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Sample records for 33-tev pb ions

  1. 207Pb NMR in minium, Pb3O4: Evidence for the [Pb2]4+ ion andpossible relativistic effects in the Pb-Pb bond

    SciTech Connect

    Gabuda, S.P.; Kozlova, S.G.; Terskikh, V.V.; Dybowski, C.; Neue,G.; Perry, D.L.

    1999-07-18

    Solid Pb3O4 has been studied with 207Pb nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The 207Pb NMR chemical-shift tensor of the Pb2+ site has principal values of delta 11=1980+-5 ppm, delta 22=1540+-5ppm, and delta 33=-1108+-10 ppm; delta iso=804+-10 ppm. The chemical-shift tensor of the Pb4+ site is axial, with principal values delta bar bar=-1009+-3 ppm and delta perpendicular=1132+-3 ppm; delta iso=-1091+-3ppm. The Pb4+ Pb2+ scalar coupling constant JPb Pb=2.3+-0.1 kHz. The main contribution to the Pb2+ chemical-shift anisotropy is proposed to arise from an exchange interaction in the Pb2+ Pb2+ pairs, conventionally regarded as molecular [Pb2]4+ ions.

  2. Size evolution of ion beam synthesized Pb nanoparticles in Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huan; Zhu, Hongzhi

    2014-07-01

    The size evolution of Pb nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized by ion implantation in an epitaxial Al film has been experimentally investigated. The average radius R of Pb NPs was determined as a function of implantation fluence f. The R( f) data were analyzed using various growth models. Our observations suggest that the size evolution of Pb NPs is controlled by the diffusion-limited growth kinetics ( R 2∝ f). With increasing implantation current density, the diffusion coefficient of Pb atoms in Al is evident to be enhanced. By a comparative analysis of the R( f) data, values of the diffusion coefficient of Pb in Al were obtained.

  3. Effect of Pb2+ ions on photosynthetic apparatus.

    PubMed

    Sersen, Frantisek; Kralova, Katarina; Pesko, Matus; Cigan, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Using model lead compounds Pb(NO3)2 and Pb(CH3CHOO)2, the mechanism and the site of action of Pb2+ ions in the photosynthetic apparatus of spinach chloroplasts were studied. Both compounds inhibited photosynthetic electron transport (PET) through photosystem 1 (PS1) and photosystem 2 (PS2), while Pb(NO3)2 was found to be more effective PET inhibitor. Using EPR spectroscopy the following sites of Pb2+ action in the photosynthetic apparatus were determined: the water-splitting complex and the Z•/D• intermediates on the donor side of PS2 and probably also the ferredoxin on the acceptor side of PS1, because cyclic electron flow in chloroplasts was impaired by treatment with Pb2+ ions. Study of chlorophyll fluorescence in suspension of spinach chloroplasts in the presence of Pb2+ ions confirmed their site of action in PS2. Using fluorescence spectroscopy also formation of complexes between Pb2+ and amino acid residues in photosynthetic proteins was confirmed and constants of complex formation among Pb2+ and aromatic amino acids were calculated for both studied lead compounds. PMID:24177022

  4. Electrostatic potential of ferroelectric PbTiO{sub 3}: Visualized electron polarization of Pb ion

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro; Takata, Masaki

    2006-11-01

    A different method is proposed to evaluate the electrostatic potential and electric field from x-ray diffraction data by using maximum entropy method. The efficiency of the method is revealed in the application to a ferroelectric material PbTiO{sub 3}. Visualized electrostatic potential and electric field on the charge density distribution give a direct evidence for the dipolar polarization of the Pb ion. They show close agreement with results by ab initio calculations.

  5. Pb(II) ion-imprinted micro-porous particles for the selective separation of Pb(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yang; Kim, Dukjoon

    2014-11-01

    Pb(II) ion-imprinted micro-porous particles were prepared from the ionic complexes formed between vinyl pyridine functional monomers and template Pb(II) ions. The self-assembled Pb(II)/monomer complex was suspension polymerized in the presence of divinylbenzene cross-linker. The prepared micro-particles were 400-600 μm in size. Their chemical and physical structures, morphologies, and adsorption capacity were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, scanningelectron microscopy (SEM), and atomic adsorption spectroscopy (AAS). The adsorption capacity of the imprinted polymer for the Pb(II) template ions was significantly affected by the initial concentration and the pH of the feed solution. Adsorptionis rapid in the first 1 h, after which it slowly increases to equilibrium. The imprinted particles showed high selectivity for lead ions; the adsorption capacity for the Pb(II) ions, 28 mg g(-1) polymer, was much higher than those for other metal ions such as Ni(II)Zn(II), Fe(II), or Cd(II). The imprinted particles maintain high standards of their adsorption ability after 10 repeated uses. PMID:25958566

  6. Ancient Pb and Ti mobilization revealed by Scanning Ion Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusiak, Monika A.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Wilde, Simon A.

    2014-05-01

    Zircons from strongly layered early Archean ortho- and paragneisses in ultra-high temperature (UHT) metamorphic rocks of the Napier Complex, Enderby Land, East Antarctica are characterized by complex U-Th-Pb systematics [1,2,3]. A large number of zircons from three samples, Gage Ridge, Mount Sones and Dallwitz Nunatak, are reversely discordant (U/Pb ages older than 207Pb/206Pb ages) with the oldest date of 3.9 Ga [4] (for the grain from Gage Ridge orthogneiss). To further investigate this process, we utilized a novel high spatial resolution Scanning Ion Imaging technique on the CAMECA IMS 1280 at the Natural History Museum in Stockholm. Areas of 70 μm x 70 μm were selected for imaging in mono- and multicollection modes using a ~2 μm rastered primary beam to map out the distribution of 48Ti, 89Y, 180Hf, 232Th, 238U, 204Pb, 206Pb and 207Pb. The ion maps reveal variable distribution of certain elements within analysed grains that can be compared to their CL response. Yttrium, together with U and Th, exhibits zonation visible on the CL images, Hf shows expected minimal variation. Unusual patchiness is visible in the map for Ti and Pb distribution. The bright patches with enhanced signal do not correspond to any zones or to crystal imperfections (e.g. cracks). The presence of patchy titanium is likely to affect Ti-in-zircon thermometry, and patchy Pb affecting 207Pb/206Pb ages, usually considered as more robust for Archean zircons. Using the WinImage program, we produced 207Pb/206Pb ratio maps that allow calculation of 207Pb/206Pb ages for spots of any size within the frame of the picture and at any time after data collection. This provides a new and unique method for obtaining age information from zircon. These maps show areas of enhanced brightness where the 207Pb/206Pb ratio is higher and demonstrate that within these small areas (μm scale) the apparent 207Pb/206Pb age is older, in some of these patches even > 4 Ga. These data are a result of ancient Pb

  7. Radioactive halos and ion microprobe measurement of Pb isotope ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, R. V.

    1974-01-01

    This investigation was to obtain, if possible, the Pb isotope ratios of both lunar and meteoritic troilite grains by utilizing ion microprobe techniques. Such direct in situ measurement of Pb isotope ratios would eliminate contamination problems inherent in wet chemistry separation procedures, and conceivably determine whether lunar troilite grains were of meteoritic origin. For comparison purposes two samples of meteoritic troilite were selected (one from Canyon Diablo) for analysis along with two very small lunar troilite grains (approximately 50-100 microns). It was concluded that the ion microprobe as presently operating, does not permit the in situ measurement of Pb isotope ratios in lunar or meteoritic troilite. On the basis of these experiments no conclusions could be drawn as to the origin of the lunar troilite grains.

  8. Point defects and ion migration in PbFCl

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, M.S. )

    1990-04-01

    Atomistic simulation techniques have been applied to PbFCl in order to calculate the energetics of defect formation and ion transport mechanisms in the undoped material. Schottky-like disorder is computed to be the dominant ionic defect. The activation energies for a variety of anion vacancy migration mechanisms are calculated and found to be in good agreement with experiment.

  9. Excellent vacuum tribological properties of Pb/PbS film deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and ion sulfurizing.

    PubMed

    Guozheng, Ma; Binshi, Xu; Haidou, Wang; Shuying, Chen; Zhiguo, Xing

    2014-01-01

    Soft metal Pb film of 3 μm in thickness was deposited on AISI 440C steel by RF magnetron sputtering, and then some of the Pb film samples were treated by low-temperature ion sulfurizing (LTIS) and formed Pb/PbS composite film. Tribological properties of the Pb and Pb/PbS films were tested contrastively in vacuum and air condition using a self-developed tribometer (model of MSTS-1). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were adopted to analyze the microstructure and chemical construction of the films and their worn surfaces. The results show that a mass of Pb was changed to PbS during the process of LTIS. In air condition, owing to the severe oxidation effect, pure Pb film showed relatively high friction coefficients (0.6), and Pb/PbS composite film also lost its friction-reduction property after sliding for a short time. In a vacuum, the average friction coefficients of Pb film were about 0.1, but the friction coefficient curve fluctuated obviously. And the Pb/PbS composite film exhibited excellent tribological properties in vacuum condition. Its friction coefficients keep stable at a low value of about 0.07 for a long time. If takes the value of friction coefficients exceeding 0.2 continuously as a criterion of lubrication failure, the sliding friction life of Pb/PbS film was as long as 3.2 × 10(5) r, which is 8 times of that of the Pb film. It can be concluded that the Pb/PbS film has excellent vacuum tribological properties and important foreground for applying in space solid lubrication related fields. PMID:24308504

  10. Pb-207/Pb-206 ages of individual mineral phases in Luna 20 material by ion microprobe mass analysis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersen, C. A.; Hinthorne, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Ion microprobe analyses of returned lunar material have helped to demonstrate that U, Th, and radiogenic Pb are concentrated in small accessory mineral phases. It is possible to measure the isotopic composition of this Pb and obtain a radiometric Pb-207/Pb-206 age for the mineral. The ages so derived compare favorably with crystallization ages determined by conventional methods. A grain mount (22003,2/6) of Luna 20 material was searched for such accessory mineral phases, and two were found. One of these phases give an age of 4.12 plus or minus 0.04 b.y. and the other an age of 4.42 plus or minus 0.11 b.y. Ages of minerals dated by the ion probe in Apollo samples 14310 and 15555 are given for comparison. Data on the upper limit for Pb concentration in the outermost surface layers of free lunar soil particles are also given.

  11. Improved calibration procedures and new standards for U - Pb and Th - Pb dating of Phanerozoic xenotime by ion microprobe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, I.R.; McNaughton, N.J.; Aleinikoff, J.A.; Rasmussen, B.; Kamo, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Xenotime is a widely occurring mineral that is amenable to U-Pb and Th-Pb dating but often is found as micrometre-sized crystals that can only be dated by in situ microanalytical techniques. Determining accurate ages for Phanerozoic samples, and assessing concordance in older samples, requires accurate determination of Pb/U and Pb/Th; however, ion microprobe data for these ratios are affected by the highly variable trace element composition of xenotime. We have identified calibration procedures, including matrix corrections for the effects of the dominant trace elements U, Th and REE, that provide an accuracy of ???1% for Pb/U and <2% for Pb/Th. Several new standard samples are available that cover a range of compositions, permitting better matching of samples with standards as well as giving control of the matrix effects. However, no chemically homogeneous samples have been identified. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Optical behavior and sensor activity of Pb ions incorporated ZnO nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannadasan, N.; Shanmugam, N.; Sathishkumar, K.; Cholan, S.; Ponnguzhali, R.; Viruthagiri, G.

    2015-05-01

    We present the synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline ZnO doped with Pb in different concentrations. The structural and chemical compositions of the products are characterized by XRD, XPS, EDS and FT-IR spectroscopy. The observed results suggest that Pb ions (Pb2+ and Pb4+) are successfully incorporated into the lattice position of Zn2+ ions in ZnO. The optical properties of the products are studied by UV-Vis and room temperature PL measurements. The PL emission spectra of ZnO:Pb, show the intensity quenching for both the UV and visible emissions. The influence of Pb on controlling the size and morphology of ZnO is studied by FESEM and confirmed by HRTEM. Amperometric response shows that ZnO incorporated with 0.075 M of Pb ions has enhanced sensor activity for H2O2 than the undoped product.

  13. Comparative equilibrium studies of sorption of Pb(II) ions by sodium and calcium alginate.

    PubMed

    Khotimchenko, Maxim; Kovalev, Valeri; Khotimchenko, Yuri

    2008-01-01

    The absorption of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution by different alginate compounds was studied in a batch sorption system. Water soluble sodium alginate and insoluble calcium alginate beads were investigated. The lead-binding capacity of both alginate compounds was highest within the pH range 6-8. The binding capacities and rates of Pb(II) ions by alginate compounds were evaluated. The Langmuir, Freundlich, and Bruneaur, Emmet and Teller (BET) sorption models were applied to describe the isotherms and isotherm constants. Sorption isothermal data could be well interpreted by the Langmuir model. The results obtained through the study suggest that alginate compounds are favorable sorbents. The largest amount of Pb(II) ions were bound by sodium alginate although the difference between two compounds was slight. Therefore, alginate substances may be considered as an alternative for sorption and removal of Pb(II) ions from wastewaters. PMID:18814578

  14. Superstatistics analysis of the ion current distribution function: Met3PbCl influence study.

    PubMed

    Miśkiewicz, Janusz; Trela, Zenon; Przestalski, Stanisław; Karcz, Waldemar

    2010-09-01

    A novel analysis of ion current time series is proposed. It is shown that higher (second, third and fourth) statistical moments of the ion current probability distribution function (PDF) can yield new information about ion channel properties. The method is illustrated on a two-state model where the PDF of the compound states are given by normal distributions. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of the SV cation channels of vacuolar membrane of Beta vulgaris and the influence of trimethyllead chloride (Met(3)PbCl) on the ion current probability distribution. Ion currents were measured by patch-clamp technique. It was shown that Met(3)PbCl influences the variance of the open-state ion current but does not alter the PDF of the closed-state ion current. Incorporation of higher statistical moments into the standard investigation of ion channel properties is proposed. PMID:20354691

  15. Multifractal moments in heavy ion Pb-Pb collisions at 158 A GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutt, Sunil

    2016-05-01

    In present work, we use the method of scaled factorial moments to search for intermittent behavior in Pb-Pb interactions at 158 A GeV. The analysis is done on photon distributions obtained using preshower photon multiplicity detector. Scaled factorial moments are used to study short range fluctuations in pseudorapidity distributions of photons. Scaled factorial moments are calculated using horizontal corrected and vertical analysis. The results are compared with simulation analysis using VENUS event generator.

  16. U, Th, Pb and REE abundances and Pb 207/Pb 206 ages of individual minerals in returned lunar material by ion microprobe mass analysis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersen, C. A.; Hinthorne, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Results of ion microprobe analyses of Apollo 11, 12 and 14 material, showing that U, Th, Pb and REE are concentrated in accessory minerals such as apatite, whitlockite, zircon, baddeleyite, zirkelite, and tranquillityite. Th/U ratios are found to vary by over a factor of 40 in these minerals. K, Ba, Rb and Sr have been localized in a K rich, U and Th poor glass phase that is commonly associated with the U and Th bearing accessory minerals. Li is observed to be fairly evenly distributed between the various accessory phases. The phosphates have been found to have REE abundance patterns (normalized to the chondrite abundances) that are fairly flat, while the Zr bearing minerals have patterns that rise steeply, by factors of ten or more, from La to Gd. All the accessory minerals have large negative Eu anomalies. Radiometric age dates (Pb 207/Pb 206) of the individual U and Th bearing minerals compare favorably with the Pb 207/Pb 206 age of the bulk rocks.

  17. Gold nanoflowers based colorimetric detection of Hg2+ and Pb2+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalawade, Pradnya; Kapoor, Sudhir

    2013-12-01

    An optical detection method based on the interaction of gold nanoflowers with Hg2+ and Pb2+ has been described. After interaction, gold nanoflowers change the color from violet to wine red. The nanoflowers are capable of determining Hg2+ and Pb2+ over a dynamic range of 1.0 × 10-6 and 1.0 × 10-5 M, respectively. The response time of nanoflowers depends on the concentration of ions. The presence of both Hg2+ and Pb2+ ions in the mixture having Au nanoflowers induced color changes of the solution within several seconds even at 1.0 × 10-6 M. Common metal ions were chosen to investigate their interference in Hg2+ and Pb2+ detection, and the concentration of each metal ion studied was 1.0 × 10-5 M. Other metallic ions could not induce color change even at 1.0 × 10-5 M. The feasibility of our method to detect Hg2+ and Pb2+ ions at high concentration in real water samples was verified. Water samples were from our own laboratory and no pretreatment was made. As the particles are stable they can be used for more than 3 months without observing any major deviation.

  18. Formation of nanodots and enhancement of thermoelectric power induced by ion irradiation in PbTe:Ag composite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, Manju; Meena, Ramcharan; Gupta, Srashti; Pannu, Compesh; Tripathi, Tripurari S.; Varma, Shikha; Tripathi, Surya K.; Asokan, K.; Avasthi, Devesh K.

    2016-07-01

    Present study demonstrates an enhancement in thermoelectric power of 10% Ag doped PbTe (PbTe:Ag) thin films when irradiated with 200 keV Ar ion. X-ray diffraction showed an increase in crystallinity for both PbTe and PbTe:10Ag nano-composite films after Ar ion irradiation due to annealing of defects in the grain boundaries. The preferential sputtering of Pb and Te ions in comparison to Ag ions resulted in the formation of nano-dots. This was further confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Such an enhancement in thermoelectric power of irradiated PbTe:10Ag films in comparison to pristine PbTe:10Ag film is attributed to the decrease in charge carrier concentration that takes part in the transport process via restricting the tunneling of carriers through the wider potential barrier formed at the interface of nano-dots.

  19. A novel donor-acceptor receptor for selective detection of Pb2+ and Fe3+ ions.

    PubMed

    Nandre, Kamlakar P; Puyad, Avinash L; Bhosale, Sheshanath V; Bhosale, Sidhanath V

    2014-12-01

    An efficient and highly selective colorimetric and fluorescent receptor DTPDA has been synthesized for sensitive detection of Pb(2+) and Fe(3+) cations. The sensor DTPDA produces a facile, cost-effective and naked eye sensing platform to determine trace amounts of Pb(2+) and Fe(3+) metal ions by complexation with pendent S-termini of thiophenes, which commonly coordinates to central N-termini of pyridine. PMID:25159385

  20. Locating the Binding Sites of Pb(II) Ion with Human and Bovine Serum Albumins

    PubMed Central

    Belatik, Ahmed; Hotchandani, Surat; Carpentier, Robert; Tajmir-Riahi, Heidar-Ali

    2012-01-01

    Lead is a potent environmental toxin that has accumulated above its natural level as a result of human activity. Pb cation shows major affinity towards protein complexation and it has been used as modulator of protein-membrane interactions. We located the binding sites of Pb(II) with human serum (HSA) and bovine serum albumins (BSA) at physiological conditions, using constant protein concentration and various Pb contents. FTIR, UV-visible, CD, fluorescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) methods were used to analyse Pb binding sites, the binding constant and the effect of metal ion complexation on HSA and BSA stability and conformations. Structural analysis showed that Pb binds strongly to HSA and BSA via hydrophilic contacts with overall binding constants of KPb-HSA = 8.2 (±0.8)×104 M−1 and KPb-BSA = 7.5 (±0.7)×104 M−1. The number of bound Pb cation per protein is 0.7 per HSA and BSA complexes. XPS located the binding sites of Pb cation with protein N and O atoms. Pb complexation alters protein conformation by a major reduction of α-helix from 57% (free HSA) to 48% (metal-complex) and 63% (free BSA) to 52% (metal-complex) inducing a partial protein destabilization. PMID:22574219

  1. Ion exchange induced removal of Pb(ii) by MOF-derived magnetic inorganic sorbents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dezhi; Shen, Weisong; Wu, Shaolin; Chen, Caiqin; Luo, Xubiao; Guo, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Nanoporous adsorbents of ZnO/ZnFe2O4/C were synthesized by using a metal organic framework (Fe(III)-modified MOF-5) as both the precursor and the self-sacrificing template. The adsorption properties of ZnO/ZnFe2O4/C toward Pb(ii) ions were investigated, including the pH effect, adsorption equilibrium and adsorption kinetics. The adsorption isotherms and kinetics were well described by using the Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second-order model, respectively. The MOF-derived inorganic adsorbents exhibited high absorption performance with a maximum adsorption capacity of 344.83 mg g(-1). X-ray powder diffraction and high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggest that Zn(ii) was substituted by a significant portion of Pb(ii) on the surface of ZnO nanocrystals. Microscopic observations also demonstrate the effect of Pb(ii) ions on ZnO crystals as reflected by the considerably reduced average particle size and defective outer layer. Quantitative measurement of the released Zn(ii) ions and the adsorbed Pb(ii) ions indicated a nearly linear relationship (R(2) = 0.977). Moreover, Pb-containing ZnO/ZnFe2O4/C adsorbents are strongly magnetic allowing their separation from the water environment by an external magnet. PMID:26967550

  2. Design of PAMAM-COO dendron-grafted surfaces to promote Pb(II) ion adsorption.

    PubMed

    Chong, Leebyn; Dutt, Meenakshi

    2015-04-28

    An expanding area of green technology is the wastewater treatment of heavy metal ions. As the adsorption of cations onto solid surfaces has been proven to be successful, recent research has demonstrated enhanced adsorption profiles by grafting dendron brushes onto a solid support. Via the molecular dynamics technique, we examine the adsorption of Pb(II) ions onto polyamidoamine (PAMAM) with carboxylate terminal groups through a coarse-grained implicit solvent model. We identify dendron generations and grafting densities, or surface coverage levels, which demonstrate optimal adsorption of Pb(II) ions. Our results can be potentially used to design functionalized surfaces for metal ion adsorption in application entailing environmental remediation or protective surface coating. PMID:25804856

  3. Template-directed synthesis of oligoadenylates catalyzed by Pb/2+/ ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleeper, H. L.; Lohrmann, R.; Orgel, L. E.

    1979-01-01

    The Pb(2+) ion is an effective catalyst for the template-directed condensation of ImpA on poly(U). This reaction generates up to 35% of oligomers 5 or more units long. Furthermore, the product is predominantly 3'-5'-linked (75%) unlike that from the uncatalyzed reaction which is more than 90% 2'-5'-linked. The significance of metal-ion catalysis for prebiotic polynucleotide formation is discussed.

  4. Differential retention of 212Pb ions and insoluble particles in nasal mucosa of the rat.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, J R; Birchall, A; James, A C; Smith, H; Hodgson, A

    1982-06-01

    The time course of retention of 212Pb ions in ciliated nasal epithelium and of tagged insoluble particles, which served both as a deposition vector and marker for mucus, was measured in 13 rats by counting the head externally at 2 min intervals up to 100 min after deposition. On average, 70-75% of insoluble particles introduced onto ciliated epithelium in 3 microliters of distilled water were cleared to the gut with a half-time of approximately 15 min (range 6-35 min). A smaller fraction of lead ions (averaging about 60%) introduced in the same water sample was cleared to the gut with a half-time in each rat similar to that of particle clearance. Rapid uptake of about 8% of deposited 212Pb into blood was also observed. A compartment model consistent with the observed nasal retention and appearance of 212Pb in blood showed that, on average, 8% of deposited lead ions were transferred to the blood with a half-time of 15 min. For about 35% of the deposited lead ions and 25% of the particles, no clearance was detected up to 60-100 min after deposition. It is probable that a fraction of the lead ions are retained by epithelial tissue. PMID:7111392

  5. Ion exchange induced removal of Pb(ii) by MOF-derived magnetic inorganic sorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dezhi; Shen, Weisong; Wu, Shaolin; Chen, Caiqin; Luo, Xubiao; Guo, Lin

    2016-03-01

    Nanoporous adsorbents of ZnO/ZnFe2O4/C were synthesized by using a metal organic framework (FeIII-modified MOF-5) as both the precursor and the self-sacrificing template. The adsorption properties of ZnO/ZnFe2O4/C toward Pb(ii) ions were investigated, including the pH effect, adsorption equilibrium and adsorption kinetics. The adsorption isotherms and kinetics were well described by using the Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second-order model, respectively. The MOF-derived inorganic adsorbents exhibited high absorption performance with a maximum adsorption capacity of 344.83 mg g-1. X-ray powder diffraction and high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggest that Zn(ii) was substituted by a significant portion of Pb(ii) on the surface of ZnO nanocrystals. Microscopic observations also demonstrate the effect of Pb(ii) ions on ZnO crystals as reflected by the considerably reduced average particle size and defective outer layer. Quantitative measurement of the released Zn(ii) ions and the adsorbed Pb(ii) ions indicated a nearly linear relationship (R2 = 0.977). Moreover, Pb-containing ZnO/ZnFe2O4/C adsorbents are strongly magnetic allowing their separation from the water environment by an external magnet.Nanoporous adsorbents of ZnO/ZnFe2O4/C were synthesized by using a metal organic framework (FeIII-modified MOF-5) as both the precursor and the self-sacrificing template. The adsorption properties of ZnO/ZnFe2O4/C toward Pb(ii) ions were investigated, including the pH effect, adsorption equilibrium and adsorption kinetics. The adsorption isotherms and kinetics were well described by using the Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second-order model, respectively. The MOF-derived inorganic adsorbents exhibited high absorption performance with a maximum adsorption capacity of 344.83 mg g-1. X-ray powder diffraction and high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggest that Zn(ii) was substituted by a significant portion of Pb(ii) on the surface of Zn

  6. Ion microprobe U-Pb dating and REE abundance of biogenic apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Y.; Terada, K.; Ueki, S.

    2001-12-01

    If the direct U-Pb dating of a fossil itself is possible, the method could have great impact on stratigraphic studies in establishing the absolute chronology of sedimentary sequences. Micro fossil ?conodont? are candidates for this purpose since they consist of apatite (Ca2(PO5)3 (F,Cl,OH)), which would uptake U, Th and Pb after sedimentation no longer than a few million years and is supposed to remain closed to U and Pb under relatively low effective closure temperature. We report here results of direct ion microprobe U-Th-Pb dating of two conodonts; Trichognathus from Kinderhookian stage of Mississippian sedimentary sequence from Illinois Basin region in North America and Panderodus from a Llandoverian sedimentary sequence on Langkawi Island, northern Malaysia. Secondary purpose of the study is to indicate in situ analysis of all REE on the same spots of U-Pb measurements. Samples were cast into epoxy resin discs with a few grains of standard apatite, PRAP, derived from an alkaline rock of Prairie Lake circular complex in the Canadian Shield and polished until they were exposed through their mid-sections. U, Th and REE abundances, and Pb isotopic compositions were measured by using SHRIMP installed at Hiroshima University. Thirteen spots on Trichognathus yield a 238U/206Pb isochron age of 323+/-36 Ma, which is consistent with the depositional and early diagenetic ages. Fifteen spots on Panderodus give 232Th/208Pb isochron age of 429+/-50 Ma, which is again comparable to an early Silurian. Shale-normalized REE of Trichognathus shows a broadly flat pattern from light to middle REE and a decrease from middle to heavy REE with negative anomalies of Ce and Eu. In contrast Panderodus indicates a concave-shape pattern with middle REE enrichment. These characteristics are probably due to a different formation environment as suggested by other workers.

  7. Spectroscopy study of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cr ions immobilization on C-S-H phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żak, Renata; Deja, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) have a large number of structural sites available for cations and anions to bind. The C-S-H phases are materials which have ability to toxic ions immobilization. Immobilization mechanisms for C-S-H include sorption, phase mixing, substitution and precipitation of insoluble compounds. This study presents the C-S-H (prepared with C/S ratios 1.0) phase as absorbent for immobilization of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cr ions. The C-S-H spectra before and after incorporation of heavy metals ions into the C-S-H structure were obtained. The effect of added heavy metals ions on the hydration phenomena was studied by means of X-ray diffractions analysis. FTIR spectra was measured. The microstructure and phase composition of C-S-H indicate that they can play an essential role in the immobilization of heavy metals. The properties of C-S-H in the presence of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cr cations were studied. The leaching ML test was used to evaluate the level of immobilization of heavy metals in C-S-H. The leached solutions are diluted and analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and the activated solid particles are separated, washed, desiccated and analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. It was found that the degree of Cd, Zn, Pb and Cr cations immobilization was very high (exceeding 99.96%).

  8. Spectroscopy study of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cr ions immobilization on C-S-H phase.

    PubMed

    Żak, Renata; Deja, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) have a large number of structural sites available for cations and anions to bind. The C-S-H phases are materials which have ability to toxic ions immobilization. Immobilization mechanisms for C-S-H include sorption, phase mixing, substitution and precipitation of insoluble compounds. This study presents the C-S-H (prepared with C/S ratios 1.0) phase as absorbent for immobilization of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cr ions. The C-S-H spectra before and after incorporation of heavy metals ions into the C-S-H structure were obtained. The effect of added heavy metals ions on the hydration phenomena was studied by means of X-ray diffractions analysis. FTIR spectra was measured. The microstructure and phase composition of C-S-H indicate that they can play an essential role in the immobilization of heavy metals. The properties of C-S-H in the presence of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cr cations were studied. The leaching ML test was used to evaluate the level of immobilization of heavy metals in C-S-H. The leached solutions are diluted and analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and the activated solid particles are separated, washed, desiccated and analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. It was found that the degree of Cd, Zn, Pb and Cr cations immobilization was very high (exceeding 99.96%). PMID:25106815

  9. Optical properties of Dy3+ ion in PbF2 laser crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G. Z.; Yin, J. G.; Zhang, L. H.; He, M. Z.; Ma, E.; Ning, K. J.; Zhang, P. X.; Liu, Y. C.; Hang, Y.

    2013-11-01

    High-quality Dy:PbF2 crystal is grown by the Bridgman method in a nonvacuum atmosphere. By measuring the area under absorption bands, the experimental oscillator strengths are determined. The Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters Ωλ (λ = 2, 4, 6) are evaluated by the least-squares fit method. These phenomenological parameters are used to predict radiative transition probabilities, radiative lifetime and branching ratios for various excited levels of the Dy3+:PbF2 crystal. Photoluminescence spectra and lifetime of 6H13/2 levels of the Dy3+ ions have been measured. The laser transitions with most potential are identified and the utility of the PbF2 crystal as laser active material is discussed.

  10. HPRT mutations in V79 Chinese hamster cells induced by accelerated Ni, Au and Pb ions.

    PubMed

    Stoll, U; Barth, B; Scheerer, N; Schneider, E; Kiefer, J

    1996-07-01

    Mutation induction by accelerated heavy ions to 6-TG resistance (HPRT system) in V79 Chinese hamster cells was investigated with Ni (6-630 Me V/u), Au (2.2, 8.7 Me V/u) and Pb ions (11.6-980 Me V/u) corresponding to a LET range between 180 and 12895 ke V/microns. Most experiments could only be performed once due to technical limitations using accelerator beam times. Survival curves were exponential, mutation induction curves linear with fluence. From their slopes inactivation- and mutation-induction cross-sections were derived. If they are plotted versus LET, single, ion-specific curves are obtained. It is shown that other parameters like ion energy and effective charge play an important role. In the case of Au and Pb ions the cross-sections follow a common line, since these ions have nearly the same atomic weight, so that they should have similar spatial ionization patterns in matter at the same energies. Calculated RBEs were higher for mutation induction than for killing for all LETs. PMID:8691031

  11. A surface complexation and ion exchange model of Pb and Cd competitive sorption on natural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, Susana; O'Day, Peggy A.; Vlassopoulos, Dimitri; García-González, Maria Teresa; Garrido, Fernando

    2009-02-01

    The bioavailability and fate of heavy metals in the environment are often controlled by sorption reactions on the reactive surfaces of soil minerals. We have developed a non-electrostatic equilibrium model (NEM) with both surface complexation and ion exchange reactions to describe the sorption of Pb and Cd in single- and binary-metal systems over a range of pH and metal concentration. Mineralogical and exchange properties of three different acidic soils were used to constrain surface reactions in the model and to estimate surface densities for sorption sites, rather than treating them as adjustable parameters. Soil heterogeneity was modeled with >FeOH and >SOH functional groups, representing Fe- and Al-oxyhydroxide minerals and phyllosilicate clay mineral edge sites, and two ion exchange sites (X - and Y -), representing clay mineral exchange. An optimization process was carried out using the entire experimental sorption data set to determine the binding constants for Pb and Cd surface complexation and ion exchange reactions. Modeling results showed that the adsorption of Pb and Cd was distributed between ion exchange sites at low pH values and specific adsorption sites at higher pH values, mainly associated with >FeOH sites. Modeling results confirmed the greater tendency of Cd to be retained on exchange sites compared to Pb, which had a higher affinity than Cd for specific adsorption on >FeOH sites. Lead retention on >FeOH occurred at lower pH than for Cd, suggesting that Pb sorbs to surface hydroxyl groups at pH values at which Cd interacts only with exchange sites. The results from the binary system (both Pb and Cd present) showed that Cd retained in >FeOH sites decreased significantly in the presence of Pb, while the occupancy of Pb in these sites did not change in the presence of Cd. As a consequence of this competition, Cd was shifted to ion exchange sites, where it competes with Pb and possibly Ca (from the background electrolyte). Sorption on >SOH

  12. Potential sputtering of target ions by Ar q+ , Pb q+ projectiles from a silicon surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T. S.; Zhao, Y. T.; Peng, H. B.; Wang, S. W.; Fang, Y.; Ding, D. J.; Xiao, G. Q.

    2007-03-01

    Highly charged ions have been expected to be a powerful tool for the surface modification in nano-scale. The potential sputtering of highly charged ions on semi-conductors has the potential to be applied in the micro electronics and nano-technology. In this work, the Arq+ and Pbq+ ions produced by an electron cyclotron resonance ion source have been used as projectiles to study their potential sputtering on silicon surface. The relative sputtering ion yield is measured with a micro-channel plate, correlated to the incidence angle, charge state and velocity of ions. The experimental results show evidently charge dependence and velocity dependence. The yield induced by the ions changes steeply with the incidence angle, which is much larger than the impact of single charged ion with the same velocity. In the case of Pb36+ impact, a significant enhancement of the yield has been observed, while the q > 20. At the same time, the yield increases proportionally with the ion velocity. However, in the case of Ar16+, the yield decreases versus the increase of the velocity.

  13. Adsorption of Pb(II) ions onto biomass from Trifolium resupinatum: equilibrium and kinetic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athar, Makshoof; Farooq, Umar; Aslam, Muhammad; Salman, M.

    2013-09-01

    The present study provides information about the binding of Pb(II) ions on an eco-friendly and easily available biodegradable biomass Trifolium resupinatum. The powdered biomass was characterized by FTIR, potentiometric titration and surface area analyses. The FTIR spectrum showed the presence of hydroxyl, carbonyl and amino functional groups and Pb(II) ions bound with the oxygen- and nitrogen-containing sites (hydroxyl and amino groups). The acidic groups were also confirmed by titrations. Effects of various environmental parameters (time, pH and concentration) have been studied. The biosorption process achieved equilibrium in a very short period of time (25 min). Non-linear approach for Langmuir and Freundlich models was used to study equilibrium process and root mean-square error was used as an indicator to decide the fitness of the mathematical model. The biosorption process was found to follow pseudo-second-order kinetics and was very fast. Thus, the biomass can be cost-effectively used for the binding of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions.

  14. Effect of lead ion concentration on the structural and optical properties of nano-crystalline PbS thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, S.; Mehmood, S. K.; Mansoor, M.; Asim, M. M.

    2014-06-01

    PbS thin films have received considerable attention because of their potential applications in opto-electronics applications. Spontaneous reaction of lead acetate and thiourea in aqueous hydrazine hydrate has been used for depositing PbS thin films on glass substrates. Structural and optical properties of PbS thin films are greatly influenced by the morality of the reactants and crystal defects in the lattice. Our work focuses on the variation in lead ion concentration and its effect on the structural and optical properties of PbS thin films. The deposited films were analyzed using XRD, SEM, spectrophotometer and dark resistance measurement. XRD patterns indicated the formation of major phase of nano crystalline PbS with minor presence of lead oxide phase. We also noticed that peak intensity ratio of I111/I200 varied by changing the Pb ion concentration. The film thickness and dark resistance increased whereas optical band gap decreased with the decreasing Pb ion concentration. SEM scans showed that the grain size is less than 100 nm and is not affected by varying Pb ion concentration.

  15. Effects of electronic structure on the hydration of PbNO3(+) and SrNO3(+) ion pairs.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Richard J; Heiles, Sven; Williams, Evan R

    2015-06-28

    Hydration of PbNO3(+) and SrNO3(+) with up to 30 water molecules was investigated with infrared photodissociation (IRPD) spectroscopy and with theory. These ions are the same size, yet the IRPD spectra of these ion pairs for n = 2-8 are significantly different. Bands in the bonded O-H region (∼3000-3550 cm(-1)) indicate that the onset of a second hydration shell begins at n = 5 for PbNO3(+) and n = 6 for SrNO3(+). Spectra for [PbNO3](+)(H2O)2-5 and [SrNO3](+)(H2O)3-6 indicate that the structures of clusters with Pb(ii) are hemidirected with a void in the coordinate sphere. A natural bond orbital analysis of [PbNO3](+)(H2O)5 indicates that the anisotropic solvation of the ion is due to a region of asymmetric electron density on Pb(ii) that can be explained by charge transfer from the nitrate and water ligands into unoccupied p-orbitals on Pb(ii). There are differences in the IRPD spectra of PbNO3(+) and SrNO3(+) with up to 25 water molecules attached. IR intensity in the bonded O-H region is blue-shifted by ∼50 cm(-1) in nanodrops containing SrNO3(+) compared to those containing PbNO3(+), indicative of a greater perturbation of the water H-bond network by strontium. The free O-H stretches of surface water molecules in nanodrops containing 10, 15, 20, and 25 water molecules are red-shifted by ∼3-8 cm(-1) for PbNO3(+) compared to those for SrNO3(+), consistent with more charge transfer between water molecules and Pb(ii). These results demonstrate that the different electronic structure of these ions significantly influences how they are solvated. PMID:26028325

  16. Scanning ion imaging - a potent tool in SIMS U -Pb zircon geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, M. J.; Fedo, C.; Kusiak, M.; Nemchin, A.

    2012-12-01

    The application of high spatial resolution (< 15-20 μm lateral) U-Pb data obtained by sec-ondary ion mass spectrometers (SIMS) coupled with textural information from scanning electron microscope (SEM) based cathodoluminescence (CL) and/or back-scattered elec-tron (BSE) characterisation, has revolutionised geochronology over the past 25 years, re-vealing complexities of crustal evolution from zoned zircons. In addition to ge-ochronology, such studies now commonly form the basis of broader investigations using O- and Hf- isotopes and trace elements obtained from the same growth zone as age, circumventing ambiguities commonly present in bulk-rock isotope studies. The choice of analytical beam diameter is often made to maximise the precision of data obtained from a given area of analysis within an identifiable growth zone. In cases where zircons yield poorly constrained internal structures in SEM, high spatial resolution spot analyses may yield uninterpretable and/or meaningless mixed ages by inadvertent sampling across regions with real age differences. Scanning ion imaging (SII) has the potential to generate accurate and precise geochrono-logical data with a spatial resolution down to ca. 2 μm, much higher than that of a normal spot analysis. SII acquisition utilises a rastered primary beam to image an area of the sample with a spatial resolution dependent on the selected primary beam diameter. On the Cameca ims1270/80 instruments, the primary beam scanning is coupled with the dynamic transfer optical system (DTOS) which deflects the secondary ions back on to the ion optical axis of the instrument regardless of where in the raster illuminated area the ions originated. This feature allows retention of a high field magnification (= high transmission) mode and the ability to operate the mass spectrometer at high mass resolution without any compromise in the quality of the peak shape. Secondary ions may be detected either in a sequential (peak hopping) mono

  17. Interactions of aqueous Cu2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+ ions with crushed concrete fines.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Nichola J; Lee, William E; Slipper, Ian J

    2005-05-20

    The crushing of reclaimed concrete-based demolition waste to produce recycled aggregate gives rise to a large volume of cement-rich fine material for which market development would be beneficial. It was envisaged that this fine fraction may prove to be an effective sorbent for aqueous heavy metal species by virtue of its ion exchangeable phases and high pH. A batch sorption study confirmed that crushed concrete, in the particle size range 1-2 mm, successfully excluded Cu2+ (35 mg g(-1)), Zn2+ (33 mg g(-1)) and Pb2+ (37 mg g(-1)) from aqueous media. Subsequent distilled water leaching of the metal-laden concrete particles indicated that 1.9, 0.9 and 0.2% of the bound metals, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+, respectively, were readily soluble. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the removal of Cu2+ and Zn2+ arose from surface precipitation reactions, whereas, the principal mechanism of uptake of Pb2+ was found to be by diffusion into the cement matrix. The metal ion removal efficiency of crushed concrete fines is compared with those of other low cost sorbents and potential applications which may exploit this sorptive property are also discussed. PMID:15885423

  18. Determination of phosphorous in titanium bearing minerals by potentiometric titration using Pb-ion selective electrode.

    PubMed

    Ramadoss, K; Murty, D S; Mahanta, P L; Gomathy, B; Rangaswamy, R

    2000-01-24

    A method for phosphorous determination in titanium bearing minerals by potentiometric titration using a Pb-ion selective electrode has been developed. Sample decomposition is achieved by means of K(2)CO(3) fusion in a platinum crucible at 800 degrees C for 30 min in a muffle furnace, and subsequent leaching with water of the fused melt. The aqueous leachate is neutralised with HClO(4) and subsequent boiling. The obtained solution is used for titration with Pb(ClO(4))(2), and the Pb-ion selective electrode detects the end point. The lowest concentration determinable is 0.02% P(2)O(5) in a solid sample. The method was applied on in-house titanium bearing mineral samples and on IGS-31 ilmenite sample (British Geological Survey, UK). Synthetic samples were prepared and analysed, and phosphorous recovery is in the range 98-106%. The recovery and accuracy of the present method have been validated by spiking experiments and by comparing with the spectrophotometric values, respectively. The precision of the proposed method in terms of relative standard deviation is 2.0%. PMID:18967837

  19. Ion microprobe U-Pb dating of phosphates in lunar basaltic breccia, Elephant Moraine 87521

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, Kentaro; Saiki, Tomoyo; Oka, Yoshimi; Hayasaka, Yasutaka; Sano, Yuji

    2005-10-01

    We report ion microprobe U-Pb dating of phosphates in lunar meteorite ``Elephant Moraine 87521 (EET87521),'' which is a fragmental breccia consisting of Very-Low Ti (VLT) basaltic clasts and a small component of highland-derived materials. The observed Pb-Pb age of phosphates in EET87521 is 3503 +/- 140 Ma, which is distinct from the results from previous chronological studies on VLT mare basalt of 3.2-3.3 Ga for LUNA-24. This suggests that the VLT basalt volcanism appears to have been prolonged on the Moon. Moreover, the age is apparently different from those of other VLT meteorites (3.8 Ga for QUE94281 and 4.0 & 4.4 Ga for Yamato793274), which are proposed to have been launched by a single impact event based on the similarity of launching ages, mineralogical and geochemical signatures. This evidence questions the validities of bulk age analyses for the Yamato & QUE meteorites in the literature and/or the hypothesis of a single-crater origin.

  20. The preparation of polyelectrolyte complexes carboxymethyl chitosan(CMC)-pectin by reflux method as a Pb (II) metal ion adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastuti, Budi; Mudasir, Siswanta, Dwi; Triyono

    2016-02-01

    Aim of this research is to synthesized a chemically stable polyelectrolyte complexs carboxymetyl chitosan CMC-pectin as Pb(II) ion adsorbent by reflux method. During synthesis process, the optimum mass ratio of CMC and pectin was pre-determined and the active groups of the CMC-pectin complex was characterized by using IR spectrofotometer. Finally, adsorption capacity of the adsorbent material for Pb (II) ions was studied under optimum condition, i.e. adsorbent mass, contact time, and pH. Result shows that CMC could be succesfully combined with pectin to produce CMC-pectin complex. The optimum mass ratio CMC: pectin to form the polyelectrolyte complexs CMC-pectin was 70% : 30%. The active groups identified in the CMC-pectin complex was a hydroxyl (OH) and carboxylate (-COOH) groups. The optimum conditions for Pb (II) ion absoprtion was 10 mg of the adsorbent mass, 75 min of contact time, and pH 5. This material can be effectively used as adsorbents for Pb (II) ions, where up to 91% Pb (II) metal ions was adsorbed from aqueous solution and the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was 41.63 mg/g.

