or increasing commuter journeys--remains a major challenge for city administrators. In London, congestion-charging and a citywide low-emission zone failed to bring nitrogen dioxide concentrations under control. In Beijing, controls on the purchase and use of cars have not decreased transport emissions to a sufficient extent. As cities continue to grow, not even zero-emission vehicles are the solution. Moving increasingly large numbers of people efficiently around a city can only be achieved by expanding mass transit systems. PMID:27199415

  20. Solution synthesis of germanium nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Gerung, Henry; Boyle, Timothy J.; Bunge, Scott D.

    2009-09-22

    A method for providing a route for the synthesis of a Ge(0) nanometer-sized material from. A Ge(II) precursor is dissolved in a ligand heated to a temperature, generally between approximately 100.degree. C. and 400.degree. C., sufficient to thermally reduce the Ge(II) to Ge(0), where the ligand is a compound that can bond to the surface of the germanium nanomaterials to subsequently prevent agglomeration of the nanomaterials. The ligand encapsulates the surface of the Ge(0) material to prevent agglomeration. The resulting solution is cooled for handling, with the cooling characteristics useful in controlling the size and size distribution of the Ge(0) materials. The characteristics of the Ge(II) precursor determine whether the Ge(0) materials that result will be nanocrystals or nanowires.

  1. Analysis of Enterprise Workflow Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cui-E.; Wang, Shulin; Chen, Ying; Meng, Yang; Ma, Hua

    Since the 90’s, workflow technology has been widely applied in various industries, such as office automation(OA), manufacturing, telecommunications services, banking, securities, insurance and other financial services, research institutes and education services, and so on, to improve business process automation and integration capabilities. In this paper, based on Workflow theory, the author proposed a set of policy-based workflow approach in order to support dynamic workflow patterns. Through the expansion of the functions of Shark, it implemented a Workflow engine component-OAShark which can support retrieval / rollback function. The related classes were programmed. The technology was applied to the OA system of an enterprise project. The realization of the enterprise workflow solutions greatly improved the efficiency of the office automation.

  2. Singlet exciton fission in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Brian J.; Musser, Andrew J.; Beljonne, David; Friend, Richard H.

    2013-12-01

    Singlet exciton fission, the spin-conserving process that produces two triplet excited states from one photoexcited singlet state, is a means to circumvent the Shockley-Queisser limit in single-junction solar cells. Although the process through which singlet fission occurs is not well characterized, some local order is thought to be necessary for intermolecular coupling. Here, we report a triplet yield of 200% and triplet formation rates approaching the diffusion limit in solutions of bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl (TIPS)) pentacene. We observe a transient bound excimer intermediate, formed by the collision of one photoexcited and one ground-state TIPS-pentacene molecule. The intermediate breaks up when the two triplets separate to each TIPS-pentacene molecule. This efficient system is a model for future singlet-fission materials and for disordered device components that produce cascades of excited states from sunlight.

  3. Structure of supersaturated zincate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitrenko, V.E.; Balyakina, N.N.; Baulov, V.I.; Kotov, A.V.; Zubov, M.S.

    1985-09-01

    During the discharge of chemical power sources with zinc electrodes, supersaturated zincate solution (SZS) is formed from which zinc oxide or hydroxide precipitates as a function of time. The deposit detracts from the functioning of these power sources. In view of the model suggested for the structure of SZS, it is expected that a stabilizing effect would be exerted on SZS by compounds having proton-donating groups which do not give off the protons in the strongly alkaline medium and are not discharged in this medium. For a check of this, the authors chose to use xylitol and molasses in their experiments. The SZS were produced with a mock-up silver-zinc battery using the procedure previously described.

  4. Counting solutions from finite samplings.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiping; Zhou, Haijun

    2012-02-01

    We formulate the solution counting problem within the framework of the inverse Ising problem and use fast belief propagation equations to estimate the entropy whose value provides an estimate of the true one. We test this idea on both diluted models [random 2-SAT (2-satisfiability) and 3-SAT problems] and a fully connected model (binary perceptron), and show that when the constraint density is small, this estimate can be very close to the true value. The information stored by the salamander retina under the natural movie stimuli can also be estimated, and our result is consistent with that obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Of particular significance is that the sizes of other metastable states for this real neuronal network are predicted. PMID:22463290

  5. Counting solutions from finite samplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haiping; Zhou, Haijun

    2012-02-01

    We formulate the solution counting problem within the framework of the inverse Ising problem and use fast belief propagation equations to estimate the entropy whose value provides an estimate of the true one. We test this idea on both diluted models [random 2-SAT (2-satisfiability) and 3-SAT problems] and a fully connected model (binary perceptron), and show that when the constraint density is small, this estimate can be very close to the true value. The information stored by the salamander retina under the natural movie stimuli can also be estimated, and our result is consistent with that obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Of particular significance is that the sizes of other metastable states for this real neuronal network are predicted.

  6. Liquid crystal nanodroplets in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, W. Michael; Petersen, Matt K.; Plimpton, Steven J.; Grest, Gary S.

