Sample records for 345-kv transmission tie

  1. Anomalous terahertz transmission in bow-tie plasmonic antenna apertures

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma State University

    -developed lithographic processing allows for precise control over the dimen- sions of the microstructured bow-tie unitAnomalous terahertz transmission in bow-tie plasmonic antenna apertures Yuping Yang,1,2 Ranjan remains unspecified, particularly when it is much greater than the width of the bow-tie unit cell. Also

  2. Tied Up

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St-Laurent ties up to the Coast Guard Cutter Healy in the Arctic Ocean Sept. 5, 2009. The two ships are taking part in a multi-year, multi-agency Arctic survey that will help define the Arctic continental shelf....

  3. Environmental Assessment for Central Power and Light Company`s proposed Military Highway-CFE tie 138/69-kV transmission line project Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Central Power and Light Company (CPL) intends to upgrade its existing transmission line ties with the Commision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) system in Mexico. CPL currently has a single 69-kilovolt (kV) transmission line in the Brownsville area which connects CPL`s system with the system of CFE. This existing line runs between the Brownsville Switching Station, located on Laredo Road in Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas, and an existing CFE 69-kV line at the Rusteberg Bend of the Rio Grande in Cameron County. Under current conditions of need, the existing 69-kV line does not possess sufficient capability to engage in appropriate power exchanges. Therefore, CPL is proposing to build a new line to link up with CFE. This proposed line would be a double-circuit line, which would (1) continue (on a slightly relocated route) the existing 69-kV tie from CPL`s Brownsville Switching Station to CFE`s facilities, and (2) add a 138-kV tie from the Military Highway Substation, located on Military Highway (US Highway 281), to CFE`s facilities. The proposed 138/69-kV line, which will be constructed and operated by CPL, will be built primarily on steel single-pole structures within an average 60-foot (ft) wide right-of-way (ROW). It will be approximately 6900--9200 ft (1.3--1.7 miles) in length, depending on the alternative route constructed.

  4. Tree-Ties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresczyk, Rick

    Created to help students understand how plants were used for food, for medicine, and for arts and crafts among the Ojibwe (Chippewa) Indians, the game Tree-Ties combines earth and social sciences within a specific culture. The game requires mutual respect, understanding, and agreement to succeed. Sounding like the word "treaties", the title is a…

  5. Transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sugano

    1988-01-01

    A transmission is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output shaft; a first planetary gear set including a first sun gear selectively connectable by a first clutch to the input shaft, a first carrier selectively connectable by a second clutch to the input shaft and a first ring gear connected to the output shaft. The first sun gear

  6. Evolution of the USANZ tie.

    PubMed

    Webb, David R; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2011-04-01

    •?The Urological Society of Australia and New Zealand (USANZ) tie represents the dual nationality of the society, the ancient history of urology, and the continuing development of urology in Australia and New Zealand. •?The earliest badge of the Urological Society of Australasia (USA) was a cartoon depiction of the cystoscopic view of a prostate from the urethra. The inception of the USANZ tie began with the borrowing of the crest of the newly granted USA coat of arms (lynx holding an exploratorium) as the logo for the USA Annual Scientific Meeting Tie in 1988. This tie was adopted de facto as the USA Society Tie; it became the template for subsequent scientific meeting ties, from which the formal USANZ tie design was adapted in 2006, to coincide with and mark the new society name, from the USA to the USANZ. This paper traces the evolution of the USANZ tie. PMID:21492368

  7. Transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Sugano, K.

    1988-12-27

    A transmission is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output shaft; a first planetary gear set including a first sun gear selectively connectable by a first clutch to the input shaft, a first carrier selectively connectable by a second clutch to the input shaft and a first ring gear connected to the output shaft. The first sun gear selectively held stationary by a first brake, the first carrier is allowed to rotate in the same forward direction as the input shaft when the second clutch is engaged, but prevented from rotating in a reverse direction opposite to the forward direction by a first one-way clutch, the first carrier being selectively held stationary by a second brake; a second planetary gear set including a second sun gear connected to the input shaft, a second carrier connected to the first ring gear and also the the output shaft, and a second ring gear.

  8. Drum tie-down apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Harvey E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A drum tie-down apparatus for securing drum-like containers in an upright position to a floor or platform of a transportation vehicle having spaced apart cargo tie-down points. The apparatus comprises a pair of cylindrical, hollow tube segments horizontally oriented and engageable with a drum lid adjacent opposite rim edges, flexible strap segments for connecting upper and lower central portions of the tube segments together across the drum lid and a pair of elongated flexible tie-down segments, one extending horizontally through each of the tube segments, the ends thereof being attached to said spaced apart tie-down points such that end portions of the pair of tie-down segments extend downwardly and radially outwardly from the tube segments to the tie-down points.

  9. Ease of tying arthroscopic knots.

    PubMed

    Baumgarten, Keith M; Wright, Rick W

    2007-01-01

    To date, there is no comprehensive study that determines which arthroscopic knots are easiest to learn to tie. In this study, 23 surgeons in training graded 10 arthroscopic knots with regard to ease of learning and tying using a 10-cm visual analog scale for No. 2 Ethibond and No. 1 polydioxanone (PDS) II suture. Statistical analysis was performed with analysis of variance and the Tukey Studentized range (HSD) test for post hoc analysis with a significant value of P < .05. The Tennessee slider, Duncan loop, Revo knot, and Nicky's knot were the easiest knots to tie by use of both Ethibond and PDS suture. The Field knot and double-twist knot were consistently the hardest knots to tie. Knots tied with Ethibond were easier to tie than knots tied with PDS. Novice surgeons should consider using the Revo knot when developing their arthroscopic knot-tying skills. Once they have mastered this knot, they can consider adding more difficult knots to their repertoire. PMID:17507243

  10. Telescopes in Education (TIE)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The collaborative Telescopes in Education (TIE) program, sponsored by NASA, lets students around the world operate a remotely controlled telescope and charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. Using a science-grade 24-inch reflecting telescope located at the Mount Wilson Observatory in of Southern California, a modem, and special software, students in the U.S., Australia, Canada, England, and Japan have learned about astronomy, astrophysics, and mathematics. With the purchase of The Sky: Remote Astronomy Software which controls the telescope, educators and students can reserve observation time on the telescope for any evening of the week lasting from one hour to an entire night. The website provides more information on how to obtain the software, system requirements, an online users guide, and current weather conditions on Mount Wilson. Unfortunately, the webcam didn't work at the time the site was reviewed, yet the online photo Gallery provides some lovely images taken using the CCD camera. The project also provides a large listing of other educational links, including one to another educational telescope in Australia, called Nanango.

  11. Social ties and mental health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ichiro Kawachi; Lisa F. Berkman

    2001-01-01

    It is generally agreed that social ties play a beneficial role in the maintenance of psychological well-being. In this targeted\\u000a review, we highlight four sets of insights that emerge from the literature on social ties and mental health outcomes (defined\\u000a as stress reactions, psychological well-being, and psychological distress, including depressive symptoms and anxiety). First,\\u000a the pathways by which social networks

  12. Dynamic stiffness as an acoustic specification parameter for wall ties used in masonry cavity walls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Hopkins; R Wilson; R. J. M Craik

    1999-01-01

    One of the factors affecting the acoustic performance of masonry cavity walls is the type of wall tie used in the construction. The dynamic stiffness parameter allows wall ties of equivalent dynamic stiffness to be identified without involving other variables involved in laboratory airborne sound transmission across masonry cavity wall constructions such as cavity damping and structural coupling at the

  13. PREDICTING TIE STRENGTH WITH SOCIAL MEDIA

    E-print Network

    Karahalios, Karrie G.

    PREDICTING TIE STRENGTH WITH SOCIAL MEDIA Eric Gilbert & Karrie Karahalios University of Illinois TSOWT firms with right mix of ties get better deals strong ties can affect mental health #12;TIE, STRUCTURAL, EMOTIONAL SUPPORT and SOCIAL DISTANCE. As manifested in social media, can these dimensions

  14. Sub-state Tying in Tied Mixture Hidden Markov Models Liang Gu and Kenneth Rose

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    Sub-state Tying in Tied Mixture Hidden Markov Models Liang Gu and Kenneth Rose Department is proposed for partial tying of states of tied- mixture hidden Markov models. To facilitate tying at the sub- state level, the state emission probabilities are constructed in two stages, or equivalently, are viewed

  15. Draft environmental impact statement for construction and operation of the proposed Bangor Hydro-Electric Company`s second 345-kV transmission tie line to New Brunswick

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-10-01

    This Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) was prepared by the US Department of Energy (US DOE). The proposed action is the issuance of Presidential Permit PP-89 by DOE to Bangor Hydro-Electric Company to construct and operate a new international transmission line interconnection to New Brunswick, Canada that would consist of an 83.8 mile (US portion), 345-kilovolt (kV) alternating current transmission line from the US-Canadian border at Baileyville, Maine to an existing substation at Orrington, Maine. The principal environmental impacts of the construction and operation of the transmission line would be incremental in nature and would include the conversion of forested uplands (mostly commercial timberlands) and wetlands to right-of-way (small trees, shrubs, and herbaceous vegetation). The proposed line would also result in localized minor to moderate visual impacts and would contribute a minor incremental increase in the exposure of some individuals to electromagnetic fields. This DEIS documents the purpose and need for the proposed action, describes the proposed action and alternatives considered and provides a comparison of the proposed and alternatives routes, and provides detailed information on analyses of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and alternatives, as well as mitigative measures to minimize impacts.

  16. Hypoxia reduces endothelial Ang1-induced Tie2 activity in a Tie1-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jang-Hyuk; Lee, Hwan Myung; Lee, Eun Hui; Park, Jong-Wan; Cho, Chung-Hyun

    2013-07-12

    Despite the altered expression of Tie receptors and angiopoietin ligands during hypoxic conditions, the effect of hypoxia on Tie-mediated endothelial responses has not been elucidated. In this study, we found that hypoxia increased Tie receptor expression but attenuated angiopoietin-1 (Ang1)-induced Tie2 activity, including Tie2 phosphorylation, Tie2 downstream signaling activation, and endothelial cell tube formation. However, Ang1 binding to endothelial cells was increased during hypoxic conditions. We demonstrated that Tie1 suppression restored the Tie2 activity and that Tie1-mediated Tie2 suppression was independent of tyrosine phosphatase activity. These results suggest that under hypoxic conditions, Tie1 is critical for reducing Ang1-induced Tie2 activity and angiogenesis. PMID:23770419

  17. Do tongue ties affect breastfeeding?

    PubMed

    Griffiths, D Mervyn

    2004-11-01

    This study assessed indications for and safety and outcome of simple division of tongue tie without an anesthetic. There were 215 infants younger than 3 months (mean 0-19 days) who had major problems breastfeeding, despite professional support. Symptoms, tongue tie details, safety of division, and complications were recorded. Feeding was assessed by the mothers immediately, at 24 hours, and 3 months after division. Prior to division, 88% had difficulty latching, 77% of mothers experienced nipple trauma, and 72% had a continuous feeding cycle. During division, 18% slept throughout; 60% cried more after division (mean 0-15 seconds). There were no significant complications. Within 24 hours, 80% were feeding better. Overall, 64% breastfed for at least 3 months (UK national average is 30%). Initial assessment, diagnosis, and help, followed by division and subsequent support by a qualified lactation consultant, might ensure that even more mothers and infants benefit from breastfeeding. PMID:15479660

  18. Minimizing knot tying during reconstructive laparoscopic urology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arieh L. Shalhav; Marcelo A. Orvieto; Gary W. Chien; Albert A. Mikhail; Gregory P. Zagaja; Kevin C. Zorn

    2006-01-01

    ObjectivesIntracorporeal knot tying during urologic reconstructive surgery is one of the most technically challenging skills of laparoscopic surgery. We describe our experience using the Lapra-Ty clip to substitute for knot tying.

  19. Distinct roles of the receptor tyrosine kinases Tie1 and Tie2 in blood vessel formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas N. Sato; Yuzuru Tozawa; Urban Deutsch; Karen Wolburg-Buchholz; Yuko Fujiwara; Maureen Gendron-Maguire; Thomas Gridley; Hartwig Wolburg; Werner Risau; Ying Qin

    1995-01-01

    TIE-1 and Tie-2 define a new class of receptor tyrosine kinases that are specifically expressed in developing vascular endothelial cells. To study the functions of Tie-1 and Tie-2 during vascular endothelial cell growth and differentiation in vivo, targeted mutations of the genes in mice were introduced by homologous recombination. Embryos deficient in Tie-1 failed to establish structural integrity of vascular

  20. James (Jim) Watson wearing his RNA Tie Club tieSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-03-26

    Jim Watson in Moscow at the International Biochemical Congress, 1961, wearing his RNA Tie Club tie. RNA Tie Club members were united by their ties as well as a desir to understand the role of RNA in protein synthesis.

  1. Dielectric bow-tie nanocavity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qijing; Shu, Fang-Jie; Zou, Chang-Ling

    2013-12-15

    We propose a novel dielectric bow-tie (DBT) nanocavity consisting of two opposing tip-to-tip triangle semiconductor nanowires, whose end faces are coated by silver nanofilms. Based on the advantages of the dielectric slot and tip structures, and the high reflectivity of the silver mirror, light can be confined in this nanocavity with low loss. We demonstrate that at 4.5 K (300 K) around the resonance wavelength of 1550 nm, the mode excited in this nanocavity has a deep subwavelength mode volume of 2.8×10(-4) ?m³ and a high quality factor of 4.9×10(4) (401.3), corresponding to an ultrahigh Purcell factor of 1.6×10(7) (1.36×10(5)). This DBT nanocavity may find applications for integrated nanophotonic circuits, such as high-efficiency single photon sources, thresholdless nanolasers, and strong coupling in cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments. PMID:24322245

  2. The relationship between discrimination and high-risk social ties by race/ethnicity: examining social pathways of HIV risk.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Natalie D; Galea, Sandro; Ford, Chandra L; Latkin, Carl; Link, Bruce G; Fuller, Crystal

    2014-02-01

    High-risk social ties portend differences in opportunity for HIV exposures and may contribute to racial/ethnic disparities in HIV transmission. Discrimination may affect the formation of high-risk social ties and has not been explored as a possible explanation for these persistent disparities. Using data from injection and non-injection drug users, we examined the association between the number of high-risk sex and drug ties with discrimination due to race, drug use, and incarceration stratified by race/ethnicity. Negative binomial regression models were used. While blacks had significantly fewer injecting ties than Latinos and whites, blacks who reported racial discrimination compared to blacks who did not, had more sex and injecting ties. Latinos who reported drug use discrimination compared to Latinos who did not also had more sex ties. Latinos and whites who reported drug use discrimination had more injecting ties than Latinos and whites who did not. Discrimination is associated with high-risk social ties among all racial/ethnic groups. But, these data highlight different forms of discrimination within racial/ethnic group are associated with risky social ties. More research is needed to confirm these findings and further explore the association between various forms of discrimination and social ties that may help explain racial/ethnic disparities in HIV. PMID:23749458

  3. Tie strength distribution in scientific collaboration networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Qing; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2014-09-01

    Science is increasingly dominated by teams. Understanding patterns of scientific collaboration and their impacts on the productivity and evolution of disciplines is crucial to understand scientific processes. Electronic bibliography offers a unique opportunity to map and investigate the nature of scientific collaboration. Recent studies have demonstrated a counterintuitive organizational pattern of scientific collaboration networks: densely interconnected local clusters consist of weak ties, whereas strong ties play the role of connecting different clusters. This pattern contrasts itself from many other types of networks where strong ties form communities while weak ties connect different communities. Although there are many models for collaboration networks, no model reproduces this pattern. In this paper, we present an evolution model of collaboration networks, which reproduces many properties of real-world collaboration networks, including the organization of tie strengths, skewed degree and weight distribution, high clustering, and assortative mixing.

  4. On the Nature, Modeling, and Neural Bases of Social Ties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Ridderinkhof; Mirre Stallen

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the nature, formalization, and neural bases of (affective) social ties and discusses the relevance of ties for health economics. A social tie is defined as an affective weight attached by an individual to the well-being of another individual (?utility interdependence?). Ties can be positive or negative, and symmetric or asymmetric between individuals. Characteristic of a social tie,

  5. 49 CFR 213.123 - Tie plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...track no metal object which causes a concentrated load by solely supporting a rail shall be allowed between the base of the rail and the bearing surface of the tie plate. This paragraph (b) is applicable September 21,...

  6. Predicting social ties in mobile phone networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huiqi Zhang; Ram Dantu

    2010-01-01

    A social network dynamically changes since the social relationships (social ties) change over time. The evolution of a social network mainly depends on the evolution of the social relationships. The social-tie strengths of person-to-person are different one another even though they are in the same group. In this paper we investigate the evolution of person-to-person social relationships, quantify and predict

  7. Software With Strong Ties to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    TieFlow is a simple but powerful business process improvement solution. It can automate and simplify any generic or industry-specific work process, helping organizations to transform work inefficiencies and internal operations involving people, paper, and procedures into a streamlined, well-organized, electronicbased process. TieFlow increases business productivity by improving process cycle times. The software can expedite generic processes in the areas of product design and development, purchase orders, expense reports, benefits enrollment, budgeting, hiring, and sales. It can also shore up vertical market processes such as claims processing, loan application and processing, health care administration, contract management, and advertising agency traffic. The processes can be easily and rapidly captured in a graphical manner and enforced together with rules pertaining to assignments that need to be performed. Aside from boosting productivity, TieFlow also reduces organizational costs and errors. TieFlow was developed with Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) assistance from Johnson. The SBIR support entitles all Federal Government agencies to utilize the TieFlow software technology free of charge. Tietronix emphasizes that TieFlow is an outstanding workflow resource that could produce dramatic productivity and cost improvements for all agencies, just as it has done and continues to do for NASA. The Space Agency is currently using the software throughout several mission-critical offices, including the Mission Operations Directorate and the Flight Director s Office, for worldwide participation of authorized users in NASA processes. At the Flight Director s Office, TieFlow allows personnel to electronically submit and review changes to the flight rules carried out during missions.

  8. The navigability of strong ties: Small worlds, tie strength, and network topology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas R. White; Michael Houseman

    2002-01-01

    We examine data on and models of small world properties and parameters of social networks. Our focus, on tie -strength, multilevel networks and searchability in strong -tie social networks, allows us to extend some of the questions and findings of recent research and the fit of small world models to sociological and anthropological data on human communities. We offer a

  9. Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Kenneth J.; Boboltz, David; Fey, Alan Lee; Gaume, Ralph A.; Zacharias, Norbert

    2004-01-01

    The Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects Key Science program will investigate the underlying physics of SIM grid objects. Extragalactic objects in the SIM grid will be used to tie the SIM reference frame to the quasi-inertial reference frame defined by extragalactic objects and to remove any residual frame rotation with respect to the extragalactic frame. The current realization of the extragalactic frame is the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The ICRF is defined by the radio positions of 212 extragalactic objects and is the IAU sanctioned fundamental astronomical reference frame. This key project will advance our knowledge of the physics of the objects which will make up the SIM grid, such as quasars and chromospherically active stars, and relates directly to the stability of the SIM reference frame. The following questions concerning the physics of reference frame tie objects will be investigated.

  10. TIE: An Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    ?mieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jaros?aw; Stolarski, Maciej S.

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions. PMID:25072656

  11. Expression of Tie1 and Tie2 Proteins during Reendothelialization in Balloon-Injured Rat Carotid Artery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koshi Fujikawa; Eleonora Presman; Jeffrey M. Isner; Lyuba Varticovski

    1999-01-01

    The novel endothelial cell tyrosine kinase receptors, Tie1 and Tie2, are essential for vascular development and remodeling in the embryo but little is known regarding the regulation of their expression and their role in the maintenance and repair of the adult vascular system. We examined the expression of Tie1 and Tie2 in normal vessels and during reendothelialization following balloon injury

  12. Strut-and-Tie Resources Web Site

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tjhin, Tjen

    This Web site of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Civil Engineering Department provides a number of educational modules on the strut-and-tie method (STM) of modeling compression and tension forces in concrete. Some historical background on the method is given, followed by an explanation of the model elements and design process. Five examples that demonstrate different scenarios incorporating STM are shown. A graphical design tool software package developed at Illinois, called Computer Aided Strut-and-Tie, can be downloaded for free.

  13. Petty 'Crimes' Sometimes Tied to Dementia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... please enable JavaScript. Petty 'Crimes' Sometimes Tied to Dementia Thefts, traffic violations may be first signs of ... January 8, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Alzheimer's Caregivers Alzheimer's Disease Dementia THURSDAY, Jan. 8, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Some ...

  14. Predicting tie strength with social media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Gilbert; Karrie Karahalios

    2009-01-01

    Social media treats all users the same: trusted friend or total stranger, with little or nothing in between. In reality, rela- tionships fall everywhere along this spectrum, a topic social science has investigated for decades under the theme of tie strength. Our work bridges this gap between theory and practice. In this paper, we present a predictive model that maps

  15. Coupling Human Mobility and Social Ties

    E-print Network

    Toole, Jameson L; Schneider, Christian M; Gonzalez, Marta C

    2015-01-01

    Studies using massive, passively data collected from communication technologies have revealed many ubiquitous aspects of social networks, helping us understand and model social media, information diffusion, and organizational dynamics. More recently, these data have come tagged with geographic information, enabling studies of human mobility patterns and the science of cities. We combine these two pursuits and uncover reproducible mobility patterns amongst social contacts. First, we introduce measures of mobility similarity and predictability and measure them for populations of users in three large urban areas. We find individuals' visitations patterns are far more similar to and predictable by social contacts than strangers and that these measures are positively correlated with tie strength. Unsupervised clustering of hourly variations in mobility similarity identifies three categories of social ties and suggests geography is an important feature to contextualize social relationships. We find that the composi...

  16. Real Time Pricing Tie Line Control: A Case Study

    E-print Network

    Childress, R.

    A Tie Line Control System maintains the purchase quantity of electrical energy an industrial facility buys from a utility company. Implementing an advanced Tie Line Control system automates the buy versus make decision process for an industrial...

  17. Modeling Social Ties and Household Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Sara S.

    2013-01-01

    Underlying the aggregate phenomena of persistent problems such as urban sprawl and spatial socio-economic disparity is the individual choice of where to live. This study develops an agent-based model to simulate social and economic influences on neighborhood choice. With Danville, Illinois as an empirical context, a pattern-oriented approach is employed to examine the role of social ties in shaping intra-urban household mobility. In the model, household agents decide whether and where to relocate within the community based upon factors such as neighborhood attractiveness, affordability, and the density of a household's social network in the prospective block group. Social network and neighborhood choices are encoded with logit utility functions. The relative influence of factors affecting the formation of social ties in the simulated social network, such as geographic proximity, similarity of income, race, and presence of children, are adjusted using parameter variation to create alternative model settings. Simulated migration patterns resulting from different network and neighborhood choice coefficients are compared with observed migration patterns over a two-year period. Based upon 1000 simulation experiments, a regression of homeowner migration error (the difference between simulated and observed migration) relative to the parameter settings revealed components of social network choice such as income, race, and probability of local ties to be significant in matching observed migration patterns. A non-linear effect of simulated social networks on household mobility and thus migration error was exhibited in this study. PMID:25035520

  18. Suicide: the key role of short range ties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bertrand M. Roehner

    2005-01-01

    The paper explores the connection between short-range social ties (i.e. links with close relatives) and the occurrence of suicide. The objective is to discriminate between a model based on social ties and a model based on psychological traumas. Our methodological strategy is to focus on instances characterized by the severance of some social ties. We consider several situations of this

  19. Chord, Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Detail in Plan; Crossbracing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord, Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Detail in Plan; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail in Plan; Chord Joining Detail in Plan & Elevation; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar, & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail in Section; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar & Horizontal Brace Joint Detail - Narrows Bridge, Spanning Sugar Creek at Old County Road 280 East, Marshall, Parke County, IN

  20. Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    A grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. Operating costs of a PV power system are low compared to conventional power technologies. This method can displace the highest-cost electricity during times of peak demand in most climatic regions, and thus reduce grid loading. Net metering is often used, in which independent power producers such as PV power systems are connected to the utility grid via the customers main service panels and meters. When the PV power system is generating more power than required at that location, the excess power is provided to the utility grid. The customer pays the net of the power purchased when the on-site power demand is greater than the onsite power production, and the excess power is returned to the utility grid. Power generated by the PV system reduces utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical, with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics have been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy equal to the modern PV panels. The grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed, and this served to validate the basic principles developed, and the theoretical work that was performed. Grid-tied PV power systems are reliable, maintenance- free, long-life power systems, and are of significant value to NASA and the community. Of particular value are the analytical tools and capabilities that have been successfully developed. Performance predictions can be made confidently for grid-tied PV systems of various scales. The work was done under the NASA Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program, which is the integration of diverse power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications.

  1. Coupling human mobility and social ties.

    PubMed

    Toole, Jameson L; Herrera-Yaqüe, Carlos; Schneider, Christian M; González, Marta C

    2015-04-01

    Studies using massive, passively collected data from communication technologies have revealed many ubiquitous aspects of social networks, helping us understand and model social media, information diffusion and organizational dynamics. More recently, these data have come tagged with geographical information, enabling studies of human mobility patterns and the science of cities. We combine these two pursuits and uncover reproducible mobility patterns among social contacts. First, we introduce measures of mobility similarity and predictability and measure them for populations of users in three large urban areas. We find individuals' visitations patterns are far more similar to and predictable by social contacts than strangers and that these measures are positively correlated with tie strength. Unsupervised clustering of hourly variations in mobility similarity identifies three categories of social ties and suggests geography is an important feature to contextualize social relationships. We find that the composition of a user's ego network in terms of the type of contacts they keep is correlated with mobility behaviour. Finally, we extend a popular mobility model to include movement choices based on social contacts and compare its ability to reproduce empirical measurements with two additional models of mobility. PMID:25716185

  2. Strong Ties, Weak Ties, and Human Capital: Latino Immigrant Employment outside the Enclave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffer, Max J.; Parra, Pilar A.

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the role of social ties and human capital in the integration of Latino immigrants into the local economy. This analysis extends earlier research by focusing on more rural contexts with limited labor-market opportunities and less access to social resources provided by coethnics. We reconsider conclusions of previous studies by…

  3. Failure of expansion joint tie rods -- Impact on bellows integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.L.; Miller, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Expansion joints are used in piping systems to accomodate pipe deflections during service and to facilitate fitup. Often, tie rods are employed to limit the range of axial deflection. Additional restraint against excessive displacement can be provided by the surrounding pipe and associated supports. This paper presents a methodology that was employed to estimate the consequences of tie rod failure. Of particular interest is whether tie rod failure can lead to sufficient displacement as to cause bellows rupture.

  4. Failure of expansion joint tie rods -- Impact on bellows integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.L.; Miller, R.F.

    1992-12-31

    Expansion joints are used in piping systems to accomodate pipe deflections during service and to facilitate fitup. Often, tie rods are employed to limit the range of axial deflection. Additional restraint against excessive displacement can be provided by the surrounding pipe and associated supports. This paper presents a methodology that was employed to estimate the consequences of tie rod failure. Of particular interest is whether tie rod failure can lead to sufficient displacement as to cause bellows rupture.

  5. Suicide: the key role of short range ties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bertrand M. Roehner

    2005-01-01

    The paper explores the connection between short-range social ties (i.e. links\\u000awith close relatives) and the occurrence of suicide. The objective is to\\u000adiscriminate between a model based on social ties and a model based on\\u000apsychological traumas. Our methodological strategy is to focus on instances\\u000acharacterized by the severance of some social ties. We consider several\\u000asituations of this

  6. Tie Trees Generated by Distance Methods of Phylogenetic Reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoko Takezaki

    In examining genetic data in recent publications, Backeljau et al. showed cases in which two or more different trees (tie trees) were constructed from a single data set for the neighbor-joining (NJ) method and the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). However, it is still unclear how often and under what conditions tie trees are generated. Therefore, I

  7. WIDEBAND BOW-TIE SLOT ANTENNA WITH TUNING STUBS

    E-print Network

    Elsherbeni, Atef Z.

    stub to a bow-tie slot antenna design to enhance the antenna bandwidth for X-band operation. Our study the commercial computer software package, Momentum of Agilent Technologies, Advanced Design System (ADS antenna that has wideband characteristics. A number of bow-tie slot designs are introduced in [8

  8. The Leverage Theory of Tying Revisited: Evidence from Newspaper Advertising

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret E. Slade

    1998-01-01

    Data from the Canadian newspaper-advertising industry is used to assess the private profitability of tying in a market where the standard efficiency motives (e.g., price discrimination, cost saving, and quality control) are unlikely to apply. The empirical assessment is based on a model of leveraging in which suppliers of the tied good are paid a commission rather than a fee

  9. Evolution of Bow-Tie Architectures in Biology

    PubMed Central

    Friedlander, Tamar; Mayo, Avraham E.; Tlusty, Tsvi; Alon, Uri

    2015-01-01

    Bow-tie or hourglass structure is a common architectural feature found in many biological systems. A bow-tie in a multi-layered structure occurs when intermediate layers have much fewer components than the input and output layers. Examples include metabolism where a handful of building blocks mediate between multiple input nutrients and multiple output biomass components, and signaling networks where information from numerous receptor types passes through a small set of signaling pathways to regulate multiple output genes. Little is known, however, about how bow-tie architectures evolve. Here, we address the evolution of bow-tie architectures using simulations of multi-layered systems evolving to fulfill a given input-output goal. We find that bow-ties spontaneously evolve when the information in the evolutionary goal can be compressed. Mathematically speaking, bow-ties evolve when the rank of the input-output matrix describing the evolutionary goal is deficient. The maximal compression possible (the rank of the goal) determines the size of the narrowest part of the network—that is the bow-tie. A further requirement is that a process is active to reduce the number of links in the network, such as product-rule mutations, otherwise a non-bow-tie solution is found in the evolutionary simulations. This offers a mechanism to understand a common architectural principle of biological systems, and a way to quantitate the effective rank of the goals under which they evolved. PMID:25798588

  10. Broadband millimeter-wave GaAs transmitters and receivers using planar bow-tie antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konishi, Y.; Kamegawa, M.; Case, M.; Yu, R.; Rodwell, M. J. W.; York, R. A.; Rutledge, D. B.

    1992-01-01

    We report broadband monolithic transmitters and receivers IC's for mm-wave electromagnetic measurements. The IC's use nonlinear transmission lines (NLTL) and sampling circuits as picosecond pulse generators and detectors. The pulses are radiated and received by planar monolithic bow-tie antennas, collimated with silicon substrate lenses and off-axis parabolic reflectors. Through Fourier transformation of the received pulse, 30-250 GHz free space gain-frequency measurements are demonstrated with an accuracy approximately = 0.17 dB, RMS.

  11. Sound Transmission Through Dry Lined Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R.; Craik, R. J. M.

    1996-05-01

    Sound transmission through a double wall with a masonry leaf and a lightweight leaf is examined by using statistical energy analysis (SEA). Some of the theory necessary to predict transmission is well documented and common to other forms of construction. Additional expressions are provided to account for transmission mechanisms specific to double walls. These are used in an SEA model to provide predicted data for comparison with measured results obtained from a wall tested in a transmission suite. Changes were made to the wall in order to examine the effect of placing absorbent quilt in the cavity and the effects of transmission across ties and battens bridging the cavity. The model generally gave good agreement with measured results and for each form of construction the important transmission paths were identified. These, though specific to the wall examined, do provide a general indication of the important transmission paths through this class of structure.

  12. Transmission assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Klazura, K.

    1990-08-28

    This paper discusses a transmission assembly. It comprises a first automatic transmission having a forward end adapted to be coupled to an internal combustion engine and a rearward end, the first automatic transmission including a drive shaft; a second automatic transmission having a forward end and a rearward end, and including a stator plate having a forward portion and a rearward portion. The stator plate located adjacent the forward end of the second automatic transmission, the drive shaft connecting the first automatic transmission in driving relation with the second automatic transmission; a coupling plate for connecting the rearward end of the first automatic transmission with the forward end of the second automatic transmission. The coupling plate rotatably supporting the drive shaft; and means for providing communication of pressurized transmission fluid between the first and second automatic transmissions.

  13. Design, simulation, and optimization of an on-chip bow-tie slot antenna using genetic algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Sedaghat-Pisheh; H. Aliakbarian; Z. Safarian; M. Shahabadi; C. Lucas

    2006-01-01

    Design, simulation, and optimization of a novel (extremely) broad-band coplanar waveguide (CPW)-fed on-chip antenna using genetic algorithm (GA) is presented. The antenna is of slot type and has the shape of a bow-tie with rounded truncation. It is designed on quartz coated silicon substrate and fed with 50 ohms CPW transmission line. Return loss of the antenna is less than

  14. Experience from first 100 tie-ins at Troll Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Halle, P.O.

    1996-12-31

    New, diverless tie-in equipment have been designed for the Troll Oil Field in the North Sea. Since 1992, engineering, manufacturing and testing have been done to achieve safe, simple and reliable offshore installation. The first pull-in and connections offshore were performed summer 1994. Summer 1995 approximately 100 diverless flowline and umbilical tie-ins were performed. In September 1995, the Troll Oil was set into production. This paper gives some of the experience from the extensive offshore tie-in operations using the Troll PICT (Pull-In and Connection Tool).

  15. 75 FR 34941 - Review of the Commission's Program Access Rules and Examination of Programming Tying Arrangements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ...and Examination of Programming Tying Arrangements AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission...and Examination of Programming Tying Arrangements, MB Docket No. 07-198, FCC 10-17...and Examination of Programming Tying Arrangements, MB Docket No. 07-198, FCC...

  16. Tie2 and Eph Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Activation and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Barton, William A.; Dalton, Annamarie C.; Seegar, Tom C.M.; Himanen, Juha P.; Nikolov, Dimitar B.

    2015-01-01

    The Eph and Tie cell surface receptors mediate a variety of signaling events during development and in the adult organism. As other receptor tyrosine kinases, they are activated on binding of extracellular ligands and their catalytic activity is tightly regulated on multiple levels. The Eph and Tie receptors display some unique characteristics, including the requirement of ligand-induced receptor clustering for efficient signaling. Interestingly, both Ephs and Ties can mediate different, even opposite, biological effects depending on the specific ligand eliciting the response and on the cellular context. Here we discuss the structural features of these receptors, their interactions with various ligands, as well as functional implications for downstream signaling initiation. The Eph/ephrin structures are already well reviewed and we only provide a brief overview on the initial binding events. We go into more detail discussing the Tie-angiopoietin structures and recognition. PMID:24478383

  17. Quality versus quantity of social ties in experimental cooperative networks

    PubMed Central

    Shirado, Hirokazu; Fu, Feng; Fowler, James H.; Christakis, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that allowing individuals to choose their partners can help to maintain cooperation in human social networks; this behaviour can supplement behavioural reciprocity, whereby humans are influenced to cooperate by peer pressure. However, it is unknown how the rate of forming and breaking social ties affects our capacity to cooperate. Here we use a series of online experiments involving 1,529 unique participants embedded in 90 experimental networks, to show that there is a ‘Goldilocks’ effect of network dynamism on cooperation. When the rate of change in social ties is too low, subjects choose to have many ties, even if they attach to defectors. When the rate is too high, cooperators cannot detach from defectors as much as defectors re-attach and, hence, subjects resort to behavioural reciprocity and switch their behaviour to defection. Optimal levels of cooperation are achieved at intermediate levels of change in social ties. PMID:24226079

  18. Pneumonia in Early Childhood Tied to Higher Odds of Asthma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in Early Childhood Tied to Higher Odds of Asthma Lung problems before age 3 may have enduring ... 2015) Friday, March 6, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Asthma in Children Lung Diseases Pneumonia FRIDAY, March 6, ...

  19. Abuse in Childhood Tied to Migraines in Adulthood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... please enable JavaScript. Abuse in Childhood Tied to Migraines in Adulthood Emotional or sexual maltreatment linked to ... December 24, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Child Abuse Migraine WEDNESDAY, Dec. 24, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Adults who ...

  20. Brain Protein Tied to Alzheimer's Spotted in Young Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Brain Protein Tied to Alzheimer's Spotted in Young Adults ... Alzheimer's Disease MONDAY, March 2, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Brain plaque buildup, long linked to the onset of ...

  1. E-Cigs Tied to Drinking, Other Risky Teen Behaviors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... E-Cigs Tied to Drinking, Other Risky Teen Behaviors Strong relationship to alcohol use, study finds (*this ... and are associated with drinking and other risky behaviors, a new study finds. "We found that e- ...

  2. TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATION (TIE) RESULTS FOR METAL CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identification of contaminants in sediment is necessary for sound management decisions on sediment disposal, remediation, determination of ecological risk, and source identification. We have been developing sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) techniques that allow ...

  3. Plastics Chemical Tied to Changes in Boys' Reproductive Development

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Plastics Chemical Tied to Changes in Boys' Reproductive Development Study links exposure in womb to condition that ... and animal studies to interfere with normal fetal development," he said. This study supports what has been ...

  4. Pesticides, Plastics Chemicals Tied to Earlier Menopause in Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pesticides, Plastics Chemicals Tied to Earlier Menopause in Women Research can' ... 28, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Extensive exposure to common chemicals appears to be linked to an earlier start ...

  5. Study Ties Hormone Therapy to Increased Ovarian Cancer Risk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Study Ties Hormone Therapy to Increased Ovarian Cancer Risk Overall increase ... 2015) Friday, February 13, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Hormone Replacement Therapy Menopause Ovarian Cancer THURSDAY, Feb. 12, ...

  6. Certain Allergy, Depression Meds Tied to Higher Odds for Dementia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Allergy, Depression Meds Tied to Higher Odds for Dementia Class of drugs interferes with a key brain ... Preidt Wednesday, February 4, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Dementia Medicines MONDAY, Jan. 26, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Long- ...

  7. Location Prediction in Social Media Based on Tie Strength

    E-print Network

    McGee, Jeffrey A

    2013-04-29

    We propose a novel network-based approach for location estimation in social media that integrates evidence of the social tie strength between users for improved location estimation. Concretely, we propose a location estimator – Friendly...

  8. 12 CFR 225.7 - Exceptions to tying restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED...FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING...restricts tying of electronic benefit transfer...may: (1) Extension to affiliates...practices. (d) Extension of statute to electronic benefit...

  9. 12 CFR 225.7 - Exceptions to tying restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED...FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING...restricts tying of electronic benefit transfer...may: (1) Extension to affiliates...practices. (d) Extension of statute to electronic benefit...

  10. 12 CFR 225.7 - Exceptions to tying restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED...FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED...restricts tying of electronic benefit transfer...may: (1) Extension to affiliates...practices. (d) Extension of statute to electronic benefit...

  11. 12 CFR 225.7 - Exceptions to tying restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED...FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING...restricts tying of electronic benefit transfer...may: (1) Extension to affiliates...practices. (d) Extension of statute to electronic benefit...

  12. 12 CFR 225.7 - Exceptions to tying restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED...FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED...restricts tying of electronic benefit transfer...may: (1) Extension to affiliates...practices. (d) Extension of statute to electronic benefit...

  13. Poor Sleep Tied to More Drinking, Drug Use by Teens

    MedlinePLUS

    ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Poor Sleep Tied to More Drinking, Drug Use by Teens ... 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Drugs and Young People Sleep Disorders Underage Drinking FRIDAY, Jan. 16, 2015 (HealthDay ...

  14. Asthma Tied to Higher Risk of Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePLUS

    ... enable JavaScript. Asthma Tied to Higher Risk of Sleep Apnea The longer a person had asthma, the ... Tuesday, January 13, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Asthma Sleep Apnea TUESDAY, Jan. 13, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Two ...

  15. Less Commonly Used Obesity Surgery Tied to More Weight Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Less Commonly Used Obesity Surgery Tied to More Weight Loss But study ... 2015) Thursday, February 5, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Obesity Surgery Weight Loss Surgery THURSDAY, Feb. 5, 2015 ( ...

  16. SUBSEA FABRICATION AND TIE-IN Wednesday, March 10, 2010

    E-print Network

    George, Glyn

    was awarded the fabrication of the subsea manifolds for the North Amethyst offshore oil development, operated by Husky Energy. North Amethyst will be tied in to the existing White Rose oil field, 350 kilometres off

  17. Smoking Tied to Higher Death Risk After Colon Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Smoking Tied to Higher Death Risk After Colon Cancer ... February 6, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Colorectal Cancer Smoking FRIDAY, Feb. 6, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking may ...

  18. Energy Drinks Tied to Inattention, Hyper Behavior in Middle Schoolers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Energy Drinks Tied to Inattention, Hyper Behavior in Middle ... Child Nutrition MONDAY, Feb. 9, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Energy drinks are linked to hyperactivity and inattention in ...

  19. DO TIE LABORATORY BASED ASSESSMENT METHODS REALLY PREDICT FIELD EFFECTS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) methods have been developed for both porewaters and whole sediments. These relatively simple laboratory methods are designed to identify specific toxicants or classes of toxicants in sediments; however, the question of whethe...

  20. DO TIE LABORATORY BASED METHODS REALLY REFLECT FIELD CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) methods have been developed for both interstitial waters and whole sediments. These relatively simple laboratory methods are designed to identify specific toxicants or classes of toxicants in sediments; however, the question ...

  1. Gene Mutations Tied to Leukemia Rise with Age, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Gene Mutations Tied to Leukemia Rise With Age, Study ... than 90, have blood cells with the same gene changes seen in leukemia. Just carrying a particular ...

  2. Ulcer Bacteria Tied to Lower Multiple Sclerosis Risk in Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ulcer Bacteria Tied to Lower Multiple Sclerosis Risk in Women ... 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Women who harbor the stomach bacteria Helicobacter pylori (or H. pylori ) may be less ...

  3. Family Ties, Physical Health, and Psychological Well-Being

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Kay Ryan; Fern K. Willits

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: This study assesses the impact of number and quality of family ties on the health and well-being of elderly people. Method: Measures of the quantity and quality of family ties, adjusting for gender, education, and income, were correlated with the self-rating of health and well-being of a sample of 534 married parents between 68 and 73 years of age.

  4. AQUIFER TRANSMISSIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of groundwater resources requires the knowledge of the capacity of aquifers to store and transmit ground water. This requires estimates of key hydraulic parameters, such as the transmissivity, among others. The transmissivity T (m2/sec) is a hydrauli...

  5. Tractor transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Omura, T.; Horii, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Nakata, M.

    1986-12-16

    A transmission is described for a tractor including: a transmission case comprising a clutch housing containing a clutch mechanism, a second transmission case, and a first transmission case removably attached from between the clutch housing and second transmission case; a primary speed change mechanism housed in the first transmission case, the primary speed change mechanism being operatively connected through a speed change shaft to a secondary speed change mechanism housed in the second transmission case. The speed change shaft comprises a first shaft and a second shaft connected thereto by means of a first coupler, the first coupler arranged in the second transmission case forwardly of the secondary speed change mechanism; a backward and forward switching mechanism operatively connected to the engine through the clutch mechanism and to the primary speed change mechanism through an intermediate shaft and adapted to be supported by a supporting member removably mounted in a forward portion of the first transmission case; the intermediate shaft comprising a first intermediate shaft and a second intermediate shaft connected thereto by means of a second coupler, the second coupler arranged between the backward and forward switching and primary speed change mechanisms. The first intermediate shaft is supported by the supporting member, the second intermediate shaft supported by the first transmission case and having a portion projecting into the second transmission case. The projecting portion is adapted to mount a reversing mechanism for operatively connecting the second intermediate shaft with the first shaft of the speed change shaft.

  6. Tie Tube Heat Transfer Modeling for Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clough, Joshua A.; Starkey, Ryan P.; Lewis, Mark J.; Lavelle, Thomas M.

    2007-01-01

    Bimodal nuclear thermal rocket systems have been shown to reduce the weight and cost of space vehicles to Mars and beyond by utilizing the reactor for power generation in the relatively long duration between burns in an interplanetary trajectory. No information, however, is available regarding engine and reactor-level operation of such bimodal systems. The purpose of this project is to generate engine and reactor models with sufficient fidelity and flexibility to accurately study the component-level effects of operating a propulsion-designed reactor at power generation levels. Previous development of a 1-D reactor and tie tube model found that ignoring heat generation inside of the tie tube leads to under-prediction of the temperature change and over-prediction of pressure change across the tie tube. This paper will present the development and results of a tie tube model that has been extended to account for heat generation, specifically in the moderator layer. This model is based on a 1-D distribution of power in the fuel elements and tie tubes, as a precursor to an eventual neutron-driven reactor model.

