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Sample records for 345-kv transmission tie

  1. Venue-Mediated Weak Ties in Multiplex HIV Transmission Risk Networks Among Drug-Using Male Sex Workers and Associates

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Ross, Michael W.; Williams, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the structural characteristics of a multiplex HIV transmission risk network of drug-using male sex workers and their associates. Methods. Using a sample of 387 drug-using male sex workers and their male and female associates in Houston, Texas, we estimated an exponential random graph model to examine the venue-mediated relationships between individuals, the structural characteristics of relationships not linked to social venues, and homophily. We collected data in 2003 to 2004. The network comprised social, sexual, and drug-using relationships and affiliations with social venues. Results. Individuals affiliated with the same social venues, bars, or street intersections were more likely to have nonreciprocated (weak) ties with others. Sex workers were less likely than were other associates to have reciprocated (strong) ties to other sex workers with the same venues. Individuals tended to have reciprocated ties not linked to venues. Partner choice tended to be predicated on homophily. Conclusions. Social venues may provide a milieu for forming weak ties in HIV transmission risk networks centered on male sex workers, which may foster the efficient diffusion of prevention messages as diverse information is obtained and information redundancy is avoided. PMID:25880956

  2. Tied Up

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St-Laurent ties up to the Coast Guard Cutter Healy in the Arctic Ocean Sept. 5, 2009. The two ships are taking part in a multi-year, multi-agency Arctic survey that will help define the Arctic continental shelf....

  3. Tongue-Tie (Ankyloglossia)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Tongue-tie (Ankyloglossia) Tongue-tie (Ankyloglossia) Patient Health Information News ... may be serious in some individuals. When Is Tongue-tie a Problem That Needs Treatment? In Infants Feeding ? ...

  4. Environmental Assessment for Central Power and Light Company`s proposed Military Highway-CFE tie 138/69-kV transmission line project Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Central Power and Light Company (CPL) intends to upgrade its existing transmission line ties with the Commision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) system in Mexico. CPL currently has a single 69-kilovolt (kV) transmission line in the Brownsville area which connects CPL`s system with the system of CFE. This existing line runs between the Brownsville Switching Station, located on Laredo Road in Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas, and an existing CFE 69-kV line at the Rusteberg Bend of the Rio Grande in Cameron County. Under current conditions of need, the existing 69-kV line does not possess sufficient capability to engage in appropriate power exchanges. Therefore, CPL is proposing to build a new line to link up with CFE. This proposed line would be a double-circuit line, which would (1) continue (on a slightly relocated route) the existing 69-kV tie from CPL`s Brownsville Switching Station to CFE`s facilities, and (2) add a 138-kV tie from the Military Highway Substation, located on Military Highway (US Highway 281), to CFE`s facilities. The proposed 138/69-kV line, which will be constructed and operated by CPL, will be built primarily on steel single-pole structures within an average 60-foot (ft) wide right-of-way (ROW). It will be approximately 6900--9200 ft (1.3--1.7 miles) in length, depending on the alternative route constructed.

  5. Tree-Ties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresczyk, Rick

    Created to help students understand how plants were used for food, for medicine, and for arts and crafts among the Ojibwe (Chippewa) Indians, the game Tree-Ties combines earth and social sciences within a specific culture. The game requires mutual respect, understanding, and agreement to succeed. Sounding like the word "treaties", the title is a

  6. Tree-Ties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresczyk, Rick

    Created to help students understand how plants were used for food, for medicine, and for arts and crafts among the Ojibwe (Chippewa) Indians, the game Tree-Ties combines earth and social sciences within a specific culture. The game requires mutual respect, understanding, and agreement to succeed. Sounding like the word "treaties", the title is a…

  7. Drum tie-down apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Harvey E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A drum tie-down apparatus for securing drum-like containers in an upright position to a floor or platform of a transportation vehicle having spaced apart cargo tie-down points. The apparatus comprises a pair of cylindrical, hollow tube segments horizontally oriented and engageable with a drum lid adjacent opposite rim edges, flexible strap segments for connecting upper and lower central portions of the tube segments together across the drum lid and a pair of elongated flexible tie-down segments, one extending horizontally through each of the tube segments, the ends thereof being attached to said spaced apart tie-down points such that end portions of the pair of tie-down segments extend downwardly and radially outwardly from the tube segments to the tie-down points.

  8. Transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Sugano, K.

    1988-12-27

    A transmission is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output shaft; a first planetary gear set including a first sun gear selectively connectable by a first clutch to the input shaft, a first carrier selectively connectable by a second clutch to the input shaft and a first ring gear connected to the output shaft. The first sun gear selectively held stationary by a first brake, the first carrier is allowed to rotate in the same forward direction as the input shaft when the second clutch is engaged, but prevented from rotating in a reverse direction opposite to the forward direction by a first one-way clutch, the first carrier being selectively held stationary by a second brake; a second planetary gear set including a second sun gear connected to the input shaft, a second carrier connected to the first ring gear and also the the output shaft, and a second ring gear.

  9. Global TIE (Telescopes in Education)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, L.; Schweitzer, A. E.; Clark, G.; Hoban, S.; Melsheimer, T. T.

    2001-12-01

    The NASA-sponsored Telescopes In Education (TIE) project (http://tie.jpl.nasa.gov) has been wildly successful in engaging the K-12 education community in real-time, hands-on, interactive astronomy activities. Hundreds of schools in the US, Australia, Canada, England, and Japan have participated in the TIE program, remotely controlling the 24-inch telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory from their classrooms. In recent years, several (approximately 20 to date) other telescopes have been, or are in the process of being, outfitted for remote use as TIE affiliates. Global TIE integrates these telescopes seamlessly into one virtual observatory and provides the services required to operate this facility, including a scheduling service, tools for data manipulation, an online proposal review environment, an online "Virtual TIE Student Ap J" for publication of results, and access to related educational materials provided by the TIE community. Global TIE seeks to establish a network of research grade telescopes, no longer useful to the professional astronomical community, that can be made accessible to schools all across the country through existing IT technologies and applications. These telescopes could provide unparalleled research and educational opportunities for a broad spectrum of K-12 and college students and turns underutilized observatory facilities into valuable, state-of-the-art teaching centers.

  10. Why do leaf-tying caterpillars abandon their leaf ties?

    PubMed Central

    Sliwinski, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-tying caterpillars act as ecosystem engineers by building shelters between overlapping leaves, which are inhabited by other arthropods. Leaf-tiers have been observed to leave their ties and create new shelters (and thus additional microhabitats), but the ecological factors affecting shelter fidelity are poorly known. For this study, we explored the effects of resource limitation and occupant density on shelter fidelity and assessed the consequences of shelter abandonment. We first quantified the area of leaf material required for a caterpillar to fully develop for two of the most common leaf-tiers that feed on white oak, Quercus alba. On average, Psilocorsis spp. caterpillars consumed 21.65 0.67 cm2 leaf material to complete development. We also measured the area of natural leaf ties found in a Maryland forest, to determine the distribution of resources available to caterpillars in situ. Of 158 natural leaf ties examined, 47% were too small to sustain an average Psilocorsis spp. caterpillar for the entirety of its development. We also manipulated caterpillar densities within experimental ties on potted trees to determine the effects of cohabitants on the likelihood of a caterpillar to leave its tie. We placed 1, 2, or 4 caterpillars in ties of a standard size and monitored the caterpillars twice daily to track their movement. In ties with more than one occupant, caterpillars showed a significantly greater propensity to leave their tie, and left sooner and at a faster rate than those in ties as single occupants. To understand the consequences of leaf tie abandonment, we observed caterpillars searching a tree for a site to build a shelter in the field. This is a risky behavior, as 17% of the caterpillars observed died while searching for a shelter site. Caterpillars that successfully built a shelter traveled 110 20 cm and took 28 7 min to find a suitable site to build a shelter. In conclusion, leaf-tying caterpillars must frequently abandon their leaf tie due to food limitation and interactions with other caterpillars, but this is a costly behavior. PMID:24109557

  11. Rethinking "posterior" tongue-tie.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Pamela Sylvia

    2013-12-01

    Currently, many clinicians who help with breastfeeding problems are diagnosing "posterior" tongue-tie in infants and performing or referring for frenotomy. In this "Speaking Out" article, I argue that the diagnosis of "posterior" tongue-tie has successfully raised awareness of the importance of impaired tongue function in breastfeeding difficulty. However, the diagnosis of "posterior" tongue-tie also applies a reductionist, medicalized theoretical frame to the complex problem of impaired tongue function, risking unintended outcomes. Impaired tongue function arises out of multiple interacting and co-evolving factors, including the interplay between social behaviors concerning breastfeeding and mother-infant biology. Consideration of theoretical frames is vital if we are to build an evidence base through efficient use of the scarce resources available for clinical breastfeeding research and minimize unintended outcomes. PMID:24143939

  12. Draft environmental impact statement for construction and operation of the proposed Bangor Hydro-Electric Company`s second 345-kV transmission tie line to New Brunswick

    SciTech Connect

    1993-10-01

    This Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) was prepared by the US Department of Energy (US DOE). The proposed action is the issuance of Presidential Permit PP-89 by DOE to Bangor Hydro-Electric Company to construct and operate a new international transmission line interconnection to New Brunswick, Canada that would consist of an 83.8 mile (US portion), 345-kilovolt (kV) alternating current transmission line from the US-Canadian border at Baileyville, Maine to an existing substation at Orrington, Maine. The principal environmental impacts of the construction and operation of the transmission line would be incremental in nature and would include the conversion of forested uplands (mostly commercial timberlands) and wetlands to right-of-way (small trees, shrubs, and herbaceous vegetation). The proposed line would also result in localized minor to moderate visual impacts and would contribute a minor incremental increase in the exposure of some individuals to electromagnetic fields. This DEIS documents the purpose and need for the proposed action, describes the proposed action and alternatives considered and provides a comparison of the proposed and alternatives routes, and provides detailed information on analyses of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and alternatives, as well as mitigative measures to minimize impacts.

  13. Familial ankyloglossia (tongue-tie).

    PubMed

    Klockars, Tuomas

    2007-08-01

    Ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) is a congenital anomaly with a prevalence of 4-5% and characterized by an abnormally short lingual frenulum. For unknown reasons the abnormality seems to be more common in males. The pathogenesis of ankyloglossia is not known. The author reports a family with isolated ankyloglossia inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. The identification of the defective gene(s) causing ankyloglossia might reveal novel information on the craniofacial embryogenesis and its disorders. PMID:17588677

  14. Changing Views on Intergenerational Ties

    PubMed Central

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Sechrist, Jori; Birditt, Kira

    2015-01-01

    Ties to parents or grown children may be the most important social relationships in an adults life. Research examining intergenerational relationships has focused on three broader topics: (a) the strength of emotional bonds, (b) exchanges of social support, and (c) the effects of the relationship on individual well-being. This review considers some of the major theoretical developments in the field including solidarity and intergenerational ambivalence theory as well as the newly developed multidimensional model of support. We also consider weaknesses in the research and theories to date and provide suggestions for future research. PMID:23037718

  15. Perspectives on tongue-tie.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Rosemary; Neiger, Deborah

    2014-10-01

    In light of the recent NCT petition to Health Minister Dr Dan Poulter MP to update guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of tongue-tied babies to avoid stress and difficulties feeding for babies and their families, discussion has been sparked amongst mothers, midwives, health visitors and breastfeeding counsellors as to how exactly services could be improved. Access to evidence-based, family-centred care is vital to address this potentially distressing condition. But are we too quick to jump in with a diagnosis that may ultimately be of no clinical significance? This articles presents two professional perspectives on the issue and highlights the pertinent research available. PMID:25571701

  16. Peru turnaround tied to privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-19

    Petroleos del Peru predicts a 10% increase in Peru's oil production this year and a further increase in 1994. Petroperu also forecasts a sharp increase in drilling in Peru this year. After several years of declining oil production, a gradual turnaround in the cash strapped country's petroleum industry is largely tied to its progress in privatization. The government last year began a campaign to privatize all state owned companies by the end of July 1995. The paper discusses forecasts by Petroperu; the contract of Occidental del Amazonas Inc.; the Petromar privatization; Great Western's contract; development of the Aguaytia gas field; and refinery contracts.

  17. InGaAs-based bow-tie diode for spectroscopic terahertz imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaalynas, I.; Venckevi?ius, R.; Seliuta, D.; Grigelionis, I.; Valuis, G.

    2011-12-01

    Suitability of InGaAs-based bow-tie diodes for a spectroscopic terahertz imaging is demonstrated by inspecting explosive simulators packed in a thick plastic container. The transmission images were obtained within the frequency range of 0.58-2.52 THz at room temperature using optimized bow-tie diode connection scheme. Content of sucrose and tartaric acid in the test samples was discriminated. Measured absorbance was found to be in a good correlation with Fourier spectroscopy data. Performance of room temperature THz imaging using the bow-tie diode was compared versus a commercial pyro-electric sensor.

  18. Tying the IRS to IRAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, Kathleen; Sloan, Greg

    2015-10-01

    To enhance the utility of the Spitzer data archive and enable better support of JWST, we propose to observe with IRAC a set of the stars that were used to calibrate the IRS. The IRS calibration was tied to MIPS, but the consistency with IRAC has yet to be examined. That is, the short wavelength ends of the IRS spectra are not independently pinned down to measured photometry. Also, an issue with flux lost from the finite-sized slits, particularly at the short-wavelength end, was never fully resolved. We will address these issues with IRAC observations at 3.6 and 4.5 micron. Most of these sources saturated WISE and are too faint for SOFIA, so IRAC is the only instrument capable of observing them at these bands. We request 4.5 hours to complete this project.

  19. The relationship between discrimination and high-risk social ties by race/ethnicity: examining social pathways of HIV risk.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Natalie D; Galea, Sandro; Ford, Chandra L; Latkin, Carl; Link, Bruce G; Fuller, Crystal

    2014-02-01

    High-risk social ties portend differences in opportunity for HIV exposures and may contribute to racial/ethnic disparities in HIV transmission. Discrimination may affect the formation of high-risk social ties and has not been explored as a possible explanation for these persistent disparities. Using data from injection and non-injection drug users, we examined the association between the number of high-risk sex and drug ties with discrimination due to race, drug use, and incarceration stratified by race/ethnicity. Negative binomial regression models were used. While blacks had significantly fewer injecting ties than Latinos and whites, blacks who reported racial discrimination compared to blacks who did not, had more sex and injecting ties. Latinos who reported drug use discrimination compared to Latinos who did not also had more sex ties. Latinos and whites who reported drug use discrimination had more injecting ties than Latinos and whites who did not. Discrimination is associated with high-risk social ties among all racial/ethnic groups. But, these data highlight different forms of discrimination within racial/ethnic group are associated with risky social ties. More research is needed to confirm these findings and further explore the association between various forms of discrimination and social ties that may help explain racial/ethnic disparities in HIV. PMID:23749458

  20. [Neonatal tongue-tie: myths and science].

    PubMed

    Dollberg, Shaul; Botzer, Eyal

    2011-01-01

    Anatomical restraining of tongue movement (tongue-tie, ankyloglossia) has been known for centuries and the subject of dozens of articles. The heated debate persists on its clinical significance and indications for treatment. Most authorities in the field of infant feeding and Lactation agree that breastfeeding problems, such as nipple pain and latching difficulties, are common signs of clinicaLly significant tongue-tie and indications for performing a frenotomy, while the sole presence of a visible lingual frenulum is not. In contrast, the lack of a visible frenulum does not rule out the diagnosis of clinically significant tongue-tie since submucosal ties, also called "posterior tongue-tie", may interfere with efficient breastfeeding. Whether tongue-tie interferes with speech articulation to a significant extent is currently unknown. Theoretically, articulation of some consonants (e.g., /s/, /th/, /r/) would be affected by impeded tongue movement. These articulation problems are, however, Less common than tongue-tie itself, and children and adults characteristically use various compensatory techniques of mouth opening and tongue movements. When it is indicated, frenotomy is performed by lifting the tongue and snipping the frenulum with scissors. Complications of frenotomy are rare and consist mainly of self-limited minor bleeding. The significance of posterior tongue tie and the long-term effects of frenotomy performed during early infancy are unresolved issues. PMID:21449157

  1. Tie strength distribution in scientific collaboration networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Qing; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2014-09-01

    Science is increasingly dominated by teams. Understanding patterns of scientific collaboration and their impacts on the productivity and evolution of disciplines is crucial to understand scientific processes. Electronic bibliography offers a unique opportunity to map and investigate the nature of scientific collaboration. Recent studies have demonstrated a counterintuitive organizational pattern of scientific collaboration networks: densely interconnected local clusters consist of weak ties, whereas strong ties play the role of connecting different clusters. This pattern contrasts itself from many other types of networks where strong ties form communities while weak ties connect different communities. Although there are many models for collaboration networks, no model reproduces this pattern. In this paper, we present an evolution model of collaboration networks, which reproduces many properties of real-world collaboration networks, including the organization of tie strengths, skewed degree and weight distribution, high clustering, and assortative mixing.

  2. Getting by with less the frugal tie

    PubMed Central

    Rizkallah, Jacques; Rothschild, John M.; Exner, Derek V.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The ability to tie surgical knots efficiently and effectively is an essential surgical skill for medical procedures, especially pacemaker implantation. Device generators and their leads need to be safely anchored with sutures during implantation to prevent dislodgement and inadequate packaging in the pacemaker pocket. With most knot tying techniques, a generous amount of suture slack is required. We introduce a new technique that is a variation of the 2-handed surgical square knot and the 1-handed surgeons knot that allows one to finish or tie a knot when left with little slack. PMID:25421084

  3. HVDC ties east and west networks

    SciTech Connect

    McClendon, B.L.

    1984-05-01

    A back-to-back HVDC tie that connects the eastern and western electrical grids has been completed in Eddy County, NM by Southwestern Public Service Co. The design parameters for the project are discussed.

  4. Tongue tie: the evidence for frenotomy.

    PubMed

    Brookes, Alastair; Bowley, Douglas M

    2014-11-01

    Tongue tie or ankyloglossia is a congenital variation characterised by a short lingual frenulum which may result in restriction of tongue movement and thus impact on function. Tongue tie division (frenotomy) in affected infants with breastfeeding problems yields objective improvements in milk production and breastfeeding characteristics, including objective scoring measures, weight gain and reductions in maternal pain. For the majority of mothers, frenotomy appears to enhance maintenance of breastfeeding. Tongue tie division is a safe procedure with minimal complications. The commonest complication is minor bleeding. Recurrence leading to redivision occurs with rates of 0.003-13% reported; this appears to be more common with posterior than anterior ties. There are limited reports indicating that prophylactic frenotomy may promote subsequent speech development; however, evidence is currently insufficient to condone this practice and further good quality research into this area is warranted. PMID:25258296

  5. New Genes Tied to Alzheimer's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Matters November 4, 2013 New Genes Tied to Alzheimer’s Disease Researchers identified 11 new genes that affect the risk for Alzheimer’s disease. The findings point to novel targets for preventing ...

  6. Software With Strong Ties to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    TieFlow is a simple but powerful business process improvement solution. It can automate and simplify any generic or industry-specific work process, helping organizations to transform work inefficiencies and internal operations involving people, paper, and procedures into a streamlined, well-organized, electronicbased process. TieFlow increases business productivity by improving process cycle times. The software can expedite generic processes in the areas of product design and development, purchase orders, expense reports, benefits enrollment, budgeting, hiring, and sales. It can also shore up vertical market processes such as claims processing, loan application and processing, health care administration, contract management, and advertising agency traffic. The processes can be easily and rapidly captured in a graphical manner and enforced together with rules pertaining to assignments that need to be performed. Aside from boosting productivity, TieFlow also reduces organizational costs and errors. TieFlow was developed with Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) assistance from Johnson. The SBIR support entitles all Federal Government agencies to utilize the TieFlow software technology free of charge. Tietronix emphasizes that TieFlow is an outstanding workflow resource that could produce dramatic productivity and cost improvements for all agencies, just as it has done and continues to do for NASA. The Space Agency is currently using the software throughout several mission-critical offices, including the Mission Operations Directorate and the Flight Director s Office, for worldwide participation of authorized users in NASA processes. At the Flight Director s Office, TieFlow allows personnel to electronically submit and review changes to the flight rules carried out during missions.

  7. Analysis of ICPP fuel storage rack inner tie and corner tie substructures

    SciTech Connect

    Nitzel, M.E.; Rahl, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    Finite element models were developed and analyses performed for the tie plate, inner tie block assembly, and corner tie block assembly of a 25 port fuel rack assembly designed for installation in Pool 1 of Building 666 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. These models were specifically developed to investigate the adequacy of certain welds joining components of the fuel storage rack assembly. The work scope for the task was limited to an investigation of the stress levels in the subject subassemblies when subjected to seismic loads. Structural acceptance criteria used for the elastic calculations performed were as found in the overall rack design report as issued by the rack`s designer, Holtec International. Structural acceptance criteria used for the plastic calculations performed as part of this effort were as defined in Subsection NF and Appendix F of the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The results of the analyses will also apply to the 30 port fuel storage rack design that is also scheduled for installation in Pool 1 of ICPP 666. The results obtained from the analyses performed for this task indicate that the welds joining the inner tie block and corner tie block to the surrounding rack structure meet the acceptance criteria. Further, the structural members (plates and blocks) were also found to be within the allowable stress limits established by the acceptance criteria. The separate analysis performed on the inner tie plate confirmed the structural adequacy for both the inner tie plate, corner tie plate, and tie block bolts. The analysis results verified that the inner tie and corner tie block should be capable of transferring the expected seismic load without structural failure.

  8. Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Kenneth J.; Boboltz, David; Fey, Alan Lee; Gaume, Ralph A.; Zacharias, Norbert

    2004-01-01

    The Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects Key Science program will investigate the underlying physics of SIM grid objects. Extragalactic objects in the SIM grid will be used to tie the SIM reference frame to the quasi-inertial reference frame defined by extragalactic objects and to remove any residual frame rotation with respect to the extragalactic frame. The current realization of the extragalactic frame is the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The ICRF is defined by the radio positions of 212 extragalactic objects and is the IAU sanctioned fundamental astronomical reference frame. This key project will advance our knowledge of the physics of the objects which will make up the SIM grid, such as quasars and chromospherically active stars, and relates directly to the stability of the SIM reference frame. The following questions concerning the physics of reference frame tie objects will be investigated.

  9. TIE: An Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Śmieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jarosław; Stolarski, Maciej S.

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions. PMID:25072656

  10. A matched Bow-tie antenna at 433MHz for use in underwater wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdou, A. A.; Shaw, A.; Mason, A.; Al-Shamma'a, A.; Cullen, J.; Wylie, S.; Diallo, M.

    2013-06-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation underwater is been disregarded because of attenuation at high frequencies, however the theory predicts that propagation is possible at some useful distance in the lower Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. Common transceivers rely on narrowband antennas and matching circuit. The aim of this paper is to design a broadband 433MHz bow-tie antenna and experiment it in air and water without a matching circuit. This antenna could be attached to wireless transceivers and form a Wireless Sensor Network for deployment in various underwater applications. The bow-tie antennas were designed, simulated and constructed in laboratory. Experiments were setup carefully by using a completely isolated transmitter from electronics to avoid airborne transmission. The 433MHz. bow-tie proved its suitability for use in Underwater.

