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1

Anomalous terahertz transmission in bow-tie plasmonic antenna apertures.  

PubMed

Arrays of subwavelength dipole bow-tie apertures are designed and characterized at terahertz frequencies. For an incident terahertz field perpendicular to the longer axis of the bow tie, a strong resonance enhancement, line narrowing, and a nonmonotonic frequency shift were observed with increasing length of the tapered bow-tie arms. Such characteristic behaviors primarily originate from localized surface plasmon resonances. In addition, with a decreasing aperture size, the contribution of localized plasmons becomes prominent due to an increase in plasmonic lifetime as the terahertz pulses strongly couple with the metallic surface surrounding the bow-tie apertures. PMID:21808352

Yang, Yuping; Singh, Ranjan; Zhang, Weili

2011-08-01

2

Relationship-Specific Closeness of Intergenerational Family TiesFindings from Evolutionary Psychology and Implications for Models of Cultural Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-generational cultural transmission is facilitated by affectional ties between cultural model and recipient. A theory of cultural transmission must therefore account for how and why affectional ties vary between different dyadic relationships. Findings on the tie strengths of several intergenerational kin dyads (grandparent- grandchild, grandparent-parent, aunt\\/uncle-niece\\/nephew) as rated by recipients of kin investment (adult grandchildren or nieces\\/nephews) are presented, based

Harald A. Euler; Sabine Hoier; Percy A. Rohde

2001-01-01

3

Relationship-Specific Closeness of Intergenerational Family Ties: Findings from Evolutionary Psychology and Implications for Models of Cultural Transmission.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined strengths of intergenerational kin dyads (grandparent-grandchild, grandparent-parent, aunt/uncle-niece-nephew) as rated by recipients of kin investment (adult grandchildren or nieces/nephews), noting that affectional ties between cultural model and recipient facilitates cross-generational cultural transmission. Relationship structures…

Euler, Harald A.; Hoier, Sabine; Rohde, Percy A.

2001-01-01

4

Structural failure analysis of 345 kV transmission line  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ice storm in Central Iowa on March 7, 1990, caused the domino failure of 69 H frame steel pole structures that were part of a 345 KV transmission line covering a distance of approximately 30.6 km (19 mi). This paper briefly documents the damage, and presents the nonlinear structural analyses performed on a portion of the above transmission line

S. Gupta; T. J. Wipf; F. Fanous; M. Baenziger; Y. H. Hahm

1994-01-01

5

Determination of Lightning Response of Transmission Lines by Means or Geometrical Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The voltages produced across the tower insulators of transmission lines struck by lightning can be determined both by measurements on geometrical models and by calculations. Measurements which have been made on geometrical models of the Ohio Valley Electric Corporation's (OVEC) 345-kv transmission towers agree well with the calculations of Lundholm, Finn, and Price.1 A simplified theory has been developed, using

F. A. Fisher; J. G. Anderson; J. H. Hagenguth

1959-01-01

6

Structural failure analysis of 345 kV transmission line  

SciTech Connect

An ice storm in Central Iowa on March 7, 1990, caused the domino failure of 69 H frame steel pole structures that were part of a 345 KV transmission line covering a distance of approximately 30.6 km (19 mi). This paper briefly documents the damage, and presents the nonlinear structural analyses performed on a portion of the above transmission line using the ETADS software, which is a structural finite element submodule of TL Workstation software. The analysis included a characterization of the likely storm loads and their application to the transmission systems. The methodology used in trying to simulate the sequence of events leading to the failure is also presented.

Gupta, S. (Tri State Engineering, New Martinsville, WV (United States)); Wipf, T.J.; Fanous, F.; Baeziger, M. (Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Civil and Construction Engineering Dept.); Hahm, Y.H. (Midwest Power, Des Moines, IA (United States))

1994-04-01

7

Development of 345-KV Capacitive-Graded Joint. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design of a 345-kV prefabricated capacitive-graded joint for oil-filled cables and the manufacture and testing of prototype joints are described. Tests on prototype No. 4 demonstrated the adequacy of the printed circuit design. It was not possible to ...

E. M. Allam

1980-01-01

8

Environmental Assessment for Central Power and Light Company`s proposed Military Highway-CFE tie 138/69-kV transmission line project Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Central Power and Light Company (CPL) intends to upgrade its existing transmission line ties with the Commision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) system in Mexico. CPL currently has a single 69-kilovolt (kV) transmission line in the Brownsville area which connects CPL`s system with the system of CFE. This existing line runs between the Brownsville Switching Station, located on Laredo Road in Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas, and an existing CFE 69-kV line at the Rusteberg Bend of the Rio Grande in Cameron County. Under current conditions of need, the existing 69-kV line does not possess sufficient capability to engage in appropriate power exchanges. Therefore, CPL is proposing to build a new line to link up with CFE. This proposed line would be a double-circuit line, which would (1) continue (on a slightly relocated route) the existing 69-kV tie from CPL`s Brownsville Switching Station to CFE`s facilities, and (2) add a 138-kV tie from the Military Highway Substation, located on Military Highway (US Highway 281), to CFE`s facilities. The proposed 138/69-kV line, which will be constructed and operated by CPL, will be built primarily on steel single-pole structures within an average 60-foot (ft) wide right-of-way (ROW). It will be approximately 6900--9200 ft (1.3--1.7 miles) in length, depending on the alternative route constructed.

Not Available

1992-04-01

9

Tree-Ties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Created to help students understand how plants were used for food, for medicine, and for arts and crafts among the Ojibwe (Chippewa) Indians, the game Tree-Ties combines earth and social sciences within a specific culture. The game requires mutual respect, understanding, and agreement to succeed. Sounding like the word "treaties", the title is a…

Gresczyk, Rick

10

Drum tie-down apparatus  

DOEpatents

A drum tie-down apparatus for securing drum-like containers in an upright position to a floor or platform of a transportation vehicle having spaced apart cargo tie-down points. The apparatus comprises a pair of cylindrical, hollow tube segments horizontally oriented and engageable with a drum lid adjacent opposite rim edges, flexible strap segments for connecting upper and lower central portions of the tube segments together across the drum lid and a pair of elongated flexible tie-down segments, one extending horizontally through each of the tube segments, the ends thereof being attached to said spaced apart tie-down points such that end portions of the pair of tie-down segments extend downwardly and radially outwardly from the tube segments to the tie-down points.

Morse, Harvey E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1984-01-01

11

Why do leaf-tying caterpillars abandon their leaf ties?  

PubMed Central

Leaf-tying caterpillars act as ecosystem engineers by building shelters between overlapping leaves, which are inhabited by other arthropods. Leaf-tiers have been observed to leave their ties and create new shelters (and thus additional microhabitats), but the ecological factors affecting shelter fidelity are poorly known. For this study, we explored the effects of resource limitation and occupant density on shelter fidelity and assessed the consequences of shelter abandonment. We first quantified the area of leaf material required for a caterpillar to fully develop for two of the most common leaf-tiers that feed on white oak, Quercus alba. On average, Psilocorsis spp. caterpillars consumed 21.65 ± 0.67 cm2 leaf material to complete development. We also measured the area of natural leaf ties found in a Maryland forest, to determine the distribution of resources available to caterpillars in situ. Of 158 natural leaf ties examined, 47% were too small to sustain an average Psilocorsis spp. caterpillar for the entirety of its development. We also manipulated caterpillar densities within experimental ties on potted trees to determine the effects of cohabitants on the likelihood of a caterpillar to leave its tie. We placed 1, 2, or 4 caterpillars in ties of a standard size and monitored the caterpillars twice daily to track their movement. In ties with more than one occupant, caterpillars showed a significantly greater propensity to leave their tie, and left sooner and at a faster rate than those in ties as single occupants. To understand the consequences of leaf tie abandonment, we observed caterpillars searching a tree for a site to build a shelter in the field. This is a risky behavior, as 17% of the caterpillars observed died while searching for a shelter site. Caterpillars that successfully built a shelter traveled 110 ± 20 cm and took 28 ± 7 min to find a suitable site to build a shelter. In conclusion, leaf-tying caterpillars must frequently abandon their leaf tie due to food limitation and interactions with other caterpillars, but this is a costly behavior.

Sliwinski, Michelle

2013-01-01

12

Lightning protection requirements of SFâ substation determined by hybrid simulator. [115\\/345 kv station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a hybrid computer simulation which can provide the type and quantity of data necessary for determining the behavior of lightning-caused surges traveling through substations is discussed. Results from a specific application on a 115-kV\\/345-kV station are presented. The results show that the simulation of SFâ substations during lightning-caused surges is ideally accomplished by hybrid computer. The quantity

J. D. Tranen; R. A. Hedin; J. J. Minnick; K. W. Priest

1977-01-01

13

Telescopes in Education (TIE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The collaborative Telescopes in Education (TIE) program, sponsored by NASA, lets students around the world operate a remotely controlled telescope and charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. Using a science-grade 24-inch reflecting telescope located at the Mount Wilson Observatory in of Southern California, a modem, and special software, students in the U.S., Australia, Canada, England, and Japan have learned about astronomy, astrophysics, and mathematics. With the purchase of The Sky: Remote Astronomy Software which controls the telescope, educators and students can reserve observation time on the telescope for any evening of the week lasting from one hour to an entire night. The website provides more information on how to obtain the software, system requirements, an online users guide, and current weather conditions on Mount Wilson. Unfortunately, the webcam didn't work at the time the site was reviewed, yet the online photo Gallery provides some lovely images taken using the CCD camera. The project also provides a large listing of other educational links, including one to another educational telescope in Australia, called Nanango.

14

Social ties and mental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally agreed that social ties play a beneficial role in the maintenance of psychological well-being. In this targeted\\u000a review, we highlight four sets of insights that emerge from the literature on social ties and mental health outcomes (defined\\u000a as stress reactions, psychological well-being, and psychological distress, including depressive symptoms and anxiety). First,\\u000a the pathways by which social networks

Ichiro Kawachi; Lisa F. Berkman

2001-01-01

15

Tie1-Tie2 interactions mediate functional differences between angiopoietin ligands  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The endothelial specific receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2, and the orphan receptor tyrosine kinase, Tie1, are essential for endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and survival during angiogenesis. Despite their considerable similarity, experiments with Tie1 or Tie2 deficient mice highlight distinct functions for these two receptors in vivo. However, Tie1 cooperates with Tie2 during Angiopoietin signaling, demonstrating a degree of functional overlap between the two receptor-systems. Tie2 is further unique among receptor tyrosine kinases with respect to its structurally homologous ligands. Angiopoietin-2 and -3 can function as agonists or antagonists depending upon the local environment, while Angiopoietin-1 and -4, are constitutive agonists. To address the role of Tie1 in Angiopoietin-mediated Tie2 signaling, and determine the basis for the unique behavior of the individual Angiopoietins, we used an in vivo FRET-based proximity assay to monitor Tie1 and Tie2 localization and association in the presence and absence of ligands. Here, we provide direct evidence for Tie1-Tie2 complex formation on the endothelial cell surface and identify molecular surface areas essential for receptor-receptor recognition. We further demonstrate that the Tie1-Tie2 interactions are dynamic, inhibitory, and differentially modulated by Angiopoietin-1 and -2, thereby providing a discrete molecular mechanism for the observed variations in Angiopoietin function. Based upon the available data, we propose a unified model for Angiopoietin-induced Tie2 signaling which highlights the essential role of Tie1 in vascular homeostasis.

Seegar, Tom C.M.; Eller, Becca; Tzvetkova-Robev, Dorothea; Kolev, Momchil V.; Henderson, Scott C.; Nikolov, Dimitar B.; Barton, William A.

2010-01-01

16

Managerial ties, absorptive capacity, and innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managerial ties—the boundary-spanning ties and interpersonal connections of top managers—contribute to a corporation’s innovativeness\\u000a in emerging economies because of the absence of market supporting institutions, transparent laws, and clear regulations. Moreover,\\u000a managerial ties are apt to interact with absorptive capacity to facilitate knowledge sharing and innovation. This paper examines\\u000a the joint influence of managerial ties and absorptive capacity in two

Shanxing Gao; Kai Xu; Jianjun Yang

2008-01-01

17

49 CFR 213.123 - Tie plates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Structure § 213.123 Tie plates. (a) In Classes 3 through...are in use there shall be tie plates under the running rails on...Classes 3 through 5 track no metal object which causes a concentrated...the bearing surface of the tie plate. This paragraph (b) is...

2012-10-01

18

49 CFR 213.123 - Tie plates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Structure § 213.123 Tie plates. (a) In Classes 3 through...are in use there shall be tie plates under the running rails on...Classes 3 through 5 track no metal object which causes a concentrated...the bearing surface of the tie plate. This paragraph (b) is...

2011-10-01

19

Weak Social Ties and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strength of social ties is seen to correlate negatively with economic growth, in time-series and country cross-section. The objective of this paper is to account for these correlations, and understand the role of social ties in economic development. In particular, it poses the question: under what circumstances, strong social ties constrain economic growth? I propose a model, where the

Jose Anchorena

20

Familial ankyloglossia (tongue-tie).  

PubMed

Ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) is a congenital anomaly with a prevalence of 4-5% and characterized by an abnormally short lingual frenulum. For unknown reasons the abnormality seems to be more common in males. The pathogenesis of ankyloglossia is not known. The author reports a family with isolated ankyloglossia inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. The identification of the defective gene(s) causing ankyloglossia might reveal novel information on the craniofacial embryogenesis and its disorders. PMID:17588677

Klockars, Tuomas

2007-06-22

21

Draft environmental impact statement for construction and operation of the proposed Bangor Hydro-Electric Company`s second 345-kV transmission tie line to New Brunswick  

SciTech Connect

This Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) was prepared by the US Department of Energy (US DOE). The proposed action is the issuance of Presidential Permit PP-89 by DOE to Bangor Hydro-Electric Company to construct and operate a new international transmission line interconnection to New Brunswick, Canada that would consist of an 83.8 mile (US portion), 345-kilovolt (kV) alternating current transmission line from the US-Canadian border at Baileyville, Maine to an existing substation at Orrington, Maine. The principal environmental impacts of the construction and operation of the transmission line would be incremental in nature and would include the conversion of forested uplands (mostly commercial timberlands) and wetlands to right-of-way (small trees, shrubs, and herbaceous vegetation). The proposed line would also result in localized minor to moderate visual impacts and would contribute a minor incremental increase in the exposure of some individuals to electromagnetic fields. This DEIS documents the purpose and need for the proposed action, describes the proposed action and alternatives considered and provides a comparison of the proposed and alternatives routes, and provides detailed information on analyses of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and alternatives, as well as mitigative measures to minimize impacts.

NONE

1993-10-01

22

Distinct roles of the receptor tyrosine kinases Tie1 and Tie2 in blood vessel formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

TIE-1 and Tie-2 define a new class of receptor tyrosine kinases that are specifically expressed in developing vascular endothelial cells. To study the functions of Tie-1 and Tie-2 during vascular endothelial cell growth and differentiation in vivo, targeted mutations of the genes in mice were introduced by homologous recombination. Embryos deficient in Tie-1 failed to establish structural integrity of vascular

Thomas N. Sato; Yuzuru Tozawa; Urban Deutsch; Karen Wolburg-Buchholz; Yuko Fujiwara; Maureen Gendron-Maguire; Thomas Gridley; Hartwig Wolburg; Werner Risau; Ying Qin

1995-01-01

23

A remotely activated SMA actuated naval tie-down system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this effort was to design and prototype on advanced tie down system for the restraint of M1A1 tanks on Naval Hovercrafts. The ties were required to restrain 35,000 lbs of tensile load, interface with current craft hardware and electrical systems, as well as provide increased ease of operation as compared to current ties. The new ties were designed to accommodate the force and displacement constraints of shape memory alloy actuators, the strength of support materials, shape limitations of the assembled system, and the power limitations of energy storage and transmission devices. These tasks included the design of numerical simulations, FEA models, and plastic rapid prototypes. The functional prototype utilizes wire based SMA actuators with superelastic spring actuated power-off re-tensioning. The system was designed to utilize energy stored in batteries released remotely via RF signals provided by COT transmitters and receivers. Switching was accomplished utilizing specially designed MOSFET arrays with provisions for PWM power modulation under full SMA contraction. The system was also designed to use advanced synthetic fiber webbing as tension materials to reduce overall system weight and size.

Shydo, Robert M., Jr.; Garcia, Ephrahim; Harris, Jason M.

2005-05-01

24

InGaAs-based bow-tie diode for spectroscopic terahertz imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suitability of InGaAs-based bow-tie diodes for a spectroscopic terahertz imaging is demonstrated by inspecting explosive simulators packed in a thick plastic container. The transmission images were obtained within the frequency range of 0.58-2.52 THz at room temperature using optimized bow-tie diode connection scheme. Content of sucrose and tartaric acid in the test samples was discriminated. Measured absorbance was found to be in a good correlation with Fourier spectroscopy data. Performance of room temperature THz imaging using the bow-tie diode was compared versus a commercial pyro-electric sensor.

Kašalynas, I.; Venckevi?ius, R.; Seliuta, D.; Grigelionis, I.; Valušis, G.

2011-12-01

25

REGULATED PROTEOLYTIC PROCESSING OF TIE1 MODULATES LIGAND RESPONSIVENESS OF THE RECEPTOR TYROSINE KINASE TIE2  

PubMed Central

Regulated ectodomain shedding followed by intramembrane proteolysis has recently been recognized as important in cell signaling and for degradation of several type I transmembrane proteins. The receptor tyrosine kinase Tie1 is known to undergo ectodomain cleavage generating a membrane tethered endodomain. Here we show Tie1 is a substrate for regulated intramembrane proteolysis. Following Tie1 ectodomain cleavage the newly formed 45 kDa endodomain undergoes additional proteolytic processing mediated by ?-secretase to generate an amino-terminally truncated 42 kDa fragment which is subsequently degraded by proteasomal activity. This sequential processing occurs constitutively and is stimulated by phorbol ester and vascular endothelial growth factor. To assess the biological significance of regulated Tie1 processing we analyzed its effects on angiopoietin signaling. Activation of ectodomain cleavage causes loss of phosphorylated Tie1 holoreceptor and generation of phosphorylated receptor fragments in the presence of COMP-Angiopoietin1. A key function of ?-secretase is in preventing accumulation of these phosphorylated fragments. We also find that regulated Tie1 processing modulates ligand responsiveness of the Tie-1-associated receptor Tie2. Activation of Tie1 ectodomain cleavage increases COMP-Angiopoietin1 activation of Tie2. This correlates with increased ability of Tie2 to bind ligand following shedding of the Tie1 extracellular domain. A similar enhancement of ligand activation of Tie2 is seen when Tie1 expression is suppressed by RNA interference. Together these data indicate that Tie1, via its extracellular domain, limits the ability of ligand to bind and activate Tie2. Furthermore the data suggests regulated processing of Tie1 may be an important mechanism for controlling signaling by Tie2.

Marron, Marie B; Singh, Harprit; Tahir, Tariq A; Kavumkal, Jais; Kim, Hak-Zoo; Koh, Gou Young; Brindle, Nicholas PJ

2008-01-01

26

The Relationship Between Discrimination and High-Risk Social Ties by Race/Ethnicity: Examining Social Pathways of HIV Risk.  

PubMed

High-risk social ties portend differences in opportunity for HIV exposures and may contribute to racial/ethnic disparities in HIV transmission. Discrimination may affect the formation of high-risk social ties and has not been explored as a possible explanation for these persistent disparities. Using data from injection and non-injection drug users, we examined the association between the number of high-risk sex and drug ties with discrimination due to race, drug use, and incarceration stratified by race/ethnicity. Negative binomial regression models were used. While blacks had significantly fewer injecting ties than Latinos and whites, blacks who reported racial discrimination compared to blacks who did not, had more sex and injecting ties. Latinos who reported drug use discrimination compared to Latinos who did not also had more sex ties. Latinos and whites who reported drug use discrimination had more injecting ties than Latinos and whites who did not. Discrimination is associated with high-risk social ties among all racial/ethnic groups. But, these data highlight different forms of discrimination within racial/ethnic group are associated with risky social ties. More research is needed to confirm these findings and further explore the association between various forms of discrimination and social ties that may help explain racial/ethnic disparities in HIV. PMID:23749458

Crawford, Natalie D; Galea, Sandro; Ford, Chandra L; Latkin, Carl; Link, Bruce G; Fuller, Crystal

2013-06-01

27

[Family ties and maintenance obligation].  

PubMed

Maintenance obligation is a question frequently addressed in gerontology as an elderly person prepares to enter an institution. Its implementation is a source of conflict within families as well as with professionals involved in these situations. This administrative process, generally long and complex, can shatter family ties and lengthen the time required to obtain support thereby delaying admission to the institution. To tackle these issues, professionals from the Paris Saint-Joseph hospital group have set up meetings bringing together social services, medical services and management representatives. These multi-disciplinary consultations have highlighted the need for management to work with the families of hospitalised patients to remind them of the maintenance obligation in a framework of mediation. PMID:22611896

Manteghetti, Michèle; Reznikoff, Valérie

28

Analysis of ICPP fuel storage rack inner tie and corner tie substructures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Finite element models were developed and analyses performed for the tie plate, inner tie block assembly, and corner tie block assembly of a 25 port fuel rack assembly designed for installation in Pool 1 of Building 666 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Pla...

M. E. Nitzel R. G. Rahl

1996-01-01

29

Pollution Abatement and Tied Foreign Aid  

Microsoft Academic Search

There exists in the literature a presumption that foreign aid (especially if it is tied) can be used effectively to reduce cross border pollution. Focussing on the interaction of private and governmental pollution abatement in the recipient country and tied foreign aid we identify three main reasons why the optimism of the literature may not be justified: (a) foreign aid

A. G. Schweinberger; A. D. Woodland

30

On the Nature, Modeling, and Neural Bases of Social Ties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the nature, formalization, and neural bases of (affective) social ties and discusses the relevance of ties for health economics. A social tie is defined as an affective weight attached by an individual to the well-being of another individual (?utility interdependence?). Ties can be positive or negative, and symmetric or asymmetric between individuals. Characteristic of a social tie,

Richard Ridderinkhof; Mirre Stallen

2008-01-01

31

Low Back Pain Tied to Flat Feet  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Low back pain tied to flat feet: study (*this news item ... 2014) Thursday, October 17, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Back Pain Foot Injuries and Disorders By Kathleen Raven NEW ...

32

Weedkillers Tied to Depression in Farmers  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Weedkillers tied to depression in farmers (*this news item will not be ... 2013) Friday, July 26, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Depression Pesticides By Kerry Grens NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - ...

33

Moon's Cycle Tied to Heart Surgery Outcomes  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Moon's Cycle Tied to Heart Surgery Outcomes: Study Patients who got a vessel repair during waning full moon fared better (*this news item will not be ...

34

Electronic Records Tied to Fewer Hospitalizations  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Electronic records tied to fewer hospitalizations (*this news item ... NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Switching from paper to electronic medical records at health clinics led to "modest ...

35

VEGF Induces Tie2 Shedding via a Phosphoinositide 3Kinase\\/Akt-Dependent Pathway to Modulate Tie2 Signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective—Tie2 and its ligands, the angiopoietins (Ang), are required for embryonic and postnatal angiogenesis. Previous studies have demonstrated that Tie2 is proteolytically cleaved, resulting in the production of a 75-kDa soluble receptor fragment (sTie2). We investigated mechanisms responsible for Tie2 shedding and its effects on Tie2 signaling and endothelial cellular responses. Methods and Results—sTie2 bound both Ang1 and Ang2 and

Clarence M. Findley; Melissa J. Cudmore; Asif Ahmed; Christopher D. Kontos

2010-01-01

36

Analysis of ICPP fuel storage rack inner tie and corner tie substructures  

SciTech Connect

Finite element models were developed and analyses performed for the tie plate, inner tie block assembly, and corner tie block assembly of a 25 port fuel rack assembly designed for installation in Pool 1 of Building 666 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. These models were specifically developed to investigate the adequacy of certain welds joining components of the fuel storage rack assembly. The work scope for the task was limited to an investigation of the stress levels in the subject subassemblies when subjected to seismic loads. Structural acceptance criteria used for the elastic calculations performed were as found in the overall rack design report as issued by the rack`s designer, Holtec International. Structural acceptance criteria used for the plastic calculations performed as part of this effort were as defined in Subsection NF and Appendix F of the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The results of the analyses will also apply to the 30 port fuel storage rack design that is also scheduled for installation in Pool 1 of ICPP 666. The results obtained from the analyses performed for this task indicate that the welds joining the inner tie block and corner tie block to the surrounding rack structure meet the acceptance criteria. Further, the structural members (plates and blocks) were also found to be within the allowable stress limits established by the acceptance criteria. The separate analysis performed on the inner tie plate confirmed the structural adequacy for both the inner tie plate, corner tie plate, and tie block bolts. The analysis results verified that the inner tie and corner tie block should be capable of transferring the expected seismic load without structural failure.

Nitzel, M.E.; Rahl, R.G.

1996-01-01

37

The navigability of strong ties: Small worlds, tie strength, and network topology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine data on and models of small world properties and parameters of social networks. Our focus, on tie -strength, multilevel networks and searchability in strong -tie social networks, allows us to extend some of the questions and findings of recent research and the fit of small world models to sociological and anthropological data on human communities. We offer a

Douglas R. White; Michael Houseman

2002-01-01

38

TIE1 and TIE2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Inversely Regulate Embryonic Angiogenesis by the Mechanism of Intussusceptive Microvascular Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

As shown previously, TIE1 and TIE2 receptor tyrosine kinases are specifically expressed in endothelial cells during embryonic angiogenesis. A detailed analysis of the vascular malformations of homozygous mice for a targeting mutation of both receptors was performed at the histological and cellular level. The data demonstrate that the TIE1 and TIE2 receptor inversely and concomitantly mediate interactions between endothelial cells

Sybill Patan

1998-01-01

39

Angiopoietin\\/Tie2 Signaling Regulates Tumor Angiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tie2 was identified as a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) expressed principally on vascular endothelium. Disrupting Tie2 function\\u000a in mice resulted in embryonic lethality with defects in embryonic vasculature. Multiple ligands for Tie2, named angiopoietin\\u000a (Ang), have been identified. Ang1, an agonist, stimulates Tie2 phosphorylation in endothelial cells (EC). Ang2 has been considered\\u000a to be an antagonist of Tie2 that blocks

Hanako Kobayashi; Laura M. DeBusk; P. Charles Lin

40

Inferring Tie Strength from Online Directed Behavior  

PubMed Central

Some social connections are stronger than others. People have not only friends, but also best friends. Social scientists have long recognized this characteristic of social connections and researchers frequently use the term tie strength to refer to this concept. We used online interaction data (specifically, Facebook interactions) to successfully identify real-world strong ties. Ground truth was established by asking users themselves to name their closest friends in real life. We found the frequency of online interaction was diagnostic of strong ties, and interaction frequency was much more useful diagnostically than were attributes of the user or the user’s friends. More private communications (messages) were not necessarily more informative than public communications (comments, wall posts, and other interactions).

Jones, Jason J.; Settle, Jaime E.; Bond, Robert M.; Fariss, Christopher J.; Marlow, Cameron; Fowler, James H.

2013-01-01

41

Heterogeneity of Tie2 Expression in Tumor Microcirculation  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the expression of the Tie2/Tek tyrosine kinase receptor in tumor blood vessels, we examined Tie2lacZ+/RAG1? mice. There was considerable heterogeneity (Tie2-negative, Tie2-positive, or Tie2-composite blood vessels) in subcutaneous xenografts of human colorectal carcinoma (HCT116; 97.5% Tie2-positive vessels) versus human melanoma (WM115; 75.9% Tie2-positive vessels). Similar patterns of Tie2 expression occurred in abdominal metastases derived from the same cell lines. Immunostaining for endothelial markers and Tie2 revealed that endogenous protein levels corresponded with transgene activity. Endothelial cells were confirmed to be of mouse origin through triple immunofluorescence staining with mouse antiserum to human nuclei, isolectin GS-IB4, and anti-Tie2. Similar Tie2 heterogeneity was observed in clinical specimens from a variety of human cancers, including malignant melanoma and colorectal carcinoma. We also examined the effect of Tek-Delta Fc anti-angiogenic therapy on tumor growth and Tie2 expression patterns in HCT116 and WM115 subcutaneous xenografts. Tek-Delta induced extensive tumor regression in HCT116 tumors and concomitant reductions in Tie2-expressing blood vessels. However, no significant responses were seen in Tek-Delta-treated WM115 tumors. Thus, vascular heterogeneity of Tie2 expression is cancer-type specific, suggesting that the tumor microenvironment and/or direct cancer cell interactions influence Tie2 endothelial expression.

Fathers, Kelly E.; Stone, Courtney M.; Minhas, Kanwal; Marriott, Jason J.A.; Greenwood, Janice D.; Dumont, Daniel J.; Coomber, Brenda L.

2005-01-01

42

High tie versus low tie of the inferior mesenteric artery: a protocol for a systematic review  

PubMed Central

In anterior resection of rectum, the section level of inferior mesenteric artery is still subject of controversy between the advocates of high and low tie. The low tie is the division and ligation to the branching of the left colic artery and the high tie is the division and ligation at its origin at the aorta. We intend to assess current scientific evidence in literature and to establish the differences comparing technique, anatomy and physiology. The aim of this protocol is to achieve a meta-analysis that tests safety and feasibility of the two procedures with several types of outcome measures.

2011-01-01

43

Tying a molecular knot with optical tweezers  

Microsoft Academic Search

, but the analysis of the buckled shape was complicated. Here we report the continuous control of the radius of curvature of a molecular strand by tying a knot in it, using optical tweezers to manipulate the strand's ends. We find that actin filaments break at the knot when the knot diameter falls below 0.4 mm. The pulling force at

Yasuharu Arai; Ryohei Yasuda; Ken-ichirou Akashi; Yoshie Harada; Hidetake Miyata; Kazuhiko Kinosita Jr; Hiroyasu Itoh

1999-01-01

44

Tied mixtures in the Lincoln robust CSR  

Microsoft Academic Search

HMM recognizers using either a single Gaussian or a Gaussian mixture per state have been shown to work fairly well for 1000-word vocabulary continuous speech recognition. However, the large number of Gaussians required to cover the entire English language makes these systems unwieldy for large vocabulary tasks. Tied mixtures offer a more compact way of representing the observation pdf's. We

Douglas B. Paul

1989-01-01

45

Do Patriotic Ties Limit Global Justice Duties?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some theorists who accept the existence of global justice duties to alleviate the condition of distant needy strangers hold that these duties are significantly constrained by special ties to fellow countrymen. The “patriotic priority thesis” holds that morality requires the members of each nation-state to give priority to helping needy fellow compatriots over more needy distant strangers. Three arguments for

Richard Arneson

46

Do Patriotic Ties Limit Global Justice Duties?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some theorists who accept the existence of global justice duties to alleviate the condition of distant needy strangers hold that these duties are significantly constrained by special ties to fellow countrymen. The “patriotic priority thesis” holds that morality requires the members of each nation-state to give priority to helping needy fellow compatriots over more needy distant strangers. Three arguments for

Richard J. Arneson

2005-01-01

47

Developing Closer Ties with the Pharmaceutical Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The need for research administrators to understand and appreciate the pharmaceutical industry's research and development environment is discussed, using examples from Canada. The research administrator's role in the technology transfer process and implications for faculty are examined. Ways to build closer school-industry ties are discussed.…

Reid, Gregor; Hoddinott, Susan

1991-01-01

48

Predicting tie strength with social media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social media treats all users the same: trusted friend or total stranger, with little or nothing in between. In reality, rela- tionships fall everywhere along this spectrum, a topic social science has investigated for decades under the theme of tie strength. Our work bridges this gap between theory and practice. In this paper, we present a predictive model that maps

Eric Gilbert; Karrie Karahalios

2009-01-01

49

Parents' ADHD Goals Tied to Treatment Choices  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Parents' ADHD goals tied to treatment choices: study (*this news ... 2013) Sunday, September 1, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Parenting By Genevra Pittman NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - ...

50

The Strength of Weak Terrorist Ties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current age of technology, mass communication, and globalization makes networks analysis an especially useful tool for understanding cell-based terrorism. Some concepts from traditional networks analysis may be especially relevant. The Strength of Weak Ties hypothesis (SWT) is particularly promising and will be used here to demonstrate the usability of traditional networks analysis for studying modern terrorism. The findings suggest

Jonathan Kennedy; Gabriel Weimann

2011-01-01

51

3. VIEW OF NORTHWEST CORNER OF LITTLE FALLS TIE LINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW OF NORTHWEST CORNER OF LITTLE FALLS TIE LINE TOWER NO. 23, STANDARD PEAK TOWER. LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Little Falls Tie Line Towers, Near Little Dam Falls on Spokane River, Wellpinit, Stevens County, WA

52

2. VIEW OF WEST ELEVATION OF LITTLE FALLS TIE LINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW OF WEST ELEVATION OF LITTLE FALLS TIE LINE TOWER NO. 23, OSPREY NEST ON TOWER TOP. LOOKING EAST - Little Falls Tie Line Towers, Near Little Dam Falls on Spokane River, Wellpinit, Stevens County, WA

53

4. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST CORNER OF LITTLE FALLS TIE LINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST CORNER OF LITTLE FALLS TIE LINE TOWER NO. 41, OSPREY NEST ON TOWER TOP. LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Little Falls Tie Line Towers, Near Little Dam Falls on Spokane River, Wellpinit, Stevens County, WA

54

Tie-line bias prioritized energy control  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews relevant operating objectives established by the North American Electric Reliability Council, NERC. It shows that the present definition for Area Control Error (ACE) is somewhat subjective. It further argues that unconditional reaction to small ACE does not optimize interconnection objectives. This paper evolves tie-line bias control objectives into a tie-Line Bias Prioritized Energy Control Philosophy. It argues that utilization of this philosophy would enhance maintenance of frequency, reduce inadvertent energy accumulations and time error excursions, simultaneously increasing benefits of interconnected operation and their equitable distribution to member areas. The final details and tuning for a comprehensive AGC wedge control steering algorithm are being developed at American Electric Power (AEP).

Jaleeli, N.; VanSlyck, L.S. [American Electric Power Service Corp., Columbus, OH (United States)

1995-02-01

55

Tying knots: lending to win equity underwriting business  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the practice of “tying,” which occurs when an underwriter lends to an issuer around the time of a public securities offering. We examine whether there are efficiencies from tying lending and underwriting which lead to benefits for issuers and underwriters. We find evidence consistent with tying occurring for issues when there are informational economies of scope from

Steven Drucker; Manju Puri

2004-01-01

56

Impact of network ties on change in police agency practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Organizational research has suggested that network ties influence adoption of innovations and other organizational behavior. This paper aims to study the impact of network ties on change in police agency practices in a sample of city and county police agencies for which Weiss provided data on informal communication ties between agency planners. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The authors analyzed change

Aki Roberts; John M. Roberts Jr

2009-01-01

57

Structural Predictors of Tie Formation in Twitter: Transitivity and Mutuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

New ties are often formed between people who already have friends in common. Though the social s ciences have addressed the effects of existing structural patter ns on the formation of new ties, less attention has been give n to ties in directed networks. Drawing from the microblogging service Twitter, we conducted a web-based experiment in which subjects were asked

Scott A. Golder; Sarita Yardi

2010-01-01

58

Failure Mode and Effect Analysis of Concrete Ties inorth America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: A failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) was applied to improve the design of concrete ties in ballasted track for North American heavy haul applications. A literature review was conducted on concrete tie failure modes, failure effects, and failure causes. A survey of railroads and transit authorities in North America provided a ranking of the most critical concrete tie

John C. Zeman; J. Riley Edwards; Christopher P. L. Barkan; David A. Lange

59

Social Ties, Knowledge Spillovers and Regional Convergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We take the Fujita & Thisse (2003) growth-cum-geography model to investigate the implications of seeing social ties as an important reason for the generation of knowledge. Moreover, we model migration as an important channel through which the distance decay effect of cross-regional knowledge spillovers materialize. Our results show that in such a setting the full agglomeration of high-skilled workers that

Albert de Vaal; Tom Gosens

2010-01-01

60

Broadband millimeter-wave GaAs transmitters and receivers using planar bow-tie antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report broadband monolithic transmitters and receivers IC's for mm-wave electromagnetic measurements. The IC's use nonlinear transmission lines (NLTL) and sampling circuits as picosecond pulse generators and detectors. The pulses are radiated and received by planar monolithic bow-tie antennas, collimated with silicon substrate lenses and off-axis parabolic reflectors. Through Fourier transformation of the received pulse, 30-250 GHz free space gain-frequency

Y. Konishi; M. Kamegawa; M. Case; R. Yu; M. J. W. Rodwell; R. A. York; D. B. Rutledge

1992-01-01

61

Zebrafish Tie-2 shares a redundant role with Tie-1 in heart development and regulates vessel integrity  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Tie-2 is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family and is required for vascular remodeling and maintenance of mammalian vessel integrity. A number of mutations in the human TIE2 gene have been identified in patients suffering from cutaneomucosal venous malformations and ventricular septal defects. How exactly Tie-2 signaling pathways play different roles in both vascular development and vascular stability is unknown. We have generated a zebrafish line carrying a stop mutation in the kinase domain of the Tie-2 receptor. Mutant embryos lack Tie-2 protein, but do not display any defect in heart and vessel development. Simultaneous loss of Tie-1 and Tie-2, however, leads to a cardiac phenotype. Our study shows that Tie-1 and Tie-2 are not required for early heart development, yet they have redundant roles for the maintenance of endocardial-myocardial connection in later stages. Tie-2 and its ligand Angiopoietin-1 have also been reported to play an important role in vessel stability. We used atorvastatin and simvastatin, drugs that cause bleeding in wild-type zebrafish larvae, to challenge vessel stability in tie-2 mutants. Interestingly, recent clinical studies have reported hemorrhagic stroke as a side effect of atorvastatin treatment. Exposure of embryos to statins revealed that tie-2 mutants are significantly protected from statin-induced bleeding. Furthermore, tie-2 mutants became less resistant to bleeding after VE-cadherin knockdown. Taken together, these data show that atorvastatin affects vessel stability through Tie-2, and that VE-cadherin and Tie-2 act in concert to allow vessel remodeling while playing a role in vessel stability. Our study introduces an additional vertebrate model to study in vivo the function of Tie-2 in development and disease.

Gjini, Evisa; Hekking, Liesbeth H.; Kuchler, Axel; Saharinen, Pipsa; Wienholds, Erno; Post, Jan-Andries; Alitalo, Kari; Schulte-Merker, Stefan

2011-01-01

62

Crystal Structures of the Tie2 Receptor Ectodomain and the Angiopoietin-2-Tie2 Complex  

SciTech Connect

The Tie receptor tyrosine kinases and their angiopoietin (Ang) ligands play central roles in developmental and tumor-induced angiogenesis. Here we present the crystal structures of the Tie2 ligand-binding region alone and in complex with Ang2. In contrast to prediction, Tie2 contains not two but three immunoglobulin (Ig) domains, which fold together with the three epidermal growth factor domains into a compact, arrowhead-shaped structure. Ang2 binds at the tip of the arrowhead utilizing a lock-and-key mode of ligand recognition--unique for a receptor kinase--where two complementary surfaces interact with each other with no domain rearrangements and little conformational change in either molecule. Ang2-Tie2 recognition is similar to antibody-protein antigen recognition, including the location of the ligand-binding site within the Ig fold. Analysis of the structures and structure-based mutagenesis provide insight into the mechanism of receptor activation and support the hypothesis that all angiopoietins interact with Tie2 in a structurally similar manner.

Barton,W.; Tzvetkova-Robev, D.; Miranda, E.; Kolev, M.; Rajashankar, K.; Himanen, J.; Nikolov, D.

2006-01-01

63

Tie2 is tied at the cell-cell contacts and to extracellular matrix by Angiopoietin-1  

PubMed Central

Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) binds to and activates Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinase. Ang1-Tie2 signal has been proposed to exhibit two opposite roles in the controlling blood vessels. One is vascular stabilization and the other is vascular angiogenesis. There has been no answer to the question as to how Tie2 induces two opposite responses to the same ligand. Our group and Dr. Alitalo's group have demonstrated that trans-associated Tie2 at cell-cell contacts and extracellular matrix (ECM)-anchored Tie2 play distinct roles in the endothelial cells. The complex formation depends on the presence or absence of cell-cell adhesion. Here, we review how Ang1-Tie2 signal regulates vascular maintenance and angiogenesis. We further point to the unanswered questions that must be clarified to extend our knowledge of vascular biology and to progress basic knowledge to the treatment of the diseases in which Ang1-Tie2-mediated signal is central.

Fukuhara, Shigetomo; Sako, Keisuke; Noda, Kazuomi; Nagao, Kaori; Miura, Koichi

2009-01-01

64

Migrant networks and international migration: testing weak ties.  

PubMed

This article examines the role of migrant social networks in international migration and extends prior research by testing the strength of tie theory, decomposing networks by sources and resources, and disentangling network effects from complementary explanations. Nearly all previous empirical research has ignored friendship ties and has largely neglected extended-family ties. Using longitudinal data from the Migration between Africa and Europe project collected in Africa (Senegal) and Europe (France, Italy, and Spain), this article tests the robustness of network theory-and in particular, the role of weak ties-on first-time migration between Senegal and Europe. Discrete-time hazard model results confirm that weak ties are important and that network influences appear to be gendered, but they do not uphold the contention in previous literature that strong ties are more important than weak ties for male and female migration. Indeed, weak ties play an especially important role in male migration. In terms of network resources, having more resources as a result of strong ties appears to dampen overall migration, while having more resources as a result of weaker ties appears to stimulate male migration. Finally, the diversity of resources has varied effects for male and female migration. PMID:23703222

Liu, Mao-Mei

2013-08-01

65

Expression of angiopoietin-TIE system components in angiosarcoma.  

PubMed

Angiosarcoma is an aggressive malignancy of endothelial differentiation. Potential roles of the endothelial angiopoietin-tunica interna endothelial cell kinase (ANGPT-TIE) system in angiosarcoma diagnosis, pathogenesis, prognosis and treatment are undefined. To examine the expression and prognostic significance of angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, TIE1 and TEK (TIE2) proteins in angiosarcoma, we immunohistochemically evaluated clinically annotated human angiosarcoma samples. Correlations of protein expression with overall survival and pathological features were explored. The cohort included 51 patients diagnosed with angiosarcoma at the age of 30-86 years (median 67). The 5-year overall survival was 45% with a median of 26 months. Moderate to strong expression of angiopoietin-1, TIE1 and TEK (TIE2) was identified in the majority of angiosarcomas and moderate to strong expression of angiopoietin-2 was observed in 42% of angiosarcomas. Increased angiopoietin-1 expression correlated with improved survival. Non-significant trends toward longer survival were also observed with increased TIE1 and TEK (TIE2) expression. Increased expression of angiopoietin-2, TIE1 and TEK (TIE2) was associated with vasoformative architecture. No differences in expression of these proteins were observed when patients were segregated by age, gender, presence or absence of metastases at diagnosis, primary tumor location, radiation association or the presence of necrosis. We conclude that components of the ANGPT-TIE system are commonly expressed in angiosarcomas. Reduced expression of these proteins is associated with non-vasoformative and clinically more aggressive lesions. PMID:23558570

Buehler, Darya; Rush, Patrick; Hasenstein, Jason R; Rice, Stephanie R; Hafez, Gholam Reza; Longley, B Jack; Kozak, Kevin R

2013-04-05

66

Tie - an Accessory Fashion Detail or a Symbol?  

