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Sample records for 345-kv transmission tie

  1. Venue-Mediated Weak Ties in Multiplex HIV Transmission Risk Networks Among Drug-Using Male Sex Workers and Associates

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Ross, Michael W.; Williams, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the structural characteristics of a multiplex HIV transmission risk network of drug-using male sex workers and their associates. Methods. Using a sample of 387 drug-using male sex workers and their male and female associates in Houston, Texas, we estimated an exponential random graph model to examine the venue-mediated relationships between individuals, the structural characteristics of relationships not linked to social venues, and homophily. We collected data in 2003 to 2004. The network comprised social, sexual, and drug-using relationships and affiliations with social venues. Results. Individuals affiliated with the same social venues, bars, or street intersections were more likely to have nonreciprocated (weak) ties with others. Sex workers were less likely than were other associates to have reciprocated (strong) ties to other sex workers with the same venues. Individuals tended to have reciprocated ties not linked to venues. Partner choice tended to be predicated on homophily. Conclusions. Social venues may provide a milieu for forming weak ties in HIV transmission risk networks centered on male sex workers, which may foster the efficient diffusion of prevention messages as diverse information is obtained and information redundancy is avoided. PMID:25880956

  2. Tongue tie

    MedlinePlus

    ... the symptoms in a child who is having problems with breastfeeding. Symptoms may include: Acting irritable or fussy, even ... tie when: The mother and baby have had problems starting breastfeeding. The mother has received at least 2 to ...

  3. Environmental Assessment for Central Power and Light Company`s proposed Military Highway-CFE tie 138/69-kV transmission line project Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Central Power and Light Company (CPL) intends to upgrade its existing transmission line ties with the Commision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) system in Mexico. CPL currently has a single 69-kilovolt (kV) transmission line in the Brownsville area which connects CPL`s system with the system of CFE. This existing line runs between the Brownsville Switching Station, located on Laredo Road in Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas, and an existing CFE 69-kV line at the Rusteberg Bend of the Rio Grande in Cameron County. Under current conditions of need, the existing 69-kV line does not possess sufficient capability to engage in appropriate power exchanges. Therefore, CPL is proposing to build a new line to link up with CFE. This proposed line would be a double-circuit line, which would (1) continue (on a slightly relocated route) the existing 69-kV tie from CPL`s Brownsville Switching Station to CFE`s facilities, and (2) add a 138-kV tie from the Military Highway Substation, located on Military Highway (US Highway 281), to CFE`s facilities. The proposed 138/69-kV line, which will be constructed and operated by CPL, will be built primarily on steel single-pole structures within an average 60-foot (ft) wide right-of-way (ROW). It will be approximately 6900--9200 ft (1.3--1.7 miles) in length, depending on the alternative route constructed.

  4. Tree-Ties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresczyk, Rick

    Created to help students understand how plants were used for food, for medicine, and for arts and crafts among the Ojibwe (Chippewa) Indians, the game Tree-Ties combines earth and social sciences within a specific culture. The game requires mutual respect, understanding, and agreement to succeed. Sounding like the word "treaties", the title is a…

  5. The Tie retraction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Geerling, Gerd; Neppert, Birte; Hemmant, Bridget

    2012-12-01

    Tissue retraction is implicated in the pathogenesis of various ophthalmic disorders. Here we describe the clinical characteristics, epidemiology and pathophysiology of a form of retraction syndrome which - to the best of our knowledge - has not been reported in the ophthalmic literature so far. We have termed this condition - consisting of a slowly progressive pseudovertical shortening of tie length due to a horizontal extension of girth length - the "Tie retraction syndrome" (TRS). Other pathognomonic features include an increased tie tip to belt buckle distance and a prolapse of the subumbilical fat pad (SUFP). The syndrome has a clear male to female preponderance and shows an increasing incidence with age and income before tax. Based on a newly proposed grading scheme we discuss and illustrate the diagnosis as well as the medical and surgical management options of this abundant, but often undiagnosed condition. The authors have no explanation for the apparent lack of awareness for this widely preponderant syndrome and its severe cosmetically disfiguring potential. We thus would like to invite all fellow colleagues with expertise in the field to comment or present their views. PMID:23088329

  6. Drum tie-down apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Morse, H.E.

    A drum tie-down apparatus for securing drum-like containers in an upright position to a floor or platform of a transportation vehicle having spaced apart cargo tie-down points. The apparatus comprises a pair of cylindrical, hollow tube segments horizontally oriented and engageable with a drum lid adjacent opposite rim edges, flexible strap segments for connecting upper and lower central portions of the tube segments together across the drum lid and a pair of elongated flexible tie-down segments, one extending horizontally through each of the tube segments, the ends thereof being attached to said spaced apart tie-down points such that end portions of the pair of tie-down segments extend downwardly and radially outwardly from the tube segments to the tie-down points.

  7. Drum tie-down apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Harvey E.

    1984-01-01

    A drum tie-down apparatus for securing drum-like containers in an upright position to a floor or platform of a transportation vehicle having spaced apart cargo tie-down points. The apparatus comprises a pair of cylindrical, hollow tube segments horizontally oriented and engageable with a drum lid adjacent opposite rim edges, flexible strap segments for connecting upper and lower central portions of the tube segments together across the drum lid and a pair of elongated flexible tie-down segments, one extending horizontally through each of the tube segments, the ends thereof being attached to said spaced apart tie-down points such that end portions of the pair of tie-down segments extend downwardly and radially outwardly from the tube segments to the tie-down points.

  8. Global TIE (Telescopes in Education)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, L.; Schweitzer, A. E.; Clark, G.; Hoban, S.; Melsheimer, T. T.

    2001-12-01

    The NASA-sponsored Telescopes In Education (TIE) project (http://tie.jpl.nasa.gov) has been wildly successful in engaging the K-12 education community in real-time, hands-on, interactive astronomy activities. Hundreds of schools in the US, Australia, Canada, England, and Japan have participated in the TIE program, remotely controlling the 24-inch telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory from their classrooms. In recent years, several (approximately 20 to date) other telescopes have been, or are in the process of being, outfitted for remote use as TIE affiliates. Global TIE integrates these telescopes seamlessly into one virtual observatory and provides the services required to operate this facility, including a scheduling service, tools for data manipulation, an online proposal review environment, an online "Virtual TIE Student Ap J" for publication of results, and access to related educational materials provided by the TIE community. Global TIE seeks to establish a network of research grade telescopes, no longer useful to the professional astronomical community, that can be made accessible to schools all across the country through existing IT technologies and applications. These telescopes could provide unparalleled research and educational opportunities for a broad spectrum of K-12 and college students and turns underutilized observatory facilities into valuable, state-of-the-art teaching centers.

  9. 7 CFR 7.12 - Tie votes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tie votes. 7.12 Section 7.12 Agriculture Office of the..., COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.12 Tie votes. (a) Tie votes in community committee elections held by mail or polling place method shall be settled by lot. Tie votes in such elections held by the...

  10. Rethinking "posterior" tongue-tie.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Pamela Sylvia

    2013-12-01

    Currently, many clinicians who help with breastfeeding problems are diagnosing "posterior" tongue-tie in infants and performing or referring for frenotomy. In this "Speaking Out" article, I argue that the diagnosis of "posterior" tongue-tie has successfully raised awareness of the importance of impaired tongue function in breastfeeding difficulty. However, the diagnosis of "posterior" tongue-tie also applies a reductionist, medicalized theoretical frame to the complex problem of impaired tongue function, risking unintended outcomes. Impaired tongue function arises out of multiple interacting and co-evolving factors, including the interplay between social behaviors concerning breastfeeding and mother-infant biology. Consideration of theoretical frames is vital if we are to build an evidence base through efficient use of the scarce resources available for clinical breastfeeding research and minimize unintended outcomes. PMID:24143939

  11. Draft environmental impact statement for construction and operation of the proposed Bangor Hydro-Electric Company`s second 345-kV transmission tie line to New Brunswick

    SciTech Connect

    1993-10-01

    This Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) was prepared by the US Department of Energy (US DOE). The proposed action is the issuance of Presidential Permit PP-89 by DOE to Bangor Hydro-Electric Company to construct and operate a new international transmission line interconnection to New Brunswick, Canada that would consist of an 83.8 mile (US portion), 345-kilovolt (kV) alternating current transmission line from the US-Canadian border at Baileyville, Maine to an existing substation at Orrington, Maine. The principal environmental impacts of the construction and operation of the transmission line would be incremental in nature and would include the conversion of forested uplands (mostly commercial timberlands) and wetlands to right-of-way (small trees, shrubs, and herbaceous vegetation). The proposed line would also result in localized minor to moderate visual impacts and would contribute a minor incremental increase in the exposure of some individuals to electromagnetic fields. This DEIS documents the purpose and need for the proposed action, describes the proposed action and alternatives considered and provides a comparison of the proposed and alternatives routes, and provides detailed information on analyses of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and alternatives, as well as mitigative measures to minimize impacts.

  12. Do tongue ties affect breastfeeding?

    PubMed

    Griffiths, D Mervyn

    2004-11-01

    This study assessed indications for and safety and outcome of simple division of tongue tie without an anesthetic. There were 215 infants younger than 3 months (mean 0-19 days) who had major problems breastfeeding, despite professional support. Symptoms, tongue tie details, safety of division, and complications were recorded. Feeding was assessed by the mothers immediately, at 24 hours, and 3 months after division. Prior to division, 88% had difficulty latching, 77% of mothers experienced nipple trauma, and 72% had a continuous feeding cycle. During division, 18% slept throughout; 60% cried more after division (mean 0-15 seconds). There were no significant complications. Within 24 hours, 80% were feeding better. Overall, 64% breastfed for at least 3 months (UK national average is 30%). Initial assessment, diagnosis, and help, followed by division and subsequent support by a qualified lactation consultant, might ensure that even more mothers and infants benefit from breastfeeding. PMID:15479660

  13. 49 CFR 213.123 - Tie plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tie plates. 213.123 Section 213.123 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.123 Tie plates. (a) In Classes 3 through 5 track where timber crossties are in use there shall be tie plates under the running rails on at least eight...

  14. Correctional Training, Industries and Education. TIE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlefield, John F., Ed.; West, Sharon Crook, Ed.

    This monograph includes the following seven papers: "The TIE (Training, Industries, Education) Concept--Moving from Theory to Practice" (Grieser); "Proposals for Prison Education and Training in Prison Industries" (Norris); "Implementation of TIE: Some Legislative Aspects" (Miller); "Federal Prison Industries TIE: An Update" (Muth); "Vocational…

  15. Family ties and child placement.

    PubMed

    Colón, F

    1978-09-01

    The fundamental premise of this paper is the primacy of the child's experience of biological-familial continuity in establishing his sense of self and personal significance. This paper examines the effects of current child placement practices on the child's ties to his biological, foster, and adoptive families. It explores alternative practices that would take into account biological-familial continuity. Comment is invited. PMID:744218

  16. Familial ankyloglossia (tongue-tie).

    PubMed

    Klockars, Tuomas

    2007-08-01

    Ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) is a congenital anomaly with a prevalence of 4-5% and characterized by an abnormally short lingual frenulum. For unknown reasons the abnormality seems to be more common in males. The pathogenesis of ankyloglossia is not known. The author reports a family with isolated ankyloglossia inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. The identification of the defective gene(s) causing ankyloglossia might reveal novel information on the craniofacial embryogenesis and its disorders. PMID:17588677

  17. Changing Views on Intergenerational Ties

    PubMed Central

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Sechrist, Jori; Birditt, Kira

    2015-01-01

    Ties to parents or grown children may be the most important social relationships in an adult’s life. Research examining intergenerational relationships has focused on three broader topics: (a) the strength of emotional bonds, (b) exchanges of social support, and (c) the effects of the relationship on individual well-being. This review considers some of the major theoretical developments in the field including solidarity and intergenerational ambivalence theory as well as the newly developed multidimensional model of support. We also consider weaknesses in the research and theories to date and provide suggestions for future research. PMID:23037718

  18. Perspectives on tongue-tie.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Rosemary; Neiger, Deborah

    2014-10-01

    In light of the recent NCT petition to Health Minister Dr Dan Poulter MP to update guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of tongue-tied babies to avoid stress and difficulties feeding for babies and their families, discussion has been sparked amongst mothers, midwives, health visitors and breastfeeding counsellors as to how exactly services could be improved. Access to evidence-based, family-centred care is vital to address this potentially distressing condition. But are we too quick to jump in with a diagnosis that may ultimately be of no clinical significance? This articles presents two professional perspectives on the issue and highlights the pertinent research available. PMID:25571701

  19. REGULATED PROTEOLYTIC PROCESSING OF TIE1 MODULATES LIGAND RESPONSIVENESS OF THE RECEPTOR TYROSINE KINASE TIE2

    PubMed Central

    Marron, Marie B; Singh, Harprit; Tahir, Tariq A; Kavumkal, Jais; Kim, Hak-Zoo; Koh, Gou Young; Brindle, Nicholas PJ

    2008-01-01

    Regulated ectodomain shedding followed by intramembrane proteolysis has recently been recognized as important in cell signaling and for degradation of several type I transmembrane proteins. The receptor tyrosine kinase Tie1 is known to undergo ectodomain cleavage generating a membrane tethered endodomain. Here we show Tie1 is a substrate for regulated intramembrane proteolysis. Following Tie1 ectodomain cleavage the newly formed 45 kDa endodomain undergoes additional proteolytic processing mediated by γ-secretase to generate an amino-terminally truncated 42 kDa fragment which is subsequently degraded by proteasomal activity. This sequential processing occurs constitutively and is stimulated by phorbol ester and vascular endothelial growth factor. To assess the biological significance of regulated Tie1 processing we analyzed its effects on angiopoietin signaling. Activation of ectodomain cleavage causes loss of phosphorylated Tie1 holoreceptor and generation of phosphorylated receptor fragments in the presence of COMP-Angiopoietin1. A key function of γ-secretase is in preventing accumulation of these phosphorylated fragments. We also find that regulated Tie1 processing modulates ligand responsiveness of the Tie-1-associated receptor Tie2. Activation of Tie1 ectodomain cleavage increases COMP-Angiopoietin1 activation of Tie2. This correlates with increased ability of Tie2 to bind ligand following shedding of the Tie1 extracellular domain. A similar enhancement of ligand activation of Tie2 is seen when Tie1 expression is suppressed by RNA interference. Together these data indicate that Tie1, via its extracellular domain, limits the ability of ligand to bind and activate Tie2. Furthermore the data suggests regulated processing of Tie1 may be an important mechanism for controlling signaling by Tie2. PMID:17728252

  20. The relationship between discrimination and high-risk social ties by race/ethnicity: examining social pathways of HIV risk.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Natalie D; Galea, Sandro; Ford, Chandra L; Latkin, Carl; Link, Bruce G; Fuller, Crystal

    2014-02-01

    High-risk social ties portend differences in opportunity for HIV exposures and may contribute to racial/ethnic disparities in HIV transmission. Discrimination may affect the formation of high-risk social ties and has not been explored as a possible explanation for these persistent disparities. Using data from injection and non-injection drug users, we examined the association between the number of high-risk sex and drug ties with discrimination due to race, drug use, and incarceration stratified by race/ethnicity. Negative binomial regression models were used. While blacks had significantly fewer injecting ties than Latinos and whites, blacks who reported racial discrimination compared to blacks who did not, had more sex and injecting ties. Latinos who reported drug use discrimination compared to Latinos who did not also had more sex ties. Latinos and whites who reported drug use discrimination had more injecting ties than Latinos and whites who did not. Discrimination is associated with high-risk social ties among all racial/ethnic groups. But, these data highlight different forms of discrimination within racial/ethnic group are associated with risky social ties. More research is needed to confirm these findings and further explore the association between various forms of discrimination and social ties that may help explain racial/ethnic disparities in HIV. PMID:23749458

  1. Ties Between Celestial And Planetary Reference Frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, Mark H.; Folkner, William M.

    1992-01-01

    Report presents new determination of relative orientation (or frame tie) between reference frame of extra-galactic radio sources and reference frame of planetary ephemeris. Method employed for improved frame-tie estimate relies on ability to measure orientation of Earth with respect to inertial reference frame. Improves orbit determination for interplanetary spacecraft.

  2. Extended Kinship Ties and Some Modern Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempler, Hyman L.

    1976-01-01

    The author contends close relationships with extended kin have provided the nuclear family psychological and instrumental support. With the waning of kin ties three alternative family structures--family networks, communes, and the affiliated family--are evaluated as to their potential utility as substitutes for kin ties. He concludes none are…

  3. [Neonatal tongue-tie: myths and science].

    PubMed

    Dollberg, Shaul; Botzer, Eyal

    2011-01-01

    Anatomical restraining of tongue movement (tongue-tie, ankyloglossia) has been known for centuries and the subject of dozens of articles. The heated debate persists on its clinical significance and indications for treatment. Most authorities in the field of infant feeding and Lactation agree that breastfeeding problems, such as nipple pain and latching difficulties, are common signs of clinicaLly significant tongue-tie and indications for performing a frenotomy, while the sole presence of a visible lingual frenulum is not. In contrast, the lack of a visible frenulum does not rule out the diagnosis of clinically significant tongue-tie since submucosal ties, also called "posterior tongue-tie", may interfere with efficient breastfeeding. Whether tongue-tie interferes with speech articulation to a significant extent is currently unknown. Theoretically, articulation of some consonants (e.g., /s/, /th/, /r/) would be affected by impeded tongue movement. These articulation problems are, however, Less common than tongue-tie itself, and children and adults characteristically use various compensatory techniques of mouth opening and tongue movements. When it is indicated, frenotomy is performed by lifting the tongue and snipping the frenulum with scissors. Complications of frenotomy are rare and consist mainly of self-limited minor bleeding. The significance of posterior tongue tie and the long-term effects of frenotomy performed during early infancy are unresolved issues. PMID:21449157

  4. 49 CFR 213.123 - Tie plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tie plates. 213.123 Section 213.123 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.123 Tie plates. (a) In Classes 3 through 5...

  5. 49 CFR 213.123 - Tie plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tie plates. 213.123 Section 213.123 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.123 Tie plates. (a) In Classes 3 through 5...

  6. 49 CFR 213.123 - Tie plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tie plates. 213.123 Section 213.123 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.123 Tie plates. (a) In Classes 3 through 5...

  7. 49 CFR 213.123 - Tie plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tie plates. 213.123 Section 213.123 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.123 Tie plates. (a) In Classes 3 through 5...

  8. Tie strength distribution in scientific collaboration networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Qing; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2014-09-01

    Science is increasingly dominated by teams. Understanding patterns of scientific collaboration and their impacts on the productivity and evolution of disciplines is crucial to understand scientific processes. Electronic bibliography offers a unique opportunity to map and investigate the nature of scientific collaboration. Recent studies have demonstrated a counterintuitive organizational pattern of scientific collaboration networks: densely interconnected local clusters consist of weak ties, whereas strong ties play the role of connecting different clusters. This pattern contrasts itself from many other types of networks where strong ties form communities while weak ties connect different communities. Although there are many models for collaboration networks, no model reproduces this pattern. In this paper, we present an evolution model of collaboration networks, which reproduces many properties of real-world collaboration networks, including the organization of tie strengths, skewed degree and weight distribution, high clustering, and assortative mixing.

  9. Tie1: an orphan receptor provides context for angiopoietin-2/Tie2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Sarah B; Kontos, Christopher D

    2016-09-01

    Angiopoietin-1/Tie2 (ANG1/Tie2) signaling is well documented as regulating angiogenesis and vessel maturation. This pathway is complicated by involvement of the orphan receptor Tie1, which has been implicated as both a positive and negative regulator of ANG1/Tie2 signaling, and ANG2, which can serve as both a Tie2 agonist and antagonist, depending on the context. Two papers in this issue of the JCI provide new insight into this complicated pathway. Korhonen et al. reveal that Tie1 acts to modulate the effects of ANG1 and ANG2 on Tie2 in vitro and in vivo. Kim et al. demonstrate that ANG2 acts as a Tie2 agonist in non-pathological conditions, whereas in the setting of inflammation, ANG2 functions as a Tie2 antagonist and promotes vascular dysfunction. Both studies indicate that inflammation promotes cleavage of the ectodomain of Tie1 and that this cleavage event corresponds with the switch of ANG2 from a Tie2 agonist to an antagonist. The results of these studies lay the groundwork for future strategies to therapeutically exploit this pathway in diseases characterized by adverse vascular remodeling and increased permeability. PMID:27548526

  10. Dielectric bow-tie nanocavity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qijing; Shu, Fang-Jie; Zou, Chang-Ling

    2013-12-15

    We propose a novel dielectric bow-tie (DBT) nanocavity consisting of two opposing tip-to-tip triangle semiconductor nanowires, whose end faces are coated by silver nanofilms. Based on the advantages of the dielectric slot and tip structures, and the high reflectivity of the silver mirror, light can be confined in this nanocavity with low loss. We demonstrate that at 4.5 K (300 K) around the resonance wavelength of 1550 nm, the mode excited in this nanocavity has a deep subwavelength mode volume of 2.8×10(-4) μm³ and a high quality factor of 4.9×10(4) (401.3), corresponding to an ultrahigh Purcell factor of 1.6×10(7) (1.36×10(5)). This DBT nanocavity may find applications for integrated nanophotonic circuits, such as high-efficiency single photon sources, thresholdless nanolasers, and strong coupling in cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments. PMID:24322245

  11. Another Neurological Disorder Tied to Zika

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_157678.html Another Neurological Disorder Tied to Zika It may cause meningoencephalitis, an infection and swelling ... list of neurological disorders potentially associated with the Zika virus continues to grow, health officials reported Wednesday. ...

  12. Sleep Apnea Tied to Complications After Angioplasty

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159391.html Sleep Apnea Tied to Complications After Angioplasty Nightly breathing ... 15, 2016 WEDNESDAY, June 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Sleep apnea may increase the risk of serious complications ...

  13. Psoriasis Tied to Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_158526.html Psoriasis Tied to Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes A genetic link is one ... prove that psoriasis causes type 2 diabetes or obesity or vice versa, Lonnberg added. However, the study ...

  14. Sleep Apnea Tied to Complications After Angioplasty

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159391.html Sleep Apnea Tied to Complications After Angioplasty Nightly breathing ... 15, 2016 WEDNESDAY, June 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Sleep apnea may increase the risk of serious complications ...

  15. Tongue tie: the evidence for frenotomy.

    PubMed

    Brookes, Alastair; Bowley, Douglas M

    2014-11-01

    Tongue tie or ankyloglossia is a congenital variation characterised by a short lingual frenulum which may result in restriction of tongue movement and thus impact on function. Tongue tie division (frenotomy) in affected infants with breastfeeding problems yields objective improvements in milk production and breastfeeding characteristics, including objective scoring measures, weight gain and reductions in maternal pain. For the majority of mothers, frenotomy appears to enhance maintenance of breastfeeding. Tongue tie division is a safe procedure with minimal complications. The commonest complication is minor bleeding. Recurrence leading to redivision occurs with rates of 0.003-13% reported; this appears to be more common with posterior than anterior ties. There are limited reports indicating that prophylactic frenotomy may promote subsequent speech development; however, evidence is currently insufficient to condone this practice and further good quality research into this area is warranted. PMID:25258296

  16. Psoriasis Tied to Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158526.html Psoriasis Tied to Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes A genetic link is one ... prove that psoriasis causes type 2 diabetes or obesity or vice versa, Lonnberg added. However, the study ...

  17. Software With Strong Ties to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    TieFlow is a simple but powerful business process improvement solution. It can automate and simplify any generic or industry-specific work process, helping organizations to transform work inefficiencies and internal operations involving people, paper, and procedures into a streamlined, well-organized, electronicbased process. TieFlow increases business productivity by improving process cycle times. The software can expedite generic processes in the areas of product design and development, purchase orders, expense reports, benefits enrollment, budgeting, hiring, and sales. It can also shore up vertical market processes such as claims processing, loan application and processing, health care administration, contract management, and advertising agency traffic. The processes can be easily and rapidly captured in a graphical manner and enforced together with rules pertaining to assignments that need to be performed. Aside from boosting productivity, TieFlow also reduces organizational costs and errors. TieFlow was developed with Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) assistance from Johnson. The SBIR support entitles all Federal Government agencies to utilize the TieFlow software technology free of charge. Tietronix emphasizes that TieFlow is an outstanding workflow resource that could produce dramatic productivity and cost improvements for all agencies, just as it has done and continues to do for NASA. The Space Agency is currently using the software throughout several mission-critical offices, including the Mission Operations Directorate and the Flight Director s Office, for worldwide participation of authorized users in NASA processes. At the Flight Director s Office, TieFlow allows personnel to electronically submit and review changes to the flight rules carried out during missions.

  18. Analysis of ICPP fuel storage rack inner tie and corner tie substructures

    SciTech Connect

    Nitzel, M.E.; Rahl, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    Finite element models were developed and analyses performed for the tie plate, inner tie block assembly, and corner tie block assembly of a 25 port fuel rack assembly designed for installation in Pool 1 of Building 666 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. These models were specifically developed to investigate the adequacy of certain welds joining components of the fuel storage rack assembly. The work scope for the task was limited to an investigation of the stress levels in the subject subassemblies when subjected to seismic loads. Structural acceptance criteria used for the elastic calculations performed were as found in the overall rack design report as issued by the rack`s designer, Holtec International. Structural acceptance criteria used for the plastic calculations performed as part of this effort were as defined in Subsection NF and Appendix F of the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The results of the analyses will also apply to the 30 port fuel storage rack design that is also scheduled for installation in Pool 1 of ICPP 666. The results obtained from the analyses performed for this task indicate that the welds joining the inner tie block and corner tie block to the surrounding rack structure meet the acceptance criteria. Further, the structural members (plates and blocks) were also found to be within the allowable stress limits established by the acceptance criteria. The separate analysis performed on the inner tie plate confirmed the structural adequacy for both the inner tie plate, corner tie plate, and tie block bolts. The analysis results verified that the inner tie and corner tie block should be capable of transferring the expected seismic load without structural failure.

  19. Tie1 controls angiopoietin function in vascular remodeling and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Emilia A; Lampinen, Anita; Giri, Hemant; Anisimov, Andrey; Kim, Minah; Allen, Breanna; Fang, Shentong; D'Amico, Gabriela; Sipilä, Tuomas J; Lohela, Marja; Strandin, Tomas; Vaheri, Antti; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Koh, Gou Young; McDonald, Donald M; Alitalo, Kari; Saharinen, Pipsa

    2016-09-01

    The angiopoietin/Tie (ANG/Tie) receptor system controls developmental and tumor angiogenesis, inflammatory vascular remodeling, and vessel leakage. ANG1 is a Tie2 agonist that promotes vascular stabilization in inflammation and sepsis, whereas ANG2 is a context-dependent Tie2 agonist or antagonist. A limited understanding of ANG signaling mechanisms and the orphan receptor Tie1 has hindered development of ANG/Tie-targeted therapeutics. Here, we determined that both ANG1 and ANG2 binding to Tie2 increases Tie1-Tie2 interactions in a β1 integrin-dependent manner and that Tie1 regulates ANG-induced Tie2 trafficking in endothelial cells. Endothelial Tie1 was essential for the agonist activity of ANG1 and autocrine ANG2. Deletion of endothelial Tie1 in mice reduced Tie2 phosphorylation and downstream Akt activation, increased FOXO1 nuclear localization and transcriptional activation, and prevented ANG1- and ANG2-induced capillary-to-venous remodeling. However, in acute endotoxemia, the Tie1 ectodomain that is responsible for interaction with Tie2 was rapidly cleaved, ANG1 agonist activity was decreased, and autocrine ANG2 agonist activity was lost, which led to suppression of Tie2 signaling. Tie1 cleavage also occurred in patients with hantavirus infection. These results support a model in which Tie1 directly interacts with Tie2 to promote ANG-induced vascular responses under noninflammatory conditions, whereas in inflammation, Tie1 cleavage contributes to loss of ANG2 agonist activity and vascular stability. PMID:27548530

  20. The Arithmetic Tie Effect Is Mainly Encoding-based.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenberger, Sven

    2001-01-01

    Examined two possible explanations for the arithmetic tie effect: faster encoding of tie problems versus faster access to arithmetic facts. Found that the tie effect vanished with heterogeneous addition problems, and for seven out of eight participants, the effect vanished with heterogeneous multiplication problems. Concludes that the tie effect…

  1. TIE: An Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Śmieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jarosław; Stolarski, Maciej S.

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions. PMID:25072656

  2. Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Kenneth J.; Boboltz, David; Fey, Alan Lee; Gaume, Ralph A.; Zacharias, Norbert

    2004-01-01

    The Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects Key Science program will investigate the underlying physics of SIM grid objects. Extragalactic objects in the SIM grid will be used to tie the SIM reference frame to the quasi-inertial reference frame defined by extragalactic objects and to remove any residual frame rotation with respect to the extragalactic frame. The current realization of the extragalactic frame is the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The ICRF is defined by the radio positions of 212 extragalactic objects and is the IAU sanctioned fundamental astronomical reference frame. This key project will advance our knowledge of the physics of the objects which will make up the SIM grid, such as quasars and chromospherically active stars, and relates directly to the stability of the SIM reference frame. The following questions concerning the physics of reference frame tie objects will be investigated.

  3. Inferring tie strength from online directed behavior.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jason J; Settle, Jaime E; Bond, Robert M; Fariss, Christopher J; Marlow, Cameron; Fowler, James H

    2013-01-01

    Some social connections are stronger than others. People have not only friends, but also best friends. Social scientists have long recognized this characteristic of social connections and researchers frequently use the term tie strength to refer to this concept. We used online interaction data (specifically, Facebook interactions) to successfully identify real-world strong ties. Ground truth was established by asking users themselves to name their closest friends in real life. We found the frequency of online interaction was diagnostic of strong ties, and interaction frequency was much more useful diagnostically than were attributes of the user or the user's friends. More private communications (messages) were not necessarily more informative than public communications (comments, wall posts, and other interactions). PMID:23300964

  4. Inferring Tie Strength from Online Directed Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jason J.; Settle, Jaime E.; Bond, Robert M.; Fariss, Christopher J.; Marlow, Cameron; Fowler, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Some social connections are stronger than others. People have not only friends, but also best friends. Social scientists have long recognized this characteristic of social connections and researchers frequently use the term tie strength to refer to this concept. We used online interaction data (specifically, Facebook interactions) to successfully identify real-world strong ties. Ground truth was established by asking users themselves to name their closest friends in real life. We found the frequency of online interaction was diagnostic of strong ties, and interaction frequency was much more useful diagnostically than were attributes of the user or the user’s friends. More private communications (messages) were not necessarily more informative than public communications (comments, wall posts, and other interactions). PMID:23300964

  5. High tie versus low tie of the inferior mesenteric artery: a protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In anterior resection of rectum, the section level of inferior mesenteric artery is still subject of controversy between the advocates of high and low tie. The low tie is the division and ligation to the branching of the left colic artery and the high tie is the division and ligation at its origin at the aorta. We intend to assess current scientific evidence in literature and to establish the differences comparing technique, anatomy and physiology. The aim of this protocol is to achieve a meta-analysis that tests safety and feasibility of the two procedures with several types of outcome measures. PMID:22071020

  6. Child's Obesity Tied to Mom's Pregnancy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158735.html Child's Obesity Tied to Mom's Pregnancy Weight: Study Elevated blood ... blood sugar levels in pregnancy may put her child at increased risk for being ... for childhood obesity," said study lead author Dr. Teresa Hillier. She's ...

  7. Tie it All Together: English, Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenzel, Elaine; Williams, Jean

    In the Quinmester course "Tie it All Together," students read a variety of short expository pieces, discovering inductively the structure of the sentences and paragraphs in the works, and then proceeding to develop their own. The subject matter in regard to sentences includes: word meanings; sentence elements; sentence structure. Invention,…

  8. NASA's Global Imagery Management System: TIE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarcon, C.; Roberts, J. T.; Huang, T.; Thompson, C. K.; Cechini, M. F.; Hall, J. R.; Murphy, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)' Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) is a system that provides full resolution imagery from a broad set of Earth science disciplines to the public. Using well-accepted standard protocols such as the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Tile Service (WMTS), GIBS delivers global imagery efficiently and responsively. Behind this service, lies The Imagery Exchange (TIE), a workflow data management solution developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. TIE is an Open Archival Information System responsible for orchestrating the workflow for acquisition, preparation, generation, and archiving of imagery to be served by the GIBS' web mapping tile service, OnEarth. The workflow collects imagery provenance throughout a product's lifecycle by leveraging the EOS Clearing House (ECHO) and other long-term metadata repositories in order to promote reproducibility. Through this focus on metadata, TIE provides spatial and temporal searching capabilities such as an OpenSearch interface as well as facilitating the generation of metadata standards such as the OGC GetCapabilities. Designed as a scalable system, TIE's subsystems can scale-up or scale-down depending on the data volume it handles through the usage of popular open source technologies such as Apache Zookeeper and Grails. This presentation will cover the challenges and solutions to developing such a horizontally scalable data management system where science products are often varied with disparate provenance pertaining to source platforms and instruments, spatial resolutions, processing algorithms, metadata models and packaging specifications.

  9. Developing Closer Ties with the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Gregor; Hoddinott, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The need for research administrators to understand and appreciate the pharmaceutical industry's research and development environment is discussed, using examples from Canada. The research administrator's role in the technology transfer process and implications for faculty are examined. Ways to build closer school-industry ties are discussed. (MSE)

  10. Self-assembled silver nanoparticles in a bow-tie antenna configuration.

    PubMed

    Eskelinen, Antti-Pekka; Moerland, Robert J; Kostiainen, Mauri A; Törmä, Päivi

    2014-03-26

    The self-assembly of silver nanoparticles into a bow-tie antenna configuration is achieved with the DNA origami method. Instead of complicated particle geometries, spherical silver nanoparticles are used. Formation of the structures in high yields is verified with transmission electron microscopy and agarose gel electrophoresis. According to finite-difference time-domain simulations, the antenna configuration could be used as a DNA sensor. PMID:24659271

  11. 49 CFR 195.308 - Testing of tie-ins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Testing of tie-ins. 195.308 Section 195.308 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Pressure Testing § 195.308 Testing of tie-ins. Pipe associated with tie-ins must be...

  12. 27 CFR 6.72 - “Tie-in” sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false âTie-inâ sales. 6.72 Section 6.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Quota Sales § 6.72 “Tie-in” sales. The...

  13. Chord, Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Detail in Plan; Crossbracing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord, Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Detail in Plan; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail in Plan; Chord Joining Detail in Plan & Elevation; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar, & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail in Section; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar & Horizontal Brace Joint Detail - Narrows Bridge, Spanning Sugar Creek at Old County Road 280 East, Marshall, Parke County, IN

  14. Tie2 Regulates Tumor Metastasis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, Daisuke; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Nakashima, Dai; Miyamoto, Isao; Kimura, Yasushi; Saito, Tomoaki; Suzuki, Takane; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The endothelial-specific receptor, tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like loops and epidermal growth factor homology domains-2 (Tie2) is a member of the tyrosine kinase family and is ubiquitous in normal tissues; however, little is known about the mechanisms and roles of Tie2 in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). In the current study, we investigated the expression status of Tie2 in OSCCs by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry and the functional mechanisms of Tie2 using its overexpressed OSCC (oeTie2) cells and Tie2 blocking by its antibody. We found that Tie2 expression was down-regulated significantly (p < 0.05) in OSCCs compared with normal counterparts in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, oeTie2 cells showed higher cellular adhesion (p < 0.05) and lower cellular invasion (p < 0.05) compared with control cells; whereas there was similar cellular proliferation in both transfectants. Furthermore, cellular adhesion was inhibited and invasion was activated by Tie2 function-blocking antibody (p < 0.05), indicating that Tie2 directly regulates cellular adhesion and invasion. As expected, among the clinical variables analyzed, Tie2-positivity in patients with OSCC was correlated closely with negative lymph node metastasis. These results suggested for the first time that Tie2 plays an important role in tumor metastasis and may be a potential biomarker for OSCC metastasis. PMID:27053959

  15. The American Board of Ophthalmology Tie.

    PubMed

    Wand, Martin

    2016-09-01

    This article discusses the efforts of the American Board of Ophthalmology (ABO) to recognize and celebrate the contributions of its volunteers to certification programs and processes. In recognition of service to the ABO, all directors and examiners received ties for men and scarves for women bearing the ABO logo and colors. This article briefly describes the rationale and the importance of these articles for those who receive them. PMID:27550002

  16. Modeling Social Ties and Household Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Sara S.

    2013-01-01

    Underlying the aggregate phenomena of persistent problems such as urban sprawl and spatial socio-economic disparity is the individual choice of where to live. This study develops an agent-based model to simulate social and economic influences on neighborhood choice. With Danville, Illinois as an empirical context, a pattern-oriented approach is employed to examine the role of social ties in shaping intra-urban household mobility. In the model, household agents decide whether and where to relocate within the community based upon factors such as neighborhood attractiveness, affordability, and the density of a household's social network in the prospective block group. Social network and neighborhood choices are encoded with logit utility functions. The relative influence of factors affecting the formation of social ties in the simulated social network, such as geographic proximity, similarity of income, race, and presence of children, are adjusted using parameter variation to create alternative model settings. Simulated migration patterns resulting from different network and neighborhood choice coefficients are compared with observed migration patterns over a two-year period. Based upon 1000 simulation experiments, a regression of homeowner migration error (the difference between simulated and observed migration) relative to the parameter settings revealed components of social network choice such as income, race, and probability of local ties to be significant in matching observed migration patterns. A non-linear effect of simulated social networks on household mobility and thus migration error was exhibited in this study. PMID:25035520

  17. Inferring social ties from geographic coincidences

    PubMed Central

    Crandall, David J.; Backstrom, Lars; Cosley, Dan; Suri, Siddharth; Huttenlocher, Daniel; Kleinberg, Jon

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which social ties between people can be inferred from co-occurrence in time and space: Given that two people have been in approximately the same geographic locale at approximately the same time, on multiple occasions, how likely are they to know each other? Furthermore, how does this likelihood depend on the spatial and temporal proximity of the co-occurrences? Such issues arise in data originating in both online and offline domains as well as settings that capture interfaces between online and offline behavior. Here we develop a framework for quantifying the answers to such questions, and we apply this framework to publicly available data from a social media site, finding that even a very small number of co-occurrences can result in a high empirical likelihood of a social tie. We then present probabilistic models showing how such large probabilities can arise from a natural model of proximity and co-occurrence in the presence of social ties. In addition to providing a method for establishing some of the first quantifiable estimates of these measures, our findings have potential privacy implications, particularly for the ways in which social structures can be inferred from public online records that capture individuals’ physical locations over time. PMID:21148099

  18. Modeling Social Ties and Household Mobility.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Sara S

    2014-01-01

    Underlying the aggregate phenomena of persistent problems such as urban sprawl and spatial socio-economic disparity is the individual choice of where to live. This study develops an agent-based model to simulate social and economic influences on neighborhood choice. With Danville, Illinois as an empirical context, a pattern-oriented approach is employed to examine the role of social ties in shaping intra-urban household mobility. In the model, household agents decide whether and where to relocate within the community based upon factors such as neighborhood attractiveness, affordability, and the density of a household's social network in the prospective block group. Social network and neighborhood choices are encoded with logit utility functions. The relative influence of factors affecting the formation of social ties in the simulated social network, such as geographic proximity, similarity of income, race, and presence of children, are adjusted using parameter variation to create alternative model settings. Simulated migration patterns resulting from different network and neighborhood choice coefficients are compared with observed migration patterns over a two-year period. Based upon 1000 simulation experiments, a regression of homeowner migration error (the difference between simulated and observed migration) relative to the parameter settings revealed components of social network choice such as income, race, and probability of local ties to be significant in matching observed migration patterns. A non-linear effect of simulated social networks on household mobility and thus migration error was exhibited in this study. PMID:25035520

  19. Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    A grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. Operating costs of a PV power system are low compared to conventional power technologies. This method can displace the highest-cost electricity during times of peak demand in most climatic regions, and thus reduce grid loading. Net metering is often used, in which independent power producers such as PV power systems are connected to the utility grid via the customers main service panels and meters. When the PV power system is generating more power than required at that location, the excess power is provided to the utility grid. The customer pays the net of the power purchased when the on-site power demand is greater than the onsite power production, and the excess power is returned to the utility grid. Power generated by the PV system reduces utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical, with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics have been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy equal to the modern PV panels. The grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed, and this served to validate the basic principles developed, and the theoretical work that was performed. Grid-tied PV power systems are reliable, maintenance- free, long-life power systems, and are of significant value to NASA and the community. Of particular value are the analytical tools and capabilities that have been successfully developed. Performance predictions can be made confidently for grid-tied PV systems of various scales. The work was done under the NASA Hybrid Power Management (HPM

  20. Crystal Structures of the Tie2 Receptor Ectodomain and the Angiopoietin-2-Tie2 Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Barton,W.; Tzvetkova-Robev, D.; Miranda, E.; Kolev, M.; Rajashankar, K.; Himanen, J.; Nikolov, D.

    2006-01-01

    The Tie receptor tyrosine kinases and their angiopoietin (Ang) ligands play central roles in developmental and tumor-induced angiogenesis. Here we present the crystal structures of the Tie2 ligand-binding region alone and in complex with Ang2. In contrast to prediction, Tie2 contains not two but three immunoglobulin (Ig) domains, which fold together with the three epidermal growth factor domains into a compact, arrowhead-shaped structure. Ang2 binds at the tip of the arrowhead utilizing a lock-and-key mode of ligand recognition--unique for a receptor kinase--where two complementary surfaces interact with each other with no domain rearrangements and little conformational change in either molecule. Ang2-Tie2 recognition is similar to antibody-protein antigen recognition, including the location of the ligand-binding site within the Ig fold. Analysis of the structures and structure-based mutagenesis provide insight into the mechanism of receptor activation and support the hypothesis that all angiopoietins interact with Tie2 in a structurally similar manner.

  1. Bow-tie antennas on a dielectric half-space - Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, Richard C.; Mcphedran, Ross C.; Popovic, Zorana; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.; Tong, Peter P.

    1987-01-01

    A new formulation is discussed for the rigous calculation of the radiation pattern of a bow-tie antenna of finite length and infinitesimal thickness, placed on a lossless dielectric substrate. The analysis is based on a representation of the current density on the metal surface of the antenna as a sum of an imposed (quasistatic) term and a set of current modes with unknown amplitudes. Free-space fields that are expressed in terms of continuous spectra of symmetrized plane waves are matched to the current modes using the method of moments. The resulting set of equations are solved for the unknown current amplitudes. The calculations show that for increasing bow length the antenna impedance spirals rapidly to a value predicted by transmission line theory. The theory also shows that the E-plane pattern of a two-wavelength, 60-deg bow-tie antenna is dominated by low-loss current modes propagating at the dielectric wavenumber. As the bow tie narrows, the loss of the modes increases, and the dominant wavenumber tends to the quasi-static value. Pattern measurements made at 94 GHz are shown to agree well with theoretical predictions. Measurements for a long-wire antenna, a linear array of bow-tie elements, and a log-periodic antenna are also presented.

  2. Migrant networks and international migration: testing weak ties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mao-Mei

    2013-08-01

    This article examines the role of migrant social networks in international migration and extends prior research by testing the strength of tie theory, decomposing networks by sources and resources, and disentangling network effects from complementary explanations. Nearly all previous empirical research has ignored friendship ties and has largely neglected extended-family ties. Using longitudinal data from the Migration between Africa and Europe project collected in Africa (Senegal) and Europe (France, Italy, and Spain), this article tests the robustness of network theory-and in particular, the role of weak ties-on first-time migration between Senegal and Europe. Discrete-time hazard model results confirm that weak ties are important and that network influences appear to be gendered, but they do not uphold the contention in previous literature that strong ties are more important than weak ties for male and female migration. Indeed, weak ties play an especially important role in male migration. In terms of network resources, having more resources as a result of strong ties appears to dampen overall migration, while having more resources as a result of weaker ties appears to stimulate male migration. Finally, the diversity of resources has varied effects for male and female migration. PMID:23703222

  3. Tie – an Accessory Fashion Detail or a Symbol?

    PubMed Central

    Šakić, Vlado; Franc, Renata; Ivičić, Ines; Maričić, Jelena

    2007-01-01

    Aim The first aim of this study was to establish the frequency of wearing a tie or business neckerchief on different occasions and in relation to age and educational level. The second aim was to establish whether men who frequently wear a tie were attributed certain characteristics more often than men who rarely wear a tie and to establish whether there were differences in the attribution of these characteristics according to sex, age, educational level, and the frequency of wearing a tie. Method Data were collected in 2005 by a method of face to face interview on a national representative sample (n = 1007). Participants estimated how often they wore a tie or business neckerchief on 9 different occasions. They also estimated whether each of 14 characteristics was more pronounced in men who frequently wear a tie. Results Tie was most frequently worn on festive and formal occasions, such as weddings and festive gatherings, and least frequently on family gatherings and when traveling. On all occasions, tie was more often worn by men of higher educational level and of older and middle age. A relatively small proportion of Croatian citizens based their conclusions on men’s characteristics on the frequency of wearing a tie. Men who frequently wear a tie were relatively most often attributed the characteristics of ambition, politeness, and respectability, with significant differences found between persons who attributed these characteristics according to sex, age, educational level, and the frequency of wearing a tie by the participants themselves. Conclusion Wearing a tie or neckerchief is an exception rather than a rule for most of the Croatian population, and is associated only with specific, primarily festive and formal occasions. Such use of the tie suggests that people adapt their style of clothing to the expectations of others and use it as a specific symbol of the occasion. PMID:17710774

  4. Coupling human mobility and social ties.

    PubMed

    Toole, Jameson L; Herrera-Yaqüe, Carlos; Schneider, Christian M; González, Marta C

    2015-04-01

    Studies using massive, passively collected data from communication technologies have revealed many ubiquitous aspects of social networks, helping us understand and model social media, information diffusion and organizational dynamics. More recently, these data have come tagged with geographical information, enabling studies of human mobility patterns and the science of cities. We combine these two pursuits and uncover reproducible mobility patterns among social contacts. First, we introduce measures of mobility similarity and predictability and measure them for populations of users in three large urban areas. We find individuals' visitations patterns are far more similar to and predictable by social contacts than strangers and that these measures are positively correlated with tie strength. Unsupervised clustering of hourly variations in mobility similarity identifies three categories of social ties and suggests geography is an important feature to contextualize social relationships. We find that the composition of a user's ego network in terms of the type of contacts they keep is correlated with mobility behaviour. Finally, we extend a popular mobility model to include movement choices based on social contacts and compare its ability to reproduce empirical measurements with two additional models of mobility. PMID:25716185

  5. Coupling human mobility and social ties

    PubMed Central

    Toole, Jameson L.; Herrera-Yaqüe, Carlos; Schneider, Christian M.; González, Marta C.

    2015-01-01

    Studies using massive, passively collected data from communication technologies have revealed many ubiquitous aspects of social networks, helping us understand and model social media, information diffusion and organizational dynamics. More recently, these data have come tagged with geographical information, enabling studies of human mobility patterns and the science of cities. We combine these two pursuits and uncover reproducible mobility patterns among social contacts. First, we introduce measures of mobility similarity and predictability and measure them for populations of users in three large urban areas. We find individuals' visitations patterns are far more similar to and predictable by social contacts than strangers and that these measures are positively correlated with tie strength. Unsupervised clustering of hourly variations in mobility similarity identifies three categories of social ties and suggests geography is an important feature to contextualize social relationships. We find that the composition of a user's ego network in terms of the type of contacts they keep is correlated with mobility behaviour. Finally, we extend a popular mobility model to include movement choices based on social contacts and compare its ability to reproduce empirical measurements with two additional models of mobility. PMID:25716185

  6. Strong Ties, Weak Ties, and Human Capital: Latino Immigrant Employment outside the Enclave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffer, Max J.; Parra, Pilar A.

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the role of social ties and human capital in the integration of Latino immigrants into the local economy. This analysis extends earlier research by focusing on more rural contexts with limited labor-market opportunities and less access to social resources provided by coethnics. We reconsider conclusions of previous studies by…

  7. 27 CFR 6.72 - “Tie-in” sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false âTie-inâ sales. 6.72 Section 6.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Quota Sales § 6.72 “Tie-in” sales. The act by an industry member of requiring that...