    2009-01-01

    The aggregation of liquid crystal nanodroplets from a homogeneous solution is studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The liquid crystal particles are modeled as elongated ellipsoidal Gay-Berne particles while the solvent is modeled as spherical Lennard-Jones particles. Extending previous studies of Berardi et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 126, 044905 (2007)], we find that liquid crystal nanodroplets are not stable and that after sufficiently long times the nanodroplets always aggregate into a single large droplet. Results describing the droplet shape and orientation for different temperatures and shear rates are presented. The implementation of the Gay-Berne potential for biaxial ellipsoidal particles in a parallel molecular dynamics code is also briefly discussed.

  7. Liquid crystal nanodroplets in solution.

    PubMed

    Brown, W Michael; Petersen, Matt K; Plimpton, Steven J; Grest, Gary S

    2009-01-28

    The aggregation of liquid crystal nanodroplets from a homogeneous solution is studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The liquid crystal particles are modeled as elongated ellipsoidal Gay-Berne particles while the solvent is modeled as spherical Lennard-Jones particles. Extending previous studies of Berardi et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 126, 044905 (2007)], we find that liquid crystal nanodroplets are not stable and that after sufficiently long times the nanodroplets always aggregate into a single large droplet. Results describing the droplet shape and orientation for different temperatures and shear rates are presented. The implementation of the Gay-Berne potential for biaxial ellipsoidal particles in a parallel molecular dynamics code is also briefly discussed. PMID:19191407

  8. Symmetries from the solution manifold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldaya, Víctor; Guerrero, Julio; Lopez-Ruiz, Francisco F.; Cossío, Francisco

    2015-07-01

    We face a revision of the role of symmetries of a physical system aiming at characterizing the corresponding Solution Manifold (SM) by means of Noether invariants as a preliminary step towards a proper, non-canonical, quantization. To this end, "point symmetries" of the Lagrangian are generally not enough, and we must resort to the more general concept of contact symmetries. They are defined in terms of the Poincaré-Cartan form, which allows us, in turn, to find the symplectic structure on the SM, through some sort of Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) transformation. These basic symmetries are realized as Hamiltonian vector fields, associated with (coordinate) functions on the SM, lifted back to the Evolution Manifold through the inverse of this HJ mapping, that constitutes an inverse of the Noether Theorem. The specific examples of a particle moving on S3, at the mechanical level, and nonlinear SU(2)-sigma model in field theory are sketched.

  9. Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    The Keystone Center

    2005-06-15

    The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association

  10. Removal of uranium from aqueous HF solutions

    DOEpatents

    Pulley, Howard; Seltzer, Steven F.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a simple and effective method for removing uranium from aqueous HF solutions containing trace quantities of the same. The method comprises contacting the solution with particulate calcium fluoride to form uranium-bearing particulates, permitting the particulates to settle, and separting the solution from the settled particulates. The CaF.sub.2 is selected to have a nitrogen surface area in a selected range and is employed in an amount providing a calcium fluoride/uranium weight ratio in a selected range. As applied to dilute HF solutions containing 120 ppm uranium, the method removes at least 92% of the uranium, without introducing contaminants to the product solution.

  11. Linearized multipole solutions and their representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Pastora, J. L.

    2013-09-01

    The monopole solution of the Einstein vacuum field equations (Schwarzschild’s solution) in Weyl coordinates involves a metric function that can be interpreted as the gravitational potential of a bar of length 2 m with constant linear density. The question addressed in this work is whether similar representations can be constructed for Weyl solutions other than the spherically symmetric one. A new family of static solutions of the axisymmetric vacuum field equations generalizing the M-Q(1) solution (Hernández-Pastora and Martín 1993 Class. Quantum Grav.10 2581) is developed. These represent slight deviations from spherical symmetry in terms of the relativistic multipole moments (RMM) we wish the solution to contain. A Newtonian object referred to as a dumbbell can be used to describe these solutions in a simple form by means of the density of this object, since the physical properties of the relativistic solution are characterized by its behaviour. The density profile of the dumbbell, which is given in terms of the RMM of the solution, allows us to distinguish general multipole Weyl solutions from the constant-density Schwarzschild solution. The range of values of the multipole moments that generate positive-definite density profiles is also calculated. The bounds on the multipole moments that arise from this density condition are identical to those required for a well-behaved infinite-redshift surface g00 = 0.

  12. Gravitational multisoliton solutions on flat space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu

    2016-02-01

    It is well known that, for even n , the n -soliton solution on the Minkowski seed, constructed using the inverse-scattering method (ISM) of Belinski and Zakharov (BZ), is the multi-Kerr-NUT solution. We show that, for odd n , the natural seed to use is the Euclidean space with two manifest translational symmetries, and the n -soliton solution is the accelerating multi-Kerr-NUT solution. We thus define the n -soliton solution on flat space for any positive integer n . It admits both Lorentzian and Euclidean sections. In the latter section, we find that a number, say m , of solitons can be eliminated in a nontrivial way by appropriately fixing their corresponding so-called BZ parameters. The resulting solutions, which may split into separate classes, are collectively denoted as [n -m ]-soliton solutions on flat space. We then carry out a systematic study of the n - and [n -m ]-soliton solutions on flat space. This includes, in particular, an explicit presentation of their ISM construction, an analysis of their local geometries, and a classification of all separate classes of solutions they form. We also show how even-soliton solutions on the seeds of the collinearly centered Gibbons-Hawking and Taub-NUT arise from these solutions.