  11. Developing Closer Ties with the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Gregor; Hoddinott, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The need for research administrators to understand and appreciate the pharmaceutical industry's research and development environment is discussed, using examples from Canada. The research administrator's role in the technology transfer process and implications for faculty are examined. Ways to build closer school-industry ties are discussed. (MSE)

  12. NASA's Global Imagery Management System: TIE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarcon, C.; Roberts, J. T.; Huang, T.; Thompson, C. K.; Cechini, M. F.; Hall, J. R.; Murphy, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)' Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) is a system that provides full resolution imagery from a broad set of Earth science disciplines to the public. Using well-accepted standard protocols such as the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Tile Service (WMTS), GIBS delivers global imagery efficiently and responsively. Behind this service, lies The Imagery Exchange (TIE), a workflow data management solution developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. TIE is an Open Archival Information System responsible for orchestrating the workflow for acquisition, preparation, generation, and archiving of imagery to be served by the GIBS' web mapping tile service, OnEarth. The workflow collects imagery provenance throughout a product's lifecycle by leveraging the EOS Clearing House (ECHO) and other long-term metadata repositories in order to promote reproducibility. Through this focus on metadata, TIE provides spatial and temporal searching capabilities such as an OpenSearch interface as well as facilitating the generation of metadata standards such as the OGC GetCapabilities. Designed as a scalable system, TIE's subsystems can scale-up or scale-down depending on the data volume it handles through the usage of popular open source technologies such as Apache Zookeeper and Grails. This presentation will cover the challenges and solutions to developing such a horizontally scalable data management system where science products are often varied with disparate provenance pertaining to source platforms and instruments, spatial resolutions, processing algorithms, metadata models and packaging specifications.

  13. Chemical topology: Tying up some loose ends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenlon, Edward E.

    2010-03-01

    A linear molecule containing three bipyridine ligands can be wrapped around a single metal-ion template to form an open-knot complex. The loose ends of the knot can be 'tied' together through esterification or olefin-metathesis reactions to form closed knots that do not unravel when the metal template is removed.

  14. Pyridinylimidazole inhibitors of Tie2 kinase.

    PubMed

    Semones, Marcus; Feng, Yanhong; Johnson, Neil; Adams, Jerry L; Winkler, Jim; Hansbury, Michael

    2007-09-01

    This communication details the evolution of the screening lead SB-203580, a known CSBP/p38 kinase inhibitor, into a potent and selective Tie2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The optimized compound 5 showed efficacy in an in vivo model of angiogenesis and a MOPC-315 plasmacytoma xenograft model. PMID:17618114

  15. Space Tie and Local Tie for Combined Gnss-Slr Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaller, D.; Sosnica, K.; Dach, R.; Jaeggi, A.

    2012-12-01

    The combination of space geodetic techniques needs common parameters. These are usually the Earth rotation parameters. Alternatively, "known" differences between parameters of the individual space techniques can be used, e.g., the local ties for connecting the station coordinates at co-located sites. Unfortunately, the local ties from terrestrial surveys and the station coordinates from space geodetic data often mismatch by several millimeters. The error sources for the mismatch are difficult to identify unambiguously in the classical combination approach (e.g. for ITRF) because no other common parameters are available for the combination. Therefore, an alternative combination method and/or and independent method for validating the local ties is highly desired. We use the GNSS satellites as co-location platform for the combined GNSS-SLR analysis. GNSS microwave data and SLR data to GPS and GLONASS satellites are analyzed together with SLR data to spherical satellites. The orbit parameters for the GNSS satellites are estimated based on both, i.e., microwave and SLR data. With this combination method, the local ties are not necessarily needed. The resulting station coordinates are expressed in the same reference frame but not constrained by possibly mismatching local ties. This allows us to validate the local ties for co-located GNSS-SLR stations. On the other hand, the connection at the GNSS satellites requires additional vectors as well, i.e., the so-called space ties: the offset of the microwave antenna (SAO) w.r.t. the Center-of-Mass (CoM) of the satellite and the offset of the Laser Reflector Array (LRA) w.r.t. the CoM. Both vectors cannot be assumed to be error-free. But the combined GNSS-SLR analysis allows us to estimate corrections to the space ties. We show the order of magnitude of these corrections and study their impact on the remaining parameters of the combined GNSS-SLR solutions.

  16. 4. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST CORNER OF LITTLE FALLS TIE LINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST CORNER OF LITTLE FALLS TIE LINE TOWER NO. 41, OSPREY NEST ON TOWER TOP. LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Little Falls Tie Line Towers, Near Little Dam Falls on Spokane River, Wellpinit, Stevens County, WA

  17. 2. VIEW OF WEST ELEVATION OF LITTLE FALLS TIE LINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF WEST ELEVATION OF LITTLE FALLS TIE LINE TOWER NO. 23, OSPREY NEST ON TOWER TOP. LOOKING EAST - Little Falls Tie Line Towers, Near Little Dam Falls on Spokane River, Wellpinit, Stevens County, WA

  18. Modeling Social Ties and Household Mobility.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Sara S

    2014-01-01

    Underlying the aggregate phenomena of persistent problems such as urban sprawl and spatial socio-economic disparity is the individual choice of where to live. This study develops an agent-based model to simulate social and economic influences on neighborhood choice. With Danville, Illinois as an empirical context, a pattern-oriented approach is employed to examine the role of social ties in shaping intra-urban household mobility. In the model, household agents decide whether and where to relocate within the community based upon factors such as neighborhood attractiveness, affordability, and the density of a household's social network in the prospective block group. Social network and neighborhood choices are encoded with logit utility functions. The relative influence of factors affecting the formation of social ties in the simulated social network, such as geographic proximity, similarity of income, race, and presence of children, are adjusted using parameter variation to create alternative model settings. Simulated migration patterns resulting from different network and neighborhood choice coefficients are compared with observed migration patterns over a two-year period. Based upon 1000 simulation experiments, a regression of homeowner migration error (the difference between simulated and observed migration) relative to the parameter settings revealed components of social network choice such as income, race, and probability of local ties to be significant in matching observed migration patterns. A non-linear effect of simulated social networks on household mobility and thus migration error was exhibited in this study. PMID:25035520

  19. Modeling Social Ties and Household Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Sara S.

    2013-01-01

    Underlying the aggregate phenomena of persistent problems such as urban sprawl and spatial socio-economic disparity is the individual choice of where to live. This study develops an agent-based model to simulate social and economic influences on neighborhood choice. With Danville, Illinois as an empirical context, a pattern-oriented approach is employed to examine the role of social ties in shaping intra-urban household mobility. In the model, household agents decide whether and where to relocate within the community based upon factors such as neighborhood attractiveness, affordability, and the density of a household's social network in the prospective block group. Social network and neighborhood choices are encoded with logit utility functions. The relative influence of factors affecting the formation of social ties in the simulated social network, such as geographic proximity, similarity of income, race, and presence of children, are adjusted using parameter variation to create alternative model settings. Simulated migration patterns resulting from different network and neighborhood choice coefficients are compared with observed migration patterns over a two-year period. Based upon 1000 simulation experiments, a regression of homeowner migration error (the difference between simulated and observed migration) relative to the parameter settings revealed components of social network choice such as income, race, and probability of local ties to be significant in matching observed migration patterns. A non-linear effect of simulated social networks on household mobility and thus migration error was exhibited in this study. PMID:25035520

  20. Bioabsorbable thread for tight tying of bones.

    PubMed

    Hattori, K; Tomita, N; Tamai, S; Ikada, Y

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a bioabsorbable thread for tight fixation of fractured bones and to examine its mechanical performance in an in-vitro simulation study. The thread is a blend of bioabsorbable poly(L-lactic acid); (PLLA) and poly(epsilon-caprolactone); (PCL) fibers and can be tightly connected by fusion welding of the PCL fibers. The tying strength of the PLLA-PCL blend thread was 39.7 N, which was comparable to that of stainless steel wire. A testing machine was fabricated to measure the fatigue strength of the tying by simulating bone fixation. The results showed that metal wires always failed because of breakage within 25,000 loading cycles, whereas the blend threads did not fail until 50,000 loading cycles. The looseness of tying for simulated bone fixation by the blend thread was within 1mm even after 50 000 loading cycles. In-vivo testing using rats revealed that the blend thread did not cause any severe inflammatory reaction. PMID:10664440

  1. Inferring social ties from geographic coincidences

    PubMed Central

    Crandall, David J.; Backstrom, Lars; Cosley, Dan; Suri, Siddharth; Huttenlocher, Daniel; Kleinberg, Jon

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which social ties between people can be inferred from co-occurrence in time and space: Given that two people have been in approximately the same geographic locale at approximately the same time, on multiple occasions, how likely are they to know each other? Furthermore, how does this likelihood depend on the spatial and temporal proximity of the co-occurrences? Such issues arise in data originating in both online and offline domains as well as settings that capture interfaces between online and offline behavior. Here we develop a framework for quantifying the answers to such questions, and we apply this framework to publicly available data from a social media site, finding that even a very small number of co-occurrences can result in a high empirical likelihood of a social tie. We then present probabilistic models showing how such large probabilities can arise from a natural model of proximity and co-occurrence in the presence of social ties. In addition to providing a method for establishing some of the first quantifiable estimates of these measures, our findings have potential privacy implications, particularly for the ways in which social structures can be inferred from public online records that capture individuals’ physical locations over time. PMID:21148099

  2. Chord, Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Detail in Plan; Crossbracing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord, Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Detail in Plan; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail in Plan; Chord Joining Detail in Plan & Elevation; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar, & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail in Section; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar & Horizontal Brace Joint Detail - Narrows Bridge, Spanning Sugar Creek at Old County Road 280 East, Marshall, Parke County, IN

  3. Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    A grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. Operating costs of a PV power system are low compared to conventional power technologies. This method can displace the highest-cost electricity during times of peak demand in most climatic regions, and thus reduce grid loading. Net metering is often used, in which independent power producers such as PV power systems are connected to the utility grid via the customers main service panels and meters. When the PV power system is generating more power than required at that location, the excess power is provided to the utility grid. The customer pays the net of the power purchased when the on-site power demand is greater than the onsite power production, and the excess power is returned to the utility grid. Power generated by the PV system reduces utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical, with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics have been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy equal to the modern PV panels. The grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed, and this served to validate the basic principles developed, and the theoretical work that was performed. Grid-tied PV power systems are reliable, maintenance- free, long-life power systems, and are of significant value to NASA and the community. Of particular value are the analytical tools and capabilities that have been successfully developed. Performance predictions can be made confidently for grid-tied PV systems of various scales. The work was done under the NASA Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program, which is the integration of diverse power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications.

  4. Expression of Angiopoietin-TIE System Components in Angiosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Buehler, Darya; Rush, Patrick; Hasenstein, Jason R.; Rice, Stephanie R.; Hafez, Gholam Reza; Longley, B. Jack; Kozak, Kevin R

    2013-01-01

    Angiosarcoma is an aggressive malignancy of endothelial differentiation. Potential roles of the endothelial angiopoietin-tunica internal endothelial cell kinase (ANGPT-TIE) system in angiosarcoma diagnosis, pathogenesis, prognosis and treatment are undefined. To examine the expression and prognostic significance of angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, TIE1 and TEK (TIE2) proteins in angiosarcoma, we immunohistochemically evaluated clinically annotated human angiosarcoma samples. Correlations of protein expression with overall survival and pathologic features were explored. The cohort included 51 patients diagnosed with angiosarcoma at age 30-86 years old (median 67). The 5-year overall survival was 45% with a median of 26 months. Moderate to strong expression of angiopoietin-1, TIE1 and TEK (TIE2) was identified in the majority of angiosarcomas and moderate to strong expression of angiopoietin-2 was observed in 42% of angiosarcomas. Increased angiopoietin-1 expression correlated with improved survival. Non-significant trends toward longer survival were also observed with increased TIE1 and TEK (TIE2) expression. Increased expression of angiopoietin-2, TIE1 and TEK (TIE2) was associated with vasoformative architecture. No differences in expression of these proteins were observed when patients were segregated by age, gender, presence or absence of metastases at diagnosis, primary tumor location, radiation association or the presence of necrosis. We conclude that components of the ANGPT-TIE system are commonly expressed in angiosarcomas. Reduced expression of these proteins is associated with non-vasoformative and clinically more aggressive lesions. PMID:23558570

  5. Tie an Accessory Fashion Detail or a Symbol?

    PubMed Central

    aki?, Vlado; Franc, Renata; Ivi?i?, Ines; Mari?i?, Jelena

    2007-01-01

    Aim The first aim of this study was to establish the frequency of wearing a tie or business neckerchief on different occasions and in relation to age and educational level. The second aim was to establish whether men who frequently wear a tie were attributed certain characteristics more often than men who rarely wear a tie and to establish whether there were differences in the attribution of these characteristics according to sex, age, educational level, and the frequency of wearing a tie. Method Data were collected in 2005 by a method of face to face interview on a national representative sample (n?=?1007). Participants estimated how often they wore a tie or business neckerchief on 9 different occasions. They also estimated whether each of 14 characteristics was more pronounced in men who frequently wear a tie. Results Tie was most frequently worn on festive and formal occasions, such as weddings and festive gatherings, and least frequently on family gatherings and when traveling. On all occasions, tie was more often worn by men of higher educational level and of older and middle age. A relatively small proportion of Croatian citizens based their conclusions on mens characteristics on the frequency of wearing a tie. Men who frequently wear a tie were relatively most often attributed the characteristics of ambition, politeness, and respectability, with significant differences found between persons who attributed these characteristics according to sex, age, educational level, and the frequency of wearing a tie by the participants themselves. Conclusion Wearing a tie or neckerchief is an exception rather than a rule for most of the Croatian population, and is associated only with specific, primarily festive and formal occasions. Such use of the tie suggests that people adapt their style of clothing to the expectations of others and use it as a specific symbol of the occasion. PMID:17710774

  6. Strong Ties, Weak Ties, and Human Capital: Latino Immigrant Employment outside the Enclave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffer, Max J.; Parra, Pilar A.

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the role of social ties and human capital in the integration of Latino immigrants into the local economy. This analysis extends earlier research by focusing on more rural contexts with limited labor-market opportunities and less access to social resources provided by coethnics. We reconsider conclusions of previous studies by

  7. Knot-tying habits, tier handedness, and experience.

    PubMed

    Chisnall, Robert C

    2010-09-01

    Previous research concerning tier handedness, experience and the configuration of simple, habitual knots has been scant and conflicting. Survey data were collected from 21 disparate groups comprising 562 respondents in total. Regardless of experience, respondents tied both Granny and Reef Knots. Dextral tying was dominated by S knots. Left-handers tied Z knots more frequently than right-handers. However, the frequency of S and Z knots relative to tier hand dominance, which is not binary, occurred on a continuum. Averaging all survey tasks, more than 70% of knots tied by dextrals were S, whereas only 56% of those tied by sinistrals were S. These percentages varied somewhat according to specific tying tasks and the number of working ends. Furthermore, tiers' shoelace and parcel knots were not always identical, and a ranked pattern in parcel and shoelace knots was revealed. The examination of habitual knots could benefit criminal investigations. PMID:20487158

  8. 27 CFR 6.72 - “Tie-in” sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false âTie-inâ sales. 6.72 Section 6.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Quota Sales § 6.72 “Tie-in” sales. The act by an industry member of requiring that...

  9. Failure of expansion joint tie rods -- Impact on bellows integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.L.; Miller, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Expansion joints are used in piping systems to accomodate pipe deflections during service and to facilitate fitup. Often, tie rods are employed to limit the range of axial deflection. Additional restraint against excessive displacement can be provided by the surrounding pipe and associated supports. This paper presents a methodology that was employed to estimate the consequences of tie rod failure. Of particular interest is whether tie rod failure can lead to sufficient displacement as to cause bellows rupture.

  10. Failure of expansion joint tie rods -- Impact on bellows integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.L.; Miller, R.F.

    1992-12-31

    Expansion joints are used in piping systems to accomodate pipe deflections during service and to facilitate fitup. Often, tie rods are employed to limit the range of axial deflection. Additional restraint against excessive displacement can be provided by the surrounding pipe and associated supports. This paper presents a methodology that was employed to estimate the consequences of tie rod failure. Of particular interest is whether tie rod failure can lead to sufficient displacement as to cause bellows rupture.

  11. Transition of MHD Kink-Stability Properties between Line-Tied and Non-Line-Tied Boundary Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, X.; Intrator, T. P.; Dorf, L.; Furno, I.; Lapenta, G.

    2008-05-23

    Magnetic flux tubes or flux ropes in plasmas are important in nature and the laboratory. Axial boundary conditions strongly affect flux rope behavior, but this has never been systematically investigated. We experimentally demonstrate for the first time axial boundary conditions that are continuously varied between ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) line-tied (fixed) and non-line-tied (free). In contrast with the usual interpretation that mechanical plasma motion is MHD line-tied to a conducting boundary, we constrain boundary plasma motion to cause the line-tied condition.

  12. Transition of MHD kink-stability properties between line-tied and non-line-tied boundary conditions.

    PubMed

    Sun, X; Intrator, T P; Dorf, L; Furno, I; Lapenta, G

    2008-05-23

    Magnetic flux tubes or flux ropes in plasmas are important in nature and the laboratory. Axial boundary conditions strongly affect flux rope behavior, but this has never been systematically investigated. We experimentally demonstrate for the first time axial boundary conditions that are continuously varied between ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) line-tied (fixed) and non-line-tied (free). In contrast with the usual interpretation that mechanical plasma motion is MHD line-tied to a conducting boundary, we constrain boundary plasma motion to cause the line-tied condition. PMID:18518545

  13. Processing of Cohesive Ties by EFL Arab College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Jarf, Reima Sado

    2001-01-01

    Fifty-nine English-as-a-foreign-language students in Saudi Arabia took a cohesion test in which they identified four types of cohesive ties in a reading text, including conjunction, reference, substitution, and ellipsis. Incorrect responses were analyzed. It was found that substitution was the most difficult cohesive tie to process. (Author/VWL)

  14. Urban Kinship Ties in South India: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramu, G. N.

    1974-01-01

    This article is a sociological analysis of the South Indian Family organization in an urban setting; in particular, it describes the nature of urban kinship ties and attempts to find differences in kinship ties across class and caste lines. (Author/HMV)

  15. Evolution of Bow-Tie Architectures in Biology

    PubMed Central

    Friedlander, Tamar; Mayo, Avraham E.; Tlusty, Tsvi; Alon, Uri

    2015-01-01

    Bow-tie or hourglass structure is a common architectural feature found in many biological systems. A bow-tie in a multi-layered structure occurs when intermediate layers have much fewer components than the input and output layers. Examples include metabolism where a handful of building blocks mediate between multiple input nutrients and multiple output biomass components, and signaling networks where information from numerous receptor types passes through a small set of signaling pathways to regulate multiple output genes. Little is known, however, about how bow-tie architectures evolve. Here, we address the evolution of bow-tie architectures using simulations of multi-layered systems evolving to fulfill a given input-output goal. We find that bow-ties spontaneously evolve when the information in the evolutionary goal can be compressed. Mathematically speaking, bow-ties evolve when the rank of the input-output matrix describing the evolutionary goal is deficient. The maximal compression possible (the rank of the goal) determines the size of the narrowest part of the network—that is the bow-tie. A further requirement is that a process is active to reduce the number of links in the network, such as product-rule mutations, otherwise a non-bow-tie solution is found in the evolutionary simulations. This offers a mechanism to understand a common architectural principle of biological systems, and a way to quantitate the effective rank of the goals under which they evolved. PMID:25798588

  16. 12 CFR 563.36 - Tying restriction exception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tying restriction exception. 563.36 Section 563.36 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-OPERATIONS Operation and Structure 563.36 Tying restriction exception. (a) Safe harbor for...

  17. 12 CFR 563.36 - Tying restriction exception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Tying restriction exception. 563.36 Section 563.36 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-OPERATIONS Operation and Structure 563.36 Tying restriction exception. (a) Safe harbor for...

  18. A method to avoid annular downsizing during knot tying.

    PubMed

    Maisano, Francesco; Blasio, Andrea; Caldarola, Alessandro; Savini, Carlo; Alfieri, Ottavio

    2004-10-01

    Pericardial annuloplasty has been used as an alternative to prosthetic annuloplasty. One drawback of pericardial annuloplasty is the risk of cinching of tissues during knot tying, possibly leading to uncontrolled downsizing and to complications such as mitral stenosis and systolic anterior motion of the anterior leaflet. A simple modification of the sequence of knot tying is described to avoid this complication. PMID:15464532

  19. Tongue tie and breastfeeding: assessing and overcoming the difficulties.

    PubMed

    Breward, Sharon

    2006-09-01

    Tongue tie, a condition in which the tongue's mobility is restricted, may reduce the ability of babies to breastfeed successfully. In this age of mass artificial feeding, the management of this condition has been, until recently, overlooked. This article highlights the effects of tongue tie on breastfeeding and what health professionals should be doing to assess and manage any difficulties PMID:17009777

  20. Fifteen-minute consultation: the infant with a tongue tie.

    PubMed

    Bowley, Douglas M; Arul, G Suren

    2014-08-01

    Tongue tie is an increasingly common cause for referral of infants to our general paediatric surgery service. In this article, we will explore the indications for tongue tie division in the newborn child, the practicalities of the procedure and the supporting evidence. PMID:24419208

  1. Employees and Creativity: Social Ties and Access to Heterogeneous Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiung-En; Liu, Chih-Hsing Sam

    2015-01-01

    This study dealt with employee social ties, knowledge heterogeneity contacts, and the generation of creativity. Although prior studies demonstrated a relationship between network position and creativity, inadequate attention has been paid to network ties and heterogeneity knowledge contacts. This study considered the social interaction processes…

  2. Competing Models of Political Mobilization: The Role of Ethnic Ties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leifer, Eric M.

    1981-01-01

    Two models of political mobilization are examined--the developmental model (stressing class-based dynamics) and the reactive ethnicity model (stressing the importance of ethnic ties in addition to class-based dynamics). Results show ethnic ties to be important but suggest that a better understanding of the sociological context of economic

  3. Employees and Creativity: Social Ties and Access to Heterogeneous Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiung-En; Liu, Chih-Hsing Sam

    2015-01-01

    This study dealt with employee social ties, knowledge heterogeneity contacts, and the generation of creativity. Although prior studies demonstrated a relationship between network position and creativity, inadequate attention has been paid to network ties and heterogeneity knowledge contacts. This study considered the social interaction processes

  4. Chord Panel Post, Vertical X Bracing & Horizontal Tie Joint ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord Panel Post, Vertical X Bracing & Horizontal Tie Joint Detail; Chord Joining Block & Spacer Block Detail; Cross Bracing Joint Detail; Chord Panel Post Diagonal & Horizontal Tie Joint Detail - Jackson Covered Bridge, Spanning Sugar Creek, CR 775N (Changed from Spanning Sugar Creek), Bloomingdale, Parke County, IN

  5. Grid-tied PV battery systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, Keith Phillip; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Hund, Thomas D.

    2010-09-01

    Grid tied PV energy smoothing was implemented by using a valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery as a temporary energy storage device to both charge and discharge as required to smooth the inverter energy output from the PV array. Inverter output was controlled by the average solar irradiance over the previous 1h time interval. On a clear day the solar irradiance power curve is offset by about 1h, while on a variable cloudy day the inverter output power curve will be smoothed based on the average solar irradiance. Test results demonstrate that this smoothing algorithm works very well. Battery state of charge was more difficult to manage because of the variable system inefficiencies. Testing continued for 30-days and established consistent operational performance for extended periods of time under a wide variety of resource conditions. Both battery technologies from Exide (Absolyte) and East Penn (ALABC Advanced) proved to cycle well at a Partial state of charge over the time interval tested.

  6. Grid tied PV system energy smoothing.

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, Keith Phillip; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Hund, Thomas D.