PubMed Central

Aim The first aim of this study was to establish the frequency of wearing a tie or business neckerchief on different occasions and in relation to age and educational level. The second aim was to establish whether men who frequently wear a tie were attributed certain characteristics more often than men who rarely wear a tie and to establish whether there were differences in the attribution of these characteristics according to sex, age, educational level, and the frequency of wearing a tie. Method Data were collected in 2005 by a method of face to face interview on a national representative sample (n?=?1007). Participants estimated how often they wore a tie or business neckerchief on 9 different occasions. They also estimated whether each of 14 characteristics was more pronounced in men who frequently wear a tie. Results Tie was most frequently worn on festive and formal occasions, such as weddings and festive gatherings, and least frequently on family gatherings and when traveling. On all occasions, tie was more often worn by men of higher educational level and of older and middle age. A relatively small proportion of Croatian citizens based their conclusions on men’s characteristics on the frequency of wearing a tie. Men who frequently wear a tie were relatively most often attributed the characteristics of ambition, politeness, and respectability, with significant differences found between persons who attributed these characteristics according to sex, age, educational level, and the frequency of wearing a tie by the participants themselves. Conclusion Wearing a tie or neckerchief is an exception rather than a rule for most of the Croatian population, and is associated only with specific, primarily festive and formal occasions. Such use of the tie suggests that people adapt their style of clothing to the expectations of others and use it as a specific symbol of the occasion.

Sakic, Vlado; Franc, Renata; Ivicic, Ines; Maricic, Jelena

2007-01-01

67

The Best of Ties, the Worst of Ties: Close, Problematic, and Ambivalent Social Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study builds on research addressing intergenerational ambivalence by considering emotional ambivalence toward the wider social network. Men and women ages 13 to 99 (N=187) completed diagrams of their close and problematic social relationships. Social ties were classified as solely close, solely problematic, or ambivalent, based on network…

Fingerman, Karen L.; Hay, Elizabeth L.; Birditt, Kira S.

2004-01-01

68

Strong Ties, Weak Ties, and Human Capital: Latino Immigrant Employment outside the Enclave  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on the role of social ties and human capital in the integration of Latino immigrants into the local economy. This analysis extends earlier research by focusing on more rural contexts with limited labor-market opportunities and less access to social resources provided by coethnics. We reconsider conclusions of previous studies by…

Pfeffer, Max J.; Parra, Pilar A.

2009-01-01

69

Knot-tying habits, tier handedness, and experience.  

PubMed

Previous research concerning tier handedness, experience and the configuration of simple, habitual knots has been scant and conflicting. Survey data were collected from 21 disparate groups comprising 562 respondents in total. Regardless of experience, respondents tied both Granny and Reef Knots. Dextral tying was dominated by S knots. Left-handers tied Z knots more frequently than right-handers. However, the frequency of S and Z knots relative to tier hand dominance, which is not binary, occurred on a continuum. Averaging all survey tasks, more than 70% of knots tied by dextrals were S, whereas only 56% of those tied by sinistrals were S. These percentages varied somewhat according to specific tying tasks and the number of working ends. Furthermore, tiers' shoelace and parcel knots were not always identical, and a ranked pattern in parcel and shoelace knots was revealed. The examination of habitual knots could benefit criminal investigations. PMID:20487158

Chisnall, Robert C

2010-06-25

70

Failure of expansion joint tie rods -- Impact on bellows integrity  

SciTech Connect

Expansion joints are used in piping systems to accomodate pipe deflections during service and to facilitate fitup. Often, tie rods are employed to limit the range of axial deflection. Additional restraint against excessive displacement can be provided by the surrounding pipe and associated supports. This paper presents a methodology that was employed to estimate the consequences of tie rod failure. Of particular interest is whether tie rod failure can lead to sufficient displacement as to cause bellows rupture.

Daugherty, W.L.; Miller, R.F.

1992-01-01

71

Failure of expansion joint tie rods -- Impact on bellows integrity  

SciTech Connect

Expansion joints are used in piping systems to accomodate pipe deflections during service and to facilitate fitup. Often, tie rods are employed to limit the range of axial deflection. Additional restraint against excessive displacement can be provided by the surrounding pipe and associated supports. This paper presents a methodology that was employed to estimate the consequences of tie rod failure. Of particular interest is whether tie rod failure can lead to sufficient displacement as to cause bellows rupture.

Daugherty, W.L.; Miller, R.F.

1992-12-31

72

A study of cross-tie domain walls in cobalt using small-aperture Foucault imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two types of cross-tie domain wall seen in a cobalt film have been studied by Foucault imaging in the transmission electron microscope. The images are taken with a contrast-forming aperture that subtends a smaller angle than the angular deflections of the electron beam introduced by the magnetization in the sample. The small-aperture Foucault technique is implemented using lens settings that produce high magnification diffraction patterns and a television camera is used to improve the limited image magnifications that are associated with this operating mode. With a small aperture the magnetic induction vector can be assigned with greater accuracy to the bright regions in the Foucault image, and the real-space origins of diffraction features are easy to identify. For the two different types of cross-tie domain wall maps of the magnetic induction are constructed from a series of Foucault images, and diffraction streaks are identified as originating from the domain wall.

Jakubovics, J. P.; Daykin, A. C.; Kim, J. D.

1996-02-01

73

Delayed ettringite formation in Swedish concrete railroad ties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A petrographic examination of cracked Swedish concrete railroad ties identified delayed ettringite formation (DEF) as the damaging mechanism. This was unexpected because the concrete railroad ties were steam-cured with a maximum concrete temperature below 60 °C.The consensus in the published literature is that DEF only occurs in concrete subjected to heat curing above 70 °C. However, DEF is not only

Sadananda Sahu; Niels Thaulow

2004-01-01

74

T.I.E.: Integrating Training, Industry and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the author's comments at the Training, Industry, Education (T.I.E.) Conference held in Chicago in 1985. The comments cover such areas as relationships among industry, training, and education goals in a correctional setting; planning and implementation of the T.I.E. model; and staff training for the model. (CH)

Coffey, Osa D.

1986-01-01

75

Family ties, incentives and development: a model of coerced altruism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the effects of family ties on the incentives for production of effort, where family ties are defined as a mixture of true and coerced altruism between family members. We model families as pairs of siblings. Each sibling exerts effort in order to obtain output under uncertainty. A social norm dictates that a sibling with a high output must

Ingela Alger; Jörgen W. Weibull

2007-01-01

76

Novel knot tying technique for robot-assisted surgery.  

PubMed

Robot-assisted surgery has seen significant advancements in recent years, with dedicated training opportunities to acquire adequate skills. With improved degree of rotation and movement offered by the robot arm, newer techniques of knot tying need to be developed. Here we present a novel method of knot tying to help place a secure knot, especially with short suture length. PMID:22892267

Guru, Khurshid A; Sheikh, Mohd Raashid; Raza, Syed J; Stegemann, Andrew P; Nyquist, John

2012-08-01

77

Impact of Social Ties on Open Source Project Team Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we empirically examined the role of social ties in OSSD team formation and developer joining behavior. We find that the existence and the amount of prior social relations in the network do increase the probability of an OSS project to attract more developers. Interestingly, for projects without preexisting social ties, developers tend to join the project initiated

Jungpil Hahn; Jae Yoon Moon; Chen Zhang

2006-01-01

78

Temporal interpersonal emotion systems: the "TIES" that form relationships.  

PubMed

Emotion is often framed as an intrapersonal system comprised of subcomponents such as experience, behavior, and physiology that interact over time to give rise to emotional states. What is missing is that many emotions occur in the context of social interaction or ongoing relationships. When this happens, the result can be conceptualized as a temporal interpersonal emotion system (TIES) in which the subcomponents of emotion interact not only within the individual but across the partners as well. The present review (a) suggests that TIES can be understood in terms of the characteristics of dynamic systems, (b) reviews examples from diverse research that has investigated characteristics of TIES, (c) attempts to clarify the overlapping terms that have been used to refer to those characteristics by mapping them to the statistical, mathematical, and graphical models that have been used to represent TIES, and (d) offers pragmatic advice for analyzing TIES data. PMID:21693670

Butler, Emily A

2011-06-21

79

Grid-tied PV battery systems.  

SciTech Connect

Grid tied PV energy smoothing was implemented by using a valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery as a temporary energy storage device to both charge and discharge as required to smooth the inverter energy output from the PV array. Inverter output was controlled by the average solar irradiance over the previous 1h time interval. On a clear day the solar irradiance power curve is offset by about 1h, while on a variable cloudy day the inverter output power curve will be smoothed based on the average solar irradiance. Test results demonstrate that this smoothing algorithm works very well. Battery state of charge was more difficult to manage because of the variable system inefficiencies. Testing continued for 30-days and established consistent operational performance for extended periods of time under a wide variety of resource conditions. Both battery technologies from Exide (Absolyte) and East Penn (ALABC Advanced) proved to cycle well at a Partial state of charge over the time interval tested.

Barrett, Keith Phillip; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Hund, Thomas D.

2010-09-01

80

Local Ties at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geodetic space techniques VLBI, SLR and GNSS are realized at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell since several decades. The space observations are accompanied by an extensive local survey at more or less regular intervals. Beside local tie vectors, which are required for the combination of the different space geodetic techniques, the local survey provides evidence of the long term stability of the geodetic reference points defining the ITRF. The analysis of the different survey campaigns covering a time span of 24 years and the big number of geodetic markers allow a reliable identification of instable pillars and ground markers, while the reference points of the space geodetic techniques are considered as stable. One observation pillar, being equipped with a tiltmeter, allows conclusions concerning the long term tilt behavior, which is affected by hydrological processes. A footprint network of 5 permanent GPS stations being installed at distances between 7 and 20 km supplement the local survey and document the geological stability in the vicinity of the observatory. In addition this paper presents different techniques of determining the invariant reference points of the VLBI and SLR telescopes, which are usually not directly accessible.

Maehler, Swetlana; Schade, Christian; Kluegel, Thomas

2010-05-01

81

Grid tied PV system energy smoothing.  

SciTech Connect

Grid-tied PV energy smoothing was implemented by using a valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery as a temporary energy storage device to both charge and discharge as required to smooth the inverter energy output from the PV array. Inverter output was controlled by the average solar irradiance over the previous 1h time interval. On a clear day the solar irradiance power curve is offset by about 1h, while on a variable cloudy day the inverter output power curve will be smoothed based on the average solar irradiance. Test results demonstrate that this smoothing algorithm works very well. Battery state of charge was more difficult to manage because of the variable system inefficiencies. Testing continued for 30-days and established consistent operational performance for extended periods of time under a wide variety of resource conditions. Both battery technologies from Exide (Absolyte) and East Penn (Advanced Valve Regulated Lead-Acid) proved to cycle well at a partial state of charge over the time interval tested.

Barrett, Keith Phillip; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Hund, Thomas D.

2010-06-01

82

Broadband millimeter-wave GaAs transmitters and receivers using planar bow-tie antennas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report broadband monolithic transmitters and receivers IC's for mm-wave electromagnetic measurements. The IC's use nonlinear transmission lines (NLTL) and sampling circuits as picosecond pulse generators and detectors. The pulses are radiated and received by planar monolithic bow-tie antennas, collimated with silicon substrate lenses and off-axis parabolic reflectors. Through Fourier transformation of the received pulse, 30-250 GHz free space gain-frequency measurements are demonstrated with an accuracy approximately = 0.17 dB, RMS.

Konishi, Y.; Kamegawa, M.; Case, M.; Yu, R.; Rodwell, M. J. W.; York, R. A.; Rutledge, D. B.

83

Endoscopic Suturing and Knot Tying: Theory Into Practice  

PubMed Central

Objective To advance modern surgical techniques of endoscopic knot tying, encompassing a new appreciation of knot-tying theory and the application of second-generation, purpose-designed instruments. Summary Background Data During open surgery, surgeons automatically create the surgical half-hitch by using either instrument or hand/finger knot-tying methods (figure 4). Each of these methods, which are mirror images of each other, forms the same result, the half-hitch. Two opposing half-hitches are needed to form a square knot. There are many ways for new-generation instruments to create a secure square knot during endoscopic surgery. An overview of the current endoscopic knot-tying methods is presented. Methods The author presents a theoretical analysis of square knot-tying techniques as applied during instrument and hand/finger movements. The application of a mirror-image concept was considered in the analysis of these two contrasting methods. Results There are 12 ways to create a square knot, some of which have previously not been described or needed in open surgery. Some of these methods have particular application in endoscopic surgery. Conclusions A new understanding of knot-tying theory has been developed, with innovative methods being defined for tissue approximation during endoscopic surgery. These ergonomic, efficient, and contrasting methods of knot tying are described using second-generation endoscopic instruments. The new techniques have direct and broad application in many fields of minimally invasive surgery.

Murphy, Donald L.

2001-01-01

84

Redoable Tie-Over Dressing Using Multiple Loop Silk Threads  

PubMed Central

After skin grafting, to prevent hematoma or seroma collection at the graft site, a tie-over dressing has been commonly used. However, although the conventional tie-over dressing by suture is a useful method for securing a graft site, refixation is difficult when repeated tie-over dressing is needed. Therefore, we recommend a redoable tie-over dressing technique with multiple loops threads and connecting silk threads. After the raw surface of each of our cases was covered with a skin graft, multiple loop silk thread attached with nylon at the skin graft margin. We applied the ointment gauze and wet cotton/fluffy gauze over the skin graft, then fixed the dressing by connecting cross-counter multiple loop thread with connecting silk threads. When we opened the tie-over dressing by cutting the connecting silk threads, we repeated the tie-over dressing with the same method. The skin graft was taken successfully without hematoma or seroma collection or any other complications. In conclusion, we report a novel tie-over dressing enabling simple fixation of the dressing to maintain proper tension for wounds that require repetitive fixation. Further, with this reliable method, the skin grafts were well taken.

Jo, Hyeon Jong; Kim, Jun Sik; Kim, Nam Gyun; Choi, Jae Hoon

2013-01-01

85

30 CFR 77.704-10 - Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits. 77.704-10...704-10 Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits. If the work...circuit by tying into an energized high-voltage surface line is...

2013-07-01

86

30 CFR 75.705-10 - Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits. 75.705-10...705-10 Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits. If the...circuit by tying into an energized high-voltage surface line is...

2013-07-01

87

Circulating angiopoietin and Tie-2 levels in systemic sclerosis.  

PubMed

To determine the potential effects of angiopoietins Ang-1 and Ang-2 and their receptor Tie-2 in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Twenty-six patients with limited SSc (l-SSc) and fourteen patients with diffuse SSc (d-SSc) were evaluated and compared to age-matched controls. Plasma levels of soluble sAng-1, sAng-2, sTie-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), placental growth factor (PlGF) and endostatin were measured. Associations between these factors and clinical parameters were assessed. Levels of circulating factors and the ratios sAng-2/sAng-1 and sAng-2/sTie-2 were not different between l-SSc and d-SSc cases but were collectively higher compared to their controls: sAng-1 (p = 0.0108); sAng-2 (p < 0.0001); sTie-2 (p < 0.0001); endostatin (p < 0.0001), PlGF (p < 0.0001); VEGF (p = 0.0006); sAng-2/sAng-1 (p < 0.0001); sAng-2/sTie-2 (p < 0.0001). Concerning significant correlations among the angiopoietins and Tie-2, sAng-2 associated with sTie-2 (Spearman r = 0.47, p = 0.0155) in l-SSc only. sAng-1 did not show statistically significant correlations with any of the clinical variables, but sAng-2 did between PAP (r = 0.51, p = 0.0148) and predicted DLCO (r = -0.31, p = 0.0242) in l-SSc cases. sTie-2 negatively correlated with disease duration in l-SSc (r = -0.55, p = 0.0049). The sAng-2/sTie-2 ratio shows a positive association with disease activity in both l-SSc (r = 0.50, p = 0.0547) and d-SSc (r = 0.60, p = 0.0317). Levels of sAng-1, sAng-2 and sTie-2 are higher in SSc cases suggesting a pro-inflammatory state in an active endothelium. The near doubling of the sAng-2/sTie-2 ratio in SSc cases compared to controls suggests a shift toward vascular regression and angiostasis perhaps caused by Ang-2 blocking the action of Tie-2. PMID:22461185

Dunne, James V; Keen, Kevin J; Van Eeden, Stephan F

2012-03-30

88

Internal nonrotating tie-back connector  

SciTech Connect

A tie-back connection apparatus is described for securing the lower end of an inner conduit into an outer conduit of a subsea wellhead, the inner conduit extending upwardly from the wellhead and being held in tension, the apparatus comprising in combination: a set of threads formed on an inner wall of the outer conduit; an annular latch carried by the inner conduit, the latch having a set of threads on its exterior for engaging the threads in the outer conduit, the threads of the latch being resiliently contractible in a radial direction; means on the inner conduit for allowing the latch threads to deflect inwardly to slidingly ratchet past the outer conduit threads while the inner conduit is in a lower position relative to the latch and as the inner conduit is lowered without rotation into the outer conduit; means for preventing the latch threads from deflecting inwardly when the inner conduit is subsequently moved upwardly relative to the latch to an upper position, for securing the inner conduit to the outer conduit against upward movement; and retaining means cooperating with the latch and the inner conduit for preventing after the inner conduit has moved to the upper position subsequent downward movement of the inner conduit relative to the latch and outer conduit, and for transmitting a downward load on the inner conduit through the retaining means to the latch, and through the threads of the latch to the outer conduit; the engaging threads allowing removal of the inner conduit from the outer conduit by rotation of the inner conduit.

Cuiper, G.H.

1987-07-21

89

5. General inside view, showing upper wind bracing and ties, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. General inside view, showing upper wind bracing and ties, arch rings and truss framing. - Leatherwood Station Covered Bridge, Spanning Leatherwood Creek (moved to Billie Creek Village), Montezuma, Parke County, IN

90

9. DETAIL OF EAST PIER OF BRIDGE, SHOWING STEEL TIE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. DETAIL OF EAST PIER OF BRIDGE, SHOWING STEEL TIE BARS INSERTED TO STABILIZE CRACKS. - Pennsylvania Railroad, 52nd Street Bridge, North Fifty-second Street at Lancaster Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

91

Omega-3s Not Tied to Women's Mental Sharpness  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Omega-3s not tied to women's mental sharpness (*this news item will not be ... 25, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Dietary Fats Memory Women's Health By Genevra Pittman NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - ...

92

Health Habits Tied to Heart Disease, Arthritis Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Health habits tied to heart disease, arthritis risk (*this ... 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Disabilities Healthy Aging Women's Health By Allison Bond NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Older ...

93

12. VIEW OF RIGHT ABUTMENT TIE AT LEFT, CONCRETE PLACEMENT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW OF RIGHT ABUTMENT TIE AT LEFT, CONCRETE PLACEMENT LINES AT CENTER, POWER PLANT NEARING COMPLETION, AND AGGREGATE OPERATION AT CENTER RIGHT December 16, 1926 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

94

Positive Outlook in Heart Disease Tied to Fewer Deaths  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Positive outlook in heart disease tied to fewer deaths (*this news item will ... Genevra Pittman NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - People with heart disease who are more upbeat and excited tend to ...

95

Self-Monitoring Tied to Lower Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. Self-monitoring tied to lower blood pressure: review (*this news item will not be available after ... use a home blood pressure monitor, a new review of past studies suggests. The analysis showed self- ...

96

Quitting Smoking in Pregnancy Tied to Benefit for Baby  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Quitting smoking in pregnancy tied to benefit for baby (*this ... MedlinePlus Pages Birth Weight Pregnancy and Substance Abuse Quitting Smoking By Veronica Hackethal, MD NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - ...

97

TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATION (TIE) RESULTS FOR METAL CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Identification of contaminants in sediment is necessary for sound management decisions on sediment disposal, remediation, determination of ecological risk, and source identification. We have been developing sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) techniques that allow ...

98

Walking to Work Tied to Lower Diabetes Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Walking to Work Tied to Lower Diabetes Risk Car commuters have ... Aug. 6 (HealthDay News) -- People who walk to work are 40 percent less likely to develop diabetes ...

99

Vigorous Workouts, But Not Work, Tied to Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Vigorous workouts, but not work, tied to blood pressure (*this news item will ... levels of physical activity in the course of work had about the same risk as those in ...

100

Migraines Tied to Raised Risk of Depression, Suicidal Thoughts  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Migraines Tied to Raised Risk of Depression, Suicidal Thoughts Canadian study found younger adults were ... Dallas Friday, October 25, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Depression Migraine Suicide FRIDAY, Oct. 25 (HealthDay News) -- People ...

101

Better Diet Tied to Fewer Deaths After Heart Attack  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Better diet tied to fewer deaths after heart attack (*this news item will not ... ate. During the studies, there were 1,133 deaths from all causes. Of those, 558 were linked ...

102

Casino Smoking Ban Tied to Drop in Ambulance Calls  

MedlinePLUS

... Smoking Ban Tied to Drop in Ambulance Calls Colorado county law likely reduced illness from secondhand smoke, ... destination with 26 casinos, the largest concentration in Colorado. A statewide smoking ban in all other public ...

103

Fresh, Unprocessed Baby Foods Tied to Less Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. Fresh, unprocessed baby foods tied to less allergy (*this news item will not be available after ... Friday, August 9, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Food Allergy Infant and Newborn Nutrition By Kerry Grens NEW ...

104

Common Blood Pressure Drugs Tied to Lower Risk of Alzheimer's  

MedlinePLUS

... Blood Pressure Drugs Tied to Lower Risk of Alzheimer's: Study Since some classes of meds had the ... 2014) Thursday, October 24, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Alzheimer's Disease Blood Pressure Medicines High Blood Pressure THURSDAY, ...

105

Heat Waves Tied to Flare-Ups of Digestive Illness  

MedlinePLUS

... about a week. The study "shows clearly that climate change might have serious effects on human health that ... I would be very reluctant to tie in 'climate change' as the authors have to IBD." Ananthakrishnan told ...

106

Insurance Type Tied to Dying Dementia Patients' Care  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Insurance type tied to dying dementia patients' care (*this news item will not be ... 2013) Tuesday, September 24, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Dementia Nursing Homes By Andrew M. Seaman NEW YORK ( ...

107

Prostate Cancer Hormonal Therapy Tied to Kidney Risks  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Prostate cancer hormonal therapy tied to kidney risks (*this news ... July 16, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Kidney Diseases Prostate Cancer By Genevra Pittman NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Men ...

108

Low Vitamin D Tied to Anemia Risk in Kids  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Low Vitamin D Tied to Anemia Risk in Kids Large study also found racial differences in anemia, vitamin levels (*this news item will not be available ...

109

Infant Bed-Sharing Tied to Longer Breastfeeding  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Infant bed-sharing tied to longer breastfeeding (*this news item will not be available after ... 2013) Monday, September 23, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Breastfeeding Sudden Infant Death Syndrome By Genevra Pittman NEW ...

110

BPA, Phthalates Tied to Kids' Weight, Diabetes Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. BPA, phthalates tied to kids' weight, diabetes risk (*this ... survey, another study group linked bisphenol A, or BPA - used to line aluminum cans - to obesity and ...

111

Bipolar Disorder Tied to Risk of Disease, Early Death  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bipolar disorder tied to risk of disease, early death (*this ... 2013) Wednesday, July 17, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Bipolar Disorder Metabolic Syndrome Suicide By Andrew M. Seaman NEW ...

112

Targeting the ANGPT–TIE2 pathway in malignancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiopoietins (ANGPTs) are ligands of the endothelial cell receptor TIE2 and have crucial roles in the tumour angiogenic switch. Increased expression of ANGPT2 relative to ANGPT1 in tumours correlates with poor prognosis. The biological effects of the ANGPT–TIE system are context dependent, which brings into question what the best strategy is to target this pathway. This Review presents an encompassing

Hanhua Huang; Abhijit Bhat; Gary Woodnutt; Rodney Lappe

2010-01-01

113

Characterization of Swine Wastewater by Toxicity Identification Evaluation Methodology (TIE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since swine wastewater is used by farmers for soil fertilization, evaluation of toxic compounds or micro-contaminants of separate\\u000a streams is required. This paper uses the toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) procedure for the physicochemical and ecotoxicological\\u000a characterization of swine wastewater. To distinguish the most important toxic compounds, a physicochemical characterization\\u000a and phase I-TIE procedure were performed. The acute toxic effect of

C. Alejandra Villamar; Teresa Cañuta; Marisol Belmonte; Gladys Vidal

114

Line-tying effects on the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability  

SciTech Connect

The K-H instability is important in understanding a variety of phenomena involving sheared plasma flow in space and astrophysical plasmas. Here, a three-dimensional linear analysis of the line-tied Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability is carried out. The line-tying by the conducting ionospheres has a stabilizing influence on all unstable modes, but the ionospheric stabilization of the instability can be insignificant when the eigenmode of the flow perturbation has nodes at the ionospheric boundaries.

Miura, Akira (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)); Kan, J.R. (Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks (United States))

1992-08-03

115

Are Social Networks the Ties that Bind Families to Neighborhoods?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of intra-neighborhood social ties on the inter-neighborhood residential mobility of families with children using data from the 1997 and 2002 Child Development Supplements (CDS) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). Results suggest that local kinship ties and the social networks of children deter the inter-neighborhood mobility of families with children. Among low-income families,

Casey J. Dawkins

2006-01-01

116

Hemostatic laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: cable-tie compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) has generally been reserved for small exophytic lesions because of the limited hemostatic capabilities when excising large segments of renal parenchyma. To overcome this problem, we investigated a technique of laparoscopic reversible, regional hypoperfusion using a cable-tie to minimize blood loss and optimize exposure.Methods. Ten domestic pigs underwent LPN after securing a cable-tie around one

Jeffrey A Cadeddu; T. Spark Corwin; Olivier Traxer; Cheryl Collick; H. Hossein Saboorian; Margaret S Pearle

2001-01-01

117

Family Ties, Physical Health, and Psychological Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This study assesses the impact of number and quality of family ties on the health and well-being of elderly people. Method: Measures of the quantity and quality of family ties, adjusting for gender, education, and income, were correlated with the self-rating of health and well-being of a sample of 534 married parents between 68 and 73 years of age.

Andrea Kay Ryan; Fern K. Willits

2007-01-01

118

The relationship between perceived discrimination and high-risk social ties among illicit drug users in New York City, 2006-2009.  

PubMed

Discrimination can influence risk of disease by promoting unhealthy behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol use). Whether it influences the formation of high-risk social ties that facilitate HIV transmission is unclear. Using cross-sectional data from a cohort of illicit drug users, this study examined the association between discrimination based on race, drug use and prior incarceration and risky sex and drug ties. Negative binomial regression models were performed. Participants who reported discrimination based on race and drug use had significantly more sex and drug-using ties. But, after accounting for both racial and drug use discrimination, only racial discrimination was associated with increased sex, drug-using, and injecting ties. Drug users who experience discrimination and subsequently develop more sex and drug-using ties, increase their risk of contracting HIV. Future longitudinal studies illuminating the pathways linking discrimination and social network development may guide intervention development and identify drug-using subpopulations at high risk for disease transmission. PMID:22638866

Crawford, Natalie D; Ford, Chandra; Galea, Sandro; Latkin, Carl; Jones, Kandice C; Fuller, Crystal M

2013-01-01

119

Effects of weak ties on epidemic predictability on community networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weak ties play a significant role in the structures and the dynamics of community networks. Based on the contact process, we study numerically how weak ties influence the predictability of epidemic dynamics. We first investigate the effects of the degree of bridge nodes on the variabilities of both the arrival time and the prevalence of disease, and find out that the bridge node with a small degree can enhance the predictability of epidemic spreading. Once weak ties are settled, the variability of the prevalence will display a complete opposite trend to that of the arrival time, as the distance from the initial seed to the bridge node or the degree of the initial seed increases. More specifically, the further distance and the larger degree of the initial seed can induce the better predictability of the arrival time and the worse predictability of the prevalence. Moreover, we discuss the effects of the number of weak ties on the epidemic variability. As the community strength becomes very strong, which is caused by the decrease of the number of weak ties, the epidemic variability will change dramatically. Compared with the case of the hub seed and the random seed, the bridge seed can result in the worst predictability of the arrival time and the best predictability of the prevalence.

Shu, Panpan; Tang, Ming; Gong, Kai; Liu, Ying

2012-12-01

120

Nitric oxide regulates Angiopoietin1/Tie2 expression after stroke  

PubMed Central

We tested whether the nitric oxide donor, (Z)-1-[N-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl) aminio] diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (DETA-NONOate), increases expression of Angiopoietin (Ang1)/Tie2, which may play a role in regulating angiogenesis and vascular integrity after stroke in rats. Wistar rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion and treated with or without DETA-NONOate. Stroke rats treated with DETA-NONOate show significantly increased Ang1, Tie2 and Occludin expression in the ischemic border compared with control stroke animals (p < 0.05). Consistent with in vivo data, DETA-NONOate promotes capillary tube formation in cultured brain endothelial cells. Neutralizing Ang1 antibody attenuates DETA-NONOate-induced capillary tube formation. The data suggest that the Ang1/Tie2 axis promotes DETA-NONOate-induced angiogenesis and stabilizes of angiogenic vessels after stroke.

Zacharek, Alex; Chen, Jieli; Zhang, Chunling; Cui, Xu; Roberts, Cynthia; Jiang, Hao; Teng, Hua; Chopp, Michael

2009-01-01

121

Improving breastfeeding outcomes: the impact of tongue-tie.  

PubMed

A tongue-tie (ankyloglossia) is defined as a lingual frenulum that is short, tight and restricts normal tongue movement. The tongue-tied newborn baby then has a mechanical difficulty attaching to his mum's breast and maintaining attachment to feed effectively. In the hands of skilled carers, this mechanical problem can be resolved by releasing the frenulum (frenulotomy) and the baby's access to his/her mother's breast milk be preserved. Published research on this subject has undergone justifiable criticism. Robust methodology was lacking in earlier studies. An overview of the course of researchers' response to critique is discussed. The care pathway in place in mid-Norfolk for mother and baby dyads where the baby's tongue-tie compromises efficient breastfeeding is outlined. PMID:22779397

Jackson, Rosemary

2012-06-01

122

Tongue-tie and breastfeeding: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

In Australia, initial exclusive breastfeeding rates are 80%, reducing to 14% at 6 months. One factor that contributes to early breastfeeding cessation is infant tongue-tie, a congenital abnormality occurring in 2.8-10.7% of infants, in which a thickened, tightened or shortened frenulum is present. Tongue-tie is linked to breastfeeding difficulties, speech and dental problems. It may prevent the baby from taking enough breast tissue into its mouth to form a teat and the mother may experience painful, bleeding nipples and frequent feeding with poor infant weight gain; these problems may contribute to early breastfeeding cessation. This review of research literature analyses the evidence regarding tongue-tie to determine if appropriate intervention can reduce its impact on breastfeeding cessation, concluding that, for most infants, frenotomy offers the best chance of improved and continued breastfeeding. Furthermore, studies have demonstrated that the procedure does not lead to complications for the infant or mother. PMID:21608523

Edmunds, Janet; Miles, Sandra C; Fulbrook, Paul

2011-03-01

123

Legal and Social Ties between Children and Cohabiting Fathers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined whether legal ties between members in the nuclear family affect the father-child relationship after domestic breakup. Found no evidence that civil status could explain differences in the post-separation organization of parenting, but a sole legal custody arrangement from the child's birth may disfavor cohabiting fathers as future…

Ottosen, Mai Heide

2001-01-01

124

Quitting Smoking Post-Angioplasty Tied to Longer Life  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Quitting smoking post-angioplasty tied to longer life (*this news ... 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Angioplasty Coronary Artery Disease Quitting Smoking By Veronica Hackethal, MD NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - ...

125

59. Downstream view of Waddell Dam showing buttress ties, crane, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

59. Downstream view of Waddell Dam showing buttress ties, crane, housing over penstock outlet (left) and storage building (right). Photographer Mark Durben, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

126

Matrilineal Family Ties and Marital Dissolution in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although previous work has attributed the instability of African marriages to the diffusion of Western norms and values in the region, fewer attempts have been made to empirically assess how Africa's internal institutional structures, such as extended kinship ties, impact marital outcomes. Guided by rational choice and exchange theories, we argue…

Takyi, Baffour K.; Gyimah, Stephen Obeng

2007-01-01

127

Bidirectional grid-tied inverter with predictive current control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to propose a bidirectional grid-tied inverter (BGI) with predictive current control (PCC). The proposed BGI can be operated either in the grid connection mode (GCM) or the power factor correction mode (PFCM) which are necessary features for the renewable energy supplied DC power system. For the proposed PCC, the duty ratio for the power

Yaow-Ming Chen; Kuan-Yu Liu; Shih-Kai Chiang; Yung-Ruei Chang

2009-01-01

128

Factors Influencing Employee Beliefs That Pay Is Tied to Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unique relationship of perceived pay level equity, perceived appraisal accuracy, merit increase satisfaction, trust in supervisor, and trust in top management to employee beliefs that pay is tied to performance was investigated in a sample of 658 managerial, professional, and clerical employees. Pay level equity, merit increase satisfaction, and trust in top management exhibited a significant unique relationship. Post

Michael J. Vest; K. Dow Scott; Jusanne M. Vest; Steven E. Markham

2000-01-01

129

The Verbal Facilitation Effect in Learning to Tie Nautical Knots  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Motor skills are often demonstrated with a combination of verbal information and video demonstration. In this study, participants learned to tie nautical knots with a video clip demonstrating the motor task preceded by a descriptive or a metaphorical, picture-like verbalization. In a control condition participants learned the knots with a video…

Huff, Markus; Schwan, Stephan

2012-01-01

130

Writing "Everyday Theatre": Applied Theatre, or Just TIE Rides Again?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The centre of this article is a critical description of the development and production of "Everyday Theatre's" performed pretext, called "replay@timeout", including a detailed account of the devising process and the programme's content. The programme is located within the history and traditions both of theatre in education (TIE) and process drama,…

O'Toole, John

2009-01-01

131

Relational Discourses: Social Ties with Family and Friends  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents quantitative and qualitative accounts of relational discourses in a random sample of approximately 4100 texts written by Irish young people (aged 10-12 and 14-17 years). The existence of such discourses is indicated by references to family and friends. The article shows that although the majority refer to such ties in their…

O'Connor, Pat; Haynes, Amanda; Kane, Ciara

2004-01-01

132

Genes Tied to High Blood Pressure Found in Black Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Genes Tied to High Blood Pressure Found in Black Americans Study findings may lead ... Pages African American Health Genes and Gene Therapy High Blood Pressure MONDAY, Sept. 16 (HealthDay News) -- Black Americans are ...

133

Neural Correlates of Dynamically Evolving Interpersonal Ties Predict Prosocial Behavior  

PubMed Central

There is a growing interest for the determinants of human choice behavior in social settings. Upon initial contact, investment choices in social settings can be inherently risky, as the degree to which the other person will reciprocate is unknown. Nevertheless, people have been shown to exhibit prosocial behavior even in one-shot laboratory settings where all interaction has been taken away. A logical step has been to link such behavior to trait empathy-related neurobiological networks. However, as a social interaction unfolds, the degree of uncertainty with respect to the expected payoff of choice behavior may change as a function of the interaction. Here we attempt to capture this factor. We show that the interpersonal tie one develops with another person during interaction – rather than trait empathy – motivates investment in a public good that is shared with an anonymous interaction partner. We examined how individual differences in trait empathy and interpersonal ties modulate neural responses to imposed monetary sharing. After, but not before interaction in a public good game, sharing prompted activation of neural systems associated with reward (striatum), empathy (anterior insular cortex and anterior cingulate cortex) as well as altruism, and social significance [posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS)]. Although these activations could be linked to both empathy and interpersonal ties, only tie-related pSTS activation predicted prosocial behavior during subsequent interaction, suggesting a neural substrate for keeping track of social relevance.

Fahrenfort, Johannes J.; van Winden, Frans; Pelloux, Benjamin; Stallen, Mirre; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

2011-01-01

134

Assessing lameness in cows kept in tie-stalls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying lame cows and quantifying the prevalence of lameness are important elements of cattle welfare assessment that are generally achieved by methods involving observations of each animal walking. There is no published method for assessing lameness in cows confined in tie-stalls. The objective of this study (car- ried out within the European Commission's Welfare Quality® project) was to develop a

K. A. Leach; S. Dippel; J. Huber; S. March; C. Winckler; H. R. Whay

2009-01-01

135

Tie receptors: new modulators of angiogenic and lymphangiogenic responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiogenesis is required for normal embryonic vascular development and aberrant angiogenesis contributes to several diseases, including cancer, diabetes and tissue ischaemia. What are the molecular mechanisms that regulate this important process? The Tie family of receptors and their ligands, the angiopoietins, are beginning to provide insight into how vessels make decisions such as whether to grow or regress — processes

Nina Jones; Kristiina Iljin; Daniel J. Dumont; Kari Alitalo

2001-01-01

136

The role of resistivity on line-tying kink modes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent paper [1], Evstatiev et al. proposed a new method to analyze the linear stage of line-tied kink modes in cylindrical geometry. The method consists of summing up a number of one-dimensional (radial) eigenfunctions to obtain the full two-dimensional solution of the problem and has been successfully applied to both ideal and resistive MHD [1]. The present work investigates the role of resistivity on line-tied kink modes. Resistivity affects the problem in two ways. First, it disallows perfect line-tying at the two end-plates of the cylinder. Second, some of the radial eigenfunctions used to construct the full solution of the problem can be unstable tearing modes instead of stable ideal modes, thus opening the possibility of tearing-like instabilities in line-tied configurations. In order to address these two issues, we will use our new method to study different equilibria where the field line pitch as a function of radius can be monotonically increasing (tokamak-like), monotonically decreasing (RFP-like) or constant. Furthermore, a parametric study will be presented by varying resistivity and the results will be compared with the ideal MHD case. [1] E. G. Evstatiev, G. L. Delzanno, J. M. Finn, Physics of Plasmas 13, 072902 (2006).

Evstatiev, Evstati; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Finn, John

2006-10-01

137

Decision tree State tying using cluster validity criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decision tree state tying aims to perform divisive clustering, which can combine the phonetics and acoustics of speech signal for large vocabulary continuous speech recognition. A tree is built by successively splitting the observation frames of a phonetic unit according to the best phonetic questions. To prevent building over-large tree models, the stopping criterion is required to suppress tree growing.

Jen-tzung Chien

2005-01-01

138

Vertical Ties and the Redistribution of Power in Crystal City  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The examination of a city in Texas provided data for the support of the thesis that an increase in vertical ties contributes to the development of a pluralistic power structure within a community; the traditional power relations and supporting normative patterns within the isolated minority community serve to inhibit competitive political…

Miller, Michael V.; Preston, James D.

1973-01-01

139

Children's Books in Review: Books on Strengthening Family Ties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews children's books that emphasize the strengthening of family ties. Characters in the books realize the importance and influence of family relationships as they struggle with sibling rivalry, self-discovery, peer relationships, a search for heritage, adoption, and death. (SM)|

Winfield, Evelyn T.

1991-01-01

140

Preventing Cauliflower Ear with a Modified Tie-Through Technique.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a quick, simple tie-through suture technique (in which a collodion packing is secured to the auricle with two buttons) for preventing cauliflower ear following external ear trauma in wrestlers and boxers. The technique ensures constant compression; multiple treatments for fluid reaccumulation are rarely necessary. (SM)|

Dimeff, Robert J.; Hough, David O.

1989-01-01

141

78 FR 25303 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Nos. 731-TA-1207-1209 (Preliminary)] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Institution...materially retarded, by reason of imports from prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from China, Mexico, and Thailand,...

2013-04-30

142

The null distribution of Kendall's rank correlation statistic in the presence of ties  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present new techniques for computing exact p-values of Kendall’s rank correlation statistic when ties are present. An explicit formula for the probability-generating function of this statistic in the case of ties in one ranking is derived. This allows for computation of exact p-values for sample sizes up to 100, regardless of the tie structure. When ties are present in

Mark A. Van De Wiel

2005-01-01

143

The impact of network structure on breaking ties in online social networks: unfollowing on twitter  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the breaking of ties between individuals in the online social network of Twitter, a hugely popular social media service. Building on sociology concepts such as strength of ties, embeddedness, and status, we explore how network structure alone influences tie breaks - the common phenomena of an individual ceasing to \\

Funda Kivran-Swaine; Priya Govindan; Mor Naaman

2011-01-01

144

78 FR 37236 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-1207-1209 (Preliminary)] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico...Mexico, and Thailand of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire, provided for in...reason of LTFV imports of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from China,...

2013-06-20

145

Who Can Cultivate University Ties More in China? A Local Firm or a Foreign Firm?  

Microsoft Academic Search

University ties are an important innovation resource for both foreign direct investment (FDI) firms and local firms. Since these university connections involve local personal ties, which are established through long-term efforts that require social and cul- tural embeddedness, it is probably more difficult for FDI firms to establish such ties than it is for local firms. However, FDI firms, which

Kai Xu; Kuo-Feng Huang; Shanxing Gao

2011-01-01

146

International adopters and their children: Birth culture ties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores parents’ attitudes toward helping their internationally adopted children develop an appreciation for the\\u000a cultures of the children’s birth countries and surveys the culture-related activities in which they and their children engage.\\u000a While most parents believed their child’s primary attachment should be to American culture, they accorded great importance\\u000a to their child forming ties to his\\/her birth culture.

Patricia Hanigan Scroggs; Heather Heitfield

2001-01-01

147

Familial ankyloglossia (tongue-tie): a case report.  

PubMed

Ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) is a congenital anomaly with a prevalence of 4-5% and characterized by an abnormally short lingual frenulum. For unknown reasons the abnormality seems to be more common in males. The pathogenesis of ankyloglossia is not known. The authors report a family with isolated ankyloglossia inherited as an autosomal dominant or recessive trait. The identification of the defective gene(s) in these patients might reveal novel information on the pathogenesis of this disorder. PMID:21133006

Morowati, Saeid; Yasini, Mobin; Ranjbar, Reza; Peivandi, Ali Asghar; Ghadami, Mohsen

148

Unique ties between Hepatitis C Virus replication and intracellular lipids  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infects approximately 3 percent of the world’s population, establishing a life-long infection in the majority of cases. The life cycle of HCV is closely tied to the lipid metabolism of liver cells, and lipid droplets have emerged as crucial intracellular organelles that support persistent propagation of viral infection. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of how HCV usurps intracellular lipids to propagate and highlight unique opportunities for therapeutic intervention.