  8. 27 CFR 6.72 - “Tie-in” sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false âTie-inâ sales. 6.72 Section 6.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Quota Sales § 6.72 “Tie-in” sales. The act by an industry member of requiring that...

  9. 27 CFR 6.72 - “Tie-in” sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false âTie-inâ sales. 6.72 Section 6.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Quota Sales § 6.72 “Tie-in” sales. The act by an industry member of requiring that...

  10. 27 CFR 6.72 - “Tie-in” sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false âTie-inâ sales. 6.72 Section 6.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Quota Sales § 6.72 “Tie-in” sales. The act by an industry member of requiring that...

  11. Failure of expansion joint tie rods -- Impact on bellows integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.L.; Miller, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Expansion joints are used in piping systems to accomodate pipe deflections during service and to facilitate fitup. Often, tie rods are employed to limit the range of axial deflection. Additional restraint against excessive displacement can be provided by the surrounding pipe and associated supports. This paper presents a methodology that was employed to estimate the consequences of tie rod failure. Of particular interest is whether tie rod failure can lead to sufficient displacement as to cause bellows rupture.

  12. Failure of expansion joint tie rods -- Impact on bellows integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.L.; Miller, R.F.

    1992-12-31

    Expansion joints are used in piping systems to accomodate pipe deflections during service and to facilitate fitup. Often, tie rods are employed to limit the range of axial deflection. Additional restraint against excessive displacement can be provided by the surrounding pipe and associated supports. This paper presents a methodology that was employed to estimate the consequences of tie rod failure. Of particular interest is whether tie rod failure can lead to sufficient displacement as to cause bellows rupture.

  13. Gas utility okays joining method for tie-ins and repairs--Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Harms, G.A. )

    1993-10-01

    Canadian Western Natural Gas (CWNG), like most U.S. and Canadian gas distribution utilities, was slow to adopt electrofusion for joining polyethylene pipe, but after extensive evaluation the company has approved the fusion method for difficult tie-ins and repairs. Company experiments with the fusion process started in the mid-1980s. Documentation since then has shown the technique to provide quality joining with economic benefits, particularly where smaller excavations are necessary. CWNG serves some 310,000 customers in 115 Southern Alberta communities including the major urban centers of Lethbridge and Calgary. The gas system includes production and storage facilities, high pressure transmission pipe lines and stations, and urban and rural distribution networks. Part 1 of the series highlighted CWNG's history with plastic pipe, conventional and electrofusion processes and electrofusion history. Part 2 looks at training time, versatility, equipment maintenance and applications such as repairs, tie-ins and new construction.

  14. Gene expression analysis of Tek/Tie2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Stephen H; Babichev, Yael; Rodrigues, Natalie; Voskas, Daniel; Ling, Ling; Nguyen, Vicky P K H; Dumont, Daniel J

    2005-07-14

    The elaboration of the vasculature during embryonic development involves restructuring of the early vessels into a more complex vascular network. Of particular importance to this vascular remodeling process is the requirement of the Tek/Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinase. Mouse gene-targeting studies have shown that the Tie2-deficient embryos succumb to embryonic death at midgestation due to insufficient sprouting and remodeling of the primary capillary plexus. To identify the underlying genetic mechanisms regulating the process of vascular remodeling, transcriptomes modulated by Tie2 signaling were analyzed utilizing serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Two libraries were constructed and sequenced using embryonic day 8.5 yolk sac tissues from Tie2 wild-type and the Tie2-null littermates. After tag extraction, 45,689 and 45,275 SAGE tags were obtained for the Tie2 wild-type and Tie2-null libraries, respectively, yielding a total of 21,376 distinct tags. Close to 62% of the tags were uniquely annotated, whereas 10% of the total tags were unknown. Using semiquantitative PCR, the differential expression of eight genes was confirmed that included Elk3, an important angiogenic switch gene which was upregulated in the absence of Tie2 signaling. The results of this study provide valuable insight into the potential association between Tie2 signaling and other known angiogenic pathways as well as genes that might have novel functions in vascular remodeling. PMID:15899944

  15. BSE Rap: intergenerational ties to save lives.

    PubMed

    Ehmann, J L

    1993-09-01

    This article presents an innovative public-education strategy that was created to promote breast health awareness and early breast cancer detection among minority and low-income adolescent females. Given the importance of teaching breast self-examination (BSE), program development focused on creation of the BSE Rap, a lively music-video presentation. Increasing adolescents' knowledge and awareness of BSE is viewed as a springboard for disseminating information to their mothers and grandmothers. Funding was obtained for production of a video and a breast health diary, which are the program's key components. Marketing strategies included contacts with community organizations and healthcare professionals. Program evaluations reveal that the BSE Rap serves as a positive motivator for participants to discuss BSE and mammography with their mothers and grandmothers. The BSE Rap offers oncology nurses the opportunity to save lives using a unique and creative tool that focuses on intergenerational ties. PMID:8415152

  16. 12 CFR 225.7 - Exceptions to tying restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exceptions to tying restrictions. 225.7 Section 225.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations General Provisions § 225.7 Exceptions to tying restrictions....

  17. 12 CFR 225.7 - Exceptions to tying restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exceptions to tying restrictions. 225.7 Section... SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations General... anti-tying restrictions of section 106 of the Bank Holding Company Act Amendments of 1970 (12...

  18. 12 CFR 225.7 - Exceptions to tying restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exceptions to tying restrictions. 225.7 Section... SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations General... anti-tying restrictions of section 106 of the Bank Holding Company Act Amendments of 1970 (12...

  19. 12 CFR 225.7 - Exceptions to tying restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exceptions to tying restrictions. 225.7 Section... SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations General Provisions...-tying restrictions of section 106 of the Bank Holding Company Act Amendments of 1970 (12 U.S.C....

  20. Evolution of bow-tie architectures in biology.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Tamar; Mayo, Avraham E; Tlusty, Tsvi; Alon, Uri

    2015-03-01

    Bow-tie or hourglass structure is a common architectural feature found in many biological systems. A bow-tie in a multi-layered structure occurs when intermediate layers have much fewer components than the input and output layers. Examples include metabolism where a handful of building blocks mediate between multiple input nutrients and multiple output biomass components, and signaling networks where information from numerous receptor types passes through a small set of signaling pathways to regulate multiple output genes. Little is known, however, about how bow-tie architectures evolve. Here, we address the evolution of bow-tie architectures using simulations of multi-layered systems evolving to fulfill a given input-output goal. We find that bow-ties spontaneously evolve when the information in the evolutionary goal can be compressed. Mathematically speaking, bow-ties evolve when the rank of the input-output matrix describing the evolutionary goal is deficient. The maximal compression possible (the rank of the goal) determines the size of the narrowest part of the network-that is the bow-tie. A further requirement is that a process is active to reduce the number of links in the network, such as product-rule mutations, otherwise a non-bow-tie solution is found in the evolutionary simulations. This offers a mechanism to understand a common architectural principle of biological systems, and a way to quantitate the effective rank of the goals under which they evolved. PMID:25798588

  1. 12 CFR 563.36 - Tying restriction exception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-OPERATIONS Operation and Structure § 563.36 Tying restriction exception. (a) Safe harbor for combined-balance... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tying restriction exception. 563.36 Section 563.... (b) Limitations on exception. This exception shall terminate upon a finding by the OTS that...

  2. Chord Panel Post, Vertical X Bracing & Horizontal Tie Joint ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord Panel Post, Vertical X Bracing & Horizontal Tie Joint Detail; Chord Joining Block & Spacer Block Detail; Cross Bracing Joint Detail; Chord Panel Post Diagonal & Horizontal Tie Joint Detail - Jackson Covered Bridge, Spanning Sugar Creek, CR 775N (Changed from Spanning Sugar Creek), Bloomingdale, Parke County, IN

  3. Fifteen-minute consultation: the infant with a tongue tie.

    PubMed

    Bowley, Douglas M; Arul, G Suren

    2014-08-01

    Tongue tie is an increasingly common cause for referral of infants to our general paediatric surgery service. In this article, we will explore the indications for tongue tie division in the newborn child, the practicalities of the procedure and the supporting evidence. PMID:24419208

  4. Tongue tie and breastfeeding: assessing and overcoming the difficulties.

    PubMed

    Breward, Sharon

    2006-09-01

    Tongue tie, a condition in which the tongue's mobility is restricted, may reduce the ability of babies to breastfeed successfully. In this age of mass artificial feeding, the management of this condition has been, until recently, overlooked. This article highlights the effects of tongue tie on breastfeeding and what health professionals should be doing to assess and manage any difficulties PMID:17009777

  5. Employees and Creativity: Social Ties and Access to Heterogeneous Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiung-En; Liu, Chih-Hsing Sam

    2015-01-01

    This study dealt with employee social ties, knowledge heterogeneity contacts, and the generation of creativity. Although prior studies demonstrated a relationship between network position and creativity, inadequate attention has been paid to network ties and heterogeneity knowledge contacts. This study considered the social interaction processes…

  6. Evolution of Bow-Tie Architectures in Biology

    PubMed Central

    Friedlander, Tamar; Mayo, Avraham E.; Tlusty, Tsvi; Alon, Uri

    2015-01-01

    Bow-tie or hourglass structure is a common architectural feature found in many biological systems. A bow-tie in a multi-layered structure occurs when intermediate layers have much fewer components than the input and output layers. Examples include metabolism where a handful of building blocks mediate between multiple input nutrients and multiple output biomass components, and signaling networks where information from numerous receptor types passes through a small set of signaling pathways to regulate multiple output genes. Little is known, however, about how bow-tie architectures evolve. Here, we address the evolution of bow-tie architectures using simulations of multi-layered systems evolving to fulfill a given input-output goal. We find that bow-ties spontaneously evolve when the information in the evolutionary goal can be compressed. Mathematically speaking, bow-ties evolve when the rank of the input-output matrix describing the evolutionary goal is deficient. The maximal compression possible (the rank of the goal) determines the size of the narrowest part of the network—that is the bow-tie. A further requirement is that a process is active to reduce the number of links in the network, such as product-rule mutations, otherwise a non-bow-tie solution is found in the evolutionary simulations. This offers a mechanism to understand a common architectural principle of biological systems, and a way to quantitate the effective rank of the goals under which they evolved. PMID:25798588

  7. Multicentre randomised double bind crossover trial on contamination of conventional ties and bow ties in routine obstetric and gynaecological practice.

    PubMed Central

    Biljan, M M; Hart, C A; Sunderland, D; Manasse, P R; Kingsland, C R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess level of contamination of neckwear worn by gynaecologists and obstetricians during routine working week. DESIGN--Multicentre randomised double blind crossover trial. Participants wore the same conventional ties for three days in one week and bow ties for the same period in second week. SETTING--Two teaching and three district general hospitals in the midlands, Wales, and north England. SUBJECTS--15 registrars and senior registrars. INTERVENTIONS--A swab soaked in sterile saline was taken from specific area on ties at end of first and third working days and sent in transport medium for culture on chocolatised blood and MacConkey agar for 48 hours. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Level of bacteriological growth assessed semiquantitatively (0 for no contamination; for heavy contamination) after swabs had been cultured. At end of study the participants completed a questionnaire to assess their attitude toward wearing different types of necktie. RESULTS--12 doctors (80%) completed the study. Although bow ties were significantly less contaminated at end of first working day (z = -2.354, p = 0.019), this difference was not maintained; there was no difference in level of contamination on third day. Level of contamination did not increase between first and third day of wearing the same garment. One of the 10 doctors who returned the questionnaire found the bow tie very uncomfortable. All participants would consider wearing a bow tie if it proved to be less contaminated than a conventional tie. CONCLUSIONS--Although a significant difference in contamination was established between conventional and bow ties on first day of study, this difference was not confirmed on third day and there is unlikely to be any real association between tie type and bacterial contamination. Because of its negative image and difficulty to tie, the bow tie will probably remain a minority fashion. Images p1583-a PMID:8292945

  8. Considering ties elasticities in high frequency rail dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knothe, K.; Ilias, N.; Goetz, M.; Ripke, B.

    1993-05-01

    The eigenfrequencies of elastic railroad ties are experimentally and numerically determined. The eigenfrequencies were experimentally obtained for vertical and lateral eigenoscillations shapes. A finite element program, which contains interpolation hermitian polynomials, was used for calculating eigenfrequencies; bending and shear stiffnesses were taken into consideration and the coupling between flexion and torsion was neglected. The results were compared with data obtained for rigid ties. An approximation formula for eigenfrequency calculation of ties, based on the assumption of a beam with constant stiffness and subjected to shear deformation and torsional inertia, was given. A model which takes into account the elastic properties of ties was developed for calculating the compliance of rails in the frequency area. From the results it can be deduced that elastic calculations for ties are only necessary for frequencies lower than 200 Hz.

  9. Broadband millimeter-wave GaAs transmitters and receivers using planar bow-tie antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konishi, Y.; Kamegawa, M.; Case, M.; Yu, R.; Rodwell, M. J. W.; York, R. A.; Rutledge, D. B.

    1992-01-01

    We report broadband monolithic transmitters and receivers IC's for mm-wave electromagnetic measurements. The IC's use nonlinear transmission lines (NLTL) and sampling circuits as picosecond pulse generators and detectors. The pulses are radiated and received by planar monolithic bow-tie antennas, collimated with silicon substrate lenses and off-axis parabolic reflectors. Through Fourier transformation of the received pulse, 30-250 GHz free space gain-frequency measurements are demonstrated with an accuracy approximately = 0.17 dB, RMS.

  10. Grid tied PV system energy smoothing.

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, Keith Phillip; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Hund, Thomas D.

    2010-06-01

    Grid-tied PV energy smoothing was implemented by using a valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery as a temporary energy storage device to both charge and discharge as required to smooth the inverter energy output from the PV array. Inverter output was controlled by the average solar irradiance over the previous 1h time interval. On a clear day the solar irradiance power curve is offset by about 1h, while on a variable cloudy day the inverter output power curve will be smoothed based on the average solar irradiance. Test results demonstrate that this smoothing algorithm works very well. Battery state of charge was more difficult to manage because of the variable system inefficiencies. Testing continued for 30-days and established consistent operational performance for extended periods of time under a wide variety of resource conditions. Both battery technologies from Exide (Absolyte) and East Penn (Advanced Valve Regulated Lead-Acid) proved to cycle well at a partial state of charge over the time interval tested.

  11. Grid-tied PV battery systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, Keith Phillip; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Hund, Thomas D.

    2010-09-01

    Grid tied PV energy smoothing was implemented by using a valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery as a temporary energy storage device to both charge and discharge as required to smooth the inverter energy output from the PV array. Inverter output was controlled by the average solar irradiance over the previous 1h time interval. On a clear day the solar irradiance power curve is offset by about 1h, while on a variable cloudy day the inverter output power curve will be smoothed based on the average solar irradiance. Test results demonstrate that this smoothing algorithm works very well. Battery state of charge was more difficult to manage because of the variable system inefficiencies. Testing continued for 30-days and established consistent operational performance for extended periods of time under a wide variety of resource conditions. Both battery technologies from Exide (Absolyte) and East Penn (ALABC Advanced) proved to cycle well at a Partial state of charge over the time interval tested.

  12. Differentiating weak ties and strong ties among external sources of influences for enterprise resource planning (ERP) adoption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, Benoit; Léger, Pierre-Majorique; Larocque, Denis

    2012-05-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems represent a major IT adoption decision. ERP adoption decisions, in the chemicals and allied products sectors, were examined between 1994 and 2005. Networks of strong ties and weak ties partners are investigated. Results show that neighbouring companies linked with strong ties can have an influence on organisations making such adoption decision. Past decisions made by major trading partners have a significant influence on the decision to adopt an ERP system for a given organisation. This reflects the complex nature of the knowledge required for such adoption.

  13. Paid Family Leave Tied to Decline in Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157492.html Paid Family Leave Tied to Decline in Child Abuse California ... 2016 FRIDAY, Feb. 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Paid family leave might lead to reduced risk of abuse- ...

  14. Flute stabilization by a cold line-tied blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, D.; Wickham, M.; Rynn, N.

    1982-09-01

    The curvature-driven flute instability in an axisymmetric mirror was stabilized by an annular line-tied plasma blanket. A significant temperature difference was maintained between core and blanket. Theoretical calculations support the experimental observations.

  15. ADHD Meds Tied to Lower Bone Density in Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157591.html ADHD Meds Tied to Lower Bone Density in Kids ... 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Children on medications for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have lower bone density than their ...

  16. Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk Too

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159652.html Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk Too Women with BRCA1 may want to ... increased risk for a deadly form of uterine cancer, a new study finds. The BRCA1 gene mutation ...

  17. External linkage tie permits reduction in ducting system flange thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfleger, R. O.

    1966-01-01

    External linkage tie reduces flange thickness and increases seal efficiency in high pressure ducting and piping systems. The linkage transmits the pressure separating load to the tube wall behind the flange allowing the flange to support only the seal.

  18. Views of the Apollo 11 Twentieth Anniversary Black Tie reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    View from the Apollo 11 Twentieth Anniversary Black Tie reception at the downtown Houston Hyatt Regency Hotel. Scene show NASA/JSC Director Aaron Cohen talking with NASA Administrator Richard H. Truly and his wife, Cody.

  19. Quality versus quantity of social ties in experimental cooperative networks

    PubMed Central

    Shirado, Hirokazu; Fu, Feng; Fowler, James H.; Christakis, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that allowing individuals to choose their partners can help to maintain cooperation in human social networks; this behaviour can supplement behavioural reciprocity, whereby humans are influenced to cooperate by peer pressure. However, it is unknown how the rate of forming and breaking social ties affects our capacity to cooperate. Here we use a series of online experiments involving 1,529 unique participants embedded in 90 experimental networks, to show that there is a ‘Goldilocks’ effect of network dynamism on cooperation. When the rate of change in social ties is too low, subjects choose to have many ties, even if they attach to defectors. When the rate is too high, cooperators cannot detach from defectors as much as defectors re-attach and, hence, subjects resort to behavioural reciprocity and switch their behaviour to defection. Optimal levels of cooperation are achieved at intermediate levels of change in social ties. PMID:24226079

  20. DO TIE LABORATORY BASED METHODS REALLY REFLECT FIELD CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) methods have been developed for both interstitial waters and whole sediments. These relatively simple laboratory methods are designed to identify specific toxicants or classes of toxicants in sediments; however, the question ...

  1. DO TIE LABORATORY BASED ASSESSMENT METHODS REALLY PREDICT FIELD EFFECTS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) methods have been developed for both porewaters and whole sediments. These relatively simple laboratory methods are designed to identify specific toxicants or classes of toxicants in sediments; however, the question of whethe...

  2. Traffic Pollution Tied to Preterm Birth Risk for Asthmatic Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157539.html Traffic Pollution Tied to Preterm Birth Risk for Asthmatic Women ... suggests. Both short- and long-term exposure to pollution from vehicles was linked to a higher risk ...

  3. Concussion Tied to More School Problems Than Other Sports Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Concussion Tied to More School Problems Than Other Sports Injuries Study suggests need for 'return-to-learn' ... more school difficulties than their peers with other sports-related injuries, a new study suggests. Researchers found ...

  4. Short Gap Between Pregnancies Tied to Higher Autism Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Short Gap Between Pregnancies Tied to Higher Autism Risk? Data review can't prove cause-and- ... in close succession may increase the risk of autism in children, a large new research review suggests. ...

  5. Chord, Horizontal Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Details; Crossbracing Center ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord, Horizontal Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Details; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Posts, Braces & Counterbrace Joint Detail - Brownsville Covered Bridge, Spanning East Fork Whitewater River (moved to Eagle Creek Park, Indianapolis), Brownsville, Union County, IN

  6. Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer Tied to Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer Tied to Depression Study found a 23 percent increased risk compared ... cancer may be at increased risk of developing depression, a new, large study suggests. The findings are ...

  7. Loss of Y Chromosome in Men Tied to Alzheimer's Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss of Y Chromosome in Men Tied to Alzheimer's Risk Study raises provocative questions, expert says To ... age may have an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, a new study suggests. The study of ...

  8. Quality versus quantity of social ties in experimental cooperative networks.

    PubMed

    Shirado, Hirokazu; Fu, Feng; Fowler, James H; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that allowing individuals to choose their partners can help to maintain cooperation in human social networks; this behaviour can supplement behavioural reciprocity, whereby humans are influenced to cooperate by peer pressure. However, it is unknown how the rate of forming and breaking social ties affects our capacity to cooperate. Here we use a series of online experiments involving 1,529 unique participants embedded in 90 experimental networks, to show that there is a 'Goldilocks' effect of network dynamism on cooperation. When the rate of change in social ties is too low, subjects choose to have many ties, even if they attach to defectors. When the rate is too high, cooperators cannot detach from defectors as much as defectors re-attach and, hence, subjects resort to behavioural reciprocity and switch their behaviour to defection. Optimal levels of cooperation are achieved at intermediate levels of change in social ties. PMID:24226079

  9. 9. DETAIL OF EAST PIER OF BRIDGE, SHOWING STEEL TIE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF EAST PIER OF BRIDGE, SHOWING STEEL TIE BARS INSERTED TO STABILIZE CRACKS. - Pennsylvania Railroad, 52nd Street Bridge, North Fifty-second Street at Lancaster Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. 18. Windlass capstan, looking aft. Windlass used for tying up ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Windlass capstan, looking aft. Windlass used for tying up as well as raising and lowering boat on starboard side. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter BRAMBLE, Waterfront at Lincoln Avenue, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

  11. TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATION (TIE) RESULTS FOR METAL CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identification of contaminants in sediment is necessary for sound management decisions on sediment disposal, remediation, determination of ecological risk, and source identification. We have been developing sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) techniques that allow ...

  12. Cross-border ties and Arab American mental health.

    PubMed

    Samari, Goleen

    2016-04-01

    Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N = 896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties--attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans. PMID:26999416

  13. Tongue-tie in the newborn: what, when, who and how? Exploring tongue-tie division.

    PubMed

    Todd, David A

    2014-07-01

    The division of tongue-tie (TT) in babies with feeding problems has become a more accepted procedure in recent years (Bowley & Arul 2013). Although case series reports had described the benefits of division in problematic breastfeeding (Ballard, Auer & Khoury et al 2002; Notestine 1990), it was not until randomised controlled trials (RCTs) provided significant evidence of improvement that the procedure became more accepted (Berry, Griffiths & Westcott 2012; Buryk, Bloom & Shope 2011; Dollberg et al 2006; Emond et al 2014; Hogan, Westcott & Griffiths 2005). However there are still several areas of debate. These include: 1) what type of TT produces problems with feeding and thus what type of TT should be divided, 2) who should have the procedure, 3) when should the TT division be performed and 4) how should the TT be divided. In this review I will discuss these areas of debate and shed some light on this very common but often devastating congenital condition. PMID:25109095

  14. Shingles Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Shingles Immunization Action Coalition Chickenpox Q&As Transmission Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Prevention & Treatment Related Pages Preventing Varicella Zoster Virus Transmission in Healthcare Settings Related Links Medline Plus NIH ...

  15. Tie Tube Heat Transfer Modeling for Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rockets

    SciTech Connect

    Clough, Joshua A.; Starkey, Ryan P.; Lewis, Mark J.; Lavelle, Thomas M.

    2007-01-30

    Bimodal nuclear thermal rocket systems have been shown to reduce the weight and cost of space vehicles to Mars and beyond by utilizing the reactor for power generation in the relatively long duration between burns in an interplanetary trajectory. No information, however, is available regarding engine and reactor-level operation of such bimodal systems. The purpose of this project is to generate engine and reactor models with sufficient fidelity and flexibility to accurately study the component-level effects of operating a propulsion-designed reactor at power generation levels. Previous development of a 1-D reactor and tie tube model found that ignoring heat generation inside of the tie tube leads to under-prediction of the temperature change and over-prediction of pressure change across the tie tube. This paper will present the development and results of a tie tube model that has been extended to account for heat generation, specifically in the moderator layer. This model is based on a 1-D distribution of power in the fuel elements and tie tubes, as a precursor to an eventual neutron-driven reactor model.

  16. Time varying networks and the weakness of strong ties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karsai, Márton; Perra, Nicola; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2014-02-01

    In most social and information systems the activity of agents generates rapidly evolving time-varying networks. The temporal variation in networks' connectivity patterns and the ongoing dynamic processes are usually coupled in ways that still challenge our mathematical or computational modelling. Here we analyse a mobile call dataset and find a simple statistical law that characterize the temporal evolution of users' egocentric networks. We encode this observation in a reinforcement process defining a time-varying network model that exhibits the emergence of strong and weak ties. We study the effect of time-varying and heterogeneous interactions on the classic rumour spreading model in both synthetic, and real-world networks. We observe that strong ties severely inhibit information diffusion by confining the spreading process among agents with recurrent communication patterns. This provides the counterintuitive evidence that strong ties may have a negative role in the spreading of information across networks.

  17. Quantifying tie-molecule content in semicrystalline polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermott, Amanda; Snyder, Chad; Deslauriers, Paul; Jones, Ronald

    Tie molecules bridging adjacent crystalline lamellae in semicrystalline polymers strongly impact mechanical properties, but they remain difficult to characterize. We demonstrate a new method of measuring tie-chain content: applying equilibrium swelling theory to small-angle neutron scattering patterns from semicrystalline polyethylene films whose interlamellar amorphous regions are swollen with deuterated organic solvent in a vapor-flow sample environment. To aid in validating the measurement, measured tie-chain content is compared with a primary structural parameter (PSP2) that is calculated from molecular architecture and correlates with slow crack growth behavior. Agreement is favorable for a linear polyethylene and a series of ethylene-hexene copolymers. Recent applications of the technique are also discussed.

  18. Time varying networks and the weakness of strong ties.

    PubMed

    Karsai, Márton; Perra, Nicola; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    In most social and information systems the activity of agents generates rapidly evolving time-varying networks. The temporal variation in networks' connectivity patterns and the ongoing dynamic processes are usually coupled in ways that still challenge our mathematical or computational modelling. Here we analyse a mobile call dataset and find a simple statistical law that characterize the temporal evolution of users' egocentric networks. We encode this observation in a reinforcement process defining a time-varying network model that exhibits the emergence of strong and weak ties. We study the effect of time-varying and heterogeneous interactions on the classic rumour spreading model in both synthetic, and real-world networks. We observe that strong ties severely inhibit information diffusion by confining the spreading process among agents with recurrent communication patterns. This provides the counterintuitive evidence that strong ties may have a negative role in the spreading of information across networks. PMID:24510159

  19. Tongue-tie and breastfeeding: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, Janet; Miles, Sandra C; Fulbrook, Paul

    2011-03-01

    In Australia, initial exclusive breastfeeding rates are 80%, reducing to 14% at 6 months. One factor that contributes to early breastfeeding cessation is infant tongue-tie, a congenital abnormality occurring in 2.8-10.7% of infants, in which a thickened, tightened or shortened frenulum is present. Tongue-tie is linked to breastfeeding difficulties, speech and dental problems. It may prevent the baby from taking enough breast tissue into its mouth to form a teat and the mother may experience painful, bleeding nipples and frequent feeding with poor infant weight gain; these problems may contribute to early breastfeeding cessation. This review of research literature analyses the evidence regarding tongue-tie to determine if appropriate intervention can reduce its impact on breastfeeding cessation, concluding that, for most infants, frenotomy offers the best chance of improved and continued breastfeeding. Furthermore, studies have demonstrated that the procedure does not lead to complications for the infant or mother. PMID:21608523

  20. Improving breastfeeding outcomes: the impact of tongue-tie.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Rosemary

    2012-06-01

    A tongue-tie (ankyloglossia) is defined as a lingual frenulum that is short, tight and restricts normal tongue movement. The tongue-tied newborn baby then has a mechanical difficulty attaching to his mum's breast and maintaining attachment to feed effectively. In the hands of skilled carers, this mechanical problem can be resolved by releasing the frenulum (frenulotomy) and the baby's access to his/her mother's breast milk be preserved. Published research on this subject has undergone justifiable criticism. Robust methodology was lacking in earlier studies. An overview of the course of researchers' response to critique is discussed. The care pathway in place in mid-Norfolk for mother and baby dyads where the baby's tongue-tie compromises efficient breastfeeding is outlined. PMID:22779397

  1. A quick subsea tie-in on a gas line

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    A 10-in. gas pipe line, runs from the Barbara A Adriatic Sea platform to land facilities at Falconara. Under plans to tie in a 10-in. lateral line from the Clara W platform, project managers wanted a cost-effective system with several specific features, including reliable seals and the ability to pig. The tie-in, using a flanged spool piece, was to be in about 240 ft of water. For this connection, they selected equipment and services using Camforge flanges. The Camforge system uses a hydraulic packer in a special tool to forge an inner tubular to an outer flanged sleeve. The resulting connection consists of a series of forged, metal-to-metal seals. Details on the forged in place tie-in are provided.

  2. Structure and tie strengths in mobile communication networks.

    PubMed

    Onnela, J-P; Saramäki, J; Hyvönen, J; Szabó, G; Lazer, D; Kaski, K; Kertész, J; Barabási, A-L

    2007-05-01

    Electronic databases, from phone to e-mails logs, currently provide detailed records of human communication patterns, offering novel avenues to map and explore the structure of social and communication networks. Here we examine the communication patterns of millions of mobile phone users, allowing us to simultaneously study the local and the global structure of a society-wide communication network. We observe a coupling between interaction strengths and the network's local structure, with the counterintuitive consequence that social networks are robust to the removal of the strong ties but fall apart after a phase transition if the weak ties are removed. We show that this coupling significantly slows the diffusion process, resulting in dynamic trapping of information in communities and find that, when it comes to information diffusion, weak and strong ties are both simultaneously ineffective. PMID:17456605

  3. Automatic Tie Pointer for In-Situ Pointing Correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deen, Robert G/

    2011-01-01

    The MARSAUTOTIE program generates tie points for use with the Mars pointing correction software "In-Situ Pointing Correction and Rover Microlocalization," (NPO-46696) Soft ware Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 9 (September 2010), page 18, in a completely automated manner, with no operator intervention. It takes the place of MARSTIE, although MARSTIE can be used to interactively edit the tie points afterwards. These tie points are used to create a mosaic whose seams (boundaries of input images) have been geometrically corrected to reduce or eliminate errors and mis-registrations. The methods used to find appropriate tie points for use in creating a mosaic are unique, having been designed to work in concert with the "MARSNAV" program to be most effective in reducing or eliminating geometric seams in a mosaic. The program takes the input images and finds overlaps according to the nominal pointing. It then finds the most interesting areas using a scene activity metric. Points with higher scene activity are more likely to correlate successfully in the next step. It then uses correlation techniques to find matching points in the overlapped image. Finally, it performs a series of steps to reduce the number of tie points to a manageable level. These steps incorporate a number of heuristics that have been devised using experience gathered by tie pointing mosaics manually during MER operations. The software makes use of the PIG library as described in "Planetary Image Geometry Library" (NPO-46658), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 12 (December 2010), page 30, so it is multi-mission, applicable without change to any in-situ mission supported by PIG. The MARSAUTOTIE algorithm is automated, so it requires no user intervention. Although at the time of this reporting it has not been done, this program should be suitable for integration into a fully automated mosaic production pipeline.

  4. Stability and failure analysis of steering tie-rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, GongFeng; Zhang, YiLiang; Xu, XueDong; Ding, DaWei

    2008-11-01

    A new car in operation of only 8,000 km, because of malfunction, resulting in lost control and rammed into the edge of the road, and then the basic vehicle scrapped. According to the investigation of the site, it was found that the tie-rod of the car had been broken. For the subjective analysis of the accident and identifying the true causes of rupture of the tierod, a series of studies, from the angle of theory to experiment on the bended broken tie-rod, were conducted. The mechanical model was established; the stability of the defective tie-rod was simulated based on ANSYS software. Meanwhile, the process of the accident was simulated considering the effect of destabilization of different vehicle speed and direction of the impact. Simultaneously, macro graphic test, chemical composition analysis, microstructure analysis and SEM analysis of the fracture were implemented. The results showed that: 1) the toughness of the tie-rod is at a normal level, but there is some previous flaws. One quarter of the fracture surface has been cracked before the accident. However, there is no relationship between the flaw and this incident. The direct cause is the dynamic instability leading to the large deformation of impact loading. 2) The declining safety factor of the tie-rod greatly due to the previous flaws; the result of numerical simulation shows that previous flaw is the vital factor of structure instability, on the basis of the comparison of critical loads of the accident tie-rod and normal. The critical load can decrease by 51.3% when the initial defect increases 19.54% on the cross-sectional area, which meets the Theory of Koiter.

  5. Software For Tie-Point Registration Of SAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, Eric; Dubois, Pascale; Okonek, Sharon; Van Zyl, Jacob; Burnette, Fred; Borgeaud, Maurice

    1995-01-01

    SAR-REG software package registers synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) image data to common reference frame based on manual tie-pointing. Image data can be in binary, integer, floating-point, or AIRSAR compressed format. For example, with map of soil characteristics, vegetation map, digital elevation map, or SPOT multispectral image, as long as user can generate binary image to be used by tie-pointing routine and data are available in one of the previously mentioned formats. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  6. Tongue-tie (ankyloglossia) and breastfeeding: a review.

    PubMed

    Berg, K L

    1990-09-01

    Tongue-tie (partial ankyloglossia) is a congenital condition in which the membrane under the tongue is too short or may be attached too near the tip of the tongue, thereby preventing tongue protrusion. Considerable controversy among health professionals persists regarding the appropriate treatment of partial ankyloglossia. Therefore, lactation consultants need to be aware of tongue-tie and its potential negative impact on breastfeeding. This discussion examines issues relating to the possible need for treatment and the role of the lactation consultant in the evaluation and care of the infant who presents with ankyloglossia. PMID:2205229

  7. Role Markers of Adulthood and Young Adults’ Ties to Grandparents

    PubMed Central

    Monserud, Maria A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the implications of residential independence, enrollment in postsecondary education, employment, marital status, and parenthood for contact with, and closeness to, grandparents. Data come from 1,507 young adults interviewed in Wave 3 of the National Survey of Families and Households. Findings suggest that adult roles can be either negatively or positively associated with grandparent-grandchild ties, depending on specific configurations among such factors as the adult role in question, a particular dimension of intergenerational solidarity, lineage, and grandchild’s and grandparent’s gender. Young adults’ ties to parents can mediate the adverse consequences of residential independence for contact with grandparents. PMID:20725597

  8. Transmission eigenvalues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

    2013-10-01

    In inverse scattering theory, transmission eigenvalues can be seen as the extension of the notion of resonant frequencies for impenetrable objects to the case of penetrable dielectrics. The transmission eigenvalue problem is a relatively late arrival to the spectral theory of partial differential equations. Its first appearance was in 1986 in a paper by Kirsch who was investigating the denseness of far-field patterns for scattering solutions of the Helmholtz equation or, in more modern terminology, the injectivity of the far-field operator [1]. The paper of Kirsch was soon followed by a more systematic study by Colton and Monk in the context of developing the dual space method for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium [2]. In this paper they showed that for a spherically stratified media transmission eigenvalues existed and formed a discrete set. Numerical examples were also given showing that in principle transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the far-field data. This first period of interest in transmission eigenvalues was concluded with papers by Colton et al in 1989 [3] and Rynne and Sleeman in 1991 [4] showing that for an inhomogeneous medium (not necessarily spherically stratified) transmission eigenvalues, if they existed, formed a discrete set. For the next seventeen years transmission eigenvalues were ignored. This was mainly due to the fact that, with the introduction of various sampling methods to determine the shape of an inhomogeneous medium from far-field data, transmission eigenvalues were something to be avoided and hence the fact that transmission eigenvalues formed at most a discrete set was deemed to be sufficient. In addition, questions related to the existence of transmission eigenvalues or the structure of associated eigenvectors were recognized as being particularly difficult due to the nonlinearity of the eigenvalue problem and the special structure of the associated transmission

  9. Transmission eigenvalues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

    2013-10-01

    In inverse scattering theory, transmission eigenvalues can be seen as the extension of the notion of resonant frequencies for impenetrable objects to the case of penetrable dielectrics. The transmission eigenvalue problem is a relatively late arrival to the spectral theory of partial differential equations. Its first appearance was in 1986 in a paper by Kirsch who was investigating the denseness of far-field patterns for scattering solutions of the Helmholtz equation or, in more modern terminology, the injectivity of the far-field operator [1]. The paper of Kirsch was soon followed by a more systematic study by Colton and Monk in the context of developing the dual space method for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium [2]. In this paper they showed that for a spherically stratified media transmission eigenvalues existed and formed a discrete set. Numerical examples were also given showing that in principle transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the far-field data. This first period of interest in transmission eigenvalues was concluded with papers by Colton et al in 1989 [3] and Rynne and Sleeman in 1991 [4] showing that for an inhomogeneous medium (not necessarily spherically stratified) transmission eigenvalues, if they existed, formed a discrete set. For the next seventeen years transmission eigenvalues were ignored. This was mainly due to the fact that, with the introduction of various sampling methods to determine the shape of an inhomogeneous medium from far-field data, transmission eigenvalues were something to be avoided and hence the fact that transmission eigenvalues formed at most a discrete set was deemed to be sufficient. In addition, questions related to the existence of transmission eigenvalues or the structure of associated eigenvectors were recognized as being particularly difficult due to the nonlinearity of the eigenvalue problem and the special structure of the associated transmission

  10. AQUIFER TRANSMISSIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of groundwater resources requires the knowledge of the capacity of aquifers to store and transmit ground water. This requires estimates of key hydraulic parameters, such as the transmissivity, among others. The transmissivity T (m2/sec) is a hydrauli...

  11. SpTie1/2 is expressed in coelomocytes, axial organ and embryos of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, and is an orthologue of vertebrate Tie1 and Tie2.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Margaret E; Dhillon, Jatinder; Miller, Chase A; Messier-Solek, Cynthia; Majeske, Audrey J; Zuelke, Dustin; Rast, Jonathan P; Smith, L Courtney

    2010-08-01

    A full length cDNA sequence expressed in coelomocytes shows significant sequence match to vertebrate Tie1 and Tie2/TEK. Vertebrate Tie2/TEK is the receptor for the angiopoietins and plays an important role in angiogenesis and hematopoiesis, whereas Tie1 regulates the activity of Tie2. The deduced sequence of the SpTie1/2 protein has a similar order and organization of domains to the homologous vertebrate proteins including a highly conserved receptor tyrosine kinase domain in the cytoplasmic tail. The N terminus of the ectodomain has one immunoglobulin (Ig)-Tie2_1 domain, followed by an Ig domain, four epidermal growth factor domains, a second Ig domain, and three fibronectin type III domains. The SpTie1/2 gene is expressed in coelomocytes and the axial organ, whereas other organs do not show significant expression. The timing of embryonic expression corresponds with the differentiation of blastocoelar cells, the embryonic and larval immune cells. Searches of the sea urchin genome show several gene models encoding putative ligands and signaling proteins that might interact with SpTie1/2. We speculate that SpTie1/2 may be involved in the proliferation of sea urchin immune cells in both adults and embryos. PMID:20363251

  12. The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving

    PubMed Central

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez; Pentland, Alex; Lehmann, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems. PMID:24946798

  13. Legal and Social Ties between Children and Cohabiting Fathers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottosen, Mai Heide

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether legal ties between members in the nuclear family affect the father-child relationship after domestic breakup. Found no evidence that civil status could explain differences in the post-separation organization of parenting, but a sole legal custody arrangement from the child's birth may disfavor cohabiting fathers as future…

  14. Relational Discourses: Social Ties with Family and Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Pat; Haynes, Amanda; Kane, Ciara

    2004-01-01

    This article presents quantitative and qualitative accounts of relational discourses in a random sample of approximately 4100 texts written by Irish young people (aged 10-12 and 14-17 years). The existence of such discourses is indicated by references to family and friends. The article shows that although the majority refer to such ties in their…

  15. Children's Books in Review: Books on Strengthening Family Ties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfield, Evelyn T.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews children's books that emphasize the strengthening of family ties. Characters in the books realize the importance and influence of family relationships as they struggle with sibling rivalry, self-discovery, peer relationships, a search for heritage, adoption, and death. (SM)

  16. The strength of the strongest ties in collaborative problem solving.

    PubMed

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez; Pentland, Alex; Lehmann, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems. PMID:24946798

  17. The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez; Pentland, Alex; Lehmann, Sune

    2014-06-01

    Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems.

  18. 12 CFR 225.7 - Exceptions to tying restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-tying restrictions of section 106 of the Bank Holding Company Act Amendments of 1970 (12 U.S.C. 1971... term in section 106(a) of the Bank Holding Company Act Amendments of 1970 (12 U.S.C. 1971), but...

  19. People Interview: Black-tie science gets modern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-03-01

    INTERVIEW Black-tie science gets modern Baroness Susan Greenfield CBE is director of the Royal Institution and professor of pharmacology at Oxford where she heads a multidisciplinary group studying neurodegenerative disorders. David Smith speaks to her about specialities, keeping busy and how science is changing.

  20. Application of Bow-tie methodology to improve patient safety.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Zhaleh; Ravaghi, Hamid; Abbasi, Mohsen; Delgoshaei, Bahram; Esfandiari, Somayeh

    2016-05-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to apply Bow-tie methodology, a proactive risk assessment technique based on systemic approach, for prospective analysis of the risks threatening patient safety in intensive care unit (ICU). Design/methodology/approach - Bow-tie methodology was used to manage clinical risks threatening patient safety by a multidisciplinary team in the ICU. The Bow-tie analysis was conducted on incidents related to high-alert medications, ventilator associated pneumonia, catheter-related blood stream infection, urinary tract infection, and unwanted extubation. Findings - In total, 48 potential adverse events were analysed. The causal factors were identified and classified into relevant categories. The number and effectiveness of existing preventive and protective barriers were examined for each potential adverse event. The adverse events were evaluated according to the risk criteria and a set of interventions were proposed with the aim of improving the existing barriers or implementing new barriers. A number of recommendations were implemented in the ICU, while considering their feasibility. Originality/value - The application of Bow-tie methodology led to practical recommendations to eliminate or control the hazards identified. It also contributed to better understanding of hazard prevention and protection required for safe operations in clinical settings. PMID:27142951

  1. The Verbal Facilitation Effect in Learning to Tie Nautical Knots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, Markus; Schwan, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Motor skills are often demonstrated with a combination of verbal information and video demonstration. In this study, participants learned to tie nautical knots with a video clip demonstrating the motor task preceded by a descriptive or a metaphorical, picture-like verbalization. In a control condition participants learned the knots with a video…

  2. Views of the Apollo 11 Twentieth Anniversary Black Tie reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Views of the Apollo 11 Twentieth Anniversary Black Tie reception at the downtown Houston Hyatt Regency Hotel. Views include former JSC Directors Robert Gilruth and Christopher C. Kraft Jr. reminiscing with keynote speaker Walter Cronkite (39934); Apollo astronauts Tom Stafford (left) and Neil Armstrong (right) talk with former Soviet cosmonaut Alexei Leonov (center) at the gala (39935).

  3. Writing "Everyday Theatre": Applied Theatre, or Just TIE Rides Again?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, John

    2009-01-01

    The centre of this article is a critical description of the development and production of "Everyday Theatre's" performed pretext, called "replay@timeout", including a detailed account of the devising process and the programme's content. The programme is located within the history and traditions both of theatre in education (TIE) and process drama,…

  4. Teaching Tongue-Tied Students: Ankyloglossia in the Instrumental Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dovel, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Ankyloglossia is a significant medical condition that has not been adequately addressed in music education literature. While practically every instructor will have students who struggle with ankyloglossia, many teachers are entirely unaware of this condition's various symptoms and treatments. Ankyloglossia, more commonly known as tongue-tie, is a…

  5. A comparison of ultrasonic suture welding and traditional knot tying.

    PubMed

    Richmond, J C

    2001-01-01

    The slippage of knots and the technical challenge of tying them securely are potential impediments to certain arthroscopic procedures. Ultrasonic energy delivered at 70 kHz can be used to weld No. 2 polypropylene suture. This method was compared with a traditional knot (surgeon's knot with four alternating half hitches) tied with an open technique to determine whether welding of sutures is comparable, in mechanical properties, to hand-tied knots. Both loops were fashioned around a 0.25-inch mandrel and then tested. The load to reach 3-mm elongation (point of likely biologic failure of a repair) was significantly greater for welded sutures than for knots. The elongation at ultimate failure was significantly less for welded sutures than for knots. The number of cycles to failure and the creep after initial displacement were similar for both welded and knotted suture loops. The ultimate load to failure was significantly greater for the knotted than for the welded suture. The welding of suture for the repair of musculoskeletal soft tissue presents an attractive alternative to traditional knot tying, particularly for arthroscopic applications. PMID:11394598

  6. 2-Methoxycinnamaldehyde inhibits tumor angiogenesis by suppressing Tie2 activation.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Daishi; Kidoya, Hiroyasu; Sakimoto, Susumu; Jia, Weizhen; Takakura, Nobuyuki

    2011-11-11

    Blood vessels are mainly composed of intraluminal endothelial cells (ECs) and mural cells adhering to the ECs on their basal side. Immature blood vessels lacking mural cells are leaky; thus, the process of mural cell adhesion to ECs is indispensable for stability of the vessels during physiological angiogenesis. However, in the tumor microenvironment, although some blood vessels are well-matured, the majority is immature. Because mural cell adhesion to ECs also has a marked anti-apoptotic effect, angiogenesis inhibitors that destroy immature blood vessels may not affect mature vessels showing more resistance to apoptosis. Activation of Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinase expressed in ECs mediates pro-angiogenic effects via the induction of EC migration but also facilitates vessel maturation via the promotion of cell adhesion between mural cells and ECs. Therefore, inhibition of Tie2 has the advantage of completely inhibiting angiogenesis. Here, we isolated a novel small molecule Tie2 kinase inhibitor, identified as 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2-MCA). We found that 2-MCA inhibits both sprouting angiogenesis and maturation of blood vessels, resulting in inhibition of tumor growth. Our results suggest a potent clinical benefit of disrupting these two using Tie2 inhibitors. PMID:22033407

  7. Preventing Cauliflower Ear with a Modified Tie-Through Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimeff, Robert J.; Hough, David O.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a quick, simple tie-through suture technique (in which a collodion packing is secured to the auricle with two buttons) for preventing cauliflower ear following external ear trauma in wrestlers and boxers. The technique ensures constant compression; multiple treatments for fluid reaccumulation are rarely necessary. (SM)

  8. 26. ROOM 210, VIEW TO THE SOUTHEAST. EXPOSED TIE BEAMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. ROOM 210, VIEW TO THE SOUTHEAST. EXPOSED TIE BEAMS AT CEILING ARE BOXED IN PLYWOOD. WAINSCOTING IS PLYWOOD PANELING. CEILING AND UPPER WALL TREATMENT IS GYPSUM BOARD. CLERESTORY WINDOWS LINE BOTH LONG SIDES OF ROOM. - Presidio of San Francisco, Cavalry Stables, Cowles Street, between Lincoln Boulevard & McDowell Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. 4. Photocopy of photograph, JANE MOSELEY (VESSEL 53) TIED UP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of photograph, JANE MOSELEY (VESSEL 53) TIED UP AT DOCK IN UNKNOWN LOCATION. Date and photographer unknown. (Original in Mariners Museum, Newport News, Virginia, negative #625) - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 53, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  10. Matrilineal Family Ties and Marital Dissolution in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takyi, Baffour K.; Gyimah, Stephen Obeng

    2007-01-01

    Although previous work has attributed the instability of African marriages to the diffusion of Western norms and values in the region, fewer attempts have been made to empirically assess how Africa's internal institutional structures, such as extended kinship ties, impact marital outcomes. Guided by rational choice and exchange theories, we argue…

  11. 59. Downstream view of Waddell Dam showing buttress ties, crane, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. Downstream view of Waddell Dam showing buttress ties, crane, housing over penstock outlet (left) and storage building (right). Photographer Mark Durben, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. 12 CFR 238.7 - Tying restriction exception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tying restriction exception. 238.7 Section 238.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION LL) General Provisions § 238.7...

  13. 12 CFR 238.7 - Tying restriction exception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tying restriction exception. 238.7 Section 238.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION LL) General Provisions § 238.7...