    2010-06-01

    Grid-tied PV energy smoothing was implemented by using a valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery as a temporary energy storage device to both charge and discharge as required to smooth the inverter energy output from the PV array. Inverter output was controlled by the average solar irradiance over the previous 1h time interval. On a clear day the solar irradiance power curve is offset by about 1h, while on a variable cloudy day the inverter output power curve will be smoothed based on the average solar irradiance. Test results demonstrate that this smoothing algorithm works very well. Battery state of charge was more difficult to manage because of the variable system inefficiencies. Testing continued for 30-days and established consistent operational performance for extended periods of time under a wide variety of resource conditions. Both battery technologies from Exide (Absolyte) and East Penn (Advanced Valve Regulated Lead-Acid) proved to cycle well at a partial state of charge over the time interval tested.

  7. Broadband millimeter-wave GaAs transmitters and receivers using planar bow-tie antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konishi, Y.; Kamegawa, M.; Case, M.; Yu, R.; Rodwell, M. J. W.; York, R. A.; Rutledge, D. B.

    1992-01-01

    We report broadband monolithic transmitters and receivers IC's for mm-wave electromagnetic measurements. The IC's use nonlinear transmission lines (NLTL) and sampling circuits as picosecond pulse generators and detectors. The pulses are radiated and received by planar monolithic bow-tie antennas, collimated with silicon substrate lenses and off-axis parabolic reflectors. Through Fourier transformation of the received pulse, 30-250 GHz free space gain-frequency measurements are demonstrated with an accuracy approximately = 0.17 dB, RMS.

  8. A simple and rapid method of repeated tie over dressing

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Hardeep; Aggarwal, Aditya; Khazanchi, Rakesh Kumar; Mahendru, Sanjay; Brajesh, Vimalendu; Singh, Sukhdeep; Krishnan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Tie overdressing is commonly used to secure the graft against the raw surface and prevent loss due to of hematoma or seroma. A conventional tie over dressing with silk sutures, is a useful method of securing the graft to raw area. Refixation is difficult when repeated tie over dressings are needed. We assessed a low cost repeated tie over dressing method using sterile sample collection containers and silk suture threads in eight patients. After the graft is applied on the bed, tie-over stitches are taken, and paraffin gauze is applied over with adequate padding; the tie over sutures are passed through the container and the lid is tightened over it to complete the dressing. The lid can be unscrewed easily at any time to inspect the graft and can be easily reapplied in the outpatient department. The skin graft take in all the patients was complete without any seroma or hematoma. A novel and low-cost tie over dressing that enables simple fixation of the dressing, to maintain proper position of grafts that require repeated fixation is reported here. PMID:25991891

  9. Endoscopic Suturing and Knot Tying: Theory Into Practice

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    Objective To advance modern surgical techniques of endoscopic knot tying, encompassing a new appreciation of knot-tying theory and the application of second-generation, purpose-designed instruments. Summary Background Data During open surgery, surgeons automatically create the surgical half-hitch by using either instrument or hand/finger knot-tying methods (figure 4). Each of these methods, which are mirror images of each other, forms the same result, the half-hitch. Two opposing half-hitches are needed to form a square knot. There are many ways for new-generation instruments to create a secure square knot during endoscopic surgery. An overview of the current endoscopic knot-tying methods is presented. Methods The author presents a theoretical analysis of square knot-tying techniques as applied during instrument and hand/finger movements. The application of a mirror-image concept was considered in the analysis of these two contrasting methods. Results There are 12 ways to create a square knot, some of which have previously not been described or needed in open surgery. Some of these methods have particular application in endoscopic surgery. Conclusions A new understanding of knot-tying theory has been developed, with innovative methods being defined for tissue approximation during endoscopic surgery. These ergonomic, efficient, and contrasting methods of knot tying are described using second-generation endoscopic instruments. The new techniques have direct and broad application in many fields of minimally invasive surgery. PMID:11685022

  10. Allergies, Asthma Tied to Lower Risk of Brain Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... html Allergies, Asthma Tied to Lower Risk of Brain Cancer Researchers found 30 percent lower odds for ... eczema may be less likely to develop glioma brain cancer, a new study suggests. The international team ...

  11. Obesity Before Pregnancy Tied to Raised Risk of Newborn Death

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Before Pregnancy Tied to Raised Risk of Newborn Death Infant deaths related to premature delivery are doubled in obese ... pregnancy appear to have an increased risk of death, according to a new study. But even though ...

  12. Childhood Whooping Cough Tied to Small Rise in Epilepsy Risk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Childhood Whooping Cough Tied to Small Rise in Epilepsy Risk But chances of any one child getting ... increased risk for a young child to develop epilepsy, a new study finds. Whooping cough (pertussis) is ...

  13. Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer Tied to Possible Alzheimer's Risk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_156080.html Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer Tied to Possible Alzheimer's Risk But experts caution ... Dec. 7, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Hormone therapy for prostate cancer might dramatically increase a man's risk of developing ...

  14. Schizophrenia Tied to Much Higher Risk of Suicide Attempts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157340.html Schizophrenia Tied to Much Higher Risk of Suicide Attempts ... 18, 2016 THURSDAY, Feb. 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Schizophrenia patients are at significantly increased risk of attempting ...

  15. 9. DETAIL OF EAST PIER OF BRIDGE, SHOWING STEEL TIE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF EAST PIER OF BRIDGE, SHOWING STEEL TIE BARS INSERTED TO STABILIZE CRACKS. - Pennsylvania Railroad, 52nd Street Bridge, North Fifty-second Street at Lancaster Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. Pot Use Tied to Specific Type of Stroke in Young

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Use Tied to Specific Type of Stroke in Young Stroke patients who smoked marijuana also tended to ... 26, 2015 MONDAY, Oct. 26, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Young adults who use marijuana are more likely to ...

  17. ADHD Tied to Obesity Risk for Girls, Study Contends

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_157085.html ADHD Tied to Obesity Risk for Girls, Study Contends Impulsiveness, eating disorders ... challenges. And new research suggests a tendency toward obesity may be one of them. In a 1, ...

  18. 18. Windlass capstan, looking aft. Windlass used for tying up ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Windlass capstan, looking aft. Windlass used for tying up as well as raising and lowering boat on starboard side. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter BRAMBLE, Waterfront at Lincoln Avenue, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

  19. Antifungal for Yeast Infections Tied to Miscarriage Risk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156527.html Antifungal for Yeast Infections Tied to Miscarriage Risk The ... Jan. 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A well-known antifungal drug used for vaginal yeast infections may be ...

  20. 17. INTERIOR DETAIL OF TIED ARCH TRUSS, BUILDING 1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTERIOR DETAIL OF TIED ARCH TRUSS, BUILDING 1. - New Orleans City Railroad Company, Canal Station, Square 365, bounded by Canal, North Dupre, Iberville, & North White Streets, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  1. External linkage tie permits reduction in ducting system flange thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfleger, R. O.

    1966-01-01

    External linkage tie reduces flange thickness and increases seal efficiency in high pressure ducting and piping systems. The linkage transmits the pressure separating load to the tube wall behind the flange allowing the flange to support only the seal.

  2. Older Adults' Hearing Loss May Be Tied to Earlier Death

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Adults' Hearing Loss May Be Tied to Earlier Death Findings don't prove that impaired hearing is ... loss could have directly contributed to the higher death rates seen in this study. Still, Kim pointed ...

  3. Flute stabilization by a cold line-tied blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, D.; Wickham, M.; Rynn, N.

    1982-09-01

    The curvature-driven flute instability in an axisymmetric mirror was stabilized by an annular line-tied plasma blanket. A significant temperature difference was maintained between core and blanket. Theoretical calculations support the experimental observations.

  4. Paid Family Leave Tied to Decline in Child Abuse

    MedlinePLUS

    ... html Paid Family Leave Tied to Decline in Child Abuse California study found hospital admissions for abuse-linked ... baby. Head injuries are the leading cause of child abuse-related deaths in the United States, the researchers ...

  5. Active, Passive Smoking Tied to Infertility, Early Menopause: Study

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156230.html Active, Passive Smoking Tied to Infertility, Early Menopause: Study Researchers found ... 16, 2015 TUESDAY, Dec. 15, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking and being exposed to secondhand smoke may trigger ...

  6. ADHD Meds Tied to Lower Bone Density in Kids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fullstory_157591.html ADHD Meds Tied to Lower Bone Density in Kids One-quarter of children in ... attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have lower bone density than their peers, a new U.S. study ...

  7. Military Deployment Tied to Greater Odds of Child Abuse, Neglect

    MedlinePLUS

    ... html Military Deployment Tied to Greater Odds of Child Abuse, Neglect Periods during and just after deployment ... said Dr. Bob Sege, a pediatrician specializing in child abuse and vice president of Health Resources in ...

  8. Zika Virus Tied to Rare Disorder That Can Cause Paralysis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157521.html Zika Virus Tied to Rare Disorder That Can Cause Paralysis ... 2016 MONDAY, Feb. 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Zika virus may cause Guillain-Barre syndrome, a disorder in ...

  9. Kidney Woes Tied to Raised Cancer Risk, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155691.html Kidney Woes Tied to Raised Cancer Risk, Study Finds ... 12, 2015 THURSDAY, Nov. 12, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Kidney failure and having a kidney transplant may increase ...

  10. Hormones Tied to Uterine Fibroid Risk in Study

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156307.html Hormones Tied to Uterine Fibroid Risk in Study High ... 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Having high levels of the hormones testosterone and estrogen in mid-life may boost ...

  11. Alecensa Approved for Lung Cancer Tied to Gene Mutation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Alecensa Approved for Lung Cancer Tied to Gene Mutation Drug to be used for ALK-positive non- ... according to the National Cancer Institute. ALK gene mutations are involved in about 5 percent of cases ...

  12. Race Not Tied to Threat of Second Stroke, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156803.html Race Not Tied to Threat of Second Stroke, Study ... stroke, new research suggests. "The interaction between black race and age appears to be remarkably different for ...

  13. Chord, Horizontal Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Details; Crossbracing Center ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord, Horizontal Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Details; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Posts, Braces & Counterbrace Joint Detail - Brownsville Covered Bridge, Spanning East Fork Whitewater River (moved to Eagle Creek Park, Indianapolis), Brownsville, Union County, IN

  14. DO TIE LABORATORY BASED ASSESSMENT METHODS REALLY PREDICT FIELD EFFECTS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) methods have been developed for both porewaters and whole sediments. These relatively simple laboratory methods are designed to identify specific toxicants or classes of toxicants in sediments; however, the question of whethe...

  15. DO TIE LABORATORY BASED METHODS REALLY REFLECT FIELD CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) methods have been developed for both interstitial waters and whole sediments. These relatively simple laboratory methods are designed to identify specific toxicants or classes of toxicants in sediments; however, the question ...

  16. Prenatal Acetaminophen Use Tied to Higher Asthma Risk in Kids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157178.html Prenatal Acetaminophen Use Tied to Higher Asthma Risk in Kids: ... HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women who take the painkiller acetaminophen -- best known under the brand name Tylenol -- may ...

  17. Depression May Be Tied to Lower Breast Cancer Survival

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 156163.html Depression May Be Tied to Lower Breast Cancer Survival Doctors should be on the lookout for ... 10, 2015 THURSDAY, Dec. 10, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Breast cancer patients with depression may have a much higher ...

  18. Cross-border ties and Arab American mental health.

    PubMed

    Samari, Goleen

    2016-04-01

    Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N = 896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties - attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans. PMID:26999416

  19. The Imagery Exchange (TIE): Open Source Imagery Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarcon, C.; Huang, T.; Thompson, C. K.; Roberts, J. T.; Hall, J. R.; Cechini, M.; Schmaltz, J. E.; McGann, J. M.; Boller, R. A.; Murphy, K. J.; Bingham, A. W.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA's Global Imagery Browse Service (GIBS) is the Earth Observation System (EOS) imagery solution for delivering global, full-resolution satellite imagery in a highly responsive manner. GIBS consists of two major subsystems, OnEarth and The Imagery Exchange (TIE). TIE is the GIBS horizontally scaled imagery workflow manager component, an Open Archival Information System (OAIS) responsible for orchestrating the acquisition, preparation, generation, and archiving of imagery to be served by OnEarth. TIE is an extension of the Data Management and Archive System (DMAS), a high performance data management system developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory by leveraging open source tools and frameworks, which includes Groovy/Grails, Restlet, Apache ZooKeeper, Apache Solr, and other open source solutions. This presentation focuses on the application of Open Source technologies in developing a horizontally scaled data system like DMAS and TIE. As part of our commitment in contributing back to the open source community, TIE is in the process of being open sourced. This presentation will also cover our current effort in getting TIE in to the hands of the community from which we benefited from.

  20. Tongue-tie in the newborn: what, when, who and how? Exploring tongue-tie division.

    PubMed

    Todd, David A

    2014-07-01

    The division of tongue-tie (TT) in babies with feeding problems has become a more accepted procedure in recent years (Bowley & Arul 2013). Although case series reports had described the benefits of division in problematic breastfeeding (Ballard, Auer & Khoury et al 2002; Notestine 1990), it was not until randomised controlled trials (RCTs) provided significant evidence of improvement that the procedure became more accepted (Berry, Griffiths & Westcott 2012; Buryk, Bloom & Shope 2011; Dollberg et al 2006; Emond et al 2014; Hogan, Westcott & Griffiths 2005). However there are still several areas of debate. These include: 1) what type of TT produces problems with feeding and thus what type of TT should be divided, 2) who should have the procedure, 3) when should the TT division be performed and 4) how should the TT be divided. In this review I will discuss these areas of debate and shed some light on this very common but often devastating congenital condition. PMID:25109095

  1. The relationship between perceived discrimination and high-risk social ties among illicit drug users in New York City, 2006-2009.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Natalie D; Ford, Chandra; Galea, Sandro; Latkin, Carl; Jones, Kandice C; Fuller, Crystal M

    2013-01-01

    Discrimination can influence risk of disease by promoting unhealthy behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol use). Whether it influences the formation of high-risk social ties that facilitate HIV transmission is unclear. Using cross-sectional data from a cohort of illicit drug users, this study examined the association between discrimination based on race, drug use and prior incarceration and risky sex and drug ties. Negative binomial regression models were performed. Participants who reported discrimination based on race and drug use had significantly more sex and drug-using ties. But, after accounting for both racial and drug use discrimination, only racial discrimination was associated with increased sex, drug-using, and injecting ties. Drug users who experience discrimination and subsequently develop more sex and drug-using ties, increase their risk of contracting HIV. Future longitudinal studies illuminating the pathways linking discrimination and social network development may guide intervention development and identify drug-using subpopulations at high risk for disease transmission. PMID:22638866

  2. Tie Tube Heat Transfer Modeling for Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clough, Joshua A.; Starkey, Ryan P.; Lewis, Mark J.; Lavelle, Thomas M.

    2007-01-01

    Bimodal nuclear thermal rocket systems have been shown to reduce the weight and cost of space vehicles to Mars and beyond by utilizing the reactor for power generation in the relatively long duration between burns in an interplanetary trajectory. No information, however, is available regarding engine and reactor-level operation of such bimodal systems. The purpose of this project is to generate engine and reactor models with sufficient fidelity and flexibility to accurately study the component-level effects of operating a propulsion-designed reactor at power generation levels. Previous development of a 1-D reactor and tie tube model found that ignoring heat generation inside of the tie tube leads to under-prediction of the temperature change and over-prediction of pressure change across the tie tube. This paper will present the development and results of a tie tube model that has been extended to account for heat generation, specifically in the moderator layer. This model is based on a 1-D distribution of power in the fuel elements and tie tubes, as a precursor to an eventual neutron-driven reactor model.

  3. Tie Tube Heat Transfer Modeling for Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rockets

    SciTech Connect

    Clough, Joshua A.; Starkey, Ryan P.; Lewis, Mark J.; Lavelle, Thomas M.

    2007-01-30

    Bimodal nuclear thermal rocket systems have been shown to reduce the weight and cost of space vehicles to Mars and beyond by utilizing the reactor for power generation in the relatively long duration between burns in an interplanetary trajectory. No information, however, is available regarding engine and reactor-level operation of such bimodal systems. The purpose of this project is to generate engine and reactor models with sufficient fidelity and flexibility to accurately study the component-level effects of operating a propulsion-designed reactor at power generation levels. Previous development of a 1-D reactor and tie tube model found that ignoring heat generation inside of the tie tube leads to under-prediction of the temperature change and over-prediction of pressure change across the tie tube. This paper will present the development and results of a tie tube model that has been extended to account for heat generation, specifically in the moderator layer. This model is based on a 1-D distribution of power in the fuel elements and tie tubes, as a precursor to an eventual neutron-driven reactor model.

  4. BowTieBuilder: modeling signal transduction pathways

    PubMed Central

    Supper, Jochen; Spangenberg, Luca; Planatscher, Hannes; Drger, Andreas; Schrder, Adrian; Zell, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Background Sensory proteins react to changing environmental conditions by transducing signals into the cell. These signals are integrated into core proteins that activate downstream target proteins such as transcription factors (TFs). This structure is referred to as a bow tie, and allows cells to respond appropriately to complex environmental conditions. Understanding this cellular processing of information, from sensory proteins (e.g., cell-surface proteins) to target proteins (e.g., TFs) is important, yet for many processes the signaling pathways remain unknown. Results Here, we present BowTieBuilder for inferring signal transduction pathways from multiple source and target proteins. Given protein-protein interaction (PPI) data signaling pathways are assembled without knowledge of the intermediate signaling proteins while maximizing the overall probability of the pathway. To assess the inference quality, BowTieBuilder and three alternative heuristics are applied to several pathways, and the resulting pathways are compared to reference pathways taken from KEGG. In addition, BowTieBuilder is used to infer a signaling pathway of the innate immune response in humans and a signaling pathway that potentially regulates an underlying gene regulatory network. Conclusion We show that BowTieBuilder, given multiple source and/or target proteins, infers pathways with satisfactory recall and precision rates and detects the core proteins of each pathway. PMID:19566957

  5. Structure and tie strengths in mobile communication networks.

    PubMed

    Onnela, J-P; Saramki, J; Hyvnen, J; Szab, G; Lazer, D; Kaski, K; Kertsz, J; Barabsi, A-L

    2007-05-01

    Electronic databases, from phone to e-mails logs, currently provide detailed records of human communication patterns, offering novel avenues to map and explore the structure of social and communication networks. Here we examine the communication patterns of millions of mobile phone users, allowing us to simultaneously study the local and the global structure of a society-wide communication network. We observe a coupling between interaction strengths and the network's local structure, with the counterintuitive consequence that social networks are robust to the removal of the strong ties but fall apart after a phase transition if the weak ties are removed. We show that this coupling significantly slows the diffusion process, resulting in dynamic trapping of information in communities and find that, when it comes to information diffusion, weak and strong ties are both simultaneously ineffective. PMID:17456605

  6. Time varying networks and the weakness of strong ties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karsai, Mrton; Perra, Nicola; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2014-02-01

    In most social and information systems the activity of agents generates rapidly evolving time-varying networks. The temporal variation in networks' connectivity patterns and the ongoing dynamic processes are usually coupled in ways that still challenge our mathematical or computational modelling. Here we analyse a mobile call dataset and find a simple statistical law that characterize the temporal evolution of users' egocentric networks. We encode this observation in a reinforcement process defining a time-varying network model that exhibits the emergence of strong and weak ties. We study the effect of time-varying and heterogeneous interactions on the classic rumour spreading model in both synthetic, and real-world networks. We observe that strong ties severely inhibit information diffusion by confining the spreading process among agents with recurrent communication patterns. This provides the counterintuitive evidence that strong ties may have a negative role in the spreading of information across networks.

  7. Time varying networks and the weakness of strong ties

    PubMed Central

    Karsai, Mrton; Perra, Nicola; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    In most social and information systems the activity of agents generates rapidly evolving time-varying networks. The temporal variation in networks' connectivity patterns and the ongoing dynamic processes are usually coupled in ways that still challenge our mathematical or computational modelling. Here we analyse a mobile call dataset and find a simple statistical law that characterize the temporal evolution of users' egocentric networks. We encode this observation in a reinforcement process defining a time-varying network model that exhibits the emergence of strong and weak ties. We study the effect of time-varying and heterogeneous interactions on the classic rumour spreading model in both synthetic, and real-world networks. We observe that strong ties severely inhibit information diffusion by confining the spreading process among agents with recurrent communication patterns. This provides the counterintuitive evidence that strong ties may have a negative role in the spreading of information across networks. PMID:24510159

  8. Improving breastfeeding outcomes: the impact of tongue-tie.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Rosemary

    2012-06-01

    A tongue-tie (ankyloglossia) is defined as a lingual frenulum that is short, tight and restricts normal tongue movement. The tongue-tied newborn baby then has a mechanical difficulty attaching to his mum's breast and maintaining attachment to feed effectively. In the hands of skilled carers, this mechanical problem can be resolved by releasing the frenulum (frenulotomy) and the baby's access to his/her mother's breast milk be preserved. Published research on this subject has undergone justifiable criticism. Robust methodology was lacking in earlier studies. An overview of the course of researchers' response to critique is discussed. The care pathway in place in mid-Norfolk for mother and baby dyads where the baby's tongue-tie compromises efficient breastfeeding is outlined. PMID:22779397

  9. Tongue-tie and breastfeeding: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, Janet; Miles, Sandra C; Fulbrook, Paul

    2011-03-01

    In Australia, initial exclusive breastfeeding rates are 80%, reducing to 14% at 6 months. One factor that contributes to early breastfeeding cessation is infant tongue-tie, a congenital abnormality occurring in 2.8-10.7% of infants, in which a thickened, tightened or shortened frenulum is present. Tongue-tie is linked to breastfeeding difficulties, speech and dental problems. It may prevent the baby from taking enough breast tissue into its mouth to form a teat and the mother may experience painful, bleeding nipples and frequent feeding with poor infant weight gain; these problems may contribute to early breastfeeding cessation. This review of research literature analyses the evidence regarding tongue-tie to determine if appropriate intervention can reduce its impact on breastfeeding cessation, concluding that, for most infants, frenotomy offers the best chance of improved and continued breastfeeding. Furthermore, studies have demonstrated that the procedure does not lead to complications for the infant or mother. PMID:21608523

  10. Structure and tie strengths in mobile communication networks

    PubMed Central

    Onnela, J.-P.; Saramki, J.; Hyvnen, J.; Szab, G.; Lazer, D.; Kaski, K.; Kertsz, J.; Barabsi, A.-L.

    2007-01-01

    Electronic databases, from phone to e-mails logs, currently provide detailed records of human communication patterns, offering novel avenues to map and explore the structure of social and communication networks. Here we examine the communication patterns of millions of mobile phone users, allowing us to simultaneously study the local and the global structure of a society-wide communication network. We observe a coupling between interaction strengths and the network's local structure, with the counterintuitive consequence that social networks are robust to the removal of the strong ties but fall apart after a phase transition if the weak ties are removed. We show that this coupling significantly slows the diffusion process, resulting in dynamic trapping of information in communities and find that, when it comes to information diffusion, weak and strong ties are both simultaneously ineffective. PMID:17456605

  11. A quick subsea tie-in on a gas line

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    A 10-in. gas pipe line, runs from the Barbara A Adriatic Sea platform to land facilities at Falconara. Under plans to tie in a 10-in. lateral line from the Clara W platform, project managers wanted a cost-effective system with several specific features, including reliable seals and the ability to pig. The tie-in, using a flanged spool piece, was to be in about 240 ft of water. For this connection, they selected equipment and services using Camforge flanges. The Camforge system uses a hydraulic packer in a special tool to forge an inner tubular to an outer flanged sleeve. The resulting connection consists of a series of forged, metal-to-metal seals. Details on the forged in place tie-in are provided.