  13. Kirkwood-Buff integrals for ideal solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ploetz, Elizabeth A.; Bentenitis, Nikolaos; Smith, Paul E.

    2010-04-01

    The Kirkwood-Buff (KB) theory of solutions is a rigorous theory of solution mixtures which relates the molecular distributions between the solution components to the thermodynamic properties of the mixture. Ideal solutions represent a useful reference for understanding the properties of real solutions. Here, we derive expressions for the KB integrals, the central components of KB theory, in ideal solutions of any number of components corresponding to the three main concentration scales. The results are illustrated by use of molecular dynamics simulations for two binary solutions mixtures, benzene with toluene, and methanethiol with dimethylsulfide, which closely approach ideal behavior, and a binary mixture of benzene and methanol which is nonideal. Simulations of a quaternary mixture containing benzene, toluene, methanethiol, and dimethylsulfide suggest this system displays ideal behavior and that ideal behavior is not limited to mixtures containing a small number of components.

  14. Stability of PMR-polyimide monomer solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauver, R. W.; Alston, W. B.; Vannucci, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The stability of alcohol solutions of norborneyl capped PMR-polyimide resins was monitored during storage at ambient and subambient temperatures. Chemical changes during storage were determined spectroscopically using nuclear magnetic resonance. Resin processability and cured resin quality were determined by fabrication of unidirectional, graphite fiber composites using aged solutions and testing of selected composite properties. PMR-15 solutions exhibit nominally two weeks of useful life and PMR-2 solutions exhibit nominally two days of useful life at ambient conditions. The limiting factor is precipitation of imide reaction produces from the monomer solutions. Both solutions exhibit substantially longer useful lifetimes in subambient storage. PMR-15 shows no precipitation after several months storage at subambient temperatures. PMR-2 solutions do exhibit precipitates after extended subambient storage, however, the precipitates formed under these conditions can be redissolved. The chemical implications of these observations are discussed.

  15. Hyperosmolar cold storage kidney preservative solution.

    PubMed

    Masuda, J Y; Bleich, R N; Beckerman, J H

    1975-04-01

    A hyperosmolar kidney preservative solution which can maintain kidneys from experimental animals viable for up to 72 hours is described. Using the criterion of a one-month failure rate, the cold storage preservation method was found to be superior to machine preservation methods. Sachs' solution was found to be superior to all other cold storage solutions. The most important aspect of the hyperosmolar kidney preservative solution appears to be its ability to maintain normal intracellular electrolyte composition and to prevent cellular damage due to swelling. The present formula requires that the basic solution and a magnesium chloride additive solution be prepared separately and combined before use. A stable combined solution is proposed which can be sterilized by membrane filtration. PMID:1130414

  16. Pollution! Find a STEM solution!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takač, Danijela; Moćan, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Primary and secondary school Pantovčak is an innovative school in downtown Zagreb, Croatia. The school is involved in many projects concerning STEM education. Pollution! Find a STEM solution! is a two year long cross-curricular project that grew out of identified need to develop STEM and ICT skills more. Pisa results make evident that students' knowledge is poor and motivation for math and similar subjects is low. Implying priorities of European Commission, like e-learning, raises motivation and also develops basic skills and improves knowledge in science, math, physic, ICT. Main objectives are to increase students' interest in STEM education and careers and introduce them to all available new trends in technology, engineering and science in their region by visiting clean technology industries and strengthening links with them, to introduce some future digital jobs and prepare students for rapid technological changes by integrating ICT into classroom practice more, to highlight the importance of global environmental issues and improve the knowledge in the areas of sustainable development and renewable energy, to develop collaborative partnership between schools and the wider community in formal, non-formal and informal learning, to support multilingualism by publishing Open Educational Resources in 8 different languages and to strengthen the professional profile of the teaching profession. The project brings together 231 teachers and 2729 students from five different European countries in learning to think globally and work on activities that contribute to the community's well-being. There are altogether 33 activities, divided in 4 categories. STEM activities are focused on students building the devices for measuring air, light and noise pollution in their school and homes. They use the scientific method to analyze the data and compare the results with their peers to find a solution. Eskills, digital literacy and digital jobs are focused on introducing career

  17. UXDs-Driven Transferring Method from TRIZ Solution to Domain Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lihui; Cao, Guozhong; Chang, Yunxia; Wei, Zihui; Ma, Kai

    The translation process from TRIZ solutions to domain solutions is an analogy-based process. TRIZ solutions, such as 40 inventive principles and the related cases, are medium-solutions for domain problems. Unexpected discoveries (UXDs) are the key factors to trigger designers to generate new ideas for domain solutions. The Algorithm of UXD resolving based on Means-Ends Analysis(MEA) is studied and an UXDs-driven transferring method from TRIZ solution to domain solution is formed. A case study shows the application of the process.