  14. 12 CFR 238.7 - Tying restriction exception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tying restriction exception. 238.7 Section 238.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION LL) General Provisions § 238.7...

  15. Explaining Teen Childbearing and Cohabitation: Community Embeddedness and Primary Ties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houseknecht, Sharon K.; Lewis, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    This investigation examines whether access to social capital reduces the chance that teens will cohabit or have a nonmaritally conceived birth. Using data from a nationally representative panel study of eighth-grade girls and their parents, we hypothesize that girls who have (and whose families have) dense community ties as well as greater access…

  16. Is Seniors' Dental Health Tied to Mental Health?

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158104.html Is Seniors' Dental Health Tied to Mental Health? Declines in one seem to mirror declines in ... Dementia Seniors' Health Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Dementia Dental Health Seniors' Health About MedlinePlus ...

  17. Linkage of genomic biomarkers to whole organism endpoints in a Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE).

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic organisms are exposed to many toxic chemicals and interpreting the cause and effect relationships between occurrence and impairment is difficult. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) provides a systematic approach for identifying responsible toxicants. TIE relies on ...

  18. It's the recipient that counts: spending money on strong social ties leads to greater happiness than spending on weak social ties.

    PubMed

    Aknin, Lara B; Sandstrom, Gillian M; Dunn, Elizabeth W; Norton, Michael I

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that spending money on others (prosocial spending) increases happiness. But, do the happiness gains depend on who the money is spent on? Sociologists have distinguished between strong ties with close friends and family and weak ties--relationships characterized by less frequent contact, lower emotional intensity, and limited intimacy. We randomly assigned participants to reflect on a time when they spent money on either a strong social tie or a weak social tie. Participants reported higher levels of positive affect after recalling a time they spent on a strong tie versus a weak tie. The level of intimacy in the relationship was more important than the type of relationship; there was no significant difference in positive affect after recalling spending money on a family member instead of a friend. These results add to the growing literature examining the factors that moderate the link between prosocial behaviour and happiness. PMID:21347326

  19. Stepfamily Formation: Implications for Adolescent Ties to Mothers, Nonresident Fathers, and Stepfathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Valarie

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how the entrance of a stepfather influences adolescent ties to mothers and nonresident fathers and how prior ties to each biological parent influence the development of stepfather-stepchild ties. Data come from 1,753 adolescents in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health who lived with a single mother in Wave 1 who…

  20. Contamination: Tie SMOV Stars to Cycle 7 Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlin, Ralph

    1997-07-01

    Because of the lack of a perfect flat field correction and because of positioning differences on the CCD in SMOV, apparent changes in sensitivity appear in the response to the fundamental pure hydrogen WD standard stars G191B2B and GD153. Now that the pointing procedures and thermal conditions have stabilized, observation of these stars are needed to tie the SMOV calibration to the GO era and to the new cycle7 monitoring star AGK+81D266.

  1. Simulation of Local Tie Accuracy on VLBI Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallio, Ulla; Poutanen, Markku

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new mathematical model to compute the centering parameters of a VLBI antenna. These include the coordinates of the reference point, axis offset, orientation, and non-perpendicularity of the axes. Using the model we simulated how precisely parameters can be computed in different cases. Based on the simulation we can give some recommendations and practices to control the accuracy and reliability of the local ties at the VLBI sites.

  2. Determination of the inner planet frame tie using VLBI data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelrath, Timothy P.; Bhat, Ramachandra S.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of connecting the independent reference frames formed by the planetary ephemeris and the radio source catalog is one of growing importance to spacecraft navigation. Using quasar-relative VLBI delay data collected by the Deep Space Network, and Soviet coherent data from the Venus flyby of the Soviet Vega 1 and 2 spacecraft, a self-consistent estimate of the frame tie offset has been found, along with its uncertainty.

  3. Familial ankyloglossia (tongue-tie): a case report.

    PubMed

    Morowati, Saeid; Yasini, Mobin; Ranjbar, Reza; Peivandi, Ali Asghar; Ghadami, Mohsen

    2010-01-01

    Ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) is a congenital anomaly with a prevalence of 4-5% and characterized by an abnormally short lingual frenulum. For unknown reasons the abnormality seems to be more common in males. The pathogenesis of ankyloglossia is not known. The authors report a family with isolated ankyloglossia inherited as an autosomal dominant or recessive trait. The identification of the defective gene(s) in these patients might reveal novel information on the pathogenesis of this disorder. PMID:21133006

  4. Ankyloglossia (tongue-tie): a diagnostic and treatment quandary.

    PubMed

    Kotlow, L A

    1999-04-01

    The tongue is an important oral structure that affects speech, the position of teeth, periodontal tissue, nutrition, swallowing, nursing, and certain social activities. Ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) limits the range of motion of the tongue, impairing its ability to fulfill its functions. In this article, diagnostic criteria needed to evaluate and treat ankyloglossia are suggested, and a method for classifying ankyloglossia is proposed. PMID:10635253

  5. A marine TIE: When Phase 1 becomes a research project

    SciTech Connect

    Edile, D.; Newton, S.; Lewnes, N.; Cherr, G.N.; Schipper, L.; Anderson, J.

    1995-12-31

    An EPA Phase 1 Marine Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) was performed on a relatively low toxicity freshwater discharge of cooling water from a manufacturing facility on the Central California coast. The EPA TIE protocol for freshwater testing was adapted for use with a marine bioassay (48 hr. mussel development). A water source (intrusion water), which enters the effluent and is not associated with facility operations, was found to be responsible for the overall toxicity, and thus the TIE was directed at this source. Low toxicity required testing the intrusion water at concentrations as high as 40%. Salinity-adjustment of the freshwater sample was required and accomplished with the addition of hypersaline brine, which was itself often toxic. None of the traditional Phase 1 treatments resulted in toxicity reduction. Other treatments were explored to assess chemical classes not previously addressed, such as anions, polar organics, and high molecular weight organics. Ultrafiltration suggested that low molecular weight constituents were responsible for toxicity even though the majority of TOC was associated with the high molecular weight constituents. The use of an inorganic-specific anion exchange resin removed most toxicity, while an organic-specific anion exchange resin did not. Cations were not believed to be responsible for toxicity as EDTA, C18 resin, and a cation exchange resin did not reduce toxicity. Toxicological and chemical analyses of the eluant from the anion exchange column are in progress. This study illustrates how standard approaches may not necessarily provide answers to complex environmental problems.

  6. PHD2 regulates arteriogenic macrophages through TIE2 signalling

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, Alexander; Veschini, Lorenzo; Takeda, Yukiji; Costa, Sandra; Delamarre, Estelle; Squadrito, Mario Leonardo; Henze, Anne-Theres; Wenes, Mathias; Serneels, Jens; Pucci, Ferdinando; Roncal, Carmen; Anisimov, Andrey; Alitalo, Kari; De Palma, Michele; Mazzone, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    Occlusion of the main arterial route redirects blood flow to the collateral circulation. We previously reported that macrophages genetically modified to express low levels of prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 (PHD2) display an arteriogenic phenotype, which promotes the formation of collateral vessels and protects the skeletal muscle from ischaemic necrosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that femoral artery occlusion induces a switch in macrophage phenotype through angiopoietin-1 (ANG1)-mediated Phd2 repression. ANG blockade by a soluble trap prevented the downregulation of Phd2 expression in macrophages and their phenotypic switch, thus inhibiting collateral growth. ANG1-dependent Phd2 repression initiated a feed-forward loop mediated by the induction of the ANG receptor TIE2 in macrophages. Gene silencing and cell depletion strategies demonstrate that TIE2 induction in macrophages is required to promote their proarteriogenic functions, enabling collateral vessel formation following arterial obstruction. These results indicate an indispensable role for TIE2 in sustaining in situ programming of macrophages to a proarteriogenic, M2-like phenotype, suggesting possible new venues for the treatment of ischaemic disorders. PMID:23616286

  7. Transmissible amyloid.

    PubMed

    Tjernberg, L O; Rising, A; Johansson, J; Jaudzems, K; Westermark, P

    2016-08-01

    There are around 30 human diseases associated with protein misfolding and amyloid formation, each one caused by a certain protein or peptide. Many of these diseases are lethal and together they pose an enormous burden to society. The prion protein has attracted particular interest as being shown to be the pathogenic agent in transmissible diseases such as kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Whether similar transmission could occur also in other amyloidoses such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and serum amyloid A amyloidosis is a matter of intense research and debate. Furthermore, it has been suggested that novel biomaterials such as artificial spider silk are potentially amyloidogenic. Here, we provide a brief introduction to amyloid, prions and other proteins involved in amyloid disease and review recent evidence for their potential transmission. We discuss the similarities and differences between amyloid and silk, as well as the potential hazards associated with protein-based biomaterials. PMID:27002185

  8. Rotorcraft transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.

    1990-01-01

    Highlighted here is that portion of the Lewis Research Center's helicopter propulsion systems program that deals with drive train technology and the related mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase life, reliability, and maintainability, to reduce weight, noise, and vibration, and to maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development, followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for transmission research in the future is presented.

  9. Sinogram bow-tie filtering in FBP PET reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Abella, M; Vaquero, J J; Soto-Montenegro, M L; Lage, E; Desco, M

    2009-05-01

    Low-pass filtering of sinograms in the radial direction is the most common practice to limit noise amplification in filtered back projection (FBP) reconstruction of positron emission tomography studies. Other filtering strategies have been proposed to prevent the loss in resolution due to low-pass radial filters, although results have been diverse. Using the well-known properties of the Fourier transform of a sinogram, the authors defined a binary mask that matches the expected shape of the support region in the Fourier domain of the sinogram ("bow tie"). This mask was smoothed by a convolution with a ten-point Gaussian kernel which not only avoids ringing but also introduces a pre-emphasis at low frequencies. A new filtering scheme for FBP is proposed, comprising this smoothed bow-tie filter combined with a standard radial filter and an axial filter. The authors compared the performance of the bow-tie filtering scheme with that of other previously reported methods: Standard radial filtering, angular filtering, and stackgram-domain filtering. All the quantitative data in the comparisons refer to a baseline reconstruction using a ramp filter only. When using the smallest size of the Gaussian kernel in the stackgram domain, the authors achieved a noise reduction of 33% at the cost of degrading radial and tangential resolutions (14.5% and 16%, respectively, for cubic interpolation). To reduce the noise by 30%, the angular filter produced a larger degradation of contrast (3%) and tangential resolution (46% at 10 mm from the center of the field of view) and showed noticeable artifacts in the form of circular blurring dependent on the distance to the center of the field of view. For a similar noise reduction (33%), the proposed bow-tie filtering scheme yielded optimum results in resolution (gain in radial resolution of 10%) and contrast (1% increase) when compared with any of the other filters alone. Experiments with rodent images showed noticeable image quality

  10. TIES for Dummies 3rd Edition (Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection) Basic how to's to implement the TIES method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, Michelle R.

    2002-01-01

    The TIES method is a forecasting environment whereby the decision-maker has the ability to easily assess and trade-off the impact of various technologies without sophisticated and time-consuming mathematical formulations. TIES provides a methodical approach where technically feasible alternatives can be identified with accuracy and speed to reduce design cycle time, and subsequently, life cycle costs, and was achieved through the use of various probabilistic methods, such as Response Surface Methodology and Monte Carlo Simulations. Furthermore, structured and systematic techniques are utilized from other fields to identify possible concepts and evaluation criteria by which comparisons can be made. This objective is achieved by employing the use of Morphological Matrices and Multi-Attribute Decision Making techniques. Through the execution of each step, a family of design alternatives for a given set of customer requirements can be identified and assessed subjectively or objectively. This methodology allows for more information (knowledge) to be brought into the earlier phases of the design process and will have direct implications on the affordability of the system. The increased knowledge allows for optimum allocation of company resources and quantitative justification for program decisions. Finally, the TIES method provided novel results and quantitative justification to facilitate decision making in the early stages of design so as to produce affordable and quality products.

  11. Rapamycin improves TIE2-mutated venous malformation in murine model and human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Boscolo, Elisa; Limaye, Nisha; Huang, Lan; Kang, Kyu-Tae; Soblet, Julie; Uebelhoer, Melanie; Mendola, Antonella; Natynki, Marjut; Seront, Emmanuel; Dupont, Sophie; Hammer, Jennifer; Legrand, Catherine; Brugnara, Carlo; Eklund, Lauri; Vikkula, Miikka; Bischoff, Joyce; Boon, Laurence M.

    2015-01-01

    Venous malformations (VMs) are composed of ectatic veins with scarce smooth muscle cell coverage. Activating mutations in the endothelial cell tyrosine kinase receptor TIE2 are a common cause of these lesions. VMs cause deformity, pain, and local intravascular coagulopathy, and they expand with time. Targeted pharmacological therapies are not available for this condition. Here, we generated a model of VMs by injecting HUVECs expressing the most frequent VM-causing TIE2 mutation, TIE2-L914F, into immune-deficient mice. TIE2-L914F–expressing HUVECs formed VMs with ectatic blood-filled channels that enlarged over time. We tested both rapamycin and a TIE2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TIE2-TKI) for their effects on murine VM expansion and for their ability to inhibit mutant TIE2 signaling. Rapamycin prevented VM growth, while TIE2-TKI had no effect. In cultured TIE2-L914F–expressing HUVECs, rapamycin effectively reduced mutant TIE2-induced AKT signaling and, though TIE2-TKI did target the WT receptor, it only weakly suppressed mutant-induced AKT signaling. In a prospective clinical pilot study, we analyzed the effects of rapamycin in 6 patients with difficult–to-treat venous anomalies. Rapamycin reduced pain, bleeding, lesion size, functional and esthetic impairment, and intravascular coagulopathy. This study provides a VM model that allows evaluation of potential therapeutic strategies and demonstrates that rapamycin provides clinical improvement in patients with venous malformation. PMID:26258417

  12. Rapamycin improves TIE2-mutated venous malformation in murine model and human subjects.

    PubMed

    Boscolo, Elisa; Limaye, Nisha; Huang, Lan; Kang, Kyu-Tae; Soblet, Julie; Uebelhoer, Melanie; Mendola, Antonella; Natynki, Marjut; Seront, Emmanuel; Dupont, Sophie; Hammer, Jennifer; Legrand, Catherine; Brugnara, Carlo; Eklund, Lauri; Vikkula, Miikka; Bischoff, Joyce; Boon, Laurence M

    2015-09-01

    Venous malformations (VMs) are composed of ectatic veins with scarce smooth muscle cell coverage. Activating mutations in the endothelial cell tyrosine kinase receptor TIE2 are a common cause of these lesions. VMs cause deformity, pain, and local intravascular coagulopathy, and they expand with time. Targeted pharmacological therapies are not available for this condition. Here, we generated a model of VMs by injecting HUVECs expressing the most frequent VM-causing TIE2 mutation, TIE2-L914F, into immune-deficient mice. TIE2-L914F-expressing HUVECs formed VMs with ectatic blood-filled channels that enlarged over time. We tested both rapamycin and a TIE2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TIE2-TKI) for their effects on murine VM expansion and for their ability to inhibit mutant TIE2 signaling. Rapamycin prevented VM growth, while TIE2-TKI had no effect. In cultured TIE2-L914F-expressing HUVECs, rapamycin effectively reduced mutant TIE2-induced AKT signaling and, though TIE2-TKI did target the WT receptor, it only weakly suppressed mutant-induced AKT signaling. In a prospective clinical pilot study, we analyzed the effects of rapamycin in 6 patients with difficult-to-treat venous anomalies. Rapamycin reduced pain, bleeding, lesion size, functional and esthetic impairment, and intravascular coagulopathy. This study provides a VM model that allows evaluation of potential therapeutic strategies and demonstrates that rapamycin provides clinical improvement in patients with venous malformation. PMID:26258417

  13. Rotorcraft transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command share an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, this presentation outlines that portion of the program that applies to the drive train and its various mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability; reduce the weight, noise, and vibration; and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for transmission research in the future is presented.

  14. Urban characteristics attributable to density-driven tie formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wei; Ghoshal, Gourab; Krumme, Coco; Cebrian, Manuel; Pentland, Alex

    2013-06-01

    Motivated by empirical evidence on the interplay between geography, population density and societal interaction, we propose a generative process for the evolution of social structure in cities. Our analytical and simulation results predict both super-linear scaling of social-tie density and information contagion as a function of the population. Here we demonstrate that our model provides a robust and accurate fit for the dependency of city characteristics with city-size, ranging from individual-level dyadic interactions (number of acquaintances, volume of communication) to population level variables (contagious disease rates, patenting activity, economic productivity and crime) without the need to appeal to heterogeneity, modularity, specialization or hierarchy.

  15. [Spiritual ties of the Military Medical (Medical and Surgical) Academy].

    PubMed

    Gordienko, A V; Shamreĭ, V K

    2015-01-01

    Before the revolution in its educational, research and clinical potential of Military Medicine (medical and surgical) Academy was on the head position among European institutions. Not less outstanding position among all secular institutions Russian Academy held by the number and wealth of churches, chapels and baptisteries. In the temples of the academy was concentrated a significant number of miracle-working icons and of the particles holy relics, there served some of faith and piety devotees and some of them were canonized. The article presents a brief historical overview of the major Academy shrines--spiritual ties of the different generations. PMID:25916040

  16. Sternal Closure With Tie Bands: A Word of Caution.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Louis

    2016-08-01

    The median sternotomy for cardiac operations can be reapproximated in a variety of ways. Traditionally, sternal wires have been used in several configurations to afford satisfactory closure. Alternative techniques include cables, plates, and clip-like devices. A relatively recent addition to the menu of options is the plastic tie band. Although a few studies have suggested its efficacy, this favorable experience has not been universal. The purpose of this report is to describe a failure in closure and the reaction of the soft tissue around it. PMID:27449444

  17. Urban characteristics attributable to density-driven tie formation.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wei; Ghoshal, Gourab; Krumme, Coco; Cebrian, Manuel; Pentland, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by empirical evidence on the interplay between geography, population density and societal interaction, we propose a generative process for the evolution of social structure in cities. Our analytical and simulation results predict both super-linear scaling of social-tie density and information contagion as a function of the population. Here we demonstrate that our model provides a robust and accurate fit for the dependency of city characteristics with city-size, ranging from individual-level dyadic interactions (number of acquaintances, volume of communication) to population level variables (contagious disease rates, patenting activity, economic productivity and crime) without the need to appeal to heterogeneity, modularity, specialization or hierarchy. PMID:23736887

  18. Modal Analysis of Reflector Backed Hybrid Printed Bow Tie Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Dhiraj K.; Pande, D. C.; Bhattacharya, A.

    A reflector-backed hybrid of bow tie and elliptical antenna was designed and developed for UWB radar applications like ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and through-wall imaging radar (TWIR). Radiation pattern bandwidth of the antenna is found to be lesser than measured impedance bandwidth of the antenna. This anomaly was analyzed using characteristics modes of the antenna. Method of moments (MOM) using RWG basis function was used to calculate impedance matrix at each spot; frequencies and eigencurrents found were used to establish the optimum bandwidth of the antenna.

  19. 78 FR 75547 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Thailand: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Thailand: Preliminary... concrete steel rail tire wire (``PC tie wire'') from Thailand is not being, or likely to be, sold in the... prestressed tendons in concrete railroad ties (``PC tie wire''). High carbon steel is defined as steel...

  20. Diversity of social ties in scientific collaboration networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Quan; Xu, Bo; Xu, Xiaomin; Xiao, Yanghua; Wang, Wei; Wang, Hengshan

    2011-11-01

    Diversity is one of the important perspectives to characterize behaviors of individuals in social networks. It is intuitively believed that diversity of social ties accounts for competition advantage and idea innovation. However, quantitative evidences in a real large social network can be rarely found in the previous research. Thanks to the availability of scientific publication records on WWW; now we can construct a large scientific collaboration network, which provides us a chance to gain insight into the diversity of relationships in a real social network through statistical analysis. In this article, we dedicate our efforts to perform empirical analysis on a scientific collaboration network extracted from DBLP, an online bibliographic database in computer science, in a systematical way, finding the following: distributions of diversity indices tend to decay in an exponential or Gaussian way; diversity indices are not trivially correlated to existing vertex importance measures; authors of diverse social ties tend to connect to each other and these authors are generally more competitive than others.

  1. Progress in remotely controlled hyperbaric pipeline tie-ins

    SciTech Connect

    Hutt, G.; Pachniuk, I.

    1993-12-31

    In recent years experience has been gained in the use of remotely installed and controlled equipment for hyperbaric pipeline tie-in operations. This has involved both the in-water construction tasks such as pipe alignment, preparation and habitat installation and tasks within the dry habitat. Central to these developments has been the introduction of mechanized orbital welding which was first used operationally in 1986. Since that date, the authors` Company has performed some 60 production tie-ins welds ranging in diameter from 8 inches to 40 inches and depths to 220 msw. The existing mechanized systems are all operated remotely but require divers assistance during the initial set-up in the habitat and to perform routine task during the course of welding such as measuring pipe fit-up, changing electrodes, servicing the wire feed and supervising the weldhead umbilicals. Progress towards fully diverless operations has been made by the development of a variety of sub-systems to carry out these routine tasks. Similarly, there has been a progressive introduction of ROV assisted tasks into construction projects often run in parallel with diving work with the objective of improving efficiency. The intention of this paper is to describe a number of the developments which will ultimately provide the basis for fully diverless hyperbaric welding.

  2. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) of a chemical plant effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Zaleski, R.T.; Arnold, W.R.; Cashion, B.S.

    1995-12-31

    In the course of conducting a proactive toxicity screening of a chemical plant effluent, currently meeting chemical based discharge requirements, the authors found that the effluent could be chronically toxic to the freshwater invertebrate, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Chronic toxicity was linked to one outfall source, which was acutely toxic when tested individually. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) techniques implicated Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and vanadium as the sources of acute toxicity of the individual outfall. Findings of acute studies performed with the single outfall were then verified in chronic studies of composite effluent. The results of the TIE found that TDS was the major contributor to composite effluent toxicity. The role of TDS was quantified through a number of synthetic effluent studies which simulated the TDS of the effluent. The ion-toxicity regression model of Mount and Gulley (1992) was then applied to determine which ion manipulations would most effectively reduce effluent toxicity. Additional toxicity studies were performed using synthetic effluent with manipulated ion content, as per the model output, to verify the effect on toxicity. The role of vanadium in contributing to observed toxicity was also investigated.

  3. Review of two 1998 Mathematical Appendices Primary to Continuum Theory: Deflection Scattering and Redshift by a Particle-tied Aether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmaston, Miles F.

    My development of Continuum Theory rests importantly on two mathematical treatments and calculations which I wrote in 1994 and were published in 1998 as Appendices A and B to my PIRT V paper presented in London in 1996. In view of their continuing scientific relevance, this contribution to the V9 conference proceedings is a republication of those Appendices, subject to minimal re-editing. Appendix B, presented first, tackles our 1959 finding that the daylight sky brightness distribution at high altitude shows the presence of an additional contribution whose intensity and distribution which, on careful analysis, I identified as having come from a deflection scattering mechanism due to transmission by an (atmospheric) `particle-tied aether'. Appendix A shows that redshift is one of the consequences of such transmission. The parameters involved are then used to analyse the 1968 radio ground-wave caesium clock redshift observations of Sadeh et al and to extrapolate them to the intergalactic transmission paths pertinent to the cosmic redshift as a transmission effect, not a velocity. It finds this to be a reasonable evaluation within observational uncertainties, notably those of density and degree of ionization. In that case, there being no Big Bang, the temperature is precisely known from the CMBR, identified as synchrotron-type radiation from the randomly moving aether along the path, but slightly elevated where the path has traversed a heat-generating cluster.

  4. The design and application of a Transportable Inference Engine (TIE1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A Transportable Inference Engine (TIE1) system has been developed by the author as part of the Interactive Experimenter Planning System (IEPS) task which is involved with developing expert systems in support of the Spacecraft Control Programs Branch at Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. Unlike traditional inference engines, TIE1 is written in the C programming language. In the TIE1 system, knowledge is represented by a hierarchical network of objects which have rule frames. The TIE1 search algorithm uses a set of strategies, including backward chaining, to obtain the values of goals. The application of TIE1 to a spacecraft scheduling problem is described. This application involves the development of a strategies interpreter which uses TIE1 to do constraint checking.

  5. Sample size calculation for the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test adjusting for ties.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan D; Rahardja, Dewi; Qu, Yongming

    2008-02-10

    In this paper we study sample size calculation methods for the asymptotic Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test for data with or without ties. The existing methods are applicable either to data with ties or to data without ties but not to both cases. While the existing methods developed for data without ties perform well, the methods developed for data with ties have limitations in that they are either applicable to proportional odds alternatives or have computational difficulties. We propose a new method which has a closed-form formula and therefore is very easy to calculate. In addition, the new method can be applied to both data with or without ties. Simulations have demonstrated that the new sample size formula performs very well as the corresponding actual powers are close to the nominal powers. PMID:17487941

  6. Vented transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, T.H.

    1990-01-29

    This patent describes a vented transmission. It comprises: a housing; a rotary input to the housing; a rotary output from the housing; transmission means within the housing interconnecting the input and the output and including a hollow, rotary shaft journaled within the housing; a vent tube having a first end extending into one end of the hollow shaft and a second end in fluid communication with the exterior of the housing; a shoulder within the hollow shaft and intermediate the ends of the vent tube and defining of relatively smaller diameter section near the first end of the vent tube that is within the hollow shaft and a relatively large diameter section nearer the second end of the vent tube; at least one aperture extending through the hollow shaft from the large diameter section immediately adjacent the shoulder; and a labyrinth seal at the interface of the vent tube and the large diameter section at a location between the aperture (s) and the second end of the vent tube.

  7. 46 CFR 112.05-3 - Main-emergency bus-tie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main-emergency bus-tie. 112.05-3 Section 112.05-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS General § 112.05-3 Main-emergency bus-tie. Each bus-tie between a main switchboard and an emergency switchboard must:...

  8. A determination of the radio-planetary frame tie from comparison of Earth orientation parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, M. H.; Folkner, W. M.

    1992-01-01

    The orientation of the reference frame of radio source catalogs relative to that of planetary ephemerides, or 'frame tie,' can be a major systematic error source for interplanetary spacecraft orbit determination. This work presents a method of determining the radio-planetary frame tie from a comparison of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and lunar laser ranging (LLR) station coordinate and earth orientation parameter estimates. A frame tie result is presented with an accuracy of 25 nrad.

  9. A determination of the radio-planetary frame tie from comparison of Earth orientation parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, Mark Harold; Folkner, William M.

    1992-01-01

    The orientation of the reference frame of radio source catalogs relative to that of planetary ephemerides, or 'frame tie,' can be a major systematic error source for interplanetary spacecraft orbit determination. This work presents a method of determining the radio-planetary frame tie from a comparison of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and lunar laser ranging (LLR) station coordinate and Earth orientation parameter estimates. A frame tie result is presented with an accuracy of 25 nrad.

  10. Vulnerability to changes in malaria transmission due to climate change in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamana, T. K.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    Malaria transmission in West Africa is strongly tied to climate; temperature affects the development rate of the malaria parasite, as well as the survival of the mosquitoes that transmit the disease, and rainfall is tied to mosquito abundance, as the vector lays its eggs in rain-fed water pools. As a result, the environmental suitability for malaria transmission in this region is expected to change as temperatures rise and rainfall patterns are altered. The vulnerability to changes in transmission varies throughout West Africa. Areas where malaria prevalence is already very high will be less sensitive to changes in transmission. Increases in environmental suitability for malaria transmission in the most arid regions may still be insufficient to allow sustained transmission. However, areas were malaria transmission currently occurs at low levels are expected to be the most sensitive to changes in environmental suitability for transmission. Here, we use data on current environment and malaria transmission rates to highlight areas in West Africa that we expect to be most vulnerable to an increase in malaria under certain climate conditions. We then analyze climate predictions from global climate models in vulnerable areas, and make predictions for the expected change in environmental suitability for malaria transmission using the Hydrology, Entomology and Malaria Transmission Simulator (HYDREMATS), a mechanistic model developed to simulate village-scale response of malaria transmission to environmental variables in West Africa.

  11. The contribution of the Tie2+ lineage to primitive and definitive hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuefeng; Harrington, Anne; Yang, Xuehui; Friesel, Robert E; Liaw, Lucy

    2010-09-01

    The regulatory elements of the Tie2/Tek promoter are commonly used in mouse models to direct transgene expression to endothelial cells. Tunica intima endothelial kinase 2 (Tie2) is also expressed in hematopoietic cells, although this has not been fully characterized. We determine the lineages of adult hematopoietic cells derived from Tie2-expressing populations using Tie2-Cre;Rosa26R-EYFP mice. In Tie2-Cre;Rosa26R-EYFP mice, analysis of bone marrow cells showed Cre-mediated recombination in 85% of the population. In adult bone marrow and spleen, we analyzed subclasses of early hematopoietic progenitors, T cells, monocytes, granulocytes, and B cells. We found that ∼ 84% of each lineage was EYFP(+), and nearly all cells that come from Tie2-expressing lineages are CD45(+), confirming widespread contribution to definitive hematopoietic cells. In addition, more than 82% of blood cells within the embryonic yolk sac were of Tie2(+) origin. Our findings of high levels of Tie2-Cre recombination in the hematopoietic lineage have implications for the use of the Tie2-Cre mouse as a lineage-restricted driver strain. PMID:20645309

  12. Temperature Profile in Fuel and Tie-Tubes for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vishal Patel

    2015-02-01

    A finite element method to calculate temperature profiles in heterogeneous geometries of tie-tube moderated LEU nuclear thermal propulsion systems and HEU designs with tie-tubes is developed and implemented in MATLAB. This new method is compared to previous methods to demonstrate shortcomings in those methods. Typical methods to analyze peak fuel centerline temperature in hexagonal geometries rely on spatial homogenization to derive an analytical expression. These methods are not applicable to cores with tie-tube elements because conduction to tie-tubes cannot be accurately modeled with the homogenized models. The fuel centerline temperature directly impacts safety and performance so it must be predicted carefully. The temperature profile in tie-tubes is also important when high temperatures are expected in the fuel because conduction to the tie-tubes may cause melting in tie-tubes, which may set maximum allowable performance. Estimations of maximum tie-tube temperature can be found from equivalent tube methods, however this method tends to be approximate and overly conservative. A finite element model of heat conduction on a unit cell can model spatial dependence and non-linear conductivity for fuel and tie-tube systems allowing for higher design fidelity of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion.

  13. Hidden link prediction based on node centrality and weak ties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haifeng; Hu, Zheng; Haddadi, Hamed; Tian, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Link prediction has been widely used to extract missing information, identify spurious interactions, evaluate network evolving mechanisms, and so on. In this context, similarity-based algorithms have become the mainstream. However, most of them take into account the contributions of each common neighbor equally to the connection likelihood of two nodes. This paper proposes a model for link prediction, which is based on the node centrality of common neighbors. Three node centralities are discussed: degree, closeness and betweenness centrality. In our model, each common neighbor plays a different role to the node connection likelihood according to their centralities. Moreover, the weak-tie theory is considered for improving the prediction accuracy. Finally, extensive experiments on five real-world networks show that the proposed model can outperform the Common Neighbor (CN) algorithm and gives competitively good prediction of or even better than Adamic-Adar (AA) index and Resource Allocation (RA) index.

  14. Bonding, postpartum dysphoria, and social ties : A speculative inquiry.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Mira

    2002-09-01

    Since the late 1970s, disruptions and "failure" of maternal-infant bonding have been causally linked to postpartum depression. Part I of this paper examines the grounds for this connection while tracing the ramifications of bonding theory (Klaus and Kennell 1976) through obstetrics, pediatrics, and psychiatry, as well as in the (mis)representations of it in the popular media. This discussion resolves into a view of maternal attachment as a long-term development progressively established through intensive mother-infant interaction. The forms of this interaction are phylogenetically determined, albeit culturally and personally mediated. Flowing from this premise, Part II of the paper casts postpartum depression as an adaptive response to threat (from whatever cause) to adequate mothering, and develops an argument for the evolutionary role of enacted social ties in the establishment of maternal responsiveness. PMID:26192928

  15. The Importance of Local Surveys for Tying Techniques Together

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, James L.; Bosworth, John M.

    2000-01-01

    The synergistic benefits of combining observations from multiple space geodesy techniques located at a site are a main reason behind the proposal for the establishment of the International Space Geodetic and Gravimetric Network (ISGN). However, the full benefits of inter-comparison are only realized when the spatial relationships between the different space geodetic systems are accurately determined. These spatial relationships are best determined and documented by developing a local reference network of stable ground monuments and conducting periodic surveys to tie together the reference points (for example: the intersection of rotation axes of a VLBI antenna) of the space geodetic systems and the ground monument network. The data obtained from local surveys is vital to helping understand any systematic errors within an individual technique and to helping identify any local movement or deformation of the space geodetic systems over time.

  16. Non-Equilibrium in Line-Tied Coronal Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, C. S.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    1996-05-01

    Parker's model of nonequilibrium and topological dissipation [E. N. Parker, ApJ 174, 499, 1972] is revisited. Within the framework of ideal reduced MHD equations, it is shown that there can be at most one smooth magnetostatic equilibrium for each continuous footpoint mapping between the two plates with the line-tied boundary condition. This implies that for a given amount of footpoint driving, if a coronal equilibrium becomes unstable, magnetic non-equilibrium and current sheets (tangential discontinuities) can be realized. The special case of island coalescence is considered analytically and numerically. Stability of an equilibrium containing current layers is also studied. Numerical results suggest that such an equilibrium becomes more unstable as the current increases. This is consistent with the tendency for the formation of true tangential discontinuities. This work is supported by NSF and AFOSR.

  17. Software for Verifying Image-Correlation Tie Points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimeck, Gerhard; Yagi, Gary

    2008-01-01

    A computer program enables assessment of the quality of tie points in the image-correlation processes of the software described in the immediately preceding article. Tie points are computed in mappings between corresponding pixels in the left and right images of a stereoscopic pair. The mappings are sometimes not perfect because image data can be noisy and parallax can cause some points to appear in one image but not the other. The present computer program relies on the availability of a left- right correlation map in addition to the usual right left correlation map. The additional map must be generated, which doubles the processing time. Such increased time can now be afforded in the data-processing pipeline, since the time for map generation is now reduced from about 60 to 3 minutes by the parallelization discussed in the previous article. Parallel cluster processing time, therefore, enabled this better science result. The first mapping is typically from a point (denoted by coordinates x,y) in the left image to a point (x',y') in the right image. The second mapping is from (x',y') in the right image to some point (x",y") in the left image. If (x,y) and(x",y") are identical, then the mapping is considered perfect. The perfect-match criterion can be relaxed by introducing an error window that admits of round-off error and a small amount of noise. The mapping procedure can be repeated until all points in each image not connected to points in the other image are eliminated, so that what remains are verified correlation data.

  18. Radio-planetary from tie from Phobos-2 VLBI data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, C. E.; Iijima, B. A.; Kroger, P. M.; Folkner, W. M.; Edwards, C. D.

    1994-01-01

    In an ongoing effort to improve the knowledge of the relative orientation (the 'frame tie') of the planetary ephemeris reference frame used in deep navigation and a second reference frame that is defined by the coordinates of a set of extragalactic radio sources, VLBI observations of the Soviet Phobos-2 spacecraft and nearby (in angle) radio sources were obtained at two epochs in 1989, shortly after the spacecraft entered orbit about Mars. The frame tie is an important systematic error source affecting both interplanetary navigation and the process of improving the theory of the Earth's orientation. The data from a single Phobos-2 VLBI session measure one component of the direction vector from Earth to Mars in the frame of the extragalactic radio sources (the 'radio frame'). The radio frame has been shown to be stable and internally consistent with an accuracy of 5 nrad. The planetary ephemeris reference frame has an internal consistency of approximately 15 nrad. The planetary and radio source reference frames were aligned prior to 1989 and measurements of occulations of the radio source 3C273 by the Moon. The Phobos-2 VLBI measurements provide improvement in the accuracy of two of the three angles describing a general rotation between the planetary and radio reference frames. A complete set of measurements is not available because data acquisition was terminated prematurely by loss of spacecraft. The analysis of the two Phobos-2 VLBI data sets indicates that, in the directions of the two rotation components determined by these data, the JPL planetary ephemeris DE200 is aligned with the radio frame as adopted by the International Earth Rotation Service within an accuracy of 20-40 nrad, depending on direction. The limiting errors in the solutions for these offsets are spacecraft trajectory (20 nrad), instrumental biases (19 nrad), and dependence of quasar coordinates on observing frequency (24 nrad).

  19. Cooperation Prevails When Individuals Adjust Their Social Ties

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Francisco C; Pacheco, Jorge M; Lenaerts, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Conventional evolutionary game theory predicts that natural selection favours the selfish and strong even though cooperative interactions thrive at all levels of organization in living systems. Recent investigations demonstrated that a limiting factor for the evolution of cooperative interactions is the way in which they are organized, cooperators becoming evolutionarily competitive whenever individuals are constrained to interact with few others along the edges of networks with low average connectivity. Despite this insight, the conundrum of cooperation remains since recent empirical data shows that real networks exhibit typically high average connectivity and associated single-to-broad–scale heterogeneity. Here, a computational model is constructed in which individuals are able to self-organize both their strategy and their social ties throughout evolution, based exclusively on their self-interest. We show that the entangled evolution of individual strategy and network structure constitutes a key mechanism for the sustainability of cooperation in social networks. For a given average connectivity of the population, there is a critical value for the ratio W between the time scales associated with the evolution of strategy and of structure above which cooperators wipe out defectors. Moreover, the emerging social networks exhibit an overall heterogeneity that accounts very well for the diversity of patterns recently found in acquired data on social networks. Finally, heterogeneity is found to become maximal when W reaches its critical value. These results show that simple topological dynamics reflecting the individual capacity for self-organization of social ties can produce realistic networks of high average connectivity with associated single-to-broad–scale heterogeneity. On the other hand, they show that cooperation cannot evolve as a result of “social viscosity” alone in heterogeneous networks with high average connectivity, requiring the additional

  20. Cooperation prevails when individuals adjust their social ties.

    PubMed

    Santos, Francisco C; Pacheco, Jorge M; Lenaerts, Tom

    2006-10-20

    Conventional evolutionary game theory predicts that natural selection favours the selfish and strong even though cooperative interactions thrive at all levels of organization in living systems. Recent investigations demonstrated that a limiting factor for the evolution of cooperative interactions is the way in which they are organized, cooperators becoming evolutionarily competitive whenever individuals are constrained to interact with few others along the edges of networks with low average connectivity. Despite this insight, the conundrum of cooperation remains since recent empirical data shows that real networks exhibit typically high average connectivity and associated single-to-broad-scale heterogeneity. Here, a computational model is constructed in which individuals are able to self-organize both their strategy and their social ties throughout evolution, based exclusively on their self-interest. We show that the entangled evolution of individual strategy and network structure constitutes a key mechanism for the sustainability of cooperation in social networks. For a given average connectivity of the population, there is a critical value for the ratio W between the time scales associated with the evolution of strategy and of structure above which cooperators wipe out defectors. Moreover, the emerging social networks exhibit an overall heterogeneity that accounts very well for the diversity of patterns recently found in acquired data on social networks. Finally, heterogeneity is found to become maximal when W reaches its critical value. These results show that simple topological dynamics reflecting the individual capacity for self-organization of social ties can produce realistic networks of high average connectivity with associated single-to-broad-scale heterogeneity. On the other hand, they show that cooperation cannot evolve as a result of "social viscosity" alone in heterogeneous networks with high average connectivity, requiring the additional mechanism of

  1. Hydromechanical transmission

    DOEpatents

    Orshansky, Jr. deceased, Elias; Weseloh, William E.

    1978-01-01

    A power transmission having three planetary assemblies, each having its own carrier and its own planet, sun, and ring gears. A speed-varying module is connected in driving relation to the input shaft and in driving relationship to the three sun gears, all of which are connected together. The speed-varying means may comprise a pair of hydraulic units hydraulically interconnected so that one serves as a pump while the other serves as a motor and vice versa, one of the units having a variable stroke and being connected in driving relation to the input shaft, the other unit, which may have a fixed stroke, being connected in driving relation to the sun gears. The input shaft also drives the carrier of the third planetary assembly. A brake grounds the first carrier in the first range and in reverse and causes drive to be delivered to the output through the first ring gear in a hydrostatic mode. The carrier of the third planetary assembly drives the ring gear of the second planetary assembly, and a first clutching means connects the second carrier with the output in a second range, the brake for grounding the first carrier then being released. A second clutching means enables the third ring gear to drive the output shaft in a third range.

  2. Finite element analyses of continuous filament ties for masonry applications: final report for the Arquin Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Armando Quinones, Sr.; Bibeau, Tiffany A.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2006-06-01

    Finite-element analyses were performed to simulate the response of a hypothetical masonry shear wall with and without continuous filament ties to various lateral loads. The loads represented three different scenarios: (1) 100 mph wind, (2) explosive attack, and (3) an earthquake. In addition, a static loading analysis and cost comparison were performed to evaluate optimal materials and designs for the spacers affixed to the filaments. Results showed that polypropylene, ABS, and polyethylene (high density) were suitable materials for the spacers based on performance and cost, and the short T-spacer design was optimal based on its performance and functionality. Results of the shear-wall loading simulations revealed that simulated walls with the continuous filament ties yielded factors of safety that were at least ten times greater than those without the ties. In the explosive attack simulation (100 psi), the simulated wall without the ties failed (minimum factor of safety was less than one), but the simulated wall with the ties yielded a minimum factor of safety greater than one. Simulations of the walls subject to lateral loads caused by 100 mph winds (0.2 psi) and seismic events with a peak ground acceleration of 1 ''g'' (0.66 psi) yielded no failures with or without the ties. Simulations of wall displacement during the seismic scenarios showed that the wall with the ties resulted in a maximum displacement that was 20% less than the wall without the ties.

  3. Tie1 is required for lymphatic valve and collecting vessel development

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Xianghu; Zhou, Bin; Baldwin, H. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Tie1 is a receptor tyrosine kinase with broad expression in embryonic endothelium. Reduction of Tie1 levels in mouse embryos with a hypomorphic Tie1 allele resulted in abnormal lymphatic patterning and architecture, decreased lymphatic draining efficiency, and ultimately, embryonic demise. Here we report that Tie1 is present uniformly throughout the lymphatics and from late embryonic/early postnatal stages, becomes more restricted to lymphatic valve regions. To investigate later events of lymphatic development, we employed Cre-loxP recombination utilizing a floxed Tie1 allele and an Nfatc1Cre line, to provide loxP excision predominantly in lymphatic endothelium and developing valves. Interestingly, unlike the early prenatal defects previously described by ubiquitous endothelial deletion, excision of Tie1 with Nfatc1Cre resulted in abnormal lymphatic defects in postnatal mice and was characterized by agenesis of lymphatic valves and a deficiency of collecting lymphatic vessels. Attenuation of Tie1 signaling in lymphatic endothelium prevented initiation of lymphatic valve specification by Prox1 high expression lymphatic endothelial cells that is associated with the onset of turbulent flow in the lymphatic circulation. Our findings reveal a fundamental role for Tie signaling during lymphatic vessel remodeling and valve morphogenesis and implicate it as a candidate gene involved in primary lymphedema. PMID:25576926

  4. Structural Assimilation Revisited: Mexican-Origin Nativity and Cross-Ethnic Primary Ties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susan K.

    2006-01-01

    Classical assimilation theory postulates that over time, members of immigrant groups will develop more primary ties with native members of the host society. However, lack of data has led most research to rely on the study of either spatial mobility or other secondary variables as proxies of primary ties. Using data from the Multi-City Study of…

  5. 78 FR 37236 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... Commission, Washington, DC, and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register of April 30, 2013 (78 FR... COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Determinations On the... injured by reason of imports from China, Mexico, and Thailand of prestressed concrete steel rail tie...

  6. 77 FR 21620 - Notice of the Buy America Waiver Request for Vossloh 101-LV Concrete Ties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477), or you may visit http://www.dot.gov/privacy.html... Federal Railroad Administration Notice of the Buy America Waiver Request for Vossloh 101-LV Concrete Ties... requirements for the purchase of Vossloh 101-LV concrete ties, which contain certain components...

  7. 78 FR 25303 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Institution of... materially retarded, by reason of imports from prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from China,...

  8. Social Identity, Social Ties and Social Capital: A Study in Gaming Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Hao

    2012-01-01

    This work will focus on how different social relationships, namely shared identity and personal tie, will impact cooperative behavior, a form of social capital. I designed and conducted an economic game study to show that shared identity and personal ties work differently on cooperation among people and resource flow in social groups. Many factors…

  9. 77 FR 10502 - MATL LLP; Montana Alberta Tie, Ltd; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission MATL LLP; Montana Alberta Tie, Ltd; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on February 13, 2012, MATL LLP (MATL) and Montana Alberta Tie Ltd (Montana Alberta...

  10. 33 CFR 401.37 - Mooring at tie-up walls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mooring at tie-up walls. 401.37... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.37 Mooring at tie-up walls. (a) Upon arrival at a lock, a vessel awaiting instructions to advance shall moor at the...

  11. 10 CFR 71.45 - Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages. 71.45... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.45 Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages. (a) Any..., or must be designed with strength equivalent to that required for lifting attachments. (b)...

  12. Neural dynamics of social tie formation in economic decision-making.

    PubMed

    Bault, Nadège; Pelloux, Benjamin; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; van Winden, Frans

    2015-06-01

    The disposition for prosocial conduct, which contributes to cooperation as arising during social interaction, requires cortical network dynamics responsive to the development of social ties, or care about the interests of specific interaction partners. Here, we formulate a dynamic computational model that accurately predicted how tie formation, driven by the interaction history, influences decisions to contribute in a public good game. We used model-driven functional MRI to test the hypothesis that brain regions key to social interactions keep track of dynamics in tie strength. Activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex tracked the individual's public good contributions. Activation in the bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), and temporo-parietal junction was modulated parametrically by the dynamically developing social tie-as estimated by our model-supporting a role of these regions in social tie formation. Activity in these two regions further reflected inter-individual differences in tie persistence and sensitivity to behavior of the interaction partner. Functional connectivity between pSTS and mPFC activations indicated that the representation of social ties is integrated in the decision process. These data reveal the brain mechanisms underlying the integration of interaction dynamics into a social tie representation which in turn influenced the individual's prosocial decisions. PMID:25338630

  13. 14 CFR 25.519 - Jacking and tie-down provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Jacking and tie-down provisions. 25.519 Section 25.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.519 Jacking and tie-down provisions. (a) General. The...

  14. 33 CFR 401.37 - Mooring at tie-up walls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mooring at tie-up walls. 401.37...-up walls. (a) Upon arrival at a lock, a vessel awaiting instructions to advance shall moor at the tie-up wall, close up to the designated limit or approach sign or to the ship preceding it, whichever...

  15. 33 CFR 401.37 - Mooring at tie-up walls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mooring at tie-up walls. 401.37...-up walls. (a) Upon arrival at a lock, a vessel awaiting instructions to advance shall moor at the tie-up wall, close up to the designated limit or approach sign or to the ship preceding it, whichever...

  16. 33 CFR 401.37 - Mooring at tie-up walls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mooring at tie-up walls. 401.37...-up walls. (a) Upon arrival at a lock, a vessel awaiting instructions to advance shall moor at the tie-up wall, close up to the designated limit or approach sign or to the ship preceding it, whichever...

  17. 33 CFR 401.37 - Mooring at tie-up walls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mooring at tie-up walls. 401.37...-up walls. (a) Upon arrival at a lock, a vessel awaiting instructions to advance shall moor at the tie-up wall, close up to the designated limit or approach sign or to the ship preceding it, whichever...