  12. Automatic Tie Pointer for In-Situ Pointing Correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deen, Robert G/

    2011-01-01

    The MARSAUTOTIE program generates tie points for use with the Mars pointing correction software "In-Situ Pointing Correction and Rover Microlocalization," (NPO-46696) Soft ware Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 9 (September 2010), page 18, in a completely automated manner, with no operator intervention. It takes the place of MARSTIE, although MARSTIE can be used to interactively edit the tie points afterwards. These tie points are used to create a mosaic whose seams (boundaries of input images) have been geometrically corrected to reduce or eliminate errors and mis-registrations. The methods used to find appropriate tie points for use in creating a mosaic are unique, having been designed to work in concert with the "MARSNAV" program to be most effective in reducing or eliminating geometric seams in a mosaic. The program takes the input images and finds overlaps according to the nominal pointing. It then finds the most interesting areas using a scene activity metric. Points with higher scene activity are more likely to correlate successfully in the next step. It then uses correlation techniques to find matching points in the overlapped image. Finally, it performs a series of steps to reduce the number of tie points to a manageable level. These steps incorporate a number of heuristics that have been devised using experience gathered by tie pointing mosaics manually during MER operations. The software makes use of the PIG library as described in "Planetary Image Geometry Library" (NPO-46658), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 12 (December 2010), page 30, so it is multi-mission, applicable without change to any in-situ mission supported by PIG. The MARSAUTOTIE algorithm is automated, so it requires no user intervention. Although at the time of this reporting it has not been done, this program should be suitable for integration into a fully automated mosaic production pipeline.

  13. Tongue-tie (ankyloglossia) and breastfeeding: a review.

    PubMed

    Berg, K L

    1990-09-01

    Tongue-tie (partial ankyloglossia) is a congenital condition in which the membrane under the tongue is too short or may be attached too near the tip of the tongue, thereby preventing tongue protrusion. Considerable controversy among health professionals persists regarding the appropriate treatment of partial ankyloglossia. Therefore, lactation consultants need to be aware of tongue-tie and its potential negative impact on breastfeeding. This discussion examines issues relating to the possible need for treatment and the role of the lactation consultant in the evaluation and care of the infant who presents with ankyloglossia. PMID:2205229

  14. Welded tie plate feasibility study for ITER central solenoid structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, R.; McRae, D.; Dalder, E.; Litherland, S.; Goddard, R.; Han, K.; Trosen, M.; Kuhlmann, D. D.

    2014-01-01

    The result of a Nitronic 50 (N50) weld-screening program conducted in support of CS-Tie Plate Structure Design and Development is reported here. The goal of this program is to evaluate four different weld practices and to select the best weld practice for thick section welding of the N50 tie plate structure. The structure design specifies both the weld and base metals have the same minimum mechanical properties requirements. The criteria for selecting the best weld practice are based on the combination of the 295 K tensile properties and the 4 K-tensile, fatigue, and fracture-toughness properties.

  15. The strength of the strongest ties in collaborative problem solving.

    PubMed

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez; Pentland, Alex; Lehmann, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems. PMID:24946798

  16. The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez; Pentland, Alex; Lehmann, Sune

    2014-06-01

    Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems.

  17. The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving

    PubMed Central

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez; Pentland, Alex; Lehmann, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems. PMID:24946798

  18. 27 CFR 6.72 - “Tie-in” sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false âTie-inâ sales. 6.72 Section 6.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... by an industry member of requiring that a retailer purchase one product (as defined in § 6.11)...

  19. 27 CFR 6.72 - “Tie-in” sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false âTie-inâ sales. 6.72 Section 6.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... by an industry member of requiring that a retailer purchase one product (as defined in § 6.11)...

  20. 27 CFR 6.72 - “Tie-in” sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false âTie-inâ sales. 6.72 Section 6.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... by an industry member of requiring that a retailer purchase one product (as defined in § 6.11)...

  1. 27 CFR 6.72 - “Tie-in” sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false âTie-inâ sales. 6.72 Section 6.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... by an industry member of requiring that a retailer purchase one product (as defined in § 6.11)...

  2. A comparison of ultrasonic suture welding and traditional knot tying.

    PubMed

    Richmond, J C

    2001-01-01

    The slippage of knots and the technical challenge of tying them securely are potential impediments to certain arthroscopic procedures. Ultrasonic energy delivered at 70 kHz can be used to weld No. 2 polypropylene suture. This method was compared with a traditional knot (surgeon's knot with four alternating half hitches) tied with an open technique to determine whether welding of sutures is comparable, in mechanical properties, to hand-tied knots. Both loops were fashioned around a 0.25-inch mandrel and then tested. The load to reach 3-mm elongation (point of likely biologic failure of a repair) was significantly greater for welded sutures than for knots. The elongation at ultimate failure was significantly less for welded sutures than for knots. The number of cycles to failure and the creep after initial displacement were similar for both welded and knotted suture loops. The ultimate load to failure was significantly greater for the knotted than for the welded suture. The welding of suture for the repair of musculoskeletal soft tissue presents an attractive alternative to traditional knot tying, particularly for arthroscopic applications. PMID:11394598

  3. Children's Books in Review: Books on Strengthening Family Ties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfield, Evelyn T.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews children's books that emphasize the strengthening of family ties. Characters in the books realize the importance and influence of family relationships as they struggle with sibling rivalry, self-discovery, peer relationships, a search for heritage, adoption, and death. (SM)

  4. Neural Correlates of Dynamically Evolving Interpersonal Ties Predict Prosocial Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fahrenfort, Johannes J.; van Winden, Frans; Pelloux, Benjamin; Stallen, Mirre; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing interest for the determinants of human choice behavior in social settings. Upon initial contact, investment choices in social settings can be inherently risky, as the degree to which the other person will reciprocate is unknown. Nevertheless, people have been shown to exhibit prosocial behavior even in one-shot laboratory settings where all interaction has been taken away. A logical step has been to link such behavior to trait empathy-related neurobiological networks. However, as a social interaction unfolds, the degree of uncertainty with respect to the expected payoff of choice behavior may change as a function of the interaction. Here we attempt to capture this factor. We show that the interpersonal tie one develops with another person during interaction – rather than trait empathy – motivates investment in a public good that is shared with an anonymous interaction partner. We examined how individual differences in trait empathy and interpersonal ties modulate neural responses to imposed monetary sharing. After, but not before interaction in a public good game, sharing prompted activation of neural systems associated with reward (striatum), empathy (anterior insular cortex and anterior cingulate cortex) as well as altruism, and social significance [posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS)]. Although these activations could be linked to both empathy and interpersonal ties, only tie-related pSTS activation predicted prosocial behavior during subsequent interaction, suggesting a neural substrate for keeping track of social relevance. PMID:22403524

  5. Relational Discourses: Social Ties with Family and Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Pat; Haynes, Amanda; Kane, Ciara

    2004-01-01

    This article presents quantitative and qualitative accounts of relational discourses in a random sample of approximately 4100 texts written by Irish young people (aged 10-12 and 14-17 years). The existence of such discourses is indicated by references to family and friends. The article shows that although the majority refer to such ties in their

  6. Teaching Tongue-Tied Students: Ankyloglossia in the Instrumental Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dovel, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Ankyloglossia is a significant medical condition that has not been adequately addressed in music education literature. While practically every instructor will have students who struggle with ankyloglossia, many teachers are entirely unaware of this condition's various symptoms and treatments. Ankyloglossia, more commonly known as tongue-tie, is a

  7. 59. Downstream view of Waddell Dam showing buttress ties, crane, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. Downstream view of Waddell Dam showing buttress ties, crane, housing over penstock outlet (left) and storage building (right). Photographer Mark Durben, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. People Interview: Black-tie science gets modern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-03-01

    INTERVIEW Black-tie science gets modern Baroness Susan Greenfield CBE is director of the Royal Institution and professor of pharmacology at Oxford where she heads a multidisciplinary group studying neurodegenerative disorders. David Smith speaks to her about specialities, keeping busy and how science is changing.

  9. Preventing Cauliflower Ear with a Modified Tie-Through Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimeff, Robert J.; Hough, David O.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a quick, simple tie-through suture technique (in which a collodion packing is secured to the auricle with two buttons) for preventing cauliflower ear following external ear trauma in wrestlers and boxers. The technique ensures constant compression; multiple treatments for fluid reaccumulation are rarely necessary. (SM)

  10. Chinese Medical Association anxious to establish ties with CMA

    PubMed Central

    Sibbald, B

    1998-01-01

    Included in China's health care reforms are plans to forge ties with businesses and physicians in Canada. The current challenges centre around the standardization of medical education in China, issues that a Chinese delegation raised during a recent visit to Canada. PMID:9835889

  11. 12 CFR 225.7 - Exceptions to tying restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exceptions to tying restrictions. 225.7 Section 225.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations General...

  12. 12 CFR 225.7 - Exceptions to tying restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exceptions to tying restrictions. 225.7 Section 225.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations General...

  13. Teaching Tongue-Tied Students: Ankyloglossia in the Instrumental Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dovel, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Ankyloglossia is a significant medical condition that has not been adequately addressed in music education literature. While practically every instructor will have students who struggle with ankyloglossia, many teachers are entirely unaware of this condition's various symptoms and treatments. Ankyloglossia, more commonly known as tongue-tie, is a…

  14. 4. Photocopy of photograph, JANE MOSELEY (VESSEL 53) TIED UP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of photograph, JANE MOSELEY (VESSEL 53) TIED UP AT DOCK IN UNKNOWN LOCATION. Date and photographer unknown. (Original in Mariners Museum, Newport News, Virginia, negative #625) - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 53, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  15. Linkage of genomic biomarkers to whole organism endpoints in a Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE).

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic organisms are exposed to many toxic chemicals and interpreting the cause and effect relationships between occurrence and impairment is difficult. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) provides a systematic approach for identifying responsible toxicants. TIE relies on ...

  16. Bloch lines, cross ties, and taffy in permalloy (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, D. A., Jr.; Argyle, B. E.; Petek, B.

    1987-04-01

    Cross ties and their attendant Bloch lines have been imaged optically for the first time in permalloy films. Kerr effect images, recorded with our laser magneto-optic microscope (LAMOM), on 50-?m square films (300, 800, and 5800 thick), are consistent with wall types seen in large sheet films by other methods. In the 300- and 800- samples 180 domain walls are cross-tie type; ties do not occur in the 5800- sample. We observe several effects of film-edge proximity on the 180 walls not previously reported. In the thinner films, the density of ties (and Bloch lines) increases as a wall is driven closer to an edge. Magnetization sectoring occurs about the edge side of a wall when it is forced sufficiently close. For all three thicknesses, the 180 walls bow toward the nearest edge, the bow increasing with proximity. The 180 walls arise from the lowest-energy demagnetized state (Kittel configuration for a square) by applying a bias field which displaces the cluster knot formed by two intersecting 90 walls on the square's diagonals. At a threshold on the order of 10 Oe, the cluster splits, forming two triplet knots connected by the 180 wall. Following bifurcation, all walls bisect the angles between adjacent domain magnetizations. This indicates that the energies of formation for the 180 wall and the extra knot stem from magnetic charge accumulated near the walls and film edges prior to the transformation. Knot displacement and bifurcation can be reversed provided no wall makes contact with an edge. Edge contact (followed by bias reduction) nucleates complex domain structures which are not simply returned to the Kittel state. When the drive is cycled, the process is reminiscent of pulling taffy.

  17. Ankyloglossia (tongue-tie): a diagnostic and treatment quandary.

    PubMed

    Kotlow, L A

    1999-04-01

    The tongue is an important oral structure that affects speech, the position of teeth, periodontal tissue, nutrition, swallowing, nursing, and certain social activities. Ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) limits the range of motion of the tongue, impairing its ability to fulfill its functions. In this article, diagnostic criteria needed to evaluate and treat ankyloglossia are suggested, and a method for classifying ankyloglossia is proposed. PMID:10635253

  18. Familial ankyloglossia (tongue-tie): a case report.

    PubMed

    Morowati, Saeid; Yasini, Mobin; Ranjbar, Reza; Peivandi, Ali Asghar; Ghadami, Mohsen

    2010-01-01

    Ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) is a congenital anomaly with a prevalence of 4-5% and characterized by an abnormally short lingual frenulum. For unknown reasons the abnormality seems to be more common in males. The pathogenesis of ankyloglossia is not known. The authors report a family with isolated ankyloglossia inherited as an autosomal dominant or recessive trait. The identification of the defective gene(s) in these patients might reveal novel information on the pathogenesis of this disorder. PMID:21133006

  19. It's the recipient that counts: spending money on strong social ties leads to greater happiness than spending on weak social ties.

    PubMed

    Aknin, Lara B; Sandstrom, Gillian M; Dunn, Elizabeth W; Norton, Michael I

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that spending money on others (prosocial spending) increases happiness. But, do the happiness gains depend on who the money is spent on? Sociologists have distinguished between strong ties with close friends and family and weak ties--relationships characterized by less frequent contact, lower emotional intensity, and limited intimacy. We randomly assigned participants to reflect on a time when they spent money on either a strong social tie or a weak social tie. Participants reported higher levels of positive affect after recalling a time they spent on a strong tie versus a weak tie. The level of intimacy in the relationship was more important than the type of relationship; there was no significant difference in positive affect after recalling spending money on a family member instead of a friend. These results add to the growing literature examining the factors that moderate the link between prosocial behaviour and happiness. PMID:21347326

  20. Who Can You Turn to? Tie Activation within Core Business Discussion Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renzulli, Linda A.; Aldrich, Howard

    2005-01-01

    We examine the connection between personal network characteristics and the activation of ties for access to resources during routine times. We focus on factors affecting business owners' use of their core network ties to obtain legal, loan, financial and expert advice. Owners rely more on core business ties when their core networks contain a high

  1. 30 CFR 75.705-10 - Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tying into energized high-voltage surface....705-10 Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits. If the work of forming an additional circuit by tying into an energized high-voltage surface line is performed from the ground, any...

  2. 30 CFR 77.704-10 - Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tying into energized high-voltage surface... AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding 77.704-10 Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits. If the work of forming an additional circuit by tying into an energized high-voltage surface line...

  3. 30 CFR 75.705-10 - Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tying into energized high-voltage surface....705-10 Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits. If the work of forming an additional circuit by tying into an energized high-voltage surface line is performed from the ground, any...

  4. 30 CFR 77.704-10 - Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tying into energized high-voltage surface... AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding 77.704-10 Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits. If the work of forming an additional circuit by tying into an energized high-voltage surface line...

  5. 33 CFR 401.37 - Mooring at tie-up walls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mooring at tie-up walls. 401.37... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation 401.37 Mooring at tie... handling mooring lines on tie-up walls shall wear approved life jackets. (68 Stat. 93-96, 33 U.S.C....

  6. 33 CFR 401.37 - Mooring at tie-up walls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mooring at tie-up walls. 401.37... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation 401.37 Mooring at tie... handling mooring lines on tie-up walls shall wear approved life jackets. (68 Stat. 93-96, 33 U.S.C....

  7. 33 CFR 401.37 - Mooring at tie-up walls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mooring at tie-up walls. 401.37... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation 401.37 Mooring at tie... handling mooring lines on tie-up walls shall wear approved life jackets. (68 Stat. 93-96, 33 U.S.C....

  8. 33 CFR 401.37 - Mooring at tie-up walls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mooring at tie-up walls. 401.37... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation 401.37 Mooring at tie... handling mooring lines on tie-up walls shall wear approved life jackets. (68 Stat. 93-96, 33 U.S.C....

  9. 33 CFR 401.49 - Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dropping anchor or tying to canal... Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. Except in an emergency, no vessel shall drop anchor in any canal or tie-up to any canal bank unless authorized to do so by the traffic controller....

  10. 33 CFR 401.49 - Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dropping anchor or tying to canal... Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. Except in an emergency, no vessel shall drop anchor in any canal or tie-up to any canal bank unless authorized to do so by the traffic controller. Every anchor shall...

  11. 33 CFR 401.49 - Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dropping anchor or tying to canal... Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. Except in an emergency, no vessel shall drop anchor in any canal or tie-up to any canal bank unless authorized to do so by the traffic controller. Every anchor shall...

  12. 33 CFR 401.49 - Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dropping anchor or tying to canal... Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. Except in an emergency, no vessel shall drop anchor in any canal or tie-up to any canal bank unless authorized to do so by the traffic controller....

  13. 33 CFR 401.49 - Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dropping anchor or tying to canal... Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. Except in an emergency, no vessel shall drop anchor in any canal or tie-up to any canal bank unless authorized to do so by the traffic controller....

  14. Transmission eigenvalues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

    2013-10-01

    In inverse scattering theory, transmission eigenvalues can be seen as the extension of the notion of resonant frequencies for impenetrable objects to the case of penetrable dielectrics. The transmission eigenvalue problem is a relatively late arrival to the spectral theory of partial differential equations. Its first appearance was in 1986 in a paper by Kirsch who was investigating the denseness of far-field patterns for scattering solutions of the Helmholtz equation or, in more modern terminology, the injectivity of the far-field operator [1]. The paper of Kirsch was soon followed by a more systematic study by Colton and Monk in the context of developing the dual space method for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium [2]. In this paper they showed that for a spherically stratified media transmission eigenvalues existed and formed a discrete set. Numerical examples were also given showing that in principle transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the far-field data. This first period of interest in transmission eigenvalues was concluded with papers by Colton et al in 1989 [3] and Rynne and Sleeman in 1991 [4] showing that for an inhomogeneous medium (not necessarily spherically stratified) transmission eigenvalues, if they existed, formed a discrete set. For the next seventeen years transmission eigenvalues were ignored. This was mainly due to the fact that, with the introduction of various sampling methods to determine the shape of an inhomogeneous medium from far-field data, transmission eigenvalues were something to be avoided and hence the fact that transmission eigenvalues formed at most a discrete set was deemed to be sufficient. In addition, questions related to the existence of transmission eigenvalues or the structure of associated eigenvectors were recognized as being particularly difficult due to the nonlinearity of the eigenvalue problem and the special structure of the associated transmission eigenvalue problem. The need to answer these questions became important after a series of papers by Cakoni et al [5], and Cakoni et al [6] suggesting that these transmission eigenvalues could be used to obtain qualitative information about the material properties of the scattering object from far-field data. The first answer to the existence of transmission eigenvalues in the general case was given in 2008 when Päivärinta and Sylvester showed the existence of transmission eigenvalues for the index of refraction sufficiently large [7] followed in 2010 by the paper of Cakoni et al who removed the size restriction on the index of refraction [8]. More importantly, in the latter it was shown that transmission eigenvalues yielded qualitative information on the material properties of the scattering object and Cakoni et al established in [9] that transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the Tikhonov regularized solution of the far-field equation. Since the appearance of these papers there has been an explosion of interest in the transmission eigenvalue problem (we refer the reader to our recent survey paper [10] for a detailed account of the developments in this field up to 2012) and the papers in this special issue are representative of the myriad directions that this research has taken. Indeed, we are happy to see that many open theoretical and numerical questions raised in [10] have been answered (totally or partially) in the contributions of this special issue: the existence of transmission eigenvalues with minimal assumptions on the contrast, the numerical evaluation of transmission eigenvalues, the inverse spectral problem, applications to non-destructive testing, etc. In addition to these topics, many other new investigations and research directions have been proposed as we shall see in the brief content summary below. A number of papers in this special issue are concerned with the question of existence of transmission eigenvalues and the structure of the associated transmission eigenfunctions. The three papers by respectively Robbiano [11], Blasten and Päivärinta [12], and Lakshtanov and Vainberg [13] provide new complementary results on the existence of transmission eigenvalues for the scalar problem under weak assumptions on the (possibly complex valued) refractive index that mainly stipulates that the contrast does not change sign on the boundary. It is interesting here to see three different new methods to obtain these results. On the other hand, the paper by Bonnet-Ben Dhia and Chesnel [14] addresses the Fredholm properties of the interior transmission problem when the contrast changes sign on the boundary, exhibiting cases where this property fails. Using more standard approaches, the existence and structure of transmission eigenvalues are analyzed in the paper by Delbary [15] for the case of frequency dependent materials in the context of Maxwell's equations, whereas the paper by Vesalainen [16] initiates the study of the transmission eigenvalue problem in unbounded domains by considering the transmission eigenvalues for Schrödinger equation with non-compactly supported potential. The paper by Monk and Selgas [17] addresses the case where the dielectric is mounted on a perfect conductor and provides some numerical examples of the localization of associated eigenvalues using the linear sampling method. A series of papers then addresses the question of localization of transmission eigenvalues and the associated inverse spectral problem for spherically stratified media. More specifically, the paper by Colton and Leung [18] provides new results on complex transmission eigenvalues and a new proof for uniqueness of a solution to the inverse spectral problem, whereas the paper by Sylvester [19] provides sharp results on how to locate all the transmission eigenvalues associated with angular independent eigenfunctions when the index of refraction is constant. The paper by Gintides and Pallikarakis [20] investigates an iterative least square method to identify the spherically stratified index of refraction from transmission eigenvalues. On the characterization of transmission eigenvalues in terms of far-field measurements, a promising new result is obtained by Kirsch and Lechleiter [21] showing how one can identify the transmission eigenvalues using the eigenvalues of the scattering operator which are available in terms of measured scattering data. In the paper by Kleefeld [22], an accurate method for computing transmission eigenvalues based on a surface integral formulation of the interior transmission problem and numerical methods for nonlinear eigenvalue problems is proposed and numerically validated for the scalar problem in three dimensions. On the other hand, the paper by Sun and Xu [23] investigates the computation of transmission eigenvalues for Maxwell's equations using a standard iterative method associated with a variational formulation of the interior transmission problem with an emphasis on the effect of anisotropy on transmission eigenvalues. From the perspective of using transmission eigenvalues in non-destructive testing, the paper by Cakoni and Moskow [24] investigates the asymptotic behavior of transmission eigenvalues with respect to small inhomogeneities. The paper by Nakamura and Wang [25] investigates the linear sampling method for the time dependent heat equation and analyses the interior transmission problem associated with this equation. Finally, in the paper by Finch and Hickmann [26], the spectrum of the interior transmission problem is related to the unique determination of the acoustic properties of a body in thermoacoustic imaging. We hope that this collection of papers will stimulate further research in the rapidly growing area of transmission eigenvalues and inverse scattering theory.

  15. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Aoki, H.

    1988-02-02

    An automatic transmission is described comprising: an automatic transmission mechanism portion comprising a single planetary gear unit and a dual planetary gear unit; carriers of both of the planetary gear units that are integral with one another; an input means for inputting torque to the automatic transmission mechanism, clutches for operatively connecting predetermined ones of planetary gear elements of both of the planetary gear units to the input means and braking means for restricting the rotation of predetermined ones of planetary gear elements of both of the planetary gear units. The clutches are disposed adjacent one another at an end portion of the transmission for defining a clutch portion of the transmission; a first clutch portion which is attachable to the automatic transmission mechanism portion for comprising the clutch portion when attached thereto; a second clutch portion that is attachable to the automatic transmission mechanism portion in place of the first clutch portion for comprising the clutch portion when so attached. The first clutch portion comprising first clutch for operatively connecting the input means to a ring gear of the single planetary gear unit and a second clutch for operatively connecting the input means to a single gear of the automatic transmission mechanism portion. The second clutch portion comprising a the first clutch, the second clutch, and a third clutch for operatively connecting the input member to a ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit.

  16. HIV Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, George M.; Hunter, Eric

    2012-01-01

    HIV-1 is transmitted by sexual contact across mucosal surfaces, by maternal-infant exposure, and by percutaneous inoculation. For reasons that are still incompletely understood, CCR5-tropic viruses (R5 viruses) are preferentially transmitted by all routes. Transmission is followed by an orderly appearance of viral and host markers of infection in the blood plasma. In the acute phase of infection, HIV-1 replicates exponentially and diversifies randomly, allowing for an unambiguous molecular identification of transmitted/founder virus genomes and a precise characterization of the population bottleneck to virus transmission. Sexual transmission of HIV-1 most often results in productive clinical infection arising from a single virus, highlighting the extreme bottleneck and inherent inefficiency in virus transmission. It remains to be determined if HIV-1 transmission is largely a stochastic process whereby any reasonably fit R5 virus can be transmitted or if there are features of transmitted/founder viruses that facilitate their transmission in a biologically meaningful way. Human tissue explant models of HIV-1 infection and animal models of SIV/SHIV/HIV-1 transmission, coupled with new challenge virus strains that more closely reflect transmitted/founder viruses, have the potential to elucidate fundamental mechanisms in HIV-1 transmission relevant to vaccine design and other prevention strategies. PMID:23043157

  17. AQUIFER TRANSMISSIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of groundwater resources requires the knowledge of the capacity of aquifers to store and transmit ground water. This requires estimates of key hydraulic parameters, such as the transmissivity, among others. The transmissivity T (m2/sec) is a hydrauli...