Herker, Eva; Ott, Melanie

2011-01-01

149

A grid-tie battery energy storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Battery energy storage system are widely used and become the most popular form of energy storage system. This paper proposes a grid-tie Lithium-ion battery based energy storage system, which consists of LiFePO4 battery based energy storage and a high-efficiency bidirectional ac-dc converter. The battery management system (BMS) estimates the state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH) of each

Hao Qian; Jianhui Zhang; Jih-Sheng Lai

2010-01-01

150

Friend or frenemy?: predicting signed ties in social networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of labeling the edges of a social network graph (e.g., acquaintance connections in Facebook) as either positive (i.e., trust, true friendship) or negative (i.e., distrust, possible frenemy) relations. Such signed relations provide much stronger signal in tying the behavior of online users than the unipolar Homophily effect, yet are largely unavailable as most social graphs only

Shuang-Hong Yang; Alexander J. Smola; Bo Long; Hongyuan Zha; Yi Chang

2012-01-01

151

PHD2 regulates arteriogenic macrophages through TIE2 signalling  

PubMed Central

Occlusion of the main arterial route redirects blood flow to the collateral circulation. We previously reported that macrophages genetically modified to express low levels of prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 (PHD2) display an arteriogenic phenotype, which promotes the formation of collateral vessels and protects the skeletal muscle from ischaemic necrosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that femoral artery occlusion induces a switch in macrophage phenotype through angiopoietin-1 (ANG1)-mediated Phd2 repression. ANG blockade by a soluble trap prevented the downregulation of Phd2 expression in macrophages and their phenotypic switch, thus inhibiting collateral growth. ANG1-dependent Phd2 repression initiated a feed-forward loop mediated by the induction of the ANG receptor TIE2 in macrophages. Gene silencing and cell depletion strategies demonstrate that TIE2 induction in macrophages is required to promote their proarteriogenic functions, enabling collateral vessel formation following arterial obstruction. These results indicate an indispensable role for TIE2 in sustaining in situ programming of macrophages to a proarteriogenic, M2-like phenotype, suggesting possible new venues for the treatment of ischaemic disorders.

Hamm, Alexander; Veschini, Lorenzo; Takeda, Yukiji; Costa, Sandra; Delamarre, Estelle; Squadrito, Mario Leonardo; Henze, Anne-Theres; Wenes, Mathias; Serneels, Jens; Pucci, Ferdinando; Roncal, Carmen; Anisimov, Andrey; Alitalo, Kari; De Palma, Michele; Mazzone, Massimiliano

2013-01-01

152

PHD2 regulates arteriogenic macrophages through TIE2 signalling.  

PubMed

Occlusion of the main arterial route redirects blood flow to the collateral circulation. We previously reported that macrophages genetically modified to express low levels of prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 (PHD2) display an arteriogenic phenotype, which promotes the formation of collateral vessels and protects the skeletal muscle from ischaemic necrosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that femoral artery occlusion induces a switch in macrophage phenotype through angiopoietin-1 (ANG1)-mediated Phd2 repression. ANG blockade by a soluble trap prevented the downregulation of Phd2 expression in macrophages and their phenotypic switch, thus inhibiting collateral growth. ANG1-dependent Phd2 repression initiated a feed-forward loop mediated by the induction of the ANG receptor TIE2 in macrophages. Gene silencing and cell depletion strategies demonstrate that TIE2 induction in macrophages is required to promote their proarteriogenic functions, enabling collateral vessel formation following arterial obstruction. These results indicate an indispensable role for TIE2 in sustaining in situ programming of macrophages to a proarteriogenic, M2-like phenotype, suggesting possible new venues for the treatment of ischaemic disorders. PMID:23616286

Hamm, Alexander; Veschini, Lorenzo; Takeda, Yukiji; Costa, Sandra; Delamarre, Estelle; Squadrito, Mario Leonardo; Henze, Anne-Theres; Wenes, Mathias; Serneels, Jens; Pucci, Ferdinando; Roncal, Carmen; Anisimov, Andrey; Alitalo, Kari; De Palma, Michele; Mazzone, Massimiliano

2013-04-25

153

Status homophily, sexual identity, and lesbian social ties.  

PubMed

The literature on friendship and social networks finds that individuals form social ties with people who are like them-a much studied concept called homophily. However, few studies have explicitly examined sexual identity as a point of homophily. Scholars from multiple disciplines have long argued that sexuality influences the organization of our social worlds, yet most studies of friendship and social networks under-examine or overlook the influence of sexual identity. This study addresses that gap by looking at status homophily among lesbian social ties to examine the influence of sexual identity, as well as gender, race, class, and family, on their personal networks. Using survey data from 544 U.S. lesbian respondents, the findings make visible some of the factors and forces that shape social ties for lesbians. The results point to the importance of sexuality as an organizing element of social life, and suggest that studies that examine social networks or friendships more often make sexual identity, gender, and intersecting social locations a central focus. PMID:24059970

Logan, Laura S

2013-10-01

154

Tie2 signaling regulates osteoclastogenesis and osteolytic bone invasion of breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Breast to bone metastasis is a common occurrence in the majority of patients with advanced breast cancer. The metastases are often incurable, are associated with bone destruction and high rates of morbidity. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of how metastatic tumor cells induce bone destruction is critically important. We previously reported that Tie2, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is significantly increased in human breast cancer tissues compared to normal and benign breast tumors, and regulates tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we identify a new function of Tie2 in osteoclastogenesis and osteolytic bone invasion of breast cancer. Tie2 is present in hematopoietic stem/precursor cells. Genetic deletion of Tie2 or neutralization of Tie2 function using soluble Tie2 receptor impaired osteoclastogenesis in an embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation assay. In contrast, deletion of Tie2 has no effect on osteoblastogenesis. As CD11b myeloid cells have the potential to become osteoclast and Tie2 is present in certain population of these cells, we isolated Tie2+ and Tie2? myeloid cells. We observed a significant reduction of osteoclastogenesis in Tie2? compared to Tie2+ CD11b cells. Consistently, neutralization of Tie2 activity in vivo significantly inhibited osteolytic bone invasion and tumor growth in a mammary tumor model, which correlated with a significant reduction of osteoclast and tumor angiogenesis. Collectively, these data reveal a direct and novel role of Tie2 signaling in osteoclast differentiation. These findings identify Tie2 a therapeutic target for controlling not only tumor angiogenesis, but also osteolytic bone metastasis in breast cancer.

Min, Yongfen; Ren, Xiubao; Vaught, David B; Chen, Jin; Donnelly, Edwin; Lynch, Conor C.; Lin, P. Charles

2010-01-01

155

Stepfamily Formation: Implications for Adolescent Ties to Mothers, Nonresident Fathers, and Stepfathers  

PubMed Central

This study examines how the entrance of a stepfather influences adolescent ties to mothers and nonresident fathers, and how prior ties to each biological parent influences the development of stepfather-stepchild ties. Data come from 1753 adolescents in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health who lived with a single mother in Wave 1 that remained single, cohabited, or married by Wave 2, approximately one year later. Stepfamily formation had little consequence for adolescent-nonresident father ties. Adolescent-mother closeness, however, declined when cohabiting, but not married, stepfathers entered the household. Close ties to married stepfathers were more likely to develop when adolescents were closer to their mothers before stepfather entry. Prior ties to nonresident fathers were unrelated to stepfather-stepchild ties.

King, Valarie

2009-01-01

156

Urban characteristics attributable to density-driven tie formation.  

PubMed

Motivated by empirical evidence on the interplay between geography, population density and societal interaction, we propose a generative process for the evolution of social structure in cities. Our analytical and simulation results predict both super-linear scaling of social-tie density and information contagion as a function of the population. Here we demonstrate that our model provides a robust and accurate fit for the dependency of city characteristics with city-size, ranging from individual-level dyadic interactions (number of acquaintances, volume of communication) to population level variables (contagious disease rates, patenting activity, economic productivity and crime) without the need to appeal to heterogeneity, modularity, specialization or hierarchy. PMID:23736887

Pan, Wei; Ghoshal, Gourab; Krumme, Coco; Cebrian, Manuel; Pentland, Alex

2013-01-01

157

Local ties between the reference points at the Fundamentalstation Wettzell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The local ties between reference points of the geodetic space observation systems and the geodetic local network markers have been derived through terrestrial local survey and GPS observations. The local survey consists of direction, distance and levelling observations, which were analysed with the adjustment program PANDA. GPS observations were carried out for the orientation of the local network within the global reference frame. The GPS observations were analysed using the Bernese GPS Software. Both results were combined by making use of the Bernese GPS Software. The results finally were made available in the SINEX format for further application.

Schlüter, Wolfgang; Zernecke, Rudolf; Becker, Swetlana; Klügel, Thomas; Thaller, Daniela

158

The paradox of tie strength in customer relationships for innovation: a longitudinal case study in the sports industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current literature argues that firms should have strong ties to customers to benefit from increased customer retention and loyalty. Strong ties, however, have also shown to prevent innovation, suggesting that firms should also develop weak ties to other customer groups. This paper focuses on the potential for strong ties to facilitate, rather than prohibit, innovation. It is based in a

Tobias Fredberg; Frank T. Piller

2011-01-01

159

Transmission eigenvalues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In inverse scattering theory, transmission eigenvalues can be seen as the extension of the notion of resonant frequencies for impenetrable objects to the case of penetrable dielectrics. The transmission eigenvalue problem is a relatively late arrival to the spectral theory of partial differential equations. Its first appearance was in 1986 in a paper by Kirsch who was investigating the denseness of far-field patterns for scattering solutions of the Helmholtz equation or, in more modern terminology, the injectivity of the far-field operator [1]. The paper of Kirsch was soon followed by a more systematic study by Colton and Monk in the context of developing the dual space method for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium [2]. In this paper they showed that for a spherically stratified media transmission eigenvalues existed and formed a discrete set. Numerical examples were also given showing that in principle transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the far-field data. This first period of interest in transmission eigenvalues was concluded with papers by Colton et al in 1989 [3] and Rynne and Sleeman in 1991 [4] showing that for an inhomogeneous medium (not necessarily spherically stratified) transmission eigenvalues, if they existed, formed a discrete set. For the next seventeen years transmission eigenvalues were ignored. This was mainly due to the fact that, with the introduction of various sampling methods to determine the shape of an inhomogeneous medium from far-field data, transmission eigenvalues were something to be avoided and hence the fact that transmission eigenvalues formed at most a discrete set was deemed to be sufficient. In addition, questions related to the existence of transmission eigenvalues or the structure of associated eigenvectors were recognized as being particularly difficult due to the nonlinearity of the eigenvalue problem and the special structure of the associated transmission eigenvalue problem. The need to answer these questions became important after a series of papers by Cakoni et al [5], and Cakoni et al [6] suggesting that these transmission eigenvalues could be used to obtain qualitative information about the material properties of the scattering object from far-field data. The first answer to the existence of transmission eigenvalues in the general case was given in 2008 when Päivärinta and Sylvester showed the existence of transmission eigenvalues for the index of refraction sufficiently large [7] followed in 2010 by the paper of Cakoni et al who removed the size restriction on the index of refraction [8]. More importantly, in the latter it was shown that transmission eigenvalues yielded qualitative information on the material properties of the scattering object and Cakoni et al established in [9] that transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the Tikhonov regularized solution of the far-field equation. Since the appearance of these papers there has been an explosion of interest in the transmission eigenvalue problem (we refer the reader to our recent survey paper [10] for a detailed account of the developments in this field up to 2012) and the papers in this special issue are representative of the myriad directions that this research has taken. Indeed, we are happy to see that many open theoretical and numerical questions raised in [10] have been answered (totally or partially) in the contributions of this special issue: the existence of transmission eigenvalues with minimal assumptions on the contrast, the numerical evaluation of transmission eigenvalues, the inverse spectral problem, applications to non-destructive testing, etc. In addition to these topics, many other new investigations and research directions have been proposed as we shall see in the brief content summary below. A number of papers in this special issue are concerned with the question of existence of transmission eigenvalues and the structure of the associated transmission eigenfunctions. The three papers by respectively Robbiano [11], Blasten and P

Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

2013-10-01

160

Transmission Eigenvalues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scattering of a time-harmonic plane wave in an inhomogeneous medium is modeled by the scattering problem for the Helmholtz equation. A transmission eigenvalue is a wavenumber at which the scattering operator has a non-trivial kernel or cokernel. Because many sampling methods for locating scatterers succeed only at wavenumbers that are not transmission eigenvalues, they have been studied for some

Lassi Päivärinta; John Sylvester

2008-01-01

161

Transmission decisions  

SciTech Connect

As the US FERC moves forward to implement the transmission access provisions of the National Energy Policy Act of 1992, the debate over Regional Transmission Groups continues. Independent energy producers have much at stake in this debate and their reaction to the general RTG concept and to specific RTG proposals will weigh heavily in determining the fate of these proposals.

Ellison, C.T. (Grueneich, Ellison Schneider, Sacramento, CA (United States))

1993-03-01

162

Angiopoietin-2 differentially regulates angiogenesis through TIE2 and integrin signaling  

PubMed Central

Angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) is a key regulator of angiogenesis that exerts context-dependent effects on ECs. ANG-2 binds the endothelial-specific receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (TIE2) and acts as a negative regulator of ANG-1/TIE2 signaling during angiogenesis, thereby controlling the responsiveness of ECs to exogenous cytokines. Recent data from tumors indicate that under certain conditions ANG-2 can also promote angiogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms of dual ANG-2 functions are poorly understood. Here, we identify a model for the opposing roles of ANG-2 in angiogenesis. We found that angiogenesis-activated endothelium harbored a subpopulation of TIE2-negative ECs (TIE2lo). TIE2 expression was downregulated in angiogenic ECs, which abundantly expressed several integrins. ANG-2 bound to these integrins in TIE2lo ECs, subsequently inducing, in a TIE2-independent manner, phosphorylation of the integrin adaptor protein FAK, resulting in RAC1 activation, migration, and sprouting angiogenesis. Correspondingly, in vivo ANG-2 blockade interfered with integrin signaling and inhibited FAK phosphorylation and sprouting angiogenesis of TIE2lo ECs. These data establish a contextual model whereby differential TIE2 and integrin expression, binding, and activation control the role of ANG-2 in angiogenesis. The results of this study have immediate translational implications for the therapeutic exploitation of angiopoietin signaling.

Felcht, Moritz; Luck, Robert; Schering, Alexander; Seidel, Philipp; Srivastava, Kshitij; Hu, Junhao; Bartol, Arne; Kienast, Yvonne; Vettel, Christiane; Loos, Elias K.; Kutschera, Simone; Bartels, Susanne; Appak, Sila; Besemfelder, Eva; Terhardt, Dorothee; Chavakis, Emmanouil; Wieland, Thomas; Klein, Christian; Thomas, Markus; Uemura, Akiyoshi; Goerdt, Sergij; Augustin, Hellmut G.

2012-01-01

163

Angiopoietin-2 differentially regulates angiogenesis through TIE2 and integrin signaling.  

PubMed

Angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) is a key regulator of angiogenesis that exerts context-dependent effects on ECs. ANG-2 binds the endothelial-specific receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (TIE2) and acts as a negative regulator of ANG-1/TIE2 signaling during angiogenesis, thereby controlling the responsiveness of ECs to exogenous cytokines. Recent data from tumors indicate that under certain conditions ANG-2 can also promote angiogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms of dual ANG-2 functions are poorly understood. Here, we identify a model for the opposing roles of ANG-2 in angiogenesis. We found that angiogenesis-activated endothelium harbored a subpopulation of TIE2-negative ECs (TIE2lo). TIE2 expression was downregulated in angiogenic ECs, which abundantly expressed several integrins. ANG-2 bound to these integrins in TIE2lo ECs, subsequently inducing, in a TIE2-independent manner, phosphorylation of the integrin adaptor protein FAK, resulting in RAC1 activation, migration, and sprouting angiogenesis. Correspondingly, in vivo ANG-2 blockade interfered with integrin signaling and inhibited FAK phosphorylation and sprouting angiogenesis of TIE2lo ECs. These data establish a contextual model whereby differential TIE2 and integrin expression, binding, and activation control the role of ANG-2 in angiogenesis. The results of this study have immediate translational implications for the therapeutic exploitation of angiopoietin signaling. PMID:22585576

Felcht, Moritz; Luck, Robert; Schering, Alexander; Seidel, Philipp; Srivastava, Kshitij; Hu, Junhao; Bartol, Arne; Kienast, Yvonne; Vettel, Christiane; Loos, Elias K; Kutschera, Simone; Bartels, Susanne; Appak, Sila; Besemfelder, Eva; Terhardt, Dorothee; Chavakis, Emmanouil; Wieland, Thomas; Klein, Christian; Thomas, Markus; Uemura, Akiyoshi; Goerdt, Sergij; Augustin, Hellmut G

2012-05-15

164

A short note on how tied fights affect cortisol levels.  

PubMed

Previous work exploring the interrelationships between sex steroids (e.g. androgens, testosterones and 11-ketotestosterones) and social behavior in teleosts suggest that mirror-elicited aggression in cichlid fish may not trigger a hormonal response. Using the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) to analyze immune responses as a result of social stress, we measured levels of cortisol and melatonin using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) assays. In this work, we demonstrated that cortisol concentrations are significantly lower yet the levels of melatonin remain unchanged in tilapia that are fighting their mirror image. Our results suggested that in tied fights, certain hormone levels remain unchanged (e.g. androgens) due to the lack of melatonin induction. PMID:24020471

Cooper, Edwin L; Ngo, Kathy T

2013-09-01

165

Laptop image transmission equipment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imagery and other visual information have become a critical element in planning and performing modern military operations. The effectiveness of this imagery information is often directly tied to the time it takes to get from the collector of this imagery to the user of the imagery. Hard copy distribution of annotated imagery to the tactical commander is hampered by the lack of effective communications paths, and the tactical use of hand held imagery is restricted by the lack of film processing facilities. The military has begun to rely on electronic imagery and digital communications technology for answers, with some success. The new obstacles created by applied electronic imagery are interoperability standards and effective use of communications bandwidth in a tactical environment. New technological developments in computer hardware/software have changed this situation by allowing for the gathering, dissemination, and transfer of near-real-time information to various intelligence audiences at any location. The Naval Air Development Center (NAVAIRDEVCEN) has coupled commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology with National Image Transmission Formats (NITF) Standards to develop a Secondary Imagery Dissemination System (SIDS) package that is designed to meet the flexibility challenge of the tactical military environment. This tailorable SIDS package is called Laptop Image Transmission Equipment (LITE). The LITE system is an extension of the Navy's existing Fleet Imagery Support Terminal (FIST) into the man-portable tactical environment. As such, LITE development is focused on developing flexible imagery input (from sources such as filmless cameras) and connectivity to tactical communications paths and ruggedization/miniaturization issues. The LITE system, in prototype form, has already found application through operational use in special operations, counter narcotics operations, and classic air/ground/sea military operations. This paper provides an overview of the LITE components, specifications, operations, and future developments for the system.

Mocenter, Michael M.

1991-12-01

166

Social Ties and Change in Social Ties in Relation to Subsequent Total and Cause-specific Mortality and Coronary Heart Disease Incidence in Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors prospectively examined the effects of social ties and change in social ties, as measured by a well- known social network index, on total and cause-specific mortality and on coronary heart disease incidence in 28,369 US male health professionals aged 42-77 years in 1988. Over 10 years, the relative risk of total mortality for men in the lower two

Patricia M. Eng; Eric B. Rimm; Garrett Fitzmaurice; Ichiro Kawachi

167

Automatic clustering and generation of contextual questions for tied states in hidden Markov models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most current automatic speech recognition systems based on HMMs cluster or tie together subsets of the subword units with which speech is represented. This tying improves the recognition accuracy when systems are trained with limited data, and is performed by classifying the sub-phonetic units using a series of binary tests based on speech production, called “linguistic questions”. This paper describes

R. Singh; B. Raj; R. M. Stern

1999-01-01

168

Selective Role of a Distinct Tyrosine Residue on Tie2 in Heart Development and Early Hematopoiesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the cardiovascular system and the development of the early hematopoietic systems are closely related, and both require signaling through the Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinase. Although endothelial cells and hematopoietic cells as well as their precursors share common gene expression patterns during develop- ment, it remains completely unknown how Tie2 signaling coordinately regulates cardiovascular development and early hematopoiesis

Kazunobu Tachibana; Nina Jones; Daniel J. Dumont; Mira C. Puri; Alan Bernstein

2005-01-01

169

DEVELOPMENT OF A TOXICITY INDENTIFICATION EVALUATION (TIE) PROCEDURE FOR CHARACTERIZING METAL TOXICITY IN MARINE SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A multi-Agency effort is underway to develop whole sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) methods. Whole sediment TIE methods will be critical tools for characterizing toxicity at hazardous waste sites (e.g., Superfund sites) and in the conduct of environmental risk as...

170

DEVELOPMENT OF A TOXICITY INDENTIFICATION EVALUATION (TIE) PROCEDURE FOR CHARACTERIZING METAL TOXICITY IN MARINE SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

multiagency effort is underway to develop whole sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) methods. Whole sediment TIE methods will be critical tools for characterizing toxicity at hazardous waste sites (e.g., Superfund sites) and in the conduct of environmental risk asse...

171

Ambivalent versus problematic social ties: implications for psychological health, functional health, and interpersonal coping.  

PubMed

Older adults often seek to manage their social networks to foster positive interactions, but they nonetheless sometimes experience negative interactions that detract from their health and well-being. Negative interactions may occur with ambivalent social partners (i.e., partners involved in both positive and negative exchanges) or exclusively problematic social partners (i.e., partners involved in negative exchanges only), but conflicting views exist in the literature regarding which type of social partner is likely to be more detrimental to older adults' physical and emotional health. This study examined the implications of the two kinds of network members for physical and psychological health and interpersonal coping responses in a representative sample of 916 older adults. Analyses revealed that ambivalent social ties were more strongly related to functional health limitations than were exclusively problematic social ties, whereas problematic ties were more consistently related to psychological health than were ambivalent ties. Furthermore, negative exchanges that occurred with exclusively problematic social ties, compared to those that occurred with ambivalent social ties, were associated with more avoidant and fewer conciliatory coping responses, stronger and longer-lasting negative emotions, and lower perceived coping effectiveness. Within this elderly sample, older age was associated with having fewer ambivalent and exclusively problematic kin ties. A comprehensive understanding of the significance of social network ties in older adults' lives may benefit not only from attention to sources of social support but also from efforts to distinguish between different sources of conflict and disappointment. PMID:22775360

Rook, Karen S; Luong, Gloria; Sorkin, Dara H; Newsom, Jason T; Krause, Neal

2012-07-09

172

Being online, living offline: the influence of social ties over the appropriation of social network sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on social network sites has examined how people integrate offline and online life, but with a particular emphasis on their use by friendship groups. We extend earlier work by examining a case in which offline ties are non-existent, but online ties strong. Our case is a study of bodybuilders, who explore their passion with like-minded offline 'strangers' in tightly

Bernd Ploderer; Steve Howard; Peter Thomas

2008-01-01

173

Effects of a Group Intervention on the Career Network Ties of Finnish Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors evaluated how a group-based career intervention affected career network ties among Finnish adolescents as they made educational choices and prepared for their transition to secondary education. They examined the career-related network ties of 868 students during their last year in comprehensive school (junior high school) in a…

Jokisaari, Markku; Vuori, Jukka

2011-01-01

174

Endothelial Cell-Specific Receptor TIE-2 as a Therapeutic Target.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of the proposed research is to investigate the possibility of using Tie-2, an endothelial cell- specific receptor tyrosine kinase, as a therapeutic target. The ligand of Tie-2 is the recently described novel factor named angiopoietin-l (Ang-l). A...

1998-01-01

175

Some Thoughts on the Widow(er)'s Persistent Tie with the Deceased Spouse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research has shown that older persons who have become widowed after many years of marriage maintain deep attachments to their deceased spouses. Case histories, observations and interviews were used to explore some aspects of the persistence of the marital tie after the first few years of mourning had passed. The major element in this tie was…

Moss, Sidney Z.; Moss, Miriam S.

176

Strengthening design of a through tied arch bridge in Guangdong province  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications of tied arch bridges at the beginning are that they break through restrictions on that requirements on pier, abutmemt and foundation are high for traditional arch bridges, at the same time they are handsome in appearance and long in span ability, as a result, many reinforced concrete tied arch bridges were built in China in the 1990s. However, the

Teng Kang; Deng Shaowei; Lin Qihui; Huang Xi

2010-01-01

177

Requisite Role of Angiopoietin-1, a Ligand for the TIE2 Receptor, during Embryonic Angiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which acts via members of a family of endothelial-specific receptor tyrosine kinases, is the only factor that has been shown definitively to play a role in the formation of the embryonic vasculature. Only one other family of receptor tyrosine kinases, comprising TIE1 and TIE2, is largely endothelial cell specific. We have recently cloned a ligand

Chitra Suri; Pamela F Jones; Sybill Patan; Sona Bartunkova; Peter C Maisonpierre; Samuel Davis; Thomas N Sato; George D Yancopoulos

1996-01-01

178

Fungi Destroying Railroad Ties in Poland (Grzyby Niszczace Podklady Kolejowe w Polsce).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study was carried out in order to establish a list of fungi-destructors of wood, which attack the railway ties in Poland and to determine those most frequently occurring and causing most damage. The main fungal destructors of pine ties are the followi...

A. Walek-Czernecka

1976-01-01

179

The Social Network Ties of Group Leaders: Implications for Group Performance and Leader Reputation  

Microsoft Academic Search

his paper uses data from the sales division of a financial services firm to investigate how a leader's centrality in external and internal social networks is related to the objective performance of the leader's group, and to the leader's personal reputation for leadership among subordinates, peers, and supervisors. External social network ties were based on the friendship ties among all

Ajay Mehra; Andrea L. Dixon; Daniel J. Brass; Bruce Robertson

2006-01-01

180

Correlation between psychometric test scores and learning tying of surgical reef knots.  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the correlation between the scores attained on a computerised psychometric test, measuring psychomotor aptitude and learning tying of a surgical reef knot. Fifteen surgical trainees performed a test of psychomotor aptitude (ADTRACK 2) from the MICROPAT testing system. They then performed a simple test of their ability to tie a surgical reef knot and were assessed by a panel of experts prior to embarking on a standardised course of instruction and practice session. The knot-tying test was repeated at the end of the day and the differences in average scores recorded. There was a significant correlation between the means of the differences in knot tying scores and ADTRACK 2 scores (r = -0.533, P < 0.05). Psychomotor abilities appear to be determinants of trainees' initial proficiency in learning to tie a surgical reef knot.

Dashfield, A. K.; Lambert, A. W.; Campbell, J. K.; Wilkins, D. C.

2001-01-01

181

One-piece tie-in procedure saves 20 days at Ekofisk  

SciTech Connect

McDermott International, Inc., working with Solus Ocean Systems Inc. (SOS), has developed and successfully employed a method of accelerating hyperbaric tie-ins between deepwater platforms and subsea pipe lines. In two pipe line tie-ins at Amoco of Norway's Ekofisk riser platform, McDermott reduced the number of hyperbaric welds required per tie-in from four to two by installing the riser and the expansion loop as a single unit. The risers were tied into existing 20-in. gas and oil lines near the platform base. McDermott engineers estimate that single-piece installation saved 20 days of construction time over conventional tie-in practices.

Not Available

1982-04-01

182

Prion transmission  

PubMed Central

Prion diseases range from being highly infectious, for example scrapie and CWD, which show facile transmission between susceptible individuals, to showing negligible horizontal transmission, such as BSE and CJD, which are spread via food or iatrogenically, respectively. Scrapie and CWD display considerable in vivo dissemination, with PrPSc and infectivity being found in a range of peripheral tissues. This in vivo dissemination appears to facilitate the recently reported excretion of prion through multiple routes such as from skin, feces, urine, milk, nasal secretions, saliva and placenta. Furthermore, excreted scrapie and CWD agent is detected within environmental samples such as water and on the surfaces of inanimate objects. The cycle of “uptake of prion from the environment—widespread in vivo prion dissemination—prion excretion—prion persistence in the environment” is likely to explain the facile transmission and maintenance of these diseases within wild and farmed populations over many years.

Maddison, Ben C

2010-01-01

183

tie-dyed1 Regulates carbohydrate accumulation in maize leaves.  

PubMed

Acquisition of cell identity requires communication among neighboring cells. To dissect the genetic pathways regulating cell signaling in later leaf development, a screen was performed to identify mutants with chloroplast pigmentation sectors that violate cell lineage boundaries in maize (Zea mays) leaves. We have characterized a recessive mutant, tie-dyed1 (tdy1), which develops stable, nonclonal variegated yellow and green leaf sectors. Sector formation requires high light, occurs during a limited developmental time, and is restricted to leaf blade tissue. Yellow tdy1 sectors accumulate excessive soluble sugars and starch, whereas green sectors appear unaffected. Significantly, starch accumulation precedes chlorosis in cells that will become a yellow sector. Retention of carbohydrates in tdy1 leaves is associated with a delay in reproductive maturity, decreased stature, and reduced yield. To explain the tdy1 sectoring pattern, we propose a threshold model that incorporates the light requirement and the hyperaccumulation of photoassimilates. A possible function consistent with this model is that TDY1 acts as a sugar sensor to regulate an inducible sugar export pathway as leaves develop under high light conditions. PMID:17071639

Braun, David M; Ma, Yi; Inada, Noriko; Muszynski, Michael G; Baker, R Frank

2006-10-27

184

Clinical evaluation of the endothelial tie-2 crossmatch in ABO compatible and ABO incompatible renal transplants.  

PubMed

The necessity of detection of other than the classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and MHC class I-related chain A (MICA) directed antibodies prior to organ transplantation has already been repeatedly reported. A commercial flow cytometric endothelial crossmatch (CM) using isolated peripheral blood tie-2 positive cells provides a tool to detect non-MHC antibodies in addition to antibodies directed to MHC class I and II. The vast majority of circulating tie-2 positive cells expresses HLA-DR but not the A, B blood group antigens. Tie-2 cells are circulating surrogate endothelial cells. In this retrospective study we evaluated the endothelial CM in 51 renal transplantations, 30 with ABO compatible grafts and 21 with ABO incompatible grafts. Fifteen of the ABO compatible recipients (group A) developed unexplained rejection episodes (RE) while the remaining 15 had no RE (group B). Five cases of group A and none of group B had a positive tie-2 CM before transplantation (p=0.042). A positive tie-2 CM was also correlated with graft failure in ABO compatible transplants (p=0.02). No significant correlation was found between a positive pre-transplant tie-2 CM and RE in the ABO incompatible group. This study strongly suggest that a positive tie-2 CM may predict post-transplantation complications in ABO compatible grafts while negative reactions are not predictive. The test is not significantly correlated with RE in ABO incompatible grafts possibly due to applied desensitization. PMID:23792052

Kafetzi, Maria L; Boletis, John N; Melexopoulou, Christine A; Tsakris, Athanassios; Iniotaki, Aliki G; Doxiadis, Ilias I N

2013-06-18

185

Automatic transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. An automatic transmission with four forward speeds and one reverse position, is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets each having a sun gear, a ring gear and a carrier supporting a pinion in mesh with the sun gear and ring gear; the carrier of the first gear set, the

M. Miura; T. Inuzuka

1986-01-01

186

Overdrive transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an overdrive transmission device for use with a motor vehicle. It consists of: a housing; a driving shaft rotatably mounted within the housing; a planetary gear-train; a driven shaft rotatably mounted in the housing and driven by the planetary gear train; and, a device for selectively connecting the planetary gear carrier to the housing or to the

1986-01-01

187

Organisational learning, product quality and performance: the moderating effect of social ties in Chinese cross-border outsourcing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on how government ties and financial ties as two important social ties in emerging countries differently moderate the relationships between two types of organisational learning (i.e., explorative learning and exploitative learning) and product quality. By using Chinese vendor samples in cross-border outsourcing, our empirical results show that product quality mediates the positive relationships between explorative and exploitative

Yuan Li; Longwei Wang; Yi Liu

2011-01-01

188

78 FR 57619 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-549-829, A-570-990] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand...investigations of imports of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from Mexico, Thailand...People's Republic of China. See Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico,...

2013-09-19

189

Experimental investigation of line-tying effects on the spheromak tilt mode  

SciTech Connect

A variety of passive stabilization techniques compatible with S-1 inductive spheromak formation has been evaluated for effectiveness against the MHD tilting instability. A line-tying stabilization effect has been previously identified theoretically. In the present work, the effects have been experimentally identified and investigated. The perturbed current patterns within passive stabilizing structures have been measured, and line-tying currents have been identified. The simple ring model of tilting has been expanded to include line-tying, and has provided estimates for growth rates which agree well with the measured values. 51 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

Wysocki, F.J.

1986-02-01

190

A modified over-tie for the ligation of Incognito™ lingual fixed appliances.  

PubMed

The Incognito lingual appliance has a ribbon-wise slot with vertically inserted wires. Control of tip can be problematic with this appliance and the conventional method to overcome this is to achieve full wire engagement via the use of power-ties. Although effective, these can be very difficult to place and also create very high friction. A method of ligation is described which consists of a modified elastic double over-tie. This is easily placed and very effective at controlling tip in Incognito brackets using a variety of arch wires. This method creates less friction than the power-tie. PMID:24009324

Huntley, Peter N

2013-09-01

191

An initial comparison of tubular netting versus tie–tie methods of cultivation for Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Solieriaceae) on the south coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new cultivation technique for Kappaphycus alvarezii was used in the Brazilian southeastern coast (23°02?25? S and 43°53?39? W), the tubular netting on floating rafts. The tubular\\u000a net technique (TN) was compared with the current method of tie–tie (TT). After 47 days, the daily growth rate (mean?±?SD of TN and TT?=?3.4?±?0.7%?day?1), carrageenan yield (mean?±?SD of TN and TT?=?36?±?1.3%), gel strength (mean?±?SD

Henrique Geromel de Góes; Renata Perpetuo Reis

2011-01-01

192

Transmission Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that âÂÂprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Transmission Lines, is the fourteenth chapter in Volume II â Alternating Current. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: Circuits and the speed of light; Finite-length transmission lines; and Waveguides. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-03

193

Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment Tied to Higher Risk of Stomach Cancer in Study  

MedlinePLUS

... Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment Tied to Higher Risk of Stomach Cancer in Study Chemo, radiation doses to the stomach ... 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Cancer Chemotherapy Hodgkin Disease Stomach Cancer WEDNESDAY, Aug. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Certain radiation and ...

194

Tip-of-the-Tongue Moments Not Tied to Memory Decline  

MedlinePLUS

... Tip-of-the-tongue moments not tied to memory decline (*this news item will not be available ... 2014) Thursday, October 17, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Memory Seniors' Health By Andrew M. Seaman NEW YORK ( ...

195

More Weight Gain in Pregnancy Tied to Higher Autism Risk for Kids  

MedlinePLUS

... More Weight Gain in Pregnancy Tied to Higher Autism Risk for Kids: Study However, this doesn't ... 2014) Monday, October 28, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Autism Fetal Health and Development MONDAY, Oct. 28 (HealthDay ...

196

Cataract Surgery Tied to Lower Death Risk for Patients with Vision Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Cataract Surgery Tied to Lower Death Risk for Patients With Vision Loss Reasons for ... improve their sight have a lower risk of death than those who don't, a new study ...

197

EFFECTS OF BRINE ADDITION ON EFFLUENT TOXICITY AND MARINE TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATION (TIE) MANIPULATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Little information is available concerning the effect of salinity adjustment on effluent storage and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) performance. hese factors are important for accurate assessments of potential toxicity to marine organisms. he objective of this study was...

198

Body Fat Tied to Heart Risks in Normal-Weight Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Body fat tied to heart risks in normal-weight adults (* ... a healthy weight but high percentage of body fat are at increased risk of heart-related diseases ...

199

Early Discipline Tied to Less Use of Drugs, Alcohol in Teens  

MedlinePLUS

... Early Discipline Tied to Less Use of Drugs, Alcohol in Teens A program to help correct disruptive ... young children could help prevent them from using alcohol and drugs when they're teens, researchers report. ...

200

Stenting of Neck Arteries Tied to Higher Stroke Risk in Seniors  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Stenting of Neck Arteries Tied to Higher Stroke Risk in Seniors Evidence ... Thursday, October 24, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Carotid Artery Disease Seniors' Health Stroke THURSDAY, Oct. 24 (HealthDay ...

201

The effect of institutional ties on knowledge acquisition in uncertain environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Institutional ties can contribute to a firm’s performance in emerging economies because of the existence of ambiguous laws\\u000a and unclear regulations. The main thrust of our argument is that a firm’s choice of institutional ties needs to be congruent\\u000a with the external environment and with industry characteristics. We test our proposed framework with survey data from 308\\u000a firms in China.

Kai Xu; Kuo-Feng Huang; Shanxing Gao

2012-01-01

202

A CPW-fed inductively coupled modified bow-tie slot antenna  

Microsoft Academic Search

A CPW-fed inductively coupled bow-tie slot antenna is introduced. Several geometric parameters of the antenna were varied to observe the impedance matching between the CPW-feed and the antenna. The inductively coupled CPW feeding mechanism makes the concept suitable for array applications. The bandwidth reduction for an inductively coupled straight-dipole slot is overcome by utilizing an inductively coupled bow-tie slot. Antenna

K. M. Z. Shams; M. Ali

2005-01-01

203

A Laparoscopic Knot-Tying Device for Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery  

PubMed Central

Objectives Intracorporeal suturing and knot tying can complicate, prolong or preclude minimally invasive surgical procedures, reducing their advantages over conventional approaches. An automated knot-tying device has been developed to speed suture fixation during minimally invasive cardiac surgery while retaining the desirable characteristics of conventional hand-tied surgeon's knots: holding strength and visual and haptic feedback. A rotating slotted disk (at the instrument's distal end) automates overhand throws, thereby eliminating the need to manually pass one suture end through a loop in the opposing end. Electronic actuation of this disk produces left or right overhand knots as desired by the operator. Methods To evaluate the effectiveness of this technology, 7 surgeons with varying laparoscopic experience tied knots within a simulated minimally invasive setting, using both the automated knot-tying tool and conventional laparoscopic tools. Suture types were 2-0 braided and 4-0 monofilament. Results Mean knot-tying times were 246 ±116 seconds and 102 ±46 seconds for conventional and automated methods, respectively, showing an average 56% reduction in time per surgeon (p=0.003, paired t-test). The peak holding strength of each knot (the force required to break the suture or loosen the knot) was measured using tensile testing equipment. These peak holding strengths were normalized by the ultimate tensile strength of each suture type (57.5 N and 22.1 N for 2-0 braided and 4-0 monofilament, respectively). Mean normalized holding strengths for all knots were 68.2% and 71.8% of ultimate tensile strength for conventional and automated methods, respectively (p= 0.914, paired t-test). Conclusions Experimental data reveal that the automated suturing device has great potential for advancing minimally invasive surgery: it significantly reduced knot-tying times while providing equivalent or greater holding strength than conventionally tied knots.

Jernigan, Shaphan; Chanoit, Guillaume; Veeramani, Arun; Owen, S. Brian; Hilliard, Matthew; Cormier, Denis; Laffitte, Bryan; Buckner, Gregory

2009-01-01

204

Modularized bi-directional grid-tied inverter with asynchronous sigma-delta modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to propose a modularized bi-directional grid-tied inverter (BGI) with asynchronous sigma-delta modulation (ASDM) control for the renewable energy (RE)-supplied DC power system. The proposed BGI can be operated either in the grid-tied mode (GTM) or the power factor correction mode (PFCM) which is necessary features for the RE-supplied DC power system. The proposed BGI

Yaow-Ming Chen; Chia-Hsi Chang

2010-01-01

205

Positive and Negative Emotional Feelings and Behaviors in Mother-Daughter Ties in Late Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behaviors and emotions during specific visits may reveal the interpersonal processes of mother-daughter ties, yet most research uses global assessments of these ties. Forty-eight mother-daughter pairs participated in audiotaped conversations and completed surveys. All mothers were over age 70 and in good health. Daughters tended to take a central role in structuring the conversations. Conversations were characterized by high levels

Eva S. Lefkowitz; Karen L. Fingerman

2003-01-01

206

A 25\\/17Approximation Algorithm for the Stable Marriage Problem with One-Sided Ties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of finding a largest stable matching where preference lists may include ties and unacceptable partners (MAX SMTI) is known to be NP-hard. It cannot be approximated within 33=29 (> 1:1379) unless P=NP, and the current best approximation algorithm achieves the ratio of 1:5. MAX SMTI remains NP-hard even when preference lists of one side do not contain ties,

Kazuo Iwama; Shuichi Miyazaki; Hiroki Yanagisawa

2010-01-01

207

Analysis of stream-dependent tying structure for HMM-based speech synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In conventional HMM-based speech synthesis framework, spectral features are modeled in one stream, and stream-dependent tree-based clustering was then applied for tying the model parameters. In this paper, we investigate several different stream-dependent tying structures for spectral features by splitting the feature vector into several streams. One splitting approach is to split each feature dimension into each stream. Another one

Zhi-Peng Yu; Yi-Jian Wu; Heiga Zen; Yoshihiko Nankaku; Keiichi Tokuda

2008-01-01

208

Targeting Tumor Angiogenesis with Adenovirus-Delivered Anti-Tie-2 Intrabody  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis is a promising approach for cancer therapy. As an endothelial cell-specific receptor kinase expressed almost exclusively on the surface of vascular endothelium, Tie-2 has an important role in tumor angio- genesis. To explore the therapeutic potential of blocking Tie-2 receptor-interaction pathway, an adenoviral vector was used to deliver a recombinant single-chain antibody fragment rabbit intrabody (pAd-2S03)

Mikhail Popkov; Nina Jendreyko; Dorian B. McGavern; Christoph Rader; Carlos F. Barbas

2005-01-01

209

Diverless flowline connector makes three tie-ins in 1,000-ft water  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews a remote operated vehicle (ROV) by Sonsub International Inc. in the South China Sea. In March, 1996 this company completed three subsea diverless flowline tie-ins in over 1000 feet of water at the Amoco Orient Petroleum Co. operated Liuhua 11-1 field. The paper briefly describes the design and operation of the equipment and the methods actually used by the ROV to tie in the flow lines.

NONE

1996-07-01

210

Angiopoietin-1-induced ubiquitylation of Tie2 by c-Cbl is required for internalization and degradation.  

PubMed

Tie2 [where 'Tie' is an acronym from tyrosine kinase with Ig and EGF (epidermal growth factor) homology domains] is a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed predominantly on the surface of endothelial cells. Activated by its ligands, the angiopoietins, Tie2 initiates signalling pathways that modulate vascular stability and angiogenesis. Deletion of either the Tie2 or Ang1 (angiopoietin-1) gene in mice results in lethal vascular defects, signifying their importance in vascular development. The mechanism employed by the Tie2 signalling machinery to attenuate or cause receptor trafficking is not well defined. Stimulation of Tie2-expressing cells with Ang1 results in its ubiquitylation, suggesting that this may provide the necessary signal for receptor turnover. Using a candidate molecule approach, we demonstrate that Tie2 co-immunoprecipitates with c-Cbl in an Ang1-dependent manner and its ubiquitylation can be inhibited by the dominant-interfering molecule v-Cbl (a viral form of c-Cbl that contains only the tyrosine kinase-binding domain region). Inhibition of the Tie2-Cbl interaction by overexpression of v-Cbl blocks ligand-induced Tie2 internalization and degradation. In summary, our results illustrate that c-Cbl interacts with the Tie2 signalling complex in a stimulation-dependent manner, and that this interaction is required for Tie2 ubiquitylation, internalization and degradation. PMID:19689429

Wehrle, Christina; Van Slyke, Paul; Dumont, Daniel J

2009-10-12

211

Endothelial Tie growth factor receptor provides antigenic marker for assessment of breast cancer angiogenesis.  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer prognosis has previously been linked to the degree of tumour vascularisation. In order to establish additional markers for tumour angiogenesis, we have used monoclonal antibodies against the endothelial Tie receptor tyrosine kinase to study the degree of vascularisation of breast carcinomas and the regulation of Tie expression in the vascular endothelial cells. Antibodies were used for Tie detection and the results were correlated with other prognostic markers. Of four monoclonal antibodies directed against different epitopes of the Tie extracellular domain, two reacted against Tie in unfixed histopathological sections of breast carcinomas. One of these antibodies (clone 7e8) was specific for the endothelial cells whereas the other (clone 10f11) also reacted with basement membranes and occasional carcinoma cells. When Tie expression was studied with the antibody clone 7e8, all 27 carcinomas, two in situ carcinomas, samples of histologically normal breast tissue (n = 16) or normal skin or lymph node tissue (n = 5) showed staining. Microvessel counts were higher in carcinomas (median 14; range 3-27) than in fibrodenomas (median 10; range 5-18) or histologically normal breast tissue (median 7; range 3-15, P = 0.0006). A similar result was obtained using antibodies against the CD31 (PECAM) antigen. Microvessel counts in 7e8 staining were not significantly associated with primary tumour size, axillary nodal status, histological grade or staining for oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, Ki-67 proliferation marker or p53 oncoprotein. Images Figure 1

Salven, P.; Joensuu, H.; Heikkila, P.; Matikainen, M. T.; Wasenius, V. M.; Alanko, A.; Alitalo, K.