  18. The effect of a tongue-tie in horses with dorsal displacement of the soft palate.

    PubMed

    Franklin, S H; Naylor, J R J; Lane, J G

    2002-09-01

    Tongue-ties are frequently used in an attempt to prevent dorsal displacement of the soft palate (DDSP). The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of a tongue-tie in horses clinically affected with the disorder. Videoendoscopic recordings and measurements of respiratory airflow were made simultaneously during high intensity treadmill exercise in 6 Thoroughbred racehorses with confirmed DDSP, with and without a tongue-tie. DDSP was confirmed in all 6 horses without the tongue-tie but occurred in only 4 horses with the tongue-tie in place. In one horse the palate displaced only on slowing down after intense exercise and in the other horse DDSP did not occur although palatal instability remained. The presence of the tongue-tie did not result in any significant alteration in run-time to fatigue or in any of the respiratory variables measured. The results suggest that the use of a tongue-tie may prevent DDSP in individual horses although it is not effective in the majority, consistent with the widely accepted anecdotal reports of success rates for its use. Where DDSP was not prevented, application of a tongue-tie did not improve ventilation. PMID:12405729

  19. Difficult intubation in an infant with Pierre Robin syndrome and concomitant tongue tie.

    PubMed

    Jones, S E; Derrick, G M

    1998-01-01

    Intubation and airway difficulties may be assumed in infants with Pierre Robin syndrome. We report a case of a six month old cleft palate repair who also had a tongue tie which compounded the problem. He was eventually intubated using the two anaesthetist technique. The contribution of the tongue tie is assessed. PMID:9836218

  20. Effects of a Group Intervention on the Career Network Ties of Finnish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokisaari, Markku; Vuori, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    The authors evaluated how a group-based career intervention affected career network ties among Finnish adolescents as they made educational choices and prepared for their transition to secondary education. They examined the career-related network ties of 868 students during their last year in comprehensive school (junior high school) in a…

  1. Dissemination Package for Transition into Electronics (TIE) Project, October 1979-June 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evergreen Valley Coll., San Jose, CA.

    This dissemination package consists of a variety of advertising materials, forms, questionnaires, tests, and handouts developed as a part of the Transition into Electronics (TIE) Project. (The TIE Project was a project that developed, implemented, and evaluated a model designed to encourage persons to pursue education and training leading to…

  2. The emotional responses of browsing Facebook: Happiness, envy, and the role of tie strength

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ruoyun; Utz, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    On Facebook, users are exposed to posts from both strong and weak ties. Even though several studies have examined the emotional consequences of using Facebook, less attention has been paid to the role of tie strength. This paper aims to explore the emotional outcomes of reading a post on Facebook and examine the role of tie strength in predicting happiness and envy. Two studies – one correlational, based on a sample of 207 American participants and the other experimental, based on a sample of 194 German participants – were conducted in 2014. In Study 2, envy was further distinguished into benign and malicious envy. Based on a multi-method approach, the results showed that positive emotions are more prevalent than negative emotions while browsing Facebook. Moreover, tie strength is positively associated with the feeling of happiness and benign envy, whereas malicious envy is independent of tie strength after reading a (positive) post on Facebook. PMID:26877584

  3. Social Interactions and Well-Being: The Surprising Power of Weak Ties.

    PubMed

    Sandstrom, Gillian M; Dunn, Elizabeth W

    2014-04-25

    Although we interact with a wide network of people on a daily basis, the social psychology literature has primarily focused on interactions with close friends and family. The present research tested whether subjective well-being is related not only to interactions with these strong ties but also to interactions with weak social ties (i.e., acquaintances). In Study 1, students experienced greater happiness and greater feelings of belonging on days when they interacted with more classmates than usual. Broadening the scope in Studies 2A and 2B to include all daily interactions (with both strong and weak ties), we again found that weak ties are related to social and emotional well-being. The current results highlight the power of weak ties, suggesting that even social interactions with the more peripheral members of our social networks contribute to our well-being. PMID:24769739

  4. Social support and social interaction ties on internet addiction: integrating online and offline contexts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Edward Shih-Tse; Wang, Michael Chih-Hung

    2013-11-01

    This study explores the relationship between social support and social interaction ties on Internet addiction by integrating both online and offline social encounters. A total of 1,642 members of online social communities participated in this research, for which structural equation modeling was used for analysis. The findings show that social support is positively associated with social interaction ties in both online and offline contexts. In addition, online social support and online social interaction ties are positively associated with Internet addiction, whereas offline social support and social interaction ties on Internet addiction are negatively associated. This finding has important implications not only for understanding the cause of Internet addiction but also for understanding the diminishing Internet addiction due to social support and social interaction ties. PMID:23848959

  5. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Inuzuka, T.

    1986-08-26

    1. An automatic transmission with four forward speeds and one reverse position, is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets each having a sun gear, a ring gear and a carrier supporting a pinion in mesh with the sun gear and ring gear; the carrier of the first gear set, the ring gear of the second gear set and the output member all being connected; the ring gear of the first gear set connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a first clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the first gear set, including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a second clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the second gear set a third clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the carrier of the second gear set including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a first drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear of the first gear set and the carrier of the second gear set in only one direction and, alternatively, in any direction; a second drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the sun gear of the second gear set; and a drum being open to the first planetary gear set, with a cylindrical intermediate wall, an inner peripheral wall and outer peripheral wall and forming the hydraulic servos of the first and third clutch means between the intermediate wall and the inner peripheral wall and between the intermediate wall and the outer peripheral wall respectively.

  6. Gene control of tyrosine kinase TIE2 and vascular manifestations of infections.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Chandra C; David, Sascha; Zhang, Ruyang; Berghelli, Anthony; Milam, Katelyn; Higgins, Sarah J; Hunter, Jon; Mukherjee, Aditi; Wei, Yongyue; Tran, Mei; Suber, Freeman; Kobzik, Lester; Kain, Kevin C; Lu, Shulin; Santel, Ansgar; Yano, Kiichiro; Guha, Prajna; Dumont, Daniel J; Christiani, David C; Parikh, Samir M

    2016-03-01

    Ligands of the endothelial-enriched tunica interna endothelial cell kinase 2 (Tie2) are markedly imbalanced in severe infections associated with vascular leakage, yet regulation of the receptor itself has been understudied in this context. Here, we show that TIE2 gene expression may constitute a novel vascular barrier control mechanism in diverse infections. Tie2 expression declined rapidly in wide-ranging models of leak-associated infections, including anthrax, influenza, malaria, and sepsis. Forced Tie2 suppression sufficed to attenuate barrier function and sensitize endothelium to permeability mediators. Rapid reduction of pulmonary Tie2 in otherwise healthy animals attenuated downstream kinase signaling to the barrier effector vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin and induced vascular leakage. Compared with wild-type littermates, mice possessing one allele of Tie2 suffered more severe vascular leakage and higher mortality in two different sepsis models. Common genetic variants that influence TIE2 expression were then sought in the HapMap3 cohort. Remarkably, each of the three strongest predicted cis-acting SNPs in HapMap3 was also associated with the risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in an intensive care unit cohort of 1,614 subjects. The haplotype associated with the highest TIE2 expression conferred a 28% reduction in the risk of ARDS independent of other major clinical variables, including disease severity. In contrast, the most common haplotype was associated with both the lowest TIE2 expression and 31% higher ARDS risk. Together, the results implicate common genetic variation at the TIE2 locus as a determinant of vascular leak-related clinical outcomes from common infections, suggesting new tools to identify individuals at unusual risk for deleterious complications of infection. PMID:26884170

  7. Tying dark matter to baryons with self-interactions.

    PubMed

    Kaplinghat, Manoj; Keeley, Ryan E; Linden, Tim; Yu, Hai-Bo

    2014-07-11

    Self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) models have been proposed to solve the small-scale issues with the collisionless cold dark matter paradigm. We derive equilibrium solutions in these SIDM models for the dark matter halo density profile including the gravitational potential of both baryons and dark matter. Self-interactions drive dark matter to be isothermal and this ties the core sizes and shapes of dark matter halos to the spatial distribution of the stars, a radical departure from previous expectations and from cold dark matter predictions. Compared to predictions of SIDM-only simulations, the core sizes are smaller and the core densities are higher, with the largest effects in baryon-dominated galaxies. As an example, we find a core size around 0.3 kpc for dark matter in the Milky Way, more than an order of magnitude smaller than the core size from SIDM-only simulations, which has important implications for indirect searches of SIDM candidates. PMID:25062162

  8. Resistive ballooning modes in line-tied coronal arcades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velli, Marco

    1986-01-01

    The equations describing the linear evolution of resistive ballooning modes are obtained by using a modified WKB expansion in the short perpendicular wavelength, while variations of the perturbations along the field are described by a slowly varying amplitude, on which the tying boundary conditions are imposed. In general, given an equilibrium, there are certain ranges of magnetic surfaces for which the system predicts instability even without dissipation. The main conclusion is that within the resistive MHD approximation cylindrically symmetric arcades with pressure falling with radius are unstable to resistive localized modes; the growth rates, close to ideal marginal stability, are large, so that it would appear that energy could be released during 10 to 100 Alfven times. The wavelength of the modes is expected to be limited by the ion gyroradius, when stabilizing drift effects must be taken into account. The nonlinear evolution of resistive ballooning modes should be studied to assess their overall relevance to the violent and rapidly evolving phenomena observed on the sun.

  9. Tongue-tie Repair: Z-Plasty Vs Simple Release

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Jamshid; Tabrizian Namini, Fariba; Raisolsadat, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Gillies, Rowan; Ashkezari, Azar; Meara, John G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Ankyloglossia is a congenital anomaly in which the lingual frenulum is unusually short and thick, thus decreasing tongue mobility. In the context of the newborn or young infant it is a subject of ongoing controversy within and between medical specialties. The controversy involves not only the definition but also the management of this anomaly. A tight lingual frenulum is considered a minor malformation by some investigators. Usual treatments for ankyloglossia include speech therapy, as well as simple frenulotomy and frenuloplasty. The aim of this study was to compare the latter two methods with respect to postoperative results and complications. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 patients referred for surgical care were randomly assigned into two groups: simple release (frenulotomy ) or Z-plasty (frenuloplasty), and underwent a pre-surgical assessment. After 3 months, patients were followed with a scheduled interview and questionnaire comparing the outcomes of the two methods. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 18. Results: Surgery had a significant effect on all variables measured in our study (P<0.05). Z-plasty had a greater effect on articulation, breast pain, tongue movement and parent satisfaction than simple release (P<0.05). Z-plasty and simple release had the same effect on breast feeding, latching, and sucking. Conclusion: Z-plasty is the preferred surgical method to address tongue-tie due to a greater improvement in mother’s breast pain, pronunciation and speech, tongue movement, and parental satisfaction. PMID:25938084

  10. Tie-In Orbits for the Focal Plane Stability Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowicz-Reed, Linda

    1991-07-01

    This proposal is part of the TTSC request entitled, "Distortion Calibration in FGS 1 and FGS 2, FGS-to-FGS Alignment Calibration". This portion is listed separately due to the time critical nature of one of the orbits. OFAD in FGS 3 which will be performed in December 1992 together with the Mini OFAD's in FGS's 1 and 2 which will be performed in January 1993 will provide a new set of FGS calibration parameters. One of the objectives of the STScI Focal Plane Stability test is to monitor changes to these parameters by repeatedly observing targets in the cluster M35. Since the cluster is near the ecliptic, only two vehicle orientations are needed, the "fall" and the "spring" pointings (see attached pickles plots). Since the Mini OFAD targets are not necessarily the same targets used in the Focal Plane Stability Test, tie in orbits using the Focal Plane Stability targets are needed shortly before and after the Mini OFAD activities. In addition, the Focal Plane Stability Test may not be

  11. Ageing and intergenerational family ties in Arab countries.

    PubMed

    Kronfol, N M; Rizk, A; Sibai, A M

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores the dominant issues in intergenerational ties in Arab countries with a view to highlighting patterns, trends and challenges as well as policy implications. The data were drawn from a review of scholarly work and published literature in Arab countries and from a regional mapping of ageing policies and programmes in 2012. Social and health ageing policies in the region have been set with the premise that the family represents the core safety net for older Arabs. Yet demographic, sociocultural and economic transitions, as well as political conflict in the Arab world, are bringing profound changes to familial structures. This review feeds into efforts to promote health and social reforms that approach intergenerational solidarity from several fronts: providing equitable old-age income security, fostering cross-generational interactions, embracing caregivers and home-based care, promoting age-responsive actions in emergencies and conflicts, and prioritizing context- and country-specific research on the levels, types and trends in intergenerational and familial support. PMID:26857721

  12. Can space ties on board GNSS satellites replace terrestrial ties in the implementation of Terrestrial Reference Frames?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruni, Sara; Zerbini, Susanna; Altamimi, Zuheir; Rebischung, Paul; Errico, Maddalena; Santi, Efisio

    2016-04-01

    SLR techniques via the so-called space ties, instead of relying on the terrestrial ties evaluated with ground measurement campaigns at co-located ITRF sites.

  13. Tie2-dependent deletion of α6 integrin subunit in mice reduces tumor growth and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bouvard, Claire; Segaoula, Zacharie; De Arcangelis, Adèle; Galy-Fauroux, Isabelle; Mauge, Laetitia; Fischer, Anne-Marie; Georges-Labouesse, Elisabeth; Helley, Dominique

    2014-11-01

    The α6 integrin subunit (α6) has been implicated in cancer cell migration and in the progression of several malignancies, but its role in tumor angiogenesis is unclear. In mice, anti-α6 blocking antibodies reduce tumor angiogenesis, whereas Tie1-dependent α6 gene deletion enhances neovessel formation in melanoma and lung carcinoma. To clarify the discrepancy in these results we used the cre-lox system to generate a mouse line, α6fl/fl‑Tie2Cre(+), with α6 gene deletion specifically in Tie2-lineage cells: endothelial cells, pericytes, subsets of hematopoietic stem cells, and Tie2-expressing monocytes/macrophages (TEMs), known for their proangiogenic properties. Loss of α6 expression in α6fl/fl‑Tie2Cre(+) mice reduced tumor growth in a murine B16F10 melanoma model. Immunohistological analysis of the tumors showed that Tie2-dependent α6 gene deletion was associated with reduced tumor vascularization and with reduced infiltration of proangiogenic Tie2-expressing macrophages. These findings demonstrate that α6 integrin subunit plays a major role in tumor angiogenesis and TEM infiltration. Targeting α6 could be used as a strategy to reduce tumor growth. PMID:25176420

  14. Correcting amplitude, time, and phase mis-ties in seismic data

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, T.N. ); Nunns, A.G. )

    1994-06-01

    Seismic lines from different vintages frequently mis-tie where they intersect. The mis-ties may stem from different amplitudes, a shift in time, or different wave-let character. The authors can correct these mis-ties to a great extent by applying a scale factor, a static time shift, and a phase rotation to one of the lines. The authors describe algorithms to compute the amplitude, time, and phase differences at each intersection among a series of 2-D seismic lines. They can then use an iterative least-squares technique to derive optimal mis-tie corrections for each line. They include a necessary modification of the least-squares technique for the nonlinear phase data. The various algorithms are stable, fast, and accurate. They have used them in conjunction with an interactive workstation seismic interpretation program for five years. The scalar mis-tie corrections greatly enhance the consistency of the seismic data. The authors show the results of the mis-tie package applied to a 20-line survey consisting of five vintages of seismic data. The resulting mis-tie corrections significantly improve the fit between the 20 lines.

  15. Stimulation of angiogenesis and survival of endothelial cells by human monoclonal Tie2 receptor antibody.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Byungtae; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Jang-Seong; Moon, Ji Hyun; Jeung, In Cheul; Lee, Na Geum; Park, Jongjin; Hong, Hyo Jeong; Cho, Young-Lai; Jung, Haiyoung; Park, Young-Jun; Lee, Seon-Jin; Lee, Hee Gu; Kim, Won Kon; Han, Baek Soo; Bae, Kwang-Hee; Chung, Sang J; Kwon, Young-Guen; Lee, Sang Chul; Kim, Sang Jik; Min, Jeong-Ki

    2015-05-01

    Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) and its endothelium-specific receptor, tyrosine kinase with Ig and epidermal growth factor homology domain 2 (Tie2), play critical roles in vascular development. Although the Ang1/Tie2 system has been considered a promising target for therapeutic neovascularization, several imitations of large-scale production have hampered the development of recombinant Ang1 for therapeutics. In this study, we produced a fully human agonistic antibody against Tie2, designated 1-4h, and tested the applicability of 1-4h as an alternative to native Ang1 in therapeutic angiogenesis. 1-4h significantly enhanced the phosphorylation of Tie2 in a dose- and time-dependent manner in human Tie2-expressing HEK293 cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Moreover, 1-4h induced the activation of Tie2-mediated intracellular signaling such as AKT, eNOS, MAPK, and Focal Adhesion Kinase p125(FAK). In addition, 1-4h increased the chemotactic motility and capillary-like tube formation of endothelial cells in vitro and enhanced the survival of serum-deprived endothelial cells. Taken together, our data clearly suggest that a human Tie2 agonistic antibody is a potentially useful therapeutic approach for the treatment of several ischemic diseases including delayed-wound healing and ischemic heart and limb diseases. PMID:25771003

  16. Neural dynamics of social tie formation in economic decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Pelloux, Benjamin; Fahrenfort, Johannes J.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; van Winden, Frans

    2015-01-01

    The disposition for prosocial conduct, which contributes to cooperation as arising during social interaction, requires cortical network dynamics responsive to the development of social ties, or care about the interests of specific interaction partners. Here, we formulate a dynamic computational model that accurately predicted how tie formation, driven by the interaction history, influences decisions to contribute in a public good game. We used model-driven functional MRI to test the hypothesis that brain regions key to social interactions keep track of dynamics in tie strength. Activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex tracked the individual’s public good contributions. Activation in the bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), and temporo-parietal junction was modulated parametrically by the dynamically developing social tie—as estimated by our model—supporting a role of these regions in social tie formation. Activity in these two regions further reflected inter-individual differences in tie persistence and sensitivity to behavior of the interaction partner. Functional connectivity between pSTS and mPFC activations indicated that the representation of social ties is integrated in the decision process. These data reveal the brain mechanisms underlying the integration of interaction dynamics into a social tie representation which in turn influenced the individual’s prosocial decisions. PMID:25338630

  17. Recovery From Radiation-induced Bone Marrow Damage by HSP25 Through Tie2 Signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hae-June; Kwon, Hee-Chung; Chung, Hee-Yong; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Whole-body radiation therapy can cause severe injury to the hematopoietic system, and therefore it is necessary to identify a novel strategy for overcoming this injury. Methods and Materials: Mice were irradiated with 4.5 Gy after heat shock protein 25 (HSP25) gene transfer using an adenoviral vector. Then, peripheral blood cell counts, histopathological analysis, and Western blotting on bone marrow (BM) cells were performed. The interaction of HSP25 with Tie2 was investigated with mouse OP9 and human BM-derived mesenchymal stem cells to determine the mechanism of HSP25 in the hematopoietic system. Results: HSP25 transfer increased BM regeneration and reduced apoptosis following whole-body exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). The decrease in Tie2 protein expression that followed irradiation of the BM was blocked by HSP25 transfer, and Tie2-positive cells were more abundant among the BM cells of HSP25-transferred mice, even after IR exposure. Following systemic RNA interference of Tie2 before IR, HSP25-mediated radioprotective effects were partially blocked in both mice and cell line systems. Stability of Tie2 was increased by HSP25, a response mediated by the interaction of HSP25 with Tie2. IR-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Tie2 was augmented by HSP25 overexpression; downstream events in the Tie2 signaling pathway, including phosphorylation of AKT and EKR1/2, were also activated. Conclusions: HSP25 protects against radiation-induced BM damage by interacting with and stabilizing Tie2. This may be a novel strategy for HSP25-mediated radioprotection in BM.

  18. Global TIE: Developing a Virtual Network of Robotic Observatories for K-12 Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, L. A.; Clark, G.

    2001-11-01

    Astronomy in grades K-12 is traditionally taught (if at all) using textbooks and a few simple hands-on activities. In addition, most students, by High School graduation, will never have even looked through the eyepiece of a telescope. The possibility now exists to establish a network of research grade telescopes, no longer useful to the professional astronomical community, that can be made accessible to schools all across the country through existing IT technologies and applications. These telescopes could provide unparalleled research and educational opportunities for a broad spectrum of K-12 and college students and turns underutilized observatory facilities into valuable, state-of-the-art teaching centers. The NASA-sponsored Telescopes In Education (TIE, http://tie.jpl.nasa.gov) project has been wildly successful in engaging the K-12 education community in real-time, hands-on, interactive astronomy activities. Hundreds of schools in the US, Australia, Canada, England, and Japan have participated in the TIE program, remotely controlling the 24-inch telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory from their classrooms. In recent years, several (approximately 20 to date) other telescopes have been, or are in the process of being, outfitted for remote use as TIE affiliates. Global TIE integrates these telescopes seamlessly into one virtual observatory and provides the services required to operate this facility, including a scheduling service, tools for data manipulation, an online proposal review environment, an online "Virtual TIE Student Ap J" for publication of results, and access to related educational materials provided by the TIE community. Global TIE provides unparalleled research and educational opportunities for a broad spectrum of K-12 and college students and turns essentially unused observatory facilities into valuable, state-of-the-art teaching centers. This presentation describes the Global TIE Observatory data and organizational systems and details the

  19. Elevated Peripheral Blood Plasma Concentrations of Tie-2 and Angiopoietin 2 in Patients with Neuroendocrine Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Melen-Mucha, Gabriela; Niedziela, Agata; Mucha, Slawomir; Motylewska, Ewelina; Lawnicka, Hanna; Komorowski, Jan; Stepien, Henryk

    2012-01-01

    Background Gastro-entero-pancreatic/neuroendocrine (NET) tumors are highly vascularized neoplasms. However, our knowledge concerning circulating levels of the angiogenic factors in NET patients still remains insufficient. Methods The aim of this study was to measure plasma concentrations of VEGF, angiopoietin 1 (Ang-1), angiopoietin 2 (Ang-2), soluble Tie-2, endostatin, osteopontin (OPN) and chromogranin A (CgA) in 36 NET patients and 16 controls. Results Only the plasma concentrations of Tie-2 and CgA were higher in NET patients as compared to controls. These levels were within the reference range in controls; however one control demonstrated slightly elevated Tie-2 and 4 elevated CgA. Similarly, in the subgroup of patients with carcinoid syndrome, only Tie-2 and CgA concentrations were higher than those in patients with non-functioning NETs. In turn, in the subgroup of metastatic patients, only Ang-2 levels were higher than in those with localized disease. A positive correlation was found between Ang-2 and Tie-2 levels in metastatic patients and between Ang-1 and Tie-2 in localized NETs. Conclusions The plasma concentration of Tie-2 is proposed as an additional marker for NET patients and seems to be similarly effective as the currently used CgA level. Moreover, higher plasma levels of Ang-2 together with the positive correlation between Ang-2 and Tie-2 levels in metastatic subjects, implies that cases with a Tie-2 level above the upper limits, together with higher level of Ang-2 seem to be highly predictive of metastases. PMID:22408401

  20. Zika and Sexual Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Zika and Sexual Transmission Language: English Español Português ... Healthcare Providers: Sexual Transmission of Zika Basics of Zika Virus and Sex Transmission Zika can be passed ...

  1. 50 CFR 86.31 - How much money may I charge the public to use tie-up facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... use tie-up facilities? 86.31 Section 86.31 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... charge the public to use tie-up facilities? You may charge the public only a reasonable fee, based on the..., based on other publicly and privately owned tie-up facilities in the area. You must approve any...

  2. 50 CFR 86.31 - How much money may I charge the public to use tie-up facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... use tie-up facilities? 86.31 Section 86.31 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... charge the public to use tie-up facilities? You may charge the public only a reasonable fee, based on the..., based on other publicly and privately owned tie-up facilities in the area. You must approve any...

  3. 50 CFR 86.31 - How much money may I charge the public to use tie-up facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... use tie-up facilities? 86.31 Section 86.31 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... charge the public to use tie-up facilities? You may charge the public only a reasonable fee, based on the..., based on other publicly and privately owned tie-up facilities in the area. You must approve any...

  4. 50 CFR 86.31 - How much money may I charge the public to use tie-up facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... use tie-up facilities? 86.31 Section 86.31 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... charge the public to use tie-up facilities? You may charge the public only a reasonable fee, based on the..., based on other publicly and privately owned tie-up facilities in the area. You must approve any...

  5. A modified over-tie for the ligation of Incognito™ lingual fixed appliances.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Peter N

    2013-09-01

    The Incognito lingual appliance has a ribbon-wise slot with vertically inserted wires. Control of tip can be problematic with this appliance and the conventional method to overcome this is to achieve full wire engagement via the use of power-ties. Although effective, these can be very difficult to place and also create very high friction. A method of ligation is described which consists of a modified elastic double over-tie. This is easily placed and very effective at controlling tip in Incognito brackets using a variety of arch wires. This method creates less friction than the power-tie. PMID:24009324

  6. AGC System after Deregulation Considering TCPS in Series with the Tie-Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Rajesh Joseph; Das, D.; Patra, A.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the study of automatic generation control (AGC) of two area interconnected power system after deregulation, considering a thyristor controlled phase shifter (TCPS) in series with the tie-line. It is possible to minimize the system frequency and tie-power oscillations by controlling the phase angle of TCPS which is expected to provide a new ancillary service for the future power system. Effect of TCPS is examined for three different cases, i.e. (1) unilateral contract, (2) bilateral contract and (3) contract violation. Analysis reveals that a TCPS is quite capable of suppressing the frequency and tie-power oscillations effectively as compared to that obtained without TCPS.

  7. Performance effects of tie-truss modifications for a 70-meter centerline beam waveguide antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucchissi, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    The elevation-axis tie truss of the 70-m antennas would have to be modified to accommodate a centerline beam waveguide. To accomplish this, the center section of the tie truss has to be altered, causing a change in the tie-truss compliance and affecting structural performance. Even with the center section completely removed, the worst-case rms pathlength error due to gravity load is increased from 0.025 to only 0.030 inches. Using a simple postprocessor technique, the effects of modifying the compliance can be predicted without resorting to multiple and costly re-analyses of large finite-element models on a mainframe computer.

  8. Diverless tie-in tool gets first test on deepwater line

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, D.

    1997-03-24

    A diverless, deepwater tie-in and repair tool has been developed and successfully tested on the Norwegian Sea`s Haltenpipe project. Den Norske stats oljeselskap AS (Statoil) and Hydratight Ltd., Wolverhampton, U.K., have disclosed details of the technique and installation. Statoil funded development by Hydra-tight of its Morgrip mechanical connector as a diverless pipeline tie-in and repair system for use in water too deep for existing technologies. The paper discusses welding restrictions underwater, metal-to-metal sealing, the Haltenpipe tie-in, and further development plans.

  9. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  10. Amelioration of sepsis by TIE2 activation-induced vascular protection.

    PubMed

    Han, Sangyeul; Lee, Seung-Jun; Kim, Kyung Eun; Lee, Hyo Seon; Oh, Nuri; Park, Inwon; Ko, Eun; Oh, Seung Ja; Lee, Yoon-Sook; Kim, David; Lee, Seungjoo; Lee, Dae Hyun; Lee, Kwang-Hoon; Chae, Su Young; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Su-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Chan; Kim, Seokkyun; Kim, Sung Hyun; Kim, Chungho; Nakaoka, Yoshikazu; He, Yulong; Augustin, Hellmut G; Hu, Junhao; Song, Paul H; Kim, Yong-In; Kim, Pilhan; Kim, Injune; Koh, Gou Young

    2016-04-20

    Protection of endothelial integrity has been recognized as a frontline approach to alleviating sepsis progression, yet no effective agent for preserving endothelial integrity is available. Using an unusual anti-angiopoietin 2 (ANG2) antibody, ABTAA (ANG2-binding and TIE2-activating antibody), we show that activation of the endothelial receptor TIE2 protects the vasculature from septic damage and provides survival benefit in three sepsis mouse models. Upon binding to ANG2, ABTAA triggers clustering of ANG2, assembling an ABTAA/ANG2 complex that can subsequently bind and activate TIE2. Compared with a conventional ANG2-blocking antibody, ABTAA was highly effective in augmenting survival from sepsis by strengthening the endothelial glycocalyx, reducing cytokine storms, vascular leakage, and rarefaction, and mitigating organ damage. Together, our data advance the role of TIE2 activation in ameliorating sepsis progression and open a potential therapeutic avenue for sepsis to address the lack of sepsis-specific treatment. PMID:27099174

  11. Early Family Ties and Marital Stability Over 16 Years: The Context of Race and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Orbuch, Terri L.; Bauermeister, José A.; Brown, Edna; McKinley, Brandyn-Dior

    2016-01-01

    Spouses’ emotional ties to family early in marriage are linked to marital outcomes, but little is known about how these ties affect marital stability and whether these effects vary by race and gender. The present study examines the links between emotional ties to family of origin and in-laws in the first year of marriage and marital stability over the first 16 years of marriage. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal study following Black American (n=199) and White American (n=174) married couples. Analyses revealed that perceptions of closeness to in-laws early in marriage were associated with odds of divorce over time, but the results varied by race and gender. Findings are discussed in terms of couples’ ties to family early in marriage and the role that in-law bonds play for marital stability. We also offer insights for practitioners who provide premarital and marital education and counseling services to couples.

  12. Comparison of Methods for Evaluating Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Tie-Tube Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Kapernick, Richard J.; Dixon, David D.

    2008-01-21

    One of the fundamental structural components in a nuclear thermal rocket design is the tie tube. Proper cooling and flow modeling is important both for the structural integrity of the reactor core and for proper design of downstream components that operate on the hydrogen exiting the tie tube. Two models have been developed. The first is a spreadsheet-based tool designed for sizing tie-tube components, considering mechanical stress and strain limits, deposited moderator power, thermal expansion along the flow path, and conduction from adjacent fuel blocks. The second is a three-dimensional SINDA/FLUINT model used as a benchmark, containing a complete finite-element fuel block and a 1/6th tie-tube model. This paper discusses the performance of both models, as well as the advantages and limitations of each.

  13. Hospital Volume Tied to Success of Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157804.html Hospital Volume Tied to Success of Radiation Therapy for Prostate ... they receive their radiation treatments at a high-volume facility as opposed to a lower-volume facility," ...

  14. Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) Phases I, II and III Guidance Document

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation summarizes the sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) techniques that allow researchers to characterize and identify chemical causes of acute toxicity in sediments that can be applied using the 10-d solid-phase sediment toxicity tests.

  15. Could Lots of Time Spent on Social Media Be Tied to Depression?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 157953.html Could Lots of Time Spent on Social Media Be Tied to Depression? Study did not prove ... The more time young adults spend using popular social media, the greater the link to depression, new research ...

  16. Long-Term Pot Use Tied to Gum Disease in Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... Term Pot Use Tied to Gum Disease in Study Besides gum health, researchers assessed lung function, risk ... gum disease and potential tooth loss, a new study indicates. In an analysis of about 1,000 ...

  17. Are Birth Control Pills Tied to Decline in Ovarian Cancer Deaths?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Control Pills Tied to Decline in Ovarian Cancer Deaths? Rates down 16 percent in U.S., 8 percent ... WEDNESDAY, Sept. 7, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Ovarian cancer deaths are down dramatically in many parts of the ...

  18. Heart Failure After Heart Attack Tied to Cancer Risk in Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_159804.html Heart Failure After Heart Attack Tied to Cancer Risk in Study Preliminary finding ... News) -- People who develop heart failure after a heart attack may also face a higher risk of cancer, ...

  19. Toward a Dynamic Conceptualization of Social Ties and Context: Implications for Understanding Immigrant and Latino Health

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Amy J.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have posited that social ties and social support may contribute to better-than-expected health outcomes among Mexican immigrants vis-à-vis their US-born counterparts. However, in our review of studies examining social ties and health by immigration-related variables among this group, we found little support for this hypothesis. To better understand the social factors that contribute to the health of Mexicans in the United States, we conducted a qualitative analysis of social relationships and social context among first- and second-generation Mexican women. Our results highlight the interplay between immigration processes and social ties, draw attention to the importance of identity support and transnational social relationships, and suggest ways to reconceptualize the relationship between social contexts, social ties, and immigrant and Latino health. PMID:19833986

  20. CHARACTERIZATION AND ISOLATION OF ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN WHOLE SEDIMENT TOXICITY INDENTIFICATION EVALUATIONS (TIES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of whole sediment toxicity identification and evaluation (TIEs) methods has been under way for approximately four years. These methods are necessary to define cause and effect relationships in toxic sediments during ecological risk assessments, remediation and disposa...

  1. Flu Shot Tied to Fewer Hospitalizations, Deaths in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160085.html Flu Shot Tied to Fewer Hospitalizations, Deaths in Type ... TUESDAY, July 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The seasonal flu vaccine may offer people with type 2 diabetes ...

  2. Iron Framing Axonometric, Stringer, IBeam, Channel, Composite TieBeam, and Small ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Iron Framing Axonometric, Stringer, I-Beam, Channel, Composite Tie-Beam, and Small and Large Phoenix Columns - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. Life promises and 'failed' family ties: expectations and disappointment within a clinical trial (Ivory Coast).

    PubMed

    Marcis, F Le

    2015-12-01

    Building on fieldwork carried out in a clinical trial looking at early antiretroviral treatment for HIV in Abidjan, this paper aims to analyse the way relations emerge during trials and the consequences of the end of participation. Instead of discussing it using the register of ethics, understood as a universal set of principles, the trial is analysed for what it means locally for its actors, mainly patients. From this standpoint, the trial can be defined as both a promise of life and of new possibilities embodied in what is often described as new family ties. How are such ties formed and what does it mean when these ties are broken at the end of patient participation? Discussing the failure of family ties commented upon by patients and dealt by physician researcher is a way to look at ethics from below. PMID:26361643

  4. EFFECTS OF BRINE ADDITION ON EFFLUENT TOXICITY AND MARINE TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATION (TIE) MANIPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little information is available concerning the effect of salinity adjustment on effluent storage and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) performance. hese factors are important for accurate assessments of potential toxicity to marine organisms. he objective of this study was...

  5. Antipsychotic Drugs Tied to Risk of Early Death in Parkinson's Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drugs Tied to Risk of Early Death in Parkinson's Patients But it's unclear whether the medications or ... 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- New research suggests that Parkinson's patients who are given antipsychotics to treat dementia ...

  6. The effects of emitter-tied field plates on lateral PNP ionizing radiation response

    SciTech Connect

    Barnaby, H.J.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Cirba, C.R.; Pease, R.L.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Kosier, S.L.

    1998-03-01

    Radiation response comparisons of lateral PNP bipolar technologies reveal that device hardening may be achieved by extending the emitter contact over the active base. The emitter-tied field plate suppresses recombination of carriers with interface traps.

  7. Comparison of Methods for Evaluating Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Tie-Tube Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapernick, Richard J.; Dixon, David D.

    2008-01-01

    One of the fundamental structural components in a nuclear thermal rocket design is the tie tube. Proper cooling and flow modeling is important both for the structural integrity of the reactor core and for proper design of downstream components that operate on the hydrogen exiting the tie tube. Two models have been developed. The first is a spreadsheet-based tool designed for sizing tie-tube components, considering mechanical stress and strain limits, deposited moderator power, thermal expansion along the flow path, and conduction from adjacent fuel blocks. The second is a three-dimensional SINDA/FLUINT model used as a benchmark, containing a complete finite-element fuel block and a 1/6th tie-tube model. This paper discusses the performance of both models, as well as the advantages and limitations of each.

  8. Genes Tied to Red Hair, Pale Skin Greatly Raise Melanoma Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159831.html Genes Tied to Red Hair, Pale Skin Greatly Raise ... The study's British authors estimate that having the gene is roughly equivalent to the person spending an ...

  9. One-handed knot tying technique in single-incision laparoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Thanakumar, John; John, Pravin Hector

    2011-01-01

    In an open surgery, two-handed as well as one-handed knot tying is commonplace. Knot tying in laparoscopic surgery traditionally involves the use of two instruments (for fashioning an intracorporeal knot) or passing of a ligature around a tubular structure, exteriorising it, fashioning a knot, and sliding it down with a knot-pusher (external slip knot). With increasing interest in expanding applications of single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS), surgeons are faced with new challenges. In SILS it is not usually possible to utilise two instruments for knot tying as they lie almost parallel. We describe a novel one-handed knot tying technique devised specifically for use in SILS. PMID:21197256

  10. One-handed knot tying technique in single-incision laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Thanakumar, John; John, Pravin Hector

    2011-01-01

    In an open surgery, two-handed as well as one-handed knot tying is commonplace. Knot tying in laparoscopic surgery traditionally involves the use of two instruments (for fashioning an intracorporeal knot) or passing of a ligature around a tubular structure, exteriorising it, fashioning a knot, and sliding it down with a knot-pusher (external slip knot). With increasing interest in expanding applications of single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS), surgeons are faced with new challenges. In SILS it is not usually possible to utilise two instruments for knot tying as they lie almost parallel. We describe a novel one-handed knot tying technique devised specifically for use in SILS. PMID:21197256

  11. Growth rate reduction of the curvature-driven flute instability by plasma blanket line tying

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, D.

    1983-09-01

    The effect of an annular, line-tied blanket, on the curvature-driven flute in a magnetic mirror is considered. The blanket is assumed to be line tied to a thermoionically emitting annular end plate. Reduction of the flute growth rate is computed as function of Larmor radius, blanket radius, and axial plasma conductance through either an external plasma or mirror sheath. It is found that significant reduction in growth rate can be achieved.

  12. A longitudinal analysis of cross-border ties and depression for Latino adults.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jacqueline M; Lee, Anne; González, Hector M; Garcia, Lorena; Haan, Mary N

    2016-07-01

    Recent scholarship suggests a significant association between cross-border ties, or ties maintained with family and friends in countries and communities of origin, and the mental health of immigrants and their descendants. To date, this research has been exclusively cross-sectional, precluding conclusions about a causal association between cross-border ties and mental health outcomes. In the present study we undertake a longitudinal analysis of the relationship between cross-border ties and depression measured over a ten-year period for a sample of immigrant and U.S.-born Latinos. Data are from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (1998-2008), a population-based, prospective study of Latin American-origin adults 60 years and older. We find that cross-border ties reported at baseline were significantly associated with depression in subsequent study waves, even after controlling for the presence of depression at baseline, albeit with substantial differences by gender and nativity. Specifically, communication with family and friends in Latin America and travel to Latin America at baseline were each significantly associated with greater odds of depression for immigrant women, but with lower odds of depression for U.S.-born Latina women over the study period. Travel to Latin America at baseline was significantly associated with lower odds of depression for Latino men across the study. Across all models we control for depressive symptomatology at baseline to account for the reciprocal nature of depressive symptoms and engagement with social ties, including cross-border ties. Our findings suggest that cross-border ties may represent a unique source of both resilience and risk for the long-term mental health of immigrant Latinos and their descendants. PMID:27239901

  13. Diverless flowline connector makes three tie-ins in 1,000-ft water

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This paper reviews a remote operated vehicle (ROV) by Sonsub International Inc. in the South China Sea. In March, 1996 this company completed three subsea diverless flowline tie-ins in over 1000 feet of water at the Amoco Orient Petroleum Co. operated Liuhua 11-1 field. The paper briefly describes the design and operation of the equipment and the methods actually used by the ROV to tie in the flow lines.

  14. Quantifying the impact of weak, strong, and super ties in scientific careers

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Alexander Michael

    2015-01-01

    Scientists are frequently faced with the important decision to start or terminate a creative partnership. This process can be influenced by strategic motivations, as early career researchers are pursuers, whereas senior researchers are typically attractors, of new collaborative opportunities. Focusing on the longitudinal aspects of scientific collaboration, we analyzed 473 collaboration profiles using an egocentric perspective that accounts for researcher-specific characteristics and provides insight into a range of topics, from career achievement and sustainability to team dynamics and efficiency. From more than 166,000 collaboration records, we quantify the frequency distributions of collaboration duration and tie strength, showing that collaboration networks are dominated by weak ties characterized by high turnover rates. We use analytic extreme value thresholds to identify a new class of indispensable super ties, the strongest of which commonly exhibit >50% publication overlap with the central scientist. The prevalence of super ties suggests that they arise from career strategies based upon cost, risk, and reward sharing and complementary skill matching. We then use a combination of descriptive and panel regression methods to compare the subset of publications coauthored with a super tie to the subset without one, controlling for pertinent features such as career age, prestige, team size, and prior group experience. We find that super ties contribute to above-average productivity and a 17% citation increase per publication, thus identifying these partnerships—the analog of life partners—as a major factor in science career development. PMID:26261301

  15. Hydraulic reinforcement of channel at lower tie-plate in BWR fuel bundle

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, E.B.

    1989-12-26

    This patent describes an apparatus in a fuel bundle for confining fuel rods for the generation of steam in a steam water mixture passing interior of the fuel bundle. The fuel bundle includes: a lower tie-plate for supporting the fuel rods and permitting flow from the lower exterior portion of the fuel bundle into the interior portion of the fuel bundle; a plurality of fuel rods. The fuel rods supported on the lower tie-plate extending upwardly to and towards the upper portion of the fuel bundle for the generation of steam in a passing steam and water mixture interior of the fuel bundle; an upper tie-plate for maintaining the fuel rods in side-by-side relation and permitting a threaded connection between a plurality of the fuel rods with the threaded connection being at the upper and lower tie-plate. The upper tie-plate permitting escape of a steam water mixture from the top of the fuel bundle; a fuel bundle channel; and a labyrinth seal configured in the lower tie-plate.

  16. Current singularities in line-tied three-dimensional magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, I. J. D.; Pontin, D. I. E-mail: dpontin@maths.dundee.ac.uk

    2014-06-20

    This paper considers the current distributions that derive from finite amplitude perturbations of line-tied magnetic fields comprising hyperbolic field structures. The initial equilibrium on which we principally focus is a planar magnetic X-point threaded by a uniform axial field. This field is line-tied on all surfaces but subject to three-dimensional (3D) disturbances that alter the initial topology. Results of ideal relaxation simulations are presented which illustrate how intense current structures form that can be related, through the influence of line-tying, to the quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) of the initial configuration. It is demonstrated that the location within the QSL that attracts the current, and its scaling properties, are strongly dependent on the relative dimensions of the QSL with respect to the line-tied boundaries. These results are contrasted with the behavior of a line-tied 3D field containing an isolated null point. In this case, it is found that the dominant current always forms at the null, but that the collapse is inhibited when the null is closer to a line-tied boundary.

  17. Multi-purpose grid-tied inverter with smart grid capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liyanagedera, Chamika Mihiranga

    Distributed energy storages play an important role in increasing the reliability and efficiency of the grid through means of peak load shaving, grid voltage support, and grid frequency support. It is important to have distributed energy storages that can utilize the functionalities of the modern smart grid to operate more effectively. The grid-tied inverter is one of the major components in a distributed energy storage that controls the power transfer between the grid and an energy storage device. In this research, a grid-tied inverter that can be used in distributed energy storage applications was designed, developed, and tested. This grid-tied inverter was designed with the capability to control both reactive and active power flow in either direction. The grid-tied inverter is equipped with communication capabilities so it can be remotely controlled by commands sent through a smart grid network. For demonstrative purposes, a user interface was developed to control and monitor the operation of the grid-tied inverter. Finally the operation of the grid-tied inverter was evaluated in accordance to IEEE 1547, the Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems.

  18. Quantifying the impact of weak, strong, and super ties in scientific careers.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Alexander Michael

    2015-08-25

    Scientists are frequently faced with the important decision to start or terminate a creative partnership. This process can be influenced by strategic motivations, as early career researchers are pursuers, whereas senior researchers are typically attractors, of new collaborative opportunities. Focusing on the longitudinal aspects of scientific collaboration, we analyzed 473 collaboration profiles using an egocentric perspective that accounts for researcher-specific characteristics and provides insight into a range of topics, from career achievement and sustainability to team dynamics and efficiency. From more than 166,000 collaboration records, we quantify the frequency distributions of collaboration duration and tie strength, showing that collaboration networks are dominated by weak ties characterized by high turnover rates. We use analytic extreme value thresholds to identify a new class of indispensable super ties, the strongest of which commonly exhibit >50% publication overlap with the central scientist. The prevalence of super ties suggests that they arise from career strategies based upon cost, risk, and reward sharing and complementary skill matching. We then use a combination of descriptive and panel regression methods to compare the subset of publications coauthored with a super tie to the subset without one, controlling for pertinent features such as career age, prestige, team size, and prior group experience. We find that super ties contribute to above-average productivity and a 17% citation increase per publication, thus identifying these partnerships--the analog of life partners--as a major factor in science career development. PMID:26261301

  19. Tie2 Expressing Monocytes in the Spleen of Patients with Primary Myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Campanelli, Rita; Fois, Gabriela; Catarsi, Paolo; Poletto, Valentina; Villani, Laura; Erba, Benedetta Gaia; Maddaluno, Luigi; Jemos, Basilio; Salmoiraghi, Silvia; Guglielmelli, Paola; Abbonante, Vittorio; Di Buduo, Christian Andrea; Balduini, Alessandra; Iurlo, Alessandra; Barosi, Giovanni; Rosti, Vittorio; Massa, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a Philadelphia-negative (Ph−) myeloproliferative disorder, showing abnormal CD34+ progenitor cell trafficking, splenomegaly, marrow fibrosis leading to extensive extramedullary haematopoiesis, and abnormal neoangiogenesis in either the bone marrow or the spleen. Monocytes expressing the angiopoietin-2 receptor (Tie2) have been shown to support abnormal angiogenic processes in solid tumors through a paracrine action that takes place in proximity to the vessels. In this study we investigated the frequency of Tie2 expressing monocytes in the spleen tissue samples of patients with PMF, and healthy subjects (CTRLs), and evaluated their possible role in favouring spleen angiogenesis. We show by confocal microscopy that in the spleen tissue of patients with PMF, but not of CTRLs, the most of the CD14+ cells are Tie2+ and are close to vessels; by flow cytometry, we found that Tie2 expressing monocytes were Tie2+CD14lowCD16brightCDL62−CCR2− (TEMs) and their frequency was higher (p = 0.008) in spleen tissue-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs) of patients with PMF than in spleen tissue-derived MNCs from CTRLs undergoing splenectomy for abdominal trauma. By in vitro angiogenesis assay we evidenced that conditioned medium of immunomagnetically selected spleen tissue derived CD14+ cells of patients with PMF induced a denser tube like net than that of CTRLs; in addition, CD14+Tie2+ cells sorted from spleen tissue derived single cell suspension of patients with PMF show a higher expression of genes involved in angiogenesis than that found in CTRLs. Our results document the enrichment of Tie2+ monocytes expressing angiogenic genes in the spleen of patients with PMF, suggesting a role for these cells in starting/maintaining the pathological angiogenesis in this organ. PMID:27281335

  20. Modeling “unilateral” response in the cross-ties of a cable network: Deterministic vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giaccu, Gian Felice; Caracoglia, Luca; Barbiellini, Bernardo

    2014-09-01

    Cross-ties are employed as passive devices for the mitigation of stay-cable vibrations, exhibited on cable-stayed bridges under wind and wind-rain excitation. Large-amplitude oscillation can result in damage to the cables or perceived discomfort to bridge users. The “cable-cross-ties system” derived by connecting two or more stays by transverse cross-ties is often referred to as an “in-plane cable network”. Linear modeling of network dynamics has been available for some time. This framework, however, cannot be used to detect incipient failure in the restrainers due to slackening or snapping. A new model is proposed in this paper to analyze the effects of a complete loss in the pre-tensioning force imparted to the cross-ties, which leads to the “unilateral” free-vibration response of the network (i.e., a cross-tie with linear-elastic internal force in tension and partially inactive in compression). Deterministic free vibrations of a three-cable network are investigated by using the “equivalent linearization method”. A performance coefficient is introduced to monitor the relative reduction in the average (apparent) stiffness of the connector during free vibration response (“mode by mode”), exhibiting unilateral behavior. A reduction of fifty percent in the apparent stiffness was observed in the cross-tie when the pre-tensioning force is small in comparison with the tension force in the stay. This coefficient may be used as a damage indicator for the selection of the initial pre-tensioning force in the cross-ties needed to avoid slackening.