  18. TIES for Dummies 3rd Edition (Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection) Basic how to's to implement the TIES method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, Michelle R.

    2002-01-01

    The TIES method is a forecasting environment whereby the decision-maker has the ability to easily assess and trade-off the impact of various technologies without sophisticated and time-consuming mathematical formulations. TIES provides a methodical approach where technically feasible alternatives can be identified with accuracy and speed to reduce design cycle time, and subsequently, life cycle costs, and was achieved through the use of various probabilistic methods, such as Response Surface Methodology and Monte Carlo Simulations. Furthermore, structured and systematic techniques are utilized from other fields to identify possible concepts and evaluation criteria by which comparisons can be made. This objective is achieved by employing the use of Morphological Matrices and Multi-Attribute Decision Making techniques. Through the execution of each step, a family of design alternatives for a given set of customer requirements can be identified and assessed subjectively or objectively. This methodology allows for more information (knowledge) to be brought into the earlier phases of the design process and will have direct implications on the affordability of the system. The increased knowledge allows for optimum allocation of company resources and quantitative justification for program decisions. Finally, the TIES method provided novel results and quantitative justification to facilitate decision making in the early stages of design so as to produce affordable and quality products.

  19. Rapamycin improves TIE2-mutated venous malformation in murine model and human subjects.

    PubMed

    Boscolo, Elisa; Limaye, Nisha; Huang, Lan; Kang, Kyu-Tae; Soblet, Julie; Uebelhoer, Melanie; Mendola, Antonella; Natynki, Marjut; Seront, Emmanuel; Dupont, Sophie; Hammer, Jennifer; Legrand, Catherine; Brugnara, Carlo; Eklund, Lauri; Vikkula, Miikka; Bischoff, Joyce; Boon, Laurence M

    2015-09-01

    Venous malformations (VMs) are composed of ectatic veins with scarce smooth muscle cell coverage. Activating mutations in the endothelial cell tyrosine kinase receptor TIE2 are a common cause of these lesions. VMs cause deformity, pain, and local intravascular coagulopathy, and they expand with time. Targeted pharmacological therapies are not available for this condition. Here, we generated a model of VMs by injecting HUVECs expressing the most frequent VM-causing TIE2 mutation, TIE2-L914F, into immune-deficient mice. TIE2-L914F-expressing HUVECs formed VMs with ectatic blood-filled channels that enlarged over time. We tested both rapamycin and a TIE2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TIE2-TKI) for their effects on murine VM expansion and for their ability to inhibit mutant TIE2 signaling. Rapamycin prevented VM growth, while TIE2-TKI had no effect. In cultured TIE2-L914F-expressing HUVECs, rapamycin effectively reduced mutant TIE2-induced AKT signaling and, though TIE2-TKI did target the WT receptor, it only weakly suppressed mutant-induced AKT signaling. In a prospective clinical pilot study, we analyzed the effects of rapamycin in 6 patients with difficult-to-treat venous anomalies. Rapamycin reduced pain, bleeding, lesion size, functional and esthetic impairment, and intravascular coagulopathy. This study provides a VM model that allows evaluation of potential therapeutic strategies and demonstrates that rapamycin provides clinical improvement in patients with venous malformation. PMID:26258417

  20. Rapamycin improves TIE2-mutated venous malformation in murine model and human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Boscolo, Elisa; Limaye, Nisha; Huang, Lan; Kang, Kyu-Tae; Soblet, Julie; Uebelhoer, Melanie; Mendola, Antonella; Natynki, Marjut; Seront, Emmanuel; Dupont, Sophie; Hammer, Jennifer; Legrand, Catherine; Brugnara, Carlo; Eklund, Lauri; Vikkula, Miikka; Bischoff, Joyce; Boon, Laurence M.

    2015-01-01

    Venous malformations (VMs) are composed of ectatic veins with scarce smooth muscle cell coverage. Activating mutations in the endothelial cell tyrosine kinase receptor TIE2 are a common cause of these lesions. VMs cause deformity, pain, and local intravascular coagulopathy, and they expand with time. Targeted pharmacological therapies are not available for this condition. Here, we generated a model of VMs by injecting HUVECs expressing the most frequent VM-causing TIE2 mutation, TIE2-L914F, into immune-deficient mice. TIE2-L914F–expressing HUVECs formed VMs with ectatic blood-filled channels that enlarged over time. We tested both rapamycin and a TIE2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TIE2-TKI) for their effects on murine VM expansion and for their ability to inhibit mutant TIE2 signaling. Rapamycin prevented VM growth, while TIE2-TKI had no effect. In cultured TIE2-L914F–expressing HUVECs, rapamycin effectively reduced mutant TIE2-induced AKT signaling and, though TIE2-TKI did target the WT receptor, it only weakly suppressed mutant-induced AKT signaling. In a prospective clinical pilot study, we analyzed the effects of rapamycin in 6 patients with difficult–to-treat venous anomalies. Rapamycin reduced pain, bleeding, lesion size, functional and esthetic impairment, and intravascular coagulopathy. This study provides a VM model that allows evaluation of potential therapeutic strategies and demonstrates that rapamycin provides clinical improvement in patients with venous malformation. PMID:26258417

  1. Shingles Transmission

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Shingles Home About Shingles Overview Signs & Symptoms Transmission Complications ...

  2. [Spiritual ties of the Military Medical (Medical and Surgical) Academy].

    PubMed

    Gordienko, A V; Shamre?, V K

    2015-01-01

    Before the revolution in its educational, research and clinical potential of Military Medicine (medical and surgical) Academy was on the head position among European institutions. Not less outstanding position among all secular institutions Russian Academy held by the number and wealth of churches, chapels and baptisteries. In the temples of the academy was concentrated a significant number of miracle-working icons and of the particles holy relics, there served some of faith and piety devotees and some of them were canonized. The article presents a brief historical overview of the major Academy shrines--spiritual ties of the different generations. PMID:25916040

  3. Urban characteristics attributable to density-driven tie formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wei; Ghoshal, Gourab; Krumme, Coco; Cebrian, Manuel; Pentland, Alex

    2013-06-01

    Motivated by empirical evidence on the interplay between geography, population density and societal interaction, we propose a generative process for the evolution of social structure in cities. Our analytical and simulation results predict both super-linear scaling of social-tie density and information contagion as a function of the population. Here we demonstrate that our model provides a robust and accurate fit for the dependency of city characteristics with city-size, ranging from individual-level dyadic interactions (number of acquaintances, volume of communication) to population level variables (contagious disease rates, patenting activity, economic productivity and crime) without the need to appeal to heterogeneity, modularity, specialization or hierarchy.

  4. Laptop image transmission equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocenter, Michael M.

    1991-12-01

    Imagery and other visual information have become a critical element in planning and performing modern military operations. The effectiveness of this imagery information is often directly tied to the time it takes to get from the collector of this imagery to the user of the imagery. Hard copy distribution of annotated imagery to the tactical commander is hampered by the lack of effective communications paths, and the tactical use of hand held imagery is restricted by the lack of film processing facilities. The military has begun to rely on electronic imagery and digital communications technology for answers, with some success. The new obstacles created by applied electronic imagery are interoperability standards and effective use of communications bandwidth in a tactical environment. New technological developments in computer hardware/software have changed this situation by allowing for the gathering, dissemination, and transfer of near-real-time information to various intelligence audiences at any location. The Naval Air Development Center (NAVAIRDEVCEN) has coupled commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology with National Image Transmission Formats (NITF) Standards to develop a Secondary Imagery Dissemination System (SIDS) package that is designed to meet the flexibility challenge of the tactical military environment. This tailorable SIDS package is called Laptop Image Transmission Equipment (LITE). The LITE system is an extension of the Navy's existing Fleet Imagery Support Terminal (FIST) into the man-portable tactical environment. As such, LITE development is focused on developing flexible imagery input (from sources such as filmless cameras) and connectivity to tactical communications paths and ruggedization/miniaturization issues. The LITE system, in prototype form, has already found application through operational use in special operations, counter narcotics operations, and classic air/ground/sea military operations. This paper provides an overview of the LITE components, specifications, operations, and future developments for the system.

  5. Study on the tie point selection for DEM extraction from stereo PRISM images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Yoshiyuki; Funatsu, Yukihiro; Yoshii, Satoshi; Takemata, Kazuya

    2012-10-01

    The accuracy of DEM extraction was analyzed from the view of tie point selection in the stereo ALOS/PRISM images, using PCI Geomatica software. In the analysis we considered three different parameters in the automatic tie point selection, namely, 1) the number of tie points, 2) the image correlation coefficient of tie points, and 3) the spatial resolution of DEM extraction. We found that a better DEM extraction accuracy was possible when we adopted a single tie point with large image correlation coefficient (around 0.8) and the spatial resolution of 2.5 (m) in the automatic tie point selection from the stereo PRISM images. In addition, we examined the dependence of the DEM extraction accuracy on the tie point's elevation in the manual tie point selection. However, no clear dependence on the tie point's elevation was found because of large DEM noises at tie points in the mountain area. Finally, some preliminary analysis results of DEM extraction accuracy were presented from the stereo QuickBird images.

  6. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) of a chemical plant effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Zaleski, R.T.; Arnold, W.R.; Cashion, B.S.

    1995-12-31

    In the course of conducting a proactive toxicity screening of a chemical plant effluent, currently meeting chemical based discharge requirements, the authors found that the effluent could be chronically toxic to the freshwater invertebrate, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Chronic toxicity was linked to one outfall source, which was acutely toxic when tested individually. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) techniques implicated Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and vanadium as the sources of acute toxicity of the individual outfall. Findings of acute studies performed with the single outfall were then verified in chronic studies of composite effluent. The results of the TIE found that TDS was the major contributor to composite effluent toxicity. The role of TDS was quantified through a number of synthetic effluent studies which simulated the TDS of the effluent. The ion-toxicity regression model of Mount and Gulley (1992) was then applied to determine which ion manipulations would most effectively reduce effluent toxicity. Additional toxicity studies were performed using synthetic effluent with manipulated ion content, as per the model output, to verify the effect on toxicity. The role of vanadium in contributing to observed toxicity was also investigated.

  7. Diversity of social ties in scientific collaboration networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Quan; Xu, Bo; Xu, Xiaomin; Xiao, Yanghua; Wang, Wei; Wang, Hengshan

    2011-11-01

    Diversity is one of the important perspectives to characterize behaviors of individuals in social networks. It is intuitively believed that diversity of social ties accounts for competition advantage and idea innovation. However, quantitative evidences in a real large social network can be rarely found in the previous research. Thanks to the availability of scientific publication records on WWW; now we can construct a large scientific collaboration network, which provides us a chance to gain insight into the diversity of relationships in a real social network through statistical analysis. In this article, we dedicate our efforts to perform empirical analysis on a scientific collaboration network extracted from DBLP, an online bibliographic database in computer science, in a systematical way, finding the following: distributions of diversity indices tend to decay in an exponential or Gaussian way; diversity indices are not trivially correlated to existing vertex importance measures; authors of diverse social ties tend to connect to each other and these authors are generally more competitive than others.

  8. Rotorcraft transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.

    1990-01-01

    Highlighted here is that portion of the Lewis Research Center's helicopter propulsion systems program that deals with drive train technology and the related mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase life, reliability, and maintainability, to reduce weight, noise, and vibration, and to maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development, followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for transmission research in the future is presented.

  9. Sample size calculation for the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test adjusting for ties.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan D; Rahardja, Dewi; Qu, Yongming

    2008-02-10

    In this paper we study sample size calculation methods for the asymptotic Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test for data with or without ties. The existing methods are applicable either to data with ties or to data without ties but not to both cases. While the existing methods developed for data without ties perform well, the methods developed for data with ties have limitations in that they are either applicable to proportional odds alternatives or have computational difficulties. We propose a new method which has a closed-form formula and therefore is very easy to calculate. In addition, the new method can be applied to both data with or without ties. Simulations have demonstrated that the new sample size formula performs very well as the corresponding actual powers are close to the nominal powers. PMID:17487941

  10. The design and application of a Transportable Inference Engine (TIE1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A Transportable Inference Engine (TIE1) system has been developed by the author as part of the Interactive Experimenter Planning System (IEPS) task which is involved with developing expert systems in support of the Spacecraft Control Programs Branch at Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. Unlike traditional inference engines, TIE1 is written in the C programming language. In the TIE1 system, knowledge is represented by a hierarchical network of objects which have rule frames. The TIE1 search algorithm uses a set of strategies, including backward chaining, to obtain the values of goals. The application of TIE1 to a spacecraft scheduling problem is described. This application involves the development of a strategies interpreter which uses TIE1 to do constraint checking.

  11. Neuroglial Transmission.

    PubMed

    Gundersen, Vidar; Storm-Mathisen, Jon; Bergersen, Linda Hildegard

    2015-07-01

    Neuroglia, the "glue" that fills the space between neurons in the central nervous system, takes active part in nerve cell signaling. Neuroglial cells, astroglia, oligodendroglia, and microglia, are together about as numerous as neurons in the brain as a whole, and in the cerebral cortex grey matter, but the proportion varies widely among brain regions. Glial volume, however, is less than one-fifth of the tissue volume in grey matter. When stimulated by neurons or other cells, neuroglial cells release gliotransmitters by exocytosis, similar to neurotransmitter release from nerve endings, or by carrier-mediated transport or channel flux through the plasma membrane. Gliotransmitters include the common neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA, the nonstandard amino acid d-serine, the high-energy phosphate ATP, and l-lactate. The latter molecule is a "buffer" between glycolytic and oxidative metabolism as well as a signaling substance recently shown to act on specific lactate receptors in the brain. Complementing neurotransmission at a synapse, neuroglial transmission often implies diffusion of the transmitter over a longer distance and concurs with the concept of volume transmission. Transmission from glia modulates synaptic neurotransmission based on energetic and other local conditions in a volume of tissue surrounding the individual synapse. Neuroglial transmission appears to contribute significantly to brain functions such as memory, as well as to prevalent neuropathologies. PMID:26084688

  12. HIV Transmission

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS HIV Transmission Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ...

  13. Expression and function of Angiopoietins and their tie receptors in human basophils and mast cells.

    PubMed

    Prevete, N; Staiano, R I; Granata, F; Detoraki, A; Necchi, V; Ricci, V; Triggiani, M; De Paulis, A; Marone, G; Genovese, A

    2013-01-01

    The Angiopoietin/Tie system is a key regulator of vascular remodeling, maturation, angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. In humans there are three angiopoietins: Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1), Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2), and Angiopoietin-4 (Ang4). Ang1 and Ang2 are the best characterized angiopoietins. The angiopoietin receptor system consists of two type I tyrosine kinase receptors (Tie1 and Tie2). Tie2 binds all known angiopoietins. We sought to characterize Ang1, Ang2, Tie1 and Tie2 expression and functions in human basophils and mast cells. Basophils, LAD-2 cells and Human Lung Mast Cells (HLMCs) constitutively express Ang1 and Ang2 mRNA. Intracellular staining for Ang1 and Ang2 was stronger in basophils than in mast cells. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated Ang1 in cytoplasmic vesicles of basophils. The protein kinase C activators phorbol diester (PMA) and bryostatin 1 (Bryo1) stimulated basophils to rapidly release a large amount of Ang1. PMA-induced Ang1 release was inhibited by brefeldin A. Tie1 and Tie2 mRNAs were expressed in basophils, LAD-2 and HLMCs. Basophils, LAD-2 and HLMCs expressed Tie1 on the cell surface. HLMCs and LAD-2 expressed Tie2 on the cell surface, whereas basophils did not. Ang1, but not Ang2, induced migration of mast cells through the engagement of Tie2. Neither Ang1 nor Ang2 induced basophil chemotaxis. We have identified a novel mechanism of cross-talk between human basophils and mast cells mediated by the Ang1/Tie2 system that might be relevant in the orchestration of inflammatory and neoplastic angiogenesis. PMID:24152847

  14. 46 CFR 112.05-3 - Main-emergency bus-tie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main-emergency bus-tie. 112.05-3 Section 112.05-3... AND POWER SYSTEMS General 112.05-3 Main-emergency bus-tie. Each bus-tie between a main switchboard... other source of electric power, except for interlock systems for momentary transfer of loads; and (c)...

  15. 46 CFR 112.05-3 - Main-emergency bus-tie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Main-emergency bus-tie. 112.05-3 Section 112.05-3... AND POWER SYSTEMS General 112.05-3 Main-emergency bus-tie. Each bus-tie between a main switchboard... other source of electric power, except for interlock systems for momentary transfer of loads; and (c)...

  16. 46 CFR 112.05-3 - Main-emergency bus-tie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Main-emergency bus-tie. 112.05-3 Section 112.05-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS General 112.05-3 Main-emergency bus-tie. Each bus-tie between a main switchboard and an emergency switchboard must:...

  17. 46 CFR 112.05-3 - Main-emergency bus-tie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Main-emergency bus-tie. 112.05-3 Section 112.05-3... AND POWER SYSTEMS General 112.05-3 Main-emergency bus-tie. Each bus-tie between a main switchboard... other source of electric power, except for interlock systems for momentary transfer of loads; and (c)...

  18. 46 CFR 112.05-3 - Main-emergency bus-tie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Main-emergency bus-tie. 112.05-3 Section 112.05-3... AND POWER SYSTEMS General 112.05-3 Main-emergency bus-tie. Each bus-tie between a main switchboard... other source of electric power, except for interlock systems for momentary transfer of loads; and (c)...

  19. A determination of the radio-planetary frame tie from comparison of Earth orientation parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, M. H.; Folkner, W. M.

    1992-01-01

    The orientation of the reference frame of radio source catalogs relative to that of planetary ephemerides, or 'frame tie,' can be a major systematic error source for interplanetary spacecraft orbit determination. This work presents a method of determining the radio-planetary frame tie from a comparison of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and lunar laser ranging (LLR) station coordinate and earth orientation parameter estimates. A frame tie result is presented with an accuracy of 25 nrad.

  20. A determination of the radio-planetary frame tie from comparison of Earth orientation parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, Mark Harold; Folkner, William M.

    1992-01-01

    The orientation of the reference frame of radio source catalogs relative to that of planetary ephemerides, or 'frame tie,' can be a major systematic error source for interplanetary spacecraft orbit determination. This work presents a method of determining the radio-planetary frame tie from a comparison of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and lunar laser ranging (LLR) station coordinate and Earth orientation parameter estimates. A frame tie result is presented with an accuracy of 25 nrad.

  1. Review of two 1998 Mathematical Appendices Primary to Continuum Theory: Deflection Scattering and Redshift by a Particle-tied Aether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmaston, Miles F.

    My development of Continuum Theory rests importantly on two mathematical treatments and calculations which I wrote in 1994 and were published in 1998 as Appendices A and B to my PIRT V paper presented in London in 1996. In view of their continuing scientific relevance, this contribution to the V9 conference proceedings is a republication of those Appendices, subject to minimal re-editing. Appendix B, presented first, tackles our 1959 finding that the daylight sky brightness distribution at high altitude shows the presence of an additional contribution whose intensity and distribution which, on careful analysis, I identified as having come from a deflection scattering mechanism due to transmission by an (atmospheric) `particle-tied aether'. Appendix A shows that redshift is one of the consequences of such transmission. The parameters involved are then used to analyse the 1968 radio ground-wave caesium clock redshift observations of Sadeh et al and to extrapolate them to the intergalactic transmission paths pertinent to the cosmic redshift as a transmission effect, not a velocity. It finds this to be a reasonable evaluation within observational uncertainties, notably those of density and degree of ionization. In that case, there being no Big Bang, the temperature is precisely known from the CMBR, identified as synchrotron-type radiation from the randomly moving aether along the path, but slightly elevated where the path has traversed a heat-generating cluster.

  2. Angiopoietin-2 differentially regulates angiogenesis through TIE2 and integrin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Felcht, Moritz; Luck, Robert; Schering, Alexander; Seidel, Philipp; Srivastava, Kshitij; Hu, Junhao; Bartol, Arne; Kienast, Yvonne; Vettel, Christiane; Loos, Elias K.; Kutschera, Simone; Bartels, Susanne; Appak, Sila; Besemfelder, Eva; Terhardt, Dorothee; Chavakis, Emmanouil; Wieland, Thomas; Klein, Christian; Thomas, Markus; Uemura, Akiyoshi; Goerdt, Sergij; Augustin, Hellmut G.

    2012-01-01

    Angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) is a key regulator of angiogenesis that exerts context-dependent effects on ECs. ANG-2 binds the endothelial-specific receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (TIE2) and acts as a negative regulator of ANG-1/TIE2 signaling during angiogenesis, thereby controlling the responsiveness of ECs to exogenous cytokines. Recent data from tumors indicate that under certain conditions ANG-2 can also promote angiogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms of dual ANG-2 functions are poorly understood. Here, we identify a model for the opposing roles of ANG-2 in angiogenesis. We found that angiogenesis-activated endothelium harbored a subpopulation of TIE2-negative ECs (TIE2lo). TIE2 expression was downregulated in angiogenic ECs, which abundantly expressed several integrins. ANG-2 bound to these integrins in TIE2lo ECs, subsequently inducing, in a TIE2-independent manner, phosphorylation of the integrin adaptor protein FAK, resulting in RAC1 activation, migration, and sprouting angiogenesis. Correspondingly, in vivo ANG-2 blockade interfered with integrin signaling and inhibited FAK phosphorylation and sprouting angiogenesis of TIE2lo ECs. These data establish a contextual model whereby differential TIE2 and integrin expression, binding, and activation control the role of ANG-2 in angiogenesis. The results of this study have immediate translational implications for the therapeutic exploitation of angiopoietin signaling. PMID:22585576

  3. Temperature Profile in Fuel and Tie-Tubes for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vishal Patel

    2015-02-01

    A finite element method to calculate temperature profiles in heterogeneous geometries of tie-tube moderated LEU nuclear thermal propulsion systems and HEU designs with tie-tubes is developed and implemented in MATLAB. This new method is compared to previous methods to demonstrate shortcomings in those methods. Typical methods to analyze peak fuel centerline temperature in hexagonal geometries rely on spatial homogenization to derive an analytical expression. These methods are not applicable to cores with tie-tube elements because conduction to tie-tubes cannot be accurately modeled with the homogenized models. The fuel centerline temperature directly impacts safety and performance so it must be predicted carefully. The temperature profile in tie-tubes is also important when high temperatures are expected in the fuel because conduction to the tie-tubes may cause melting in tie-tubes, which may set maximum allowable performance. Estimations of maximum tie-tube temperature can be found from equivalent tube methods, however this method tends to be approximate and overly conservative. A finite element model of heat conduction on a unit cell can model spatial dependence and non-linear conductivity for fuel and tie-tube systems allowing for higher design fidelity of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion.