  7. Tie Tube Heat Transfer Modeling for Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rockets

    SciTech Connect

    Clough, Joshua A.; Starkey, Ryan P.; Lewis, Mark J. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park MD 20742 (United States); Lavelle, Thomas M. [NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States)

    2007-01-30

    Bimodal nuclear thermal rocket systems have been shown to reduce the weight and cost of space vehicles to Mars and beyond by utilizing the reactor for power generation in the relatively long duration between burns in an interplanetary trajectory. No information, however, is available regarding engine and reactor-level operation of such bimodal systems. The purpose of this project is to generate engine and reactor models with sufficient fidelity and flexibility to accurately study the component-level effects of operating a propulsion-designed reactor at power generation levels. Previous development of a 1-D reactor and tie tube model found that ignoring heat generation inside of the tie tube leads to under-prediction of the temperature change and over-prediction of pressure change across the tie tube. This paper will present the development and results of a tie tube model that has been extended to account for heat generation, specifically in the moderator layer. This model is based on a 1-D distribution of power in the fuel elements and tie tubes, as a precursor to an eventual neutron-driven reactor model.

  8. Time varying networks and the weakness of strong ties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karsai, Márton; Perra, Nicola; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2014-02-01

    In most social and information systems the activity of agents generates rapidly evolving time-varying networks. The temporal variation in networks' connectivity patterns and the ongoing dynamic processes are usually coupled in ways that still challenge our mathematical or computational modelling. Here we analyse a mobile call dataset and find a simple statistical law that characterize the temporal evolution of users' egocentric networks. We encode this observation in a reinforcement process defining a time-varying network model that exhibits the emergence of strong and weak ties. We study the effect of time-varying and heterogeneous interactions on the classic rumour spreading model in both synthetic, and real-world networks. We observe that strong ties severely inhibit information diffusion by confining the spreading process among agents with recurrent communication patterns. This provides the counterintuitive evidence that strong ties may have a negative role in the spreading of information across networks.

  9. Role of the angiopoietin/Tie system in pregnancy (Review)

    PubMed Central

    KAPPOU, D.; SIFAKIS, S.; KONSTANTINIDOU, A.; PAPANTONIOU, N.; SPANDIDOS, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    Angiopoietin-1 and -2 are endogenous ligands for the vascular endothelium-specific receptor tyrosine kinase Tie-2. The angiopoietin/Tie system plays a critical role in the regulation of endothelial cell survival and vascular maturation and stability. Apart from its well-established role in vascular morphogenesis, emerging data support the involvement of angiopoietins in inflammation and various malignancies. Previous studies have underlined the significance of several angiogenic factors in normal placental development. In addition, angiogenic imbalance is observed in pregnancy complications related to impaired placentation, such as preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). However, there is only limited information available on the role of the angiopoietin/Tie system in the establishment of a competent feto-maternal vascular system. In this review, we present the current knowledge regarding the role of angiopoietins in normal pregnancy and pregnancy complications. PMID:25780392

  10. Structure and tie strengths in mobile communication networks

    PubMed Central

    Onnela, J.-P.; Saramäki, J.; Hyvönen, J.; Szabó, G.; Lazer, D.; Kaski, K.; Kertész, J.; Barabási, A.-L.

    2007-01-01

    Electronic databases, from phone to e-mails logs, currently provide detailed records of human communication patterns, offering novel avenues to map and explore the structure of social and communication networks. Here we examine the communication patterns of millions of mobile phone users, allowing us to simultaneously study the local and the global structure of a society-wide communication network. We observe a coupling between interaction strengths and the network's local structure, with the counterintuitive consequence that social networks are robust to the removal of the strong ties but fall apart after a phase transition if the weak ties are removed. We show that this coupling significantly slows the diffusion process, resulting in dynamic trapping of information in communities and find that, when it comes to information diffusion, weak and strong ties are both simultaneously ineffective. PMID:17456605

  11. Automatic Tie Pointer for In-Situ Pointing Correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deen, Robert G/

    2011-01-01

    The MARSAUTOTIE program generates tie points for use with the Mars pointing correction software "In-Situ Pointing Correction and Rover Microlocalization," (NPO-46696) Soft ware Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 9 (September 2010), page 18, in a completely automated manner, with no operator intervention. It takes the place of MARSTIE, although MARSTIE can be used to interactively edit the tie points afterwards. These tie points are used to create a mosaic whose seams (boundaries of input images) have been geometrically corrected to reduce or eliminate errors and mis-registrations. The methods used to find appropriate tie points for use in creating a mosaic are unique, having been designed to work in concert with the "MARSNAV" program to be most effective in reducing or eliminating geometric seams in a mosaic. The program takes the input images and finds overlaps according to the nominal pointing. It then finds the most interesting areas using a scene activity metric. Points with higher scene activity are more likely to correlate successfully in the next step. It then uses correlation techniques to find matching points in the overlapped image. Finally, it performs a series of steps to reduce the number of tie points to a manageable level. These steps incorporate a number of heuristics that have been devised using experience gathered by tie pointing mosaics manually during MER operations. The software makes use of the PIG library as described in "Planetary Image Geometry Library" (NPO-46658), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 12 (December 2010), page 30, so it is multi-mission, applicable without change to any in-situ mission supported by PIG. The MARSAUTOTIE algorithm is automated, so it requires no user intervention. Although at the time of this reporting it has not been done, this program should be suitable for integration into a fully automated mosaic production pipeline.

  12. Ligand-independent Tie2 dimers mediate kinase activity stimulated by high dose angiopoietin-1.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Daishi; Kidoya, Hiroyasu; Sakimoto, Susumu; Jia, Weizhen; Naito, Hisamichi; Takakura, Nobuyuki

    2013-05-01

    Tie2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed on vascular endothelial cells (ECs). It has dual roles in promoting angiogenesis and stabilizing blood vessels, and it has been suggested that Tie2 forms dimers and/or oligomers in the absence of angiopoietin-1 (Ang1); however, the mechanism of ligand-independent dimerization of Tie2 and its biological significance have not been clarified. Using a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay and a kinase-inactive Tie2 mutant, we show here that ligand-independent Tie2 dimerization is induced without Tie2 phosphorylation. Moreover, based on the fact that Tie1 never forms heterodimers with Tie2 in the absence of Ang1 despite having high amino acid sequence homology with Tie2, we searched for ligand-independent dimerization domains of Tie2 by reference to the difference with Tie1. We found that the YIA sequence of the intracellular domain of Tie2 corresponding to the LAS sequence in Tie1 is essential for this dimerization. When the YIA sequence was replaced by LAS in Tie2 (Tie2YIA/LAS), ligand-independent dimer was not formed in the absence of Ang1. When activation of Tie2YIA/LAS was induced by a high dose of Ang1, phosphorylation of Tie2 was limited compared with wild-type Tie2, resulting in retardation of activation of Erk downstream of Tie2. Therefore, these data suggest that ligand-independent dimerization of Tie2 is essential for a strong response upon stimulation with high dose Ang1. PMID:23504320

  13. Social ties and health: A social neuroscience perspective

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberger, Naomi I.

    2013-01-01

    Research over the last several decades has shown that the health of the body is intimately tied to the strength of our social connections, but why? This article reviews evidence from affective and social neuroscience suggesting that, because of the importance of social ties for mammalian survival, threats to social connection are processed by some of the same neural regions that process basic threats to survival and consequently trigger physiological threat responses that have negative health implications. Likewise, social support is processed by some of the same neural regions that process safety or protection from basic threats and inhibit these same health-relevant physiological threat responses. PMID:23395461

  14. Transmission eigenvalues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

    2013-10-01

    In inverse scattering theory, transmission eigenvalues can be seen as the extension of the notion of resonant frequencies for impenetrable objects to the case of penetrable dielectrics. The transmission eigenvalue problem is a relatively late arrival to the spectral theory of partial differential equations. Its first appearance was in 1986 in a paper by Kirsch who was investigating the denseness of far-field patterns for scattering solutions of the Helmholtz equation or, in more modern terminology, the injectivity of the far-field operator [1]. The paper of Kirsch was soon followed by a more systematic study by Colton and Monk in the context of developing the dual space method for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium [2]. In this paper they showed that for a spherically stratified media transmission eigenvalues existed and formed a discrete set. Numerical examples were also given showing that in principle transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the far-field data. This first period of interest in transmission eigenvalues was concluded with papers by Colton et al in 1989 [3] and Rynne and Sleeman in 1991 [4] showing that for an inhomogeneous medium (not necessarily spherically stratified) transmission eigenvalues, if they existed, formed a discrete set. For the next seventeen years transmission eigenvalues were ignored. This was mainly due to the fact that, with the introduction of various sampling methods to determine the shape of an inhomogeneous medium from far-field data, transmission eigenvalues were something to be avoided and hence the fact that transmission eigenvalues formed at most a discrete set was deemed to be sufficient. In addition, questions related to the existence of transmission eigenvalues or the structure of associated eigenvectors were recognized as being particularly difficult due to the nonlinearity of the eigenvalue problem and the special structure of the associated transmission eigenvalue problem. The need to answer these questions became important after a series of papers by Cakoni et al [5], and Cakoni et al [6] suggesting that these transmission eigenvalues could be used to obtain qualitative information about the material properties of the scattering object from far-field data. The first answer to the existence of transmission eigenvalues in the general case was given in 2008 when Päivärinta and Sylvester showed the existence of transmission eigenvalues for the index of refraction sufficiently large [7] followed in 2010 by the paper of Cakoni et al who removed the size restriction on the index of refraction [8]. More importantly, in the latter it was shown that transmission eigenvalues yielded qualitative information on the material properties of the scattering object and Cakoni et al established in [9] that transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the Tikhonov regularized solution of the far-field equation. Since the appearance of these papers there has been an explosion of interest in the transmission eigenvalue problem (we refer the reader to our recent survey paper [10] for a detailed account of the developments in this field up to 2012) and the papers in this special issue are representative of the myriad directions that this research has taken. Indeed, we are happy to see that many open theoretical and numerical questions raised in [10] have been answered (totally or partially) in the contributions of this special issue: the existence of transmission eigenvalues with minimal assumptions on the contrast, the numerical evaluation of transmission eigenvalues, the inverse spectral problem, applications to non-destructive testing, etc. In addition to these topics, many other new investigations and research directions have been proposed as we shall see in the brief content summary below. A number of papers in this special issue are concerned with the question of existence of transmission eigenvalues and the structure of the associated transmission eigenfunctions. The three papers by respectively Robbiano [11], Blasten and P

  15. HIV Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, George M.; Hunter, Eric

    2012-01-01

    HIV-1 is transmitted by sexual contact across mucosal surfaces, by maternal-infant exposure, and by percutaneous inoculation. For reasons that are still incompletely understood, CCR5-tropic viruses (R5 viruses) are preferentially transmitted by all routes. Transmission is followed by an orderly appearance of viral and host markers of infection in the blood plasma. In the acute phase of infection, HIV-1 replicates exponentially and diversifies randomly, allowing for an unambiguous molecular identification of transmitted/founder virus genomes and a precise characterization of the population bottleneck to virus transmission. Sexual transmission of HIV-1 most often results in productive clinical infection arising from a single virus, highlighting the extreme bottleneck and inherent inefficiency in virus transmission. It remains to be determined if HIV-1 transmission is largely a stochastic process whereby any reasonably fit R5 virus can be transmitted or if there are features of transmitted/founder viruses that facilitate their transmission in a biologically meaningful way. Human tissue explant models of HIV-1 infection and animal models of SIV/SHIV/HIV-1 transmission, coupled with new challenge virus strains that more closely reflect transmitted/founder viruses, have the potential to elucidate fundamental mechanisms in HIV-1 transmission relevant to vaccine design and other prevention strategies. PMID:23043157

  16. Comparing and Aggregating Rankings with Ties Ronald Fagin

    E-print Network

    Fagin, Ron

    Comparing and Aggregating Rankings with Ties Ronald Fagin Ravi Kumar Mohammad Mahdian D. Sivakumar Erik Vee§ Abstract Rank aggregation has recently been proposed as a useful abstraction that has several applications, including meta-search, synthesizing rank functions from multiple indices, similarity search

  17. People Interview: Black-tie science gets modern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-03-01

    INTERVIEW Black-tie science gets modern Baroness Susan Greenfield CBE is director of the Royal Institution and professor of pharmacology at Oxford where she heads a multidisciplinary group studying neurodegenerative disorders. David Smith speaks to her about specialities, keeping busy and how science is changing.

  18. Cluster of Heart Risk Factors Tied to Uterine Cancer Risk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Cluster of Heart Risk Factors Tied to Uterine Cancer Risk Excess weight likely a big factor, but other ... 13, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A collection of health risk factors known as the "metabolic syndrome" may boost ...

  19. Preventing Cauliflower Ear with a Modified Tie-Through Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimeff, Robert J.; Hough, David O.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a quick, simple tie-through suture technique (in which a collodion packing is secured to the auricle with two buttons) for preventing cauliflower ear following external ear trauma in wrestlers and boxers. The technique ensures constant compression; multiple treatments for fluid reaccumulation are rarely necessary. (SM)

  20. Neural Correlates of Dynamically Evolving Interpersonal Ties Predict Prosocial Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fahrenfort, Johannes J.; van Winden, Frans; Pelloux, Benjamin; Stallen, Mirre; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing interest for the determinants of human choice behavior in social settings. Upon initial contact, investment choices in social settings can be inherently risky, as the degree to which the other person will reciprocate is unknown. Nevertheless, people have been shown to exhibit prosocial behavior even in one-shot laboratory settings where all interaction has been taken away. A logical step has been to link such behavior to trait empathy-related neurobiological networks. However, as a social interaction unfolds, the degree of uncertainty with respect to the expected payoff of choice behavior may change as a function of the interaction. Here we attempt to capture this factor. We show that the interpersonal tie one develops with another person during interaction – rather than trait empathy – motivates investment in a public good that is shared with an anonymous interaction partner. We examined how individual differences in trait empathy and interpersonal ties modulate neural responses to imposed monetary sharing. After, but not before interaction in a public good game, sharing prompted activation of neural systems associated with reward (striatum), empathy (anterior insular cortex and anterior cingulate cortex) as well as altruism, and social significance [posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS)]. Although these activations could be linked to both empathy and interpersonal ties, only tie-related pSTS activation predicted prosocial behavior during subsequent interaction, suggesting a neural substrate for keeping track of social relevance. PMID:22403524

  1. Fried Foods Tied to Raised Heart Failure Risk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... please enable JavaScript. Fried Foods Tied to Raised Heart Failure Risk Eaten regularly, they might boost chances as ... Tuesday, March 3, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Diets Heart Failure TUESDAY, March 3, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The more ...

  2. Social Ties and Subjective Performance Evaluations: An Empirical Investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathrin Breuer; Petra Nieken; Dirk Sliwka

    2010-01-01

    We empirically investigate possible distortions in subjective performance evaluations. A key hypothesis is that evaluations are more upward biased the closer the social ties between supervisor and appraised employee. We test this hypothesis with a company data set from a call center organization which contains not only subjective assessments but also several more objective measures of performance. Controlling for these

  3. Immune System Changes Tied to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Immune System Changes Tied to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Researchers saw ... 27, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Immune System and Disorders FRIDAY, Feb. 27, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- ...

  4. Matrilineal Family Ties and Marital Dissolution in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takyi, Baffour K.; Gyimah, Stephen Obeng

    2007-01-01

    Although previous work has attributed the instability of African marriages to the diffusion of Western norms and values in the region, fewer attempts have been made to empirically assess how Africa's internal institutional structures, such as extended kinship ties, impact marital outcomes. Guided by rational choice and exchange theories, we argue…

  5. Enhancing ties between academia and industry to improve health

    E-print Network

    Mullins, Dyche

    COMMENTARY Enhancing ties between academia and industry to improve health S Claiborne Johnston1, 2 between academia and the pharmaceutical and devices industries. Although elevated concern for bias is justified, particularly when academics may affect drug sales, partnerships between industry and academia

  6. Religion and Ties Between Adult Children and Their Parents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined whether religious adults (measured by the frequency of attendance at religious services) report more extensive ties with their parents. Method. Using data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 9,002), a series of bivariate and multivariate regression models were tested. Several dimensions of adult children’s relationships with their parents were considered including relationship quality, frequency of contact, providing care to parents, and providing other assistance. Results. Adult children who attended religious services more frequently were significantly more likely to provide assistance to parents, and they reported higher quality relationships and more frequent contact with both their fathers and mothers. Results were similar for sons and daughters, and for younger and older adult children. Discussion. A better understanding of what motivates and fosters strong ties between adult children and their parents is vitally important given the “graying” of America and the consequences of such ties for the health and well-being of both generations. Religion is only one of many factors associated with adult children’s ties to parents, and this association is generally modest, but it is an important factor that should be given greater attention in future research. PMID:23908411

  7. A comparison of ultrasonic suture welding and traditional knot tying.

    PubMed

    Richmond, J C

    2001-01-01

    The slippage of knots and the technical challenge of tying them securely are potential impediments to certain arthroscopic procedures. Ultrasonic energy delivered at 70 kHz can be used to weld No. 2 polypropylene suture. This method was compared with a traditional knot (surgeon's knot with four alternating half hitches) tied with an open technique to determine whether welding of sutures is comparable, in mechanical properties, to hand-tied knots. Both loops were fashioned around a 0.25-inch mandrel and then tested. The load to reach 3-mm elongation (point of likely biologic failure of a repair) was significantly greater for welded sutures than for knots. The elongation at ultimate failure was significantly less for welded sutures than for knots. The number of cycles to failure and the creep after initial displacement were similar for both welded and knotted suture loops. The ultimate load to failure was significantly greater for the knotted than for the welded suture. The welding of suture for the repair of musculoskeletal soft tissue presents an attractive alternative to traditional knot tying, particularly for arthroscopic applications. PMID:11394598

  8. Ties that Unwind: Dynamism in Integrative Social Contracts Theory 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Phillips; Michael E. Johnson-Cramer

    2006-01-01

    Social contract theory offers a powerful method and metaphor for the study of organizational ethics. This paper considers the variant of the social contract that has arguably gained the most attention among business ethicists: integrative social contracts theory or ISCT [Donaldson and Dunfee: 1999, Ties That Bind (Harvard Business School Press, Boston)]. A core precept of ISCT – that consent

  9. Narcotic Painkiller Use Tied to Higher Risk for Depression

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Narcotic Painkiller Use Tied to Higher Risk for Depression ... 20, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Back Pain Depression Pain Relievers FRIDAY, Feb. 20, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- High doses ...

  10. Avoiding Sutured Tie-Over Dressings on the Nasal Dorsum

    PubMed Central

    Harb, A.; Pandya, A. N.

    2010-01-01

    The nose is a common site for basal and squamous cell carcinomas. Surgical excision can leave a defect that is appropriate for reconstruction with full thickness skin grafting. Tie-over dressings have gained popularity in this setting. We propose that steri-strips alone provide the necessary support to facilitate excellent graft take. PMID:22567233

  11. Views of the Apollo 11 Twentieth Anniversary Black Tie reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Views of the Apollo 11 Twentieth Anniversary Black Tie reception at the downtown Houston Hyatt Regency Hotel. Views include former JSC Directors Robert Gilruth and Christopher C. Kraft Jr. reminiscing with keynote speaker Walter Cronkite (39934); Apollo astronauts Tom Stafford (left) and Neil Armstrong (right) talk with former Soviet cosmonaut Alexei Leonov (center) at the gala (39935).

  12. Future Force and First Responders: Building Ties for Collaboration and

    E-print Network

    Hammer, Joachim

    for collaboration between Military Forces and First Responders · e.g., response to terrorist attacks, internationalFuture Force and First Responders: Building Ties for Collaboration and Leveraged R&D Joachim Hammer peacekeeping roles · First Responders (FR) and Future Force warriors (FF) have similar information needs

  13. Texting Bans Tied to Drop in Car Crash Injuries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... laws on speeding, drunk driving, handheld cellphones and teen driving restrictions. And texting bans were still linked to a decline in ... he said. In fact, Ferdinand's team found that texting bans were more strongly linked to benefits among adults, not teens. The laws were tied to a 9 percent ...

  14. International Project Management TIES Observation Session at UA

    E-print Network

    International Project Management Office TIES Observation Session at UA May 4th 2010 Roberto Escarré Director, International Project Management Office, University of Alicante, Spain #12;- About the OGPI staff members, in 4 different areas: - Financial and administrative - IT - Project management - Legal

  15. The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez; Pentland, Alex; Lehmann, Sune

    2014-06-01

    Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems.

  16. The strength of the strongest ties in collaborative problem solving.

    PubMed

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez; Pentland, Alex; Lehmann, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems. PMID:24946798

  17. Shift dynamics and control of dual-clutch transmissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manish Kulkarni; Taehyun Shim; Yi Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Shifts in a dual-clutch transmission (DCT) are realized by torque transfer from one clutch to another without traction interruption due to the controlled slippage of the clutches. The timing of engagement and disengagement of the two clutches is critical for achieving a smooth shift without engine flare and clutch tie-up. This paper presents an analytical model for the simulation, analysis

  18. 76 FR 20653 - Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ...CP11-145-000] Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...on March 24, 2011, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and part 157 of...tie-ins of the suction and discharge piping; and to install...

  19. Shingles Transmission

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Shingles Home About Shingles Overview Signs & Symptoms Transmission Complications ...

  20. Ties of dependence: AIDS and transactional sex in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Swidler, Ann; Watkins, Susan Cotts

    2007-09-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, the exchange of sex for material support-labeled "transactional sex" by Western observers--is claimed by some to be a major driver of the AIDS pandemic. Transactional sex is described as akin to prostitution, a degraded form of sexual expression forced on vulnerable women by economic desperation. Using evidence from rural Malawi, we demonstrate that patron-client ties and a moral obligation to support the needy, which are fundamental to African social life, are central elements of transactional sex. We argue that the exchange of sex for money is better understood as one of the many ties of unequal exchange in which Malawians and other Africans engage, an exchange in which the patrons are as important as the clients. PMID:17933289

  1. Leaf ties as colonization sites for forest arthropods: an experimental study

    E-print Network

    Lill, John T.

    - ments, with the highest densities of leaf chewers, scavengers, and predators in occupied ties-chewing insects (including leaf-tiers and non-tying inquiline species) and scavengers showed strong oviposition

  2. 10 CFR 71.45 - Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...tie-down standards for all packages. 71.45 Section...RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Package Approval Standards ...tie-down standards for all packages. (a) Any lifting...a structural part of a package must be designed...

  3. 10 CFR 71.45 - Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...tie-down standards for all packages. 71.45 Section...RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Package Approval Standards ...tie-down standards for all packages. (a) Any lifting...a structural part of a package must be designed...

  4. 10 CFR 71.45 - Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...tie-down standards for all packages. 71.45 Section...RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Package Approval Standards ...tie-down standards for all packages. (a) Any lifting...a structural part of a package must be designed...

  5. 10 CFR 71.45 - Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...tie-down standards for all packages. 71.45 Section...RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Package Approval Standards ...tie-down standards for all packages. (a) Any lifting...a structural part of a package must be designed...

  6. 10 CFR 71.45 - Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...tie-down standards for all packages. 71.45 Section...RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Package Approval Standards ...tie-down standards for all packages. (a) Any lifting...a structural part of a package must be designed...

  7. 78 FR 25303 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ...Nos. 731-TA-1207-1209 (Preliminary)] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Institution...materially retarded, by reason of imports from prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from China, Mexico, and Thailand,...

  8. Tree-based state tying for high accuracy acoustic modelling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Young; J. J. Odell; P. C. Woodland

    1994-01-01

    The key problem to be faced when building a HMM-based continuous speech recogniser is maintaining the balance between model complexity and available training data. For large vocabulary systems requiring cross-word context dependent modelling, this is particularly acute since many such contexts will never occur in the training data. This paper describes a method of creating a tied-state continuous speech recognition

  9. A NEW PHONETIC TIED-MIXTURE MODEL FOR EFFICIENT DECODING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akinobu Lee; T. Kawahara K. Takeda; K. Shikano

    2000-01-01

    A phonetic tied-mixture (PTM) model for efficient large vo- cabulary continuous speech recognition is presented. It is synthesized from context-independent phone models with 64 mixture components per state by assigning different mix- ture weights according to the shared states of triphones. Mixtures are then re-estimated for optimization. The model achieves a word error rate of 7.0% at 20k-word dictation of

  10. A new phonetic tied-mixture model for efficient decoding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akinobu Lee; Tatsuya Kawahara; Kazuya Takeda; Kiyohiro Shikano

    2000-01-01

    A phonetic tied-mixture (PTM) model for efficient large vocabulary continuous speech recognition is presented. It is synthesized from context-independent phone models with 64 mixture components per state by assigning different mixture weights according to the shared states of triphones. Mixtures are then re-estimated for optimization. The model achieves a word error rate of 7.0% with a 20000-word dictation of newspaper

  11. Suicide: the key role of short range ties

    E-print Network

    Röhner, B M

    2005-01-01

    The paper explores the connection between short-range social ties (i.e. links with close relatives) and the occurrence of suicide. The objective is to discriminate between a model based on social ties and a model based on psychological traumas. Our methodological strategy is to focus on instances characterized by the severance of some social ties. We consider several situations of this kind. (i) Prisoners in the first days after their incarceration. (ii) Prisoners in solitary confinement. (iii) Prisoners who are transferred from one prison to another. (iv) Prisoners in closed versus open prisons. (v) Prisoners in the weeks following their release. (vi) Immigrants in the years following their relocation. (vii) Unmarried versus married people. Furthermore, in order to test the impact of major shocks we consider the responses in terms of suicides to the following shocks. (i) The attack of September 11, 2001 in Manhattan. (ii) The Korean War. (iii) The two world wars. (iv) The Great Depression in the United State...

  12. The logic of tied implications, part 1: Properties, applications and representation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nehad N. Morsia; W. Lotfallah

    A conjunction T ties an implication operator A if the identity A(a, A(b, z)) = A(T (a, b), z) holds (A.A. Abdel-Hamid, N.N. Morsi, Associatively tied implications, Fuzzy Sets and Systems 136 (2003) 291-311). We study the class of tied adjointness algebras (which are five-connective algebras on two partially ordered sets), in which the implications are tied by triangular norms.

  13. Controller for vehicle transmission with auxiliary transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Nishimura; N. Sekine

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a vehicular transmission having an auxiliary transmission with high-speed and low-speed transmission connected in series to a main transmission and an engine. The auxiliary transmission has a hydraulic clutch disposed in the high-speed transmission line and a one-way clutch disposed in the low-speed transmission line. The low-speed transmission line is engaged through the one-way clutch when the

  14. Laptop image transmission equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocenter, Michael M.

    1991-12-01

    Imagery and other visual information have become a critical element in planning and performing modern military operations. The effectiveness of this imagery information is often directly tied to the time it takes to get from the collector of this imagery to the user of the imagery. Hard copy distribution of annotated imagery to the tactical commander is hampered by the lack of effective communications paths, and the tactical use of hand held imagery is restricted by the lack of film processing facilities. The military has begun to rely on electronic imagery and digital communications technology for answers, with some success. The new obstacles created by applied electronic imagery are interoperability standards and effective use of communications bandwidth in a tactical environment. New technological developments in computer hardware/software have changed this situation by allowing for the gathering, dissemination, and transfer of near-real-time information to various intelligence audiences at any location. The Naval Air Development Center (NAVAIRDEVCEN) has coupled commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology with National Image Transmission Formats (NITF) Standards to develop a Secondary Imagery Dissemination System (SIDS) package that is designed to meet the flexibility challenge of the tactical military environment. This tailorable SIDS package is called Laptop Image Transmission Equipment (LITE). The LITE system is an extension of the Navy's existing Fleet Imagery Support Terminal (FIST) into the man-portable tactical environment. As such, LITE development is focused on developing flexible imagery input (from sources such as filmless cameras) and connectivity to tactical communications paths and ruggedization/miniaturization issues. The LITE system, in prototype form, has already found application through operational use in special operations, counter narcotics operations, and classic air/ground/sea military operations. This paper provides an overview of the LITE components, specifications, operations, and future developments for the system.

  15. 33 CFR 401.49 - Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. 401.49 Section 401.49...401.49 Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. Except in an emergency, no vessel shall drop anchor in any canal or tie-up to any canal bank...

  16. 33 CFR 401.49 - Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. 401.49 Section 401.49...401.49 Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. Except in an emergency, no vessel shall drop anchor in any canal or tie-up to any canal bank...

  17. 33 CFR 401.49 - Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. 401.49 Section 401.49...401.49 Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. Except in an emergency, no vessel shall drop anchor in any canal or tie-up to any canal bank...

  18. 33 CFR 401.49 - Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. 401.49 Section 401.49...401.49 Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. Except in an emergency, no vessel shall drop anchor in any canal or tie-up to any canal bank...

  19. 33 CFR 401.49 - Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. 401.49 Section 401.49...401.49 Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. Except in an emergency, no vessel shall drop anchor in any canal or tie-up to any canal bank...

  20. 78 FR 37236 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ...731-TA-1207-1209 (Preliminary)] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico...Mexico, and Thailand of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire, provided for in...reason of LTFV imports of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from China,...

  1. Tie1 deletion inhibits tumor growth and improves angiopoietin antagonist therapy

    PubMed Central

    D’Amico, Gabriela; Korhonen, Emilia A.; Anisimov, Andrey; Zarkada, Georgia; Holopainen, Tanja; Hägerling, René; Kiefer, Friedemann; Eklund, Lauri; Sormunen, Raija; Elamaa, Harri; Brekken, Rolf A.; Adams, Ralf H.; Koh, Gou Young; Saharinen, Pipsa; Alitalo, Kari

    2014-01-01

    The endothelial Tie1 receptor is ligand-less, but interacts with the Tie2 receptor for angiopoietins (Angpt). Angpt2 is expressed in tumor blood vessels, and its blockade inhibits tumor angiogenesis. Here we found that Tie1 deletion from the endothelium of adult mice inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth by decreasing endothelial cell survival in tumor vessels, without affecting normal vasculature. Treatment with VEGF or VEGFR-2 blocking antibodies similarly reduced tumor angiogenesis and growth; however, no additive inhibition was obtained by targeting both Tie1 and VEGF/VEGFR-2. In contrast, treatment of Tie1-deficient mice with a soluble form of the extracellular domain of Tie2, which blocks Angpt activity, resulted in additive inhibition of tumor growth. Notably, Tie1 deletion decreased sprouting angiogenesis and increased Notch pathway activity in the postnatal retinal vasculature, while pharmacological Notch suppression in the absence of Tie1 promoted retinal hypervasularization. Moreover, substantial additive inhibition of the retinal vascular front migration was observed when Angpt2 blocking antibodies were administered to Tie1-deficient pups. Thus, Tie1 regulates tumor angiogenesis, postnatal sprouting angiogenesis, and endothelial cell survival, which are controlled by VEGF, Angpt, and Notch signals. Our results suggest that targeting Tie1 in combination with Angpt/Tie2 has the potential to improve antiangiogenic therapy. PMID:24430181

  2. Prion transmission

    PubMed Central

    Maddison, Ben C

    2010-01-01

    Prion diseases range from being highly infectious, for example scrapie and CWD, which show facile transmission between susceptible individuals, to showing negligible horizontal transmission, such as BSE and CJD, which are spread via food or iatrogenically, respectively. Scrapie and CWD display considerable in vivo dissemination, with PrPSc and infectivity being found in a range of peripheral tissues. This in vivo dissemination appears to facilitate the recently reported excretion of prion through multiple routes such as from skin, feces, urine, milk, nasal secretions, saliva and placenta. Furthermore, excreted scrapie and CWD agent is detected within environmental samples such as water and on the surfaces of inanimate objects. The cycle of “uptake of prion from the environment—widespread in vivo prion dissemination—prion excretion—prion persistence in the environment” is likely to explain the facile transmission and maintenance of these diseases within wild and farmed populations over many years. PMID:20948292

  3. TIES for Dummies 3rd Edition (Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection) Basic how to's to implement the TIES method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, Michelle R.

    2002-01-01

    The TIES method is a forecasting environment whereby the decision-maker has the ability to easily assess and trade-off the impact of various technologies without sophisticated and time-consuming mathematical formulations. TIES provides a methodical approach where technically feasible alternatives can be identified with accuracy and speed to reduce design cycle time, and subsequently, life cycle costs, and was achieved through the use of various probabilistic methods, such as Response Surface Methodology and Monte Carlo Simulations. Furthermore, structured and systematic techniques are utilized from other fields to identify possible concepts and evaluation criteria by which comparisons can be made. This objective is achieved by employing the use of Morphological Matrices and Multi-Attribute Decision Making techniques. Through the execution of each step, a family of design alternatives for a given set of customer requirements can be identified and assessed subjectively or objectively. This methodology allows for more information (knowledge) to be brought into the earlier phases of the design process and will have direct implications on the affordability of the system. The increased knowledge allows for optimum allocation of company resources and quantitative justification for program decisions. Finally, the TIES method provided novel results and quantitative justification to facilitate decision making in the early stages of design so as to produce affordable and quality products.

  4. 76 FR 32197 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ...National Forest, St. Joe Ranger District, Shoshone County, ID, Comment Period Ends: 07/ 18/2011, Contact: Lynette Myhre 208-245-1531. EIS No. 20110169, Draft EIS, BLM, UT, Sigurd to Red Butte No. 2-345Kv Transmission Project,...

  5. Manual with auxiliary transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nishimura

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a vehicular transmission of the type in which a manual transmission has two parallel shafts. One shaft is connected through a transmission clutch to an engine in which manual transmission is connected in series to an auxiliary transmission having high and low speed transmission lines. The auxiliary transmission has a high speed transmission line equipped with a

  6. Transmission constraints

    E-print Network

    Varaiya, Pravin

    MAXISO MINISO Paradigm is minimum cost gener Paradigm is open access bus Transmission constraints domi­ nate in commodity design; other transactions forced into standard All transactions opportunities if they exist. Notes. 1.Wide latitude in the choice of adjustments to curtailment. In place

  7. Automatic transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hamane; H. Ohri

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes an automatic transmission connected between a drive shaft and a driven shaft and comprising: a planetary gear mechanism including a first gear driven by the drive shaft, a second gear operatively engaged with the first gear to transmit speed change output to the driven shaft, and a third gear operatively engaged with the second gear to control

  8. Transmission synchronizer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kishimoto

    1989-01-01

    This patent describe a synchronizer for a gear type transmission in which a pair of gears are provided on input and output shafts. The two gears of each pair are always in mesh with each other with one gear of each pair being fixedly connected to one of the input and output shafts and the other gear of each pair

  9. Urban characteristics attributable to density-driven tie formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wei; Ghoshal, Gourab; Krumme, Coco; Cebrian, Manuel; Pentland, Alex

    2013-06-01

    Motivated by empirical evidence on the interplay between geography, population density and societal interaction, we propose a generative process for the evolution of social structure in cities. Our analytical and simulation results predict both super-linear scaling of social-tie density and information contagion as a function of the population. Here we demonstrate that our model provides a robust and accurate fit for the dependency of city characteristics with city-size, ranging from individual-level dyadic interactions (number of acquaintances, volume of communication) to population level variables (contagious disease rates, patenting activity, economic productivity and crime) without the need to appeal to heterogeneity, modularity, specialization or hierarchy.

  10. It's the Recipient That Counts: Spending Money on Strong Social Ties Leads to Greater Happiness than Spending on Weak Social Ties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lara B. Aknin; Gillian M. Sandstrom; Elizabeth W. Dunn; Michael I. Norton; Matjaz Perc

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that spending money on others (prosocial spending) increases happiness. But, do the happiness gains depend on who the money is spent on? Sociologists have distinguished between strong ties with close friends and family and weak ties—relationships characterized by less frequent contact, lower emotional intensity, and limited intimacy. We randomly assigned participants to reflect on a time

  11. Progress in remotely controlled hyperbaric pipeline tie-ins

    SciTech Connect

    Hutt, G. [Stolt Comex Seaway Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Pachniuk, I. [Stolt Comex Seaway, S.A., Marseille (France)

    1993-12-31

    In recent years experience has been gained in the use of remotely installed and controlled equipment for hyperbaric pipeline tie-in operations. This has involved both the in-water construction tasks such as pipe alignment, preparation and habitat installation and tasks within the dry habitat. Central to these developments has been the introduction of mechanized orbital welding which was first used operationally in 1986. Since that date, the authors` Company has performed some 60 production tie-ins welds ranging in diameter from 8 inches to 40 inches and depths to 220 msw. The existing mechanized systems are all operated remotely but require divers assistance during the initial set-up in the habitat and to perform routine task during the course of welding such as measuring pipe fit-up, changing electrodes, servicing the wire feed and supervising the weldhead umbilicals. Progress towards fully diverless operations has been made by the development of a variety of sub-systems to carry out these routine tasks. Similarly, there has been a progressive introduction of ROV assisted tasks into construction projects often run in parallel with diving work with the objective of improving efficiency. The intention of this paper is to describe a number of the developments which will ultimately provide the basis for fully diverless hyperbaric welding.

  12. Vulnerability to changes in malaria transmission due to climate change in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamana, T. K.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    Malaria transmission in West Africa is strongly tied to climate; temperature affects the development rate of the malaria parasite, as well as the survival of the mosquitoes that transmit the disease, and rainfall is tied to mosquito abundance, as the vector lays its eggs in rain-fed water pools. As a result, the environmental suitability for malaria transmission in this region is expected to change as temperatures rise and rainfall patterns are altered. The vulnerability to changes in transmission varies throughout West Africa. Areas where malaria prevalence is already very high will be less sensitive to changes in transmission. Increases in environmental suitability for malaria transmission in the most arid regions may still be insufficient to allow sustained transmission. However, areas were malaria transmission currently occurs at low levels are expected to be the most sensitive to changes in environmental suitability for transmission. Here, we use data on current environment and malaria transmission rates to highlight areas in West Africa that we expect to be most vulnerable to an increase in malaria under certain climate conditions. We then analyze climate predictions from global climate models in vulnerable areas, and make predictions for the expected change in environmental suitability for malaria transmission using the Hydrology, Entomology and Malaria Transmission Simulator (HYDREMATS), a mechanistic model developed to simulate village-scale response of malaria transmission to environmental variables in West Africa.

  13. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, N.

    1988-10-11

    This patent describes an automatic transmission including a fluid torque converter, a first gear unit having three forward-speed gears and a single reverse gear, a second gear unit having a low-speed gear and a high-speed gear, and a hydraulic control system, the hydraulic control system comprising: a source of pressurized fluid; a first shift valve for controlling the shifting between the first-speed gear and the second-speed gear of the first gear unit; a second shift valve for controlling the shifting between the second-speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; a third shift valve equipped with a spool having two positions for controlling the shifting between the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit; a manual selector valve having a plurality of shift positions for distributing the pressurized fluid supply from the source of pressurized fluid to the first, second and third shift valves respectively; first, second and third solenoid valves corresponding to the first, second and third shift valves, respectively for independently controlling the operation of the respective shift valves, thereby establishing a six forward-speed automatic transmission by combining the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit with each of the first-speed gear, the second speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; and means to fixedly position the spool of the third shift valve at one of the two positions by supplying the pressurized fluid to the third shift valve when the manual selector valve is shifted to a particular shift position, thereby locking the second gear unit in one of low-speed gear and the high-speed gear, whereby the six forward-speed automatic transmission is converted to a three forward-speed automatic transmission when the manual selector valve is shifted to the particular shift position.

  14. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.

    1988-02-16

    An automatic transmission is described combining a stator reversing type torque converter and speed changer having first and second sun gears comprising: (a) a planetary gear train composed of first and second planetary gears sharing one planetary carrier in common; (b) a clutch and requisite brakes to control the planetary gear train; and (c) a speed-increasing or speed-decreasing mechanism is installed both in between a turbine shaft coupled to a turbine of the stator reversing type torque converter and the first sun gear of the speed changer, and in between a stator shaft coupled to a reversing stator and the second sun gear of the speed changer.

  15. The design and application of a Transportable Inference Engine (TIE1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A Transportable Inference Engine (TIE1) system has been developed by the author as part of the Interactive Experimenter Planning System (IEPS) task which is involved with developing expert systems in support of the Spacecraft Control Programs Branch at Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. Unlike traditional inference engines, TIE1 is written in the C programming language. In the TIE1 system, knowledge is represented by a hierarchical network of objects which have rule frames. The TIE1 search algorithm uses a set of strategies, including backward chaining, to obtain the values of goals. The application of TIE1 to a spacecraft scheduling problem is described. This application involves the development of a strategies interpreter which uses TIE1 to do constraint checking.

  16. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, H.

    1989-03-21

    An automatic transmission is described, comprising: a torque converter including an impeller having a connected member, a turbine having an input member and a reactor; and an automatic transmission mechanism having first to third clutches and plural gear units including a single planetary gear unit with a ring gear and a dual planetary gear unit with a ring gear. The single and dual planetary gear units have respective carriers integrally coupled with each other and respective sun gears integrally coupled with each other, the input member of the turbine being coupled with the ring gear of the single planetary gear unit through the first clutch, and being coupled with the sun gear through the second clutch. The connected member of the impeller is coupled with the ring gear of the dual planetary gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be and ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be restrained as required, and the carrier is coupled with an output member.

  17. Vented transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, T.H.

    1990-01-29

    This patent describes a vented transmission. It comprises: a housing; a rotary input to the housing; a rotary output from the housing; transmission means within the housing interconnecting the input and the output and including a hollow, rotary shaft journaled within the housing; a vent tube having a first end extending into one end of the hollow shaft and a second end in fluid communication with the exterior of the housing; a shoulder within the hollow shaft and intermediate the ends of the vent tube and defining of relatively smaller diameter section near the first end of the vent tube that is within the hollow shaft and a relatively large diameter section nearer the second end of the vent tube; at least one aperture extending through the hollow shaft from the large diameter section immediately adjacent the shoulder; and a labyrinth seal at the interface of the vent tube and the large diameter section at a location between the aperture (s) and the second end of the vent tube.

  18. Antiangiogenic Gene Therapy Targeting the Endothelium-Specific Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Tie2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pengnian Lin; Jake A. Buxton; Ann Acheson; Czeslaw Radziejewski; Peter C. Maisonpierre; George D. Yancopoulos; Keith M. Channon; Laura P. Hale; Mark W. Dewhirst; Samuel E. George; Kevin G. Peters

    1998-01-01

    Angiogenesis is required for tumor growth and metastasis, and inhibition of angiogenesis is a promising approach for anticancer therapy. Tie2 (a.k.a Tek) is an endothelium-specific receptor tyrosine kinase known to play a role in tumor angiogenesis. To explore the therapeutic potential of blocking the Tie2 pathway, an adenoviral vector was constructed to deliver a recombinant, soluble Tie2 receptor (AdExTek) capable

  19. Tying Dark Matter to Baryons with Self-interactions

    E-print Network

    Manoj Kaplinghat; Ryan E. Keeley; Tim Linden; Hai-Bo Yu

    2014-06-23

    Self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) models have been proposed to solve the small-scale issues with the collisionless cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm. We derive equilibrium solutions in these SIDM models for the dark matter halo density profile including the gravitational potential of both baryons and dark matter. Self-interactions drive dark matter to be isothermal and this ties the core sizes and shapes of dark matter halos to the spatial distribution of the stars, a radical departure from previous expectations and from CDM predictions. Compared to predictions of SIDM-only simulations, the core sizes are smaller and the core densities are higher, with the largest effects in baryon-dominated galaxies. As an example, we find a core size around 0.5 kpc for dark matter in the Milky Way, more than an order of magnitude smaller than the core size from SIDM-only simulations, which has important implications for indirect searches of SIDM candidates.

  20. Tying Dark Matter to Baryons with Self-Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplinghat, Manoj; Keeley, Ryan E.; Linden, Tim; Yu, Hai-Bo

    2014-07-01

    Self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) models have been proposed to solve the small-scale issues with the collisionless cold dark matter paradigm. We derive equilibrium solutions in these SIDM models for the dark matter halo density profile including the gravitational potential of both baryons and dark matter. Self-interactions drive dark matter to be isothermal and this ties the core sizes and shapes of dark matter halos to the spatial distribution of the stars, a radical departure from previous expectations and from cold dark matter predictions. Compared to predictions of SIDM-only simulations, the core sizes are smaller and the core densities are higher, with the largest effects in baryon-dominated galaxies. As an example, we find a core size around 0.3 kpc for dark matter in the Milky Way, more than an order of magnitude smaller than the core size from SIDM-only simulations, which has important implications for indirect searches of SIDM candidates.

  1. Radio-Planetary Frame Tie From Phobos-2 VLBI Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrand, C. E.; Iijima, B. A.; Kroger, P. M.; Folkner, W. M.; Edwards, C. D.