  1. U-Pb geochronology of zircons form lunar Breccia 73217 using a sensitive high mass-resolution ion microprobe

    SciTech Connect

    Compston, W.; Williams, I.S.

    1984-02-15

    U-Pb age determinations on four lunar zircons from existing thin-sections of one highland breccia, 73217, using the recently constructed ion microprobe SHRIMP, are reported. The analytical reproducibility of SHRIMP is demonstrated, and procedures for measuring Pb/U, Th/U, and corecting for initial Pb are explained. Electron microprobe analyses for the zircons are also reported. The results show that the four zircons survived the lunar cataclysm without any identifiable effects on their U-Pb systematics. All four indicate a single age of 4356 +23 or -14 m.y. The zircons have experienced small variable amounts of Pb loss since crystallization, from almost zero up to about 10 percent. If this occurred during one later event, then age of the latter is between 1100 and 2300 m.y. 18 references.

  2. U-Pb geochronology of zircons form lunar Breccia 73217 using a sensitive high mass-resolution ion microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compston, W.; Williams, I. S.; Meyer, C.

    1984-02-01

    U-Pb age determinations on four lunar zircons from existing thin-sections of one highland breccia, 73217, using the recently constructed ion microprobe SHRIMP, are reported. The analytical reproducibility of SHRIMP is demonstrated, and procedures for measuring Pb/U, Th/U, and corecting for initial Pb are explained. Electron microprobe analyses for the zircons are also are reported. The results show that the four zircons survived the lunar cataclysm without any identifiable effects on their U-Pb systematics. All four indicate a single age of 4356 +23 or -14 m.y. The zircons have experienced small variable amounts of Pb loss since crystallization, from almost zero up to about 10 percent. If this occurred during one later event, then age of the latter is between 1100 and 2300 m.y.

  3. U-Pb geochronology of zircons form lunar Breccia 73217 using a sensitive high mass-resolution ion microprobe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compston, W.; Williams, I. S.; Meyer, C.

    1984-01-01

    U-Pb age determinations on four lunar zircons from existing thin-sections of one highland breccia, 73217, using the recently constructed ion microprobe SHRIMP, are reported. The analytical reproducibility of SHRIMP is demonstrated, and procedures for measuring Pb/U, Th/U, and corecting for initial Pb are explained. Electron microprobe analyses for the zircons are alsoar reported. The results show that the four zircons survived the lunar cataclysm without any identifiable effects on their U-Pb systematics. All four indicate a single age of 4356 +23 or -14 m.y. The zircons have experienced small variable amounts of Pb loss since crystallization, from almost zero up to about 10 percent. If this occurred during one later event, then age of the latter is between 1100 and 2300 m.y.

  4. PbTe and SnTe quantum dot precipitates in a CdTe matrix fabricated by ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufmann, E.; Schwarzl, T.; Groiss, H.; Hesser, G.; Schaeffler, F.; Palmetshofer, L.; Springholz, G.; Heiss, W.

    2009-08-15

    We present rock-salt IV-VI semiconductor quantum dots fabricated by implantation of Pb{sup +}, Te{sup +}, or Sn{sup +} ions into epitaxial zinc-blende CdTe layers. PbTe and SnTe nanoprecipitates of high structural quality are formed after implantation by thermal annealing due to the immiscibility of dot and matrix materials. For samples implanted only with Pb{sup +}, intense continuous-wave photoluminescence peaked at 1.6 mum at 300 K is found. In contrast, for PbTe quantum dots fabricated by coimplantation of Pb{sup +} and Te{sup +}, the 300 K emission peak is observed at 2.9 mum, indicating luminescence from much larger dots.

  5. Formation of nanoclusters with varying Pb/Se concentration and distribution after sequential Pb + and Se + ion implantation into SiO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwitz, A.; Carder, D. A.; Hopf, T.; Kennedy, J.; Chan, T. K.; Mücklich, A.; Osipowicz, T.

    2012-02-01

    First results obtained from electron beam annealed sequentially implanted Pb + (29 keV) and Se + (25 keV) ions into a SiO 2 matrix are presented. Key results from Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy investigations are: (1) Pb and Se atoms are found to bond in the SiO 2 matrix during implantation, forming into nanoclusters even prior to the annealing step, (2) Pb and Se atoms are both present in the sample after annealing at high temperature ( T = 760 °C, t = 45 min) and form into PbSe nanoclusters of varying sizes within the implanted region, and (3) the broader concentration profile of implanted Se creates a number of secondary features throughout the SiO 2 film, including voids and hollow shell Se nanoclusters. A sequential ion implantation approach has several advantages: selected areas of nanocrystals can be formed for integrated circuits, the technique is compatible with present silicon processing technology, and the nanocrystals are embedded in an inert matrix - making them highly durable. In addition, a higher concentration of nanocrystals is possible than with conventional glass melt techniques.

  6. Range and Annealing Behaviour of Pb+ Ions Implanted into LiNbO3 Crystals at Moderate Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng; Hu, Hui; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Liu, Xiang-Dong; Xia, Hui-Hao; Shi, Bo-Rong; Wang, Ke-Ming

    2002-01-01

    Pb+ ions have been implanted into LiNbO3 crystals in the energy range of 100-350 keV at doses of 5×1015, 1×1016 and 2×1016 ions/cm2. The profile of the implanted ions was measured by Rutherford backscattering. The mean projected range and the range straggling obtained from the experiment were compared with the TRIM'98 and SRIM 2000 code. In the present case, the TRIM'98 code predicts experimental values better than those of the SRIM 2000 code. The depth distribution is also found to be independent of dose for 350 keV Pb+ implanted into LiNbO3 crystals. After 800°C annealing for 60 min in ambient air, obvious diffusion occurs to the implanted Pb+ ions at 150 keV with a dose of 5×1015 ions/cm2. After a low-temperature treatment at 77 K in liquid nitrogen, no obvious diffusion phenomenon occurs for the implanted Pb+ ions in LiNbO3.

  7. PbSe films by ion exchange of synthetic plumbonacrite layers immersed in a selenium ionic solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendívil-Reynoso, T.; Ochoa-Landín, R.; Ramírez-Rodríguez, L. P.; Gutierrez-Acosta, K.; Ramírez-Bon, R.; Castillo, S. J.

    2016-06-01

    Plumbonacrite is a lead compound with chemical formula Pb10(CO3)6(OH)6O, where several groups can be substituted by ion exchange in mild conditions. Plumbonacrite layers can be deposited by means of the chemical bath deposition technique. In this work it is studied the structural and morphological evolution of a plumbonacrite layer as a function of the immersion time in an aqueous solution containing Se-2 ions. The 1.39 μm thick plumbonacrite layer was chemically deposited on a glass substrate and immersed in an aqueous solution with Se-2 ions for 10, 20, 30 and 50 min. The as grown plumbonacrite layer as well as the immersed ones were analyzed by X-rays Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Raman Spectroscopy measurements. The results show that the plumbonacrite layer is gradually converted to PbSe one by ion exchange process, where Se-2 ions substitute the groups of plumbonacrite.

  8. Development of ion-implantation confined, shallow mesa stripe (Pn,Sn)Te/Pb(Te,Se) DH laser diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fonstad, C. G.; Harton, A.; Jiang, Y.-N.; Appelman, H.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary results of a program to develop ion implantation confined, shallow mesa stripe (Pb,Sn)Te laser diodes are presented. The practicality of using a shallow mesa stripe to produce single mode laser output and to increase the single mode tuning range are demonstrated. The first results of p-type ion implantation in the lead-tin salts are also reported. It is shown that sodium and lithium both can be used to convert n-type Pb(Te,Se) to p-type. The implant and anneal procedures are described, and electrical characteristics of Li-implanted layers are presented.

  9. Ion Microprobe U-Pb Dating and Sr Isotope Measurement of Conodont

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Y.; Ishida, A.; Kagoshima, T.; Takahata, N.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a method of in situ ion microprobe U-Pb dating and Sr isotope measurement of biogenic apatite using NanoSIMS. This was applied to a protoconodont, an early Cambrian phosphate microfossil [1]. On a single fragment of a fossil derived from a sedimentary layer in the Meishucunian Yuhucun Formation, southern China [2], 23 spots provide a 238U/206Pb isochron age of 547 ± 43 Ma (2sigma), which is consistent with the depositional age, 536.5 ± 2.5 Ma estimated using zircon U-Pb dating of interbedded tuffs [3]. However, five spots on a small region in the same protoconodont yield an isochron age of 417 ± 74 Ma (2sigma), apparently younger than the formation age. The younger age might be attributable to a later hydrothermal event, perhaps associated with Caledonian orogenic activity recorded in younger zircon with an age of 420-440 Ma [4]. We measured Sr isotopic ratios of the protoconodont by NanoSIMS. In the older domain, 19 spots give the ratio of 0.71032 ± 0.00023 (2sigma), although seven spots on the younger region provide the ratio of 0.70862 ± 0.00045; which is significantly less radiogenic than the older domain. We also measured U-Pb age and Sr isotopes of a Carboniferous conodont derived from the Kinderhookian stage from the Illinois Basin region in North America. 20 spots yield a 238U/206Pb isochron age of 291 ± 56 Ma (2sigma), which is markedly younger than the depositional age of the fossil of 350-363 Ma. On the other hand, 9 spots give a Sr isotopic ratio of 0.70784 ± 0.00030, less radiogenic than the older domain of protoconodont. These data together with other isotopes such as Cl may provide a constraint on the model for chemical evolution of seawater. [1] Sano et al. (2014) J. Asian Earth Sci. 92, 10-17. [2] Condon et al. (2005) Science 308, 95-98. [3] Sawaki et al. (2008) Gondwana Res. 14, 148-158. [4] Guo et al. (2009) Geochem. J. 43, 101-122.

  10. Preparation and Application of Nanostructure Ion-Imprinted Polymer for Selective Solid-Phase Extraction of Pb Ions in Water, Hair, and Food Samples.

    PubMed

    Dehghani Soltani, Maryam; Taher, Mohammad Ali; Behzadi, Mansoureh

    2016-09-01

    In this research, nanostructure Pb(II) ion-imprinted polymer (IIP) was prepared by formation of 1,5-diphenylthiocarbazon (dithizone) complex. Polymerization was performed via bulk polymerization, with methacrylic acid as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linking monomer in the presence of ammonium persulfate as the initiator. To characterize the synthesized IIP, FTIR spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy were used. This polymer was used for selective preconcentration of ultra-trace amounts of Pb ions through the SPE method. The Pb ion concentration was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. In the optimization process, the effects of various factors, such as pH of the sample solution, type and concentration of eluent, equilibrium sorption and desorption times, and sample volume, were investigated. Under optimized conditions, the maximum sorbent capacity was 38.46 mg/g and the enrichment factor was 200. Linearity was within the range 1.0-320.0 ng/L, with good r(2) values. The LOD was 0.55 ng/L, and the intraday and interday RSD values (n = 7, 20 ng/L Pb ions) were 2.8 and 3.5%, respectively. This selective and sensitive proposed method was applied successfully to the determination of Pb in water, hair, and food samples, with high recoveries. PMID:27325007

  11. Removal of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution by thiosemicarbazide modified chitosan.

    PubMed

    Li, Manlin; Zhang, Zengqiang; Li, Ronghua; Wang, Jim J; Ali, Amjad

    2016-05-01

    The removal of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution by thiosemicarbazide modified chitosan (TCS) was studied in this article. The synthesized TCS was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), element analysis, N2 adsorption-desorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectrophotometer (XPS). Moreover, the influence of solution pH, contact time, initial heavy metal concentration, and solution temperature on the adsorption process was examined, and the adsorbent reusability and adsorption mechanisms were also studied. The results showed that TCS adsorbed greater amount of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions than the raw chitosan. The adsorption amounts of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions were affected by increasing solution pH and temperature. The maximum adsorption capacities of the TCS for Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions were found to be 325.2 and 257.2 mg/g, respectively. The endothermic adsorption fitted the pseudo-second-order kinetics equation and the adsorption isotherms could be well described by Langmuir model. The metal ions adsorption mechanism was concluded to be mainly dominated by complexation reaction process. The desorption study indicated that the target adsorbent was easy to be regenerated. PMID:26879912

  12. Influence of Fluoride Ion on the Performance of Pb-Ag Anode During Long-Term Galvanostatic Electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xiaocong; Yu, Xiaoying; Jiang, Liangxing; Lv, Xiaojun; Liu, Fangyang; Lai, Yanqing; Li, Jie

    2015-09-01

    Anodic potential, morphology and phase composition of the anodic layer, corrosion morphology of the metallic substrate, and oxygen evolution behavior of Pb-Ag anode in H2SO4 solution without/with fluoride ion were investigated and compared. The results showed that the presence of fluoride ions contributed to a smoother anodic layer with lower PbO2 concentration, which resulted in lower double layer capacity and higher charge transfer resistance for the oxygen evolution reaction. Consequently, the Pb-Ag anode showed a higher anodic potential (about 35 mV) in the fluoride-containing electrolyte. In addition, the fluoride ions accelerated the detachment of loose flakes on the anodic layer. It was demonstrated that the anodic layer formed in the fluoride-containing H2SO4 solution was thinner. Furthermore, fluoride ions aggravated the corrosion of the metallic substrate at interdendritic boundary regions. Hence, the presence of fluoride ions is detrimental to oxygen evolution reactivity and increases the corrosion of the Pb-Ag anode, which may further increase the energy consumption and capital cost of zinc plants.

  13. Stimulation of TRPC5 cationic channels by low micromolar concentrations of lead ions (Pb{sup 2+})

    SciTech Connect

    Sukumar, Piruthivi; Beech, David J.

    2010-02-26

    Lead toxicity is long-recognised but continues to be a major public health problem. Its effects are wide-ranging and include induction of hyper-anxiety states. In general it is thought to act by interfering with Ca{sup 2+} signalling but specific targets are not clearly identified. Transient receptor potential canonical 5 (TRPC5) is a Ca{sup 2+}-permeable ion channel that is linked positively to innate fear responses and unusual amongst ion channels in being stimulated by trivalent lanthanides, which include gadolinium. Here we show investigation of the effect of lead, which is a divalent ion (Pb{sup 2+}). Intracellular Ca{sup 2+} and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed on HEK 293 cells conditionally over-expressing TRPC5 or other TRP channels. Extracellular application of Pb{sup 2+} stimulated TRPC5 at concentrations greater than 1 {mu}M. Control cells without TRPC5 showed little or no response to Pb{sup 2+} and expression of other TRP channels (TRPM2 or TRPM3) revealed partial inhibition by 10 {mu}M Pb{sup 2+}. The stimulatory effect on TRPC5 depended on an extracellular residue (E543) near the ion pore: similar to gadolinium action, E543Q TRPC5 was resistant to Pb{sup 2+} but showed normal stimulation by the receptor agonist sphingosine-1-phosphate. The study shows that Pb{sup 2+} is a relatively potent stimulator of the TRPC5 channel, generating the hypothesis that a function of the channel is to sense metal ion poisoning.

  14. Cross-linking of succinate-grafted chitosan and its effect on the capability to adsorb Pb(II) ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masykur, Abu; Juari Santosa, Sri; Jumina, Dwi Siswanta dan

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this research was to improve the adsorption capacity of chitosan by modification of the chitosan using various cross-linking agents and followed by grafting using succinate anhydride. Succinate anhydride was grafted into chitosan that had been cross-linked using ethylene glycol di-glycidyl ether (EGDE), diethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (DEGDE) andbisphenolAdiglycidyl ether (BADGE) on the hydroxyl group of chitosan to yield Chit- EGDE-Suc, Chit-DEGDE-Suc, and Chit-BADGE-Suc, respectively. Modified chitosans were analyzed using FTIR and TG-DTA and then applied as adsorbents for Pb(II) ion. Adsorption was carried out in batch condition with a variation of solution pH, contact time, and concentration of Pb(II) in the solution. Adsorption ofPb(II) ion reached optimum condition at pH 5 and contact time of 120 minutes. Adsorption of Pb(II) ion on all of the adsorbents fit well the pseudo-second order kinetic equation. Adsorption capacities of Pb(II) on Chit-EGDE-Suc, Chit-DEGDE-SucdanChit-BADGE-Suc were 0.333, 0.388 and 0.898 mmolg-1, respectively, which mean that the adsorption of Chit-BADGE-Suc was the highest and followed by Chit- DEGDE-Suc and Chit-EGDE-Suc.

  15. Ion microprobe U-Pb dating and strontium isotope analysis of biogenic apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Y.; Toyoshima, K.; Takahata, N.; Shirai, K.

    2012-12-01

    Conodonts are micro-fossils chemically composed of apatite which occurred in the body of one animal. They are guide fossils to show formation ages of sedimentary sequences with the highest resolution [1] and good samples to verify the dating method. We developed the ion microprobe U-Pb dating of apatite [2] and applied the method to a Carboniferous conodont [3] by using a SHRIMP II installed at Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Hiroshima University. Recently we have developed the NanoSIMS U-Pb dating method and successfully measured the formation ages of monazite [4] and zircon [5] at Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo. In this work we carried out the NanoSIMS U-Pb dating of biogenic apatite such as conodont. Since the spot size of NanoSIMS is smaller than SHRIMP II, it is easier to have multi-spots on the single fragment of biogenic apatite. Based on the isochron method of U-Pb system, we have calculated the formation ages. They are consistent with those in literature. In order to study the chemical evolution of ocean during the past 600 Million years, strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) of fossil marine carbonate such as coral skeletons and foraminifera tests were measured and compiled [6]. However they are not robust when the age is older than 500Ma, partly due to post-depositional histories. Apatite is more stable and more resistant to the alteration than carbonate [7]. Recently we have developed the method of NanoSIMS strontium isotopic analysis of a fish otolith, which composed of aragonite [8]. In this work we carried out the strontium isotopic analysis of biogenic apatite. The advantage of the ion microprobe technique over the TIMS (thermal ionization mass spectrometer) and MC-ICP-MS (multi-collector inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometer) method is preservation of the important textural context and to provide an opportunity for other simultaneous analytical work with high spatial resolution. This is the case for

  16. Ion beam synthesis of CdS, ZnS, and PbS compound semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    White, C.W.; Budai, J.D.; Meldrum, A.L.

    1997-12-01

    Sequential ion implantation followed by thermal annealing has been used to form encapsulated CdS, ZnS, and PbS nanocrystals in SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrices. In SiO{sub 2}, nanoparticles are nearly spherical and randomly oriented, and ZnS and PbS nanocrystals exhibit a bimodal size distribution. In Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, nanoparticles are faceted and coherent with the matrix. Initial photoluminescence (PL) results are presented.

  17. Influence of sesquioxides on luminescence features of Nd3+ ions in PbO-PbF2-B2O3 glass system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeswara Rao, D.; Sahaya Baskaran, G.; Gandhi, Y.; Veeraiah, N.

    2015-01-01

    The emission characteristics of Nd3+ ions in PbO-PbF2-B2O3-M2O3 (M=Y, Sc, Al) glasses were studied as a function of M2O3 concentration. The IR spectral investigations have indicated that the network of the glass mixed with Y2O3 is more depolymerized when compared with other two sesquioxides. The optical absorption, luminescence spectra and fluorescence decay curves of these glasses were studied as functions of concentration of M2O3. The luminescence spectra of these glasses have exhibited three NIR bands corresponding to the transitions 4F3/2→4I9/2, 4F3/2→4I11/2 (at 1.06 μm) and 4F3/2→4I13/2. A clear enhancement in the luminescence emission corresponding to these transitions has been observed with increase in the concentration of M2O3 upto 8.0 mol%. The comparison of emissive characteristics of the glasses mixed with three sesquioxides indicated the highest luminescence efficiency for Y2O3 mixed glasses among the three series glasses studied. The increase of luminescence efficiency has been attributed to the possible declusterization of Nd3+ ions by M3+ ions in the glass network. The reasons for low luminescence quenching observed in case of Y2O3 mixed glasses have been explored in terms of the ionic radii of the sesqui-ions and their possible positions in the glass network.

  18. Detecting weak fluorescence turn-on in the presence of Pb2+ heavy metal ion using coaxial fiber optic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jianjun; Chiniforooshan, Yasser; Hao, Wenhui; Bock, Wojtek J.; Wang, Zhi Yuan

    2013-10-01

    This paper is devoted to examining the ability of a coaxial fiber-optic sensor (FOS) in detecting weak fluorescent light and weak fluorescence "turn-on" in the presence of trace heavy metal ion Pb2+. The captured fluorescent signal is detected by the Ocean Optics QE65000 spectrometer. The stock solutions include Pb2+ acetate in water (0.01 M) and a small molecule probe in water. The preliminary experiment shows that this FOS offers the Pb2+ detection limit (DL) of 1.26×10-4 mg/mL. The advantages, limitations and further improvements of this coaxial FOS are discussed in comparison with the bench-top instruments in terms of the abilities of signal light capture and stray excitation light suppression.

  19. Beam losses from ultra-peripheral nuclear collisions between Pb ions in the Large Hadron Collider and their alleviation

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, R.; Bocian, D.; Gilardoni, S.; Jowett, J.M.; /CERN

    2009-08-01

    Electromagnetic interactions between colliding heavy ions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will give rise to localized beam losses that may quench superconducting magnets, apart from contributing significantly to the luminosity decay. To quantify their impact on the operation of the collider, we have used a three-step simulation approach, which consists of optical tracking, a Monte-Carlo shower simulation and a thermal network model of the heat flow inside a magnet. We present simulation results for the case of {sup 208}Pb{sup 82+} ion operation in the LHC, with focus on the alice interaction region, and show that the expected heat load during nominal {sup 208}Pb{sup 82+} operation is 40% above the quench level. This limits the maximum achievable luminosity. Furthermore, we discuss methods of monitoring the losses and possible ways to alleviate their effect.

  20. Ion-implantation-induced damage and resonant levels in Pb/sub 1-x/Sn/sub x/Te

    SciTech Connect

    Gresslehner, K.H.; Palmetshofer, L.

    1980-09-01

    The dependence of the carrier concentration on the implantation dose and on the temperature was investigated in ion-implanted thin films of Pb/sub 1-x/Sn/sub x/Te (0< or =x<0.1). By assuming a twofold defect level in the conduction band we are able to fit the experimental results. With increasing tin content the energy of the defect level shifts towards the conduction-band edge. By extending the results to SnTe a general model for the understanding of the electrical properties of ion-implanted Pb/sub 1-x/Sn/sub x/Te (0< or =x< or =1) is suggested.

  1. Application of central composite design for simultaneous removal of methylene blue and Pb2+ ions by walnut wood activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaedi, M.; Mazaheri, H.; Khodadoust, S.; Hajati, S.; Purkait, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    Activated carbon was prepared from walnut wood which was locally available, non-toxic, abundant and cheap. This new adsorbent was characterized using BET, FTIR and SEM. Point of zero charge (pHpzc) and oxygen containing functional groups were also determined. The prepared adsorbent was applied for simultaneous removal of Pb2+ ions and methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous solution. The prominent effect and interaction of variables such as amount of adsorbent, contact time, concentration of MB and Pb2+ ions were optimized by central composite design. The equilibrium data obtained at optimum condition were fitted to conventional isotherm models and found that Langmuir model was the best fitted isotherm. Kinetic data were fitted using various models. It was revealed that the adsorption rate follows pseudo-second order kinetic model and intraparticle diffusion model.

  2. Penicillamine-modified sensor for the voltammetric determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in natural samples.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ràfols, Clara; Serrano, Núria; Díaz-Cruz, José Manuel; Ariño, Cristina; Esteban, Miquel

    2015-11-01

    A new penicillamine-GCE was developed based on the immobilization of d-penicillamine on aryl diazonium salt monolayers anchored to the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface and it was applied for the first time to the simultaneous determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions by stripping voltammetric techniques. The detection and quantification limits at levels of µg L(-1) suggest that the penicillamine-GCE could be fully suitable for the determination of the considered ions in natural samples. PMID:26452863

  3. Prediction and assignment of site occupation and energy levels for Pb 2+ ions in crystal hosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiang; Wang, Jing; Shi, Jinsheng

    2010-05-01

    The environmental factor h e of the host was calculated quantitatively in Pb 2+-doped 23 compounds based on the dielectric theory of chemical bond for complex crystals. The relationship between the A band energy E A of Pb 2+ and the environmental factor h e was intensively studied. The results indicate that E A of Pb 2+ decreases linearly with increasing of h e. A linear model was proposed which allows us to correctly predict and assign the site occupations and the position of A band for Pb 2+-doped compounds if the crystal structure and the refraction index were known. Applied to SrGa 2O 4:Pb 2+, CaAl 2B 2O 7:Pb 2+ and SrAl 2B 2O 7:Pb 2+, the theoretical predictions are in very good agreement with the experimental data. In SrGa 2O 4:Pb 2+, the excitation spectrum of Pb 2+ from two different cation sites was identified: the higher energy band of A (265 nm) from the site of Sr2, and the lower ones (280 nm) from the site of Sr1.

  4. Magnetic ion-imprinted and -SH functionalized polymer for selective removal of Pb(II) from aqueous samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bin; Deng, Fang; Zhao, Yu; Luo, Xubiao; Luo, Shenglian; Au, Chaktong

    2014-02-01

    A magnetic ion-imprinted polymer (Fe3O4@SiO2-IIP) functionalized with -SH groups for the selective removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous samples was synthesized by surface imprinting technique combined with a sol-gel process using 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane as monomer, tetraethyl orthosilicate as cross-linking agent, and Pb(II) ion as template. The Fe3O4@SiO2-IIP was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry. Fe3O4@SiO2-IIP showed higher capacity and selectivity than that of Fe3O4@SiO2-NIP. The effects of initial concentration of Pb(II) and pH of medium on adsorption capacity of Fe3O4@SiO2-IIP were studied. The experimental data fits well with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The maximum Pb(II)-sorption capacity calculated from Langmuir isotherm is 32.58 mg/g and 16.50 mg/g for Fe3O4@SiO2-IIP and Fe3O4@SiO2-NIP, respectively. Kinetics studies show that the adsorption process obeys a pseudo-second-order kinetic model with high correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.9982). The separation factor of Fe3O4@SiO2-IIP for Pb(II)/Cu(II), Pb(II)/Zn(II), and Pb(II)/Co(II) are 50.54, 52.14, and 37.39, respectively. The adsorption thermodynamic parameters ΔG, ΔH and ΔS were -4.98 kJ/mol, 3.27 kJ/mol and 28.84 J/mol/K, respectively. In addition, the spent Fe3O4@SiO2-IIP can be refreshed by simple washing with aqueous HCl solution, and there is no significant decrease in adsorption capacity after a test of up to five cycles, demonstrating that the Fe3O4@SiO2-IIP is stable and reusable.

  5. The effects of ion gun beam voltage on the electrical characteristics of NbCN/PbBi edge junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichtenberger, A. W.; Feldman, M. J.; Mattauch, R. J.; Cukauskas, E. J.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have succeeded in fabricating high-quality submicron NbCN edge junctions using a technique which is commonly used to make Nb edge junctions. A modified commercial ion gun was used to cut an edge in SiO2/NbCN films partially covered with photoresist. An insulating barrier was then formed on the exposed edge by reactive ion beam oxidation, and a counterelectrode of PbBi was deposited. The electrical quality of the resulting junctions was found to be strongly influenced by the ion beam acceleration voltages used to cut the edge and to oxidize it. For low ion beam voltages, the junction quality parameter was as high as Vm = 55 mV (measured at 3 mV), but higher ion beam voltages yielded strikingly poorer quality junctions. In light of the small coherence length of NbN, the dependence of the electrical characteristics on ion beam voltage is presumably due to mechanical damage of the NbCN surface. In contrast, for similar ion beam voltages, no such dependence was found for Nb edge junctions.

  6. X-Rays of Heavy Elements for Nanotechnological Applications:. W and Pb Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahar, Sultana N.

    2013-03-01

    Heavy elements can absorb or emit hard X-rays and hence are commonly implemented in various high energy nanotechnological applications. The absorptin or emission occurs mainly through the 1s-2p (Kα) transitions, and the process can be used as the source for production of radiation or electron in the applications. For enhanced productions of electrons and photons in the nanobiomedical applications, investigations have focused on the K-shell ionization of the atom or ion. This is because of the well-known rise in photoionization at the K-shell ionization threshold. However, experimental investigations to find any evidence of this rise has not been successful. We have developed a new method called Resonant Theranostics for biomedical applications, where we show that the energy for the rise is related to 1s-np, particularly to 1s-2p transitions which appear as resonances in the photoionization for heavy elements. The energy for the 1s-2p transitions varies some with the ionic state of the element and gives a narrow band resonant energy for the element. The strength of the process depends on the oscillator strength of the transitions. This report will demonstrate these through illustrations of the resonant energy range and strengths of photoabsorption due to K-alpha transitions using some elements, such as tungsten (W, Z=74) and lead (Pb, Z=82). An X-ray photon can ionize a high-Z element by ejection of a K-shell electron. This will create a hole or vacancy which, through the Auger process, will be filled out by an upper shell electron with emission of a photon. Such process at the resonant energy can lead to Koster-Kronig cascade giving out a number of photons and electrons as the element goes through various ionic states and can be modeled using the oscillator strengths. Such emissions are highly desirable in radiation therapy application. Present illustrations will include electric dipole allowed transitions for nine ionic states, from hydrogen to fluorine like ions

  7. Biosorption of Pb(II) ions by modified quebracho tannin resin.

    PubMed

    Yurtsever, Meral; Sengil, I Ayhan

    2009-04-15

    In this study, the effect of temperature, pH and initial metal concentration on Pb(II) biosorption on modified quebracho tannin resin (QTR) was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to investigate QTR structure and morphology. Besides, the specific BET surface area and zeta-potential of the QTR were analysed. Thermodynamic functions, the change of free energy (DeltaG degrees), enthalpy (DeltaH degrees) and entropy (DeltaS degrees) of Pb adsorption on modified tannin resin were calculated as -5.43 kJ mol(-1) (at 296+/-2K), 31.84 kJ mol(-1) and 0.127 J mmol(-1) K(-1), respectively, indicating the spontaneous, endothermic and the increased randomness nature of Pb(2+) adsorption. The kinetic data was tested using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion model. The results suggested that the pseudo-second-order model (R(2)>0.999) was the best choice among all the kinetic models to describe the adsorption behavior of Pb(II) onto QTR. Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin adsorption models were used to represent the equilibrium data. The best interpretation for the experimental data was given by the Langmuir isotherm and the maximum adsorption capacity (86.207 mg g(-1)) of Pb(II) was obtained at pH 5 and 296 K. PMID:18667272

  8. Ion-probe U-Pb dating of authigenic and detrital opal from Neogene-Quaternary alluvium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neymark, L. A.; Paces, J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Knowing depositional ages of alluvial fans is essential for many tectonic, paleoclimatic, and geomorphic studies in arid environments. The use of U-Pb dating on secondary silica to establish the age of Neogene-Quaternary clastic sediments was tested on samples of authigenic and detrital opal and chalcedony from depths of ˜25 to 53 m in boreholes at Midway Valley, Nevada. Dating of authigenic opal present as rinds on rock clasts and in calcite/silica cements establishes minimum ages of alluvium deposition; dating of detrital opal or chalcedony derived from the source volcanic rocks gives the maximum age of sediment deposition. Materials analyzed included 12 samples of authigenic opal, one sample of fracture-coating opal from bedrock, one sample of detrital opal, and two samples of detrital chalcedony. Uranium-lead isotope data were obtained by both thermal ionization mass spectrometry and ion-microprobe. Uranium concentrations ranged from tens to hundreds of μg/g. Relatively large U/Pb allowed calculation of 206Pb/238U ages that ranged from 1.64±0.36 (2σ) to 6.16±0.50 Ma for authigenic opal and from 8.34±0.28 to 11.2±1.3 Ma for detrital opal/chalcedony. Three samples with the most radiogenic Pb isotope compositions also allowed calculation of 207Pb/235U ages, which were concordant with 206Pb/238U ages from the same samples. These results indicate that basin development at Midway Valley was initiated between about 8 and 6 Ma, and that the basin was filled at long-term average deposition rates of less than 1 cm/ka. Because alluvium in Midway Valley was derived from adjacent highlands at Yucca Mountain, the low rates of deposition determined in this study may imply a slow rate of erosion of Yucca Mountain. Volcanic strata underlying the basin are offset by a number of buried faults to a greater degree than the relatively smooth-sloping bedrock/alluvium contact. These geologic relations indicate that movement on most faults ceased prior to erosional planation and

  9. Ion Microprobe U-Pb Dating and REE Analysis of Apatite from Kerogen-rich Silica Dike from North Pole Area, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, M.

    2003-12-01

    In order to provide a time constraint on the 13C-depleted kerogen in silica dikes that intruded 3.5 Ga greenstone from Pilbara Craton in Western Australia, we have carried out an ion microprobe U-Pb dating and rare earth element (REE) analysis of apatite from the dike. Two types of apatite were identified in the dikes based on their occurrences. One is stick-shape apatites (Type 1) in secondary silica micro-veins that cut the silica dike. The other is granular apatites (Type 2) that occurs in matrix of the dike. Occurrence in the secondary micro-veins (Type 1), non-igenous chondrite normalized REE patterns (Type 1 and 2), chemical zoning (some of Type 1 and 2), and presence of mineral inclusion that is composed of Fe and S (some of Type 2) suggest that both Type 1 and 2 apatites were crystallized in the silica dike. Ion microprobe U-Pb dating of Type 1 apatite did not give a meaningful age, while Type 2 apatite yields a Tera-Wasserburg concordia intercept age of 3214 +/- 140 Ma (95 per cent confidence level, MSWD = 0.6) in a three-dimensional 238U/206Pb-207Pb/206Pb-204Pb/206Pb diagram, and a 204Pb/206Pb-207Pb/206Pb isochron age of 3191 +/- 150 Ma (95 per cent confidence level, MSWD = 0.5). It is difficult to judge whether the U-Pb and Pb-Pb age of Type 2 apatite is crystallization age or metamorphic age, since the estimated range of closure temperature of U-Pb system in the apatite and that of metamorphic temperature is partly overlapped. In either case, it can be safely concluded that the minimum age of the dike and kerogen is 3.0 Ga. These ages might allow the interpretation that the kerogen was produced by biological carbon fixation and/or abiological reaction (such as Fischer-Tropsch Type reaction) at least before 3.0 Ga.

  10. Experimental Cross Sections for Reactions of Heavy Ions and 208Pb, 209Bi, 238U, and 248Cm Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Patin, Joshua B.

    2002-05-24

    The study of the reactions between heavy ions and {sup 208}Pb, {sup 209}Bi, {sup 238}U, and {sup 248} Cm targets was performed to look at the differences between the cross sections of hot and cold fusion reactions. Experimental cross sections were compared with predictions from statistical computer codes to evaluate the effectiveness of the computer code in predicting production cross sections. Hot fusion reactions were studied with the MG system, catcher foil techniques and the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator (BGS). 3n- and 4n-exit channel production cross sections were obtained for the {sup 238}U({sup 18}O,xn){sup 256-x}Fm, {sup 238}U({sup 22}Ne,xn){sup 260-x}No, and {sup 248}Cm({sup 15}N,xn){sup 263-x}Lr reactions and are similar to previous experimental results. The experimental cross sections were accurately modeled by the predictions of the HIVAP code using the Reisdorf and Schaedel parameters and are consistent with the existing systematics of 4n exit channel reaction products. Cold fusion reactions were examined using the BGS. The {sup 208}Pb({sup 48}Ca,xn){sup 256-x}No, {sup 208}Pb({sup 50}Ti,xn){sup 258-x}Rf, {sup 208}Pb({sup 51}V,xn){sup 259-x}Db, {sup 209}Bi({sup 50}Ti,xn){sup 259-x}Db, and {sup 209}Bi({sup 51}V,xn){sup 260-x}Sg reactions were studied. The experimental production cross sections are in agreement with the results observed in previous experiments. It was necessary to slightly alter the Reisdorf and Schaedel parameters for use in the HIVAP code in order to more accurately model the experimental data. The cold fusion experimental results are in agreement with current 1n- and 2n-exit channel systematics.

  11. Phase transition process and luminescent properties of undoped and Dy3+ ion doped orthorhombic PbF2 prepared by a hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guanghui; Zhou, Zhenzhen; Fei, Fan; Wei, Qinhua; Yang, Hua; Liu, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Orthorhombic (α) SSPbF2 microcrystal was synthesized by a normal hydrothermal method. The influence of F/Pb ratio and hydrothermal reaction time on the crystal phase of the acquired PbF2 samples were discussed, and a β to α phase transition was found according to the XRD results. The undoped α-PbF2 powder showed a broad but weak emission band around 450-570 nm, which was due to (Pb2)3+ nearest neighbor pair centers. Dy3+ ion doped α-PbF2 samples showed main emission bands at 480 nm and 574 nm, which were assigned to the transitions from 4F9/2 to 6H15/2 and 6H13/2 of Dy3+, respectively. Furthermore, the morphology and crystalline properties of the undoped and Dy3+ doped α-PbF2 microcrystal powder were also discussed carefully. The decay time results combined with the X-ray excitation results suggested that Dy3+ ion doped α-PbF2 is a useful scintillating material for high energy physics applications, such as X-ray scintillating panel, etc.

  12. Swift heavy ion-irradiation effects on microstructure, surface morphology and optical properties of PbS thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajbongshi, Ananta; Kalita, M. P. C.; Singh, F.; Sarma, K. C.; Sarma, B. K.

    2016-05-01

    Chemically deposited PbS nanocrystalline thin films are irradiated by 100 MeV Si8+ swift heavy ions of fluences 1 × 1011, 1 × 1012 and 1 × 1013 ions/cm2. Detailed investigation on the effects of irradiation on microstructure is carried out by X-ray diffraction line profile analysis applying Williamson-Hall and modified Williamson-Hall methods, and transmission electron microscope observation, while atomic force microscope is used for studying the modifications in surface morphology. The band gaps are obtained from electronic absorption spectroscopy measurements, and photoluminescence spectra are recorded by spectrofluorometer. The pristine and irradiated films are polycrystalline in nature with spherical crystallites having face-centered cubic phase. The crystallite size of the pristine film is 20 nm, while films irradiated with ion fluences 1 × 1011, 1 × 1012 and 1 × 1013 ions/cm2 are 21, 20 and 20 nm, respectively. The lattice strain (dislocation density) of the pristine film is 8.9 × 10-3 (6.6 × 1016 m-2), while films irradiated with ion fluences 1 × 1011, 1 × 1012 and 1 × 1013 ions/cm2 are 8.6 × 10-3 (6.1 × 1016 m-2), 8.7 × 10-3 (6.4 × 1016 m-2) and 9.1 × 10-3 (7.0 × 1016 m-2), respectively. The dislocations present in both the pristine and irradiated films are edge in nature. The surface morphology changes significantly with elongation of the particles, increase in particle size and interparticle separation and slight decrease in rms roughness after irradiation. The band gap of the pristine film is 2.51 eV which remains unaltered after irradiation. Photoluminescence intensity increases significantly after irradiation which can be useful in enhancing the performance of different photonic devices such as light-emitting diodes, lasers and luminescence-based sensors.

  13. Removal of Pb (II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Cladophora rivularis (Linnaeus) Hoek

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Naser; Senobari, Zoreh

    2012-01-01

    Biosorption of Pb(II) using Cladophora rivularis was examined as a function of initial pH heavy metal concentration and temperature. The optimum pH value for the biosorption of lead was 4.0. The adsorption equilibriums were well described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and it was implied by the results that the C. rivularis biomass is suitable for the development of efficient biosorbent in order to remove Pb(II) from wastewater and to recover it. The high values of correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.984) demonstrate equilibrium data concerning algal biomass, which is well fitted in Freundlich isotherms model equations. The dimensionless parameter RL is found in the range of 0.0639 to 0.1925 (0 < RL < 1), which confirms the favorable biosorption process. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy of C. rivularis was used to reveal the main function groups of biosorption, which were hydroxyl, amine groups, C–H stretching vibrations of –CH3 and –CH2, and complexation with functional groups. All these results suggest that C. rivularis can be used effectively for removal of Pb(II). PMID:22629198

  14. Effect of coexisting Al(III) ions on Pb(II) sorption on biochars: Role of pH buffer and competition.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuxi; Zhang, Weihua; Qiu, Hao; Tsang, Daniel C W; Morel, Jean-Louis; Qiu, Rongliang

    2016-10-01

    Biochar is being widely considered as a promising amendment agent for immobilizing heavy metals in contaminated acidic soils, where plenty of soluble Al(III) ions exist. In view of uncertain significance of the effects of coexisting Al(III) on Pb(II) sorption by biochars, this study used kenaf core biochar (KB550; high carbon, low ash) and sewage sludge biochar (SB550; low carbon, high ash) pyrolyzed at 550 °C to elucidate the influence of coexisting Al(III) species and biochars' mineral components on Pb(II) immobilization conducted in aqueous solution with initial pHs of 3.0-4.5. Results showed that Al(III) reduced Pb(II) sorption on KB550 primarily via pH buffering against biochar alkalinity, thus inhibiting lead carbonate formation. In contrast, the reduction on SB550 mainly resulted from direct competition for sorption sites, especially on Fe-rich phengite 2M1 and metakaolinite. Because of Pb-P precipitation and Pb-K interlayer exchange, the residual Pb(II) adsorption capacity resistant to coexisting Al(III) was 3-5 times higher on SB550 than on KB550. The Pb-K interlayer exchange was enhanced by lower pH and coexisting Al(III), while Pb-P precipitation was the dominant Pb(II) sorption mechanism on SB550 resistant to Al(III) buffering and competition at higher pH. Application of these two biochars as amendments confirmed that the mineral-rich SB550 was more suitable for Pb(II) immobilization in acidic soils with high levels of extractable Al(III). PMID:27454898

  15. Hopping rates and concentrations of mobile fluoride ions in Pb1-xSnxF2 solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Mohamad M.; Yamada, Koji

    2007-09-01

    In the present paper, the ion dynamics and relaxation of fluoride ions in Pb1-xSnxF2 (with x =0.2-0.6) solid solutions, prepared by mechanochemical milling, are studied in the conductivity formalism over wide ranges of frequencies and temperatures. The conductivity spectra of the investigated materials are analyzed by the Almond-West (AW) power-law model. The estimated values of the hopping rates and the dc conductivity of different compositions are thermally activated with almost the same activation energy. The calculated values of the concentration of mobile ions, nc, are almost independent of temperature and composition for x =0.2-0.4. The maximum value of nc is obtained for the x =0.6 sample, although it does not show the maximum conductivity. Therefore, the composition dependence of the ionic conductivity of these solid solutions could be explained based on the extracted parameters. The results presented in the current work indicate that the AW model represents a reasonable approximation of the overall frequency-dependent conductivity behavior of the investigated materials. The conductivity spectra at different temperatures for each composition are successfully scaled to a single master curve, indicating a temperature-independent relaxation mechanism. For different compositions, however, the conductivity spectra cannot be scaled properly, indicating composition-dependent relaxation dynamics.

  16. Removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution by a waste mud from copper mine industry: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study.

    PubMed

    Ozdes, Duygu; Gundogdu, Ali; Kemer, Baris; Duran, Celal; Senturk, Hasan Basri; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-07-30

    The objective of this study was to assess the adsorption potential of a waste mud (WM) for the removal of lead (Pb(II)) ions from aqueous solutions. The WM was activated with NaOH in order to increase its adsorption capacity. Adsorption studies were conducted in a batch system as a function of solution pH, contact time, initial Pb(II) concentration, activated-waste mud (a-WM) concentration, temperature, etc. Optimum pH was specified as 4.0. The adsorption kinetic studies indicated that the overall adsorption process was best described by pseudo-second-order kinetics. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of a-WM was obtained by using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and both models fitted well. Adsorption capacity for Pb(II) was found to be 24.4 mg g(-1) for 10 g L(-1) of a-WM concentration. Thermodynamic parameters including the Gibbs free energy (Delta G degrees), enthalpy (Delta H degrees), and entropy (DeltaS degrees) indicated that the adsorption of Pb(II) ions on the a-WM was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic, at temperature range of 0-40 degrees C. Desorption studies were carried out successfully with diluted HCl solutions. The results indicate that a-WM can be used as an effective and no-cost adsorbent for the treatment of industrial wastewaters contaminated with Pb(II) ions. PMID:19167162

  17. Rapid adsorptive removal of toxic Pb(2+) ion from aqueous solution using recyclable, biodegradable nanocomposite derived from templated partially hydrolyzed xanthan gum and nanosilica.