  4. The contribution of the Tie2+ lineage to primitive and definitive hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuefeng; Harrington, Anne; Yang, Xuehui; Friesel, Robert E; Liaw, Lucy

    2010-09-01

    The regulatory elements of the Tie2/Tek promoter are commonly used in mouse models to direct transgene expression to endothelial cells. Tunica intima endothelial kinase 2 (Tie2) is also expressed in hematopoietic cells, although this has not been fully characterized. We determine the lineages of adult hematopoietic cells derived from Tie2-expressing populations using Tie2-Cre;Rosa26R-EYFP mice. In Tie2-Cre;Rosa26R-EYFP mice, analysis of bone marrow cells showed Cre-mediated recombination in 85% of the population. In adult bone marrow and spleen, we analyzed subclasses of early hematopoietic progenitors, T cells, monocytes, granulocytes, and B cells. We found that ? 84% of each lineage was EYFP(+), and nearly all cells that come from Tie2-expressing lineages are CD45(+), confirming widespread contribution to definitive hematopoietic cells. In addition, more than 82% of blood cells within the embryonic yolk sac were of Tie2(+) origin. Our findings of high levels of Tie2-Cre recombination in the hematopoietic lineage have implications for the use of the Tie2-Cre mouse as a lineage-restricted driver strain. PMID:20645309

  5. Ambivalent versus Problematic Social Ties: Implications for Psychological Health, Functional Health, and Interpersonal Coping

    PubMed Central

    Rook, Karen S.; Luong, Gloria; Sorkin, Dara H.; Newsom, Jason T.; Krause, Neal

    2013-01-01

    Older adults often seek to manage their social networks to foster positive interactions, but they nonetheless sometimes experience negative interactions that detract from their health and well-being. Negative interactions may occur with ambivalent social partners (i.e., partners involved in both positive and negative exchanges) or exclusively problematic social partners (i.e., partners involved negative exchanges only), but conflicting views exist in the literature regarding which type of social partner is likely to be more detrimental to older adults physical and emotional health. This study examined the implications of the two kinds of network members for physical and psychological health and interpersonal coping responses in a representative sample of 916 older adults. Within this elderly sample, older age was associated with fewer ambivalent kin ties and fewer exclusively problematic kin ties. Analyses revealed that ambivalent social ties were more strongly related to functional health limitations than were exclusively problematic social ties, whereas problematic ties were more consistently related to psychological health than were ambivalent ties. Furthermore, negative exchanges that occurred with exclusively problematic social ties, as compared to those that occurred with ambivalent social ties, were associated with more avoidant and fewer conciliatory coping responses, stronger and longer-lasting negative emotions, and lower perceived coping effectiveness. A comprehensive understanding of the significance of social network ties in older adults lives may benefit not only from attention to sources of social support but also from efforts to distinguish between different sources of conflict and disappointment. PMID:22775360

  6. The Importance of Local Surveys for Tying Techniques Together

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, James L.; Bosworth, John M.

    2000-01-01

    The synergistic benefits of combining observations from multiple space geodesy techniques located at a site are a main reason behind the proposal for the establishment of the International Space Geodetic and Gravimetric Network (ISGN). However, the full benefits of inter-comparison are only realized when the spatial relationships between the different space geodetic systems are accurately determined. These spatial relationships are best determined and documented by developing a local reference network of stable ground monuments and conducting periodic surveys to tie together the reference points (for example: the intersection of rotation axes of a VLBI antenna) of the space geodetic systems and the ground monument network. The data obtained from local surveys is vital to helping understand any systematic errors within an individual technique and to helping identify any local movement or deformation of the space geodetic systems over time.

  7. SIS quasiparticle mixers with bow-tie antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xizhi, Li; Richards, P. L.; Lloyd, F. L.

    1988-02-01

    We have designed and evaluated planar lithographed W-band SIS mixers with bow-tie antennas and several different RF cou;ling structures. Both Pb-In-Au/Pb-Bi and Nb/Pb-In-Au junctions were used, each with ?RNC1. Single junctions and series arrays of five junctions directly attached to bow-tie antennas with no additional coupling structure gave poor performance, as expected. Single junctions with inductive microstrips and five-junction arrays with parallel wire inductors gave good coupling over bandwidths of 5 and 25 percent respectively. Good agreement was found between design calculations based on a simple equivalent circuit and measurements of the frequency dependence of the mixer gain. When good coupling was achieved, typical values of mixer gain GM (DSB)?0 dB, noise TM(DSB)?150 K, and receiver noise 200 K were observed. These measurements are referred to the cryostat window. When corrected for the estimated loss between the cryostat window and the antenna terminals, these values of gain are comparable to those observed for W-band waveguide mixers with IF matching, but the noise is significantly higher. There is evidence that 100 K radiation surrounding the mixer reduces the gain and increases the noise. No systematic difference was observed between the performance of Pb-In-Au/Pb-Bi junctions and Nb/Pb-In-Au junctions when the area of the latter was made three times smaller and the current density three times larger so as to maintain the same capacitance and resistance.

  8. Software for Verifying Image-Correlation Tie Points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimeck, Gerhard; Yagi, Gary

    2008-01-01

    A computer program enables assessment of the quality of tie points in the image-correlation processes of the software described in the immediately preceding article. Tie points are computed in mappings between corresponding pixels in the left and right images of a stereoscopic pair. The mappings are sometimes not perfect because image data can be noisy and parallax can cause some points to appear in one image but not the other. The present computer program relies on the availability of a left- right correlation map in addition to the usual right left correlation map. The additional map must be generated, which doubles the processing time. Such increased time can now be afforded in the data-processing pipeline, since the time for map generation is now reduced from about 60 to 3 minutes by the parallelization discussed in the previous article. Parallel cluster processing time, therefore, enabled this better science result. The first mapping is typically from a point (denoted by coordinates x,y) in the left image to a point (x',y') in the right image. The second mapping is from (x',y') in the right image to some point (x",y") in the left image. If (x,y) and(x",y") are identical, then the mapping is considered perfect. The perfect-match criterion can be relaxed by introducing an error window that admits of round-off error and a small amount of noise. The mapping procedure can be repeated until all points in each image not connected to points in the other image are eliminated, so that what remains are verified correlation data.

  9. Cooperation Prevails When Individuals Adjust Their Social Ties

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Francisco C; Pacheco, Jorge M; Lenaerts, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Conventional evolutionary game theory predicts that natural selection favours the selfish and strong even though cooperative interactions thrive at all levels of organization in living systems. Recent investigations demonstrated that a limiting factor for the evolution of cooperative interactions is the way in which they are organized, cooperators becoming evolutionarily competitive whenever individuals are constrained to interact with few others along the edges of networks with low average connectivity. Despite this insight, the conundrum of cooperation remains since recent empirical data shows that real networks exhibit typically high average connectivity and associated single-to-broad–scale heterogeneity. Here, a computational model is constructed in which individuals are able to self-organize both their strategy and their social ties throughout evolution, based exclusively on their self-interest. We show that the entangled evolution of individual strategy and network structure constitutes a key mechanism for the sustainability of cooperation in social networks. For a given average connectivity of the population, there is a critical value for the ratio W between the time scales associated with the evolution of strategy and of structure above which cooperators wipe out defectors. Moreover, the emerging social networks exhibit an overall heterogeneity that accounts very well for the diversity of patterns recently found in acquired data on social networks. Finally, heterogeneity is found to become maximal when W reaches its critical value. These results show that simple topological dynamics reflecting the individual capacity for self-organization of social ties can produce realistic networks of high average connectivity with associated single-to-broad–scale heterogeneity. On the other hand, they show that cooperation cannot evolve as a result of “social viscosity” alone in heterogeneous networks with high average connectivity, requiring the additional mechanism of topological co-evolution to ensure the survival of cooperative behaviour. PMID:17054392

  10. Cooperation prevails when individuals adjust their social ties.

    PubMed

    Santos, Francisco C; Pacheco, Jorge M; Lenaerts, Tom

    2006-10-20

    Conventional evolutionary game theory predicts that natural selection favours the selfish and strong even though cooperative interactions thrive at all levels of organization in living systems. Recent investigations demonstrated that a limiting factor for the evolution of cooperative interactions is the way in which they are organized, cooperators becoming evolutionarily competitive whenever individuals are constrained to interact with few others along the edges of networks with low average connectivity. Despite this insight, the conundrum of cooperation remains since recent empirical data shows that real networks exhibit typically high average connectivity and associated single-to-broad-scale heterogeneity. Here, a computational model is constructed in which individuals are able to self-organize both their strategy and their social ties throughout evolution, based exclusively on their self-interest. We show that the entangled evolution of individual strategy and network structure constitutes a key mechanism for the sustainability of cooperation in social networks. For a given average connectivity of the population, there is a critical value for the ratio W between the time scales associated with the evolution of strategy and of structure above which cooperators wipe out defectors. Moreover, the emerging social networks exhibit an overall heterogeneity that accounts very well for the diversity of patterns recently found in acquired data on social networks. Finally, heterogeneity is found to become maximal when W reaches its critical value. These results show that simple topological dynamics reflecting the individual capacity for self-organization of social ties can produce realistic networks of high average connectivity with associated single-to-broad-scale heterogeneity. On the other hand, they show that cooperation cannot evolve as a result of "social viscosity" alone in heterogeneous networks with high average connectivity, requiring the additional mechanism of topological co-evolution to ensure the survival of cooperative behaviour. PMID:17054392

  11. Radio-planetary from tie from Phobos-2 VLBI data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, C. E.; Iijima, B. A.; Kroger, P. M.; Folkner, W. M.; Edwards, C. D.

    1994-01-01

    In an ongoing effort to improve the knowledge of the relative orientation (the 'frame tie') of the planetary ephemeris reference frame used in deep navigation and a second reference frame that is defined by the coordinates of a set of extragalactic radio sources, VLBI observations of the Soviet Phobos-2 spacecraft and nearby (in angle) radio sources were obtained at two epochs in 1989, shortly after the spacecraft entered orbit about Mars. The frame tie is an important systematic error source affecting both interplanetary navigation and the process of improving the theory of the Earth's orientation. The data from a single Phobos-2 VLBI session measure one component of the direction vector from Earth to Mars in the frame of the extragalactic radio sources (the 'radio frame'). The radio frame has been shown to be stable and internally consistent with an accuracy of 5 nrad. The planetary ephemeris reference frame has an internal consistency of approximately 15 nrad. The planetary and radio source reference frames were aligned prior to 1989 and measurements of occulations of the radio source 3C273 by the Moon. The Phobos-2 VLBI measurements provide improvement in the accuracy of two of the three angles describing a general rotation between the planetary and radio reference frames. A complete set of measurements is not available because data acquisition was terminated prematurely by loss of spacecraft. The analysis of the two Phobos-2 VLBI data sets indicates that, in the directions of the two rotation components determined by these data, the JPL planetary ephemeris DE200 is aligned with the radio frame as adopted by the International Earth Rotation Service within an accuracy of 20-40 nrad, depending on direction. The limiting errors in the solutions for these offsets are spacecraft trajectory (20 nrad), instrumental biases (19 nrad), and dependence of quasar coordinates on observing frequency (24 nrad).

  12. Tram transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.C.

    1992-10-06

    This patent describes an improved tram transmission for mobilizing a mining tram within a mine shaft. It comprises: a motor engaging means for receiving the drive shaft of a motor; a speed reducing means connected to the motor engaging means for regulating the speed of the tram; a crawler engaging means connected to the speed reducing means; and a housing connected to the tram and encasing the motor engaging means and the speed reducing means.

  13. 14 CFR 25.519 - Jacking and tie-down provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Jacking and tie-down provisions. 25.519 Section 25.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads 25.519 Jacking and tie-down provisions. (a) General. The...

  14. Exploring Linkages between Community Ties to Place and Mass Media Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Pamela J.; And Others

    A study examined the relationship between an individual's community ties to place and the use of media. Data were collected from residents of Austin, Texas, by means of mail and telephone surveys. Among the variables examined were community ties (home ownership and length of time in community), political variables, demographics, and use of

  15. 33 CFR 401.37 - Mooring at tie-up walls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mooring at tie-up walls. 401.37...-up walls. (a) Upon arrival at a lock, a vessel awaiting instructions to advance shall moor at the tie-up wall, close up to the designated limit or approach sign or to the ship preceding it, whichever...

  16. 77 FR 10502 - MATL LLP; Montana Alberta Tie, Ltd; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission MATL LLP; Montana Alberta Tie, Ltd; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on February 13, 2012, MATL LLP (MATL) and Montana Alberta Tie Ltd (Montana Alberta...

  17. The effect of a tongue-tie in horses with dorsal displacement of the soft palate.

    PubMed

    Franklin, S H; Naylor, J R J; Lane, J G

    2002-09-01

    Tongue-ties are frequently used in an attempt to prevent dorsal displacement of the soft palate (DDSP). The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of a tongue-tie in horses clinically affected with the disorder. Videoendoscopic recordings and measurements of respiratory airflow were made simultaneously during high intensity treadmill exercise in 6 Thoroughbred racehorses with confirmed DDSP, with and without a tongue-tie. DDSP was confirmed in all 6 horses without the tongue-tie but occurred in only 4 horses with the tongue-tie in place. In one horse the palate displaced only on slowing down after intense exercise and in the other horse DDSP did not occur although palatal instability remained. The presence of the tongue-tie did not result in any significant alteration in run-time to fatigue or in any of the respiratory variables measured. The results suggest that the use of a tongue-tie may prevent DDSP in individual horses although it is not effective in the majority, consistent with the widely accepted anecdotal reports of success rates for its use. Where DDSP was not prevented, application of a tongue-tie did not improve ventilation. PMID:12405729

  18. Difficult intubation in an infant with Pierre Robin syndrome and concomitant tongue tie.

    PubMed

    Jones, S E; Derrick, G M

    1998-01-01

    Intubation and airway difficulties may be assumed in infants with Pierre Robin syndrome. We report a case of a six month old cleft palate repair who also had a tongue tie which compounded the problem. He was eventually intubated using the two anaesthetist technique. The contribution of the tongue tie is assessed. PMID:9836218

  19. Intra and extravascular transmembrane signalling of angiopoietin-1-Tie2 receptor in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Makinde, T; Agrawal, DK

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) is the primary agonist for Tie2 tyrosine kinase receptor (Tie2), and the effect of Ang-1-Tie2 signalling is context-dependent. Deficiency in either Ang-1 or Tie2 protein leads to severe microvascular defects and subsequent embryonic lethality in murine model. Tie2 receptors are expressed in several cell types, including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, epithelial cells, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils and glial cells. Ang-1-Tie2 signalling induces a chemotactic effect in smooth muscle cells, neutrophils and eosinophils, and induces differentiation of mesenchymal cells to smooth muscle cells. Additionally, this signalling pathway induces the secretion of serotonin, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and plasmin. Ang-1 inhibits the secretion of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMPs). Aberrant expression and activity of Tie2 in vascular and non-vascular cells may result in the development of rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, hypertension and psoriasis. Ang-1 has an anti-inflammatory effect, when co-localized with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the vasculature. Thus, Ang-1 could be potentially important in the therapy of various pathological conditions such as pulmonary hypertension, arteriosclerosis and diabetic retinopathy. In this article, we have summarized and critically reviewed the pathophysiological role of Ang-1-Tie2 signalling pathway. PMID:18266978

  20. 10 CFR 71.45 - Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages. 71.45... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards 71.45 Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages. (a) Any lifting attachment that is a structural part of a package must be designed with a minimum safety factor...

  1. Social Identity, Social Ties and Social Capital: A Study in Gaming Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Hao

    2012-01-01

    This work will focus on how different social relationships, namely shared identity and personal tie, will impact cooperative behavior, a form of social capital. I designed and conducted an economic game study to show that shared identity and personal ties work differently on cooperation among people and resource flow in social groups. Many factors

  2. Effects of a Group Intervention on the Career Network Ties of Finnish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokisaari, Markku; Vuori, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    The authors evaluated how a group-based career intervention affected career network ties among Finnish adolescents as they made educational choices and prepared for their transition to secondary education. They examined the career-related network ties of 868 students during their last year in comprehensive school (junior high school) in a

  3. Neural dynamics of social tie formation in economic decision-making.

    PubMed

    Bault, Nadge; Pelloux, Benjamin; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; van Winden, Frans

    2015-06-01

    The disposition for prosocial conduct, which contributes to cooperation as arising during social interaction, requires cortical network dynamics responsive to the development of social ties, or care about the interests of specific interaction partners. Here, we formulate a dynamic computational model that accurately predicted how tie formation, driven by the interaction history, influences decisions to contribute in a public good game. We used model-driven functional MRI to test the hypothesis that brain regions key to social interactions keep track of dynamics in tie strength. Activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex tracked the individual's public good contributions. Activation in the bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), and temporo-parietal junction was modulated parametrically by the dynamically developing social tie-as estimated by our model-supporting a role of these regions in social tie formation. Activity in these two regions further reflected inter-individual differences in tie persistence and sensitivity to behavior of the interaction partner. Functional connectivity between pSTS and mPFC activations indicated that the representation of social ties is integrated in the decision process. These data reveal the brain mechanisms underlying the integration of interaction dynamics into a social tie representation which in turn influenced the individual's prosocial decisions. PMID:25338630

  4. Structural Assimilation Revisited: Mexican-Origin Nativity and Cross-Ethnic Primary Ties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susan K.

    2006-01-01

    Classical assimilation theory postulates that over time, members of immigrant groups will develop more primary ties with native members of the host society. However, lack of data has led most research to rely on the study of either spatial mobility or other secondary variables as proxies of primary ties. Using data from the Multi-City Study of

  5. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.

    1988-02-16

    An automatic transmission is described combining a stator reversing type torque converter and speed changer having first and second sun gears comprising: (a) a planetary gear train composed of first and second planetary gears sharing one planetary carrier in common; (b) a clutch and requisite brakes to control the planetary gear train; and (c) a speed-increasing or speed-decreasing mechanism is installed both in between a turbine shaft coupled to a turbine of the stator reversing type torque converter and the first sun gear of the speed changer, and in between a stator shaft coupled to a reversing stator and the second sun gear of the speed changer.

  6. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, N.

    1988-10-11

    This patent describes an automatic transmission including a fluid torque converter, a first gear unit having three forward-speed gears and a single reverse gear, a second gear unit having a low-speed gear and a high-speed gear, and a hydraulic control system, the hydraulic control system comprising: a source of pressurized fluid; a first shift valve for controlling the shifting between the first-speed gear and the second-speed gear of the first gear unit; a second shift valve for controlling the shifting between the second-speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; a third shift valve equipped with a spool having two positions for controlling the shifting between the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit; a manual selector valve having a plurality of shift positions for distributing the pressurized fluid supply from the source of pressurized fluid to the first, second and third shift valves respectively; first, second and third solenoid valves corresponding to the first, second and third shift valves, respectively for independently controlling the operation of the respective shift valves, thereby establishing a six forward-speed automatic transmission by combining the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit with each of the first-speed gear, the second speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; and means to fixedly position the spool of the third shift valve at one of the two positions by supplying the pressurized fluid to the third shift valve when the manual selector valve is shifted to a particular shift position, thereby locking the second gear unit in one of low-speed gear and the high-speed gear, whereby the six forward-speed automatic transmission is converted to a three forward-speed automatic transmission when the manual selector valve is shifted to the particular shift position.

  7. Social support and social interaction ties on internet addiction: integrating online and offline contexts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Edward Shih-Tse; Wang, Michael Chih-Hung

    2013-11-01

    This study explores the relationship between social support and social interaction ties on Internet addiction by integrating both online and offline social encounters. A total of 1,642 members of online social communities participated in this research, for which structural equation modeling was used for analysis. The findings show that social support is positively associated with social interaction ties in both online and offline contexts. In addition, online social support and online social interaction ties are positively associated with Internet addiction, whereas offline social support and social interaction ties on Internet addiction are negatively associated. This finding has important implications not only for understanding the cause of Internet addiction but also for understanding the diminishing Internet addiction due to social support and social interaction ties. PMID:23848959

  8. The emotional responses of browsing Facebook: Happiness, envy, and the role of tie strength

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ruoyun; Utz, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    On Facebook, users are exposed to posts from both strong and weak ties. Even though several studies have examined the emotional consequences of using Facebook, less attention has been paid to the role of tie strength. This paper aims to explore the emotional outcomes of reading a post on Facebook and examine the role of tie strength in predicting happiness and envy. Two studies – one correlational, based on a sample of 207 American participants and the other experimental, based on a sample of 194 German participants – were conducted in 2014. In Study 2, envy was further distinguished into benign and malicious envy. Based on a multi-method approach, the results showed that positive emotions are more prevalent than negative emotions while browsing Facebook. Moreover, tie strength is positively associated with the feeling of happiness and benign envy, whereas malicious envy is independent of tie strength after reading a (positive) post on Facebook. PMID:26877584

  9. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, H.

    1989-03-21

    An automatic transmission is described, comprising: a torque converter including an impeller having a connected member, a turbine having an input member and a reactor; and an automatic transmission mechanism having first to third clutches and plural gear units including a single planetary gear unit with a ring gear and a dual planetary gear unit with a ring gear. The single and dual planetary gear units have respective carriers integrally coupled with each other and respective sun gears integrally coupled with each other, the input member of the turbine being coupled with the ring gear of the single planetary gear unit through the first clutch, and being coupled with the sun gear through the second clutch. The connected member of the impeller is coupled with the ring gear of the dual planetary gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be and ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be restrained as required, and the carrier is coupled with an output member.

  10. Gene control of tyrosine kinase TIE2 and vascular manifestations of infections.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Chandra C; David, Sascha; Zhang, Ruyang; Berghelli, Anthony; Milam, Katelyn; Higgins, Sarah J; Hunter, Jon; Mukherjee, Aditi; Wei, Yongyue; Tran, Mei; Suber, Freeman; Kobzik, Lester; Kain, Kevin C; Lu, Shulin; Santel, Ansgar; Yano, Kiichiro; Guha, Prajna; Dumont, Daniel J; Christiani, David C; Parikh, Samir M

    2016-03-01

    Ligands of the endothelial-enriched tunica interna endothelial cell kinase 2 (Tie2) are markedly imbalanced in severe infections associated with vascular leakage, yet regulation of the receptor itself has been understudied in this context. Here, we show that TIE2 gene expression may constitute a novel vascular barrier control mechanism in diverse infections. Tie2 expression declined rapidly in wide-ranging models of leak-associated infections, including anthrax, influenza, malaria, and sepsis. Forced Tie2 suppression sufficed to attenuate barrier function and sensitize endothelium to permeability mediators. Rapid reduction of pulmonary Tie2 in otherwise healthy animals attenuated downstream kinase signaling to the barrier effector vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin and induced vascular leakage. Compared with wild-type littermates, mice possessing one allele of Tie2 suffered more severe vascular leakage and higher mortality in two different sepsis models. Common genetic variants that influence TIE2 expression were then sought in the HapMap3 cohort. Remarkably, each of the three strongest predicted cis-acting SNPs in HapMap3 was also associated with the risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in an intensive care unit cohort of 1,614 subjects. The haplotype associated with the highest TIE2 expression conferred a 28% reduction in the risk of ARDS independent of other major clinical variables, including disease severity. In contrast, the most common haplotype was associated with both the lowest TIE2 expression and 31% higher ARDS risk. Together, the results implicate common genetic variation at the TIE2 locus as a determinant of vascular leak-related clinical outcomes from common infections, suggesting new tools to identify individuals at unusual risk for deleterious complications of infection. PMID:26884170

  11. Vulnerability to changes in malaria transmission due to climate change in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamana, T. K.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    Malaria transmission in West Africa is strongly tied to climate; temperature affects the development rate of the malaria parasite, as well as the survival of the mosquitoes that transmit the disease, and rainfall is tied to mosquito abundance, as the vector lays its eggs in rain-fed water pools. As a result, the environmental suitability for malaria transmission in this region is expected to change as temperatures rise and rainfall patterns are altered. The vulnerability to changes in transmission varies throughout West Africa. Areas where malaria prevalence is already very high will be less sensitive to changes in transmission. Increases in environmental suitability for malaria transmission in the most arid regions may still be insufficient to allow sustained transmission. However, areas were malaria transmission currently occurs at low levels are expected to be the most sensitive to changes in environmental suitability for transmission. Here, we use data on current environment and malaria transmission rates to highlight areas in West Africa that we expect to be most vulnerable to an increase in malaria under certain climate conditions. We then analyze climate predictions from global climate models in vulnerable areas, and make predictions for the expected change in environmental suitability for malaria transmission using the Hydrology, Entomology and Malaria Transmission Simulator (HYDREMATS), a mechanistic model developed to simulate village-scale response of malaria transmission to environmental variables in West Africa.