  18. One solution for two problems.

    PubMed

    This article presents Dr. Nicky Padayachee's resolution concerning AIDS and its effect on the problem of overpopulation. Dr. Nicky Padayachee of Johannesburg City Council's Health Department stated that both of these problems pose a threat to the economic development with solutions depending on the development of the country. The increasing population of South Africa in comparison with its economic decline resulted to unemployment and high fertility. It has been proposed that the local government should double its efforts in the promotion of family planning through the provision of electricity and using television as a mode of disseminating family planning information. Further, a strict implementation of optimal urbanization, education and general economic development opportunity for all individuals was suggested. It was estimated that 2.5-7.5 million people will be HIV-positive by the year 2005, and any long-term planning would need essential re-examination and review as the demographic situation unfolds. AIDS education was insufficient by itself to control AIDS, but the stability in education, family life and empowerment of women were important in the implementation of any AIDS prevention program. Generally, development plays a major role in the decrease of AIDS and fertility by providing individuals with opportunities and jobs. On his last statement, he concluded that the best treatment for AIDS and population growth is a job. PMID:12349359

  19. Solution equilibria of deferoxamine amides.

    PubMed

    Ihnat, Peter M; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L; Robinson, Dennis H

    2002-07-01

    The physico-chemical solution properties of deferoxamine were modified by acylating the terminal amino group with short-chain aliphatic, succinic, and methylsulphonic moieties. The analog iron(III)-binding constants and stabilities under physiological conditions were determined to confirm that the iron binding ability of the parent molecule was retained following modification. The proton dissociation constants of the lipophilic deferoxamine analogs were determined by potentiometric titration and nonlinear least-squares analysis. However, because the iron(III) binding complex is fully formed below pH 2, the metal-ligand equilibria could not be studied using potentiometric methods. The iron binding constants of the deferoxamine analogs were determined by spectrophotometrically following the proton-dependent exchange of iron with EDTA in the pH range of 4.0 to 6.5 and solving mass balance equations. The proton-dissociation constants and the iron binding constants of the lipophilic deferoxamine analogs were comparable to those of deferoxamine. However, at physiological conditions, the iron-binding complex of the most lipophilic butylamide derivative was slightly less stable and the succinamide derivative complex was slightly more stable. Like deferoxamine, the hydroxamate groups of the analogs were unhindered and free to form a 1:1 coordination complex with iron(III). Consequently, changes in aqueous solvation, conformation, and steric interference, imparted by the modifications at the terminal amino group of deferoxamine, may have affected the stabilities of the iron(III) complex and the efficiency of iron binding. PMID:12115836

  20. Innovative Solution to Video Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Through a licensing agreement, Intergraph Government Solutions adapted a technology originally developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center for enhanced video imaging by developing its Video Analyst(TM) System. Marshall's scientists developed the Video Image Stabilization and Registration (VISAR) technology to help FBI agents analyze video footage of the deadly 1996 Olympic Summer Games bombing in Atlanta, Georgia. VISAR technology enhanced nighttime videotapes made with hand-held camcorders, revealing important details about the explosion. Intergraph's Video Analyst System is a simple, effective, and affordable tool for video enhancement and analysis. The benefits associated with the Video Analyst System include support of full-resolution digital video, frame-by-frame analysis, and the ability to store analog video in digital format. Up to 12 hours of digital video can be stored and maintained for reliable footage analysis. The system also includes state-of-the-art features such as stabilization, image enhancement, and convolution to help improve the visibility of subjects in the video without altering underlying footage. Adaptable to many uses, Intergraph#s Video Analyst System meets the stringent demands of the law enforcement industry in the areas of surveillance, crime scene footage, sting operations, and dash-mounted video cameras.

  1. Solution properties of polygalacturonic acid

    PubMed Central

    Stoddart, R. W.; Spires, I. P. C.; Tipton, K. F.

    1969-01-01

    1. The specimen of polygalacturonic acid used in these studies was shown to contain very little neutral sugar, methyl ester groups or ash, and only residues of galacturonic acid. Its electrophoretic homogeneity was examined in pyridine–acetic acid buffer at pH6·5 and in borate buffer at pH9·2. The distribution of effective particle weights was shown to be fairly narrow. 2. The pH-titration curve of the polymer gave a pK value of 3·7. 3. The interaction of the polymer with Ruthenium Red was studied and titration curves were obtained for the spectral shifts associated with the formation of a complex. 4. Optical-rotatory-dispersion studies showed that the Drude constant, λc, was dependent on pH. 5. Polygalacturonic acid was shown to display non-Newtonian properties in solution and to have an anomalously high relative specific viscosity at low concentrations. 6. Studies were made of the pH-dependence of the sedimentation coefficient of the polymer. 7. These results are discussed in terms of the structure of the molecule and their relevance to the properties of pectic substances. PMID:5343801

  2. Progress towards daily "swath" solutions from GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Save, H.; Bettadpur, S. V.; Sakumura, C.