  1. Soluble Tie2 overrides the heightened invasion induced by anti-angiogenesis therapies in gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Cortes-Santiago, Nahir; Hossain, Mohammad B.; Gabrusiewicz, Konrad; Fan, Xuejun; Gumin, Joy; Marini, Frank C.; Alonso, Marta M.; Lang, Frederick; Yung, W.K.; Fueyo, Juan; Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma recurrence after treatment with the anti–vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agent bevacizumab is characterized by a highly infiltrative and malignant behavior that renders surgical excision and chemotherapy ineffective. Our group has previously reported that Tie2-expressing monocytes (TEMs) are aberrantly present at the tumor/normal brain interface after anti-VEGF therapies and their significant role in the invasive outgrowth of these tumors. Here, we aimed to further understand the mechanisms leading to this pro-invasive tumor microenvironment. Examination of a U87MG xenogeneic glioma model and a GL261 murine syngeneic model showed increased tumor expression of angiopoietin 2 (Ang2), a natural ligand of Tie2, after anti-angiogenesis therapies targeting VEGF or VEGF receptor (VEGFR), as assessed by immunohistochemical analysis, immunofluorescence analysis, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of tumor lysates. Migration and gelatinolytic assays showed that Ang2 acts as both a chemoattractant of TEMs and an enhancing signal for their tumor-remodeling properties. Accordingly, in vivo transduction of Ang2 into intracranial gliomas increased recruitment of TEMs into the tumor. To reduce invasive tumor outgrowth after anti-angiogenesis therapy, we targeted the Ang-Tie2 axis using a Tie2 decoy receptor. Using syngeneic models, we observed that overexpression of soluble Tie2 within the tumor prevented the recruitment of TEMs to the tumor and the development of invasion after anti-angiogenesis treatment. Taken together, these data indicate an active role for the Ang2-Tie2 pathway in invasive glioma recurrence after anti-angiogenesis treatment and provide a rationale for testing the combined targeting of VEGF and Ang-Tie2 pathways in patients with glioblastoma. PMID:26910374

  2. Soluble Tie2 overrides the heightened invasion induced by anti-angiogenesis therapies in gliomas.

    PubMed

    Cortes-Santiago, Nahir; Hossain, Mohammad B; Gabrusiewicz, Konrad; Fan, Xuejun; Gumin, Joy; Marini, Frank C; Alonso, Marta M; Lang, Frederick; Yung, W K; Fueyo, Juan; Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria

    2016-03-29

    Glioblastoma recurrence after treatment with the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agent bevacizumab is characterized by a highly infiltrative and malignant behavior that renders surgical excision and chemotherapy ineffective. Our group has previously reported that Tie2-expressing monocytes (TEMs) are aberrantly present at the tumor/normal brain interface after anti-VEGF therapies and their significant role in the invasive outgrowth of these tumors. Here, we aimed to further understand the mechanisms leading to this pro-invasive tumor microenvironment. Examination of a U87MG xenogeneic glioma model and a GL261 murine syngeneic model showed increased tumor expression of angiopoietin 2 (Ang2), a natural ligand of Tie2, after anti-angiogenesis therapies targeting VEGF or VEGF receptor (VEGFR), as assessed by immunohistochemical analysis, immunofluorescence analysis, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of tumor lysates. Migration and gelatinolytic assays showed that Ang2 acts as both a chemoattractant of TEMs and an enhancing signal for their tumor-remodeling properties. Accordingly, in vivo transduction of Ang2 into intracranial gliomas increased recruitment of TEMs into the tumor. To reduce invasive tumor outgrowth after anti-angiogenesis therapy, we targeted the Ang-Tie2 axis using a Tie2 decoy receptor. Using syngeneic models, we observed that overexpression of soluble Tie2 within the tumor prevented the recruitment of TEMs to the tumor and the development of invasion after anti-angiogenesis treatment. Taken together, these data indicate an active role for the Ang2-Tie2 pathway in invasive glioma recurrence after anti-angiogenesis treatment and provide a rationale for testing the combined targeting of VEGF and Ang-Tie2 pathways in patients with glioblastoma. PMID:26910374

  3. Estimation of tensile force in tie-rods using a frequency-based identification method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amabili, M.; Carra, S.; Collini, L.; Garziera, R.; Panno, A.

    2010-05-01

    A technique is developed to identify in-situ the tensile force in tie-rods which are used in ancient monumental masonry buildings to eliminate the lateral load exercised by the vaults and arcs. The technique is based on a frequency-based identification method that allows to minimize the measurement error and that is of simple execution. In particular, the first natural frequencies of the tie-rods are experimentally identified by measuring the frequency response functions (FRFs) with instrumented hammer excitation; four to six natural frequencies can be easily identified with a simple test. Then, a numerical model, based on the Rayleigh-Ritz method, is developed for the axially loaded tie-rod by using the Timoshenko beam theory retaining shear deformation and rotary inertia. Non-uniform section of the rod is considered since this is often the case for hand-made tie-rods in old buildings. The part of the tie-rod inserted inside the masonry wall is also modeled and a simple support is assumed at the extremities inside the walls. The constraints given to the part of the tie-rod inserted inside the masonry structure are assumed to be elastic foundations. The tensile force and the stiffness of the foundation are the unknowns. In some cases, the length of the rod inside the masonry wall can be also assumed as unknown. The numerical model is used to calculate the natural frequencies for a given set of unknowns. Then, a weighted difference between the calculated and identified natural frequencies is calculated and this difference is minimized in order to identify the unknowns, and in particular the tensile force. An estimation of the error in the identification of the force is given. The technique has been tested on five tie-rods at the ground floor of the famous castle of Fontanellato, Italy.

  4. Tie2 Expressing Monocytes in the Spleen of Patients with Primary Myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Campanelli, Rita; Fois, Gabriela; Catarsi, Paolo; Poletto, Valentina; Villani, Laura; Erba, Benedetta Gaia; Maddaluno, Luigi; Jemos, Basilio; Salmoiraghi, Silvia; Guglielmelli, Paola; Abbonante, Vittorio; Di Buduo, Christian Andrea; Balduini, Alessandra; Iurlo, Alessandra; Barosi, Giovanni; Rosti, Vittorio; Massa, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a Philadelphia-negative (Ph-) myeloproliferative disorder, showing abnormal CD34+ progenitor cell trafficking, splenomegaly, marrow fibrosis leading to extensive extramedullary haematopoiesis, and abnormal neoangiogenesis in either the bone marrow or the spleen. Monocytes expressing the angiopoietin-2 receptor (Tie2) have been shown to support abnormal angiogenic processes in solid tumors through a paracrine action that takes place in proximity to the vessels. In this study we investigated the frequency of Tie2 expressing monocytes in the spleen tissue samples of patients with PMF, and healthy subjects (CTRLs), and evaluated their possible role in favouring spleen angiogenesis. We show by confocal microscopy that in the spleen tissue of patients with PMF, but not of CTRLs, the most of the CD14+ cells are Tie2+ and are close to vessels; by flow cytometry, we found that Tie2 expressing monocytes were Tie2+CD14lowCD16brightCDL62-CCR2- (TEMs) and their frequency was higher (p = 0.008) in spleen tissue-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs) of patients with PMF than in spleen tissue-derived MNCs from CTRLs undergoing splenectomy for abdominal trauma. By in vitro angiogenesis assay we evidenced that conditioned medium of immunomagnetically selected spleen tissue derived CD14+ cells of patients with PMF induced a denser tube like net than that of CTRLs; in addition, CD14+Tie2+ cells sorted from spleen tissue derived single cell suspension of patients with PMF show a higher expression of genes involved in angiogenesis than that found in CTRLs. Our results document the enrichment of Tie2+ monocytes expressing angiogenic genes in the spleen of patients with PMF, suggesting a role for these cells in starting/maintaining the pathological angiogenesis in this organ. PMID:27281335

  5. Loss of Tie2 receptor compromises embryonic stem cell-derived endothelial but not hematopoietic cell survival.

    PubMed

    Hamaguchi, Isao; Morisada, Tohru; Azuma, Masaki; Murakami, Kyoko; Kuramitsu, Madoka; Mizukami, Takuo; Ohbo, Kazuyuki; Yamaguchi, Kazunari; Oike, Yuichi; Dumont, Daniel J; Suda, Toshio

    2006-02-01

    Tie2 is a receptor-type tyrosine kinase expressed on hematopoietic stem cells and endothelial cells. We used cultured embryonic stem (ES) cells to determine the function of Tie2 during early vascular development and hematopoiesis. Upon differentiation, the ES cell-derived Tie2+ Flk1+ fraction was enriched for hematopoietic and endothelial progenitor cells. To investigate lymphatic differentiation, we used a monoclonal antibody against LYVE-1 and found that LYVE-1+ cells derived from Tie2+ Flk1+ cells possessed various characteristics of lymphatic endothelial cells. To determine whether Tie2 played a role in this process, we analyzed differentiation of Tie2-/- ES cells. Although the initial numbers of LYVE-1+ and PECAM-1+ cells derived from Tie2-/- cells did not vary significantly, the number of both decreased dramatically upon extended culturing. Such decreases were rescued by treatment with a caspase inhibitor, suggesting that reductions were due to apoptosis as a consequence of a lack of Tie2 signaling. Interestingly, Tie2-/- ES cells did not show measurable defects in development of the hematopoietic system, suggesting that Tie2 is not essential for hematopoietic cell development. PMID:16219799

  6. Results of Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIE`S) conducted on the A-01 outfall and its contributory waste streams, July 1996--February 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1997-03-01

    Toxicity tests were conducted at nine locations during the summer of 1996. The results indicated that A-01B, A-01C, A-03, A-04, A-05 and A-01 were toxic to the test species, Ceriodaphnia dubia, while A-01A, A-06, and WE-01 were not toxic. Beginning in August 1996, Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIE`s) were initiated on all toxic outfalls in order to identify the toxicants responsible for the observed toxicity. A complete TIE was performed on A-01 because it is the regulatory compliance point for all of the combined waste streams that were tested. Only the portions of a TIE that are related to metal and chlorine toxicity were performed on the remaining locations because existing data indicated that metals and chlorine were present in potentially toxic quantities at these locations, and there was no evidence that other toxicants would be expected to be present in toxic amounts. The results of the TIE`s indicate that metals are responsible for most of the toxicity at all of the outfalls that were toxic and that chlorine contributed to the toxicity at two of the outfalls. Specifically, the toxicity at A-01B, A-01C, and A-01 was due to copper; the toxicity at A-03 was due to primarily to copper, although zinc also contributed to the toxicity; the toxicity at A-04 was due primarily to copper, with residual chlorine and zinc contributing to the toxicity; and the toxicity at A-05 was due primarily to copper, with residual chlorine contributing to the toxicity. A-03 was the most toxic outfall, with 100% mortality occurring at concentrations as low as 12.5% effluent. A-03 was found to have concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc that exceeded EPA water quality criteria by approximately two orders of magnitude. The metal concentrations at A-01 and WE-01, which is located approximately 0.5 miles downstream from A-01 were similar. However, A-01 was toxic, while WE-01 was not.

  7. Community Detection in Signed Networks: the Role of Negative ties in Different Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmailian, Pouya; Jalili, Mahdi

    2015-09-01

    Extracting community structure of complex network systems has many applications from engineering to biology and social sciences. There exist many algorithms to discover community structure of networks. However, it has been significantly under-explored for networks with positive and negative links as compared to unsigned ones. Trying to fill this gap, we measured the quality of partitions by introducing a Map Equation for signed networks. It is based on the assumption that negative relations weaken positive flow from a node towards a community, and thus, external (internal) negative ties increase the probability of staying inside (escaping from) a community. We further extended the Constant Potts Model, providing a map spectrum for signed networks. Accordingly, a partition is selected through balancing between abridgment and expatiation of a signed network. Most importantly, multi-scale spectrum of signed networks revealed how informative are negative ties in different scales, and quantified the topological placement of negative ties between dense positive ones. Moreover, an inconsistency was found in the signed Modularity: as the number of negative ties increases, the density of positive ties is neglected more. These results shed lights on the community structure of signed networks.

  8. Community Detection in Signed Networks: the Role of Negative ties in Different Scales

    PubMed Central

    Esmailian, Pouya; Jalili, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Extracting community structure of complex network systems has many applications from engineering to biology and social sciences. There exist many algorithms to discover community structure of networks. However, it has been significantly under-explored for networks with positive and negative links as compared to unsigned ones. Trying to fill this gap, we measured the quality of partitions by introducing a Map Equation for signed networks. It is based on the assumption that negative relations weaken positive flow from a node towards a community, and thus, external (internal) negative ties increase the probability of staying inside (escaping from) a community. We further extended the Constant Potts Model, providing a map spectrum for signed networks. Accordingly, a partition is selected through balancing between abridgment and expatiation of a signed network. Most importantly, multi-scale spectrum of signed networks revealed how informative are negative ties in different scales, and quantified the topological placement of negative ties between dense positive ones. Moreover, an inconsistency was found in the signed Modularity: as the number of negative ties increases, the density of positive ties is neglected more. These results shed lights on the community structure of signed networks. PMID:26395815

  9. Vibration Testing of Electrical Cables to Quantify Loads at Tie-Down Locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutson, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    The standard method for defining static equivalent structural load factors for components is based on Mile s equation. Unless test data is available, 5% critical damping is assumed for all components when calculating loads. Application of this method to electrical cable tie-down hardware often results in high loads, which often exceed the capability of typical tie-down options such as cable ties and P-clamps. Random vibration testing of electrical cables was used to better understand the factors that influence component loads: natural frequency, damping, and mass participation. An initial round of vibration testing successfully identified variables of interest, checked out the test fixture and instrumentation, and provided justification for removing some conservatism in the standard method. Additional testing is planned that will include a larger range of cable sizes for the most significant contributors to load as variables to further refine loads at cable tie-down points. Completed testing has provided justification to reduce loads at cable tie-downs by 45% with additional refinement based on measured cable natural frequencies.

  10. Community Detection in Signed Networks: the Role of Negative ties in Different Scales.

    PubMed

    Esmailian, Pouya; Jalili, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Extracting community structure of complex network systems has many applications from engineering to biology and social sciences. There exist many algorithms to discover community structure of networks. However, it has been significantly under-explored for networks with positive and negative links as compared to unsigned ones. Trying to fill this gap, we measured the quality of partitions by introducing a Map Equation for signed networks. It is based on the assumption that negative relations weaken positive flow from a node towards a community, and thus, external (internal) negative ties increase the probability of staying inside (escaping from) a community. We further extended the Constant Potts Model, providing a map spectrum for signed networks. Accordingly, a partition is selected through balancing between abridgment and expatiation of a signed network. Most importantly, multi-scale spectrum of signed networks revealed how informative are negative ties in different scales, and quantified the topological placement of negative ties between dense positive ones. Moreover, an inconsistency was found in the signed Modularity: as the number of negative ties increases, the density of positive ties is neglected more. These results shed lights on the community structure of signed networks. PMID:26395815

  11. The social ties that bind: social anxiety and academic achievement across the university years.

    PubMed

    Brook, Christina A; Willoughby, Teena

    2015-05-01

    Given that engagement and integration in university/college are considered key to successful academic achievement, the identifying features of social anxiety, including fear of negative evaluation and distress and avoidance of new or all social situations, may be particularly disadvantageous in the social and evaluative contexts that are integral to university/college life. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the direct effects of social anxiety on academic achievement, as well as investigate an indirect mechanism through which social anxiety might impact on academic achievement, namely, the formation of new social ties in university. The participants were 942 (71.7 % female; M = 19 years at Time 1) students enrolled in a mid-sized university in Southern Ontario, Canada. Students completed annual assessments of social anxiety, social ties, and academic achievement for three consecutive years. The results from an autoregressive cross-lag path analysis indicated that social anxiety had a significant and negative direct relationship with academic achievement. Moreover, the negative indirect effect of social anxiety on academic achievement through social ties was significant, as was the opposing direction of effects (i.e., the indirect effect of academic achievement on social anxiety through social ties). These findings highlight the critical role that social ties appear to play in successful academic outcomes and in alleviating the effects of social anxiety during university/college. PMID:25691148

  12. Transmission of Mumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Articles Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Transmission of Mumps Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... Answers for Patients . Top of Page Related Pages Transmission for Healthcare Providers Cover Your Cough Clean Hands ...

  13. Chickenpox (Varicella): Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Multimedia Related Links Medline Plus Healthfinder.gov Shingles Transmission Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... not shingles. For more information about shingles, see Transmission . When Is a Person Contagious? A person with ...

  14. Influence of social ties to environmentalists on public climate change perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tindall, D. B.; Piggot, Georgia

    2015-06-01

    An emerging body of research proposes that climate change concern is shaped by one's social ties and cultural milieu. This work aligns with findings in the well-established field of social network analysis, whereby individuals are understood as being embedded in social networks, and network position can be used to predict attitudes. Here we examine whether having ties to environmental movement organization members is correlated with climate change attitudes amongst the general public. We use data from a nationwide survey of the Canadian public to demonstrate that having social ties to environmental organization members increases the likelihood that an individual member of the public has a plan to deal with climate change. These findings reinforce the value of focusing on social context when examining climate change attitudes, and highlight the role that environmental organization members play in mobilizing climate change responses.

  15. A determination of the radio-planetary frame tie and the DSN tracking station locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, Mark H.; Folkner, William M.

    1990-01-01

    The orientation of the reference frame of radio source catalogs relative to that of planetary ephemerides is uncertain by 30 mas (150 nrad). At this level of uncertainty this orientation offset, or 'frame tie', can be a major systematic error source for interplanetary spacecraft orbit determination. This work presents a method of determining the radio-planetary frame tie from a comparison of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) station coordinate and earth orientation parameter estimates. Preliminary results are presented which indicate that accuracies of 5 mas or better may be achieved with this method. An important by-product of this method of frame tie determination is a set of Deep Space Network (DSN) station locations with 10 cm per component accuracy. This station set is in a geocentric coordinate system with known orientation relative to the radio and planetary frames.

  16. Relief of Residual Stress in Streamline Tie Rods by Heat Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollard, R E; Reinhart, Fred M

    1941-01-01

    About two-thirds of the residual stress in cold-worked SAE 1050 steel tie rods was relieved by heating 30 minutes at 600 degrees Fahrenheit. Cold-worked austenitic stainless-steel tie rods could be heated at temperatures up to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit without lowering the important physical properties. The corrosion resistance, in laboratory corrosion test, of straight 18:8 and titanium-treated 18:8 materials appeared to be impaired after heating at temperatures above 800 degrees or 900 degrees fahrenheit. Columbium-treated and molybdenum-treated 18:8 steel exhibited improved stability over a wide range of temperatures. Tie rods of either material could be heated 30 minutes with safety at any temperature up to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit. At this temperature most of the residual stress would be relieved.

  17. Tie-mediated signal from apoptotic cells protects stem cells in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yalan; Su, Tin Tin; Ruohola-Baker, Hannele

    2015-01-01

    Many types of normal and cancer stem cells are resistant to killing by genotoxins, but the mechanism for this resistance is poorly understood. Here we show that adult stem cells in Drosophila melanogaster germline and midgut are resistant to ionizing radiation (IR) or chemically induced apoptosis and dissect the mechanism for this protection. We find that upon IR the receptor tyrosine kinase Tie/Tie-2 is activated, leading to the upregulation of microRNA bantam that represses FOXO-mediated transcription of pro-apoptotic Smac/DIABLO orthologue, Hid in germline stem cells. Knockdown of the IR-induced putative Tie ligand, Pvf1, a functional homologue of human Angiopoietin, in differentiating daughter cells renders germline stem cells sensitive to IR, suggesting that the dying daughters send a survival signal to protect their stem cells for future repopulation of the tissue. If conserved in cancer stem cells, this mechanism may provide therapeutic options for the eradication of cancer. PMID:25959206

  18. Exploring the Academic Benefits of Friendship Ties for Latino Boys and Girls*

    PubMed Central

    Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; Callahan, Rebecca M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We examine how the racial/ethnic and generational status composition of Latino students' friendship groups is related to their academic achievement and whether there are differential effects by gender. Methods We use multivariate regression analyses to examine the effects of friends' characteristics on Latino students' end of high school grades, utilizing data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study (AHAA), and its parent survey, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Results For Latina girls, there are positive effects of having more friendship ties to third-plus-generation Latino peers in contrast to dominant culture peers; yet Latino boys benefit academically from ties to all co-ethnic peers. Having friends with higher parental education promotes achievement of both genders. Conclusion Our results counter notions of a pervasive negative peer influence of minority youth and suggest that co-ethnic ties are an important source of social capital for Latino students' achievement. PMID:20333266

  19. A Community of Strangers: The Dis-Embedding of Social Ties

    PubMed Central

    Parigi, Paolo; State, Bogdan; Dakhlallah, Diana; Corten, Rense; Cook, Karen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore two contrasting perspectives on individuals' participation in associations. On the one hand, some have considered participation the byproduct of pre-existing friendship ties — the more friends one already has in the association, the more likely he or she is to participate. On the other hand, some have considered participation to be driven by the association's capacity to form new identities — the more new friends one meets in the association, the more likely he or she is to participate. We use detailed temporal data from an online association to adjudicate between these two mechanisms and explore their interplay. Our results show a significant impact of new friendship ties on participation, compared to a negligible impact of pre-existing friends, defined here as ties to other members formed outside of the organization's context. We relate this finding to the sociological literature on participation and we explore its implications in the discussion. PMID:23861761

  20. Application of Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures for the characterization and management of dredged harbor sediments.

    PubMed

    Montero, N; Belzunce-Segarra, M J; Gonzalez, J-L; Menchaca, I; Garmendia, J M; Etxebarria, N; Nieto, O; Franco, J

    2013-06-15

    This study refers to the performance of Phase I Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures to identify the contaminants (i.e. organic compounds, metals and ammonia) exerting toxicity in marine sediments from the Pasaia harbor (Oiartzun estuary, northern Spain). The effectiveness of the manipulations to reduce toxicity was proved with the marine amphipod survival test (whole-sediment) and the sea urchin embryo-larval assay (elutriates). By means of TIEs it was concluded that organic compounds were the major contaminants exerting toxicity, although toxic effects by metals was also demonstrated. Additionally, the combination of Phase I treatments allowed to investigate the toxicity changes associated to the mobility of contaminants during dredging activities. Therefore, the performance of TIE procedures as another line of evidence in the decision-making process is recommended. They show a great potential to be implemented at different steps of the characterization and management of dredged harbor sediments. PMID:23465571

  1. The Technology Information Environment with Industry (TIE-In): A mechanism for accessing laboratory solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, J.A.; Machin, G.D.; Marek, E.L.

    1994-12-31

    The Technology Information Environment with Industry (TIE-In) is a system that helps users obtain laboratory-developed technical solutions without requiring that they duplicate the technical resources (in people, hardware and software) at the national laboratories. TIE-In is based on providing users with controlled access to distributed laboratory resources that are packaged in intelligent user interfaces. These interfaces help users obtain technical solutions without requiring that the user have specialized technical and computer expertise. As a designated DOE Technology Deployment Center/User Facility, industry users can access a broad range of laboratory-developed technologies on a cost-recovery basis. TIE-In will also be used to share laboratory resources with partners in US industry that help the DOE meet future manufacturing needs for the stewardship of our nation`s nuclear weapons stockpile.

  2. RTS-ROV operated tie-in system for low cost subsea developments

    SciTech Connect

    Halle, P.O.

    1995-12-31

    A new type pull-in and connection system is developed for very deep waters. The system is called ROV-operated Tie-in System (RTS). Main objectives during the development phase was to make a tool system more or less independent of water depth, use of simple low cost installation vessels, minimum equipment left subsea, minimum support structure sizes, simple control system, various launching methods possible and use of field proven clamp hub and seal assemblies. The result has been a very cost effective tie-in system which is a key factor for reduction of total field development costs. The capacity for the tool is 10 inch 3,000 psi flexible flow lines or alternatively 9 inch 5,000 psi. The RTS replaces divers during tie-in operations and can be used down to at least 1500 m water depth.

  3. Victor Coxon, member, B.J.'s Black Tie Club at Palmer, 1936-1941.

    PubMed

    Hart, J

    1998-12-01

    The 1930's era was a turbulent time for B.J. Palmer who was proposing radical changes in chiropractic methodologies, i.e., the Hole-in-one upper cervical approach, neurocalometer examinations and heavy reliance on x-ray for vertebral listings. Palmer needed and found an inner circle of loyal supporters at the Fountain Head who were named the "Black Tie Club," identified at important Palmer functions wearing the flowing black tie--the Windsor. One such Black Tie Club member was Victor Coxon--a 1930 Palmer School graduate who passed away recently. The present article explores Coxon's assistant directorship of the B.J. Palmer Chiropractic Clinic, some of his many writings, as well as correspondence Dr. Coxon had with the author. PMID:11623680

  4. "Security loop" tie: a new technique to overcome loosening of surgical knots.

    PubMed

    Alzacko, Saadallah Mohammad; Majid, Omer Waleed

    2007-11-01

    Sutures require knots so as to ensure optimal tissue closure strength. Loosening of surgical knots during or after tying can lead to an ineffective suture and compromise the final result. Loosening is affected mainly by the type of suture material and nature of surgical field. In palatal surgery, tying secure knots is a major consideration and may present a technical challenge. In this article, and after a review of the literature, we present a new modification of the usual knot-tying technique to maximize knot security and prevent knot loosening after the first throw is done. This technique was found to be effective, simple, fast, easy to learn, and saves time and material. PMID:17964468

  5. Continuity and Change in Grandchildren’s Closeness to Grandparents: Consequences of Changing Intergenerational Ties

    PubMed Central

    Monserud, Maria A.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on data from Waves 2 and 3 of the National Survey of Families and Households, this study examines whether grandchildren’s (N = 496) previous patterns of closeness to grandparents is associated with their current closeness to grandparents and whether changes in parents’ intergenerational ties make a difference in the development of grandchildren’s closeness to grandparents when grandchildren experience young adulthood. The findings suggest that there is a possibility for both continuity and change in grandchildren’s bond to grandparents. Grandchildren’s closeness to grandparents was associated not only with their earlier patterns of closeness to grandparents and with parents’ concurrent relations with the grandchild and grandparent generations, but also with changes in parents’ intergenerational ties over time. Also, the grandchild gender moderated linkages between certain intergenerational ties in the family. PMID:21344061

  6. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in tie-stall dairy herds using a standardized environmental sampling technique and targeted pooled samples.

    PubMed

    Arango-Sabogal, Juan C; Côté, Geneviève; Paré, Julie; Labrecque, Olivia; Roy, Jean-Philippe; Buczinski, Sébastien; Doré, Elizabeth; Fairbrother, Julie H; Bissonnette, Nathalie; Wellemans, Vincent; Fecteau, Gilles

    2016-07-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease, a chronic contagious enteritis of ruminants that causes major economic losses. Several studies, most involving large free-stall herds, have found environmental sampling to be a suitable method for detecting MAP-infected herds. In eastern Canada, where small tie-stall herds are predominant, certain conditions and management practices may influence the survival and transmission of MAP and recovery (isolation). Our objective was to estimate the performance of a standardized environmental and targeted pooled sampling technique for the detection of MAP-infected tie-stall dairy herds. Twenty-four farms (19 MAP-infected and 5 non-infected) were enrolled, but only 20 were visited twice in the same year, to collect 7 environmental samples and 2 pooled samples (sick cows and cows with poor body condition). Concurrent individual sampling of all adult cows in the herds was also carried out. Isolation of MAP was achieved using the MGIT Para TB culture media and the BACTEC 960 detection system. Overall, MAP was isolated in 7% of the environmental cultures. The sensitivity of the environmental culture was 44% [95% confidence interval (CI): 20% to 70%] when combining results from 2 different herd visits and 32% (95% CI: 13% to 57%) when results from only 1 random herd visit were used. The best sampling strategy was to combine samples from the manure pit, gutter, sick cows, and cows with poor body condition. The standardized environmental sampling technique and the targeted pooled samples presented in this study is an alternative sampling strategy to costly individual cultures for detecting MAP-infected tie-stall dairies. Repeated samplings may improve the detection of MAP-infected herds. PMID:27408329

  7. Sensitivity of passive microwave sea ice concentration algorithms to the selection of locally and seasonally adjusted tie points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, Konrad; Schweiger, Axel

    1989-01-01

    The sensitivity of passive microwave sea-ice concentration (SIC) algorithms to the selection of tie points was analyzed. SICs were derived with the NASA Team ice algorithm for global tie points and for locally and seasonally adjusted tie points. The SSM/I SIC was then compared to Landsat-MSS-derived SICs. Preliminary results show a mean difference of SSM/I- and Landsat-derived SICs for 50 x 50 km grid cells of 2.7 percent along the ice edge of the Beaufort Sea during fall with local tie points. The accuracy decreased to 9.7 percent when global tie points were used. During freeze-up in the Beaufort Sea, with grey ice and nilas as dominant ice cover, the mean difference was 4.3 percent for local tie points and 13.9 percent for global tie points. For the spring ice cover in the Bering Sea a mean difference of 4.4 percent for local tie points and 15.7 percent for global tie points was found. This large difference reveals some limitations of the NASA-Team algorithm under freeze-up and spring conditions (thin ice areas).

  8. Early diagenetic degradation products of bacteriohopanepolyols produced by Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain TIE-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eickhoff, Merle; Birgel, Daniel; Talbot, Helen M.; Peckmann, Jörn; Kappler, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The anoxygenic purple non-sulphur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain TIE-1 has emerged as an excellent model organism to study hopanoid biosynthesis and function. It produces several C30 hopanoids, tetrahymanol, as well as various bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs). In addition, TIE-1 is capable of methylating various hopanoids and the non-hopanoid pentacyclic terpenoid tetrahymanol at C-2, which is rare among hopanoid producers. Here, the lipid inventory of TIE-1 under anoxic photoautotrophic growth conditions using either H2 or Fe(II) as electron donor was studied. Adenosylhopane, aminotriol and bacteriohopanetetrol (BHT) were abundant when TIE-1 was grown on H2, but aminotriol and BHT were only found in traces when grown with Fe(II). Only during growth on Fe(II), BHT was found with and without C-2 methylation (25% of both BHT homologues), whereas the other BHPs were not C-2 methylated independent of growth mode. In C30 hopanoids and tetrahymanol, C-2 methylated compounds accounted for as much as 59% of the respective C-2 methylated/non-methylated homologues during growth with Fe(II), but only up to 24% during growth with H2. This observation reveals that C-2 methylated hopanoids may have a specific function in TIE-1 and are preferably synthesized in response to elevated Fe(II) concentrations. Further, we exposed the bacterial cells of strain TIE-1 to elevated temperatures and pressure aiming to produce early degradation products of bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs). While so far, only few BHPs such as 32,35-anhydrobacteriohopanetetrol (anhydroBHT) have been identified as early diagenetic degradation products, in our experiments bacteriohopanetetrol (BHT) and possibly adenosylhopane were degraded to various anhydroBHT isomers, and new N-containing degradation products were discovered and tentatively assigned as anhydroaminotriols.

  9. Effects of brine addition on effluent toxicity and marine toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) manipulations

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, K.T.; Burgess, R.M. ); Mitchell, K. . Biology Dept.); Zappala, M. )

    1995-02-01

    Little information is available concerning the effect of salinity adjustment on effluent storage and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) performance. These factors are important for accurate assessments of potential toxicity to marine organisms. The objective of this study was to determine (a) the effect of salinity adjustment using hypersaline brine on the toxicity of effluents stored up to 40 d, and (b) to determine the effect of salinity adjustment on TIE manipulations. Changes in effluent toxicity over time were examined by using a municipal and an industrial effluent. A toxicity time series was performed for 16 d for the industrial effluent and 40 d for the municipal effluent. Toxicity was measured with modified 48-h acute Mysidopsis bahia and Menidia beryllina tests. Results indicate that, compared to day 0 test results, effluent stored with brine had fewer significant changes in toxicity than did effluent stored without brine. To determine the effects of brine addition on TIE manipulations, the authors conducted a series of manipulations in which one aliquot of an effluent had brine added prior to the TIE manipulations and the other aliquot had brine added after the TIE manipulation. The manipulations conducted were EDTA addition, sodium thiosulfate addition, C[sub 18] extraction, aeration, filtration, and graduated pH manipulations. Toxicity was measured with the modified 48-h acute mysid test. Addition of brine had no effect on the outcome of TIE manipulations. They have concluded that it is operationally easier to add brine as soon as possible after sampling and that effluent tests should be conducted as soon as practical.

  10. Multi-technique TRF realization with Jason-2 as a space tie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoulida, Myriam; Pollet, Arnaud; Rebischung, Paul; Coulot, David; Biancale, Richard

    2016-04-01

    In the present approach used to produce the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF), observations of the different space geodetic techniques are reduced in independent analyses. The only mean to tie the resulting technique-specific frames into a homogeneous combined frame is then to use local topometric ties between stations of different techniques co-located at the same observatory. However, inconsistencies between these local ties and space geodesy estimates of the station positions are today a major limiting factor of the ITRF accuracy. An alternative way of tying the different space geodetic techniques together is through the use of multitechnique satellites equipped with instruments of more than one technique. But the main challenge of using such a satellite as an inter-technique link resides in the accurate knowledge (or estimation) of the vectors between the satellite's center of mass and the reference points of its different instruments (i.e. space ties). In this study, the results from multi-technique (GPS+SLR+DORIS) analyses involving the Jason-2 satellite are presented and compared to the results from traditional single-technique analyses. We assess in particular the effect of simultaneously processing the observations of the three techniques with Jason-2 as inter-technique link on the resolution of the GPS phase ambiguities, on the estimation of the GPS and Jason-2 satellite orbits and on the estimation of the ground station positions. Moreover, results of the estimation of the Jason-2 space ties will be presented, in order to assess the quality of the presently available values.

  11. Registration of Laser Scanning Point Clouds and Aerial Images Using either Artificial or Natural Tie Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rönnholm, P.; Haggrén, H.

    2012-07-01

    Integration of laser scanning data and photographs is an excellent combination regarding both redundancy and complementary. Applications of integration vary from sensor and data calibration to advanced classification and scene understanding. In this research, only airborne laser scanning and aerial images are considered. Currently, the initial registration is solved using direct orientation sensors GPS and inertial measurements. However, the accuracy is not usually sufficient for reliable integration of data sets, and thus the initial registration needs to be improved. A registration of data from different sources requires searching and measuring of accurate tie features. Usually, points, lines or planes are preferred as tie features. Therefore, the majority of resent methods rely highly on artificial objects, such as buildings, targets or road paintings. However, in many areas no such objects are available. For example in forestry areas, it would be advantageous to be able to improve registration between laser data and images without making additional ground measurements. Therefore, there is a need to solve registration using only natural features, such as vegetation and ground surfaces. Using vegetation as tie features is challenging, because the shape and even location of vegetation can change because of wind, for example. The aim of this article was to compare registration accuracies derived by using either artificial or natural tie features. The test area included urban objects as well as trees and other vegetation. In this area, two registrations were performed, firstly, using mainly built objects and, secondly, using only vegetation and ground surface. The registrations were solved applying the interactive orientation method. As a result, using artificial tie features leaded to a successful registration in all directions of the coordinate system axes. In the case of using natural tie features, however, the detection of correct heights was difficult causing

  12. Automated manual transmission controller

    DOEpatents

    Lawrie, Robert E.; Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Bernier, David R.

    1999-12-28

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  13. Fermilab Failure Analysis of TeV I (TIE) Array Soldier Joints

    SciTech Connect

    Runge-Marchese, Jude M.; Daehn, Ralph C.; /Fermilab

    1987-09-02

    Failure of TIE array loop assembly solder joints within Stochastic Cooling Tanks during system operation resulted in the loop base plate dropping into the beam region. This caused a non-operational condition to exist within the system. In order to understand the failure mechanism, several loop assemblies were submitted to Midwest Materials and Engineering Consultants for complete metallurgical evaluation and failure analysis. Because of the similarity between the loop assembly material construction and the TIE resistor assemblies, several resistor assemblies were also evaluated.

  14. Clinical inquiries. When should you treat tongue-tie in a newborn?

    PubMed

    Cho, Anthony; Kelsberg, Gary; Safranek, Sarah

    2010-12-01

    Consider treatment when the infant is having difficulty breastfeeding. Infants with mild to moderate tongue-tie, or ankyloglossia, are likely to breastfeed successfully and usually require no treatment (strength of recommendation [SOR]: B, a prospective controlled trial and a case-control study). However, mothers of infants with any degree of tongue-tie who have difficulty with breastfeeding despite lactation support report immediate improvement after frenotomy is performed on the baby. Complications from the procedure are minimal (SOR: B, a small randomized controlled trial [ RCT] and multiple uncontrolled cohort studies and case series). PMID:21135930

  15. Assessment of lingual function when ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) is suspected.

    PubMed

    Williams, W N; Waldron, C M

    1985-03-01

    Dental specialists are frequently confronted with the task of attempting to determine whether a cause and effect relationship exists between a short or restricting lingual frenum (ankyloglossia or tongue-tie) and a specific oral motor dysfunction. Because there is no standardized definition of what constitutes a condition of tongue-tie, the dental practitioner is often unsure as to the appropriate course of action with a patient with suspected ankyloglossia. This paper describes clinical measures that permit quantifying several anatomic and functional aspects of the tongue. Such baseline analysis provides a more definitive appraisal of lingual function as well as a more objective basis for making pre- and posttreatment comparisons. PMID:3858347

  16. Equation-of-State Based Tie-Simplex Parameterization for Multiphase Thermal-Compositional Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iranshahr, A.; Voskov, D.; Tchelepi, H. A.

    2011-12-01

    Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes usually involve complex phase behaviors between the injected fluid (e.g., steam, hydrocarbon, CO2, sour) and the in-situ rock-fluid system. Several fundamental questions remain regarding equation-of-state computations for mixtures than can form three, or more, phases at equilibrium. In addition, numerical and computational issues related to proper coupling of the thermodynamic phase-behavior with multiphase flow multi-component transport must be resolved in order to model the behaviors of large-scale EOR processes accurately and efficiently. We describe a general negative-flash method for multi-component, thermal systems that can form three, or more, fluid phases. We prove that the new method is convergent to the unique solution. Based on our multiphase negative-flash technique, we have developed an adaptive tie-simplex parameterization framework for thermal-compositional simulation. We also prove that the tie-simplexes change continuously as a function of pressure, temperature, and composition. The continuity of the parameterized compositional space allows for interpolation in pressure and temperature using a limited number of tie-simplexes. We show that the tie-simplex framework constrains thermodynamic computations, and converges to the global minimum of the Gibbs free energy. The extended negative-flash approach accounts rigorously for tie-simplex degeneration (critical behavior) across phase boundaries. We study the behaviors of thermal-compositional reservoir displacement processes across a wide range of fluid mixtures, pressures, and temperatures. The focus is on the complex behaviors of the tie-triangles and tie-lines associated with three-phase, thermal steam-injection problems in heterogeneous formations. The algorithms that capture the complex combinations of the appearance and disappearance of multiple phases are described in detail. This tie-simplex based parameterization framework is integrated with a general

  17. Discovery of Novel Benzimidazoles as Potent Inhibitors of TIE-2 and VEGFR-2 Tyrosine Kinase Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Masaichi; Nishigaki, Naohiko; Washio, Yoshiaki; Kano, Kazuya; Harris, Philip A.; Sato, Hideyuki; Mori, Ichiro; West, Rob I.; Shibahara, Megumi; Toyoda, Hiroko; Wang, Liping; Nolte, Robert T.; Veal, James M.; Cheung, Mui

    2008-09-12

    We herein disclose a novel chemical series of benzimidazole-ureas as inhibitors of VEGFR-2 and TIE-2 kinase receptors, both of which are implicated in angiogenesis. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies elucidated a critical role for the N1 nitrogen of both the benzimidazole (segment E) and urea (segment B) moieties. The SAR results were also supported by the X-ray crystallographic elucidation of the role of the N1 nitrogen and the urea moiety when the benzimidazole-urea compounds were bound to the VEGFR-2 enzyme. The left side phenyl ring (segment A) occupies the backpocket where a 3-hydrophobic substituent was favored for TIE-2 activity.

  18. Effects of the Al content on pore structures of porous TieAl alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Jaing, Y; He, Y H; Xu, N P; Zou, J; Huang, B; Lui, C T

    2008-01-01

    Porous TieAl alloys with different nominal compositions were fabricated through a reactive synthesis of Ti and Al elemental powders. It has been found that the pore parameters vary with the Al contents, indicating that the nature of the pores can be manipulated through changing the Al contents. In addition, detailed structural characterizations showed that the fabricated porous TieAl alloys can have three crystalline phases (i.e., a2-Ti3Al, g-TiAl, and TiAl3) when using different compositions. The fundamental reasons behind these phenomena have been explored.

  19. Transmission Planning Analysis Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-06-23

    Developed to solve specific problem: Assist transmission planning for regional transfers in interconnected power systems. This work was originated in a study for the U.S. Department of State, to recommend transmission reinforcements for the Central American regional system that interconnects 6 countries. Transmission planning analysis is currently performed by engineers with domainspecific and systemspecific knowledge without a unique methodology. The software codes of this disclosure assists engineers by defining systematic analysis procedures to help identifymore » weak points and make decisions on transmission planning of regional interconnected power systems. Transmission Planning Analysis Tool groups PSS/E results of multiple AC contingency analysis and voltage stability analysis and QV analysis of many scenarios of study and arrange them in a systematic way to aid power system planning engineers or transmission operators in effective decision]making process or in the off]line study environment.« less

  20. Transmission Planning Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-23

    Developed to solve specific problem: Assist transmission planning for regional transfers in interconnected power systems. This work was originated in a study for the U.S. Department of State, to recommend transmission reinforcements for the Central American regional system that interconnects 6 countries. Transmission planning analysis is currently performed by engineers with domainspecific and systemspecific knowledge without a unique methodology. The software codes of this disclosure assists engineers by defining systematic analysis procedures to help identify weak points and make decisions on transmission planning of regional interconnected power systems. Transmission Planning Analysis Tool groups PSS/E results of multiple AC contingency analysis and voltage stability analysis and QV analysis of many scenarios of study and arrange them in a systematic way to aid power system planning engineers or transmission operators in effective decision]making process or in the off]line study environment.

  1. Which Peers Matter: How Social Ties Affect Peer-Group Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poldin, Oleg; Valeeva, Diliara; Yudkevich, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We study how the achievements of university students are influenced by the characteristics and achievements of peers in individuals' social networks. Defining peer group in terms of friendship and study partner ties enables us to apply a network regression model and thereby disentangle the influence of peers' performance from that of peers'…

  2. Place of Origin, Types of Ties, and Support Networks in Mexico-U.S. Migration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores-Yeffal, Nadia Y.; Aysa-Lastra, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies explored how urban or rural place of origin influences the source of social capital. There remains a need to consider how the place of origin affects the type of ties--family, friends, or "paisanos" (countrymen)--with those who provide support to migrants. We use data from the Mexican Migration Project (MMP128) and perform…

  3. 78 FR 75545 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... China, and Thailand: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 78 FR 29325, 29330 (May 20, 2013... Countervailing Duty Investigations, 76 FR 61042 (October 3, 2011). International Trade Commission (``ITC... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From the People's Republic of...

  4. Transnational Ties, Poverty, and Identity: Latin American Immigrant Women in Public Housing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, Silvia; Lubitow, Amy

    2008-01-01

    This study used ethnographic data to examine the nature and functions of transnational relationships of low-income Latin American women who had immigrated to the United States and were living in areas of extreme poverty. Findings indicated that these Latin American mothers utilized transnational ties to help maintain the cultural identities of…

  5. 10 CFR 71.45 - Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., or must be designed with strength equivalent to that required for lifting attachments. (b) Tie-down... component of 2 times the weight of the package with its contents, a horizontal component along the direction in which the vehicle travels of 10 times the weight of the package with its contents, and...

  6. Career Goal-Related Social Ties during Two Educational Transitions: Antecedents and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynkkynen, Lotta; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2010-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' career goal-related social ties during the transition from compulsory to post-compulsory education and during transition from post-compulsory education to working-life or further studies. A total of 687 Finnish adolescents aged 15-16 were surveyed of whom 654 also participated at the second measurement point one…

  7. Fuzzy Bayesian Network-Bow-Tie Analysis of Gas Leakage during Biomass Gasification.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fang; Xu, Kaili; Yao, Xiwen; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Biomass gasification technology has been rapidly developed recently. But fire and poisoning accidents caused by gas leakage restrict the development and promotion of biomass gasification. Therefore, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is necessary for biomass gasification system. Subsequently, Bayesian network-bow-tie (BN-bow-tie) analysis was proposed by mapping bow-tie analysis into Bayesian network (BN). Causes of gas leakage and the accidents triggered by gas leakage can be obtained by bow-tie analysis, and BN was used to confirm the critical nodes of accidents by introducing corresponding three importance measures. Meanwhile, certain occurrence probability of failure was needed in PSA. In view of the insufficient failure data of biomass gasification, the occurrence probability of failure which cannot be obtained from standard reliability data sources was confirmed by fuzzy methods based on expert judgment. An improved approach considered expert weighting to aggregate fuzzy numbers included triangular and trapezoidal numbers was proposed, and the occurrence probability of failure was obtained. Finally, safety measures were indicated based on the obtained critical nodes. The theoretical occurrence probabilities in one year of gas leakage and the accidents caused by it were reduced to 1/10.3 of the original values by these safety measures. PMID:27463975

  8. Newspaper Readership and Community Ties; Precision Journalism: Coming of Age. ANPA News Research Report No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Robert L.; Ismach, Arnold H.

    The first of two articles in this report offers a survey of how community ties lead to various psychological needs that are the motivation for newspaper reading. It identifies three distinct audience segments: the traditional audience, with permanent bonds to the community, whose need for information, guidance, and community surveillance leads to…

  9. Method and matter in the social sciences: Umbilically tied to the Enlightenment.

    PubMed

    Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This commentary deals with the nonconformity of academics and the ethos of social science. Academics in all fields deviate from majority norms in politics and religion, and this deviance may be essential to the academic mind and to academic norms. The Enlightenment legacy inspires both methods and subject matter in academic work, and severing ties with it may be impossible. PMID:26787220

  10. Analysis and computation of a least-squares method for consistent mesh tying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, David; Bochev, Pavel

    2008-08-01

    In the finite element method, a standard approach to mesh tying is to apply Lagrange multipliers. If the interface is curved, however, discretization generally leads to adjoining surfaces that do not coincide spatially. Straightforward Lagrange multiplier methods lead to discrete formulations failing a first-order patch test [T.A. Laursen, M.W. Heinstein, Consistent mesh-tying methods for topologically distinct discretized surfaces in non-linear solid mechanics, Internat. J. Numer. Methods Eng. 57 (2003) 1197-1242]. This paper presents a theoretical and computational study of a least-squares method for mesh tying [P. Bochev, D.M. Day, A least-squares method for consistent mesh tying, Internat. J. Numer. Anal. Modeling 4 (2007) 342-352], applied to the partial differential equation -[backward difference]2[phi]+[alpha][phi]=f. We prove optimal convergence rates for domains represented as overlapping subdomains and show that the least-squares method passes a patch test of the order of the finite element space by construction. To apply the method to subdomain configurations with gaps and overlaps we use interface perturbations to eliminate the gaps. Theoretical error estimates are illustrated by numerical experiments.

  11. Prototype adaptive bow-tie filter based on spatial exposure time modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badal, Andreu

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, there has been an increased interest in the development of dynamic bow-tie filters that are able to provide patient-specific x-ray beam shaping. We introduce the first physical prototype of a new adaptive bow-tie filter design based on the concept of "spatial exposure time modulation." While most existing bow-tie filters operate by attenuating the radiation beam differently in different locations using partially attenuating objects, the presented filter shapes the radiation field using two movable completely radio-opaque collimators. The aperture and speed of the collimators is modulated in synchrony with the x-ray exposure to selectively block the radiation emitted to different parts of the object. This mode of operation does not allow the reproduction of every possible attenuation profile, but it can reproduce the profile of any object with an attenuation profile monotonically decreasing from the center to the periphery, such as an object with an elliptical cross section. Therefore, the new adaptive filter provides the same advantages as the currently existing static bow-tie filters, which are typically designed to work for a pre-determined cylindrical object at a fixed distance from the source, and provides the additional capability to adapt its performance at image acquisition time to better compensate for the actual diameter and location of the imaged object. A detailed description of the prototype filter, the implemented control methods, and a preliminary experimental validation of its performance are presented.

  12. Tongue-Tied: The Lives of Multilingual Children in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Ana, Otto

    2004-01-01

    Tongue-Tied is an anthology that gives voice to millions of people who, on a daily basis, are denied the opportunity to speak in their own language. First-person accounts by Amy Tan, Sherman Alexie, Bell Hooks, Richard Rodriguez, Maxine Hong Kingston, and many other authors open windows into the lives of linguistic minority students and their…

  13. Sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies at marine sites suspected of ordnance contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, R.S.; Nipper, M.; Biedenbach, J.M.; Hooten, R.L.; Miller, K.; Saepoff, S.