  12. Transmission Investment: A Primer

    SciTech Connect

    McGarvey, Joe

    2006-10-15

    This primer highlights recent trends in transmission investment, summarizes the division of jurisdictional authority over transmission, and presents four alternative models for transmission ownership. (author)

  13. Tie-In Orbits for the Focal Plane Stability Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowicz-Reed, Linda

    1991-07-01

    This proposal is part of the TTSC request entitled, "Distortion Calibration in FGS 1 and FGS 2, FGS-to-FGS Alignment Calibration". This portion is listed separately due to the time critical nature of one of the orbits. OFAD in FGS 3 which will be performed in December 1992 together with the Mini OFAD's in FGS's 1 and 2 which will be performed in January 1993 will provide a new set of FGS calibration parameters. One of the objectives of the STScI Focal Plane Stability test is to monitor changes to these parameters by repeatedly observing targets in the cluster M35. Since the cluster is near the ecliptic, only two vehicle orientations are needed, the "fall" and the "spring" pointings (see attached pickles plots). Since the Mini OFAD targets are not necessarily the same targets used in the Focal Plane Stability Test, tie in orbits using the Focal Plane Stability targets are needed shortly before and after the Mini OFAD activities. In addition, the Focal Plane Stability Test may not be

  14. Tongue-tie Repair: Z-Plasty Vs Simple Release

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Jamshid; Tabrizian Namini, Fariba; Raisolsadat, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Gillies, Rowan; Ashkezari, Azar; Meara, John G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Ankyloglossia is a congenital anomaly in which the lingual frenulum is unusually short and thick, thus decreasing tongue mobility. In the context of the newborn or young infant it is a subject of ongoing controversy within and between medical specialties. The controversy involves not only the definition but also the management of this anomaly. A tight lingual frenulum is considered a minor malformation by some investigators. Usual treatments for ankyloglossia include speech therapy, as well as simple frenulotomy and frenuloplasty. The aim of this study was to compare the latter two methods with respect to postoperative results and complications. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 patients referred for surgical care were randomly assigned into two groups: simple release (frenulotomy ) or Z-plasty (frenuloplasty), and underwent a pre-surgical assessment. After 3 months, patients were followed with a scheduled interview and questionnaire comparing the outcomes of the two methods. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 18. Results: Surgery had a significant effect on all variables measured in our study (P<0.05). Z-plasty had a greater effect on articulation, breast pain, tongue movement and parent satisfaction than simple release (P<0.05). Z-plasty and simple release had the same effect on breast feeding, latching, and sucking. Conclusion: Z-plasty is the preferred surgical method to address tongue-tie due to a greater improvement in mothers breast pain, pronunciation and speech, tongue movement, and parental satisfaction. PMID:25938084

  15. Tying dark matter to baryons with self-interactions.

    PubMed

    Kaplinghat, Manoj; Keeley, Ryan E; Linden, Tim; Yu, Hai-Bo

    2014-07-11

    Self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) models have been proposed to solve the small-scale issues with the collisionless cold dark matter paradigm. We derive equilibrium solutions in these SIDM models for the dark matter halo density profile including the gravitational potential of both baryons and dark matter. Self-interactions drive dark matter to be isothermal and this ties the core sizes and shapes of dark matter halos to the spatial distribution of the stars, a radical departure from previous expectations and from cold dark matter predictions. Compared to predictions of SIDM-only simulations, the core sizes are smaller and the core densities are higher, with the largest effects in baryon-dominated galaxies. As an example, we find a core size around 0.3kpc for dark matter in the Milky Way, more than an order of magnitude smaller than the core size from SIDM-only simulations, which has important implications for indirect searches of SIDM candidates. PMID:25062162

  16. Resistive ballooning modes in line-tied coronal arcades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velli, Marco

    1986-01-01

    The equations describing the linear evolution of resistive ballooning modes are obtained by using a modified WKB expansion in the short perpendicular wavelength, while variations of the perturbations along the field are described by a slowly varying amplitude, on which the tying boundary conditions are imposed. In general, given an equilibrium, there are certain ranges of magnetic surfaces for which the system predicts instability even without dissipation. The main conclusion is that within the resistive MHD approximation cylindrically symmetric arcades with pressure falling with radius are unstable to resistive localized modes; the growth rates, close to ideal marginal stability, are large, so that it would appear that energy could be released during 10 to 100 Alfven times. The wavelength of the modes is expected to be limited by the ion gyroradius, when stabilizing drift effects must be taken into account. The nonlinear evolution of resistive ballooning modes should be studied to assess their overall relevance to the violent and rapidly evolving phenomena observed on the sun.

  17. Ageing and intergenerational family ties in Arab countries.

    PubMed

    Kronfol, N M; Rizk, A; Sibai, A M

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores the dominant issues in intergenerational ties in Arab countries with a view to highlighting patterns, trends and challenges as well as policy implications. The data were drawn from a review of scholarly work and published literature in Arab countries and from a regional mapping of ageing policies and programmes in 2012. Social and health ageing policies in the region have been set with the premise that the family represents the core safety net for older Arabs. Yet demographic, sociocultural and economic transitions, as well as political conflict in the Arab world, are bringing profound changes to familial structures. This review feeds into efforts to promote health and social reforms that approach intergenerational solidarity from several fronts: providing equitable old-age income security, fostering cross-generational interactions, embracing caregivers and home-based care, promoting age-responsive actions in emergencies and conflicts, and prioritizing context- and country-specific research on the levels, types and trends in intergenerational and familial support. PMID:26857721

  18. Overdrive transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.F.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes an overdrive transmission device for use with a motor vehicle. It consists of: a housing; a driving shaft rotatably mounted within the housing; a planetary gear-train; a driven shaft rotatably mounted in the housing and driven by the planetary gear train; and, a device for selectively connecting the planetary gear carrier to the housing or to the driven shaft for rotation; a hydraulically actuated piston adapted to forcibly contact the clutch friction members of the second clutch; a source of working fluid; a pump in fluid flow communication with the source of working fluid; a first valve downstream of the pump and in fluid flow communication with the pump and the hydraulically activated piston.

  19. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Hamane, M.; Ohri, H.

    1989-03-21

    This patent describes an automatic transmission connected between a drive shaft and a driven shaft and comprising: a planetary gear mechanism including a first gear driven by the drive shaft, a second gear operatively engaged with the first gear to transmit speed change output to the driven shaft, and a third gear operatively engaged with the second gear to control the operation thereof; centrifugally operated clutch means for driving the first gear and the second gear. It also includes a ratchet type one-way clutch for permitting rotation of the third gear in the same direction as that of the drive shaft but preventing rotation in the reverse direction; the clutch means comprising a ratchet pawl supporting plate coaxially disposed relative to the drive shaft and integrally connected to the third gear, the ratchet pawl supporting plate including outwardly projection radial projections united with one another at base portions thereof.

  20. Planetary transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Nerstad, K.A.; Windish, W.E.

    1987-04-21

    A planetary transmission is described comprising: an input shaft; a first planetary gear set having a first sun gear driven by the input shaft, a first planet carrier serving as the output, a first ring gear, and first brake means for selectively holding the fist ring gear stationary; a second planetary gear set having a second sun gear driven by the input shaft, a second planet carrier connected for joint rotation to the first ring gear, a second ring gear, and second brake means for selectively holding the second ring gear stationary; a third planetary gear set having a third sun gear connected for joint rotation to the second planet carrier, a third planet carrier connected for joint rotation to the second ring gear, a third ring gear, and third brake means for selectively holding the third ring gear stationary; and clutch means for connecting the third sun gear to the input shaft and providing a direct drive mode of operation.

  1. Correcting amplitude, time, and phase mis-ties in seismic data

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, T.N. ); Nunns, A.G. )

    1994-06-01

    Seismic lines from different vintages frequently mis-tie where they intersect. The mis-ties may stem from different amplitudes, a shift in time, or different wave-let character. The authors can correct these mis-ties to a great extent by applying a scale factor, a static time shift, and a phase rotation to one of the lines. The authors describe algorithms to compute the amplitude, time, and phase differences at each intersection among a series of 2-D seismic lines. They can then use an iterative least-squares technique to derive optimal mis-tie corrections for each line. They include a necessary modification of the least-squares technique for the nonlinear phase data. The various algorithms are stable, fast, and accurate. They have used them in conjunction with an interactive workstation seismic interpretation program for five years. The scalar mis-tie corrections greatly enhance the consistency of the seismic data. The authors show the results of the mis-tie package applied to a 20-line survey consisting of five vintages of seismic data. The resulting mis-tie corrections significantly improve the fit between the 20 lines.

  2. Global TIE: Developing a Virtual Network of Robotic Observatories for K-12 Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, L. A.; Clark, G.

    2001-11-01

    Astronomy in grades K-12 is traditionally taught (if at all) using textbooks and a few simple hands-on activities. In addition, most students, by High School graduation, will never have even looked through the eyepiece of a telescope. The possibility now exists to establish a network of research grade telescopes, no longer useful to the professional astronomical community, that can be made accessible to schools all across the country through existing IT technologies and applications. These telescopes could provide unparalleled research and educational opportunities for a broad spectrum of K-12 and college students and turns underutilized observatory facilities into valuable, state-of-the-art teaching centers. The NASA-sponsored Telescopes In Education (TIE, http://tie.jpl.nasa.gov) project has been wildly successful in engaging the K-12 education community in real-time, hands-on, interactive astronomy activities. Hundreds of schools in the US, Australia, Canada, England, and Japan have participated in the TIE program, remotely controlling the 24-inch telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory from their classrooms. In recent years, several (approximately 20 to date) other telescopes have been, or are in the process of being, outfitted for remote use as TIE affiliates. Global TIE integrates these telescopes seamlessly into one virtual observatory and provides the services required to operate this facility, including a scheduling service, tools for data manipulation, an online proposal review environment, an online "Virtual TIE Student Ap J" for publication of results, and access to related educational materials provided by the TIE community. Global TIE provides unparalleled research and educational opportunities for a broad spectrum of K-12 and college students and turns essentially unused observatory facilities into valuable, state-of-the-art teaching centers. This presentation describes the Global TIE Observatory data and organizational systems and details the technology, partnerships, operational capabilities, science applications, and learning opportunities that this powerful virtual observatory network will provide.

  3. Recovery From Radiation-induced Bone Marrow Damage by HSP25 Through Tie2 Signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hae-June; Kwon, Hee-Chung; Chung, Hee-Yong; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Whole-body radiation therapy can cause severe injury to the hematopoietic system, and therefore it is necessary to identify a novel strategy for overcoming this injury. Methods and Materials: Mice were irradiated with 4.5 Gy after heat shock protein 25 (HSP25) gene transfer using an adenoviral vector. Then, peripheral blood cell counts, histopathological analysis, and Western blotting on bone marrow (BM) cells were performed. The interaction of HSP25 with Tie2 was investigated with mouse OP9 and human BM-derived mesenchymal stem cells to determine the mechanism of HSP25 in the hematopoietic system. Results: HSP25 transfer increased BM regeneration and reduced apoptosis following whole-body exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). The decrease in Tie2 protein expression that followed irradiation of the BM was blocked by HSP25 transfer, and Tie2-positive cells were more abundant among the BM cells of HSP25-transferred mice, even after IR exposure. Following systemic RNA interference of Tie2 before IR, HSP25-mediated radioprotective effects were partially blocked in both mice and cell line systems. Stability of Tie2 was increased by HSP25, a response mediated by the interaction of HSP25 with Tie2. IR-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Tie2 was augmented by HSP25 overexpression; downstream events in the Tie2 signaling pathway, including phosphorylation of AKT and EKR1/2, were also activated. Conclusions: HSP25 protects against radiation-induced BM damage by interacting with and stabilizing Tie2. This may be a novel strategy for HSP25-mediated radioprotection in BM.

  4. Experimental investigation of line-tying effects on the spheromak tilt mode

    SciTech Connect

    Wysocki, F.J.

    1986-02-01

    A variety of passive stabilization techniques compatible with S-1 inductive spheromak formation has been evaluated for effectiveness against the MHD tilting instability. A line-tying stabilization effect has been previously identified theoretically. In the present work, the effects have been experimentally identified and investigated. The perturbed current patterns within passive stabilizing structures have been measured, and line-tying currents have been identified. The simple ring model of tilting has been expanded to include line-tying, and has provided estimates for growth rates which agree well with the measured values. 51 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Diverless tie-in tool gets first test on deepwater line

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, D.

    1997-03-24

    A diverless, deepwater tie-in and repair tool has been developed and successfully tested on the Norwegian Sea`s Haltenpipe project. Den Norske stats oljeselskap AS (Statoil) and Hydratight Ltd., Wolverhampton, U.K., have disclosed details of the technique and installation. Statoil funded development by Hydra-tight of its Morgrip mechanical connector as a diverless pipeline tie-in and repair system for use in water too deep for existing technologies. The paper discusses welding restrictions underwater, metal-to-metal sealing, the Haltenpipe tie-in, and further development plans.

  6. 78 FR 75547 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Thailand: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Thailand: Preliminary... concrete steel rail tire wire (``PC tie wire'') from Thailand is not being, or likely to be, sold in the... Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire from Thailand, from Christian Marsh, Deputy Assistant Secretary...

  7. 77 FR 52352 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Rio Mesa Gen-Tie Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... Gen-Tie Project and Possible Land Use Plan Amendment, Riverside County, CA AGENCY: Bureau of Land..., California, intends to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Rio Mesa Gen- Tie Project. The... Gen-Tie Project by any of the following methods: Web site: http://www.blm.gov/ca/st/en.html ;...

  8. Power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ordo, J.P.; Raszkowski, J.A.; Klemen, D.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes a transmission. It comprises a housing having first and second end covers; an input shaft rotatably mounted in the first end cover; an output shaft rotatably supported on the input shaft and in the second end cover; first and second countershafts rotatably supported in the end covers for rotation on respective axis parallel with the input shaft and the output shaft; a first head gear continuously rotatable with the input shaft; second and third head gears meshing with the first head gear and continuously rotatable with the first and second countershafts respectively; ratio gears rotatably supported on each of the countershafts including a first ratio gear on the first countershaft and a second ratio gear on the second countershaft; reverse gear means including a first ratio gear on the first countershaft and a second ratio gear on the second countershaft; reverse gear means including a first member rotatable with the first ratio gear means including a first member rotatable with the first ratio gear and a second member rotatably supported on the second countershaft; synchronizer clutch means selectively and alternatively connectible with the second ratio gear and the second member of the reverse gear means; output gear means drivingly connected with the output shaft and including a first ratio output gear meshing with the second ratio gear; first selectively engageable friction clutch means for connecting the first ratio gear with the first countershaft for completing a low forward drive ratio between the input and output shafts; and second selectively engageable friction clutch means for selectively connecting the synchronizer clutch means to the second countershaft and cooperating therewith to selectively alternatively complete a reverse drive ratio between the input shaft and the output shaft and another forward drive ratio between the input and output shafts.

  9. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Inuzuka, T.

    1986-08-26

    1. An automatic transmission with four forward speeds and one reverse position, is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets each having a sun gear, a ring gear and a carrier supporting a pinion in mesh with the sun gear and ring gear; the carrier of the first gear set, the ring gear of the second gear set and the output member all being connected; the ring gear of the first gear set connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a first clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the first gear set, including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a second clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the second gear set a third clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the carrier of the second gear set including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a first drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear of the first gear set and the carrier of the second gear set in only one direction and, alternatively, in any direction; a second drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the sun gear of the second gear set; and a drum being open to the first planetary gear set, with a cylindrical intermediate wall, an inner peripheral wall and outer peripheral wall and forming the hydraulic servos of the first and third clutch means between the intermediate wall and the inner peripheral wall and between the intermediate wall and the outer peripheral wall respectively.

  10. Antipsychotic Drugs Tied to Risk of Early Death in Parkinson's Patients

    MedlinePLUS

    ... html Antipsychotic Drugs Tied to Risk of Early Death in Parkinson's Patients But it's unclear whether the ... seems to be an increased risk of early death. "This [study] does not necessarily answer whether the ...

  11. Study Ties Essure Birth Control Implant to Greater Need for Reoperation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155119.html Study Ties Essure Birth Control Implant to Greater Need for Reoperation ... 2015 (HealthDay News) -- New research raises concerns about Essure, an implanted long-term birth control device that's ...

  12. Toward a Dynamic Conceptualization of Social Ties and Context: Implications for Understanding Immigrant and Latino Health

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Amy J.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have posited that social ties and social support may contribute to better-than-expected health outcomes among Mexican immigrants vis-à-vis their US-born counterparts. However, in our review of studies examining social ties and health by immigration-related variables among this group, we found little support for this hypothesis. To better understand the social factors that contribute to the health of Mexicans in the United States, we conducted a qualitative analysis of social relationships and social context among first- and second-generation Mexican women. Our results highlight the interplay between immigration processes and social ties, draw attention to the importance of identity support and transnational social relationships, and suggest ways to reconceptualize the relationship between social contexts, social ties, and immigrant and Latino health. PMID:19833986

  13. Mom-To-Be's Smoking Tied to Poorer Fitness in Sons

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_156145.html Mom-to-Be's Smoking Tied to Poorer Fitness in Sons Higher body ... a new study suggests. "It's well established that smoking and breathing in secondhand smoke are harmful for ...

  14. CHARACTERIZATION AND ISOLATION OF ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN WHOLE SEDIMENT TOXICITY INDENTIFICATION EVALUATIONS (TIES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of whole sediment toxicity identification and evaluation (TIEs) methods has been under way for approximately four years. These methods are necessary to define cause and effect relationships in toxic sediments during ecological risk assessments, remediation and disposa...

  15. Hospital Volume Tied to Success of Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 157804.html Hospital Volume Tied to Success of Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer Study finds more experienced ... are more likely to survive if they receive radiation therapy at a hospital that provides the treatment ...

  16. Iron Framing Axonometric, Stringer, IBeam, Channel, Composite TieBeam, and Small ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Iron Framing Axonometric, Stringer, I-Beam, Channel, Composite Tie-Beam, and Small and Large Phoenix Columns - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. Could Lots of Time Spent on Social Media Be Tied to Depression?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Time Spent on Social Media Be Tied to Depression? Study did not prove cause-and-effect, and ... popular social media, the greater the link to depression, new research suggests. The finding stems from research -- ...

  18. EFFECTS OF BRINE ADDITION ON EFFLUENT TOXICITY AND MARINE TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATION (TIE) MANIPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little information is available concerning the effect of salinity adjustment on effluent storage and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) performance. hese factors are important for accurate assessments of potential toxicity to marine organisms. he objective of this study was...

  19. In Rare Cases, Hepatitis C Drug Tied to Slowed Heart Rate

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fullstory_155519.html In Rare Cases, Hepatitis C Drug Tied to Slowed Heart Rate: Study But experts ... HealthDay News) -- One of the new, highly effective drugs for treating hepatitis C can cause a very ...

  20. The effects of emitter-tied field plates on lateral PNP ionizing radiation response

    SciTech Connect

    Barnaby, H.J.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Cirba, C.R.; Pease, R.L.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Kosier, S.L.

    1998-03-01

    Radiation response comparisons of lateral PNP bipolar technologies reveal that device hardening may be achieved by extending the emitter contact over the active base. The emitter-tied field plate suppresses recombination of carriers with interface traps.

  1. MS Drug Tied to Higher Risk for Potentially Deadly Brain Virus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tied to Higher Risk for Potentially Deadly Brain Virus Patients taking Tysabri were more prone to show ... The germ in question is the John Cunningham virus (JCV), a pathogen thought to cause a deadly ...

  2. Hepatitis C May Be Tied to Greater Risk for Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... C May Be Tied to Greater Risk for Parkinson's Disease People with the virus also nearly 30 ... virus may also be at greater risk for Parkinson's disease, a new report shows. "Many factors clearly ...

  3. Comparison of Methods for Evaluating Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Tie-Tube Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Kapernick, Richard J.; Dixon, David D.

    2008-01-21

    One of the fundamental structural components in a nuclear thermal rocket design is the tie tube. Proper cooling and flow modeling is important both for the structural integrity of the reactor core and for proper design of downstream components that operate on the hydrogen exiting the tie tube. Two models have been developed. The first is a spreadsheet-based tool designed for sizing tie-tube components, considering mechanical stress and strain limits, deposited moderator power, thermal expansion along the flow path, and conduction from adjacent fuel blocks. The second is a three-dimensional SINDA/FLUINT model used as a benchmark, containing a complete finite-element fuel block and a 1/6th tie-tube model. This paper discusses the performance of both models, as well as the advantages and limitations of each.

  4. Head Injuries Tied to Buildup of Alzheimer's Plaques, Small Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 157055.html Head Injuries Tied to Buildup of Alzheimer's Plaques, Small Study Finds But it's too soon ... brain injury may lead to a buildup of Alzheimer's-type plaques in the brain, including in regions ...

  5. High 'Resting' Heart Rate Tied to Higher Odds of Early Death

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Heart Rate Tied to Higher Odds of Early Death But more research is needed before this can ... an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular death," said lead researcher Dr. Dongfeng Zhang, of the ...

  6. Life promises and 'failed' family ties: expectations and disappointment within a clinical trial (Ivory Coast).

    PubMed

    Marcis, F Le

    2015-12-01

    Building on fieldwork carried out in a clinical trial looking at early antiretroviral treatment for HIV in Abidjan, this paper aims to analyse the way relations emerge during trials and the consequences of the end of participation. Instead of discussing it using the register of ethics, understood as a universal set of principles, the trial is analysed for what it means locally for its actors, mainly patients. From this standpoint, the trial can be defined as both a promise of life and of new possibilities embodied in what is often described as new family ties. How are such ties formed and what does it mean when these ties are broken at the end of patient participation? Discussing the failure of family ties commented upon by patients and dealt by physician researcher is a way to look at ethics from below. PMID:26361643

  7. Birth Defect Tied to Zika Virus Can Leave Children with Lifetime of Health Woes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... news/fullstory_157150.html Birth Defect Tied to Zika Virus Can Leave Children With Lifetime of Health Woes ... caused by infection in the womb with the Zika virus -- typically face a lifetime of health challenges, doctors ...

  8. Newborn Probiotic Use Tied to Lower Risk of Type 1 Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Use Tied to Lower Risk of Type 1 Diabetes But association was only found in those with ... life may reduce the risk of type 1 diabetes for those genetically predisposed to getting the disease, ...

  9. Personal Care Plans Tied to Better Follow-Up in Breast Cancer Survivors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Care Plans Tied to Better Follow-Up in Breast Cancer Survivors Study found improvement in number of low- ... Jan. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For low-income breast cancer survivors, personalized care plans may lead to better ...

  10. Growth rate reduction of the curvature-driven flute instability by plasma blanket line tying

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, D.

    1983-09-01

    The effect of an annular, line-tied blanket, on the curvature-driven flute in a magnetic mirror is considered. The blanket is assumed to be line tied to a thermoionically emitting annular end plate. Reduction of the flute growth rate is computed as function of Larmor radius, blanket radius, and axial plasma conductance through either an external plasma or mirror sheath. It is found that significant reduction in growth rate can be achieved.