    2015-12-01

    The GRACE mission has provided invaluable and the only data of its kind that measures the total water column in the Earth System over the past 13 years. The GRACE solutions available from the project have been monthly average solutions. There have been attempts by several groups to produce shorter time-window solutions with different techniques. There is also an experimental quick-look GRACE solution available from CSR that implements a sliding window approach while applying variable daily data weights. All of these GRACE solutions require special handling for data assimilation. This study explores the possibility of generating a true daily GRACE solution by computing a daily "swath" total water storage (TWS) estimate from GRACE using the Tikhonov regularization and high resolution monthly mascon estimation implemented at CSR. This paper discusses the techniques for computing such a solution and discusses the error and uncertainty characterization. We perform comparisons with official RL05 GRACE solutions and with alternate mascon solutions from CSR to understand the impact on the science results. We evaluate these solutions with emphasis on the temporal characteristics of the signal content and validate them against multiple models and in-situ data sets.

  3. Process for recovering tungsten from organic solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, J.A.; Patton, J.C.; Christini, J.N.

    1989-11-21

    This patent describes on improvement in a process wherein tungsten values are extracted from an aqueous alkali metal tungstate solution containing impurities by an organic solution containing an amine extractant wherein the organic solution consists essentially of from about 6% to about 10% by volume of the amine extractant, and the balance of the organic solution being an aromatic solvent consisting essentially of a mixture of alkyl benzenes wherein the alkyl benzenes have molecular weights of 120, 134, or 148, and the total number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chains attached to the benzene ring are either 3, 4, or 5, and thereafter the tungsten values are removed from the organic solution by contacting the organic solution with a stripping agent to form a tungsten containing strip solution. The improvement comprises carrying out the stripping step in an aqueous continuous mode, and having as the stripping agent, an aqueous solution formed from ammonium metatungstate. Wherein the aqueous solution has a tungsten concentration which allows the tungsten containing strip solution to have a specific gravity of no greater than about 1.5, and sufficient ammonia to maintain the pH of the stripping agent at from about 5 to about 8.

  4. Local Density Profiles are Coupled to Solute Size and Attractive Potential for Nanoscopic Hydrophobic Solutes.

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, Niharendu; Pettitt, Bernard M.

    2005-05-15

    We employ constant pressure molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the effects of solute size and solute-water dispersion interactions on the salvation behavior of nanoscopic hydrpophobic model solutes in water at normal temperature and pressure. The hydration behavior around a single planar atomic model solute as well as a pair of such solutes have been considered. The hydration water structure of a model nanoscopic solute with standard Lennard-Jones interaction is shown to be significantly different from that of their purely repulsive analogues. The density of water in the first salvation shell of a Lennard-Jones solute is much higher than that of bulk water and it remains almost unchanged with the increase of the solute dimensions from one to a few nanometers. On the other hand, for a purely repulsive analogue of the above model, solute hydration behavior shows a marked solute size dependence. The contact density of water in this case decreases with the increasing dimension of the solute. We also demonstrate the effect of solute-solvent attraction on the cavity formation in the inter solute region between two solutes with an inter solute separation of 6.8A, corresponding to the first solvent separated minimum in the free energy Profile as obtained in our earlier work.

  5. Coupled Fluid Energy Solute Transport

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-02-13

    CFEST is a Coupled Fluid, Energy, and Solute Transport code for the study of a multilayered, nonisothermal ground-water system. It can model discontinuous as well as continuous layers, time-dependent and constant source/sinks, and transient as well as steady-state flow. The finite element method is used for analyzing isothermal and nonisothermal events in a confined aquifer system. Only single-phase Darcian flow is considered. In the Cartesian coordinate system, flow in a horizontal plane, in a verticalmore » plane, or in a fully three-dimensional region can be simulated. An option also exists for the axisymmetric analysis of a vertical cross section. The code employs bilinear quadrilateral elements in all two dimensional analyses and trilinear quadrilateral solid elements in three dimensional simulations. The CFEST finite element formulation can approximate discontinuities, major breaks in slope or thickness, and fault zones in individual hydrogeologic units. The code accounts for heterogeneity in aquifer permeability and porosity and accommodates anisotropy (collinear with the Cartesian coordinates). The variation in the hydraulic properties is described on a layer-by-layer basis for the different hydrogeologic units. Initial conditions can be prescribed hydraulic head or pressure, temperature, or concentration. CFEST can be used to support site, repository, and waste package subsystem assessments. Some specific applications are regional hydrologic characterization; simulation of coupled transport of fluid, heat, and salinity in the repository region; consequence assessment due to natural disruption or human intrusion scenarios in the repository region; flow paths and travel-time estimates for transport of radionuclides; and interpretation of well and tracer tests.« less

  6. Technical solutions to nonproliferation challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Satkowiak, Lawrence

    2014-05-09

    The threat of nuclear terrorism is real and poses a significant challenge to both U.S. and global security. For terrorists, the challenge is not so much the actual design of an improvised nuclear device (IND) but more the acquisition of the special nuclear material (SNM), either highly enriched uranium (HEU) or plutonium, to make the fission weapon. This paper provides two examples of technical solutions that were developed in support of the nonproliferation objective of reducing the opportunity for acquisition of HEU. The first example reviews technologies used to monitor centrifuge enrichment plants to determine if there is any diversion of uranium materials or misuse of facilities to produce undeclared product. The discussion begins with a brief overview of the basics of uranium processing and enrichment. The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), its safeguard objectives and how the technology evolved to meet those objectives will be described. The second example focuses on technologies developed and deployed to monitor the blend down of 500 metric tons of HEU from Russia's dismantled nuclear weapons to reactor fuel or low enriched uranium (LEU) under the U.S.-Russia HEU Purchase Agreement. This reactor fuel was then purchased by U.S. fuel fabricators and provided about half the fuel for the domestic power reactors. The Department of Energy established the HEU Transparency Program to provide confidence that weapons usable HEU was being blended down and thus removed from any potential theft scenario. Two measurement technologies, an enrichment meter and a flow monitor, were combined into an automated blend down monitoring system (BDMS) and were deployed to four sites in Russia to provide 24/7 monitoring of the blend down. Data was downloaded and analyzed periodically by inspectors to provide the assurances required.