    2001-01-01

    A sediment quality assessment survey and subsequent toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) study was conducted at several sites in Puget Sound, Washington. The sites were previously suspected of contamination with ordnance compounds. The initial survey employed sea urchin porewater toxicity tests to locate the most toxic stations. Sediments from the most toxic stations were selected for comprehensive chemical analyses. Based on the combined information from the toxicity and chemical data, three adjacent stations in Ostrich Bay were selected for the TIE study. The results of the phase I TIE suggested that organics and metals were primarily responsible for the observed toxicity in the sea urchin fertilization test. In addition to these contaminants, ammonia was also contributing to the toxicity for the sea urchin embryological development test. The phase II TIE study isolated the majority of the toxicity in the fraction containing nonpolar organics with high log Kow, but chemical analyses failed to identify a compound present at a concentration high enough to be responsible for the observed toxicity. The data suggest that some organic or organometallic contaminant(s) that were not included in the comprehensive suite of chemical analyses caused the observed toxicological responses.

  14. Language of the People Forever: Bay Mills Spins Thread Tying Ojibwa Communities Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    Why would anyone want to spend thousands of hours away from home and pay hundreds of dollars in tuition to acquire one of the world's most difficult languages? For Anishinaabe people, that is an easy question to answer. The Ojibwe language is the thread that ties communities together and unites all Anishinaabe as one people sharing a common…

  15. Social Support and Social Network Ties among the Homeless in a Downtown Atlanta Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitzes, Donald C.; Crimmins, Timothy J.; Yarbrough, Johanna; Parker, Josie

    2011-01-01

    This study applies a typology of social support with 3 categories of social networks to investigate social ties and their benefits for homeless people. Data were derived from a 2-year long series of participant observations of homeless or precariously housed people who came regularly to a downtown Atlanta public park. The findings are as follows:…

  16. Exploring relationship between human mobility and social ties: Physical distance is not dead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Bo; Liao, Binbing; Yuan, Ning; Wang, Wenjun

    2015-06-01

    Partly due to the difficulty of the access to a worldwide dataset that simultaneously captures the location history and social networks, our understanding of the relationship between human mobility and the social ties has been limited. However, this topic is essential for a deeper study from human dynamics and social networks aspects. In this paper, we examine the location history data and social networks data of 712 email users and 399 offline events users from a map-editing based social network website. Based on these data, we expand all our experiment both from individual aspect and community aspect. We find that the physical distance is still the most influential factor to social ties among the nine representative human mobility features extracted from our GPS trajectory dataset, although Internet revolution has made long-distance communication dramatically faster, easier and cheaper than ever before, and in turn, partly expand the physical scope of social networks. Furthermore, we find that to a certain extent, the proximity of South-North direction is more influential than East-West direction to social ties. To the our best of our knowledge, this difference between South-North and East-West is the first time to be raised and quantitatively supported by a large dataset. We believe our findings on the interplay of human mobility and social ties offer a new perspective to this field of study.

  17. TIE2-expressing monocytes/macrophages regulate revascularization of the ischemic limb

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ashish S; Smith, Alberto; Nucera, Silvia; Biziato, Daniela; Saha, Prakash; Attia, Rizwan Q; Humphries, Julia; Mattock, Katherine; Grover, Steven P; Lyons, Oliver T; Guidotti, Luca G; Siow, Richard; Ivetic, Aleksandar; Egginton, Stuart; Waltham, Matthew; Naldini, Luigi; De Palma, Michele; Modarai, Bijan

    2013-01-01

    A third of patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) will eventually require limb amputation. Therapeutic neovascularization using unselected mononuclear cells to salvage ischemic limbs has produced modest results. The TIE2-expressing monocytes/macrophages (TEMs) are a myeloid cell subset known to be highly angiogenic in tumours. This study aimed to examine the kinetics of TEMs in patients with CLI and whether these cells promote neovascularization of the ischemic limb. Here we show that there are 10-fold more circulating TEMs in CLI patients, and removal of ischemia reduces their numbers to normal levels. TEM numbers in ischemic muscle are two-fold greater than normoxic muscle from the same patient. TEMs from patients with CLI display greater proangiogenic activity than TIE2-negative monocytes in vitro. Using a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia, lentiviral-based Tie2 knockdown in TEMs impaired recovery from ischemia, whereas delivery of mouse macrophages overexpressing TIE2, or human TEMs isolated from CLI patients, rescued limb ischemia. These data suggest that enhancing TEM recruitment to the ischemic muscle may have the potential to improve limb neovascularization in CLI patients. PMID:23653322

  18. Mexican American Protest, Ethnic Resiliency and Social Capital: The Mobilization Benefits of Cross-Cutting Ties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santoro, Wayne A.; Velez,, Maria B.; Keogh, Stacy M.

    2012-01-01

    Using terms like free spaces and havens, conventional wisdom views social ties by subordinate groups to dominant group members as hindering protest participation. In contrast, we draw on ethnic resiliency and social capital perspectives and argue that there are mobilization benefits to having dominant group members as friends. We offer a unique…

  19. 33 CFR 401.49 - Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. 401.49 Section 401.49 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation §...

  20. Tying the Yellow Ribbon: How School Psychologists and Educators Can Support Military Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anweiler, Justin

    2008-01-01

    Tying a yellow ribbon around the tree in one's front yard or placing a magnet on one's car is more than just a show of support. It is a promise to American military around the world that one is ready and able to support them in their time of need just as they have supported the country. Educators, including school psychologists, are especially…

  1. 30 CFR 75.705-10 - Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits. 75.705-10 Section 75.705-10 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding §...

  2. 30 CFR 75.705-10 - Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits. 75.705-10 Section 75.705-10 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding §...

  3. Children in Residential Group Care with No Family Ties: Facing Existential Aloneness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvir, Orly; Weiner, Anita; Kupermintz, Hagai

    2012-01-01

    The issue of children living in residential group care in Israel completely without family ties is studied in order to explore the feelings of staff and uncover possible characteristics of these children. Data were collected through focus groups, questionnaires, and life stories of children who left group care at 18 years of age. Results reveal…

  4. 75 FR 34941 - Review of the Commission's Program Access Rules and Examination of Programming Tying Arrangements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Tying Arrangements, MB Docket No. 07-198, FCC 10-17, at 75 FR 9692. The Ordering Clause of the First...(c)(3) published at 75 FR 9692, March 3, 2010 are effective on June 21, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 76 Review of the Commission's Program Access Rules and Examination of...

  5. Family Ties and Peso Signs: Challenges for Career Counseling in the Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar-Clemena, Rose Marie

    2002-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the historical development of career counseling in the Philippines from an economic-political perspective. It also raises current challenges and concerns, highlighting the need for a career counseling model that would address, among other things, Filipinos' valued characteristics of close family ties and desire…

  6. Technology Network Ties: Network Services and Technology Programs for New York State's Educational System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of Elementary and Secondary Education Planning, Testing, and Technological Services.

    The New York State Technology Network Ties (TNT) systems is a statewide telecommunications network which consists of computers, telephone lines, and telecommunications hardware and software. This network links school districts, Boards of Cooperative Educational Services (BOCES), libraries, other educational institutions, and the State Education…

  7. Design and Calibration of Chambers for Measuring Ammonia Emissions from Tie-stall Dairy Barns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy barns are thought to emit large amounts of ammonia, which can have detrimental effects on human health and natural ecosystems. In the U.S., relatively little is known about the processes that affect the rate and magnitude of ammonia emissions from dairy barns. The end of a conventional tie-sta...

  8. Social Tie Characteristics and Psychiatric Rehabilitation Outcomes among Adults with Serious Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Chronister, Julie Ann

    2012-01-01

    Social support has achieved national attention as a key component of the mental health recovery paradigm for persons with serious mental illness (SMI). The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of variance accounted for by four social tie characteristics (social network orientation, emotional support, tangible support, and negative…

  9. Search for low-temperature solvents using nonplanar tie-lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutsyk, V. I.; Zelenaya, A. E.; Zyryanov, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    The technique of searching for the point of quaternary eutectics is imitated by constructing a series of two-dimensional vertical cross sections (method of tie-lines) by the example of a model of eutectic-type T- x- y- z diagram without solid-phase solubility. Errors that arise when mapping cross sections of experimentally studied diagrams are analyzed.

  10. A Cyclosporine-Sensitive Psoriasis-Like Disease Produced in Tie2 Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Voskas, Daniel; Jones, Nina; Van Slyke, Paul; Sturk, Celina; Chang, Wing; Haninec, Alex; Babichev, Yael Olya; Tran, Jennifer; Master, Zubin; Chen, Stephen; Ward, Nicole; Cruz, Maribelle; Jones, Jamie; Kerbel, Robert S.; Jothy, Serge; Dagnino, Lina; Arbiser, Jack; Klement, Giannoula; Dumont, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common, persistent skin disorder characterized by recurrent erythematous lesions thought to arise as a result of inflammatory cell infiltration and activation of keratinocyte proliferation. Unscheduled angiogenic growth has also been proposed to mediate the pathogenesis of psoriasis although the cellular and molecular basis for this response remains unclear. Recently, a role for the angiopoietin signaling system in psoriasis has been suggested by studies that demonstrate an up-regulation of the tyrosine kinase receptor Tie2 (also known as Tek) as well as angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 in human psoriatic lesions. To examine temporal expression of Tie2, we have developed a binary transgenic approach whereby expression of Tie2 can be conditionally regulated by the presence of tetracycline analogs in double-transgenic mice. A psoriasis-like phenotype developed in double-transgenic animals within 5 days of birth and persisted throughout adulthood. The skin of affected mice exhibited many cardinal features of human psoriasis including epidermal hyperplasia, inflammatory cell accumulation, and altered dermal angiogenesis. These skin abnormalities resolved completely with tetracycline-mediated suppression of transgene expression, thereby illustrating a complete dependence on Tie2 signaling for disease maintenance and progression. Furthermore, the skin lesions in double-transgenic mice markedly improved after administration of the immunosuppressive anti-psoriatic agent cyclosporine, thus demonstrating the clinical significance of this new model. PMID:15743796

  11. Fuzzy Bayesian Network-Bow-Tie Analysis of Gas Leakage during Biomass Gasification

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Fang; Xu, Kaili; Yao, Xiwen; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Biomass gasification technology has been rapidly developed recently. But fire and poisoning accidents caused by gas leakage restrict the development and promotion of biomass gasification. Therefore, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is necessary for biomass gasification system. Subsequently, Bayesian network-bow-tie (BN-bow-tie) analysis was proposed by mapping bow-tie analysis into Bayesian network (BN). Causes of gas leakage and the accidents triggered by gas leakage can be obtained by bow-tie analysis, and BN was used to confirm the critical nodes of accidents by introducing corresponding three importance measures. Meanwhile, certain occurrence probability of failure was needed in PSA. In view of the insufficient failure data of biomass gasification, the occurrence probability of failure which cannot be obtained from standard reliability data sources was confirmed by fuzzy methods based on expert judgment. An improved approach considered expert weighting to aggregate fuzzy numbers included triangular and trapezoidal numbers was proposed, and the occurrence probability of failure was obtained. Finally, safety measures were indicated based on the obtained critical nodes. The theoretical occurrence probabilities in one year of gas leakage and the accidents caused by it were reduced to 1/10.3 of the original values by these safety measures. PMID:27463975

  12. Between-group behaviour in health care: gaps, edges, boundaries, disconnections, weak ties, spaces and holes. A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gaps are typically regarded as a problem to be solved. People are stimulated to close or plug them. Researchers are moved to fill deficits in the literature in order to realise a more complete knowledge base, health authorities want to bridge policy-practice disconnections, managers to secure resources to remedy shortfalls between poor and idealised care, and clinicians to provide services to patients across the divides of organisational silos. Despite practical and policy work in many health systems to bridge gaps, it is valuable to study research examining them for the insights provided. Structural holes, spaces between social clusters and weak or absent ties represent fissures in networks, located in less densely populated parts of otherwise closely connected social structures. Such gaps are useful as they illustrate how communication potentially breaks down or interactivity fails. This paper discusses empirical and theoretical work on this phenomenon with the aim of analysing a specific exemplar, the structures of silos within health care organisations. Methods The research literature on social spaces, holes, gaps, boundaries and edges was searched systematically, and separated into health [n = 13] and non-health [n = 55] samples. The health literature was reviewed and synthesised in order to understand the circumstances between stakeholders and stakeholder groups that both provide threats to networked interactions and opportunities to strengthen the fabric of organisational and institutional inter-relationships. Results The research examples illuminate various network structure characteristics and group interactions. They explicate a range of opportunities for improved social and professional relations that understanding structural holes, social spaces and absent ties affords. A principal finding is that these kinds of gaps illustrate the conditions under which connections are strained or have been severed, where the limits of integration between

  13. Semi-automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Morscheck, T.J.; Davis, A.R.; Huggins, M.J.

    1987-06-30

    This patent describes a semi-automatic mechanical change gear transmission system of the type comprising: a mechanical change gear transmission of the type comprising a transmission housing, an input shaft rotatably supported in the housing and driven by an engine through a nonpositive coupling, an output shaft rotatably supported in the housing and a plurality of selectable ratio gears selectively engageable one at a time to a first transmission element by means of positive, nonsynchronized jaw clutch assemblies for providing a plurality of manually selectable drive ratios between the input and output shafts, each of the jaw clutch assemblies comprising a first jaw clutch member rotatably associated with the first transmission element and a second jaw clutch member rotatably associated with a second transmission element, each of the first jaw clutch members axially moveable relative to the first transmission element; manually operated means for engaging and disengaging the nonpositive coupling; manually operated shifting means for engaging selected ratio gears to and disengaging selected ratio gears from the first transmission element; selection for sensing the identity of the particular ratio gear selected for manual engagement or disengagement from the first transmission element and for providing a signal; first and second rotational speed sensors for sensing the rotational speed of the first and second transmission elements and providing signals; a power synchronizer assembly selectively actuable for selectively varying the rotational speed of the second transmission element and the second jaw clutch members rotatably associated therewith; and a central processing unit semi-automatic mechanical change gear transmission system.

  14. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOEpatents

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  15. 78 FR 57619 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... People's Republic of China, and Thailand: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 78 FR 29325 (May... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the... antidumping duty investigations of imports of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from Mexico,...

  16. What’s Causing Toxicity in Sediments? Results of Twenty Years of Toxicity Identification and Evaluations (TIEs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIEs) methods have been used for twenty years to identify the causes of toxicity in sediments around the world. We summarized and categorized results of more than 80 peer-reviewed TIE studies into non-ionic organic, cationic, ammo...

  17. Development and Testing of a Prototype Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed and tested a prototype 2 kW DC grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system at the Center. The PV system has generated in excess of 6700 kWh since operation commenced in July 2006. The PV system is providing power to the GRC grid for use by all. Operation of the prototype PV system has been completely trouble free. A grid-tied PV power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners. GRC personnel glean valuable experience with PV power systems that are directly applicable to various space power systems, and provide valuable space program test data. PV power systems help to reduce harmful emissions and reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels. Power generated by the PV system reduces the GRC utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Present global energy concerns reinforce the need for the development of alternative energy systems. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics has been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Based upon the success of the prototype PV system, additional PV power system expansion at GRC is under consideration. The prototype grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed which served to validate the basic principles described, and the theoretical work that was performed. The report concludes that grid-tied photovoltaic power systems are reliable, maintenance free, long life power systems, and are of significant value to NASA and the community.

  18. Tongue-Tie Assessment and Division: A Time-Critical Intervention to Optimise Breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Donati-Bourne, Jack; Batool, Zainab; Hendrickse, Charles; Bowley, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Recent reports have highlighted the benefits of surgical division of tongue-tie (frenulotomy) in infants with breastfeeding difficulties. There is no clear consensus defining the appropriate age for this procedure to be undertaken in selected infants. We aimed to evaluate the impact of delays in time between referral and frenulotomy in relation to maternal abandonment of breastfeeding. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study done in out-patient Neonatal Surgery Department, Birmingham Heartlands Hospital, Birmingham, UK, between April 2013 and July 2013. All infants, referred to our tongue-tie clinic between April and July 2013, were studied prospectively. Referral time lags were calculated using computer records; details regarding breastfeeding were collected by an independent interviewer completing a questionnaire. Results: Seventy patients were included. The median infant age at clinic was 28.5 days [range 1-126]. Fifty eight [82%] of mothers had breastfeeding difficulty and their infants were confirmed to have a prominent tongue-tie. By the time of their clinic attendance, breastfeeding had either not been established or abandoned in 21%. Despite difficulty, 61% of mothers persisted breastfeeding and all these mothers consented for frenulotomy. At time of clinic, median age of infants whose mothers had abandoned breastfeeding was 37 days [range 1-80] compared to 27 days [range 1-126] in infants whose mothers had persisted. Conclusions: We demonstrated a time-critical dimension for frenulotomy: delay beyond 4-weeks from referral to assessment of neonatal tongue-tie is more likely to be associated with abandonment of breastfeeding. Timely assessment and division of tongue-tie in selected infants can therefore play an important role in a birthing unit’s breastfeeding strategy. PMID:26023527

  19. The effect of line-tying on the radiative MHD stability of coronal plasmas with radial pressure profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    An, C.-H.

    1984-01-01

    The role of photospheric line-tying, i.e., solar coronal loop structures, was investigated in terms of the effect on radiative modes and the influence that different radial pressure profiles exert on the effects of line-tying on radiative MHD stability. Energy is assumed dissipated by heat conduction and radiation and zero- and first-order solutions are obtained for the radiative time scales. Line-tying is a magnetic tension in the zero-order MHD mode and produces stability. Heat conduction occurs along bent field lines in first-order MHD modes when plasmas cross the field lines. Irradiated cool-core loops can experience MHD instabilities in the cylinder center, while line-tying can stabilize the plasma in the surrounding hot medium. Line-tying also adds stability to magnetosonic and condensation modes.

  20. High phase order transmission demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Krizauskas, E.; Landers, T.L.; Richeda, R.J.; Oppel, L.J.; Stewart, J.R.

    1997-12-01

    High-phase-order (HPO), or six-phase, transmission is an extension of line compaction that further increases the power transfer capability of a limited transmission line right-of-way. On July 1, 1992, the first commercially operated six-phase transmission line was energized as a tie line integrated into the New York State Electric and Gas (NYSEG) existing three-phase power system. Previous Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation (ESEERCO) Project EP 88-23 reports detail the analytical framework and conceptual studies (Phase 1) and the detailed engineering and design/construction (Phase 2) that preceded the 1992 energization. After the six-phase line was constructed, a testing program verified the theoretical predictions of electrical effects due to six-phase construction. This Final Project Report details the results of the Phase 3 testing program and examines steady-state power frequency parameters, partial switching, corona effects, and field effects. In addition, this report details the results of two unplanned unstaged faults, and low-level staged faults. After one year of operation, results led to the identification of aspects that warranted additional study and evaluation. This report summarizes these additional investigations and evaluations of midspan spacers, off-the-shelf microprocessor-based relays for six-phase line protection, live line maintenance, possible standard six-phase station designs, and an economic evaluation of break-even distances for which six-phase is more economical than conventional double-circuit three-phase applications for line upgrades and new construction.

  1. Passenger car transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book is organized under the following headings. The Mercedes-Benz 5-speed automatic transmission targets and comparison of concepts. 1991 model year Chrysler mini-van all wheel drive vehicle. Mesh stiffness and transmission error of spur and helical gears. High precision cutting tool system for the manufacture of world class powertrain components.

  2. Data Transmission Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Introduces some basic concepts related to the transmission of data from a computer to its peripherals to help distance educators make decisions regarding computer equipment purchases for their institutions. The following data transmission concepts are described: cables, serial and parallel, synchronous and asynchronous, bandwidth, and analog and…

  3. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  4. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-28

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  5. The Missing Link: the Role of Floodplain Tie Channels in Connecting Off River Water Bodies to Lowland Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, J. C.; Dietrich, W. E.; Day, G.

    2005-05-01

    Along lowland river systems across the globe the exchange of water, sediment, carbon, nutrients and biota between main stem rivers and off-river water bodies (ORWB) is facilitated by the presence of stable secondary channels referred to here as tie channels. Sixty five percent of the ORWB along the middle Fly River in Papua New Guinea connect to the river through such channels. A similar percentage of the 37 ORWB located between Baton Rouge and Memphis on the lower Mississippi River at one time were linked to the river by tie or batture (as they are locally known) channels. Levee construction and other alterations aimed at flood control or navigation on the Mississippi have left only a handful of lakes connected to the river, of these, most are heavily altered by dredging or other modifications. Tie channels were also once common along major tributaries to the Mississippi, such as the Red River. In the much less disturbed Alaskan environment, tie channels are still common, especially along Birch Creek and the Koyukuk and Black rivers. Our studies on the Mississippi River, in Alaska and in Papua New Guinea indicate that tie channels possess a common channel form that is stable and self-maintaining for hundreds to possibly a thousand years. Tie channels exhibit narrow width to depth ratios (~ 5.5) and consistently scale in cross-sectional dimensions to the size of the lake into which they flow. Variations in river and lake stage drive flow bi-directionally through tie channels. A local high or sill in the bed of tie channels controls the degree and duration of connection between the river and ORWB, with many lakes becoming isolated during periods of low stage. The life-span of a tie channel depends on the rate of sediment loading to the ORWB. Our research indicates that this rate directly corresponds to the sediment loading in the main stem river. Along the Fly River, for example, a 5 to 7 fold increase in the river sediment load has resulted increases of 6 to 17

  6. Local effects of redundant terrestrial and GPS-based tie vectors in ITRF-like combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbondanza, Claudio; Altamimi, Zuheir; Sarti, Pierguido; Negusini, Monia; Vittuari, Luca

    2009-11-01

    Tie vectors (TVs) between co-located space geodetic instruments are essential for combining terrestrial reference frames (TRFs) realised using different techniques. They provide relative positioning between instrumental reference points (RPs) which are part of a global geodetic network such as the international terrestrial reference frame (ITRF). This paper gathers the set of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI)-global positioning system (GPS) local ties performed at the observatory of Medicina (Northern Italy) during the years 2001-2006 and discusses some important aspects related to the usage of co-location ties in the combinations of TRFs. Two measurement approaches of local survey are considered here: a GPS-based approach and a classical approach based on terrestrial observations (i.e. angles, distances and height differences). The behaviour of terrestrial local ties, which routinely join combinations of space geodetic solutions, is compared to that of GPS-based local ties. In particular, we have performed and analysed different combinations of satellite laser ranging (SLR), VLBI and GPS long term solutions in order to (i) evaluate the local effects of the insertion of the series of TVs computed at Medicina, (ii) investigate the consistency of GPS-based TVs with respect to space geodetic solutions, (iii) discuss the effects of an imprecise alignment of TVs from a local to a global reference frame. Results of ITRF-like combinations show that terrestrial TVs originate the smallest residuals in all the three components. In most cases, GPS-based TVs fit space geodetic solutions very well, especially in the horizontal components (N, E). On the contrary, the estimation of the VLBI RP Up component through GPS technique appears to be awkward, since the corresponding post fit residuals are considerably larger. Besides, combination tests including multi-temporal TVs display local effects of residual redistribution, when compared to those solutions where Medicina TVs

  7. Global TIE Observatories: Real Time Observational Astronomy Through a Robotic Telescope Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, G.; Mayo, L. A.

    2001-12-01

    activities. Hundreds of schools in the US, Australia, Canada, England, and Japan have participated in the TIE program, remotely controlling the 24-inch telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory from their classrooms. In recent years, several (approximately 20 to date) other telescopes have been, or are in the process of being, outfitted for remote use as TIE affiliates. Global TIE integrates these telescopes seamlessly into one virtual observatory and provides the services required to operate this facility, including a scheduling service, tools for data manipulation, an online proposal review environment, an online "Virtual TIE Student Ap J" for publication of results, and access to related educational materials provided by the TIE community. This presentation describes the Global TIE Observatory data and organizational systems and details the technology, partnerships, operational capabilities, science applications, and learning opportunities that this powerful virtual observatory network will provide.

  8. Contextualizing nativity status, social ties, and ethnic enclaves: Implications for understanding immigrant and Latino health paradoxes

    PubMed Central

    Viruell-Fuentes, Edna A.; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.; Williams, David R.; House, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Researchers have posited that one potential explanation for the better-than-expected health outcomes observed among some Latino immigrants, vis-à-vis their U.S.-born counterparts, may be the strength of their social ties and social support among immigrants. Methods We examined the association between nativity status and social ties using data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study’s Latino subsample, which includes Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and other Latinos. First, we used Ordinary Least Squares [OLS] regression methods to model the effect of nativity status on five outcomes: informal social integration; social network diversity; network size; instrumental support; and informational support. Using multilevel mixed effects regression models, we estimated the association between Latino/immigrant neighborhood composition on our outcomes, and whether these relationships varied by nativity status. Lastly, we examined the relationship between social ties and immigrants’ length of time in the United States. Results After controlling for individual-level characteristics, immigrant Latinos had significantly lower levels of social ties than their U.S.-born counterparts for all our outcomes, except for informational support. Latino/immigrant neighborhood composition was positively associated with being socially integrated and having larger and more diverse social networks. The associations between two of our outcomes (informal social integration and network size) and living in a neighborhood with greater concentrations of Latinos and immigrants were stronger for U.S.-born Latinos than for immigrant Latinos. U.S.-born Latinos maintained a significant socialties advantage compared to immigrants—regardless of length of time in the United States—for informal social integration, network diversity, and network size. Conclusion At the individual level, our findings challenge the assumption that Latino immigrants would have larger networks and/or higher

  9. Temporal expression in rats of receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2 during early wound healing after tooth extraction.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hirotaka; Kasai, Shuya; Maesawa, Chihaya

    2015-01-01

    We examined the role of Tie2 in regulating wound healing after tooth extraction. Wistar rats underwent maxillary incisor tooth extraction, and immunodetection techniques were used to determine Tie2 expression in the healing wound. The wound was initially filled with blood coagulum containing densely aggregated erythrocytes, leukocytes, fibrin, and endothelial progenitor cells, indicating that blood vessel formation started in the socket. Tie2 was detected on monocytic cell membranes. On day 3, fibroblastic cells proliferated in the coagulum, small vessels appeared by day 5, and new bone formed in the vessel-rich area. Robust woven bone trabeculae were present around vessels by day 7, and woven bone and osteoclast-like giant cells were present on day 10. Woven bone surrounded sinusoidal capillary-like vessels. Full-length (140-160 kDa) Tie2 was not detected at any time, although Tie2 fragments were present in the healing wound. N-terminus- and C-terminus-specific Tie2 antibodies detected 40-kDa and 60-kDa fragments or 70-kDa and 50-kDa fragments, respectively. The levels of these fragments decreased during the first 3 days and started to increase by day 5-10. The Tie2 extracellular domain initially inhibited angiogenesis, and its degradation relieved inhibition of new vessel formation. The onset of vessel formation in the wound may be induced by scattered endothelial progenitor cells. PMID:26666854

  10. Impact of Cross-Tie Properties on the Modal Behavior of Cable Networks on Cable-Stayed Bridges.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Javaid; Cheng, Shaohong; Ghrib, Faouzi

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic behaviour of cable networks is highly dependent on the installation location, stiffness, and damping of cross-ties. Thus, these are the important design parameters for a cable network. While the effects of the former two on the network response have been investigated to some extent in the past, the impact of cross-tie damping has rarely been addressed. To comprehend our knowledge of mechanics associated with cable networks, in the current study, an analytical model of a cable network will be proposed by taking into account both cross-tie stiffness and damping. In addition, the damping property of main cables in the network will also be considered in the formulation. This would allow exploring not only the effectiveness of a cross-tie design on enhancing the in-plane stiffness of a constituted cable network, but also its energy dissipation capacity. The proposed analytical model will be applied to networks with different configurations. The influence of cross-tie stiffness and damping on the modal response of various types of networks will be investigated by using the corresponding undamped rigid cross-tie network as a reference base. Results will provide valuable information on the selection of cross-tie properties to achieve more effective cable vibration control. PMID:26167539

  11. Impact of Cross-Tie Properties on the Modal Behavior of Cable Networks on Cable-Stayed Bridges

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Javaid; Cheng, Shaohong; Ghrib, Faouzi

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic behaviour of cable networks is highly dependent on the installation location, stiffness, and damping of cross-ties. Thus, these are the important design parameters for a cable network. While the effects of the former two on the network response have been investigated to some extent in the past, the impact of cross-tie damping has rarely been addressed. To comprehend our knowledge of mechanics associated with cable networks, in the current study, an analytical model of a cable network will be proposed by taking into account both cross-tie stiffness and damping. In addition, the damping property of main cables in the network will also be considered in the formulation. This would allow exploring not only the effectiveness of a cross-tie design on enhancing the in-plane stiffness of a constituted cable network, but also its energy dissipation capacity. The proposed analytical model will be applied to networks with different configurations. The influence of cross-tie stiffness and damping on the modal response of various types of networks will be investigated by using the corresponding undamped rigid cross-tie network as a reference base. Results will provide valuable information on the selection of cross-tie properties to achieve more effective cable vibration control. PMID:26167539

  12. Longitudinal analysis of large social networks: estimating the effect of health traits on changes in friendship ties.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, A James; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2011-04-30

    We develop novel mixed effects models to examine the role of health traits on the status of peoples' close friendship nominations in the Framingham Heart Study. The health traits considered are both mutable (body mass index (BMI), smoking, blood pressure, body proportion, muscularity, and depression) and, for comparison, basically immutable (height, birth order, personality type, only child, and handedness); and the traits have varying degrees of observability. We test the hypotheses that existing ties (i.e. close friendship nominations) are more likely to dissolve between people with dissimilar (mutable and observable) health traits whereas new ties are more likely to form between those with similar (mutable and observable) traits while controlling for persons' age, gender, geographic separation, and education. The mixed effects models contain random effects for both the nominator (ego) and nominated (alter) persons in a tie to account for the fact that people were involved in multiple relationships and contributed observations at multiple exams. Results for BMI support the hypotheses that people of similar BMI are less likely to dissolve existing ties and more likely to form ties, while smoker to non-smoker ties were the least likely to dissolve and smoker to smoker ties were the most likely to form. We also validated previously known findings regarding homophily on age and gender, and found evidence that homophily also depends upon geographic separation. PMID:21287589

  13. Native leaf-tying caterpillars influence host plant use by the invasive Asiatic oak weevil through ecosystem engineering.

    PubMed

    Baer, Christina S; Marquis, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    We tested the effect of leaf-tying caterpillars, native ecosystem engineers, on the abundance and host feeding of an invasive insect, the Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus (Roelofs). Leaf quality was previously thought to be the sole factor determining host use by C. castaneus, but adult weevils congregate in leaf ties made by lepidopteran larvae (caterpillars). Adult weevil abundance was naturally higher on Quercus alba and Q. velutina compared to four other tree species tested (Acer rubrum, Carya ovata, Cornus florida, and Sassafras albidum). These differences were associated with more natural leaf ties on the two Quercus species. In the laboratory, weevils fed on all six species but again preferred Q. alba and Q. velutina. When artificial ties were added to all six tree species, controlling for differences in leaf-tie density, adult weevil density increased on all six tree species, damage increased on all species but A. rubrum, and host ranking changed based on both abundance and damage. We conclude that leaf ties increase the local abundance of C. castaneus adults and their feeding. Thus, these native leaf-tying caterpillars engender the success of an invasive species via structural modification of potential host plants, the first described example of this phenomenon. PMID:25039212

  14. Use of marine TIE methods in determining causes of toxicity to fish in a public marine aquarium

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, K.T.; Kuhn, A.; Burgess, R.M.; Pelletier, M.; Charles, J.

    1995-12-31

    Aquarium personnel observed that a number of organisms in the coral reef tank were succumbing to fungal and other diseases. It was suspected that organisms were compromised due to a common environmental stressor because many types of fish were affected. One possible stressor was the home-made painted coral decor in the tank. The coral reef decor was crumbling in several sections of the display and release of toxic agents was suspected. A water sample containing broken pieces of the decor was shipped to the lab and a TIE performed. Phase 1 TIE results indicated that toxicity to Mysidopsis bahia (mysid shrimp) was removed after EDTA addition and to some extent after cation exchange column treatment.None of the other TIE manipulations affected toxicity. Metal analyses indicated high concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd. To rule out the possibility of pathogens, irradiation was conducted as a novel TIE method. Results of further identification and confirmation methods using differing cation exchange column treatment. None of the other TIE manipulations affected toxicity. Metal analyses indicated high concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd. To rule out the possibility of pathogens, irradiation was conducted as a novel TIE method. Results of further identification and confirmation methods using differing cation exchange columns will be presented. This study demonstrates a unique application of TIE methods.

  15. Phosphorylation of Threonine 794 on Tie1 by Rac1/PAK1 Reveals a Novel Angiogenesis Regulatory Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Reinardy, Jessica L.; Corey, Daniel M.; Golzio, Christelle; Mueller, Sarah B.; Katsanis, Nicholas; Kontos, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    The endothelial receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Tie1 was discovered over 20 years ago, yet its precise function and mode of action remain enigmatic. To shed light on Tie1’s role in endothelial cell biology, we investigated a potential threonine phosphorylation site within the juxtamembrane domain of Tie1. Expression of a non-phosphorylatable mutant of this site (T794A) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) significantly disrupted vascular development, resulting in fish with stunted and poorly branched intersomitic vessels. Similarly, T794A-expressing human umbilical vein endothelial cells formed significantly shorter tubes with fewer branches in three-dimensional Matrigel cultures. However, mutation of T794 did not alter Tie1 or Tie2 tyrosine phosphorylation or downstream signaling in any detectable way, suggesting that T794 phosphorylation may regulate a Tie1 function independent of its RTK properties. Although T794 is within a consensus Akt phosphorylation site, we were unable to identify a physiological activator of Akt that could induce T794 phosphorylation, suggesting that Akt is not the physiological Tie1-T794 kinase. However, the small GTPase Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1), which is required for angiogenesis and capillary morphogenesis, was found to associate with phospho-T794 but not the non-phosphorylatable T794A mutant. Pharmacological activation of Rac1 induced downstream activation of p21-activated kinase (PAK1) and T794 phosphorylation in vitro, and inhibition of PAK1 abrogated T794 phosphorylation. Our results provide the first demonstration of a signaling pathway mediated by Tie1 in endothelial cells, and they suggest that a novel feedback loop involving Rac1/PAK1 mediated phosphorylation of Tie1 on T794 is required for proper angiogenesis. PMID:26436659

  16. Selection based on the size of the black tie of the great tit may be reversed in urban habitats

    PubMed Central

    Senar, Juan Carlos; Conroy, Michael J; Quesada, Javier; Mateos-Gonzalez, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    A standard approach to model how selection shapes phenotypic traits is the analysis of capture–recapture data relating trait variation to survival. Divergent selection, however, has never been analyzed by the capture–recapture approach. Most reported examples of differences between urban and nonurban animals reflect behavioral plasticity rather than divergent selection. The aim of this paper was to use a capture–recapture approach to test the hypothesis that divergent selection can also drive local adaptation in urban habitats. We focused on the size of the black breast stripe (i.e., tie width) of the great tit (Parus major), a sexual ornament used in mate choice. Urban great tits display smaller tie sizes than forest birds. Because tie size is mostly genetically determined, it could potentially respond to selection. We analyzed capture/recapture data of male great tits in Barcelona city (N = 171) and in a nearby (7 km) forest (N = 324) from 1992 to 2008 using MARK. When modelling recapture rate, we found it to be strongly influenced by tie width, so that both for urban and forest habitats, birds with smaller ties were more trap-shy and more cautious than their larger tied counterparts. When modelling survival, we found that survival prospects in forest great tits increased the larger their tie width (i.e., directional positive selection), but the reverse was found for urban birds, with individuals displaying smaller ties showing higher survival (i.e., directional negative selection). As melanin-based tie size seems to be related to personality, and both are heritable, results may be explained by cautious personalities being favored in urban environments. More importantly, our results show that divergent selection can be an important mechanism in local adaptation to urban habitats and that capture–recapture is a powerful tool to test it. PMID:25077014

  17. Utility-scale grid-tied PV inverter reliability workshop summary report.

    SciTech Connect

    Granata, Jennifer E.; Quintana, Michael A.; Tasca, Coryne Adelle; Atcitty, Stanley

    2011-07-01

    A key to the long-term success of the photovoltaic (PV) industry is confidence in the reliability of PV systems. Inverters are the most commonly noted cause of PV system incidents triggered in the field. While not all of these incidents are reliability-related or even necessarily failures, they still result in a loss of generated power. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technologies Program, Sandia National Laboratories organized a Utility-Scale Grid-Tied Inverter Reliability Workshop in Albuquerque, New Mexico, January 27-28, 2011. The workshop addressed the reliability of large (100-kilowatt+) grid-tied inverters and the implications when such inverters fail, evaluated inverter codes and standards, and provided discussion about opportunities to enhance inverter reliability. This report summarizes discussions and presentations from the workshop and identifies opportunities for future efforts.

  18. Neighborhood disorder, fear, and mistrust: the buffering role of social ties with neighbors.

    PubMed

    Ross, C E; Jang, S J

    2000-08-01

    This paper proposes that individuals who report that they live in neighborhoods characterized by disorder--by crime, vandalism, graffiti, danger, noise, dirt, and drugs--have high levels of fear and mistrust. It further proposes that an individual's alliances and connections with neighbors can buffer the negative effects of living in a neighborhood characterized by disorder on fear and mistrust. Results from a representative sample of 2482 Illinois residents collected by telephone in 1995 support the propositions. Living in a neighborhood with a lot of perceived disorder significantly affects mistrust and the fear of victimization, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Perceived neighborhood disorder and social ties significantly interact: informal social ties with neighbors reduce the fear- and mistrust-producing effects of disorder. However, formal participation in neighborhood organizations shows little buffering effect. PMID:10965384

  19. Highly modular bow-tie gene circuits with programmable dynamic behaviour.

    PubMed

    Prochazka, Laura; Angelici, Bartolomeo; Haefliger, Benjamin; Benenson, Yaakov

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic gene circuits often require extensive mutual optimization of their components for successful operation, while modular and programmable design platforms are rare. A possible solution lies in the 'bow-tie' architecture, which stipulates a focal component-a 'knot'-uncoupling circuits' inputs and outputs, simplifying component swapping, and introducing additional layer of control. Here we construct, in cultured human cells, synthetic bow-tie circuits that transduce microRNA inputs into protein outputs with independently programmable logical and dynamic behaviour. The latter is adjusted via two different knot configurations: a transcriptional activator causing the outputs to track input changes reversibly, and a recombinase-based cascade, converting transient inputs into permanent actuation. We characterize the circuits in HEK293 cells, confirming their modularity and scalability, and validate them using endogenous microRNA inputs in additional cell lines. This platform can be used for biotechnological and biomedical applications in vitro, in vivo and potentially in human therapy. PMID:25311543

  20. The influence of family ties on men's prostate cancer screening, biopsy, and treatment decisions.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Eric K; Scott, John G; Ferrante, Jeanne M

    2013-11-01

    Extensive research has focused on understanding family dynamics of men with prostate cancer. However, little qualitative work has examined the role of family ties on men's prostate cancer decisions across the spectrum of screening, diagnosis, and treatment. Using data from a larger study, we qualitatively explored the influence of family ties on men's prostate cancer decisions. Semistructured interviews were conducted with men ages ≥50 (N = 64), and data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach and a series of immersion/crystallization cycles. Three major themes of spousal/family member influence were identified: (a) spousal/family member alliance marked by open communication and shared decision making, (b) men who actively opposed spouse/family member pressure and made final decisions themselves, and (c) men who yielded to spouse/family member pressure. Our findings provide insights into men's relational dynamics that are important to consider for the shared decision-making process across the prostate cancer spectrum. PMID:23459024

  1. UWB Bi-directional Bow-tie antenna loaded by rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Lin; Sun, Kai; Xie, Ji-yang; Qiu, Yu-jie; Jiang, Xing

    2016-07-01

    Performances of bow-tie antennae can be improved by loading a ring. Specially, the distorted radiation patterns of the reference bow-tie antenna (RBA) at high frequencies become less distorted when a ring is added. That is due to the disciplined current flows trained by the ring. Furthermore, when more rings are loaded, which act as reflectors, higher directivities are obtained and, patterns become bi-directional. Antennae with no ring (RBA), one ring, two rings (three cases), three rings, and four rings are investigated. Research find that loading more rings means better directivity. The directivity of the RBA varies from 2.29 dB to 3.66 dB for the frequency band from 2.5 to 7.5 GHz while the directivity for the four-ring-loaded case varies from 4.27 dB to 7.61 dB in that frequency band.

  2. Employing static excitation control and tie line reactance to stabilize wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, H. H.; Mozeico, H. V.; Guo, T.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical representation of a wind turbine generator is presented which employs blade pitch angle feedback control. A mathematical model was formulated. With the functioning MOD-0 wind turbine serving as a practical case study, results of computer simulations of the model as applied to the problem of dynamic stability at rated load are also presented. The effect of the tower shadow was included in the input to the system. Different configurations of the drive train, and optimal values of the tie line reactance were used in the simulations. Computer results revealed that a static excitation control system coupled with optimal values of the tie line reactance would effectively reduce oscillations of the power output, without the use of a slip clutch.

  3. Can Social Ties be Harmful? Examining the Spread of Suicide in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Anna S.; Abrutyn, Seth; Stockton, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Durkheim posited that social relationships protect individuals against suicide; however, substantial research demonstrates that suicide can spread through the very ties Durkheim theorized as protective. With this study, we use Waves I, III, and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, to investigate whether young adults’ suicide attempts and thoughts are in part products of exposure to suicidal behaviors via their social relationships. We find that young adults who have had family members or friends attempt suicide are more likely to report suicide ideation or even suicide attempts, over both the short and long run. This finding is robust to many important controls for risk and protective factors for suicide. Our findings have implications for the sociology of suicide, not the least of which, is that social ties have the power to harm in addition to the power to protect. PMID:26120243

  4. Silicon-on-insulator field effect transistor with improved body ties for rad-hard applications

    DOEpatents

    Schwank, James R.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Draper, Bruce L.; Dodd, Paul E.

    2001-01-01

    A silicon-on-insulator (SOI) field-effect transistor (FET) and a method for making the same are disclosed. The SOI FET is characterized by a source which extends only partially (e.g. about half-way) through the active layer wherein the transistor is formed. Additionally, a minimal-area body tie contact is provided with a short-circuit electrical connection to the source for reducing floating body effects. The body tie contact improves the electrical characteristics of the transistor and also provides an improved single-event-upset (SEU) radiation hardness of the device for terrestrial and space applications. The SOI FET also provides an improvement in total-dose radiation hardness as compared to conventional SOI transistors fabricated without a specially prepared hardened buried oxide layer. Complementary n-channel and p-channel SOI FETs can be fabricated according to the present invention to form integrated circuits (ICs) for commercial and military applications.

  5. Financial ties and conflicts of interest between pharmaceutical and tobacco companies.

    PubMed

    Shamasunder, Bhavna; Bero, Lisa

    2002-08-14

    Corporate diversification allows for well-hidden financial ties between pharmaceutical and tobacco companies, which can cause a conflict of interest in the development and marketing of pharmaceutical products. In our investigation of tobacco company documents released and posted on the Internet as a result of the Master Settlement Agreement, we have found that these financial ties have fostered both competition and collaboration between the tobacco and pharmaceutical industries. We present 3 case studies. One shows how tobacco companies pressured pharmaceutical companies to scale back their smoking cessation educational materials that accompanied Nicorette. The second shows how they restricted to whom the pharmaceutical company could market its transdermal nicotine patch. In the third case, we show how subsidiary tobacco and pharmaceutical companies of a parent company collaborated in the production of a nicotine-release gum. Thus, because tobacco cessation product marketing has been altered as a result of these financial conflicts, disclosure would serve the interest of public health. PMID:12169078

  6. Dendrometer bands made easy: using modified cable ties to measure incremental growth of trees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anemaet, Evelyn R.; Middleton, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    Dendrometer bands are a useful way to make sequential repeated measurements of tree growth, but traditional dendrometer bands can be expensive, time consuming, and difficult to construct in the field. An alternative to the traditional method of band construction is to adapt commercially available materials. This paper describes how to construct and install dendrometer bands using smooth-edged, stainless steel, cable tie banding and attachable rollerball heads. As a performance comparison, both traditional and cable tie dendrometer bands were installed on baldcypress trees at the National Wetlands Research Center in Lafayette, Louisiana, by both an experienced and a novice worker. Band installation times were recorded, and growth of the trees as estimated by the two band types was measured after approximately one year, demonstrating equivalence of the two methods. This efficient approach to dendrometer band construction can help advance the knowledge of long-term tree growth in ecological studies.

  7. Is use of laser really essential for release of tongue-tie?

    PubMed

    Sane, Vikrant Dilip; Pawar, Sudhir; Modi, Sachin; Saddiwal, Rashmi; Khade, Mayur; Tendulkar, Hrishikesh

    2014-05-01

    Ankyloglossia, or tongue-tie, is a congenital condition characterized by a short, thickened, or abnormally tight lingual frenulum. This anomaly can cause a varying degree of reduced tongue mobility and has been associated with functional limitations including breastfeeding difficulties, atypical swallowing habits, speech articulation problems, mechanical problems such as inability to clean the oral cavity, and psychosocial stress. In this article, we report a 50-year-old female patient with tongue-tie having difficulty in speech and maintenance of oral hygiene due to high attachment of lingual frenum. The patient was managed by frenectomy by conventional method (scalpel and blade) under local anesthesia as an outpatient procedure without any complications. She later required speech therapy lessons for improvement of speech. PMID:24785748

  8. Accreditation of midwife lactation consultants to perform infant tongue-tie release.

    PubMed

    Amir, Lisa H; James, Jennifer P; Kelso, Georgie; Moorhead, Anita M

    2011-12-01

    Infants with a tongue-tie or ankyloglossia have a short lingual frenulum, which can lead to problems with breastfeeding: attachment difficulties, nipple pain and damage, poor weight gain and eventually a reduction in milk supply. Trained clinicians can release the frenulum (frenotomy) in infants having difficulty with breastfeeding. Although traditionally performed by medical practitioners, we argue that this simple procedure is within the scope of practice of other clinicians. This paper outlines the process of setting up and maintaining credentialing for midwife lactation consultants (International Board Certified Lactation Consultants (IBCLCs)) to assess infant tongue-ties and perform frenotomy when appropriate at a tertiary maternity hospital. Since 2005, 11 midwives/IBCLCs have been credentialed to perform frenotomies at The Breastfeeding Education and Support Services at The Royal Women's Hospital in Melbourne, Australia. We believe that nurses/midwives/lactation consultants working in other settings could be trained to perform frenotomies, thus enabling faster resolution of breastfeeding problems. PMID:22103819

  9. Tractor Transmissions. A Teaching Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Agricultural Engineering and Vocational Agriculture, Athens, GA.

    The manual was developed as a reference for teaching students about transmissions in farm tractors. The manual is divided into five sections: (1) transmission history, (2) gears and bearings in transmission, (3) sliding-gear transmissions, (4) planetary gearing, and (5) glossary. The working principles of the sliding-gear transmission, the most…

  10. Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, S.; Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2010-07-01

    This report describes transmission cost allocation methodologies for transmission projects developed to maintain or enhance reliability, to interconnect new generators, or to access new resources and enhance competitive bulk power markets, otherwise known as economic transmission projects.