1996-01-01

212

The Determination of Tie-Line Fields for Coexisting Lipid Phases: an ESR Study  

PubMed Central

A novel method we refer to as the tie-line field (TLF) method has been developed to globally determine the tie-lines of any three-component two-phase coexistence region by fitting electron-spin resonance (ESR) spectra obtained from compositions on the coexistence curve and within the coexistence region. The TLF method is illustrated by applying it to the liquid-ordered (Lo) and liquid-disordered (Ld) phase coexistence region of the lipid system brain-sphingomyelin/dioleoylphosphatidylcholine/cholesterol (SPM/DOPC/Chol), for which an estimate of a tie-line was previously obtained by an earlier method also using ESR spectra. The essential aspect of the TLF method is the unique parameterization of the coexistence region called a “ruled surface”. The use of the ruled surface enables one to guarantee that tie-lines do not cross, as required by the phase rule, whereas previous methods lack this important constraint. It also makes simultaneous use of the full data set in determining the TLF and leads to a more efficient experimental design than previously used. The method is first tested out on synthetic data sets, then least-squares fitting of the ESR spectra with the parameterized model results in a tie-line field consistent with other known information on this lipid system. The best-fit tie-line field consists of the set of tie lines which are not exactly parallel; they exhibit a gradual change in slope with the largest slope within the coexistence region connecting the coexistence curve compositions with the highest and lowest cholesterol concentrations. The results are compared with those from more constrained methods of representing the tie-line fields as well as with the previous tie-line determination for the SPM/DOPC/Chol system. An accurate determination of the tie-line field of phase coexistence regions in lipid systems is a necessary step in determining coexisting lipid compositions to serve as models of cell plasma membranes.

Smith, Andrew K; Freed, Jack H.

2009-01-01

213

Financial ties and concordance between results and conclusions in meta-analyses: retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether financial ties to one drug company are associated with favourable results or conclusions in meta-analyses on antihypertensive drugs. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Meta-analyses published up to December 2004 that were not duplicates and evaluated the effects of antihypertensive drugs compared with any comparator on clinical end points in adults. Financial ties were categorised as one drug company compared with all others. Main outcome measures The main outcomes were the results and conclusions of meta-analyses, with both outcomes separately categorised as being favourable or not favourable towards the study drug. We also collected data on characteristics of meta-analyses that the literature suggested might be associated with favourable results or conclusions. Results 124 meta-analyses were included in the study, 49 (40%) of which had financial ties to one drug company. On univariate logistic regression analyses, meta-analyses of better methodological quality were more likely to have favourable results (odds ratio 1.16, 95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.27). Although financial ties to one drug company were not associated with favourable results, such ties constituted the only characteristic significantly associated with favourable conclusions (4.09, 1.30 to 12.83). When controlling for other characteristics of meta-analyses in multiple logistic regression analyses, meta-analyses that had financial ties to one drug company remained more likely to report favourable conclusions (5.11, 1.54 to 16.92). Conclusion Meta-analyses on antihypertensive drugs and with financial ties to one drug company are not associated with favourable results but are associated with favourable conclusions.

2007-01-01

214

Overdrive transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an overdrive transmission device for use with a motor vehicle. It consists of: a housing; a driving shaft rotatably mounted within the housing; a planetary gear-train; a driven shaft rotatably mounted in the housing and driven by the planetary gear train; and, a device for selectively connecting the planetary gear carrier to the housing or to the driven shaft for rotation; a hydraulically actuated piston adapted to forcibly contact the clutch friction members of the second clutch; a source of working fluid; a pump in fluid flow communication with the source of working fluid; a first valve downstream of the pump and in fluid flow communication with the pump and the hydraulically activated piston.

Miller, G.F.

1986-02-04

215

Results of Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIE`S) conducted on the A-01 outfall and its contributory waste streams, July 1996--February 1997  

SciTech Connect

Toxicity tests were conducted at nine locations during the summer of 1996. The results indicated that A-01B, A-01C, A-03, A-04, A-05 and A-01 were toxic to the test species, Ceriodaphnia dubia, while A-01A, A-06, and WE-01 were not toxic. Beginning in August 1996, Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIE`s) were initiated on all toxic outfalls in order to identify the toxicants responsible for the observed toxicity. A complete TIE was performed on A-01 because it is the regulatory compliance point for all of the combined waste streams that were tested. Only the portions of a TIE that are related to metal and chlorine toxicity were performed on the remaining locations because existing data indicated that metals and chlorine were present in potentially toxic quantities at these locations, and there was no evidence that other toxicants would be expected to be present in toxic amounts. The results of the TIE`s indicate that metals are responsible for most of the toxicity at all of the outfalls that were toxic and that chlorine contributed to the toxicity at two of the outfalls. Specifically, the toxicity at A-01B, A-01C, and A-01 was due to copper; the toxicity at A-03 was due to primarily to copper, although zinc also contributed to the toxicity; the toxicity at A-04 was due primarily to copper, with residual chlorine and zinc contributing to the toxicity; and the toxicity at A-05 was due primarily to copper, with residual chlorine contributing to the toxicity. A-03 was the most toxic outfall, with 100% mortality occurring at concentrations as low as 12.5% effluent. A-03 was found to have concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc that exceeded EPA water quality criteria by approximately two orders of magnitude. The metal concentrations at A-01 and WE-01, which is located approximately 0.5 miles downstream from A-01 were similar. However, A-01 was toxic, while WE-01 was not.

Specht, W.L.

1997-03-01

216

The development of marine Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures using the unicellular alga Nitzschia closterium.  

PubMed

Unicellular algae are highly sensitive to a wide range of toxicants and have been used extensively in ecotoxicological testing. This, along with their ability to grow in very small test volumes over short test durations, make them ideal test organisms for use in Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIEs). Despite this, microalgae have not previously been used in marine TIE studies. In this study, the marine diatom Nitzschia closterium was shown to be a highly suitable test organism after modification of the standard test protocol to reduce test volumes to 6 mL and test duration to 48 h. The alga was tolerant to the chemicals used in phase I of the standard USEPA TIE protocol, and physical TIE manipulations had no effect on algal growth. The cation exchange procedure, however, inhibited algal growth, while the anion exchange procedure stimulated growth, making these two procedures unsuitable for use with this species. Of the buffers trialed for the graduated pH procedure, 0.01 M PIPES buffer was found to be suitable for buffering at pH 7 because it maintained the required pH over the duration of the test and did not affect the growth or sensitivity of the algae to one reference toxicant (copper). A trial TIE on a secondary-treated sewage effluent for discharge into coastal waters showed that the developed protocols could successfully be used to identify ammonia as the major toxicant in the effluent. PMID:15883677

Hogan, A C; Stauber, J L; Pablo, F; Adams, M S; Lim, R P

2005-03-11

217

The effect of plasma flow on line-tied magnetohydrodynamic modes  

SciTech Connect

The linear stability of a linear pinch to kink modes with line-tying boundary conditions and equilibrium axial flow is studied. Numerical results in visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamics show that for long plasmas, in which the line-tying stabilization effect is weak, plasma flow is stabilizing. For shorter plasmas, near the length at which line-tying stabilizes the mode for zero flow, the flow can be destabilizing. A simple model using reduced ideal magnetohydrodynamics with a step-function current density and an even simpler one-dimensional sound wave model with equilibrium flow elucidate these effects. It is concluded that: (1) The stabilization in long plasmas is due to convective stabilization; (2) the destabilization for short plasmas can be explained using a picture involving the coupling of two stable waves, one propagating in the forward direction and one in the backward direction; and (3) strong magnetic shear suppresses the flow destabilization for short plasmas.

Arcudi, Francesco [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino (Italy); Delzanno, Gian Luca; Finn, John M. [T-5, Applied Mathematics and Plasma Physics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2010-06-15

218

A Community of Strangers: The Dis-Embedding of Social Ties  

PubMed Central

In this paper we explore two contrasting perspectives on individuals' participation in associations. On the one hand, some have considered participation the byproduct of pre-existing friendship ties — the more friends one already has in the association, the more likely he or she is to participate. On the other hand, some have considered participation to be driven by the association's capacity to form new identities — the more new friends one meets in the association, the more likely he or she is to participate. We use detailed temporal data from an online association to adjudicate between these two mechanisms and explore their interplay. Our results show a significant impact of new friendship ties on participation, compared to a negligible impact of pre-existing friends, defined here as ties to other members formed outside of the organization's context. We relate this finding to the sociological literature on participation and we explore its implications in the discussion.

Parigi, Paolo; State, Bogdan; Dakhlallah, Diana; Corten, Rense; Cook, Karen

2013-01-01

219

Exploring the Academic Benefits of Friendship Ties for Latino Boys and Girls*  

PubMed Central

Objectives We examine how the racial/ethnic and generational status composition of Latino students' friendship groups is related to their academic achievement and whether there are differential effects by gender. Methods We use multivariate regression analyses to examine the effects of friends' characteristics on Latino students' end of high school grades, utilizing data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study (AHAA), and its parent survey, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Results For Latina girls, there are positive effects of having more friendship ties to third-plus-generation Latino peers in contrast to dominant culture peers; yet Latino boys benefit academically from ties to all co-ethnic peers. Having friends with higher parental education promotes achievement of both genders. Conclusion Our results counter notions of a pervasive negative peer influence of minority youth and suggest that co-ethnic ties are an important source of social capital for Latino students' achievement.

Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; Callahan, Rebecca M.

2010-01-01

220

"Security loop" tie: a new technique to overcome loosening of surgical knots.  

PubMed

Sutures require knots so as to ensure optimal tissue closure strength. Loosening of surgical knots during or after tying can lead to an ineffective suture and compromise the final result. Loosening is affected mainly by the type of suture material and nature of surgical field. In palatal surgery, tying secure knots is a major consideration and may present a technical challenge. In this article, and after a review of the literature, we present a new modification of the usual knot-tying technique to maximize knot security and prevent knot loosening after the first throw is done. This technique was found to be effective, simple, fast, easy to learn, and saves time and material. PMID:17964468

Alzacko, Saadallah Mohammad; Majid, Omer Waleed

2007-11-01

221

The role of resistivity on line-tied kink modes in cylindrical geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation of the effect of resistivity on linear line-tied kink modes is presented in cylindrical geometry. A region near marginal stability, where the line-tied system is stable in ideal magnetohydrodynamics but unstable with resistivity, is shown. In this region, the growth rate is found to be proportional to resistivity. There is no signature of the tearing-like scaling, which occurs in the corresponding system with periodic boundary conditions, or of the formation of boundary layers near the end plates. Instead, the resistive scaling is due to global resistivity, leading to imperfect line-tying. This feature is common to equilibrium pitch profiles that increase or decrease monotonically with radius and is not influenced by viscosity.

Delzanno, G. L.; Evstatiev, E. G.; Finn, J. M.

2007-07-01

222

The Technology Information Environment with Industry (TIE-In): A mechanism for accessing laboratory solutions  

SciTech Connect

The Technology Information Environment with Industry (TIE-In) is a system that helps users obtain laboratory-developed technical solutions without requiring that they duplicate the technical resources (in people, hardware and software) at the national laboratories. TIE-In is based on providing users with controlled access to distributed laboratory resources that are packaged in intelligent user interfaces. These interfaces help users obtain technical solutions without requiring that the user have specialized technical and computer expertise. As a designated DOE Technology Deployment Center/User Facility, industry users can access a broad range of laboratory-developed technologies on a cost-recovery basis. TIE-In will also be used to share laboratory resources with partners in US industry that help the DOE meet future manufacturing needs for the stewardship of our nation`s nuclear weapons stockpile.

Ang, J.A.; Machin, G.D.; Marek, E.L.

1994-12-31

223

A new useful and renewable tie-over dressing method using package bands and bra hooks.  

PubMed

The purposes of the tie-over dressing are to secure a skin graft toward the wound bed to avoid complications such as fluid or blood accumulation and to prevent graft movements over the wound bed. When there is a concern of uneventful graft take because of infection or blood accumulation underneath the graft, it is necessary to check the status of the graft at the postoperative first and subsequent days. Therefore, an ideal tie-over dressing method should not only ensure adequate immobilization and pressure but also be able to be renewed simply and quickly. We developed a new tie-over dressing method by using bra hooks and packing rubber bands to solve these problematic issues. PMID:16929209

Do?an, Fatih; Ozyazgan, Irfan; Eskita?ço?lu, Teoman

2006-09-01

224

Circulating angiopoietin-2 and soluble Tie2 in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Type 2 diabetes is associated with increased levels of Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) and soluble Tie-2 (sTie-2), but its impact on\\u000a vascular disease is still unknown. This study aimed to further explore the associations of Ang-2 and sTie-2 with metabolic\\u000a control and diabetic complications.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In a cross-sectional designed study, levels of Ang-2 and sTie-2 as well as their relationships to cardiometabolic parameters

Sazan Rasul; Marie Helene Reiter; Aysegul Ilhan; Katharina Lampichler; Ludwig Wagner; Alexandra Kautzky-Willer

2011-01-01

225

Influence of instrument size on endoscopic task performance in pediatric intracorporeal knot tying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The widespread availability of adult minimal access surgical (MAS) equipment together with resource constraints have led pediatric\\u000a surgeons to adopt the adult setup. This study examined the influence of instrument size on task outcome and physical impact\\u000a on the surgeon in pediatric endoscopic intracorporeal knot tying.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Sixteen surgeons participated in this study in which they had to tie surgeon’s knots

Alex C. H. Lee; Munther J. Haddad; George B. Hanna

2007-01-01

226

Discovery of Novel Benzimidazoles as Potent Inhibitors of TIE-2 and VEGFR-2 Tyrosine Kinase Receptors  

SciTech Connect

We herein disclose a novel chemical series of benzimidazole-ureas as inhibitors of VEGFR-2 and TIE-2 kinase receptors, both of which are implicated in angiogenesis. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies elucidated a critical role for the N1 nitrogen of both the benzimidazole (segment E) and urea (segment B) moieties. The SAR results were also supported by the X-ray crystallographic elucidation of the role of the N1 nitrogen and the urea moiety when the benzimidazole-urea compounds were bound to the VEGFR-2 enzyme. The left side phenyl ring (segment A) occupies the backpocket where a 3-hydrophobic substituent was favored for TIE-2 activity.

Hasegawa, Masaichi; Nishigaki, Naohiko; Washio, Yoshiaki; Kano, Kazuya; Harris, Philip A.; Sato, Hideyuki; Mori, Ichiro; West, Rob I.; Shibahara, Megumi; Toyoda, Hiroko; Wang, Liping; Nolte, Robert T.; Veal, James M.; Cheung, Mui (GSKNC); (GSK)

2008-09-12

227

Equation-of-State Based Tie-Simplex Parameterization for Multiphase Thermal-Compositional Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes usually involve complex phase behaviors between the injected fluid (e.g., steam, hydrocarbon, CO2, sour) and the in-situ rock-fluid system. Several fundamental questions remain regarding equation-of-state computations for mixtures than can form three, or more, phases at equilibrium. In addition, numerical and computational issues related to proper coupling of the thermodynamic phase-behavior with multiphase flow multi-component transport must be resolved in order to model the behaviors of large-scale EOR processes accurately and efficiently. We describe a general negative-flash method for multi-component, thermal systems that can form three, or more, fluid phases. We prove that the new method is convergent to the unique solution. Based on our multiphase negative-flash technique, we have developed an adaptive tie-simplex parameterization framework for thermal-compositional simulation. We also prove that the tie-simplexes change continuously as a function of pressure, temperature, and composition. The continuity of the parameterized compositional space allows for interpolation in pressure and temperature using a limited number of tie-simplexes. We show that the tie-simplex framework constrains thermodynamic computations, and converges to the global minimum of the Gibbs free energy. The extended negative-flash approach accounts rigorously for tie-simplex degeneration (critical behavior) across phase boundaries. We study the behaviors of thermal-compositional reservoir displacement processes across a wide range of fluid mixtures, pressures, and temperatures. The focus is on the complex behaviors of the tie-triangles and tie-lines associated with three-phase, thermal steam-injection problems in heterogeneous formations. The algorithms that capture the complex combinations of the appearance and disappearance of multiple phases are described in detail. This tie-simplex based parameterization framework is integrated with a general-purpose reservoir simulator, and its accuracy and computational efficiency is demonstrated for several challenging compositional (CO2, four phase sour-gas) and thermal-compositional (steam) models. The nonlinear behaviors are analyzed in terms of the particular displacement process, miscible/immiscible dynamics, number of components, and sensitivity to time step size.

Iranshahr, A.; Voskov, D.; Tchelepi, H. A.

2011-12-01

228

Effects of the Al content on pore structures of porous TieAl alloys  

SciTech Connect

Porous TieAl alloys with different nominal compositions were fabricated through a reactive synthesis of Ti and Al elemental powders. It has been found that the pore parameters vary with the Al contents, indicating that the nature of the pores can be manipulated through changing the Al contents. In addition, detailed structural characterizations showed that the fabricated porous TieAl alloys can have three crystalline phases (i.e., a2-Ti3Al, g-TiAl, and TiAl3) when using different compositions. The fundamental reasons behind these phenomena have been explored.

Jaing, Y [State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China; He, Y H [State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China; Xu, N P [Membrane Science and Technology Research Center, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009, C; Zou, J [School of Engineering and Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Queensland, QLD; Huang, B [State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China; Lui, C T [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

2008-01-01

229

Optimal CBM of Tie Lines between Control Areas under Deregulated Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to keep power supply reliability at a certain level, electric power utilities have a certain amount of reserved capacity. When no generator outage or no unexpected large power demand occurs, however, the reserved capacity is regarded as surplus facility. To reduce the reserved capacity, some margin is reserved in tie lines between utilities. This margin is called Capacity Benefit Margin (CBM). In this study, a method of calculating optimal CBM in tie line under deregulated environment is described and two kind of optimal CBM are proposed. As a result, it is shown how the deregulation affects the optimal CBM by using numerical simulation for IEE Japan West 30 test system.

Kuraishi, Hideaki; Yokoyama, Akihiko

230

Clinical inquiries. When should you treat tongue-tie in a newborn?  

PubMed

Consider treatment when the infant is having difficulty breastfeeding. Infants with mild to moderate tongue-tie, or ankyloglossia, are likely to breastfeed successfully and usually require no treatment (strength of recommendation [SOR]: B, a prospective controlled trial and a case-control study). However, mothers of infants with any degree of tongue-tie who have difficulty with breastfeeding despite lactation support report immediate improvement after frenotomy is performed on the baby. Complications from the procedure are minimal (SOR: B, a small randomized controlled trial [ RCT] and multiple uncontrolled cohort studies and case series). PMID:21135930

Cho, Anthony; Kelsberg, Gary; Safranek, Sarah

2010-12-01

231

Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations  

SciTech Connect

The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

2011-02-01

232

Newspaper Readership and Community Ties; Precision Journalism: Coming of Age. ANPA News Research Report No. 18.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The first of two articles in this report offers a survey of how community ties lead to various psychological needs that are the motivation for newspaper reading. It identifies three distinct audience segments: the traditional audience, with permanent bonds to the community, whose need for information, guidance, and community surveillance leads to…

Stevenson, Robert L.; Ismach, Arnold H.

233

An Optimal FIR Filter for Linear TIE Models of Local Clocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an optimal finite impulse response (FIR) filter for linear TIE models of local clocks. A comparison with the unbiased FIR filter is provided. Estimations are carried out for a local crystal clock using GPS-based sawtooth measurements. As a main conclusion, we notice that an optimal solution does not contribute too much to estimation accuracy and

Yuriy S. Shmaliy

2007-01-01

234

Civic Engagement and Particularized TrustThe Ties that Bind People to their Ethnic Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we argue that not all social connections contribute to social capital as most people have conceived it. People with strong ethnic identifications and who associate primarily with people of their own kind either will withdraw from civic participation or will belong only to organizations made up of their own nationality. People with looser ties to their in-group

Eric M. Uslaner; Richard S. Conley

2003-01-01

235

Efficiency improvement of grid-tied inverters at low input power using pulse skipping control strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulse skipping control strategy is applied to improve efficiency of grid-tied inverter at light load. To maximize the efficiency of pulse skipping operation mode, three key parameters are identified and can be optimized based on a loss model, which is developed to find the maximal efficiency points using three-dimension searching technique. To reduce the potential of pulsating on the power

Haibing Hu; Wisam Al-Hoor; Nasser Kutkut; Issa Batarseh; Z. John Shen

2010-01-01

236

Network structure, position, ties and ICT use in distributed knowledge-intensive work  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we develop a theoretical model based on social network theories and the social influence model to understand how knowledge professionals utilise technology for work and communication. We investigate the association between egocentric network properties (structure, position and tie) and information and communication technology (ICT) use of individuals in knowledge-intensive and geographically dispersed settings. Analysis from data collected

Kon Shing Kenneth Chung; Liaquat Hossain

2008-01-01

237

Social Tie Characteristics and Psychiatric Rehabilitation Outcomes among Adults with Serious Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Social support has achieved national attention as a key component of the mental health recovery paradigm for persons with serious mental illness (SMI). The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of variance accounted for by four social tie characteristics (social network orientation, emotional support, tangible support, and negative…

Chou, Chih-Chin; Chronister, Julie Ann

2012-01-01

238

Addressing Corporate Ties to Slavery: Corporate Apologia in a Discourse of Reconciliation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressured by activists to take responsibility, American corporations recently found themselves in the spotlight for their past ties to slavery. Responding to the issue, they stepped into a complex discourse of reconciliation. Taking a rhetorical approach, this article analyzes the response of Aetna Inc. It explores how corporate rhetoric functions within present discourses about historical injustices and illustrates that Aetna's

Claudia I. Janssen

2012-01-01

239

Social Ties and User Generated Content: Evidence from an Online Social Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use variation in wind speeds at surfing locations in Switzerland as exogenous shifters of users' propensity to post content about their surfing activity onto an online social network. We exploit this variation to test whether users' social ties on the network have a causal effect on their content generation, and whether content generation in turn has a similar causal

Reto Hoffstetter; Harikesh Nair; Scott Shriver; Klaus Miller

2009-01-01

240

Manufacturing AffinityThe Fortification and Expression of Ties between Prison Officers and Crime Victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since at least the 1960s, scholars have argued that public ceremonies serve important practical functions for groups and social movements: bolstering internal cohesion; expressing messages about power, group identity, etc.; and fortifying intergroup ties. This article analyzes ethnographic data on the California Correctional Peace Officers Association (CCPOA), the very successful and powerful labor union that represents prison officers in California.

Joshua Page

2008-01-01

241

TIE2-expressing monocytes/macrophages regulate revascularization of the ischemic limb  

PubMed Central

A third of patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) will eventually require limb amputation. Therapeutic neovascularization using unselected mononuclear cells to salvage ischemic limbs has produced modest results. The TIE2-expressing monocytes/macrophages (TEMs) are a myeloid cell subset known to be highly angiogenic in tumours. This study aimed to examine the kinetics of TEMs in patients with CLI and whether these cells promote neovascularization of the ischemic limb. Here we show that there are 10-fold more circulating TEMs in CLI patients, and removal of ischemia reduces their numbers to normal levels. TEM numbers in ischemic muscle are two-fold greater than normoxic muscle from the same patient. TEMs from patients with CLI display greater proangiogenic activity than TIE2-negative monocytes in vitro. Using a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia, lentiviral-based Tie2 knockdown in TEMs impaired recovery from ischemia, whereas delivery of mouse macrophages overexpressing TIE2, or human TEMs isolated from CLI patients, rescued limb ischemia. These data suggest that enhancing TEM recruitment to the ischemic muscle may have the potential to improve limb neovascularization in CLI patients.

Patel, Ashish S; Smith, Alberto; Nucera, Silvia; Biziato, Daniela; Saha, Prakash; Attia, Rizwan Q; Humphries, Julia; Mattock, Katherine; Grover, Steven P; Lyons, Oliver T; Guidotti, Luca G; Siow, Richard; Ivetic, Aleksandar; Egginton, Stuart; Waltham, Matthew; Naldini, Luigi; De Palma, Michele; Modarai, Bijan

2013-01-01

242

Youth gangs and incarcerated delinquents: Exploring the ties between gang membership, delinquency, and social learning theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the conceptual and empirical ties between membership in youth gangs, youthful misconduct, and Akers's social learning theory. The adolescent population studied, however, is unique: it consists of adjudicated and incarcerated delinquents. The data for the study were obtained by conducting a census of all youths in the custody of the New Mexico Youth Authority in January 1991;

L. Thomas Winfree Jr; G. Larry Mays; Teresa Vigil-Bäckström

1994-01-01

243

The sources of social capital within technology incubators: the roles of historical ties and organizational facilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are currently three divergent views regarding the sources of beneficial social capital within collectivities or networks: historical ties, organizational facilitation, and trust-based shared pursuit of common goals. Technology incubators are newer organizational forms that are created to support and accelerate the development and success of affiliated technology-based ventures. However, it is unclear how social capital that benefits the technological

Joanne L. Scillitoe; Alok K. Chakrabarti

2005-01-01

244

Family Ties and Peso Signs: Challenges for Career Counseling in the Philippines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article provides an overview of the historical development of career counseling in the Philippines from an economic-political perspective. It also raises current challenges and concerns, highlighting the need for a career counseling model that would address, among other things, Filipinos' valued characteristics of close family ties and…

Salazar-Clemena, Rose Marie

2002-01-01

245

Social Tie Characteristics and Psychiatric Rehabilitation Outcomes among Adults with Serious Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social support has achieved national attention as a key component of the mental health recovery paradigm for persons with serious mental illness (SMI). The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of variance accounted for by four social tie characteristics (social network orientation, emotional support, tangible support, and negative…

Chou, Chih-Chin; Chronister, Julie Ann

2012-01-01

246

Structural experimentation: The lintel arch, corbel and tie in western Roman architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper investigates the origins and development of the lintel arch, corbel and metal tie in Roman architecture, concentrating on the structural principles involved and the structural and constructional advantages of each, as a means of investigating the processes of Roman architectural innovation outside the normal parameters of the ‘concrete revolution’. All three devices are seen to derive ultimately from

Janet DeLaine

1990-01-01

247

Project TIES: Towards Inclusion in Early Settings Model Demonstration Project. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report describes the activities and outcomes of Project TIES (Towards Inclusion in Early Education), a federally funded demonstration model training program designed to enhance the abilities of child care providers and trainers to include young children, birth to five, with disabilities in developmentally appropriate child care…

Willis, Clarissa A.

248

Some Aspects of the Elderly Widow(er)'s Persistent Tie with the Deceased Spouse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the deep attachment the widowed elderly often maintain for the deceased spouse, based on naturalistic observations and interviews with six widow(er)s. Five themes of the marital tie continue throughout widowhood, including caring, family feeling, commitment, and reciprocal identity support. (JAC)|

Moss, Miriam S.; Moss, Sidney Z.

1985-01-01

249

Impact of social ties on self reported health in France: Is everyone affected equally?  

PubMed Central

Aim To examine the association of social ties and income with self reported health, in order to investigate if social ties have a greater impact on the health of people on low incomes compared to those financially better off. Methods A nationally representative cross-sectional study of 5205 French adults using data from questionnaires which asked about health, income and relationships with family and friends etc. Results Less than good self-rated health (SRH) is twice as frequently reported by people in the lowest income group than those in the highest income group. People with low incomes are also more likely to have felt alone on the previous day, received no phone call during the last week, have no friends, not be a member of a club, and to live alone. Socially isolated people report lower SRH. Likelihood ratio tests for interaction vs. main effect models were statistically significant for 2 of the measures of social ties, borderline for 2 others and non-significant for one. For 4 of the 5 indicators of social ties, larger odd ratios show that social isolation is more strongly associated with less than good SRH among people on low incomes compared to those with a higher income. Conclusion Social isolation is associated with 'less than good' self-rated health. This effect appears to be more important for people on a low income.

Heritage, Zoe; Wilkinson, Richard G; Grimaud, Olivier; Pickett, Kate E

2008-01-01

250

Language of the People Forever: Bay Mills Spins Thread Tying Ojibwa Communities Together  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Why would anyone want to spend thousands of hours away from home and pay hundreds of dollars in tuition to acquire one of the world's most difficult languages? For Anishinaabe people, that is an easy question to answer. The Ojibwe language is the thread that ties communities together and unites all Anishinaabe as one people sharing a common…

Austin, Brenda

2008-01-01

251

The Strength of Strong Ties: Media Multiplexity, Communication Motives, and the Maintenance of Geographically Close Friendships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Media multiplexity proposes that tie strength drives patterns of media use, more so than the reverse. This study examined connections between friendship quality, CMC motives, and relational maintenance. Participants (N = 350) completed measures of maintenance behaviors, CMC motives, friendship satisfaction and solidarity. Number of channels was weakly related to solidarity. Satisfaction and solidarity had relationships with some of the motives and

Nathan Miczo; Theresa Mariani; Crystal Donahue

2011-01-01

252

Department Bent Grant Rules, GAO Finds. Award Tied to Bennett's Former Firm Questioned  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The U.S. Department of Education (DOE) bypassed its own policies when officials awarded a grant early in President Bush's first term that benefited a company founded by former Secretary of Education William J. Bennett, as well as others to groups with close ties to the administration, federal auditors have concluded. The Government Accountability…

Davis, Michelle R.

2006-01-01

253

EXOTIC DANCERS: GENDER DIFFERENCES IN SOCIETAL REACTION, SUBCULTURAL TIES, AND CONVENTIONAL SUPPORT  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the world of female and male exotic dancers. Utilizing Hirschi's Bonding theory, we look at gender differences in societal reaction, subcultural ties, and conventional support among dancers in a large metropolitan area. We surveyed 56 respondents from 18 exotic dancing establishments. Female dancers are less likely than male dancers to receive community support for dancing as a way

Constance Bernard; Christen DeGabrielle; Lynette Cartier; Elizabeth Monk-Turner; Celestine Phill; Jennifer Sherwood; Thomasena Tyree

254

Why Organizational Ties Matter for Neighborhood Effects: Resource Access through Childcare Centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

How does neighborhood poverty affect the poor's ability to access resources such as health care and job information? Most studies have focused on individuals or neighborhoods; we focus on organizations – specifically, whether organizations are less connected if located in poor neighborhoods. Our case study is childcare centers. We ask whether centers' organizational ties provide parents access to important resources,

Mario Luis Small; Erin M. Jacobs; Rebekah Peeples Massengill

2008-01-01

255

Tongue-Tied: The Lives of Multilingual Children in Public Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Tongue-Tied is an anthology that gives voice to millions of people who, on a daily basis, are denied the opportunity to speak in their own language. First-person accounts by Amy Tan, Sherman Alexie, Bell Hooks, Richard Rodriguez, Maxine Hong Kingston, and many other authors open windows into the lives of linguistic minority students and their…

Santa Ana, Otto

2004-01-01

256

Financial Ties between DSM-IV Panel Members and the Pharmaceutical Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Increasing attention has been given to the transparency of potential conflicts of interest in clinical medicine and biomedical sciences, particularly in journal publishing and science advisory panels. The authors examined the degree and type of financial ties to the pharmaceutical industry of panel members responsible for revisions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders(DSM). Methods: By using

Lisa Cosgrove; Sheldon Krimsky; Manisha Vijayaraghavan; Lisa Schneider

2006-01-01

257

Increasing Condom-Related Behavioral Intentions, Motivation, and Willingness via Social Ties in Advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although researchers have identified factors associated with increased condom use, STI prevalence rates are still high, and condom use rates are still low. Various advertising techniques have been implemented to increase condom use, but these techniques are largely self-focused. Based on research in exercise adherence and cognitive interdependence, this study used advertisements targeting social ties to increase condom use. One

MaryleeRichardson

2008-01-01

258

Experience with elastic rubber bands for the tie-over dressing in skin graft  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derived a dressing using elastic rubber bands to tie over the skin graft. This is a simple, easy to perform, timesaving, inexpensive and reliable method for applying pressure over the skin graft compared with traditional methods. Between September 2002 and August 2004, we have used the present dressing technique in 35 patients with 36 grafts in various parts of

Li-Fu Cheng; Jiunn-Tat Lee; Trong-Duo Chou; Tai-Feng Chiu; Tzong-Bor Sun; Chien-Hsing Wang; Sou-Hsin Chien; Hsian-Jenn Wang

2006-01-01

259

How do family ties, boards and regulation affect pay at the top? Evidence for Indian CEOs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the effects of corporate governance factors and family ties on the pay of managing directors in a sample of Indian stock listed companies. It uses a unique seven-year firm level panel dataset and controls for firm performance and both CEO and firm specific fixed effects. The hypothesis is that corporate governance, ownership structures and market pressure shape

Sonja Fagernäs

2006-01-01

260

Digital controller development for grid-tied photovoltaic inverter with model based technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective for a grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) inverter is to feed the harvested energy from PV panels to the grid with high efficiency and high power quality. A digital controller is the ¿heart¿ of the PV system: it calculates the maximum power point (MPP) and regulates the output current to meet the utility inter-connection standards. This paper introduced a

Zhigang Liang; Larry Alesi; Xiaohu Zhou; Alex Q. Huang

2010-01-01

261

The Strength of Weak Ties in Electronic Development of the Scholarly Communication System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three overlapping models of new technology diffusion are described in relation to the Internet: (1) individual threshold; (2) critical mass; and (3) strength of weak ties. The prospective role of academic libraries in the electronic development of the scholarly communication system is discussed, and further research is suggested. (55 references)…

Schwartz, Charles A.

1994-01-01

262

A Cyclosporine-Sensitive Psoriasis-Like Disease Produced in Tie2 Transgenic Mice  

PubMed Central

Psoriasis is a common, persistent skin disorder characterized by recurrent erythematous lesions thought to arise as a result of inflammatory cell infiltration and activation of keratinocyte proliferation. Unscheduled angiogenic growth has also been proposed to mediate the pathogenesis of psoriasis although the cellular and molecular basis for this response remains unclear. Recently, a role for the angiopoietin signaling system in psoriasis has been suggested by studies that demonstrate an up-regulation of the tyrosine kinase receptor Tie2 (also known as Tek) as well as angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 in human psoriatic lesions. To examine temporal expression of Tie2, we have developed a binary transgenic approach whereby expression of Tie2 can be conditionally regulated by the presence of tetracycline analogs in double-transgenic mice. A psoriasis-like phenotype developed in double-transgenic animals within 5 days of birth and persisted throughout adulthood. The skin of affected mice exhibited many cardinal features of human psoriasis including epidermal hyperplasia, inflammatory cell accumulation, and altered dermal angiogenesis. These skin abnormalities resolved completely with tetracycline-mediated suppression of transgene expression, thereby illustrating a complete dependence on Tie2 signaling for disease maintenance and progression. Furthermore, the skin lesions in double-transgenic mice markedly improved after administration of the immunosuppressive anti-psoriatic agent cyclosporine, thus demonstrating the clinical significance of this new model.

Voskas, Daniel; Jones, Nina; Van Slyke, Paul; Sturk, Celina; Chang, Wing; Haninec, Alex; Babichev, Yael Olya; Tran, Jennifer; Master, Zubin; Chen, Stephen; Ward, Nicole; Cruz, Maribelle; Jones, Jamie; Kerbel, Robert S.; Jothy, Serge; Dagnino, Lina; Arbiser, Jack; Klement, Giannoula; Dumont, Daniel J.

2005-01-01

263

A cyclosporine-sensitive psoriasis-like disease produced in Tie2 transgenic mice.  

PubMed

Psoriasis is a common, persistent skin disorder characterized by recurrent erythematous lesions thought to arise as a result of inflammatory cell infiltration and activation of keratinocyte proliferation. Unscheduled angiogenic growth has also been proposed to mediate the pathogenesis of psoriasis although the cellular and molecular basis for this response remains unclear. Recently, a role for the angiopoietin signaling system in psoriasis has been suggested by studies that demonstrate an up-regulation of the tyrosine kinase receptor Tie2 (also known as Tek) as well as angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 in human psoriatic lesions. To examine temporal expression of Tie2, we have developed a binary transgenic approach whereby expression of Tie2 can be conditionally regulated by the presence of tetracycline analogs in double-transgenic mice. A psoriasis-like phenotype developed in double-transgenic animals within 5 days of birth and persisted throughout adulthood. The skin of affected mice exhibited many cardinal features of human psoriasis including epidermal hyperplasia, inflammatory cell accumulation, and altered dermal angiogenesis. These skin abnormalities resolved completely with tetracycline-mediated suppression of transgene expression, thereby illustrating a complete dependence on Tie2 signaling for disease maintenance and progression. Furthermore, the skin lesions in double-transgenic mice markedly improved after administration of the immunosuppressive anti-psoriatic agent cyclosporine, thus demonstrating the clinical significance of this new model. PMID:15743796

Voskas, Daniel; Jones, Nina; Van Slyke, Paul; Sturk, Celina; Chang, Wing; Haninec, Alex; Babichev, Yael Olya; Tran, Jennifer; Master, Zubin; Chen, Stephen; Ward, Nicole; Cruz, Maribelle; Jones, Jamie; Kerbel, Robert S; Jothy, Serge; Dagnino, Lina; Arbiser, Jack; Klement, Giannoula; Dumont, Daniel J

2005-03-01

264

Fake ID Use Tied to High-Risk Drinking by Underage Students  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. Fake ID Use Tied to High-Risk Drinking by Underage Students Study suggests practice may lead ... Thursday, October 17, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Page Underage Drinking THURSDAY, Oct. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Among students who ...

265

Social Ties and Cognitive Recovery after Stroke: Does Social Integration Promote Cognitive Resilience?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Little is known about the possible effects of social resources on stroke survivors’ level and change in cognitive outcomes. Understanding this association may help us identify strategies to improve stroke recovery and help elucidate the etiology of dementia. Methods: We examined the relationship of social ties and social support to cognitive function and cognitive change 6 months after stroke.

M. Maria Glymour; Jennifer Weuve; Martha E. Fay; Thomas Glass; Lisa F. Berkman

2008-01-01

266

The Influence of Social Network Ties on Recreation and Leisure: An Exploratory Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study examined how generalized patterns of social network ties influenced personal choices for leisure behavior. Researchers interviewed 44 people in a small Washington town regarding their participation in 25 outdoor recreation activities, weekly leisure pursuits, and interpersonal relationships. Results suggest network relationships facilitate…

Stokowski, Patricia A.; Lee, Robert G.

1991-01-01

267

Social Support and Social Network Ties among the Homeless in a Downtown Atlanta Park  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study applies a typology of social support with 3 categories of social networks to investigate social ties and their benefits for homeless people. Data were derived from a 2-year long series of participant observations of homeless or precariously housed people who came regularly to a downtown Atlanta public park. The findings are as follows:…

Reitzes, Donald C.; Crimmins, Timothy J.; Yarbrough, Johanna; Parker, Josie

2011-01-01

268

Ties that Spatially Bind? A Relational Account of the Causes of Spatial Firm Mobility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knoben J. and Oerlemans L. A. G. Ties that spatially bind? A relational account of the causes of spatial firm mobility, Regional Studies. The existing literature on the spatial mobility of firms neglects inter-organizational relations. This is striking since there is a strong theoretical argument that firms with a high level of (localized) embeddedness are unlikely to relocate. Therefore, the

J. Knoben; L. A. G. Oerlemans

2007-01-01

269

Laptop image transmission equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imagery and other visual information have become a critical element in planning and performing modern military operations. The effectiveness of this imagery information is often directly tied to the time it takes to get from the collector of this imagery to the user of the imagery. Hard copy distribution of annotated imagery to the tactical commander is hampered by the

Michael M. Mocenter

1991-01-01

270

Method for evaluating bow tie filter angle-dependent attenuation in CT: Theory and simulation results  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Dosimetry in computed tomography (CT) is increasingly based on Monte Carlo studies that define the dose in the patient (in mGy) as a function of air kerma (free in air) at isocenter (mGy). The accuracy of Monte Carlo studies depends in part on the accuracy of the characterization of the bow tie filter for a given CT scanner model. A simple method for characterizing the bow tie filter attenuation profile in CT scanners would therefore be very useful. The theory behind such a method is proposed. Methods: A measurement protocol is discussed mathematically and demonstrated using computer simulation. The proposed method requires the placement of a radiation monitor at the periphery of the CT field, and the time domain signal (kerma rate versus time) is measured with good temporal resolution ({approx}200 Hz or better) and with all other objects (e.g., patient couch) retracted from the field of view. Knowledge of the source to isocenter distance (or alternately, the isocenter to probe distance) is required. The stationary detector records the kerma rate versus time signal as the gantry rotates through several revolutions. From this temporal data, signal processing techniques are used to extract in-phase peaks, as well as out-of-phase kerma rate levels. From these data, the distance from isocenter to the probe can be determined (or, alternatively, the source to isocenter distance), and the angle-dependent bow tie filter attenuation can be computed. By measuring the angle-dependent bow tie filter attenuation at several kVp settings, the bow tie composition versus fan angle can be computed using basis decomposition techniques. Results: The simulations illustrated that with 2% added noise in the kerma rate versus time signal, the attenuation properties of a hypothetical two component (aluminum and polymethyl methacrylate) bow tie filter could be determined (r{sup 2}>0.99). Although the computed basis material thicknesses were not exactly equal to the actual thicknesses, their combined attenuation factors matched that of the actual filter across kVp's to within an average of 0.057%. Conclusions: It is concluded that the proposed method may provide a simple noninvasive approach to characterizing the performance of bow tie filters in CT systems; however, experimental validation is necessary.

Boone, John M. [Department of Radiology and Department of Biomedical Engineering, UC Davis Medical Center, University of California, Davis, 4860 Y Street, Suite 3100, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)

2010-01-15

271

Optimum Time Step and Memory for GPS-based Unbiased FIR Estimates of the Local Clock TIE Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we address a theoretical analysis of errors of the l-degree unbiased finite impulse response (FIR) filter applied to the if-degree time interval error (TIE) model of a local clock. Emphasizing the fact that the TIE model originates from the slowly changing Brownian phase and thus cannot obligatorily be distinct on a horizon of N points, we investigate

Yuriy S. Shmaliy; Jorge Munoz-Diaz; Luis Arceo-Miquel; Oscar Ibarra-Manzano

2007-01-01

272

49 CFR 1242.15 - Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material...Expenses-Way and Structures § 1242.15 Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track...

2011-10-01

273

49 CFR 1242.15 - Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2006-10-01 2006-10-01 false Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material...Expenses-Way and Structures § 1242.15 Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track...