    1994-07-01

    In an ongoing effort to improve the knowledge of the relative orientation (the "frame tie") of the planetary ephemeris reference frame used in deep space navigation and a second reference frame that is defined by the coordinates of a set of extragalactic radio sources, VLBI observations of the Soviet Phobos-2 spacecraft and nearby (in angle) radio sources were obtained at two epochs in 1989, shortly after the spacecraft entered orbit about Mars. The frame tie is an important systematic error source affecting both interplanetary navigation and the process of improving the theory of the Earth's orientation. The data from a single Phobos-2 VLBI session measure one component of the direction vector from Earth to Mars in the frame of the extragalactic radio sources (the "radio frame"). The radio frame has been shown to be stable and internally consistent with an accuracy of 5 nrad. The planetary ephemeris reference frame has an internal consistency of approximately 15 nrad. The planetary and radio source reference frames were aligned prior to 1989 with an accuracy of approximately 250 nrad, using Earth-based optical data and measurements of occultations of the radio source 3C273 by the Moon. The Phobos-2 VLBI measurements provide improvement in the accuracy of two of the three angles describing a general rotation between the planetary and radio reference frames. A complete set of measurements is not available because data acquisition was terminated prematurely by loss of the spacecraft. The analysis of the two Phobos-2 VLBI data sets indicates that, in the directions of the two rotation components determined by these data, the JPL planetary ephemeris DE200 is aligned with the radio frame as adopted by the International Earth Rotation Service within an accuracy of 20-40 nrad, depending on direction. The limiting errors in the solutions for these offsets are spacecraft trajectory (20 nrad), instrumental biases (19 nrad), and dependence of quasar coordinates on observing frequency (24 nrad).

  2. Software for Verifying Image-Correlation Tie Points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimeck, Gerhard; Yagi, Gary

    2008-01-01

    A computer program enables assessment of the quality of tie points in the image-correlation processes of the software described in the immediately preceding article. Tie points are computed in mappings between corresponding pixels in the left and right images of a stereoscopic pair. The mappings are sometimes not perfect because image data can be noisy and parallax can cause some points to appear in one image but not the other. The present computer program relies on the availability of a left- right correlation map in addition to the usual right left correlation map. The additional map must be generated, which doubles the processing time. Such increased time can now be afforded in the data-processing pipeline, since the time for map generation is now reduced from about 60 to 3 minutes by the parallelization discussed in the previous article. Parallel cluster processing time, therefore, enabled this better science result. The first mapping is typically from a point (denoted by coordinates x,y) in the left image to a point (x',y') in the right image. The second mapping is from (x',y') in the right image to some point (x",y") in the left image. If (x,y) and(x",y") are identical, then the mapping is considered perfect. The perfect-match criterion can be relaxed by introducing an error window that admits of round-off error and a small amount of noise. The mapping procedure can be repeated until all points in each image not connected to points in the other image are eliminated, so that what remains are verified correlation data.

  3. Importance of tie strengths in the prisoner's dilemma game on social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bo; Liu, Lu; You, Weijia

    2011-06-01

    Though numerous researches have shown that tie strengths play a key role in the formation of collective behavior in social networks, little work has been done to explore their impact on the outcome of evolutionary games. In this Letter, we studied the effect of tie strength in the dynamics of evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games by using online social network datasets. The results show that the fraction of cooperators has a non-trivial dependence on tie strength. Weak ties, just like previous researches on epidemics and information diffusion have shown, play a key role by the maintenance of cooperators in evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games.

  4. Planetary transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Nerstad, K.A.; Windish, W.E.

    1987-04-21

    A planetary transmission is described comprising: an input shaft; a first planetary gear set having a first sun gear driven by the input shaft, a first planet carrier serving as the output, a first ring gear, and first brake means for selectively holding the fist ring gear stationary; a second planetary gear set having a second sun gear driven by the input shaft, a second planet carrier connected for joint rotation to the first ring gear, a second ring gear, and second brake means for selectively holding the second ring gear stationary; a third planetary gear set having a third sun gear connected for joint rotation to the second planet carrier, a third planet carrier connected for joint rotation to the second ring gear, a third ring gear, and third brake means for selectively holding the third ring gear stationary; and clutch means for connecting the third sun gear to the input shaft and providing a direct drive mode of operation.

  5. Phasing transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Himmelein, M.K.; Haaser, J.D.

    1992-06-23

    This patent describes a mechanical power transmission. It comprises a pair of axially aligned rotatable shaft members, a motor member, having a motor housing of thin axial width located within the central housing, fixed to one of the shaft members and axially aligned to rotate wherewith, and a harmonic drive member of thin axial width positioned within the central housing in axial alignment between the motor member and the remaining shaft member, a circular spline fixed to the motor housing for rotation therewith, a flex spline engaged with the dynamic spline and the circular spline, and a wave generator in communication with the flex spline and a wave generator in communication with the flex spline and engaged with the center shaft of the motor member.

  6. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Hamane, M.; Ohri, H.

    1989-03-21

    This patent describes an automatic transmission connected between a drive shaft and a driven shaft and comprising: a planetary gear mechanism including a first gear driven by the drive shaft, a second gear operatively engaged with the first gear to transmit speed change output to the driven shaft, and a third gear operatively engaged with the second gear to control the operation thereof; centrifugally operated clutch means for driving the first gear and the second gear. It also includes a ratchet type one-way clutch for permitting rotation of the third gear in the same direction as that of the drive shaft but preventing rotation in the reverse direction; the clutch means comprising a ratchet pawl supporting plate coaxially disposed relative to the drive shaft and integrally connected to the third gear, the ratchet pawl supporting plate including outwardly projection radial projections united with one another at base portions thereof.

  7. Controller for vehicle transmission with auxiliary transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, S.; Sekine, N.

    1987-10-06

    This patent describes a vehicular transmission having an auxiliary transmission with high-speed and low-speed transmission connected in series to a main transmission and an engine. The auxiliary transmission has a hydraulic clutch disposed in the high-speed transmission line and a one-way clutch disposed in the low-speed transmission line. The low-speed transmission line is engaged through the one-way clutch when the hydraulic clutch is released, and the high-speed transmission line is engaged when the hydraulic clutch is applied. A controller improvement comprises, a high-speed transmission control means for applying and maintaining the hydraulic clutch in its applied state when the throttle opening of the engine is below a predetermined level.

  8. Tie2 receptor expression is stimulated by hypoxia and proinflammatory cytokines in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Willam, C; Koehne, P; Jürgensen, J S; Gräfe, M; Wagner, K D; Bachmann, S; Frei, U; Eckardt, K U

    2000-09-01

    The tyrosine kinase receptor Tie2 (also known as Tek) plays an important role in the development of the embryonic vasculature and persists in adult endothelial cells (ECs). Tie2 was shown to be upregulated in tumors and skin wounds, and its ligands angiopoietin-1 and -2, although they are not directly mitogenic, modulate neovascularization. To gain further insight into the regulation of Tie2, we have studied the effect of hypoxia and inflammatory cytokines, two conditions frequently associated with neoangiogenic processes, on Tie2 expression in human ECs. Exposure to 1% O(2) led to a time-dependent significant rise of Tie2 protein levels in human coronary microvascular endothelial cells (HCMECs) and dermal microvascular ECs (HMEC-1) (3.2- and 2.5-fold within 24 hours), which was reversible after reoxygenation, and induced a less marked increase in human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs; 1.7-fold). Hypoxia-conditioned medium and D-deoxyglucose did not change Tie2 expression, but desferrioxamine and cobalt, which are known to mimic hypoxia-sensing mechanisms, induced Tie2 at ambient oxygen tensions. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced Tie2 in a time- and dose-dependent fashion in all 3 EC types (HUVEC, 2.3-fold; HMEC-1, 2. 8-fold; and HCMEC, 3.0-fold; 10 ng/mL, 24 hours). Enhanced expression was also found after exposure to interleukin-1beta (1 ng/mL). Changes in Tie2 protein levels were paralleled by changes in mRNA expression. In accordance with these in vitro findings, immunohistochemistry revealed focal upregulation of Tie2 in capillaries at the border of infarcted human and rat myocardium. In conclusion, the data show that hypoxia and inflammatory cytokines upregulate Tie2, which may contribute to the angiogenic response in ischemic tissues. PMID:10969034

  9. Department of Mechanical Engineering Fall 2011 The One-Handed Zip Tie

    E-print Network

    Demirel, Melik C.

    PENNSTATE Department of Mechanical Engineering Fall 2011 The One-Handed Zip Tie Overview Performed a patent search and benchmarking Created at least ten rough alpha prototypes and presented them of this product to eventually gain a profit on sales. The project is a more convenient and useful zip tie than

  10. Neural dynamics of social tie formation in economic decision-making.

    PubMed

    Bault, Nadège; Pelloux, Benjamin; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; van Winden, Frans

    2014-10-22

    The disposition for prosocial conduct, which contributes to cooperation as arising during social interaction, requires cortical network dynamics responsive to the development of social ties, or care about the interests of specific interaction partners. Here, we formulate a dynamic computational model that accurately predicted how tie formation, driven by the interaction history, influences decisions to contribute in a public good game. We used model-driven functional MRI to test the hypothesis that brain regions key to social interactions keep track of dynamics in tie strength. Activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex tracked the individual's public good contributions. Activation in the bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), and temporo-parietal junction was modulated parametrically by the dynamically developing social tie-as estimated by our model-supporting a role of these regions in social tie formation. Activity in these two regions further reflected inter-individual differences in tie persistence and sensitivity to behavior of the interaction partner. Functional connectivity between pSTS and mPFC activations indicated that the representation of social ties is integrated in the decision process. These data reveal the brain mechanisms underlying the integration of interaction dynamics into a social tie representation which in turn influenced the individual's prosocial decisions. PMID:25338630

  11. Social Identity, Social Ties and Social Capital: A Study in Gaming Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Hao

    2012-01-01

    This work will focus on how different social relationships, namely shared identity and personal tie, will impact cooperative behavior, a form of social capital. I designed and conducted an economic game study to show that shared identity and personal ties work differently on cooperation among people and resource flow in social groups. Many factors…

  12. Social ties and their relevance to churn in mobile telecom networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koustuv Dasgupta; Rahul Singh; Balaji Viswanathan; Dipanjan Chakraborty; Sougata Mukherjea; Amit Anil Nanavati; Anupam Joshi

    2008-01-01

    Social Network Analysis has emerged as a key paradigm in modern sociology, technology, and information sciences. The paradigm stems from the view that the attributes of an individual in a network are less important than their ties (relationships) with other individuals in the network. Exploring the nature and strength of these ties can help understand the structure and dynamics of

  13. Tie1 is required for lymphatic valve and collecting vessel development.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xianghu; Zhou, Bin; Scott Baldwin, H

    2015-03-01

    Tie1 is a receptor tyrosine kinase with broad expression in embryonic endothelium. Reduction of Tie1 levels in mouse embryos with a hypomorphic Tie1 allele resulted in abnormal lymphatic patterning and architecture, decreased lymphatic draining efficiency, and ultimately, embryonic demise. Here we report that Tie1 is present uniformly throughout the lymphatics and from late embryonic/early postnatal stages, becomes more restricted to lymphatic valve regions. To investigate later events of lymphatic development, we employed Cre-loxP recombination utilizing a floxed Tie1 allele and an Nfatc1Cre line, to provide loxP excision predominantly in lymphatic endothelium and developing valves. Interestingly, unlike the early prenatal defects previously described by ubiquitous endothelial deletion, excision of Tie1 with Nfatc1Cre resulted in abnormal lymphatic defects in postnatal mice and was characterized by agenesis of lymphatic valves and a deficiency of collecting lymphatic vessels. Attenuation of Tie1 signaling in lymphatic endothelium prevented initiation of lymphatic valve specification by Prox1 high expression lymphatic endothelial cells that is associated with the onset of turbulent flow in the lymphatic circulation. Our findings reveal a fundamental role for Tie1 signaling during lymphatic vessel remodeling and valve morphogenesis and implicate it as a candidate gene involved in primary lymphedema. PMID:25576926

  14. Targeting VE-PTP activates TIE2 and stabilizes the ocular vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jikui; Frye, Maike; Lee, Bonnie L.; Reinardy, Jessica L.; McClung, Joseph M.; Ding, Kun; Kojima, Masashi; Xia, Huiming; Seidel, Christopher; Silva, Raquel Lima e; Dong, Aling; Hackett, Sean F.; Wang, Jiangxia; Howard, Brian W.; Vestweber, Dietmar; Kontos, Christopher D.; Peters, Kevin G.; Campochiaro, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Retinal and choroidal neovascularization (NV) and vascular leakage contribute to visual impairment in several common ocular diseases. The angiopoietin/TIE2 (ANG/TIE2) pathway maintains vascular integrity, and negative regulators of this pathway are potential therapeutic targets for these diseases. Here, we demonstrated that vascular endothelial-protein tyrosine phosphatase (VE-PTP), which negatively regulates TIE2 activation, is upregulated in hypoxic vascular endothelial cells, particularly in retinal NV. Intraocular injection of an anti–VE-PTP antibody previously shown to activate TIE2 suppressed ocular NV. Furthermore, a small-molecule inhibitor of VE-PTP catalytic activity (AKB-9778) activated TIE2, enhanced ANG1-induced TIE2 activation, and stimulated phosphorylation of signaling molecules in the TIE2 pathway, including AKT, eNOS, and ERK. In mouse models of neovascular age-related macular degeneration, AKB-9778 induced phosphorylation of TIE2 and strongly suppressed NV. Ischemia-induced retinal NV, which is relevant to diabetic retinopathy, was accentuated by the induction of ANG2 but inhibited by AKB-9778, even in the presence of high levels of ANG2. AKB-9778 also blocked VEGF-induced leakage from dermal and retinal vessels and prevented exudative retinal detachments in double-transgenic mice with high expression of VEGF in photoreceptors. These data support targeting VE-PTP to stabilize retinal and choroidal blood vessels and suggest that this strategy has potential for patients with a wide variety of retinal and choroidal vascular diseases PMID:25180601

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A TOXICITY INDENTIFICATION EVALUATION (TIE) PROCEDURE FOR CHARACTERIZING METAL TOXICITY IN MARINE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multi-Agency effort is underway to develop whole sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) methods. Whole sediment TIE methods will be critical tools for characterizing toxicity at hazardous waste sites (e.g., Superfund sites) and in the conduct of environmental risk as...

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A TOXICITY INDENTIFICATION EVALUATION (TIE) PROCEDURE FOR CHARACTERIZING METAL TOXICITY IN MARINE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    multiagency effort is underway to develop whole sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) methods. Whole sediment TIE methods will be critical tools for characterizing toxicity at hazardous waste sites (e.g., Superfund sites) and in the conduct of environmental risk asse...

  17. Ties to Influential Adults Among Black and White Adolescents: Culture, Social Class, and Family Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barton J. Hirsch; Maureen Mickus; Rebecca Boerger

    2002-01-01

    Although prior research suggests the importance of nonparental adults to adolescents, the ecological context of those relationships has received little attention. This study examined ties to influential adults among 122 adolescents who varied by race, family structure, and gender. The strongest effects were for race. Blacks reported stronger ties than Whites to the maternal grandmother as well as more supportive

  18. Effects of a Group Intervention on the Career Network Ties of Finnish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokisaari, Markku; Vuori, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    The authors evaluated how a group-based career intervention affected career network ties among Finnish adolescents as they made educational choices and prepared for their transition to secondary education. They examined the career-related network ties of 868 students during their last year in comprehensive school (junior high school) in a…

  19. The role of strong and weak ties in Facebook: a community structure perspective

    E-print Network

    Ferrara, Emilio

    The role of strong and weak ties in Facebook: a community structure perspective Emilio Ferrara the original intuition underlying so-called weak ties and their role in complex social networks. The analysis In this paper we report our findings on the analysis of two large datasets representing the friendship structure

  20. The Length of Bridge Ties: Structural and Geographic Properties of Online Social Interactions

    E-print Network

    Mascolo, Cecilia

    and arrange their social ties, the tools and techniques de- veloped to understand and analyze social network of ties be- tween members of a large-scale online social networking plat- form, Tuenti. We discover together otherwise separated portions of the network. We also find that such bridging connections have

  1. Targeting VE-PTP activates TIE2 and stabilizes the ocular vasculature.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jikui; Frye, Maike; Lee, Bonnie L; Reinardy, Jessica L; McClung, Joseph M; Ding, Kun; Kojima, Masashi; Xia, Huiming; Seidel, Christopher; Lima e Silva, Raquel; Dong, Aling; Hackett, Sean F; Wang, Jiangxia; Howard, Brian W; Vestweber, Dietmar; Kontos, Christopher D; Peters, Kevin G; Campochiaro, Peter A

    2014-10-01

    Retinal and choroidal neovascularization (NV) and vascular leakage contribute to visual impairment in several common ocular diseases. The angiopoietin/TIE2 (ANG/TIE2) pathway maintains vascular integrity, and negative regulators of this pathway are potential therapeutic targets for these diseases. Here, we demonstrated that vascular endothelial-protein tyrosine phosphatase (VE-PTP), which negatively regulates TIE2 activation, is upregulated in hypoxic vascular endothelial cells, particularly in retinal NV. Intraocular injection of an anti-VE-PTP antibody previously shown to activate TIE2 suppressed ocular NV. Furthermore, a small-molecule inhibitor of VE-PTP catalytic activity (AKB-9778) activated TIE2, enhanced ANG1-induced TIE2 activation, and stimulated phosphorylation of signaling molecules in the TIE2 pathway, including AKT, eNOS, and ERK. In mouse models of neovascular age-related macular degeneration, AKB-9778 induced phosphorylation of TIE2 and strongly suppressed NV. Ischemia-induced retinal NV, which is relevant to diabetic retinopathy, was accentuated by the induction of ANG2 but inhibited by AKB-9778, even in the presence of high levels of ANG2. AKB-9778 also blocked VEGF-induced leakage from dermal and retinal vessels and prevented exudative retinal detachments in double-transgenic mice with high expression of VEGF in photoreceptors. These data support targeting VE-PTP to stabilize retinal and choroidal blood vessels and suggest that this strategy has potential for patients with a wide variety of retinal and choroidal vascular diseases. PMID:25180601

  2. Phenological variation in the composition of a temperate forest leaf tie community.

    PubMed

    Sigmon, Elisha; Lill, John T

    2013-02-01

    Arthropod communities in an array of temperate ecosystems follow similar phenological patterns of distinct compositional turnovers during the course of a season. The arthropod community inhabiting leaf ties is no exception. Many caterpillars build leaf ties, shelters between overlapping leaves attached together with silk, which are colonized secondarily by a variety of arthropods. We created experimental leaf ties by clipping overlapping leaves together with metal clips. We censused the arthropod community within experimental ties on two host plants, American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart), and white oak (Quercus alba L.), weekly for 10 wk during the summer of 2009. Diversity measures for leaf-tying caterpillars and the entire arthropod community within ties varied little between tree species and sampling periods, but caterpillar and arthropod density per tie was significantly higher on white oak than beech and abundance increased on both tree species as the season progressed. The composition (i.e., species presence and abundance) of the leaf-tying caterpillar community and the arthropod community as a whole differed between host-tree species and sampling periods. Although the arthropod communities on American beech and white oak differed, they showed similar patterns of compositional turnover, with distinct communities in early and late summer and a transitional community midsummer. PMID:23339783

  3. Smart FBG-based steel tie rod with self-monitoring functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jianping; Zhou, Zhi; Chen, Genda; Ou, Jinping

    2009-03-01

    Currently, it is difficult to measure the internal forces of steel tie rods under construction and in long-term service. A novel high-durable smart steel tie rod with functionality of self-monitoring was developed by utilizing fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and installation techniques combined with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP). The sensing features for the smart steel tie rod were investigated. The strain obtained from FBG strain sensors shows very good linearity and repeatability when the steel tie rod is under 85% of its ultimate load. The force calculated from the strain data obtained during the control loading supports those findings, within a 4% error. This type of smart steel tie rod easily reveals any stage of stress and can be regarded as a potential strain-based load cell for adjacent structures in a harsh environment.

  4. Tying dark matter to baryons with self-interactions.

    PubMed

    Kaplinghat, Manoj; Keeley, Ryan E; Linden, Tim; Yu, Hai-Bo

    2014-07-11

    Self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) models have been proposed to solve the small-scale issues with the collisionless cold dark matter paradigm. We derive equilibrium solutions in these SIDM models for the dark matter halo density profile including the gravitational potential of both baryons and dark matter. Self-interactions drive dark matter to be isothermal and this ties the core sizes and shapes of dark matter halos to the spatial distribution of the stars, a radical departure from previous expectations and from cold dark matter predictions. Compared to predictions of SIDM-only simulations, the core sizes are smaller and the core densities are higher, with the largest effects in baryon-dominated galaxies. As an example, we find a core size around 0.3 kpc for dark matter in the Milky Way, more than an order of magnitude smaller than the core size from SIDM-only simulations, which has important implications for indirect searches of SIDM candidates. PMID:25062162

  5. Auxiliary equipment transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ogura

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a transmission including a drive train having speed change gearing and a one-way clutch between a transmission input and a transmission output. The improvement comprises: a first cylindrical surface fixed to rotate with the transmission input; a second cylindrical surface fixed to rotate with the transmission output, the cylindrical surfaces being axially adjacent and coterminous; a wrap

  6. Power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ordo, J.P.; Raszkowski, J.A.; Klemen, D.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes a transmission. It comprises a housing having first and second end covers; an input shaft rotatably mounted in the first end cover; an output shaft rotatably supported on the input shaft and in the second end cover; first and second countershafts rotatably supported in the end covers for rotation on respective axis parallel with the input shaft and the output shaft; a first head gear continuously rotatable with the input shaft; second and third head gears meshing with the first head gear and continuously rotatable with the first and second countershafts respectively; ratio gears rotatably supported on each of the countershafts including a first ratio gear on the first countershaft and a second ratio gear on the second countershaft; reverse gear means including a first ratio gear on the first countershaft and a second ratio gear on the second countershaft; reverse gear means including a first member rotatable with the first ratio gear means including a first member rotatable with the first ratio gear and a second member rotatably supported on the second countershaft; synchronizer clutch means selectively and alternatively connectible with the second ratio gear and the second member of the reverse gear means; output gear means drivingly connected with the output shaft and including a first ratio output gear meshing with the second ratio gear; first selectively engageable friction clutch means for connecting the first ratio gear with the first countershaft for completing a low forward drive ratio between the input and output shafts; and second selectively engageable friction clutch means for selectively connecting the synchronizer clutch means to the second countershaft and cooperating therewith to selectively alternatively complete a reverse drive ratio between the input shaft and the output shaft and another forward drive ratio between the input and output shafts.

  7. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Inuzuka, T.

    1986-08-26

    1. An automatic transmission with four forward speeds and one reverse position, is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets each having a sun gear, a ring gear and a carrier supporting a pinion in mesh with the sun gear and ring gear; the carrier of the first gear set, the ring gear of the second gear set and the output member all being connected; the ring gear of the first gear set connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a first clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the first gear set, including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a second clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the second gear set a third clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the carrier of the second gear set including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a first drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear of the first gear set and the carrier of the second gear set in only one direction and, alternatively, in any direction; a second drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the sun gear of the second gear set; and a drum being open to the first planetary gear set, with a cylindrical intermediate wall, an inner peripheral wall and outer peripheral wall and forming the hydraulic servos of the first and third clutch means between the intermediate wall and the inner peripheral wall and between the intermediate wall and the outer peripheral wall respectively.

  8. Transmission synchronizer

    SciTech Connect

    Kishimoto, M.

    1989-04-25

    This patent describe a synchronizer for a gear type transmission in which a pair of gears are provided on input and output shafts. The two gears of each pair are always in mesh with each other with one gear of each pair being fixedly connected to one of the input and output shafts and the other gear of each pair being rotatably connected to the other shaft to be rotatable relative thereto, and the other gear of each couple is adapted to be drivingly connected to the other shaft by way of a clutch hub with a radially extending disc portion and an axially extending boss portion fixedly provided on the other shaft, a gear spline provided on the other gear of each couple integrally therewith, and a hub sleeve which is engaged with the clutch hub to be rotated together therewith and is slidable in the axial direction of the clutch hub to be engaged with the gear spline to transmit rotation of the clutch hub to the gear spline, the synchronizer being for synchronizing the two gears of at least one of the pairs and comprising an inner cone which has a tapered outer surface and is rotatably mounted on a hub portion formed integrally and coaxially with the other gear of the couple and is in engagement with the clutch hub to permit rotation of the inner cone relative to the clutch hub by a predetermined amount, an outer cone which ha a tapered inner surface opposed to the tapered outer surface of the inner cone, and is adapted to be engaged with the hub sleeve by way of splines to be rotated together therewith when the hub sleeve is slid into engagement with the gear spline.

  9. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  10. Primary monocytes regulate endothelial cell survival through secretion of Angiopoietin-1 and activation of endothelial Tie2

    E-print Network

    Schubert, Shai Y.

    Objective—Monocyte recruitment and interaction with the endothelium is imperative to vascular recovery. Tie2 plays a key role in endothelial health and vascular remodeling. We studied monocyte-mediated Tie2/angiopoietin ...

  11. 49 CFR 1242.15 - Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material...Expenses-Way and Structures § 1242.15 Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track...

  12. Stimulation of angiogenesis and survival of endothelial cells by human monoclonal Tie2 receptor antibody.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Byungtae; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Jang-Seong; Moon, Ji Hyun; Jeung, In Cheul; Lee, Na Geum; Park, Jongjin; Hong, Hyo Jeong; Cho, Young-Lai; Jung, Haiyoung; Park, Young-Jun; Lee, Seon-Jin; Lee, Hee Gu; Kim, Won Kon; Han, Baek Soo; Bae, Kwang-Hee; Chung, Sang J; Kwon, Young-Guen; Lee, Sang Chul; Kim, Sang Jik; Min, Jeong-Ki

    2015-05-01

    Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) and its endothelium-specific receptor, tyrosine kinase with Ig and epidermal growth factor homology domain 2 (Tie2), play critical roles in vascular development. Although the Ang1/Tie2 system has been considered a promising target for therapeutic neovascularization, several imitations of large-scale production have hampered the development of recombinant Ang1 for therapeutics. In this study, we produced a fully human agonistic antibody against Tie2, designated 1-4h, and tested the applicability of 1-4h as an alternative to native Ang1 in therapeutic angiogenesis. 1-4h significantly enhanced the phosphorylation of Tie2 in a dose- and time-dependent manner in human Tie2-expressing HEK293 cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Moreover, 1-4h induced the activation of Tie2-mediated intracellular signaling such as AKT, eNOS, MAPK, and Focal Adhesion Kinase p125(FAK). In addition, 1-4h increased the chemotactic motility and capillary-like tube formation of endothelial cells in vitro and enhanced the survival of serum-deprived endothelial cells. Taken together, our data clearly suggest that a human Tie2 agonistic antibody is a potentially useful therapeutic approach for the treatment of several ischemic diseases including delayed-wound healing and ischemic heart and limb diseases. PMID:25771003

  13. Tie2-dependent deletion of ?6 integrin subunit in mice reduces tumor growth and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bouvard, Claire; Segaoula, Zacharie; De Arcangelis, Adèle; Galy-Fauroux, Isabelle; Mauge, Laetitia; Fischer, Anne-Marie; Georges-Labouesse, Elisabeth; Helley, Dominique

    2014-11-01

    The ?6 integrin subunit (?6) has been implicated in cancer cell migration and in the progression of several malignancies, but its role in tumor angiogenesis is unclear. In mice, anti-?6 blocking antibodies reduce tumor angiogenesis, whereas Tie1-dependent ?6 gene deletion enhances neovessel formation in melanoma and lung carcinoma. To clarify the discrepancy in these results we used the cre-lox system to generate a mouse line, ?6fl/fl?Tie2Cre(+), with ?6 gene deletion specifically in Tie2-lineage cells: endothelial cells, pericytes, subsets of hematopoietic stem cells, and Tie2-expressing monocytes/macrophages (TEMs), known for their proangiogenic properties. Loss of ?6 expression in ?6fl/fl?Tie2Cre(+) mice reduced tumor growth in a murine B16F10 melanoma model. Immunohistological analysis of the tumors showed that Tie2-dependent ?6 gene deletion was associated with reduced tumor vascularization and with reduced infiltration of proangiogenic Tie2-expressing macrophages. These findings demonstrate that ?6 integrin subunit plays a major role in tumor angiogenesis and TEM infiltration. Targeting ?6 could be used as a strategy to reduce tumor growth. PMID:25176420

  14. Merchant transmission investment

    E-print Network

    Joskow, Paul L.

    2003-01-01

    We examine the performance attributes of a merchant transmission investment framework that relies on "market driven" transmission investment to provide the infrastructure to support competitive wholesale markets for ...

  15. Recovery From Radiation-induced Bone Marrow Damage by HSP25 Through Tie2 Signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hae-June [Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hee-Chung [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hee-Yong [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoon-Jin [Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun-Sil, E-mail: yslee0425@ewha.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy and Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Woman's University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [College of Pharmacy and Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Woman's University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Whole-body radiation therapy can cause severe injury to the hematopoietic system, and therefore it is necessary to identify a novel strategy for overcoming this injury. Methods and Materials: Mice were irradiated with 4.5 Gy after heat shock protein 25 (HSP25) gene transfer using an adenoviral vector. Then, peripheral blood cell counts, histopathological analysis, and Western blotting on bone marrow (BM) cells were performed. The interaction of HSP25 with Tie2 was investigated with mouse OP9 and human BM-derived mesenchymal stem cells to determine the mechanism of HSP25 in the hematopoietic system. Results: HSP25 transfer increased BM regeneration and reduced apoptosis following whole-body exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). The decrease in Tie2 protein expression that followed irradiation of the BM was blocked by HSP25 transfer, and Tie2-positive cells were more abundant among the BM cells of HSP25-transferred mice, even after IR exposure. Following systemic RNA interference of Tie2 before IR, HSP25-mediated radioprotective effects were partially blocked in both mice and cell line systems. Stability of Tie2 was increased by HSP25, a response mediated by the interaction of HSP25 with Tie2. IR-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Tie2 was augmented by HSP25 overexpression; downstream events in the Tie2 signaling pathway, including phosphorylation of AKT and EKR1/2, were also activated. Conclusions: HSP25 protects against radiation-induced BM damage by interacting with and stabilizing Tie2. This may be a novel strategy for HSP25-mediated radioprotection in BM.

  16. A modified over-tie for the ligation of Incognito™ lingual fixed appliances.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Peter N

    2013-09-01

    The Incognito lingual appliance has a ribbon-wise slot with vertically inserted wires. Control of tip can be problematic with this appliance and the conventional method to overcome this is to achieve full wire engagement via the use of power-ties. Although effective, these can be very difficult to place and also create very high friction. A method of ligation is described which consists of a modified elastic double over-tie. This is easily placed and very effective at controlling tip in Incognito brackets using a variety of arch wires. This method creates less friction than the power-tie. PMID:24009324

  17. COPLANAR WAVEGUIDE FED BOW-TIE SLOT ANTENNAS FOR WIDEBAND Abdelnasser A. Eldek, Atef Z. Elsherbeni, and Charles E. Smith

    E-print Network

    Elsherbeni, Atef Z.

    element slot bow-tie designs. Keywords: Bow tie, wideband, coplanar waveguide, slot antennas, radar% to 40%. In this paper, a bow-tie slot antenna geometry with tapered feed line is studied and designed the commercial computer software package, Momentum of Agilent Technologies, Advanced Design System (ADS), which

  18. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SPEECH AND AUDIO PROCESSING, VOL. 10, NO. 3, MARCH 2002 137 Substate Tying With Combined Parameter Training

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SPEECH AND AUDIO PROCESSING, VOL. 10, NO. 3, MARCH 2002 137 Substate Tying. To facilitate tying at the substate level, the state emission proba- bilities are constructed in two stages or exploits Gaussian density sharing and substate tying. Another approach to enhance model training

  19. 78 FR 57619 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ...A-549-829, A-570-990] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand...investigations of imports of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from Mexico, Thailand...People's Republic of China. See Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico,...

  20. Tie-dyed2 functions with tie-dyed1 to promote carbohydrate export from maize leaves.

    PubMed

    Baker, R Frank; Braun, David M

    2008-03-01

    Regulation of carbon partitioning is essential for plant growth and development. To gain insight into genes controlling carbon allocation in leaves, we identified mutants that hyperaccumulate carbohydrates. tie-dyed2 (tdy2) is a recessive mutant of maize (Zea mays) with variegated, nonclonal, chlorotic leaf sectors containing excess starch and soluble sugars. Consistent with a defect in carbon export, we found that a by-product of functional chloroplasts, likely a sugar, induces tdy2 phenotypic expression. Based on the phenotypic similarities between tdy2 and two other maize mutants with leaf carbon accumulation defects, tdy1 and sucrose export defective1 (sxd1), we investigated whether Tdy2 functioned in the same pathway as Tdy1 or Sxd1. Cytological and genetic studies demonstrate that Tdy2 and Sxd1 function independently. However, in tdy1/+; tdy2/+ F(1) plants, we observed a moderate chlorotic sectored phenotype, suggesting that the two genes are dosage sensitive and have a related function. This type of genetic interaction is referred to as second site noncomplementation and has often, though not exclusively, been found in cases where the two encoded proteins physically interact. Moreover, tdy1; tdy2 double mutants display a synergistic interaction supporting this hypothesis. Additionally, we determined that cell walls of chlorotic leaf tissues in tdy mutants contain increased cellulose; thus, tdy mutants potentially represent enhanced feedstocks for biofuels production. From our phenotypic and genetic characterizations, we propose a model whereby TDY1 and TDY2 function together in a single genetic pathway, possibly in homo- and heteromeric complexes, to promote carbon export from leaves. PMID:18218972

  1. Transmission reliability performance assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Kram

    2006-01-01

    Transmission reliability performance assessment is undergoing a basic change due to the changes in the electric transmission industry. While fundamental concepts of transmission reliability performance assessment have not changed key trends in the industry signal the need for industry stakeholders to assess transmission reliability data collection capabilities and performance metrics to ensure continued grid reliability and economic benefits of an

  2. Study Ties Shingles Virus to Dangerous Blood Vessel Disease in Elderly

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Study Ties Shingles Virus to Dangerous Blood Vessel Disease in Elderly Condition ... 18, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- New research links the virus behind chickenpox and shingles to a blood vessel ...

  3. 30 CFR 77.704-10 - Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.704-10 Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits. If the work of forming an...

  4. 30 CFR 77.704-10 - Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.704-10 Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits. If the work of forming an...

  5. 30 CFR 77.704-10 - Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.704-10 Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits. If the work of forming an...

  6. 30 CFR 77.704-10 - Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.704-10 Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits. If the work of forming an...

  7. 30 CFR 77.704-10 - Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.704-10 Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits. If the work of forming an...

  8. Magnetoconductance at tunnel junction contacts with disordered granular materials Monique Tie b

    E-print Network

    Niewczas, Marek

    Magnetoconductance at tunnel junction contacts with disordered granular materials Monique Tie b Magnetoresistance Magnetoconductance reflectionless tunneling Electronic transport Layer-by-layer self-assembly Nanoparticle arrays Metal­insulator transition We explore the magnetoconductance that can be generated

  9. Australia-EU Linkage Story Policy evolution tied to domestic political landscape abandonment of

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    · Australia-EU Linkage Story Policy evolution tied to domestic political landscape ­ abandonment on post-AU election results New government in Australia has policy framework of `direct action' - paying

  10. Romantic Partnerships and the Dispersion of Social Ties: A Network Analysis of Relationship Status on Facebook

    E-print Network

    Backstrom, Lars

    2013-01-01

    A crucial task in the analysis of on-line social-networking systems is to identify important people --- those linked by strong social ties --- within an individual's network neighborhood. Here we investigate this question for a particular category of strong ties, those involving spouses or romantic partners. We organize our analysis around a basic question: given all the connections among a person's friends, can you recognize his or her romantic partner from the network structure alone? Using data from a large sample of Facebook users, we find that this task can be accomplished with high accuracy, but doing so requires the development of a new measure of tie strength that we term `dispersion' --- the extent to which two people's mutual friends are not themselves well-connected. The results offer methods for identifying types of structurally significant people in on-line applications, and suggest a potential expansion of existing theories of tie strength.

  11. Toward a Dynamic Conceptualization of Social Ties and Context: Implications for Understanding Immigrant and Latino Health

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Amy J.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have posited that social ties and social support may contribute to better-than-expected health outcomes among Mexican immigrants vis-à-vis their US-born counterparts. However, in our review of studies examining social ties and health by immigration-related variables among this group, we found little support for this hypothesis. To better understand the social factors that contribute to the health of Mexicans in the United States, we conducted a qualitative analysis of social relationships and social context among first- and second-generation Mexican women. Our results highlight the interplay between immigration processes and social ties, draw attention to the importance of identity support and transnational social relationships, and suggest ways to reconceptualize the relationship between social contexts, social ties, and immigrant and Latino health. PMID:19833986

  12. ICU Infections Among Elderly Tied to Higher Death Rates After Discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... JavaScript. ICU Infections Among Elderly Tied to Higher Death Rates After Discharge Intravenous line infections and ventilator- ... their hospital stay, a new study finds. "Any death from preventable infections is one too many," study ...

  13. Depression Tied to Worse Outcomes for Black Patients with Heart Failure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Depression Tied to Worse Outcomes for Black Patients With ... 22, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages African American Health Depression Heart Failure WEDNESDAY, April 22, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- ...

  14. CHARACTERIZATION AND ISOLATION OF ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN WHOLE SEDIMENT TOXICITY INDENTIFICATION EVALUATIONS (TIES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of whole sediment toxicity identification and evaluation (TIEs) methods has been under way for approximately four years. These methods are necessary to define cause and effect relationships in toxic sediments during ecological risk assessments, remediation and disposa...

  15. Comparison of Methods for Evaluating Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Tie-Tube Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapernick, Richard J.; Dixon, David D.

    2008-01-01

    One of the fundamental structural components in a nuclear thermal rocket design is the tie tube. Proper cooling and flow modeling is important both for the structural integrity of the reactor core and for proper design of downstream components that operate on the hydrogen exiting the tie tube. Two models have been developed. The first is a spreadsheet-based tool designed for sizing tie-tube components, considering mechanical stress and strain limits, deposited moderator power, thermal expansion along the flow path, and conduction from adjacent fuel blocks. The second is a three-dimensional SINDA/FLUINT model used as a benchmark, containing a complete finite-element fuel block and a 1/6th tie-tube model. This paper discusses the performance of both models, as well as the advantages and limitations of each.

  16. Automatic Tie Point Generation for the Processing of HRSC Imagery of the Mars Express Mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Schmidt; M. Spiegel; C. Heipke; J. Oberst; G. Neukum

    2005-01-01

    The automatic determination of tie points for the improvement of the exterior orientation of the spacecraft is carried out at Institute of Photogrammetry and GeoInformation (IPI) of Universität Hannover and is presented in this abstract.

  17. Loads on Tie-Down Systems for Floating Drilling Rigs during Hurricane Conditions

    E-print Network

    Bae, Yoon Hyeok

    2010-01-16

    Tie-down systems are used to fasten drilling rigs to the deck of offshore structures during harsh environmental conditions such as hurricanes. During Hurricane Ivan (2004) and Katrina (2005), a number of offshore structures were moved and several...

  18. Study Ties Saunas to Lower Risk of Death from Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ties Saunas to Lower Risk of Death From Heart Disease More frequent use, longer times per session decreased ... 2015) Monday, February 23, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Heart Diseases Men's Health MONDAY, Feb. 23, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- ...

  19. Johns Hopkins researchers find cancer-causing protein strongly tied to hormone resistance in breast cancer:

    Cancer.gov

    In dozens of experiments in mice and in human cancer cells, a team of Johns Hopkins scientists has closely tied production of a cancer-causing protein called TWIST to the development of estrogen resistance in women with breast cancer.

  20. 1 in 5 Sore Throats Tied to Scary Bacteria, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 1 in 5 Sore Throats Tied to Scary Bacteria, Study Finds No test exists for F. necrophorum , ... Feb. 16, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A potentially deadly bacteria is responsible for one in five sore throats ...

  1. The tie effect in simple arithmetic: An access-based account

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jo-anne LeFevre; Tina Shanahan; Diana DeStefano

    2004-01-01

    Simple arithmetic problems with repeated operands (i.e., ties such as 4+4, 6 × 6, 10-5, or 49 ÷ 7) are solved more quickly\\u000a and accurately than similar nontie problems (e.g., 4 +5, 6 × 7, 10-6, or 48÷ 6). Further, as compared with nonties, ties show\\u000a small or nonexistent problem-size effects (whereby problems with smaller operands such as 2 +

  2. Second-Order Imitation: Uncovering Latent Effects of Board Network Ties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James D. Westphal; Marc-David L. Seidel; Katherine J. Stewart

    2001-01-01

    This study examines whether board interlock ties facilitate second-order imitation, in which firms imitate an underlying decision process that can be adapted to multiple policy domains, rather than imitating specific policies of tied-to firms (first-order imitation). Longitudinal analyses of archival data for a large sample of Forbes\\/Fortune 500 companies, as well as analyses of survey data on mimetic processes among

  3. Diverless flowline connector makes three tie-ins in 1,000-ft water

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This paper reviews a remote operated vehicle (ROV) by Sonsub International Inc. in the South China Sea. In March, 1996 this company completed three subsea diverless flowline tie-ins in over 1000 feet of water at the Amoco Orient Petroleum Co. operated Liuhua 11-1 field. The paper briefly describes the design and operation of the equipment and the methods actually used by the ROV to tie in the flow lines.

  4. Inhibition of Tyrosine Kinase Receptor Tie2 Reverts HCV-Induced Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    López-Rodríguez, Rosario; Hernández-Bartolomé, Ángel; Borque-Iñurrita, María Jesús; Molina-Jiménez, Francisca; García-Buey, Luisa; Moreno-Otero, Ricardo; Sanz-Cameno, Paloma

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease (CLD) and is frequently linked to intrahepatic microvascular disorders. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) is a central event in liver damage, due to their contribution to hepatic renewal and to the development of fibrosis and hepatocarcinoma. During the progression of CLDs, HSC attempt to restore injured tissue by stimulating repair processes, such as fibrosis and angiogenesis. Because HSC express the key vascular receptor Tie2, among other angiogenic receptors and mediators, we analyzed its involvement in the development of CLD. Methods Tie2 expression was monitored in HSC cultures that were exposed to media from HCV-expressing cells (replicons). The effects of Tie2 blockade on HSC activation by either neutralizing antibody or specific signaling inhibitors were also examined. Results Media from HCV-replicons enhanced HSC activation and invasion and upregulated Tie2 expression. Notably, the blockade of Tie2 receptor (by a specific neutralizing antibody) or signaling (by selective AKT and MAPK inhibitors) significantly reduced alpha-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) expression and the invasive potential of HCV-conditioned HSC. Conclusions These findings ascribe a novel profibrogenic function to Tie2 receptor in the progression of chronic hepatitis C, highlighting the significance of its dysregulation in the evolution of CLDs and its potential as a novel therapeutic target. PMID:25302785

  5. Endothelial Tie growth factor receptor provides antigenic marker for assessment of breast cancer angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Salvén, P; Joensuu, H; Heikkilä, P; Matikainen, M T; Wasenius, V M; Alanko, A; Alitalo, K

    1996-07-01

    Breast cancer prognosis has previously been linked to the degree of tumour vascularisation. In order to establish additional markers for tumour angiogenesis, we have used monoclonal antibodies against the endothelial Tie receptor tyrosine kinase to study the degree of vascularisation of breast carcinomas and the regulation of Tie expression in the vascular endothelial cells. Antibodies were used for Tie detection and the results were correlated with other prognostic markers. Of four monoclonal antibodies directed against different epitopes of the Tie extracellular domain, two reacted against Tie in unfixed histopathological sections of breast carcinomas. One of these antibodies (clone 7e8) was specific for the endothelial cells whereas the other (clone 10f11) also reacted with basement membranes and occasional carcinoma cells. When Tie expression was studied with the antibody clone 7e8, all 27 carcinomas, two in situ carcinomas, samples of histologically normal breast tissue (n = 16) or normal skin or lymph node tissue (n = 5) showed staining. Microvessel counts were higher in carcinomas (median 14; range 3-27) than in fibrodenomas (median 10; range 5-18) or histologically normal breast tissue (median 7; range 3-15, P = 0.0006). A similar result was obtained using antibodies against the CD31 (PECAM) antigen. Microvessel counts in 7e8 staining were not significantly associated with primary tumour size, axillary nodal status, histological grade or staining for oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, Ki-67 proliferation marker or p53 oncoprotein. PMID:8679461

  6. Nondestructive characterization of tie-rods by means of dynamic testing, added masses and genetic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentilini, C.; Marzani, A.; Mazzotti, M.

    2013-01-01

    The structural characterization of tie-rods is crucial for the safety assessments of historical buildings. The main parameters that characterize the behavior of tie-rods are the tensile force, the modulus of elasticity of the material and the rotational stiffness at both restraints. Several static, static-dynamic and pure dynamic nondestructive methods have been proposed in the last decades to identify such parameters. However, none of them is able to characterize all the four mentioned parameters. To fill this gap, in this work a procedure based on dynamic testing, added masses and genetic algorithms (GA) is proposed. The identification is driven by GA where the objective function is a metric of the discrepancy between the experimentally determined (by dynamic impact testing) and the numerically computed (by a fast and reliable finite element formulation) frequencies of vibration of some modified systems obtained from the tie-rod by adding a concentrated mass in specific positions. It is shown by a comprehensive numerical testing campaign in which several cases spanning from short, low-stressed, and almost hinged tie-rods to long, high-tensioned, and nearly clamped tie-rods, that the proposed strategy is reliable in the identification of the four unknowns. Finally, the procedure has been applied to characterize a metallic tie-rod located in Palazzo Paleotti, Bologna (Italy).