  11. Instructional Advice and Information Providing and Receiving Behavior in Elementary Schools: Exploring Tie Formation as a Building Block in Social Capital Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spillane, James P.; Kim, Chong Min; Frank, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies identify those factors that might account for the development of social capital. Understanding those factors associated with the existence of a social tie among actors in schools is important because absent social ties, individuals do not have access to social resources. We investigate social tie formation in schools focusing on advice…

  12. GNSS-SLR satellite co-location for the estimate of local ties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruni, Sara; Zerbini, Susanna; Errico, Maddalena; Santi, Efisio

    2013-04-01

    The current realization of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) is based on four different space-geodetic techniques, so that the benefits brought by each observing system to the definition of the frame can compensate for the drawbacks of the others and technique-specific systematic errors might be identified. The strategy used to combine the observations from the different techniques is then of prominent importance for the realization of a precise and stable reference frame. This study concentrates, in particular, on the combination of Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observations by exploiting satellite co-locations. This innovative approach is based on the fact that laser tracking of GNSS satellites, carrying on board laser reflector arrays, allows for the combination of optical and microwave signals in the determination of the spacecraft orbit. Besides, the use of satellite co-locations differs quite significantly from the traditional combination method in which each single technique solution is carried out autonomously and is interrelated in a second step. One of the benefits of the approach adopted in this study is that it allows for an independent validation of the local tie, i.e. of the vector connecting the SLR and GNSS reference points in a multi-techniques station. Typically, local ties are expressed by a single value, measured with ground-based geodetic techniques and taken as constant. In principle, however, local ties might show time variations likely caused by the different monumentation characteristics of the GNSS antennas with respect to those of a SLR system. This study evaluates the possibility of using the satellite co-location approach to generate local-ties time series by means of observations available for a selected network of ILRS stations. The data analyzed in this study were acquired as part of the NASA's Earth Science Data Systems and are archived and distributed by the Crustal

  13. Note: auto-relock system for a bow-tie cavity for second harmonic generation.

    PubMed

    Haze, Shinsuke; Hata, Sousuke; Fujinaga, Munekazu; Mukaiyama, Takashi

    2013-02-01

    This Note reports on the implementation of an automatic relocking system for a bow-tie cavity for second harmonic generation to produce an ultra-violet laser source. The system is based on a sample-and-hold technique for controlling the cavity length using simple servo electronics. Long-term stabilization of the cavity output power is successfully achieved, which makes this system suitable for designing stable atomic physics experiments. PMID:23464273

  14. Note: Auto-relock system for a bow-tie cavity for second harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haze, Shinsuke; Hata, Sousuke; Fujinaga, Munekazu; Mukaiyama, Takashi

    2013-02-01

    This Note reports on the implementation of an automatic relocking system for a bow-tie cavity for second harmonic generation to produce an ultra-violet laser source. The system is based on a sample-and-hold technique for controlling the cavity length using simple servo electronics. Long-term stabilization of the cavity output power is successfully achieved, which makes this system suitable for designing stable atomic physics experiments.

  15. Study of frame tie between planetary ephemerids and ICRF with millisecond and young pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingbo; Hobbs, George; Coles, William

    2016-07-01

    The positions of pulsar can be measured by pulsar timing technology and VLBI astrometry with high precision. They can be used to tie between referece frame based on solar system ephemerids and distant quasars with high accuracy. In this paper, we have collect the pulsar positions with VLBI measurement and obtain the pulsar timing position form Nanshan and Parkes data archive. We derive the rotation matrix between JPL DE and ICRF reference frame.

  16. Fibulin-5 Regulates Angiopoietin-1/Tie-2 Receptor Signaling in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wilson; Ismail, Hodan; Mayaki, Dominique; Sanchez, Veronica; Tiedemann, Kerstin; Davis, Elaine C.; Hussain, Sabah N. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Fibulin-5 is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein that plays critical roles in vasculogenesis and embryonic development. Deletion of Fibulin-5 in mice results in enhanced skin vascularization and upregulation of the angiogenesis factor angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), suggesting that Fibulin-5 functions as an angiogenesis inhibitor. In this study, we investigate the inhibitory effects of Fibulin-5 on Ang-1/TIE-2 receptor pathway signaling and cell survival in human endothelial cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Recombinant wild-type and RGE-mutant Fibulin-5 proteins were generated through stable transfection of HEK293 and CHO cells, respectively. In vitro solid phase binding assays using pure proteins revealed that wild-type Fibulin-5 does not bind to Ang-1 or TIE-2 proteins but strongly binds to heparin. Binding assays using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) indicated that wild-type Fibulin-5 strongly binds to cells but RGE-mutant Fibulin-5, which is incapable of binding to integrins, does not. Pre-incubation of HUVECs for 1 hr with Fibulin-5 significantly increased caspase 3/7 activity, ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and expressions of the transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR1) and the dual-specificity phosphatase 5 (DUSP5). Fibulin-5 also strongly attenuated Ang-1-induced TIE-2 and AKT phosphorylation, decreased Ang-1-induced expressions of the transcription factors Inhibitor of DNA Binding 1 (ID1) and Kruppel-like Factor 2 (KLF2), and reversed the inhibitory effect of Ang-1 on serum deprivation-induced cytotoxicity and caspase 3/7 activity. Conclusion/Significance We conclude that Fibulin-5 strongly binds to the endothelial cell surface through heparin-sulfate proteoglycans and possibly integrins and that it exerts strong anti-angiogenic effects by reducing endothelial cell viability and interfering with the signaling pathways of the Ang-1/TIE-2 receptor axis. PMID:27304216

  17. On the frame tie between VLBI and GNSS established by VLBI observations to satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, Lucia; Boehm, Johannes; Schuh, Harald

    2014-05-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are two of four space geodetic techniques contributing to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). For observing natural radiation of extragalactic radio sources with large radio telescopes on the one hand, and receiving artificial radio signals emitted by satellites with compact GNSS antennas on the other hand, both systems use different hardware. If we want to generate combined products in terms of station coordinates or Earth Orientation Parameters, the systems have to be referenced to each other carefully. Today, the determination of this so-called frame tie is the limiting factor for the establishment of precise reference frames. Plus, for a consistent multi-technique combination in the sense of GGOS, new strategies and ways of observation need to be identified. In this presentation, we discuss the derivation of the frame tie between VLBI and GNSS by using VLBI observations to satellites of the GNSS. Therefore, such observations are simulated and analysed in the standard VLBI method, solving for station coordinates. In the analysis, common troposphere delays and common clocks are determined at the stations. The accuracy of the frame tie is finally assessed by comparison of station coordinates of the observing sites in the quasar and the satellite frame. Monte Carlo simulations allow us to give estimates of the expected accuracies of the products, namely the station coordinates and the frame ties in terms of Helmert parameters. Our results are generated using different ways of including VLBI-GNSS observations in routine 24h VLBI experiments as well as changing analysis strategies.

  18. Tie-mediated signal from apoptotic cells protects stem cells in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yalan; Su, Tin Tin; Ruohola-Baker, Hannele

    2015-01-01

    Many types of normal and cancer stem cells are resistant to killing by genotoxins, but the mechanism for this resistance is poorly understood. Here we show that adult stem cells in Drosophila melanogaster germline and midgut are resistant to ionizing radiation (IR) or chemically induced apoptosis and dissect the mechanism for this protection. We find that upon IR the receptor tyrosine kinase Tie/Tie-2 is activated, leading to the upregulation of microRNA bantam that represses FOXO-mediated transcription of pro-apoptotic Smac/DIA-BLO orthologue, Hid in germline stem cells. Knockdown of the IR-induced putative Tie ligand, Pvf1, a functional homologue of human Angiopoietin, in differentiating daughter cells renders germline stem cells sensitive to IR, suggesting that the dying daughters send a survival signal to protect their stem cells for future repopulation of the tissue. If conserved in cancer stem cells, this mechanism may provide therapeutic options for the eradication of cancer. PMID:25959206

  19. Local ties verification based on analysis of long-term SLR and GPS solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szafranek, Karolina; Schillak, Stanislaw; Araszkiewicz, Andrzej; Figurski, Mariusz; Lehmann, Marek; Lejba, Pawel

    2013-04-01

    The ITRF is determined on the basis of long-term observations by the following four techniques: GNSS, SLR, DORIS and VLBI. Analysis of the data delivered by different techniques provides a stable reference frame. Improvement of further ITRS realizations requires the advancement in the geometry of co-location network and the increase of agreement between the local ties in co-location sites, while many significant disagreements between techniques are being noticed. Ground local ties measurements are usually made once over a period of time, whereas different factors can cause change of its real value (earthquakes, change of GNSS antennas or different method of their calibration which result in different coordinates values in ITRF), which lead to the idea of co-locations vectors monitoring for the purpose of its verification. The authors analyzed solutions from several distributed globally SLR-GNSS sites. The data gathered between 1996-2011 by these two techniques were processed using coherent strategies (the same models and parameters were used). Up to now, results of coordinates and velocities determination with exemplary times series were introduced. The presentation goal is to show the results of analysis of NEU time series of SLR and GPS solutions reduced to the SLR markers positions using local ties in order to verify their values. Agreement of both types of solutions proves the good quality and timeliness of ground measurements, while high discrepancies point out that there is a need for their repetition to improve next ITRS realizations (e.g. ITRF2013).

  20. Phase Tomography Reconstructed by 3D TIE in Hard X-ray Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, G.-C.; Chen, F.-R.; Pyun, Ahram; Je, Jung Ho; Hwu, Yeukuang; Liang, Keng S.

    2007-01-19

    X-ray phase tomography and phase imaging are promising ways of investigation on low Z material. A polymer blend of PE/PS sample was used to test the 3D phase retrieval method in the parallel beam illuminated microscope. Because the polymer sample is thick, the phase retardation is quite mixed and the image can not be distinguished when the 2D transport intensity equation (TIE) is applied. In this study, we have provided a different approach for solving the phase in three dimensions for thick sample. Our method involves integration of 3D TIE/Fourier slice theorem for solving thick phase sample. In our experiment, eight sets of de-focal series image data sets were recorded covering the angular range of 0 to 180 degree. Only three set of image cubes were used in 3D TIE equation for solving the phase tomography. The phase contrast of the polymer blend in 3D is obviously enhanced, and the two different groups of polymer blend can be distinguished in the phase tomography.

  1. Reverse Flipping Technique: An Alternate Approach to Tie Reversing Half-Hitches on Alternating Posts.

    PubMed

    Chong, Alexander C M; Prohaska, Daniel J; Pate, Ryan C

    2016-04-01

    Arthroscopic knot tying requires practice and attention to detail, especially tying the 3 reversing half-hitches on alternating posts (RHAPs) in a knot. Mistakes can occur that result in an unintentional tension (>10 N) applied to the wrapping suture limb, and by placing tension in the wrong limb, the previously "flipped" half-hitch is converted from a series of RHAPs into a series of identical half-hitches on the same post, thereby producing insecure knots or suture loops. This was hypothesized to be a source of knot failure by knot slippage. This error can be avoided by using a technique we describe as "reverse flipping," which purposely "flips" the half-hitch down at the main knot while tying the 3 RHAPs in a knot, and then the half-hitch is retightened using either a past-pointing or over-pointing technique. This way the surgeon can be absolutely sure that the half-hitch is tightened in the direction that it was intended to be placed, and can also prevent the unintentional tension applied to the wrapping suture limb that causes the half-hitch to "flip." However, caution should be used when tensioning the half-hitches; overtensioning (>40 N) during past-pointing or over-pointing could also potentially "flip" the previous half-hitch that has already been tightened and cause potential knot failure. PMID:27462541

  2. Complex Dynamics of Line-tied Flux Ropes and Screw Pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookhart, Matthew; Stemo, Aaron; Zuberbier, Amanda; Forest, Cary

    2014-10-01

    It has been suggested that flux ropes - self-contained plasma structures with axial current and magnetic field - may be the basic building blocks of many astrophysical plasmas. Many of these plasmas - including coronal loops, the solar wind, and astrophysical jets - also show ``line-tying'' where the ends of flux ropes are magnetically fixed. The Line-tied Reconnection Experiment is a basic plasma research facility designed to study the behavior, instability, and self-organization of multiple line-tied flux ropes in a variety of geometries and plasma conditions. The recent construction of a 300 coil magnetic probe array has allowed for direct, time and space resolved observations of flux rope dynamics in a wide range of conditions. Complex dynamics of 2 and 3 flux ropes are observed both with and without background plasma. These plasmas exhibit complex instabilities and interactions. Observations show that larger numbers of flux ropes merge into azimuthally-symmetric screw pinch equilibria. High safety factor kink-like instabilities are seen in both hollow and reversed current profile plasmas, akin to tokamak current holes and certain models of solar flares. The equilibria, instability criteria, and dynamics of these plasmas are explored. Supported by DOE.

  3. Family Ties and Young Fathers’ Engagement in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Shelley; Cotton, Cassandra; Marteleto, Leticia J.

    2015-01-01

    Young South African fathers are often engaged in their children’s lives even if they do not live together. Using longitudinal data on children (n = 1,209) from the Cape Town area, the authors show that although only 26% of young fathers live with their children, 66% of nonresidential fathers maintain regular contact, and 61% provide financial support. The father–child relationship, however, is embedded in broader family ties. The type of father–mother relationship is strongly associated with whether fathers coreside with their children, but not with fathers’ contact with nonresidential children. Close mother and maternal grandmother bonds reduce the likelihood that fathers live with their children, whereas close ties between fathers and paternal grandmothers increase the chance that fathers visit nonresidential children. Family ties do not affect fathers’ financial contributions, which are driven by men’s current economic situation. These findings illustrate that father–child relationships are best understood in the context of interacting family systems. PMID:25774066

  4. Finite element analyses of continuous filament ties for masonry applications : final report for the Arquin Corporation.

    SciTech Connect

    Quinones, Armando, Sr.; Bibeau, Tiffany A.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2008-08-01

    Finite-element analyses were performed to simulate the response of a hypothetical vertical masonry wall subject to different lateral loads with and without continuous horizontal filament ties laid between rows of concrete blocks. A static loading analysis and cost comparison were also performed to evaluate optimal materials and designs for the spacers affixed to the filaments. Results showed that polypropylene, ABS, and polyethylene (high density) were suitable materials for the spacers based on performance and cost, and the short T-spacer design was optimal based on its performance and functionality. Simulations of vertical walls subject to static loads representing 100 mph winds (0.2 psi) and a seismic event (0.66 psi) showed that the simulated walls performed similarly and adequately when subject to these loads with and without the ties. Additional simulations and tests are required to assess the performance of actual walls with and without the ties under greater loads and more realistic conditions (e.g., cracks, non-linear response).

  5. Quasi-separatrix layers and three-dimensional reconnection diagnostics for line-tied tearing modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Andrew S.; Finn, John M.

    2011-10-01

    In three-dimensional magnetic configurations for a plasma in which no closed field line or magnetic null exists, no magnetic reconnection can occur, by the strictest definition of reconnection. A finitely long pinch with line-tied boundary conditions, in which all the magnetic field lines start at one end of the system and proceed to the opposite end, is an example of such a system. Nevertheless, for a long system of this type, the physical behavior in resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) essentially involves reconnection. This has been explained in terms comparing the geometric and tearing widths. The concept of a quasi-separatrix layer was developed for such systems. We study a model for a line-tied system in which the corresponding periodic system has an unstable tearing mode. We analyze this system in terms of two magnetic field line diagnostics, the squashing factor and the electrostatic potential difference, which has been used in kinematic reconnection studies. We discuss the physical and geometric significance of these two diagnostics and compare them in the context of discerning tearing-like behavior in line-tied modes.

  6. Quasi-separatrix layers and three-dimensional reconnection diagnostics for line-tied tearing modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, A. S.; Finn, J. M.

    2012-05-01

    In three-dimensional magnetic configurations for a plasma in which no closed field line or magnetic null exists, no magnetic reconnection can occur, by the strictest definition of reconnection. A finitely long pinch with line-tied boundary conditions, in which all the magnetic field lines start at one end of the system and proceed to the opposite end, is an example of such a system. Nevertheless, for a long system of this type, the physical behavior in resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) essentially involves reconnection. This has been explained in terms comparing the geometric and tearing widths [1,2]. The concept of a quasi-separatrix layer [3,4] was developed for such systems. In this paper we study a model for a line-tied system in which the corresponding periodic system has an unstable tearing mode. We analyze this system in terms of two magnetic field line diagnostics, the squashing factor[5-7] and the electrostatic potential difference [8,9] which has been used in kinematic reconnection studies. We discuss the physical and geometric significance of these two diagnostics and compare them in the context of discerning tearing-like (reconnection-like) behavior in line-tied modes.

  7. A Comparative Study in Learning Curves of Two Different Intracorporeal Knot Tying Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Thiyagarajan, Manuneethimaran; Ravindrakumar, Chandru

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. In our study we are aiming to analyse the learning curves in our surgical trainees by using two standard methods of intracorporeal knot tying. Material and Method. Two randomized groups of trainees are trained with two different intracorporeal knot tying techniques (loop and winding) by single surgeon for eight sessions. In each session participants were allowed to make as many numbers of knots in thirty minutes. The duration for each set of knots and the number of knots for each session were calculated. At the end each session, participants were asked about their frustration level, difficulty in making knot, and dexterity. Results. In winding method the number of knots tied was increasing significantly in each session with less frustration and less difficulty level. Discussion. The suturing and knotting skill improved in every session in both groups. But group B (winding method) trainees made significantly higher number of knots and they took less time for each set of knots than group A (loop method). Although both knotting methods are standard methods, the learning curve is better in loop method. Conclusion. The winding method of knotting is simpler and easier to perform, especially for the surgeons who have limited laparoscopic experience. PMID:27022482

  8. Orientation of Tie-Lines in the Phase Diagram of DOPC:DPPC:Cholesterol Model Biomembranes

    PubMed Central

    Uppamoochikkal, Pradeep; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Nagle, John F.

    2010-01-01

    We report the direction of tie-lines of coexisting phases in a ternary diagram of DOPC:DPPC:Cholesterol lipid bilayers, which has been a system of interest in the discussion of biological rafts. For coexisting Ld and Lo phases we find that the orientation angle α of the tie-lines increases as the cholesterol concentration increases and it also increases as temperature increases from T=15 °C to T=30 °C. Results at lower cholesterol concentrations support the existence of a different 2-phase coexistence region of Ld and So phases and the existence of a 3-phase region separating the two 2-phase regions. Our method uses the X-ray lamellar D-spacings observed in oriented bilayers as a function of varying hydration. Although this method does not obtain the ends of the tie-lines, it gives precise values (±1°) of their angles α in the ternary phase diagram. PMID:20968281

  9. Stories of Change: TieVie - The Support Service for Finnish Universities Toward the Information Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kairamo, Anna-Kaarina; Sinko, Matti

    In this article, the authors discuss and evaluate the TieVie capacity building project for Finnish universities in a larger historical context of strategic developments in the use of information and communications technology (ICT) in learning. The TieVie project was a support service project for the Finnish Virtual University (FVU) which offered training in the educational use of ICT to the staff of Finnish universities in 2001-2008. It was financed by the Ministry of Education as part of the Virtual University project funding till the end of 2006. During 2007-2008, the program was fee-funded. The project was designed and implemented by the educational development support service units of five universities: Universities of Oulu, Turku, Jyväskylä, and Helsinki, and Helsinki University of Technology. The TieVie project was launched on the basis of the need to strengthen the e-Learning skills and expertise among Finnish university staff. This need was recognized in the national strategy for education, training, and research in the information society outlined by the Ministry of Education in 2000.

  10. Installation methods to perform subsea tie-in of pipelines: Sensitivity analysis versus design parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Radicioni, A.; Corbetta, G.; D`Aloisio, G.; Bjoerset, A.

    1995-12-31

    The development of a subsea field requires among other things a definition of the methods for pipeline, flow-lines and umbilicals laying and tie-in. The selection of a particular method is the result of a detailed analysis where advantages and drawbacks are highlighted arid weighted versus global costs and reliability. During the conceptual study for the assessment of possible different solutions, engineering tools can be used as a time saving solution for the selection of the best installation method. Different installation methods to perform tie-in have been analyzed and simplified mathematical models have been used to better understand the behavior of the pipeline during its installation. The following methods were considered: first-end pull-in, second-end pull-in, deflect-to-connect. This paper summarizes the results achieved and describes the design tools prepared during the development of the subject sensitivity analysis; such tools can be used as a helpful basis for the selection or design of a tie-in system.

  11. Fast-shock formation in line-tied magnetic reconnection models of solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, T. G.

    1986-01-01

    In a previous study by the author, an approximately stationary fast shock was tentatively identified in a numerical experiment designed to study line-tied magnetic reconnection. Here the evidence for the occurrence of a stationary fast shock is reexamined, and the previous identification is confirmed. In the numerical experiment, line-tied reconnection is modeled by a configuration which produces two supermagnetosonic outflow jets - one directed upward, away from the photosphere, and one directed downward, toward an arcade of closed magnetic loops tied to the photosphere. The fast shock occurs when the downward-directed jet encounters the obstacle formed by the closed loops. Although the existence of a stationary, or nearly stationary, fast shock is confirmed, the transition from the supermagnetosonic flow region upstream of the shock to the nearly static region downstream of the shock is more complicated than was previously thought. Immediately downstream of the shock, there exists a deflection sheath in which the submagnetosonic flow coming out of the shock is diverted around the region of static closed loops. The MHD jump conditions are used to investigate the characteristics of the fast shock and to show that a stationary shock cannot exist unless accompanied by a deflection sheath. Analysis of the shock's location and dimensions suggests that such fast shocks may contribute to particle acceleration and to thermal condensation in flares.

  12. The development of a tongue assessment tool to assist with tongue-tie identification

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Jenny; Johnson, Debbie; Copeland, Marion; Churchill, Cathy; Taylor, Hazel; Emond, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Aim To produce a simple tool with good transferability to provide a consistent assessment of tongue appearance and function in infants with tongue-tie. Methods The Bristol Tongue Assessment Tool (BTAT) was developed based on clinical practice and with reference to the Hazelbaker Assessment Tool for Lingual Frenulum Function (ATLFF). This paper documents 224 tongue assessments using the BTAT. There were 126 tongue assessments recorded using the BTAT and ATLFF tools to facilitate comparisons between them. Paired BTAT assessments were obtained from eight midwives who were using the new assessment tool. Results There was acceptable internal reliability for the four-item BTAT (Cronbach's α=0.708) and the eight midwives who used it showed good correlation in the consistency of its use (ICC=0.760). The BTAT showed a strong and significant correlation (0.89) with the ATLFF, indicating that the simpler BTAT could be used in place of the more detailed assessment tool to score the extent of a tongue-tie. Midwives found it quick and easy to use and felt that it would be easy to teach to others. Conclusions The BTAT provides an objective, clear and simple measure of the severity of a tongue-tie, to inform selection of infants for frenotomy and to monitor the effect of the procedure. PMID:25877288

  13. Transmission of Flu (Influenza)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Flu (Influenza) Transmission How Flu Spreads Coughing and Sneezing People with flu can ... not be shared without washing thoroughly first. The Flu Is Contagious You may be able to pass ...

  14. Down hole transmission system

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy

    2007-07-24

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. The electrically conducting coil comprises at least two generally fractional loops. In the preferred embodiment, the transmission elements are connected by an electrical conductor. Preferably, the electrical conductor is a coaxial cable. Preferably, the MCEI trough comprises ferrite. In the preferred embodiment, the fractional loops are connected by a connecting cable. In one aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a pair of twisted wires. In one embodiment the connecting cable is a shielded pair of twisted wires. In another aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a coaxial cable. The connecting cable may be disposed outside of the MCEI circular trough.

  15. Downhole transmission system

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe

    2008-01-15

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. An electrical conductor connects both the transmission elements. The electrical conductor comprises at least three electrically conductive elements insulated from each other. In the preferred embodiment the electrical conductor comprises an electrically conducting outer shield, an electrically conducting inner shield and an electrical conducting core. In some embodiments of the present invention, the electrical conductor comprises an electrically insulating jacket. In other embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises a pair of twisted wires. In some embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises semi-conductive material.

  16. Continuously Variable Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Chain slides along two cones, in novel transmission concept. Transmission includes chain drive between two splined shafts. Chain sprockets follow surfaces of two cones. As one chain sprocket moves toward smaller diameter other chain sprocket moves toward larger diameter, thereby changing "gear" ratio. Movement initiated by tension applied to chain by planetary gear mechanism. Device positive, simple, and efficient over wide range of speed ratios.

  17. Gravity wave transmission diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomikawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-07-01

    A possibility of gravity wave propagation from a source region to the airglow layer around the mesopause has been discussed based on the gravity wave blocking diagram taking into account the critical level filtering alone. This paper proposes a new gravity wave transmission diagram in which both the critical level filtering and turning level reflection of gravity waves are considered. It shows a significantly different distribution of gravity wave transmissivity from the blocking diagram.

  18. Tongue tie

    MedlinePlus

    ... more severe cases is done in a hospital operating room. A surgical procedure called a z-plasty ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  19. Broken Ties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Katti

    2009-01-01

    As the number of people choosing to marry has plunged during recent decades, the tally of children living with one parent and having limited or no contact with the other has soared. Attuned to the hazards that such separations impose upon children but also upon parents who, studies show, fare physically and emotionally better in a thriving…

  20. National transmission grid study

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, Spencer

    2003-05-31

    The National Energy Policy Plan directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a study to examine the benefits of establishing a national electricity transmission grid and to identify transmission bottlenecks and measures to address them. DOE began by conducting an independent analysis of U.S. electricity markets and identifying transmission system bottlenecks using DOE’s Policy Office Electricity Modeling System (POEMS). DOE’s analysis, presented in Section 2, confirms the central role of the nation’s transmission system in lowering costs to consumers through increased trade. More importantly, DOE’s analysis also confirms the results of previous studies, which show that transmission bottlenecks and related transmission system market practices are adding hundreds of millions of dollars to consumers’ electricity bills each year. A more detailed technical overview of the use of POEMS is provided in Appendix A. DOE led an extensive, open, public input process and heard a wide range of comments and recommendations that have all been considered.1 More than 150 participants registered for three public workshops held in Detroit, MI (September 24, 2001); Atlanta, GA (September 26, 2001); and Phoenix, AZ (September 28, 2001).

  1. 77 FR 6554 - Zephyr Power Transmission, LLC; Pathfinder Power Transmission, LLC; Duke-American Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Zephyr Power Transmission, LLC; Pathfinder Power Transmission, LLC; Duke-American Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on January 30... (Commission), 18 CFR 381.302, Zephyr Power Transmission, LLC (Zephyr), Pathfinder Power Transmission, LLC...

  2. Development and Testing of the Glenn Research Center Visitor's Center Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed, installed, and tested a 12 kW DC grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system at the GRC Visitor s Center. This system utilizes a unique ballast type roof mount for installing the photovoltaic panels on the roof of the Visitor s Center with no alterations or penetrations to the roof. The PV system has generated in excess of 15000 kWh since operation commenced in August 2008. The PV system is providing power to the GRC grid for use by all. Operation of the GRC Visitor s Center PV system has been completely trouble free. A grid-tied PV power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners. GRC personnel glean valuable experience with PV power systems that are directly applicable to various space power systems, and provides valuable space program test data. PV power systems help to reduce harmful emissions and reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels. Power generated by the PV system reduces the GRC utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Present global energy concerns reinforce the need for the development of alternative energy systems. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics has been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Based upon the success of the GRC Visitor s Center PV system, additional PV power system expansion at GRC is under consideration. The GRC Visitor s Center grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed which served to validate the basic principles

  3. Dairy cows welfare quality in tie-stall housing system with or without access to exercise

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tie-stall housing of dairy cows is used extensively worldwide, despite of the welfare concerns regarding the restriction of voluntary movement and limitation of expression of the cows’ natural behaviour. The aim of this study was to compare the welfare quality of dairy cows kept in two types of tie-stall housing systems: with regular outdoor exercise and without access to exercise. In addition, the study investigated the relationship between different welfare measures of dairy cows kept in tie-stalls. Methods 3,192 lactating cows were assessed using the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for cattle in 80 commercial dairy farms, half of the farms providing outdoor access for the animals to exercise. The descriptive statistical indicators were determined for the assessed measures and for the welfare criteria and principle scores. The data obtained in the two housing types were compared and the correlation coefficients were calculated between the different welfare measures. Results The significant differences found between the two housing systems for the majority of the animal based measures indicate the positive effect of exercise on the welfare of tethered cows. Many of the animal welfare parameters correlated with each other. For the farms allowing the cows’ turnout in a paddock, pasture or both, the mean scores for the welfare criteria and principles were higher than for the farms with permanent tethering of the cows, except the criteria absence of prolonged hunger and expression of social behaviours. The lowest scores were obtained for the criterion positive emotional state, in both housing systems. With regard to the overall classification, none of the farms were considered excellent. In the not classified category were only farms with all-year-round tethering of the animals and in the enhanced category only farms where the cows had outdoor access. Conclusions The welfare quality of the investigated dairy cows was significantly better in the

  4. Design of a Glenn Research Center Solar Field Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) designed, developed, and installed, a 37.5 kW DC photovoltaic (PV) Solar Field in the GRC West Area in the 1970s for the purpose of testing PV panels for various space and terrestrial applications. The PV panels are arranged to provide a nominal 120 VDC. The GRC Solar Field has been extremely successful in meeting its mission. The PV panels and the supporting electrical systems are all near their end of life. GRC has designed a 72 kW DC grid-tied PV power system to replace the existing GRC West Area Solar Field. The 72 kW DC grid-tied PV power system will provide DC solar power for GRC PV testing applications, and provide AC facility power for all times that research power is not required. A grid-tied system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility for use by all. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners. GRC personnel glean valuable experience with PV power systems that are directly applicable to various space power systems, and provide valuable space program test data. PV power systems help to reduce harmful emissions and reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels. Power generated by the PV system reduces the GRC utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Present global energy concerns reinforce the need for the development of alternative energy systems. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics has been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. The report concludes that the GRC West Area grid-tied PV power system design is viable for a reliable

  5. Measurement of bow tie profiles in CT scanners using a real-time dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, Bruce R.; Evans, Joshua D.; Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Dohatcu, Andreea C.; Politte, David G.

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Several areas of computed tomography (CT) research require knowledge about the intensity profile of the x-ray fan beam that is introduced by a bow tie filter. This information is considered proprietary by CT manufacturers, so noninvasive measurement methods are required. One method using real-time dosimeters has been proposed in the literature. A commercially available dosimeter was used to apply that method, and analysis techniques were developed to extract fan beam profiles from measurements. Methods: A real-time ion chamber was placed near the periphery of an empty CT gantry and the dose rate versus time waveform was recorded as the x-ray source rotated about the isocenter. In contrast to previously proposed analysis methods that assumed a pointlike detector, the finite-size ion chamber received varying amounts of coverage by the collimated x-ray beam during rotation, precluding a simple relationship between the source intensity as a function of fan beam angle and measured intensity. A two-parameter model for measurement intensity was developed that included both effective collimation width and source-to-detector distance, which then was iteratively solved to minimize the error between duplicate measurements at corresponding fan beam angles, allowing determination of the fan beam profile from measured dose-rate waveforms. Measurements were performed on five different scanner systems while varying parameters such as collimation, kVp, and bow tie filters. On one system, direct measurements of the bow tie profile were collected for comparison with the real-time dosimeter technique. Results: The data analysis method for a finite-size detector was found to produce a fan beam profile estimate with a relative error between duplicate measurement intensities of <5%. It was robust over a wide range of collimation widths (e.g., 1–40 mm), producing fan beam profiles that agreed with a relative error of 1%–5%. Comparison with a direct measurement technique on

  6. 78 FR 75544 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... Countervailing Duty Investigations, 76 FR 61042 (October 3, 2011). International Trade Commission (``ITC... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico: Preliminary.... SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce (``Department'') preliminarily determines that prestressed...

  7. USE OF ZEOLITE FOR REMOVING AMMONIA AND AMMONIA-CAUSED TOXCITY IN MARINE TOXICITY IDENTIFCATION EVALUATIONS (TIES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ammonia occurs in marine waters including effluents, receiving waters, and sediment interstitial waters. At sufficiently high concentrations, ammonia can be toxic to aquatic species. Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) methods provide researchers with tools for identifyi...

  8. Evaluation of the Polyethylene Reverse Sampler as a Dosing System in Marine Phase II Whole Sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIEs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminated marine sediments can cause acute and chronic impairments to benthic organisms. Nonionic organic contaminants (NOCs) are often a primary cause of impairment. Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIEs) are used to identify chemicals causing toxicity in sediments. Ph...

  9. Creative benefits from well-connected leaders: leader social network ties as facilitators of employee radical creativity.

    PubMed

    Venkataramani, Vijaya; Richter, Andreas W; Clarke, Ronald

    2014-09-01

    Employee radical creativity critically depends on substantive informational resources from others across the wider organization. We propose that the social network ties of employees' immediate leaders assume a central role in garnering these resources, thereby fostering their employees' radical creativity both independent of and interactively with employees' own network ties. Drawing on data from 214 employees working in 30 teams of a public technology and environmental services organization, we find that team leaders' betweenness centrality in the idea network within their teams as well as among their peer leaders provides creative benefits beyond employees' own internal and external ties. Further, employees' and leaders' ties within and external to the team interactively predict employee radical creativity. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:24911179

  10. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 10): Union Pacific Railroad Tie Treatment, the Dalles, OR, March 27, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This document presents the selected remedial action for contaminated soil, groundwater, surface water and sediments, at the Union Pacific Railroad (UPRR) Tie-Treating Plant site in The Dalles, Oregon.

  11. Interfering with VE-PTP stabilizes endothelial junctions in vivo via Tie-2 in the absence of VE-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Maike; Dierkes, Martina; Küppers, Verena; Vockel, Matthias; Tomm, Janina; Zeuschner, Dagmar; Rossaint, Jan; Zarbock, Alexander; Koh, Gou Young; Peters, Kevin; Nottebaum, Astrid Fee

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial (VE)–protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) associates with VE-cadherin, thereby supporting its adhesive activity and endothelial junction integrity. VE-PTP also associates with Tie-2, dampening the tyrosine kinase activity of this receptor that can support stabilization of endothelial junctions. Here, we have analyzed how interference with VE-PTP affects the stability of endothelial junctions in vivo. Blocking VE-PTP by antibodies, a specific pharmacological inhibitor (AKB-9778), and gene ablation counteracted vascular leak induction by inflammatory mediators. In addition, leukocyte transmigration through the endothelial barrier was attenuated. Interference with Tie-2 expression in vivo reversed junction-stabilizing effects of AKB-9778 into junction-destabilizing effects. Furthermore, lack of Tie-2 was sufficient to weaken the vessel barrier. Mechanistically, inhibition of VE-PTP stabilized endothelial junctions via Tie-2, which triggered activation of Rap1, which then caused the dissolution of radial stress fibers via Rac1 and suppression of nonmuscle myosin II. Remarkably, VE-cadherin gene ablation did not abolish the junction-stabilizing effect of the VE-PTP inhibitor. Collectively, we conclude that inhibition of VE-PTP stabilizes challenged endothelial junctions in vivo via Tie-2 by a VE-cadherin–independent mechanism. In the absence of Tie-2, however, VE-PTP inhibition destabilizes endothelial barrier integrity in agreement with the VE-cadherin–supportive effect of VE-PTP. PMID:26642851

  12. Interfering with VE-PTP stabilizes endothelial junctions in vivo via Tie-2 in the absence of VE-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Frye, Maike; Dierkes, Martina; Küppers, Verena; Vockel, Matthias; Tomm, Janina; Zeuschner, Dagmar; Rossaint, Jan; Zarbock, Alexander; Koh, Gou Young; Peters, Kevin; Nottebaum, Astrid Fee; Vestweber, Dietmar

    2015-12-14

    Vascular endothelial (VE)-protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) associates with VE-cadherin, thereby supporting its adhesive activity and endothelial junction integrity. VE-PTP also associates with Tie-2, dampening the tyrosine kinase activity of this receptor that can support stabilization of endothelial junctions. Here, we have analyzed how interference with VE-PTP affects the stability of endothelial junctions in vivo. Blocking VE-PTP by antibodies, a specific pharmacological inhibitor (AKB-9778), and gene ablation counteracted vascular leak induction by inflammatory mediators. In addition, leukocyte transmigration through the endothelial barrier was attenuated. Interference with Tie-2 expression in vivo reversed junction-stabilizing effects of AKB-9778 into junction-destabilizing effects. Furthermore, lack of Tie-2 was sufficient to weaken the vessel barrier. Mechanistically, inhibition of VE-PTP stabilized endothelial junctions via Tie-2, which triggered activation of Rap1, which then caused the dissolution of radial stress fibers via Rac1 and suppression of nonmuscle myosin II. Remarkably, VE-cadherin gene ablation did not abolish the junction-stabilizing effect of the VE-PTP inhibitor. Collectively, we conclude that inhibition of VE-PTP stabilizes challenged endothelial junctions in vivo via Tie-2 by a VE-cadherin-independent mechanism. In the absence of Tie-2, however, VE-PTP inhibition destabilizes endothelial barrier integrity in agreement with the VE-cadherin-supportive effect of VE-PTP. PMID:26642851

  13. Automotive transmission linkage system

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, F.Y.; Ardayfio, D.D.

    1990-10-02

    This patent describes a system for converting a manual multi-speed transmission to operate as an automatic-manual transmission, the system being disposed within a vehicle, the transmission having a conventional gearshift lever and a clutch pedal. It comprises: a gearshift position selection panel, the panel being located apart from the gearshift lever, the panel enabling a driver to select the desired gear position of the gearshift lever by manipulating the panel without the necessity of the driver handling the gearshift lever; a controller which transforms the gearshift selection of the driver to an output signal, the signal corresponding to the gearshift position selected by the driver; and actuating means for mechanically repositioning the gearshift lever automatically in accordance with the output signal.

  14. Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses.

    PubMed

    Mekibib, Berhanu; Ariën, Kevin K

    2016-01-01

    Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) and Sudan, the 2013-2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s) in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses. PMID:27223296

  15. Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Mekibib, Berhanu; Ariën, Kevin K.

    2016-01-01

    Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) and Sudan, the 2013–2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s) in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses. PMID:27223296

  16. Advanced rotorcraft transmission program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is an Army-funded, joint Army/NASA program to develop and demonstrate lightweight, quiet, durable drivetrain systems for next generation rotorcraft. ART addresses the drivetrain requirements of two distinct next generation aircraft classes: Future Air Attack Vehicle, a 10,000 to 20,000 lb. aircraft capable of undertaking tactical support and air-to-air missions; and Advanced Cargo Aircraft, a 60,000 to 80,000 lb. aircraft capable of heavy life field support operations. Both tiltrotor and more conventional helicopter configurations are included in the ART program. Specific objectives of ART include reduction of drivetrain weight by 25 percent compared to baseline state-of-the-art drive systems configured and sized for the next generation aircraft, reduction of noise level at the transmission source by 10 dB relative to a suitably sized and configured baseline, and attainment of at least a 5000 hr mean-time-between-removal. The technical approach for achieving the ART goals includes application of the latest available component, material, and lubrication technology to advanced concept drivetrains that utilize new ideas in gear configuration, transmission layout, and airframe/drivetrain integration. To date, candidate drivetrain systems were carried to a conceptual design stage, and tradeoff studies were conducted resulting in selection of an ART transmission configuration for each of the four contractors. The final selection was based on comparative weight, noise, and reliability studies. A description of each of the selected ART designs is included. Preliminary design of each of the four selected ART transmission was completed, as have mission impact studies wherein comparisons of aircraft mission performance and life cycle costs are undertaken for the next generation aircraft with ART and with the baseline transmission.

  17. Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1981-01-01

    The testing of a Mercury Lynx automatic transmission is reported. The transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-ninety percent range both for drive performance test and coast performance tests. The torque, speed, and efficiency curves are presented, which provide the complete performance characteristics for the Mercury Lynx automatic transmission.

  18. Small passenger car transmission test: Dodge Omni A-404 transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid eighty percent range for both drive performance test and coast performance tests.

  19. Licklider Transmission Protocol Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Krupiarz, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This software is an implementation of the Licklider Transmission Protocol (LTP), a communications protocol intended to support the Bundle Protocol in Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) operations. LTP is designed to provide retransmission-based reliability over links characterized by extremely long message round-trip times and/or frequent interruptions in connectivity. Communication in interplanetary space is the most prominent example of this sort of environment, and LTP is principally aimed at supporting long-haul reliable transmission over deep-space RF links. Like any reliable transport service employing ARQ (Automatic Repeat re-Quests), LTP is stateful. In order to assure the reception of a block of data it has sent, LTP must retain for possible retransmission all portions of that block which might not have been received yet. In order to do so, it must keep track of which portions of the block are known to have been received so far, and which are not, together with any additional information needed for purposes of retransmitting part, or all, of the block. Long round-trip times mean substantial delay between the transmission of a block of data and the reception of an acknowledgement from the block s destination, signaling arrival of the block. If LTP postponed transmission of additional blocks of data until it received acknowledgement of the arrival of all prior blocks, valuable opportunities to use what little deep space transmission bandwidth is available would be forever lost. For this reason, LTP is based in part on a notion of massive state retention. Any number of requested transmission conversations (sessions) may be concurrently in flight at various displacements along the link between two LTP engines, and the LTP engines must necessarily retain transmission status and retransmission resources for all of them. Moreover, if any of the data of a given block are lost en route, it will be necessary to retain the state of that transmission during an additional

  20. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Ikezi, H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; DeGrassie, J.S.

    1991-08-27

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other. 5 figures.

  1. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Ikezi, Hiroyuki; Lin-Liu, Yuh-Ren; DeGrassie, John S.

    1991-01-01

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other.

  2. Comparison of commercial cation exchange media for performing marine Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIEs)

    SciTech Connect

    Charles, J.B.; Burgess, R.M.; Kuhn, A.; Ho, K.T.

    1995-12-31

    In the environment, adverse effects of metals resulting from anthropogenic activity can be manifested as effluent, receiving water, and sediment toxicity to aquatic organisms. In TIEs, the chelator EDTA is commonly used to discriminate metal toxicity from other possible sources of toxicity present in an environmental sample. EDTA is extremely effective at reducing the aqueous bioavailability of toxic divalent transition metals (e.g., Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) but, unlike C{sub 18} solid phase extraction (SPE), EDTA does not allow for retrieval of toxicity or toxicants for further identification. In this presentation, the authors report the results of comparisons of five commercially available cation exchange media for use in TIEs. Cation exchange media included three pre-packed SPE columns (Alltech, Supelco, Waters) and two loose packing materials evaluated with both metal spiked seawater and deionized water. Preliminary comparisons demonstrated that Alltech and Supelco SPE columns functioned most effectively. Blank toxicity to two marine species was not observed. Extensive studies of Alltech and Supelco columns using seawater spiked with a range of metal concentrations (e.g., 600 to 10 {micro}g/L) illustrated good precision and quality. both columns removed, on average, {ge} 90% of five metals from seawater. Furthermore, when eluted with small volumes of acid, {ge} 85% of original metal levels were recovered. Evaluations performed with a metal plating industry effluent demonstrated effective removal and subsequent elution of several toxic metals. This study shows the utility of commercial cation exchange columns for removing metals from seawater, and freshwater, for TIE applications.

  3. Angiopoietin-2 regulates gene expression in TIE2-expressing monocytes and augments their inherent proangiogenic functions.

    PubMed

    Coffelt, Seth B; Tal, Andrea O; Scholz, Alexander; De Palma, Michele; Patel, Sunil; Urbich, Carmen; Biswas, Subhra K; Murdoch, Craig; Plate, Karl H; Reiss, Yvonne; Lewis, Claire E

    2010-07-01

    TIE2-expressing monocytes/macrophages (TEM) are a highly proangiogenic subset of myeloid cells in tumors. Here, we show that circulating human TEMs are already preprogrammed in the circulation to be more angiogenic and express higher levels of such proangiogenic genes as matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), VEGFA, COX-2, and WNT5A than TIE2(-) monocytes. Additionally, angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) markedly enhanced the proangiogenic activity of TEMs and increased their expression of two proangiogenic enzymes: thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and cathepsin B (CTSB). Three "alternatively activated" (or M2-like) macrophage markers were also upregulated by ANG-2 in TEMs: interleukin-10, mannose receptor (MRC1), and CCL17. To investigate the effects of ANG-2 on the phenotype and function of TEMs in tumors, we used a double-transgenic (DT) mouse model in which ANG-2 was specifically overexpressed by endothelial cells. Syngeneic tumors grown in these ANG-2 DT mice were more vascularized and contained greater numbers of TEMs than those in wild-type (WT) mice. In both tumor types, expression of MMP-9 and MRC1 was mainly restricted to tumor TEMs rather than TIE2(-) macrophages. Furthermore, tumor TEMs expressed higher levels of MRC1, TP, and CTSB in ANG-2 DT tumors than WT tumors. Taken together, our data show that although circulating TEMs are innately proangiogenic, exposure to tumor-derived ANG-2 stimulates these cells to exhibit a broader, tumor-promoting phenotype. As such, the ANG-2-TEM axis may represent a new target for antiangiogenic cancer therapies. PMID:20530679

  4. Subliminal Activation of Social Ties Moderates Cardiovascular Reactivity during Acute Stress

    PubMed Central

    Carlisle, McKenzie; Uchino, Bert N.; Sanbonmatsu, David M.; Smith, Timothy W.; Cribbet, Matthew R.; Birmingham, Wendy; Light, Kathleen C.; Vaughn, Allison A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The quality of one’s personal relationships has been reliably linked to important physical health outcomes, perhaps through the mechanism of physiological stress responses. Most studies of this mechanism have focused on whether more conscious interpersonal transactions influence cardiovascular reactivity. However, whether such relationships can be automatically activated in memory to influence physiological processes has not been determined. The primary aims of this study were to examine if subliminal activation of relationships could influence health-relevant physiological processes, and to examine this question in the context of a more general relationship model that incorporates both positive and negative dimensions. Method We randomly assigned participants to be subliminally primed with existing relationships that varied in their underlying positivity and negativity (i.e., indifferent, supportive, aversive, ambivalent). They then performed acute psychological stressors while cardiovascular and self-report measures were assessed. Results Priming negative relationships was associated with greater threat, lower feelings of control, and higher diastolic blood pressure reactivity during stress. Moreover, priming relationships high in positivity and negativity (ambivalent ties) was associated with the highest heart rate reactivity and greatest respiratory sinus arrhythmia decreases during stress. Exploratory analyses during the priming task itself suggested that the effects of negative primes on biological measures were prevalent across tasks, whereas the links to ambivalent ties was specific to the subsequent stressor task. Conclusions These data highlight novel mechanisms by which social ties may impact cardiovascular health, and further suggest the importance of incorporating both positivity and negativity in the study of relationships and physical health. PMID:21842996

  5. A new cable-tie-based sternal closure device: infectious considerations†

    PubMed Central

    Melly, Ludovic; Gahl, Brigitta; Meinke, Ruth; Rueter, Florian; Matt, Peter; Reuthebuch, Oliver; Eckstein, Friedrich S.; Grapow, Martin T.R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the difference in sternal infection and other infectious events between conventional wire and cable-tie-based closure techniques post-sternotomy in a collective of patients after cardiac surgery. METHODS The sternal ZipFix™ (ZF) system consists of a biocompatible poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) cable-tie that surrounds the sternum through the intercostal space and provides a large implant-to-bone contact. Between 1 February 2011 and 31 January 2012, 680 cardiac operations were performed via sternotomy at our institution. After the exclusion of operations for active endocarditis and early mortality within 7 days, 95 patients were exclusively closed with ZF and could be compared with 498 who were closed with conventional wires (CWs) during the same period. A multivariable logistic regression analysis, including body mass index, renal impairment and emergency as suspected confounders and inverse propensity weights was performed on the infection rate. RESULTS Total infection rate was 6.1%, with a total of 36 diagnosed sternal infections (5 in ZF and 31 in CW). Comparing ZF with CW with regard to sternal infection, there is no statistically significant difference related to the device (odds ratio: 0.067, confidence interval: 0.04–9.16, P = 0.72). The propensity modelling provided excellent overlap and the mean propensity was almost the same in both groups. Thus, we have observed no difference in receiving either ZF or CW. No sternal instability was observed with the ZF device, unlike 4/31 patients in the CW group. The overall operation time is reduced by 11 min in the ZF group with identical perfusion and clamping times. CONCLUSIONS Our study underlines a neutral effect of the sternal ZipFix™ system in patients regarding sternal infection. Postoperative complications are similar in both sternal closure methods. The cable-tie-based system is fast, easy to use, reliable and safe. PMID:23624983

  6. Near-field enhanced ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy using aluminum bow-tie nano-antenna.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Fang Lim, Shuang; Puretzky, Alexander A; Riehn, Robert; Hallen, H D

    2012-09-10

    An aluminum bow-tie nano-antenna is combined with the resonance Raman effect in the deep ultraviolet to dramatically increase the sensitivity of Raman spectra to a small volume of material, such as benzene used here. We further demonstrate gradient-field Raman peaks for several strong infrared modes. We achieve a gain of [Formula: see text] in signal intensity from the near field enhancement due to the surface plasmon resonance in the aluminum nanostructure. The on-line resonance enhancement contributes another factor of several thousands, limited by the laser line width. Thus, an overall gain of hundreds of million is achieved. PMID:23066168

  7. Millimeter-wave near-field imaging with bow-tie antennas.

    PubMed

    Omarouayache, Rachid; Payet, Pierre; Raoult, Jérémy; Chusseau, Laurent

    2015-05-01

    A near-field reflectometry experiment operating at 60 GHz is built in view of material and circuit inspection. Experiments are always obtained in constant height mode of operation. The bow-tie near-field probe acts mostly as a linearly-polarized electric dipole and allows strongly subwavelength resolution of ≈ λ/130. Its interaction with sample is shown polarization dependent and sensitive to both the local topography and the local dielectric constant or metal conductivity. Resonant and non-resonant probes are both evaluated. PMID:25969302

  8. Proof-of-Concept Studies for a Local Tie Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmeing, Benno; Behrend, Dirk; Gipson, John; Nothnagel, Axel

    2010-01-01

    We present preliminary results of proof-of-concept studies for an automatic monitoring system of local site ties. The system is based on the usage of robotic total stations. A set of tests were performed with a Leica TCA2003 total station on the local network of Goddard s Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO) and the 5-m VLBI antenna at this site. Both the TCA2003 and the VLBI antenna are controlled from a Matlab-coded control program. Running specific observational programs, data were collected that indicate that the reference point of the VLBI antenna can be automatically determined with an accuracy of 1 mm or better.