    PubMed

    Ghorai, Soumitra; Sarkar, Amit Kumar; Pal, Sagar

    2014-10-01

    This work studied the application of a novel biodegradable nanocomposite based on partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide grafted xanthan gum and nanosilica (h-XG/SiO2) towards efficient and rapid removal of toxic Pb(2+) ions from aqueous environment. The uptake ability of Pb(2+) using h-XG/SiO2 has been studied in batch adsorption experiments with variation of adsorption parameters. The excellent removal rate (99.54% adsorption within 25min) and superior adsorption capacity (Qmax=1012.15mgg(-1)) of the composite material have been explained on the basis of synergistic and chelating effects of h-XG/SiO2 with Pb(2+) ion through electrostatic interactions. The kinetics, isotherm and thermodynamics studies reveal that Pb(2+) adsorb rapidly on nanocomposite surface, which is in agreement with pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models. In consequence of excellent adsorption as well as regeneration characteristics of nanocomposite, it has been found to be a promising adsorbent towards removal of Pb(2+) ions from battery industry wastewater. PMID:25164955

  18. Removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution using water hyacinth root by fixed-bed column and ANN modeling.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Tania; Singha, Biswajit; Bar, Nirjhar; Das, Sudip Kumar

    2014-05-30

    Hyacinth root was used as a biosorbent for generating adsorption data in fixed-bed glass column. The influence of different operating parameters like inlet Pb(II) ion concentration, liquid flow rate and bed height on the breakthrough curves and the performance of the column was studied. The result showed that the adsorption efficiency increased with increase in bed height and decreased with increase in inlet Pb(II) ion concentration and flow rate. Increasing the flow rate resulted in shorter time for bed saturation. The result showed that as the bed height increased the availability of more number of adsorption sites in the bed increased, hence the throughput volume of the aqueous solution also increased. The adsorption kinetics was analyzed using different models. It was observed that maximum adsorption capacity increased with increase in flow rate and initial Pb(II) ion concentration but decreased with increase in bed height. Applicability of artificial neural network (ANN) modeling for the prediction of Pb(II) ion removal was also reported by using multilayer perceptron with backpropagation, Levenberg-Marquardt and scaled conjugate algorithms and four different transfer functions in a hidden layer and a linear output transfer function. PMID:24727010

  19. The production of residual nuclides in Pb irradiated by 400 MeV/u carbon ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, H. L.; Ma, F.; Zhang, X. Y.; Ju, Y. Q.; Zhang, H. B.; Chen, L.; Luo, P.; Zhou, B.; Zhang, Y. B.; Li, J. Y.; Xu, J. K.; Liang, T. J.; Wang, S. L.; Yang, Y. W.; Yang, L.

    2014-10-01

    The experiment was performed by irradiating a Pb foil with 400 MeV/u carbon beam at the HIRFL-CSR in Lanzhou, China. The experimental data was acquired by the off-line γ-spectroscopy method. 32 radioactive residual nuclides had been observed and their cross sections were determined. The measured results were compared with the results simulated by Monte Carlo code MCNPX2.7.0. The comparison shows that the simulated cross sections were underestimated for the fragments from A = 20 to 41 and A = 110 to 175. By fitting the measured and simulated cross sections to Rudstams semi-empirical formula, it was found that the charge distribution of products was asymmetric for the residual nuclides with a high mass number.

  20. Preparation of new ion-selective cross-linked poly(vinylimidazole-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) using a double-imprinting process for the preconcentration of Pb²⁺ ions.

    PubMed

    Tarley, César Ricardo Teixeira; Corazza, Marcela Zanetti; Somera, Bruna Fabrin; Segatelli, Mariana Gava

    2015-07-15

    A new ion-selective cross-linked poly(vinylimidazole-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) prepared via a double-imprinting process was developed for the recognition and preconcentration of Pb(2+) from water samples. The sorbent was characterized by FT-IR, SEM, TGA and textural data. The maximum dynamic sorption capacity of Pb(2+) was 42.04 mg Pb(2+) g(-1) of the double-imprinted polymer. The sorption kinetics data were described by a pseudo-second-order model. The double-imprinted polymer exhibited a higher sorption efficiency of Pb(2+) than the blank polymer (non-imprinted polymer). The preconcentration procedure involved the loading of a Pb(2+) solution at pH 7.25 through 40.0 mg of the double-imprinted polymer packed in a mini-column at 5.0 mL min(-1). The selective efficiency of proposed method for the Pb(2+) preconcentration was assured by competitive sorption using different proportions of Pb(2+)/cations and Pb(2+)/anions. An analytical curve was obtained in the range 0.0-300.0 μg L(-1) (r=0.999) and a limit of detection of 2.46 μg L(-1) was obtained. The preconcentration factor was found to be 21, the consumptive index 0.95 mL and the concentration efficiency 5.25 min(-1). The preconcentration method was successfully applied to the Pb(2+) ions determination in different kinds of water samples with high recovery values (91.3-108.9%). PMID:25823729

  1. Ion transport studies on Li2O-PbO-B2O3-P2O5 glass system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muralidhara, R. S.; Anavekar, R. V.

    2009-07-01

    Electrical conductivity of Li+ ion conducting borophosphate glass system with the general formula xLi2O -10PbO-(90-x) [55B2O3 + 45 P2O5] where x=20, 25, 30 and 35 has been carried out both as a function of temperature and frequency in the temperature range 303K to 503K and over frequencies 20 Hz to 12 MHz. The dc conductivities show Arrhenius behaviour while exhibiting composition dependence. Edc estimated from Arrhenius plots varies from 0.82 eV 0.88 eV. The ac conductivity behaviour has been analyzed using a single power law. The exponent `s' obtained from the power law fits is found to have values ranging from 0.45 to 0.84.in these glasses and shows moderate temperature dependence The stretched exponent β also is seen to vary slightly with temperature. Scaling behaviour also has been carried out using the reduced plots of conductivity and frequency. The time-temperature superposition of data points is found to be satisfactory indicating that the ion transport mechanism remains the same in the entire range of temperatures and compositions studied. The results have been explained considering the borophosphate network and the role of Li2O as a glass modifier.

  2. Direct observation of Nd{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+} ion distributions in oxy-fluoride glass ceramics containing PbF{sub 2} nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jihong; Zhao, Zhiyong; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Gaoke; Zhao, Xiujian; Heo, Jong; Jiang, Yang

    2014-12-15

    Nd{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+}, doped oxy-fluoride glasses and glass ceramics were prepared by conventional melt-quenching and subsequent heat-treatment, respectively. β-PbF{sub 2} nanocrystals with diameter 50 –100 nm formed in the glass matrix after heat treatment. The Stark splitting in absorption peaks, enhanced photoluminescence and prolonged lifetimes that β-PbF{sub 2} nanocrystal formation increased the luminescence of rare earth ions. Both Nd{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+} ions were incorporated into nanocrystals that were enriched in lead and fluorine, and deficient in oxygen. - Highlights: • EELS analysis for rare-earth ion distribution in oxy-fluoride glass ceramics • No significant changes in lifetimes of Nd{sup 3+}, while obvious change for Tm{sup 3+} • Direct evidence of Nd{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+} aggregation into fluoride nanocrystals.

  3. Light ion induced L X-ray production cross-sections in Au and Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouziane, S.; Amokrane, A.; Toumert, I.

    2008-04-01

    Experimental proton-induced Lα, Lβ, Lγ, Lℓ and Ltot absolute X-ray production cross-sections for Au and Pb in the incident proton energy range between 1 and 2.5 MeV are presented. The experimental results for X-ray production cross-sections are compared to available data given in Sokhi and Crumpton [R.S. Sokhi, D. Crumpton, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 30 (1984) 49], Jesus et al. [A.P. Jesus, J.S. Lopes, J.P. Ribeiro, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Phys. 18 (1985) 2456; A.P. Jesus, T.M. Pinheiro, I.A. Nisa, J.P. Ribeiro, J.S. Lopes, Nucl. Instrum. Methods B15 (1986) 95] and Goudarzi et al. [M. Goudarzi, F. Shokouhi, M. Lamehi-Rachti, P.Olialiy, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B247 (2006) 218]. The given data are also compared with the predictions of ECPSSR model [W. Brandt, G. Lapicki, Phys. Rev. A23 (1981) 1717].

  4. Comparative biosorption of Mn(II) and Pb(II) ions on raw and oxalic acid modified maize husk: kinetic, thermodynamic and isothermal studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeogun, Abideen Idowu; Idowu, Mopelola Abidemi; Ofudje, Andrew Edwin; Kareem, Sarafadeen Olateju; Ahmed, Sikiru Akinyeye

    2013-03-01

    Maize husk, an abundant agricultural waste was used to prepare a biosorbent for the biosorption of Mn(II) and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution in a batch process. Equilibrium and kinetics of biosorption of the metals ions were studied at 25 °C. The adsorbtion data were treated with common kinetic and isotherm models. The equilibrium data fitted well with Langmuir isotherm with maximum capacity of 8.52 and 7.38 mg g-1 for Mn(II) and Pb(II), respectively on raw biomass (UTCS). The capacity of 9.00 and 9.33 mg g-1 was observed for Mn(II) and Pb(II), respectively on acid modified biomass (ATCS). The study also revealed that the sorption process in both cases depend on biomass dosage, temperature, pH and initial metal ion concentration, respectively. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (∆ G o, ∆ H o and ∆ S o) showed that the biosorption of the metal ions onto maize husk is feasible, spontaneous and exothermic in nature.

  5. Optimization, isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of Pb(II) ions adsorption onto N-maleated chitosan-immobilized TiO₂ nanoparticles from aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Medhat A; Yakout, Amr A

    2016-02-01

    Chitosan, CS was chemically engineered by maleic anhydride via simple protocol to produce N-maleated chitosan, MCS which immobilized on anatase TiO2 to synthesize novel eco-friendly nanosorbent (51±3.8 nm), MCS@TiO2 for cost-effective and efficient removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous media. The chemical structure, surface properties and morphology of MCS@TiO2 were recognized by FTIR, (1)H NMR, XRD, TEM, DLS and zeta-potential techniques. The relations between %removal of Pb(II) and different analytical parameters such as solution acidity (pH), MCS@TiO2 dosage, time of contact and initial Pb(II) concentration were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) and Box-Behnken design (BBD) statistical procedures. The fitting of the experimental data to four different isotherm models at optimized conditions was carried out by various statistical treatments including the correlation coefficient (r), coefficient of determination (r(2)) and non-linear Chi-square (χ(2)) test analyses which all confirm the suitability of Langmuir model to explain the adsorption isotherm data. Also, statistics predicted that the pseudo-second-order model is the optimum kinetic model among four applied kinetic models to closely describe the rate equation of the adsorption process. Thermodynamics viewed the adsorption as endothermic and feasible physical process. EDTA could release the sorbed Pb(II) ions from MCS@TiO2 with a recovery above 92% after three sorption-desorption cycles. The novel synthesized nanosorbent is evidenced to be an excellent solid phase extractor for Pb(II) ions from wastewaters. PMID:26520475

  6. Optimization, isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of Pb(II) ions adsorption onto N-maleated chitosan-immobilized TiO2 nanoparticles from aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaker, Medhat A.; Yakout, Amr A.

    2016-02-01

    Chitosan, CS was chemically engineered by maleic anhydride via simple protocol to produce N-maleated chitosan, MCS which immobilized on anatase TiO2 to synthesize novel eco-friendly nanosorbent (51 ± 3.8 nm), MCS@TiO2 for cost-effective and efficient removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous media. The chemical structure, surface properties and morphology of MCS@TiO2 were recognized by FTIR, 1H NMR, XRD, TEM, DLS and zeta-potential techniques. The relations between %removal of Pb(II) and different analytical parameters such as solution acidity (pH), MCS@TiO2 dosage, time of contact and initial Pb(II) concentration were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) and Box-Behnken design (BBD) statistical procedures. The fitting of the experimental data to four different isotherm models at optimized conditions was carried out by various statistical treatments including the correlation coefficient (r), coefficient of determination (r2) and non-linear Chi-square (χ2) test analyses which all confirm the suitability of Langmuir model to explain the adsorption isotherm data. Also, statistics predicted that the pseudo-second-order model is the optimum kinetic model among four applied kinetic models to closely describe the rate equation of the adsorption process. Thermodynamics viewed the adsorption as endothermic and feasible physical process. EDTA could release the sorbed Pb(II) ions from MCS@TiO2 with a recovery above 92% after three sorption-desorption cycles. The novel synthesized nanosorbent is evidenced to be an excellent solid phase extractor for Pb(II) ions from wastewaters.

  7. Highly selective and sensitive optical sensor for determination of Pb2+ and Hg2+ ions based on the covalent immobilization of dithizone on agarose membrane.

    PubMed

    Zargoosh, Kiomars; Babadi, Fatemeh Farhadian

    2015-02-25

    A highly sensitive and selective optical membrane for determination of Hg(2+) and Pb(2+) was prepared by covalent immobilization of dithizone on agarose membrane. In addition to its high stability, reproducibility and relatively long lifetime, the proposed optical sensor revealed good selectivity for target ions over a large number of alkali, alkaline earth, transition, and heavy metal ions. The proposed optical membrane displays linear responses from 1.1×10(-8) to 2.0×10(-6) mol L(-1) and 1.2×10(-8) to 2.4×10(-6) mol L(-1) for Hg(2+) and Pb(2+), respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) were 2.0×10(-9) mol L(-1) and 4.0×10(-9) mol L(-1) for Hg(2+) and Pb(2), respectively. The prepared optical membrane was successfully applied to the determination of Hg(2+) and Pb(2+) in industrial wastes, spiked tap water and natural waters without any preconcentration step. PMID:25216460

  8. Highly selective and sensitive optical sensor for determination of Pb2+and Hg2+ ions based on the covalent immobilization of dithizone on agarose membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zargoosh, Kiomars; Babadi, Fatemeh Farhadian

    2015-02-01

    A highly sensitive and selective optical membrane for determination of Hg2+ and Pb2+ was prepared by covalent immobilization of dithizone on agarose membrane. In addition to its high stability, reproducibility and relatively long lifetime, the proposed optical sensor revealed good selectivity for target ions over a large number of alkali, alkaline earth, transition, and heavy metal ions. The proposed optical membrane displays linear responses from 1.1 × 10-8 to 2.0 × 10-6 mol L-1 and 1.2 × 10-8 to 2.4 × 10-6 mol L-1 for Hg2+ and Pb2+, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) were 2.0 × 10-9 mol L-1 and 4.0 × 10-9 mol L-1 for Hg2+ and Pb2, respectively. The prepared optical membrane was successfully applied to the determination of Hg2+ and Pb2+ in industrial wastes, spiked tap water and natural waters without any preconcentration step.

  9. Sputtered bismuth screen-printed electrode: a promising alternative to other bismuth modifications in the voltammetric determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Velia; Serrano, Núria; Ariño, Cristina; Díaz-Cruz, José Manuel; Esteban, Miquel

    2014-02-01

    A commercially available sputtered bismuth screen-printed electrode (BispSPE) has been pioneeringly applied for the simultaneous determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in a certified groundwater sample by means of differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) as an alternative to more conventional bismuth screen-printed carbon electrodes (BiSPCEs). BispSPEs can be used for a large set of measurements without any previous plating or activation. The obtained detection and quantification limits suggest that BispSPEs produce a better analytical performance as compared to In-situ BiSPCE for Pb(II) and Cd(II) determination, but also to Ex-situ BiSPCE for Cd(II) determination. The results confirm the applicability of these devices for the determination of low level concentrations of these metal ions in natural samples with very high reproducibility (0.7% and 2.5% for Pb(II) and Cd(II) respectively), and good trueness (0.3% and 2.4% for Pb(II) and Cd(II) respectively). PMID:24401424

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposite Poly-o-anisidine Sn(IV) Arsenophosphate: Its Analytical Applications as Pb(II) Ion-Selective Membrane Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Asif Ali; Habiba, Umme; Khan, Anish

    2009-01-01

    Poly-o-anisidine Sn(IV) arsenophosphate is a newly synthesized nanocomposite material and has been characterized on the basis of its chemical composition, ion exchange capacity, TGA-DTA, FTIR, X-RAY, SEM, and TEM studies. On the basis of distribution studies, the exchanger was found to be highly selective for lead that is an environmental pollutant. For the detection of lead in water a heterogeneous precipitate based ion-selective membrane electrode was developed by means of this composite cation exchanger as electroactive material. The membrane electrode is mechanically stable, with a quick response time, and can be operated over a wide pH range. The selectivity coefficients were determined by mixed solution method and revealed that the electrode is sensitive for Pb(II) in presence of interfering cations. The practical utility of this membrane electrode has been established by employing it as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Pb(II). PMID:20140082

  11. Removal of Co(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions by polymer based 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate: thermodynamics and desorption studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Removal thermodynamics and desorption studies of some heavy metal ions such as Co(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) by polymeric surfaces such as poly 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (PHEMA) and copolymer 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate with monomer methyl methacrylate P(MMA-HEMA) as adsorbent surfaces from aqueous single solution were investigated with respect to the changes in pH of solution, adsorbent composition, contact time and temperature in the individual aqueous solution. The linear correlation coefficients of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were obtained and the results revealed that the Langmuir isotherm fitted the experiment results better than Freundlich isotherm. Using the Langmuir model equation, the monolayer removal capacity of PHEMA surface was found to be 0.7388, 0.8396 and 3.0367 mg/g for Co(II), Cu(ΙΙ) and Pb(II) ions and removal capacity of P(MMA-HEMA) was found to be 28.8442, 31.1526 and 31.4465 mg/g for Co(II), Cu(ΙΙ) and Pb(II) ions, respectively. Changes in the standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG0), standard enthalpy (ΔH0) and standard entropy (ΔS0) showed that the removals of mentioned ions onto PHEMA and P(MMA-HEMA) are spontaneous and exothermic at 293–323 K. The maximum desorption efficiency was 75.26% for Pb(II) using 0.100 M HNO3, 70.10% for Cu(II) using 0.100 M HCl, 59.20% for 0.100 M HCl 63.67% Co(II). PMID:23369255

  12. Post-annealing treatment for Cu-TiO2 nanotubes and their use in photocatalytic methyl orange degradation and Pb(II) heavy metal ions removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreekantan, Srimala; Mohd Zaki, Syazwani; Lai, Chin Wei; Tzu, Teoh Wah

    2014-07-01

    TiO2 nanotubes were synthesized via electrochemical anodization of Ti foil at 60 V for 1 h in a bath with electrolytes composed of ethylene glycol containing 5 wt.% of NH4F and 1 vol.% of H2O2. The incorporation of optimum Cu2+ ions (1.30 at.%) into TiO2 nanotubes were prepared by using wet impregnation method to improve their photocatalytic methyl orange degradation and Pb(II) heavy metal removal. The small Cu2+ ions were successfully diffused into lattice of TiO2 nanotubes by conducting post-annealing treatment at 400 °C for 4 h in argon atmosphere after wet impregnation. In this manner, optimum Cu2+ ions played a crucial role in suppressing the recombination of charge carriers by forming inter-band states (mismatch of the band energies) within the lattice of Cu-TiO2. The experimental results showed that a maximum of 80% methyl orange removal and 97.3% Pb(II) heavy metal removal at pH 11 under UV irradiation for 5 h. Besides, it was noticed that photocatalytic Pb(II) heavy metal removal was strong dependence on pH of the solution because of the amphoteric character of Cu-TiO2 in an aqueous medium.

  13. Biochar prepared from castor oil cake at different temperatures: A voltammetric study applied for Pb(2+), Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) ions preconcentration.

    PubMed

    Kalinke, Cristiane; Mangrich, Antonio Sálvio; Marcolino-Junior, Luiz H; Bergamini, Márcio F

    2016-11-15

    Biochar is a carbonaceous material similar produced by pyrolysis of biomass under oxygen-limited conditions. Pyrolysis temperature is an important parameter that can alters biochar characteristics (e.g. surface area, pore size distribution and surface functional groups) and affects it efficacy for adsorption of several probes. In this work, biochar samples have been prepared from castor oil cake using different temperatures of pyrolysis (200-600°C). For the first time, a voltammetric procedure based on carbon paste modified electrode (CPME) was used to investigate the effect of temperature of pyrolysis on the adsorptive characteristics of biochar for Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) ions. Besides the electrochemical techniques, several characterizations have been performed to evaluate the physicochemical properties of biochar in function of the increase of the pyrolysis temperature. Results suggest that biochar pyrolized at 400°C (BC400) showed a better potential for ions adsorption. The CPME modified with BC400 showed better relative current signal with adsorption affinity: Pb(II)>Cd(II)>Cu(II). Kinetic studies revealed that the pseudo-second order model describes more accurately the adsorption process suggesting that the surface reactions control the adsorption rate. Values found for amount adsorbed were 15.94±0.09; 4.29±0.13 and 2.38±0.39μgg(-1) for Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) ions, respectively. PMID:27469040

  14. Preconcentration of Trace Amounts of Pb(II) Ions without Any Chelating Agent by Using Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles prior to ETAAS Determination

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, S. Z.; Shamspur, T.; Karimi, M. A.; Naroui, E.

    2012-01-01

    This work investigates the potential of magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles as an adsorbent for separation and preconcentration of trace amounts of lead from water samples prior to electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) determination. No chemical modifier is required in graphite furnace. Pb(II) ion was adsorbed on magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the pH range of 5.5–6.5, and then magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were easily separated from the aqueous solution by applying an external magnetic field; so, no filtration or centrifugation was necessary. After extraction and collection of MNPs, the analyte ions were eluted using HNO3 1.0 mol L−1. Several factors that may affect the preconcentration and extraction process, such as pH, type, and volume of eluent, amount of MNPs, sample volume, salting out effect, and interference ions were studied and optimized. Under the best experimental conditions, linearity was maintained between 0.005–0.5 ng mL−1. Detection limits for lead were 0.8 ng L−1 based on 3Sb. The relative standard deviation of seven replicate measurements of 0.05 ng mL−1 of Pb(II) ions was 3.8%. Finally, the method was successfully applied to extraction and determination of lead ions in the water and standard samples. PMID:22649300

  15. Reactions of the feldspar surface with metal ions: Sorption of Pb(II), U(VI) and Np(V), and surface analytical studies of reaction with Pb(II) and U(VI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chardon, Emmanuelle S.; Bosbach, Dirk; Bryan, Nicholas D.; Lyon, Ian C.; Marquardt, Christian; Römer, Jürgen; Schild, Dieter; Vaughan, David J.; Wincott, Paul L.; Wogelius, Roy A.; Livens, Francis R.

    2008-01-01

    Feldspar minerals are thermodynamically unstable in the near-surface environment and their surfaces are well known to react readily with aqueous solutions, leading to incongruent dissolution at low pH values, but congruent dissolution at neutral and high pH values. Interactions with mineral surfaces are an important control on the environmental transport of trace elements and detrital feldspars are abundant in soils and sediments. However, the interactions of metal ions in solution with the reacting feldspar surface have not been widely explored. The interactions of Pb(II), U(VI) and Np(V) ions with the feldspar surface have therefore been studied. Lead is taken up by the microcline surface at pH 6 and 10, but no uptake could be measured at pH 2. There was measurable uptake of Pb(II) on the plagioclase surface at pH 2, 6 and 10. Uptake always increased with pH. In most conditions, Pb(II) reacts through cation exchange process although, at high pH, a discrete phase, probably hydrocerrusite, is observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) to precipitate on the plagioclase surface. Supersaturation with hydrocerrusite in these conditions is expected from thermodynamic calculations. Uptake of uranyl ion (UO22+), generally through surface complex formation, could only be measured at pH 6 and 10. At pH 6 and an initial U(VI) concentration above 21.0 μM, precipitation of becquerelite (Ca[(UO2)3O2(OH)3]2·8H2O), identified by AFM and characterised by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, is observed on plagioclase. The U(VI) concentration range in which becquerelite precipitation begins (dissolved U(VI) 1-5 μM) is consistent with that predicted from thermodynamic modelling. On plagioclase feldspar, secondary ion mass spectrometry showed diffusion of uranium into the altered surface layer. Uptake of the neptunyl ion (Np(V)) was found at pH 6 and 10 for microcline and at pH 2, 6 and 10 for plagioclase, and was generally lower than uptake of

  16. Removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single metal aqueous solution using rice husk-based activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, Mohd F.; Shuib, Anis Suhaila; Shaharun, Maizatul S.; Borhan, Azry

    2014-10-01

    An attempt was made to investigate the potential of rice husk-based activated carbon as an alternative low-cost adsorbent for the removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single aqueous solution. Rice husk-based activated carbon was prepared via treatment of rice husk with NaOH followed by the carbonization process at 400°C for 2 hours. Three samples, i.e. raw rice husk, rice husk treated with NaOH and rice husk-based activated carbon, were analyzed for their morphological characteristics using field-emission scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray (FESEM/EDX). These samples were also analyzed for their carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and silica contents using CHN elemental analyzer and FESEM/EDX. The porous properties of rice husk-based activated carbon were determined by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, and its surface area and pore volume were 255 m2/g and 0.17 cm2/g, respectively. The adsorption studies for the removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single metal aqueous solution were carried out at a fixed initial concentration of metal ion (150 ppm) with variation amount of adsorbent (rice husk-based activated carbon) as a function of varied contact time at room temperature. The concentration of each metal ion was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results obtained from adsorption studies indicate the potential of rice husk as an economically promising precursor for the preparation of activated carbon for removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single aqueous solution. Isotherm and kinetic model analyses suggested that the experimental data of adsorption studies fitted well with Langmuir, Freundlich and second-order kinetic models.

  17. Removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single metal aqueous solution using rice husk-based activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Taha, Mohd F. Shaharun, Maizatul S.; Shuib, Anis Suhaila Borhan, Azry

    2014-10-24

    An attempt was made to investigate the potential of rice husk-based activated carbon as an alternative low-cost adsorbent for the removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single aqueous solution. Rice husk-based activated carbon was prepared via treatment of rice husk with NaOH followed by the carbonization process at 400°C for 2 hours. Three samples, i.e. raw rice husk, rice husk treated with NaOH and rice husk-based activated carbon, were analyzed for their morphological characteristics using field-emission scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray (FESEM/EDX). These samples were also analyzed for their carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and silica contents using CHN elemental analyzer and FESEM/EDX. The porous properties of rice husk-based activated carbon were determined by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, and its surface area and pore volume were 255 m{sup 2}/g and 0.17 cm{sup 2}/g, respectively. The adsorption studies for the removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single metal aqueous solution were carried out at a fixed initial concentration of metal ion (150 ppm) with variation amount of adsorbent (rice husk-based activated carbon) as a function of varied contact time at room temperature. The concentration of each metal ion was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results obtained from adsorption studies indicate the potential of rice husk as an economically promising precursor for the preparation of activated carbon for removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single aqueous solution. Isotherm and kinetic model analyses suggested that the experimental data of adsorption studies fitted well with Langmuir, Freundlich and second-order kinetic models.

  18. New ion microprobe U-Pb analyses on unpolished zircon surfaces and polished grain interiors from the 28 Ma Fish Canyon Tuff reveal a protracted crystallization history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coble, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    U-Pb analyses on surfaces and polished interiors of Oligocene Fish Canyon Tuff (FCT) zircon are investigated to better constrain the disparity in FCT ages measured by different isotopic techniques. FCT sanidine is a widely used geochronology standard for K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar analyses with reported ages ranging from ~27.6-28.3 Ma. In comparison, published U-Pb ID-TIMS zircon ages using chemical or mechanical abrasion methods range from ~28.2 to 28.6 Ma. New 206U-238Pb SHRIMP-RG ion microprobe ages were obtained on untreated, unpolished FCT zircon surfaces as well as from polished zircon interiors. FCT zircon was mounted with primary age standard Temora-2 (416.8 Ma) and secondary zircon standard early-erupted Bishop Tuff (0.767 Ma) by pressing euhedral grains into pliable indium metal leaving the exterior surfaces exposed. The high spatial resolution of the ion-microprobe produced analytical pits 25-30 μm in diameter and 4-6 μm deep (~8 to 9 nA primary O2- beam), allowing only the youngest portion of the zircon to be targeted, while avoiding abundant mineral and glass inclusions pervasive in FCT zircons. The 230Th-corrected 206Pb-238U weighted mean age for FCT zircon surfaces is 28.03×0.17 Ma (2σ, n=38, MSWD=1.07, Th/Urock=2.2) and for Bishop Tuff zircon surfaces is 0.763×0.006 Ma (2σ, n=25, MSWD=0.88, Th/Urock=2.81) analyzed over three analytical sessions. Calculated ages for FCT zircon surfaces are insensitive to common-Pb correction due to high radiogenic yield (average 98.2% radiogenic 206Pb corrected using 207Pb). Following analysis of zircon surfaces, the mount was polished to expose the interior of FCT zircons and reanalyzed. 230Th-corrected 206Pb-238U ages for FCT zircon interiors range from 28.0 to 29.5 Ma, with a weighted mean age of 28.68×0.15 Ma (2σ, n=54, MSWD=2.6, Th/Urock=2.2). Using an age of 418.4 Ma for Temora-2 (Mattinson, 2010) increases the ages for FCT zircon by 0.10 My. Despite this added uncertainty in standardization and the imprecision

  19. The role of surface chemistry and solution pH on the removal of Pb2+ and Cd2+ ions via effective adsorbents from low-cost biomass.

    PubMed

    El-Hendawy, Abdel-Nasser A

    2009-08-15

    A deep understanding of adsorption of Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) ions from their aqueous solutions on activated carbons and their HNO(3)-oxidized forms has been attempted. These activated carbons were obtained from date pits using different activation methods. Adsorption isotherms of Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) ions were determined from solutions at pH 3 and 5.9. The results revealed that all obtained isotherms exhibited the model fitting according to Langmuir equation. The oxidized samples prone, slightly, to the high affinity isotherm type. The results revealed also that the investigated carbons removed appreciable amounts of lead and cadmium ions which increased by increasing pH of solutions from 3 to 5.9. The adsorption capacity of the investigated carbons also increased by HNO(3) acid surface treatment. The results were discussed in light of a possible chemical modification by nitric acid resulting in the creation of a large number of surface functional oxygen species. This interpretation was confirmed by FTIR investigation. The solution-pH and the surface chemistry of the carbons were found to play a decisive role in the uptake of these heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions rather than the carbon texture characteristics. PMID:19195774

  20. Optical and electrical characterizations of a single step ion beam milling mesa devices of chloride passivated PbS colloidal quantum dots based film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hechster, Elad; Shapiro, Arthur; Lifshitz, Efrat; Sarusi, Gabby

    2016-07-01

    Colloidal Quantum Dots (CQDs) are of increasing interest, thanks to their quantum size effect that gives rise to their usage in various applications, such as biological tagging, solar cells and as the sensitizing layer of night vision devices. Here, we analyze the optical absorbance of chloride passivated PbS CQDs as well as revealing a correlation between their photoluminescence and sizes distribution, using theoretical models and experimental results from the literature. Next, we calculate the CQDs resistivity as a film. Although resistivity can be calculated from sheet resistance measurement using four point probes, such measurement is usually carried-out on the layer's surface that in most cases has dangling bonds and surface states, which might affect the charges flow and modify the resistivity. Therefore; our approach, which was applied in this work, is to extract the actual resistivity from measurements that are performed along the film's thickness (z-direction). For this intent, we fabricated gold capped PbS mesas devices using a single step Ion Beam Milling (IBM) process where we milled the gold and the PbS film continually, and then measured the vertical resistance. Knowing the mesas' dimensions, we calculate the resistivity. To the best of our knowledge, no previous work has extracted, vertically, the resistivity of chloride passivated PbS CQDs using the above method.

  1. Biosorption of Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II) ions by cross-linked metal-imprinted chitosans with epichlorohydrin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Yun; Yang, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Arh-Hwang

    2011-03-01

    Cross-linked metal-imprinted chitosan microparticles were prepared from chitosan, using four metals (Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II)) as templates, and epichlorohydrin as the cross-linker. The microparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solid state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. They were used for comparative biosorption of Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II) ions in an aqueous solution. The results showed that the sorption capacities of Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II) on the templated microparticles increased from 25 to 74%, 13 to 46%, 41 to 57%, and 12 to 43%, respectively, as compared to the microparticles without metal ion templates. The dynamic study showed that the sorption process followed the second-order kinetic equation. Three sorption models, Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich, were applied to the equilibrium isotherm data. The result showed that the Langmuir isotherm equation best fitted for monolayer sorption processes. Furthermore, the microparticles can be regenerated and reused for the metal removal. PMID:21044814

  2. Studies on optimizing sesquioxide contents to enhance luminescence efficiency of Pr3+ ions in PbO-PbF2-B2O3 glass system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeswara Rao, D.; Sahaya Baskaran, G.; Ramesh Babu, P.; Gandhi, Y.; Veeraiah, N.

    2014-09-01

    Pr3+ doped lead oxy fluoro borate glasses mixed with three sesquioxides (M2O3) viz. Y2O3, Sc2O3, Al2O3 of different concentrations (0-10 mol%) have been synthesized. The preliminary understanding over the structural modifications due to the insertion of the sesquioxides in the glass network could be obtained by IR spectral investigations. The optical absorption, luminescence spectra and fluorescence decay curves of these glasses were studied as functions of concentration of M2O3. The luminescence spectra of these glasses have exhibited the bands due to 3P0 → 3F2, 3F3, 3H6, 3H4, 3H5 transitions of Pr3+ ions. From these spectra, the radiative parameters viz., spontaneous emission probability A, the total emission probability AT, the radiative lifetime τ, the fluorescent branching ratio β of different transitions originated from 3P0 level of Pr3+ ions have been evaluated. A considerable enhancement in the luminescence emission corresponding to 3P0 → 3H6, 3F2 transitions has been observed with increase in the concentraion of M2O3 up to 8.0 mol%. The increase has been attributed to the possible declusterization of Pr3+ ions by M3+ ions in the glass network. The comparison of emissive characteristics of the glasses mixed with three sesquioxides indicated the highest luminescence efficiency for Y2O3 mixed glasses among the three series glasses studied and this has been explained in terms of different degrees of variations in the structural modifications in the vicinity of Pr3+ ion in the glass network.

  3. Raman and Photoluminescence Spectroscopy of Nano-crystalline PbTiO3 Sensor Materials with Different Doping Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katiyar, R. S.; Jinfang, Meng

    1998-01-01

    Raman spectra & photoluminescence studies in PbTiO3, have been carried out, as a function of particle size, temperature, pressure and dopants. There appears respectively a distinct temperature-induced soft mode phase transition in each sample whose Curie temperature can be determined from the mean-field theory. The detailed Curie temperature shift in the modified PbTiO3 ceramics by Ba, Sr, La and Zr, has been investigated as a function of particle size. Pressure-induced phase transitions display an obvious diffuse behavior. Room temperature photoluminescence for nanocrystalline Ba(1-x)Pb(x)TiO3 have been observed. These studies favor preparations of high efficiency PbTiO3 sensors.

  4. U-Th-Pb ion microprobe analysis of monazite from the Paleoproterozoic Karrat rare earth element (REE) deposit, western Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mott, A.; Grove, M.; Bird, D. K.

    2012-12-01

    The Karrat rare earth element (REE) deposit is located at 72°N on the Niaqornakavsak peninsula of Qeqertarssuq Island on the western coast of Greenland. Metasomatic alteration of an amphibolite host rock by carbonatite derived fluids resulted in REE mineralization in the Karrat Isfjord area. REE in the mineralization are primarily found in bastnasite, allanite, and monazite. In-situ analysis of monazite was conducted on samples obtained from three sites of mineralization: (1) the primary deposit at Niaqornakavsak consisting of a single distinct ~30m thick unit; (2) at Umiamako Nuna 7 km to the east of Niaqornakavsak where the majority of REE mineralization occurs within the first 20m of the surface; and (3) a 6m thick REE-rich vein 100m below the surface at Umiamako Nuna. Formation ages for monazite at Niaqornakavsak, Umiamako Nuna (surface), and Umiamako Nuna (vein) have been calculated using 207Pb/206Pb, 206Pb/238U, and 208Pb/232Th isotope ratios. Multiple isotope ratios were examined to determine the ideal method of monazite analysis based on the inherent issues of low U content of monazite, difficulties measuring 204Pb, common Pb corrections, and peak interferences resulting from high concentrations of REE. 208Pb/232Th analysis resulted in the best precision and smallest spread of values. Energy filtering was applied to 208Pb/232Th analyses in an effort to reduce interferences at several peaks. Although all three isotope ratio analyses result in a Paleoproterozoic age similar to the timing of convergence of the North Atlantic craton, Rae craton, and Aasiat domain as well as the emplacement of the Prøven Igneous Complex in Greenland (1.95-1.80Ga), the values range between 1.7-1.9Ga depending on the isotope ratio.

  5. Ion microprobe U-Th-Pb geochronology and study of micro-inclusions in zircon from the Himalayan high- and ultrahigh-pressure eclogites, Kaghan Valley of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Hafiz Ur; Kobayash, Katsura; Tsujimori, Tatsuki; Ota, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Eizo; Kaneko, Yoshiyuki; Khan, Tahseenullah; Terabayashi, Masaru; Yoshida, Kenta; Hirajima, Takao

    2013-02-01

    We report ion microprobe U-Th-Pb geochronology of in situ zircon from the Himalayan high- and ultrahigh-pressure eclogites, Kaghan Valley of Pakistan. Combined with the textural features, mineral inclusions, cathodoluminescence image information and the U-Th-Pb isotope geochronology, two types of zircons were recognized in Group I and II eclogites. Zircons in Group I eclogites are of considerably large size (>100 μm up to 500 μm). A few grains are euhederal and prismatic, show oscillatory zoning with distinct core-rim luminescence pattern. Several other grains show irregular morphology, mitamictization, embayment and boundary truncations. They contain micro-inclusions such as muscovite, biotite, quartz and albite. Core or middle portions of zircons from Group I eclogites yielded concordant U-Th-Pb age of 267.6 ± 2.4 Ma (MSWD = 8.5), have higher U and Th contents with a Th/U ratio > 1, indicating typical magmatic core domains. Middle and rim or outer portions of these zircons contain inclusions of garnet, omphacite, phengite and these portions show no clear zonation. They yielded discordant values ranging between 210 and 71 Ma, indicating several thermal or Pb-loss events during their growth and recrystalization prior to or during the Himalayan eclogite-facies metamorphism. Zircons in Group II eclogites are smaller in size, prismatic to oval, display patchy or sector zoning and contain abundant inclusions of garnet, omphacite, phengite, quartz, rutile and carbonates. They yielded concordant U-Th-Pb age of 44.9 ± 1.2 Ma (MSWD = 4.9). The lower U and Th contents and a lower Th/U ratio (<0.05) in these zircons suggest their formation from the recrystallization of the older zircons during the Himalayan high and ultrahigh-pressure eclogite-facies metamorphism.

  6. Facile preparation of electroactive amorphous α-ZrP/PANI hybrid film for potential-triggered adsorption of Pb(2+) ions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quan; Du, Xiao; Ma, Xuli; Hao, Xiaogang; Guan, Guoqing; Wang, Zhongde; Xue, Chunfeng; Zhang, Zhonglin; Zuo, Zhijun

    2015-05-30

    An electroactive hybrid film composed of amorphous α-zirconium phosphate and polyaniline (α-ZrP/PANI) is controllably synthesized on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) modified Au electrodes in aqueous solution by cyclic voltammetry method. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray power diffraction (XRD) analysis are applied for the evaluation of the synthesis process. It is found that the exfoliated amorphous α-ZrP nanosheets are well dispersed in PANI and the hydrolysis of α-ZrP is successfully suppressed by controlling the exfoliation temperature and adding appropriate supporting electrolyte. The insertion/release of heavy metals into/from the film is reversibly controlled by a potential-triggered mechanism. Herein, α-ZrP, a weak solid acid, can provide an acidic micro-environment for PANI to promote the electroactivity in neutral aqueous solutions. Especially, the hybrid film shows excellent potential-triggered adsorption of Pb(2+) ion due to the selective complexation of Pb(2+) ion with oxygen derived from P-O-H of α-ZrP. Also, it shows long-term cycle stability and rapid potential-responsive adsorption/desorption rate. This kind of novel hybrid film is expected to be a promising potential-triggered ESIX material for separation and recovery of heavy metal ions from wastewater. PMID:25710819

  7. Biosorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions by aqueous solutions of novel alkalophillic Streptomyces VITSVK5 spp. biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saurav, Kumar; Kannabiran, Krishnan

    2011-03-01

    Discharge of heavy metals from metal processing industries is known to have adverse effects on the environment. Biosorption of heavy metals by metabolically inactive biomass of microbial organisms is an innovative and alternative technology for removal of these pollutants from aqueous solution. The search of marine actinobacteria with potential heavy metal biosorption ability resulted in the identification of a novel alkalophilic Streptomyces VITSVK5 species. The biosorption property of Streptomyces VITSVK5 spp. was investigated by absorbing heavy metals Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb). Physiochemical characteristics and trace metal concentration analysis of the backwater showed the concentrations of different metals were lead 13±2.1 μg L-1, cadmium 3.1±0.3μg L-1, zinc 8.4±2.6μg L-1 and copper 0.3±0.1μg L-1, whereas mercury was well below the detection limit. The effect of pH and biomass dosage on removal efficiency of heavy metal ions was also investigated. The optimum pH for maximal biosorption was 4.0 for Cd (II) and 5.0 for Pb (II) with 41% and 84% biosorption respectively. The biosorbent dosage was optimized as 3 g L-1 for both the trace metals. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectrum results indicated the chemical interactions of hydrogen atoms in carboxyl (-COOH), hydroxyl (-CHOH) and amine (-NH2) groups of biomass with the metal ions. This could be mainly involved in the biosorption of Cd (II) and Pb (II) onto Streptomyces VITSVK5 spp. The results of our study revealed Streptomyces metabolites could be used to develop a biosorbent for adsorbing metal ions from aqueous environments.

  8. M-shell x-ray production cross section measurements in Pb and Bi due to the impact of protons and nickel ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braich, Jasbir S.; Verma, Punita; Verma, H. R.