  7. Hydraulic reinforcement of channel at lower tie-plate in BWR fuel bundle

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, E.B.

    1989-12-26

    This patent describes an apparatus in a fuel bundle for confining fuel rods for the generation of steam in a steam water mixture passing interior of the fuel bundle. The fuel bundle includes: a lower tie-plate for supporting the fuel rods and permitting flow from the lower exterior portion of the fuel bundle into the interior portion of the fuel bundle; a plurality of fuel rods. The fuel rods supported on the lower tie-plate extending upwardly to and towards the upper portion of the fuel bundle for the generation of steam in a passing steam and water mixture interior of the fuel bundle; an upper tie-plate for maintaining the fuel rods in side-by-side relation and permitting a threaded connection between a plurality of the fuel rods with the threaded connection being at the upper and lower tie-plate. The upper tie-plate permitting escape of a steam water mixture from the top of the fuel bundle; a fuel bundle channel; and a labyrinth seal configured in the lower tie-plate.

  8. Linkage of genomic biomarkers to whole organism end points in a Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE).

    PubMed

    Biales, Adam D; Kostich, Mitchell; Burgess, Robert M; Ho, Kay T; Bencic, David C; Flick, Robert L; Portis, Lisa M; Pelletier, Marguerite C; Perron, Monique M; Reiss, Mark

    2013-02-01

    Aquatic organisms are exposed to many toxic chemicals and interpreting the cause and effect relationships between occurrence and impairment is difficult. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) provides a systematic approach for identifying responsible toxicants. TIE relies on relatively uninformative and potentially insensitive toxicological end points. Gene expression analysis may provide needed sensitivity and specificity aiding in the identification of primary toxicants. The current work aims to determine the added benefit of integrating gene expression end points into the TIE process. A cDNA library and a custom microarray were constructed for the marine amphipod Ampelisca abdita. Phase 1 TIEs were conducted using 10% and 40% dilutions of acutely toxic sediment. Gene expression was monitored in survivors and controls. An expression-based classifier was developed and evaluated against control organisms, organisms exposed to low or medium toxicity diluted sediment, and chemically selective manipulations of highly toxic sediment. The expression-based classifier correctly identified organisms exposed to toxic sediment even when little mortality was observed, suggesting enhanced sensitivity of the TIE process. The ability of the expression-based end point to correctly identify toxic sediment was lost concomitantly with acute toxicity when organic contaminants were removed. Taken together, this suggests that gene expression enhances the performance of the TIE process. PMID:23305514

  9. Manual with auxiliary transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, S.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes a vehicular transmission of the type in which a manual transmission has two parallel shafts. One shaft is connected through a transmission clutch to an engine in which manual transmission is connected in series to an auxiliary transmission having high and low speed transmission lines. The auxiliary transmission has a high speed transmission line equipped with a hydraulic clutch and a low speed transmission line equipped with a one-way clutch for allowing the overrun of the output side of the low speed transmission line so that the low speed transmission line is established when the hydraulic clutch is released. The high speed transmission is established when the hydraulic clutch is applied. A sleeve shaft is on one of the two shafts. A transmission gear mechanism connects the sleeve shaft to the other shaft. One shaft has an extension with a fixed gear. A coacting gear is fixed on the sleeve shaft, the hydraulic clutch and coacting gear positioned on the extension of one shaft, an idle gear mechanism in meshing engagement with both the coacting gear and the fixed gear. The idle gear mechanism has a low speed transmission line one-way clutch, and the hydraulic clutch is operable to connect and disconnect the sleeve shaft to and from the one shaft.

  10. The Determination of Tie-Line Fields for Coexisting Lipid Phases: an ESR Study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew K; Freed, Jack H.

    2009-01-01

    A novel method we refer to as the tie-line field (TLF) method has been developed to globally determine the tie-lines of any three-component two-phase coexistence region by fitting electron-spin resonance (ESR) spectra obtained from compositions on the coexistence curve and within the coexistence region. The TLF method is illustrated by applying it to the liquid-ordered (Lo) and liquid-disordered (Ld) phase coexistence region of the lipid system brain-sphingomyelin/dioleoylphosphatidylcholine/cholesterol (SPM/DOPC/Chol), for which an estimate of a tie-line was previously obtained by an earlier method also using ESR spectra. The essential aspect of the TLF method is the unique parameterization of the coexistence region called a “ruled surface”. The use of the ruled surface enables one to guarantee that tie-lines do not cross, as required by the phase rule, whereas previous methods lack this important constraint. It also makes simultaneous use of the full data set in determining the TLF and leads to a more efficient experimental design than previously used. The method is first tested out on synthetic data sets, then least-squares fitting of the ESR spectra with the parameterized model results in a tie-line field consistent with other known information on this lipid system. The best-fit tie-line field consists of the set of tie lines which are not exactly parallel; they exhibit a gradual change in slope with the largest slope within the coexistence region connecting the coexistence curve compositions with the highest and lowest cholesterol concentrations. The results are compared with those from more constrained methods of representing the tie-line fields as well as with the previous tie-line determination for the SPM/DOPC/Chol system. An accurate determination of the tie-line field of phase coexistence regions in lipid systems is a necessary step in determining coexisting lipid compositions to serve as models of cell plasma membranes. PMID:19673072

  11. Modeling “unilateral” response in the cross-ties of a cable network: Deterministic vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giaccu, Gian Felice; Caracoglia, Luca; Barbiellini, Bernardo

    2014-09-01

    Cross-ties are employed as passive devices for the mitigation of stay-cable vibrations, exhibited on cable-stayed bridges under wind and wind-rain excitation. Large-amplitude oscillation can result in damage to the cables or perceived discomfort to bridge users. The “cable-cross-ties system” derived by connecting two or more stays by transverse cross-ties is often referred to as an “in-plane cable network”. Linear modeling of network dynamics has been available for some time. This framework, however, cannot be used to detect incipient failure in the restrainers due to slackening or snapping. A new model is proposed in this paper to analyze the effects of a complete loss in the pre-tensioning force imparted to the cross-ties, which leads to the “unilateral” free-vibration response of the network (i.e., a cross-tie with linear-elastic internal force in tension and partially inactive in compression). Deterministic free vibrations of a three-cable network are investigated by using the “equivalent linearization method”. A performance coefficient is introduced to monitor the relative reduction in the average (apparent) stiffness of the connector during free vibration response (“mode by mode”), exhibiting unilateral behavior. A reduction of fifty percent in the apparent stiffness was observed in the cross-tie when the pre-tensioning force is small in comparison with the tension force in the stay. This coefficient may be used as a damage indicator for the selection of the initial pre-tensioning force in the cross-ties needed to avoid slackening.

  12. Automatic transmission adapter kit

    SciTech Connect

    Stich, R.L.; Neal, W.D.

    1987-02-10

    This patent describes, in a four-wheel-drive vehicle apparatus having a power train including an automatic transmission and a transfer case, an automatic transmission adapter kit for installation of a replacement automatic transmission of shorter length than an original automatic transmission in the four-wheel-drive vehicle. The adapter kit comprises: an extension housing interposed between the replacement automatic transmission and the transfer case; an output shaft, having a first end which engages the replacement automatic transmission and a second end which engages the transfer case; first sealing means for sealing between the extension housing and the replacement automatic transmission; second sealing means for sealing between the extension housing and the transfer case; and fastening means for connecting the extension housing between the replacement automatic transmission and the transfer case.

  13. Transmission Cycles of Plague

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Society For Microbiology

    2004-08-27

    This image contains the transmission sylvatic and urban cycles of plague (Yersinia pestis)in the United States. It also shows some of the differences in transmission between bubonic and pneumonic plague.

  14. Auxiliary equipment transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ogura, M.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes a transmission including a drive train having speed change gearing and a one-way clutch between a transmission input and a transmission output. The improvement comprises: a first cylindrical surface fixed to rotate with the transmission input; a second cylindrical surface fixed to rotate with the transmission output, the cylindrical surfaces being axially adjacent and coterminous; a wrap spring about the cylindrical surfaces having a first end attached to the transmission output and a second end; a pivotal actuator mechanism attached to the second end to pivot and bias the second end relative to the first end at a selected speed range of the transmission; and the pivotal actuator mechanism including a centrifugal clutch having input and a clutch output. Clutch input is fixed to rotate with the transmission input and clutch output coupled to the second end of the wrap spring.

  15. Results of Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIE`S) conducted on the A-01 outfall and its contributory waste streams, July 1996--February 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1997-03-01

    Toxicity tests were conducted at nine locations during the summer of 1996. The results indicated that A-01B, A-01C, A-03, A-04, A-05 and A-01 were toxic to the test species, Ceriodaphnia dubia, while A-01A, A-06, and WE-01 were not toxic. Beginning in August 1996, Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIE`s) were initiated on all toxic outfalls in order to identify the toxicants responsible for the observed toxicity. A complete TIE was performed on A-01 because it is the regulatory compliance point for all of the combined waste streams that were tested. Only the portions of a TIE that are related to metal and chlorine toxicity were performed on the remaining locations because existing data indicated that metals and chlorine were present in potentially toxic quantities at these locations, and there was no evidence that other toxicants would be expected to be present in toxic amounts. The results of the TIE`s indicate that metals are responsible for most of the toxicity at all of the outfalls that were toxic and that chlorine contributed to the toxicity at two of the outfalls. Specifically, the toxicity at A-01B, A-01C, and A-01 was due to copper; the toxicity at A-03 was due to primarily to copper, although zinc also contributed to the toxicity; the toxicity at A-04 was due primarily to copper, with residual chlorine and zinc contributing to the toxicity; and the toxicity at A-05 was due primarily to copper, with residual chlorine contributing to the toxicity. A-03 was the most toxic outfall, with 100% mortality occurring at concentrations as low as 12.5% effluent. A-03 was found to have concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc that exceeded EPA water quality criteria by approximately two orders of magnitude. The metal concentrations at A-01 and WE-01, which is located approximately 0.5 miles downstream from A-01 were similar. However, A-01 was toxic, while WE-01 was not.

  16. Transmission line characteristics

    E-print Network

    Iqbal, Sheikh Sharif

    of the transmission line (2) Ohm's law at O/C requires an infinite impedance as current is zero · CreationIZeV -+-+ -=- ·Note: `+' & `-' is used for observer looking into the `load' & `generator' Infinitely long Transmission or current · Similar to "L ", using equation `V(z)=V0 +e-z +V0 - ez =Vtr e-z ' yields; Transmission

  17. Vibration Testing of Electrical Cables to Quantify Loads at Tie-Down Locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutson, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    The standard method for defining static equivalent structural load factors for components is based on Mile s equation. Unless test data is available, 5% critical damping is assumed for all components when calculating loads. Application of this method to electrical cable tie-down hardware often results in high loads, which often exceed the capability of typical tie-down options such as cable ties and P-clamps. Random vibration testing of electrical cables was used to better understand the factors that influence component loads: natural frequency, damping, and mass participation. An initial round of vibration testing successfully identified variables of interest, checked out the test fixture and instrumentation, and provided justification for removing some conservatism in the standard method. Additional testing is planned that will include a larger range of cable sizes for the most significant contributors to load as variables to further refine loads at cable tie-down points. Completed testing has provided justification to reduce loads at cable tie-downs by 45% with additional refinement based on measured cable natural frequencies.

  18. Platelet-rich plasma extract prevents pulmonary edema through angiopoietin-Tie2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Mammoto, Tadanori; Jiang, Amanda; Jiang, Elisabeth; Mammoto, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    Increased vascular permeability contributes to life-threatening pathological conditions, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome. Current treatments for sepsis-induced pulmonary edema rely on low-tidal volume mechanical ventilation, fluid management, and pharmacological use of a single angiogenic or chemical factor with antipermeability activity. However, it is becoming clear that a combination of multiple angiogenic/chemical factors rather than a single factor is required for maintaining stable and functional blood vessels. We have demonstrated that mouse platelet-rich plasma (PRP) extract contains abundant angiopoietin (Ang) 1 and multiple other factors (e.g., platelet-derived growth factor), which potentially stabilize vascular integrity. Here, we show that PRP extract increases tyrosine phosphorylation levels of Tunica internal endothelial cell kinase (Tie2) and attenuates disruption of cell-cell junctional integrity induced by inflammatory cytokine in cultured human microvascular endothelial cells. Systemic injection of PRP extract also increases Tie2 phosphorylation in mouse lung and prevents endotoxin-induced pulmonary edema and the consequent decreases in lung compliance and exercise intolerance resulting from endotoxin challenge. Soluble Tie2 receptor, which inhibits Ang-Tie2 signaling, suppresses the ability of PRP extract to inhibit pulmonary edema in mouse lung. These results suggest that PRP extract prevents endotoxin-induced pulmonary edema mainly through Ang-Tie2 signaling, and PRP extract could be a potential therapeutic strategy for sepsis-induced pulmonary edema and various lung diseases caused by abnormal vascular permeability. PMID:24960457

  19. The social ties that bind: social anxiety and academic achievement across the university years.

    PubMed

    Brook, Christina A; Willoughby, Teena

    2015-05-01

    Given that engagement and integration in university/college are considered key to successful academic achievement, the identifying features of social anxiety, including fear of negative evaluation and distress and avoidance of new or all social situations, may be particularly disadvantageous in the social and evaluative contexts that are integral to university/college life. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the direct effects of social anxiety on academic achievement, as well as investigate an indirect mechanism through which social anxiety might impact on academic achievement, namely, the formation of new social ties in university. The participants were 942 (71.7 % female; M = 19 years at Time 1) students enrolled in a mid-sized university in Southern Ontario, Canada. Students completed annual assessments of social anxiety, social ties, and academic achievement for three consecutive years. The results from an autoregressive cross-lag path analysis indicated that social anxiety had a significant and negative direct relationship with academic achievement. Moreover, the negative indirect effect of social anxiety on academic achievement through social ties was significant, as was the opposing direction of effects (i.e., the indirect effect of academic achievement on social anxiety through social ties). These findings highlight the critical role that social ties appear to play in successful academic outcomes and in alleviating the effects of social anxiety during university/college. PMID:25691148

  20. StringTie enables improved reconstruction of a transcriptome from RNA-seq reads.

    PubMed

    Pertea, Mihaela; Pertea, Geo M; Antonescu, Corina M; Chang, Tsung-Cheng; Mendell, Joshua T; Salzberg, Steven L

    2015-03-01

    Methods used to sequence the transcriptome often produce more than 200 million short sequences. We introduce StringTie, a computational method that applies a network flow algorithm originally developed in optimization theory, together with optional de novo assembly, to assemble these complex data sets into transcripts. When used to analyze both simulated and real data sets, StringTie produces more complete and accurate reconstructions of genes and better estimates of expression levels, compared with other leading transcript assembly programs including Cufflinks, IsoLasso, Scripture and Traph. For example, on 90 million reads from human blood, StringTie correctly assembled 10,990 transcripts, whereas the next best assembly was of 7,187 transcripts by Cufflinks, which is a 53% increase in transcripts assembled. On a simulated data set, StringTie correctly assembled 7,559 transcripts, which is 20% more than the 6,310 assembled by Cufflinks. As well as producing a more complete transcriptome assembly, StringTie runs faster on all data sets tested to date compared with other assembly software, including Cufflinks. PMID:25690850

  1. Relief of Residual Stress in Streamline Tie Rods by Heat Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollard, R E; Reinhart, Fred M

    1941-01-01

    About two-thirds of the residual stress in cold-worked SAE 1050 steel tie rods was relieved by heating 30 minutes at 600 degrees Fahrenheit. Cold-worked austenitic stainless-steel tie rods could be heated at temperatures up to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit without lowering the important physical properties. The corrosion resistance, in laboratory corrosion test, of straight 18:8 and titanium-treated 18:8 materials appeared to be impaired after heating at temperatures above 800 degrees or 900 degrees fahrenheit. Columbium-treated and molybdenum-treated 18:8 steel exhibited improved stability over a wide range of temperatures. Tie rods of either material could be heated 30 minutes with safety at any temperature up to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit. At this temperature most of the residual stress would be relieved.

  2. The angiopoietin-Tie2 signaling axis in the vascular leakage of systemic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Milam, Katelyn E; Parikh, Samir M

    2015-01-01

    The ability of small blood vessels to undergo rapid, reversible morphological changes is essential for the adaptive response to tissue injury or local infection. A canonical feature of this response is transient hyperpermeability. However, when leakiness is profound or persistent, adverse consequences accrue to the host, including organ dysfunction and shock. A growing body of literature identifies the Tie2 receptor, a transmembrane tyrosine kinase highly enriched in the endothelium, as an important regulator of vascular barrier function in health and in disease. The principal ligands of Tie2, Angiopoietins 1 and 2, exert opposite effects on this receptor in the context of inflammation. This review will focus on recent studies that have illuminated novel aspects of the exquisitely controlled Tie2 signaling axis while proposing unanswered questions and future directions for this field of study. PMID:25838975

  3. Affect networks: a structural analysis of the relationship between work ties and job-related affect.

    PubMed

    Totterdell, Peter; Wall, Toby; Holman, David; Diamond, Holly; Epitropaki, Olga

    2004-10-01

    The relationship between organizational networks and employees' affect was examined in 2 organizations. In Study 1, social network analysis of work ties and job-related affect for 259 employees showed that affect converged within work interaction groups. Similarity of affect between employees depended on the presence of work ties and structural equivalence. Affect was also related to the size and density of employees' work networks. Study 2 used a 10-week diary study of 31 employees to examine a merger of 2 organizational divisions and found that negative changes in employees' affect were related to having fewer cross-divisional ties and to experiencing greater reductions in network density. The findings suggest that affect permeates through and is shaped by organizational networks. PMID:15506865

  4. Application of Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures for the characterization and management of dredged harbor sediments.

    PubMed

    Montero, N; Belzunce-Segarra, M J; Gonzalez, J-L; Menchaca, I; Garmendia, J M; Etxebarria, N; Nieto, O; Franco, J

    2013-06-15

    This study refers to the performance of Phase I Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures to identify the contaminants (i.e. organic compounds, metals and ammonia) exerting toxicity in marine sediments from the Pasaia harbor (Oiartzun estuary, northern Spain). The effectiveness of the manipulations to reduce toxicity was proved with the marine amphipod survival test (whole-sediment) and the sea urchin embryo-larval assay (elutriates). By means of TIEs it was concluded that organic compounds were the major contaminants exerting toxicity, although toxic effects by metals was also demonstrated. Additionally, the combination of Phase I treatments allowed to investigate the toxicity changes associated to the mobility of contaminants during dredging activities. Therefore, the performance of TIE procedures as another line of evidence in the decision-making process is recommended. They show a great potential to be implemented at different steps of the characterization and management of dredged harbor sediments. PMID:23465571

  5. RTS-ROV operated tie-in system for low cost subsea developments

    SciTech Connect

    Halle, P.O.

    1995-12-31

    A new type pull-in and connection system is developed for very deep waters. The system is called ROV-operated Tie-in System (RTS). Main objectives during the development phase was to make a tool system more or less independent of water depth, use of simple low cost installation vessels, minimum equipment left subsea, minimum support structure sizes, simple control system, various launching methods possible and use of field proven clamp hub and seal assemblies. The result has been a very cost effective tie-in system which is a key factor for reduction of total field development costs. The capacity for the tool is 10 inch 3,000 psi flexible flow lines or alternatively 9 inch 5,000 psi. The RTS replaces divers during tie-in operations and can be used down to at least 1500 m water depth.

  6. The angiopoietin/TIE receptor system: Focusing its role for ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Tobias; Klaschik, Sven

    2014-11-01

    Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) are of fatal consequence for the affected organs, as they provoke a profound inflammatory reaction. This thoroughly destroys cells and tissues, inducing functional failure or even complete loss of organ function. Since I/R is primarily a vascular problem, the interaction between the endothelium and the surrounding environment is of great significance. The angiopoietins (ANG) and the TIE receptors are key players for the vascular homeostasis. This review summarizes biochemical and cellular mechanisms leading to I/R injury. After a brief introduction to the ANG/TIE system, a comprehensive overview of its role for the development of I/R syndrome is given. Finally, current therapeutic approaches to mitigate the consequences of I/R by modulating ANG/TIE signaling are reviewed in detail. PMID:25466648

  7. Family ties of crack cocaine users cared for in a psychiatric emergency department.

    PubMed

    Seleghim, Maycon Rogério; Marangoni, Sônia Regina; Marcon, Sonia Silva; de Oliveira, Magda Lúcia Félix

    2011-01-01

    This study characterizes the family ties of crack cocaine users cared for in a psychiatric emergency department in southern Brazil. It is a qualitative study with a series of cases carried out in the city of Maringá, PR, Brazil from April to June 2010. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, analyzed using content analysis, and organized into two categories: family ties as facilitators in the use of crack cocaine and other drugs; and fragmented family ties of crack users. Loss of relational bonds with family and social milieu was observed among the ten studied users in addition to the presence of drugs and violence in the family sphere. Further studies addressing the use of crack and its interface with the family are encouraged, taking into consideration that families have an essential role in the initiation and continuity of drug use. PMID:22030581

  8. Troll Phase I pipelines: Tie-ins to the subsea tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Hove, F.; Kuhlmann, H.

    1995-12-31

    Subsea approaches to the Norwegian coast are characterized by very rugged topography. Landfall of offshore pipelines therefore often require dedicated subsea tunnel and pipeline tie in concepts. To land the 36 inch and 40 inch offshore pipelines associated with the Troll Phase 1 development, a 4 km long landfall tunnel was constructed terminating at a water depth of 165 m with vertical shaft connections to the seabed. This paper describes the design of the Troll Phase 1 tie-ins of offshore to tunnel pipeline sections. These comprise two main elements, i.e. 180 Te tie-in spools -- which are installed between the offshore pipelines and the piercing shafts -- and prefabricated 450 Te riser bundles -- which are installed into the vertical tunnel piercing shafts.

  9. A Community of Strangers: The Dis-Embedding of Social Ties

    PubMed Central

    Parigi, Paolo; State, Bogdan; Dakhlallah, Diana; Corten, Rense; Cook, Karen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore two contrasting perspectives on individuals' participation in associations. On the one hand, some have considered participation the byproduct of pre-existing friendship ties — the more friends one already has in the association, the more likely he or she is to participate. On the other hand, some have considered participation to be driven by the association's capacity to form new identities — the more new friends one meets in the association, the more likely he or she is to participate. We use detailed temporal data from an online association to adjudicate between these two mechanisms and explore their interplay. Our results show a significant impact of new friendship ties on participation, compared to a negligible impact of pre-existing friends, defined here as ties to other members formed outside of the organization's context. We relate this finding to the sociological literature on participation and we explore its implications in the discussion. PMID:23861761

  10. Early diagenetic degradation products of bacteriohopanepolyols produced by Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain TIE-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eickhoff, Merle; Birgel, Daniel; Talbot, Helen M.; Peckmann, Jörn; Kappler, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The anoxygenic purple non-sulphur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain TIE-1 has emerged as an excellent model organism to study hopanoid biosynthesis and function. It produces several C30 hopanoids, tetrahymanol, as well as various bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs). In addition, TIE-1 is capable of methylating various hopanoids and the non-hopanoid pentacyclic terpenoid tetrahymanol at C-2, which is rare among hopanoid producers. Here, the lipid inventory of TIE-1 under anoxic photoautotrophic growth conditions using either H2 or Fe(II) as electron donor was studied. Adenosylhopane, aminotriol and bacteriohopanetetrol (BHT) were abundant when TIE-1 was grown on H2, but aminotriol and BHT were only found in traces when grown with Fe(II). Only during growth on Fe(II), BHT was found with and without C-2 methylation (25% of both BHT homologues), whereas the other BHPs were not C-2 methylated independent of growth mode. In C30 hopanoids and tetrahymanol, C-2 methylated compounds accounted for as much as 59% of the respective C-2 methylated/non-methylated homologues during growth with Fe(II), but only up to 24% during growth with H2. This observation reveals that C-2 methylated hopanoids may have a specific function in TIE-1 and are preferably synthesized in response to elevated Fe(II) concentrations. Further, we exposed the bacterial cells of strain TIE-1 to elevated temperatures and pressure aiming to produce early degradation products of bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs). While so far, only few BHPs such as 32,35-anhydrobacteriohopanetetrol (anhydroBHT) have been identified as early diagenetic degradation products, in our experiments bacteriohopanetetrol (BHT) and possibly adenosylhopane were degraded to various anhydroBHT isomers, and new N-containing degradation products were discovered and tentatively assigned as anhydroaminotriols.

  11. Registration of Laser Scanning Point Clouds and Aerial Images Using either Artificial or Natural Tie Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rönnholm, P.; Haggrén, H.

    2012-07-01

    Integration of laser scanning data and photographs is an excellent combination regarding both redundancy and complementary. Applications of integration vary from sensor and data calibration to advanced classification and scene understanding. In this research, only airborne laser scanning and aerial images are considered. Currently, the initial registration is solved using direct orientation sensors GPS and inertial measurements. However, the accuracy is not usually sufficient for reliable integration of data sets, and thus the initial registration needs to be improved. A registration of data from different sources requires searching and measuring of accurate tie features. Usually, points, lines or planes are preferred as tie features. Therefore, the majority of resent methods rely highly on artificial objects, such as buildings, targets or road paintings. However, in many areas no such objects are available. For example in forestry areas, it would be advantageous to be able to improve registration between laser data and images without making additional ground measurements. Therefore, there is a need to solve registration using only natural features, such as vegetation and ground surfaces. Using vegetation as tie features is challenging, because the shape and even location of vegetation can change because of wind, for example. The aim of this article was to compare registration accuracies derived by using either artificial or natural tie features. The test area included urban objects as well as trees and other vegetation. In this area, two registrations were performed, firstly, using mainly built objects and, secondly, using only vegetation and ground surface. The registrations were solved applying the interactive orientation method. As a result, using artificial tie features leaded to a successful registration in all directions of the coordinate system axes. In the case of using natural tie features, however, the detection of correct heights was difficult causing also some tilt errors. The planimetric registration was accurate.

  12. Effects of brine addition on effluent toxicity and marine toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) manipulations

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, K.T.; Burgess, R.M. (Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States)); Mitchell, K. (Xavier Univ. of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA (United States). Biology Dept.); Zappala, M. (Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States))

    1995-02-01

    Little information is available concerning the effect of salinity adjustment on effluent storage and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) performance. These factors are important for accurate assessments of potential toxicity to marine organisms. The objective of this study was to determine (a) the effect of salinity adjustment using hypersaline brine on the toxicity of effluents stored up to 40 d, and (b) to determine the effect of salinity adjustment on TIE manipulations. Changes in effluent toxicity over time were examined by using a municipal and an industrial effluent. A toxicity time series was performed for 16 d for the industrial effluent and 40 d for the municipal effluent. Toxicity was measured with modified 48-h acute Mysidopsis bahia and Menidia beryllina tests. Results indicate that, compared to day 0 test results, effluent stored with brine had fewer significant changes in toxicity than did effluent stored without brine. To determine the effects of brine addition on TIE manipulations, the authors conducted a series of manipulations in which one aliquot of an effluent had brine added prior to the TIE manipulations and the other aliquot had brine added after the TIE manipulation. The manipulations conducted were EDTA addition, sodium thiosulfate addition, C[sub 18] extraction, aeration, filtration, and graduated pH manipulations. Toxicity was measured with the modified 48-h acute mysid test. Addition of brine had no effect on the outcome of TIE manipulations. They have concluded that it is operationally easier to add brine as soon as possible after sampling and that effluent tests should be conducted as soon as practical.

  13. Equation-of-State Based Tie-Simplex Parameterization for Multiphase Thermal-Compositional Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iranshahr, A.; Voskov, D.; Tchelepi, H. A.

    2011-12-01

    Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes usually involve complex phase behaviors between the injected fluid (e.g., steam, hydrocarbon, CO2, sour) and the in-situ rock-fluid system. Several fundamental questions remain regarding equation-of-state computations for mixtures than can form three, or more, phases at equilibrium. In addition, numerical and computational issues related to proper coupling of the thermodynamic phase-behavior with multiphase flow multi-component transport must be resolved in order to model the behaviors of large-scale EOR processes accurately and efficiently. We describe a general negative-flash method for multi-component, thermal systems that can form three, or more, fluid phases. We prove that the new method is convergent to the unique solution. Based on our multiphase negative-flash technique, we have developed an adaptive tie-simplex parameterization framework for thermal-compositional simulation. We also prove that the tie-simplexes change continuously as a function of pressure, temperature, and composition. The continuity of the parameterized compositional space allows for interpolation in pressure and temperature using a limited number of tie-simplexes. We show that the tie-simplex framework constrains thermodynamic computations, and converges to the global minimum of the Gibbs free energy. The extended negative-flash approach accounts rigorously for tie-simplex degeneration (critical behavior) across phase boundaries. We study the behaviors of thermal-compositional reservoir displacement processes across a wide range of fluid mixtures, pressures, and temperatures. The focus is on the complex behaviors of the tie-triangles and tie-lines associated with three-phase, thermal steam-injection problems in heterogeneous formations. The algorithms that capture the complex combinations of the appearance and disappearance of multiple phases are described in detail. This tie-simplex based parameterization framework is integrated with a general-purpose reservoir simulator, and its accuracy and computational efficiency is demonstrated for several challenging compositional (CO2, four phase sour-gas) and thermal-compositional (steam) models. The nonlinear behaviors are analyzed in terms of the particular displacement process, miscible/immiscible dynamics, number of components, and sensitivity to time step size.

  14. Angiopoietin-2 functions as a Tie2 agonist in tumor models, where it limits the effects of VEGF inhibition.

    PubMed

    Daly, Christopher; Eichten, Alexandra; Castanaro, Carla; Pasnikowski, Elizabeth; Adler, Alexander; Lalani, Alshad S; Papadopoulos, Nicholas; Kyle, Alastair H; Minchinton, Andrew I; Yancopoulos, George D; Thurston, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    The angiopoietins Ang1 (ANGPT1) and Ang2 (ANGPT2) are secreted factors that bind to the endothelial cell-specific receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2 (TEK) and regulate angiogenesis. Ang1 activates Tie2 to promote blood vessel maturation and stabilization. In contrast, Ang2, which is highly expressed by tumor endothelial cells, is thought to inhibit Tie2 activity and destabilize blood vessels, thereby facilitating VEGF-dependent vessel growth. Here, we show that the inhibition of tumor xenograft growth caused by an Ang2-specific antibody (REGN910) is reversed by systemic administration of the Tie2 agonist Ang1. These results indicate that Ang2 blockade inhibits tumor growth by decreasing Tie2 activity, showing that Ang2 is a Tie2 activator. REGN910 treatment of tumors resulted in increased expression of genes that are repressed by Tie2 activation, providing further evidence that REGN910 inhibits Tie2 signaling. Combination treatment with REGN910 plus the VEGF blocker aflibercept reduced tumor vascularity and tumor perfusion more dramatically than either single agent, resulting in more extensive tumor cell death and more potent inhibition of tumor growth. Challenging the prevailing model of Ang2 as a destabilizing factor, our findings indicate that Ang2 plays a protective role in tumor endothelial cells by activating Tie2, thereby limiting the antivascular effects of VEGF inhibition. Thus, blockade of Ang2 might enhance the clinical benefits currently provided by anti-VEGF agents. . PMID:23149917

  15. Between-group behaviour in health care: gaps, edges, boundaries, disconnections, weak ties, spaces and holes. A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gaps are typically regarded as a problem to be solved. People are stimulated to close or plug them. Researchers are moved to fill deficits in the literature in order to realise a more complete knowledge base, health authorities want to bridge policy-practice disconnections, managers to secure resources to remedy shortfalls between poor and idealised care, and clinicians to provide services to patients across the divides of organisational silos. Despite practical and policy work in many health systems to bridge gaps, it is valuable to study research examining them for the insights provided. Structural holes, spaces between social clusters and weak or absent ties represent fissures in networks, located in less densely populated parts of otherwise closely connected social structures. Such gaps are useful as they illustrate how communication potentially breaks down or interactivity fails. This paper discusses empirical and theoretical work on this phenomenon with the aim of analysing a specific exemplar, the structures of silos within health care organisations. Methods The research literature on social spaces, holes, gaps, boundaries and edges was searched systematically, and separated into health [n = 13] and non-health [n = 55] samples. The health literature was reviewed and synthesised in order to understand the circumstances between stakeholders and stakeholder groups that both provide threats to networked interactions and opportunities to strengthen the fabric of organisational and institutional inter-relationships. Results The research examples illuminate various network structure characteristics and group interactions. They explicate a range of opportunities for improved social and professional relations that understanding structural holes, social spaces and absent ties affords. A principal finding is that these kinds of gaps illustrate the conditions under which connections are strained or have been severed, where the limits of integration between groups occurs, the circumstances in which social spaces are or need to be negotiated and the way divides are bridged. The study's limitations are that it is bounded by the focus of attention and the search terms used and there is yet to be developed a probabilistic, predictive model for gaps and how to connect them. Conclusions Gaps offer insights into social structures, and how real world behaviours of participants in workplaces, organisations and institutions are fragile. The paper highlights the circumstances in which network disjunctures and group divides manifest. Knowledge of these phenomenon provides opportunities for working out ways to improve health sector organisational communications, knowledge transmission and relationships. PMID:21134295

  16. Taurine prevents high glucose-induced angiopoietin-2/tie-2 system alterations and apoptosis in retinal microvascular pericytes.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Kaihong; Ming, Jian; Yang, Na; Wang, Jing; Yu, Xuemei; Song, Yi; Yang, Yongtao

    2014-11-01

    Previously, we confirmed that taurine prevented diabetes-induced apoptosis in retinal glial cells via its anti-oxidation and anti-glutamate excitotoxicity mechanisms. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of taurine on angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2)/Tie-2 system expressions and apoptosis in high glucose-treated retinal microvascular pericytes (RMPs). Also, the possible mechanism involved in the inhibition of taurine on RMPs apoptosis is investigated. The expressions of Ang-2, Tie-2 were detected by qRT-PCR and ELISA. The level of phosphorylated Tie-2 (P-Tie-2) was examined by ELISA. Hoechst 33342 and Annexin V/PI staining were used to detect RMPs apoptosis. The activity of caspase-3 was detected by assay kit. In 25 mM high glucose group, the expression of Ang-2 was increased significantly, taurine down-regulated Ang-2 in a dose (0.1, 1, and 10 mM)-dependent manner (P < 0.05). The Tie-2 expression and P-Tie-2 level were decreased in high glucose group (P < 0.05). Interestingly, taurine at 1 and 10 mM showed significant increase in Tie-2 expression and P-Tie-2 level (P < 0.05). The number of apoptotic RMPs and the activity of caspase-3 increased in the presence of high glucose (P < 0.05). Treatment with taurine at 1 mM decreased the number of apoptotic RMPs and the activity of caspase-3 (P < 0.05). Blocking antibody and small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment showed that taurine required Tie-2 to perform its anti-apoptotic effect. Taken together, our data suggest that high glucose-induced Ang-2/Tie-2 system expressions alteration can be reversed by taurine, and that taurine can inhibit high glucose-induced RMPs apoptosis via Tie-2. PMID:25060907

  17. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOEpatents

    Buckles, Robert A. (Livermore, CA); Booth, Rex (Livermore, CA); Yen, Boris T. (El Cerrito, CA)

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  18. Understanding ebola virus transmission.

    PubMed

    Judson, Seth; Prescott, Joseph; Munster, Vincent

    2015-02-01

    An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus. PMID:25654239

  19. PTSD Transmission: A Review of Secondary Traumatization in Holocaust Survivor Families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANNA B. BARANOWSKY; MARTA YOUNG; SUE JOHNSON-DOUGLAS; LYN WILLIAMS-KEELER; MICHAEL MCCARREY

    1998-01-01

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) provides a common language for diagnoses and assessment of trauma victims, including Holocaust survivors. Many of these survivors established post-war families and it is here that we began to witness the possibility of trauma transmission. Parental communication regarding the Holocaust, often characterized by obsessive re-telling or all-consuming silence, and strong family ties are implicated in the

  20. The Role of Offspring and In-Laws in Grandparents' Ties to Their Grandchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingerman, Karen L.

    2004-01-01

    Prior research has considered the influence of the middle generation on ties between grandparents and grandchildren but has not differentiated between gender of parent and kinship to grandparent (e.g., daughter vs. daughter-in-law and son vs. son-in-law). Eighty-six grandparents provided information about the qualities of their relationships with…

  1. Ripcurrent pulses tied to Lagrangian coherent structures A. J. H. M. Reniers,1,2

    E-print Network

    Olascoaga, Maria Josefina

    floating material is examined by unveiling Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs) hidden in the pulsatingClick Here for Full Article Ripcurrent pulses tied to Lagrangian coherent structures A. J. H. M support the idea that VLFs form the dominant exchange mechanism of surfzone floating material

  2. The Tie That Binds? Coherence Among Emotion Experience, Behavior, and Physiology

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    The Tie That Binds? Coherence Among Emotion Experience, Behavior, and Physiology Iris B. Mauss-individual associations among experiential, facial behavioral, and peripheral physiological responses during emotional, and physiological responses were measured second-by-second during a film that induced amusement and sadness. Results

  3. Design and Calibration of Chambers for Measuring Ammonia Emissions from Tie-stall Dairy Barns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy barns are thought to emit large amounts of ammonia, which can have detrimental effects on human health and natural ecosystems. In the U.S., relatively little is known about the processes that affect the rate and magnitude of ammonia emissions from dairy barns. The end of a conventional tie-sta...

  4. Maintaining Ties on Social Media Sites: The Competing Effects of Balance, Exchange, and Betweenness

    E-print Network

    Kleinberg, Jon

    Maintaining Ties on Social Media Sites: The Competing Effects of Balance, Exchange, and Betweenness for using social media data to begin isolating the effects of three distinct social forces on relationship@cs.cornell.edu Abstract When users interact with one another on social media sites, the volume and frequency

  5. Tie2\\/Angiopoietin-1 Signaling Regulates Hematopoietic Stem Cell Quiescence in the Bone Marrow Niche

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fumio Arai; Atsushi Hirao; Masako Ohmura; Hidetaka Sato; Sahoko Matsuoka; Keiyo Takubo; Keisuke Ito; Gou Young Koh; Toshio Suda

    2004-01-01

    The quiescent state is thought to be an indispensable property for the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Interaction of HSCs with their particular microenvironments, known as the stem cell niches, is critical for adult hematopoiesis in the bone marrow (BM). Here, we demonstrate that HSCs expressing the receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2 are quiescent and antiapoptotic, and comprise a side-population

  6. An improved tie force method for progressive collapse resistance design of reinforced concrete frame structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Li; Xinzheng Lu; Hong Guan; Lieping Ye

    2011-01-01

    Progressive collapse of structures refers to local damage due to occasional and abnormal loads, which in turn leads to the development of a chain reaction mechanism and progressive and catastrophic failure. The tie force (TF) method is one of the major design techniques for resisting progressive collapse, whereby a statically indeterminate structure is designed through a locally simplified determinate structure

  7. Assessing Call and SMS Logs as an Indication of Tie Strength

    E-print Network

    ;Keywords: tie strength, smartphone, social graph #12;Abstract How effective are call and SMS logs aspects of people's social behavior. Logged communication data collected by smartphones along with traces. Recent work points to benefits from more social sophistication, including digital photo frames that adapt

  8. Newspaper Readership and Community Ties; Precision Journalism: Coming of Age. ANPA News Research Report No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Robert L.; Ismach, Arnold H.

    The first of two articles in this report offers a survey of how community ties lead to various psychological needs that are the motivation for newspaper reading. It identifies three distinct audience segments: the traditional audience, with permanent bonds to the community, whose need for information, guidance, and community surveillance leads to…

  9. On Facebook, Most Ties are Weak The emergence of pervasive socio-technical networks brings new

    E-print Network

    Ferrara, Emilio

    On Facebook, Most Ties are Weak Abstract The emergence of pervasive socio-technical networks brings's theory can be extended to online social networks like Facebook, suggesting to use interaction data requires knowledge of the topology of the social network, e.g., who is friend with whom on Facebook. Our

  10. Non-Equilibrium and Current Sheet Formation in Line-Tied

    E-print Network

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    mapping #12;More general topology Parker's optical analogy (1990) #12;Possible topology B1(l)dl 1 B1(l) ^B. Bhattacharjee Center for Magnetic Reconnection Studies The University of Iowa 2002 APS Division of Plasma. Field-lines are tied at z = 0 and z = L. Footpoint Mapping: x (z) = X[x (0),z], x (L) = X[x (0), L

  11. Tying the Yellow Ribbon: How School Psychologists and Educators Can Support Military Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anweiler, Justin

    2008-01-01

    Tying a yellow ribbon around the tree in one's front yard or placing a magnet on one's car is more than just a show of support. It is a promise to American military around the world that one is ready and able to support them in their time of need just as they have supported the country. Educators, including school psychologists, are especially…

  12. Rat liver microsomal desaturase activi-ties during undernutrition. N Narce 1,2,N Narce

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Rat liver microsomal desaturase activi- ties during undernutrition. N Narce 1,2,N Narce JP Poisson in the rat liver these enzyme activities dur- ing a 40- and 60-d diet restriction period. Ten control Wistar activities were determined by incubation of liver microsomes in the presence of appropriate labelled

  13. An Agent Model for a Human's Social Support Network Tie Preference during Depression

    E-print Network

    Treur, Jan

    An Agent Model for a Human's Social Support Network Tie Preference during Depression Azizi A. Aziz}@few.vu.nl Abstract Seeking support from their environment is important for people suffering from a depression. People. Keywords: depression, social support networks preference, simulation model 1. INTRODUCTION Depression

  14. APS/EK10599 Weak Ties: Subtle Role of Information Diffusion in Online Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Xu, Ke

    APS/EK10599 Weak Ties: Subtle Role of Information Diffusion in Online Social Networks Jichang Zhao, Beijing 100191, P.R.China (Dated: December 14, 2010) As a social media, online social networks play of the diffusion in online social networks is different from the ones in other types of networks and remains

  15. Treatment of Complex Fistula in Ano with Cable-Tie Seton: A Prospective Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Ayaz Ahmad; Murtaza, Ghulam; Azami, Rizwan; Zafar, Hasnain; Chawla, Tabish; Laghari, Altaf Ali

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To determine the fecal incontinence and recurrence rate in patients with complex fistula in ano managed with cable tie seton at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Methods. This is a prospective case series of patients with complex anal fistula i.e. recurrent fistula or encircling >30% of external anal sphincter, managed with cable tie seton from March 2003 to March 2009. Patients were seen in the clinic after 72 hours of seton insertion under anesthesia and then every other week. Each time the cable-tie was tightened if found loose without anesthesia and incontinence was inquired according to wexner's score. Results. Seventy nine patients were treated during the study period with the age (mean ± standard deviation) of 41 ± 10.6 years and. The seton was tightened with a median of six times (3–15 times range). Complete healing was achieved in 11.2 ± 5.7 weeks. All the patients were followed for a minimum period of one year and none of the patients had any incontinence. Recurrence was found in 4 (5%) patients. Conclusion. The cable tie seton is safe, cost effective and low morbidity option for the treatment of complex fistulae-in-ano. It can, therefore, be recommended as the standard of treatment for complex fistulae-in-ano requiring the placement of a seton. PMID:22084768

  16. Project TIES: Towards Inclusion in Early Settings Model Demonstration Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Clarissa A.

    This final report describes the activities and outcomes of Project TIES (Towards Inclusion in Early Education), a federally funded demonstration model training program designed to enhance the abilities of child care providers and trainers to include young children, birth to five, with disabilities in developmentally appropriate child care…

  17. Laboratory Testing to Address the Potential for Damaging Hydraulic Pressure in the Concrete Tie Rail Seat

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    Rail Seat TRB 11-3395 Submitted for publication in the proceedings of the Transportation Research Board@illinois.edu 3 Corresponding author #12;Zeman et al. 11-3395 1 ABSTRACT Rail seat deterioration (RSD water pressure in a laboratory rail seat using tie pads of differing material composition and geometry

  18. The Importance of the Coparental Relationship for Nonresident Fathers' Ties to Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobolewski, Juliana M.; King, Valarie

    2005-01-01

    We examine the importance of the coparental relationship for nonresident fathers' ties to their children. Using data from Wave 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households, we focus on the link between two dimensions of coparenting, cooperative coparenting and conflict over childrearing, and three dimensions of nonresident father…

  19. Exploring relationship between human mobility and social ties: Physical distance is not dead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Bo; Liao, Binbing; Yuan, Ning; Wang, Wenjun

    2015-06-01

    Partly due to the difficulty of the access to a worldwide dataset that simultaneously captures the location history and social networks, our understanding of the relationship between human mobility and the social ties has been limited. However, this topic is essential for a deeper study from human dynamics and social networks aspects. In this paper, we examine the location history data and social networks data of 712 email users and 399 offline events users from a map-editing based social network website. Based on these data, we expand all our experiment both from individual aspect and community aspect. We find that the physical distance is still the most influential factor to social ties among the nine representative human mobility features extracted from our GPS trajectory dataset, although Internet revolution has made long-distance communication dramatically faster, easier and cheaper than ever before, and in turn, partly expand the physical scope of social networks. Furthermore, we find that to a certain extent, the proximity of South-North direction is more influential than East-West direction to social ties. To the our best of our knowledge, this difference between South-North and East-West is the first time to be raised and quantitatively supported by a large dataset. We believe our findings on the interplay of human mobility and social ties offer a new perspective to this field of study.