2006-10-01

274

49 CFR 1242.15 - Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material...Expenses-Way and Structures § 1242.15 Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track...

2012-10-01

275

49 CFR 1242.15 - Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2008-10-01 2008-10-01 false Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material...Expenses-Way and Structures § 1242.15 Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track...

2008-10-01

276

49 CFR 1242.15 - Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material...Expenses-Way and Structures § 1242.15 Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track...

2010-10-01

277

49 CFR 1242.15 - Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2007-10-01 2007-10-01 false Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material...Expenses-Way and Structures § 1242.15 Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track...

2007-10-01

278

49 CFR 1242.15 - Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material...Expenses-Way and Structures § 1242.15 Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track...

2009-10-01

279

Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from creosoted railroad ties and their relevance for life cycle assessment (LCA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the analysis of cross sections of railroad ties, which were in use for up to 46 years, inventory, emission factors and total yearly emissions of creosote, PAH and phenols from the Swiss railway network were determined. During the service time of a railroad tie of 20 to 30 years, roughly 5 kg creosote are emitted. PAH emissions are

M. Kohler; T. Künniger

2003-01-01

280

Social Networks and Planned Organizational ChangeThe Impact of Strong Network Ties on Effective Change Implementation and Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of 40 units in a large multinational corporation considers the influence of the density of networks of strong ties on the implementation of planned organizational change between organizational units and unit leaders in both a change implementation and a change recipient network. Also examined are the effects of the density of networks of strong ties within the change

Ramkrishnan V. Tenkasi; Marshal C. Chesmore

2003-01-01

281

Finite element analyses of continuous filament ties for masonry applications:final report for the Arquin Corporation.  

SciTech Connect

Finite-element analyses were performed to simulate the response of a hypothetical masonry shear wall with and without continuous filament ties to various lateral loads. The loads represented three different scenarios: (1) 100 mph wind, (2) explosive attack, and (3) an earthquake. In addition, a static loading analysis and cost comparison were performed to evaluate optimal materials and designs for the spacers affixed to the filaments. Results showed that polypropylene, ABS, and polyethylene (high density) were suitable materials for the spacers based on performance and cost, and the short T-spacer design was optimal based on its performance and functionality. Results of the shear-wall loading simulations revealed that simulated walls with the continuous filament ties yielded factors of safety that were at least ten times greater than those without the ties. In the explosive attack simulation (100 psi), the simulated wall without the ties failed (minimum factor of safety was less than one), but the simulated wall with the ties yielded a minimum factor of safety greater than one. Simulations of the walls subject to lateral loads caused by 100 mph winds (0.2 psi) and seismic events with a peak ground acceleration of 1 ''g'' (0.66 psi) yielded no failures with or without the ties. Simulations of wall displacement during the seismic scenarios showed that the wall with the ties resulted in a maximum displacement that was 20% less than the wall without the ties.

Quinones, Armando (Arquin Corporation, La Luz, NM); Bibeau, Tiffany A.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

2006-06-01

282

Weak ties: Subtle role of information diffusion in online social networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a social media, online social networks play a vital role in the social information diffusion. However, due to its unique complexity, the mechanism of the diffusion in online social networks is different from the ones in other types of networks and remains unclear to us. Meanwhile, few works have been done to reveal the coupled dynamics of both the structure and the diffusion of online social networks. To this end, in this paper, we propose a model to investigate how the structure is coupled with the diffusion in online social networks from the view of weak ties. Through numerical experiments on large-scale online social networks, we find that in contrast to some previous research results, selecting weak ties preferentially to republish cannot make the information diffuse quickly, while random selection can achieve this goal. However, when we remove the weak ties gradually, the coverage of the information will drop sharply even in the case of random selection. We also give a reasonable explanation for this by extra analysis and experiments. Finally, we conclude that weak ties play a subtle role in the information diffusion in online social networks. On one hand, they act as bridges to connect isolated local communities together and break through the local trapping of the information. On the other hand, selecting them as preferential paths to republish cannot help the information spread further in the network. As a result, weak ties might be of use in the control of the virus spread and the private information diffusion in real-world applications.

Zhao, Jichang; Wu, Junjie; Xu, Ke

2010-07-01

283

Down hole transmission system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. The electrically conducting coil comprises at least two generally fractional loops. In the preferred embodiment, the transmission elements are connected by an electrical conductor. Preferably, the electrical

David R. Hall; Hall Jr. H. Tracy

2007-01-01

284

The Missing Link: the Role of Floodplain Tie Channels in Connecting Off River Water Bodies to Lowland Rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along lowland river systems across the globe the exchange of water, sediment, carbon, nutrients and biota between main stem rivers and off-river water bodies (ORWB) is facilitated by the presence of stable secondary channels referred to here as tie channels. Sixty five percent of the ORWB along the middle Fly River in Papua New Guinea connect to the river through such channels. A similar percentage of the 37 ORWB located between Baton Rouge and Memphis on the lower Mississippi River at one time were linked to the river by tie or batture (as they are locally known) channels. Levee construction and other alterations aimed at flood control or navigation on the Mississippi have left only a handful of lakes connected to the river, of these, most are heavily altered by dredging or other modifications. Tie channels were also once common along major tributaries to the Mississippi, such as the Red River. In the much less disturbed Alaskan environment, tie channels are still common, especially along Birch Creek and the Koyukuk and Black rivers. Our studies on the Mississippi River, in Alaska and in Papua New Guinea indicate that tie channels possess a common channel form that is stable and self-maintaining for hundreds to possibly a thousand years. Tie channels exhibit narrow width to depth ratios (~ 5.5) and consistently scale in cross-sectional dimensions to the size of the lake into which they flow. Variations in river and lake stage drive flow bi-directionally through tie channels. A local high or sill in the bed of tie channels controls the degree and duration of connection between the river and ORWB, with many lakes becoming isolated during periods of low stage. The life-span of a tie channel depends on the rate of sediment loading to the ORWB. Our research indicates that this rate directly corresponds to the sediment loading in the main stem river. Along the Fly River, for example, a 5 to 7 fold increase in the river sediment load has resulted increases of 6 to 17 times in tie channel progradation rates. In a few instances Fly River tie channels have become filled with sediment following the increase in sediment loading. The precise role of tie channels in the ecology of lowland river systems has yet to be quantified, but given their critical role in connecting rivers with floodplain habitats it is likely they provide an important source of refuge, breeding habitat, and biomass production for many aquatic organisms. As restoration efforts increasingly focus on the improving or reestablishing connectivity between lowland rivers and their floodplains, consideration should be given as to whether tie channels are an important missing component of such systems.

Rowland, J. C.; Dietrich, W. E.; Day, G.

2005-05-01

285

Global TIE Observatories: Real Time Observational Astronomy Through a Robotic Telescope Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy in grades K-12 is traditionally taught (if at all) using textbooks and a few simple hands-on activities. Teachers are generally not trained in observational astronomy techniques and are unfamiliar with the most basic astronomical concepts. In addition, most students, by High School graduation, will never have even looked through the eyepiece of a telescope. The problem becomes even more challenging in inner cities, remote rural areas and low socioeconomic communities where educational emphasis on topics in astronomy as well as access to observing facilities is limited or non existent. Access to most optical telescope facilities is limited to monthly observing nights that cater to a small percentage of the general public living near the observatory. Even here, the observing experience is a one-time event detached from the process of scientific enquiry and sustained educational application. Additionally, a number of large, "research grade" observatory facilities are largely unused, partially due to the slow creep of light pollution around the facilities as well as the development of newer, more capable telescopes. Though cutting edge science is often no longer possible at these sights, real research opportunities in astronomy remain numerous for these facilities as educational tools. The possibility now exists to establish a network of research grade telescopes, no longer useful to the professional astronomical community, that can be made accessible through classrooms, after school, and community based programs all across the country through existing IT technologies and applications. These telescopes could provide unparalleled research and educational opportunities for a broad spectrum of students and turns underutilized observatory facilities into valuable, state-of-the-art teaching centers. The NASA sponsored Telescopes In Education project has been wildly successful in engaging the K-12 education community in real-time, hands-on, interactive astronomy activities. Hundreds of schools in the US, Australia, Canada, England, and Japan have participated in the TIE program, remotely controlling the 24-inch telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory from their classrooms. In recent years, several (approximately 20 to date) other telescopes have been, or are in the process of being, outfitted for remote use as TIE affiliates. Global TIE integrates these telescopes seamlessly into one virtual observatory and provides the services required to operate this facility, including a scheduling service, tools for data manipulation, an online proposal review environment, an online "Virtual TIE Student Ap J" for publication of results, and access to related educational materials provided by the TIE community. This presentation describes the Global TIE Observatory data and organizational systems and details the technology, partnerships, operational capabilities, science applications, and learning opportunities that this powerful virtual observatory network will provide.

Clark, G.; Mayo, L. A.

2001-12-01

286

Longitudinal analysis of large social networks: Estimating the effect of health traits on changes in friendship ties  

PubMed Central

We develop novel mixed effects models to examine the role of health traits on the status of peoples' close friendship nominations in the Framingham Heart Study. The health traits considered are both mutable (body mass index (BMI), smoking, blood pressure, body proportion, muscularity, and depression) and, for comparison, basically immutable (height, birth order, personality type, only child, and handedness); and the traits have varying degrees of observability. We test the hypotheses that existing ties (i.e. close friendship nominations) are more likely to dissolve between people with dissimilar (mutable and observable) health traits whereas new ties are more likely to form between those with similar (mutable and observable) traits while controlling for persons' age, gender, geographic separation, and education. The mixed effects models contain random effects for both the nominator (ego) and nominated (alter) persons in a tie to account for the fact that people were involved in multiple relationships and contributed observations at multiple exams. Results for BMI support the hypotheses that people of similar BMI are less likely to dissolve existing ties and more likely to form ties, while smoker to non-smoker ties were the least likely to dissolve and smoker to smoker ties were the most likely to form. We also validated previously known findings regarding homophily on age and gender, and found evidence that homophily also depends upon geographic separation. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

O'Malley, A James; Christakis, Nicholas A

2011-01-01

287

Twist1 Controls Lung Vascular Permeability and Endotoxin-Induced Pulmonary Edema by Altering Tie2 Expression  

PubMed Central

Tight regulation of vascular permeability is necessary for normal development and deregulated vascular barrier function contributes to the pathogenesis of various diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, cancer and inflammation. The angiopoietin (Ang)-Tie2 pathway is known to control vascular permeability. However, the mechanism by which the expression of Tie2 is regulated to control vascular permeability has not been fully elucidated. Here we show that transcription factor Twist1 modulates pulmonary vascular leakage by altering the expression of Tie2 in a context-dependent way. Twist1 knockdown in cultured human lung microvascular endothelial cells decreases Tie2 expression and phosphorylation and increases RhoA activity, which disrupts cell-cell junctional integrity and increases vascular permeability in vitro. In physiological conditions, where Ang1 is dominant, pulmonary vascular permeability is elevated in the Tie2-specific Twist1 knockout mice. However, depletion of Twist1 and resultant suppression of Tie2 expression prevent increase in vascular permeability in an endotoxin-induced lung injury model, where the balance of Angs shifts toward Ang2. These results suggest that Twist1-Tie2-Angs signaling is important for controlling vascular permeability and modulation of this mechanism may lead to the development of new therapeutic approaches for pulmonary edema and other diseases caused by abnormal vascular permeability.

Mammoto, Tadanori; Jiang, Elisabeth; Jiang, Amanda; Lu, Yongbo; Juan, Aimee M.; Chen, Jing; Mammoto, Akiko

2013-01-01

288

Neighborhood disorder, fear, and mistrust: the buffering role of social ties with neighbors.  

PubMed

This paper proposes that individuals who report that they live in neighborhoods characterized by disorder--by crime, vandalism, graffiti, danger, noise, dirt, and drugs--have high levels of fear and mistrust. It further proposes that an individual's alliances and connections with neighbors can buffer the negative effects of living in a neighborhood characterized by disorder on fear and mistrust. Results from a representative sample of 2482 Illinois residents collected by telephone in 1995 support the propositions. Living in a neighborhood with a lot of perceived disorder significantly affects mistrust and the fear of victimization, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Perceived neighborhood disorder and social ties significantly interact: informal social ties with neighbors reduce the fear- and mistrust-producing effects of disorder. However, formal participation in neighborhood organizations shows little buffering effect. PMID:10965384

Ross, C E; Jang, S J

2000-08-01

289

Effects of line tying on resistive tearing instability in slab geometry  

SciTech Connect

The effects of line tying on resistive tearing instability in slab geometry are studied within the framework of reduced magnetohydrodynamics [B. B. Kadomtsev and O. P. Pogutse, Sov. Phys. JETP 38, 283 (1974); H. R. Strauss, Phys. Fluids 19, 134 (1976)]. It is found that line tying has a stabilizing effect. The tearing mode is stabilized when the system length L is shorter than a critical length L{sub c}, which is independent of the resistivity {eta}. When L is not too much longer than L{sub c}, the growth rate {gamma} is proportional to {eta}. When L is sufficiently long, the tearing mode scaling {gamma}{approx}{eta}{sup 3/5} is recovered. The transition from {gamma}{approx}{eta} to {gamma}{approx}{eta}{sup 3/5} occurs at a transition length L{sub t}{approx}{eta}{sup -2/5}.

Huang Yimin [Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas and Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Zweibel, Ellen G. [Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas and Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2009-04-15

290

Mending leaky blood vessels: the angiopoietin-Tie2 pathway in sepsis.  

PubMed

Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to infection. A common end-feature, these patients regularly suffer from is the so-called multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, an often fatal consequence of organ hypoperfusion, coagulopathy, immune dysregulation,and mitochondrial dysfunction. Microvascular dysfunction critically contributes to the morbidity and mortality of this disease. The angiopoietin (Angpt)/Tie2 system consists of the transmembrane endothelial tyrosine kinase Tie2 and its circulating ligands (Angpt-1,-2, and -3/4). The balance between the canonical agonist Angpt-1 and its competitive inhibitor, Angpt-2, regulates basal endothelial barrier function and the leakage and vascular inflammation that develop in response to pathogens and cytokines. Here we summarize recent work in mice and men to highlight the therapeutic potential in this pathway to prevent or even reverse microvascular dysfunction in this deadly disease. PMID:23378191

David, Sascha; Kümpers, Philipp; van Slyke, Paul; Parikh, Samir M

2013-02-01

291

Child welfare agency ties to providers and schools and substance abuse treatment use by adolescents.  

PubMed

Policy makers and advocates are increasingly encouraging child-serving organizations to work together. This study examined how child welfare agency ties with substance abuse treatment providers and schools correlated with substance abuse treatment for adolescents receiving child protective services. A sample of adolescents with substance use risk was extracted from a national survey of families engaged with child welfare. Logistic regressions with adjustments for complex survey design used child welfare agency ties to substance abuse treatment providers and schools to predict treatment. As expected, adolescents were more likely to report treatment when child protective services and substance abuse treatment were in the same agency and when child welfare agency directors reported joint planning with schools. However, child welfare agency agreements with substance abuse treatment providers were negatively associated with treatment. This unexpected finding implies that agencies may sometimes cooperate to address problems and to improve service utilization. PMID:20870374

Wells, Rebecca; Chuang, Emmeline; Haynes, Lindsey E; Lee, I-Heng; Bai, Yu

2010-09-25

292

The Influence of Family Ties on Men's Prostate Cancer Screening, Biopsy, and Treatment Decisions.  

PubMed

Extensive research has focused on understanding family dynamics of men with prostate cancer. However, little qualitative work has examined the role of family ties on men's prostate cancer decisions across the spectrum of screening, diagnosis, and treatment. Using data from a larger study, we qualitatively explored the influence of family ties on men's prostate cancer decisions. Semistructured interviews were conducted with men ages ?50 (N = 64), and data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach and a series of immersion/crystallization cycles. Three major themes of spousal/family member influence were identified: (a) spousal/family member alliance marked by open communication and shared decision making, (b) men who actively opposed spouse/family member pressure and made final decisions themselves, and (c) men who yielded to spouse/family member pressure. Our findings provide insights into men's relational dynamics that are important to consider for the shared decision-making process across the prostate cancer spectrum. PMID:23459024

Shaw, Eric K; Scott, John G; Ferrante, Jeanne M

2013-03-03

293

Accreditation of midwife lactation consultants to perform infant tongue-tie release.  

PubMed

Infants with a tongue-tie or ankyloglossia have a short lingual frenulum, which can lead to problems with breastfeeding: attachment difficulties, nipple pain and damage, poor weight gain and eventually a reduction in milk supply. Trained clinicians can release the frenulum (frenotomy) in infants having difficulty with breastfeeding. Although traditionally performed by medical practitioners, we argue that this simple procedure is within the scope of practice of other clinicians. This paper outlines the process of setting up and maintaining credentialing for midwife lactation consultants (International Board Certified Lactation Consultants (IBCLCs)) to assess infant tongue-ties and perform frenotomy when appropriate at a tertiary maternity hospital. Since 2005, 11 midwives/IBCLCs have been credentialed to perform frenotomies at The Breastfeeding Education and Support Services at The Royal Women's Hospital in Melbourne, Australia. We believe that nurses/midwives/lactation consultants working in other settings could be trained to perform frenotomies, thus enabling faster resolution of breastfeeding problems. PMID:22103819

Amir, Lisa H; James, Jennifer P; Kelso, Georgie; Moorhead, Anita M

2011-12-01

294

Leaf ties as colonization sites for forest arthropods: an experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary colonization of leaf shelters constructed by caterpillars has been reported from a number of systems. Both the mechanism (larval or adult movement vs. oviposition) and the cues used by arthropods in locating leaf shelters,however,have received little attention. 2. Artificial leaf shelters (i.e. leaf ties or pairs of leaves clipped together to form sandwiches) were constructed on understorey white oak

JOHN T. L ILL; OBERT J. M ARQUIS

295

On Real-Time Optimal FIR Estimation of Linear TIE Models of Local Clocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an optimal finite-impulse response (FIR) filter for the linear time-interval error (TIE) model of a local clock and compare its estimates to those obtained by the unbiased FIR filter via the global positioning system (GPS)-based sawtooth measurements. We show theoretically and verify experimentally that there is no reasonable necessity in using optimal filters for GPS-based

Yuriy S. Shmaliy

2007-01-01

296

Application of “cinch\\/tie” technique to robotic-assisted nephropexy for posterior abdominal wall fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nephropexy remains standard for symptomatic nephroptosis, and several minimally-invasive techniques have been described. Triangulation\\u000a sutures placed between the abdominal wall and the renal capsule are often difficult to tie tightly due to the confined working\\u000a space. We propose a technique modification to fixate the kidney utilizing the da Vinci Surgical System robot and Lapra-Ty\\u000a absorbable suture clips. Four female patients

Scott M. Castle; Watid Karnjanawanichkul; Raymond J. Leveillee

297

Combining coordination chemistry and catalysis to tie a knot by an active-metal template strategy.  

PubMed

Collar and tie men: the smallest trefoil knot reported to date has been prepared by an active metal template synthesis. Copper(I) ions are able to constrain the well-designed structure so that it can form the loops by complexing to the bipyridine moieties in the core of the thread and the two ends of the entangled lace on opposite faces of the loop, before acting as a catalyst to close the lace. PMID:22238238

Romuald, Camille; Coutrot, Frédéric

2012-01-11

298

Examining the Conditional Limits of Relational Governance: Specialized Assets, Performance Ambiguity, and Long-Standing Ties  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract? Despite recognition of the benefits of relational governance in inter-organizational exchanges, factors that may erode its value have received little examination. We extend the literature by asking whether self-interested opportunities and long-standing ties erode the positive association between relational governance and performance. Consistent with transaction cost and moral hazard logics, exchange hazards, particularly asset specificity and difficult performance measurement,

Laura Poppo; Kevin Zheng Zhou; Todd R. Zenger

2008-01-01

299

Tie2Cre Transgenic Mice: A New Model for Endothelial Cell-Lineage Analysis in Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocardial cells are thought to contribute at least in part to the formation of the endocardial cushion mesenchyme. Here, we created Tie2-Cre transgenic mice, in which expression of Cre recombinase is driven by an endothelial-specific promoter\\/enhancer. To analyze the lineage of Cre expressing cells, we used CAG-CAT-Z transgenic mice, in which expression of lacZ is activated only after Cre-mediated recombination.

Yaz Y Kisanuki; Robert E Hammer; Jun-ichi Miyazaki; S. Clay Williams; James A Richardson; Masashi Yanagisawa

2001-01-01

300

A High-Efficiency Grid-Tie Battery Energy Storage System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium-ion-based battery energy storage system has started to become the most popular form of energy storage system for its high charge and discharge efficiency and high energy density. This paper proposes a high-efficiency grid-tie lithium-ion-battery- based energy storage system, which consists of a LiFePO4 -battery- based energy storage and a high-efficiency bidirectional ac-dc converter. The battery management system estimates the

Hao Qian; Jianhui Zhang; Wensong Yu

2011-01-01

301

GNSS-SLR satellite co-location for the estimate of local ties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current realization of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) is based on four different space-geodetic techniques, so that the benefits brought by each observing system to the definition of the frame can compensate for the drawbacks of the others and technique-specific systematic errors might be identified. The strategy used to combine the observations from the different techniques is then of prominent importance for the realization of a precise and stable reference frame. This study concentrates, in particular, on the combination of Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observations by exploiting satellite co-locations. This innovative approach is based on the fact that laser tracking of GNSS satellites, carrying on board laser reflector arrays, allows for the combination of optical and microwave signals in the determination of the spacecraft orbit. Besides, the use of satellite co-locations differs quite significantly from the traditional combination method in which each single technique solution is carried out autonomously and is interrelated in a second step. One of the benefits of the approach adopted in this study is that it allows for an independent validation of the local tie, i.e. of the vector connecting the SLR and GNSS reference points in a multi-techniques station. Typically, local ties are expressed by a single value, measured with ground-based geodetic techniques and taken as constant. In principle, however, local ties might show time variations likely caused by the different monumentation characteristics of the GNSS antennas with respect to those of a SLR system. This study evaluates the possibility of using the satellite co-location approach to generate local-ties time series by means of observations available for a selected network of ILRS stations. The data analyzed in this study were acquired as part of the NASA's Earth Science Data Systems and are archived and distributed by the Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS).

Bruni, Sara; Zerbini, Susanna; Errico, Maddalena; Santi, Efisio

2013-04-01

302

11Level cascaded H-bridge grid-tied inverter interface with solar panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a single-phase 11-level (5 H-bridges) cascade multilevel DC-AC grid-tied inverter. Each inverter bridge is connected to a 200 W solar panel. OPAL-RT lab was used as the hardware in the loop (HIL) real-time control system platform where a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm was implemented based on the inverter output power to assure optimal operation of

Faete Filho; Yue Cao; Leon M. Tolbert

2010-01-01

303

The Impact of the Internet on Local and Distant Social Ties  

Microsoft Academic Search

People use various modes of communication to maintain their social networks, both local and distant. In the United States,\\u000a Internet use has been growing steadily, and electronic mail has consistently been the most popular online activity. We investigate\\u000a the effect of online communication with social ties in the highly networked community of Blacksburg, VA, and surrounding rural\\u000a Montgomery County. We

A. Kavanaugh; T. T. Zin; M. B. Rosson; J. M. Carroll

304

Marital Status, Family Ties, and Self-rated Health Among Elders In South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the impact of familial social support ties (indicated by marital status, kin availability, sources of\\u000a economic support, and frequency and quality of emotional interaction) on subjective health perception among a sample of elderly\\u000a men and women aged 60 and older in South India. We used 1993 survey data from three states of South India: Kerala, Tamil Nadu,

S. Sudha; Chirayath Suchindran; Elizabeth J. Mutran; S. Irudaya Rajan; P. Sankara Sarma

2006-01-01

305

Inter-organisational knowledge transfer in social networks: A definition of intermediate ties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A social network perspective helps identify and analyse informal knowledge transfer among people and organisations with the\\u000a aim to recommend organisational interventions and improvements, for example in the form of Information and Communication Technology\\u000a (ICT) support. This paper particularly focuses on a key concept of social network analysis (SNA), the concept of tie strength,\\u000a in an inter-organisational knowledge transfer context.

Silke Retzer; Pak Yoong; Val Hooper

306

Family ties and emotions: a missing piece in the knowledge transfer puzzle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to develop a model of knowledge transfer that considers kinship ties and emotions in family-based firms. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – There exist several models, which show how information flows among individuals and within organizations. One school of thought is known as Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), which was initially formulated by Lev Vygotsky, the Founder of the school.

Rosa Nelly Trevinyo-Rodríguez; Nick Bontis

2010-01-01

307

Local search for stable marriage problems with ties and incomplete lists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stable marriage problem has a wide variety of practical applications,\\u000aranging from matching resident doctors to hospitals, to matching students to\\u000aschools, or more generally to any two-sided market. We consider a useful\\u000avariation of the stable marriage problem, where the men and women express their\\u000apreferences using a preference list with ties over a subset of the members

Mirco Gelain; Maria Silvia Pini; Francesca RossI; Kristen Brent Venable; Toby Walsh

2010-01-01

308

Bow-tie optical antenna probes for single-emitter scanning near-field optical microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the fabrication of bow-tie optical antennas at the apex of pyramidal Si3N4 atomic force microscopy tips is described. We demonstrate that these novel optical probes are capable of sub-wavelength imaging of single quantum dots at room temperature. The enhanced and confined optical near-field at the antenna feed gap leads to locally enhanced photoluminescence (PL) of single quantum

Javad N. Farahani; Hans-Jürgen Eisler; Dieter W. Pohl; Michaël Pavius; Philippe Flückiger; Philippe Gasser; Bert Hecht

2007-01-01

309

A nuclease-resistant RNA aptamer specifically inhibits angiopoietin-1-mediated Tie2 activation and function.  

PubMed

Tie2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is expressed predominantly in the endothelium and plays key roles in both physiological and pathological angiogenesis. The ligands for Tie2, the angiopoietins (Ang), perform opposing functions in vascular maintenance and angiogenesis; Ang1 regulates vascular quiescence, while Ang2 is thought to promote vascular destabilization and facilitate angiogenesis. However, the mechanisms responsible for these differences are not understood. To begin to elucidate the molecular differences between the angiopoietins, we previously developed a specific RNA aptamer inhibitor of Ang2. Here, we used the same iterative in vitro selection process, termed SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment), to screen a library of 2'-fluoro-modified ribonucleotides for Ang1-binding aptamers. After nine rounds of selection, we identified a single clone, ANG9-4, that bound with high affinity to human Ang1 (K ( d ) 2.8 nM) but not Ang2 (K ( d ) > 1 microM), demonstrating specificity for Ang1. ANG9-4 blocked Ang1-mediated Tie2 phosphorylation and downstream Akt activation. Moreover, ANG9-4 inhibited Ang1-induced endothelial cell survival. Together, these findings demonstrate the feasibility of developing an Ang1-inhibitory aptamer. ANG9-4 and its derivatives may provide useful tools for elucidating the biology of Ang1 and for treating certain angiogenic diseases. PMID:19037734

White, Rebekah R; Roy, Julie A; Viles, Kristi D; Sullenger, Bruce A; Kontos, Christopher D

2008-11-27

310

A Nuclease-Resistant RNA Aptamer Specifically Inhibits Angiopoietin-1-Mediated Tie2 Activation and Function  

PubMed Central

Tie2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is expressed predominantly in the endothelium and that plays key roles in both physiological and pathological angiogenesis. The ligands for Tie2, the angiopoietins (Ang), perform opposing functions in vascular maintenance and angiogenesis; Ang1 regulates vascular quiescence, while Ang2 is thought to promote vascular destabilization and facilitate angiogenesis. However, the mechanisms responsible for these differences are not understood. To begin to elucidate the molecular differences between the angiopoietins, we previously developed a specific RNA aptamer inhibitor of Ang2. Here, we used the same iterative in vitro selection process, termed SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment), to screen a library of 2?-fluoro-modified ribonucleotides for Ang1-binding aptamers. After 9 rounds of selection, we identified a single clone, ANG9-4, that bound with high affinity to human Ang1 (Kd 2.8 nM) but not Ang2 (Kd >1 ?M), demonstrating specificity for Ang1. ANG9-4 blocked Ang1-mediated Tie2 phosphorylation and downstream Akt activation. Moreover, ANG9-4 inhibited Ang1-induced endothelial cell survival. Together, these findings demonstrate the feasibility of developing an Ang1-inhibitory aptamer. ANG9-4 and its derivatives may provide useful tools for elucidating the biology of Ang1 and for treating certain angiogenic diseases.

White, Rebekah R.; Roy, Julie A.; Viles, Kristi D.; Sullenger, Bruce A.; Kontos, Christopher D.

2009-01-01

311

Finite element analyses of continuous filament ties for masonry applications : final report for the Arquin Corporation.  

SciTech Connect

Finite-element analyses were performed to simulate the response of a hypothetical vertical masonry wall subject to different lateral loads with and without continuous horizontal filament ties laid between rows of concrete blocks. A static loading analysis and cost comparison were also performed to evaluate optimal materials and designs for the spacers affixed to the filaments. Results showed that polypropylene, ABS, and polyethylene (high density) were suitable materials for the spacers based on performance and cost, and the short T-spacer design was optimal based on its performance and functionality. Simulations of vertical walls subject to static loads representing 100 mph winds (0.2 psi) and a seismic event (0.66 psi) showed that the simulated walls performed similarly and adequately when subject to these loads with and without the ties. Additional simulations and tests are required to assess the performance of actual walls with and without the ties under greater loads and more realistic conditions (e.g., cracks, non-linear response).

Quinones, Armando, Sr. (Arquin Corporation, La Luz, NM); Bibeau, Tiffany A.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

2008-08-01

312

Majority Rules with Random Tie-Breaking in Boolean Gene Regulatory Networks  

PubMed Central

We consider threshold Boolean gene regulatory networks, where the update function of each gene is described as a majority rule evaluated among the regulators of that gene: it is turned ON when the sum of its regulator contributions is positive (activators contribute positively whereas repressors contribute negatively) and turned OFF when this sum is negative. In case of a tie (when contributions cancel each other out), it is often assumed that the gene keeps it current state. This framework has been successfully used to model cell cycle control in yeast. Moreover, several studies consider stochastic extensions to assess the robustness of such a model. Here, we introduce a novel, natural stochastic extension of the majority rule. It consists in randomly choosing the next value of a gene only in case of a tie. Hence, the resulting model includes deterministic and probabilistic updates. We present variants of the majority rule, including alternate treatments of the tie situation. Impact of these variants on the corresponding dynamical behaviours is discussed. After a thorough study of a class of two-node networks, we illustrate the interest of our stochastic extension using a published cell cycle model. In particular, we demonstrate that steady state analysis can be rigorously performed and can lead to effective predictions; these relate for example to the identification of interactions whose addition would ensure that a specific state is absorbing.

Chaouiya, Claudine; Ourrad, Ouerdia; Lima, Ricardo

2013-01-01

313

Social features of online networks: the strength of intermediary ties in online social media.  

PubMed

An increasing fraction of today's social interactions occur using online social media as communication channels. Recent worldwide events, such as social movements in Spain or revolts in the Middle East, highlight their capacity to boost people's coordination. Online networks display in general a rich internal structure where users can choose among different types and intensity of interactions. Despite this, there are still open questions regarding the social value of online interactions. For example, the existence of users with millions of online friends sheds doubts on the relevance of these relations. In this work, we focus on Twitter, one of the most popular online social networks, and find that the network formed by the basic type of connections is organized in groups. The activity of the users conforms to the landscape determined by such groups. Furthermore, Twitter's distinction between different types of interactions allows us to establish a parallelism between online and offline social networks: personal interactions are more likely to occur on internal links to the groups (the weakness of strong ties); events transmitting new information go preferentially through links connecting different groups (the strength of weak ties) or even more through links connecting to users belonging to several groups that act as brokers (the strength of intermediary ties). PMID:22247773

Grabowicz, Przemyslaw A; Ramasco, José J; Moro, Esteban; Pujol, Josep M; Eguiluz, Victor M

2012-01-11

314

Social Features of Online Networks: The Strength of Intermediary Ties in Online Social Media  

PubMed Central

An increasing fraction of today's social interactions occur using online social media as communication channels. Recent worldwide events, such as social movements in Spain or revolts in the Middle East, highlight their capacity to boost people's coordination. Online networks display in general a rich internal structure where users can choose among different types and intensity of interactions. Despite this, there are still open questions regarding the social value of online interactions. For example, the existence of users with millions of online friends sheds doubts on the relevance of these relations. In this work, we focus on Twitter, one of the most popular online social networks, and find that the network formed by the basic type of connections is organized in groups. The activity of the users conforms to the landscape determined by such groups. Furthermore, Twitter's distinction between different types of interactions allows us to establish a parallelism between online and offline social networks: personal interactions are more likely to occur on internal links to the groups (the weakness of strong ties); events transmitting new information go preferentially through links connecting different groups (the strength of weak ties) or even more through links connecting to users belonging to several groups that act as brokers (the strength of intermediary ties).

Grabowicz, Przemyslaw A.; Ramasco, Jose J.; Moro, Esteban; Pujol, Josep M.; Eguiluz, Victor M.

2012-01-01

315

A broadband free-space millimeter-wave vector transmission measurement system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report both broadband monolithic transmitter and receiver IC's for MM-wave electromagnetic measurements. The IC's use a nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) and a sampling circuit as a picosecond pulse generator and detector. The pulses are radiated and received by planar monolithic bow-tie antennas, collimated with silicon substrate lenses and off-axis parabolic reflectors. Through Fourier transformation of the received pulse, accurate

Yoshiyuki Konishi; Masayuki Kamegawa; Michael Case; Ruai Yu; Scott T. Allen; Mark J. W. Rodwell

1994-01-01

316

Tetanus: Causes and Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Causes and Transmission Tetanus is an infection caused by bacteria called ... CDC-INFO Tetanus Homepage About Tetanus Causes and Transmission Symptoms and Complications Diagnosis and Treatment Prevention Photos ...

317

Superconducting Microwave Transmission Lines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Superconducting microwave transmission lines can be designed to have lower loss, lower dispersion, and lower phase velocity than conventional metal lines. These properties make superconducting transmission lines attractive for use in many devices and syst...

C. P. McClay P. S. Weitzman S. Soares

1991-01-01

318

The analysis of multiple ties in longitudinal egocentric network data: A case study on bidirectional relationships between trust and drug use  

PubMed Central

We extend multi-level models to examine single egocentric network ties to the joint analysis of paired dynamic ties. Two analytic challenges are addressed. First, inference needs to account for multiple layers of nesting: ties are nested within pairs, pairs are nested within time points, and time points are nested within egos. Second, the focus is on the relationship between two dynamic ties; specification of outcome and predictor may be difficult. Instead, we treat both ties as outcomes. Our approach is used to analyze trust and reported drug use between egos and alters over time in a Bayesian framework.

Comulada, W. Scott; Muth, Stephen Q.; Latkin, Carl A.

2012-01-01

319

Discovery of imidazole vinyl pyrimidines as a novel class of kinase inhibitors which inhibit Tie-2 and are orally bioavailable.  

PubMed

Tie-2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase which is involved in angiogenesis and thereby growth of human tumours. The discovery and SAR of a novel class of imidazole-vinyl-pyrimidine kinase inhibitors, which inhibit Tie-2 in vitro is reported. Their synthesis was carried out by condensation of imidazole aldehydes with methyl pyrimidines. These compounds are lead-like, with low molecular weight, good physical properties and oral bioavailability. PMID:18676144

Buttar, David; Edge, Mike; Emery, Steve C; Fitzek, Martina; Forder, Cheryl; Griffen, Alison; Hayter, Barry; Hayward, Chris F; Hopcroft, Philip J; Luke, Richard W A; Page, Ken; Stawpert, John; Wright, Andy

2008-07-23

320

Current Loop Control with Admittance Compensation for a Single-Phase Grid-Tie Fuel Cell Power Conditioning System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current loop transfer function of a single-phase grid-tie inverter has been systematically derived with representations of conventional transfer function format and admittance terms for the sake of controller design and feed-forward compensation. A 5 kW grid-tie fuel cell power conditioning system (PCS) example is used in paper to show current loop controller design and admittance compensation technique. A second order

Sung-Yeul Park; Jih-Sheng Lai; Chien-Liang Chen; Seung-Ryul Moon; Tae-Won Chun

2007-01-01

321

Elastic-plastic analysis of R\\/C coupled shear walls: The equivalent stiffness ratio of the tie elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bar frame modelling is a popular method in coupled shear wall systems in structural design. In this process, determining the stiffness of the tie beams is important. In this study, results obtained by finite-element analysis of R\\/C coupled shear wall systems having several geometries in elastic-plastic space are considered. Using SPSS (Ver.5.0) statistical package program, an equivalent tie beam stiffness

B. DORAN

322

Automated manual transmission controller  

DOEpatents

A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

Lawrie, Robert E. (Whitmore Lake, MI); Reed, Jr., Richard G. (Royal Oak, MI); Bernier, David R. (Rochester Hills, MI)

1999-12-28

323

RF Transmission Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. After completing this module, learners will be able to describe the type of transmission lines needed in RF systems and how transmission lines work together with other RF system components to deliver maximum power while maintaining reflected power. They also learn how to interpret transmission line specifications, select a transmission line for a given application, calculate transmission line power losses, and measure standing wave ratio. Finally, this module will use visual examples and present industry best practices for identifying type of connectors used with transmission lines and procedures for transmission line testing and troubleshooting.

2012-12-07

324

Discovering protein complexes in protein interaction networks via exploring the weak ties effect  

PubMed Central

Background Studying protein complexes is very important in biological processes since it helps reveal the structure-functionality relationships in biological networks and much attention has been paid to accurately predict protein complexes from the increasing amount of protein-protein interaction (PPI) data. Most of the available algorithms are based on the assumption that dense subgraphs correspond to complexes, failing to take into account the inherence organization within protein complex and the roles of edges. Thus, there is a critical need to investigate the possibility of discovering protein complexes using the topological information hidden in edges. Results To provide an investigation of the roles of edges in PPI networks, we show that the edges connecting less similar vertices in topology are more significant in maintaining the global connectivity, indicating the weak ties phenomenon in PPI networks. We further demonstrate that there is a negative relation between the weak tie strength and the topological similarity. By using the bridges, a reliable virtual network is constructed, in which each maximal clique corresponds to the core of a complex. By this notion, the detection of the protein complexes is transformed into a classic all-clique problem. A novel core-attachment based method is developed, which detects the cores and attachments, respectively. A comprehensive comparison among the existing algorithms and our algorithm has been made by comparing the predicted complexes against benchmark complexes. Conclusions We proved that the weak tie effect exists in the PPI network and demonstrated that the density is insufficient to characterize the topological structure of protein complexes. Furthermore, the experimental results on the yeast PPI network show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms. The analysis of detected modules by the present algorithm suggests that most of these modules have well biological significance in context of complexes, suggesting that the roles of edges are critical in discovering protein complexes.

2012-01-01

325

Anisotropic cross-tie walls and their confinement in self-organized undulating Fe film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic domain structure and domain wall width within a self-organized undulating Fe film are investigated by Lorentz microscopy and electron holography. SiO2 (15 nm)/Fe (20 nm)/SiO2 (15 nm) trilayers were deposited onto NaCl(110) substrates faceted with (100) and (010) planes. The Fe films exhibited a ridge-and-valley structure with undulation period of approximately 30 nm. Its in-plane uniaxial anisotropy with the easy axis parallel to the ridge is explained in terms of roughness-induced dipolar anisotropy. The wall type in the undulating Fe films was found to be a cross-tie wall. The vortices and antivortices in the cross-tie wall induce angular deviation of the moment as small as 20° from the easy-axis and effectively reduce the wall energy. The domain wall widths were determined to be 13+/-2 and 18+/-4 nm by Lorentz microscopy and electron holography, respectively. The obtained widths, nearly half of the undulation period, were narrower than that observed for a flat Fe film. For comparison, the stable magnetization distribution and the internal structure of the walls were examined by numerical simulations based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. The walls are found to be confined between adjacent ridges, i.e., within half an undulation period, due to the strong pinning of magnetization along the easy axis near the ridges, while the vortices and antivortices on the cross-tie walls are formed in the middle continuous part of the undulating film where angular deviation of the moment does not produce stray field.

Fukunaga, Kei-Ichi; Sugawara, Akira

2008-03-01

326

Time-resolved magnetization dynamics of cross-tie domain walls in permalloy microstructures.  

PubMed

We report on a picosecond time-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroic-photoelectron emission microscopy study of the evolution of the magnetization components of a microstructured permalloy platelet comprising three cross-tie domain walls. A laser-excited photoswitch has been used to apply a triangular 80 Oe, 160 ps magnetic pulse. Micromagnetic calculations agree well with the experimental results, both in time and frequency, illustrating the large angle precession in the magnetic domains with magnetization perpendicular to the applied pulse, and showing how the magnetic vortices revert their core magnetization while the antivortices remain unaffected. PMID:21836205

Miguel, J; Sánchez-Barriga, J; Bayer, D; Kurde, J; Heitkamp, B; Piantek, M; Kronast, F; Aeschlimann, M; Dürr, H A; Kuch, W

2009-11-12

327

Near-Field Enhanced UV Resonance Raman Spectroscopy Using Aluminum Bow-tie Nano-antenna  

SciTech Connect

An aluminum bow-tie nano-antenna is combined with the resonance Raman eect in the deep ultraviolet to dramatically increase the sensitivity of Raman spectra to a small volume of material, such as benzene used here. We further demonstrate gradient-eld Raman peaks for several strong IR modes. We achieve a gain of 105 in signal intensity from the near eld enhancement due to the surface plasmon resonance in the aluminum nanostructure. The on-line resonance enhancement contributes another factor of several thousands, limited by the laser line width. Thus, an overall gain of hundreds of million is achieved.

Li, Ling [North Carolina State University; Lim, Shuang Fang [North Carolina State University; Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Riehn, Robert [North Carolina State University; Hallen, Hans [North Carolina State University

2012-01-01

328

Near-field enhanced ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy using aluminum bow-tie nano-antenna  

PubMed Central

An aluminum bow-tie nano-antenna is combined with the resonance Raman effect in the deep ultraviolet to dramatically increase the sensitivity of Raman spectra to a small volume of material, such as benzene used here. We further demonstrate gradient-field Raman peaks for several strong infrared modes. We achieve a gain of ?105 in signal intensity from the near field enhancement due to the surface plasmon resonance in the aluminum nanostructure. The on-line resonance enhancement contributes another factor of several thousands, limited by the laser line width. Thus, an overall gain of hundreds of million is achieved.

Li, Ling; Fang Lim, Shuang; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Riehn, Robert; Hallen, H. D.

2012-01-01

329

Much ado about nothing: two millenia of controversy on tongue-tie.  

PubMed

Tongue-tie, or ankyloglossia, is poorly defined and involves a short, thick, fibrosed, or fixed lingual frenulum. Operative interventions were proposed already in Greek medicine. In the Middle Ages, competition arose between midwives, who used their nails to detach the frenulum, and surgeons, who were allowed to use instruments. During the last century, the justification for frenotomy shifted from improved language to enhanced feeding. Despite the high frequency of the intervention, little research has been performed on its benefit, which remains a controversial topic among different groups of health professionals. PMID:19707023

Obladen, Michael

2009-08-25

330

Sequential toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) for characterizing toxicity of Venice Lagoon sediments: comparison of two different approaches.  