    1997-05-01

    M-shell x-ray production cross sections in Pb have been measured using 58 - 82 MeV 0953-4075/30/10/011/img1 ions and those in Bi by 1 - 5 MeV protons and 58 - 82 MeV 0953-4075/30/10/011/img2 ions (q = 5, 6). The experimental results have been compared with the predictions of the plane-wave Born approximation (PWBA) and with the calculations of the perturbed stationary state theory (ECPSSR) accounting for the energy loss (E), Coulomb deflection (C) and relativistic (R) effects. The present results of proton impact on bismuth have also been compared with the experimental data available from other investigations. To the best of our knowledge, the M-shell x-ray production cross sections in Pb and Bi by Ni-ion impact are reported here for the first time. Good agreement of the present results with the predictions of the ECPSSR theory has been observed for the total M x-ray cross sections in Bi due to proton impact while discrepancies to a factor of 1.5 - 2.5 in the case of total M x-ray cross sections have been observed between the present experimental and theoretical (PWBA and ECPSSR, respectively) results for Pb and Bi in the case of Ni-ion impact. These discrepancies between the experimental and theoretical results could be attributed to the effect of multiple ionization on the x-ray emission probabilities. If the modified value of the average fluorescence yield accounting for the outer-shell multiple ionization is used, the theoretical results of total M-shell x-ray cross sections based on the PWBA theory show fair agreement with the experimental results (within experimental uncertainties) while the ECPSSR theory is found to underestimate the experimental results by about 40% for both Pb and Bi in the case of Ni-ion impact. Furthermore, the 0953-4075/30/10/011/img3 and 0953-4075/30/10/011/img4 x-ray cross sections have been evaluated experimentally for both Pb and Bi. The comparison of these results with the corresponding theoretical estimates have been done only for

  9. Effects of heavy metal ions (Cu2+, Pb2+ and Cd2+) on DNA damage of the gills, hemocytes and hepatopancreas of marine crab, Charybdis japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Luqing; Liu, Na; Zhang, Hongxia; Wang, Jing; Miao, Jingjing

    2011-06-01

    There are rising concerns about the hazardous effects of heavy metals on the environment. In this study, comet assay and DNA alkaline unwinding assay were conducted on the tissues (gills, hepatopancreas, and hemocytes) of Charybdis japonica in order to illustrate genotoxicity of three heavy metal ions (Cu2+, Pb2+, and Cd2+) on the marine crabs C. japonica. The crabs were exposed to Cu2+ (10, 50, and 100 μg.L-1), Pb2+ (50, 250, and 500 μg L-1) and Cd2+ (5, 25, and 50 μg L-1), and the tissues were sampled at days 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 9, and 15. DNA alkaline unwinding assay was used for testing the DNA single strand break in gills and hepatopancreas and comet assay was employed for testing the DNA damage in hemocytes. The results showed that the DNA damage ( F-value) of gills in the crabs exposed to the three heavy metals was decreased gradually during the exposure periods and there was a dose-time response relationship in certain time, suggesting that the levels of DNA single strand break in all the experimental groups increased significantly compared to the controls. Changes of F-value in hepatopancreas of the crabs exposed to the three heavy metals were similar to those in gills except that the peak values were found in the 500 μg L-1 Pb2+ treatment group at day 3 and the 50 μg L-1 Cd2+ treatment group at day 9. The ranks of DNA damage in gills and hepatopancreas induced by the three heavy metal ions (50 μg L-1, day 15) were Cd2+ >Pb2+ >Cu2+ and Pb2+ >Cu2+ >Cd2+. The levels of DNA damage in gills were higher than those in hepatopancreas in the same experimental group. It can be concluded that indices of DNA damage can be used as the potential biomarkers of heavy metal pollution in marine environment.

  10. Projectile charge state dependence of M-shell ionization of Au, Pb, Bi, and U by 1. 42-MeV/amu fluorine ions

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, R.; Duggan, J.L.; McDaniel, F.D.; Andrews, M.C.; Wheeler, R.M.; Chaturvedi, R.P.; Miller, P.D.; Lapicki, G.

    1980-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the direct ionization and electron capture contributions to vacancy production in the M-shells of /sub 79/Au, /sub 82/Pb, /sub 83/Bi and /sub 92/U for incident /sup 19//sub 9/F ions. M-shell x-ray production cross sections have been measured for 1.42-MeV/amu /sup 19//sub 9/Fq/sup +/ ions for q = 4,5,6,8,9. Enhancements in the target x-ray production cross sections were observed for projectiles with one and two K-shell vacancies over those without K-shell vacancies. Direct ionization and electron capture contributions to the vacancy production were extracted from the data and compared to the plane wave Born approximation and to the Oppenheimer-Brinkman-Kramers calculations of Nikolaev, respectively.

  11. Simultaneous efficient adsorption of Pb2+ and MnO4- ions by MCM-41 functionalized with amine and nitrilotriacetic acid anhydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feiyun; Hong, Mingzhu; You, Weijie; Li, Chong; Yu, Yan

    2015-12-01

    A novel adsorbent NH2/MCM-41/NTAA, capable of simultaneous adsorption of cations and anions from aqueous solution, was prepared by immobilization of amine and nitrilotriacetic acid anhydride (NTAA) onto MCM-41. The structures and properties before and after surface modification were systematically investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption, and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetry (TGA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). They together confirm that the amine and NTAA group were chemically bonded to the internal surface of the mesoporous. The NH2/MCM-41/NTAA were used to adsorb Pb2+ and MnO4- in an aqueous solution in a batch system, and the maximum adsorption efficiency was found to occur at pH 5.0 and 3.0, respectively. NH2/MCM-41/NTAA exhibit preferable removal of Pb2+ through electrostatic interactions and chelation, whereas it captures MnO4- by means of electrostatic interactions. The experimental data are fitted the Langmuir isotherm model reasonably well, with the maximum adsorption capacity of 147 mg/g for Pb2+ and of 156 mg/g for MnO4-. The adsorption rates of both Pb2+ and MnO4- are found to follow the pseudo-second order kinetics. Furthermore, the NH2/MCM-41/NTAA adsorbent performs good recyclability and reusability for 5 cycles use. This study indicates a potential applicability of NH2/MCM-41/NTAA as new absorbents for effective simultaneous adsorption of hazardous metal ions and anions from wastewater.

  12. A novel and highly sensitive nanocatalytic surface plasmon resonance-scattering analytical platform for detection of trace Pb ions.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lingling; Wen, Guiqing; Ouyang, Huixiang; Liu, Qingye; Liang, Aihui; Jiang, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) have catalysis on the reaction of HAuCl4-H2O2. The produced AuNP have strong resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) effect and surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERS) effect when Victoria blue B (VBB) and rhodamine S (RhS) were used as probes. The increased RRS/SERS intensity respond linearly with the concentration of gold nanoparticles (AuNPB) which synthesized by NaBH4 over 0.038-76 ng/mL, 19-285 ng/mL, 3.8-456 ng/mL respectively. Four kinds of tested nanoparticles have catalysis on the HAuCl4-H2O2 particles reaction. Thus, a novel nanocatalysis surface plasmon resonance-scattering (SPR-S) analytical platform was developed for AuNP. The DNAzyme strand hybridized with the substrate strand to form double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) which couldn't protect AuNPc to aggregate to AuNPc aggregations, having strong RRS effect. Upon addition of Pb(2+), dsDNA could be cracked by Pb(2+) to produce single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) that adsorbed on the AuNPc surface to form AuNPc-ssDNA conjugates. The conjugates have strong catalysis on HAuCl4-H2O2 reaction. With increased Pb(2+) concentration, the concentration of AuNPc-ssDNA increased and lead to the catalytic activity stronger. The increased RRS intensity responds linearly with Pb(2+) concentration over 16.7-666.7 nmol/L. The SERS intensity responded linearly with the concentration of Pb(2+) over 50-500 nmol/L. PMID:27071936

  13. A novel and highly sensitive nanocatalytic surface plasmon resonance-scattering analytical platform for detection of trace Pb ions

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Lingling; Wen, Guiqing; Ouyang, Huixiang; Liu, Qingye; Liang, Aihui; Jiang, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) have catalysis on the reaction of HAuCl4-H2O2. The produced AuNP have strong resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) effect and surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERS) effect when Victoria blue B (VBB) and rhodamine S (RhS) were used as probes. The increased RRS/SERS intensity respond linearly with the concentration of gold nanoparticles (AuNPB) which synthesized by NaBH4 over 0.038–76 ng/mL, 19–285 ng/mL, 3.8–456 ng/mL respectively. Four kinds of tested nanoparticles have catalysis on the HAuCl4-H2O2 particles reaction. Thus, a novel nanocatalysis surface plasmon resonance-scattering (SPR-S) analytical platform was developed for AuNP. The DNAzyme strand hybridized with the substrate strand to form double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) which couldn’t protect AuNPc to aggregate to AuNPc aggregations, having strong RRS effect. Upon addition of Pb2+, dsDNA could be cracked by Pb2+ to produce single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) that adsorbed on the AuNPc surface to form AuNPc-ssDNA conjugates. The conjugates have strong catalysis on HAuCl4-H2O2 reaction. With increased Pb2+ concentration, the concentration of AuNPc-ssDNA increased and lead to the catalytic activity stronger. The increased RRS intensity responds linearly with Pb2+ concentration over 16.7–666.7 nmol/L. The SERS intensity responded linearly with the concentration of Pb2+ over 50–500 nmol/L. PMID:27071936

  14. A novel and highly sensitive nanocatalytic surface plasmon resonance-scattering analytical platform for detection of trace Pb ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Lingling; Wen, Guiqing; Ouyang, Huixiang; Liu, Qingye; Liang, Aihui; Jiang, Zhiliang

    2016-04-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) have catalysis on the reaction of HAuCl4-H2O2. The produced AuNP have strong resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) effect and surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERS) effect when Victoria blue B (VBB) and rhodamine S (RhS) were used as probes. The increased RRS/SERS intensity respond linearly with the concentration of gold nanoparticles (AuNPB) which synthesized by NaBH4 over 0.038–76 ng/mL, 19–285 ng/mL, 3.8–456 ng/mL respectively. Four kinds of tested nanoparticles have catalysis on the HAuCl4-H2O2 particles reaction. Thus, a novel nanocatalysis surface plasmon resonance-scattering (SPR-S) analytical platform was developed for AuNP. The DNAzyme strand hybridized with the substrate strand to form double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) which couldn’t protect AuNPc to aggregate to AuNPc aggregations, having strong RRS effect. Upon addition of Pb2+, dsDNA could be cracked by Pb2+ to produce single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) that adsorbed on the AuNPc surface to form AuNPc-ssDNA conjugates. The conjugates have strong catalysis on HAuCl4-H2O2 reaction. With increased Pb2+ concentration, the concentration of AuNPc-ssDNA increased and lead to the catalytic activity stronger. The increased RRS intensity responds linearly with Pb2+ concentration over 16.7–666.7 nmol/L. The SERS intensity responded linearly with the concentration of Pb2+ over 50–500 nmol/L.

  15. Dynamical Dipole Mode in Heavy-Ion Fusion-Evaporation and Fission Reactions in the {sup 192}Pb Mass Region

    SciTech Connect

    Silvestri, R.; Inglima, G.; La Commara, M.; Martin, B.; Sandoli, M.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Parascandolo, C.; Boiano, A.; Romoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Colonna, M.; Coniglione, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; Maiolino, C.; Santonocito, D.; Baran, V.; De Filippo, E.; Di Toro, M.; Rizzo, C.

    2011-10-28

    The prompt {gamma}-ray emission related with the dynamical dipole mode decay was investigated in the {sup 192}Pb mass region by means of the {sup 40}Ca+{sup 152}Sm and {sup 48}Ca+{sup 144}Sm fusion-evaporation and fission reactions at E{sub lab} = 11 and 10.1 MeV/nucleon, respectively. The two reactions populate, through entrance channel having different charge asymmetries, the {sup 192}Pb compound nucleus at an excitation energy of 236 MeV with identical spin distribution. Preliminary results of this experiment show that the dynamical dipole mode survives in collisions involving heavier mass reaction partners than those studied previously. As a fast cooling mechanism on the fusion path, the prompt dipole {gamma} radiation could be of interest for the synthesis of super-heavy elements through ''hot'' fusion reactions.

  16. Isospin Character of Low-Lying Pygmy Dipole States in Pb208 via Inelastic Scattering of O17 Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespi, F. C. L.; Bracco, A.; Nicolini, R.; Mengoni, D.; Pellegri, L.; Lanza, E. G.; Leoni, S.; Maj, A.; Kmiecik, M.; Avigo, R.; Benzoni, G.; Blasi, N.; Boiano, C.; Bottoni, S.; Brambilla, S.; Camera, F.; Ceruti, S.; Giaz, A.; Million, B.; Morales, A. I.; Vandone, V.; Wieland, O.; Bednarczyk, P.; Ciemała, M.; Grebosz, J.; Krzysiek, M.; Mazurek, K.; Zieblinski, M.; Bazzacco, D.; Bellato, M.; Birkenbach, B.; Bortolato, D.; Calore, E.; Cederwall, B.; Charles, L.; de Angelis, G.; Désesquelles, P.; Eberth, J.; Farnea, E.; Gadea, A.; Görgen, A.; Gottardo, A.; Isocrate, R.; Jolie, J.; Jungclaus, A.; Karkour, N.; Korten, W.; Menegazzo, R.; Michelagnoli, C.; Molini, P.; Napoli, D. R.; Pullia, A.; Recchia, F.; Reiter, P.; Rosso, D.; Sahin, E.; Salsac, M. D.; Siebeck, B.; Siem, S.; Simpson, J.; Söderström, P.-A.; Stezowski, O.; Theisen, Ch.; Ur, C.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.

    2014-07-01

    The properties of pygmy dipole states in Pb208 were investigated using the Pb208(O17, O17'γ) reaction at 340 MeV and measuring the γ decay with high resolution with the AGATA demonstrator array. Cross sections and angular distributions of the emitted γ rays and of the scattered particles were measured. The results are compared with (γ, γ') and (p, p') data. The data analysis with the distorted wave Born approximation approach gives a good description of the elastic scattering and of the inelastic excitation of the 2+ and 3- states. For the dipole transitions a form factor obtained by folding a microscopically calculated transition density was used for the first time. This has allowed us to extract the isoscalar component of the 1- excited states from 4 to 8 MeV.

  17. Sorption of Pb2+ Ions from Aqueous Solutions on Organic Wastes (part i) / Sorpcja JONÓW Pb2+ Z ROZTWORÓW Wodnych NA Odpadach Organicznych (CZĘŚĆ I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bożęcka, Agnieszka; Sanak-Rydlewska, Stanisława

    2013-12-01

    This article presents the results of the research on the Pb2+ ions sorption from model aqueous solutions on walnut shells, plum stones and sunflower hulls. The effect of various factors, such as the concentration of natural sorbent, the pH, and the temperature was studied. The process of Pb2+ ions sorption on studied sorbents was described by the Langmuir model. The best sorption capacity has been revealed for sunflower hulls. The maximum sorption capacity for this material was 36.9 mg/g. W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań, które dotyczyły usuwania jonów Pb2+ z modelowych roztworów wodnych za pomocą odpadów organicznych, takich jak: łuski słonecznika, łupiny orzecha włoskiego i pestki śliwek. Dla badanego zakresu stężeń od 6,0-110 mg/dm3 i warunków procesu największą wydajność sorpcji, będącą w zakresie (89,4-96,3)% uzyskano dla łusek słonecznika. W przypadku łupin orzecha włoskiego i pestek śliwek sorpcja jonów Pb2+ jest znacznie niższa a jej wydajność wynosi odpowiednio (60,8-78,7)% i (62,3-81,3)%. Zbadano także wpływ stężenia sorbentu, pH roztworu i temperatury na badany proces sorpcji. Dla wszystkich materiałów optymalne stężenie sorbentu wyniosło 5 g/dm3. Powyżej tej wartości nie obserwowano istotnych zmian w stopniu redukcji jonów Pb2+ (rys.2). We wszystkich przypadkach maksima sorpcji osiągnięto przy pH równym 4,0±0,1 co obrazuje rysunek 3. Obniżenie sorpcji, występujące przy pH poniżej i powyżej wartości 4,0 prawdopodobnie związane jest to z ładunkiem gromadzącym się na powierzchni sorbentu (elektrostatyczne odpychanie i przyciąganie badanych jonów). Wartość pH roztworu determinuje także formę oraz stężenie badanego jonu w roztworze. W roztworach silnie kwaśnych ołów występuje głównie w postaci kationów. Stopniowy wzrost pH prowadzi do tworzenia jonów kompleksowych i strącania go w postaci wodorotlenku. Wykazano również, że ze wzrostem temperatury w zakresie (293-313)K nast

  18. Effect of tin ions on enhancing the intensity of narrow luminescence line at 311 nm of Gd3+ ions in Li2Osbnd PbOsbnd P2O5 glass system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, Y.; Rajanikanth, P.; Sundara Rao, M.; Ravi Kumar, V.; Veeraiah, N.; Piasecki, M.

    2016-07-01

    This study is mainly focused on enriching the UVB 311 narrow emission band of Gd3+ ions in Li2Osbnd PbOsbnd P2O5 glasses doped with 1.0 mol% of Gd2O3 and mixed with different concentrations of SnO2 (0-7.0 mol%). The emission spectra SnO2 free glasses exhibited intense narrow UVB band at 311 nm due to 6P7/2 → 8S7/2 transition of Gd3+ ions when excited at 273 nm. The intensity of this band is found to be enhanced nearly four times when the glasses are mixed with 3.0 mol% of SnO2. The reasons for this enhancement have been explored in the light of energy transfer from Sn4+ to Gd3+ ions with the help of rate equations. The declustering of Gd3+ ions (that reduce cross relaxation losses) by tin ions is also found to the other reason for such enrichment. The 311 nm radiation is an efficient in the treatment of various skin diseases and currently it is one of the most desirable and commonly utilised UVB in the construction of phototherapy devices.

  19. The temporal evolution of sanukitoids in the Karelian Craton, Baltic Shield: an ion microprobe U Th Pb isotopic study of zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibikova, E. V.; Petrova, A.; Claesson, S.

    2005-01-01

    The U-Th-Pb isotopic systematics of zircons from six sanukitoid intrusions in the Karelian Craton has been investigated, using the secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS). Our results show that Karelian sanukitoids formed between 2745 and 2705 Ma ago and that there is an age difference of about 30 Ma between sanukitoids in the eastern and western Karelia. Results for intrusions made up of a number of magmatic phases show no internal age variation. In the east of the study region, zircons from a monzodiorite and two quartz monzonites from the Panozero pluton were dated at 2737±11, 2739±11, and 2741±8 Ma; in the Hautavaara pluton, a monzodiorite and a subalkaline granite were dated at 2743±8 and 2742±23 Ma, and a quartz diorite from the Elmus pluton gave an age of 2741±7 Ma. In addition, a lamprophyre dyke within the Sjargozero pluton gave an age of 2742±14 Ma. In the west, zircons from a quartz monzonite and a granodiorite in the Njuk intrusion gave ages of 2709±10 and 2716±11 Ma. In the Kurgelampi pluton, zircons from a diorite and two granodiorites were dated at 2707±9, 2719±6, and 2712±9 Ma, respectively. Zircons from the granodiorites and the alkaline granites contain older cores with 207Pb/ 206Pb ages greater than 2800 Ma. The absence of inherited zircons in the more mafic sanukitoids is attributed to their higher saturation levels for zirconium. Sanukitoid zircons have Th/U ratios above 0.5 and often higher, whereas nearby tonalite-tondhjemite-granodiorites (TTGs) have Th/U ratios below 0.5. Typically, tonalites are older than sanukitoids by more than 100 Ma and it is possible that tectonic processes associated with the collision of the Belomorian Mobile Belt provided the heat necessary to initiate the generation of the sanukitoid melts.

  20. Modulation of the Structure and Properties of Uranyl Ion Coordination Polymers Derived from 1,3,5-Benzenetriacetate by Incorporation of Ag(I) or Pb(II).

    PubMed

    Thuéry, Pierre; Harrowfield, Jack

    2016-07-01

    Reaction of uranyl nitrate with 1,3,5-benzenetriacetic acid (H3BTA) in the presence of additional species, either organic bases or their conjugate acids or metal cations, has provided 12 new crystalline complexes, all but one obtained under solvo-hydrothermal conditions. The complexes [C(NH2)3][UO2(BTA)]·H2O (1) and [H2NMe2][UO2(BTA)] (2) crystallize as one- or two-dimensional (1D or 2D) assemblies, respectively, both with uranyl tris-chelation by carboxylate groups and hydrogen-bonded counterions but different ligand conformations. One of the bound carboxylate units is replaced by chelating 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) or 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Me4phen) in the complexes [(UO2)3(BTA)2(phen)3]·4H2O (3) and [(UO2)3(BTA)2(Me4phen)3]·NMP·3H2O (4) (NMP = N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone), which are a 2D network with honeycomb topology and a 1D polymer, respectively. With silver(I) cations, [UO2Ag(BTA)] (5), a three-dimensional (3D) framework in which the ligand assumes various chelating/bridging coordination modes, and the aromatic ring is involved in Ag(I) bonding, is obtained. A series of seven heterometallic complexes results when lead(II) cations and N-chelating molecules are both present. The complexes [UO2Pb(BTA)(NO3)(bipy)] (6) and [UO2Pb2(BTA)2(bipy)2]·3H2O (7), where bipy is 2,2'-bipyridine, crystallize from the one solution, as 1D and 2D assemblies, respectively. The two 1D coordination polymers [UO2Pb(BTA)(HCOO)(phen)] (8 and 9), again obtained from the one synthesis, provide an example of coordination isomerism, with the formate anion bound either to lead(II) or to uranyl cations. Another 2D architecture is found in [(UO2)2Pb2(BTA)2(HBTA)(H2O)2(phen)2]·2H2O (10), which provides a possible example of a Pb-oxo(uranyl) "cation-cation" interaction. While [UO2Pb(BTA)(HCOO)0.5(NO3)0.5(Me2phen)] (11), where Me2phen is 5,6-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline, is a 1D assembly close to those in 6 and 8, [UO2Pb2(BTA)2(Me4phen)2] (12), obtained together with

  1. Study of the γ decay of high-lying states in 208Pb via inelastic scattering of 17O ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespi, F. C. L.; Kmiecik, M.; Bracco, A.; Leoni, S.; Maj, A.; Benzoni, G.; Blasi, N.; Boiano, C.; Bottoni, S.; Brambilla, S.; Camera, F.; Ceruti, S.; Giaz, A.; Million, B.; Morales, A. I.; Nicolini, R.; Pellegri, L.; Riboldi, S.; Vandone, V.; Wieland, O.; Bednarczyk, P.; Ciemala, M.; Grebosz, J.; Krzysiek, M.; Mazurek, K.; Zieblinski, M.; Bazzacco, D.; Bellato, M.; Birkenbach, B.; Bortolato, D.; Calore, E.; De Angelis, G.; Farnea, E.; Gadea, A.; Görgen, A.; Gottardo, A.; Isocrate, R.; Lenzi, S.; Lunardi, S.; Mengoni, D.; Michelagnoli, C.; Molini, P.; Napoli, D. R.; Recchia, F.; Sahin, E.; Siebeck, B.; Siem, S.; Ur, C.; Valiente Dobon, J. J.

    2014-03-01

    A measurement of the high-lying states in 208Pb has been made using 17O beams at 20 MeV/u. The gamma decay following inelastic excitation was measured with the detector system AGATA Demonstrator based on segmented HPGe detectors, coupled to an array of large volume LaBr3:Ce scintillators and to an array of Si detectors. Preliminary results in comparison with (γ,γ') data, for states in the 5-8 MeV energy interval, are presented.

  2. Heavy ion Coulomb excitation and gamma decay studies of the one and two phonon giant dipole resonances in {sup 208}Pb and {sup 209}Bi

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, P.E.; Beene, J.R.; Bertrand, F.E.

    1993-12-01

    Projectile -- photon coincidences were measured for the scattering of an 80 MeV/nucleon {sup 64}Zn beam from {sup 208}Pb and {sup 209}Bi targets at the GANIL heavy ion accelerator facility. Projectile-like particles between 0.5{degrees} and 4.5{degrees} relative to the incident beam direction were detected in the SPEG energy loss spectrometer where their momentum, charge, and mass were determined. Photons were detected in the BaF{sub 2} scintillation detector array TAPS. Light charged particles produced in the reaction were detected in the KVI Forward Wall. The analysis of the data acquired in this experiment is focused on three different phenomena: (1) the two phonon giant dipole resonance, (2) time dependence of the decay of the one phonon giant dipole resonance, and (3) giant resonance strength in projectile nuclei.

  3. Coulomb breakup of 6Li into α+d in the field of a 208Pb ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irgaziev, B. F.; Nabi, Jameel-Un; Khan, Darwaish

    2011-12-01

    The triple differential cross section of the 208Pb(6Li,αd)208Pb quasielastic breakup is calculated at a collision energy of 156 MeV and a scattering angle range of 2∘-6∘. We fit the parameters of the Woods-Saxon potential using the experimental α-d phase shifts for different states to describe the relative motion of the α particle and deuteron. To check the validity of the two particle approach for the α-d system, we apply a potential model to describe the 2H(α,γ)6Li radiative capture. We calculate the Coulomb breakup using the semiclassical method while an estimation of the nuclear breakup is made on the basis of the diffraction theory. A comparison of our calculation with the experimental data of Kiener [Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.44.2195 44, 2195 (1991)] gives evidence for the dominance of the Coulomb dissociation mechanism and the contribution of nuclear distortion, but is essentially smaller than the value reported by Hammache [Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.82.065803 82, 065803 (2010)]. The results of our calculation for the triple cross sections (contributed by the Coulomb and nuclear mechanisms) of the 6Li breakup hint toward a forward-backward asymmetry in the relative direction of the α particle and deuteron emission, especially at smaller scattering angles, in the 6Li center-of-mass (c.m.) system.

  4. Spectroscopic properties of the 1.4 microm emission of Tm3+ ions in TeO2-WO3-PbO glasses.

    PubMed

    Balda, R; Lacha, L M; Fernández, J; Arriandiaga, M A; Fernández-Navarro, J M; Muñoz-Martin, D

    2008-08-01

    In this work, we report the spectroscopic properties of the infrared 3H4-->3F4 emission of Tm3+ ions in two different compositions of glasses based on TeO2, WO3, and PbO for three Tm2O3 concentrations (0.1,0.5, and 1 wt%). Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters have been determined and used to calculate the radiative transition probabilities and radiative lifetimes. The infrared emission at around 1490 nm corresponding to the 3H4-->F4 transition has two noticeable features if compared to fluoride glasses used for S-band amplifiers. On one hand, it is broader by nearly 30 nm, and on the other, the stimulated emission cross section is twice the value for fluoride glasses. Both the relative intensity ratio of the 1490 nm emission to 1820 nm and the measured lifetime of the 3H4 level decrease as concentration increases, due to the existence of energy transfer via cross-relaxation among Tm3+ ions. The analysis of the decays from the 3H4 level with increasing concentration indicates the presence of a dipole-dipole quenching process assisted by energy migration. PMID:18679456

  5. A solid phase extraction procedure for the determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in food and water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Daşbaşı, Teslima; Saçmacı, Şerife; Ülgen, Ahmet; Kartal, Şenol

    2015-05-01

    A relatively rapid, accurate and precise solid phase extraction method is presented for the determination of cadmium(II) and lead(II) in various food and water samples. Quantitation is carried out by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The method is based on the retention of the trace metal ions on Dowex Marathon C, a strong acid cation exchange resin. Some important parameters affecting the analytical performance of the method such as pH, flow rate and volume of the sample solution; type, concentration, volume, flow rate of the eluent; and matrix effects on the retention of the metal ions were investigated. Common coexisting ions did not interfere on the separation and determination of the analytes. The detection limits (3 σb) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were found as 0.13 and 0.18 μg L(-1), respectively, while the limit of quantification values (10 σb) were computed as 0.43 and 0.60 μg L(-1) for the same sequence of the analytes. The precision (as relative standard deviation was lower than 4% at 5 μg L(-1) Cd(II) and 10 μg L(-1) Pb(II) levels, and the preconcentration factor was found to be 250. The accuracy of the proposed procedure was verified by analysing the certified reference materials, SPS-WW2 Batch 108 wastewater level 2 and INCT-TL-1 tea leaves, with the satisfactory results. In addition, for the accuracy of the method the recovery studies (⩾ 95%) were carried out. The method was applied to the determination of the analytes in the various natural waters (lake water, tap water, waste water with boric acid, waste water with H2SO4) and food samples (pomegranate flower, organic pear, radish leaf, lamb meat, etc.), and good results were obtained. While the food samples almost do not contain cadmium, they have included lead at low levels of 0.13-1.12 μg g(-1). PMID:25529724

  6. Selective solid-phase extraction and analysis of trace-level Cr(III), Fe(III), Pb(II), and Mn(II) Ions in wastewater using diethylenetriamine-functionalized carbon nanotubes dispersed in graphene oxide colloids.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiangbing; Cui, Yuemei; Chang, Xijun; Wang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) were dispersed in graphene oxide (GO) colloids to be further functionalized with diethylenetriamine (DETA), resulting in GO-MCNTs-DETA nanocomposites for the solid-phase extraction and analysis of Cr(III), Fe(III), Pb(II), and Mn(II) ions at the trace levels in wastewater. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) indicates that this new solid-phase sorbent could facilitate the maximum static adsorption capacities of 5.4, 13.8, 6.6 and 9.5 mg g(-1) for Cr(III), Fe(III), Pb(II), and Mn(II) ions, respectively, showing the adsorption capacity up to 95% within about 30 min. Moreover, the detection limits of the GO-MCNTs-DETA-based analysis method were found to be 0.16, 0.50, 0.24 and 0.38 ng mL(-1) for Cr(III), Fe(III), Pb(II), and Mn(II) ions, respectively, with the relative standard deviation of lower than 3.0% (n=5). Importantly, common coexisting ions showed no significant interference on the separation and pre-concentration of these heavy metal ions at pH 4.0. Subsequently, the GO-MCNTs-DETA sorbent was successfully employed for the separation and analysis of trace-level Cr(III), Fe(III), Pb(II), and Mn(II) ions in wastewater samples yielding 75-folds concentration factors. PMID:26695275

  7. Study of Chemical Surface Structure of Natural Sorbents Used for Removing of Pb2+ Ions from Model Aqueous Solutions (part Ii)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bożęcka, Agnieszka; Bożęcki, Piotr; Sanak-Rydlewska, Stanisława

    2014-03-01

    This article presents the results of the chemical structure research of organic sorbent surface such as walnut shells, plums stones and sunflower hulls with using such methods as infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and elemental analysis. Based on the IR spectra identification of functional groups present on the surface of studied materials has been done as well as determination of their effect on the sorption mechanism of Pb2+ ions from aqueous model solutions W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań chemicznej struktury powierzchni sorbentów organicznych takich jak: łupiny orzecha włoskiego, pestki śliwek oraz łuski słonecznika z wykorzystaniem metody spektrometrii w podczerwieni (FTIR) oraz analizy elementarnej. W oparciu o uzyskane widma IR dokonano identyfikacji grup funkcyjnych obecnych na powierzchni tych materiałów i określono ich wpływ na mechanizm sorpcji jonów Pb2+ z modelowych roztworów wodnych. Analiza elementarna wykazała, że spośród badanych sorbentów, największą zawartość węgla (49,91%) i wodoru (5,93%) mają pestki śliwek. Najwięcej azotu (1,59%) zawierają łuszczyny słonecznika (tabela 1). Zawartość siarki we wszystkich badanych materiałach jest znikoma, dlatego nie udało się jej oznaczyć tą metodą. Obecność pozostałych pierwiastków może świadczyć o istnieniu zarówno alifatycznych jak i aromatycznych połączeń organicznych. Potwierdzeniem tego są również zarejestrowane widma IR (rysunki 1-3). W oparciu o uzyskane wyniki można przypuszczać także, iż udział procesu wymiany jonowej w sorpcji ołowiu z roztworów wodnych jest znaczący. Świadczą o tym m.in. intensywności pasm na widmach IR dla próbek badanych materiałów po ich kontakcie z roztworami jonów Pb2+ (rysunki 4-6).

  8. Solid phase extraction of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions based on a novel functionalized Fe3O4@ SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles with the aid of multivariate optimization methodology.

    PubMed

    Tadjarodi, Azadeh; Abbaszadeh, Abolfazl; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Shekari, Nafiseh; Asgharinezhad, Ali Akbar

    2015-04-01

    This work describes novel Fe3O4@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles functionalized with phenyl isothiocyanate and its application in the preconcentration of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions. The parameters affecting the preconcentration procedure were optimized by a Box-Behnken design through response surface methodology. Three variables (extraction time, magnetic sorbent amount, and pH value) were selected as the main factors affecting the sorption step, while four variables (type, volume and concentration of the eluent; and elution time) were selected as effective factors of elution step in the optimization study. Following the sorption and elution, the ions were quantified by FAAS. The limits of detection were 0.05 and 0.9ngmL(-1) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions, respectively. The relative standard deviations were less than 6.4%. The sorption capacity (in mg g(-1)) of this new sorbent is 179 for Cd(II) and 156 for Pb(II). Finally, this nanocomposite was successfully applied to the rapid extraction of trace quantities of heavy metal ions from fish, sediment, soil, and water samples and satisfactory results were obtained. PMID:25686967

  9. Method for preparing Pb-. beta. ''-alumina ceramic

    DOEpatents

    Hellstrom, E.E.

    1984-08-30

    A process is disclosed for preparing impermeable, polycrystalline samples of Pb-..beta..''-alumina ceramic from Na-..beta..''-alumina ceramic by ion exchange. The process comprises two steps. The first step is a high-temperature vapor phase exchange of Na by K, followed by substitution of Pb for K by immersing the sample in a molten Pb salt bath. The result is a polycrystalline Pb-..beta..''-alumina ceramic that is substantially crack-free.

  10. Adsorption of Pb²⁺, Cd²⁺, Cu²⁺ and Cr³⁺ onto titanate nanotubes: competition and effect of inorganic ions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Wang, Ting; Borthwick, Alistair G L; Wang, Yanqi; Yin, Xiaochen; Li, Xuezhao; Ni, Jinren

    2013-07-01

    Adsorption of Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Cu(2+) and Cr(3+) from aqueous solutions onto titanate nanotubes (TNTs) in multiple systems was systematically studied. Particular attention was paid to competitive adsorption and the effect of inorganic ions. TNTs showed large adsorption capacity for the four heavy metals, with the mechanism of ion-exchange between metal ions and H(+)/Na(+) located in the interlayers of TNTs. Binary or quaternary competitive adsorption indicated that the adsorption capacity of the four heavy metals onto TNTs followed the sequence of Pb(2+) (2.64 mmol g(-1)) ≫ Cd(2+) (2.13 mmol g(-1)) > Cu(2+) (1.92 mmol g(-1)) ≫ Cr(3+) (1.37 mmol g(-1)), which followed the reverse order of their hydration energies. Moreover, inorganic ions including Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) inhibited the adsorption of heavy metals on TNTs, because they competed for adsorption sites, decreased the activity of heavy metal ions, and promoted the aggregation of TNTs. However, Al(3+) and Fe(3+) generally enhanced adsorption because the resulting hydroxyl-Al/Fe intercalated or coated TNTs could also capture metal ions. Furthermore, minor effect of inorganic ions on adsorption of Pb(2+) resulted from its strong affinity to TNTs. Difficult desorption and small inhibiting effect by Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) on adsorption of Cr(3+) was due to the formed stable complex of HOCr(OTi)₂ ≡ with TNTs. Present study indicated potential applications of TNTs in wastewater treatment for heavy metals. PMID:23597796

  11. Properties of Products Originating from the Interaction of 35-MeV/nucleon {sup 7}Li Ions with Pb Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Demekhina, N.A.; Karapetyan, G.S.; Lukyanov, S.M.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.E.; Skobelev, N.K.; Yakushev, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    The results are presented that were obtained by measuring and analyzing the yields and kinematical features of radioactive products of the reactions initiated in a lead target by lithium ions accelerated to an energy of 35 MeV per nucleon. The cross sections, charge and mass distributions, and kinematical and energy features of various reaction products associated with the fission and the evaporation channels of the decay of excited nuclei are determined. Quantities that are calculated in the present study include the momenta and kinetic energies of residual nuclei, as well as the momentum transfer and the excitation energy of intermediate nuclear systems formed upon complete and incomplete fusion. On the basis of an analysis of data obtained in our experiment, the total cross section for nuclear interaction and partial widths with respect to various channels of the decay of intermediate compound nuclei are determined in the energy range being investigated.

  12. Vertically Free-Standing Ordered Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 Nanocup Arrays by Template-Assisted Ion Beam Etching.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Tang, Dan; Huang, Kangrong; Hu, Die; Zhang, Fengyuan; Gao, Xingsen; Lu, Xubing; Zhou, Guofu; Zhang, Zhang; Liu, Junming

    2016-12-01

    In this report, vertically free-standing lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) nanocup arrays with good ordering and high density (1.3 × 10(10) cm(-2)) were demonstrated. By a template-assisted ion beam etching (IBE) strategy, the PZT formed in the pore-through anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane on the Pt/Si substrate was with a cup-like nanostructure. The mean diameter and height of the PZT nanocups (NCs) was about 80 and 100 nm, respectively, and the wall thickness of NCs was about 20 nm with a hole depth of about 80 nm. Uppermost, the nanocup structure with low aspect ratio realized vertically free-standing arrays when losing the mechanical support from templates, avoiding the collapse or bundling when compared to the typical nanotube arrays. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectrum revealed that the as-prepared PZT NCs were in a perovskite phase. By the vertical piezoresponse force microscopy (VPFM) measurements, the vertically free-standing ordered ferroelectric PZT NCs showed well-defined ring-like piezoresponse phase and hysteresis loops, which indicated that the high-density PZT nanocup arrays could have potential applications in ultra-high non-volatile ferroelectric memories (NV-FRAM) or other nanoelectronic devices. PMID:27117635

  13. Vertically Free-Standing Ordered Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 Nanocup Arrays by Template-Assisted Ion Beam Etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Tang, Dan; Huang, Kangrong; Hu, Die; Zhang, Fengyuan; Gao, Xingsen; Lu, Xubing; Zhou, Guofu; Zhang, Zhang; Liu, Junming

    2016-04-01

    In this report, vertically free-standing lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) nanocup arrays with good ordering and high density (1.3 × 1010 cm-2) were demonstrated. By a template-assisted ion beam etching (IBE) strategy, the PZT formed in the pore-through anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane on the Pt/Si substrate was with a cup-like nanostructure. The mean diameter and height of the PZT nanocups (NCs) was about 80 and 100 nm, respectively, and the wall thickness of NCs was about 20 nm with a hole depth of about 80 nm. Uppermost, the nanocup structure with low aspect ratio realized vertically free-standing arrays when losing the mechanical support from templates, avoiding the collapse or bundling when compared to the typical nanotube arrays. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectrum revealed that the as-prepared PZT NCs were in a perovskite phase. By the vertical piezoresponse force microscopy (VPFM) measurements, the vertically free-standing ordered ferroelectric PZT NCs showed well-defined ring-like piezoresponse phase and hysteresis loops, which indicated that the high-density PZT nanocup arrays could have potential applications in ultra-high non-volatile ferroelectric memories (NV-FRAM) or other nanoelectronic devices.

  14. Simultaneous preconcentrations of Co(2+), Cr(6+), Hg(2+) and Pb(2+) ions by Bacillus altitudinis immobilized nanodiamond prior to their determinations in food samples by ICP-OES.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Sadin; Kilinc, Ersin; Celik, Kadir Serdar; Okumus, Veysi; Soylak, Mustafa

    2017-01-15

    A novel solid phase extraction method was developed for simultaneous preconcentration-separation of Co(2+), Cr(6+), Hg(2+) and Pb(2+) ions prior to their determinations in food samples by ICP-OES. Thermophilic Bacillus altitudinis immobilized nanodiamond was used as a new biosorbent. SEM and FT-IR analysis were studied to characterize the biosorbent. The optimum pH values of quantitative biosorption for Co(2+), Cr(6+), Hg(2+) and Pb(2+) were found to be 5.0, 6.0, 6.0 and 6.0, respectively. A flow rate of 3.0mLmin(-1) was selected as optimum for all metal ions. 5mL of 1mol/L HCl was used as eluent. Preconcentration factor was achieved as 80. LODs were calculated as 0.071, 0.023, 0.016 and 0.034ngmL(-1), respectively for Hg(2+), Co(2+), Cr(6+) and Pb(2+). The biosorption capacities were calculated for Co(2+), Cr(6+), Hg(2+) and Pb(2+) as 26.4, 30.4, 19.5, and 35.2mg/g, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to food samples to determine analyte concentrations. PMID:27542497

  15. Liquid-liquid extraction of metal ions, DFT and TD-DFT analysis of some 1,2,4-triazole Schiff Bases with high selectivity for Pb(II) and Fe(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoutoul, Mohamed; Lamsayah, Morad; Al-blewi, Fawzia F.; Rezki, Nadjet; Aouad, Mohamed Reda; Mouslim, Messali; Touzani, Rachid

    2016-06-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction of metal ions using some 1,2,4-triazole Schiff base derivatives as new extractants was studied. Fe2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Co2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ were extracted from the aqueous phase into the organic phase and the extractability for each metal ion was determined by atomic absorption. Interestingly, a competitive extraction was also investigated and then examined at different pH in order to explore the effect of the different substituent groups on metal extraction. Accordingly, high selectivity towards Fe2+ (90.1%) and Pb2+ (94.3%) provided respectively by the presence of electron withdrawing group and electron donor group was attained. In addition, geometry optimizations of the ground and excited-states of the ligands in order to get better insight into the geometry and the electronic structure were carried out by means of DFT and TD-DFT calculations.

  16. Alleviation of Cu and Pb rhizotoxicities in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as related to ion activities at root-cell plasma membrane surface.

    PubMed

    Kopittke, Peter M; Kinraide, Thomas B; Wang, Peng; Blamey, F Pax C; Reichman, Suzie M; Menzies, Neal W

    2011-06-01

    Cations, such as Ca and Mg, are generally thought to alleviate toxicities of trace metals through site-specific competition (as incorporated in the biotic ligand model, BLM). Short-term experiments were conducted with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) seedlings in simple nutrient solutions to examine the alleviation of Cu and Pb toxicities by Al, Ca, H, Mg, and Na. For Cu, the cations depolarized the plasma membrane (PM) and reduced the negativity of ψ(0)(o) (electrical potential at the outer surface of the PM) and thereby decreased {Cu(2+)}(0)(o) (activity of Cu(2+) at the outer surface of the PM). For Pb, root elongation was generally better correlated to the activity of Pb(2+) in the bulk solution than to {Pb(2+)}(0)(o). However, we propose that the addition of cations resulted in a decrease in {Pb(2+)}(0)(o) but a simultaneous increase in the rate of Pb uptake (due to an increase in the negativity of E(m,surf), the difference in potential between the inner and outer surfaces of the PM) thus offsetting the decrease in {Pb(2+)}(0)(o). In addition, Ca was found to alleviate Pb toxicity through a specific effect. Although our data do not preclude site-specific competition (as incorporated in the BLM), we suggest that electrostatic effects have an important role. PMID:21563792

  17. Coolwater culmination: Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb and isotopic evidence for continental delamination in the Syringa Embayment, Salmon River suture, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lund, K.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Yacob, E.Y.; Unruh, D.M.; Fanning, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    During dextral oblique translation along Laurentia in western Idaho, the Blue Mountains superterrane underwent clockwise rotation and impinged into the Syringa embayment at the northern end of the Salmon River suture. Along the suture, the superterrane is juxtaposed directly against western Laurentia, making this central Cordilleran accretionary-margin segment unusually attenuated. In the embayment, limited orthogonal contraction produced a crustal wedge of oceanic rocks that delaminated Laurentian crust. The wedge is exposed through Laurentian crust in the Coolwater culmination as documented by mapping and by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe U-Pb, Sri, and ??Nd data for gneisses that lie inboard of the suture. The predominant country rock is Mesoproterozoic paragneiss overlying Laurentian basement. An overlying Neoproterozoic (or younger) paragneiss belt in the Syringa embayment establishes the form of the Cordilleran miogeocline and that the embayment is a relict of Rodinia rifting. An underlying Cretaceous paragneiss was derived from arc terranes and suture-zone orogenic welt but also from Laurentia. The Cretaceous paragneiss and an 86-Ma orthogneiss that intruded it formed the wedge of oceanic rocks that were inserted into the Laurentian margin between 98 and 73 Ma, splitting supracrustal Laurentian rocks from their basement. Crustal thickening, melting and intrusion within the wedge, and folding to form the Coolwater culmination continued until 61 Ma. The embayment formed a restraining bend at the end of the dextral transpressional suture. Clockwise rotation of the impinging superterrane and overthrusting of Laurentia that produced the crustal wedge in the Coolwater culmination are predicted by oblique collision into the Syringa embayment. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Kinetic Analysis of Oligo(C) Formation from the 5‧-Monophosphorimidazolide of Cytidine with Pb(II) Ion Catalyst at 10 75°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Kunio; Maeda, Jun

    2007-04-01

    The temperature dependence of the rate constants for the formation of oligocytidylate (oligo(C)) from the 5‧-monophosphorimidazolide of cytidine (ImpC) in the presence of Pb(II) ion catalyst has been investigated at 10 75°C. The rate constants for the formation of oligo(C) increased in the order of the formation of 2-mer < 3-mer ≤ 4-mer; this trend resembles the trend in the cases of the template-directed and the clay-catalyzed formations of oligonucleotides. While the rate constants of the formation of oligo(C) increased with increasing temperature, the yield of oligo(C) decreased with increasing temperature. This is due to the fact that the relative magnitude of the rate constants of the formation of 2-mer, 3-mer, and 4-mer to that of the hydrolysis of ImpC decreased with increasing temperature. This is probably due to the fact that association between ImpC with the elongating oligo(C) decreases with increasing temperature. The apparent activation energy was 61.9 ± 8.5 kJ mol-1 for the formation of 2-mer, 49.3 ± 2.9 kJ mol-1 for 3-mer, 51.8 kJ mol-1 for 4-mer, and 66.8 ± 4.5 kJ mol-1 for the hydrolysis of ImpC. The significance of the temperature dependence of the formation rate constants of the model prebiotic formation of RNA is discussed.