  20. Cancer sequencing initiative discovers mutations tied to aggressive childhood brain tumors

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers studying a rare, lethal childhood tumor of the brainstem discovered that nearly 80 percent of the tumors have mutations in genes not previously tied to cancer. Early evidence suggests the alterations play a unique role in other aggressive pediatric brain tumors as well.

  1. Heart Defects in Gulf Tuna Seen Tied to 2010 BP Oil Spill

    E-print Network

    Grosell, Martin

    they did in 2009, the year before the spill. "We know from the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill in Prince WilliamHeart Defects in Gulf Tuna Seen Tied to 2010 BP Oil Spill By Jim Efstathiou Jr. Mar 25, 2014 12 of Mexico spill may have led to heart defects and premature death for tuna, researchers backed

  2. Language of the People Forever: Bay Mills Spins Thread Tying Ojibwa Communities Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    Why would anyone want to spend thousands of hours away from home and pay hundreds of dollars in tuition to acquire one of the world's most difficult languages? For Anishinaabe people, that is an easy question to answer. The Ojibwe language is the thread that ties communities together and unites all Anishinaabe as one people sharing a common…

  3. CIVIL ENGINEERING "Our future as a nation will be closely tied to space, energy, the

    E-print Network

    Dasgupta, Dipankar

    CIVIL ENGINEERING Memphisat "Our future as a nation will be closely tied to space, energy, the environment, and our ability to interact with and compete in the global economy. As a civil engineer, you, or management ­ civil engineering offers you a wide range of career choices." -American Society of Civil

  4. Delivery and Hedging Delivery ties the futures price to the spot price.

    E-print Network

    Lyuu, Yuh-Dauh

    Delivery and Hedging · Delivery ties the futures price to the spot price. · On the delivery date, the settlement price of the futures contract is determined by the spot price. · Hence, when the delivery period is reached, the futures price should be very close to the spot price. · Changes in futures prices usually

  5. Ties that Bind: The Story of an Afro-Cherokee Family in Slavery and Freedom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. Bowes

    2005-01-01

    In Ties That Bind: The Story of an Afro-Cherokee Family in Slavery and Freedom, Miles utilizes the experiences of one family to analyze the intersection of African-American slavery, Cherokee sovereignty and kinship obligations, and gender roles over the course of the nineteenth century.

  6. Social Tie Characteristics and Psychiatric Rehabilitation Outcomes among Adults with Serious Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Chronister, Julie Ann

    2012-01-01

    Social support has achieved national attention as a key component of the mental health recovery paradigm for persons with serious mental illness (SMI). The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of variance accounted for by four social tie characteristics (social network orientation, emotional support, tangible support, and negative…

  7. Department Bent Grant Rules, GAO Finds. Award Tied to Bennett's Former Firm Questioned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education (DOE) bypassed its own policies when officials awarded a grant early in President Bush's first term that benefited a company founded by former Secretary of Education William J. Bennett, as well as others to groups with close ties to the administration, federal auditors have concluded. The Government Accountability…

  8. The Ties That Bond: Re-Examining the Relationship between Facebook Use and Bonding Social Capital

    E-print Network

    Michigan, University of

    The Ties That Bond: Re-Examining the Relationship between Facebook Use and Bonding Social Capital established a positive relationship between measures of Facebook use and perceptions of social capital. Like other social network sites, Facebook is especially well-positioned to enhance users' bridging social

  9. Mexican American Protest, Ethnic Resiliency and Social Capital: The Mobilization Benefits of Cross-Cutting Ties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santoro, Wayne A.; Velez,, Maria B.; Keogh, Stacy M.

    2012-01-01

    Using terms like free spaces and havens, conventional wisdom views social ties by subordinate groups to dominant group members as hindering protest participation. In contrast, we draw on ethnic resiliency and social capital perspectives and argue that there are mobilization benefits to having dominant group members as friends. We offer a unique…

  10. Education and the Japan-America Tie in the Mid-'70s. Occasional Papers, No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on International Educational Exchange, New York, NY.

    Presented at a seminar on Resources for Educational Exchange with Japan, this paper emphasizes the closeness of the ties between Japan and the United States and the importance of the educational and cultural dimensions of the relationship. An historical treatment of the relationship between the two countries since 1872 points out the rapid change…

  11. Genones: generalized mixture tying in continuous hidden Markov model-based speech recognizers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vassilios V. Digalakis; Peter Monaco; H. Murveit

    1996-01-01

    An algorithm is proposed that achieves a good tradeoff between modeling resolution and robustness by using a new, general scheme for tying of mixture components in continuous mixture-density hidden Markov model (HMM)-based speech recognizers. The sets of HMM states that share the same mixture components are determined automatically using agglomerative clustering techniques. Experimental results on ARPA's Wall Street Journal corpus

  12. The Strength of Weak Ties in Electronic Development of the Scholarly Communication System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Charles A.

    1994-01-01

    Three overlapping models of new technology diffusion are described in relation to the Internet: (1) individual threshold; (2) critical mass; and (3) strength of weak ties. The prospective role of academic libraries in the electronic development of the scholarly communication system is discussed, and further research is suggested. (55 references)…

  13. Tongue-Tied: The Lives of Multilingual Children in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Ana, Otto

    2004-01-01

    Tongue-Tied is an anthology that gives voice to millions of people who, on a daily basis, are denied the opportunity to speak in their own language. First-person accounts by Amy Tan, Sherman Alexie, Bell Hooks, Richard Rodriguez, Maxine Hong Kingston, and many other authors open windows into the lives of linguistic minority students and their…

  14. Positive Cross-Regulatory Loop Ties GATA-3 to Estrogen Receptor A Expression in Breast Cancer

    E-print Network

    Brown, Myles

    Positive Cross-Regulatory Loop Ties GATA-3 to Estrogen Receptor A Expression in Breast Cancer Je, the functional role of GATA-3 in ERA- positive breast cancers is yet to be established. Here, we show that GATA-3 is required for estradiol stimulation of cell cycle progression in breast cancer cells. The role of GATA-3

  15. Social Support and Social Network Ties among the Homeless in a Downtown Atlanta Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitzes, Donald C.; Crimmins, Timothy J.; Yarbrough, Johanna; Parker, Josie

    2011-01-01

    This study applies a typology of social support with 3 categories of social networks to investigate social ties and their benefits for homeless people. Data were derived from a 2-year long series of participant observations of homeless or precariously housed people who came regularly to a downtown Atlanta public park. The findings are as follows:…

  16. Network structure, position, ties and ICT use in distributed knowledge-intensive work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kon Shing Kenneth Chung; Liaquat Hossain

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we develop a theoretical model based on social network theories and the social influence model to understand how knowledge professionals utilise technology for work and communication. We investigate the association between egocentric network properties (structure, position and tie) and information and communication technology (ICT) use of individuals in knowledge-intensive and geographically dispersed settings. Analysis from data collected

  17. Transnationalism in the Aftermath of the Haiti Earthquake: Reinforcing Ties and Second-Generation Identity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Garvey Lundy

    2011-01-01

    This article examines, first, the response of the Haitian Diaspora to the earthquake of January 12, 2010. This research operates within the theoretical framework of transnationalism, and Haitians living outside their country of origin are shown to make use of political, economic, and communication ties to assist loved ones back home and to begin the process of rebuilding their nation.

  18. Improvement of TIE-GCM thermospheric density predictions via incorporation of helium data from NRLMSISE-00

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung Soo; Urbina, Julio V.; Kane, Timothy J.; Spencer, David B.

    2012-03-01

    Thermospheric neutral densities derived from the CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload) accelerometer data are used to investigate the accuracy of several empirical and numerical thermospheric neutral density model families from solar maximum (year 2002) through solar minimum (year 2008); the Jacchia model, MSIS (Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter) model, and TIE-GCM (NCAR’s Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model). All show good agreement to the variations of neutral densities from CHAMP, but still have uncertainties which need to be addressed prior to their operational use, such as in the modeling of satellite orbital position. The physics-based TIE-GCM exhibits relatively large deviations from CHAMP (an RMS percent difference at 400 km of 47% over 6 years) as compared to the empirical models (e.g., 10% for the Jacchia-Bowman’s model (JB2008)). The uncertainties gradually increase with the declination of the solar activity. Weighted partial pressures of helium from the Naval Research Laboratory’s MSIS Extension 2000 (NRLMSISE-00) were incorporated into TIE-GCM to reflect the helium effect in calculating molecular viscosity, thermal conductivity, and specific heat. As a result, the percent difference standard deviation of the TIE-GCM improved to 21%.

  19. Patterns of transmission investment

    E-print Network

    Joskow, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines a number of issues associated with alternative analytical approaches for evaluating investments in electricity transmission infrastructure and alternative institutional arrangements to govern network ...

  20. Method for evaluating bow tie filter angle-dependent attenuation in CT: Theory and simulation results

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, John M. [Department of Radiology and Department of Biomedical Engineering, UC Davis Medical Center, University of California, Davis, 4860 Y Street, Suite 3100, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: Dosimetry in computed tomography (CT) is increasingly based on Monte Carlo studies that define the dose in the patient (in mGy) as a function of air kerma (free in air) at isocenter (mGy). The accuracy of Monte Carlo studies depends in part on the accuracy of the characterization of the bow tie filter for a given CT scanner model. A simple method for characterizing the bow tie filter attenuation profile in CT scanners would therefore be very useful. The theory behind such a method is proposed. Methods: A measurement protocol is discussed mathematically and demonstrated using computer simulation. The proposed method requires the placement of a radiation monitor at the periphery of the CT field, and the time domain signal (kerma rate versus time) is measured with good temporal resolution ({approx}200 Hz or better) and with all other objects (e.g., patient couch) retracted from the field of view. Knowledge of the source to isocenter distance (or alternately, the isocenter to probe distance) is required. The stationary detector records the kerma rate versus time signal as the gantry rotates through several revolutions. From this temporal data, signal processing techniques are used to extract in-phase peaks, as well as out-of-phase kerma rate levels. From these data, the distance from isocenter to the probe can be determined (or, alternatively, the source to isocenter distance), and the angle-dependent bow tie filter attenuation can be computed. By measuring the angle-dependent bow tie filter attenuation at several kVp settings, the bow tie composition versus fan angle can be computed using basis decomposition techniques. Results: The simulations illustrated that with 2% added noise in the kerma rate versus time signal, the attenuation properties of a hypothetical two component (aluminum and polymethyl methacrylate) bow tie filter could be determined (r{sup 2}>0.99). Although the computed basis material thicknesses were not exactly equal to the actual thicknesses, their combined attenuation factors matched that of the actual filter across kVp's to within an average of 0.057%. Conclusions: It is concluded that the proposed method may provide a simple noninvasive approach to characterizing the performance of bow tie filters in CT systems; however, experimental validation is necessary.

  1. Weak ties: Subtle role of information diffusion in online social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jichang; Wu, Junjie; Xu, Ke

    2010-07-01

    As a social media, online social networks play a vital role in the social information diffusion. However, due to its unique complexity, the mechanism of the diffusion in online social networks is different from the ones in other types of networks and remains unclear to us. Meanwhile, few works have been done to reveal the coupled dynamics of both the structure and the diffusion of online social networks. To this end, in this paper, we propose a model to investigate how the structure is coupled with the diffusion in online social networks from the view of weak ties. Through numerical experiments on large-scale online social networks, we find that in contrast to some previous research results, selecting weak ties preferentially to republish cannot make the information diffuse quickly, while random selection can achieve this goal. However, when we remove the weak ties gradually, the coverage of the information will drop sharply even in the case of random selection. We also give a reasonable explanation for this by extra analysis and experiments. Finally, we conclude that weak ties play a subtle role in the information diffusion in online social networks. On one hand, they act as bridges to connect isolated local communities together and break through the local trapping of the information. On the other hand, selecting them as preferential paths to republish cannot help the information spread further in the network. As a result, weak ties might be of use in the control of the virus spread and the private information diffusion in real-world applications.

  2. Development and Testing of a Prototype Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed and tested a prototype 2 kW DC grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system at the Center. The PV system has generated in excess of 6700 kWh since operation commenced in July 2006. The PV system is providing power to the GRC grid for use by all. Operation of the prototype PV system has been completely trouble free. A grid-tied PV power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners. GRC personnel glean valuable experience with PV power systems that are directly applicable to various space power systems, and provide valuable space program test data. PV power systems help to reduce harmful emissions and reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels. Power generated by the PV system reduces the GRC utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Present global energy concerns reinforce the need for the development of alternative energy systems. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics has been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Based upon the success of the prototype PV system, additional PV power system expansion at GRC is under consideration. The prototype grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed which served to validate the basic principles described, and the theoretical work that was performed. The report concludes that grid-tied photovoltaic power systems are reliable, maintenance free, long life power systems, and are of significant value to NASA and the community.

  3. Finite element analyses of continuous filament ties for masonry applications:final report for the Arquin Corporation.

    SciTech Connect

    Quinones, Armando (Arquin Corporation, La Luz, NM); Bibeau, Tiffany A.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2006-06-01

    Finite-element analyses were performed to simulate the response of a hypothetical masonry shear wall with and without continuous filament ties to various lateral loads. The loads represented three different scenarios: (1) 100 mph wind, (2) explosive attack, and (3) an earthquake. In addition, a static loading analysis and cost comparison were performed to evaluate optimal materials and designs for the spacers affixed to the filaments. Results showed that polypropylene, ABS, and polyethylene (high density) were suitable materials for the spacers based on performance and cost, and the short T-spacer design was optimal based on its performance and functionality. Results of the shear-wall loading simulations revealed that simulated walls with the continuous filament ties yielded factors of safety that were at least ten times greater than those without the ties. In the explosive attack simulation (100 psi), the simulated wall without the ties failed (minimum factor of safety was less than one), but the simulated wall with the ties yielded a minimum factor of safety greater than one. Simulations of the walls subject to lateral loads caused by 100 mph winds (0.2 psi) and seismic events with a peak ground acceleration of 1 ''g'' (0.66 psi) yielded no failures with or without the ties. Simulations of wall displacement during the seismic scenarios showed that the wall with the ties resulted in a maximum displacement that was 20% less than the wall without the ties.

  4. Design and Construction of an Array of Vertically Oriented Bow-Tie Antennas for a New Generation of Radio Telescopes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Arts; A. B. Smolders

    1999-01-01

    In this paper an array of vertically oriented bow-tie antennas is described. This array is part of the One Square Meter Array (OSMA): A demonstrator phased array system (receive only) with mixed RF and digital beamforming. OSMA consists of 64 active vertical bow-tie elements surrounded by 80 dummy (passive) elements. The scan performance of the array was measured and simulated.

  5. Formation and maintenance of single-thread tie channels entering floodplain lakes: Observations from three diverse river systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Rowland; W. E. Dietrich; G. Day; G. Parker

    2009-01-01

    Tie channels connect rivers to floodplain lakes on many lowland rivers and thereby play a central role in floodplain sedimentology and ecology; yet they are generally unrecognized and little studied. Here we report the results of field studies focused on tie channel origin and morphodynamics in the following three contrasting systems: the Middle Fly River (Papua New Guinea), the Lower

  6. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-28

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  7. California Tehachapi transmission study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Romanowitz

    2008-01-01

    The Tehachapi Renewable Transmission Project (TRTP) is a 4,500 MW transmission project connecting the wind energy rich Tehachapi wind resource area north of the Los Angeles Basin, into the Southern California Load Center. The full project has been approved by the CAISO Board, a Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity (CPCN) has been issued by the CPUC for the first

  8. Contextualizing nativity status, social ties, and ethnic enclaves: Implications for understanding immigrant and Latino health paradoxes

    PubMed Central

    Viruell-Fuentes, Edna A.; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.; Williams, David R.; House, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Researchers have posited that one potential explanation for the better-than-expected health outcomes observed among some Latino immigrants, vis-à-vis their U.S.-born counterparts, may be the strength of their social ties and social support among immigrants. Methods We examined the association between nativity status and social ties using data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study’s Latino subsample, which includes Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and other Latinos. First, we used Ordinary Least Squares [OLS] regression methods to model the effect of nativity status on five outcomes: informal social integration; social network diversity; network size; instrumental support; and informational support. Using multilevel mixed effects regression models, we estimated the association between Latino/immigrant neighborhood composition on our outcomes, and whether these relationships varied by nativity status. Lastly, we examined the relationship between social ties and immigrants’ length of time in the United States. Results After controlling for individual-level characteristics, immigrant Latinos had significantly lower levels of social ties than their U.S.-born counterparts for all our outcomes, except for informational support. Latino/immigrant neighborhood composition was positively associated with being socially integrated and having larger and more diverse social networks. The associations between two of our outcomes (informal social integration and network size) and living in a neighborhood with greater concentrations of Latinos and immigrants were stronger for U.S.-born Latinos than for immigrant Latinos. U.S.-born Latinos maintained a significant socialties advantage compared to immigrants—regardless of length of time in the United States—for informal social integration, network diversity, and network size. Conclusion At the individual level, our findings challenge the assumption that Latino immigrants would have larger networks and/or higher levels of support and social integration than their U.S.-born counterparts. Our study underscores the importance of understanding the contexts that promote the development of social ties. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding Latino and immigrant social ties and health outcomes. PMID:23947776

  9. Power transmission for working vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Irikura; K. Hikishima; K. Fujisaki

    1986-01-01

    A power transmission is described for working vehicles wherein at least one fluid-operated clutch which selectively connects and disconnects a transmission path by selectively continuing and interrupting the input of power to a transmission shaft is mounted on the transmission shaft within a transmission case. The shaft formed therein with a fluid path for supplying and draining clutch-operating fluid, and

  10. Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, S.; Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2010-07-01

    This report describes transmission cost allocation methodologies for transmission projects developed to maintain or enhance reliability, to interconnect new generators, or to access new resources and enhance competitive bulk power markets, otherwise known as economic transmission projects.

  11. Dendrometer bands made easy: using modified cable ties to measure incremental growth of trees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anemaet, Evelyn R.; Middleton, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    Dendrometer bands are a useful way to make sequential repeated measurements of tree growth, but traditional dendrometer bands can be expensive, time consuming, and difficult to construct in the field. An alternative to the traditional method of band construction is to adapt commercially available materials. This paper describes how to construct and install dendrometer bands using smooth-edged, stainless steel, cable tie banding and attachable rollerball heads. As a performance comparison, both traditional and cable tie dendrometer bands were installed on baldcypress trees at the National Wetlands Research Center in Lafayette, Louisiana, by both an experienced and a novice worker. Band installation times were recorded, and growth of the trees as estimated by the two band types was measured after approximately one year, demonstrating equivalence of the two methods. This efficient approach to dendrometer band construction can help advance the knowledge of long-term tree growth in ecological studies.

  12. Employing static excitation control and tie line reactance to stabilize wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, H. H.; Mozeico, H. V.; Guo, T.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical representation of a wind turbine generator is presented which employs blade pitch angle feedback control. A mathematical model was formulated. With the functioning MOD-0 wind turbine serving as a practical case study, results of computer simulations of the model as applied to the problem of dynamic stability at rated load are also presented. The effect of the tower shadow was included in the input to the system. Different configurations of the drive train, and optimal values of the tie line reactance were used in the simulations. Computer results revealed that a static excitation control system coupled with optimal values of the tie line reactance would effectively reduce oscillations of the power output, without the use of a slip clutch.

  13. Interplay of network dynamics and heterogeneity of ties on spreading dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreri, Luca; Bajardi, Paolo; Giacobini, Mario; Perazzo, Silvia; Venturino, Ezio

    2014-07-01

    The structure of a network dramatically affects the spreading phenomena unfolding upon it. The contact distribution of the nodes has long been recognized as the key ingredient in influencing the outbreak events. However, limited knowledge is currently available on the role of the weight of the edges on the persistence of a pathogen. At the same time, recent works showed a strong influence of temporal network dynamics on disease spreading. In this work we provide an analytical understanding, corroborated by numerical simulations, about the conditions for infected stable state in weighted networks. In particular, we reveal the role of heterogeneity of edge weights and of the dynamic assignment of weights on the ties in the network in driving the spread of the epidemic. In this context we show that when weights are dynamically assigned to ties in the network, a heterogeneous distribution is able to hamper the diffusion of the disease, contrary to what happens when weights are fixed in time.

  14. Highly modular bow-tie gene circuits with programmable dynamic behavior

    PubMed Central

    Prochazka, Laura; Angelici, Bartolomeo; Häfliger, Benjamin; Benenson, Yaakov

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic gene circuits often require extensive mutual optimization of their components for successful operation, while modular and programmable design platforms are rare. A possible solution lies in the “bow-tie” architecture, which stipulates a focal component - a “knot” - uncoupling circuits’ inputs and outputs, simplifying component swapping, and introducing additional layer of control. Here we construct, in cultured human cells, synthetic bow-tie circuits that transduce microRNA inputs into protein outputs with independently programmable logical and dynamic behavior. The latter is adjusted via two different knot configurations: a transcriptional activator causing the outputs to track input changes reversibly, and a recombinase-based cascade, converting transient inputs into permanent actuation. We characterize the circuits in HEK293 cells, confirming their modularity and scalability, and validate them using endogenous microRNA inputs in additional cell lines. This platform can be used for biotechnological and biomedical applications in vitro, in vivo, and potentially in human therapy. PMID:25311543

  15. Decentralized automatic generation control of interconnected power systems incorporating asynchronous tie-lines.

    PubMed

    Ibraheem; Hasan, Naimul; Hussein, Arkan Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    This Paper presents the design of decentralized automatic generation controller for an interconnected power system using PID, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The designed controllers are tested on identical two-area interconnected power systems consisting of thermal power plants. The area interconnections between two areas are considered as (i) AC tie-line only (ii) Asynchronous tie-line. The dynamic response analysis is carried out for 1% load perturbation. The performance of the intelligent controllers based on GA and PSO has been compared with the conventional PID controller. The investigations of the system dynamic responses reveal that PSO has the better dynamic response result as compared with PID and GA controller for both type of area interconnection. PMID:25674473

  16. Silicon-on-insulator field effect transistor with improved body ties for rad-hard applications

    DOEpatents

    Schwank, James R. (Albuquerque, NM); Shaneyfelt, Marty R. (Albuquerque, NM); Draper, Bruce L. (Albuquerque, NM); Dodd, Paul E. (Tijeras, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A silicon-on-insulator (SOI) field-effect transistor (FET) and a method for making the same are disclosed. The SOI FET is characterized by a source which extends only partially (e.g. about half-way) through the active layer wherein the transistor is formed. Additionally, a minimal-area body tie contact is provided with a short-circuit electrical connection to the source for reducing floating body effects. The body tie contact improves the electrical characteristics of the transistor and also provides an improved single-event-upset (SEU) radiation hardness of the device for terrestrial and space applications. The SOI FET also provides an improvement in total-dose radiation hardness as compared to conventional SOI transistors fabricated without a specially prepared hardened buried oxide layer. Complementary n-channel and p-channel SOI FETs can be fabricated according to the present invention to form integrated circuits (ICs) for commercial and military applications.

  17. Skin closure after arthroscopy utilizing a pull-out bow-tie subcuticular suture

    PubMed Central

    Nacius, Lori Ann; Pascual-Garrido, Cecilia; Sagiv, Paul; Mei-Dan, Omer

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: suturing techniques employed to close subcuticular surgical incisions are varied. Purpose: we present the “bow-tie” stitch, which is removed by pulling one side of the stitch with no need for sharp object stitch cutting. The stitch results in good approximation and scarring while enabling proper oozing. Methods: we have used this suture repeatedly for wound closure after hip and knee arthroscopy; its application to other superficial skin closures is easily appreciated. Results: this method of skin closure allows for ease of tying for the surgeon, aesthetically pleasing results for the patient, pain-free suture removal, no risk of suture knots becoming embedded in healing tissue, and decreased risk of infection and damage to skin, as instruments are not required for suture removal. PMID:25767775

  18. TIE2-expressing monocytes as a diagnostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma correlates with angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Germano, Domenico; Daniele, Bruno

    2014-08-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In the past few years, the mechanisms of hepato-carcinogenesis have been elucidated and the involvement of a number of pathways, including angiogenesis, aberrant signal transduction, and dysregulated cell cycle control have been demonstrated. Myeloid lineage cells, such as macrophages and monocytes, have been reported to regulate angiogenesis in mouse models. TIE2, a receptor of angiopoietins, conveys pro-angiogenic signals and identifies a monocyte/macrophage subset with pro-angiogenic activity. Recently, one study suggests that TIE2-expressing monocyte/macrophage (TEMs) frequency can be used as a diagnostic marker for HCC. PMID:25202690

  19. Utility-scale grid-tied PV inverter reliability workshop summary report.

    SciTech Connect

    Granata, Jennifer E.; Quintana, Michael A.; Tasca, Coryne Adelle (SRA International, Inc., Fairfax, VA); Atcitty, Stanley

    2011-07-01

    A key to the long-term success of the photovoltaic (PV) industry is confidence in the reliability of PV systems. Inverters are the most commonly noted cause of PV system incidents triggered in the field. While not all of these incidents are reliability-related or even necessarily failures, they still result in a loss of generated power. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technologies Program, Sandia National Laboratories organized a Utility-Scale Grid-Tied Inverter Reliability Workshop in Albuquerque, New Mexico, January 27-28, 2011. The workshop addressed the reliability of large (100-kilowatt+) grid-tied inverters and the implications when such inverters fail, evaluated inverter codes and standards, and provided discussion about opportunities to enhance inverter reliability. This report summarizes discussions and presentations from the workshop and identifies opportunities for future efforts.

  20. Use of marine TIE methods in determining causes of toxicity to fish in a public marine aquarium

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, K.T.; Kuhn, A.; Burgess, R.M.; Pelletier, M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States); Charles, J. [Science Application International Corp., Narragansett, RI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Aquarium personnel observed that a number of organisms in the coral reef tank were succumbing to fungal and other diseases. It was suspected that organisms were compromised due to a common environmental stressor because many types of fish were affected. One possible stressor was the home-made painted coral decor in the tank. The coral reef decor was crumbling in several sections of the display and release of toxic agents was suspected. A water sample containing broken pieces of the decor was shipped to the lab and a TIE performed. Phase 1 TIE results indicated that toxicity to Mysidopsis bahia (mysid shrimp) was removed after EDTA addition and to some extent after cation exchange column treatment.None of the other TIE manipulations affected toxicity. Metal analyses indicated high concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd. To rule out the possibility of pathogens, irradiation was conducted as a novel TIE method. Results of further identification and confirmation methods using differing cation exchange column treatment. None of the other TIE manipulations affected toxicity. Metal analyses indicated high concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd. To rule out the possibility of pathogens, irradiation was conducted as a novel TIE method. Results of further identification and confirmation methods using differing cation exchange columns will be presented. This study demonstrates a unique application of TIE methods.

  1. Longitudinal analysis of large social networks: Estimating the effect of health traits on changes in friendship ties

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, A James; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2011-01-01

    We develop novel mixed effects models to examine the role of health traits on the status of peoples' close friendship nominations in the Framingham Heart Study. The health traits considered are both mutable (body mass index (BMI), smoking, blood pressure, body proportion, muscularity, and depression) and, for comparison, basically immutable (height, birth order, personality type, only child, and handedness); and the traits have varying degrees of observability. We test the hypotheses that existing ties (i.e. close friendship nominations) are more likely to dissolve between people with dissimilar (mutable and observable) health traits whereas new ties are more likely to form between those with similar (mutable and observable) traits while controlling for persons' age, gender, geographic separation, and education. The mixed effects models contain random effects for both the nominator (ego) and nominated (alter) persons in a tie to account for the fact that people were involved in multiple relationships and contributed observations at multiple exams. Results for BMI support the hypotheses that people of similar BMI are less likely to dissolve existing ties and more likely to form ties, while smoker to non-smoker ties were the least likely to dissolve and smoker to smoker ties were the most likely to form. We also validated previously known findings regarding homophily on age and gender, and found evidence that homophily also depends upon geographic separation. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:21287589

  2. The zebrafish Tie2 signaling controls tip cell behaviors and acts synergistically with Vegf pathway in developmental angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenqing; Chen, Jian; Deng, Min; Jing, Qing

    2014-08-01

    Angiogenesis process in development is temporally accurate, and involves sprouting, subsequent endothelial cell proliferation, and migration. Tip cells, sensing the extracellular cues, play an important role in this process. Although it is known that several pathways including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Notch control tip cell behaviors, the signaling process is largely unknown. Here we showed that an endothelial tyrosine kinase receptor-Tie2 was required for intersegmental vessel (ISV) growth and essential for the sprouting, migration, and proliferation of tip cells with morpholino knockdown strategy in zebrafish. Knockdown of vegf effectively reduced tie2 mRNA level, and tie2 knockdown efficiently blocked the vegf over-expression induced tyrosine kinase receptor-VEGFR1 (flk1) expression, which suggested that the function of Tie2 may be linked to the downstream of VEGF signaling pathway. Furthermore, we found that the embryos displayed normal ISV growth when injected with tie2 or vegf morpholino alone at a low dose, while co-knockdown of them resulted in a severe ISV defect, indicating a synergistic role in ISV formation. These observations demonstrate that Tie2 is an important regulator of tip cell behaviors. Moreover, these findings provide in vivo evidence that Tie2 acts coordinately with Vegf signaling to control angiogenesis. PMID:25001479

  3. Native leaf-tying caterpillars influence host plant use by the invasive Asiatic oak weevil through ecosystem engineering.

    PubMed

    Baer, Christina S; Marquis, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    We tested the effect of leaf-tying caterpillars, native ecosystem engineers, on the abundance and host feeding of an invasive insect, the Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus (Roelofs). Leaf quality was previously thought to be the sole factor determining host use by C. castaneus, but adult weevils congregate in leaf ties made by lepidopteran larvae (caterpillars). Adult weevil abundance was naturally higher on Quercus alba and Q. velutina compared to four other tree species tested (Acer rubrum, Carya ovata, Cornus florida, and Sassafras albidum). These differences were associated with more natural leaf ties on the two Quercus species. In the laboratory, weevils fed on all six species but again preferred Q. alba and Q. velutina. When artificial ties were added to all six tree species, controlling for differences in leaf-tie density, adult weevil density increased on all six tree species, damage increased on all species but A. rubrum, and host ranking changed based on both abundance and damage. We conclude that leaf ties increase the local abundance of C. castaneus adults and their feeding. Thus, these native leaf-tying caterpillars engender the success of an invasive species via structural modification of potential host plants, the first described example of this phenomenon. PMID:25039212

  4. Intermediate nonlinear regimes of line-tied g mode and ballooning instability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Zhu; C. C. Hegna; C. R. Sovinec; A. Bhattacharjee; K. Germaschewski

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical framework has been developed to describe the nonlinear regimes of line-tied g modes in slab geometry and ballooning instabilities in toroidal configurations. Recent experimental observation and numerical simulations demonstrate a persistence of ballooning-like filamentary structures well into the nonlinear stage of edge localized mode (ELM) activity in H-mode plasmas. Our theory is based on an expansion using two

  5. Eagle Pass back-to-back tie: a dual purpose application of voltage source converter technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Larsson; A. Petersson; A. Edris; D. Kidd; F. Aboytes

    2001-01-01

    IGBT-based voltage source converters (VSC) connected back-to-back (BTB) is a new technology that can provide reliable interconnection of power systems. At American Electric Power-Central Power and Light's (AEP-CPL)-Eagle Pass substation, a 36 MVA VSC based BTB tie, interconnecting AEP-CPL's and Comision Federal de Electricidad's (CFE) power systems, provides needed reactive power support for dynamic voltage control at the two ends

  6. GNSS-SLR satellite co-location for the estimate of local ties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruni, Sara; Zerbini, Susanna; Errico, Maddalena; Santi, Efisio

    2013-04-01

    The current realization of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) is based on four different space-geodetic techniques, so that the benefits brought by each observing system to the definition of the frame can compensate for the drawbacks of the others and technique-specific systematic errors might be identified. The strategy used to combine the observations from the different techniques is then of prominent importance for the realization of a precise and stable reference frame. This study concentrates, in particular, on the combination of Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observations by exploiting satellite co-locations. This innovative approach is based on the fact that laser tracking of GNSS satellites, carrying on board laser reflector arrays, allows for the combination of optical and microwave signals in the determination of the spacecraft orbit. Besides, the use of satellite co-locations differs quite significantly from the traditional combination method in which each single technique solution is carried out autonomously and is interrelated in a second step. One of the benefits of the approach adopted in this study is that it allows for an independent validation of the local tie, i.e. of the vector connecting the SLR and GNSS reference points in a multi-techniques station. Typically, local ties are expressed by a single value, measured with ground-based geodetic techniques and taken as constant. In principle, however, local ties might show time variations likely caused by the different monumentation characteristics of the GNSS antennas with respect to those of a SLR system. This study evaluates the possibility of using the satellite co-location approach to generate local-ties time series by means of observations available for a selected network of ILRS stations. The data analyzed in this study were acquired as part of the NASA's Earth Science Data Systems and are archived and distributed by the Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS).

  7. The Impact of the Internet on Local and Distant Social Ties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kavanaugh; T. T. Zin; M. B. Rosson; J. M. Carroll

    People use various modes of communication to maintain their social networks, both local and distant. In the United States,\\u000a Internet use has been growing steadily, and electronic mail has consistently been the most popular online activity. We investigate\\u000a the effect of online communication with social ties in the highly networked community of Blacksburg, VA, and surrounding rural\\u000a Montgomery County. We

  8. 11Level cascaded H-bridge grid-tied inverter interface with solar panels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Faete Filho; Yue Cao; Leon M. Tolbert

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a single-phase 11-level (5 H-bridges) cascade multilevel DC-AC grid-tied inverter. Each inverter bridge is connected to a 200 W solar panel. OPAL-RT lab was used as the hardware in the loop (HIL) real-time control system platform where a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm was implemented based on the inverter output power to assure optimal operation of

  9. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Toxicogenomics Integrated with Environmental Sciences (TIES2007)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre R Bushel; Dahlia Nielsen; Weida Tong

    2009-01-01

    The First International Conference on Toxicogenomics Integrated with Environmental Sciences (TIES-2007) was held at the North Carolina State University McKimmon Center in Raleigh, North Carolina on October 25th and 26th, 2007. Based on the presentations at the conference and the commitment or interest of the presenters to contribute a manuscript of their research, we compiled this collection of articles as

  10. Why are rags tied to the sacred trees of the Holy Land?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amots Dafni

    2002-01-01

    A field study to survey the custom of tying rags on sacred trees in the northern part of Israel was carried out during 2000–2001.\\u000a It included 60 interviewees: 24 Druze, 18 Moslem Arabs, 12 Moslem Bedouins and 6 Christian Arab individuals. Tree veneration\\u000a was found to be quite uncommon among the Bedouins and rare among the Christian Arabs.\\u000a \\u000a The results

  11. Optimal three-dimensional strut-and-tie models for anchorage diaphragms in externally prestressed bridges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi-Qi He; Zhao Liu

    2010-01-01

    As a typical D-region in externally prestressed bridges, an anchorage diaphragm is usually severed as the end anchorage of external tendons. In this paper, an optimal three-dimensional strut-and-tie model for the anchorage diaphragm is proposed, and direct equations to facilitate the design are also developed. Both the topology optimization technique and the principle of minimum strain energy are incorporated to

  12. Selection based on the size of the black tie of the great tit may be reversed in urban habitats

    PubMed Central

    Senar, Juan Carlos; Conroy, Michael J; Quesada, Javier; Mateos-Gonzalez, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    A standard approach to model how selection shapes phenotypic traits is the analysis of capture–recapture data relating trait variation to survival. Divergent selection, however, has never been analyzed by the capture–recapture approach. Most reported examples of differences between urban and nonurban animals reflect behavioral plasticity rather than divergent selection. The aim of this paper was to use a capture–recapture approach to test the hypothesis that divergent selection can also drive local adaptation in urban habitats. We focused on the size of the black breast stripe (i.e., tie width) of the great tit (Parus major), a sexual ornament used in mate choice. Urban great tits display smaller tie sizes than forest birds. Because tie size is mostly genetically determined, it could potentially respond to selection. We analyzed capture/recapture data of male great tits in Barcelona city (N = 171) and in a nearby (7 km) forest (N = 324) from 1992 to 2008 using MARK. When modelling recapture rate, we found it to be strongly influenced by tie width, so that both for urban and forest habitats, birds with smaller ties were more trap-shy and more cautious than their larger tied counterparts. When modelling survival, we found that survival prospects in forest great tits increased the larger their tie width (i.e., directional positive selection), but the reverse was found for urban birds, with individuals displaying smaller ties showing higher survival (i.e., directional negative selection). As melanin-based tie size seems to be related to personality, and both are heritable, results may be explained by cautious personalities being favored in urban environments. More importantly, our results show that divergent selection can be an important mechanism in local adaptation to urban habitats and that capture–recapture is a powerful tool to test it. PMID:25077014

  13. Selection based on the size of the black tie of the great tit may be reversed in urban habitats.

    PubMed

    Senar, Juan Carlos; Conroy, Michael J; Quesada, Javier; Mateos-Gonzalez, Fernando

    2014-07-01

    A standard approach to model how selection shapes phenotypic traits is the analysis of capture-recapture data relating trait variation to survival. Divergent selection, however, has never been analyzed by the capture-recapture approach. Most reported examples of differences between urban and nonurban animals reflect behavioral plasticity rather than divergent selection. The aim of this paper was to use a capture-recapture approach to test the hypothesis that divergent selection can also drive local adaptation in urban habitats. We focused on the size of the black breast stripe (i.e., tie width) of the great tit (Parus major), a sexual ornament used in mate choice. Urban great tits display smaller tie sizes than forest birds. Because tie size is mostly genetically determined, it could potentially respond to selection. We analyzed capture/recapture data of male great tits in Barcelona city (N = 171) and in a nearby (7 km) forest (N = 324) from 1992 to 2008 using MARK. When modelling recapture rate, we found it to be strongly influenced by tie width, so that both for urban and forest habitats, birds with smaller ties were more trap-shy and more cautious than their larger tied counterparts. When modelling survival, we found that survival prospects in forest great tits increased the larger their tie width (i.e., directional positive selection), but the reverse was found for urban birds, with individuals displaying smaller ties showing higher survival (i.e., directional negative selection). As melanin-based tie size seems to be related to personality, and both are heritable, results may be explained by cautious personalities being favored in urban environments. More importantly, our results show that divergent selection can be an important mechanism in local adaptation to urban habitats and that capture-recapture is a powerful tool to test it. PMID:25077014

  14. Impact of plant architecture versus leaf quality on attack by leaf-tying caterpillars on five oak species.

    PubMed

    Marquis, Robert J; Lill, John T

    2010-05-01

    Because shelter-building herbivorous insect species often consider structural features of their host plants in selecting construction sites, their probability of attack is likely to be a function of some combination of plant architectural traits and leaf quality factors. We tested the hypothesis that plant architecture, in the form of the number of touching leaves, influences interspecific variation in attack by leaf-tying caterpillars in five species of sympatric Missouri oaks (Quercus). We compared colonization on control branches, in which both architecture and leaf quality were potentially important, with colonization on experimental branches for which we controlled for the effects of architecture by creating equal numbers of artificial ties. Colonization of artificial ties was highly correlated with natural colonization on neighboring control branches, suggesting that leaf quality factors and not architecture influenced interspecific variation in attack by leaf-tying caterpillars. Of the leaf quality factors measured (water, protein-binding capacity, nitrogen, specific leaf area, pubescence, and toughness), nitrogen was the most explanatory. With the exception of white oak, natural leaf tie colonization was positively correlated with nitrogen availability (ratio of nitrogen to protein-binding capacity), and negatively correlated with protein-binding capacity of leaf extracts. Both host plant species and subgenus oak influenced the community composition of leaf-tying caterpillars and the non-tying symbionts colonizing the ties. Host plant differences in leaf nitrogen content were positively correlated with pupal weight of one of two caterpillar species reared on all five host plant species. Thus, interspecific differences in nitrogen, nitrogen availability, and protein-binding capacity of leaf extracts are the best predictors at this time of interspecific differences in attack by leaf-tying caterpillars, in turn affecting their success on individual host plants in the laboratory. PMID:19960353

  15. Mesoscopic analysis of online social networks: The role of negative ties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmailian, Pouya; Abtahi, Seyed Ebrahim; Jalili, Mahdi

    2014-10-01

    A class of networks are those with both positive and negative links. In this manuscript, we studied the interplay between positive and negative ties on mesoscopic level of these networks, i.e., their community structure. A community is considered as a tightly interconnected group of actors; therefore, it does not borrow any assumption from balance theory and merely uses the well-known assumption in the community detection literature. We found that if one detects the communities based on only positive relations (by ignoring the negative ones), the majority of negative relations are already placed between the communities. In other words, negative ties do not have a major role in community formation of signed networks. Moreover, regarding the internal negative ties, we proved that most unbalanced communities are maximally balanced, and hence they cannot be partitioned into k nonempty sub-clusters with higher balancedness (k ?2 ). Furthermore, we showed that although the mediator triad ++- (hostile-mediator-hostile) is underrepresented, it constitutes a considerable portion of triadic relations among communities. Hence, mediator triads should not be ignored by community detection and clustering algorithms. As a result, if one uses a clustering algorithm that operates merely based on social balance, mesoscopic structure of signed networks significantly remains hidden.

  16. Mesoscopic analysis of online social networks - The role of negative ties

    E-print Network

    Esmailian, Pouya; Jalili, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    A class of networks are those with both positive and negative links.In this manuscript, we studied the interplay between positive and negative ties on mesoscopic level of these networks, i.e., their community structure.A community is considered as a tightly interconnected group of actors; therefore, it does not borrow any assumption from balance theory and merely uses the well-known assumption in the community detection literature.We found that if one detects the communities based on only positive relations (by ignoring the negative ones), the majority of negative relations are already placed between the communities.In other words, negative ties do not have a major role in community formation of signed networks.Moreover, regarding the internal negative ties, we proved that most unbalanced communities are maximally balanced, and hence they cannot be partitioned into k nonempty sub-clusters with higher balancedness (k >= 2).Furthermore, we showed that although the mediator triad + + - (hostile-mediator-hostile)...

  17. Phase Tomography Reconstructed by 3D TIE in Hard X-ray Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, G.-C. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Department of Photonics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Chen, F.-R. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Department of Photonics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Department of Eng. and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Pyun, Ahram; Je, Jung Ho [Department of material science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Hwu, Yeukuang [Institute of Physic, Academic Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Liang, Keng S. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China)

    2007-01-19

    X-ray phase tomography and phase imaging are promising ways of investigation on low Z material. A polymer blend of PE/PS sample was used to test the 3D phase retrieval method in the parallel beam illuminated microscope. Because the polymer sample is thick, the phase retardation is quite mixed and the image can not be distinguished when the 2D transport intensity equation (TIE) is applied. In this study, we have provided a different approach for solving the phase in three dimensions for thick sample. Our method involves integration of 3D TIE/Fourier slice theorem for solving thick phase sample. In our experiment, eight sets of de-focal series image data sets were recorded covering the angular range of 0 to 180 degree. Only three set of image cubes were used in 3D TIE equation for solving the phase tomography. The phase contrast of the polymer blend in 3D is obviously enhanced, and the two different groups of polymer blend can be distinguished in the phase tomography.

  18. Plasma Fibronectin Promotes Tumor Cell Survival and Invasion through Regulation of Tie2

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Lynn M.; Malik, Gunjan; Pilch, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Our previous research has shown that plasma fibronectin promotes lung metastasis by facilitating tumor cell invasion in clotted plasma. To evaluate the role of clotted plasma for tumor cell survival, we treated B16F1 cells embedded in a 3-dimensional matrix of fibrin with tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?), a cytokine with anti-tumor activity. Under these conditions, TNF? caused significant cytotoxicity, which was prevented when we added plasma fibronectin to the fibrin clot. Fibronectin-mediated TNF? resistance was dependent on PI3-kinase, which also mediated the pro-adhesive and pro-invasive effects of plasma fibronectin on tumor cells. To further investigate the role of plasma fibronectin in tumor cell signaling, we performed a gene array that showed specific upregulation of Tie2 in B16F1 cells embedded in fibrin-fibronectin compared to fibrin. Importantly, inhibition of Tie2 resulted in decreased tumor cell invasion, reduced colony formation and increased tumor cell death in response to TNF?. Together, our findings indicate that plasma fibronectin induces tumor cell invasion and protects tumor cells from the cytotoxic effects of inflammatory mediators through up-regulation of Tie2. PMID:23833683

  19. Finite element analyses of continuous filament ties for masonry applications : final report for the Arquin Corporation.