  7. Technical solutions to nonproliferation challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satkowiak, Lawrence

    2014-05-01

    The threat of nuclear terrorism is real and poses a significant challenge to both U.S. and global security. For terrorists, the challenge is not so much the actual design of an improvised nuclear device (IND) but more the acquisition of the special nuclear material (SNM), either highly enriched uranium (HEU) or plutonium, to make the fission weapon. This paper provides two examples of technical solutions that were developed in support of the nonproliferation objective of reducing the opportunity for acquisition of HEU. The first example reviews technologies used to monitor centrifuge enrichment plants to determine if there is any diversion of uranium materials or misuse of facilities to produce undeclared product. The discussion begins with a brief overview of the basics of uranium processing and enrichment. The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), its safeguard objectives and how the technology evolved to meet those objectives will be described. The second example focuses on technologies developed and deployed to monitor the blend down of 500 metric tons of HEU from Russia's dismantled nuclear weapons to reactor fuel or low enriched uranium (LEU) under the U.S.-Russia HEU Purchase Agreement. This reactor fuel was then purchased by U.S. fuel fabricators and provided about half the fuel for the domestic power reactors. The Department of Energy established the HEU Transparency Program to provide confidence that weapons usable HEU was being blended down and thus removed from any potential theft scenario. Two measurement technologies, an enrichment meter and a flow monitor, were combined into an automated blend down monitoring system (BDMS) and were deployed to four sites in Russia to provide 24/7 monitoring of the blend down. Data was downloaded and analyzed periodically by inspectors to provide the assurances required.

  8. Desiccation kinetics of biopreservation solutions in microchannels

    PubMed Central

    Aksan, Alptekin; Irimia, Daniel; He, Xiaoming; Toner, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    A microfluidic device was utilized to measure the viscosity gradients formed in carbohydrate solutions of biological significance during desiccation and skin formation. A complementary numerical model employed the free volume theory to predict the concentration-dependent diffusion coefficients and viscosity gradients in concentrated solutions. It was established that the glassy skin formation at the gas-liquid interface played a key role in water entrapment and the formation and persistence of very steep concentration and viscosity gradients in the desiccating solutions. The results of this study highlighted an important phenomenon that should be accounted for during isothermal drying of glass-forming solutions: solutions with high glass transition temperatures, inevitably, dry heterogeneously. In the final product, there are significant spatial variations in water and solute content affecting the storage stability. PMID:24155501

  9. METHOD FOR DECONTAMINATION OF REACTOR SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Maraman, W.J.; Baxman, H.R.; Baker, R.D.

    1959-05-01

    A process for U recovery from phosphate fuel solutions is described. To fuel solution drawn from the reactor is added Fe(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/ which destroys the U complex and forms ferric phosphate complex. The UO/sub 2/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ formed is extracted into TBP-kerosene in a countercurrent column. The TBP contalning UO/sub 2/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ is further purified by an aqueous Al(NO/ sub 3/)/sub 3/ scrub solution. The pregnant solution then goes to an H/sub 3/PO/ sub 4/ stripping and kerosene washing column. The H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/--uranyl phosphate solution is separated at the bottom and boiled to remove HNO/sub 3/ then diluted to fuel solution make-up strength. (T.R.H.)

  10. New knotted solutions of Maxwell's equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyos, Carlos; Sircar, Nilanjan; Sonnenschein, Jacob

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we have further developed the study of topologically non-trivial solutions of vacuum electrodynamics. We have discovered a novel method of generating such solutions by applying conformal transformations with complex parameters on known solutions expressed in terms of Bateman's variables. This has enabled us to obtain a wide class of solutions from the basic configuration, such as constant electromagnetic fields and plane-waves. We have introduced a covariant formulation of Bateman's construction and discussed the conserved charges associated with the conformal group as well as a set of four types of conserved helicities. We have also given a formulation in terms of quaternions. This led to a simple map between the electromagnetic knotted and linked solutions into flat connections of SU(2) gauge theory. We have computed the corresponding Chern-Simons charge in a class of solutions and the charge takes integer values.

  11. Determination of pressure solution shortening in sandstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onasch, Charles M.