  19. NA49 Results on Single Particle and Correlation Measurements in Central PB+PB Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, F.

    1998-12-01

    Single-particle spectra and two-particle correlation functions measured by the NA49 collaboration in central Pb+Pb collisions at 158 GeV/nucleon are presented. These measurements are used to study the kinetic and chemical freeze-out conditions in heavy ion collisions. We conclude that large baryon stopping, high baryon density and strong transverse radial flow are achieved in central Pb+Pb collisions at the SPS.

  20. Simultaneous trace-levels determination of Hg(II) and Pb(II) ions in various samples using a modified carbon paste electrode based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes and a new synthesized Schiff base.

    PubMed

    Afkhami, Abbas; Bagheri, Hasan; Khoshsafar, Hosein; Saber-Tehrani, Mohammad; Tabatabaee, Masoumeh; Shirzadmehr, Ali

    2012-10-01

    A modified carbon paste electrode based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and 3-(4-methoxybenzylideneamino)-2-thioxothiazolodin-4-one as a new synthesized Schiff base was constructed for the simultaneous determination of trace amounts of Hg(II) and Pb(II) by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The modified electrode showed an excellent selectivity and stability for Hg(II) and Pb(II) determinations and for accelerated electron transfer between the electrode and the analytes. The electrochemical properties and applications of the modified electrode were studied. Operational parameters such as pH, deposition potential and deposition time were optimized for the purpose of determination of traces of metal ions at pH 3.0. Under optimal conditions the limits of detection, based on three times the background noise, were 9.0×10(-4) and 6.0×10(-4) μmol L(-1) for Hg(II) and Pb(II) with a 90 s preconcentration, respectively. In addition, the modified electrode displayed a good reproducibility and selectivity, making it suitable for the simultaneous determination of Hg(II) and Pb(II) in real samples such as sea water, waste water, tobacco, marine and human teeth samples. PMID:22975186

  1. Optimizing production of Pb beams for 205,210Pb analysis by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sookdeo, Adam; Cornett, Jack; Kieser, William E.

    2015-10-01

    The measurement of rare radioactive lead isotopes (205Pb or 210Pb) by AMS requires the production of strong Pb negative molecular anion beams from the ion source. This paper summarizes the results of tests of different target composition on the strength and stability of 208PbF3- currents and 210Pb counts. In an 834 SIMS-type Cs+ sputter source, the superhalogen, PbF3- had the largest current or ionization efficiency from a survey of Pb molecular anions. The target matrix that produced the largest current of PbF3- was composed of PbF2, AgF2 and CsF. The ratio of AgF2 and CsF does not affect the ionization efficiency of PbF3-. Chemically refluxed targets of PbF2, AgF2 and CsF increased the ionization efficiency of PbF3-. The count rate of the rare isotope, 210Pb, was increased with the addition of microgram quantities of stable PbF2 to the targets. In an SO-110 type Cs+ sputter source the ionization efficiency of PbF3- was increased with lower rather than higher Cs+ fluence.

  2. Glutathione-capped Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots as a room-temperature phosphorescence sensor for the detection of Pb2 + ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jialing; Zhu, Yaxian; Zhang, Yong

    2016-07-01

    The room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) of glutathione-capped Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (GSH-Mn-ZnS QDs) was effectively quenched by the addition of Pb2 +. A simple and sensitive RTP sensor for Pb2 + detection based on the quenching effect was developed. Under the optimal conditions, good linear correlations were obtained for Pb2 + over a concentration range from 1.0 to 100 μg·L- 1, and the detection limit was 0.45 μg·L- 1. The established method has been successfully applied for the determination of Pb2 + in real water samples without complicated sample pretreatment with the recoveries in the range of 95.4%-104.0%.

  3. Glutathione-capped Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots as a room-temperature phosphorescence sensor for the detection of Pb(2+) ions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jialing; Zhu, Yaxian; Zhang, Yong

    2016-07-01

    The room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) of glutathione-capped Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (GSH-Mn-ZnS QDs) was effectively quenched by the addition of Pb(2+). A simple and sensitive RTP sensor for Pb(2+) detection based on the quenching effect was developed. Under the optimal conditions, good linear correlations were obtained for Pb(2+) over a concentration range from 1.0 to 100μg·L(-1), and the detection limit was 0.45μg·L(-1). The established method has been successfully applied for the determination of Pb(2+) in real water samples without complicated sample pretreatment with the recoveries in the range of 95.4%-104.0%. PMID:27085295

  4. Estimation of the nuclear distortion in the Coulomb breakup of 6Li into α + d in the field of 208Pb ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irgaziev, B. F.

    2014-04-01

    In this article the results of the evaluation of the contribution of nuclear disintegration, based on the basis of diffraction theory in the 208Pb(6Li, αd)208Pb Coulomb breakup at an energy of 156 MeV is presented. Comparison of the results of the calculation with the experimental data of Kiener et al. [Phys. Rev. C 44, 2195 (1991)] gives evidence for the dominance of the Coulomb dissociation mechanism and contribution of nuclear distortion, but essentially smaller than the value reported byHammache et al. [Phys. Rev. C 82, 065803 (2010)] and Sümmerer [Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys. 66, 298 (2011)].

  5. The influence of aliphatic alcohols, camphor, and camphor-alcohol mixtures on the electroreduction kinetics of ions Cd/sup 2 +/, Pb/sup 2 +/, Cr/sup 3 +/, and EuSO/sub 4//sup +/

    SciTech Connect

    Afanas'ev, B.N.; Kuzyakova L.M.

    1986-06-01

    This study was conducted at the dropping mercury electrode at high surface coverages of the electrode by adsorbate molecules. From polarization curves obtained at different concentrations of the surface-active substances, the effective values of the transfer coefficients and the parameters r/sub 1//r and S/sub 1/ characterizing electrochemical reaction rates in the presence of surfactants were determined. It was shown that in Cd/sup 2 +/ and Pb/sup 2 +/ electroreduction in the presence of surfactants, the rate-determining step is the penetration of these ions into the surface layer of low electric permittivity; in the electroreduction of Cr/sup 3 +/ and EuSO/sub 4//sup +/ ions, it is electron transfer to the species undergoing discharge while this is inside the surface layer.

  6. Rapid adsorption of toxic Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution using multiwall carbon nanotubes synthesized by microwave chemical vapor deposition technique.

    PubMed

    Mubarak, Nabisab Mujawar; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Abdullah, Ezzat Chan; Jayakumar, Natesan Subramanian

    2016-07-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized using a tubular microwave chemical vapor deposition technique, using acetylene and hydrogen as the precursor gases and ferrocene as catalyst. The novel MWCNT samples were tested for their performance in terms of Pb(II) binding. The synthesized MWCNT samples were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) analysis, and the adsorption of Pb(II) was studied as a function of pH, initial Pb(II) concentration, MWCNT dosage, agitation speed, and adsorption time, and process parameters were optimized. The adsorption data followed both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. On the basis of the Langmuir model, Qmax was calculated to be 104.2mg/g for the microwave-synthesized MWCNTs. In order to investigate the dynamic behavior of MWCNTs as an adsorbent, the kinetic data were modeled using pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order equations. Different thermodynamic parameters, viz., ∆H(0), ∆S(0) and ∆G(0) were evaluated and it was found that the adsorption was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The statistical analysis revealed that the optimum conditions for the highest removal (99.9%) of Pb(II) are at pH5, MWCNT dosage 0.1g, agitation speed 160r/min and time of 22.5min with the initial concentration of 10mg/L. Our results proved that microwave-synthesized MWCNTs can be used as an effective Pb(II) adsorbent due to their high adsorption capacity as well as the short adsorption time needed to achieve equilibrium. PMID:27372128

  7. Highly efficient simultaneous ultrasonic-assisted adsorption of Pb(II), Cd(II), Ni(II) and Cu (II) ions from aqueous solutions by graphene oxide modified with 2,2'-dipyridylamine: Central composite design optimization.

    PubMed

    Zare-Dorabei, Rouholah; Ferdowsi, Somayeh Moazen; Barzin, Ahmad; Tadjarodi, Azadeh

    2016-09-01

    In present work, a graphene oxide chemically modified with 2,2'-dipyridylamine (GO-DPA), was synthesized by simple, fast and low-cost process for the simultaneous adsorption of four toxic heavy metals, Pb(II), Cd(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II), from aqueous solutions. The synthesized adsorbent was characterized by FT-IR, XRD, XPS, SEM and AFM measurements. The effects of variables such as pH solution, initial ion concentrations, adsorbent dosage and sonicating time were investigated on adsorption efficiency by rotatable central composite design. The optimum conditions, specified as 8mg of adsorbent, 20mgL(-1) of each ion at pH 5 and short time of 4min led to the achievement of a high adsorption capacities. Ultrasonic power had important role in shortening the adsorption time of ions by enhancing the dispersion of adsorbent in solution. The adsorption kinetic studies and equilibrium isotherms for evaluating the mechanism of adsorption process showed a good fit to the pseudo-second order and Langmuir model, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacities (Qm) of this adsorbent were 369.749, 257.201, 180.893 and 358.824mgg(-1) for lead, cadmium, nickel and copper ions, respectively. The removal performance of adsorbent on the real wastewater samples also showed the feasibility of adsorbent for applying in industrial purposes. PMID:27150770

  8. Synthesis, characterization and application of poly(acrylamide-co-methylenbisacrylamide) nanocomposite as a colorimetric chemosensor for visual detection of trace levels of Hg and Pb ions.

    PubMed

    Sedghi, Roya; Heidari, Bahareh; Behbahani, Mohammad

    2015-03-21

    In this study, a new colorimetric chemosensor based on TiO2/poly(acrylamide-co-methylenbisacrylamide) nanocomposites was designed for determination of mercury and lead ions at trace levels in environmental samples. The removal and preconcentration of lead and mercury ions on the sorbent was achieved due to sharing an electron pair of N and O groups of polymer chains with the mentioned heavy metal ions. The hydrogel sensor was designed by surface modification of a synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles using methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilan (MAPTMS), which provided a reactive C=C bond that polymerized the acrylamide and methylenbisacrylamide. The sorbent was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM), EDS analysis and Fourier transform in frared (FT-IR) spectrometer. This nanostructured composite with polymer shell was developed as a sensitive and selective sorbent for adsorption of mercury and lead ions from aqueous solution at optimized condition. This method involves two-steps: (1) preconcentration of mercury and lead ions by the synthesized sorbent and (2) its selective monitoring of the target ions by complexation with dithizone (DZ). The color of the sorbent in the absence and presence of mercury and lead ions shifts from white to violet and red, respectively. The detection limit of the synthesized nanochemosensor for mercury and lead ions was 1 and 10 μg L(-1), respectively. The method was successfully applied for trace detection of mercury and lead ions in tap, river, and sea water samples. PMID:25497023

  9. Low-energy fission investigated in reactions of 750 AMeV238U-ions with Pb and Be targets. I. Nuclear charge distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armbruster, P.; Bernas, M.; Czajkowski, S.; Geissel, H.; Aumann, T.; Dessagne, Ph.; Donzaud, C.; Hanelt, E.; Heinz, A.; Hesse, M.; Kozhuharov, C.; Miehe, Ch.; Münzenberg, G.; Pfützner, M.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Schwab, W.; Stéphan, C.; Sümmerer, K.; Tassan-Got, L.; Voss, B.

    1996-12-01

    Charge distributions of fragments from low energy nuclear fission are investigated in reactions of highly fissile238U projectiles at relativistic energies (750 A·MeV) with a heavy (Pb) and a light (Be) target. The fully stripped fission fragments are separated by the Fragment Separator (FRS). Their high kinetic energies in the laboratory system allow the identification of all atomic numbers by using Multiple-Sampling Ionization Chambers (MUSIC). The elemental distributions of fragments observed at larger magnetic rigidities than the238U projectiles show asymmetric break-up and odd-even effects. They indicate a low energy fission process, induced mainly by dissociation in the electro-magnetic field for the U/Pb-system, or by peripheral nuclear interactions for the U/Be-system.

  10. Method for preparing Pb-.beta."-alumina ceramic

    DOEpatents

    Hellstrom, Eric E.

    1986-01-01

    A process is disclosed for preparing impermeable, polycrystalline samples of Pb-.beta."-alumina ceramic from Na-.beta."-alumina ceramic by ion exchange. The process comprises two steps. The first step is a high-temperature vapor phase exchange of Na by K, followed by substitution of Pb for K by immersing the sample in a molten Pb salt bath. The result is a polycrystalline Pb-.beta."-alumina ceramic that is substantially crack-free.

  11. Calculation of uncertainties of U-Pb isotope data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, K. R.

    1980-01-01

    Equations are derived for the estimation of errors and error correlations for various types of U-Pb isotope data, taking into account ion-beam instabilities, run-to-run variability in mass-discrimination, uncertainties in Pb and U concentrations, and uncertainties in initial-Pb and blank-Pb amount and isotopic composition. Equations are also given for the calculation of concordia intercept errors. ?? 1980.

  12. Evidence for transverse momentum and pseudorapidity dependent event plane fluctuations in PbPb and pPb collisions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-09-22

    A systematic study of the factorization of long-range azimuthal two-particle correlations into a product of single-particle anisotropies is presented as a function of pT and η of both particles and as a function of the particle multiplicity in PbPb and pPb collisions. The data were taken with the CMS detector for PbPb collisions at √sNN=2.76 TeV and pPb collisions at √sNN=5.02 TeV, covering a very wide range of multiplicity. Factorization is observed to be broken as a function of both particle pT and η. When measured with particles of different pT, the magnitude of the factorization breakdown for the secondmore » Fourier harmonic reaches 20% for very central PbPb collisions but decreases rapidly as the multiplicity decreases. The data are consistent with viscous hydrodynamic predictions, which suggest that the effect of factorization breaking is mainly sensitive to the initial-state conditions rather than to the transport properties (e.g., shear viscosity) of the medium. The factorization breakdown is also computed with particles of different η. The effect is found to be weakest for mid-central PbPb events but becomes larger for more central or peripheral PbPb collisions, and also for very-high-multiplicity pPb collisions. The η-dependent factorization data provide new insights to the longitudinal evolution of the medium formed in heavy ion collisions.« less

  13. Evidence for transverse momentum and pseudorapidity dependent event plane fluctuations in PbPb and pPb collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-09-22

    A systematic study of the factorization of long-range azimuthal two-particle correlations into a product of single-particle anisotropies is presented as a function of pT and η of both particles and as a function of the particle multiplicity in PbPb and pPb collisions. The data were taken with the CMS detector for PbPb collisions at √sNN=2.76 TeV and pPb collisions at √sNN=5.02 TeV, covering a very wide range of multiplicity. Factorization is observed to be broken as a function of both particle pT and η. When measured with particles of different pT, the magnitude of the factorization breakdown for the second Fourier harmonic reaches 20% for very central PbPb collisions but decreases rapidly as the multiplicity decreases. The data are consistent with viscous hydrodynamic predictions, which suggest that the effect of factorization breaking is mainly sensitive to the initial-state conditions rather than to the transport properties (e.g., shear viscosity) of the medium. The factorization breakdown is also computed with particles of different η. The effect is found to be weakest for mid-central PbPb events but becomes larger for more central or peripheral PbPb collisions, and also for very-high-multiplicity pPb collisions. The η-dependent factorization data provide new insights to the longitudinal evolution of the medium formed in heavy ion collisions.

  14. First-Principles Investigations of Pb Anti-Site Defects in PbZrO3 and Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 Perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagimura, Ricardo; Singh, David J.

    2008-03-01

    Lead zirconate (PZ) and lead zirconate titanate (PZT) have the perovskite type structure, ABO3. Bivalent lead (Pb^+2) ions occupy the A site, while tetravalent titanium and zirconium (Zr^+4, Ti^+4) ions occupy the B site at random of the PZT solid solution. Also, lead can be tetravalent (Pb^+4), such as in PbO2 structure. Recent experimental work has reported that tetravalent Pb ions can locate at the B site of the PZT perovskite forming a lead zirconate-titanate-plumbate solid solution. The experimental results suggest that, based on a PbZrO3-PbTiO3-PbPbO3 ternary solution phase diagram [G. Suchaneck et al., Ferroelectrics 318, 3 (2005)], the substitutional Pb atom prefers to occupy the Zr site instead of the Ti one. In this work, we report density functional supercell calculations for pure PbZrO3 perovskite and for ordered Pb(Zr1/2Ti1/2)O3 solid solution with different configurations for the Zr and Ti atoms. We investigate the anti-site defect energies and the effects on the electronic structure.

  15. Robust Pb2+ sensor based on flexible ZnO/ZnS core-shell nanoarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhenfu; Jiang, Chunyan; Pu, Xiong; Du, Chunhua; Li, Linxuan; Ma, Bei; Hu, Weiguo

    2016-04-01

    We designed a flexible robust sensor with ZnO/ZnS core-shell nanoarrays to detect Pb2+ ions. This device is powered by electrical energy transferred from the environmental mechanical energy and senses Pb2+ ions with the cation exchange reaction between ZnS shell and Pb2+ ions (ZnS (s) + Pb2+ (aq) ↔ PbS (s) + Zn2+(aq)). The high density intrinsic carriers in PbS diffuse into the ZnO core to partly screen the piezopotential, which results in an exponential relationship between the concentrations of Pb2+ ions and the piezo-voltages. The detected limit is as low as 1 ppm. This sensor also exhibits a very high selectivity towards Pb2+ ions due to the limitation of energy band and solubility, which has potential applications in environmental protection and pollutant surveillance.

  16. Intracellular Pb2+ content monitoring using a protein-based Pb2+ indicator.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Tai-Yu; Yang, De-Ming

    2012-04-01

    Lead ion (Pb(2+)) is one of the most hazardous heavy metals to almost all life forms. The components of store-operated Ca(2+) entry as a molecular gateway have been previously found to participate in the cytotoxic entry of Pb(2+). However, the safe levels of intracellular Pb(2+) hiding in blood Pb(2+) levels are still not determined with full certainty. The present study aimed to construct protein-based Pb(2+) indicators to help establish a reliable setting for the content monitoring of intracellular Pb(2+). A series of Pb(2+) indicators based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer, Met-leads, were developed. The Pb(2+)-binding protein PbrR (from Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34) was applied between the fluorescent protein pair ECFP(ΔC11) and cp173Venus. The spectral patterns and sensing ranges of all Met-leads were characterized in vitro. Among these constructs, Met-lead 1.59 had relatively high ion selectivity and broad dynamic range (3.3-5.7). Consequently, this Met-lead was adopted in the cellular Pb(2+) biosensing. The intracellular Pb(2+) content in human embryonic kidney cells was successfully monitored using Met-lead 1.59 under both short- and long-term treatments. The existence of intracellular Pb(2+) can be significantly sensed using Met-lead 1.59 after 3 h 0.5μM (10 μg/dl) exposure, which is 200 times more improved than previous live-cell indicators. In summary, a new Pb(2+) indicator, Met-lead 1.59, was successfully developed for advanced research on Pb(2+) toxicology. PMID:22240981

  17. Vibrational contributions to the phase stability of PbS-PbTe alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doak, Jeff W.; Wolverton, C.; OzoliĆš, Vidvuds

    2015-11-01

    The thermoelectric figure of merit (Z T ) of semiconductors such as PbTe can be improved by forming nanostructures within the bulk of these materials. Alloying PbTe with PbS causes PbS-rich nanostructures to precipitate from the solid solution, scattering phonons and increasing Z T . Understanding the thermodynamics of this process is crucial to optimizing the efficiency gains of this technique. Previous calculations of the thermodynamics of PbS-PbTe alloys [(J. W. Doak and C. Wolverton, Phys. Rev. B 86, 144202 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.144202] found that mixing energetics alone were not sufficient to quantitatively explain the thermodynamic driving force for phase separation in these materials: first-principles calculations of the thermodynamics of phase separation overestimate the thermodynamic driving force for precipitation of PbS-rich nanostructures from PbS-PbTe alloys. In this work, we re-examine the thermodynamics of PbS-PbTe, including the effects of vibrational entropy in the free energy through frozen-phonon calculations of special quasirandom structures (SQS) to explain this discrepancy between first-principles and experimental phase stability. We find that vibrational entropy of mixing reduces the calculated maximum miscibility gap temperature TG of PbS-PbTe by 470 K, bringing the error between calculated and experimental TG down from 700 to 230 K. Our calculated vibrational spectra of PbS-PbTe SQS exhibit dynamic instabilities of S ions that corroborate reports of low-T ferroelectriclike phase transitions in solid solutions of PbS and PbTe, which are not present in either of the constituent compounds. We use our calculated vibrational spectra to obtain phase transition temperatures, which are in qualitative agreement with experimental results for PbTe-rich alloys, as well as to predict the existence of a low-T displacive phase transition in PbS-rich PbS-PbTe, which has not yet been experimentally investigated.

  18. Calculation of the Coulomb Fission Cross Sections for Pb-Pb and Bi-Pb Interactions at 158 A GeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poyser, William J.; Ahern, Sean C.; Norbury, John W.; Tripathi, R. K.

    2002-01-01

    The Weizsacker-Williams (WW) method of virtual quanta is used to make approximate cross section calculations for peripheral relativistic heavy-ion collisions. We calculated the Coulomb fission cross sections for projectile ions of Pb-208 and Bi-209 with energies of 158 A GeV interacting with a Pb-208 target. We also calculated the electromagnetic absorption cross section for Pb-208 ion interacting as described. For comparison we use both the full WW method and a standard approximate WW method. The approximate WW method in larger cross sections compared to the more accurate full WW method.

  19. Influence of Pb2+ ions on the morphology of etch pits and dislocation density of CaF2:YbF3 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stef, Marius; Stef, Florica; Buse, Gabriel; Nicoara, Irina

    2012-08-01

    Various concentrations YbF3 -doped CaF2 and Pb2+ - codoped crystals were grown using the conventional Bridgman method. Transparent colorless crystals were obtained in graphite crucible in vacuum (˜ 10-1 Pa) using a shaped graphite furnace. The crystals have been cooled to room temperature using an established procedure. In order to study the etch pits morphology and the dislocations density we used the chemical etching method. This method consists in immersing the cleaved sample in 4NHCl at 60°C for 5 minutes. Small pits are developed at the emergence points of the dislocations. The etch pits have hexagonal shapes for pure CaF2 crystal and triangular sahpes for doped crystals. The dislocations density depends also on the dopant or on the codopant concentration.

  20. Structural investigation of vanadium ions doped Li2Osbnd PbOsbnd B2O3sbnd P2O5 glasses by means of spectroscopic and dielectric studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusub, S.; Narendrudu, T.; Suresh, S.; Krishna Rao, D.

    2014-11-01

    In the present investigation we report the synthesis of a series of transparent glasses of composition 20Li2Osbnd 20PbOsbnd 45B2O3sbnd (15-x) P2O5: xV2O5 with eight values of x ranging from 0 to 2.5 mol%, and their characterization. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra reflected the amorphous nature of the glasses. Optical absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra and FTIR study of vanadyl ions in the present glass network have been analyzed. The optical absorption and EPR investigations have revealed that vanadium ions do exist in both V4+ and V5+ states and the redox ratio (V4+/V5+) is observed to increase with the increase in concentration of V2O5. Dielectric properties viz., dielectric constant ε‧(ω), loss tan δ, electrical moduli M‧(ω), M″(ω), a.c. conductivity σac over an extensive scale of frequency and temperature have been investigated as a function of V2O5 concentration. The dispersion of dielectric constant ε‧(ω) with temperature has been interpreted by space charge polarization model. The dielectric loss and electrical moduli variation with frequency and temperature exhibited relaxation effects. These effects are ascribed to V4+ ions. The a.c. conductivity of the prepared glasses is perceived to escalate with the hike in V2O5 concentration whereas the activation energy for conduction exhibits a reverse trend. The conductivity mechanism is explained on the basis of polaronic transfer between V4+ and V5+ ions. The low temperature a.c. conductivity mechanism is elucidated by the quantum mechanical tunneling model. The growth in the values of dielectric parameters with raise in the concentration of V2O5 is due to V4+ ions which act as modifiers. The investigation of these results has indicated that at higher concentrations of V2O5, the VO2+ ions in the glasses were present in octahedral sites with tetragonal compression and belong to C4v symmetry.

  1. L-shell x-ray production cross sections in Nd, Gd, Ho, Yb, Au and Pb for 25-MeV carbon and 32-MeV oxygen ions

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, M.C.; McDaniel, F.D.; Duggan, J.L.; Mehta, R.; Lapicki, G.; Miller, P.D.; Pepmiller, P.L.; Krause, H.; Rosseel, T.M.; Rayburn, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    L-shell x-ray production cross sections in /sub 60/Nd, /sub 64/Gd, /sub 67/Ho, /sub 70/Yb, /sub 79/Au and /sub 82/Pb have been measured for incident 25 MeV /sub 6//sup 12/C/sup +q/(q = 4,5,6) and 32 MeV /sub 8//sup 16/O/sup +q/(q = 5,7,8) ions. Measurements were made on targets ranging in thickness from 1 to 100 ..mu..g/cm/sup 2/. Echancement in the L-shell x-ray production cross section for projectiles with one or two K-shell vacancies over those for projectiles with no K-shell vacancies is observed. The sum of direct ionization to the continuum (DI) plus electron capture (EC) to the L,M,N ... shells and EC to the K-shell of the projectile have been extracted from the data. Calculations in the first Born approximation are approx. 10 times larger than the data. Predictions of the ECPSSR theory that accounts for the energy-loss, Coulomb deflection, perturbed-stationary state, and relativistic effects are in good agreement with the data for both ions.

  2. Controlled Fabrication of Silk Protein Sericin Mediated Hierarchical Hybrid Flowers and Their Excellent Adsorption Capability of Heavy Metal Ions of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II).

    PubMed

    Koley, Pradyot; Sakurai, Makoto; Aono, Masakazu

    2016-01-27

    Fabrication of protein-inorganic hybrid materials of innumerable hierarchical patterns plays a major role in the development of multifunctional advanced materials with their improved features in synergistic way. However, effective fabrication and applications of the hybrid structures is limited due to the difficulty in control and production cost. Here, we report the controlled fabrication of complex hybrid flowers with hierarchical porosity through a green and facile coprecipitation method by using industrial waste natural silk protein sericin. The large surface areas and porosity of the microsize hybrid flowers enable water purification through adsorption of different heavy metal ions. The high adsorption capacity depends on their morphology, which is changed largely by sericin concentration in their fabrication. Superior adsorption and greater selectivity of the Pb(II) ions have been confirmed by the characteristic growth of needle-shaped nanowires on the hierarchical surface of the hybrid flowers. These hybrid flowers show excellent thermal stability even after complete evaporation of the protein molecules, significantly increasing the porosity of the flower petals. A simple, cost-effective and environmental friendly fabrication method of the porous flowers will lead to a new solution to water pollution required in the modern industrial society. PMID:26736132

  3. Jet production in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions measured by ALICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Rosi; ALICE Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    Particle jets, formed when a hard scattered parton fragments into a jet of hadrons, are an ideal probe of the medium formed in heavy-ion collisions. The hard-scattered partons that produce them come from early in the collision, prior to the medium formation. These partons lose energy as they traverse the medium, and eventually fragment into jets of hadrons, which exhibit a modification when compared to jets produced in pp and p-Pb collisions. At LHC energies, the parton production cross-section is much larger than at RHIC, allowing jets to be reconstructed over a much wider kinematic range. Jet reconstruction allows for a more differential investigation of the parton energy loss than single hadrons, which have been used as jet proxies in the past, as the jets collect a larger percentage of the final state energy, which means their kinematics are more closely correlated to the kinematics of the initial parton. Jets are reconstructed in ALICE either using information from the tracking systems, or by combining this with the ALICE electromagnetic calorimeter (EMCal). In these proceedings, jet spectra from 2.76 TeV Pb-Pb and pp collisions will be presented. In particular, the centrality and event-plane dependence of the measured spectra and the background will be discussed. Jets from different centrality classes and event-plane orientations provide additional information necessary for understanding the path-length and temperature dependence of energy loss mechanisms. The reconstruction and correction procedures for jets will be shown. Results from Pb-Pb events will be compared to the baseline pp and p-Pb results, which allows the initial state and cold nuclear matter effects to be disentangled from hot medium effects. The jet nuclear modification, which quantifies the suppression, will be compared to energy-loss models.

  4. Long-Term Performance of Pb Isotopic Analysis by TIMS with 202Pb-205Pb Double Spike

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelin, Y.; Connelly, J. N.

    2008-05-01

    The 202Pb-205Pb-233U-235U spike (Pb DS), prepared at the Geological Survey of Canada in 2005 [1], and the 202Pb-205Pb-235U spike, prepared at the Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo [2], have been used for more than two years. Both spikes are routinely used for TIMS analysis of Pb with internal fractionation correction for U-Pb dating of various rocks and minerals, including dating perovskite [2] and meteorites and their components [1, 4-7]. A few hundred standard and sample Pb DS analyses were acquired with these two spikes using Triton TI mass spectrometers at the Geological Survey of Canada, US Geological Survey and the Australian National University, a Finnigan-MAT 261 mass spectrometer at The University of Texas at Austin and a Finnigan-MAT 262 mass spectrometer at the University of Oslo. All analyses were performed using high efficiency silicic acid emitter [8] and a static multicollector mode if the samples were sufficiently large to produce an ion beam greater than ca. 2-5×10-14 A on 206Pb and 207Pb. These data allow us to evaluate long - term performance of the Pb DS procedure for sub-nanogram samples of Pb. The performance of this procedure is evaluated on the basis of the long-term reproducibility of analyses of isotopic standards, and from improving quality of linear fits in Pb-Pb isochron diagrams (and, hence, improved precision of ages) compared to the same data reduced using external normalization. The data for 0.3 ng loads of SRM-981, analyzed with the batches of samples in 2006 and 2007 at the GSC, yield the mean 204Pb/206Pb of 0.05904±0.00013 (0.226% 2σ), #207Pb/206Pb of 0.91483±0.00018 (0.020% 2σ)), and 208Pb/206Pb of 2.16771±0.00054 (0.025% 2σ)). These values and errors are similar to those reported in [1] for the loads of the same size, and to the values obtained for similar loads at the USGS and at ANU over shorter periods of time. The precision and reproducibility of sample analysis and standard analyses is similar, and

  5. Dynamical simulation of energy dissipation in asymmetric heavy-ion induced fission of {sup 200}Pb, {sup 213}Fr, and {sup 251}Es

    SciTech Connect

    Mirfathi, S. M.; Pahlavani, M. R.

    2008-12-15

    The dynamical model based on the asymmetric mass division has been applied to calculate pre-scission neutron multiplicity from heavy-ion induced fusion-fission reactions. Links between the pre-scission neutron multiplicity, excitation energy, and asymmetric mass distribution are clarified based on the Monte Carlo simulation and Langevin dynamics. The pre-scission neutron multiplicity is calculated and compared with the respective experimental data over a wide range of excitation energy and nonconstant viscosity. The analysis indicates a different effect for the application of asymmetric mass division in different energy regions of such processes.

  6. Chemometrics-assisted spectrophotometric method for simultaneous determination of Pb2+ and Cu2+ ions in different foodstuffs, soil and water samples using 2-benzylspiro [isoindoline-1,5‧-oxazolidine]-2‧,3,4‧-trione using continuous wavelet transformation and partial least squares - Calculation of pKf of complexes with rank annihilation factor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi Tarighat, Maryam; Nabavi, Masoume; Mohammadizadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2015-06-01

    A new multi-component analysis method based on zero-crossing point-continuous wavelet transformation (CWT) was developed for simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of Cu2+ and Pb2+ ions based on the complex formation with 2-benzyl espiro[isoindoline-1,5oxasolidine]-2,3,4 trione (BSIIOT). The absorption spectra were evaluated with respect to synthetic ligand concentration, time of complexation and pH. Therefore according the absorbance values, 0.015 mmol L-1 BSIIOT, 10 min after mixing and pH 8.0 were used as optimum values. The complex formation between BSIIOT ligand and the cations Cu2+ and Pb2+ by application of rank annihilation factor analysis (RAFA) were investigated. Daubechies-4 (db4), discrete Meyer (dmey), Morlet (morl) and Symlet-8 (sym8) continuous wavelet transforms for signal treatments were found to be suitable among the wavelet families. The applicability of new synthetic ligand and selected mother wavelets were used for the simultaneous determination of strongly overlapped spectra of species without using any pre-chemical treatment. Therefore, CWT signals together with zero crossing technique were directly applied to the overlapping absorption spectra of Cu2+ and Pb2+. The calibration graphs for estimation of Pb2+ and Cu 2+were obtained by measuring the CWT amplitudes at zero crossing points for Cu2+ and Pb2+ at the wavelet domain, respectively. The proposed method was validated by simultaneous determination of Cu2+ and Pb2+ ions in red beans, walnut, rice, tea and soil samples. The obtained results of samples with proposed method have been compared with those predicted by partial least squares (PLS) and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS).

  7. Chemometrics-assisted spectrophotometric method for simultaneous determination of Pb²⁺ and Cu²⁺ ions in different foodstuffs, soil and water samples using 2-benzylspiro [isoindoline-1,5'-oxazolidine]-2',3,4'-trione using continuous wavelet transformation and partial least squares - calculation of pKf of complexes with rank annihilation factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Abbasi Tarighat, Maryam; Nabavi, Masoume; Mohammadizadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2015-06-15

    A new multi-component analysis method based on zero-crossing point-continuous wavelet transformation (CWT) was developed for simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) ions based on the complex formation with 2-benzyl espiro[isoindoline-1,5 oxasolidine]-2,3,4 trione (BSIIOT). The absorption spectra were evaluated with respect to synthetic ligand concentration, time of complexation and pH. Therefore according the absorbance values, 0.015 mmol L(-1) BSIIOT, 10 min after mixing and pH 8.0 were used as optimum values. The complex formation between BSIIOT ligand and the cations Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) by application of rank annihilation factor analysis (RAFA) were investigated. Daubechies-4 (db4), discrete Meyer (dmey), Morlet (morl) and Symlet-8 (sym8) continuous wavelet transforms for signal treatments were found to be suitable among the wavelet families. The applicability of new synthetic ligand and selected mother wavelets were used for the simultaneous determination of strongly overlapped spectra of species without using any pre-chemical treatment. Therefore, CWT signals together with zero crossing technique were directly applied to the overlapping absorption spectra of Cu(2+) and Pb(2+). The calibration graphs for estimation of Pb(2+) and Cu (2+)were obtained by measuring the CWT amplitudes at zero crossing points for Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) at the wavelet domain, respectively. The proposed method was validated by simultaneous determination of Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) ions in red beans, walnut, rice, tea and soil samples. The obtained results of samples with proposed method have been compared with those predicted by partial least squares (PLS) and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS). PMID:25766479

  8. Evidence for an Early Archean component in the Middle to Late Archean gneisses of the Wind River Range, west-central Wyoming: conventional and ion microprobe U-Pb data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Williams, I.S.; Compston, W.; Stuckless, J.S.; Worl, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    Gneissic rocks that are basement to the Late Archean granites comprising much of the Wind River Range, west-central Wyoming, have been dated by the zircon U-Pb method using both conventional and ion microprobe techniques. A foliated hornblende granite gneiss member from the southern border of the Bridger batholith is 2670??13 Ma. Zircons from a granulite just north of the Bridger batholith are equant and faceted, a typical morphology for zircon grown under high grade metamorphic conditions. This granulite, which may be related to a second phase of migmatization in the area, is 2698??8 Ma. South of the Bridger batholith, zircons from a granulite (charnockite), which is related to an earlier phase of migmatization in the Range, yield a discordia with intercept ages of about 2.3 and 3.3 Ga. However, ion microprobe analyses of single zircon grains indicate that this rock contains several populations of zircon, ranging in age from 2.67 to about 3.8 Ga. Based on zircon morphology and regional geologic relationships, we interpret the data as indicating an age of ???3.2 Ga for the first granulite metamorphism and migmatization. Older, possibly xenocrystic zircons give ages of ???3.35, 3.65 and ???3.8 Ga. Younger zircons grew at 2.7 and 2.85 Ga in response to events, including the second granulite metamorphism at 2.7 Ga, that culminated in the intrusion of the Bridger batholith and migmatization at 2.67 Ga. These data support the field and petrographic evidence for two granulite events and provide some temporal constraints for the formation of continental crust in the Early and Middle Archean in the Wyoming Province. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Diachronous evolution of volcano-sedimentary basins north of the Congo craton: Insights from U Pb ion microprobe dating of zircons from the Poli, Lom and Yaoundé Groups (Cameroon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toteu, Sadrack Félix; Penaye, Joseph; Deloule, Etienne; Van Schmus, William Randall; Tchameni, Rigobert

    2006-04-01

    Ion microprobe U-Pb dating of zircons from Neoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary sequences in Cameroon north of the Congo craton is presented. For the Poli basin, the depositional age is constrained between 700-665 Ma; detrital sources comprise ca. 920, 830, 780 and 736 Ma magmatic zircons. In the Lom basin, the depositional age is constrained between 613 and 600 Ma, and detrital sources include Archaean to Palaeoproterozoic, late Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic (1100-950 Ma), and Neoproterozoic (735, 644 and 613 Ma) zircons. The Yaoundé Group is probably younger than 625 Ma, and detrital sources include Palaeoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic zircons. The depositional age of the Mahan metavolcano-sedimentary sequence is post-820 Ma, and detrital sources include late Mesoproterozoic (1070 Ma) and early Neoproterozoic volcanic rocks (824 Ma). The following conclusions can be made from these data. (1) The three basins evolved during the Pan-African event but are significantly different in age and tectonic setting; the Poli is a pre- to syn-collisional basin developed upon, or in the vicinity of young magmatic arcs; the Lom basin is post-collisional and intracontinental and developed on old crust; the tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Yaoundé Group resulted from rapid tectonic burial and subsequent collision between the Congo craton and the Adamawa-Yade block. (2) Late Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic inheritance reflects the presence of magmatic event(s) of this age in west-central Africa.

  10. Discrimination of the Cigarettes Geographical Origin by DRC-ICP-MS Measurements of Pb Isotope Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, W.; Hu, S.; Jin, L.

    2014-12-01

    Trace Pb are taken up with the same isotopic ratios as is present in the source soil, and the isotopic composition of Pb could used to reflect these sources and provide powerful indicators of the geographic origin of agriculture products derived from vegetative matter. We developed a simple and high throughput method, which based on DRC-ICP-MS for determination of Pb isotope ratios for discriminating the geographic origin of cigarettes. After acid digestion procedure, the cigarette digested solutions were directly analyzed by ICP-QMS with a DRC pressurized by the non-reactive gas Ne. In the DRC, Ne molecules collision with Pb ions and improves Pb isotope ratios precision 3-fold, which may be due to the collisional dampling smoothes out the ion beam fluctuations. Under the optimum DRC rejection parameter Q (RPq = 0.45), the main matrix components (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe etc.) originating from cigarettes were filtered out. Mass discrimination of 208Pb/206Pb ratio in Ne DRC mode increased 0.3% compared to the standard mode, the mass bias due to the in-cell Ne gas collision can be accurately corrected by NIST 981 Pb isotope standard. This method was verified by a tobacco reference material CTV-OTL-2. Results of 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb were 2.0848 ± 0.0028 (2δ) and 0.8452 ± 0.0011 (2δ) for CTA-VTL-2, which were agreed with the literature values (208Pb/206Pb = 2.0884 ± 0.0090 and 207Pb/206Pb = 0.8442 ± 0.0032). The precision of Pb isotope ratios (208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb) for the cigarette samples are ranged from 0.01 to 0.08% (N = 5). It has sufficient precision to discriminate 91 different brand cigarettes originated from four different geographic regions (Shown in Fig).

  11. Biosorption of Pb(II) Ions by Klebsiella sp. 3S1 Isolated from a Wastewater Treatment Plant: Kinetics and Mechanisms Studies

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Antonio Jesús; Espínola, Francisco; Moya, Manuel; Ruiz, Encarnación

    2015-01-01

    Lead biosorption by Klebsiella sp. 3S1 isolated from a wastewater treatment plant was investigated through a Rotatable Central Composite Experimental Design. The optimisation study indicated the following optimal values of operating variables: 0.4 g/L of biosorbent dosage, pH 5, and 34°C. According to the results of the kinetic studies, the biosorption process can be described by a two-step process, one rapid, almost instantaneous, and one slower, both contributing significantly to the overall biosorption; the model that best fits the experimental results was pseudo-second order. The equilibrium studies showed a maximum lead uptake value of 140.19 mg/g according to the Langmuir model. The mechanism study revealed that lead ions were bioaccumulated into the cytoplasm and adsorbed on the cell surface. The bacterium  Klebsiella sp. 3S1 has a good potential in the bioremoval of lead in an inexpensive and effective process. PMID:26504824

  12. The stability of Pb species during the Pb removal process by growing cells of Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guangming; Li, Ningjie; Huang, Danlian; Lai, Cui; Zhao, Meihua; Huang, Chao; Wei, Zhen; Xu, Piao; Zhang, Chen; Cheng, Min

    2015-04-01

    Extensive studies have been operated on the biosorption of heavy metal using white-rot fungi, whereas information on the stability of the sorbed metal species has never been taken into consideration, which is important for the later disposal of the used biomass. In this study, the growing cells of Phanerochaete chrysosporium were used to remove Pb from the fungal living environment. The bioremoval of Pb proceeded continually until 121 h. The bioremoved Pb was found to be stabilized at the first time P. chrysosporium was exposed to Pb ions. The extractable rate of removed Pb decreased constantly and kept at a stable level around 20 % after 121 h. The results indicated that the growing biomass is efficient for the stabilization of Pb, and the used biomass was suitable to be separated for further disposal at 121 h. With environment scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (ESEM-EDAX) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, the stabilized Pb species were identified to be lead oxalate and lead chloride phosphate. Further, it is found that the stabilization of Pb by growing P. chrysosporium is not strictly limited in the aspect of pH when pH in the environment is in the range of 4-6. PMID:25547831

  13. The Pb isotopic evolution of the Martian mantle constrained by initial Pb in Martian meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, J. J.; Nemchin, A. A.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Snape, J. F.; Bland, P.; Benedix, G. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Pb isotopic compositions of maskelynite and pyroxene grains were measured in ALH84001 and three enriched shergottites (Zagami, Roberts Massif 04262, and Larkman Nunatuk 12011) by secondary ion mass spectrometry. A maskelynite-pyroxene isochron for ALH84001 defines a crystallization age of 4089 ± 73 Ma (2σ). The initial Pb isotopic composition of each meteorite was measured in multiple maskelynite grains. ALH84001 has the least radiogenic initial Pb isotopic composition of any Martian meteorite measured to date (i.e., 206Pb/204Pb = 10.07 ± 0.17, 2σ). Assuming an age of reservoir formation for ALH84001 and the enriched shergottites of 4513 Ma, a two-stage Pb isotopic model has been constructed. This model links ALH84001 and the enriched shergottites by their similar μ value (238U/204Pb) of 4.1-4.6 from 4.51 Ga to 4.1 Ga and 0.17 Ga, respectively. The model employed here is dependent on a chondritic μ value (~1.2) from 4567 to 4513 Ma, which implies that core segregation had little to no effect on the μ value(s) of the Martian mantle. The proposed Pb isotopic model here can be used to calculate ages that are in agreement with Rb-Sr, Lu-Hf, and Sm-Nd ages previously determined in the meteorites and confirm the young (~170 Ma) ages of the enriched shergottites and ancient, >4 Ga, age of ALH84001.

  14. A transferable force field for CdS-CdSe-PbS-PbSe solid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Zhaochuan; Vlugt, Thijs J. H.; Koster, Rik S.; Fang, Changming; Huis, Marijn A. van; Wang, Shuaiwei; Yalcin, Anil O.; Tichelaar, Frans D.; Zandbergen, Henny W.