PubMed

A toxicity identification evaluation phase-I (TIE-1) procedure was carried out on five pore water samples extracted from sediments of the Venice Lagoon previously investigated to assess both chemical contamination and toxic effects on the biota. Two different sequential TIE procedures were tested. A first sequence (TIE-1) provided for adding Na2S2O3, adding Na-EDTA, filtering, elution through a C18-SPE column and removing ammonia using the macroalgae Ulva rigida Agardh 1823, while a second procedure (TIE-2) was set up using U. rigida treatment for ammonia removal as first step, keeping unchanged the sequence of the other manipulations. Two different exposure time to the macroalgae were tested (3-h and 15-h). Sperm-cell toxicity test with the echinoid Paracentrotus lividus and embryotoxicity tests with the bivalves Mytilus galloprovincialis and Crassostrea gigas were performed on pore-water samples to assess the effect of the sequential treatments on the overall toxicity. The results confirmed that ammonia contribution to toxicity is strong in most of the samples and that metals, specially Cu, are of concern at least in three sites. The TIE-2 procedure provided more reliable results for the samples characterized by high ammonia contribution to the overall toxicity, whereas the results of TIE-1 and TIE-2 were equivalent for the samples where ammonia contribution was not prevailing. Chemical analyses and test results showed that a 3-h U. rigida exposure is suitable to remove ammonia toxicity minimizing potential metal up-take. PMID:18722012

Picone, Marco; Bergamin, Martina; Volpato, Elisa; Delaney, Eugenia; Turetta, Clara; Ranaldo, Martina; Capodaglio, Gabriele; Nasci, Cristina

2008-08-21

331

Effects of a synthetic PEG-ylated Tie-2 agonist peptide on endotoxemic lung injury and mortality.  

PubMed

A synthetic 7-mer, HHHRHSF, was recently identified by screening a phage display library for binding to the Tie-2 receptor. A polyethylene-oxide clustered version of this peptide, termed vasculotide (VT), was reported to activate Tie-2 and promote angiogenesis in a mouse model of diabetic ulcer. We hypothesized that VT administration would defend endothelial barrier function against sepsis-associated mediators of permeability, prevent lung vascular leakage arising in endotoxemia, and improve mortality in endotoxemic mice. In confluent human microvascular endothelial cells, VT prevented endotoxin-induced (lipopolysaccharides, LPS O111:B4) gap formation, loss of monolayer resistance, and translocation of labeled albumin. In 8-wk-old male C57Bl6/J mice given a ?70% lethal dose of endotoxin (15 mg/kg ip), VT prevented lung vascular leakage and reversed the attenuation of lung vascular endothelial cadherin induced by endotoxemia. These protective effects of VT were associated with activation of Tie-2 and its downstream mediator, Akt. Echocardiographic studies showed only a nonsignificant trend toward improved myocardial performance associated with VT. Finally, we evaluated survival in this mouse model. Pretreatment with VT improved survival by 41.4% (n = 15/group, P = 0.02) and post-LPS administration of VT improved survival by 33.3% (n = 15/group, P = 0.051). VT-mediated protection from LPS lethality was lost in Tie-2 heterozygous mice, in agreement with VT's proposed receptor specificity. We conclude that this synthetic Tie-2 agonist, completely unrelated to endogenous Tie-2 ligands, is sufficient to activate the receptor and its downstream pathways in vivo and that the Tie-2 receptor may be an important target for therapeutic evaluation in conditions of pathological vascular leakage. PMID:21421750

David, Sascha; Ghosh, Chandra C; Kümpers, Philipp; Shushakova, Nelli; Van Slyke, Paul; Khankin, Eliyahu V; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Dumont, Dan; Parikh, Samir M

2011-03-18

332

Effects of a synthetic PEG-ylated Tie-2 agonist peptide on endotoxemic lung injury and mortality  

PubMed Central

A synthetic 7-mer, HHHRHSF, was recently identified by screening a phage display library for binding to the Tie-2 receptor. A polyethylene-oxide clustered version of this peptide, termed vasculotide (VT), was reported to activate Tie-2 and promote angiogenesis in a mouse model of diabetic ulcer. We hypothesized that VT administration would defend endothelial barrier function against sepsis-associated mediators of permeability, prevent lung vascular leakage arising in endotoxemia, and improve mortality in endotoxemic mice. In confluent human microvascular endothelial cells, VT prevented endotoxin-induced (lipopolysaccharides, LPS O111:B4) gap formation, loss of monolayer resistance, and translocation of labeled albumin. In 8-wk-old male C57Bl6/J mice given a ?70% lethal dose of endotoxin (15 mg/kg ip), VT prevented lung vascular leakage and reversed the attenuation of lung vascular endothelial cadherin induced by endotoxemia. These protective effects of VT were associated with activation of Tie-2 and its downstream mediator, Akt. Echocardiographic studies showed only a nonsignificant trend toward improved myocardial performance associated with VT. Finally, we evaluated survival in this mouse model. Pretreatment with VT improved survival by 41.4% (n = 15/group, P = 0.02) and post-LPS administration of VT improved survival by 33.3% (n = 15/group, P = 0.051). VT-mediated protection from LPS lethality was lost in Tie-2 heterozygous mice, in agreement with VT's proposed receptor specificity. We conclude that this synthetic Tie-2 agonist, completely unrelated to endogenous Tie-2 ligands, is sufficient to activate the receptor and its downstream pathways in vivo and that the Tie-2 receptor may be an important target for therapeutic evaluation in conditions of pathological vascular leakage.

David, Sascha; Ghosh, Chandra C.; Kumpers, Philipp; Shushakova, Nelli; Van Slyke, Paul; Khankin, Eliyahu V.; Karumanchi, S. Ananth; Dumont, Dan

2011-01-01

333

Phase diagram and tie-line determination for the ternary mixture DOPC/eSM/cholesterol.  

PubMed

We propose a novel, to our knowledge, method for the determination of tie lines in a phase diagram of ternary lipid mixtures. The method was applied to a system consisting of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), egg sphingomyelin (eSM), and cholesterol (Chol). The approach is based on electrofusion of single- or two-component homogeneous giant vesicles in the fluid phase and analyses of the domain areas of the fused vesicle. The electrofusion approach enables us to create three-component vesicles with precisely controlled composition, in contrast to conventional methods for giant vesicle formation. The tie lines determined in the two-liquid-phase coexistence region are found to be not parallel, suggesting that the dominant mechanism of lipid phase separation in this region changes with the membrane composition. We provide a phase diagram of the DOPC/eSM/Chol mixture and predict the location of the critical point. Finally, we evaluate the Gibbs free energy of transfer of individual lipid components from one phase to the other. PMID:23561522

Bezlyepkina, N; Gracià, R S; Shchelokovskyy, P; Lipowsky, R; Dimova, R

2013-04-01

334

Automation of tie-pointing procedure for the geocoding of satellite images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes two recent developments at the German Remote Sensing Data Centre, which aim at the automatic generation of tie points for optical sensors and radar images, and the operational utilization of automatic tiepointing for ERS-1SAR data. In the first paper, a concept for the multitemporal registration of satellite images from optical sensors is described. This approach aims at the automated extraction of corresponding points in the images. It compresses the detection of distinct points by a so-called interest operator in one image. By cross correlation the corresponding points in the other images are traces. Subpixel accuracy is achieved by a least squares technique for digital image matching. Practical results are shown. where multitemporal image data from the Landsat TM sensor are used. The results are promising; improvements of the procedure are discussed. The second part of the paper describes the operation utilization of an automatic tie pointing, which has been realized for the geocoding of the ERS-1SAR data at the German Processing and Archiving Facility. significant features are extracted from reference data sets. The corresponding SAR image chips are stored in a database. These chips are correlated with the actual SAR data set. The procedure is describes as well as the accuracy achieved. For the time being, the determination of the reference chips is performed interactively. an outlook is given concerning several automatic approaches actually being investigated.

Strunz, G.; Knoepfle, W.; Roth, A.

1994-08-01

335

Black yeast habitat choices and species spectrum on high altitude creosote-treated railway ties.  

PubMed

Polyextremotolerant black yeast-like fungi thrive in moderately hostile environments where they are concomitantly subjected to several types of stress, such as toxicity, scarce nutrient availability, and high or low temperature extremes. Their ability to assimilate alkylbenzenes (toxic environmental pollutants) enhances their growth in harsh conditions, including on railway ties. Samples were collected using cotton swabs, premoistened with physiological saline, from 658 oak and concrete railway ties at six train stations in Turkey at altitudes ranging between 1026 and 1427 m. The samples were inoculated on malt extract agar supplemented with chloramphenicol, and incubated at 26 °C for 4 weeks. Twenty-four samples (3.6 %), 17 from oak and 7 from concrete (5.6 % vs. 2 %; P = 0.02), tested positive for fungi. Exophiala crusticola was found to be the most common species (n = 13), followed by Exophiala phaeomuriformis (n = 7) and Exophiala heteromorpha (n = 4). These results suggest that hydrocarbons, particularly creosote-treated oak woods, support the growth of black yeasts, some of which are opportunists in humans. PMID:24119407

Dö?en, Aylin; Ilkit, Macit; de Hoog, G Sybren

2013-08-11

336

Short communication: Breed differences affecting dairy cattle welfare in traditional alpine tie-stall husbandry systems.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to compare the prevalence of indicators of poor welfare among 5 Italian cattle breeds (Italian Holstein-Friesian, Italian Bruna, Pezzata Rossa Italiana, Grigia Alpina, and Pezzata Rossa d'Oropa) kept in tie-stalls in the Italian Alps under similar housing and management conditions. We recorded the presence of integument alterations (hairless patch areas, lesion/swollen areas, or overgrown claws) and lameness in 612 cows. Additionally, we checked 834 cows for the presence of physical malformations ("open" shoulders). In general, the prevalence of welfare problems showed a decreasing trend from the more productive to the less productive breeds. Local breeds (Grigia Alpina and Pezzata Rossa d'Oropa) showed a significantly lower prevalence of welfare problems compared with the other 3 breeds, whereas Italian Holstein-Friesian usually had the highest percentage of individuals with problems. No differences were found between Pezzata Rossa Italiana and Italian Bruna, both of which showed fewer problems than Italian Holstein-Friesian. The effect of the breed significantly affected the welfare of dairy cows in tie-stalls in alpine traditional husbandry systems. The prevalence of the negative welfare indicators studied was lower in local breeds, which are better adapted to local breeding conditions. Our results indicate an urgent need to promote changes in the criteria used for genetic selection in the dairy industry and underline the importance of maintaining the diversity of local breeds, which should be carefully chosen for each specific environmental condition. PMID:21524530

Mattiello, S; Battini, M; Andreoli, E; Barbieri, S

2011-05-01

337

Diarrhea and intestinal invasiveness of Aeromonas strains in the removable intestinal tie rabbit model.  

PubMed Central

Twelve Aeromonas strains were tested for virulence by using the removable intestinal tie adult rabbit diarrhea model. Mortality was 50% or greater for 7 of 12 strains; 23 of 37 rabbits that died developed diarrhea before death, and 11 of 27 surviving rabbits developed diarrhea. Aeromonas bacteremia was detected in 36 of 37 (97%) animals that died, but only in 2 of 27 (7%) survivors. Death, diarrhea, and bacteremia were all strongly strain dependent. Gastrointestinal lesions varied from moderate focal enteritis to severe multifocal necrosis and hemorrhage of the ileal mucosa, often accompanied by hepatic and splenic lesions. Intestinal colonization assays performed after infection indicated that the ileum was the most heavily colonized portion of the gut and the probable site of invasion. The application of the removable intestinal tie adult rabbit diarrhea model for intestinal challenge with Aeromonas strains has shown that some isolates are capable of invading the mucosa of rabbits, causing diarrhea and bacteremia. These data suggest that such strains may be important in causing human invasive diarrhea. Images

Pazzaglia, G; Sack, R B; Bourgeois, A L; Froehlich, J; Eckstein, J

1990-01-01

338

PREECLAMPSIA AND SMALL FOR GESTATIONAL AGE ARE ASSOCIATED WITH DECREASED CONCENTRATIONS OF A FACTOR INVOLVED IN ANGIOGENESIS: SOLUBLE TIE-2  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE An anti-angiogenic state has been described in patients with preeclampsia, small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses and fetal death, and changes in the concentration of circulating angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors can precede the clinical recognition of preeclampsia and small for gestational age by several weeks. Gene deletion studies demonstrate that a selective group of endothelial growth factors are required for vascular development, including members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family, as well as Angiopoietin-1 and Angiopoietin-2, both ligands for the tyrosine kinase endothelial cell receptor Tie-2. These angiogenic factors have been proposed to promote angiogenesis in a coordinated and complementary fashion. Soluble Tie-2 (sTie-2) is the soluble form of the Tie-2 receptor which is detectable in biological fluids. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients with preeclampsia and mothers who deliver a small for gestational age neonate have changes in the plasma concentrations of sTie-2. STUDY DESIGN This cross-sectional study included patients in the following groups: 1) non-pregnant women (n=40); 2) women with normal pregnancies (n=135); 3) patients with preeclampsia (n=112); and 4) patients who delivered a small for gestational age (SGA) neonate (n=53). Maternal plasma concentrations of sTie-2 were measured by a sensitive immunoassay. Parametric statistics were used for analysis. RESULTS 1) The median maternal plasma concentration of sTie-2 was lower in normal pregnant women than in non-pregnant women [median 16.0 ng/ml (range 5.0–71.6) vs. median 20.7 ng/ml (range 10.8–52.4), respectively; p=0.01)]; 2) Plasma sTie-2 concentrations in normal pregnancy changed significantly as a function of gestational age; 3) Patients with preeclampsia and those who delivered SGA neonates had a lower median maternal plasma concentration of sTie-2 than those with a normal pregnancy [Preeclampsia: median 14.9 ng/ml (range 4.9–67.3); SGA: median 10.9 ng/ml (range 5.1–29.1); Normal pregnancy: median 16.0 ng/ml (range 5.0–71.6); p=0.048 and p<0.001, respectively]; 4) Patients with SGA neonates had a lower median plasma concentration of sTie-2 than that of those with preeclampsia [median 10.9 ng/ml (range 5.1–29.1) vs. median 14.9 ng/ml (range 4.9–67.3), respectively; p<0.001)]; and 5) Patients with early-onset preeclampsia (?34 weeks) had lower concentrations of sTie-2 than women with late-onset preeclampsia (>34 weeks) [median of delta values: ?0.13 ng/ml (range ?0.47–0.58) vs. median of delta values: ?0.09 ng/ml (range: ?0.60–0.58), respectively; p=0.043]. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the maternal plasma sTie-2 concentration between women with severe and mild preeclampsia (p=0.6). CONCLUSION Patients with preeclampsia and those with SGA fetuses have lower median plasma concentrations of soluble Tie-2 than women with normal pregnancies.

Gotsch, Francesca; Romero, Roberto; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Dombrowski, Michael; Erez, Offer; Than, Nandor Gabor; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Mittal, Pooja; Espinoza, Jimmy; Hassan, Sonia S

2009-01-01

339

Expression of angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and the Tie-2 receptor tyrosine kinase during mouse kidney maturation.  

PubMed

The Tie-2 receptor tyrosine kinase transduces embryonic endothelial differentiation, with Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) acting as a stimulatory ligand and Ang-2 postulated to be a naturally occurring inhibitor. Expression of these genes was sought during mouse kidney maturation from the onset of glomerulogenesis (embryonic day 14 [E14]) to the end of nephron formation (2 wk postnatal [P2]), and during medullary maturation into adulthood (P8). Using Northern and slot blotting of RNA extracted from whole organs, these three genes were expressed throughout the experimental period with peak levels at P2 to P3. By in situ hybridization analysis at E18, P1, and P3, Ang-1 mRNA was found to localize to condensing renal mesenchymal cells, proximal tubules, and glomeruli in addition to maturing tubules of the outer medulla. In contrast, Ang-2 transcripts were more spatially restricted, being detected only in differentiating outer medullary tubules and the vasa recta bundle area. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, Tie-2 was detected in capillaries of the nephrogenic cortex, glomerular tufts, cortical interstitium, and medulla including vessels in the vasa recta. Using Western blotting of protein extracted from whole organs, Tie-2 protein was detected between E14 and P8 with tyrosine phosphorylated Tie-2 evident from E18. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that Tie-2 has roles in maturation of both glomeruli and vasa rectae. PMID:10446940

Yuan, H T; Suri, C; Yancopoulos, G D; Woolf, A S

1999-08-01

340

Is haptic feedback necessary to microsurgical suturing? Comparative study of 9/0 and 10/0 knot tying operated by 24 surgeons.  

PubMed

Robotically assisted telemanipulators are often criticised for their lack of direct haptic feedback. However, robotically assisted microsurgical sutures have already been achieved successfully. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that haptic feedback is not necessary in microsurgery. Our series included 24 surgeons of whom 14 were micro-surgeons. Each of them had to tighten a 9/0 and a 10/0 pre-tied nylon thread until getting the sensation of optimal knot tying. The procedure was performed four times, with open and closed eyes. The quality of knot tying was evaluated (fully tied, fairly or incompletely tied, or broken thread). The results obtained with the eyes open were significantly better. Neither the material size, nor the surgeon's expertise was shown to have an impact on knot tying quality. Our results demonstrate the uselessness of haptic feedback in microsurgery. PMID:21348023

Panchulidze, Irakli; Berner, Stacey; Mantovani, Gustavo; Liverneaux, Philippe

2011-01-01

341

Ethnic Ties in Trade Relationships and the Impact on Economic Performance: The Case of Small-Scale Producers in the Handloom Sector in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the importance of ethnic ties in trade relationships of small-scale producers in the handloom sector in Ethiopia using both a non-parametric and a parametric statistical method. It is shown how various socio-economic characteristics of producers lead to ethnic ties with traders. It is also shown that ethnic ties affect the performance of producers negatively. Apparently the positive

Merima Ali; Jack Peerlings

2011-01-01

342

Radio Transmission Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper divides naturally into three sections. The first section briefly analyses the radio transmission circuit into (a) the sending or radiating portion, (b) the transmitting portion consisting of the ether path thru which the radiated waves travel, and (c) the receiving portion. The relation of these from the standpoint of the radio transmission engineer is discussed, pointing out the

R. Bown; C. R. Englund; H. T. Friis

1923-01-01

343

Transatlantic Radio Telephone Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports upon measurements of trans-Atlantic radio transmission which had been made during the past two years in a study of the possibilities of trans-Atlantic radio telephony. These measurements cover several different frequencies in the range below 60 kilocycles in both directions across the Atlantic and represent probably the most comprehensive study yet made of any transmission path. An

L. Espenschied; C. N. Anderson; A. Bailey

1926-01-01

344

Tubular steel transmission structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows that through the use of tubular steel products, transmission lines can be built economically when comparing this product against other products such as wood, lattice steel, tapered and other formed steel poles. H-frame, single and double circuit, single pole and Y-guyed structure designs has shown that the design of the tubular structure at all transmission voltage levels

H. Heerspink

1995-01-01

345

Priority Encoding Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new method, called Priority Encoding Transmission,for sending messages over lossy packet-based networks. Whena message is to be transmitted, the user specifies a priority value foreach part of the message. Based on the priorities, the system encodesthe message into packets for transmission and sends them to (possiblymultiple) receivers. The priority value of each part of the messagedetermines the

Andres Albanese; Johannes Blömer; Jeff Edmonds; Michael Luby; Madhu Sudan

1994-01-01

346

Priority encoding transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new method, called priority encoding transmission, for sending messages over lossy packet-based networks. When a message is to be transmitted, the user specifies a priority value for each part of the message. Based on the priorities, the system encodes the message into packets for transmission and sends them to (possibly multiple) receivers. The priority value of each

Andres Albanese; Johannes Blömer; Jeff Edmonds; Michael Luby; Madhu Sudan

1996-01-01

347

Power transmission in vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a power transmission in a vehicle in which a power plant having a rear hanger portion is mounted on a body frame having a pair of frame members extending downwardly generally aft of the engine, and the power of the power plant is transmitted to a driving wheel through a continuous loop transmission mechanism.

Oike, I.; Hiasa, T.

1987-06-09

348

Push-pull modulation of lateral coupling of dual VCSEL cavities using a bow-tie shape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose the lateral coupling of dual VCSEL cavities using a bow-tie shape connection for increasing the modulation bandwidth. The 3-D modeling shows no-noticeable radiation loss when two oxide-defined VCSEL cavities are coherently coupled. Transverse-mode switching offers a unique modulation concept that makes intensity modulation while total photon density inside the coupled cavities is unchanged under push-pull current modulation. Large modulation bandwidth free from relaxation oscillation frequencies can be expected. We fabricated 980nm laterally coupled cavity VCSELs with a bow-tie shape oxide aperture and demonstrated the transverse-mode switching under push-pull operations.

Dalir, Hamed; Matsutani, Akihiro; Koyama, Fumio

2013-03-01

349

Oxidation of graphene ‘bow tie’ nanofuses for permanent, write-once-read-many data storage devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have fabricated nanoscale fuses from CVD graphene sheets with a ‘bow tie’ geometry for write-once-read-many data storage applications. The fuses are programmed using thermal oxidation driven by Joule heating. Fuses that were 250 nm wide with 2.5 ?m between contact pads were programmed with average voltages and powers of 4.9 V and 2.1 mW, respectively. The required voltages and powers decrease with decreasing fuse sizes. Graphene shows extreme chemical and electronic stability; fuses require temperatures of about 400?°C for oxidation, indicating that they are excellent candidates for permanent data storage. To further demonstrate this stability, fuses were subjected to applied biases in excess of typical read voltages; stable currents were observed when a voltage of 10 V was applied to the devices in the off state and 1 V in the on state for 90 h each.

Pearson, A. C.; Jamieson, S.; Linford, M. R.; Lunt, B. M.; Davis, R. C.

2013-04-01

350

Dysregulation of the angiopoietin-Tie-2 axis in sepsis and ARDS.  

PubMed

Dynamic changes in microvascular endothelial structure and function are pivotal in the acute inflammatory response, the body's rapid, coordinated effort to localize, sequester, and eliminate microbial invaders at their portal of entry. To achieve this, the endothelium becomes leaky and inflamed, providing innate immune cells and humoral effector molecules access to the site of infection. During sepsis this locally adaptive response becomes manifest throughout the body, leading to dangerous host consequences. Increased leakiness in the pulmonary circulation contributes to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a complication of sepsis associated with 40% mortality. Understanding the molecular governance of vascular leak and inflammation has major diagnostic, prognostic, and potentially therapeutic implications for this common and pernicious disease. This review summarizes results from cell-based experiments, animal models, and observational human studies; together, these studies suggest that an endothelial receptor called Tie2 and its ligands, called angiopoietins, form a signaling axis key to the vascular dyshomeostasis that underlies sepsis. PMID:23652985

Parikh, Samir M

2013-05-07

351

[The influence of organizational ties in the consolidation of Psychosocial Care Centers].  

PubMed

This article seeks to investigate the influence of organizational ties in the consolidation of Psychosocial Care Centers (CAPS - II and AD [Alcohol and Drugs]) in the city of Petrolina, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Based on qualitative research, semi-structured interviews were conducted with a multi-professional team from both CAPS, with the sample consisting of one representative from each professional category. A critical review of the data was based on content analysis prepared from categorization of the discourses. The results showed that, in general, the teams do not possess sufficient theoretical knowledge about the system of which they are part. Moreover, although there is a high level of satisfaction, precarious working conditions and a lack of professional recognition and labor input can negatively affect the institutional dynamics. Lastly, a quantitative equivalence was also detected regarding affective and calculative aspects of organizational commitment and a close relationship between length of service and involvement with the work. PMID:24061023

Alves, Haiana Maria de Carvalho; Dourado, Lidiane Bento Ribeiro; Côrtes, Verônica da Nova Quadros

2013-10-01

352

Toward Stronger Ties: The AAS Working Group on Professional-Amateur Collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experienced amateur astronomers represent a unique resource for their professional counterparts. Many knowledgeable amateurs now have telescopes in the 0.2- to 0.5-m class equipped with high-grade CCDs and software. To foster stronger ties between these observers and astronomical researchers, the AAS Council established a Working Group for Professional-Amateur Collaboration (WGPAC) during the Society's 193rd meeting in January 1999. Initially given a five-year charter, the WGPAC was made permanent at the 202nd Council meeting in May 2003. Since its creation the WGPAC has coordinated its activities with major amateur-astronomy organizations, sponsored a tutorial workshop at the annual meeting of the Astronomical League, laid the groundwork for a national registry of highly qualified amateur observers, and promoted pro-am collaborations through articles in the AAS Newsletter and leading amateur-astronomy publications.

Beatty, J. K.; White, J. C.

2004-05-01

353

InGaAs bow-tie diodes for terahertz imaging: low frequency noise characterisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noise characteristics of bow-tie InGaAs diodes in forward and backward directions were measured in frequency range from 10 Hz to 20 kHz at room temperature. It was found that the spectral density of voltage fluctuations changes with frequency approximately as 1/f, indicating that origin of noise is superposition of generation and recombination processes in defects of the structure. It was determined that the dependence of spectral density of current fluctuation on current in backward and forward directions at different frequencies exhibits asymmetry which reflects non-uniform electric field distribution within the structure. As both noise and sensitivity increase with bias current, optimal conditions for device operation are discussed.

Minkevi?ius, Linas; Ragauskas, Mantas; Matukas, Jonas; Palenskis, Vilius; Pralgauskaite, Sandra; Seliuta, Dalius; Kašalynas, Irmantas; Valušis, Gintaras

2012-10-01

354

Using Space Telescope to tie the HIPPARCOS and extragalactic reference frames together  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hubble Space Telescope observations will be made to tie the HIPPARCOS Instrumental System (HIS) to extragalactic objects, to determine the overall rotation of the HIS with respect to a set of extragalactic objects; to compare the HIS to an accurate radio reference frame; and to look for motions in the optical centroids of compact extragalactic objects at the level of 0.001 arcseconds per year. About 75 radio sources and extragalactic objects will be chosen from the initial group of 414 pairs. The egos will have their positions and proper motions determined relative to the HIPPARCOS Input Catalog stars. The candidate stars are being screened by ground based speckle interferometry to select a final set.

Hemenway, P. D.; Duncombe, R. L.; Jefferys, W. H.; Shelus, P. J.

1985-08-01

355

Stereo sequence transmission via conventional transmission channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new stereo sequence transmission technique using digital watermarking for compatibility with conventional 2D digital TV. We, generally, compress and transmit image sequence using temporal-spatial redundancy between stereo images. It is difficult for users with conventional digital TV to watch the transmitted 3D image sequence because many 3D image compression methods are different. To solve such a

Ho-Keun Lee; Chul-Hwan Kim; Kyu-Phil Han; Yeong-Ho Ha

2003-01-01

356

Tie-dyed2 encodes a callose synthase that functions in vein development and affects symplastic trafficking within the phloem of maize leaves.  

PubMed

The tie-dyed2 (tdy2) mutant of maize (Zea mays) displays variegated green and yellow leaves. Intriguingly, the yellow leaf tissues hyperaccumulate starch and sucrose, the soluble sugar transported long distance through the phloem of veins. To determine the molecular basis for Tdy2 function, we cloned the gene and found that Tdy2 encodes a callose synthase. RNA in situ hybridizations revealed that in developing leaves, Tdy2 was most highly expressed in the vascular tissue. Comparative expression analysis with the vascular marker maize PINFORMED1a-yellow fluorescent protein confirmed that Tdy2 was expressed in developing vein tissues. To ascertain whether the defect in tdy2 leaves affected the movement of sucrose into the phloem or its long-distance transport, we performed radiolabeled and fluorescent dye tracer assays. The results showed that tdy2 yellow leaf regions were defective in phloem export but competent in long-distance transport. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy of tdy2 yellow leaf regions showed incomplete vascular differentiation and implicated a defect in cell-to-cell solute movement between phloem companion cells and sieve elements. The disruption of sucrose movement in the phloem in tdy2 mutants provides evidence that the Tdy2 callose synthase functions in vascular maturation and that the vascular defects result in impaired symplastic trafficking into the phloem translocation stream. PMID:22932757

Slewinski, Thomas L; Baker, R Frank; Stubert, Adam; Braun, David M

2012-08-29

357

Cestode transmission patterns.  

PubMed

The paradox of high prevalence but low probability of having an egg develop to an adult has been resolved by the evolution of 3 major and basic strategies involving transmission: evolution of life cycles interpolated into host biology; presentation of infective stages that increase probability of contact between host and parasite; and increase in reproductive potential. The rarity of direct cycles confirms that cycles in themselves, with at least 2 hosts, are a key element of cestode success because they provide a vehicle for dispersal and transmission of infective stages. Transmission is primarily by passive stages that become incorporated through intermediate hosts or accidentally in the food chain. High host specificity results from efficient transmission pathways but may represent a fragile system for the evolution of the species. Probability of transmission is increased through diversity of intermediate hosts, making eggs more susceptible to ingestion and by behavioral manipulation of hosts by parasite stages. Spatial and temporal aspects of transmission may be increased through paratenesis. Asexual proliferation of immature stages is uncommon and is favored where there is selective predation; such proliferation may be part of a transmission strategy of colonial cestodes that require high infrapopulations in order to survive. Hyperapolysis may be part of a transmission strategy used by the Tetraphyllidea, Trypanorhyncha, and Lecanicephalidea to increase proglottid production. The dynamics of transmission for cestodes of humans and domestic animals require a different perspective than those of wild hosts. All strategies are reviewed within the framework of certain cestode morphological and ecological constraints. A total of 11 figures and 48 references complements the text. PMID:3282055

Mackiewicz, J S

1988-02-01

358

Superconducting microwave transmission lines  

SciTech Connect

Superconducting microwave transmission lines can be designed to have lower loss, lower dispersion, and lower phase velocity than conventional metal lines. These properties make superconducting transmission lines attractive for use in many devices and systems such as filters and analog to digital converters. The problem with designing microwave circuits which utilizes these lines is that accurate circuit models do not exist. This paper present models for the microwave transmission line parameters (phase velocity, attenuation, and characteristic impedance) of superconducting lines as a function of temperature and geometry. An experiment to verify these models is also presented.

McClay, C.P.; Soares, S.; Weitzman, P.S.

1991-10-01

359

Broadband Millimeter-Wave GaAs Transmitters and Receivers Using Planar Bow-Tie Antennas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We report broadband monolithic transmitters and receivers IC's for mm-wave electromagnetic measurements. The IC's use nonlinear transmission lines (NLTL) and sampling circuits as picosecond pulse generators and detectors. The pulses are radiated and recei...

Y. Konishi M. Kamegawa M. Case R. Yu M. J. W. Rodwell

1992-01-01

360

Lyme Disease Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Officials Veterinarians Tool kit Lyme disease quiz Lyme disease transmission The Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi , is ... blacklegged ticks Are there other ways to get Lyme disease? There is no evidence that Lyme disease is ...

361

Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Advisory ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... available scientific data concerning the safety of products which may be at risk for transmission of ... Division of Communication and Consumer Affairs. ... More results from www.fda.gov/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials/bloodvaccinesandotherbiologics

362

AAV IRAM Transmission Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this program was to provide the United States Marine Corps Logistics Bases, Albany, GA, engineering support services for the AAV RAM transmission. The TARDEC Fuels and Lubricants Research Facility (TFLRF) at Southwest Research Institute (...

G. B. Bessee D. M. Yost W. E. Likos R. A. Page D. J. Benac

1998-01-01

363

Light transmissive insulation apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A solar collector is described, comprising: a body of material sought to be heated; a layer of solar spectrum radiation transmissive insulation; and means for supporting the layer of solar spectrum radiation transmissive insulation over the body of material and in spaced relationship therewith. The layer of solar spectrum radiation transmissive insulation consists of an array of cells, generally transmissive to solar spectrum radiation and generally opaque to thermal radiation. The array of cells are coated with a coating, which is antireflective in the wavelength range of thermal IR, thereby to enhance absorption of such radiation by the array and prevent back radiation thereof to the atmosphere and is operative to reduce scattering inn the wavelength range of incident solar radiation, the thickness of the coating being generally between 0.01 and 1 micron.

Klier, S.; Novik, O.

1989-03-28

364

Dodder transmission of phytoplasmas.  

PubMed

Transmission of phytoplasmas from naturally infected plant host species using the parasitic plant Cuscuta spp. (dodder) to Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle) is an effective way to maintain a wide range of phytoplasmas for further research. Here, we describe transmission via dodder from an infected medicinal plant Rehmannia glutinosa var. purpurea and from a symptomatic redcurrant plant (Ribes spp.) to C. roseus indicator plants using a "stable bridges" method. In both cases, typical symptoms of phytoplasma disease on periwinkle plants were obtained: virescent flowers with an increased number of axillary shoots and smaller leaves after transmission from R. glutinosa, and greening petals (virescence) after transmission from Ribes spp. Phytoplasmas could be detected in donor and recipient plants by electron microscopy and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays using universal phytoplasma primer pairs. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of PCR fragments can also be used to confirm the identity of the phytoplasmas from donor and recipient plants. PMID:22987404

P?ibylová, Jaroslava; Spak, Josef

2013-01-01

365

Down hole transmission system  

DOEpatents

A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. The electrically conducting coil comprises at least two generally fractional loops. In the preferred embodiment, the transmission elements are connected by an electrical conductor. Preferably, the electrical conductor is a coaxial cable. Preferably, the MCEI trough comprises ferrite. In the preferred embodiment, the fractional loops are connected by a connecting cable. In one aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a pair of twisted wires. In one embodiment the connecting cable is a shielded pair of twisted wires. In another aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a coaxial cable. The connecting cable may be disposed outside of the MCEI circular trough.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT)

2007-07-24

366

Downhole transmission system  

DOEpatents

A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. An electrical conductor connects both the transmission elements. The electrical conductor comprises at least three electrically conductive elements insulated from each other. In the preferred embodiment the electrical conductor comprises an electrically conducting outer shield, an electrically conducting inner shield and an electrical conducting core. In some embodiments of the present invention, the electrical conductor comprises an electrically insulating jacket. In other embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises a pair of twisted wires. In some embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises semi-conductive material.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

2008-01-15

367

Maximum ratio transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the concept, principles, and analysis of maximum ratio transmission for wireless communications, where multiple antennas are used for both transmission and reception. The principles and analysis are applicable to general cases, including maximum-ratio combining. Simulation results agree with the analysis. The analysis shows that the average overall signal-to-mise ratio (SNR) is proportional to the cross correlation between

Titus K. Y. Lo

1999-01-01

368

The view from two worlds: The convergence of social network reports between mental health clients and their ties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, concerns with the similarities and discrepancies between the reports of persons (or focal respondents) and their collaterals (or network ties\\/respondents) about the former's social support network is framed as a methodological concern. As individuals experience the devastating effects of illness, and especially as their cognitive capabilities or social perceptions may be impaired by mental health problems, these listings are

Bernice A. Pescosolido; Eric R. Wright

2004-01-01

369

Activated protein C enhances human keratinocyte barrier integrity via sequential activation of epidermal growth factor receptor and Tie2.  

PubMed

Keratinocytes play a critical role in maintaining epidermal barrier function. Activated protein C (APC), a natural anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory and endothelial barrier protective properties, significantly increased the barrier impedance of keratinocyte monolayers, measured by electric cell substrate impedance sensing and FITC-dextran flux. In response to APC, Tie2, a tyrosine kinase receptor, was rapidly activated within 30 min, and relocated to cell-cell contacts. APC also increased junction proteins zona occludens, claudin-1 and VE-cadherin. Inhibition of Tie2 by its peptide inhibitor or small interfering RNA abolished the barrier protective effect of APC. Interestingly, APC did not activate Tie2 through its major ligand, angiopoietin-1, but instead acted by binding to endothelial protein C receptor, cleaving protease-activated receptor-1 and transactivating EGF receptor. Furthermore, when activation of Akt, but not ERK, was inhibited, the barrier protective effect of APC on keratinocytes was abolished. Thus, APC activates Tie2, via a mechanism requiring, in sequential order, the receptors, endothelial protein C receptor, protease-activated receptor-1, and EGF receptor, which selectively enhances the PI3K/Akt signaling to enhance junctional complexes and reduce keratinocyte permeability. PMID:21173154

Xue, Meilang; Chow, Shu-Oi; Dervish, Suat; Chan, Yee-Ka Agnes; Julovi, Sohel M; Jackson, Christopher J

2010-12-20

370

Failure analysis of the end eye connection of the bucket wheel excavator portal tie-rod support  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the failure analysis results of the bucket wheel excavator (BWE) portal tie-rod support. The results of finite elements analysis (FEA) point out the occurrence of pronounced stress concentration, whereby multiple stresses in the failure zone exceed the yield stress of the basic material. Experimental investigation on fracture surfaces by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscope (LM)

Srdjan Bošnjak; Nenad Zrni?; Aleksandar Simonovi?; Dejan Mom?ilovi?

2009-01-01

371

Sporting Journalism and the Maintenance of British Servicemen's Ties to Civilian Life in First World War Propaganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional interpretation of First World War servicemen as alienated and isolated from civilians has been increasing challenged in recent years. Scholars have shown that British soldiers maintained ties with civilian life, and that sport and leisure were important to the retention of such links. This article examines one aspect of the propaganda activities of the National War Aims Committee

David Monger

2010-01-01

372

Major ion toxicity of six produced waters to three freshwater species: Application of ion toxicity models and TIE procedures  

SciTech Connect

Previous research to characterize the acute toxicity of major ions to freshwater organisms resulted in the development of statistical toxicity models for three freshwater species (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas, and Daphnia magna). These ion toxicity models estimate the toxicity of seven major ions utilizing logistic regression. In this study, the ion toxicity models were used in conjunction with Phase 1 toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) procedures to evaluate the contribution of major ion toxicity to the total toxicity of six produced water samples ranging in total salinity from 1.7 to 58.1 g/L. Initial toxicities of all six samples were compared to the model predictions. Four produced waters were found to have toxicity consistent with toxicity attributable to major ion concentrations only. Two produced waters were found to exhibit more toxicity than expected from ion concentrations alone. These samples were subjected to Phase 1 TIE procedures. Toxicities were reduced by specific Phase 1 TIE manipulations to those predicted by the ion toxicity models. Mock effluents were used to verify the results. The combination of the ion toxicity models with Phase 1 TIE procedures successfully quantified the toxicity due to major ions in six produced water samples.

Tietge, J.E.; Hockett, J.R. [ENSR Consulting and Engineering, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Evans, J.M. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

1997-10-01

373

Unemployment and well-being in Europe. The effect of country unemployment rate, work ethics and family ties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjective well-being literature shows that higher unemployment rate corresponds to lower psychological cost of own unemployment. The goal of the paper is to deepen the understanding of this regularity by investigating the role played by the work ethics and the strength of family ties. I analyze the European Values Study data (2008) for 36 countries using multilevel regression methodology. First,

MIKUCKA Malgorzata

2011-01-01

374

Increasing the interval between winter outdoor exercise aggravates agonistic interactions in Hérens cows kept in tie-stalls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cows of the dual-purpose Hérens breed are highly motivated to engage in dominance interactions and thus famous for the cow fights traditionally organised by Swiss breeders. However, this characteristic may result in excessively aggressive behaviour when cows kept in tie-stalls meet during winter outdoor exercise. This can be dangerous for both animals and breeders in terms of likelihood of injury.

Isabelle M. L. Castro; Lorenz Gygax; Beat Wechsler; Rudolf Hauser

2011-01-01

375

Sustainability of Taiwan's Aquaculture Industry and Its Ties to the United States— An Exploratory Qualitative Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of fish pond production sustainability was conducted in Taiwan. An exploratory qualitative case study of open-ended interviews with five Taiwanese individuals in the industry was employed to assess five areas of concern. Taiwan's march toward sustainability and the farmers' decision-making process were most influenced by economics and profitability that were tied to the United States. A willingness to invest

Seburn L. Pense; Theresa L. Pense; Lee Shu-Wen; Huang Jiunn-Bin; Dexter B. Wakefield

2008-01-01

376

Activated Protein C Enhances Human Keratinocyte Barrier Integrity via Sequential Activation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Tie2*  

PubMed Central

Keratinocytes play a critical role in maintaining epidermal barrier function. Activated protein C (APC), a natural anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory and endothelial barrier protective properties, significantly increased the barrier impedance of keratinocyte monolayers, measured by electric cell substrate impedance sensing and FITC-dextran flux. In response to APC, Tie2, a tyrosine kinase receptor, was rapidly activated within 30 min, and relocated to cell-cell contacts. APC also increased junction proteins zona occludens, claudin-1 and VE-cadherin. Inhibition of Tie2 by its peptide inhibitor or small interfering RNA abolished the barrier protective effect of APC. Interestingly, APC did not activate Tie2 through its major ligand, angiopoietin-1, but instead acted by binding to endothelial protein C receptor, cleaving protease-activated receptor-1 and transactivating EGF receptor. Furthermore, when activation of Akt, but not ERK, was inhibited, the barrier protective effect of APC on keratinocytes was abolished. Thus, APC activates Tie2, via a mechanism requiring, in sequential order, the receptors, endothelial protein C receptor, protease-activated receptor-1, and EGF receptor, which selectively enhances the PI3K/Akt signaling to enhance junctional complexes and reduce keratinocyte permeability.

Xue, Meilang; Chow, Shu-Oi; Dervish, Suat; Chan, Yee-Ka Agnes; Julovi, Sohel M.; Jackson, Christopher J.

2011-01-01

377

The Korean Pivot: Challenges and Opportunities from Evolving Chinese-Russian and U.S.Japanese Security Ties  

Microsoft Academic Search

cies of China, Russia, and Japan toward the two Koreas. China and Russia, North Korea's primary allies during the Cold War, have maintained their connections with Pyongyang while simultaneously cultivating new ties, es- pecially in the economic dimension, with South Korea. In contrast, relations between Japan and the two Koreas re- main troubled by historical burdens and other differences. The

Richard Weitz

2007-01-01

378

From the Cotton Fields to the Ties That Bind: Jim Pusack's Enduring Impact on Today's CALL Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|From 1981 to today, the encouragement Jim Pusack and his colleague Sue Otto gave faculty to develop and/or implement CALL into the curriculum has been vital to our L2 teaching evolution. This article describes how their efforts evolved over the last two and a half decades and the ties that bind their efforts with today's CALL development.|

Jones, Linda C.

2010-01-01

379

HIV Transmission Networks  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review Over the past several years, one segment of the complex field of HIV transmission dynamics —heterosexual networks—has dominated theoretical and empirical investigation. This review provides an overview of recent work on HIV risks and networks, with a focus on recent findings in heterosexual network dynamics. Recent findings Qualitative (ethnographic) assessments have demonstrated the heterogeneity and complexity of heterosexual connections, particular in Africa where tradition, official polygamy, and unofficial multi-person arrangements lead to concurrency of sexual partnerships. A large, quantitative study on Likoma Island, Malawi, demonstrated the considerable, interlocking sexual connections that arise from a high-concurrency sexual setting, even with a low average number of partnerships (low-degree) of long duration. Such settings, as suggested by ethnographic studies, may be common in Africa and, coupled with newer information about transmissibility during acute and early infection, may provide a plausible explanation for endemic transmission and possibly for rapid HIV propagation. Summary Recognition of high- concurrency, low-degree networks is an important development for understanding HIV transmission dynamics. Their relevance to heterosexual transmission, and possible extension to other epidemiologic settings, reinforces the heterogeneity and complexity of HIV transmission dynamics.