    1993-11-01

    A new method for the determination of pressure solution shortening in sandstones uses the geometry of grain-to-grain interpenetrations and grains truncated against solution surfaces. These features are used to construct plots from which the magnitude and direction of the pressure solution shortening can be determined. Using simulated pressure solution deformation of artificial and natural grain populations, the new method is shown to correctly assess a variety of coaxial and non-coaxial shortenings. Although primarily intended to determine shortening, the method can also quantify extension related to growth of beards or overgrowths during pressure solution. Application of the method to naturally deformed quartz arenite samples shows that pressure solution shortening of up to 26% occurred during compaction and 22% during layer-parallel shortening.

  12. Supergravity solutions without triholomorphic U(1) isometries

    SciTech Connect

    Ghezelbash, A. M.

    2008-12-15

    We investigate the construction of five-dimensional supergravity solutions that do not have any triholomorphic U(1) isometries. We construct a class of solutions that in various limits of parameters reduces to many of previously constructed five-dimensional supergravity solutions based on both hyper-Kaehler base spaces that can be put into a Gibbons-Hawking form and hyper-Kaehler base spaces that cannot be put into a Gibbons-Hawking form. We find a new solution which is over triaxial Bianchi type IX Einstein-hyper-Kaehler base space with no triholomorphic U(1) symmetry. One special case of this solution corresponds to a five-dimensional solution based on Eguchi-Hanson type II geometry.

  13. Evaluation of taste solutions by sensor fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, Yohichiro; Sato, Eriko; Atobe, Masahiko; Nakashima, Miki; Kato, Yukihisa; Nonoue, Koichi; Yamano, Yoshimasa

    2009-05-23

    In our previous studies, properties of taste solutions were discriminated based on sound velocity and amplitude of ultrasonic waves propagating through the solutions. However, to make this method applicable to beverages which contain many taste substances, further studies are required. In this study, the waveform of an ultrasonic wave with frequency of approximately 5 MHz propagating through a solution was measured and subjected to frequency analysis. Further, taste sensors require various techniques of sensor fusion to effectively obtain chemical and physical parameter of taste solutions. A sensor fusion method of ultrasonic wave sensor and various sensors, such as the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor, to estimate tastes were proposed and examined in this report. As a result, differences among pure water and two basic taste solutions were clearly observed as differences in their properties. Furthermore, a self-organizing neural network was applied to obtained data which were used to clarify the differences among solutions.

  14. Canard solutions near a degenerate turning point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forget, T.

    2006-12-01

    We are interested in the study of canard solutions in a singularly perturbed real first order ODE of the form epsilonu' = Ψ(x, u, a, epsilon), where epsilon > 0 is a small parameter, and a in Script R is a control parameter. An existence result for such solutions is given, and the method used in the demonstration allow us to conjecture the existence of a generalized epsilon1/(p+1)-asymptotic expansion for those solutions.

  15. Electric birefringencies and solute conformations of arylstannanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Gregory W.; Armstrong, Robert S.; Aroney, Manuel J.; Skamp, Keith R.

    1986-07-01

    Measurements of the infinite-dilution dipole moments and molar Kerr constants of Ph 3SnCl, Ph 3SnBr, Ph 3SnI and Ph 2SnCl 2 are reported in carbon tetrachloride solution at 298 K and for light of wavelength of 589 nm. The data are analysed to deduce the preferred solute conformations. Comparison is made with the solute stereo-structures of the C, Si and Ge analogues.

  16. Program for solution of ordinary differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sloate, H.

    1973-01-01

    A program for the solution of linear and nonlinear first order ordinary differential equations is described and user instructions are included. The program contains a new integration algorithm for the solution of initial value problems which is particularly efficient for the solution of differential equations with a wide range of eigenvalues. The program in its present form handles up to ten state variables, but expansion to handle up to fifty state variables is being investigated.

  17. Anodizing And Sealing Aluminum In Nonchromated Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmons, John R.; Kallenborn, Kelli J.

    1995-01-01

    Improved process for anodizing and sealing aluminum involves use of 5 volume percent sulfuric acid in water as anodizing solution, and 1.5 to 2.0 volume percent nickel acetate in water as sealing solution. Replaces process in which sulfuric acid used at concentrations of 10 to 20 percent. Improved process yields thinner coats offering resistance to corrosion, fatigue life, and alloy-to-alloy consistency equal to or superior to those of anodized coats produced with chromated solutions.

  18. RECOVERY OF TETRAVALENT CATIONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.L.

    1958-05-01

    The recovery of plutonium, zirconium, and tetravalent cerium values from aqueous solutions is described. It consists of adding an alkyl phosphate to a nnineral acid aqueous solution containing the metal to be recovered, whereby a precipitate forms with the tetravalent values, and separating the precipitate from the solution. All alkyl phosphates, if water-soluble, are suitable for the process; however, monobutyl phosphate has been found best.

  19. Tack behavior of coating solutions III.

    PubMed

    Chopra, S K; Tawashi, R

    1985-07-01

    The effect of finely divided solids on the tackiness of coating solutions was determined using a parallel-plate technique. Results demonstrated that the tackiness of coating solutions containing relatively low concentration of polymers augments with the increase in concentration and diminishes with the increasing particle size of finely divided solids. In contrast, the tackiness of coating solutions containing high concentrations of polymers is suppressed upon increasing the concentration and decreasing the size of finely divided solids. PMID:4032247

  20. Robinson-Trautman solution with scalar hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahamtan, T.; Svítek, O.

    2015-05-01

    The explicit Robinson-Trautman solution with a minimally coupled free scalar field is derived and analyzed. It is shown that this solution contains curvature singularity, which is initially naked but later enveloped by the horizon. We use the quasilocal horizon definition and prove its existence in later retarded times using sub- and supersolution method combined with growth estimates. We show that the solution is generally of algebraic type II but reduces to type D in spherical symmetry.