    SciTech Connect

    Quinones, Armando, Sr. (Arquin Corporation, La Luz, NM); Bibeau, Tiffany A.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2008-08-01

    Finite-element analyses were performed to simulate the response of a hypothetical vertical masonry wall subject to different lateral loads with and without continuous horizontal filament ties laid between rows of concrete blocks. A static loading analysis and cost comparison were also performed to evaluate optimal materials and designs for the spacers affixed to the filaments. Results showed that polypropylene, ABS, and polyethylene (high density) were suitable materials for the spacers based on performance and cost, and the short T-spacer design was optimal based on its performance and functionality. Simulations of vertical walls subject to static loads representing 100 mph winds (0.2 psi) and a seismic event (0.66 psi) showed that the simulated walls performed similarly and adequately when subject to these loads with and without the ties. Additional simulations and tests are required to assess the performance of actual walls with and without the ties under greater loads and more realistic conditions (e.g., cracks, non-linear response).

  20. Involvement of the ANGPTs/Tie-2 system in ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS).

    PubMed

    Scotti, Leopoldina; Abramovich, Dalhia; Pascuali, Natalia; de Zúñiga, Ignacio; Oubiña, Alejandro; Kopcow, Laura; Lange, Soledad; Owen, Gareth; Tesone, Marta; Parborell, Fernanda

    2013-01-30

    Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a disorder associated with ovarian stimulation. OHSS features are ovarian enlargement with fluid shifting to the third space. Disturbances in the vasculature are considered the main changes that lead to OHSS. Our aim was to analyze the levels of angiopoietins 1 and 2 (ANGPT1 and 2) and their soluble and membrane receptors (s/mTie-2) in follicular fluid (FF) and in granulosa-lutein cells culture (GLCs) from women at risk of developing OHSS. We also evaluated the effect of ANGPT1 on endothelial cell migration. In ovaries from an OHSS rat model, we analyzed the protein concentration of ANGPTs, their mTie-2 receptor, and platelet-derived growth factor PDGF-B, -D and PDGFR-?. ANGPT1 levels were increased in both FF and GLCs from women at risk of OHSS. Incubation of these FF with an ANGPT1 neutralizing antibody decreased endothelial cell migration. In the ovaries of OHSS rat model, mTie-2 protein levels increased and PDGF-B and -D decreased. In summary, these results suggest that ANGPT1 could be another mediator in the development of OHSS. PMID:23123737

  1. Down hole transmission system

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT)

    2007-07-24

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. The electrically conducting coil comprises at least two generally fractional loops. In the preferred embodiment, the transmission elements are connected by an electrical conductor. Preferably, the electrical conductor is a coaxial cable. Preferably, the MCEI trough comprises ferrite. In the preferred embodiment, the fractional loops are connected by a connecting cable. In one aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a pair of twisted wires. In one embodiment the connecting cable is a shielded pair of twisted wires. In another aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a coaxial cable. The connecting cable may be disposed outside of the MCEI circular trough.

  2. Transmission of Flu (Influenza)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Flu (Influenza) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Transmission How Flu Spreads Coughing and Sneezing People with flu can ...

  3. Hybrid geared traction transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nasvytis, A. L.; White, G.

    1983-01-01

    The basic configuration of geared traction drives, geometric and structural factors to be considered in their construction, and current work on hybrid helicopter transmissions rated at 500 and 3000 hp are discussed.

  4. E. coli Transmission

    MedlinePLUS

    ... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. E. coli Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Transmission Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) occurs when people consume contaminated foods or ...

  5. Chickenpox (Varicella): Transmission

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Resources Multimedia Related Links Medline Plus Healthfinder.gov Shingles Transmission Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... Chickenpox can also be spread from people with shingles . Varicella-zoster virus also causes shingles. A person ...

  6. Designing electricity transmission auctions

    E-print Network

    Greve, Thomas; Pollitt, Michael G.

    2012-10-26

    The UK has ambitious plans for exploiting offshore wind for electricity production in order to meet its challenging target under the EU Renewable Energy Directive. This could involve investing up to 20bn in transmission assets to bring electricity...

  7. Development and Testing of the Glenn Research Center Visitor's Center Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed, installed, and tested a 12 kW DC grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system at the GRC Visitor s Center. This system utilizes a unique ballast type roof mount for installing the photovoltaic panels on the roof of the Visitor s Center with no alterations or penetrations to the roof. The PV system has generated in excess of 15000 kWh since operation commenced in August 2008. The PV system is providing power to the GRC grid for use by all. Operation of the GRC Visitor s Center PV system has been completely trouble free. A grid-tied PV power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners. GRC personnel glean valuable experience with PV power systems that are directly applicable to various space power systems, and provides valuable space program test data. PV power systems help to reduce harmful emissions and reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels. Power generated by the PV system reduces the GRC utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Present global energy concerns reinforce the need for the development of alternative energy systems. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics has been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Based upon the success of the GRC Visitor s Center PV system, additional PV power system expansion at GRC is under consideration. The GRC Visitor s Center grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed which served to validate the basic principles described, and the theoretical work that was performed. The report concludes that grid-tied photovoltaic power systems are reliable, maintenance free, long life power systems, and are of significant value to NASA and the community.

  8. Design of a Glenn Research Center Solar Field Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) designed, developed, and installed, a 37.5 kW DC photovoltaic (PV) Solar Field in the GRC West Area in the 1970s for the purpose of testing PV panels for various space and terrestrial applications. The PV panels are arranged to provide a nominal 120 VDC. The GRC Solar Field has been extremely successful in meeting its mission. The PV panels and the supporting electrical systems are all near their end of life. GRC has designed a 72 kW DC grid-tied PV power system to replace the existing GRC West Area Solar Field. The 72 kW DC grid-tied PV power system will provide DC solar power for GRC PV testing applications, and provide AC facility power for all times that research power is not required. A grid-tied system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility for use by all. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners. GRC personnel glean valuable experience with PV power systems that are directly applicable to various space power systems, and provide valuable space program test data. PV power systems help to reduce harmful emissions and reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels. Power generated by the PV system reduces the GRC utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Present global energy concerns reinforce the need for the development of alternative energy systems. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics has been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. The report concludes that the GRC West Area grid-tied PV power system design is viable for a reliable, maintenance free, long life power system that is of significant value to NASA and the community.

  9. Temporal Changes of Angiopoietins and Tie2 Expression in Rat Lungs after Monocrotaline-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yu Ji; Han, Jae Yoon; Lee, Sang Gab; Jeon, Byeong Tak; Choi, Wan Sung; Hwang, Young Sil; Roh, Gu Seob; Lee, Jong Deog

    2009-01-01

    Angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are implicated in pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, the pathway of angiogenic factor-mediated pathologic angiogenesis in PH remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the temporal expression of angiopoietin (Ang) 1, Ang2, and their receptor (Tie2) as well as VEGF, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS), and heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) in the monocrotaline-induced PH model. Histologic evaluation showed pathologic vascular remodeling in the arteries of lung sections 1 wk after monocrotaline treatment. Protein levels of Ang1, Ang2, eNOS, iNOS, HO1, and VEGF were increased 1 wk after monocrotaline treatment but Tie2 protein levels were decreased 2 wk afterward. These results suggest that Ang2 mediates vascular remodeling in PH by decreasing Tie2 expression. Therefore, the Ang–Tie2 system may play a role in the pathophysiology of PH. PMID:19712575

  10. Evaluation of the Polyethylene Reverse Sampler as a Dosing System in Marine Phase II Whole Sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIEs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminated marine sediments can cause acute and chronic impairments to benthic organisms. Nonionic organic contaminants (NOCs) are often a primary cause of impairment. Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIEs) are used to identify chemicals causing toxicity in sediments. Ph...

  11. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 10): Union Pacific Railroad Tie Treatment, the Dalles, OR, March 27, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This document presents the selected remedial action for contaminated soil, groundwater, surface water and sediments, at the Union Pacific Railroad (UPRR) Tie-Treating Plant site in The Dalles, Oregon.

  12. Creative benefits from well-connected leaders: leader social network ties as facilitators of employee radical creativity.

    PubMed

    Venkataramani, Vijaya; Richter, Andreas W; Clarke, Ronald

    2014-09-01

    Employee radical creativity critically depends on substantive informational resources from others across the wider organization. We propose that the social network ties of employees' immediate leaders assume a central role in garnering these resources, thereby fostering their employees' radical creativity both independent of and interactively with employees' own network ties. Drawing on data from 214 employees working in 30 teams of a public technology and environmental services organization, we find that team leaders' betweenness centrality in the idea network within their teams as well as among their peer leaders provides creative benefits beyond employees' own internal and external ties. Further, employees' and leaders' ties within and external to the team interactively predict employee radical creativity. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:24911179

  13. USE OF ZEOLITE FOR REMOVING AMMONIA AND AMMONIA-CAUSED TOXCITY IN MARINE TOXICITY IDENTIFCATION EVALUATIONS (TIES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ammonia occurs in marine waters including effluents, receiving waters, and sediment interstitial waters. At sufficiently high concentrations, ammonia can be toxic to aquatic species. Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) methods provide researchers with tools for identifyi...

  14. Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1981-01-01

    The testing of a Mercury Lynx automatic transmission is reported. The transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-ninety percent range both for drive performance test and coast performance tests. The torque, speed, and efficiency curves are presented, which provide the complete performance characteristics for the Mercury Lynx automatic transmission.

  15. Small passenger car transmission test: Dodge Omni A-404 transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid eighty percent range for both drive performance test and coast performance tests.

  16. Elastic-plastic analysis of R\\/C coupled shear walls: The equivalent stiffness ratio of the tie elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. DORAN

    Bar frame modelling is a popular method in coupled shear wall systems in structural design. In this process, determining the stiffness of the tie beams is important. In this study, results obtained by finite-element analysis of R\\/C coupled shear wall systems having several geometries in elastic-plastic space are considered. Using SPSS (Ver.5.0) statistical package program, an equivalent tie beam stiffness

  17. Disorganized vascular structures in sporadic venous malformations: a possible correlation with balancing effect between Tie2 and TGF-?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Ren, Jian-Gang; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Yan-Fang; Wang, Feng-Qin; Li, Rui-Fang; Zhang, Jian; Zhao, Yi-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Venous malformations (VMs) are among the most common slow-flow vascular malformations characterized by irregular venous channels, luminal thrombi, and phleboliths. To systematically manifest the disorganized vascular structures in sporadic VMs, we initially evaluated histopathological characteristics, perivascular cell coverage, adhesion molecules expression and vascular ultrastructures. Then, the expression of Tie2 and TGF-? in VMs was detected. Meanwhile, the in vitro studies were performed for mechanism investigation. Our data showed that the perivascular ?-SMA+ cell coverage and expression of adhesion molecules in VMs were significantly decreased compared with those in the normal skin tissues. We also found that the expression and phosphorylation levels of Tie2 were upregulated, whereas TGF-? was downregulated in VMs, and they were negatively correlated. Moreover, the in vitro results also revealed a possible balancing effect between Tie2 and TGF-?, as demonstrated by the findings that Ang-1 (agonist of Tie2) treatment significantly downregulated TGF-? expression, and treatment with recombinant TGF-? could also suppress Tie2 expression and phosphorylation. This study provided strong evidence supporting the disorganized vascular structures and dysregulation of related molecules in sporadic VMs, and demonstrated a possible balancing effect between Tie2 and TGF-?, which might help to develop novel therapeutics for vascular disorganization-related disorders. PMID:24966004

  18. Phenotypic knockout of VEGF-R2 and Tie-2 with an intradiabody reduces tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Jendreyko, Nina; Popkov, Mikhail; Rader, Christoph; Barbas, Carlos F.

    2005-01-01

    The endothelial cell receptor-tyrosine kinases, VEGF receptor 2 (VEGF-R2) and Tie-2, and their ligands, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietins 1 and 2, respectively, play key roles in tumor angiogenesis. Several studies suggest that the VEGF receptor pathway and the Tie-2 pathway are independent and essential mediators of angiogenesis, leading to the hypothesis that simultaneous interference with both pathways should result in additive effects on tumor growth. In this study, a human melanoma xenograft model (M21) was used to analyze the effects of simultaneous intradiabody depletion of vascular endothelial growth receptor-R2 and Tie-2 on tumor angiogenesis and tumor xenograft growth. The intradiabodies were expressed from recombinant adenovirus delivered through subtumoral injection. Blockade of both VEGF-R2 and Tie-2 pathways simultaneously or the VEGF receptor pathway alone resulted in a significant inhibition of tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis (92.2% and 74.4%, respectively). In addition, immunohistochemical staining of intradiabody-treated tumors demonstrated a decreased number of tumor-associated blood vessels versus control treatment. Previous studies with intrabodies had demonstrated that the Tie-2 receptor pathway was essential for tumor growth. The simultaneous blockade of the VEGF and Tie-2 pathways resulted in effective inhibition of tumor growth and demonstrated the potential of simultaneous targeting of multiple pathways as a therapeutic strategy. PMID:15928093

  19. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Ikezi, Hiroyuki (Rancho Santa Fe, CA); Lin-Liu, Yuh-Ren (San Diego, CA); DeGrassie, John S. (Encinitas, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other.

  20. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Ikezi, H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; DeGrassie, J.S.

    1991-08-27

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other. 5 figures.

  1. Disease transmission in horses.

    PubMed

    Samper, Juan C; Tibary, Ahmed

    2006-08-01

    Bacterial, viral and protozoal infections may cause severe reproductive losses. The present paper reviews the risk factors, clinical signs and preventive measures for the most important venereal or potential sexually transmitted diseases in horses. The stallion and use of semen for artificial insemination represent major risk factors for the transmission of bacterial contaminants of the penis, including Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, known to cause endometritis and infertility in the mare. The role of the stallion in disease transmission is also due to the non-clinical manifestation of diseases such as contagious equine metritis and equine viral arteritis. Dourine has been eradicated from many countries, but continues to be a problem in other areas of the globe. Strategies for the prevention of introduction and transmission of diseases in breeding operation are discussed. PMID:16837034

  2. Automotive transmission linkage system

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, F.Y.; Ardayfio, D.D.

    1990-10-02

    This patent describes a system for converting a manual multi-speed transmission to operate as an automatic-manual transmission, the system being disposed within a vehicle, the transmission having a conventional gearshift lever and a clutch pedal. It comprises: a gearshift position selection panel, the panel being located apart from the gearshift lever, the panel enabling a driver to select the desired gear position of the gearshift lever by manipulating the panel without the necessity of the driver handling the gearshift lever; a controller which transforms the gearshift selection of the driver to an output signal, the signal corresponding to the gearshift position selected by the driver; and actuating means for mechanically repositioning the gearshift lever automatically in accordance with the output signal.

  3. Transmissivity variations in mudstones.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Alan M; Kemp, Simon J; Davies, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    Many people in sub-Saharan Africa have to rely on meager water resources within mudstones for their only water supply. Although mudstones have been extensively researched for their low permeability behavior, little research has been undertaken to examine their ability to provide sustainable water supplies. To investigate the factors controlling the occurrence of usable ground water in mudstone environments, an area of Cretaceous mudstones in southeastern Nigeria was studied over a 3 yr period. Transmissivity (T) variations in a range of mudstone environments were studied. The investigations demonstrate that within the top 40 m of mudstones, transmissivity can be sufficient to develop village water supplies (T > 1 m2/d). Transmissivity is controlled by two factors: low-grade metamorphism and the presence of other, subordinate, lithologies within the mudstones. Largely unaltered mudstones (early diagenetic zone), comprising mainly smectite clays, are mostly unfractured and have a low T of < 0.1 m2/d. Mudstones that have undergone limited metamorphism (late diagenetic zone) comprise mixed layered illite/smectite clays, and ground water is found in widely spaced fracture zones (T > 1 m2/d in large fracture zones; T < 0.1 m2/d away from fracture zones). Mudstones that have been further altered and approach the anchizone comprise illite clays, are pervasively fractured, and have the highest transmissivity values (T > 4 m2/d). Dolerite intrusions in unaltered, smectitic mudstones are highly fractured with transmissivity in the range of 1 < T < 60 m2/d. Thin limestone and sandstone layers can also enhance transmissivity sufficiently to provide community water supplies. PMID:15819947

  4. Advanced rotorcraft transmission program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is an Army-funded, joint Army/NASA program to develop and demonstrate lightweight, quiet, durable drivetrain systems for next generation rotorcraft. ART addresses the drivetrain requirements of two distinct next generation aircraft classes: Future Air Attack Vehicle, a 10,000 to 20,000 lb. aircraft capable of undertaking tactical support and air-to-air missions; and Advanced Cargo Aircraft, a 60,000 to 80,000 lb. aircraft capable of heavy life field support operations. Both tiltrotor and more conventional helicopter configurations are included in the ART program. Specific objectives of ART include reduction of drivetrain weight by 25 percent compared to baseline state-of-the-art drive systems configured and sized for the next generation aircraft, reduction of noise level at the transmission source by 10 dB relative to a suitably sized and configured baseline, and attainment of at least a 5000 hr mean-time-between-removal. The technical approach for achieving the ART goals includes application of the latest available component, material, and lubrication technology to advanced concept drivetrains that utilize new ideas in gear configuration, transmission layout, and airframe/drivetrain integration. To date, candidate drivetrain systems were carried to a conceptual design stage, and tradeoff studies were conducted resulting in selection of an ART transmission configuration for each of the four contractors. The final selection was based on comparative weight, noise, and reliability studies. A description of each of the selected ART designs is included. Preliminary design of each of the four selected ART transmission was completed, as have mission impact studies wherein comparisons of aircraft mission performance and life cycle costs are undertaken for the next generation aircraft with ART and with the baseline transmission.

  5. Transmission Electron Microscopy Basics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Peter Goodhew

    This extensive site from the University of Liverpool is a set of resources based on the textbook Transmission Electron Microscopy - Basics by D.B.Williams and C.B.Carter. The tutorial is designed to accompany an introductory course on transmission electron microscopy for students with an understanding of elementary physics. Topics include electron scattering, electron atom interactions, the electron gun, probe size, lenses, depth of field and depth of focus, and others. Each chapter includes interactive Java applets that facilitate understanding of the concepts presented.

  6. Licklider Transmission Protocol Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Krupiarz, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This software is an implementation of the Licklider Transmission Protocol (LTP), a communications protocol intended to support the Bundle Protocol in Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) operations. LTP is designed to provide retransmission-based reliability over links characterized by extremely long message round-trip times and/or frequent interruptions in connectivity. Communication in interplanetary space is the most prominent example of this sort of environment, and LTP is principally aimed at supporting long-haul reliable transmission over deep-space RF links. Like any reliable transport service employing ARQ (Automatic Repeat re-Quests), LTP is stateful. In order to assure the reception of a block of data it has sent, LTP must retain for possible retransmission all portions of that block which might not have been received yet. In order to do so, it must keep track of which portions of the block are known to have been received so far, and which are not, together with any additional information needed for purposes of retransmitting part, or all, of the block. Long round-trip times mean substantial delay between the transmission of a block of data and the reception of an acknowledgement from the block s destination, signaling arrival of the block. If LTP postponed transmission of additional blocks of data until it received acknowledgement of the arrival of all prior blocks, valuable opportunities to use what little deep space transmission bandwidth is available would be forever lost. For this reason, LTP is based in part on a notion of massive state retention. Any number of requested transmission conversations (sessions) may be concurrently in flight at various displacements along the link between two LTP engines, and the LTP engines must necessarily retain transmission status and retransmission resources for all of them. Moreover, if any of the data of a given block are lost en route, it will be necessary to retain the state of that transmission during an additional round trip while the lost data are retransmitted; even multiple retransmission cycles may be necessary. LTP's possible multiplicity of sessions per association makes it necessary for each segment of application data to include an additional demultiplexing token: a session ID that uniquely identifies the session in which the segment was issued and, implicitly, the block of data being conveyed by this session. This software comprises a prototype implementation developed by Johns Hopkins University APL in cooperation with JPL, together with adaptations that improve the robustness, correctness, and operability of that implementation.

  7. Merchant Transmission Investment

    E-print Network

    Joskow, Paul; Tirole, Jean

    2004-06-16

    into the development of new transmission capacity. One can think of at least two situations in which free entry is not a good assumption. First, network deepening investments can, as a practical matter, only be implemented efficiently by the owner of the existing lines... ;#7; #8;#2;#15;#1;#24;#12;#15;#11;#4;#17;#1;#25;#7;#3;#7;#2;#19;#4;#5;#1; CMI Working Paper UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE Department of Applied Economics Merchant Transmission Investment? Paul Joskow† and Jean Tirole‡ May 6, 2003 Abstract We examine...

  8. A new cable-tie-based sternal closure device: infectious considerations†

    PubMed Central

    Melly, Ludovic; Gahl, Brigitta; Meinke, Ruth; Rueter, Florian; Matt, Peter; Reuthebuch, Oliver; Eckstein, Friedrich S.; Grapow, Martin T.R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the difference in sternal infection and other infectious events between conventional wire and cable-tie-based closure techniques post-sternotomy in a collective of patients after cardiac surgery. METHODS The sternal ZipFix™ (ZF) system consists of a biocompatible poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) cable-tie that surrounds the sternum through the intercostal space and provides a large implant-to-bone contact. Between 1 February 2011 and 31 January 2012, 680 cardiac operations were performed via sternotomy at our institution. After the exclusion of operations for active endocarditis and early mortality within 7 days, 95 patients were exclusively closed with ZF and could be compared with 498 who were closed with conventional wires (CWs) during the same period. A multivariable logistic regression analysis, including body mass index, renal impairment and emergency as suspected confounders and inverse propensity weights was performed on the infection rate. RESULTS Total infection rate was 6.1%, with a total of 36 diagnosed sternal infections (5 in ZF and 31 in CW). Comparing ZF with CW with regard to sternal infection, there is no statistically significant difference related to the device (odds ratio: 0.067, confidence interval: 0.04–9.16, P = 0.72). The propensity modelling provided excellent overlap and the mean propensity was almost the same in both groups. Thus, we have observed no difference in receiving either ZF or CW. No sternal instability was observed with the ZF device, unlike 4/31 patients in the CW group. The overall operation time is reduced by 11 min in the ZF group with identical perfusion and clamping times. CONCLUSIONS Our study underlines a neutral effect of the sternal ZipFix™ system in patients regarding sternal infection. Postoperative complications are similar in both sternal closure methods. The cable-tie-based system is fast, easy to use, reliable and safe. PMID:23624983

  9. Near-Field Enhanced UV Resonance Raman Spectroscopy Using Aluminum Bow-tie Nano-antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ling [North Carolina State University; Lim, Shuang Fang [North Carolina State University; Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Riehn, Robert [North Carolina State University; Hallen, Hans [North Carolina State University

    2012-01-01

    An aluminum bow-tie nano-antenna is combined with the resonance Raman eect in the deep ultraviolet to dramatically increase the sensitivity of Raman spectra to a small volume of material, such as benzene used here. We further demonstrate gradient-eld Raman peaks for several strong IR modes. We achieve a gain of 105 in signal intensity from the near eld enhancement due to the surface plasmon resonance in the aluminum nanostructure. The on-line resonance enhancement contributes another factor of several thousands, limited by the laser line width. Thus, an overall gain of hundreds of million is achieved.

  10. Static Dissipative Cable Ties, Such as for Radiation Belt Storm Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langley, Patrick T. (Inventor); Siddique, Fazle E. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods of cyclically heating and cooling an article formed of a static dissipative ETFE resin, such as to reduce an electrical resistivity and/or to increase a tensile strength of the article, and methods of irradiating an article formed of a static dissipative ETFE resin, such as to increase a tensile strength of the article. Also disclosed herein are articles formed of a static dissipative ETFE resin, and processed in accordance with methods disclosed herein. Such an article may include, for example and without limitation, a cable strap to wrap, support, and/or secure one or more wires or cables, such as a cable tie.

  11. Link Prediction and the Role of Stronger Ties in Networks of Face-to-Face Proximity

    E-print Network

    Scholz, Christoph; Stumme, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the structures why links are formed is an important and prominent research topic. In this paper, we therefore consider the link prediction problem in face-to-face contact networks, and analyze the predictability of new and recurring links. Furthermore, we study additional influence factors, and the role of stronger ties in these networks. Specifically, we compare neighborhood-based and path-based network proximity measures in a threshold-based analysis for capturing temporal dynamics. The results and insights of the analysis are a first step onto predictability applications for human contact networks, for example, for improving recommendations.

  12. [Virus transmission in drinking water].

    PubMed

    Divizia, M; Gabrieli, R; Macaluso, A; el Ouardi, A

    2003-01-01

    Several epidemiological data confirm the presence of enteric viruses in drinking water. The present paper deals with several problems tied to the virological analysis, such as the concentration of the samples, the isolation and the identification of enteric viruses. PMID:14677255

  13. TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has long been an important tool in the expanding field of microbiology. A major virtue of TEM is the increased resolution afforded by the use of accelerated electron beams at wavelengths significantly shorter than visible light. When coupled with suitable pre...

  14. Automatic transmission line monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, W. E.; Richards, L. O.

    1971-01-01

    Monitor improves complex network reliability in computer data links and command transmission lines. System evaluates circuit performance against preselected criteria, identifies and stores data indicating out-of-tolerance conditions, conducts closed loop testing, and provides for operation under command of digital computer that determines restoration priorities.

  15. Laser power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Edmund J.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of previous studies related to laser power transmission is presented. Particular attention is given to the use of solar pumped lasers for space power applications. Three general laser mechanisms are addressed: photodissociation lasing driven by sunlight, photoexcitation lasing driven directly by sunlight, and photoexcitation lasing driven by thermal radiation.

  16. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M. (4675 W. 3825 S, Salt Lake City, UT 84120)

    1997-01-01

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

  17. Categories and Music Transmission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatien, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Lucy Green's (2008) "Music, Informal Learning, and the School: A New Classroom Pedagogy" gives rise to an interesting corollary. Does the manner of music's transmission inform one's understanding of a musical category? While categories of music can be difficult to define according to strict musical characteristics, a better understanding of…

  18. Electronically controlled automatic transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Smith; J. A. Daubenmier; J. I. Zielke

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes an electronically controlled automatic transmission control system for an automotive vehicle. It comprises multiple ratio gearing and multiple pressure operated clutches and brakes adapted to establish and disestablish multiple torque flow paths through the gearing from an engine; a source of regulated line pressure, a valve circuit connecting the line pressure source to the clutches and brakes;

  19. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1997-03-25

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

  20. HBV Perinatal Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Umar, Muhammad; Hamama-tul-Bushra; Umar, Shifa; Khan, Haider Ali

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis B is a serious public health problem all around the world. It is a blood-borne and sexually transmitted DNA virus in adults, but mother to child transmission of hepatitis B virus also occurs in infants born to hepatitis B surface antigen positive mothers. PMID:23738081

  1. Continuously variable transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Tatara; S. Okawa; H. Matsui; Y. Nakawaki

    1987-01-01

    A continuously variable transmission means is described for motor vehicles including a driving pulley with a fixed member and a movable member. The movable member is actuated by a hydraulic cylinder to form a V-shaped opening, a driven pulley with another fixed member and another movable member. Another movable member is actuated by another hydraulic cylinder to form another V-shaped

  2. Compact change speed transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Iwanaga; T. Yamaguchi

    1989-01-01

    A change speed transmission is described comprising: a stationary part; an input member; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets; clutch and brake means for selectively controlling the first and second planetary gear sets to provide a plurality of forward speed rations and a reverse speed ratio between the input and output member; the clutch and brake means

  3. Automatic transmission apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiketa

    1987-01-01

    An automatic transmission apparatus is described comprising: an input shaft, an output shaft disposed behind and coaxially with the input shaft, a counter shaft disposed substantially parallel to both of the input and output shafts, a first gear train including a first gear provided on the input shaft and a second gear provided on the counter shaft to be meshed

  4. Quasi-separatrix layer reconnection for nonlinear line-tied collisionless tearing modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, J. M.; Billey, Z.; Daughton, W.; Zweibel, E.

    2014-06-01

    Quasi-separatrix layer (QSL) diagnostics are used to diagnose nonlinear line-tied tearing modes using particle-in-cell code simulation results. For a force-free current sheet, nonlinear tearing mode cases are shown over a wide range of plasma lengths with line-tying boundary conditions at the ends of the plasma. The methods used for performing the field line integrations with noisy PIC data are described. The QSL diagnostics used are the squashing degree Q (Priest and Demoulin 1995 J. Geophys. Res. 100 23443) and the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) scalar potential ?i of Richardson and Finn (2012 Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul. 17 2132). We also introduce the non-ideal scalar potential ?n, the analog of the resistive MHD scalar potential ?r of Richardson and Finn (2012). These QSL diagnostics are compared with the helical flux contours of the primary modes. They are used in the late linear regime and near mode saturation. For non-overlapping islands, these diagnostics show the QSL associated with the X-lines and their separatrices. These are shown to indicate well field line behavior such as chaotic scattering and separatrix crossing. For overlapping islands, they indicate chaotic scattering behavior either related to Chirikov overlap (Chirikov 1979 Phys. Rep. 52 263) or to separatrix crossing (Tennyson et al 1986 Phys. Rev. Lett. 56 2117).

  5. Diarrhea and intestinal invasiveness of Aeromonas strains in the removable intestinal tie rabbit model.

    PubMed Central

    Pazzaglia, G; Sack, R B; Bourgeois, A L; Froehlich, J; Eckstein, J

    1990-01-01

    Twelve Aeromonas strains were tested for virulence by using the removable intestinal tie adult rabbit diarrhea model. Mortality was 50% or greater for 7 of 12 strains; 23 of 37 rabbits that died developed diarrhea before death, and 11 of 27 surviving rabbits developed diarrhea. Aeromonas bacteremia was detected in 36 of 37 (97%) animals that died, but only in 2 of 27 (7%) survivors. Death, diarrhea, and bacteremia were all strongly strain dependent. Gastrointestinal lesions varied from moderate focal enteritis to severe multifocal necrosis and hemorrhage of the ileal mucosa, often accompanied by hepatic and splenic lesions. Intestinal colonization assays performed after infection indicated that the ileum was the most heavily colonized portion of the gut and the probable site of invasion. The application of the removable intestinal tie adult rabbit diarrhea model for intestinal challenge with Aeromonas strains has shown that some isolates are capable of invading the mucosa of rabbits, causing diarrhea and bacteremia. These data suggest that such strains may be important in causing human invasive diarrhea. Images PMID:2341185

  6. Diverless tie-in and connection of pipelines/flowlines by use of hard pipe spools

    SciTech Connect

    Hals, B.E.; Reddy, S.K.; Douglas, L.D.

    1996-12-31

    Diverless pipeline connection operations by use of custom built hard pipe spools has proven to be an economically viable approach. Over the last few years, required tooling and methods to perform subsea measurements and subsequent construction of such custom built jumper spools has been developed and successfully demonstrated. This allows a field operator a high degree of flexibility in his scheduling and selection of surface support for tie-in operations. Tie-in of pre-laid pipe/flowlines can be performed from unsophisticated vessels as no ROT systems are required. An ROV deploys and operates simple tools to perform linear and angular position recordings for the adjacent hubs. These measurements are used to duplicate the actual hub configurations on jig fixtures located on a surface vessel or at an onshore fabrication base. The jumper is then built to fit between these hubs. This form of diverless connection systems has proven to be cost effective and at the same time eliminate the need for high energy connection methods such as direct deflection and pull-in systems. A thorough understanding of the tooling as well as handling and installation of the jumper spools is of essence to achieve a successful connection. Clearly defined design parameters is a pre-requisite to ensure that the spool configuration and geometry will accommodate loads and deflections experienced throughout the service life of the spool.

  7. Can TIE-2 expressing monocytes represent a novel marker for hepatocellular carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Dapas, Barbara; Grassi, Mario; Grassi, Gabriele

    2014-08-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the predominant form of primary liver cancer, is a global health problem representing the sixth most common cancer and the third cause of cancer related death worldwide. The number of deaths per year in HCC is comparable to the incidence number, underlying the aggressive behavior of HCC and the modest efficacy of available curative treatments. Effective HCC treatment is problematic also due to the lack of early and specific diagnostic markers. In this regard, particular interest has been put on the tyrosine kinase with Ig and endothelial growth factor (EGF) homology domains 2 (TIE2), a receptor of angiopoietins, predominantly present on endothelial cells but also observed on monocytes [TIE-2-expressing monocytes (TEMs)]. Recently, a work by Matsubara et al. showed that the amount of circulating TEMs is higher in hepatitis virus C (HCV)/HCC patients compared to HCV patients or healthy subjects. Additionally the authors showed that TEMs have a diagnostic potential for HCC. Whereas the molecular mechanisms responsible for this observation remain elusive and further studies are necessary to confirm this finding, the work of Matsubara et al. may contribute to the identification of a novel HCC prognostic and diagnostic marker. PMID:25202693

  8. Small passenger car transmission test; Ford C4 transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    A 1979 Ford C4 automatic transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test (torque, speed, and efficiency curves) are presented. Graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Ford C4 transmission.

  9. Small passenger car transmission test; Chevrolet LUV transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    A 1978 Chevrolet LUV manual transmission tested per the applicable portions of a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the upper ninety percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test (torque, speed, and efficiency curves) are presented. Graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Chevrolet LUV transmission.

  10. Transmission and transmission control device for providing downshifting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Ito; T. Akashi

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a transmission for a vehicle, comprising a transmission mechanism, and an automatic control device; the transmission mechanism comprising: an input shaft; an output shaft, a first on-off clutch; a second on-off clutch; a first one way clutch; a second one way clutch; a first gear train having a first reduction gear ratio; a second gear train having

  11. Diagnosing and understanding the maxillary lip-tie (superior labial, the maxillary labial frenum) as it relates to breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Kotlow, Lawrence A

    2013-11-01

    Successful breastfeeding is dependent upon an infant's ability to correctly latch onto a mother's breast. If an infant is born with oral soft tissue abnormalities such as tongue-tie or lip-tie, breastfeeding may become challenging or impossible. During the oral evaluation of an infant presenting with breastfeeding problems, one area that is often overlooked and undiagnosed and, thus, untreated is the attachment of the upper lip to the maxillary gingival tissue. Historically, this tissue has been described as the superior labial frenum, median labial frenum, or maxillary labial frenum. These terms all refer to a segment of the mucous membrane in the midline of the upper lip containing loose connective tissue that inserts into the maxillary arch's loose, unattached gingival or tight, attached gingival tissue. There is no muscle contained within this tissue. In severe instances, this tissue may extend into the area behind the upper central incisors and incisive papilla. The author has defined and identified the restrictions of mobility of this tissue as a lip-tie, which reflects the clinical attachment of the upper lip to the maxillary arch. This article discusses the diagnosis and classifications of the lip-tie, as it affects an infant's latch onto the mother's breast. As more and more women choose to breastfeed, lip-ties must be considered as an impediment to breastfeeding, recognizing that they can affect a successful, painless latch and milk transfer. PMID:23821655

  12. Drill string transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Bradford, Kline (Orem, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2006-03-28

    A transmission line assembly for transmitting information along a downhole tool comprising a pin end, a box end, and a central bore traveling between the pin end and the box end, is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a protective conduit. A transmission line is routed through the protective conduit. The protective conduit is routed through the central bore and the ends of the protective conduit are routed through channels formed in the pin end and box end of the downhole tool. The protective conduit is elastically forced into a spiral or other non-linear path along the interior surface of the central bore by compressing the protective conduit to a length within the downhole tool shorter than the protective conduit.

  13. Continuously variable transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Tatara, Y.; Okawa, S.; Matsui, H.; Nakawaki, Y.

    1987-04-28

    A continuously variable transmission means is described for motor vehicles including a driving pulley with a fixed member and a movable member. The movable member is actuated by a hydraulic cylinder to form a V-shaped opening, a driven pulley with another fixed member and another movable member. Another movable member is actuated by another hydraulic cylinder to form another V-shaped opening, and a flexible endless member spans the driving and driven pulleys. The continuously variable transmission means comprises such items as: a first output shaft; a first gear; a second gear; a reverse gear; a second output shaft; a third gear; a jaw clutch mounted; a first one-way clutch; a fourth gear; a hydraulic clutch means; and a second one-way clutch.

  14. The Transmission Electron Microscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David B. Williams; C. Barry Carter

    \\u000a A typical commercial transmission electron microscope (TEM) costs about 5 for each electron volt (eV) of energy in the beam and, if you add on all available options, it can easily cost up to5 for each electron volt (eV) of energy in the beam\\u000a and, if you add on all available options, it can easily cost up to 10 per

  15. Nosocomial transmission of SARS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nelson Lee; Joseph J. Y. Sung

    2003-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome is a newly emerged infectious disease with moderately high transmissibility. Nosocomial\\u000a outbreaks were responsible for the propagation of the epidemic worldwide. Health care workers (HCW) are at particular high\\u000a risk because of their close contact with patients, involvement in medical procedures, and handling of excreta\\/fomites. Good\\u000a hospital organization and appropriate infection control strategies are essential to

  16. Infinitely variable ratio transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Geppert, E.F.

    1989-02-21

    A variable ratio vehicle transmission is described whose gear ratio is determined essentially only by torque on the output shaft of the transmission, comprising: a housing fixed in the vehicle; a power input shaft entering one end of the housing; a power output shaft entering the other end of the housing; a planet carrier mounted concentrically on the input shaft; a planet shaft mounted rotatably to the planet carrier; planet gears fixed coaxially to the planet shaft, one planet gear being a power transferring gear, a second planet gear being a reaction planet gear; a brake means rotatable about the input shaft sleeve for controlling the rate of rotation of the reaction planet gear about the planet shaft axis when the reaction planet gear orbits about the input shaft axis, the brake means having an inhibitor means for providing a substantially constant drag against rotation of the brake means about the input shaft; the brake means having a disk-like wall encircling the input shaft and a brake gear meshed with the reaction planet gear; the inhibitor means having two sets of annular friction disks disposed between the disk-like wall and the one end of the housing; the transmission further comprising means for operatively connecting the transferring planet gear to the output shaft.

  17. Hydrostatic continuously variable transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, T.; Saito, M.; Matsuto, T.; Nakajima, Y.; Sakakibara, K.; Yakigaya, N.; Nakamura, K.

    1989-05-09

    A hydrostatic continuously variable transmission is described, comprising: a swashplate type hydraulic pump having a pump swashplate and annularly arranged pump plungers whose suction and discharge strokes are provided by the pump swashplate; a swashplate type hydraulic motor having a motor swashplate and annularly arranged motor plungers whose expansion and shrinkage strokes are provided by the motor swashplate; and a hydraulic closed circuit formed between the hydraulic pump and the hydraulic motor. The transmission has at least one of a relationship that a middle point of a discharge region of the hydraulic pump is angularly delayed at a given angle in a direction of rotation of the hydraulic pump relative to a tilting axis of the pump swashplate and a relationship that a middle point of an expansion region of the hydraulic motor is angularly advanced at a given angle in a direction of rotation of the hydraulic motor relative to a tilting axis of the motor swashplate, wherein the transmission has at least one of a relationship that a suction region of the hydraulic pump is set at an angle larger than that of the discharge region thereof and a relationship that a shrinkage region of the hydraulic motor is set at an angle larger than that of the expansion region of the motor.

  18. Compact change speed transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Iwanaga, K.; Yamaguchi, T.

    1989-06-06

    A change speed transmission is described comprising: a stationary part; an input member; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets; clutch and brake means for selectively controlling the first and second planetary gear sets to provide a plurality of forward speed rations and a reverse speed ratio between the input and output member; the clutch and brake means including a first clutch, a first one-way clutch, and a second one-way clutch which, when the first clutch is engaged, provide a path of transmission of reaction to the stationary part thereby establishing a path of transmission of torque through at least a part of the first and second planetary gear sets to achieve a predetermined one speed ratio of the forward speed ratios; the clutch and brake means including also a brake and a second slutch which, when both of the brake and the second clutch are engaged, hinder the action of the second one-way clutch and that of the first one-way clutch, respectively, thereby providing engine braking during running with the predetermined one speed ratio; the first clutch including means forming a drum-shaped member disposed radially outwardly of and receiving at least one of the first and second planetary gear sets, and an actuating piston of the first clutch; and the second clutch including an actuating piston slidably disposed within the actuating piston of the first clutch.

  19. Application of transmission reliability assessment in probabilistic planning of BC Hydro Vancouver South Metro system

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.; Mansour, Y.; Korczynski, J.K.; Mills, B.J. [BC Hydro, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Regional System Planning] [BC Hydro, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Regional System Planning

    1995-05-01

    This paper presents a basic method of probabilistic transmission planning used in BC Hydro. The method is based on transmission system reliability evaluation and an overall economic analysis including damage cost due to system unreliability. Four alternatives for the Vancouver South Metro system of BC Hydro have been evaluated using the method. The first one is addition of a 230 kV line, the second one local configuration changes (cuts and ties) in the 69 kV subsystem, the third one operational manipulation and the fourth one curtailable industrial load management. The third and the fourth alternatives can be considered as non-investment reinforcements. The results indicate that the cut-and-tie alternative in the 69 kv subsystem can provide the same reliability level as the 230 kV line addition but with much lower investment and therefore the initial 230 kV line addition could be deferred by 10 years. This deferral allows a major capital expenditure of $26.4 million (1997 $) to be avoided. The studies show that the application of quantitative transmission reliability assessment in power system planning can provide utilities with significant economic benefits.

  20. Quantitative transmission system reliability assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Chowdhury; D. O. Koval

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative transmission system reliability is a prerequisite in transmission system planning and operating that supplying industrial and commercial customer loads. A utility industry traditionally has relied on a set of deterministic criteria such as the widely used N-1 criterion to guide transmission planning supplying all customer types, e. g., residential, agricultural, commercial, industrial and sensitive high tech electronic customers. The

  1. Uplink transmission timing in WCDMA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fredrik Gunnarsson; David Tornqvist; Erik Geijer-Lundin; Gunnar Bark; Niclas Wiberg; Eva Englund

    2003-01-01

    In wireless network uplink communications, there is a tradeoff between transmission coordination to avoid overload situations, and distributed transmission decisions to adapt to fast channel variations. Here, uplink transmission timing (UTT) is proposed as a scheme to allow some load control support, while transmitting mainly when the channel is favorable. It utilizes channel state feedback in the form of power

  2. Automatic transmission for motor vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Miura; S. Sakakibara

    1989-01-01

    An automatic transmission for a motor vehicle is described, comprising: a transmission housing; a hydraulic torque converter having rotational axes, an input shaft, an output shaft and a direct coupling clutch for directly coupling the input shaft to the output shaft; an auxiliary transmission mechanism provided coaxially with the hydraulic torque converter and having an input shaft, an output shaft

  3. A GPS, VLBI and local tie inter-comparison: first results for the Australian AuScope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, G.; Titov, O.; Dawson, J. H.; Hu, G.

    2012-12-01

    AuScope is part of the Australian Government's National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) and has the objective of upgrading the accuracy of the terrestrial reference frame in Australia to 1 mm based on the development of new geodetic infrastructure which includes three new Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observatories and 100 Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations. Each of the AuScope VLBI observatories, located at Hobart, Yarragadee and Katherine, are equipped with a 12.1 metre antenna designed and constructed by COBHAM Satcom, Patriot Products division. In a preliminary multi-technique inter-comparison, GPS data have been analysed in the Bernese software and VLBI and local tie data have been analysed in the in-house developed software OCCAM and Axis, respectively. Our experiences and techniques for undertaking local tie surveys of the Patriot antennas are overviewed, and results of the GPS, VLBI and local tie inter-comparison are presented.

  4. Comparing series of rankings with ties by using complex networks: An analysis of the spanish stock market (IBEX-35 index)

    E-print Network

    Pedroche, F; Garcia, E; Romance, M; Sanchez, V E

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we extend the concept of Competitivity Graph to compare series of rankings with ties ({\\em partial rankings}). We extend the usual method used to compute Kendall's coefficient for two partial rankings to the concept of evolutive Kendall's coefficient for a series of partial rankings. The theoretical framework consists of a four-layer multiplex network. Regarding the treatment of ties, our approach allows to define a tie between two values when they are close {\\em enough}, depending on a threshold. We show an application using data from the Spanish Stock Market; we analyse the series of rankings defined by $25$ companies that have contributed to the IBEX-35 return and volatility values over the period 2003 to 2013.