Rothenberg, Richard

2010-01-01

380

Routes of influenza transmission.  

PubMed

Remarkably little is known definitively about the modes of influenza transmission. Thus, important health policy and infection control issues remain unresolved. These shortcomings have been exposed in national and international pandemic preparedness activities over recent years. Indeed, WHO, CDC, ECDC and the U.S. Institute of Medicine have prioritised understanding the modes of influenza transmission as a critical need for pandemic planning. Studying influenza transmission is difficult; seasonality, unpredictable attack rates, role of environmental parameters such as temperature and humidity, numbers of participants required and confounding variables all present considerable obstacles to the execution of definitive studies. A range of investigations performed to date have failed to provide definitive answers and key questions remain. Reasons for this include the fact that many studies have not sought to investigate routes of transmission as a primary objective (instead, they have evaluated specific interventions) and that fieldwork in natural settings, specifically assessing the dynamics and determinants of transmission between humans, has been limited. The available evidence suggests that all routes of transmission (droplet, aerosol and contact) have a role to play; their relative significance will depend on the set of circumstances acting at a given time. Dictating the process are factors related to the virus itself, the host and the environment. PMID:24034483

Killingley, Ben; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan

2013-09-01

381

The Use of Models for Paired Comparisons with Ties. Project Psychometric Aspects of Item Banking No. 8. Research Report 86-8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In experiments with paired comparisons, judges are occasionally allowed to express indifference between alternatives. For the analysis of such data, models for paired comparisons with ties are needed. Several models with tie parameters are reviewed. All are extensions of the basic models of L. L. Thurstone (1927) and R. A. Bradley and M. E. Terry…

Eggen, Theo J. H. M.; van der Linden, Wim J.

382

The Strength of Strong Ties for Older Rural Adults: Regional Distinctions in the Relationship between Social Interaction and Subjective Well-Being  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Classic and contemporary sociological theories suggest that social interaction differs in rural and urban areas. Intimate, informal interactions (strong ties) are theorized to characterize rural areas while urban areas may possess more formal and rationalized interactions (weak ties). Aging and social support literature stresses social…

Mair, Christine A.; Thivierge-Rikard, R. V.

2010-01-01

383

An integrated Approach to the Toxicity Assessment of Irish Marine Sediments Application of Porewater Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) to Irish Marine Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated approach to the ecotoxicological assessment of Irish marine sediments was carried out between 2004 and 2007. Phase I Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) of sediment porewaters from two sites on the east coast of Ireland were conducted. Initial Tier I screening of three Irish sites identified the need for TIE after significant toxicity was observed with Tisbe battagliai and

Ailbhe Macken; Michelle Giltrap; Barry Foley; Evin McGovern; Brendan McHugh; Maria Davoren

2009-01-01

384

Isolation and Characterization of a Genetically Tractable Photoautotrophic Fe(II)-Oxidizing Bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris Strain TIE-1  

PubMed Central

We report the isolation and characterization of a phototrophic ferrous iron [Fe(II)]-oxidizing bacterium named TIE-1 that differs from other Fe(II)-oxidizing phototrophs in that it is genetically tractable. Under anaerobic conditions, TIE-1 grows photoautotrophically with Fe(II), H2, or thiosulfate as the electron donor and photoheterotrophically with a variety of organic carbon sources. TIE-1 also grows chemoheterotrophically in the dark. This isolate appears to be a new strain of the purple nonsulfur bacterial species Rhodopseudomonas palustris, based on physiological and phylogenetic analysis. Fe(II) oxidation is optimal at pH 6.5 to 6.9. The mineral products of Fe(II) oxidation are pH dependent: below pH 7.0 goethite (?-FeOOH) forms, and above pH 7.2 magnetite (Fe3O4) forms. TIE-1 forms colonies on agar plates and is sensitive to a variety of antibiotics. A hyperactive mariner transposon is capable of random insertion into the chromosome with a transposition frequency of ?10?5. To identify components involved in phototrophic Fe(II) oxidation, mutants of TIE-1 were generated by transposon mutagenesis and screened for defects in Fe(II) oxidation in a cell suspension assay. Among approximately 12,000 mutants screened, 6 were identified that are specifically impaired in Fe(II) oxidation. Five of these mutants have independent disruptions in a gene that is predicted to encode an integral membrane protein that appears to be part of an ABC transport system; the sixth mutant has an insertion in a gene that is a homolog of CobS, an enzyme involved in cobalamin (vitamin B12) biosynthesis.

Jiao, Yongqin; Kappler, Andreas; Croal, Laura R.; Newman, Dianne K.

2005-01-01

385

Quality resource networks for young women in science: The role of Internet-facilitated ties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In communications, a new approach to the study of online interaction has been suggested by social network analysts. Garton, Haythornthwaite, and Wellman (1997) have outlined the importance of using network analysis to study how media are interconnected with other social aspects of a media user's world. As applied here, this approach to communication when combined with recent network studies from the fields of education and rural development, provides a method for looking at the role of Internet-facilitated ties in the development of resource networks in the learning communities of young women from seven rural schools across the state of Washington. Twenty-six young women (ages 14-16) from diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds (approximately half of the participants are Hispanic or Native American, the other half are White) participated in the research. Participants were selected because they shared a common educational orientation through Rural Girls in Science, a NSF-funded program at the Northwest Center for Research on Women at the University of Washington. As part of the school-based component of the Rural Girls in Science program, all 26 participants designed and conducted year-long, community-based research projects in science. Each school in the program was provided an Internet workstation for communication and research. Through the Internet, students could conceivably maintain distant ties with mentors and research scientists whom they met at summer camp as well as seek additional information resources. Toward the conclusion of the long-term research projects, each student participant was interviewed using a participatory form of network analysis that included a combined qualitative and quantitative approach. Given the small number of participants and schools in the sample, the results from the analysis can not be generalized to a larger population. However the study of the structure and composition of networks among individuals and school groups provided insight into how media are implicated in the development of resource networks, in particular for a subset of students who have been underrepresented in science--young ethnic minority women.

Gillette, Shana Cecile

386

Insect vector transmission assays.  

PubMed

Phytoplasmas are transmitted in a persistent propagative manner by phloem-feeding vectors belonging to the order Hemiptera, suborder Homoptera. Following acquisition from the infected source plant, there is a latent period before the vector can transmit, so transmission assays consist of three basic steps: acquisition, latency, and inoculation. More than 90 vector species (plant-, leafhoppers, and psyllids) have been discovered so far but many others are still undiscovered, and their role in spreading economically important crop diseases is neglected. Therefore, screening for vectors is an essential step in developing rational control strategies targeted against the actual vectors for phytoplasma-associated diseases. The mere detection of a phytoplasma in an insect does not imply that the insect is a vector; a transmission assay is required to provide conclusive evidence. Transmission experiments can be carried out using insects from phytoplasma-free laboratory colonies or field-collections. Moreover, transmission assays can be performed by feeding vectors on an artificial diet through Parafilm(®), after which phytoplasmas can be detected in the sucrose feeding medium by PCR. Transmission trials involve the use of different techniques according to the biology of the different vector species; planthoppers, leafhoppers, and psyllids. PMID:22987407

Bosco, Domenico; Tedeschi, Rosemarie

2013-01-01

387

Technologies of Wireless Power Transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are three types of the wireless power transmission ; inductive coupling, radio wave, and resonance coupling. These are the same technologies based on Maxwell equations, however, method of the power transmission is different and characteristics are different. In this paper, we show the wireless power transmission technologies, mainly wireless power transmission via microwave.

Shinohara, Naoki

388

China's transmission mushrooms  

SciTech Connect

Thirty years ago, when the People's Republic of China was founded, there were only three high-voltage transmission grids in the entire country, totaling only 500 km (311 mi.) in length. Today, there are 13 distinct major regional networks, plus a number of smaller ones, with a cumulative length of 230,000 km (142,900 mi) and operating at voltages up to 330 kV. Those transmission lines that did exist in 1949 operated at only 35 kV, with the single exception of one regional grid of 220 kV in northeastern China. Even for those modest voltages, essentially all transmission and distribution equipment had to be imported.

Defang, C.

1980-08-01

389

Experimental Study on Behavior of Bow-tie Tree Generation by Using Heavy Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bow-tie tree (BTT) generated from contaminant, e.g., metal, carbon, amber(over cured resin) or void in insulator is a significant deterioration factor of XLPE power cable. However, essential role of water in generation and progress of BTT is not yet sufficiently cleared. In order to investigate the role of water we paid attention to difference in chemical properties of light water (H2O) and heavy water (D2O), moreover we evaluated influence of isotopic effect due to hydrogen and deuterium on behavior of BTT generation. In accelerated aging test the number of BTT in XLPE sample, in which copper powder of 500ppm was contaminated as BTT cores, dipped in heavy water (D2O:100wt%) decreased to one third compared with light water(D2O:0wt%). Furthermore, the maximum length of BTT decreased with increase in concentration of heavy water. The experimental results show that heavy water exerted a depression effect on generation and progress of BTT. We considered that the depression effect due to hydrogen isotope appeared by inhibiting ionization and elution of BTT cores, because salt-solubility and ionic mobility of heavy water are about 15 to 20% smaller than those of light water. Therefore, the essential role of water seemed to be production and transport of ions in XLPE.

Kumazawa, Takao; Nakagawa, Wataru; Tsurumaru, Hidekazu

390

Recent global-warming hiatus tied to equatorial Pacific surface cooling.  

PubMed

Despite the continued increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, the annual-mean global temperature has not risen in the twenty-first century, challenging the prevailing view that anthropogenic forcing causes climate warming. Various mechanisms have been proposed for this hiatus in global warming, but their relative importance has not been quantified, hampering observational estimates of climate sensitivity. Here we show that accounting for recent cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific reconciles climate simulations and observations. We present a novel method of uncovering mechanisms for global temperature change by prescribing, in addition to radiative forcing, the observed history of sea surface temperature over the central to eastern tropical Pacific in a climate model. Although the surface temperature prescription is limited to only 8.2% of the global surface, our model reproduces the annual-mean global temperature remarkably well with correlation coefficient r = 0.97 for 1970-2012 (which includes the current hiatus and a period of accelerated global warming). Moreover, our simulation captures major seasonal and regional characteristics of the hiatus, including the intensified Walker circulation, the winter cooling in northwestern North America and the prolonged drought in the southern USA. Our results show that the current hiatus is part of natural climate variability, tied specifically to a La-Niña-like decadal cooling. Although similar decadal hiatus events may occur in the future, the multi-decadal warming trend is very likely to continue with greenhouse gas increase. PMID:23995690

Kosaka, Yu; Xie, Shang-Ping

2013-08-28

391

Identification and characterization of Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1 hopanoid biosynthesis mutants  

PubMed Central

Hopanes preserved in both modern and ancient sediments are recognized as the molecular fossils of bacteriohopanepolyols, pentacyclic hopanoid lipids. Based on the phylogenetic distribution of hopanoid production by extant bacteria, hopanes have been used as indicators of specific bacterial groups and/or their metabolisms. However, our ability to interpret them ultimately depends on understanding the physiological roles of hopanoids in modern bacteria. Towards this end, we set out to identify genes required for hopanoid biosynthesis in the anoxygenic phototroph Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1 to enable selective control of hopanoid production. We attempted to delete seventeen genes within a putative hopanoid biosynthetic gene cluster to determine their role, if any, in hopanoid biosynthesis. Two genes, hpnH and hpnG, are required to produce both bacteriohopanetetrol and aminobacteriohopanetriol, whereas a third gene, hpnO, is required only for aminobacteriohopanetriol production. None of the genes in this cluster are required to exclusively synthesize bacteriohopanetetrol, indicating that at least one other hopanoid biosynthesis gene is located elsewhere on the chromosome. Physiological studies with the different deletion mutants demonstrated that unmethylated and C30 hopanoids are sufficient to maintain cytoplasmic but not outer membrane integrity. These results imply that hopanoid modifications, including methylation of the A-ring and the addition of a polar head group, may have biological functions beyond playing a role in membrane permeability.

Welander, Paula V.; Doughty, David M.; Wu, Chia-Hung; Mehay, Sabine; Summons, Roger E.; Newman, Dianne K.

2012-01-01

392

[Critical update on the no-touch technique in colonic cancer using the grasping tie].  

PubMed

The time honoured strategy of "no-touch" in the surgery of colon cancer does not stand an anatomical and patho-physiological criticism, also on the basis of some results of the literature. The personal experience of the problem leads to the proposal of an alternative realization of the procedure, that is an up-to-date of the classic method, and is really worth and easy to be overall adopted. The suggestion is to seal bipolarly the colon tract with the tumour by mean of the original grasping tie from the very beginning of the operation, and then to temporarily clamp the mesocolon close to the gut, before going on with the surgical dissection, lymphectomy and exeresis as usual. This procedure is able to completely isolate from the first steps of the operation the affected tract of the colon, so opposing the possible spreading of tumour cells in the portal and in the systemic venous stream during the following surgical manipulations. The rationale of the proposal is that of a more efficacy of the "no-touch" strategy based on strict anatomical and patho-physiological considerations. PMID:14971292

Picardi, N; Vene, M; Visini, R

393

Strength of social tie predicts cooperative investment in a human social network.  

PubMed

Social networks--diagrams which reflect the social structure of animal groups--are increasingly viewed as useful tools in behavioural ecology and evolutionary biology. Network structure may be especially relevant to the study of cooperation, because the action of mechanisms which affect the cost:benefit ratio of cooperating (e.g. reciprocity, punishment, image scoring) is likely to be mediated by the relative position of actor and recipient in the network. Social proximity could thus affect cooperation in a similar manner to biological relatedness. To test this hypothesis, we recruited members of a real-world social group and used a questionnaire to reveal their network. Participants were asked to endure physical discomfort in order to earn money for themselves and other group members, allowing us to explore relationships between willingness to suffer a cost on another's behalf and the relative social position of donor and recipient. Cost endured was positively correlated with the strength of the social tie between donor and recipient. Further, donors suffered greater costs when a relationship was reciprocated. Interestingly, participants regularly suffered greater discomfort for very close peers than for themselves. Our results provide new insight into the effect of social structure on the direct benefits of cooperation. PMID:21479173

Harrison, Freya; Sciberras, James; James, Richard

2011-03-30

394

The influence of tie strength on evolutionary games on networks: An empirical investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extending previous work on unweighted networks, we present here a systematic numerical investigation of standard evolutionary games on weighted networks. In the absence of any reliable model for generating weighted social networks, we attribute weights to links in a few ways supported by empirical data ranging from totally uncorrelated to weighted bipartite networks. The results of the extensive simulation work on standard complex network models show that, except in a case that does not seem to be common in social networks, taking the tie strength into account does not change in a radical manner the long-run steady-state behavior of the studied games. Besides model networks, we also included a real-life case drawn from a coauthorship network. In this case also, taking the weights into account only changes the results slightly with respect to the raw unweighted graph, although to draw more reliable conclusions on real social networks many more cases should be studied as these weighted networks become available.

Buesser, Pierre; Peña, Jorge; Pestelacci, Enea; Tomassini, Marco

2011-11-01

395

Intracorporeal Suturing and Knot Tying Broadens the Clinical Applicability of Laparoscopy  

PubMed Central

Objective: As surgeons become more experienced with basic laparoscopic procedures like cholecystectomy, they are able to expand this approach to less common operations. However, without laparoscopic suturing skills, like those obtained with Nissen fundoplication, many operations cannot be completed laparoscopically. We present a series of 10 patients with less common surgical illnesses who were successfully treated with minimal access techniques and intracorporeal suturing. Methods: Over a 6-month period at 2 medical centers, 10 patients underwent operations with laparoscopic intracorporeal suturing and knot tying. Diagnoses included bowel obstruction due to gallstone ileus (n=1), perforated uterus from an intrauterine device (n=1), urinary bladder diverticulum (n=1), bleeding Meckel's diverticulum (n=3), and perforated duodenal ulcer (n=4). Results: Each patient was treated with standard surgical interventions performed entirely laparoscopically with intracorporeal suturing. No morbidity or mortality occurred in any patient due to the operation. Conclusions: Although each of these operations has been previously reported, as a series, they point out the importance of mastering laparoscopic suturing. Although devices are commercially available to facilitate certain suturing scenarios, we encourage residents and fellows to sew manually. We believe that none of these operations could have been completed as effectively by using a suture device. The ability to suture laparoscopically markedly broadens the number of clinical scenarios in which minimal access techniques can be used.

Rivas, Homero; Cacchione, Robert N.; Ferzli, George S.

2003-01-01

396

Transmissivity variations in mudstones.  

PubMed

Many people in sub-Saharan Africa have to rely on meager water resources within mudstones for their only water supply. Although mudstones have been extensively researched for their low permeability behavior, little research has been undertaken to examine their ability to provide sustainable water supplies. To investigate the factors controlling the occurrence of usable ground water in mudstone environments, an area of Cretaceous mudstones in southeastern Nigeria was studied over a 3 yr period. Transmissivity (T) variations in a range of mudstone environments were studied. The investigations demonstrate that within the top 40 m of mudstones, transmissivity can be sufficient to develop village water supplies (T > 1 m2/d). Transmissivity is controlled by two factors: low-grade metamorphism and the presence of other, subordinate, lithologies within the mudstones. Largely unaltered mudstones (early diagenetic zone), comprising mainly smectite clays, are mostly unfractured and have a low T of < 0.1 m2/d. Mudstones that have undergone limited metamorphism (late diagenetic zone) comprise mixed layered illite/smectite clays, and ground water is found in widely spaced fracture zones (T > 1 m2/d in large fracture zones; T < 0.1 m2/d away from fracture zones). Mudstones that have been further altered and approach the anchizone comprise illite clays, are pervasively fractured, and have the highest transmissivity values (T > 4 m2/d). Dolerite intrusions in unaltered, smectitic mudstones are highly fractured with transmissivity in the range of 1 < T < 60 m2/d. Thin limestone and sandstone layers can also enhance transmissivity sufficiently to provide community water supplies. PMID:15819947

MacDonald, Alan M; Kemp, Simon J; Davies, Jeff

397

Printed circuit dispersive transmission line  

DOEpatents

A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission lines between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other. 5 figs.

Ikezi, Hiroyuki; Lin-Liu, Yuh-Ren; deGrassie, J.S.

1990-03-02

398

Printed circuit dispersive transmission line  

DOEpatents

A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other. 5 figures.

Ikezi, H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; DeGrassie, J.S.

1991-08-27

399

Freewheel flywheel transmission system  

SciTech Connect

A freewheel flywheel transmission system is described comprising: a frame; shafts rotatively supported by the frame; flywheels mounted on each shaft; a power means mounted on the frame for providing rotational movement; transmission means for transmitting rotational movement when the power means is activated in succession from the power means to a first through a last shaft of the plurality of shafts and thereby to flywheels mounted on each shaft of the shafts; and a means for converting the rotational movement of shafts and the flywheels mounted on each of the shafts to electrical power.

Molina, A.F.

1986-08-19

400

Transmission line capacitance measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacitance of coplanar lines is measured with two new techniques, one utilizing the resistance of the line and the other that of a resistor embedded in the line. The results of both measurements agree closely with calculations. A technique for directly comparing the capacitances of two similar transmission lines is also demonstrated. The relevance of these measurements to the

Dylan F. Williams; Roger B. Marks

1991-01-01

401

Efficient Data Transmission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most data transmission over public carrier and private lines has taken place at bit rates of 1200 bits per second or less. But when large amounts of information must be transmitted, e.g., between computers, bit rates increase by one or more orders of magn...

E. F. Boose

1972-01-01

402

Transmission line optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission line designs have been optimized for many years through comparative estimates of the present worth of revenue required (PWRR), in order to achieve design performance at minimum cost. The method has most commonly been used for conductor selection, but can obviously be applied to other parameters as well, although the economic returns from these other parameters are largely unknown.

Ian S. Grant; Roger E. Clayton

1987-01-01

403

Transmission System Radio Influence  

Microsoft Academic Search

An economic overhead electric power transmission system which produces no radio influence is beyond the present state of the art. However, sound engineering and attention to relevant aspects of design can produce a system having an acceptable (or tolerable) influence level. Such criteria as have been proved by research or experience together with accepted practices in instrumentation and measurement of

1965-01-01

404

Transmission blocking malaria vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission blocking vaccines (TBVs) against malaria are intended to induce immunity against the stages of the parasites which infect mosquitoes so that TBV-immunised individuals cannot transmit malaria. As malarial infections are transmitted mainly within a few hundreds of meters from an infectious human source, TBVs used within in a community would protect the immediate neighbourhood of the vaccinated individuals. TBVs

Richard Carter

2001-01-01

405

Transmission planning in China  

SciTech Connect

Though China is well along in restructuring its power markets, it still has some way to travel before economic considerations receive adequate weight in transmission planning decisions. Adoption of more sophisticated tools such as multi-agent modeling will help China continue in its progress in achieving this. (author)

Dong, Jun; Zhang, Jing

2009-07-15

406

Categories and Music Transmission  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Lucy Green's (2008) "Music, Informal Learning, and the School: A New Classroom Pedagogy" gives rise to an interesting corollary. Does the manner of music's transmission inform one's understanding of a musical category? While categories of music can be difficult to define according to strict musical characteristics, a better understanding of…

Gatien, Greg

2009-01-01

407

Borehole data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1993-03-23

408

Calibrating Atmospheric Transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth's atmosphere is a wavelength-, directionally- and time-dependent turbid refractive element for every ground-based telescope. Changes in atmospheric transmission are the most significant systematic error limiting photometric measurement precision and accuracy. While considerable resources have been devoted to correcting the effects of the atmosphere on angular resolution, the effects on precision photometry have largely been ignored. To correct photometric measurements for the transmission of the atmosphere requires direct measurements of the wavelength-dependent transmission in the same direction and at the same time that the supported photometric telescope is acquiring its data. We describe the multi-wavelength lidar, the Facility Lidar for Astronomical Measurement of Extinction (FLAME) that observes the stable stratosphere, and a spectrophotometer (the Astronomical Extinction Spectrophotometer - AESoP) that creates and maintains NIST absolute standard stars, the combination of which enables fundamentally statistically limited photometric precision of both the stellar spectra and atmospheric transmission. The throughput of both FLAME and AESoP are calibrated to NIST radiometric standards. This inexpensive and replicable instrument suite provides the lidar-determined monochromatic transmission of Earth's atmosphere at visible and near-infrared wavelengths to 0.25% per airmass and the wavelength-dependent transparency to less than 1% uncertainty per nanometer per minute of time. These atmospheric data are merged to create a metadata stream that allows throughput corrections from data acquired at the time of the scientific observations to be applied to broadband and spectrophotometric scientific data. This new technique replaces the classical use of nightly mean atmospheric extinction coefficients, which invoke a stationary and plane-parallel atmosphere and ultimately limit ground-based all-sky photometry to 1% - 2% precision. This research is supported by NIST Award 60NANB9D9121 and NSF Grant AST-1009878.

Zimmer, Peter C.; McGraw, J. T.; Vorobiev, D. M.; Zirzow, D. C.; Karle, J. C.; Lykke, K. R.; Woodward, J. T.; Cramer, C. E.

2012-01-01

409

Transmission of crayfish plague.  

PubMed

Two possible means of transmission of crayfish plague were investigated: via fish (as vectors), and via crayfish (as hosts or vectors when dead). The crayfish transmission experiments focussed on both the viability of the fungus in dead crayfish when kept in simulated field conditions, and on the treatments which kill viable forms of Aphanomyces astaci within the recently dead host (cadaver). It was found that A. astaci remains viable for 5 d, and possibly longer in crayfish kept in water at 21 degrees C after dying of crayfish plague. Heating (boiling for 1 min) was the quickest way of decontaminating crayfish cadavers. Freezing took considerably longer: after 48 h at -20 degrees C, viable stages were still present. It was also found that A. astaci is unlikely to survive passage of the gastrointestinal tract of either mammals or birds as no viable stages were found after 12 h at 37 degrees C. Two basic modes of transmission of crayfish plague via fish were investigated: (1) after passage of initially viable forms of A. astaci through the digestive tract of fish and (2) via fish skin. If A. astaci was fed to fish as infected abdominal cuticle, it was still viable after passage through the gastrointestinal tract. When pure mycelium or spores were fed to fish there was no indication of viable forms of A. astaci after passage through the gastrointestinal tract. Transmission via fish skin was not observed under the experimental conditions applied. The results on fish as vectors have practical importance for fish transport and stocking because the present study shows that there is a risk of transmission of crayfish plague via fish faeces. The investigation of crayfish as vectors delivers methods that could be used for treatment of crayfish imported for human consumption into crayfish-plague-free areas. This application is particularly important for the importation of American crayfish, which are in general suspected to carry A. astaci in their cuticle. PMID:12542093

Oidtmann, Birgit; Heitz, Elke; Rogers, David; Hoffmann, Rudolf W

2002-11-22

410

The formation and maintenance of single-thread tie channels entering floodplain lakes: observations from three diverse river systems  

SciTech Connect

Tie channels connect rivers to floodplain lakes on many lowland rivers and thereby play a central role in floodplain sedimentology and ecology, yet they are generally unrecognized and little studied. here we report the results of field studies focused on tie channel origin and morphodynamics in three contrasting systems: the Middle Fly River, Papua New Guinea, the Lower Mississippi River, and Birch Creek in Alaska. Across these river systems, tie channels vary by an order of magnitude in size but exhibit the same characteristic morphology and appear to develop and evolve by a similar set of processes. In all three systems, the channels are characterized by a narrow, leveed single-thread morphology with maximum width approximately one tenth the width of the mainstem river. The channels typically have a V shaped cross-section, unlike most fluvial channels. These channels develop as lakes become isolated from the river by sedimentation. Narrowing of the connection between river and lake causes a sediment-laden jet to develop. Levees develop along the margins of the jet leading to channel emergence and eventual levee aggradation to the height of the mainstem levees. Bi-directional flow in these channels is common. Outflows from the lake scour sediment and prevent channel blockage. We propose that channel geometry and size are then controlled by a dynamic balance between channel narrowing by suspended sediment deposition and incision and widening by mass failure of banks during outflows. Tie channels are laterally stable and may convey flow for hundreds to a few thousand of years.

Rowland, Joel C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dietrich, William E [UC BERKELEY; Day, Geoff [NEWCREST MINING; Parker, Gary [UNIV OF ILLINOIS

2009-01-01

411

Efficiency Improvement of Grid-Tied Inverters at Low Input Power Using Pulse-Skipping Control Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pulse-skipping control strategy is proposed to improve efficiency of grid-tied inverters at light loads. To maximize the efficiency of pulse-skipping operation mode, three key parameters are identified and optimized based on a loss model, which is developed to find the maximal efficiency points using a 3-D search technique. A 200-W prototype inverter was setup to verify the proposed control

Haibing Hu; Wisam Al-Hoor; Nasser H. Kutkut; Issa Batarseh; Z. John Shen

2010-01-01

412

Bus-tie synchronization and load share technique in a ring bus system with multiple power inverters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel synchronizing technique is applied to a ring bus configured power system, with multiple solid-state inverters, to allow the bus-tie breaker to be closed at any time. After paralleling, load sharing is magnetically controlled without electronic circuitry or software control. Compared to the traditional one-at-a-time synchronization process, this approach significantly shortens the synchronization time as well as the interconnect-signal

C. Mak; L. Bolster

2005-01-01

413

The synthetic Tie2 agonist peptide vasculotide protects against vascular leakage and reduces mortality in murine abdominal sepsis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Angiopoietin-1 (Angpt1), the natural agonist ligand for the endothelial Tie2 receptor, is a non-redundant endothelial survival and vascular stabilization factor that reduces endothelial permeability and inhibits leukocyte-endothelium interactions. Here we evaluate the efficacy of a novel polyethylene glycol (PEG)-clustered Tie2 agonist peptide, vasculotide (VT), to protect against vascular leakage and mortality in a murine model of polymicrobial abdominal sepsis. Methods Polymicrobial abdominal sepsis in C57BL6 mice was induced by cecal-ligation-and-puncture (CLP). Mice were treated with different dosages of VT or equal volume of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Sham-operated animals served as time-matched controls. Results Systemic administration of VT induced long-lasting Tie2 activation in vivo. VT protected against sepsis-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction, as evidenced by attenuation of vascular leakage and leukocyte transmigration into the peritoneal cavity. Histological analysis revealed that VT treatment ameliorated leukocyte infiltration in kidneys of septic mice, probably due to reduced endothelial adhesion molecule expression. VT-driven effects were associated with significantly improved organ function and reduced circulating cytokine levels. The endothelial-specific action of VT was supported by additional in vitro studies showing no effect of VT on either cytokine release from isolated peritoneal macrophages, or migratory capacity of isolated neutrophils. Finally, administration of VT pre-CLP (hazard ratio 0.39 [95% confidence interval 0.19-0.81] P < 0.001) and post-CLP reduced mortality in septic mice (HR 0.22 [95% CI 0.06-0.83] P < 0.05). Conclusions We provide proof of principle in support of the efficacious use of PEGylated VT, a drug-like Tie2 receptor agonist, to counteract microvascular endothelial barrier dysfunction and reduce mortality in a clinically relevant murine sepsis model. Further studies are needed to pave the road for clinical application of this therapeutic concept.

2011-01-01

414

DC voltage sensorless control strategy of grid-tied two-stage three-phase photovoltaic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variable dc voltage generated by photovoltaic (PV) array can be harnessed as much as possible through the well-known two-stage inversion in grid- tied configuration, where the controlled dc-link voltage can be maintained stably to ensure the desired low harmonic ac output. Traditionally, the front-end dc Boost converter generally operates to track the maximum power point (MPP) of PV array

Jianhua Yuan; Feng Gao; Houlei Gao

2011-01-01

415

Towards a Better Laparoscopic Knot: Using Knot Quality Scores to Evaluate Three Laparoscopic Knot-Tying Techniques  

PubMed Central

Objective: In the past, knot-tying techniques have been evaluated and compared, but there has been a scarcity of objective scoring systems in these comparison studies. Using an objective scoring system, we aimed to compare 3 types of knots: intracorporeal flat-square knots, intracorporeal slip-square knots, and extracorporeal square-knots for their Knot Quality Scores (KQS) and their rates of slippage. Materials and Methods: Three surgeons tied 100 knots in the 3 knot categories. The knots tied were evenly distributed amongst the 3 surgeons with each surgeon contributing at least 30 knots. These knots were tied in a nonrandomized fashion. Forces were measured using a tensiometer and an objective scoring system, the Knot Quality Score (KQS), which is used to compare the knot's strength and rates of slippage. Results: Median KQS scores of the 3 groups were not all the same. The median KQS and variance for the extracorporeal square knot group was 0.32 and 0.0079, respectively. For the intracorporeal slip-square knot group, the median KQS and variance was 0.28 and 0.00017, respectively. Lastly, for the intracorporeal flat-square knot group, the median KQS and variance was 0.33 and 0.0075, respectively. Follow-up analysis revealed that the KQS medians (0.32 versus 0.28) of the extracorporeal square-knots and intracorporeal slip-square knot groups were significantly different (P<0.0001). The medians of the intracorporeal slip-knot and intracorporeal flat-square knot groups (0.28 versus 0.33) were also statistically significantly different (P<0.0001). There was no statistically significant difference in KQS scores between extracorporeal square-knots and intracorporeal flat-square knots. Conclusion: Extracorporeal square-knots and intracorporeal flat-square knots can tolerate better distraction forces and thus have higher median KQS scores compared with intracorporeal slip-square knots.

Goldenberg, Elie A.

2009-01-01

416

The availability of community ties predicts likelihood of peer referral for mammography: geographic constraints on viral marketing.  

PubMed

Engaging social networks to encourage preventive health behavior offers a supplement to conventional mass media campaigns and yet we do not fully understand the conditions that facilitate or hamper such interpersonal diffusion. One set of factors that should affect the diffusion of health campaign information involves a person's community. Variables describing geographic communities should predict the likelihood of residents accepting campaign invitations to pass along information to friends, family, and others. We investigate two aspects of a community--the availability of community ties and residential stability--as potential influences on diffusion of publicly-funded breast cancer screening in the United States in 2008-2009. In a survey study of 1515 participants living in 91 zip codes across the State of Minnesota, USA, we focus on the extent to which women refer others when given the opportunity to nominate family, friends, and peers to receive free mammograms. We predicted nomination tendency for a particular zip code would be a function of available community ties, measured as religious congregation density in that zip code, and also expected the predictive power of available ties would be greatest in communities with relatively high residential stability (meaning lower turnover in home residence). Results support our hypotheses. Congregation density positively predicted nomination tendency both in bivariate analysis and in Tobit regression models, and was most predictive in zip codes above the median in residential stability. We conclude that having a local infrastructure of social ties available in a community predicts the diffusion of available health care services in that community. PMID:20864236

Southwell, Brian G; Slater, Jonathan S; Rothman, Alexander J; Friedenberg, Laura M; Allison, Tiffany R; Nelson, Christina L

2010-09-15

417

Characteristics of the full CMOS SRAM cell using body-tied TG MOSFETs (bulk FinFETs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper,the operational six-transistor SRAM cell characteristic was demonstrated using body-tied triple-gate MOSFETs (bulk FinFETs). A cell size of 0.79 ?m2 was achieved with 90-nm node technology, using four levels of W and Al interconnects. A static noise margin of 280 mV was obtained at VCC of 1.2 V by applying bulk FinFETs, and compared with those of typical

Tai-Su Park; Hye Jin Cho; Jeong Dong Choe; Sang Yeon Han; Kinam Kim; E. Yoon; Jong-Ho Lee

2006-01-01

418

Stereo sequence transmission via conventional transmission channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a new stereo sequence transmission technique using digital watermarking for compatibility with conventional 2D digital TV. We, generally, compress and transmit image sequence using temporal-spatial redundancy between stereo images. It is difficult for users with conventional digital TV to watch the transmitted 3D image sequence because many 3D image compression methods are different. To solve such a problem, in this paper, we perceive the concealment of new information of digital watermarking and conceal information of the other stereo image into three channels of the reference image. The main target of the technique presented is to let the people who have conventional DTV watch stereo movies at the same time. This goal is reached by considering the response of human eyes to color information and by using digital watermarking. To hide right images into left images effectively, bit-change in 3 color channels and disparity estimation according to the value of estimated disparity are performed. The proposed method assigns the displacement information of right image to each channel of YCbCr on DCT domain. Each LSB bit on YCbCr channels is changed according to the bits of disparity information. The performance of the presented methods is confirmed by several computer experiments.

Lee, Ho-Keun; Kim, Chul-Hwan; Han, Kyu-Phil; Ha, Yeong-Ho

2003-05-01

419

Improvement of the Accuracy of InSAR Image Co-Registration Based On Tie Points - A Review  

PubMed Central

Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a new measurement technology, making use of the phase information contained in the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. InSAR has been recognized as a potential tool for the generation of digital elevation models (DEMs) and the measurement of ground surface deformations. However, many critical factors affect the quality of InSAR data and limit its applications. One of the factors is InSAR data processing, which consists of image co-registration, interferogram generation, phase unwrapping and geocoding. The co-registration of InSAR images is the first step and dramatically influences the accuracy of InSAR products. In this paper, the principle and processing procedures of InSAR techniques are reviewed. One of important factors, tie points, to be considered in the improvement of the accuracy of InSAR image co-registration are emphatically reviewed, such as interval of tie points, extraction of feature points, window size for tie point matching and the measurement for the quality of an interferogram.

Zou, Weibao; Li, Yan; Li, Zhilin; Ding, Xiaoli

2009-01-01

420

Tying the terrestrial reference frame of EOP measured by optical astrometry to ITRF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical astrometry was, for most of the 20th century, the only technique measuring the Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP). We collected and re-analyzed these data using a unique celestial reference frame. It was realized first by the Hipparcos Catalogue, and then by a group of our own Earth Orientation Catalogs (EOC). The latter were obtained by combining Hipparcos/Tycho data with older ground-based observations, in order to improve the proper motions, and in some cases also to derive non-linear motions of a great proportion of the stars, observed in the programs of monitoring Earth orientation. On the other hand, the underlying terrestrial reference frame is rather arbitrarily realized by adopted geographic coordinates (latitudes, longitudes) of participating stations. In addition, we tied the system to the plate motion model NUVEL-1A by correcting the observations for the linear motions of the stations computed for that model. Small coordinate corrections and drifts of individual stations with respect to individual plates are estimated in the solution. We also suppose that each station can have apparent seasonal changes of geographic coordinates due to anomalous refraction. We apply 18 constraints to remove singularity of the solution. Thus, the terrestrial reference frame of the optical solution can deviate from ITRF by a constant, linear drift and seasonal (annual, semi-annual) changes, in all three axes. To estimate these deviations, we compare our "optical" EOP series with the ones provided by space techniques in the common interval of observations. The deviations found are then applied to our EOP solution to refer it more precisely to ITRF.

Vondrák, Jan; Ron, Cyril

2010-05-01

421

Drive transmission means  

SciTech Connect

This invention provides apparatus for use in a drive transmission system comprising a pump adapted to perform work on a medium and means repetitively and automatically to unload the pump. When connected with a flywheel driven by a prime mover an embodiment alternately performs work and then is unloaded to permit acceleration of the flywheel. In use in a driven transmission system there is provided a flywheel driven by an engine, a pump driven by the flywheel, powered by the pump, and means repetitively to unload the pump permitting the engine to accelerate the flywheel and compensation means to power the hydraulic motor while the pump is unloaded. The pump is preferably a rotary positive displacement pump having relief galleries eliminating the seal between pumping elements driving each cycle.

Marsh, M. R.

1985-01-15

422

TREATMENT OF STROKE WITH DETA-NONOATE AND BONE MARROW STROMAL CELLS UPREGULATES ANGIOPOIETIN-1/TIE2 AND ENHANCES NEOVASCULARIZATION  

PubMed Central

Neovascularization may contribute to functional recovery after neural injury. Combination treatment of stroke with a nitric oxide donor, DETA-NONOate and bone marrow stromal cells promote functional recovery. However, the mechanisms underlying functional improvement have not been elucidated. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that combination treatment upregulates Angiopoietin1 and its receptor Tie2 in the ischemic brain and bone marrow stromal cells, thereby enhances cerebral neovascularization after stroke. Adult wild type male C57BL/6 mice were intravenously administered PBS, bone marrow stromal cells 5×105, DETA-NONOate 0.4 mg/kg or combination DETA-NONOate with bone marrow stromal cells (n=12/group) after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Combination treatment significantly upregulated Angiopoietin-1/Tie2 and tight junction protein (occludin) expression, and increased the number, diameter and perimeter of blood vessels in the ischemic brain compared with vehicle control (mean ± SE, p<0.05). In vitro, DETA-NONOate significantly increased Angiopoietin-1/Tie2 protein (n=6/group) and Tie2 mRNA (n=3/group) expression in bone marrow stromal cells. DETA-NONOate also significantly increased Angiopoietin-1 protein (n=6/group) and mRNA (n=3/group) expression in mouse brain endothelial cells (p<0.05). Angiopoietin-1 mRNA (n=3/group) was significantly increased in mouse brain endothelial cells treated with DETA-NONOate in combination with bone marrow stromal cells conditioned medium compared with cells treated with bone marrow stromal cells conditioned medium or DETA-NONOate alone. Mouse brain endothelial cell capillary tube-like formation assays (n=6/group) showed that Angiopoietin-1 peptide, the supernatant of bone marrow stromal cells and DETA-NONOate significantly increased capillary tube formation compared to vehicle control. Combination treatment significantly increased capillary tube formation compared with DETA-NONOate treatment alone. Inhibition of Angiopoietin-1 significantly attenuated combination treatment-induced tube formation. Our data indicated that combination treatment of stroke with DETA-NONOate and bone marrow stromal cells promotes neovascularization, which is at least partially mediated by upregulation of the Angiopoietin-1/Tie2 axis.

CUI, X.; CHEN, J.; ZACHAREK, A.; ROBERTS, C.; SAVANT-BHONSALE, S.; CHOPP, M.

2008-01-01

423

Remanent transmission neutron polarizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our goal is to develop magnetically remanent neutron supermirrors using the material combinations Fe\\/Si and FeCo\\/Si. With these we plan to build compact neutron transmission polarizers and neutron polarizers which can be operated with their magnetization oriented antiparallel to the guide field. In the latter case no spin flipper is necessary to switch to the other spin state. The supermirrors

Jochen Stahn; Daniel Clemens

2002-01-01

424

Maintenance of hydrostatic transmissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problems in hydrostatic transmission maintenance are identified and ways of overcoming them are suggested. It is found that problems arise from lack of lubrication, impurities in the oil, and cavitation at the pump and at the motor. It is under suggested that under nonsevere operating conditions, oil and filter should be changed every year, or every 1500 to 2000 hr running time. Under severe operating conditions or in dusty environments, the interval should be every 6 months or 1000 hr.

Esposito, A.

1981-10-01

425

Transmission Genetics Online Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Transmission Genetics, a new resource from Baylor College of MedicineâÂÂs comprehensive website, BioEd Online, is one module of a three-part, interactive Web-based course called Genes, Health and Society. [The course, which explores the rapidly evolving world of genetics and genomics, can be taken free of charge for professional or personal development. Each module stands alone. Educators can work through the modules in sequence or move freely among them.

Nancy Moreno (Baylor College of Medicine;)

2010-05-27

426

The Transmission Electron Microscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A typical commercial transmission electron microscope (TEM) costs about 5 for each electron volt (eV) of energy in the beam and, if you add on all available options, it can easily cost up to5 for each electron volt (eV) of energy in the beam\\u000a and, if you add on all available options, it can easily cost up to 10 per

David B. Williams; C. Barry Carter

427

Facsimile transmission standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern tactical communications systems are becoming increasingly compatible with existing civilian systems. This compatibility allows the military to take advantage of the equipment available commercially and spare the expense of developing costly customized systems. It also increases the interoperability of various communications systems employed by allies involved in multinational operations. Finally, the compatibility allows the military to augment its telecommunications assets with existing commercial equipment and networks during times of conflict. One civilian communication standard that has recently been adopted by the military for tactical communications is that of facsimile. Facsimile is now commonly used on the battlefield for the transmission of tactical maps and situation reports. This technical note examines the requirements for facsimile transmission. An overview of the various facsimile standards are given, followed by a detailed description of the most commonly used standard; CCITT Group III. The Group III specifications are a composite of various CCITT modulation and encoding standards. These consist of V.21, V.27ter, and V.29 modulations, as well as T.4 image encoding standards, and T.30 signalling specifications. Each of these standards is described in the context of facsimile transmissions. A complete description of the handshaking which occurs between the facsimile transmitter and receiver is given.

Mudry, Andrew; Poulin, Brad

1993-10-01

428

Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor2 or Tie2 on Peripheral Blood Cells Defines Functionally Competent Cell Populations Capable of Reendothelialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Receptor tyrosine kinases that include vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFR)-1, VEGFR-2, and Tie-2 regulate cardiovascular development and physiological and pathological angiogenesis. We were interested in the phenotypic and functional characterization of peripheral blood cells expressing these receptors and their therapeutic potential in vascular injury. Methods and Results—VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, and Tie-2 cells constituted 3.00.2%, 0.80.5%, and 2.00.3%, respectively, of the total

Grzegorz Nowak; Azza Karrar; Carolina Holmén; Silvia Nava; Mehmet Uzunel; Kjell Hultenby; Suchitra Sumitran-Holgersson

2010-01-01

429

Seasonal diet affects ammonia emissions from tie-stall dairy barns.  