  1. Spurious Numerical Solutions Of Differential Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafon, A.; Yee, H. C.

    1995-01-01

    Paper presents detailed study of spurious steady-state numerical solutions of differential equations that contain nonlinear source terms. Main objectives of this study are (1) to investigate how well numerical steady-state solutions of model nonlinear reaction/convection boundary-value problem mimic true steady-state solutions and (2) to relate findings of this investigation to implications for interpretation of numerical results from computational-fluid-dynamics algorithms and computer codes used to simulate reacting flows.

  2. Partnering for A Solution: A Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jimenez-Smith, Deyrah

    2003-01-01

    A material-related issue has been identified, which has the potential of impacting the Space Program. Although "in-house" efforts have been underway to solve the problem, a solution has not yet been reached. This presentation shows how a GIDEP member organization is using a Problem Advisory as a solution approach in an effort to receive information from other industry and/or government organizations that may contribute in finding a solution.

  3. Cosmological string solutions by dimensional reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Behrndt, K.; Foerste, S.

    1993-12-01

    We obtain cosmological four dimensional solutions of the low energy effective string theory by reducing a five dimensional black hole, and black hole-de Sitter solution of the Einstein gravity down to four dimensions. The appearance of a cosmological constant in the five dimensional Einstein-Hilbert produces a special dilaton potential in the four dimensional effective string action. Cosmological scenarios implement by our solutions are discussed.

  4. Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    1995-01-01

    A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate, the at least one alkali metal nitrate having a concentration of from about 0.1 to 6 molar. The solution is contacted with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution. The solvent containing the technetium values is separated from the aqueous alkaline solution and the technetium values are stripped from the solvent.

  5. Processing Solutions for Big Data in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillatre, L.; Lepiller, D.

    2016-09-01

    This paper gives a simple introduction to processing solutions applied to massive amounts of data. It proposes a general presentation of the Big Data paradigm. The Hadoop framework, which is considered as the pioneering processing solution for Big Data, is described together with YARN, the integrated Hadoop tool for resource allocation. This paper also presents the main tools for the management of both the storage (NoSQL solutions) and computing capacities (MapReduce parallel processing schema) of a cluster of machines. Finally, more recent processing solutions like Spark are discussed. Big Data frameworks are now able to run complex applications while keeping the programming simple and greatly improving the computing speed.

  6. RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Reber, E.J.

    1959-09-01

    A process is described for recovering plutonium values from aqueous solutions by precipitation on bismuth phosphate. The plutonium is secured in its tetravalent state. bismuth salt is added to the solution, and ant excess of phosphoric acid anions is added to the solution in two approximately equal installments. The rate of addition of the first installment is about two to three times as high as the rate of addition of the second installment, whereby a precipitate of bismuth phosphate forms, the precipitate carrying the plutonium values. The precipitate is separated from the solution.

  7. Geometrical and Graphical Solutions of Quadratic Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornsby, E. John, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are several geometrical and graphical methods of solving quadratic equations. Discussed are Greek origins, Carlyle's method, von Staudt's method, fixed graph methods and imaginary solutions. (CW)

  8. Classical Solution Thermodynamics: A Retrospective View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ness, H. C.; Abbott, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    Examines topics related to classical solution thermodynamics, considering energy, enthalpy, and the Gibbs function. Applicable mathematical equations are introduced and discussed when appropriate. (JN)

  9. Ionic solutes impact collagen scaffold bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Pawelec, K M; Husmann, A; Wardale, R J; Best, S M; Cameron, R E

    2015-02-01

    The structure of ice-templated collagen scaffolds is sensitive to many factors. By adding 0.5 wt% of sodium chloride or sucrose to collagen slurries, scaffold structure could be tuned through changes in ice growth kinetics and interactions of the solute and collagen. With ionic solutes (sodium chloride) the entanglements of the collagen molecule decreased, leading to fibrous scaffolds with increased pore size and decreased attachment of chondrocytes. With non-ionic solutes (sucrose) ice growth was slowed, leading to significantly reduced pore size and up-regulated cell attachment. This highlights the large changes in structure and biological function stimulated by solutes in ice-templating systems. PMID:25649518

  10. Water control well treating solution and method

    SciTech Connect

    Boles, J. L.; Mancillas, G.

    1984-10-16

    A well treating solution is shown for changing the relative permeability of a formation being treated to water. The solution is made by mixing an amphoteric polymeric material, a mutual solvent and a surface active agent in a brine carrier liquid. The well treating solution is injected into the formation at pump rates below the fracture gradient of the formation. The well is briefly shut-in, after which production can be resumed. The treating solution and method taught lower the permeability of the producing formation to water without substantially affecting the formation's permeability to oil and gas.