    2014-12-28

    A transferable force field for the PbSe-CdSe solid system using the partially charged rigid ion model has been successfully developed and was used to study the cation exchange in PbSe-CdSe heteronanocrystals [A. O. Yalcin et al., “Atomic resolution monitoring of cation exchange in CdSe-PbSe heteronanocrystals during epitaxial solid-solid-vapor growth,” Nano Lett. 14, 3661–3667 (2014)]. In this work, we extend this force field by including another two important binary semiconductors, PbS and CdS, and provide detailed information on the validation of this force field. The parameterization combines Bader charge analysis, empirical fitting, and ab initio energy surface fitting. When compared with experimental data and density functional theory calculations, it is shown that a wide range of physical properties of bulk PbS, PbSe, CdS, CdSe, and their mixed phases can be accurately reproduced using this force field. The choice of functional forms and parameterization strategy is demonstrated to be rational and effective. This transferable force field can be used in various studies on II-VI and IV-VI semiconductor materials consisting of CdS, CdSe, PbS, and PbSe. Here, we demonstrate the applicability of the force field model by molecular dynamics simulations whereby transformations are initiated by cation exchange.

  15. Evidence for transverse-momentum- and pseudorapidity-dependent event-plane fluctuations in PbPb and p Pb collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Ochesanu, S.; Rougny, R.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Van Parijs, I.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Delannoy, H.; Dobur, D.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Léonard, A.; Mohammadi, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Zenoni, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva Diblen, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Dos Reis Martins, T.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santaolalla, J.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dogra, S.; Tomei, T. R. Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Marinov, A.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Chen, G.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Wang, M.; Wang, Q.; Xu, Z.; Yang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Z.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Ali, A.; Aly, R.; Aly, S.; Assran, Y.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Lotfy, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Masod, R.; Radi, A.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Brochet, S.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Xiao, H.; Bagaturia, I.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Bontenackels, M.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Schulte, J. F.; Verlage, T.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Schmitz, S. A.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Haj Ahmad, W.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. J.; Bethani, A.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Choudhury, S.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Roland, B.; Ron, E.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Gonzalez, D.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Junkes, A.; Kirschenmann, H.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Nowatschin, D.; Ott, J.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Seidel, M.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Akbiyik, M.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Feindt, M.; Frensch, F.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Hartmann, F.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weiler, T.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Markou, A.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Tziaferi, E.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Strologas, J.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Molnar, J.; Palinkas, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Makovec, A.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Gupta, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mehta, A.; Mittal, M.; Nishu, N.; Singh, J. B.; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, V.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dutta, S.; Gomber, B.; Jain, Sa.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Majumdar, N.; Modak, A.; Mondal, K.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Roy, A.; Roy, D.; Roy Chowdhury, S.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Dugad, S.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Sur, N.; Sutar, B.; Wickramage, N.; Sharma, S.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Behnamian, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Goldouzian, R.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Chhibra, S. S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Miniello, G.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Sharma, A.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Travaglini, R.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Gallo, E.; Gonzi, S.; Gori, V.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Calvelli, V.; Ferro, F.; Lo Vetere, M.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Gerosa, R.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Lucchini, M. T.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Marzocchi, B.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Di Guida, S.; Esposito, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lanza, G.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Sciacca, C.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Branca, A.; Carlin, R.; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, A.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; Dorigo, T.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Kanishchev, K.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pazzini, J.; Pegoraro, M.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Vanini, S.; Ventura, S.; Zanetti, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Gabusi, M.; Magnani, A.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Fiori, F.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Moon, C. S.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; D'imperio, G.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Gelli, S.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Preiato, F.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Soffi, L.; Traczyk, P.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Casasso, S.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Kiani, B.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Tamponi, U.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; La Licata, C.; Marone, M.; Schizzi, A.; Umer, T.; Zanetti, A.; Chang, S.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Nam, S. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, M. S.; Kong, D. J.; Lee, S.; Oh, Y. D.; Park, H.; Sakharov, A.; Son, D. C.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Ryu, M. S.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Go, Y.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Lee, B.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Yoo, H. D.; Choi, M.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, J. S. H.; Park, I. C.; Ryu, G.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Goh, J.; Kim, D.; Kwon, E.; Lee, J.; Yu, I.; Juodagalvis, A.; Vaitkus, J.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Md Ali, M. A. B.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-de La Cruz, I.; Hernandez-Almada, A.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Ramirez Sanchez, G.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Carpinteyro, S.; Pedraza, I.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Reucroft, S.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Olszewski, M.; Walczak, M.; Bargassa, P.; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, C.; Di Francesco, A.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Nguyen, F.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Seixas, J.; Toldaiev, O.; Vadruccio, D.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Afanasiev, S.; Bunin, P.; Gavrilenko, M.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Konoplyanikov, V.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Shulha, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Toriashvili, T.; Zarubin, A.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Kuznetsova, E.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Karneyeu, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Pozdnyakov, I.; Safronov, G.; Spiridonov, A.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. V.; Vinogradov, A.; Baskakov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Demiyanov, A.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Kodolova, O.; Korotkikh, V.; Lokhtin, I.; Myagkov, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Vardanyan, I.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Devetak, D.; Ekmedzic, M.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Domínguez Vázquez, D.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Navarro De Martino, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Soares, M. S.; Albajar, C.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Missiroli, M.; Moran, D.; Brun, H.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Castiñeiras De Saa, J. R.; Duarte Campderros, J.; Fernandez, M.; Gomez, G.; Graziano, A.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Munoz Sanchez, F. J.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Benaglia, A.; Bendavid, J.; Benhabib, L.; Benitez, J. F.; Berruti, G. M.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Cerminara, G.; Colafranceschi, S.; D'Alfonso, M.; d'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Daponte, V.; David, A.; De Gruttola, M.; De Guio, F.; De Roeck, A.; De Visscher, S.; Di Marco, E.; Dobson, M.; Dordevic, M.; Dupont-Sagorin, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Franzoni, G.; Funk, W.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Girone, M.; Glege, F.; Guida, R.; Gundacker, S.; Guthoff, M.; Hammer, J.; Hansen, M.; Harris, P.; Hegeman, J.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Kousouris, K.; Krajczar, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lourenço, C.; Magini, N.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Marrouche, J.; Martelli, A.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moortgat, F.; Morovic, S.; Mulders, M.; Nemallapudi, M. V.; Neugebauer, H.; Orfanelli, S.; Orsini, L.; Pape, L.; Perez, E.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Piparo, D.; Racz, A.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Ruan, M.; Sakulin, H.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Sharma, A.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Spiga, D.; Steggemann, J.; Stieger, B.; Stoye, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Treille, D.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Wardle, N.; Wöhri, H. K.; Zagozdzinska, A.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Rohe, T.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bianchini, L.; Buchmann, M. A.; Casal, B.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Dünser, M.; Eller, P.; Grab, C.; Heidegger, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Kasieczka, G.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marini, A. C.; Marionneau, M.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Masciovecchio, M.; Meister, D.; Mohr, N.; Musella, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pata, J.; Pauss, F.; Perrozzi, L.; Peruzzi, M.; Quittnat, M.; Rossini, M.; Starodumov, A.; Takahashi, M.; Tavolaro, V. R.; Theofilatos, K.; Wallny, R.; Weber, H. A.; Aarrestad, T. K.; Amsler, C.; Canelli, M. F.; Chiochia, V.; De Cosa, A.; Galloni, C.; Hinzmann, A.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Lange, C.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Robmann, P.; Ronga, F. J.; Salerno, D.; Taroni, S.; Yang, Y.; Cardaci, M.; Chen, K. H.; Doan, T. H.; Ferro, C.; Konyushikhin, M.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Volpe, R.; Yu, S. S.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Dietz, C.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R.-S.; Miñano Moya, M.; Petrakou, E.; Tsai, J. f.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Wilken, R.; Asavapibhop, B.; Singh, G.; Srimanobhas, N.; Suwonjandee, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Cerci, S.; Dozen, C.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Guler, Y.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, M.; Zorbilmez, C.; Akin, I. V.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Isildak, B.; Karapinar, G.; Surat, U. E.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Albayrak, E. A.; Gülmez, E.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Yetkin, T.; Cankocak, K.; Günaydin, Y. O.; Vardarlı, F. I.; Grynyov, B.; Levchuk, L.; Sorokin, P.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Beck, L.; Brooke, J. J.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Jacob, J.; Kreczko, L.; Lucas, C.; Meng, Z.; Newbold, D. M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Sakuma, T.; Seif El Nasr-storey, S.; Senkin, S.; Smith, D.; Smith, V. J.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Williams, T.; Womersley, W. J.; Worm, S. D.; Baber, M.; Bainbridge, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Bundock, A.; Burton, D.; Citron, M.; Colling, D.; Corpe, L.; Cripps, N.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; De Wit, A.; Della Negra, M.; Dunne, P.; Elwood, A.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Jarvis, M.; Karapostoli, G.; Kenzie, M.; Lane, R.; Lucas, R.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Malik, S.; Mathias, B.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Raymond, D. M.; Richards, A.; Rogerson, S.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Tapper, A.; Uchida, K.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Kasmi, A.; Liu, H.; Pastika, N.; Scarborough, T.; Wu, Z.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Gastler, D.; Lawson, P.; Rankin, D.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; St. John, J.; Sulak, L.; Zou, D.; Alimena, J.; Berry, E.; Bhattacharya, S.; Cutts, D.; Demiragli, Z.; Dhingra, N.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Sagir, S.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Rakness, G.; Saltzberg, D.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Ivova Rikova, M.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Malberti, M.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Shrinivas, A.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Klein, D.; Kovalskyi, D.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Palmer, C.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Welke, C.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Barge, D.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Flowers, K.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Mccoll, N.; Mullin, S. D.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; To, W.; West, C.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Pierini, M.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carlson, B.; Ferguson, T.; Iiyama, Y.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Mulholland, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Eggert, N.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Sun, W.; Tan, S. M.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Wittich, P.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Apollinari, G.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Hu, Z.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Jung, A. W.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Kwan, S.; Lammel, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lopes De Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V. I.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Whitbeck, A.; Yang, F.; Yin, H.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Furic, I. K.; Hugon, J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Rank, D.; Rinkevicius, A.; Shchutska, L.; Snowball, M.; Sperka, D.; Wang, S. J.; Yelton, J.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, J. R.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Khatiwada, A.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Mareskas-palcek, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Zakaria, M.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Sen, S.; Snyder, C.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Nash, K.; Osherson, M.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Gray, J.; Kenny, R. P.; Majumder, D.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Wood, J. S.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Svintradze, I.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Klute, M.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Mcginn, C.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Ratnikov, F.; Snow, G. R.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Kress, M.; Leonardo, N.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Primavera, F.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Zablocki, J.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Petrillo, G.; Verzetti, M.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Demortier, L.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Montalvo, R.; Mueller, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Christian, A.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Friis, E.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ross, I.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.; CMS Collaboration

    2015-09-01

    A systematic study of the factorization of long-range azimuthal two-particle correlations into a product of single-particle anisotropies is presented as a function of pT and η of both particles and as a function of the particle multiplicity in PbPb and p Pb collisions. The data were taken with the CMS detector for PbPb collisions at √{sNN}=2.76 TeV and p Pb collisions at √{s NN}=5.02 TeV, covering a very wide range of multiplicity. Factorization is observed to be broken as a function of both particle pT and η . When measured with particles of different pT, the magnitude of the factorization breakdown for the second Fourier harmonic reaches 20% for very central PbPb collisions but decreases rapidly as the multiplicity decreases. The data are consistent with viscous hydrodynamic predictions, which suggest that the effect of factorization breaking is mainly sensitive to the initial-state conditions rather than to the transport properties (e.g., shear viscosity) of the medium. The factorization breakdown is also computed with particles of different η . The effect is found to be weakest for mid-central PbPb events but becomes larger for more central or peripheral PbPb collisions, and also for very-high-multiplicity p Pb collisions. The η -dependent factorization data provide new insights to the longitudinal evolution of the medium formed in heavy ion collisions.

  16. A Single Grain U-Pb and Pb-Pb Dating and D/H Ratios of the Phosphate Mineral in ALH84001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, M.; Ota, Y.; Takahata, N.; Sano, Y.; Sugiura, N.

    2012-12-01

    There are many studies that determine U-Pb and Pb-Pb ages of phosphates in Martian meteorites. Phosphate minerals such as an apatite (Ca5(PO4)3[OH, F, Cl]) and a whitlockite (Ca9 [Mg, Fe2+] (PO4)6 PO3OH) contain water in the form of OH, which provides us hydrogen isotopic information. The goal of this study is to obtain a crystallization age and hydrogen isotopic distributions of each grain and to relate them to the surface evolution of Mars. ALH84001 is known to be about 4 billion years old [1]. Its carbonates and maskelynite showed high D/H ratios with large deviations, which indicates large fractionation at early Mars surface [2]. Due to small grain sizes and limited spatial resolutions of measurements, previous studies used several grains for one age or one series of isotopic distributions. Here we determined single grain ages and D/H ratios using NanoSIMS with a high spatial resolution. A thin section of ALH84001 was polished and carbon-coated. The section was then observed by SEM-EDS to locate phosphate minerals. A large phosphate grain (>100μm) was found and analyzed by NanoSIMS. A ~10nA O- primary ion beam (with spot diameter of ~20μm) was used for U-Pb and Pb-Pb measurements and a ~1nA (spot diameter of <10μm) was for D/H ratio measurements. An apatite from a Prairie Lake circular complex, PRAP, with a known age (1156 Ma; [3]) was used as a standard for U-Pb. The D/H ratio and the water content of an apatite from Morocco were measured by conventional methods to use as a D/H standard. 238U-206Pb isochron, 207Pb-206Pb isochron, and total U-Pb isochron age, a regression line in 3-D space (238U/206Pb-207Pb/206Pb-204Pb/206Pb) showed a consistent age ~4 Ga. The ages obtained in this study were also consistent with previous U-Pb dating within experimental errors. D/H ratios in the same grain showed high values and a considerable deviation, which seems to be due to mixing of terrestrial water. References: [1] Terada K. et al. 2003 Meteoritics & Planet. Sci. 38

  17. A microscopic study of synthetic PbS-Rich homologues nPbS-mBi2S3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prodan, A.; Bakker, M.; Versteegh, M.; Hyde, B. G.

    1982-08-01

    The PbS-Bi2S3 join was studied up to 25 mole percent Bi2S3 by electron microscopy and diffraction. It was found that Bi2S3 can be incorporated into the PbS matrix by tropochemical twinning, forming isolated {113}PbS microtwins, or after clustering of these defects, lamellar twinned regions. Only two known mineral members of the homologous series (lillianite Pb3Bi2S6 and heyrowskyite Pb6Bi2S9) were found to be stable in this part of the PbS-Bi2S3 join, while irregularly spaced twin bands within these two structures were observed where deviations in the PbS/Bi2S3 ratio from 6/1 and 3/1, respectively, took place. No ordered intergrowth members were found between heyrowskyite and lillianite. The difference between the PbS-Bi2S3 join and the analogous MnS-Y2S3 one was attributed to the lone pair of nonbonded electrons from the Bi3+ ions, which tends to concentrate these ions in the vicinity of the twin planes.

  18. J/ψ production in Pb-Pb collisions at √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Book, J.

    2014-11-01

    ALICE at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) provides unique capabilities to study charmonium production at low transverse momenta. In the early stage of nucleus-nucleus collisions the formation of a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) is expected. Several QGP induced effects, such as the melting of charmonium states due to color screening and/or a (re)combination of charm and anti-charm quarks, can play a role. A suppression with respect to pp collisions of charmonium states such as the J/ψ was indeed observed in heavy-ion collisions. The corresponding measurements in pp and p-Pb collisions are crucial for the understanding of the Pb-Pb results. At central (forward) rapidity, corresponding to the range | y | < 0.9 (2.5 < y < 4), J/ψ are reconstructed via their decay into dielectrons (dimuons) down to zero transverse momentum. Results on the inclusive J/ψ nuclear modification factor RAA as a function of collision centrality, rapidity and transverse momentum in Pb-Pb collisions at √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV are presented. Additionally, an estimation of the cold nuclear matter effects in Pb-Pb, derived from p-Pb measurements, is given. These measurements provide, in combination with results from lower energies and theoretical predictions, detailed information on the different mechanisms related to the presence of the hot medium produced in heavy-ion collisions.

  19. Characterizing Pb mobilization from upland soils to streams using (206)Pb/(207)Pb isotopic ratios.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Julian J C; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Carey, Anne-Marie; Raab, Andrea; Soulsby, Chris; Killham, Kenneth; Meharg, Andrew A

    2010-01-01

    Anthropogenically deposited lead (Pb) binds efficiently to soil organic matter, which can be mobilized through hydrologically mediated mechanisms, with implications for ecological and potable quality of receiving waters. Lead isotopic ((206)Pb/(207)Pb) ratios change down peat profiles as a consequence of long-term temporal variation in depositional sources, each with distinctive isotopic signatures. This study characterizes differential Pb transport mechanisms from deposition to streams at two small catchments with contrasting soil types in upland Wales, U.K., by determining Pb concentrations and (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios from soil core profiles, interstitial pore waters, and stream water. Hydrological characteristics of soils are instrumental in determining the location in soil profiles of exported Pb and hence concentration and (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios in surface waters. The highest Pb concentrations from near-surface soils are mobilized, concomitant with high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) exports, from hydrologically responsive peat soils with preferential shallow subsurface flows, leading to increased Pb concentrations in stream water and isotopic signatures more closely resembling recently deposited Pb. In more minerogenic soils, percolation of water allows Pb, bound to DOC, to be retained in mineral horizons and combined with other groundwater sources, resulting in Pb being transported from throughout the profile with a more geogenic isotopic signature. This study shows that (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios can enhance our understanding of the provenances and transport mechanisms of Pb and potentially organic matter within upland soils. PMID:19954181

  20. NMR absolute shielding scale and nuclear magnetic dipole moment of (207)Pb.

    PubMed

    Adrjan, Bożena; Makulski, Włodzimierz; Jackowski, Karol; Demissie, Taye B; Ruud, Kenneth; Antušek, Andrej; Jaszuński, Michał

    2016-06-28

    An absolute shielding scale is proposed for (207)Pb nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. It is based on ab initio calculations performed on an isolated tetramethyllead Pb(CH3)4 molecule and the assignment of the experimental resonance frequency from the gas-phase NMR spectra of Pb(CH3)4, extrapolated to zero density of the buffer gas to obtain the result for an isolated molecule. The computed (207)Pb shielding constant is 10 790 ppm for the isolated molecule, leading to a shielding of 10799.7 ppm for liquid Pb(CH3)4 which is the accepted reference standard for (207)Pb NMR spectra. The new experimental and theoretical data are used to determine μ((207)Pb), the nuclear magnetic dipole moment of (207)Pb, by applying the standard relationship between NMR frequencies, shielding constants and nuclear moments of two nuclei in the same external magnetic field. Using the gas-phase (207)Pb and (reference) proton results and the theoretical value of the Pb shielding in Pb(CH3)4, we find μ((207)Pb) = 0.59064 μN. The analysis of new experimental and theoretical data obtained for the Pb(2+) ion in water solutions provides similar values of μ((207)Pb), in the range of 0.59000-0.59131 μN. PMID:27265668

  1. Search for critical fluctuations in Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopytine, Mikhail

    2000-04-01

    NA44 uses a 512 channel Si pad array covering pseudorapidity 1.5 < η < 3.3 to study events of charged hadron production in Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS. We apply a multiresolution analysis, based on a Discrete Wavelet Transformation, to probe the texture of particle distributions in individual events by simultaneous localization of features in space and scale. We look for traces of a possible second-order phase transition in the event characteristics. Measured results are compared with a detailed simulation of the detector response, using as input heavy ion event generators.

  2. Archean Pb Isotope Evolution: Implications for the Early Earth.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervoort, J. D.; Thorpe, R.; Albarede, F.; Blichert-Toft, J.

    2008-12-01

    The U-Pb isotope system provides us with a powerful tool for understanding the chemical evolution of the Earth. Pb isotopes in Archean rocks, however, have not been widely utilized because U mobility makes initial Pb isotope ratios from old silicate rocks difficult, if not impossible, to determine. Galenas in syngenetic volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits, however, provide snapshots of initial Pb ratios because their Pb isotopic composition is time invariant at their formation (U/Pb=0). The Pb isotopic record from galenas from rocks of all age have been utilized for over 70 years to answer a wide range of scientific problems beginning with Al Nier's pioneering work analyzing Pb isotopes in the 1930's but are no longer widely used by the isotopic community because they have been produced by older TIMS techniques. We have begun a re-examination of Archean Pb by an extensive analysis of over 100 galena samples from Archean VMS deposits throughout the Superior and Slave Provinces in Canada as well as from other VMS deposits in Finland, South Africa and Western Australia. The goal of this work is to provide modern, high precision measurements and update an old, but venerable, Pb isotopic data set. We feel these data provide important constraints on not only the Pb isotopic evolution of the Earth, but planetary differentiation and recycling processes operating in the first 2 b.y. of Earth's history. Our analytical techniques include dissolving the Pb sulfide minerals, purifying them with ion chromatography, and analyzing them using MC-ICPMS at both Washington State University (Neptune) and Ecole Normale Superieure in Lyon, France (Nu). All Pb solutions are doped with Tl in order to correct for mass fractionation. In this abstract we report preliminary galena Pb isotope data from 6 VMS deposits in the Abitibi greenstone belt: Chibougamu, Matagami, Noranda, Normetal, Timmins, and Val d"Or. These deposits are all approximately 2.7 Ga in age but in detail vary from 2

  3. Melting of Pb Nanocrystals Embedded in Al, Si, and Cu Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huan; Zhu, Hongzhi

    2015-12-01

    Dispersions of nanoscale Pb particles embedded in Si, Al, and Cu matrices have been synthesized by ion implantation and subsequent annealing. The melting transitions of the embedded Pb nanocrystals with epitaxial particle/matrix interfaces were investigated by means of in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction. Due to different levels of lattice mismatch, the Pb nanoprecipitates experience a different elastic strain in different matrices. Further analysis on the lattice constants of the embedded Pb nanocrystals gives unambiguous evidence of the strain-related pressure effect, which is particle size and matrix dependent, on tuning of the melting behavior of the embedded Pb nanoparticles.

  4. Biosorption of lead from aqueous solutions by ion-imprinted tetraethylenepentamine modified chitosan beads.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bingjie; Chen, Wei; Peng, Xiaoning; Cao, Qiqi; Wang, Qianrui; Wang, Dongfeng; Meng, Xianghong; Yu, Guangli

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the bio-based ion-imprinted tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) modified chitosan beads using Pb(II) as imprinted ions (Pb-ITMCB) were chemically synthesized, characterized and applied to selectively adsorb Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions containing other metal ions, which has the same concentration as that of Pb(II) ions. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to evaluate the adsorption conditions, selectivity and reusability. FTIR, SEM and TEM technologies were used to elucidate the mechanism of Pb-ITMCB adsorbing Pb(II) ions. The results showed that the adsorption capacity of Pb-ITMCB for Pb(II) ions reached 259.68mg/g at pH 6, 40°C. The adsorption data could be fitted well with pseudo-second order kinetics model and Langmuir isotherm model. Compared with other metal cations, Pb(II) ions showed an overall affinity of being adsorbed by Pb-ITMCB. With the participation of active groups including NH2, NH and OH, the adsorption reaction took place both inside and on the surface of Pb-ITMCB. It indicated that Pb-ITMCB is a comparatively promising biosorbent for selective removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions. PMID:26836613

  5. Pb12 2-: plumbaspherene.

    PubMed

    Cui, Li-Feng; Huang, Xin; Wang, Lei-Ming; Li, Jun; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2006-08-31

    Although Si or Ge is not known to form empty cage clusters such as the fullerenes, we recently found a unique 12-atom icosahedral tin cluster, Sn12 2- (stannaspherene). Here we report photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical evidence that Pb12 2- is also a highly stable icosahedral cage cluster and bonded by four delocalized radial pi bonds and nine delocalized on-sphere sigma bonds from the 6p orbitals of the Pb atoms. Following Sn12 2-, we coin a name, plumbaspherene, for the highly stable and nearly spherical Pb12 2- cluster, which is expected to be stable in solution and the solid state. Plumbaspherene has a diameter of approximately 6.3 A with an empty interior volume large enough to host most transition metal atoms, affording a new class of endohedral clusters. PMID:16928103

  6. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy: a preliminary study of the distribution of Cu2+ and Cu2+/Pb2+ on a Bt horizon surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, B; Vega, F A; Serra, C; Silva, L F O; Andrade, M L

    2011-11-15

    Relatively new techniques can help in determining the occurrence of mineral species and the distribution of contaminants on soil surfaces such as natural minerals and organic matter. The Bt horizon from an Endoleptic Luvisol was chosen because of its well-known sorption capability. The samples were contaminated with Cu(2+) and/or Pb(2+) and both sorption and desorption experiments were performed. The preferential distribution of the contaminant species ((63)Cu and (208)Pb) to the main soil components and their associations were studied together with the effectiveness of the surface sorption and desorption processes. The results obtained were compared with non-contaminated samples as well as with previous results obtained by different analytical techniques and advanced statistical analysis. Pb(2+) competes favorably for the sorption sites in this soil, mainly in oxides and the clay fraction. Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) were mainly associated with hematite, gibbsite, vermiculite and chlorite. This study will serve as a basis for further scientific research on the soil retention of heavy metals. New techniques such as spectroscopic imaging and transmission electron microscopy make it possible to check which soil components retain heavy metals, thereby contributing to propose effective measures for the remediation of contaminated soil. PMID:21920666

  7. 210Pb dating

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swarzenski, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Roughly fifty years ago, a small group of scientists from Belgium and the United States, trying to better constrain ice sheet accumulation rates, attempted to apply what was then know about environmental lead as a potential geochronometer. Thus Goldberg (1963) developed the first principles of the 210Pb dating method, which was soon followed by a paper by Crozaz et al. (1964), who examined accumulation history of Antarctic snow using 210Pb. Shortly thereafter, Koide et al. (1972, 1973) adapted this technique to unravel sediment deposition and accumulation records in deep-sea environments. Serendipitously, they chose to work in a deep basin off California, where an independent and robust age model had already been developed. Krishanswami et al. (1971) extended the use of this technique to lacustrine deposits to reconstruct depositional histories of lake sediment, and maybe more importantly, contaminant inputs and burial. Thus, the powerful tool for dating recent (up to about one century old) sediment deposits was established and soon widely adopted. Today almost all oceanographic or limnologic studies that address recent depositional reconstructions employ 210Pb as one of several possible geochronometers (Andrews et al., 2009; Gale, 2009; Baskaran, 2011; Persson and Helms, 2011). This paper presents a short overview of the principles of 210Pb dating and provides a few examples that illustrate the utility of this tracer in contrasting depositional systems. Potential caveats and uncertainties (Appleby et al., 1986; Binford, 1990; Binford et al., 1993; Smith, 2001; Hancock et al., 2002) inherent to the use and interpretation of 210Pb-derived age-models are also introduced. Recommendations as to best practices for most reliable uses and reporting are presented in the summary.

  8. Fabrication of PbS microstructures with different shapes in aqueous solutions of amphiphilic triblock copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yuanhua; Liu, Xiaoxia; Guo, Rong

    2007-09-01

    Hollow PbS nanospheres and branch-like PbS microstructures have been successfully synthesized by the reaction of Pb(Ac) 2 with the S 2- ions released slowly from thioacetamide (TAA) in Pluronic F127 aqueous solutions at room temperature. The obtained hollow PbS nanospheres have a wall thickness of about 40 nm, and the branch-like PbS microstructures have an average size of 0.7-2.2 μm. Both the wall of the hollow PbS nanospheres and the branch-like structures consist of cubic PbS nanocrystallites. It has been found that a minimum F127 concentration is required for the formation of hollow and branch-like PbS structures. With increasing F127 concentration, the diameter of the obtained hollow spheres increases gradually, whereas the size of the branch-like structures decreases. The addition of cyclohexane makes the diameter of hollow spheres decrease, but has little effect on the branch-like structures. Increasing the temperature of the solutions can significantly decrease the sizes of the hollow and branch-like structures. The complex micelles formed by Pb(Ac) 2 and F127 micelles act as soft templates for the formation of hollow PbS nanospheres, and the complex monomeric F127 aggregates formed by Pb(Ac) 2 and monomeric F127 chains play a structure-directing role in the formation of branch-like PbS microstructures.

  9. CP-MAS 207Pb with 19F decoupling NMR spectroscopy: medium range investigation in fluoride materials.

    PubMed

    Bureau, B; Silly, G; Buzaré, J Y

    1999-11-01

    The isotropic chemical shift of 207Pb is used to perform structural investigations of crystalline fluoride compounds (PbF2, Pb2ZnF6, PbGaF5, Pb3Ga2F12 and Pb9Ga2F24) and transition metal fluoride glasses (TMFG) of the PZG family (PbF2-ZnF2-GaF3). Using 207Pb Cross Polarisation Magic Angle Spinning (CP-MAS) NMR with 19F decoupling, it is shown that the isotropic chemical shift of 207Pb varies on a large scale (1000 ppm) and that the main changes of its value are not due to the nearest neighbour fluorines but may be related to the number of next nearest neighbour (nnn) Pb2+ ions. In this way, it is demonstrated that 207Pb chemical shift is an interesting probe to investigate medium range order in either crystalline or glassy fluoride systems. The 207Pb delta(iso) parameter has been linearly correlated to the number of nnn Pb2+ ions. PMID:10670899

  10. Primordial Pb, radiogenic Pb and lunar soil maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, G. W., Jr.; Jovanovic, S.

    1978-01-01

    Pb-204 is directly correlated with the reduced Fe measured by ferromagnetic resonance. A similar correlation has been noted for hydrolyzable carbon (Pillinger et al., 1974). An enrichment of these elements appears to have occurred during soil maturation. In contrast to Pb-204, radiogenic Pb is reported to be lost during soil maturation (Church et al., 1976). Radiogenic Pb is present in mineral grains and may be lost by solar wind sputtering (or volatilization) and not resupplied. Pb-204 coating grain surfaces acts as a reservoir to provide the Pb-204 being extracted in the reduced Fe formation process. Venting or some other volatile release mechanism may replenish the surface-related Pb-204.

  11. Mesocrystalline coordination polymer as a promising cathode for sodium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qi; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Ming; Jiang, Ji-Sen

    2016-01-31

    Prussian blue (PB) mesocrystals with Na as the alkaline metal were synthesized and used as cathode materials in Na-ion batteries. The mesocrystalline structure endowed PB with very different phase change behavior and electrochemical performance in contrast to PB single-crystals in cyclic voltammograms and galvanostatic discharge/charge voltage profiles of PB/Na half-cells. PMID:26688489

  12. Predictions for √{sNN}=5.02 TeV Pb + Pb collisions from a multiphase transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Guo-Liang; Lin, Zi-Wei

    2016-05-01

    We present predictions from the string melting version of a multiphase transport model on various observables in Pb+Pb collisions at √{sNN}=5.02 TeV . We use the same version of the model as an earlier study that reasonably reproduced d N /d y , pT spectra and elliptic flow of charged pions and kaons at low-pT for central and semicentral heavy ion collisions at 200 GeV and 2.76 TeV. While we compare with the already-available centrality dependence data on charged particle d N /d η at mid-pseudorapidity in Pb+Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV, we make predictions on identified particle d N /d y , pT spectra, azimuthal anisotropies vn(n =2 ,3 ,4 ) , and factorization ratios rn(ηa,ηb) (n =2 ,3 ) for longitudinal correlations.

  13. [Immobilization of heavy metal Pb2+ with geopolymer].

    PubMed

    Jin, Man-tong; Jin, Zan-fang; Huang, Cai-ju

    2011-05-01

    A series of geopolymers were synthesized by mixing metakaolinite, water glass, sodium hydroxide and water, and the lead ion solidification experiments were performed with the geopolymer. Then, the immobilization efficiency was characterized by monitoring the leaching concentration and compressive strength of solidified products. Additionally, the structure and properties of the solidified products were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scan electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Furthermore, based on the analysis of immobilization efficiency, microstructure and mineral structure, the difference between geopolymer and cement on the performance of immobilizing heavy metals was discussed. The results of lead ion immobilization experiments showed that over 99.7% of heavy metal was captured by the geopolymer as the doping concentration of lead ion was less than 3%. Meanwhile, the compressive strength of the solidified product ranged from 40 MPa to 50 MPa. Furthermore, by using the same Pb2+ concentration, the geopolymer showed higher compressive strength and lower leaching concentration compared to the cement. Because lead ion participated in constitution of structure of geopolymer, or Pb2+ was adsorbed by the aluminium ions on the geopolymeric skeleton and held in geopolymer. However, cement mainly solidified lead ion by physical encapsulation and adsorption mechanism. Therefore, both from the compressive strength and leaching concentration and from the microstructure characterization as well as the mechanism of the geopolymerization reaction, the geopolymer has more advantages in immobilizing Pb2+ than the cement. PMID:21780604

  14. Synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of a novel bifunctional chelating agent for the lead isotopes 203Pb and 212Pb.

    PubMed

    Chappell, L L; Dadachova, E; Milenic, D E; Garmestani, K; Wu, C; Brechbiel, M W

    2000-01-01

    Radioisotopes of Pb(II) have been of some interest in radioimmunotherapy and radioimmunoimaging (RII). However, the absence of a kinetically stable bifunctional chelating agent for Pb(II) has hampered its use for these applications. 203Pb (T(1/2) = 52.02 h) has application potential in RII, with a gamma-emission that is ideal for single photon emission computerized tomography, whereas 212Pb (T(1/2) = 10 h) is a source of highly cytotoxic alpha-particles via its decay to its 212Bi (T(1/2) = 60 min) daughter. The synthesis of the novel bifunctional chelating agent 2-(4-isothiocyanotobenzyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraaza-1,4,7,10-tetra- (2-carbamoyl methyl)-cyclododecane (4-NCS-Bz-TCMC) is reported herein. The Pb[TCMC]2+ complex was less labile to metal ion release than Pb[DOTA]2- at pH 3.5 and below in isotopic exchange experiments. In addition to increased stability to Pb2+ ion release at low pH, the bifunctional TCMC ligand was found to have many other advantages over the bifunctional 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclodocane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) ligand. These include a shorter and more straightforward synthetic route, a more efficient conjugation reaction to a monoclonal antibody (mAb), with a higher chelate to protein ratio, a higher percent immuroreactivity, and a more efficient radiolabeling reaction of the mAb-ligand conjugate with 203Pb. PMID:10755652

  15. Bose-Einstein correlations in pp and PbPb collisions with ALICE at the LHC

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    We report on the results of identical pion femtoscopy at the LHC. The Bose-Einstein correlation analysis was performed on the large-statistics ALICE p+p at sqrt{s}= 0.9 TeV and 7 TeV datasets collected during 2010 LHC running and the first Pb+Pb dataset at sqrt{s_NN}= 2.76 TeV. Detailed pion femtoscopy studies in heavy-ion collisions have shown that emission region sizes ("HBT radii") decrease with increasing pair momentum, which is understood as a manifestation of the collective behavior of matter. 3D radii were also found to universally scale with event multiplicity. In p+p collisions at 7 TeV one measures multiplicities which are comparable with those registered in peripheral AuAu and CuCu collisions at RHIC, so direct comparisons and tests of scaling laws are now possible. We show the results of double-differential 3D pion HBT analysis, as a function of multiplicity and pair momentum. The results for two collision energies are compared to results obtained in the heavy-ion collisions at similar multiplicity and p+p collisions at lower energy. We identify the relevant scaling variables for the femtoscopic radii and discuss the similarities and differences to results from heavy-ions. The observed trends give insight into the soft particle production mechanism in p+p collisions and suggest that a self-interacting collective system may be created in sufficiently high multiplicity events. First results for the central Pb+Pb collisions are also shown. A significant increase of the reaction zone volume and lifetime in comparison to RHIC is observed. Signatures of collective hydrodynamics-like behavior of the system are also apparent, and are compared to model predictions.

  16. Assessment of the Pb-Pb and U-Pb chronometry of the early solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tera, Fouad; Carlson, Richard W.

    1999-06-01

    An evaluation of early solar system chronometry by the Pb-Pb and U-Pb methods is provided. Specifically, three consequential factors are examined: procedure of age calculation, extent of terrestrial Pb contamination, and initial Pb isotopic composition. On a Pb-Pb diagram, high temperature inclusions of the Allende meteorite are tightly organized into a well-defined line (inside a potentially dispersive mixing field), which is consistent with the inclusions containing initial Pb that is more primitive than that of Cañon Diablo troilite (PAT). Consequences of the possible existence of a pre-PAT Pb to the evolution history of the solar nebula are discussed. Phosphates from the ordinary chondrite St. Séverin appear to be contaminated by terrestrial Pb, a condition that renders age calculation based on subtraction of PAT inaccurate. The Pb-Pb mixing line of these phosphates indicates an age of 4.558 Ga. Interestingly, Angra dos Reis phosphate and pyroxene, as well as pyroxene of the other angrite Lewis Cliff 86010 fall precisely on the line defined by St. Séverin phosphates. Whole rocks of ordinary chondrites are pictorially and explicitly shown to be seriously contaminated with terrestrial Pb, thus their single-stage U-Pb ages may not be suitable markers of time. Because their true crystallization ages are often younger than the whole rocks, and because of the possibility of multistage evolution, phosphates of ordinary chondrites may yield single-stage ages older than their true crystallization ages. A hypothetical numerical demonstration is provided. On the basis of revised ages and new observations we provide an "updated" chronometry for the early solar system.

  17. What causes Psi suppression in Pb + Pb Collisions?

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R.

    1998-01-07

    A reexamination of hadronic comover scattering indicates that this mechanism cannot explain the observed {psi} suppression in Pb+Pb interactions. The possibility of quark-gluon plasma formation is therefore considered. Implications for RHIC and LHC are also discussed. The agreement of the NA50 Pb+Pb data with naive comover models is reassessed. Previous work is reanalyzed and expanded to include feeding of the {psi}' and {chi}{sub c} states to the {psi}. The effect of color screening is also investigated. Only the {psi}/Drell-Yan (DY) ratios are discussed here.

  18. Ξ(Ω) production in Pb + Pb collisions at 158 GeV c-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odyniec, G.; NA49 Collaboration; Afanasiev, S. V.; Alber, T.; Appelshäuser, H.; Bächler, J.; Bailey, S. J.; Barnby, L. S.; Bartke, J.; Bialkowska, H.; Blyth, C. O.; Bock, R.; Bormann, C.; Brady, F. P.; Brockmann, R.; Buncic, N.; Buncic, P.; Caines, H. L.; Cebra, D.; Chan, P.; Cooper, G. E.; Cramer, J. G.; Cramer, P. B.; Csato, P.; Dietz, O.; Dunn, J.; Eckardt, V.; Eckhardt, F.; Ferguson, M. I.; Fischer, H. G.; Flierl, D.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, P.; Freund, P.; Friese, V.; Fuchs, M.; Gabler, F.; Gal, J.; Gazdzicki, M.; Gladysz, E.; Grebieszkow, J.; Günther, J.; Harris, J. W.; Hegyi, S.; Henkel, T.; Hill, L. A.; Huang, I.; Howe, M. A.; Hümmler, H.; Igo, G.; Irmscher, D.; Jacobs, P.; Jones, P. G.; Kadija, K.; Kolesnikov, V. I.; Konashenok, A.; Kowalski, M.; Lasiuk, B.; Lévai, P.; Malakhov, A. I.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Melkumov, G. L.; Mock, A.; Molnár, J.; Nelson, J. M.; Odyniec, G.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A. D.; Petridis, A.; Piper, A.; Porter, R. J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Poziombka, S.; Prindle, D. J.; Pühlhofer, F.; Rauch, W.; Reid, J. G.; Renfordt, R.; Retyk, W.; Ritter, H. G.; Röhrich, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, H.; Rybicki, A.; Sakrejda, I.; Sandoval, A.; Sann, H.; Semenov, A. Yu; Schäfer, E.; Schmischke, D.; Schmitz, N.; Schönfelder, S.; Seyboth, P.; Seyerlein, J.; Sikler, F.; Skrzypczak, E.; Squier, G. T. A.; Stock, R.; Ströbele, H.; Szentpetery, I.; Sziklai, J.; Toy, M.; Trainor, T. A.; Trentalange, S.; Ullrich, T.; Vassiliou, M.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vranic, D.; Wang, F.; Weerasundara, D. D.; Wenig, S.; Whitten, C.; Wienold, T.; Wood, L.; Yates, T. A.; Zimanyi, J.; Zhu, X.-Z.; Zybert, R.

    1997-12-01

    Using the NA49 main TPC, the central production of 0954-3899/23/12/005/img5 hyperons has been measured in CERN SPS Pb - Pb collisions at 0954-3899/23/12/005/img6. The preliminary 0954-3899/23/12/005/img7 ratio, studied at 0954-3899/23/12/005/img8 and 0954-3899/23/12/005/img9, equals 0954-3899/23/12/005/img10 (systematic error only). It is compatible, within errors, with the previously obtained ratios for central S+S [1], S+W [2], and S+Au [3] collisions. The fit to the transverse momentum distribution resulted in an inverse slope parameter T of 297 MeV. At this level of statistics we do not see any noticeable enhancement of hyperon production with the increased volume (and, possibly, degree of equilibration) of the system from S+S to Pb+Pb. This result is unexpected and counterintuitive, and should be further investigated. If confirmed, it will have a significant impact on our understanding of mechanisms leading to the enhanced strangeness production in heavy-ion collisions.

  19. Measurement of charged jet suppression in Pb-Pb collisions at = 2 .76 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Rinella, G. Aglieri; Agnello, M.; Agocs, A. G.; Agostinelli, A.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Masoodi, A. Ahmad; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Ahn, S. A.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altini, V.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Prado, C. Alves Garcia; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arbor, N.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bairathi, V.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Pedrosa, F. Baltasar Dos Santos; Bán, J.; Baral, R. C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Berger, M. E.; Bergognon, A. A. E.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Boehmer, F. V.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bornschein, J.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Caliva, A.; Villar, E. Calvo; Camerini, P.; Roman, V. Canoa; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carminati, F.; Díaz, A. Casanova; Castellanos, J. Castillo; Casula, E. A. R.; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Sanchez, C. Ceballos; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Barroso, V. Chibante; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Balbastre, G. Conesa; del Valle, Z. Conesa; Connors, M. E.; Contin, G.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Morales, Y. Corrales; Cortese, P.; Maldonado, I. Cortés; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Albino, R. Cruz; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dainese, A.; Dang, R.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, K.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; de Barros, G. O. V.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; de Rooij, R.; Corchero, M. A. Diaz; Dietel, T.; Divià, R.; Di Bari, D.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Gimenez, D. Domenicis; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dorheim, S.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Majumdar, A. K. Dutta; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdal, H. A.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fehlker, D.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Téllez, A. Fernández; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floratos, E.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Girard, M. Fusco; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Gomez, R.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grajcarek, R.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Khan, K. H.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.

    2014-03-01

    A measurement of the transverse momentum spectra of jets in Pb-Pb collisions at = 2 .76TeV is reported. Jets are reconstructed from charged particles using the anti- k T jet algorithm with jet resolution parameters R of 0 .2 and 0 .3 in pseudo-rapidity | η| < 0 .5. The transverse momentum p T of charged particles is measured down to 0 .15 GeV/ c which gives access to the low p T fragments of the jet. Jets found in heavy-ion collisions are corrected event-by-event for average background density and on an inclusive basis (via unfolding) for residual background fluctuations and detector effects. A strong suppression of jet production in central events with respect to peripheral events is observed. The suppression is found to be similar to the suppression of charged hadrons, which suggests that substantial energy is radiated at angles larger than the jet resolution parameter R = 0 .3 considered in the analysis. The fragmentation bias introduced by selecting jets with a high p T leading particle, which rejects jets with a soft fragmentation pattern, has a similar effect on the jet yield for central and peripheral events. The ratio of jet spectra with R = 0 .2 and R = 0 .3 is found to be similar in Pb-Pb and simulated PYTHIA pp events, indicating no strong broadening of the radial jet structure in the reconstructed jets with R < 0 .3. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Growth and spectroscopic characterization of Pb2+:CaF2 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoara, I.; Paraschiva, M.; Stef, M.; Stef, F.