PubMed

Federal and state regulations are being promulgated under the Clean Air Act to reduce hazardous air emissions from livestock operations. Although much is known about air emissions from livestock operations in Europe, few data are available on emissions from livestock facilities in the United States and the management practices that may minimize these emissions. The objective of this study was to measure seasonal and diet effects on ammonia emissions from experimental tie-stall dairy barns located in central Wisconsin. Four experimental chambers each housed 4 lactating Holstein dairy cows for three 28-d trial periods corresponding to spring, early fall, and winter. A 4 x 4 Latin square statistical design was used to evaluate 4 diets [corn silage (CS)- or alfalfa silage (AS)-based diets at low or high crude protein] in each chamber for a 4-d ammonia monitoring period. Partially due to higher crude protein levels, average ammonia-N emissions during spring (18.8 g/cow per d) were approximately twice the emissions recorded during early fall (8.4 g/cow per d) and 3 times greater than emissions during winter (6.7 g/cow per d). Ammonia-N emissions accounted for approximately 1 to 3% of consumed feed N, 2 to 5% of excreted manure N, and 4 to 11% of manure ammonical N. Nighttime ammonia emissions were on average 30% lower than daytime emissions. Forage type did not affect ammonia emissions during winter or early fall. Only during early spring were ammonia emissions lower from chambers containing cows fed low-CP diets than from cows fed high-CP diets. Of the total chamber N inputs (feed and bedding), 93, 91, and 95% were recovered in N outputs (milk, manure, body weight change, and ammonia N) during spring, early fall, and winter trials, respectively. Confidence in the accuracy of ammonia emission results was gained by the relatively high chamber N balances and favorable comparisons of study data with published relationships among the variables of feed N intake, milk urea N, manure N, and urine N excretion, and ammonia emissions. PMID:18218774

Powell, J M; Broderick, G A; Misselbrook, T H

2008-02-01

430

Small passenger car transmission test: Chevrolet 200 transmission  

SciTech Connect

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. This report covers the testing of a 1979 Chevrolet Model 200 automation transmission. This transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test are the torque, speed, and efficiency curves which are reported in the data section. These graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Chevrolet Model 200 transmission.

Bujold, M.P.

1980-03-01

431

[Oral transmission of Chagas' disease].  

PubMed

The traditional transmission pathways of Chagas' disease are vectorial, transfusional, transplacental and organ transplantation. However, oral transmission is gaining importance. The first evidence of oral transmission was reported in Brazil in 1965. Nowadays the oral route is the transmission mode in 50% of cases in the Amazon river zone. Oral infection is produced by the ingestion of infected triatomine bugs or their feces, undercooked meat from infested host animals and food contaminated with urine or anal secretion of infected marsupials. Therefore travelers to those zones should be advised about care to be taken with ingested food. In Chile, this new mode of transmission should be considered in public health policies. PMID:21773665

Toso M, Alberto; Vial U, Felipe; Galanti, Norbel

2011-07-11

432

Automated manual transmission clutch controller  

DOEpatents

A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

Lawrie, Robert E. (9375 Kearney Rd., Whitmore Lake, MI 48189); Reed, Jr., Richard G. (3003 Bembridge, Royal Oak, MI 48073); Rausen, David J. (519 S. Gaylord St., Denver, CO 80209)

1999-11-30

433

Integration of Spatial and Social Network Analysis in Disease Transmission Studies  

PubMed Central

This study presents a case study of how social network and spatial analytical methods can be used simultaneously for disease transmission modeling. The paper first reviews strategies employed in previous studies and then offers the example of transmission of two bacterial diarrheal diseases in rural Bangladesh. The goal is to understand how diseases vary socially above and beyond the effects of the local neighborhood context. Patterns of cholera and shigellosis incidence are analyzed in space and within kinship-based social networks in Matlab, Bangladesh. Data include a spatially referenced longitudinal demographic database which consists of approximately 200,000 people and laboratory-confirmed cholera and shigellosis cases from 1983 to 2003. Matrices are created of kinship ties between households using a complete network design and distance matrices are also created to model spatial relationships. Moran's I statistics are calculated to measure clustering within both social and spatial matrices. Combined spatial effects-spatial disturbance models are built to simultaneously analyze spatial and social effects while controlling for local environmental context. Results indicate that cholera and shigellosis always clusters in space and only sometimes within social networks. This suggests that the local environment is most important for understanding transmission of both diseases however kinship-based social networks also influence their transmission. Simultaneous spatial and social network analysis can help us better understand disease transmission and this study has offered several strategies on how.

Root, Elisabeth D; Giebultowicz, Sophia; Ali, Mohammad; Perez-Heydrich, Carolina; Yunus, Mohammad

2013-01-01

434

Divergent Regulation of Angiopoietin-1 and -2, Tie-2, and Thrombospondin-1 Expression by Estrogen in the Baboon Endometrium  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Estrogen has an important role in the reconstruction of a new vascular network in the endometrium during each menstrual cycle; however, the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) promotes vessel assembly, whereas Ang-2 and thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) cause vessel breakdown. To determine the potential effect of estrogen on the expression of these angioregulatory factors in the endometrium, Ang-1, Ang-2, TSP-1, and Tie-2 receptor mRNA levels were assessed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in glandular epithelial and stromal cells isolated from the endometrium of ovariectomized baboons treated acutely with estradiol. Corresponding protein expression was assessed by immunocytochemistry and the proximity ligation assay (PLA) during advancing stages of the baboon menstrual cycle. Serum estradiol levels in ovariectomized baboons were 400 pg/ml within 4–6 hr of estradiol treatment. Ang-1 mRNA levels in glandular epithelial cells increased threefold (P < 0.01) within 4 hr of estradiol administration. In contrast, TSP-1 mRNA levels decreased four- to fivefold (P < 0.01) in endometrial glandular epithelial and stromal cells 4–6 hr after estradiol, whereas Ang-2 and Tie-2 expression was unaltered. Immunostaining for Ang-1 increased, TSP-1 decreased, and Ang-2 and Tie-2 were unaltered in the endometrium during the secretory compared with the proliferative phase of the cycle. Endometrial Ang-1 protein expression, quantified by PLA, increased 10-fold (P < 0.05) between the early proliferative and late proliferative/mid-secretory phases of the menstrual cycle in association with the rise in estrogen. In summary, estrogen induced a rapid, divergent, and cell-specific change in expression of angiostimulatory and angioinhibitory growth factors in the endometrium of the nonhuman primate.

Bonagura, Thomas W.; Aberdeen, Graham W.; Babischkin, Jeffery S.; Koos, Robert D.; Pepe, Gerald J.; Albrecht, Eugene D.

2010-01-01

435

Modulated powershift transmission  

SciTech Connect

The design and development of a four speed transmission, with special emphasis on the electronic control of clutch pressure during engagement involves many engineering interactions. The case at hand had, as a primary objective, creation of a unit which would perform to specific functional requirements while maintaining costs competitive in present and future marketing environments. Specific functional design requirements included the four forward and reverse ratios (from 4.2 to 0.6), and a baseline design point to be turbine torque and speed of 805 lb-ft (1091 N . m) and 500 rpm. A transmission in-service B-10 life of 9000-10,000 h as applied to a 3.5-4.5 yd/sup 3/ (2.7-3.5 m/sup 3/) rubber-tired wheel loader duty cycle was needed. Limitations were placed on maximum shaft slopes at bearing locations, and spline and shaft capacities for a 350 lb-ft (473 N . m) power take-off. Directional clutch thermal capacities had to survive the vehicle's duty cycle. Adjustable and accurate control of clutch supply pressure during engagements was needed, as were four-wheel drive disconnects, ground driven pump, midship, engine, and remote mount, and converter lock-up. Cost effectiveness considerations were: material and processing, commonality of components, serviceability, and operational reliability.

Goodbar, E.; Testerman, M.D.

1986-09-01

436

Pain pathways and transmission.  

PubMed Central

Pain has been a major concern of humankind since the ancient times, and it remains one of the most important subjects of all health care professionals. Despite the obvious overwhelming clinical importance, the major advances in its diagnosis and therapy have been made only recently. "How do the sensory apparatus of the body and system of signal transmission relate to pain of peripheral origin?" is the topic of discussion. To do this, it is important to understand what constitutes the total pain experience. It consists of: 1) signal transduction at the peripheral receptor site, 2) signal conduction along the peripheral nerve, 3) pain modulation at the level of the spinal cord, 4) pain perception at the supraspinal site, and 5) the associated sensations, emotional reactions, and effective state. The signal transmission related to pain may be modified by various analgesic agents. Specific analgesic agent has a specific site of action which may be at peripheral receptors, at peripheral nerves, at the level of the spinal cord, at supraspinal levels by activating descending inhibitory systems, or at more cephalad levels by reducing the affective component of pain.

Kitahata, L. M.

1993-01-01

437

Broadband Transmission EPR Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

EPR spectroscopy employs a resonator operating at a single microwave frequency and phase-sensitive detection using modulation of the magnetic field. The X-band spectrometer is the general standard with a frequency in the 9–10 GHz range. Most (bio)molecular EPR spectra are determined by a combination of the frequency-dependent electronic Zeeman interaction and a number of frequency-independent interactions, notably, electron spin – nuclear spin interactions and electron spin – electron spin interactions, and unambiguous analysis requires data collection at different frequencies. Extant and long-standing practice is to use a different spectrometer for each frequency. We explore the alternative of replacing the narrow-band source plus single-mode resonator with a continuously tunable microwave source plus a non-resonant coaxial transmission cell in an unmodulated external field. Our source is an arbitrary wave digital signal generator producing an amplitude-modulated sinusoidal microwave in combination with a broadband amplifier for 0.8–2.7 GHz. Theory is developed for coaxial transmission with EPR detection as a function of cell dimensions and materials. We explore examples of a doublet system, a high-spin system, and an integer-spin system. Long, straigth, helical, and helico-toroidal cells are developed and tested with dilute aqueous solutions of spin label hydroxy-tempo. A detection limit of circa 5 µM HO-tempo in water at 800 MHz is obtained for the present setup, and possibilities for future improvement are discussed.

Hagen, Wilfred R.

2013-01-01

438

Novel 4-amino-furo[2,3- d]pyrimidines as Tie2 and VEGFR2 dual inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel class of furo[2,3-d]pyrimidines has been discovered as potent dual inhibitors of Tie-2 and VEGFR2 receptor tyrosine kinases (TK) and a diarylurea moiety at 5-position shows remarkably enhanced activity against both enzymes. One of the most active compounds, 4-amino-3-(4-((2-fluoro-5-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)amino-carbonylamino)phenyl)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine (7k) is <3nM on both TK receptors and the activity is rationalized based on the X-ray crystal structure.

Yasushi Miyazaki; Shinichiro Matsunaga; Jun Tang; Yutaka Maeda; Masato Nakano; Rocher J. Philippe; Megumi Shibahara; Wei Liu; Hideyuki Sato; Liping Wang; Robert T. Nolte

2005-01-01

439

Local ties between the reference points at the Transportable Integrated Geodetic Observatory (TIGO) in Concepcion/Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The local ties between reference points of the geodetic space observation systems and the geodetic local network markers have been derived through terrestrial local survey and GPS observations. The local survey consists of direction, distance and levelling observations, which were analysed with the adjustment program PANDA. GPS observations were carried out for the orientation of the local network within the global reference frame. The GPS observations were analysed using the Bernese GPS Software. Both results were combined by making use of the Bernese GPS Software. The results finally were made available in the SINEX format for further application.

Schlüter, Wolfgang; Hase, Hayo; Zernecke, Rudolf; Becker, Swetlana; Klügel, Thomas; Thaller, Daniela

440

Transmission for an automobile  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a transmission for an automobile. The method comprises having a main shaft aligned axially with and arranged to be driven by a main drive shaft which is in turn arranged to be driven by an automobile engine. A counter shaft is arranged in parallel with the main shaft. The improvement comprises: the main shaft having one end rotatably journalled in a hollow end of the main drive shaft, the hollow end in turn being rotatably supported by a first bearing. The main shaft is additionally rotatably journalled in a second bearing spaced axially from the first bearing. Speed change gears rotatably are mounted on the main shaft between the bearings. The speed change gears when viewed from the first bearing towards the second bearing are arranged in a progressively descending order on progressively increased diameter portions of the main shaft.

Kawamoto, T.

1987-06-02

441

Flywheel electric transmission apparatus  

SciTech Connect

In a preferred embodiment, the flywheel electric transmission system is made up of three electric machines and a flywheel and is adapted for use in an automobile. The first electric machine is driven or energized by a prime mover such as a heat engine and is selectively clutched to the second machine. The flywheel and the armatures for both the first and second machines rotate as a unit. The third machine is connected to the second machine through gearing and, under the control of a computer, supplies excess electrical power to or consumes excess electrical power from the first and second machines that are functioning as either a motor or generator as required. In a second embodiment, the energy source is a battery pack.

Bock, D.H.

1982-01-05

442

Nature limits filarial transmission  

PubMed Central

Lymphatic filariasis, caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and B. timori is a public health problem of considerable magnitude of the tropics and subtropics. Presently 1.3 billion people are at risk of lymphatic filariasis (LF) infection and about 120 million people are affected in 83 countries. In this context it is worth mentioning that 'nature' itself limits filarial transmission to a great extent in a number of ways such as by reducing vector populations, parasitic load and many other bearings. Possibilities to utilize these bearings of natural control of filariasis should be searched and if manipulations on nature, like indiscriminate urbanization and deforestation, creating sites favourable for the breeding of filarial vectors and unsanitary conditions, water pollution with organic matters etc., are reduced below the threshold level, we will be highly benefited. Understandings of the factors related to natural phenomena of control of filariasis narrated in this article may help to adopt effective control strategies.

Chandra, Goutam

2008-01-01

443

Parallel RF transmission in MRI.  

PubMed

Following the development of parallel imaging, parallel transmission describes the use of multiple RF transmit coils. Parallel transmission can be applied to improve RF excitation, in particular, multidimensional, spatially selective RF excitation. For instance, parallel transmission is able to shorten spatially selective RF pulses in two or three dimensions, or to minimize the occurring SAR. One potential major application might be the compensation of patient-induced B(1) inhomogeneities, particularly at high main fields. This paper provides an overview of selected aspects of this new transmission approach. The basic principles of parallel transmission are discussed, initial experimental proofs are described, and the impact of error propagation on coil design for parallel transmission is outlined. PMID:16705630

Katscher, Ulrich; Börnert, Peter

2006-05-01

444

Parasite-stress promotes in-group assortative sociality: the cases of strong family ties and heightened religiosity.  

PubMed

Throughout the world people differ in the magnitude with which they value strong family ties or heightened religiosity. We propose that this cross-cultural variation is a result of a contingent psychological adaptation that facilitates in-group assortative sociality in the face of high levels of parasite-stress while devaluing in-group assortative sociality in areas with low levels of parasite-stress. This is because in-group assortative sociality is more important for the avoidance of infection from novel parasites and for the management of infection in regions with high levels of parasite-stress compared with regions of low infectious disease stress. We examined this hypothesis by testing the predictions that there would be a positive association between parasite-stress and strength of family ties or religiosity. We conducted this study by comparing among nations and among states in the United States of America. We found for both the international and the interstate analyses that in-group assortative sociality was positively associated with parasite-stress. This was true when controlling for potentially confounding factors such as human freedom and economic development. The findings support the parasite-stress theory of sociality, that is, the proposal that parasite-stress is central to the evolution of social life in humans and other animals. PMID:22289223

Fincher, Corey L; Thornhill, Randy

2012-01-31

445

Analytic models for beam propagation and far-field patterns in slab and bow-tie x-ray lasers  

SciTech Connect

Simplified analytic models for beam propagation in slab and bow-tie x-ray lasers yield convenient expressions that provide both a framework for guidance in computer modeling and useful approximates for experimenters. In unrefracted bow-tie lasers, the laser shape in conjunction with the nearly-exponential weighting of rays according to their length produces a small effective aperture for the signal. We develop an analytic expression for the aperture and the properties of the far-field signal. Similarly, we develop the view that the far-field pattern of refractive slab lasers is the result of effective apertures that are created by the interplay of refraction and exponential amplification. We present expressions for the size of this aperture as a function of laser parameters as well as for the intensity and position of the far-field lineout. This analysis also yields conditions for the refraction limit in slab lasers and an estimate for the signal loss due to refraction.

Chandler, E.A.

1994-06-01

446

Human communication dynamics in digital footsteps: a study of the agreement between self-reported ties and email networks.  

PubMed

Digital communication data has created opportunities to advance the knowledge of human dynamics in many areas, including national security, behavioral health, and consumerism. While digital data uniquely captures the totality of a person's communication, past research consistently shows that a subset of contacts makes up a person's "social network" of unique resource providers. To address this gap, we analyzed the correspondence between self-reported social network data and email communication data with the objective of identifying the dynamics in e-communication that correlate with a person's perception of a significant network tie. First, we examined the predictive utility of three popular methods to derive social network data from email data based on volume and reciprocity of bilateral email exchanges. Second, we observed differences in the response dynamics along self-reported ties, allowing us to introduce and test a new method that incorporates time-resolved exchange data. Using a range of robustness checks for measurement and misreporting errors in self-report and email data, we find that the methods have similar predictive utility. Although e-communication has lowered communication costs with large numbers of persons, and potentially extended our number of, and reach to contacts, our case results suggest that underlying behavioral patterns indicative of friendship or professional contacts continue to operate in a classical fashion in email interactions. PMID:22114665

Wuchty, Stefan; Uzzi, Brian

2011-11-17

447

Contextualising migrants' health behaviour - a qualitative study of transnational ties and their implications for participation in mammography screening  

PubMed Central

Background Lower participation rates in mammography screening are common among migrant women compared to native-born women. Explanations of these lower rates have mainly been based on behavioural theories investigating how lack of knowledge, access to services and culture influence the screening behaviour. The aim of the present study was to contextualise screening behaviour by exploring migrants’ transnational ties and their influence on participation in mammography screening in Denmark. Methods The study is based on the analysis of qualitative interviews with 29 women residing in greater Copenhagen, Denmark and born in Somalia, Turkey, India, Iran, Pakistan and Arab-speaking countries. Results We found that while women had knowledge about breast cancer and mammography screening, it was not prioritised. All women were embedded in transnational ties, which they struggled to retain through emotional and financial obligations, and these current struggles in their everyday life seemed to leave little room for concerns about breast cancer and therefore seemed to contribute to their lower participation in screening. Conclusions The study emphasises the need to take into account the multi-layered and multi-sided factors in migrants’ everyday life in order to further understand their health behaviour.

2013-01-01

448

Network, degeneracy and bow tie integrating paradigms and architectures to grasp the complexity of the immune system.  

PubMed

Recently, the network paradigm, an application of graph theory to biology, has proven to be a powerful approach to gaining insights into biological complexity, and has catalyzed the advancement of systems biology. In this perspective and focusing on the immune system, we propose here a more comprehensive view to go beyond the concept of network. We start from the concept of degeneracy, one of the most prominent characteristic of biological complexity, defined as the ability of structurally different elements to perform the same function, and we show that degeneracy is highly intertwined with another recently-proposed organizational principle, i.e. 'bow tie architecture'. The simultaneous consideration of concepts such as degeneracy, bow tie architecture and network results in a powerful new interpretative tool that takes into account the constructive role of noise (stochastic fluctuations) and is able to grasp the major characteristics of biological complexity, i.e. the capacity to turn an apparently chaotic and highly dynamic set of signals into functional information. PMID:20701759

Tieri, Paolo; Grignolio, Andrea; Zaikin, Alexey; Mishto, Michele; Remondini, Daniel; Castellani, Gastone C; Franceschi, Claudio

2010-08-11

449

Small passenger car transmission test: Chevrolet 200 transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load

Bujold

1980-01-01

450

Small passenger car transmission test: Chevrolet Luv transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific roadload performance

Bujold

1980-01-01

451

Small passenger car transmission test: Chevrolet Citation 125 transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load

Bujold

1980-01-01

452

Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load

Bujold

1981-01-01

453

Small passenger car transmission test: Ford C4 transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load

Bujold

1980-01-01

454

Macroinvertebrate Community Responses to High and Low Flow Events in Streams Using the Benthic in situ Toxicity Identification Evaluation (BiTIE) Chamber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a benthic in situ TIE (BiTIE) method for both indigenous and surrogate species in either water-only, or natural substrate filled chambers. The BiTIE's have shown stressor-response relationships during high and low flows in streams using single species. The BiTIE chamber system identifies the most toxic chemical class of compounds in water column exposures, and the differing treatments include resins which remove ammonia and non-polar organics. Additional testing evaluated macroinvertebrate community responses to high and low events. Macroinvertebrate communities were collected and transplanted at two sites in southwest Ohio (Honey Creek and Little Beavercreek) and evaluated after a 96 h exposure. The test sites were characterized using an array of macroinvertebrate community metrics. Chamber flow rates, water quality parameters, and resin (zeolite) saturation characteristics were examined during exposures. Resin treatments showed trends using % Ephemeroptera, % Trichoptera, % EPT, number of EPT, % clingers and % filters indicating chemical class presence, during both high and low flows. Mean flow rates inside chambers were 3.9 cm/s versus ambient conditions of 37.6 cm/s. Further research still exists for the BiTIE system, but the chamber appears to be versatile and capable of separating the dominant chemical classes in streams.

Custer, K. W.; Burton, G. A.

2005-05-01

455

COMP-Ang1 promotes chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells through the Ang1/Tie2 signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are pleiotrophic cells that differentiate to chondrocytes, osteoblasts, or adipocytes, as a result of crosstalk by specific signaling pathways including MAPK pathway. Recently cartilage oligomeric matrix protein angiopoietin1 (COMP-Ang1), an Ang1 variant which is more potent than native Ang1 in phosphorylating Tie2 receptor was developed. The Ang1/Tie2 signaling system not only plays a pivotal role in vessel growth, remodeling, and maturation, but also protective and recruit effect on MSCs. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the differentiate effect of Ang1/Tie2 signaling on MSCs in the presence of chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic induction medium, and to determine the possible mechanisms. Our results clearly demonstrated that MSCs cultured in each induction medium with COMP-Ang1 revealed strongly chondrogenic and osteogenic morphological change (3.5- and 2-fold, respectively) as well as up-regulate each gene, except for adipogenic differentiation. Accordingly, we found that phosphorylation of Tie2 expression lead to phosphorylation of p38 and AKT and then accelerating each differentiation of MSCs to chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Therefore, our findings suggest that COMP-Ang1 present a portal to promote MSCs differentiation to chondrocytes and osteoblasts through Ang1/Tie2 signaling pathway and provide insights into novel therapies for bone diseases. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 31:1920-1928, 2013. PMID:23893855

Kim, Sokho; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Cho, Eui-Sic; Kwon, Jungkee

2013-07-24

456

A Quantitative Transmission Line Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes modifications of a commercially available strip-type transmission line, which makes possible reproducible measurements of standing waves on the line. Experimental data yield values for the characteristic impedance, phase velocity and line wavelength of radiation in the transmission line, and the dielectric constant of material in the…

Johnston, D. C.; Silbernagel, B. G.

1969-01-01

457

Transovarial transmission in the microsporidia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microsporidia are an ancient and diverse group of protists which have many unusual characteristics. These include prokaryotic-like 70s ribosomes, enclosed nuclear division, a lack of mitochondria and complex life cycles which frequently involve vertical transmission. This use of vertical transmission is unparalleled by other protists and is seen only among bacterial endosymbionts and sex ratio distorters and in host

Alison M. Dunn; Rebecca S. Terry; Judith E. Smith

2001-01-01

458

HVDC power transmission technology assessment  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to develop an assessment of the national utility system`s needs for electric transmission during the period 1995-2020 that could be met by future reduced-cost HVDC systems. The assessment was to include an economic evaluation of HVDC as a means for meeting those needs as well as a comparison with competing technologies such as ac transmission with and without Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers. The role of force commutated dc converters was to be assumed where appropriate. The assessment begins by identifying the general needs for transmission in the U.S. in the context of a future deregulated power industry. The possible roles for direct current transmission are then postulated in terms of representative scenarios. A few of the scenarios are illustrated with the help of actual U.S. system examples. non-traditional applications as well as traditional applications such as long lines and asynchronous interconnections are discussed. The classical ``break-even distance`` concept for comparing HVDC and ac lines is used to assess the selected scenarios. The impact of reduced-cost converters is reflected in terms of the break-even distance. This report presents a comprehensive review of the functional benefits of HVDC transmission and updated cost data for both ac and dc system components. It also provides some provocative thoughts on how direct current transmission might be applied to better utilize and expand our nation`s increasingly stressed transmission assets.

Hauth, R.L.; Tatro, P.J.; Railing, B.D. [New England Power Service Co., Westborough, MA (United States); Johnson, B.K.; Stewart, J.R. [Power Technologies, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States); Fink, J.L.

1997-04-01

459

Live work in Eskom Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Live line maintenance has been performed with great success by Eskom Transmission (South Africa) over the last 20 years. An aerial live line maintenance capability was established 10 years ago. Techniques, tools and procedures have been developed to maintain the South African transmission network, which is unique in many ways, to a level that meets the expectations of customers as

C. E. Marshall; H. H. Visser

1998-01-01

460

Nanoscale scanning transmission electron tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Electron tomography enables the study of complex three- dimensional objects with nanometre resolution. In materials science, scanning transmission electron microscopy provides images with minimal coherent diffraction effects and with high atomic number contrast that makes them ideal for electron tomographic reconstruction. In this study, we reviewed the topic of scanning transmission electron microscopy- based tomography and illustrated the power

P. A. MIDGLEY; M. WEYLAND; T. J. V. YATES; I. ARSLAN; R. E. DUNIN-BORKOWSKI; J. M. THOMAS

2006-01-01

461

Gated fiber optic transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A gated fiber optic sensor system is disclosed for increasing the effective optical path of a length of optical fiber cable. A pulse of polarized light having a known optical wavelength is directed into a length of optical fiber cable for propagation therethrough in a cyclic path. A planar semiconductor member is mounted in the path of the polarized light pulse at the Brewster angle to permit continuous transmission of the polarized light pulse through the cable until a light pulse of a second optical wavelength is made to impinge upon the semiconductor member, changing the reflectivity characteristics thereof and causing the polarized pulse to be extracted from its cyclic path for detection and processing. In one preferred embodiment, the optical fiber cable is configured in a loop to provide the cyclic path for the polarized light pulse, while in another preferred embodiment, the pulse path is provided by a straight section of optical fiber cable forming a part of a highly reflective cavity having reflectors on either end.

Bobb, L. C.

1984-05-01

462

EC Transmission Line Materials  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to identify materials acceptable for use in the US ITER Project Office (USIPO)-supplied components for the ITER Electron cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH&CD) transmission lines (TL), PBS-52. The source of material property information for design analysis shall be either the applicable structural code or the ITER Material Properties Handbook. In the case of conflict, the ITER Material Properties Handbook shall take precedence. Materials selection, and use, shall follow the guidelines established in the Materials Assessment Report (MAR). Materials exposed to vacuum shall conform to the ITER Vacuum Handbook. [Ref. 2] Commercial materials shall conform to the applicable standard (e.g., ASTM, JIS, DIN) for the definition of their grade, physical, chemical and electrical properties and related testing. All materials for which a suitable certification from the supplier is not available shall be tested to determine the relevant properties, as part of the procurement. A complete traceability of all the materials including welding materials shall be provided. Halogenated materials (example: insulating materials) shall be forbidden in areas served by the detritiation systems. Exceptions must be approved by the Tritium System and Safety Section Responsible Officers.

Bigelow, Tim S [ORNL

2012-05-01

463

Effect of dietary crude protein modification on ammonia and nitrous oxide concentration on a tie-stall dairy barn floor.  

PubMed

Dietary crude protein (CP) reduction is considered a useful strategy to minimize cow N excretion and NH(3) and N(2)O emissions. The aim of the current work was to relate dietary CP modification to whole-animal N balance and subsequent NH(3) and N(2)O concentrations on a tie-stall barn floor. The effect of temperature on NH(3) and N(2)O concentration was also studied. Three Holstein mid to late lactating cows were confined in separate tie-stalls and randomly assigned to 3 diets with varying CP content [low CP (LCP): 14.1%; moderate CP (MCP): 15.9%; high CP (HCP): 16.9%]. Increasing N intake (from 438.6 to 522.8 g of N/d) improved milk yield (from 22.1 to 24.2 kg/d). However, N use efficiency tended to decrease with increasing dietary CP, as shown by milk N use efficiency (from 23.9 to 22.6%), milk urea N (from 15.4 to 18.7 mg/dL), and excreted N per milk yield unit (from 14.7 to 16.4 g of N/kg of milk). Because of higher N excretion, NH(3) concentration on the dairy barn floor increased (LCP: 7.1mg of NH(3)/m(3); MCP: 10.4 mg of NH(3)/m(3); HCP: 10.8 mg of NH(3)/m(3)). In contrast, N(2)O concentration did not respond to dietary manipulation (mean 1.1mg of N(2)O/m(3)). Temperature, which ranged between 12.6 and 18.0 degrees C, did not affect NH(3) and N(2)O concentrations at the stall level. However, when fecal and urinary samples were incubated at 4, 19, and 29 degrees C in the laboratory, ammonia concentration increased for all diets, especially for the MCP and HCP diets, as the temperature increased. In contrast, N2O concentration was negatively related to increasing temperature. In conclusion, data from the current trial demonstrate that lowering dietary CP minimizes NH(3) concentration on dairy stall floors although temperature controls the rate of NH(3) volatilization. On the other hand, N(2)O concentration is not affected by dietary treatments on tie-stall floors. PMID:20630233

Arriaga, H; Salcedo, G; Martínez-Suller, L; Calsamiglia, S; Merino, P

2010-07-01

464

Small passenger car transmission test: Chevrolet Citation 125 transmission  

SciTech Connect

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. This report covers the 1980 Chevrolet Citation 125 automatic transmission. This transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid to upper 80% range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test are the torque speed and efficiency curves which are located in the data section of this report. These graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Chevrolet Citation 125 transmission. This information will facilitate the vehicle manufacturer in the design of a more energy efficient vehicle.

Bujold, M.P.

1980-10-01

465

Minimally invasive colorectal resection for cancer is associated with a short-lived decrease in soluble Tie2 receptor levels, which may transiently inhibit VEGF-mediated angiogenesis (via altered blood levels of free Ang-1 and Ang-2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Angiopoetin- (Ang-) 1 inhibits and Ang-2 promotes VEGF-mediated angiogenesis via binding to endothelial cell-bound Tie-2 receptor\\u000a (Tie-2). After minimally invasive colorectal resection (MICR), Ang-1 levels decrease and Ang-2 levels increase, which may\\u000a stimulate angiogenesis in wounds and residual tumor foci. Soluble Tie-2 (sTie-2) modulates the effects of free Ang-1 and Ang-2\\u000a by binding to them. This study assessed perioperative MICR

H. M. C. Shantha Kumara; Michael J. Grieco; Xiaohong Yan; Matthew F. Kalady; Vincent DiMaggio; Donald G. Kim; Neil Hyman; Daniel L. Feingold; Richard L. Whelan

2010-01-01

466

The influence of neighborhood characteristics on the relationship between discrimination and increased drug-using social ties among illicit drug users  

PubMed Central

Objective Social discrimination may isolate drug users into higher risk relationships, particularly in disadvantaged neighborhood environments where drug trade occurs. Design We used negative binomial regression accounting for clustering of individuals within their recruitment neighborhood to investigate the relationship between high-risk drug ties with various forms of social discrimination, neighborhood minority composition, poverty and education. Results Results show that experiencing discrimination due to drug use is significantly associated with more drug ties in neighborhoods with fewer blacks. Conclusion Future social network and discrimination research should assess the role of neighborhood social cohesion.

Crawford, Natalie D.; Borrell, Luisa N.; Galea, Sandro; Ford, Chandra; Latkin, Carl; Fuller, Crystal M.

2013-01-01

467

Energy Transmission and Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

The objective of Energy Transmission and Infrastructure Northern Ohio (OH) was to lay the conceptual and analytical foundation for an energy economy in northern Ohio that will: • improve the efficiency with which energy is used in the residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation sectors for Oberlin, Ohio as a district-wide model for Congressional District OH-09; • identify the potential to deploy wind and solar technologies and the most effective configuration for the regional energy system (i.e., the ratio of distributed or centralized power generation); • analyze the potential within the district to utilize farm wastes to produce biofuels; • enhance long-term energy security by identifying ways to deploy local resources and building Ohio-based enterprises; • identify the policy, regulatory, and financial barriers impeding development of a new energy system; and • improve energy infrastructure within Congressional District OH-09. This objective of laying the foundation for a renewable energy system in Ohio was achieved through four primary areas of activity: 1. district-wide energy infrastructure assessments and alternative-energy transmission studies; 2. energy infrastructure improvement projects undertaken by American Municipal Power (AMP) affiliates in the northern Ohio communities of Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; 3. Oberlin, OH-area energy assessment initiatives; and 4. a district-wide conference held in September 2011 to disseminate year-one findings. The grant supported 17 research studies by leading energy, policy, and financial specialists, including studies on: current energy use in the district and the Oberlin area; regional potential for energy generation from renewable sources such as solar power, wind, and farm-waste; energy and transportation strategies for transitioning the City of Oberlin entirely to renewable resources and considering pedestrians, bicyclists, and public transportation as well as drivers in developing transportation policies; energy audits and efficiency studies for Oberlin-area businesses and Oberlin College; identification of barriers to residential energy efficiency and development of programming to remove these barriers; mapping of the solar-photovoltaic and wind-energy supply chains in northwest Ohio; and opportunities for vehicle sharing and collaboration among the ten organizations in Lorain County from the private, government, non-profit, and educational sectors. With non-grant funds, organizations have begun or completed projects that drew on the findings of the studies, including: creation of a residential energy-efficiency program for the Oberlin community; installation of energy-efficient lighting in Oberlin College facilities; and development by the City of Oberlin and Oberlin College of a 2.27 megawatt solar photovoltaic facility that is expected to produce 3,000 megawatt-hours of renewable energy annually, 12% of the College’s yearly power needs. Implementation of these and other projects is evidence of the economic feasibility and technical effectiveness of grant-supported studies, and additional projects are expected to advance to implementation in the coming years. The public has benefited through improved energydelivery systems and reduced energy use for street lighting in Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; new opportunities for assistance and incentives for residential energy efficiency in the Oberlin community; new opportunities for financial and energy savings through vehicle collaboration within Lorain County; and decreased reliance on fossil fuels and expanded production of renewable energy in the region. The dissemination conference and the summary report developed for the conference also benefited the public, but making the findings and recommendations of the regional studies broadly available to elected officials, city managers, educators, representatives of the private sector, and the general public.

Mathison, Jane

2012-12-31

468

NWCC Transmission Case Study III  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 Transmission System Improvements for Wind Energy Development in the Upper Midwest and Great Plains: Opportunities and Obstacles. This case study set out to ascertain the validity of three assumptions from the perspectives of stakeholders involved in wind energy and transmission issues in the Upper Midwest and Great Plains. The assumptions, and the stakeholders' reactions to each, are summarized below: Assumption 1--Transmission system improvements would provide significant benefits to the electricity network and its customers. Respondents acknowledge the potential for overall system benefits in the form of reduced line losses, improved grid stability and reliability, and enhanced ability to conduct spot market transactions. They also agree that these benefits relate to specific regional needs. However, there is disagreement over the extent of other benefits such as efficiency gains and cost savings from reduced line losses. Further, environmental and community interest groups point out that none of these benefits are realized without significant financial, environmental and social costs. Assumption 2--The benefits of transmission improvements would be helpful, but not confined, to wind power. All respondents agree that wind energy could benefit from transmission system improvements. But they also acknowledge, reluctantly, in the case of environmental stakeholders, that the benefits of an improved transmission system cannot be limited to environmentally preferable forms of generation. Some environmental and community advocate respondents also feel that transmission system improvement projects can be avoided altogether through energy conservation and efficiency measures, and by substituting wind energy for fossil generation. Assumption 3--Transmission alliances among stakeholders within and external to the wind community can provide benefits in the public interest. The fractured, multi-jurisdictional governance of the regional transmission system, and the distrust and diversity of perspectives among affected stakeholders, may make the formation of multi-stakeholder alliances necessary to accomplishing transmission goals. If the wind industry and utilities want to partner with environmental and community advocate groups in supporting a transmission project, they may have to convince these groups that the project would result in a net environmental benefit. The project proponents would have to make the case that the benefits of the additional wind energy will at least offset the emissions of any additional fossil generation made possible by the transmission project, as well as offset the environmental impact of the transmission project itself.

Terry Allison, Steve Wiese

2000-03-01

469

29 GHz directly modulated 980 nm vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers with bow-tie shape transverse coupled cavity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A concept for the bandwidth enhancement of directly modulated vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) using a transverse-coupled-cavity (TCC) scheme is proposed, which enables us to tailor the modulation-transfer function. A bow-tie shaped oxide aperture forms the transverse-coupled cavity resulting in optical feedback to boost the modulation speed. While the bandwidth of conventional VCSELs is 9-10 GHz, the 3 dB-bandwidth of the TCC VCSEL is increased by a factor of 3 far beyond the relaxation-oscillation frequency. The maximum bandwidth is currently limited by the photo-detector used in the experiment. Clear 36 Gbps eye opening was attained with an extinction ratio of 4 dB.

Dalir, Hamed; Koyama, Fumio

2013-08-01

470

Wall-locking of kink modes in a line-tied screw pinch with a rotating wall  

SciTech Connect

The effect of rotating conducting walls on mode-locking is studied in a line-tied, linear screw pinch experiment and then compared to a torque balance model which has been extended to include differential wall rotation. Wall rotation is predicted to asymmetrically affect the mode-unlocking threshold, with fast rotation eliminating the locking bifurcation. Static error fields are observed to lock the resistive wall mode (RWM) variant of the current driven kink instability by modifying the electromagnetic torque. Using locked modes, the stabilizing effect of wall rotation on the RWM is experimentally demonstrated by illustrating a reduction of the RWM growth rate and an extension of the RWM-stable operation window.

Paz-Soldan, C.; Brookhart, M. I.; Hegna, C. C.; Forest, C. B. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2012-05-15

471

Viewing Low-Income Fathers' Ties to Families through a Cultural Lens: Insights for Research and Policy  

PubMed Central

Policy makers have become increasingly interested in addressing the cultural dimensions of child support, “responsible fatherhood,” and marriage in poor communities. However, policy studies have primarily focused on identifying economic determinants of these issues, with a substantial amount of variation in their statistical models left unexplained. This article draws on in-depth interviews the author conducted with disadvantaged mothers and fathers to illustrate how a systematic investigation into the meaning of low-income men’s ties to families may fill in or provide alternative explanations for some important questions related to paternal involvement. In particular, it suggests that analyzing fathers’ relationships through a cultural lens may not only reveal new information about the meaning of their emotional involvement, informal support, care of children, and conflicts with mothers which future policy studies should consider but may also inform policy initiatives by reducing the risk that they will be misdirected or have unintended consequences for poor families.

WALLER, MAUREEN R.

2011-01-01

472

Household transmission of SARS, 2003  

PubMed Central

Background In the 2003 outbreak in Toronto (in Ontario, Canada) of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), about 20% of cases resulted from household transmission. The purpose of our study was to determine characteristics associated with the transmission of SARS within households. Methods A retrospective cohort of SARS-affected households was studied to determine risk factors for household transmission. Questionnaires addressed characteristics of the index case, the household and behaviours among household members. Potential risk factors for secondary transmission of infection were assessed in regression models appropriate to the outcome (secondary cases) and nonindependence of household members. Results The 74 households that participated included 18 secondary cases and 158 uninfected household members in addition to the 74 index cases. The household secondary attack rate was 10.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.7%–23.5%). There was a linear association between the time the index patient spent at home after symptom onset and the secondary attack rate. Infected health care workers who were index cases had lower rates of household transmission. Interpretation SARS transmission in households is complex and increases with the length of time an ill person spends at home. Risk of transmission was lower when the index case was a health care worker. Rapid case identification is the public health measure most useful in minimizing exposure in the home.

Wilson-Clark, Samantha D.; Deeks, Shelley L.; Gournis, Effie; Hay, Karen; Bondy, Susan; Kennedy, Erin; Johnson, Ian; Rea, Elizabeth; Kuschak, Theodore; Green, Diane; Abbas, Zahid; Guarda, Brenda

2006-01-01

473

Transmission eigenvalues and thermoacoustic tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectrum of the interior transmission problem is related to the unique determination of the acoustic properties of a body in thermoacoustic imaging. Under a non-trapping hypothesis, we show that sparsity of the interior transmission spectrum implies a range separation condition for the thermoacoustic operator. In odd dimensions greater than or equal to 3, we prove that the interior transmission spectrum for a pair of radially symmetric non-trapping sound speeds is countable, and conclude that the ranges of the associated thermoacoustic maps have only trivial intersection.

Finch, David; Hickmann, Kyle S.

2013-10-01

474

Expert systems in transmission planning  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the state of the field of expert systems and knowledge engineering in transmission planning is reviewed. A detailed analysis of the goals, definition, requirements and methodology of transmission planning is presented. Potential benefits of knowledge-based applications in transmission planning are reviewed. This is followed by a thorough review of the area broken down into subareas or important related topics. The conclusions offer a number of suggestions for possible future research and development. Finally, a detailed bibliography divided into subareas is presented.

Galiana, F.D. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (CA)); McGillis, D.T. (Hydro-Quebec Montreal, Planification du reseau, Quebec H2L 4P5 (CA)); Marin, M.A. (Automatismes, Measures et Communications, Inst. de recherche d'Hydro-Quebec, Quebec J0L 2P0 (CA))

1992-05-01

475

Midwest Transmission Workshop I Summary  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 The meeting was opened with a review of the purposes of the workshop: (1) Present and discuss key studies and assessments of transmission upgrades, additions and related issues for the upper Midwest, including work that addresses the full range of views on these topics; (2) Understand the various transmission issues in the upper Midwest and discuss options for addressing the issues; and (3) Identify the decision makers and entities that need to play an active role if transmission issues are to be resolved, and agree on next steps for engaging these individuals and organizations through education, outreach, and information dissemination.

Kevin Bryan

2001-05-01

476

Intertwined arbovirus transmission activity: reassessing the transmission cycle paradigm  

PubMed Central

Arboviruses are emerging/reemerging infectious agents worldwide. The factors within this scenario include vector and host population fluctuations, climatic changes, anthropogenic activities that disturb ecosystems, an increase in international flights, human mobility, and genetic mutations that allow spill-over phenomenon. Arboviruses are maintained by biologic transmission among vectors and hosts. Sometimes this biological transmission is specific and includes one vector and host species such as Chikungunya (CHIKV), Dengue (DENV), and urban Yellow Fever (YFV). However, most of the arboviruses are generalist and they use many vectors and hosts species. From this perspective, arboviruses are maintained through a transmission network rather than a transmission cycle. This allows us to understand the complexity and dynamics of the transmission and maintenance of arboviruses in the ecosystems. The old perspective that arboviruses are maintained in close and stable transmission cycles should be modified by a new more integrative and dynamic idea, representing the real scenario where biological interactions have a much broader representation, indicating the constant adaptability of the biological entities.

Diaz, Luis A.; Flores, Fernando S.; Quaglia, Agustin; Contigiani, Marta S.

2013-01-01

477

18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2...Federal Power Act § 2.2 Transmission lines. In a public statement.