  5. Tie-dyed2 Encodes a Callose Synthase That Functions in Vein Development and Affects Symplastic Trafficking within the Phloem of Maize Leaves12[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Slewinski, Thomas L.; Baker, R. Frank; Stubert, Adam; Braun, David M.

    2012-01-01

    The tie-dyed2 (tdy2) mutant of maize (Zea mays) displays variegated green and yellow leaves. Intriguingly, the yellow leaf tissues hyperaccumulate starch and sucrose, the soluble sugar transported long distance through the phloem of veins. To determine the molecular basis for Tdy2 function, we cloned the gene and found that Tdy2 encodes a callose synthase. RNA in situ hybridizations revealed that in developing leaves, Tdy2 was most highly expressed in the vascular tissue. Comparative expression analysis with the vascular marker maize PINFORMED1a-yellow fluorescent protein confirmed that Tdy2 was expressed in developing vein tissues. To ascertain whether the defect in tdy2 leaves affected the movement of sucrose into the phloem or its long-distance transport, we performed radiolabeled and fluorescent dye tracer assays. The results showed that tdy2 yellow leaf regions were defective in phloem export but competent in long-distance transport. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy of tdy2 yellow leaf regions showed incomplete vascular differentiation and implicated a defect in cell-to-cell solute movement between phloem companion cells and sieve elements. The disruption of sucrose movement in the phloem in tdy2 mutants provides evidence that the Tdy2 callose synthase functions in vascular maturation and that the vascular defects result in impaired symplastic trafficking into the phloem translocation stream. PMID:22932757

  6. 47 CFR 97.111 - Authorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...communications; (5) Transmissions necessary to assisting persons learning, or improving proficiency in, the international Morse code; and (6) Transmissions necessary to disseminate information bulletins. (7) Transmissions of telemetry....

  7. 47 CFR 97.111 - Authorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...communications; (5) Transmissions necessary to assisting persons learning, or improving proficiency in, the international Morse code; and (6) Transmissions necessary to disseminate information bulletins. (7) Transmissions of telemetry....

  8. 47 CFR 97.111 - Authorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...communications; (5) Transmissions necessary to assisting persons learning, or improving proficiency in, the international Morse code; and (6) Transmissions necessary to disseminate information bulletins. (7) Transmissions of telemetry....

  9. 47 CFR 97.111 - Authorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...communications; (5) Transmissions necessary to assisting persons learning, or improving proficiency in, the international Morse code; and (6) Transmissions necessary to disseminate information bulletins. (7) Transmissions of telemetry....

  10. Construction of a ganciclovir-sensitive lentiviral vector to assess the influence of angiopoietin-3 and soluble Tie2 on glioma growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Josée Beaudet; Naika Rueda; Gary P. Kobinger; Jérôme Villeneuve; Luc Vallières

    2010-01-01

    Malignant brain tumors grow by coopting the existing vasculature, a process involving the release of angiopoietin-2 (Angpt2)\\u000a from endothelial cells and its binding to the Tie2 receptor. The first goal of this study was to examine the therapeutic potential\\u000a of two proteins that could interfere with Angpt2, namely Angpt3 and the soluble extracellular domain of Tie2 (sTie2). The\\u000a second goal

  11. Public Response to Residential Grid-Tied PV Systems in Colorado: A Qualitative Market Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Farhar, B. C.; Buhrmann, J.

    1998-07-01

    The early adopters of residential grid-tied photovoltaics (PV) have complex motivations to pay today's costs, including altruistic, environmental, and financial reasons. Focused interviews were conducted with a self-selected purposive sample interested in purchasing 2-kW or 3-kW PV systems with an installed cost of $8,000 to $12,000. The sample tended to be men or married couples ranging in age from their early thirties to their mid-eighties; professionals, managers, or small business owners; relatively financially secure, with experience with energy efficiency and renewable energy. Product attributes they preferred were net metering, warranties, guarantees, utility financing, maintenance, an option to own or lease, a battery option, and an aesthetically pleasing system. Potential PV customers needed more information before making a purchase decision.

  12. Impact of Inter-technique Vector Tie Errors at Future GGOS Core Sites on the ITRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, Erricos C.; Kuzmicz-Cieslak, Magdalena

    2013-04-01

    The Global Geodetic Observing System—GGOS, has identified as its main task the establishment, maintenance and wide distribution of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF), requiring a high accuracy and stability goal set at 1 mm and 0.1 mm/y. The four "geometric" Services of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG), IDS, IGS, ILRS and IVS are responsible for the provision of the required analysis products that form the input in the ITRF development step. The network of sites that will host all four techniques with an optimal global distribution comprises the so-called "GGOS Core Sites Network—GCSN". Simulation studies over the past few years determined the size and distribution of the sites in order to meet the goals of GGOS. Assuming that all techniques are present with their state-of-the-art equipment, it has been determined that a network of about thirty sites is sufficient to achieve our goal. This result presupposes the ability of the techniques to relate their reference points, those to which their results refer, to a common one representing the site, with an accuracy that is better than 1 mm at any time. These "survey ties" between the invariant reference points between techniques are the subject of extensive research, theoretical as well as practical, in order to develop a modus operandi that realizes with certainty the required accuracy ties at all sites. One can separate the problem for each of the techniques into two distinct components: the survey that determines the offset of the common marker to a physical point of reference on the antenna or telescope used by the technique, and a second much more difficult to determine offset, of the physical point from the actual electronic or optical invariant point to which the observations of each technique refer. The first part is rather easily controlled with precision surveying, most likely through automated procedures using modern technology. The second part is the most difficult to determine and depends on several factors, from the type of the technique in question, to environmental changes, to tracking geometry and local conditions specific to each site. So far, the assumption is that the combined error from the two parts remains ~1 mm. This is a topic of separate studies for each of the contributing techniques. A question that requires an answer before the final design of the survey system is the actual level of total error that one can tolerate at each site, before the GGOS network accuracy goal is compromised. Our presentation focuses on this question using simulations of survey errors at the core sites of a 32-site GCSN, with varying distribution of the site-tie errors in terms of the level of the errors as well as a function of the contributing techniques. These simulations will provide some guidelines on the level of effort that each of the techniques should devote in determining the technique-specific error component and the improvement (if any) required for the common survey tie component at each site.

  13. Impact of Survey Tie Errors in the GGOS Core Site Network on the ITRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, E. C.; Kuzmicz-Cieslak, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Global Geodetic Observing System—GGOS, has identified as its main task the establishment, maintenance and wide distribution of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF), requiring a high accuracy and stability goal set at 1 mm and 0.1 mm/y. The four "geometric" Services of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG), IDS, IGS, ILRS and IVS are responsible for the provision of the required analysis products that form the input in the ITRF development step. The network of sites that will host all four techniques with an optimal global distribution comprises the so-called "GGOS Core Sites Network—GCSN". Simulation studies over the past few years determined the size and distribution of the sites in order to meet the goals of GGOS. Assuming that all techniques are present with their state-of-the-art equipment, it has been determined that a network of about thirty sites is sufficient to achieve our goal. This result presupposes the ability of the techniques to relate their reference points, those to which their results refer, to a common one representing the site, with an accuracy that is better than 1 mm at any time. These "survey ties" between the invariant reference points between techniques are the subject of extensive research, theoretical as well as practical, in order to develop a modus operandi that realizes with certainty the required accuracy ties at all sites. One can separate the problem for each of the techniques into two distinct components: the survey that determines the offset of the common marker to a physical point of reference on the antenna or telescope used by the technique, and a second much more difficult to determine offset, of the physical point from the actual electronic or optical invariant point to which the observations of each technique refer. The first part is rather easily controlled with precision surveying, most likely through automated procedures using modern technology. The second part is the most difficult to determine and depends on several factors, from the type of the technique in question, to environmental changes, to tracking geometry and local conditions specific to each site. So far, the assumption is that the combined error from the two parts remains 1 mm. This is a topic of separate studies for each of the contributing techniques. A question that requires an answer before the final design of the survey system is the actual level of total error that one can tolerate at each site, before the GGOS network accuracy goal is compromised. Our presentation focuses on this question using simulations of survey errors at the core sites of a 32-site GCSN, with varying distribution of the site-tie errors in terms of the level of the errors as well as a function of the contributing techniques. These simulations will provide some guidelines on the level of effort that each of the techniques should devote in determining the technique-specific error component and the improvement (if any) required for the common survey tie component at each site.

  14. Performance of utility grid-tied photovoltaic systems in the northern United States

    SciTech Connect

    DeLaune, J.L. [Wisconsin Public Service Corp., Green Bay, WI (United States); Bircher, C.L. [Synergic Resources Corp., Green Bay, WI (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Wisconsin Public Service Corporation (WPSC), a medium sized-investor owned electric and natural gas utility serving northeast Wisconsin, installed two roof-top, grid-tied photovoltaic systems in 1993. These systems were part of an Environmental Protection Agency power plant emission mitigation study coordinated by Ascension Technology, Inc. A 12-Kw commercial roof-top unit and a 4-Kw residential roof-top unit were installed. WPSC has extensively studied the 4-Kw residential roof-top unit to gather information for offering a PV-Friendly Leasing program to residential customers in 1996. This paper will discuss the results of this evaluation in the areas of Demand Side Management, System Peak Shaving, Targeted Area Planning. Power Plant Emission Reductions, and Overall Performance.

  15. [Oral transmission of Chagas' disease].

    PubMed

    Toso M, Alberto; Vial U, Felipe; Galanti, Norbel

    2011-02-01

    The traditional transmission pathways of Chagas' disease are vectorial, transfusional, transplacental and organ transplantation. However, oral transmission is gaining importance. The first evidence of oral transmission was reported in Brazil in 1965. Nowadays the oral route is the transmission mode in 50% of cases in the Amazon river zone. Oral infection is produced by the ingestion of infected triatomine bugs or their feces, undercooked meat from infested host animals and food contaminated with urine or anal secretion of infected marsupials. Therefore travelers to those zones should be advised about care to be taken with ingested food. In Chile, this new mode of transmission should be considered in public health policies. PMID:21773665

  16. Household Structure, Family Ties, and Psychological Distress among US-born and Immigrant Latino Women

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Kristine M.; Alcántara, Carmela

    2013-01-01

    Latino women endorse the highest rates of past-month depressive symptoms relative to Latino men and to non-Latino White men and women. Yet, research into the specific domains of family life that reduce or engender psychological distress among Latinas is sparse. We examine the hypothesis that indicators of household structure and family ties will relate to psychological distress among Latinas in the USA, and that these associations will vary by nativity status. We employed nationally representative data of Latina adults (N = 1,427) from the National Latino and Asian American Study. Nativity-stratified regression analyses revealed that strained family ties (i.e., family burden, family cultural conflict) were associated with greater levels of past-month psychological distress for both US-born and immigrant Latinas. Yet, the effect of household structures on psychological distress differed by nativity status. Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, lower levels of household income were associated with greater psychological distress; and having children/adolescents in the household was associated with lower levels of psychological distress among US-born Latinas. In contrast, for immigrant Latinas, being out of the labor force was associated with greater levels of psychological distress. Results suggest that dynamics of both the household and family context predict differential as well as similar mental health outcomes across segments of the Latina population in the USA. These findings underscore the need to understand the pathways by which different facets of family life—structural and social domains—relate to mental health status among subgroups of Latinas. Our results also have implications for the development of tailored interventions to meet the specific needs of Latinas. PMID:23421842

  17. Household structure, family ties, and psychological distress among U.S.-born and immigrant Latino women.

    PubMed

    Molina, Kristine M; Alcántara, Carmela

    2013-02-01

    Latino women endorse the highest rates of past-month depressive symptoms relative to Latino men and non-Latino White men and women. Yet, research into the specific domains of family life that reduce or engender psychological distress among Latinas is sparse. We examine the hypothesis that indicators of household structure and family ties will relate to psychological distress among Latinas in the United States, and that these associations will vary by nativity status. We employed nationally representative data of Latina adults (N = 1,427) from the National Latino and Asian American Study. Nativity-stratified regression analyses revealed that strained family ties (i.e., family burden, family cultural conflict) were associated with greater levels of past-month psychological distress for both U.S.-born and immigrant Latinas. Yet, the effect of household structures on psychological distress differed by nativity status. Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, lower levels of household income were associated with greater psychological distress; and having children in the household was associated with lower levels of psychological distress among U.S.-born Latinas. In contrast, for immigrant Latinas, being out of the labor force was associated with greater levels of psychological distress. Results suggest that dynamics of both the household and family context predict differential as well as similar mental-health outcomes across segments of the Latina population in the United States. These findings underscore the need to understand the pathways by which different facets of family life-structural and social domains-relate to mental-health status among subgroups of Latinas. Our results also have implications for the development of tailored interventions to meet the specific needs of Latinas. PMID:23421842

  18. Randomised controlled trial of early frenotomy in breastfed infants with mild–moderate tongue-tie

    PubMed Central

    Emond, Alan; Ingram, Jenny; Johnson, Debbie; Blair, Peter; Whitelaw, Andrew; Copeland, Marion; Sutcliffe, Alastair

    2014-01-01

    Trial design A randomised, parallel group, pragmatic trial. Setting A large UK maternity hospital. Participants Term infants <2?weeks old with a mild or moderate degree of tongue-tie, and their mothers who were having difficulties breastfeeding. Objectives To determine if immediate frenotomy was better than standard breastfeeding support. Interventions Participants were randomised to an early frenotomy intervention group or a ‘standard care’ comparison group. Outcomes Primary outcome was breastfeeding at 5?days, with secondary outcomes of breastfeeding self-efficacy and pain on feeding. Final assessment was at 8?weeks; 20 also had qualitative interviews. Researchers assessing outcomes, but not participants, were blinded to group assignment. Results 107 infants were randomised, 55 to the intervention group and 52 to the comparison group. Five-day outcome measures were available for 53 (96%) of the intervention group and 52 (100%) of the comparison group, and intention-to-treat analysis showed no difference in the primary outcome—Latch, Audible swallowing, nipple Type, Comfort, Hold score. Frenotomy did improve the tongue-tie and increased maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy. At 5?days, there was a 15.5% increase in bottle feeding in the comparison group compared with a 7.5% increase in the intervention group. After the 5-day clinic, 44 of the comparison group had requested a frenotomy; by 8?weeks only 6 (12%) were breastfeeding without a frenotomy. At 8?weeks, there were no differences between groups in the breastfeeding measures or in the infant weight. No adverse events were observed. Conclusions Early frenotomy did not result in an objective improvement in breastfeeding but was associated with improved self-efficacy. The majority in the comparison arm opted for the intervention after 5?days. PMID:24249695

  19. Offset semi-parabolic nanoantenna made of a photonic crystal parabolic mirror and a plasmonic bow-tie antenna.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Haroldo T

    2014-10-10

    In a parabolic mirror, light coming parallel to the antenna passes through its focal point. In this work, a waveguide feeds a semi-parabolic photonic crystal mirror and the emerging beam feeds a bow-tie antenna placed at the mirror's focal point-it is shown that the antenna system can not only feed a bow-tie antenna (producing a localized moderately high electric field) but also produces a directional radiation beam. The semi-parabolic mirror is also modified to reduce reflection back to the feeding waveguide. PMID:25322381

  20. Lightning proof transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, R.B. Jr.; Drabkin, M. (Lightning Elimination Associates, Santa Fe Springs, CA (USA))

    1988-01-01

    Lightning is prone to strike electrical transmission and distribution lines. Design of protection is difficult. Failure to design for the worst case conditions cost U.S.A. utilities 20 million annually. These costs can be prevented. During the past 16 years, LEC, Inc. has developed and proven a system that prevents strikes as well as insulator flashover from nearby strikes. LEC's Dual Dissipator System, presented in this paper, replaces the need for the static line for lightning considerations, eliminating the need for lightning arrestors. The insulation requirements transformers and switchgear can be reduced which reduce original costs.

  1. Colorado Electrical Transmission Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Xcel Energy Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado XcelEnergy NonXcel Transmission Network Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains transmission network of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4540689.017558 m Left: 160606.141934 m Right: 758715.946645 m Bottom: 4098910.893397m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shapefile

  2. Simplified power shift transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, R.A.

    1987-04-21

    A multi-speed transmission is described for transferring power between a first shaft and a second shaft, the transmission comprising: a compound planetary assembly including a sun gear, a ring gear concentric with the sun gear, a reaction gear concentric with the ring gear, a planetary gear carrier rotatably supporting first and second sets of planet gears, the first planet gear set intermeshing with the ring gear. The sun gear and the second planet gear set intermesh with the first planet gear set and the reaction gear, means for selectively coupling the first shaft with the sun gear and the reaction gear, and means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear, and reaction gear and the planetary carrier; a simple planetary assembly comprising a sun gear component concentric with the sun gear of the compound planetary assembly, a ring gear component concentric with both of the sun gears, and a planetary gear carrier component rotatably supporting a set of planet gears, the planet gear set meshing with the sun gear and the ring gear of the simple planetary.

  3. Transmission shift control assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Dzioba, D.L.

    1989-04-18

    This patent describes a transmission shift control assembly mounted on a steering column having a longitudinal axis comprising: bracket means secured to the steering column; transmission shift cable means having a portion secured to the bracket means and a portion linearly movable relative to the secured portion; mounting means on the bracket cable drive arm means having an axis and being rotatably mounted on the rotary axis on the mounting means oblique to the longitudinal axis and including a cable connecting portion secured to the movable portion of the cable means and lever mounting means adjacent the mounting means; operator control means including lever means, pin means for pivotally mounting the lever means on the lever mounting means on an axis substantially perpendicular to the rotary axis and positioning arm means formed on the lever means and extending from the pin means; and detent gate means disposed on the bracket means in position to abut the positioning arm means for limiting the extent of pivotal movement of the lever means.

  4. Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Bujold, M P

    1981-09-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. This report covers the 1981 Mercury Lynx ATX transaxle. This transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the 93% range for drive performance tests. The major results of this test are the torque, speed and efficiency curves which are located in the data section of this report. These graphs map performance characteristics for the Mercury Lynx ATX transmission.

  5. Small passenger car transmission test-Chevrolet 200 transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission was tested to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commerically available transmissions which would enable them to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers could estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. A 1979 Chevrolet Model 200 automatic transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. The transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. Torque, speed and efficiency curves map the complete performance characteristics for Chevrolet Model 200 transmission.

  6. Social Ties, Literacy, Location and the Perception of Economic Opportunity: Factors Influencing Telecentre Success in a Development Context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arlene Bailey; Ojelanki K. Ngwenyama

    2009-01-01

    Telecentres have been established in many countries as a means of providing access to information and communication technologies (ICTs) in order to enhance community development. This paper examines the characteristics of telecentre initiatives in Jamaica and proposes a conceptual framework for the assessment of the role of social ties in telecentre success. Social capital and social network theories provide the

  7. Unemployment and well-being in Europe. The effect of country unemployment rate, work ethics and family ties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MIKUCKA Malgorzata

    2011-01-01

    Subjective well-being literature shows that higher unemployment rate corresponds to lower psychological cost of own unemployment. The goal of the paper is to deepen the understanding of this regularity by investigating the role played by the work ethics and the strength of family ties. I analyze the European Values Study data (2008) for 36 countries using multilevel regression methodology. First,

  8. 2003 IEEE Topical Conferenceon Wireless CommunicationTechnology Wideband Slot Bow-TieAntennas for Radar Applications

    E-print Network

    Elsherbeni, Atef Z.

    , is the dielectric constant. The presented bow-tie design has the parameters Wl,W2,Ll,Lz,L3,Ld,L,,,, SI,S2,and h of integration of active and passive circuit elements for gain enhancement. Slot antennas, as compared

  9. The Caterpillar Excellence Scholarship The purpose of this award is to strengthen company ties between Caterpillar and

    E-print Network

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    The Caterpillar Excellence Scholarship 2011-2012 The purpose of this award is to strengthen company ties between Caterpillar and Northern Illinois University and to encourage students to major and excel a Scholarship Report form to Caterpillar (this form will be given to the recipient at a later date

  10. The Caterpillar Excellence Scholarship The purpose of this award is to strengthen company ties between Caterpillar and

    E-print Network

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    The Caterpillar Excellence Scholarship The purpose of this award is to strengthen company ties between Caterpillar and Northern Illinois University and to encourage students to major and excel to submit a Scholarship Report form to Caterpillar (this form will be given to the recipient at a later date

  11. Patterns in Tie-Dye and Batik from West Africa. An Instructional Unit for Eighth and Ninth Grade Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Leandra

    Based on the premise that familiarity with art forms of other cultures can broaden students' cultural understandings, the teaching guide presents instructions for creating two West African art forms--batik and tie-dye. The unit is intended as the basis of a three and one-half week minicourse for students in art courses in grades eight and nine.…

  12. CarolinaTiesA newsletter for University of South Carolina parents www.sa.sc.edu/parents

    E-print Network

    Almor, Amit

    , congratulations, and thank you for the role you have played in their accomplishments. To parents of our manyCarolinaTiesA newsletter for University of South Carolina parents www.sa.sc.edu/parents Just over expand By Carly Edwards Graduate Assistant, Office of Parents Programs #12;Dear friends: To parents

  13. Aquaplast thermoplastic (Opti-Mold). A unique moldable tie-down dressing for full-thickness skin grafts.

    PubMed

    Fish, F S; Hilger, P A

    1994-04-01

    Aquaplast thermoplastic (Opti-Mold), a unique moldable "tie-down" dressing, can be heated, shaped, and sutured in place over full-thickness skin grafts. It allows for excellent uniform pressure over a skin graft while also allowing for drainage from the graft bed, and is particularly useful for the contoured surfaces of the nose and ears. PMID:8163744

  14. Will Economic Crises in Africa Weaken Rural-Urban Ties? Insights from Child Fosterage Trends in Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eloundou-Enyegue, Parfait M.; Stokes, C. Shannon

    2002-01-01

    In many African countries, rural-urban kinship ties support the education and economic mobility of rural children through fosterage into urban families. Demographic survey data from central Cameroon indicate major rural-urban differences in child fosterage relative to family characteristics and child's school performance, and show lower rural…

  15. CarolinaTiesA newsletter for University of South Carolina parents www.sa.sc.edu/parents

    E-print Network

    Almor, Amit

    CarolinaTiesA newsletter for University of South Carolina parents www.sa.sc.edu/parents and majors. Through SLW, students are able to build better relationships with their supervisors, identify their strengths and weaknesses and how those play into the employment context." SLW supports students through

  16. 77 FR 52352 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Rio Mesa Gen-Tie Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    In compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended, (NEPA) and the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, as amended (FLPMA), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Palm Springs South Coast Field Office, Palm Springs, California, intends to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Rio Mesa Gen- Tie Project. The proposed project would require an......

  17. UConn Extension App Challenge The UConn Extension App Challenge is a contest to develop innovative apps that tie

    E-print Network

    Demurjian, Steven A.

    UConn Extension App Challenge The UConn Extension App Challenge is a contest to develop innovative apps that tie UConn's research to real life. Students are invited to work with a UConn Extension innovative and effective apps Student Prizes: 1st Place: $1500 2nd Place: $1000 3rd Place: $500 Winners

  18. The Tie That Binds: Leadership and Liberal Arts Institutions' Civic Engagement Commitment in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Hunter Phillips

    2014-01-01

    Community boundary spanners create ties that bind the campus and its surrounding region for reciprocal relationships. Using community boundary spanning literature as a conceptual framework, this study went beyond existing research on public and 4-year comprehensive universities to examine how university leadership at rural, private liberal arts…

  19. Activated Protein C Enhances Human Keratinocyte Barrier Integrity via Sequential Activation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Tie2*

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Meilang; Chow, Shu-Oi; Dervish, Suat; Chan, Yee-Ka Agnes; Julovi, Sohel M.; Jackson, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Keratinocytes play a critical role in maintaining epidermal barrier function. Activated protein C (APC), a natural anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory and endothelial barrier protective properties, significantly increased the barrier impedance of keratinocyte monolayers, measured by electric cell substrate impedance sensing and FITC-dextran flux. In response to APC, Tie2, a tyrosine kinase receptor, was rapidly activated within 30 min, and relocated to cell-cell contacts. APC also increased junction proteins zona occludens, claudin-1 and VE-cadherin. Inhibition of Tie2 by its peptide inhibitor or small interfering RNA abolished the barrier protective effect of APC. Interestingly, APC did not activate Tie2 through its major ligand, angiopoietin-1, but instead acted by binding to endothelial protein C receptor, cleaving protease-activated receptor-1 and transactivating EGF receptor. Furthermore, when activation of Akt, but not ERK, was inhibited, the barrier protective effect of APC on keratinocytes was abolished. Thus, APC activates Tie2, via a mechanism requiring, in sequential order, the receptors, endothelial protein C receptor, protease-activated receptor-1, and EGF receptor, which selectively enhances the PI3K/Akt signaling to enhance junctional complexes and reduce keratinocyte permeability. PMID:21173154

  20. The Missing Link: the Role of Floodplain Tie Channels in Connecting Off River Water Bodies to Lowland Rivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Rowland; W. E. Dietrich; G. Day

    2005-01-01

    Along lowland river systems across the globe the exchange of water, sediment, carbon, nutrients and biota between main stem rivers and off-river water bodies (ORWB) is facilitated by the presence of stable secondary channels referred to here as tie channels. Sixty five percent of the ORWB along the middle Fly River in Papua New Guinea connect to the river through

  1. Composition of alkali silica gel and ettringite in concrete railroad ties: SEM-EDX and X-ray diffraction analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niels Thaulow; Ulla Hjorth Jakobsen; Boyd Clark

    1996-01-01

    Alkali silica gel and ettringite observed in concrete railroad ties were analysed by SEM-EDX and X-ray diffraction. The compositions, represented in the Si? Ca?Na + K system, of clear gel were in the range of 53 to 63 atomic% Si and 20 to 30 atomic% Ca. The K + Na contents were constant and about 15% (excluding oxygen, water and

  2. From the Cotton Fields to the Ties That Bind: Jim Pusack's Enduring Impact on Today's CALL Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Linda C.

    2010-01-01

    From 1981 to today, the encouragement Jim Pusack and his colleague Sue Otto gave faculty to develop and/or implement CALL into the curriculum has been vital to our L2 teaching evolution. This article describes how their efforts evolved over the last two and a half decades and the ties that bind their efforts with today's CALL development.

  3. Establishing and Enriching School-Community Ties in Small Schools. Small Schools Network Information Exchange Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Laboratory for Educational Improvement of the Northeast & Islands, Andover, MA.

    This information packet contains 14 articles reprinted from various books and journals. Establishing and enriching school-community ties in small schools is the theme for this "Information Exchange Packet," the sixth in a series developed for Small Schools Network members. The articles and their authors are: "Skills in Building Support for…

  4. Social networks of experientially similar others: Formation, activation, and consequences of network ties on the health care experience

    PubMed Central

    Gage, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Research documents that interactions among experientially similar others (individuals facing a common stressor) shape health care behavior and ultimately health outcomes. However, we have little understanding of how ties among experientially similar others are formed, what resources and information flows through these networks, and how network embeddedness shapes health care behavior. This paper uses in-depth interviews with 76 parents of pediatric cancer patients to examine network ties among experientially similar others after a serious medical diagnosis. Interviews were conducted between August 2009 and May 2011. Findings demonstrate that many parents formed ties with other families experiencing pediatric cancer, and that information and resources were exchanged during the everyday activities associated with their child’s care. Network flows contained emotional support, caregiving strategies, information about second opinions, health-related knowledge, and strategies for navigating the health care system. Diffusion of information, resources, and support occurred through explicit processes (direct information and support exchanges) and implicit processes (parents learning through observing other families). Network flows among parents shaped parents’ perceptions of the health care experience and their role in their child’s care. These findings contribute to the social networks and social support literatures by elucidating the mechanisms through which network ties among experientially similar others influence health care behavior and experiences. PMID:22999229

  5. Loosening the Ties that Bind: The Impact of European Integration on French Government and its Relationship to Business

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vivien A. Schmidt

    1996-01-01

    European integration has served to loosen the ties that have traditionally bound French business and government by decreasing the independence of French govenment, which can no longer formulate policy unilaterally, while it has increased that of French business, which now looks as much to Europe as to the nation-state for policy-making, and more to the market and one another than

  6. Discrimination of ion toxicity in six produced waters using the freshwater salinity toxicity relationships and TIE procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Tietge, J.E.; Hockett, J.R.; Evans, J.M.

    1995-12-01

    Research to characterize the toxicity of common ions to freshwater organisms resulted in the development of predictive toxicity models (FW STR) for three freshwater species (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas, and Daphnia magna). The FW STR models, derived from acute toxicity data, focused on the toxicity of seven common ions. These predictive models were used in conjuntion with Phase I TIE procedures to evaluate the contribution of common ion toxicity in six produced water samples ranging in total salinity from 1.7 to 58.1 g/L. Initial toxicities of all six samples were compared to the model predictions. Four produced water samples were found to have toxicity due to common ion concentrations only. Two samples were found to exhibit more toxicity than expected from ion concentrations alone. These samples were subjected to Phase I TIE procedures. Toxicities were reduced by specific Phase I TIE manipulations to those predicted by the FW STR models. Mock effluents were used to verify the results. The combination of the FW STR models with Phase I TIE procedures successfully quantified the toxicity due to common ions.

  7. Major ion toxicity of six produced waters to three freshwater species: Application of ion toxicity models and TIE procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Tietge, J.E.; Hockett, J.R. [ENSR Consulting and Engineering, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Evans, J.M. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Previous research to characterize the acute toxicity of major ions to freshwater organisms resulted in the development of statistical toxicity models for three freshwater species (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas, and Daphnia magna). These ion toxicity models estimate the toxicity of seven major ions utilizing logistic regression. In this study, the ion toxicity models were used in conjunction with Phase 1 toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) procedures to evaluate the contribution of major ion toxicity to the total toxicity of six produced water samples ranging in total salinity from 1.7 to 58.1 g/L. Initial toxicities of all six samples were compared to the model predictions. Four produced waters were found to have toxicity consistent with toxicity attributable to major ion concentrations only. Two produced waters were found to exhibit more toxicity than expected from ion concentrations alone. These samples were subjected to Phase 1 TIE procedures. Toxicities were reduced by specific Phase 1 TIE manipulations to those predicted by the ion toxicity models. Mock effluents were used to verify the results. The combination of the ion toxicity models with Phase 1 TIE procedures successfully quantified the toxicity due to major ions in six produced water samples.

  8. Wildfire risk transmission in the colorado front range, USA.

    PubMed

    Haas, Jessica R; Calkin, David E; Thompson, Matthew P

    2015-02-01

    Wildfires are a global phenomenon that in some circumstances can result in human casualties, economic loss, and ecosystem service degradation. In this article we spatially identify wildfire risk transmission pathways and locate the areas of highest exposure of human populations to wildland fires under severe, but not uncommon, weather events. We quantify varying levels of exposure in terms of population potentially affected and tie the exposure back to the spatial source of the risk for the Front Range of Colorado, USA. We use probabilistic fire simulation modeling to address where fire ignitions are most likely to cause the highest impact to human communities, and to explore the role that various landowners play in that transmission of risk. Our results indicated that, given an ignition and the right fire weather conditions, large areas along the Front Range in Colorado could be exposed to wildfires with high potential to impact human populations, and that overall private ignitions have the potential to impact more people than federal ignitions. These results can be used to identify high-priority areas for wildfire risk mitigation using various mitigation tools. PMID:25156542

  9. Technology of optical azimuth transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Honggang; Hu, Chunsheng; Wang, Xingshu; Gao, Yang

    2012-11-01

    It often needs transfer a reference from one place to another place in aerospace and guided missile launching. At first, principles of several typical optical azimuth transmission methods are presented. Several typical methods are introduced, such as Theodolite (including gyro-theodolite) collimation method, Camera series method, Optical apparatus for azimuth method and polarization modulated light transmission method. For these typical azimuth transmission methods, their essential theories are elaborated. Then the devices, the application fields and limitations of these typical methods' are presented. Theodolite (including gyro-theodolite) collimation method is used in the ground assembly of spacecraft. Camera series method and optical apparatus for azimuth method are used in azimuth transmission between different decks of ship. Polarization modulated light transmission method is used in azimuth transmission of rocket and guided missile. At the last, the further developments of these methods are discussed.

  10. Transmission seal development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brien, M.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental evaluation was performed on a high-speed (72.9 m/s, 14,349 ft/min) transmission seal of the synergistic type. During testing of the seal, oil leakage occurred at positive bearing cavity pressures. Modifications were made in an attempt to eliminate the leakage but none were completely successful. Leakage appears to be the result of questionable positioning of the sealing elements resulting in inadequate shaft contact by the oil side sealing element. This condition may be related to the nonsymmetrical shape of the elastomeric retainer and to dimensional changes caused by swelling of the elastomeric retainer from exposure to the sealed fluid. Indications of a speed dependent leakage characteristic were also observed.

  11. Power transmission for working vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Irikura, K.; Hikishima, K.; Fujisaki, K.

    1986-09-23

    A power transmission is described for working vehicles wherein at least one fluid-operated clutch which selectively connects and disconnects a transmission path by selectively continuing and interrupting the input of power to a transmission shaft is mounted on the transmission shaft within a transmission case. The shaft formed therein with a fluid path for supplying and draining clutch-operating fluid, and wherein a brake is provided to one end portion of the transmission shaft for braking the shaft in the non-operated state of the fluid-operated clutch, characterized in that a hollow cylinder which projects inwardly from an inner wall surface of the transmission case and encloses the one end portion of the transmission shaft is formed integrally with a wall of the transmission case. The one end portion of the transmission shaft has at the outer peripheral surface thereof an annular groove communicated to the fluid path and the annular groove being sealed by the inner peripheral surface of the hollow cylinder so as to form an annular fluid chamber between the shaft and the cylinder. A fluid path for connecting the fluid-operated clutch to a control valve for controlling supply and drainage of clutch-operating fluid is formed in the hollow cylinder and is communicated to the annular fluid chamber so as to provide a rotary joint portion of a fluid conduit line for the fluid-operated clutch by the annular fluid chamber, and that a braking mechanism of the brake is arranged within the hollow cylinder by employing the cylinder as a brake case therefor. The wall of the transmission case includes at an outer end of the hollow cylinder an opening through which assembly of the braking mechanism into the hollow cylinder is permitted from the outside of the transmission case, the opening being closed by a separate cover fixedly secured to the wall.

  12. Noncanonical PAR3 activation by factor Xa identifies a novel pathway for Tie2 activation and stabilization of vascular integrity.

    PubMed

    Stavenuiter, Fabian; Mosnier, Laurent O

    2014-11-27

    Endothelial barrier protective effects of activated protein C (APC) require the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR), protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1, and PAR3. In contrast, PAR1 and PAR3 activation by thrombin results in barrier disruption. Noncanonical PAR1 and PAR3 activation by APC vs canonical activation by thrombin provides an explanation for the functional selectivity of these proteases. Here we found that factor Xa (FXa) activated PAR1 at canonical Arg41 similar to thrombin but cleaved PAR3 at noncanonical Arg41 similar to APC. This unique PAR1-PAR3 activation profile permitted the identification of noncanonical PAR3 activation as a novel activation pathway for barrier protective tunica intima endothelial receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (Tie2). APC, FXa, and the noncanonical PAR3 tethered-ligand peptide induced prolonged activation of Tie2, whereas thrombin and the canonical PAR3 tethered-ligand peptide did not. Tie2 activation by FXa required PAR3 and EPCR. FXa and the noncanonical PAR3 tethered-ligand peptide induced Tie2- and PAR3-dependent upregulation of tight-junction-associated protein zona occludens 1 (ZO-1), translocation of ZO-1 to cell-cell borders, and the formation of typical ZO-1 honeycomb patterns that are indicative of tight-junction stabilization. These data provide intriguing novel insights into the diversification of functional selectivity of protease signaling achievable by canonical and noncanonical PAR activation, such as the activation of vascular-protective Tie2 by noncanonical PAR3 activation. PMID:25320242

  13. Broadband Transmission EPR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Wilfred R.

    2013-01-01

    EPR spectroscopy employs a resonator operating at a single microwave frequency and phase-sensitive detection using modulation of the magnetic field. The X-band spectrometer is the general standard with a frequency in the 9–10 GHz range. Most (bio)molecular EPR spectra are determined by a combination of the frequency-dependent electronic Zeeman interaction and a number of frequency-independent interactions, notably, electron spin – nuclear spin interactions and electron spin – electron spin interactions, and unambiguous analysis requires data collection at different frequencies. Extant and long-standing practice is to use a different spectrometer for each frequency. We explore the alternative of replacing the narrow-band source plus single-mode resonator with a continuously tunable microwave source plus a non-resonant coaxial transmission cell in an unmodulated external field. Our source is an arbitrary wave digital signal generator producing an amplitude-modulated sinusoidal microwave in combination with a broadband amplifier for 0.8–2.7 GHz. Theory is developed for coaxial transmission with EPR detection as a function of cell dimensions and materials. We explore examples of a doublet system, a high-spin system, and an integer-spin system. Long, straigth, helical, and helico-toroidal cells are developed and tested with dilute aqueous solutions of spin label hydroxy-tempo. A detection limit of circa 5 µM HO-tempo in water at 800 MHz is obtained for the present setup, and possibilities for future improvement are discussed. PMID:23555819

  14. Quality resource networks for young women in science: The role of Internet-facilitated ties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillette, Shana Cecile

    In communications, a new approach to the study of online interaction has been suggested by social network analysts. Garton, Haythornthwaite, and Wellman (1997) have outlined the importance of using network analysis to study how media are interconnected with other social aspects of a media user's world. As applied here, this approach to communication when combined with recent network studies from the fields of education and rural development, provides a method for looking at the role of Internet-facilitated ties in the development of resource networks in the learning communities of young women from seven rural schools across the state of Washington. Twenty-six young women (ages 14-16) from diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds (approximately half of the participants are Hispanic or Native American, the other half are White) participated in the research. Participants were selected because they shared a common educational orientation through Rural Girls in Science, a NSF-funded program at the Northwest Center for Research on Women at the University of Washington. As part of the school-based component of the Rural Girls in Science program, all 26 participants designed and conducted year-long, community-based research projects in science. Each school in the program was provided an Internet workstation for communication and research. Through the Internet, students could conceivably maintain distant ties with mentors and research scientists whom they met at summer camp as well as seek additional information resources. Toward the conclusion of the long-term research projects, each student participant was interviewed using a participatory form of network analysis that included a combined qualitative and quantitative approach. Given the small number of participants and schools in the sample, the results from the analysis can not be generalized to a larger population. However the study of the structure and composition of networks among individuals and school groups provided insight into how media are implicated in the development of resource networks, in particular for a subset of students who have been underrepresented in science--young ethnic minority women.

  15. The Ties That Bind: How Cooperative Norms and Readiness to Change Shape the Role of Established Relationships in Business-to-Business E-Commerce

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Ordanini

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Mainstream research indicates that close, long-term ties with business customers have beneficial effects; however, an alternative stream advances the possibility of a “dark side” of close relations, especially when the original conditions of the relationships change. This empirical study investigates how established buyer–seller relationships respond to significant changes in their exchange context by considering the value of close ties

  16. Cooperative Ties and the Impact of External Factors upon Innovation in an Industrial District: Some Insights from the North Staffordshire Table and Giftware Sector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip R. Tomlinson; Ian Jackson

    2011-01-01

    Tomlinson P. R. and Jackson I. Cooperative ties and the impact of external factors upon innovation in an industrial district: some insights from the North Staffordshire table and giftware sector, Regional Studies. Drawing upon a sample of 118 firms, this paper explores the impact of cooperative ties and the role of institutions upon innovation in the UK ceramic table and

  17. Multi-Omics Classification of Head and Neck Cancer Ties TP53 Mutation To 3p Loss - Andrew M. Gross, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2014

    Cancer.gov

    Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Multi-Omics Classification of Head and Neck Cancer Ties TP53 Mutation To 3p Loss - Andrew M. Gross Multi-Omics Classification of Head and Neck Cancer Ties TP53 Mutation To 3p Loss - Andrew M. Gross,

  18. Tie2 Signaling Cooperates with TNF to Promote the Pro-Inflammatory Activation of Human Macrophages Independently of Macrophage Functional Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    García, Samuel; Krausz, Sarah; Ambarus, Carmen A.; Fernández, Beatriz Malvar; Hartkamp, Linda M.; van Es, Inge E.; Hamann, Jörg; Baeten, Dominique L.; Tak, Paul P.; Reedquist, Kris A.

    2014-01-01

    Angiopoietin (Ang) -1 and -2 and their receptor Tie2 play critical roles in regulating angiogenic processes during development, homeostasis, tumorigenesis, inflammation and tissue repair. Tie2 signaling is best characterized in endothelial cells, but a subset of human and murine circulating monocytes/macrophages essential to solid tumor formation express Tie2 and display immunosuppressive properties consistent with M2 macrophage polarization. However, we have recently shown that Tie2 is strongly activated in pro-inflammatory macrophages present in rheumatoid arthritis patient synovial tissue. Here we examined the relationship between Tie2 expression and function during human macrophage polarization. Tie2 expression was observed under all polarization conditions, but was highest in IFN-? and IL-10 –differentiated macrophages. While TNF enhanced expression of a common restricted set of genes involved in angiogenesis and inflammation in GM-CSF, IFN-? and IL-10 –differentiated macrophages, expression of multiple chemokines and cytokines, including CXCL3, CXCL5, CXCL8, IL6, and IL12B was further augmented in the presence of Ang-1 and Ang-2, via Tie2 activation of JAK/STAT signaling. Conditioned medium from macrophages stimulated with Ang-1 or Ang-2 in combination with TNF, sustained monocyte recruitment. Our findings suggest a general role for Tie2 in cooperatively promoting the inflammatory activation of macrophages, independently of polarization conditions. PMID:24404127

  19. Dyakonov surface wave resonant transmission.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Osamu; Nikitin, Alexey Yu; Martin-Moreno, Luis; Torner, Lluis; Artigas, David

    2011-03-28

    The role of Dyakonov surface waves in the transmission through structures composed of birefringent media is theoretically explored. In the case of structures using prisms, unexpected high transmission above the critical angle due to resonant excitation of Dyakonov surface waves is predicted. This transmission is produced only when TE polarized incident wave reaches the interface supporting the surface waves within a narrow interval of angles, for both the angle of incidence and the angle with respect to the optic axis of the birefringent media. As a result, over 90% transmission for a single and isolated peak confined in the two transversal directions, with hybrid TE and TM polarization, can be obtained. PMID:21451661

  20. Transmission control method providing overlapped engagement of power transmission systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Akashi; H. Ito; S. Yamada

    1986-01-01

    A method for controlling a transmission mechanism for a vehicle wherein: the transmission mechanism comprises an input shaft; and output shaft; a first on-off clutch; a second on-off clutch; a first one way clutch; a second one way clutch; a first gear train having a first reduction gear ratio; a second gear train having a second reduction gear ratio smaller

  1. Development of circumferential seal for helicopter transmissions: Results of bench and flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strom, T. N.; Ludwig, L. P.

    1975-01-01

    A modified circumferential segmented ring seal was designed for direct replacement of a helicopter transmission elastomeric lip seal operating on a shaft diameter of 13.91 centimeters (5.481 in.) at sliding velocities to 52.48 m/sec (10 330 ft/min). The modifications involved the garter spring tension, shaft roundness, seal housing flatness, and pumping grooves to inhibit leakage. Operation of the seals in bench tests under simulated helicopter transmission conditions revealed that the seal leakage rate was within acceptable limits and that the wear rate was negligible. The low leakage and wear rates were confirmed in flight tests of 600 and 175 hours (sliding speed, 48.11 m/sec (9470 ft/min)). An additional 200 hours of air worthiness qualification testing (aircraft tie down) demonstrated that the seal can operate at the advanced sliding conditions of 52.48 m/sec (10 330 ft/min).

  2. Spore formation in Myxococcus xanthus is tied to cytoskeleton functions and polysaccharide spore coat deposition

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Frank D.; Schink, Christian W.; Hoiczyk, Egbert; Cserti, Emöke; Higgs, Penelope I.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Myxococcus xanthus is a Gram-negative bacterium that differentiates into environmentally resistant spores. Spore differentiation involves septation-independent remodelling of the rod-shaped vegetative cell into a spherical spore and deposition of a thick and compact spore coat outside of the outer membrane. Our analyses suggest that spore coat polysaccharides are exported to the cell surface by the Exo outer membrane polysaccharide export/polysaccharide co-polymerase 2a (OPX/PCP-2a) machinery. Conversion of the capsule-like polysaccharide layer into a compact spore coat layer requires the Nfs proteins which likely form a complex in the cell envelope. Mutants in either nfs, exo, or two other genetic loci encoding homologs of polysaccharide synthesis enzymes, fail to complete morphogenesis from rods to spherical spores and instead produce a transient state of deformed cell morphology before reversion into typical rods. We additionally provide evidence that the cell cytoskeletal protein, MreB, plays an important role in rod to spore morphogenesis and for spore outgrowth. These studies provide evidence that this novel gram-negative differentiation process is tied to cytoskeleton functions and polysaccharide spore coat deposition. PMID:22188356

  3. Social Network Ties and Inflammation in U.S. Adults with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    YANG, YANG CLAIRE; LI, TING; FRENK, STEVEN M.