    2012-08-01

    CaF2 crystals doped with various concentrations of PbF2 (0.4, 0.5, 1 and 2 mol%) were grown in vacuum, in a shaped graphite furnace using the vertical Bridgman method. The optical absorption spectra reveal the four characteristic UV absorption bands (labeled A, B, C and D) of the Pb2+ ions. As the PbF2 concentration increases, the structure of the bands become clearly visible, that is characteristic for the ns 2 ions in various hosts. High intensity emission bands in the near UV spectral region have been observed. The dependence on the Pb2+ concentration of the optical absorption and emission of the Pb2+:CaF2 crystals were not reported before.

  1. [Uptake effect of Cd and Pb by rape under single Cd/Pb and Cd-Pb combined stress].

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Fei; Nan, Zhong-Ren; Wang, Sheng-Li; Zhao, Zhuan-Jun; Zhou, Ting

    2012-09-01

    This paper investigated the effects of single Cd/Pb and Cd-Pb combined pollution of desert grey soils from the oasis regions on the uptake and translocation of Cd and Pb by rape (Brassica campestris L.), and analyzed the interaction between Cd and Pb. The results of pot experiment showed that the concentration of Cd or Pb was promoted when the concentration of Cd in soil was less than 7.0 mg x kg(-1) and the concentration of Pb in soil was less than 1 500 mg x kg(-1) in single Cd/Pb and Cd-Pb combined pollution. There was an obvious antagonism between Cd and Pb in Cd-Pb combined pollution. As the concentration of Cd in soil increased in single Cd pollution, the enrichment and translocation ability of Cd in rape was firstly improved and then reduced. As the concentration of Pb in soil increased in single Pb pollution, the enrichment and translocation ability of Pb in rape was reduced continuously. The Cd-Pb combined stress reduced the enrichment capacity of Cd and Pb as well as the migration ability of Pb, but improved the migration ability of Cd. The enrichment and translocation ability of Cd was greater than that of Pb. Models of uptake and translocation of Cd and Pb in rape under single Cd/Pb and Cd-Pb combined stress were both well fitted to quadratic equations. PMID:23243889

  2. Influence of Pb and La contents on the lattice configuration of La-substituted Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 films fabricated by CSD method.

    PubMed

    Shima, Hiromi; Nishida, Ken; Funakubo, Hiroshi; Iijima, Takashi; Katoda, Takashi; Naganuma, Hiroshi; Okamura, Soichiro

    2009-04-01

    The influence of Pb and La contents on the lattice configuration in La-substituted Pb(Zr0(.65),Ti0(.35))O3 (La- PZT) films was systematically investigated. La-PZT films with various La and Pb contents were fabricated on Pt/Ti/SiO(2)/Si substrates by chemical solution deposition (CSD). In the La- PZT films with a Pb content ratio of 125% relative to a stoichiometric value, La ions were substituted for not only A-site ions but also B-site ions at La contents greater than 3 mol%. La substitution for B-site seems to cause larger reduction of the unit cell size. In addition, we found that in the La-PZT films with a La content of 3 mol%, the Pb content of 116 mol% (120% relative to a stoichiometric value) was optimum from the viewpoint of site occupancy. This indicates that excess Pb prevented the A-site substitution of La ions. PMID:19406697

  3. In-Situ Geochronology: Extending Larims to Pb-Pb Isocrhons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, Tom; Anderson, Scott; Levine, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    HfO2, which have been known to cause problems in Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) of Pb isotopes [3]. LARIMS enables a simple check for interfering species by detuning the laser wavelength off the Pb resonance. The resonance ionization signal for the desired species should disappear when the resonance laser is detuned. Any residual signal is due to an interfering species. Three resonance ionization laser schemes were examined for initial LARIMS analysis of Pb: 1) a 2+1 scheme that uses λ1 = λ2 = 450.3 nm (the first transition in this scheme is a simultaneous two-photon excitation), 2) a 1+1+1 scheme using λ1 = 283.3 nm, λ2 = 600.2 nm and λ3 < 1270 nm, and 3) a 1+1 scheme that uses λ1 = λ2 = 283.3 nm. One-photon resonance excitations have cross-sections that are orders of magnitude greater than either two-photon resonance excitations or photoionization processes. Therefore, although schemes 1) and 3) have the advantage of requiring fewer lasers, they also require high-intensity blue or UV wavelengths. This adversely affects the selectivity of the resonance ionization process. Scheme 2) uses low-intensity UV and visible wavelengths and a high-intensity IR wavelength. This is the preferred scheme and was selected for our initial Pb LARIMS measurements. Preliminary Results: A laser system capable of producing the required wavelengths for scheme 2) was assembled. A Nd:YAG laser pumped dye laser produces 566.6 nm light, which is frequency-doubled in a beta barium borate crystal. A second Nd:YAG pumped dye laser produces the 600.2 nm light for the second resonance in scheme 2). The fundamental of one of the Nd:YAG lasers (1064 nm) is used for the final photoionization step. We focus the fifth harmonic (213 nm) of another Nd:YAG laser onto the sample to ablate material off the surface. Electric fields suppress the ions created in the ablation process, preventing these ions from entering the mass spectrometer. The three resonance ionization laser

  4. Optical Properties of PbTe and PbSe

    SciTech Connect

    Ekuma, Chinedu E; Singh, David J; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We report optical properties of PbTe and PbSe as obtained from first-principles calculations with the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson potential. The results are discussed in relation to existing experimental data, particularly in relation to the temperature dependence of the band gap.

  5. Observation of sequential Υ suppression in PbPb collisions.

    PubMed

    Chatrchyan, S; Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Aguilo, E; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Fabjan, C; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kiesenhofer, W; Knünz, V; Krammer, M; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Mikulec, I; Pernicka, M; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, C; Rohringer, H; Schöfbeck, R; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Bansal, S; Cornelis, T; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Luyckx, S; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Roland, B; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Staykova, Z; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Blekman, F; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, M; Olbrechts, A; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Onsem, G P; Villella, I; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Gay, A P R; Hreus, T; Léonard, A; Marage, P E; Reis, T; Thomas, L; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wang, J; Adler, V; Beernaert, K; Cimmino, A; Costantini, S; Garcia, G; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Lellouch, J; Marinov, A; McCartin, J; Ocampo Rios, A A; Ryckbosch, D; Strobbe, N; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Verwilligen, P; Walsh, S; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Castello, R; Ceard, L; Delaere, C; du Pree, T; Favart, D; Forthomme, L; Giammanco, A; Hollar, J; Lemaitre, V; Liao, J; Militaru, O; Nuttens, C; Pagano, D; Pin, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Schul, N; Vizan Garcia, J M; Beliy, N; Caebergs, T; Daubie, E; Hammad, G H; Alves, G A; Correa Martins, M; De Jesus Damiao, D; Martins, T; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Aldá, W L; Carvalho, W; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Oguri, V; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santoro, A; Soares Jorge, L; Sznajder, A; Anjos, T S; Bernardes, C A; Dias, F A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Gregores, E M; Lagana, C; Marinho, F; Mercadante, P G; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Tcholakov, V; Trayanov, R; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liang, S; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, X; Wang, Z; Xiao, H; Xu, M; Zang, J; Zhang, Z; Asawatangtrakuldee, C; Ban, Y; Guo, S; Guo, Y; Li, W; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Wang, D; Zhang, L; Zhu, B; Zou, W; Avila, C; Gomez, J P; Gomez Moreno, B; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Luetic, J; Morovic, S; Attikis, A; Galanti, M; Mavromanolakis, G; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Finger, M; Finger, M; Assran, Y; Elgammal, S; Ellithi Kamel, A; Khalil, S; Mahmoud, M A; Radi, A; Kadastik, M; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Tiko, A; Eerola, P; Fedi, G; Voutilainen, M; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Peltola, T; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Karjalainen, A; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Besancon, M; Choudhury, S; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Millischer, L; Nayak, A; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Shreyber, I; Titov, M; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Benhabib, L; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Broutin, C; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Daci, N; Dahms, T; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Mironov, C; Naranjo, I N; Nguyen, M; Ochando, C; Paganini, P; Sabes, D; Salerno, R; Sirois, Y; Veelken, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J-M; Cardaci, M; Chabert, E C; Collard, C; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Ferro, C; Fontaine, J-C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A-C; Van Hove, P; Fassi, F; Mercier, D; Beauceron, S; Beaupere, N; Bondu, O; Boudoul, G; Chasserat, J; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Gouzevitch, M; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Sordini, V; Tschudi, Y; Verdier, P; Viret, S; Tsamalaidze, Z; Anagnostou, G; Beranek, S; Edelhoff, M; Feld, L; Heracleous, N; Hindrichs, O; Jussen, R; Klein, K; Merz, J; Ostapchuk, A; Perieanu, A; Raupach, F; Sammet, J; Schael, S; Sprenger, D; Weber, H; Wittmer, B; Zhukov, V; Ata, M; Caudron, J; Dietz-Laursonn, E; Duchardt, D; Erdmann, M; Fischer, R; Güth, A; Hebbeker, T; Heidemann, C; Hoepfner, K; Klingebiel, D; Kreuzer, P; Magass, C; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Olschewski, M; Papacz, P; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Steggemann, J; Teyssier, D; Weber, M; Bontenackels, M; Cherepanov, V; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Geisler, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Hoehle, F; Kargoll, B; Kress, T; Kuessel, Y; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Pooth, O; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Aldaya Martin, M; Behr, J; Behrenhoff, W; Behrens, U; Bergholz, M; Bethani, A; Borras, K; Burgmeier, A; Cakir, A; Calligaris, L; Campbell, A; Castro, E; Costanza, F; Dammann, D; Diez Pardos, C; Eckerlin, G; Eckstein, D; Flucke, G; Geiser, A; Glushkov, I; Gunnellini, P; Habib, S; Hauk, J; Hellwig, G; Jung, H; Kasemann, M; Katsas, P; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, H; Knutsson, A; Krämer, M; Krücker, D; Kuznetsova, E; Lange, W; Lohmann, W; Lutz, B; Mankel, R; Marfin, I; Marienfeld, M; Melzer-Pellmann, I-A; Meyer, A B; Mnich, J; Mussgiller, A; Naumann-Emme, S; Olzem, J; Perrey, H; Petrukhin, A; Pitzl, D; Raspereza, A; Ribeiro Cipriano, P M; Riedl, C; Ron, E; Rosin, M; Salfeld-Nebgen, J; Schmidt, R; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Sen, N; Spiridonov, A; Stein, M; Walsh, R; Wissing, C; Autermann, C; Blobel, V; Draeger, J; Enderle, H; Erfle, J; Gebbert, U; Görner, M; Hermanns, T; Höing, R S; Kaschube, K; Kaussen, G; Kirschenmann, H; Klanner, R; Lange, J; Mura, B; Nowak, F; Peiffer, T; Pietsch, N; Rathjens, D; Sander, C; Schettler, H; Schleper, P; Schlieckau, E; Schmidt, A; Schröder, M; Schum, T; Seidel, M; Sola, V; 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Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Kolberg, T; Lu, Y; Marionneau, M; Mignerey, A C; Pedro, K; Peterman, A; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Twedt, E; Apyan, A; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; Dutta, V; Gomez Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; Hahn, K A; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Krajczar, K; Li, W; Luckey, P D; Ma, T; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Ralph, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G S F; Stöckli, F; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Velicanu, D; Wenger, E A; Wolf, R; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yang, M; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Zanetti, M; Cooper, S I; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Franzoni, G; Gude, A; Kao, S C; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Pastika, N; Rusack, R; Sasseville, M; Singovsky, A; Tambe, N; Turkewitz, J; Cremaldi, L M; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Avdeeva, E; Bloom, K; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Godshalk, A; Iashvili, I; Jain, S; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Shipkowski, S P; Smith, K; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Baumgartel, D; Chasco, M; Haley, J; Nash, D; Trocino, D; Wood, D; Zhang, J; Anastassov, A; Kubik, A; Mucia, N; Odell, N; Ofierzynski, R A; Pollack, B; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Brinkerhoff, A; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolb, J; Lannon, K; Luo, W; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Pearson, T; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Valls, N; Wayne, M; Wolf, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Hill, C; Hughes, R; Hughes, R; Kotov, K; Ling, T Y; Puigh, D; Rodenburg, M; Vuosalo, C; Williams, G; Winer, B L; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hebda, P; Hegeman, J; Hunt, A; Jindal, P; Lopes Pegna, D; Lujan, P; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Quan, X; Raval, A; Safdi, B; Saka, H; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Brownson, E; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Zatserklyaniy, A; Alagoz, E; Barnes, V E; Benedetti, D; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; De Mattia, M; Everett, A; Hu, Z; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Kress, M; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Shipsey, I; Silvers, D; Svyatkovskiy, A; Vidal Marono, M; Yoo, H D; Zablocki, J; Zheng, Y; Guragain, S; Parashar, N; Adair, A; Boulahouache, C; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Zabel, J; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Chung, Y S; Covarelli, R; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Eshaq, Y; Garcia-Bellido, A; Goldenzweig, P; Han, J; Harel, A; Miner, D C; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Ciesielski, R; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Lungu, G; Malik, S; Mesropian, C; Arora, S; Barker, A; Chou, J P; Contreras-Campana, C; Contreras-Campana, E; Duggan, D; Ferencek, D; Gershtein, Y; Gray, R; Halkiadakis, E; Hidas, D; Lath, A; Panwalkar, S; Park, M; Patel, R; Rekovic, V; Robles, J; Rose, K; Salur, S; Schnetzer, S; Seitz, C; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Eusebi, R; Flanagan, W; Gilmore, J; Kamon, T; Khotilovich, V; Montalvo, R; Osipenkov, I; Pakhotin, Y; Perloff, A; Roe, J; Safonov, A; Sakuma, T; Sengupta, S; Suarez, I; Tatarinov, A; Toback, D; Akchurin, N; Damgov, J; Dudero, P R; Jeong, C; Kovitanggoon, K; Lee, S W; Libeiro, T; Roh, Y; Volobouev, I; Appelt, E; Delannoy, A G; Florez, C; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Johns, W; Johnston, C; Kurt, P; Maguire, C; Melo, A; Sharma, M; Sheldon, P; Snook, B; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Cox, B; Francis, B; Goodell, J; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Lin, C; Neu, C; Wood, J; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C; Lamichhane, P; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Belknap, D; Borrello, L; Carlsmith, D; Cepeda, M; Dasu, S; Friis, E; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Mohapatra, A; Ojalvo, I; Palmonari, F; Pierro, G A; Ross, I; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Swanson, J

    2012-11-30

    The suppression of the individual Υ(nS) states in PbPb collisions with respect to their yields in pp data has been measured. The PbPb and pp data sets used in the analysis correspond to integrated luminosities of 150 μb(-1) and 230 nb(-1), respectively, collected in 2011 by the CMS experiment at the LHC, at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 2.76 TeV. The Υ(nS) yields are measured from the dimuon invariant mass spectra. The suppression of the Υ(nS) yields in PbPb relative to the yields in pp, scaled by the number of nucleon-nucleon collisions, R(AA), is measured as a function of the collision centrality. Integrated over centrality, the R(AA) values are 0.56±0.08(stat)±0.07(syst), 0.12±0.04(stat)±0.02(syst), and lower than 0.10 (at 95% confidence level), for the Υ(1S), Υ(2S), and Υ(3S) states, respectively. The results demonstrate the sequential suppression of the Υ(nS) states in PbPb collisions at LHC energies. PMID:23368113

  6. Event texture search for phase transitions in Pb+Pb collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bearden, I.; Bøggild, H.; Boissevain, J.; Conin, L.; Dodd, J.; Erazmus, B.; Esumi, S.; Fabjan, C. W.; Ferenc, D.; Fields, D. E.; Franz, A.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Hansen, A. G.; Hansen, O.; Hardtke, D.; van Hecke, H.; Holzer, E. B.; Humanic, T. J.; Hummel, P.; Jacak, B. V.; Jayanti, R.; Kaimi, K.; Kaneta, M.; Kohama, T.; Kopytine, M. L.; Leltchouk, M.; Ljubicic, A.; Lörstad, B.; Maeda, N.; Martin, L.; Medvedev, A.; Murray, M.; Ohnishi, H.; Paic G.; Pandey, S. U.; Piuz, F.; Pluta, J.; Polychronakos, V.; Potekhin, M.; Poulard, G.; Reichhold, D.; Sakaguchi, A.; Schmidt-Sørensen, J.; Simon-Gillo, J.; Sondheim, W.; Sugitate, T.; Sullivan, J. P.; Sumi, Y.; Willis, W. J.; Wolf, K. L.; Xu N.; Zachary, D. S.

    2002-04-01

    NA44 uses a 512-channel Si pad array covering 1.5<η<3.3 to study charged hadron production in 158A GeV Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS. We apply a multiresolution analysis, based on a discrete wavelet transformation, to probe the texture of particle distributions event by event, allowing a simultaneous localization of features in space and scale. Scanning a broad range of multiplicities, we search for signals of clustering and of critical behavior in the power spectra of local density fluctuations. The data are compared with detailed simulations of detector response, using heavy-ion event generators, and with a reference sample created via event mixing. An upper limit is set on the probability and magnitude of dynamical fluctuations.

  7. Hydrodynamic predictions for 5.02 TeV Pb-Pb collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn; Luzum, Matthew; Ollitrault, Jean-Yves

    2016-03-01

    We make predictions for momentum-integrated elliptic and triangular flow as well as mean transverse momentum for 5.02 TeV Pb-Pb collisions, as planned at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We use hydrodynamic calculations to predict the change of these observables as the center-of-mass collision energy evolves from 2.76 TeV to 5.02 TeV per nucleon pair. By using previously measured values as a baseline, we are able to make a robust prediction without relying on a particular model for initial conditions and without precise knowledge of medium properties such as viscosity. Thus, though the predicted changes are small, they can provide a significant test of the current hydrodynamic picture of heavy-ion collisions.

  8. Defining potential roles of Pb(2+) in neurotoxicity from a calciomics approach.

    PubMed

    Gorkhali, Rakshya; Huang, Kenneth; Kirberger, Michael; Yang, Jenny J

    2016-06-01

    Metal ions play crucial roles in numerous biological processes, facilitating biochemical reactions by binding to various proteins. An increasing body of evidence suggests that neurotoxicity associated with exposure to nonessential metals (e.g., Pb(2+)) involves disruption of synaptic activity, and these observed effects are associated with the ability of Pb(2+) to interfere with Zn(2+) and Ca(2+)-dependent functions. However, the molecular mechanism behind Pb(2+) toxicity remains a topic of debate. In this review, we first discuss potential neuronal Ca(2+) binding protein (CaBP) targets for Pb(2+) such as calmodulin (CaM), synaptotagmin, neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1), N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and family C of G-protein coupled receptors (cGPCRs), and their involvement in Ca(2+)-signalling pathways. We then compare metal binding properties between Ca(2+) and Pb(2+) to understand the structural implications of Pb(2+) binding to CaBPs. Statistical and biophysical studies (e.g., NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy) of Pb(2+) binding are discussed to investigate the molecular mechanism behind Pb(2+) toxicity. These studies identify an opportunistic, allosteric binding of Pb(2+) to CaM, which is distinct from ionic displacement. Together, these data suggest three potential modes of Pb(2+) activity related to molecular and/or neural toxicity: (i) Pb(2+) can occupy Ca(2+)-binding sites, inhibiting the activity of the protein by structural modulation, (ii) Pb(2+) can mimic Ca(2+) in the binding sites, falsely activating the protein and perturbing downstream activities, or (iii) Pb(2+) can bind outside of the Ca(2+)-binding sites, resulting in the allosteric modulation of the protein activity. Moreover, the data further suggest that even low concentrations of Pb(2+) can interfere at multiple points within the neuronal Ca(2+) signalling pathways to cause neurotoxicity. PMID:27108875

  9. Removal of Pb(2+) from water environment using a novel magnetic chitosan/graphene oxide imprinted Pb(2.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhui; Li, LeiLei; Luo, Chuannan; Wang, Xiaojiao; Duan, Huimin

    2016-05-01

    A novel, magnetic chitosan coating on the surface of graphene oxide was (Pb-MCGO) successfully synthesized using Pb(2+) as imprinted ions for adsorption and removal of Pb(2+) from aqueous solutions. The magnetic composite bioadsorbent was characterized by SEM, FTIR and XRD measurements. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to evaluate the adsorption conditions, selectivity and reusability. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity was 79mg/g, observed at pH 5 and 303K. Equilibrium adsorption was achieved within 40min. The kinetic data could be fitted with a pseudo-second order equation. Adsorption process could be well described by Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The selectivity coefficient of Pb(2+) and other metal cations onto Pb-MCGO indicated an overall preference for Pb(2+), which was much higher than non-imprinted MCGO beads. Moreover, the sorbent was stable and easily recovered, the adsorption capacity was about 90% of the initial saturation adsorption capacity after being used five times. PMID:26826288

  10. U-Pb SHRIMP dating of uraniferous opals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nemchin, A.A.; Neymark, L.A.; Simons, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    U-Pb and U-series analyses of four U-rich opal samples using sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) demonstrate the potential of this technique for the dating of opals with ages ranging from several tens of thousand years to millions of years. The major advantages of the technique, compared to the conventional thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS), are the high spatial resolution (???20 ??m), the ability to analyse in situ all isotopes required to determine both U-Pb and U-series ages, and a relatively short analysis time which allows obtaining a growth rate of opal as a result of a single SHRIMP session. There are two major limitations to this method, determined by both current level of development of ion probes and understanding of ion sputtering processes. First, sufficient secondary ion beam intensities can only be obtained for opal samples with U concentrations in excess of ???20 ??g/g. However, this restriction still permits dating of a large variety of opals. Second, U-Pb ratios in all analyses drifted with time and were only weakly correlated with changes in other ratios (such as U/UO). This drift, which is difficult to correct for, remains the main factor currently limiting the precision and accuracy of the U-Pb SHRIMP opal ages. Nevertheless, an assumption of similar behaviour of standard and unknown opals under similar analytical conditions allowed successful determination of ages with precisions of ???10% for the samples investigated in this study. SHRIMP-based U-series and U-Pb ages are consistent with TIMS dating results of the same materials and known geological timeframes. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pb isotopes in sediments of Lake Constance, Central Europe constrain the heavy metal pathways and the pollution history of the catchment, the lake and the regional atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Kober, B.; Wessels, M.; Bollhoefer, A.; Mangini

    1999-05-01

    Pb isotope ratios and Pb concentrations of well-dated sediments of Lake Constance, Central Europe have been analyzed using thermal ion mass spectrometry. Sequential extraction studies indicated isotope homogeneity of the leachable Pb components within the investigated layers. Since the middle of the 19th century a significant anthropogenic Pb component appeared in the lake sediments, and rapidly approaches concentration levels similar to that of the geogenic Pb background (20 ppm) at the beginning of the 20th century. Anthropogenic Pb was predominantly transferred to the lake sediments via the atmosphere. Pb sources were coal combustion, industrial ore processing and leaded gasoline. The flux of a fluvial Pb component to the lake sediments, additive to atmospheric Pb deposition, peaked in about 1960. This flux is attributed to (re)mobilization of Pb from polluted parts of the lake catchment, and indicates the change of catchment soils from a pollution sink to a heavy metal source. The strong reduction of anthropogenic Pb in the uppermost lake sediments since the 1960s has been caused by advances of environmental protection. The lake sediments record the changing fluxes and the isotope composition of the deposited aeolian Pb pollution. During the 20th century aeolian Pb fluxes to the lake sediments were in the range of 1--4 {micro}g/cm{sup 2}/a. During peak emission periods of gasoline Pb to the atmosphere (1960--1990) the aerosol Pb isotope composition was rather constant ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb: 1.12--1.13) and probably a mixture of Canadian and Australian with Russian and Central European Pb types. Aeolian Pb isotope and Pb flux trends in the lake sediments as a whole agree well with the trends found in Alpine glaciers (Doering et al., 1997a,b) and in ombrotrophic peat bogs of Switzerland (Shotyk et al., 1996). However, different industrial Pb components were deposited in the archives of aeolian pollution during the early 20th century.

  12. Studies of azimuthal dihadron correlations in ultra-central PbPb collisions at =2.76 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Gonzalez, J. Suarez; Alderweireldt, S.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Heracleous, N.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Keaveney, J.; Kim, T. J.; Lowette, S.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Perniè, L.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Velde, C. Vander; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Dildick, S.; Garcia, G.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Mccartin, J.; Rios, A. A. Ocampo; Ryckbosch, D.; Diblen, S. Salva; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Marono, M. Vidal; Garcia, J. M. Vizan; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Junior, M. Correa Martins; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Júnior, W. L. Aldá; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; De Souza, S. Fonseca; Malbouisson, H.; Malek, M.; Figueiredo, D. Matos; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santaolalla, J.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Manganote, E. J. Tonelli; Pereira, A. Vilela; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Tomei, T. R. Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Marinov, A.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Plestina, R.; Tao, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Montoya, C. A. Carrillo; Sierra, L. F. Chaparro; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Moreno, B. Gomez; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Morovic, S.; Tikvica, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Kamel, A. Ellithi; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; de Monchenault, G. Hamel; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Florent, A.; de Cassagnac, R. Granier; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Boudoul, G.; Brochet, S.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Alvarez, J. D. Ruiz; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Donckt, M. Vander; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Xiao, H.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Bontenackels, M.; Calpas, B.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Hindrichs, O.; Klein, K.; Ostapchuk, A.; Perieanu, A.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Sprenger, D.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Caudron, J.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Erdmann, M.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Reithler, H.; Schmitz, S. A.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Weber, M.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Ahmad, W. Haj; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Lingemann, J.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Perchalla, L.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behr, J.; Behrenhoff, W.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. 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M.; Rogerson, S.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Sparrow, A.; Tapper, A.; Acosta, M. Vazquez; Virdee, T.; Wakefield, S.; Wardle, N.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Martin, W.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Kasmi, A.; Liu, H.; Scarborough, T.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Heister, A.; Lawson, P.; Lazic, D.; Rohlf, J.; Sperka, D.; John, J. St.; Sulak, L.; Alimena, J.; Bhattacharya, S.; Christopher, G.; Cutts, D.; Demiragli, Z.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Jabeen, S.; Kukartsev, G.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Luk, M.; Narain, M.; Segala, M.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Speer, T.; Swanson, J.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Kopecky, A.; Lander, R.; Miceli, T.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Rutherford, B.; Searle, M.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Andreev, V.; Cline, D.; Cousins, R.; Erhan, S.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Felcini, M.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Jarvis, C.; Rakness, G.; Schlein, P.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Babb, J.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Jandir, P.; Lacroix, F.; Liu, H.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Malberti, M.; Nguyen, H.; Shrinivas, A.; Sturdy, J.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wimpenny, S.; Andrews, W.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Evans, D.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lebourgeois, M.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Padhi, S.; Palmer, C.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Sudano, E.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Yoo, J.; Barge, D.; Campagnari, C.; Danielson, T.; Flowers, K.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Villalba, R. Magaña; Mccoll, N.; Pavlunin, V.; Richman, J.; Rossin, R.; Stuart, D.; To, W.; West, C.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Di Marco, E.; Duarte, J.; Kcira, D.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Rogan, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Timciuc, V.; Wilkinson, R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carroll, R.; Ferguson, T.; Iiyama, Y.; Jang, D. W.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Drell, B. R.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Lopez, E. Luiggi; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Eggert, N.; Gibbons, L. K.; Hopkins, W.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Kreis, B.; Mirman, N.; Kaufman, G. Nicolas; Patterson, J. R.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Sun, W.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Winstrom, L.; Wittich, P.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Apollinari, G.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Chetluru, V.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gao, Y.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Kaadze, K.; Klima, B.; Kwan, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Outschoorn, V. I. Martinez; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Musienko, Y.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Ratnikova, N.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Sharma, S.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Whitbeck, A.; Whitmore, J.; Wu, W.; Yang, F.; Yun, J. C.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Cheng, T.; Das, S.; De Gruttola, M.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Dobur, D.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Fu, Y.; Furic, I. K.; Hugon, J.; Kim, B.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Matchev, K.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Rinkevicius, A.; Shchutska, L.; Skhirtladze, N.; Snowball, M.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Gaultney, V.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Chen, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Dorney, B.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Bazterra, V. E.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Khalatyan, S.; Kurt, P.; Moon, D. H.; O'Brien, C.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Akgun, U.; Albayrak, E. A.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Duru, F.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Sen, S.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yetkin, T.; Yi, K.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Fehling, D.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Swartz, M.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Kenny, R. P.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Sekaric, J.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Wood, J. S.; Barfuss, A. F.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Saini, L. K.; Shrestha, S.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Marionneau, M.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Skuja, A.; Temple, J.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Bauer, G.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Chan, M.; Di Matteo, L.; Dutta, V.; Ceballos, G. Gomez; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Klute, M.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Ma, T.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stöckli, F.; Sumorok, K.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Yoon, A. S.; Zanetti, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; De Benedetti, A.; Gude, A.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Kroeger, R.; Oliveros, S.; Perera, L.; Rahmat, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Summers, D.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Suarez, R. Gonzalez; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Malik, S.; Meier, F.; Snow, G. R.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Jain, S.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Wan, Z.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Haley, J.; Massironi, A.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Trocino, D.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Anastassov, A.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Lusito, L.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Berry, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Chan, K. M.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Kolb, J.; Lannon, K.; Luo, W.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Morse, D. M.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Slaunwhite, J.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Smith, G.; Vuosalo, C.; Winer, B. L.; Wolfe, H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Berry, E.; Elmer, P.; Halyo, V.; Hebda, P.; Hegeman, J.; Hunt, A.; Jindal, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Raval, A.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zenz, S. C.; Zuranski, A.; Brownson, E.; Lopez, A.; Mendez, H.; Vargas, J. E. Ramirez; Alagoz, E.; Benedetti, D.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Everett, A.; Hu, Z.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Kress, M.; Leonardo, N.; Pegna, D. Lopes; Maroussov, V.; Merkel, P.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Yoo, H. D.; Zablocki, J.; Zheng, Y.; Parashar, N.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Miner, D. C.; Petrillo, G.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Zielinski, M.; Bhatti, A.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Lungu, G.; Malik, S.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Rekovic, V.; Robles, J.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Seitz, C.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Yang, Z. C.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Krutelyov, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Safonov, A.; Sakuma, T.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Toback, D.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Kunori, S.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Gollapinni, S.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Don, C. Kottachchi Kankanamge; Lamichhane, P.; Belknap, D. A.; Borrello, L.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Duric, S.; Friis, E.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Klukas, J.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ross, I.; Sakharov, A.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.

    2014-02-01

    Azimuthal dihadron correlations of charged particles have been measured in PbPb collisions at = 2.76TeV by the CMS collaboration, using data from the 2011 LHC heavy-ion run. The data set includes a sample of ultra-central (0-0.2% centrality) PbPb events collected using a trigger based on total transverse energy in the hadron forward calorimeters and the total multiplicity of pixel clusters in the silicon pixel tracker. A total of about 1.8 million ultra-central events were recorded, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 120 μb - 1. The observed correlations in ultra-central PbPb events are expected to be particularly sensitive to initial-state fluctuations. The single-particle anisotropy Fourier harmonics, from v 2 to v 6, are extracted as a function of particle transverse momentum. At higher transverse momentum, the v 2 harmonic becomes significantly smaller than the higher-order v n ( n ≥ 3). The p T-averaged v 2 and v 3 are found to be equal within 2%, while higher-order v n decrease as n increases. The breakdown of factorization of dihadron correlations into single-particle azimuthal anisotropies is observed. This effect is found to be most prominent in the ultra-central PbPb collisions, where the initial-state fluctuations play a dominant role. A comparison of the factorization data to hydrodynamic predictions with event-by-event fluctuating initial conditions is also presented. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. W boson studies in pPb and PbPb collisions with CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapon, Émilien; CMS Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    The electroweak W bosons do not participate in the strong interaction, and thus constitute clean probes of the initial state of nuclear collisions. They provide a unique constraint on the nuclear parton distributions, in particular on the antiquarks from the sea. A first analysis of PbPb data has confirmed the medium-blind characteristic of the electroweak bosons. With the new pPb data collected at the beginning of 2013, nuclear matter without the creation of a hot medium can hence be studied. Being 10 times more prevalent than Z bosons, the yield of W bosons recorded from pPb collisions allows precise comparisons to theoretical predictions. A yield of approximately 20 000 W is observed in pPb collisions in both the muon and electron channels. In this paper the CMS measurements of W bosons in PbPb at nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of \\sqrt{sNN} = 2.76 TeV and from the new pPb data at \\sqrt{sNN} = 5.02 TeV are reported. The charge asymmetry, forward/backward asymmetry and fully corrected yields will be shown.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of PbS nanocrystals in water/C12E9/cyclohexane microemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Guanghai; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Lide

    2003-04-01

    PbS nanocrystals were prepared using water/C12E9/cyclohexane microemulsions as nanoreactors. The sizes and morphologies of the cubic PbS nanocrystals can be modified by controlling the concentration of ions, the volume ratio of water to surfactant and the reaction temperature. The shuttle-like nanoparticles consisting of PbS nanocrystals were obtained by reaction at the temperature of 150°C.

  15. Spectroscopic and energy transfer behavior of Dy3+ ions in B2O3sbnd TeO2sbnd PbOsbnd PbF2sbnd Bi2O3sbnd CdO glasses for laser and WLED applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunkumar, S.; Venkataiah, G.; Marimuthu, K.

    2015-02-01

    A new series of white light emitting Dy3+ doped Lead tellurofluoroborate glasses have been prepared and their spectroscopic and energy transfer behavior were explored through analyzing XRD, FTIR, Raman, SEM, EDAX, optical absorption, photoluminescence and lifetime measurements. The fundamental stretching of the various borate and tellurite networks were identified using FTIR and Raman spectral analysis. The bonding parameter studies reveal the ionic nature of the Dysbnd O bond in the present glasses. The Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters determined from the absorption spectra have been used to investigate the nature of bonding and symmetry orientation of the Dy-ligand field environment. The luminescence intensity increases with increasing Dy3+ ion concentration up to 0.5 wt%, beyond that luminescence quenching is observed. The JO parameters have been used to determine the transition probability (A), stimulated emission cross-section (σPE), radiative lifetime (τR) and branching ratios (βR) for the different emission transitions from the 4F9/2 excited level. The higher σPE and βR values of the 4F9/2 → 6H15/2 and 4F9/2 → 6H13/2 transitions suggest the possible laser action in the visible region. The Y/B ratio, CIE chromaticity color coordinates (x, y) and Color correlated temperature (CCT) were also estimated from the luminescence spectra for different concentration as well as pumping wavelengths. The x, y chromaticity color coordinates fall within the white light region and the white light can be tuned by varying the excitation wavelengths. The lifetime of the 4F9/2 excited state were measured and is found to decrease with increasing Dy3+ ion content. The non-exponential behavior is predominant in higher Dy3+ ion content glasses and is due to the efficient energy transfer between Dy3+sbnd Dy3+ ions. The decay curves were fitted to the Inokuti-Hirayama (IH) model to understand the nature of energy transfer. Among the prepared glasses, 0.5DPTFB glass

  16. Density functional theory studies of Pb (II) interaction with chitosan and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Basila; Muraleedharan, K; Abdul Mujeeb, V M

    2015-03-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) studies of Pb (II) ions interaction with biopolymer chitosan and its derivatives are presented. Schiff bases and N-alkylated/arylated derivatives of chitosan were characterized as adsorbents of lead ions and are studied at monomer level. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis was carried out for chitosan and derivatives to understand the donor-acceptor interactions. Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) maps of the adsorbents were plotted with color code. Global reactivity parameters of adsorbents were calculated on the basis of frontier molecular orbital (FMO) energies. Structure of complexes formed between chitosan and derivatives with Pb (II) ion were examined at B3LYP/LanL2DZ level of DFT. The stability of the complexes are discussed based on the values of Eads. We observed that the N-reduced pyridine carboxaldehyde derivative of chitosan (RPC) forms more stable complex with Pb (II) ions than with other derivatves. PMID:25583020

  17. Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) U-Th-Pb Geochronology of Rutile Under O2+ Bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, A. K.; Zack, T.

    2012-12-01

    In-situ geochronology of rutile can be applied to a large range of geological problems, from exhumation of lower crust to sedimentary provenance. Recent attempts to improve SIMS U-Pb rutile dating were stifled by crystal orientation dependent instrumental fractionation between Pb and U, leading to considerable uncertainty in the calibration [1], [2]. Here, we demonstrate that injection of oxygen into the sputtered target region (O2 flooding) significantly reduces variation in the depth sputter rate for rutile. O2 flooding also correlates with increased homogeneity of the UO2+/U+ vs. Pb/U relative sensitivity calibration, resulting in higher precision for U-Pb ages. We also successfully tested an O2+ beam for rutile analysis. Natural and synthetic rutiles were found to efficiently dissipate local charges from positive ion bombardment, whereas charging largely prohibits the use of an O2+ primary beam for insulating silicates and phosphates that are common targets for in-situ geochronology. The advantage of the O2+ beam for rutile analysis is an ~10-times more intense beam current at a lateral resolution equivalent to conventionally used O- or O2- beams. The intense O2+ beam is also efficient in removing surficial Pb contamination. This leads to highly radiogenic Pb yields and combined with a 208Pb-based correction minimizes bias in the common Pb correction resulting from unresolved interferences on the conventionally used 204Pb. We compared three well-characterized rutiles where high-precision U-Pb ages are available: R10b (Gjerstad, Norway; 1090 Ma), R19 (Blumberg, Australia; 489.5 Ma), and JIMP-1B (Windmill Hills, Australia; 2625 Ma). O2+ -generated SIMS U-Pb and Pb-Pb age averages are accurate within <1% for Paleozoic to Archean rutile, the best accuracy reached so far for any in-situ rutile dating study. This underscores the potential of SIMS U-Th-Pb rutile geochronology at a precision and accuracy commensurate to zircon over a wide range of ages. Other potential

  18. Pb-12(2-): Plumbaspherene

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Lifeng; Huang, Xin; Wang, Leiming; Li, Jun; Wang, Lai S.

    2006-08-31

    Photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical calculations show that Pb122- is a highly stable icosahedral cage cluster, similar to Sn122-. It is bonded by four delocalized radial bonds and nine delocalized on-sphere bonds from the 6p orbitals of the Pb atoms. Following Sn122- (stannaspherene), we coin a name, plumbaspherene, for the highly stable and nearly spherical Pb122- cluster, which has a diameter of ~6.3 Å with an empty interior volume large enough to host most transition metal atoms and afford a new class of stable endohedral plumbaspherenes similar to the endohedral fullerenes.

  19. Spectroscopic and energy transfer behavior of Dy(3+) ions in B2O3TeO2PbOPbF2Bi2O3CdO glasses for laser and WLED applications.

    PubMed

    Arunkumar, S; Venkataiah, G; Marimuthu, K

    2015-02-01

    A new series of white light emitting Dy(3+) doped Lead tellurofluoroborate glasses have been prepared and their spectroscopic and energy transfer behavior were explored through analyzing XRD, FTIR, Raman, SEM, EDAX, optical absorption, photoluminescence and lifetime measurements. The fundamental stretching of the various borate and tellurite networks were identified using FTIR and Raman spectral analysis. The bonding parameter studies reveal the ionic nature of the DyO bond in the present glasses. The Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters determined from the absorption spectra have been used to investigate the nature of bonding and symmetry orientation of the Dy-ligand field environment. The luminescence intensity increases with increasing Dy(3+) ion concentration up to 0.5wt%, beyond that luminescence quenching is observed. The JO parameters have been used to determine the transition probability (A), stimulated emission cross-section (σP(E)), radiative lifetime (τR) and branching ratios (βR) for the different emission transitions from the (4)F9/2 excited level. The higher σP(E) and βR values of the (4)F9/2→(6)H15/2 and (4)F9/2→(6)H13/2 transitions suggest the possible laser action in the visible region. The Y/B ratio, CIE chromaticity color coordinates (x, y) and Color correlated temperature (CCT) were also estimated from the luminescence spectra for different concentration as well as pumping wavelengths. The x, y chromaticity color coordinates fall within the white light region and the white light can be tuned by varying the excitation wavelengths. The lifetime of the (4)F9/2 excited state were measured and is found to decrease with increasing Dy(3+) ion content. The non-exponential behavior is predominant in higher Dy(3+) ion content glasses and is due to the efficient energy transfer between Dy(3+)Dy(3+) ions. The decay curves were fitted to the Inokuti-Hirayama (IH) model to understand the nature of energy transfer. Among the prepared glasses, 0.5DPTFB

  20. Multiparticle azimuthal correlations in p -Pb and Pb-Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agostinelli, A.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Ahn, S. A.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Baral, R. C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belmont, R.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Berger, M. E.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Böhmer, F. V.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortese, P.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dainese, A.; Dang, R.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, K.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; de, S.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; de Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; de Falco, A.; de Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; de Pasquale, S.; de Rooij, R.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; di Bari, D.; di Liberto, S.; di Mauro, A.; di Nezza, P.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dørheim, S.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A. K.; Hilden, T. E.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdal, H. A.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Esposito, M.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fehlker, D.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floratos, E.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gumbo, M.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Khan, K. H.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.

    2014-11-01

    Measurements of multiparticle azimuthal correlations (cumulants) for charged particles in p -Pb at √{sNN}=5.02 TeV and Pb-Pb at √{sNN}=2.76 TeV collisions are presented. They help address the question of whether there is evidence for global, flowlike, azimuthal correlations in the p -Pb system. Comparisons are made to measurements from the larger Pb-Pb system, where such evidence is established. In particular, the second harmonic two-particle cumulants are found to decrease with multiplicity, characteristic of a dominance of few-particle correlations in p -Pb collisions. However, when a |Δ η | gap is placed to suppress such correlations, the two-particle cumulants begin to rise at high multiplicity, indicating the presence of global azimuthal correlations. The Pb-Pb values are higher than the p -Pb values at similar multiplicities. In both systems, the second harmonic four-particle cumulants exhibit a transition from positive to negative values when the multiplicity increases. The negative values allow for a measurement of v2{4 } to be made, which is found to be higher in Pb-Pb collisions at similar multiplicities. The second harmonic six-particle cumulants are also found to be higher in Pb-Pb collisions. In Pb-Pb collisions, we generally find v2{4 } ≃v2{6 } ≠0 which is indicative of a Bessel-Gaussian function for the v2 distribution. For very high-multiplicity Pb-Pb collisions, we observe that the four- and six-particle cumulants become consistent with 0. Finally, third harmonic two-particle cumulants in p -Pb and Pb-Pb are measured. These are found to be similar for overlapping multiplicities, when a |Δ η |>1.4 gap is placed.

  1. Biochar from Alternanthera philoxeroides could remove Pb(II) efficiently.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Wei, Zhongbo; Zhang, Xiaolong; Chen, Xu; Yue, Dongmei; Yin, Qian; Xiao, Lin; Yang, Liuyan

    2014-11-01

    A novel bio-adsorbent was successfully synthesized by pyrolyzing Alternanthera philoxeroides (AP), one of the most widely used hydrophytes for eutrophic lake ecological restoration under O2-limited condition at 600 °C. Compared with commercially active carbon (AC), the initial solution pH had a weak effect on the adsorption of Pb(II) by AP biochar (APB). The maximum adsorption capacity of APB for Pb(II) was 257.12 mg/g, which was 5.3 times of that of the AC. The adsorption process was fast, with only 2.5h to reach adsorption equilibrium. The adsorption mechanism of Pb(II) by APB involves the precipitation and complexation of Pb(II) with free carboxyl/hydroxyl functional groups and mineral carbonates of APB as well as ion replacement between Pb(II) and alkaline earth cations. These results suggest that using a low-cost APB adsorbent for heavy metals contaminated water treatment may have great ecological and environmental significance. PMID:25203230

  2. Oxygen isotopic composition and U-Pb discordance in zircon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Booth, A.L.; Kolodny, Y.; Chamberlain, C.P.; McWilliams, M.; Schmitt, A.K.; Wooden, J.