  9. Static Dissipative Cable Ties, Such as for Radiation Belt Storm Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langley, Patrick T. (Inventor); Siddique, Fazle E. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods of cyclically heating and cooling an article formed of a static dissipative ETFE resin, such as to reduce an electrical resistivity and/or to increase a tensile strength of the article, and methods of irradiating an article formed of a static dissipative ETFE resin, such as to increase a tensile strength of the article. Also disclosed herein are articles formed of a static dissipative ETFE resin, and processed in accordance with methods disclosed herein. Such an article may include, for example and without limitation, a cable strap to wrap, support, and/or secure one or more wires or cables, such as a cable tie.

  10. [Cable tie used for suicidal ligature strangulation--a case report].

    PubMed

    Doberentz, Elke; Hagemeier, Lars; Madea, Burkhard

    2009-01-01

    Based on a case of self-strangulation committed with two connected cable ties, criteria for the differentiation of homicidal and suicidal ligature strangulation are discussed. Differentiation may be difficult and demands close cooperation between the police and the forensic experts. Apart from the history and general circumstances of the case, not only the kind of strangulation, but also the presence of any concomitant injuries, the degree of congestion and any internal injuries are of relevance for the criminalistic evaluation. As self-strangulations are rare, these cases demand special attention. PMID:19746825

  11. Much ado about nothing: two millenia of controversy on tongue-tie.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Tongue-tie, or ankyloglossia, is poorly defined and involves a short, thick, fibrosed, or fixed lingual frenulum. Operative interventions were proposed already in Greek medicine. In the Middle Ages, competition arose between midwives, who used their nails to detach the frenulum, and surgeons, who were allowed to use instruments. During the last century, the justification for frenotomy shifted from improved language to enhanced feeding. Despite the high frequency of the intervention, little research has been performed on its benefit, which remains a controversial topic among different groups of health professionals. PMID:19707023

  12. Outcome of unstable fractures of metacarpal and phalangeal bones treated by bone tie

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Jagannath B; Jayasheelan, Nikil; Savur, Amaranth; Mathews, Rejith

    2016-01-01

    Background: Unstable fractures of the metacarpal and phalangeal bones of the hand need surgical stabilization which should be rigid enough for early active mobilization. Conventional methods of open reduction and stabilization in the form of composite fixation or screws with or without plates have served the purpose but can be definitely improvised addressing both biological and mechanical principles of fixation. Materials and Methods: 34 patients (29 males and 5 females) with an average age of 32 years (range 10–64 years) with unstable fractures of the metacarpal and phalangeal bones of hand who were treated with the modified bone tie between June 2009 and June 2013 were included in this study. 42 fractures, involving the 31 metacarpals and 11 phalanges were included. We have not used this technique in fractures involving the terminal phalanges. Thirty nine of the fractures were treated with K-wires along with the modified bone tie, whereas the other two cases were treated with modified bone tie alone and in one case the bone tie has been used along with the external fixator. The nature of injuries were Road Traffic Accident (n = 24), domestic/industrial injuries (n = 8) and blast (n = 2) injuries. Etiology was crush (n = 24), blunt (n = 7) and incised (n = 3) injuries, respectively. Twenty seven patients were involved with single fractures (either metacarpal or the phalanges), 6 patients had two fractures (both metacarpals or phalanges or one each of metacarpal and phalanx), and 1 patient had three fractures in this study. Dominant hand was involved in 14 patients (40%). Results: We achieved excellent to good results in 83% of 42 fractures within an average period of 10 weeks. Postoperative grip strength of 85% was achieved with in an average period of 12 weeks. Twenty six (20 metacarpals and 6 phalanges) of the 42 fractures regained >85% of the total active movements (TAMs) compared to the contralateral side were considered excellent results. All patients were

  13. Time-resolved magnetization dynamics of cross-tie domain walls in permalloy microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miguel, J.; Sánchez-Barriga, J.; Bayer, D.; Kurde, J.; Heitkamp, B.; Piantek, M.; Kronast, F.; Aeschlimann, M.; Dürr, H. A.; Kuch, W.

    2009-12-01

    We report on a picosecond time-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroic-photoelectron emission microscopy study of the evolution of the magnetization components of a microstructured permalloy platelet comprising three cross-tie domain walls. A laser-excited photoswitch has been used to apply a triangular 80 Oe, 160 ps magnetic pulse. Micromagnetic calculations agree well with the experimental results, both in time and frequency, illustrating the large angle precession in the magnetic domains with magnetization perpendicular to the applied pulse, and showing how the magnetic vortices revert their core magnetization while the antivortices remain unaffected.

  14. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1993-03-23

    A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  15. Dilemmas of Cultural Transmission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kováts-Németh, Mária

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental problem of the 21st century is that in the modern civilization "the transmission of values is not stable." There is nothing, except for the natural sense of justice and some legal traditions, which would exercise selective power on social behavior. At a critical time in 1949 Albert Szent-Györgyi drew the attention to the…

  16. Categories and Music Transmission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatien, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Lucy Green's (2008) "Music, Informal Learning, and the School: A New Classroom Pedagogy" gives rise to an interesting corollary. Does the manner of music's transmission inform one's understanding of a musical category? While categories of music can be difficult to define according to strict musical characteristics, a better understanding of…

  17. Laser power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Edmund J.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of previous studies related to laser power transmission is presented. Particular attention is given to the use of solar pumped lasers for space power applications. Three general laser mechanisms are addressed: photodissociation lasing driven by sunlight, photoexcitation lasing driven directly by sunlight, and photoexcitation lasing driven by thermal radiation.

  18. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    1993-01-01

    A borehole data transmission apparatus whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  19. Transmission planning in China

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Jun; Zhang, Jing

    2009-07-15

    Though China is well along in restructuring its power markets, it still has some way to travel before economic considerations receive adequate weight in transmission planning decisions. Adoption of more sophisticated tools such as multi-agent modeling will help China continue in its progress in achieving this. (author)

  20. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    1997-01-01

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

  1. Modelling of Site Specific Effects and the Impact upon Local Tie Residuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, M. J.; Mcclusky, S.

    2012-12-01

    It is well known that site specific effects such as far-field and near-field multipath do not average out over time and that the time varying geometry of GNSS constellations leads to draconitic aliasing of these unmodelled signals into station position time series. Studies have also shown that the structures on which GNSS antennae are mounted introduce near-field multipath effects that can cause position errors reaching magnitudes of 4-5 cm at Polar Regions, and that unmodelled radomes have a significant impact on the Phase Centre Variation (PCV) of Global Positioning System (GPS) antennae, also leading to biases in coordinate time series. In this work we evaluate the efficacy of using empirical site models (ESM) to improve the realisation of the combined multi technique international terrestrial reference frame (ITRF). We use a comparison of local tie residuals, at ITRF, VLBI, SLR and GPS co-location sites, obtained from GPS solutions with and without Empirical Site Models applied. We will show that in order to achieve 1mm local tie residuals between the different space geodetic observation techniques, site specific modelling needs to be taken into consideration.

  2. Technical Note: Measurement of bow tie profiles in CT scanners using radiochromic film

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, Bruce R.; Dohatcu, Andreea C.; Evans, Joshua D.; Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Politte, David G.

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To provide a noninvasive technique to measure the intensity profile of the fan beam in a computed tomography (CT) scanner that is cost effective and easily implemented without the need to access proprietary scanner information or service modes. Methods: The fabrication of an inexpensive aperture is described, which is used to expose radiochromic film in a rotating CT gantry. A series of exposures is made, each of which is digitized on a personal computer document scanner, and the resulting data set is analyzed to produce a self-consistent calibration of relative radiation exposure. The bow tie profiles were analyzed to determine the precision of the process and were compared to two other measurement techniques, direct measurements from CT gantry detectors and a dynamic dosimeter. Results: The radiochromic film method presented here can measure radiation exposures with a precision of ∼6% root-mean-square relative error. The intensity profiles have a maximum 25% root-mean-square relative error compared with existing techniques. Conclusions: The proposed radiochromic film method for measuring bow tie profiles is an inexpensive (∼$100 USD + film costs), noninvasive method to measure the fan beam intensity profile in CT scanners.

  3. Physical experience leads to enhanced object perception in parietal cortex: Insights from knot tying

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Emily S.; Cohen, Nichola Rice; de Hamilton, Antonia F. C.; Ramsey, Richard; Wolford, George; Grafton, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    What does it mean to “know” what an object is? Viewing objects from different categories (e.g., tools vs. animals) engages distinct brain regions, but it is unclear whether these differences reflect object categories themselves or the tendency to interact differently with objects from different categories (grasping tools, not animals). Here we test how the brain constructs representations of objects that one learns to name or physically manipulate. Participants learned to name or tie different knots and brain activity was measured whilst performing a perceptual discrimination task with these knots before and after training. Activation in anterior intraparietal sulcus, a region involved in object manipulation, was specifically engaged when participants viewed knots they learned to tie. This suggests that object knowledge is linked to sensorimotor experience and its associated neural systems for object manipulation. Findings are consistent with a theory of embodiment in which there can be clear overlap in brain systems that support conceptual knowledge and control of object manipulation. PMID:23022108

  4. Physical experience leads to enhanced object perception in parietal cortex: insights from knot tying.

    PubMed

    Cross, Emily S; Cohen, Nichola Rice; Hamilton, Antonia F de C; Ramsey, Richard; Wolford, George; Grafton, Scott T

    2012-12-01

    What does it mean to "know" what an object is? Viewing objects from different categories (e.g., tools vs. animals) engages distinct brain regions, but it is unclear whether these differences reflect object categories themselves or the tendency to interact differently with objects from different categories (grasping tools, not animals). Here we test how the brain constructs representations of objects that one learns to name or physically manipulate. Participants learned to name or tie different knots and brain activity was measured whilst performing a perceptual discrimination task with these knots before and after training. Activation in anterior intraparietal sulcus, a region involved in object manipulation, was specifically engaged when participants viewed knots they learned to tie. This suggests that object knowledge is linked to sensorimotor experience and its associated neural systems for object manipulation. Findings are consistent with a theory of embodiment in which there can be clear overlap in brain systems that support conceptual knowledge and control of object manipulation. PMID:23022108

  5. Effects of two stall flooring systems on the behaviour of tied dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hultgren, J

    2001-08-01

    Effects on dairy cow behaviour of a new type of flooring in tie-stalls, with the ability to drain faeces and urine, was studied in a controlled randomised trial in one Swedish university herd. Forty-two Swedish Red and White cows were kept tied in traditional long-stalls (2.20m). In 21 stalls (one stall row), the rearmost 0.74m of the solid stall floor had been replaced with nine rubber-coated 53mm wide slats, divided by 29mm slots. Stalls with rubber slats were equipped with 20mm ethyl-vinyl-acetate (EVA) mats in the front part and littered with 0.7kg of wood shavings daily, while stalls with a solid floor had standard rubber mats and received 3kg of chopped straw daily as bedding. Behaviour was compared between the two stall types, using video recordings of 12 matched pairs of cows for two complete 24h periods each. Statistical analysis was done using the Student's t-test for matched pairs or the sign test. Cows on the rubber slatted flooring lie down and rise normally and without any increased risk of slipping. They lay down more comfortably, i.e. spent on an average 23% less time preparing to lie down, and slipped less frequently during rising. There was some evidence of a preference for a solid floor when lying. PMID:11376835

  6. Rotating kink modes in a non-line tied plasma column in the Reconnection Scaling experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madziwa-Nussinov, Tsitsi; Ryutov, Dmitri; Abbate, Sara

    2005-10-01

    The screw pinch is one of the simplest MHD equilibria, and is relevant to fusion physics, astro-physics, and basic plasma physics. It has been studied for many years, but usually in the context of a periodic toroidal plasma column. Reconnection Scaling Experiment (RSX)[1] is a cylindrical device built to study the linear and non-linear evolution of the current carrying screw pinch. A plasma column is injected into one end of the chamber from a plasma gun, and terminates at an anode that can be biased to draw current. This anode acts as an adjustable non-line tied end boundary for the column. Line-tying appears to give rise to several unexpected characteristics including finite rotation frequency, and a kink instability threshold less than the Kruskal Shafranov predictions. Experimental data is compared to a phenomenological theory of the kink instability developed for a slender plasma[2] column, including effects such as boundary conditions at the electrodes, finite plasma resistivity and axial flow. [1] I. Furno et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2324 (2003).2] D. Ryutov et al., to be submitted to Phys. Plasmas.

  7. The influence of body weight on social network ties among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mir M; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr; Rizzo, John A

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of negative stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination towards obese individuals has been widely documented. However, the effect of a larger body size on social network ties or friendship formations is less well understood. In this paper, we explore the extent to which higher body weight results in social marginalization of adolescents. Using data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents, we estimate endogeneity-corrected models including school-level fixed effects that account for bi-directionality and unobserved confounders to ascertain the effect of body weight on social network ties. We find that obese adolescents have fewer friends and are less socially integrated than their non-obese counterparts. We also find that such penalties in friendship networks are present among whites but not African-Americans or Hispanics, with the largest effect among white females. These results are robust to common environmental influences at the school-level and to controls for preferences, risk attitudes, low self-esteem and objective measures of physical attractiveness. PMID:22056235

  8. Contrasting effects of strong ties on SIR and SIS processes in temporal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kaiyuan; Baronchelli, Andrea; Perra, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    Most real networks are characterized by connectivity patterns that evolve in time following complex, non-Markovian, dynamics. Here we investigate the impact of this ubiquitous feature by studying the Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) and Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) epidemic models on activity driven networks with and without memory (i.e., Markovian and non-Markovian). We find that memory inhibits the spreading process in SIR models by shifting the epidemic threshold to larger values and reducing the final fraction of recovered nodes. On the contrary, in SIS processes memory reduces the epidemic threshold and, for a wide range of disease parameters, increases the fraction of nodes affected by the disease in the endemic state. The heterogeneity in tie strengths, and the frequent repetition of strong ties it entails, allows in fact less virulent SIS-like diseases to survive in tightly connected local clusters that serve as reservoir for the virus. We validate this picture by studying both processes on two real temporal networks.

  9. Conductivities consistent with Birkeland currents in the AMPERE-driven TIE-GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsal, S.

    2015-09-01

    The Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) satellite mission has offered for the first time global snapshots of the geomagnetic field-aligned currents with unprecedented space and time resolution, thus providing an opportunity to feed an acknowledged first-principles model of the Earth's upper atmosphere such as the National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (NCAR TIE-GCM). In the first step, Marsal et al. (2012) used AMPERE data in the current continuity equation between the magnetosphere and the ionosphere to drive the TIE-GCM electrodynamics. In the present work, ionospheric conductivities have been made consistent with enhanced upward field-aligned currents, which are assumed to correspond to electrons plunging as a result of downward acceleration by electric fields built up along the geomagnetic field lines. The resulting conductance distribution is reasonably commensurate with an independent model that has tried to quantify the ionizing effect of precipitating particles onto the auroral ionosphere. On the other hand, comparison of geomagnetic observatory data with the ground magnetic variations output by the model only shows a modest improvement with respect to our previous approach.

  10. Dendrometer bands made easy: Using modified cable ties to measure incremental growth of trees1

    PubMed Central

    Anemaet, Evelyn R.; Middleton, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Dendrometer bands are a useful way to make sequential repeated measurements of tree growth, but traditional dendrometer bands can be expensive, time consuming, and difficult to construct in the field. An alternative to the traditional method of band construction is to adapt commercially available materials. This paper describes how to construct and install dendrometer bands using smooth-edged, stainless steel, cable tie banding and attachable rollerball heads. • Methods and Results: As a performance comparison, both traditional and cable tie dendrometer bands were installed on baldcypress trees at the National Wetlands Research Center in Lafayette, Louisiana, by both an experienced and a novice worker. Band installation times were recorded, and growth of the trees as estimated by the two band types was measured after approximately one year, demonstrating equivalence of the two methods. • Conclusions: This efficient approach to dendrometer band construction can help advance the knowledge of long-term tree growth in ecological studies. PMID:25202589

  11. Technical Note: Measurement of bow tie profiles in CT scanners using radiochromic film

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, Bruce R.; Dohatcu, Andreea C.; Evans, Joshua D.; Politte, David G.; Williamson, Jeffrey F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a noninvasive technique to measure the intensity profile of the fan beam in a computed tomography (CT) scanner that is cost effective and easily implemented without the need to access proprietary scanner information or service modes. Methods: The fabrication of an inexpensive aperture is described, which is used to expose radiochromic film in a rotating CT gantry. A series of exposures is made, each of which is digitized on a personal computer document scanner, and the resulting data set is analyzed to produce a self-consistent calibration of relative radiation exposure. The bow tie profiles were analyzed to determine the precision of the process and were compared to two other measurement techniques, direct measurements from CT gantry detectors and a dynamic dosimeter. Results: The radiochromic film method presented here can measure radiation exposures with a precision of ∼6% root-mean-square relative error. The intensity profiles have a maximum 25% root-mean-square relative error compared with existing techniques. Conclusions: The proposed radiochromic film method for measuring bow tie profiles is an inexpensive (∼$100 USD + film costs), noninvasive method to measure the fan beam intensity profile in CT scanners. PMID:26127044

  12. Diverless tie-in and connection of pipelines/flowlines by use of hard pipe spools

    SciTech Connect

    Hals, B.E.; Reddy, S.K.; Douglas, L.D.

    1996-12-31

    Diverless pipeline connection operations by use of custom built hard pipe spools has proven to be an economically viable approach. Over the last few years, required tooling and methods to perform subsea measurements and subsequent construction of such custom built jumper spools has been developed and successfully demonstrated. This allows a field operator a high degree of flexibility in his scheduling and selection of surface support for tie-in operations. Tie-in of pre-laid pipe/flowlines can be performed from unsophisticated vessels as no ROT systems are required. An ROV deploys and operates simple tools to perform linear and angular position recordings for the adjacent hubs. These measurements are used to duplicate the actual hub configurations on jig fixtures located on a surface vessel or at an onshore fabrication base. The jumper is then built to fit between these hubs. This form of diverless connection systems has proven to be cost effective and at the same time eliminate the need for high energy connection methods such as direct deflection and pull-in systems. A thorough understanding of the tooling as well as handling and installation of the jumper spools is of essence to achieve a successful connection. Clearly defined design parameters is a pre-requisite to ensure that the spool configuration and geometry will accommodate loads and deflections experienced throughout the service life of the spool.

  13. Automation of tie-pointing procedure for the geocoding of satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strunz, G.; Knoepfle, W.; Roth, A.

    1994-08-01

    This paper describes two recent developments at the German Remote Sensing Data Centre, which aim at the automatic generation of tie points for optical sensors and radar images, and the operational utilization of automatic tiepointing for ERS-1SAR data. In the first paper, a concept for the multitemporal registration of satellite images from optical sensors is described. This approach aims at the automated extraction of corresponding points in the images. It compresses the detection of distinct points by a so-called interest operator in one image. By cross correlation the corresponding points in the other images are traces. Subpixel accuracy is achieved by a least squares technique for digital image matching. Practical results are shown. where multitemporal image data from the Landsat TM sensor are used. The results are promising; improvements of the procedure are discussed. The second part of the paper describes the operation utilization of an automatic tie pointing, which has been realized for the geocoding of the ERS-1SAR data at the German Processing and Archiving Facility. significant features are extracted from reference data sets. The corresponding SAR image chips are stored in a database. These chips are correlated with the actual SAR data set. The procedure is describes as well as the accuracy achieved. For the time being, the determination of the reference chips is performed interactively. an outlook is given concerning several automatic approaches actually being investigated.

  14. PREECLAMPSIA AND SMALL FOR GESTATIONAL AGE ARE ASSOCIATED WITH DECREASED CONCENTRATIONS OF A FACTOR INVOLVED IN ANGIOGENESIS: SOLUBLE TIE-2

    PubMed Central

    Gotsch, Francesca; Romero, Roberto; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Dombrowski, Michael; Erez, Offer; Than, Nandor Gabor; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Mittal, Pooja; Espinoza, Jimmy; Hassan, Sonia S

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE An anti-angiogenic state has been described in patients with preeclampsia, small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses and fetal death, and changes in the concentration of circulating angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors can precede the clinical recognition of preeclampsia and small for gestational age by several weeks. Gene deletion studies demonstrate that a selective group of endothelial growth factors are required for vascular development, including members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family, as well as Angiopoietin-1 and Angiopoietin-2, both ligands for the tyrosine kinase endothelial cell receptor Tie-2. These angiogenic factors have been proposed to promote angiogenesis in a coordinated and complementary fashion. Soluble Tie-2 (sTie-2) is the soluble form of the Tie-2 receptor which is detectable in biological fluids. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients with preeclampsia and mothers who deliver a small for gestational age neonate have changes in the plasma concentrations of sTie-2. STUDY DESIGN This cross-sectional study included patients in the following groups: 1) non-pregnant women (n=40); 2) women with normal pregnancies (n=135); 3) patients with preeclampsia (n=112); and 4) patients who delivered a small for gestational age (SGA) neonate (n=53). Maternal plasma concentrations of sTie-2 were measured by a sensitive immunoassay. Parametric statistics were used for analysis. RESULTS 1) The median maternal plasma concentration of sTie-2 was lower in normal pregnant women than in non-pregnant women [median 16.0 ng/ml (range 5.0–71.6) vs. median 20.7 ng/ml (range 10.8–52.4), respectively; p=0.01)]; 2) Plasma sTie-2 concentrations in normal pregnancy changed significantly as a function of gestational age; 3) Patients with preeclampsia and those who delivered SGA neonates had a lower median maternal plasma concentration of sTie-2 than those with a normal pregnancy [Preeclampsia: median 14.9 ng/ml (range 4

  15. The Response of Environmental Capacity for Malaria Transmission in West Africa to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamana, T. K.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    The climate of West Africa is characterized by north-south gradients in temperature and rainfall. Environmental capacity for malaria transmission (e.g. as measured by vectorial capacity) is strongly tied to these two variables; temperature affects the development rate of the malaria parasite, as well as the lifespan of the mosquitoes that transmit the disease, and rainfall is tied to mosquito abundance, as the vector lays its eggs in rain-fed water pools. A change in climate is therefore expected to lead to changes in the distribution of malaria transmission. Current general circulation models agree that the temperature in West Africa is expected to increase by several degrees in the next century. However they predict a wide range of possible rainfall scenarios in the future, from intense drying to significant increases in rainfall (Christensen et al., 2007). The effects these changes will have on environmental capacity for malaria transmission depend on the magnitude and direction of the changes, and on current conditions. For example, malaria transmission will be more sensitive to positive changes in rainfall in dry areas where mosquito populations are currently limited by water availability than in relatively wet areas. Here, we analyze combinations of changes in rainfall and temperature within the ranges predicted by GCMs, and assess the impact these combinations will have on the environmental capacity for malaria transmission. In particular, we identify climate change scenarios that are likely to have the greatest impact on environmental capacity for malaria transmission, as well as geographic "hot spots" where the greatest changes are to be expected. Christensen, J. H., Busuioc, A., & et al. (2007). Regional climate projections. In S. Solomon (Ed.), Climate change 2007: The physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

  16. Diagnosing and understanding the maxillary lip-tie (superior labial, the maxillary labial frenum) as it relates to breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Kotlow, Lawrence A

    2013-11-01

    Successful breastfeeding is dependent upon an infant's ability to correctly latch onto a mother's breast. If an infant is born with oral soft tissue abnormalities such as tongue-tie or lip-tie, breastfeeding may become challenging or impossible. During the oral evaluation of an infant presenting with breastfeeding problems, one area that is often overlooked and undiagnosed and, thus, untreated is the attachment of the upper lip to the maxillary gingival tissue. Historically, this tissue has been described as the superior labial frenum, median labial frenum, or maxillary labial frenum. These terms all refer to a segment of the mucous membrane in the midline of the upper lip containing loose connective tissue that inserts into the maxillary arch's loose, unattached gingival or tight, attached gingival tissue. There is no muscle contained within this tissue. In severe instances, this tissue may extend into the area behind the upper central incisors and incisive papilla. The author has defined and identified the restrictions of mobility of this tissue as a lip-tie, which reflects the clinical attachment of the upper lip to the maxillary arch. This article discusses the diagnosis and classifications of the lip-tie, as it affects an infant's latch onto the mother's breast. As more and more women choose to breastfeed, lip-ties must be considered as an impediment to breastfeeding, recognizing that they can affect a successful, painless latch and milk transfer. PMID:23821655

  17. Data transmission networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexovich, Robert

    1990-01-01

    A task order was written by the High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video Technology (HHVT) project engineers to investigate data compression techniques that could be applied to the HHVT system, and both existing and planned downlink/uplink capabilities of the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. The following tasks were included: (1) Investigate signal channel availability and determine both the maximum possible data rate and the average data rate; (2) Identify time blocks for HHVT video transmission assuming time sharing and interruptions in the communication links; (3) Determine the bit error rates to be expected; and (4) Define the transmit and receive interfaces. A summary chart of the data transmission capabilities for Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), the Space Shuttle, Space Station Freedom, Spacelab, and USLab are also presented.

  18. Advanced transmission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.; Bill, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command share an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, this paper presents highlights from that portion of the program in drive train technology and the related mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability; reduce the weight, noise, and vibration; and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for future transmission research is presented.

  19. Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Army/NASA Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is charged with developing and demonstrating a light, quiet, and durable drivetrain for next-generation rotorcraft in two classes: a 10,000-20,000 Future Attack Air Vehicle capable of both tactical ground support and air-to-air missions, and a 60,000-80,000 lb Advanced Cargo Aircraft, for heavy-lift field-support operations. Specific ART objectives encompass a 25-percent reduction in drivetrain weight, a 10-dB noise level reduction at the transmission source, and the achievement of a 5000-hr MTBF. Four candidate drivetrain systems have been carried to a conceptual design stage, together with projections of their mission performance and life-cycle costs.

  20. Drill string transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Bradford, Kline; Fox, Joe

    2006-03-28

    A transmission line assembly for transmitting information along a downhole tool comprising a pin end, a box end, and a central bore traveling between the pin end and the box end, is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a protective conduit. A transmission line is routed through the protective conduit. The protective conduit is routed through the central bore and the ends of the protective conduit are routed through channels formed in the pin end and box end of the downhole tool. The protective conduit is elastically forced into a spiral or other non-linear path along the interior surface of the central bore by compressing the protective conduit to a length within the downhole tool shorter than the protective conduit.

  1. Maintenance of hydrostatic transmissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, A.

    1981-10-01

    Problems in hydrostatic transmission maintenance are identified and ways of overcoming them are suggested. It is found that problems arise from lack of lubrication, impurities in the oil, and cavitation at the pump and at the motor. It is under suggested that under nonsevere operating conditions, oil and filter should be changed every year, or every 1500 to 2000 hr running time. Under severe operating conditions or in dusty environments, the interval should be every 6 months or 1000 hr.

  2. Directional gear ratio transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafever, A. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Epicyclic gear transmissions which transmit output at a gear ratio dependent only upon the input's direction are considered. A transmission housing envelops two epicyclic gear assemblies, and has shafts extending from it. One shaft is attached to a sun gear within the first epicyclic gear assembly. Planet gears are held symmetrically about the sun gear by a planet gear carrier and are in mesh with both the sun gear and a ring gear. Two unidirectional clutches restrict rotation of the first planet gear carrier and ring gear to one direction. A connecting shaft drives a second sun gear at the same speed and direction as the first planet gear carrier while a connecting portion drives a second planet gear carrier at the same speed and direction as the first ring gear. The transmission's output is then transmitted by the second ring gear to the second shaft. Input is transmitted at a higher gear ratio and lower speed for all inputs in the first direction than in the opposite direction.

  3. Intrasperm vertical symbiont transmission

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenji; Yukuhiro, Fumiko; Matsuura, Yu; Fukatsu, Takema; Noda, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria are commonly associated with cells and tissues of diverse animals and other organisms, which affect hosts’ biology in a variety of ways. Most of these symbionts are present in the cytoplasm of host cells and maternally transmitted through host generations. The paucity of paternal symbiont transmission is likely relevant to the extremely streamlined sperm structure: the head consisting of condensed nucleus and the tail made of microtubule bundles, without the symbiont-harboring cytoplasm that is discarded in the process of spermatogenesis. Here, we report a previously unknown mechanism of paternal symbiont transmission via an intrasperm passage. In the leafhopper Nephotettix cincticeps, a facultative Rickettsia symbiont was found not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus of host cells. In male insects, strikingly, most sperm heads contained multiple intranuclear Rickettsia cells. The Rickettsia infection scarcely affected the host fitness including normal sperm functioning. Mating experiments revealed both maternal and paternal transmission of the Rickettsia symbiont through host generations. When cultured with mosquito and silkworm cell lines, the Rickettsia symbiont was preferentially localized within the insect cell nuclei, indicating that the Rickettsia symbiont itself must have a mechanism for targeting nucleus. The mechanisms underlying the sperm head infection without disturbing sperm functioning are, although currently unknown, of both basic and applied interest. PMID:24799707

  4. Small passenger car transmission test; Chevrolet LUV transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    A 1978 Chevrolet LUV manual transmission tested per the applicable portions of a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the upper ninety percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test (torque, speed, and efficiency curves) are presented. Graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Chevrolet LUV transmission.

  5. Small passenger car transmission test; Ford C4 transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    A 1979 Ford C4 automatic transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test (torque, speed, and efficiency curves) are presented. Graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Ford C4 transmission.

  6. The strength of strong ties for older rural adults: regional distinctions in the relationship between social interaction and subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Mair, Christine A; Thivierge-Rikard, R V

    2010-01-01

    Classic and contemporary sociological theories suggest that social interaction differs in rural and urban areas. Intimate, informal interactions (strong ties) are theorized to characterize rural areas while urban areas may possess more formal and rationalized interactions (weak ties). Aging and social support literature stresses social interaction as a predictor of health among the aged. Using data from Wave III of the Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) study, this study examines the hypothesized differences between informal strong ties and formal weak ties on the subjective well-being of older adults in rural, urban, and suburban areas. Visiting with friends, neighbors, or relatives has a stronger positive effect on subjective well-being for rural older adults than urban. These findings highlight that: a) informal strong ties increase subjective well-being; and b) the effect of informal strong ties differs by region. We discuss the potential of our findings for policy and urge continued attention to regional variation in aging studies. PMID:20405586

  7. Towards a better knot: Using mechanics methods to evaluate three knot-tying techniques in laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery

    PubMed Central

    Xu, An An; Zhu, Jiang Fan; Su, Yuantao

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Knot tying is difficult but important for laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery (LESS). There are several techniques for LESS knot-tying. However, objective assessment of these skills has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to assess three different knot-tying techniques in LESS using mechanical methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The subject tied 24 knots, eight knots with each of the three techniques in an inanimate box laparoscopic trainer while the movements of their instruments were evaluated using a LESS mechanical evaluation platform. The operations were assessed on the basis of the time, average load of the dominant hand. Then, forces caused the knots to rupture were measured using a material testing system and used to compare the knots's strength. RESULTS: The intracorporeal one-hand knot-tying technique presented significantly better time and average load scores than the extracorporeal knot-tying technique (P < 0.01), and the intracorporeal side winding technique was more time and average load consuming in comparison to other techniques during the performance of knot-tying (P < 0.01). The intracorporeal one-handed knot-tying knots can tolerate better distraction forces compared with the intracorporeal side winding knot-tying knots and the extracorporeal knot-tying knots (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The intracorporeal one-hand knot-tying technique and knots showed better results than the intracorporeal “side winding” technique and the extracorporeal knot-tying technique in terms of the time, average load taken and the force caused the knot to rupture. PMID:26622113

  8. A GPS, VLBI and local tie inter-comparison: first results for the Australian AuScope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, G.; Titov, O.; Dawson, J. H.; Hu, G.

    2012-12-01

    AuScope is part of the Australian Government's National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) and has the objective of upgrading the accuracy of the terrestrial reference frame in Australia to 1 mm based on the development of new geodetic infrastructure which includes three new Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observatories and 100 Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations. Each of the AuScope VLBI observatories, located at Hobart, Yarragadee and Katherine, are equipped with a 12.1 metre antenna designed and constructed by COBHAM Satcom, Patriot Products division. In a preliminary multi-technique inter-comparison, GPS data have been analysed in the Bernese software and VLBI and local tie data have been analysed in the in-house developed software OCCAM and Axis, respectively. Our experiences and techniques for undertaking local tie surveys of the Patriot antennas are overviewed, and results of the GPS, VLBI and local tie inter-comparison are presented.

  9. Application of ‘tying, binding and fixing operation’ in surgical treatment of severe mixed hemorrhoids

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hong-Xiang; Yao, Yi-Bo; Tang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the clinical value of ‘tying, binding and fixing operation’ in treating severe mixed hemorrhoids. A total of 160 patients with severe mixed hemorrhoids were selected and randomly divided into the experimental (n=80) and control (n=80) groups. The groups were treated using ‘tying, binding and fixing operation’ and Doppler ultrasound-guided hemorrhoidal artery ligation (DG-HAL), respectively. The results showed that the average operative time of the experimental group (35.57±6.17) was significantly higher than that of the control group (12.73±4.92). There was no significant difference of blood loss during the operation between the two groups (P>0.05). There was also no significant difference in improving the hemorrhage symptom between the two groups (P>0.05). In addition, concerning improvement of prolapse symptoms and reduction of the volume of hemorrhoids, the experimental group were significantly improved as compared to the control group. No anal function damage in the two groups was identified, and the length of stay in hospital for the two groups was not significantly different (P>0.05). However, the hospitalization cost in the experimental group (5,334.77±875.54) was significantly lower than that of the control group (8,551.81±1,806.54) and satisfaction degree was significantly higher than that of the control group. The incidences of perianal pain, anal edema and dysuria between two groups were not significantly different (P>0.05). There were 10 cases of secondary hemorrhage and 18 cases of infection in the experimental group, and 12 cases of secondary hemorrhage and 14 cases of infection in the control group, although the differences between the two groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The incidence rate of local hematoma in the experimental group (1.2%) was significantly lower than that in the control group (15.0%). The recurrence rate of the control group (22.5%) was also significantly

  10. Rural-urban migration in Zambia and migrant ties to home villages.

    PubMed

    Ogura, M

    1991-06-01

    Rural to urban migration patterns in Zambia and migrant ties to home villages are discussed 1st in terms of a statistical overview of migration and urbanization, and followed by an examination of lengthening stays in towns and ties to the home village based on other studies and the author's field research and random sampling in 6 urban areas of Zambia. The primary population centers are the copperbelt which comprises 45% of the total urban population, and Lusaka which is 24% of the total urban population. 31% of the total population reside in Lusaka, 7 mining towns, Kabwe, and Livingstone. Migration and a high rate of natural population growth are responsible for the urban growth. Recent economic difficulties have reduced the flow of migration to urban areas and lead to the out migration in copper towns. independence also has had an effect on migration, such that female migration increased along with male migration. Female migration reflects female educational advances and the changing practice of housewives accompanying husbands. The informal sector absorbs a great number of the migrant labor force. Income gaps between urban and rural areas also contribute to migration flows. Other magnets in urban areas are better educational opportunities, a water supply, and the lure of city lights. Since independence, migrants have increased their length of stay in towns but continue to maintain links with their home villages. 87.5% of mine workers are estimated as intending to go back to their villages. Before the mid-1970s it is estimated in a Ngombe squatter camp that 65% of employed male household heads had sent money home the prior year, 58% had visited home within the past 5 years, but 25% had never visited in 10 years. 58% intended to return home and 36% intended to stay permanently. The author's research between 1987-89 found 3 types of squatter villages: those retired and not returning to home villages such as Kansusuwa, those workers living in compounds where farm

  11. Use of tongue ties in thoroughbred racehorses in the United Kingdom, and its association with surgery for dorsal displacement of the soft palate.

    PubMed

    Barakzai, S Z; Finnegan, C; Dixon, P M; Hillyer, M H; Boden, L A

    2009-09-01

    The prevalence of the use of tongue ties, calculated from 60 randomly selected race meetings held in the UK during 2001 to 2003, was 5.0 per cent. After its first use on an individual horse a tongue tie was used in an average of 77 per cent of its races during the first 12 months, but after this time period, in only 55 per cent of its races. Thirty-nine per cent of horses that underwent surgery for dorsal displacement of the soft palate raced with a tongue tie preoperatively, and 41 per cent of these surgical cases raced with a tongue tie postoperatively. PMID:19734559

  12. Disturbance legacies of historic tie-drives persistently alter geomorphology and large wood characteristics in headwater streams, southeast Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffing, Claire M.; Daniels, Melinda D.; Dwire, Kathleen A.

    2015-02-01

    Instream wood is recognized as an integral component of stream morphology in forested areas. However, few studies have evaluated the legacy effects of historic wood removal activities and associated impacts on channel morphology, contemporary wood loading, and recruitment. This study investigates the role of historic tie-driving, a widespread channel disturbance legacy, in shaping present-day stream channel conditions in southern Wyoming. Geomorphic and riparian surveys were used to assess the extent of disturbance and degree of recovery within three sets of paired tie-driven and non-driven study reaches. Tie-driven streams were narrower, shallower, and had low cross-sectional roughness and higher width-to-depth ratios when compared to non-driven streams. Study reaches in first-order tie-driven streams were characterized by predominantly plane-bed morphologies and an extremely low abundance of wood compared to paired, non-driven reaches. Wood loads in second-order tie-driven reaches were similar to non-driven reaches, but overall wood distribution varied and was more likely to accumulate in jams. Existing wood loads in tie-driven reaches exhibited a narrower range of geomorphic functions and were less stable overall, although the relative state of decay was similar across all reaches. Basal area, stream power, and reach slope were identified as key mechanisms driving wood retention in the study reaches. The results of this study suggest that contemporary channel morphology and wood loads continue to reflect disturbance histories but have not yet been affected by other contemporary disturbances expected to influence wood loads such as bark beetle infestations.

  13. A new technique to characterize CT scanner bow-tie filter attenuation and applications in human cadaver dosimetry simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xinhua; Shi, Jim Q.; Zhang, Da; Singh, Sarabjeet; Padole, Atul; Otrakji, Alexi; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Liu, Bob; Xu, X. George

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To present a noninvasive technique for directly measuring the CT bow-tie filter attenuation with a linear array x-ray detector. Methods: A scintillator based x-ray detector of 384 pixels, 307 mm active length, and fast data acquisition (model X-Scan 0.8c4-307, Detection Technology, FI-91100 Ii, Finland) was used to simultaneously detect radiation levels across a scan field-of-view. The sampling time was as short as 0.24 ms. To measure the body bow-tie attenuation on a GE Lightspeed Pro 16 CT scanner, the x-ray tube was parked at the 12 o’clock position, and the detector was centered in the scan field at the isocenter height. Two radiation exposures were made with and without the bow-tie in the beam path. Each readout signal was corrected for the detector background offset and signal-level related nonlinear gain, and the ratio of the two exposures gave the bow-tie attenuation. The results were used in the GEANT4 based simulations of the point doses measured using six thimble chambers placed in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans at 100 or 120 kV, helical pitch at 1.375, constant or variable tube current, and distinct x-ray tube starting angles. Results: Absolute attenuation was measured with the body bow-tie scanned at 80–140 kV. For 24 doses measured in six organs of the cadaver, the median or maximum difference between the simulation results and the measurements on the CT scanner was 8.9% or 25.9%, respectively. Conclusions: The described method allows fast and accurate bow-tie filter characterization.

  14. Offset semi-parabolic nanoantenna made of a photonic crystal parabolic mirror and a plasmonic bow-tie antenna.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Haroldo T

    2014-10-10

    In a parabolic mirror, light coming parallel to the antenna passes through its focal point. In this work, a waveguide feeds a semi-parabolic photonic crystal mirror and the emerging beam feeds a bow-tie antenna placed at the mirror's focal point-it is shown that the antenna system can not only feed a bow-tie antenna (producing a localized moderately high electric field) but also produces a directional radiation beam. The semi-parabolic mirror is also modified to reduce reflection back to the feeding waveguide. PMID:25322381

  15. Planetary Transmission Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G. (Technical Monitor); Samuel, Paul D.; Conroy, Joseph K.; Pines, Darryll J.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a methodology for detecting and diagnosing gear faults in the planetary stage of a helicopter transmission. This diagnostic technique is based on the constrained adaptive lifting algorithm. The lifting scheme, developed by Wim Sweldens of Bell Labs, is a time domain, prediction-error realization of the wavelet transform that allows for greater flexibility in the construction of wavelet bases. Classic lifting analyzes a given signal using wavelets derived from a single fundamental basis function. A number of researchers have proposed techniques for adding adaptivity to the lifting scheme, allowing the transform to choose from a set of fundamental bases the basis that best fits the signal. This characteristic is desirable for gear diagnostics as it allows the technique to tailor itself to a specific transmission by selecting a set of wavelets that best represent vibration signals obtained while the gearbox is operating under healthy-state conditions. However, constraints on certain basis characteristics are necessary to enhance the detection of local wave-form changes caused by certain types of gear damage. The proposed methodology analyzes individual tooth-mesh waveforms from a healthy-state gearbox vibration signal that was generated using the vibration separation (synchronous signal-averaging) algorithm. Each waveform is separated into analysis domains using zeros of its slope and curvature. The bases selected in each analysis domain are chosen to minimize the prediction error, and constrained to have the same-sign local slope and curvature as the original signal. The resulting set of bases is used to analyze future-state vibration signals and the lifting prediction error is inspected. The constraints allow the transform to effectively adapt to global amplitude changes, yielding small prediction errors. However, local wave-form changes associated with certain types of gear damage are poorly adapted, causing a significant change in the

  16. Tie-dyed2 Encodes a Callose Synthase That Functions in Vein Development and Affects Symplastic Trafficking within the Phloem of Maize Leaves12[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Slewinski, Thomas L.; Baker, R. Frank; Stubert, Adam; Braun, David M.

    2012-01-01

    The tie-dyed2 (tdy2) mutant of maize (Zea mays) displays variegated green and yellow leaves. Intriguingly, the yellow leaf tissues hyperaccumulate starch and sucrose, the soluble sugar transported long distance through the phloem of veins. To determine the molecular basis for Tdy2 function, we cloned the gene and found that Tdy2 encodes a callose synthase. RNA in situ hybridizations revealed that in developing leaves, Tdy2 was most highly expressed in the vascular tissue. Comparative expression analysis with the vascular marker maize PINFORMED1a-yellow fluorescent protein confirmed that Tdy2 was expressed in developing vein tissues. To ascertain whether the defect in tdy2 leaves affected the movement of sucrose into the phloem or its long-distance transport, we performed radiolabeled and fluorescent dye tracer assays. The results showed that tdy2 yellow leaf regions were defective in phloem export but competent in long-distance transport. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy of tdy2 yellow leaf regions showed incomplete vascular differentiation and implicated a defect in cell-to-cell solute movement between phloem companion cells and sieve elements. The disruption of sucrose movement in the phloem in tdy2 mutants provides evidence that the Tdy2 callose synthase functions in vascular maturation and that the vascular defects result in impaired symplastic trafficking into the phloem translocation stream. PMID:22932757

  17. Oxidation of graphene 'bow tie' nanofuses for permanent, write-once-read-many data storage devices.

    PubMed

    Pearson, A C; Jamieson, S; Linford, M R; Lunt, B M; Davis, R C

    2013-04-01

    We have fabricated nanoscale fuses from CVD graphene sheets with a 'bow tie' geometry for write-once-read-many data storage applications. The fuses are programmed using thermal oxidation driven by Joule heating. Fuses that were 250 nm wide with 2.5 μm between contact pads were programmed with average voltages and powers of 4.9 V and 2.1 mW, respectively. The required voltages and powers decrease with decreasing fuse sizes. Graphene shows extreme chemical and electronic stability; fuses require temperatures of about 400 °C for oxidation, indicating that they are excellent candidates for permanent data storage. To further demonstrate this stability, fuses were subjected to applied biases in excess of typical read voltages; stable currents were observed when a voltage of 10 V was applied to the devices in the off state and 1 V in the on state for 90 h each. PMID:23478811

  18. Quantitative spectroscopy on individual wire, slot, bow-tie, rectangular, and square-shaped optical antennas.

    PubMed

    Husnik, Martin; Niegemann, Jens; Busch, Kurt; Wegener, Martin

    2013-11-15

    By using a recently introduced approach combining a focus-modulation technique with a common-path interferometer, we measure quantitatively the extinction, scattering, and absorption cross-section spectra of individual optical antennas. The experimental results on thin-wire antennas, slot antennas, bow-tie antennas, rectangular antennas, and square-shaped antennas resonating at around 1.4 μm wavelength are discussed. We find increased resonant scattering cross sections for the latter four antennas compared to the thin-wire antenna, both in absolute terms and relative to the absorption cross section. The square-shaped antenna's resonant extinction cross section approaches the limit of a coherent point dipole. However, the ratio of the resonant extinction cross section to the geometrical cross section of 38 is largest for the simple thin-wire antenna. PMID:24322083

  19. Public Response to Residential Grid-Tied PV Systems in Colorado: A Qualitative Market Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Farhar, B. C.; Buhrmann, J.

    1998-07-01

    The early adopters of residential grid-tied photovoltaics (PV) have complex motivations to pay today's costs, including altruistic, environmental, and financial reasons. Focused interviews were conducted with a self-selected purposive sample interested in purchasing 2-kW or 3-kW PV systems with an installed cost of $8,000 to $12,000. The sample tended to be men or married couples ranging in age from their early thirties to their mid-eighties; professionals, managers, or small business owners; relatively financially secure, with experience with energy efficiency and renewable energy. Product attributes they preferred were net metering, warranties, guarantees, utility financing, maintenance, an option to own or lease, a battery option, and an aesthetically pleasing system. Potential PV customers needed more information before making a purchase decision.

  20. Creosote released from railway-ties recycled and the sanitary risks.

    PubMed

    Zicari, Giuseppe; Allegro, Giuseppe; Russo, Domenico; Rivetti, Daniela; Soardo, Vincenzo; Cerrato, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Through the history of railways, wooden crossties impregnated with potentially hazardous creosote tar, have been used for years. There are six major classes of compounds in the creosote: aromatic hydrocarbons; tar acids/phenolics; tar bases/nitrogen-containing heterocycles; aromatic amines; sulfur-containing heterocycles; and oxygen-containing heterocycles. The creosote molecules applied in railway crossties can be released in the environment and they can bioaccumulate in animals and vegetables. Some constituents (benzo(a)pyrene and phenolics like benzene) are considered as being carcinogenic which renders the entire complex of creosote to be classified as potentially carcinogenic. After several decades of use the railway-ties are been recycled for varies uses like fences, stakes for agriculture and fruit production or bank protection. In this paper are examined some environmental and sanitary risks from wood impregnated with creosote reported in the literature. PMID:23743701