    2014-01-01

    The growing evidence linking social connectedness and chronic diseases such as cancer calls for a better understanding of the underlying biophysiological mechanisms. This study assessed the associations between social network ties and multiple measures of inflammation in a nationally representative sample of adults with a history of cancer (N = 1,075) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988–94). Individuals with lower social network index (SNI) scores showed significantly greater inflammation marked by C-reactive protein and fibrinogen, adjusting for age and sex. Compared to fully socially integrated individuals (SNI 4), those who were more socially isolated or had a SNI score of 3 or less exhibited = increasingly elevated inflammation burdens. Specifically, the age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios (95%CI) for SNIs of 3, 2, and 0–1 were 1.49 (1.08, 2.06), 1.69 (1.21, 2.36), and 2.35 (1.62, 3.40), respectively (p < .001). Adjusting for other covariates attenuated these associations. The SNI gradients in the risks of inflammation were particularly salient for the lower socioeconomic status groups and remained significant after adjusting for other social, health behavioral, and illness factors. This study provided initial insights into the immunological pathways by which social connections are related to morbidity and mortality outcomes of cancer in particular and aging-related diseases in general. PMID:24784985

  4. Current hiatus of global-warming tied to natural variability of the equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, S.; Kosaka, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Despite the continued increase of atmospheric greenhouse gases, the annual-mean global temperature has not risen in this century, challenging the prevailing view that anthropogenic forcing causes climate warming. Various mechanisms have been proposed for this hiatus of global warming, but their relative importance has not been quantified, hampering observational estimates of climate sensitivity. Here we show that accounting for recent cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific reconciles climate simulations and observations. We present a novel method to unravel mechanisms for global temperature change by prescribing the observed history of sea surface temperature over the deep tropical Pacific in a climate model, in addition to radiative forcing. Although the surface temperature prescription is limited to only 8.2% of the global surface, our model reproduces the annual-mean global temperature remarkably well with r = 0.97 for 1970-2012 (a period including the current hiatus and an accelerated global warming). Moreover, our simulation captures major seasonal and regional characteristics of the hiatus, including the intensified Walker circulation, the winter cooling in northwestern and prolonged drought in southern North America. Our results show that the current hiatus is part of natural climate variability, tied specifically to a La Niña-like decadal cooling. While similar decadal hiatus events may occur in the future, multi-decadal warming trend is very likely to continue with greenhouse gas increase.

  5. Current hiatus of global warming tied to equatorial Pacific surface cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosaka, Yu; Xie, Shang-Ping

    2014-05-01

    Despite the continued increase of atmospheric greenhouse gases, the annual-mean global temperature has not risen in this century, challenging the prevailing view that anthropogenic forcing causes climate warming. Two schools of idea exist regarding what causes this hiatus in global warming: one suggests a slowdown in radiative forcing due to the stratospheric water vapour, the rapid increase of aerosols, and the solar minimum around 2009, while the other considers the hiatus as part of internal variability, especially a La Niña-like cooling in the tropical Pacific. We present a method to unravel mechanisms for global temperature change by prescribing the observed history of sea surface temperature over the deep tropical Pacific (8.2% of Earth's surface) in a coupled climate model, in addition to radiative forcing. Our model reproduces the annual-mean global temperature remarkably well with a correlation coefficient of 0.97 for 1970-2012, a period including the current hiatus and an accelerated global warming from the 1970s to the late 1990s. Moreover, our simulation captures major seasonal and regional characteristics of the hiatus, including the intensified Walker circulation, weakening of Aleutian Low, the winter cooling in northwestern North America and prolonged drought in the southern US. Our results show that the current hiatus is part of natural climate variability, tied specifically to a La Niña-like decadal cooling. While similar decadal hiatus events may occur in the future, multi-decadal warming trend is very likely to continue with greenhouse gas increase.

  6. Performance degradation of grid-tied photovoltaic modules in a hot-dry climatic condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleske, Adam; Singh, Jaspreet; Kuitche, Joseph; Tamizh-Mani, Govindasamy

    2011-09-01

    The crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) modules under open circuit conditions typically degrade at a rate of about 0.5% per year. However, it is suspected that the modules in an array level may degrade, depending on equipment/frame grounding and array grounding, at higher rates because of higher string voltage and increased module mismatch over the years of operation in the field. This paper compares and analyzes the degradation rates of grid-tied photovoltaic modules operating over 10-17 years in a desert climatic condition of Arizona. The nameplate open-circuit voltages of the arrays ranged between 400 and 450 V. Six different types/models of crystalline silicon modules with glass/glass and glass/polymer constructions were evaluated. About 1865 modules were inspected using an extended visual inspection checklist and infrared (IR) scanning. The visual inspection checklist included encapsulant discoloration, cell/interconnect cracks, delamination and corrosion. Based on the visual inspection and IR studies, a large fraction of these modules were identified as allegedly healthy and unhealthy modules and they were electrically isolated from the system for currentvoltage (I-V) measurements of individual modules. The annual degradation rate for each module type is determined based on the I-V measurements.

  7. Recent global-warming hiatus tied to equatorial Pacific surface cooling.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Yu; Xie, Shang-Ping

    2013-09-19

    Despite the continued increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, the annual-mean global temperature has not risen in the twenty-first century, challenging the prevailing view that anthropogenic forcing causes climate warming. Various mechanisms have been proposed for this hiatus in global warming, but their relative importance has not been quantified, hampering observational estimates of climate sensitivity. Here we show that accounting for recent cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific reconciles climate simulations and observations. We present a novel method of uncovering mechanisms for global temperature change by prescribing, in addition to radiative forcing, the observed history of sea surface temperature over the central to eastern tropical Pacific in a climate model. Although the surface temperature prescription is limited to only 8.2% of the global surface, our model reproduces the annual-mean global temperature remarkably well with correlation coefficient r = 0.97 for 1970-2012 (which includes the current hiatus and a period of accelerated global warming). Moreover, our simulation captures major seasonal and regional characteristics of the hiatus, including the intensified Walker circulation, the winter cooling in northwestern North America and the prolonged drought in the southern USA. Our results show that the current hiatus is part of natural climate variability, tied specifically to a La-Niña-like decadal cooling. Although similar decadal hiatus events may occur in the future, the multi-decadal warming trend is very likely to continue with greenhouse gas increase. PMID:23995690

  8. Random Forest with semantic tie points for classifying landforms and creating rigorous shaded relief representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veronesi, F.; Hurni, L.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we tested Random Forest (RF) with semantic tie points to classify discrete landforms, which would be ultimately useful for increasing the accuracy of shaded relief representations. We therefore focused our efforts on the following landforms: rock outcrops, screes, alluvial fans and low relief areas. A characteristic of RF, which makes it a good algorithm for geomorphological mapping, is its ability to generate thousands of classification trees. Each tree provides a classification and the value classified by the majority of the trees is the final output of the algorithm. Furthermore, having multiple classifications provides a measure of uncertainty. This is very important because it gives practitioners an idea of areas where the method is less accurate, which would require more effort in terms of sampling or surveying. This method was applied in two mountainous areas of Switzerland, the first where we trained and calibrated it and the second where we used it for classification. The results were validated using existing geomorphological maps, and they show that this method can obtain good training accuracy with a relatively small starting dataset. Moreover, both calibration and classification present a percentage of agreement with existing geomorphological maps of over 70%. Some geomorphological classes, alluvial fans and screes, present a classification accuracy that is lower than the calibration, which is in line with previous tests found in the literature. However, for other classes, i.e., rock outcrops and low relief areas, the accuracy increases, suggesting that this method can be employed extensively and relatively securely for these landforms.

  9. TIE of a PAH-contaminated sediment using reproductive responses and EROD induction in rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Brumley, C.M.; Kraak, G. van der [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Zoology; Munkittrick, K.R. [Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    PAH-contaminated sediments have been shown to cause a range of effects in fish. However, identifying the effective compounds can be time consuming and expensive. A toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) involves the analysis of mixtures by initially separating the mixture into toxic and non-toxic constituents. In this study, sediment was collected from Hamilton Harbor, Lake Ontario, and either extracted wet using methanol (MeOH) and dichloromethane (DCM), or freeze-dried and soxhlet extracted with MeOH and DCM. DCM extracts were solvent exchanged with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed through the water to wet, freeze-dried, or extracted sediment, or to the MeOH or DMSO extracts for 4 days. Fish were analyzed for hepatic EROD activity, and plasma DMSO extracts, but was unaffected in fish exposed to extracted sediment. Estradiol levels were increased in fish exposed to the wet sediment, but not in fish exposed to the freeze-dried or extracted sediment, nor either of the solvent extracts. The response of testosterone to wet, freeze-dried and extracted sediment was inconsistent. Results indicate that both of the extraction methods efficiently removed from the sediment the compounds responsible for the effects on EROD activity and estradiol levels. However, neither method retained in the solvent extracts the compounds causing the increases in estradiol levels. Work continues to refine the freeze-drying and extraction methods; extracts will then be further fractionated using HPLC to identify the compounds of concern.

  10. [Comparison of academic viewpoints between Yun Tie-qiao and Lu Yuan-lei].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-qing; Bi, Li-juan; Yang, Xing-lin

    2010-07-01

    Both Yun Tie-qiao and Lu Yuan-lei are medical professionals coming from the literary field with versatile and in-depth knowledge and extensive experience in medical education and clinical practice, all closely related to modern TCM development. Yun, the elder, insisted on reforming TCM and was early to advocate the academic idea of amalgamating western and traditional Chinese medicine; while Lu, the younger, insisted on the idea of "scientizing TCM" and was the representative of amalgamating western and traditional Chinese medicine in the later stage. They shared many common viewpoints, including venerating Zhang Zhongjing, stressing exogenous cold pathogens, advocating reformation and amalgamation of western medicine and TCM and objecting to the abolishment of TCM. However, there were discrepancies between them, including the relationship between the Inner Canon and the Essay on Exogenous Cold Diseases, warm disease theory, pulse theory, titles of TCM diseases and Japanese Kampo medicine. A comparison of them and noting their valuable contributions will be beneficial for the promotion of the development of TCM. PMID:21122338

  11. Platelet rich plasma extract promotes angiogenesis through the angiopoietin1-Tie2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Mammoto, Tadanori; Jiang, Amanda; Jiang, Elisabeth; Mammoto, Akiko

    2013-09-01

    Development and regeneration of tissues and organs require precise coordination among endothelial, epithelial and mesenchymal morphogenesis. Angiogenesis plays key roles in normal development, wound healing, recovery from ischemic disease, and organ regeneration. It has been recognized that the combination of various angiogenic factors in an appropriate physiological ratio is critical for long-term functional blood vessel formation. Here we show that mouse soluble platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) extract, which includes abundant angiopoetin-1 (Ang1) and other angiogenic factors, stimulates endothelial cell growth, migration and differentiation in cultured human dermal microvascular endothelial cells in vitro and neonatal mouse retinal angiogenesis in vivo. Mouse platelet rich fibrin (PRF) matrix, the three-dimensional fibrin matrix that releases angiogenic factors with similar concentrations and proportions to the PRP extract, also recapitulates robust angiogenesis inside the matrix when implanted subcutaneously on the living mouse. Inhibition of Ang1-Tie2 signaling suppresses PRP extract-induced angiogenesis in vitro and angiogenic ability of the PRF matrix in vivo. Since human PRP extract and PRF matrix can be prepared from autologous peripheral blood, our findings may lead to the development of novel therapeutic interventions for various angiogenesis-related diseases as well as to the improvement of strategies for tissue engineering and organ regeneration. PMID:23660186

  12. Targeting the Angiopoietin-2/Tie-2 axis in conjunction with VEGF signal interference.

    PubMed

    Biel, Nikolett M; Siemann, Dietmar W

    2014-10-12

    Anti-angiogenic therapies target the tumor vasculature, impairing its development and growth. It was hypothesized over 40 years ago by the late Judah Folkman and Julie Denekamp that depriving a tumor of oxygen and nutrients, by targeting the tumor vasculature, could have therapeutic benefits. Identification of growth factors and signaling pathways important in angiogenesis subsequently led to the development of a series of anti-angiogenic agents that over the past decade have become part of the standard of care in several disease settings. Unfortunately not all patients respond to the currently available anti-angiogenic therapies while others become resistant to these agents following prolonged exposure. Identification of new pathways that may drive angiogenesis led to the development of second-generation anti-angiogenic agents such as those targeting the Ang-2/Tie2 axis. Recently, it has become clear that combination of first and second generation agents targeting the blood vessel network can lead to outcomes superior to those using either agent alone. The present review focuses on the current status of VEGF and Ang-2 targeted agents and the potential utility of using them in combination to impair tumor angiogenesis. PMID:25312939

  13. Why less may be more: a mixed methods study of the work and relatedness of ‘weak ties’ in supporting long-term condition self-management

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The distribution of the roles and responsibilities of long-term condition management (LTCM) outside of formal health services implicates a wide set of relationships and activities of involvement. Yet, compared to studies of professional implementation, patient systems of implementation remain under-investigated. The aim of this paper is to explore the work, meaning and function attributed to ‘weaker’ ties relative to other more bonding relationships in order to identify the place of these within a context of systems of support for long-term conditions. Methods This is a mixed methods survey with nested qualitative study. A total of 300 people from deprived areas in the North West of England with chronic illnesses took part in a survey conducted in 2010 to 2011. A concentric circles diagram was used as a research tool with which participants identified 2,544 network members who contributed to illness management. Notions of ‘work’ were used to describe activities associated with chronic illness and to identify how weaker ties are included and perceived to be involved through social network members (SNM) contributions. Results The results provide an articulation of how SNMs are substantially involved in weak tie illness management. Weaker ties constituted 16.1% of network membership involved in illness work. The amount of work undertaken was similar but less than that of stronger ties. Weaker ties appeared more durable and less liable to loss over time than stronger ties. The qualitative accounts suggested that weak ties enabled the moral positioning of the self-managing ‘self’ and acted on the basis of a strong sense of reciprocity. Conclusions Weak ties act as an acceptable bridge between a sense of personal agency and control and the need for external support because it is possible to construct a sense of moral acceptability through reciprocal exchange. Access to weak tie resources needs to be taken into account when considering the ways in which systems of health implementation for chronic illness are designed and delivered. PMID:24524253

  14. On transmission congestion and pricing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas W. Gedra

    1999-01-01

    We provide a tutorial review, by example, of how to calculate optimal bus prices and congestion costs for a simple power system, using the “DC” loadflow approximation. It is also shown how to calculate the marginal effect of changing the impedance of a transmission on total system costs, and how this can be used for transmission planning purposes. The role

  15. HVDC power transmission technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hauth, R.L.; Tatro, P.J.; Railing, B.D. [New England Power Service Co., Westborough, MA (United States); Johnson, B.K.; Stewart, J.R. [Power Technologies, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States); Fink, J.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an assessment of the national utility system`s needs for electric transmission during the period 1995-2020 that could be met by future reduced-cost HVDC systems. The assessment was to include an economic evaluation of HVDC as a means for meeting those needs as well as a comparison with competing technologies such as ac transmission with and without Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers. The role of force commutated dc converters was to be assumed where appropriate. The assessment begins by identifying the general needs for transmission in the U.S. in the context of a future deregulated power industry. The possible roles for direct current transmission are then postulated in terms of representative scenarios. A few of the scenarios are illustrated with the help of actual U.S. system examples. non-traditional applications as well as traditional applications such as long lines and asynchronous interconnections are discussed. The classical ``break-even distance`` concept for comparing HVDC and ac lines is used to assess the selected scenarios. The impact of reduced-cost converters is reflected in terms of the break-even distance. This report presents a comprehensive review of the functional benefits of HVDC transmission and updated cost data for both ac and dc system components. It also provides some provocative thoughts on how direct current transmission might be applied to better utilize and expand our nation`s increasingly stressed transmission assets.

  16. RICE UNIVERSITY BEAMSWITCH: DIRECTIONAL TRANSMISSION

    E-print Network

    Zhong, Lin

    Directional Transmission for Energy-Efficient Wireless Communication on Mobile Sys- tems Hasan Huseyin DumanliRICE UNIVERSITY BEAMSWITCH: DIRECTIONAL TRANSMISSION FOR ENERGY-EFFICIENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION ON MOBILE SYSTEMS by Hasan Huseyin Dumanli A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIRMENTS

  17. The Centre for Power Transmission

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    The Centre for Power Transmission and Motion Control Centre for PTMC Department of Mechanical STABILITY ­ RAISING OWNER AWARENESS A history of caravan stability work The Centre for Power Transmission the efficacy of the Al- Ko automatic braking system, designed to aid the driver during an emergency, when

  18. Tribology of automatic transmission fluid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takanori Kugimiya; Narihiko Yoshimura; Jun’ichi Mitsui

    1998-01-01

    Various properties are required in the latest ATFs (Automatic Transmission Fluids) because of the progress made in ATs (Automatic\\u000a Transmissions). In this paper, we will introduce the construction of the AT and describe the tribological issues, including\\u000a anti?shudder property, of ATF.

  19. A Quantitative Transmission Line Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, D. C.; Silbernagel, B. G.

    1969-01-01

    Describes modifications of a commercially available strip-type transmission line, which makes possible reproducible measurements of standing waves on the line. Experimental data yield values for the characteristic impedance, phase velocity and line wavelength of radiation in the transmission line, and the dielectric constant of material in the…

  20. Automatic transmission for motor vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Sakakibara, S.

    1989-06-27

    An automatic transmission for a motor vehicle is described, comprising: a transmission housing; a hydraulic torque converter having rotational axes, an input shaft, an output shaft and a direct coupling clutch for directly coupling the input shaft to the output shaft; an auxiliary transmission mechanism provided coaxially with the hydraulic torque converter and having an input shaft, an output shaft with an input end and an output end and an overdrive mechanism of planetary gear type having a reduction ratio smaller than 1, the input shaft and the output shaft of the auxiliary transmission being located close to and on the side of the hydraulic torque converter with respect to the auxiliary transmission, respectively, and being coupled with a planetary gear carrier and a ring gear of the overdrive mechanism, respectively, a one-way clutch being provided between the planetary gear carrier and a sun gear of the overdrive mechanism, a clutch being provided between the planetary gear carrier and a position radially and outwardly of the one-way clutch for engaging the disengaging the planetary carrier and the sun gear, a brake being provided between the transmission housing and the sun gear and positioned radially and outwardly of the clutch for controlling engagement of the sun gear with a stationary portion of the transmission housing, and the output end of the output shaft being disposed between the auxiliary transmission mechanism and the hydraulic torque converter.

  1. Automatic transmission system

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, J.S.

    1989-04-25

    An automatic transmission system is described for use in vehicles, which comprises: a clutch wheel containing a plurality of concentric rings of decreasing diameter, the clutch wheel being attached to an engine of the vehicle; a plurality of clutch gears corresponding in size to the concentric rings, the clutch gears being adapted to selectively and frictionally engage with the concentric rings of the clutch wheel; an accelerator pedal and a gear selector, the accelerator pedals being connected to one end of a substantially U-shaped frame member, the other end of the substantially U-shaped frame member selectively engaging with one end of one of wires received in a pair of apertures of the gear selector; a plurality of drive gear controllers and a reverse gear controller; means operatively connected with the gear selector and the plurality of drive gear controllers and reverse gear controller for selectively engaging one of the drive and reverse gear controllers depending upon the position of the gear selector; and means for individually connecting the drive and reverse gear controllers with the corresponding clutch gears whereby upon the selection of the gear selector, friction engagement is achieved between the clutch gear and the clutch wheels for rotating the wheel in the forward or reverse direction.

  2. Control of schistosomiasis transmission.

    PubMed

    Dias, L C; Marçal Júnior; Glasser, C M

    1995-01-01

    Despite the success of control programmes, schistosomiasis is still a serious public health problem in the world. More than 70 countries where 200 million individuals are evaluated to be infected of a total 600 million at risk. Though there have been important local success in the control of transmission, globally the infection has increased. Economic constrains in developing countries, environmental changes associated with migration and water resources development have been blocking the progress. The main objective of schistosomiasis control is to achieve reduction of disease due to schistosomiasis. We discussed the control measures like: health education, diagnosis and chemotherapy, safe water supplies, sanitation and snail control. We emphasized the need to give priority to school-age children and the importance of integrating the measures of control into locally available systems of health care. The control of schistosomiasis is directly related to the capacity of the preventive health services of an endemic country. The strategy of control requires long-term commitment from the international to the local level. PMID:8531673

  3. Electronically controlled automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.; Shiba, H.; Nakamura, K.

    1989-03-28

    This patent describes an electronically controlled automatic transmission having a manual valve working in connection with a manual shift lever, shift valves operated by solenoid valves which are driven by an electronic control circuit previously memorizing shift patterns, and a hydraulic circuit controlled by these manual valve and shift valves for driving brakes and a clutch in order to change speed. Shift patterns of 2-range and L-range, in addition to a shift pattern of D-range, are memorized previously in the electronic control circuit, an operation switch is provided which changes the shift pattern of the electronic control circuit to any shift pattern among those of D-range, 2-range and L-range at time of the manual shift lever being in a D-range position, a releasable lock mechanism is provided which prevents the manual shift lever from entering 2-range and L-range positions, and the hydraulic circuit is set to a third speed mode when the manual shift lever is in the D-range position. The circuit is set to a second speed mode when it is in the 2-range position, and the circuit is set to a first speed mode when it is in the L-range position, respectively, in case where the shift valves are not working.

  4. Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    The Keystone Center

    2005-06-15

    The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association of State Utility Consumer Advocates National Grid Northeast Utilities PA Office of Consumer Advocates Pacific Gas & Electric Corporation Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission PJM Interconnection The Electricity Consumers Resource Council U.S. Department of Energy US Department of the Interior Van Ness Feldman Western Interstate Energy Board Wind on the Wires Wisconsin Public Service Commission Xcel Energy

  5. NWCC Transmission Case Study III

    SciTech Connect

    Terry Allison, Steve Wiese

    2000-03-01

    OAK-B135 Transmission System Improvements for Wind Energy Development in the Upper Midwest and Great Plains: Opportunities and Obstacles. This case study set out to ascertain the validity of three assumptions from the perspectives of stakeholders involved in wind energy and transmission issues in the Upper Midwest and Great Plains. The assumptions, and the stakeholders' reactions to each, are summarized below: Assumption 1--Transmission system improvements would provide significant benefits to the electricity network and its customers. Respondents acknowledge the potential for overall system benefits in the form of reduced line losses, improved grid stability and reliability, and enhanced ability to conduct spot market transactions. They also agree that these benefits relate to specific regional needs. However, there is disagreement over the extent of other benefits such as efficiency gains and cost savings from reduced line losses. Further, environmental and community interest groups point out that none of these benefits are realized without significant financial, environmental and social costs. Assumption 2--The benefits of transmission improvements would be helpful, but not confined, to wind power. All respondents agree that wind energy could benefit from transmission system improvements. But they also acknowledge, reluctantly, in the case of environmental stakeholders, that the benefits of an improved transmission system cannot be limited to environmentally preferable forms of generation. Some environmental and community advocate respondents also feel that transmission system improvement projects can be avoided altogether through energy conservation and efficiency measures, and by substituting wind energy for fossil generation. Assumption 3--Transmission alliances among stakeholders within and external to the wind community can provide benefits in the public interest. The fractured, multi-jurisdictional governance of the regional transmission system, and the distrust and diversity of perspectives among affected stakeholders, may make the formation of multi-stakeholder alliances necessary to accomplishing transmission goals. If the wind industry and utilities want to partner with environmental and community advocate groups in supporting a transmission project, they may have to convince these groups that the project would result in a net environmental benefit. The project proponents would have to make the case that the benefits of the additional wind energy will at least offset the emissions of any additional fossil generation made possible by the transmission project, as well as offset the environmental impact of the transmission project itself.

  6. 2D Backstripping The Mid-Atlantic Transect Tied To Results Of IODP Exp313

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mountain, G.; Steckler, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    The 'Mid-Atlantic Transect' connecting the New Jersey coastal plain to the continental slope has been the focus of studies of passive margin stratigraphic evolution for many years. IODP Expedition 313 drilled, logged and cored 3 sites along the 'MAT' to provide a long-awaited missing link between previous sample locations. All 3 sites were 45-65 km offshore in 33-35 m of water at the rollovers of Oligocene to mid-Miocene clinoforms where the imprint of past sea-level variations is most clearly expressed and feasible to drill. Litho- and biofacies successions and lateral associations, tied to a grid of high-resolution seismic profiles, are being analyzed to (1) calibrate the imprint of baselevel changes on sequence architecture and litho- and biofacies successions, and (2) extract global sea-level history during times of known glaciation. Here we report on progress in applying 2D backstripping along the MAT aimed at reconstructing elevations of the seafloor from the Early Oligocene to the present. Several factors control base-level changes at continental margins: eustasy, sediment supply, thermal subsidence, isostatic/flexural loading and sediment compaction. New Jersey is an old continental margin in which the tectonic subsidence rate is low and slowly varying. The flexural rigidity has been estimated previously using thermomechanical models. The significance of compaction is often overlooked or roughly estimated due to the lack of reliably quantified information derived from detailed porosity measurements. However, porosity influences both the isostatic unloading and the decompaction calculations. Exp313 Sites M27A-M29A enable us to assemble porosity values derived from log measurements within the boreholes, from MultiSensorCoreLogger measurements of unsplit cores, and from discrete samples extracted from each 1.5 m core section. We've used backstripping to reconstruct more than two dozen sequence boundaries and other surfaces mapped with seismic profiles across the New Jersey margin and tied to the Exp 313 sites. Uncertainties have been estimated by varying the lithologic character and compaction parameters determined at these 3 sites. The result is a reconstruction of the paleogeometry of the margin showing the shapes of the clinoforms at their times of deposition. Not surprisingly, the present seaward tilt of nearly all surfaces and the relief of buried Miocene clinoforms (some approach 400 m between topsets and toesets) are products of post-depositional processes; tilt and relief were much smaller when these surfaces were at the seafloor. However, actual paleo-water depths along each surface depends on past global sea-level elevation. We estimate sea level at the times of choice sequence boundaries by matching our derived paleobathymetry to the litho- and biofacies data from Expedition 313.

  7. Energy Transmission and Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Mathison, Jane

    2012-12-31

    The objective of Energy Transmission and Infrastructure Northern Ohio (OH) was to lay the conceptual and analytical foundation for an energy economy in northern Ohio that will: • improve the efficiency with which energy is used in the residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation sectors for Oberlin, Ohio as a district-wide model for Congressional District OH-09; • identify the potential to deploy wind and solar technologies and the most effective configuration for the regional energy system (i.e., the ratio of distributed or centralized power generation); • analyze the potential within the district to utilize farm wastes to produce biofuels; • enhance long-term energy security by identifying ways to deploy local resources and building Ohio-based enterprises; • identify the policy, regulatory, and financial barriers impeding development of a new energy system; and • improve energy infrastructure within Congressional District OH-09. This objective of laying the foundation for a renewable energy system in Ohio was achieved through four primary areas of activity: 1. district-wide energy infrastructure assessments and alternative-energy transmission studies; 2. energy infrastructure improvement projects undertaken by American Municipal Power (AMP) affiliates in the northern Ohio communities of Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; 3. Oberlin, OH-area energy assessment initiatives; and 4. a district-wide conference held in September 2011 to disseminate year-one findings. The grant supported 17 research studies by leading energy, policy, and financial specialists, including studies on: current energy use in the district and the Oberlin area; regional potential for energy generation from renewable sources such as solar power, wind, and farm-waste; energy and transportation strategies for transitioning the City of Oberlin entirely to renewable resources and considering pedestrians, bicyclists, and public transportation as well as drivers in developing transportation policies; energy audits and efficiency studies for Oberlin-area businesses and Oberlin College; identification of barriers to residential energy efficiency and development of programming to remove these barriers; mapping of the solar-photovoltaic and wind-energy supply chains in northwest Ohio; and opportunities for vehicle sharing and collaboration among the ten organizations in Lorain County from the private, government, non-profit, and educational sectors. With non-grant funds, organizations have begun or completed projects that drew on the findings of the studies, including: creation of a residential energy-efficiency program for the Oberlin community; installation of energy-efficient lighting in Oberlin College facilities; and development by the City of Oberlin and Oberlin College of a 2.27 megawatt solar photovoltaic facility that is expected to produce 3,000 megawatt-hours of renewable energy annually, 12% of the College’s yearly power needs. Implementation of these and other projects is evidence of the economic feasibility and technical effectiveness of grant-supported studies, and additional projects are expected to advance to implementation in the coming years. The public has benefited through improved energydelivery systems and reduced energy use for street lighting in Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; new opportunities for assistance and incentives for residential energy efficiency in the Oberlin community; new opportunities for financial and energy savings through vehicle collaboration within Lorain County; and decreased reliance on fossil fuels and expanded production of renewable energy in the region. The dissemination conference and the summary report developed for the conference also benefited the public, but making the findings and recommendations of the regional studies broadly available to elected officials, city managers, educators, representatives of the private sector, and the general public.

  8. An unbiased FIR filter for TIE model of a local clock in applications to GPS-based timekeeping.

    PubMed

    Shmaliy, Yuriy S

    2006-05-01

    An unbiased finite impulse response (FIR) filter is proposed to estimate the time-interval error (TIE) K-degree polynomial model of a local clock in global positioning system (GPS)-based timekeeping in the presence of noise that is not obligatory Gaussian. Generic coefficients for the unbiased FIRs are derived. The low-degree FIRs and noise power gains are given. An estimation algorithm is proposed and examined for the TIE measurements of a crystal clock in the presence of the uniformly distributed sawtooth noise induced by the multichannel GPS timing receiver. Based upon this algorithm, we show that the unbiased FIR estimates are consistent with the reference (rubidium) measurements and fit them better than the standard Kalman filter. PMID:16764441

  9. Morphologies of emulsions of conjugate phase pairs of amphiphile/oil/water {open_quotes}microemulsion{close_quotes} tie triangles

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.H.; Nwosu, S.N.; Johnson, G.K. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

    1992-04-01

    Electrical conductivity measurements were made on emulsions formed, respectively, from the conjugate top-middle, top-bottom, and middle-bottom phase pairs that define the three sides of various nonionic amphiphile/oil/water {open_quotes}microemulsion{close_quotes} tie triangles. Effective-medium conductivity models and observations of creaming behavior were used to substantiate assignments of steady-state emulsion morphologies. The phase volume fractions at which morphology changes occurred were measured for both directions along each tie line, and the hysteresis was obtained as the difference between the volume fractions for the two directions. The results support the dispersion morphology diagram previously postulated, including the formation of mixtures of emulsions whose morphologies are the inverse of each other. 31 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Transmission gearing arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Klemen, D.

    1987-08-04

    A gearing arrangement is described for an automotive power transmission comprising: an input shaft and an output shaft; first, second, and third simple planetary gear sets. Each has a sun gear, a ring gear, and a planet gears meshing with the sun and the ring gears and rotatably supported on a planet carrier; means rigidly interconnecting the ring gear of the third gear set and the carrier of the second gear set; means rigidly interconnecting the ring gear of the second gear set and the carrier of the first gear set; means rigidly connecting the output shaft and the carrier of the third gear set; a first intermediate shaft rigidly interconnecting the sun gears of the second and the third gear sets for unitary rotation; a second intermediate shaft rigidly connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a third intermediate shaft continuously connected to the input shaft and to the sun gear of the first gear set; first, second, and third brake means operative to selectively brake rotation of the ring gears of the first, the second, and the third gear sets, respectively; a first rotating clutch selectively operable to connect the input shaft and the first intermediate shaft for unitary rotation; a second rotating clutch selectively operable to connect the input shaft and the second intermediate shaft for unitary rotation; a fourth simple planetary gear set including a sun gear and a ring gear and planet gears meshing with the sun and the ring gears and rotatably supported on a planet carrier; means rigidly connecting the sun gear of the fourth gear set to the third intermediate shaft; means rigidly connecting the ring gear of the fourth gear set to the carrier of the first gear set; and a fourth brake means selectively operable to brake the carrier of the fourth gear set. The nine forward ratios are obtainable while preserving a single transition shifting over the entire nine forward ratios.

  11. Automatic transmission apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Hiketa, M.

    1987-10-06

    An automatic transmission apparatus is described comprising: an input shaft, an output shaft disposed behind and coaxially with the input shaft, a counter shaft disposed substantially parallel to both of the input and output shafts, a first gear train including a first gear provided on the input shaft and a second gear provided on the counter shaft to be meshed with the first gear so as to form a first power transmitting path, first friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the first power transmitting path, a second gear train including a third gear provided through one-way clutch means on a rear end portion of the input shaft and a fourth gear provided on the counter shaft to be meshed with the third gear so as to form a second power transmitting path, second friction clutch means provided at a front end portion of the output shaft, a third gear train including a fifth gear provided on a rear end portion of the counter shaft and a sixth gear provided on the output shaft to be meshed with the fifth gear so as to form a fourth power transmitting path, third friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the fourth power transmitting path, fourth friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the second power transmitting path, a fourth gear train including a seventh gear provided on the counter shaft and an eighth gear provided on the output shaft and fifth friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the fifth power transmitting path.

  12. Multistate differential transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, B.L.

    1989-05-30

    This patent describes a multistate transmission suitable for a colinear configuration having a stationary housing and an input shaft and an output shaft comprising: a first pair of planetary gear trains comprising a first common ring gear having a torque reducing gear train consisting of a sun gear and a planetary gears connected by way of a carrier to the output shaft and a reversing planetary gear train consisting of a sun gear and planetary gears; a second pair of planetary a trains comprising a second common ring gear having a torque reducing gear train consisting of a sun gear and planetary gears connected by way of a carrier to the sun gear in the reversing planetary gear train in the first pair of planetary gear trains and a reversing planetary gear train consisting of a sun gear and planetary gears; carrier means connecting the sun gears in the first pair of planetary gear trains to the housing through a free wheeling clutch to provide for rotation in one direction only and to one side of a first operational clutch. The other side of the clutch is connected to the sun gear in the reversing planetary gear train in the first pair of planetary gear trains; means connecting the planetary gears in the reversing mechanism of the second pair of planetary gear trains to the housing through a second operational clutch and to one side of a third operational clutch. The other side of the third operational clutch is connected to the sun gear in the reversing planetary gear grain in the second pair of planetary gear trains.

  13. LOFAR tied-array imaging of Type III solar radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morosan, D. E.; Gallagher, P. T.; Zucca, P.; Fallows, R.; Carley, E. P.; Mann, G.; Bisi, M. M.; Kerdraon, A.; Konovalenko, A. A.; MacKinnon, A. L.; Rucker, H. O.; Thidé, B.; Magdaleni?, J.; Vocks, C.; Reid, H.; Anderson, J.; Asgekar, A.; Avruch, I. M.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Bonafede, A.; Bregman, J.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J.; Brüggen, M.; Butcher, H. R.; Ciardi, B.; Conway, J. E.; de Gasperin, F.; de Geus, E.; Deller, A.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Engels, D.; Falcke, H.; Ferrari, C.; Frieswijk, W.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J.; Gunst, A. W.; Hassall, T. E.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Hoeft, M.; Hörandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Iacobelli, M.; Juette, E.; Karastergiou, A.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kramer, M.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; Maat, P.; Markoff, S.; McKean, J. P.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Munk, H.; Nelles, A.; Norden, M. J.; Orru, E.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pandey, V. N.; Pietka, G.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Schwarz, D.; Serylak, M.; Smirnov, O.; Stappers, B. W.; Stewart, A.; Tagger, M.; Tang, Y.; Tasse, C.; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, C.; Vermeulen, R.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wucknitz, O.; Yatawatta, S.; Zarka, P.

    2014-08-01

    Context. The Sun is an active source of radio emission which is often associated with energetic phenomena such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). At low radio frequencies (<100 MHz), the Sun has not been imaged extensively because of the instrumental limitations of previous radio telescopes. Aims: Here, the combined high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution of the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) was used to study solar Type III radio bursts at 30-90 MHz and their association with CMEs. Methods: The Sun was imaged with 126 simultaneous tied-array beams within ?5 R? of the solar centre. This method offers benefits over standard interferometric imaging since each beam produces high temporal (~83 ms) and spectral resolution (12.5 kHz) dynamic spectra at an array of spatial locations centred on the Sun. LOFAR's standard interferometric output is currently limited to one image per second. Results: Over a period of 30 min, multiple Type III radio bursts were observed, a number of which were found to be located at high altitudes (~4 R? from the solar center at 30 MHz) and to have non-radial trajectories. These bursts occurred at altitudes in excess of values predicted by 1D radial electron density models. The non-radial high altitude Type III bursts were found to be associated with the expanding flank of a CME. Conclusions: The CME may have compressed neighbouring streamer plasma producing larger electron densities at high altitudes, while the non-radial burst trajectories can be explained by the deflection of radial magnetic fields as the CME expanded in the low corona. Movie associated to Fig. 2 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  14. Coexpression of Ang1 and Tie2 in Odontoblasts of Mouse Developing and Mature Teeth—A New Insight into Dentinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Kazunori; Shibata, Yasuaki; Hishikawa, Yoshitaka; Suematsu, Takashi; Mori, Masako; Fukuhara, Shigetomo; Koji, Takehiko; Sawase, Takashi; Ikeda, Tohru

    2014-01-01

    Angiopoietin-1 regulates vascular angiogenesis and stabilization, and is reported to promote bone formation by facilitating angiogenesis. To estimate the role of Ang1 in odontogenesis, we explored the distribution of Ang1 and the receptor, Tie2 in the mouse developing and mature first molar of the mandible. At embryonic day 18, when differentiation of odontoblasts begins, immunosignals for Ang1 were intensely detected in the basement membrane and the distal side, which faced the basement membrane of odontoblasts. In situ hybridization revealed that Ang1 was expressed in odontoblasts and ameloblasts facing the basement membrane. Tie2 was localized in the distal side of odontoblasts. After birth, Ang1 was detected in the predentin, whereas both Ang1 and Tie2 were colocalized in odontoblasts and odontoblast processes. These distributions were retained up to 8 weeks. In contrast to odontoblasts, ameloblasts, cementoblasts and osteoblasts expressed Ang1 but did not express Tie2. Colocalization of Ang1 and Tie2 in odontoblasts and selective expression of Tie2 in odontoblasts among cells responsible for calcified tissue formation suggested the involvement of autocrine signals of Ang1-Tie2 in dentinogenesis. PMID:24761046

  15. Application of the Bow-Tie model in medication safety risk analysis: Consecutive experience in two hospitals in the Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter C. Wierenga; Loraine Lie-A-Huen; Rooij de S. E; Niek S. Klazinga; Henk-Jan Guchelaar; Susanne M. Smorenburg

    2009-01-01

    Background: To improve medication safely effectively, one should systematically analyse and assess the risks for medication errors and determine the possible causes. So far, no risk-analysis instrument exists in healthcare that can be used to analyse and visualize risks, causes and consequences of potential adverse events in a prospective manner. In high-risk industries such as petrochemistry and aviation, the Bow-Tie

  16. MALARIA I N NIGERIA: CDNSTRAINED CaYTINUXIS-TIE MARKDV MmLS A3R DISCRETE-TIME

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Joel E.

    MALARIA I N NIGERIA: CDNSTRAINED CaYTINUXIS-TIE MARKDV MmLS A3R DISCRETE-TIME ~ I T U D I N of the endemicity of malaria will be essential i n a population which is t o receive an acceptable malaria vaccine another." V. Nabokov (1972, p. 8) Abstract A research project on malaria i n the Garki d i s t r i c

  17. Modulation of forelimb and hindlimb muscle activity during quadrupedal tied-belt and split-belt locomotion in intact cats.

    PubMed

    Frigon, A; Thibaudier, Y; Hurteau, M-F

    2015-04-01

    The modulation of the neural output to forelimb and hindlimb muscles when the left and right sides step at different speeds from one another in quadrupeds was assessed by obtaining electromyography (EMG) in seven intact adult cats during split-belt locomotion. To determine if changes in EMG during split-belt locomotion were modulated according to the speed of the belt the limb was stepping on, values were compared to those obtained during tied-belt locomotion (equal left-right speeds) at matched speeds. Cats were chronically implanted for EMG, which was obtained from six muscles: biceps brachii, triceps brachii, flexor carpi ulnaris, sartorius, vastus lateralis and medial gastrocnemius. During tied-belt locomotion, cats stepped from 0.4 to 1.0m/s in 0.1m/s increments whereas during split-belt locomotion, cats stepped with left-right speed differences of 0.1 to 0.4m/s in 0.1m/s increments. During tied-belt locomotion, EMG burst durations and mean EMG amplitudes of all muscles respectively decreased and increased with increasing speed. During split-belt locomotion, there was a clear differential modulation of the EMG patterns between flexors and extensors and between the slow and fast sides. Changes in the EMG pattern of some muscles could be explained by the speed of the belt the limb was stepping on, while in other muscles there were clear dissociations from tied-belt values at matched speeds. Therefore, results show that EMG patterns during split-belt locomotion are modulated to meet task requirements partly via signals related to the stepping speed of the homonymous limb and from the other limbs. PMID:25644423

  18. The formation and maintenance of single-thread tie channels entering floodplain lakes: observations from three diverse river systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, Joel C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dietrich, William E [UC BERKELEY; Day, Geoff [NEWCREST MINING; Parker, Gary [UNIV OF ILLINOIS

    2009-01-01

    Tie channels connect rivers to floodplain lakes on many lowland rivers and thereby play a central role in floodplain sedimentology and ecology, yet they are generally unrecognized and little studied. here we report the results of field studies focused on tie channel origin and morphodynamics in three contrasting systems: the Middle Fly River, Papua New Guinea, the Lower Mississippi River, and Birch Creek in Alaska. Across these river systems, tie channels vary by an order of magnitude in size but exhibit the same characteristic morphology and appear to develop and evolve by a similar set of processes. In all three systems, the channels are characterized by a narrow, leveed single-thread morphology with maximum width approximately one tenth the width of the mainstem river. The channels typically have a V shaped cross-section, unlike most fluvial channels. These channels develop as lakes become isolated from the river by sedimentation. Narrowing of the connection between river and lake causes a sediment-laden jet to develop. Levees develop along the margins of the jet leading to channel emergence and eventual levee aggradation to the height of the mainstem levees. Bi-directional flow in these channels is common. Outflows from the lake scour sediment and prevent channel blockage. We propose that channel geometry and size are then controlled by a dynamic balance between channel narrowing by suspended sediment deposition and incision and widening by mass failure of banks during outflows. Tie channels are laterally stable and may convey flow for hundreds to a few thousand of years.

  19. Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Characteristics, Coethnic Social Ties, and Health: Evidence From the National Jewish Population Survey

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Jay A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We explored whether a White ethnic group with a history of structural disadvantage, Jewish Americans, shows evidence of continuing health impact independent of socioeconomic position (SEP), whether coethnic social ties appear health protective, and whether the strength of any protection varies by SEP. Methods. In a series of ordered logistic regressions, we analyzed data from the National Jewish Population Survey, 2000–2001, regressing self-rated health on race/ethnicity, education, and income for US Blacks, Jews, and other Whites and, for Jews alone, indicators of coethnic social ties. Results. controlling for SEP indicators, the self-rated health of Jews converged with that of Blacks and was significantly worse than that of other Whites. Access to coethnic social ties was associated with better self-rated health among Jews, with the strongest estimated association among those of lower SEP. Conclusions. The finding that a White ethnic group with a favorable socioeconomic profile reported significantly worse health than did other Whites, after controlling for SEP, calls for better understanding of the complex interplay of cultural, psychosocial, and socioeconomic resources in shaping population health. PMID:21164093

  20. Amigos and Amistades: The role of men’s social network ties in shaping HIV vulnerability in the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Paul J.; Barrington, Clare; Perez, Martha; Donastorg, Yeycy; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    While men’s social networks have been identified as a source of influence on sexual behaviour, less is known about the different types of friendship ties within men’s networks. We analysed data from qualitative in-depth interviews with 36 men in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic who were current or former sexual partners of female sex workers to understand how a) men describe trust and communication with different types of friendship ties, b) characteristics of trust and communication reflect norms of masculinity, and c) these friendship ties influence HIV-related behaviours. We identified a distinction between amistades, social drinking buddies who are not trusted, and amigos, trusted friends. The majority of men lacked any amigos and some had neither amigos nor amistades. In general, men reflected traditional norms of masculinity and said they did not feel they could discuss their relationships or emotional topics with other men. Trust and communication dynamics, and how norms of masculinity shape those dynamics, should be understood and addressed in the design of HIV prevention efforts with men’s social networks as they have implications for the potential effectiveness of such efforts. PMID:24939001