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated U-Pb discordance and oxygen isotopic composition of zircon using high-spatial resolution ??18O measurement by ion microprobe. ??18O in both concordant and discordant zircon grains provides an indication of the relationship between fluid interaction and discordance. Our results suggest that three characteristics of zircon are interrelated: (1) U-Pb systematics and concomitant age discordance, (2) ??18O and the water-rock interactions implied therein, and (3) zircon texture, as revealed by cathodoluminescence and BSE imaging. A key observation is that U-Pb-disturbed zircons are often also variably depleted in 18O, but the relationship between discordance and ??18O is not systematic. ??18O values of discordant zircons are generally lighter but irregular in their distribution. Textural differences between zircon grains can be correlated with both U-Pb discordance and ??18O. Discordant grains exhibit either a recrystallized, fractured, or strongly zoned CL texture, and are characteristic of 18O depletion. We interpret this to be a result of metamictization, leading to destruction of the zircon lattice and an increased susceptibility to lead loss. Conversely, grains that are concordant have less-expressed zoning and a smoother CL texture and are enriched in 18O. From this it is apparent that various stages of water-rock interaction, as evidenced by systematic variations in ??18O, leave their imprint on both the texture and U-Pb systematics of zircon. Copyright ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. EFFECTS OF PH, SOLID/SOLUTION RATIO, IONIC STRENGTH, AND ORGANIC ACIDS ON PB AND CD ON KAOLINITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Potentiometric and ion-selective electrode titrations together with batch sorption/desorption experiments, were performed to explain the aqueous and surface complexation reactions between kaolinite, Pb, Cd and organic acids. Variables included pH, ionic strength, metal concentrat...

  4. High Rydberg resonances in dielectronic recombination of pb(79+).

    PubMed

    Brandau, C; Bartsch, T; Hoffknecht, A; Knopp, H; Schippers, S; Shi, W; Müller, A; Grün, N; Scheid, W; Steih, T; Bosch, F; Franzke, B; Kozhuharov, C; Mokler, P H; Nolden, F; Steck, M; Stöhlker, T; Stachura, Z

    2002-07-29

    Dielectronic recombination resonances of Pb (79+) associated with 2s(1/2)-->2p(1/2) excitations were measured at the heavy-ion storage ring ESR at GSI. The fine structure of the energetically lowest resonance manifold Pb (78+)(1s(2)2p(1/2)20l(j)) at around 18 eV could partially be resolved, and rate coefficients on an absolute scale were obtained. A comparison of the experimental data with results of a fully relativistic theoretical approach shows that high-angular-momentum components up to j=31/2 significantly contribute to the total resonance strength demonstrating the necessity to revise the widespread notion of negligible high-angular-momentum contributions at least for very highly charged ions. PMID:12144440

  5. Elliptic and triangular flow in p-Pb and peripheral Pb-Pb collisions from parton scatterings

    SciTech Connect

    Bzdak, Adam; Ma, Guo-Liang

    2014-12-15

    Using a multiphase transport model (AMPT) we calculate the elliptic v₂ and triangular v₃ Fourier coefficients of the two-particle azimuthal correlation function in proton-nucleus (p-Pb) and peripheral nucleus-nucleus (Pb-Pb) collisions. Our results for v₃ are in a good agreement with the CMS data collected at the Large Hadron Collider. The v₂ coefficient is very well described in p-Pb collisions and is underestimated for higher transverse momenta in Pb-Pb interactions. The characteristic mass ordering of v₂ in p-Pb is reproduced, whereas for v₃, this effect is not observed. We further predict the pseudorapidity dependence of v₂ and v₃ in p-Pb and observe that both are increasing when going from a proton side to a Pb-nucleus side. Predictions for the higher-order Fourier coefficients, v₄ and v₅, in p-Pb are also presented.

  6. Elliptic and triangular flow in p-Pb and peripheral Pb-Pb collisions from parton scatterings

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bzdak, Adam; Ma, Guo-Liang

    2014-12-15

    Using a multiphase transport model (AMPT) we calculate the elliptic v₂ and triangular v₃ Fourier coefficients of the two-particle azimuthal correlation function in proton-nucleus (p-Pb) and peripheral nucleus-nucleus (Pb-Pb) collisions. Our results for v₃ are in a good agreement with the CMS data collected at the Large Hadron Collider. The v₂ coefficient is very well described in p-Pb collisions and is underestimated for higher transverse momenta in Pb-Pb interactions. The characteristic mass ordering of v₂ in p-Pb is reproduced, whereas for v₃, this effect is not observed. We further predict the pseudorapidity dependence of v₂ and v₃ in p-Pb andmore » observe that both are increasing when going from a proton side to a Pb-nucleus side. Predictions for the higher-order Fourier coefficients, v₄ and v₅, in p-Pb are also presented.« less

  7. Molecular dynamics simulation study of erbium induced devitrification in vitreous PbF2.

    PubMed

    Dantelle, Géraldine; Mortier, Michel; Monteil, André; Chaussedent, Stéphane; Silva, Mauricio A P

    2007-09-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of the devitrification process of a lead fluoride glass doped with Er(3+) ions were carried out. This technique appears to be a relevant way to perform systematic analysis of the system structure and to study the influence of defects on PbF2 crystallization. We modeled the total enthalpy, the radial distribution functions, and the diffracted intensities of systems containing different amounts of Er(3+) ions. We demonstrated by means of different simulations that Er(3+) ions lowered the devitrification temperature of PbF2, in good agreement with the experimental results. The genuine role of Er(3+) ions in the devitrification process of PbF2 has been investigated. Er(3+) ions have an unquestionable influence of the crystallization of PbF2. Although the latter does not start in the nearest neighborhood of Er(3+) ions, the presence of Er(3+) ions in a close environment may favor the lead fluoride crystallization. PMID:17824750

  8. Pb enamel biomarker: Deposition of pre- and postnatal Pb isotope injection in reconstructed time points along rat enamel transect

    SciTech Connect

    Rinderknecht, A.L.; Kleinman, M.T.; Ericson, J.E. . E-mail: jeericso@uci.edu

    2005-10-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) as well as other heavy metals in the environment is still a matter of public health concern. The development of the enamel biomarker for heavy metal exposure assessment is designed to improve studies of dose-effect relationships to developmental anomalies, particularly embryonic dysfunctions, and to provide a time-specific recount of past exposures. The work presented in this paper demonstrates maternal transfer across the placental barrier of the enriched isotope {sup 206}Pb tracer to the enamel of the rat pup. Likewise, injections of {sup 204}Pb-enriched tracer in the neonate rat resulted in deposition of the tracer in the enamel histology as measured by secondary ion microprobe spectrometry. Through enamel, we were able to observe biological removal and assimilation of prenatal and postnatal tracers, respectively. This research demonstrates that enamel can be used as a biomarker of exposure to Pb and may illustrate the toxicokinetics of incorporating Pb into fetal and neonatal steady-state system processes. The biomarker technique, when completely developed, may be applied to cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological research.

  9. Charm production in Pb + Pb collisions at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Taesoo; Berrehrah, Hamza; Cabrera, Daniel; Cassing, Wolfgang; Bratkovskaya, Elena

    2016-03-01

    We study charm production in Pb +Pb collisions at √{sN N}=2.76 TeV in the parton-hadron-string-dynamics (PHSD) transport approach and the charm dynamics in the partonic and hadronic medium. The charm quarks are produced through initial binary nucleon-nucleon collisions by using the pythia event generator, taking into account the (anti-)shadowing incorporated in the eps09 package. The produced charm quarks interact with off-shell massive partons in the quark-gluon plasma and are hadronized into D mesons through coalescence or fragmentation close to the critical energy density, and then interact with hadrons in the final hadronic stage with scattering cross sections calculated in an effective Lagrangian approach with heavy-quark spin symmetry. The PHSD results show a reasonable RAA and elliptic flow of D mesons in comparison to the experimental data for Pb +Pb collisions at √{sN N}=2.76 TeV from the ALICE Collaboration. We also study the effect of temperature-dependent off-shell charm quarks in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. We find that the scattering cross sections are only moderately affected by off-shell charm degrees of freedom. However, the position of the peak of RAA for D mesons depends on the strength of the scalar partonic forces which also have an impact on the D meson elliptic flow. The comparison with experimental data on the RAA suggests that the repulsive force is weaker for off-shell charm quarks as compared to that for light quarks. Furthermore, the effects from radiative charm energy loss appear to be low compared to the collisional energy loss up to transverse momenta of ˜15 GeV/c .

  10. Direct Photon and Neutral Pion Production in pp and Pb-Pb Collisions Measured with the ALICE Experiment at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peressounko, D.

    2015-06-01

    Measurements of direct photon and neutral pion production in heavy-ion collisions provide a comprehensive set of observables characterizing properties of the hot QCD medium. Direct photons provide means to test the initial stage of an AA collision and carry information about the temperature and space-time evolution of the hot medium. Neutral pion suppression probes the parton energy loss in the hot medium. Measurements of neutral meson spectra in pp collisions at LHC energies √ {s} = 0.9, ; 2.76, ; 7 ; {textrm{TeV}} serve as a reference for heavy-ion collisions and also provide valuable input data for parameterization of the QCD parton Fragmentation Functions. In this talk, results from the ALICE experiment on direct photon and neutral pion production in pp and Pb-Pb collisions are summarized.

  11. A new method for As(V) removal from waters by precipitation of mimetite Pb5(AsO4)3Cl on Pb-activated zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manecki, Maciej; Buszkiewicz, Urszula

    2016-04-01

    A new method for removal of arsenate AsO43‑ ions from aqueous solutions is proposed. The principle of the method stems from precipitation of very insoluble crystalline lead arsenate apatite (mimetite Pb5(AsO4)3Cl) induced by bringing in contact Pb-activated zeolite and As-contaminated water in the presence of Cl‑. Zeolite is activated by sorption of Pb2+ followed by washing with water to remove the excess of Pb and to desorbe weakly adsorbed ions. Lead adsorbed on zeolite is bound strong enough to prevent desorption by water but weak enough to undergo desorption induced by heterogeneous precipitation of mimetite nanocrystals on the surface of zeolite. The experiment consisted of two steps. In the first step, aliquots of 0.5 g of natural clinoptilolite zeolite (from Zeocem a.s., Bystré, Slovak Republic) were reacted with 40 mL of solutions containing 20, 100, 500, and 2000 mg Pb/L (pH =4.5; reaction for 30 minutes followed by centrifugation). The amount of Pb sorbed was calculated from the drop of Pb concentration in solution. Centrifuged zeolite was washed three times by mixing with 10 mL of DDI water, followed by centrifugation. No Pb was detected in the water after second washing. Wet pulp resulting from this stage was exposed to solutions containing 70 mg/L Cl‑ and various concentrations of AsO43‑ (2 and 100 mg As/L; pH=4). Complete removal of As was observed for 2 mg As/L solutions mixed with zeolite-20 and zeolite-100. The precipitation of mimetite Pb5(AsO4)3Cl in the form of hexagonal crystals ca. 0.25 μm in size was observed using SEM/EDS. This work is partially funded by AGH research grant no 11.11.140.319.

  12. Solubility of Litharge (a-PbO) in Alkaline Media at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    SE Ziemniak; DA Palmer; P Benezeth; LM Anovitz

    2004-11-02

    An inert, flowing autoclave facility is used to investigate the solubility behavior of {alpha}-PbO (litharge, tetragonal) in aqueous solutions of morpholine, ammonia and sodium hydroxide between 38 and 260 C. Lead solubilities increased from about 0.4 mmol kg{sup -1} at 38 C to about 4.5 mmol kg{sup -1} at 260 C and were relatively insensitive to the concentration and identity of the pH-reagent. The measured lead solubilities were interpreted using a Pb(II) ion hydroxocomplexing model and thermodynamic functions for these equilibria were obtained from a least-squares analysis of the data. A consistent set of thermodynamic properties for the species Pb(OH){sup +}, Pb(OH){sub 2}(aq) and Pb(OH){sub 3}{sup -} is provided to permit accurate lead oxide solubility calculations over broad ranges of temperature and alkalinity.

  13. Reliability of stable Pb isotopes to identify Pb sources and verifying biological fractionation of Pb isotopes in goats and chickens.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hokuto; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Yabe, John; Liazambi, Allan; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2016-01-01

    Stable Pb isotope ratios (Pb-IRs) have been recognized as an efficient tool for identifying sources. This study carried out at Kabwe mining area, Zambia, to elucidate the presence or absence of Pb isotope fractionation in goat and chicken, to evaluate the reliability of identifying Pb pollution sources via analysis of Pb-IRs, and to assess whether a threshold for blood Pb levels (Pb-B) for biological fractionation was present. The variation of Pb-IRs in goat decreased with an increase in Pb-B and were fixed at certain values close to those of the dominant source of Pb exposure at Pb-B > 5 μg/dL. However, chickens did not show a clear relationship for Pb-IRs against Pb-B, or a fractionation threshold. Given these, the biological fractionation of Pb isotopes should not occur in chickens but in goats, and the threshold for triggering biological fractionation is at around 5 μg/dL of Pb-B in goats. PMID:26549754

  14. [Effects of Low-Molecular-Weight Organic Acids on the Speciation of Pb in Purple Soil and Soil Solution].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiang; Jiang, Tao; Huang, Rong; Zhang, Jin-zhong; Chen, Hong

    2016-04-15

    Lead (Pb) in purple soil was selected as the research target, using one-step extraction method with 0.01 mol · L⁻¹ sodium nitrate as the background electrolyte to study the release effect of citric acid (CA), tartaric acid (TA) and acetic acid (AC) with different concentrations. Sequential extraction and geochemical model (Visual Minteq v3.0) were applied to analyze and predict the speciation of Pb in soil solid phase and soil solution phase. Then the ebvironmental implications and risks of low-molecule weight organic acid (LMWOA) on soil Pb were analyzed. The results indicated that all three types of LMWOA increased the desorption capacity of Pb in purple soil, and the effect followed the descending order of CA > TA > AC. After the action of LMWOAs, the exchangeable Pb increased; the carbonate-bound Pb and Fe-Mn oxide bound Pb dropped in soil solid phase. Organic bound Pb was the main speciation in soil solution phase, accounting for 45.16%-75.05%. The following speciation of Pb in soil solution was free Pb, accounting for 22.71%-50.25%. For CA and TA treatments, free Pb ions and inorganic bound Pb in soil solution increased with increasing LMWOAs concentration, while organic bound Pb suffered a decrease in this process. An opposite trend for AC treatment was observed compared with CA and TA treatments. Overall, LMWOAs boosted the bioavailability of Pb in purple soil and had a potential risk to contaminate underground water. Among the three LMWOAs in this study, CA had the largest potential to activate soil Pb. PMID:27548978

  15. Optimization study for Pb(II) and COD sequestration by consortium of sulphate-reducing bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Anamika; Bishnoi, Narsi R.; Gupta, Asha

    2016-04-01

    In this study, initial minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Pb(II) ions was analysed to check optimum concentration of Pb(II) ions at which the growth of sulphate-reducing consortium (SRC) was found to be maximum. 80 ppm of Pb(II) ions was investigated as minimum inhibitory concentration for SRC. Influence of electron donors such as lactose, sucrose, glucose and sodium lactate was examined to investigate best carbon source for growth and activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria. Sodium lactate was found to be the prime carbon source for SRC. Later optimization of various parameters was executed using Box-Behnken design model of response surface methodology to explore the effectiveness of three independent operating variables, namely, pH (5.0-9.0), temperature (32-42 °C) and time (5.0-9.0 days), on dependent variables, i.e. protein content, precipitation of Pb(II) ions, and removal of COD by SRC biomass. Maximum removal of COD and Pb(II) was observed to be 91 and 98 %, respectively, at pH 7.0 and temperature 37 °C and incubation time 7 days. According to response surface analysis and analysis of variance, the experimental data were perfectly fitted to the quadratic model, and the interactive influence of pH, temperature and time on Pb(II) and COD removal was highly significant. A high regression coefficient between the variables and response (r 2 = 0.9974) corroborate eminent evaluation of experimental data by second-order polynomial regression model. SEM and Fourier transform infrared analysis was performed to investigate morphology of PbS precipitates, sorption mechanism and involved functional groups in metal-free and metal-loaded biomass of SRC for Pb(II) binding.

  16. Pb nanowire formation on Al/lead zirconate titanate surfaces in high-pressure hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Shutthanandan, V.; Arey, Bruce W.; Wang, Chong M.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Pitman, Stan G.

    2012-07-12

    Thin films of Al on lead zirconate titanate (PZT) annealed in high-pressure hydrogen at 100C exhibit surface Pb nanowire growth. Wire diameter is approximately 80 nm and length can exceed 100 microns. Based on microstructural analysis using electron microscopy and ion scattering, a vapor-solid scheme with hydrogen as a carrier gas was proposed as a growth mechanism. We expect that these observations may lead to controlled Pb nanowires growth through pattering of the Al film.

  17. Synthesis of the Pb-based superconductor of the Pb3201 phase (Pb 2Cu)Sr 0.9La 1.1CuO 6+δ by the modified polymerized complex method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Masatsune; Sakuma, Atsushi; Noji, Takashi; Koike, Yoji

    1996-02-01

    We have succeeded in obtaining single-phase samples of the Pb3201 phase (Pb 2Cu)Sr 0.9La 1.1CuO 6+δ by the modified polymerized complex method. At the first step of the synthesis, a transparent gel is found to be obtained by increasing the molar ratio of citric acid to total metal ions up to 5 without controlling the pH of the solution and without ethylene glycol. Secondly, the precursor is prepared by calcining the transparent gel. Finally, highly homogeneous samples with the onset temperature of the superconducting transition, ∼ 37 K, are obtained by sintering the precursor and subsequently annealing it. Moreover, the Pb3201 phase is found to be stable only for x = 1.1 in (Pb 2Cu)Sr 2- xLa xCuO 6+δ.

  18. Absorption spectrum of the PbS-doped silica fibers fabricated by ALD and MCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Tang; Wen, Jianxiang; Dong, Yanhua; Wang, Tingyun

    2012-11-01

    The technique of atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been introduced to fabricate PbS-doped silica fibers, whose absorption peaks are discovered to be shifted from 1230 nm to 920 nm when the number of ALD deposition cycles varies from 80 to 30 during optical fiber preform fabrication. This is explained by suggesting that the PbS doped in fiber are under the 3D quantum confinement, i.e., quantum dots (QDs). An effective-mass approximat ion of the PbS QDs ' sizes is then made to show the shift of absorption peaks can be attributed to the change of size distribution of these dots.

  19. Zircon U-Pb age, geochemical, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic constraints on the origin of alkaline intrusions in eastern Shandong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shen; Feng, Caixia; Hu, Ruizhong; Gao, Shan; Wang, Tao; Feng, Guangying; Qi, Youqiang; Coulson, Ian M.; Lai, Shaocong

    2013-08-01

    Alkaline intrusions in the eastern Shandong Province consist of quartz monzonite and granite. U-Pb zircon ages, geochemical data, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data for these rocks are reported in the present paper. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb zircon analyses yielded consistent ages ranging from 114.3 ± 0.3 to 122.3 ± 0.4 Ma for six samples of the felsic rocks. The felsic rocks are characterised by a wide range of chemical compositions (SiO2 = 55.14-77.63 wt. %, MgO = 0.09-4.64 wt. %, Fe2O3 = 0.56-7.6 wt. %, CaO = 0.40-5.2 wt. %), light rare earth elements (LREEs) and large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) (i.e., Rb, Pb, U) enrichment, as well as significant rare earth elements (HREEs) and heavy field strength (HFSEs) (Nb, Ta, P and Ti) depletion, various and high (87Sr/86Sr) i ranging from 0.7066 to 0.7087, low ɛ Nd (t) values from -14.1 to -17.1, high neodymium model ages (TDM1 = 1.56-2.38Ga, TDM2 = 2.02-2.25Ga), 206Pb/204Pb = 17.12-17.16, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.44-15.51, and 208Pb/204Pb = 37.55-37.72. The results suggested that these rocks were derived from an enriched crustal source. In addition, the alkaline rocks also evolved as the result of the fractionation of potassium feldspar, plagioclase, +/- ilmenite or rutile and apatite. However, the alkaline rocks were not affected by crustal contamination. Moreover, the generation of the alkaline rocks can be attributed to the structural collapse of the Sulu organic belt due to various processes.

  20. Atomistic understanding of cation exchange in PbS nanocrystals using simulations with pseudoligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhaochuan; Lin, Li-Chiang; Buijs, Wim; Vlugt, Thijs J. H.; van Huis, Marijn A.

    2016-05-01

    Cation exchange is a powerful tool for the synthesis of nanostructures such as core-shell nanocrystals, however, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Interactions of cations with ligands and solvent molecules are systematically ignored in simulations. Here, we introduce the concept of pseudoligands to incorporate cation-ligand-solvent interactions in molecular dynamics. This leads to excellent agreement with experimental data on cation exchange of PbS nanocrystals, whereby Pb ions are partially replaced by Cd ions from solution. The temperature and the ligand-type control the exchange rate and equilibrium composition of cations in the nanocrystal. Our simulations reveal that Pb ions are kicked out by exchanged Cd interstitials and migrate through interstitial sites, aided by local relaxations at core-shell interfaces and point defects. We also predict that high-pressure conditions facilitate strongly enhanced cation exchange reactions at elevated temperatures. Our approach is easily extendable to other semiconductor compounds and to other families of nanocrystals.

  1. Nanoporous Au-based chronocoulometric aptasensor for amplified detection of Pb(2+) using DNAzyme modified with Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Lai, Cui; Zeng, Guangming; Huang, Danlian; Tang, Lin; Yang, Chunping; Zhou, Yaoyu; Qin, Lei; Cheng, Min

    2016-07-15

    The authors herein described an amplified detection strategy employing nanoporous Au (NPG) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to detect Pb(2+) ions in aqueous solution. The thiol modified Pb(2+)-specific DNAzyme was self-assembled onto the surface of the NPG modified electrode for hybridizing with the AuNPs labeled oligonucleotide and for forming the DNA double helix structure. Electrochemical signal, redox charge of hexaammineruthenium(III) chloride (RuHex), was measured by chronocoulometry. Taking advantage of amplification effects of the NPG electrode for increasing the reaction sites of capture probe and DNA-AuNPs complexes for bringing about the adsorption of large numbers of RuHex molecules, this electrochemical sensor could detect Pb(2+) quantitatively, in the range of 0.05-100nM, with a limit of detection as low as 0.012nM. Selectivity measurements revealed that the sensor was specific for Pb(2+) even with interference by high concentrations of other metal ions. This sensor was also used to detect Pb(2+) ions from samples of tap water, river water, and landfill leachate samples spiked with Pb(2+) ions, and the results showed good agreement with the found values determined by an atomic fluorescence spectrometer. This simple aptasensor represented a promising potential for on-site detecting Pb(2+) in drinking water. PMID:26921553

  2. Study of Z production in PbPb and pp collisions at TeV in the dimuon and dielectron decay channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Luyckx, S.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dobur, D.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Léonard, A.; Mohammadi, A.; Perniè, L.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Crucy, S.; Dildick, S.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva Diblen, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Pol, M. E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santaolalla, J.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Bernardes, C. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Marinov, A.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Plestina, R.; Tao, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, Q.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Boudoul, G.; Brochet, S.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Xiao, H.; Bagaturia, I.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Bontenackels, M.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Hindrichs, O.; Klein, K.; Ostapchuk, A.; Perieanu, A.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Erdmann, M.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Reithler, H.; Schmitz, S. A.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Weber, M.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Haj Ahmad, W.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Lingemann, J.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Perchalla, L.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behr, J.; Behrenhoff, W.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. J.; Bergholz, M.; Bethani, A.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Choudhury, S.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Horton, D.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Krücker, D.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Lutz, B.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Novgorodova, O.; Nowak, F.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Ron, E.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Saxena, P.; Schmidt, R.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Vargas Trevino, A. D. R.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Kirschenmann, H.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Lange, J.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Ott, J.; Peiffer, T.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Seidel, M.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Feindt, M.; Frensch, F.; Giffels, M.; Hartmann, F.; Hauth, T.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Kuznetsova, E.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, Th.; Nürnberg, A.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Ratnikov, F.; Röcker, S.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weiler, T.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Markou, A.; Markou, C.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Stiliaris, E.; Aslanoglou, X.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Molnar, J.; Palinkas, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Swain, S. K.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Dhingra, N.; Gupta, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, M.; Mittal, M.; Nishu, N.; Singh, J. B.; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, S.; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, V.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dutta, S.; Gomber, B.; Jain, Sa.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Modak, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Roy, D.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Dutta, D.; Kailas, S.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Dugad, S.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Wickramage, N.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Behnamian, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Goldouzian, R.; Jafari, A.; Khakzad, M.; Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Barbone, L.; Calabria, C.; Chhibra, S. S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Singh, G.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Zito, G.; Abbiendi, G.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Primavera, F.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Travaglini, R.; Albergo, S.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Gallo, E.; Gonzi, S.; Gori, V.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Ferro, F.; Lo Vetere, M.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Gerosa, R.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Lucchini, M. T.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Martelli, A.; Marzocchi, B.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Di Guida, S.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Branca, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; Dorigo, T.; Galanti, M.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Giubilato, P.; Gozzelino, A.; Kanishchev, K.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Passaseo, M.; Pazzini, J.; Pegoraro, M.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Gabusi, M.; Ratti, S. P.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vitulo, P.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Romeo, F.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fiori, F.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Moon, C. S.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Vernieri, C.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Grassi, M.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Soffi, L.; Traczyk, P.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Casasso, S.; Costa, M.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Ortona, G.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Potenza, A.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Tamponi, U.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; La Licata, C.; Marone, M.; Montanino, D.; Schizzi, A.; Umer, T.; Zanetti, A.; Chang, S.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Nam, S. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, M. S.; Kong, D. J.; Lee, S.; Oh, Y. D.; Park, H.; Sakharov, A.; Son, D. C.; Kim, T. J.; Kim, J. Y.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Lee, B.; Lee, K. S.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Choi, M.; Kim, J. H.; Park, I. C.; Park, S.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M. S.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Goh, J.; Kim, D.; Kwon, E.; Lee, J.; Seo, H.; Yu, I.; Juodagalvis, A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Ali, M. A. B. Md; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-de La Cruz, I.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Pedraza, I.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Reucroft, S.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khalid, S.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Shah, M. A.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Cwiok, M.; Dominik, W.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Olszewski, M.; Wolszczak, W.; Bargassa, P.; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, C.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Nguyen, F.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Seixas, J.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Afanasiev, S.; Golutvin, I.; Karjavin, V.; Konoplyanikov, V.; Korenkov, V.; Kozlov, G.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Mitsyn, V. V.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Tikhonenko, E.; Zarubin, A.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, An.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Safronov, G.; Semenov, S.; Spiridonov, A.; Stolin, V.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. V.; Vinogradov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Kaminskiy, A.; Kodolova, O.; Korotkikh, V.; Lokhtin, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Vardanyan, I.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Ekmedzic, M.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Battilana, C.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Domínguez Vázquez, D.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Merino, G.; Navarro De Martino, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Soares, M. S.; Albajar, C.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Missiroli, M.; Moran, D.; Brun, H.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Duarte Campderros, J.; Fernandez, M.; Gomez, G.; Graziano, A.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Munoz Sanchez, F. J.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Benaglia, A.; Bendavid, J.; Benhabib, L.; Benitez, J. F.; Bernet, C.; Bianchi, G.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Bondu, O.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Cerminara, G.; Colafranceschi, S.; D'Alfonso, M.; d'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; David, A.; De Guio, F.; De Roeck, A.; De Visscher, S.; Dobson, M.; Dordevic, M.; Dupont-Sagorin, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Eugster, J.; Franzoni, G.; Funk, W.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Girone, M.; Glege, F.; Guida, R.; Gundacker, S.; Guthoff, M.; Hammer, J.; Hansen, M.; Harris, P.; Hegeman, J.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kousouris, K.; Krajczar, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lourenço, C.; Magini, N.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Marrouche, J.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moortgat, F.; Morovic, S.; Mulders, M.; Musella, P.; Orsini, L.; Pape, L.; Perez, E.; Perrozzi, L.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Pimiä, M.; Piparo, D.; Plagge, M.; Racz, A.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Sharma, A.; Siegrist, P.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Spiga, D.; Steggemann, J.; Stieger, B.; Stoye, M.; Treille, D.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Vlimant, J. R.; Wardle, N.; Wöhri, H. K.; Wollny, H.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; König, S.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bortignon, P.; Buchmann, M. A.; Casal, B.; Chanon, N.; Deisher, A.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Dünser, M.; Eller, P.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marini, A. C.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Meister, D.; Mohr, N.; Nägeli, C.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pauss, F.; Peruzzi, M.; Quittnat, M.; Rebane, L.; Rossini, M.; Starodumov, A.; Takahashi, M.; Theofilatos, K.; Wallny, R.; Weber, H. A.; Amsler, C.; Canelli, M. F.; Chiochia, V.; De Cosa, A.; Hinzmann, A.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Millan Mejias, B.; Ngadiuba, J.; Robmann, P.; Ronga, F. J.; Taroni, S.; Verzetti, M.; Yang, Y.; Cardaci, M.; Chen, K. H.; Ferro, C.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Volpe, R.; Yu, S. S.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Dietz, C.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W.-S.; Kao, K. Y.; Lei, Y. J.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R.-S.; Majumder, D.; Petrakou, E.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Wilken, R.; Asavapibhop, B.; Srimanobhas, N.; Suwonjandee, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Cerci, S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Polatoz, A.; Sogut, K.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, M.; Akin, I. V.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Gamsizkan, H.; Karapinar, G.; Ocalan, K.; Sekmen, S.; Surat, U. E.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Isildak, B.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Bahtiyar, H.; Barlas, E.; Cankocak, K.; Vardarlı, F. I.; Yücel, M.; Levchuk, L.; Sorokin, P.; Brooke, J. J.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Frazier, R.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Jacob, J.; Kreczko, L.; Lucas, C.; Meng, Z.; Newbold, D. M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Senkin, S.; Smith, V. J.; Williams, T.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Womersley, W. J.; Worm, S. D.; Baber, M.; Bainbridge, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Burton, D.; Colling, D.; Cripps, N.; Cutajar, M.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; Della Negra, M.; Dunne, P.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Gilbert, A.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Jarvis, M.; Karapostoli, G.; Kenzie, M.; Lane, R.; Lucas, R.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Malik, S.; Mathias, B.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Raymond, D. M.; Rogerson, S.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Tapper, A.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Martin, W.; Reid, I. 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T.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Miceli, T.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Searle, M.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Rakness, G.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Babb, J.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Ivova Rikova, M.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Liu, H.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Malberti, M.; Nguyen, H.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Shrinivas, A.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wimpenny, S.; Andrews, W.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Evans, D.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Klein, D.; Lebourgeois, M.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Palmer, C.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Sudano, E.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Welke, C.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Yoo, J.; Barge, D.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Danielson, T.; Dishaw, A.; Flowers, K.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Mccoll, N.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; To, W.; West, C.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Di Marco, E.; Duarte, J.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Rogan, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Timciuc, V.; Wilkinson, R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Ferguson, T.; Iiyama, Y.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Luiggi Lopez, E.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Eggert, N.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Skinnari, L.; Sun, W.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Winstrom, L.; Wittich, P.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Apollinari, G.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gao, Y.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Kaadze, K.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Kwan, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V. I.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Musienko, Y.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Sharma, S.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Whitbeck, A.; Whitmore, J.; Yang, F.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Carver, M.; Cheng, T.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; De Gruttola, M.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Furic, I. K.; Hugon, J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Matchev, K.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Rinkevicius, A.; Shchutska, L.; Skhirtladze, N.; Snowball, M.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Bazterra, V. E.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Khalatyan, S.; Kurt, P.; Moon, D. H.; O'Brien, C.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Albayrak, E. A.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Duru, F.; Haytmyradov, M.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Rahmat, R.; Sen, S.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yetkin, T.; Yi, K.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Fehling, D.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Swartz, M.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Gray, J.; Kenny, R. P.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Sekaric, J.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Wood, J. S.; Barfuss, A. F.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Saini, L. K.; Shrestha, S.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Marionneau, M.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Bauer, G.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Chan, M.; Di Matteo, L.; Dutta, V.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Klute, M.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Ma, T.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stöckli, F.; Sumorok, K.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zanetti, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Gude, A.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Malik, S.; Meier, F.; Snow, G. R.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Haley, J.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Chan, K. M.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Luo, W.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Smith, G.; Vuosalo, C.; Winer, B. L.; Wolfe, H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hebda, P.; Hunt, A.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zenz, S. C.; Zuranski, A.; Brownson, E.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Alagoz, E.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Hu, Z.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Kress, M.; Leonardo, N.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Maroussov, V.; Merkel, P.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Yoo, H. D.; Zablocki, J.; Zheng, Y.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Petrillo, G.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Lungu, G.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Krutelyov, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Sakuma, T.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Kunori, S.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Duric, S.; Friis, E.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Levine, A.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ross, I.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Woods, N.

    2015-03-01

    The production of Z bosons is studied in the dimuon and dielectron decay channels in PbPb and pp collisions at TeV, using data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The PbPb data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of about 166 μb-1, while the pp data sample collected in 2013 at the same nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy has an integrated luminosity of 5.4 pb-1. The Z boson yield is measured as a function of rapidity, transverse momentum, and collision centrality. The ratio of PbPb to pp yields, scaled by the number of inelastic nucleon-nucleon collisions, is found to be 1.06 ± 0.05 (stat) ± 0.08 (syst) in the dimuon channel and 1.02 ± 0.08 (stat) ± 0.15 (syst) in the dielectron channel, for centrality-integrated Z boson production. This binary collision scaling is seen to hold in the entire kinematic region studied, as expected for a colourless probe that is unaffected by the hot and dense QCD medium produced in heavy ion collisions. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Pb scavenging from a freshwater lake by Mn oxides in heterogeneous surface coating materials.

    PubMed

    Dong, Deming; Derry, Louis A; Lion, Leonard W

    2003-04-01

    Selective extraction techniques were used to assay the importance of specific solid phases in Pb binding by heterogeneous surface coating materials (biofilms) in Cayuga Lake, NY. Hydroxylamine hydrochloride (NH(2)OH.HC1) was used to extract easily reducible Mn oxides, and sodium dithionite (Na(2)S(2)O(4)) was used to extract Mn and Fe oxides in two sets of biofilm samples retrieved from the lake. Pb remaining after extraction was removed by extraction with 10% HNO(3), determined by analysis of Pb(208) using a sector field mass spectrometer with an inductively coupled plasma ion source (ICP-MS), and compared to the total extractable Pb. The results indicate that the greatest contribution to total Pb binding to the heterogeneous surface coating materials was from Mn oxides. Pb adsorption capacity of Mn oxides exceeded that of Fe oxides on a molar basis by approximately an order of magnitude. The high reactivity observed for natural Mn oxides indicates that they are biogenic in origin, consistent with expectations based on the relative biotic and abiotic rates of Mn(II) oxidation under circumneutral conditions. Collectively, these results confirm expectations based on prior observations of adsorption of added Pb by Cayuga Lake biofilms before and after selective extraction, and also confirm predictions for Pb phase association in the lake based on the behavior of laboratory surrogates for adsorptive surfaces. PMID:12600395

  4. Morphological control of PbS grown on functionalized self-assembled monolayers by chemical bath deposition.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Walker, Amy V

    2014-06-17

    We have investigated the chemical bath deposition (CBD) of PbS on functionalized alkanethiolate self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy. The deposition mechanism involves both cluster-by-cluster and ion-by-ion growth. The dominant reaction pathway and the chemical composition and morphology of the deposited layer are dependent on both the SAM terminal group and the experimental conditions. On -COOH-terminated SAMs, three types of crystallites are observed: nanocrystals formed by heterogeneous ion-by-ion growth, larger needle-like particles, and ~2 μm particles deposited by homogeneous cluster-by-cluster deposition. The nanocrystals nucleate at Pb(2+)-carboxylate surface complexes, and so strongly adhere to the substrate. On -OH- and -CH3-terminated SAMs, only the micrometer-sized particles are formed by a cluster-by-cluster deposition mechanism. These particles do not adhere strongly to the SAM surface and can be easily removed. SIMS and XPS analyses indicate that the larger needle-like crystals and micrometer-sized particles are composed of oxidized lead sulfide and lead oxides, while the nanocrystals are composed of ≥85% PbS. Using sonication-assisted CBD, we demonstrate that PbS is deposited by ion-by-ion growth alone on -COOH-terminated SAMs. The deposited film is more compact with a smaller grain size and is >90% PbS. PMID:24854067

  5. Structural heterogeneity and dynamics in liquid PbSiO3: insight from analysis and visualization of molecular dynamics data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, N. V.; Hong, N. V.; Hung, P. K.; Huy, N. V.

    2015-06-01

    The structure and dynamics of liquid lead silicate (PbSiO3) are investigated by molecular dynamics simulation with the pair potentials. The models of PbSiO3 consisting of 5000 atoms (1000 Pb, 1000 Si, and 3000 O atoms) are constructed at 3200 K and in a 0-35 GPa pressure range. The local structure, polymorphism, and dynamics in liquid PbSiO3 are investigated through pair radial distribution function, coordination distribution, topology structure of basic structural units, and mean square displacement. Short-range order (SRO) and intermediate-range order (IRO) are clarified by visualization of simulated data. The local environment around Pb+2 and Si+4 ions, the network structure of SiOx (x = 4, 5, 6) and PbOn (n = 3 - 9) polyhedra, and the correlation between structure and dynamics, as well as their change under compression, are also discussed in detail.

  6. Anthropogenic Pb input into Bohai Bay, China: Evidence from stable Pb isotopic compositions in sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning-jing, Hu; Peng, Huang; Hui, Zhang; Ai-mei, Zhu; Ji-hua, Liu; Jun, Zhang; Lian-hua, He

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the source of Pb within Bohai Bay, Pb concentrations and Pb isotopic compositions (204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, and 208Pb) of surface sediments in this area were determined. The Pb concentration in this bay varied widely from 6.9 to 39.2 μg/g (average: 21.8±7.8 μg/g), and the Pb isotopic compositions ranged from 0.8338 to 0.8864 (average: 2.0997±0.0180) for 208Pb/206Pb and from 2.0797 to 2.1531 (average: 0.8477±0.0135) for 207Pb/206Pb, presenting in three distinct clusters. The Pb isotopic ratios of sediments from the northeastern (NE zone) and northwestern (NW zone) coastal areas were significantly influenced by anthropogenic sources such as coal combustion and automobile emission. In sediments from the central and southern Bohai Bay (C-S zone); however, Pb mainly originated from the Yellow River catchment, as a result of lithogenic sediment (from rock weathering) accumulation. The Pb isotopic ratios further indicate that, apart from riverine inputs, the neighboring large-scale ports and aerosols significantly contributed to the anthropogenic Pb contained in these sediments. Pb contamination in the Haihe and Luanhe river mouths as well as in the regions near ports is also suggested from anthropogenic enrichment factors. As cities and ports continue to develop around Bohai Bay, a long-term extensive sewage monitoring program is highly recommended.

  7. Reducing Pb poisoning in birds and Pb exposure in game meat consumers: the dual benefit of effective Pb shot regulation.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Rafael; Vallverdú-Coll, Núria; López-Antia, Ana; Taggart, Mark A; Martínez-Haro, Monica; Guitart, Raimon; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E

    2014-02-01

    The use of lead (Pb) ammunition in the form of shot pellets has been identified as a Pb exposure risk in wildlife and their human consumers. We explore the hypothesis that Pb shot ban enforcement reduces the risk of avian Pb poisoning as well as Pb exposure in game meat consumers. We assessed compliance with a partial ban on Pb shot commencing in 2003 by examination of 937 waterbirds harvested by hunters between 2007 and 2012 in the Ebro delta (Spain). Prevalence of Pb shot ingestion was determined, as were Pb concentrations in liver and muscle tissue to evaluate the potential for Pb exposure in game meat consumers. Hunted birds with only embedded Pb shot (no steel) declined from 26.9% in 2007-08 to <2% over the following three hunting seasons after ban reinforcement. Pb shot ingestion in mallards decreased from a pre-ban value of 30.2% to 15.5% in the post-ban period. Liver Pb levels were predominantly defined by the presence of ingested shot, whereas muscle levels were defined by the presence of both ingested and embedded shot. Only 2.5% of mallard muscle tissue had Pb levels above European Union regulations for meat (0.1μg/g wet weight) in the 2008-09 season, when Pb shot ingestion prevalence was also at a minimum (5.1%). Effective restrictions in Pb ammunition use have a dual benefit since this reduces Pb exposure for game meat consumers due to embedded ammunition as well as reducing Pb poisoning in waterbirds. PMID:24309467

  8. The Interstellar Abundance of Lead: Experimental Oscillator Strengths for Pb II λ1203 and λ1433 and New Detections of Pb II in the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchey, Adam Michael; Heidarian, Negar; Irving, Richard E.; Federman, Steven R.; Ellis, David G.; Cheng, Song; Curtis, Larry J.; Furman, W. A.

    2015-08-01

    Accurate gas-phase abundances of ions in the interstellar medium may be obtained through the analysis of interstellar absorption lines, but only if the oscillator strengths (f-values) of the relevant transitions are well known. For dominant ions, comparison of the gas-phase abundance with the appropriate solar reference abundance yields the degree to which the element is incorporated into interstellar dust grains. Singly-ionized lead is the dominant form of this element in the neutral interstellar medium. However, while Pb II has several strong resonance lines in the ultraviolet, the f-values for these transitions are uncertain. Here, we present the first experimentally determined oscillator strengths for the Pb II transitions at 1203.6 Å and 1433.9 Å, obtained from lifetime measurements made using beam-foil techniques. We also present new detections of these lines in the interstellar medium from an analysis of archival spectra acquired by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Notably, our observations of the Pb II λ1203 line represent the first detection of this transition in interstellar gas. Our experimental f-values for the Pb II λ1203 and λ1433 transitions are consistent with recent theoretical results, including our own relativistic calculations, but are significantly smaller than previous values based on older calculations. For the Pb II λ1433 line, in particular, our new f-value yields an increase in the interstellar abundance of Pb of 0.43 dex over estimates based on the f-value listed by Morton. With our revised f-values, and with our new detections of Pb II λ1203 and λ1433, we find that the depletion of Pb onto interstellar grains is not nearly as severe as previously thought, and is very similar to the depletions seen for elements such as Zn and Sn, which have similar condensation temperatures.

  9. Measurement of J/ψ production in Pb—Pb and pp collisions at the LHC with the ALICE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliardi, Martino; ALICE Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) aims to study the behaviour of nuclear matter at high energy densities and the transition to Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP), expected to occur in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Quarkonia are important probes of nuclear matter and QGP, through the modification of their yield in the hot and dense medium formed in heavy ion collisions. Their measurement in pp collisions is also crucial to the ALICE physics program. ALICE measures quarkonium production at both forward (in the dimuon channel) and mid-rapidity (in the dielectron channel). In 2010 and 2011 the Large Hadron Collider has provided pp collisions at TeV and 2.76 TeV and Pb-Pb collisions at TeV. The ALICE results on J/ψ production in both Pb-Pb and pp collisions are presented.

  10. Mechanism of Pb Adsorption to Fatty Acid Langmuir Monolayers Studied by X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Boyanov, M.I.; Kmetko, J.; Shibata, T.; Datta, A.; Dutta, P.; Bunker, B.A.

    2010-09-30

    The local atomic environment of lead (Pb) adsorbed to a CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 19}COOH Langmuir monolayer was investigated in situ using grazing-incidence X-ray absorption fine structure (GI-XAFS) spectroscopy at the Pb L{sub III} edge. Measurements were performed at pH 6.5 of the 10{sup -5} M PbCl{sub 2} solution subphase, a condition under which grazing incidence diffraction (GID) revealed a large-area commensurate superstructure underneath the close-packed organic monolayer. The XAFS results indicate covalent binding of the Pb cations to the carboxyl headgroups, and the observed Pb-Pb coordination suggests that the metal is adsorbed as a hydrolysis polymer, rather than as individual Pb{sup 2+} ions. The data are consistent with a bidentate chelating mechanism and a one Pb atom to one carboxyl headgroup binding stoichiometry. We discuss how this adsorption model can explain the peculiarities observed with Pb in previous metal-Langmuir monolayer studies. A systematic study of lead perchlorate and lead acetate aqueous solutions is presented and used in the analysis. XAFS multiple scattering effects from alignment of the Pb-C-C atoms in the lead acetate solutions are reported.