  11. A Laparoscopic Knot-Tying Device for Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jernigan, Shaphan; Chanoit, Guillaume; Veeramani, Arun; Owen, S. Brian; Hilliard, Matthew; Cormier, Denis; Laffitte, Bryan; Buckner, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Intracorporeal suturing and knot tying can complicate, prolong or preclude minimally invasive surgical procedures, reducing their advantages over conventional approaches. An automated knot-tying device has been developed to speed suture fixation during minimally invasive cardiac surgery while retaining the desirable characteristics of conventional hand-tied surgeon's knots: holding strength and visual and haptic feedback. A rotating slotted disk (at the instrument's distal end) automates overhand throws, thereby eliminating the need to manually pass one suture end through a loop in the opposing end. Electronic actuation of this disk produces left or right overhand knots as desired by the operator. Methods To evaluate the effectiveness of this technology, 7 surgeons with varying laparoscopic experience tied knots within a simulated minimally invasive setting, using both the automated knot-tying tool and conventional laparoscopic tools. Suture types were 2-0 braided and 4-0 monofilament. Results Mean knot-tying times were 246 ±116 seconds and 102 ±46 seconds for conventional and automated methods, respectively, showing an average 56% reduction in time per surgeon (p=0.003, paired t-test). The peak holding strength of each knot (the force required to break the suture or loosen the knot) was measured using tensile testing equipment. These peak holding strengths were normalized by the ultimate tensile strength of each suture type (57.5 N and 22.1 N for 2-0 braided and 4-0 monofilament, respectively). Mean normalized holding strengths for all knots were 68.2% and 71.8% of ultimate tensile strength for conventional and automated methods, respectively (p= 0.914, paired t-test). Conclusions Experimental data reveal that the automated suturing device has great potential for advancing minimally invasive surgery: it significantly reduced knot-tying times while providing equivalent or greater holding strength than conventionally tied knots. PMID:19854658

  12. Critical considerations for utility/cogeneration inter-tie protection scheme configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Rifaat, R.M.

    1995-09-01

    For inter-ties between cogeneration plants and existing host utility power systems, special considerations must be given to protection systems. The considerations are reviewed in light of contemporary experience with midsize cogenerating plants. Typical inter-tie configurations are deliberated. Implications on the design of protection systems are emphasized. Relevant protection schemes are presented, and their advantages and disadvantages are evaluated. The importance of examining the protection scheme requirements during the conceptual design stage of a cogenerating plant is demonstrated.

  13. Quantifying the impact of weak, strong, and super ties in scientific careers.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Alexander Michael

    2015-08-25

    Scientists are frequently faced with the important decision to start or terminate a creative partnership. This process can be influenced by strategic motivations, as early career researchers are pursuers, whereas senior researchers are typically attractors, of new collaborative opportunities. Focusing on the longitudinal aspects of scientific collaboration, we analyzed 473 collaboration profiles using an egocentric perspective that accounts for researcher-specific characteristics and provides insight into a range of topics, from career achievement and sustainability to team dynamics and efficiency. From more than 166,000 collaboration records, we quantify the frequency distributions of collaboration duration and tie strength, showing that collaboration networks are dominated by weak ties characterized by high turnover rates. We use analytic extreme value thresholds to identify a new class of indispensable super ties, the strongest of which commonly exhibit >50% publication overlap with the central scientist. The prevalence of super ties suggests that they arise from career strategies based upon cost, risk, and reward sharing and complementary skill matching. We then use a combination of descriptive and panel regression methods to compare the subset of publications coauthored with a super tie to the subset without one, controlling for pertinent features such as career age, prestige, team size, and prior group experience. We find that super ties contribute to above-average productivity and a 17% citation increase per publication, thus identifying these partnerships--the analog of life partners--as a major factor in science career development. PMID:26261301

  14. Current Singularities in Line-tied Three-dimensional Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, I. J. D.; Pontin, D. I.

    2014-06-01

    This paper considers the current distributions that derive from finite amplitude perturbations of line-tied magnetic fields comprising hyperbolic field structures. The initial equilibrium on which we principally focus is a planar magnetic X-point threaded by a uniform axial field. This field is line-tied on all surfaces but subject to three-dimensional (3D) disturbances that alter the initial topology. Results of ideal relaxation simulations are presented which illustrate how intense current structures form that can be related, through the influence of line-tying, to the quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) of the initial configuration. It is demonstrated that the location within the QSL that attracts the current, and its scaling properties, are strongly dependent on the relative dimensions of the QSL with respect to the line-tied boundaries. These results are contrasted with the behavior of a line-tied 3D field containing an isolated null point. In this case, it is found that the dominant current always forms at the null, but that the collapse is inhibited when the null is closer to a line-tied boundary.

  15. Quantifying the impact of weak, strong, and super ties in scientific careers

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Alexander Michael

    2015-01-01

    Scientists are frequently faced with the important decision to start or terminate a creative partnership. This process can be influenced by strategic motivations, as early career researchers are pursuers, whereas senior researchers are typically attractors, of new collaborative opportunities. Focusing on the longitudinal aspects of scientific collaboration, we analyzed 473 collaboration profiles using an egocentric perspective that accounts for researcher-specific characteristics and provides insight into a range of topics, from career achievement and sustainability to team dynamics and efficiency. From more than 166,000 collaboration records, we quantify the frequency distributions of collaboration duration and tie strength, showing that collaboration networks are dominated by weak ties characterized by high turnover rates. We use analytic extreme value thresholds to identify a new class of indispensable super ties, the strongest of which commonly exhibit >50% publication overlap with the central scientist. The prevalence of super ties suggests that they arise from career strategies based upon cost, risk, and reward sharing and complementary skill matching. We then use a combination of descriptive and panel regression methods to compare the subset of publications coauthored with a super tie to the subset without one, controlling for pertinent features such as career age, prestige, team size, and prior group experience. We find that super ties contribute to above-average productivity and a 17% citation increase per publication, thus identifying these partnerships—the analog of life partners—as a major factor in science career development. PMID:26261301

  16. Classification and Tie2 mutations in spinal and soft tissue vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mei; Jiang, Renbing; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Lisha; Wang, Hua; Li, Wenting; Li, Yiqun; Du, Xiang; Bai, Jingping

    2015-10-15

    Vascular anomalies included hemangiomas and vascular malformations (VMs). VMs are mediated by mutations in the endothelial cell-specific receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2 (TEK),which is essential for angiogenesis and vascular stabilization. We identified five types of Tie2 mutations in 80 patients with soft tissue or spinal VMs by PCR including the previously detected missense mutations 2690A>G (Y897C), 2740C>T (L914F), 2743C>T (R915C), and two nonsense mutations 2763G>A, 2688C>T, we identified Tie2 mutation in primary spinal VMs for the first time. Tie2 mutations were found to be absent in 33 patients with hemangiomas and DNA samples of VMs. In addition, we showed that Tie2 mRNA expression in spinal VMs was similar to soft tissue VMs, but obviously lower than infant hemangiomas (P<0.01). This study provides new insights into spinal VMs, the association of Tie2 and vascular anomalies needs to be further discussed. PMID:26115772

  17. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  18. Results of Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIE`S) conducted on the A-01 outfall and its contributory waste streams, July 1996--February 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1997-03-01

    Toxicity tests were conducted at nine locations during the summer of 1996. The results indicated that A-01B, A-01C, A-03, A-04, A-05 and A-01 were toxic to the test species, Ceriodaphnia dubia, while A-01A, A-06, and WE-01 were not toxic. Beginning in August 1996, Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIE`s) were initiated on all toxic outfalls in order to identify the toxicants responsible for the observed toxicity. A complete TIE was performed on A-01 because it is the regulatory compliance point for all of the combined waste streams that were tested. Only the portions of a TIE that are related to metal and chlorine toxicity were performed on the remaining locations because existing data indicated that metals and chlorine were present in potentially toxic quantities at these locations, and there was no evidence that other toxicants would be expected to be present in toxic amounts. The results of the TIE`s indicate that metals are responsible for most of the toxicity at all of the outfalls that were toxic and that chlorine contributed to the toxicity at two of the outfalls. Specifically, the toxicity at A-01B, A-01C, and A-01 was due to copper; the toxicity at A-03 was due to primarily to copper, although zinc also contributed to the toxicity; the toxicity at A-04 was due primarily to copper, with residual chlorine and zinc contributing to the toxicity; and the toxicity at A-05 was due primarily to copper, with residual chlorine contributing to the toxicity. A-03 was the most toxic outfall, with 100% mortality occurring at concentrations as low as 12.5% effluent. A-03 was found to have concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc that exceeded EPA water quality criteria by approximately two orders of magnitude. The metal concentrations at A-01 and WE-01, which is located approximately 0.5 miles downstream from A-01 were similar. However, A-01 was toxic, while WE-01 was not.

  19. Variable Somatic TIE2 Mutations in Half of Sporadic Venous Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Soblet, J.; Limaye, N.; Uebelhoer, M.; Boon, L.M.; Vikkula, M.

    2013-01-01

    Venous malformations (VMs) are the most frequent vascular malformations referred to specialized vascular anomaly centers. A rare (1-2%) familial form, termed cutaneomucosal venous malformation (VMCM), is caused by gain-of-function mutations in TIE2. More recently, sporadic VMs, characterized by the presence of large unifocal lesions, were shown to be caused by somatic mutations in TIE2. These include a frequent L914F change, and a series of double mutations in cis. All of which cause ligand-independent receptor hyperphosphorylation in vitro. Here, we expanded our study to assess the range of mutations that cause sporadic VM. To test for somatic changes, we screened the entire coding region of TIE2 in cDNA from resected VMs by direct sequencing. We detected TIE2 mutations in 17/30 (56.7%) of the samples. In addition to previously detected mutations, we identified 7 novel somatic intracellular TIE2 mutations in sporadic VMs, including 3 that cause premature protein truncation. PMID:23801934

  20. Community Detection in Signed Networks: the Role of Negative ties in Different Scales.

    PubMed

    Esmailian, Pouya; Jalili, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Extracting community structure of complex network systems has many applications from engineering to biology and social sciences. There exist many algorithms to discover community structure of networks. However, it has been significantly under-explored for networks with positive and negative links as compared to unsigned ones. Trying to fill this gap, we measured the quality of partitions by introducing a Map Equation for signed networks. It is based on the assumption that negative relations weaken positive flow from a node towards a community, and thus, external (internal) negative ties increase the probability of staying inside (escaping from) a community. We further extended the Constant Potts Model, providing a map spectrum for signed networks. Accordingly, a partition is selected through balancing between abridgment and expatiation of a signed network. Most importantly, multi-scale spectrum of signed networks revealed how informative are negative ties in different scales, and quantified the topological placement of negative ties between dense positive ones. Moreover, an inconsistency was found in the signed Modularity: as the number of negative ties increases, the density of positive ties is neglected more. These results shed lights on the community structure of signed networks. PMID:26395815

  1. Community Detection in Signed Networks: the Role of Negative ties in Different Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmailian, Pouya; Jalili, Mahdi

    2015-09-01

    Extracting community structure of complex network systems has many applications from engineering to biology and social sciences. There exist many algorithms to discover community structure of networks. However, it has been significantly under-explored for networks with positive and negative links as compared to unsigned ones. Trying to fill this gap, we measured the quality of partitions by introducing a Map Equation for signed networks. It is based on the assumption that negative relations weaken positive flow from a node towards a community, and thus, external (internal) negative ties increase the probability of staying inside (escaping from) a community. We further extended the Constant Potts Model, providing a map spectrum for signed networks. Accordingly, a partition is selected through balancing between abridgment and expatiation of a signed network. Most importantly, multi-scale spectrum of signed networks revealed how informative are negative ties in different scales, and quantified the topological placement of negative ties between dense positive ones. Moreover, an inconsistency was found in the signed Modularity: as the number of negative ties increases, the density of positive ties is neglected more. These results shed lights on the community structure of signed networks.

  2. Modified bow-tie antenna with strong broadband field enhancement for RF photonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiyi; Zhan, Qiwen

    2013-09-01

    We present a novel design of a subwavelength modified bow-tie antenna that is capable of generating strong broadband field enhancement in its extended feed gap. This modified bow-tie antenna is comprised of a conventional bow-tie antenna with capacitive extended bars attached to the apex points of the bow-tie. The feed gap between the two capacitive bars is separated with a deep subwavelength width for the generation of enhanced local electrical field. Threedimensional finite element method model is utilized to systematically explore the properties of this antenna design. Through adjusting the bow-tie geometry and the substrate properties, the antenna structure is optimized with a central resonant frequency at 100 GHz. Highly enhanced electrical field is created between the extended bar under radio frequency (RF) illumination. With the optimized design, numerical simulations show that a uniform field enhancement of more than 200 through the entire feed gap with a bandwidth of 40 GHz can be achieved. The strongly enhanced RF field within the gap can be applied to directly modulate guided optical wave propagating in a waveguide embedded in the substrate underneath the feed gap. This work builds up a bridge between devices in the RF and optical frequency regimes that may find many potential applications in RF photonic devices and systems.

  3. Vibration Testing of Electrical Cables to Quantify Loads at Tie-Down Locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutson, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    The standard method for defining static equivalent structural load factors for components is based on Mile s equation. Unless test data is available, 5% critical damping is assumed for all components when calculating loads. Application of this method to electrical cable tie-down hardware often results in high loads, which often exceed the capability of typical tie-down options such as cable ties and P-clamps. Random vibration testing of electrical cables was used to better understand the factors that influence component loads: natural frequency, damping, and mass participation. An initial round of vibration testing successfully identified variables of interest, checked out the test fixture and instrumentation, and provided justification for removing some conservatism in the standard method. Additional testing is planned that will include a larger range of cable sizes for the most significant contributors to load as variables to further refine loads at cable tie-down points. Completed testing has provided justification to reduce loads at cable tie-downs by 45% with additional refinement based on measured cable natural frequencies.

  4. StringTie enables improved reconstruction of a transcriptome from RNA-seq reads

    PubMed Central

    Pertea, Mihaela; Pertea, Geo M; Antonescu, Corina M; Chang, Tsung-Cheng; Mendell, Joshua T; Salzberg, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Methods used to sequence the transcriptome often produce more than 200 million short sequences. We introduce StringTie, a computational method that applies a network flow algorithm originally developed in optimization theory, together with optional de novo assembly, to assemble these complex data sets into transcripts. When used to analyze both simulated and real data sets, StringTie produces more complete and accurate reconstructions of genes and better estimates of expression levels, compared with other leading transcript assembly programs including Cufflinks, IsoLasso, Scripture and Traph. For example, on 90 million reads from human blood, StringTie correctly assembled 10,990 transcripts, whereas the next best assembly was of 7,187 transcripts by Cufflinks, which is a 53% increase in transcripts assembled. On a simulated data set, StringTie correctly assembled 7,559 transcripts, which is 20% more than the 6,310 assembled by Cufflinks. As well as producing a more complete transcriptome assembly, StringTie runs faster on all data sets tested to date compared with other assembly software, including Cufflinks. PMID:25690850

  5. Community Detection in Signed Networks: the Role of Negative ties in Different Scales

    PubMed Central

    Esmailian, Pouya; Jalili, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Extracting community structure of complex network systems has many applications from engineering to biology and social sciences. There exist many algorithms to discover community structure of networks. However, it has been significantly under-explored for networks with positive and negative links as compared to unsigned ones. Trying to fill this gap, we measured the quality of partitions by introducing a Map Equation for signed networks. It is based on the assumption that negative relations weaken positive flow from a node towards a community, and thus, external (internal) negative ties increase the probability of staying inside (escaping from) a community. We further extended the Constant Potts Model, providing a map spectrum for signed networks. Accordingly, a partition is selected through balancing between abridgment and expatiation of a signed network. Most importantly, multi-scale spectrum of signed networks revealed how informative are negative ties in different scales, and quantified the topological placement of negative ties between dense positive ones. Moreover, an inconsistency was found in the signed Modularity: as the number of negative ties increases, the density of positive ties is neglected more. These results shed lights on the community structure of signed networks. PMID:26395815

  6. Transnational, Social, and Neighborhood Ties and Smoking Among Latino Immigrants: Does Gender Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Alcántara, Carmela; Molina, Kristine M.; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined whether transnational ties, social ties, and neighborhood ties were independently associated with current smoking status among Latino immigrants. We also tested interactions to determine whether these associations were moderated by gender. Methods We conducted a series of weighted logistic regression analyses (i.e., economic remittances, number of return visits, friend support, family support, and neighborhood cohesion) using the Latino immigrant subsample (n|=|1629) of the National Latino and Asian American Study in 2002 and 2003. Results The number of past-year return visits to the country-of-origin was positively associated with current smoker status. Gender moderated the association between economic remittances, friend support, and smoking. Remittance behavior had a protective association with smoking, and this association was particularly pronounced for Latino immigrant women. Friendship support lowered the odds of smoking among men, but not women. Conclusions Our results underscore the growing importance of transnational networks for understanding Latino immigrant health and the gendered patterns of the associations between social ties, transnational ties, and health risk behaviors. PMID:25121808

  7. Relief of Residual Stress in Streamline Tie Rods by Heat Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollard, R E; Reinhart, Fred M

    1941-01-01

    About two-thirds of the residual stress in cold-worked SAE 1050 steel tie rods was relieved by heating 30 minutes at 600 degrees Fahrenheit. Cold-worked austenitic stainless-steel tie rods could be heated at temperatures up to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit without lowering the important physical properties. The corrosion resistance, in laboratory corrosion test, of straight 18:8 and titanium-treated 18:8 materials appeared to be impaired after heating at temperatures above 800 degrees or 900 degrees fahrenheit. Columbium-treated and molybdenum-treated 18:8 steel exhibited improved stability over a wide range of temperatures. Tie rods of either material could be heated 30 minutes with safety at any temperature up to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit. At this temperature most of the residual stress would be relieved.

  8. Influence of social ties to environmentalists on public climate change perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tindall, D. B.; Piggot, Georgia

    2015-06-01

    An emerging body of research proposes that climate change concern is shaped by one's social ties and cultural milieu. This work aligns with findings in the well-established field of social network analysis, whereby individuals are understood as being embedded in social networks, and network position can be used to predict attitudes. Here we examine whether having ties to environmental movement organization members is correlated with climate change attitudes amongst the general public. We use data from a nationwide survey of the Canadian public to demonstrate that having social ties to environmental organization members increases the likelihood that an individual member of the public has a plan to deal with climate change. These findings reinforce the value of focusing on social context when examining climate change attitudes, and highlight the role that environmental organization members play in mobilizing climate change responses.

  9. Affect networks: a structural analysis of the relationship between work ties and job-related affect.

    PubMed

    Totterdell, Peter; Wall, Toby; Holman, David; Diamond, Holly; Epitropaki, Olga

    2004-10-01

    The relationship between organizational networks and employees' affect was examined in 2 organizations. In Study 1, social network analysis of work ties and job-related affect for 259 employees showed that affect converged within work interaction groups. Similarity of affect between employees depended on the presence of work ties and structural equivalence. Affect was also related to the size and density of employees' work networks. Study 2 used a 10-week diary study of 31 employees to examine a merger of 2 organizational divisions and found that negative changes in employees' affect were related to having fewer cross-divisional ties and to experiencing greater reductions in network density. The findings suggest that affect permeates through and is shaped by organizational networks. PMID:15506865

  10. The angiopoietin/TIE receptor system: Focusing its role for ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Tobias; Klaschik, Sven

    2015-06-01

    Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) are of fatal consequence for the affected organs, as they provoke a profound inflammatory reaction. This thoroughly destroys cells and tissues, inducing functional failure or even complete loss of organ function. Since I/R is primarily a vascular problem, the interaction between the endothelium and the surrounding environment is of great significance. The angiopoietins (ANG) and the TIE receptors are key players for the vascular homeostasis. This review summarizes biochemical and cellular mechanisms leading to I/R injury. After a brief introduction to the ANG/TIE system, a comprehensive overview of its role for the development of I/R syndrome is given. Finally, current therapeutic approaches to mitigate the consequences of I/R by modulating ANG/TIE signaling are reviewed in detail. PMID:25466648

  11. A determination of the radio-planetary frame tie and the DSN tracking station locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, Mark H.; Folkner, William M.

    1990-01-01

    The orientation of the reference frame of radio source catalogs relative to that of planetary ephemerides is uncertain by 30 mas (150 nrad). At this level of uncertainty this orientation offset, or 'frame tie', can be a major systematic error source for interplanetary spacecraft orbit determination. This work presents a method of determining the radio-planetary frame tie from a comparison of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) station coordinate and earth orientation parameter estimates. Preliminary results are presented which indicate that accuracies of 5 mas or better may be achieved with this method. An important by-product of this method of frame tie determination is a set of Deep Space Network (DSN) station locations with 10 cm per component accuracy. This station set is in a geocentric coordinate system with known orientation relative to the radio and planetary frames.

  12. A Community of Strangers: The Dis-Embedding of Social Ties

    PubMed Central

    Parigi, Paolo; State, Bogdan; Dakhlallah, Diana; Corten, Rense; Cook, Karen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore two contrasting perspectives on individuals' participation in associations. On the one hand, some have considered participation the byproduct of pre-existing friendship ties — the more friends one already has in the association, the more likely he or she is to participate. On the other hand, some have considered participation to be driven by the association's capacity to form new identities — the more new friends one meets in the association, the more likely he or she is to participate. We use detailed temporal data from an online association to adjudicate between these two mechanisms and explore their interplay. Our results show a significant impact of new friendship ties on participation, compared to a negligible impact of pre-existing friends, defined here as ties to other members formed outside of the organization's context. We relate this finding to the sociological literature on participation and we explore its implications in the discussion. PMID:23861761

  13. An interchange instability in an open system and the line-tying effect on it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katanuma, I.; Okuyama, Y.; Kato, S.

    2013-04-01

    An interchange instability is the most dangerous instability to an open system such as GAMMA10 (Inutake et al 1985 Phys. Rev. Lett. 55 939). A line tying is a powerful tool for stabilizing an interchange instability because the magnetic field lines terminate at the conducting ends in an open system. This paper studies the mechanism of the appearance of line tying in an interchange instability by a particle simulation (taking into account the electron inertia along a magnetic field line precisely) and the line-tying effect on the interchange instability in GAMMA10 by a reduced MHD simulation. We have newly found the nonlinear (quasi-linear) stability criterion to an interchange instability with conducting ends. The limiters of Movable Limiter Outside the anchor mirror cell (MLO) installed in GAMMA10 are found to have a stabilization effect on the interchange instability, which is consistent with the experimental results.

  14. Registration of Laser Scanning Point Clouds and Aerial Images Using either Artificial or Natural Tie Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rnnholm, P.; Haggrn, H.

    2012-07-01

    Integration of laser scanning data and photographs is an excellent combination regarding both redundancy and complementary. Applications of integration vary from sensor and data calibration to advanced classification and scene understanding. In this research, only airborne laser scanning and aerial images are considered. Currently, the initial registration is solved using direct orientation sensors GPS and inertial measurements. However, the accuracy is not usually sufficient for reliable integration of data sets, and thus the initial registration needs to be improved. A registration of data from different sources requires searching and measuring of accurate tie features. Usually, points, lines or planes are preferred as tie features. Therefore, the majority of resent methods rely highly on artificial objects, such as buildings, targets or road paintings. However, in many areas no such objects are available. For example in forestry areas, it would be advantageous to be able to improve registration between laser data and images without making additional ground measurements. Therefore, there is a need to solve registration using only natural features, such as vegetation and ground surfaces. Using vegetation as tie features is challenging, because the shape and even location of vegetation can change because of wind, for example. The aim of this article was to compare registration accuracies derived by using either artificial or natural tie features. The test area included urban objects as well as trees and other vegetation. In this area, two registrations were performed, firstly, using mainly built objects and, secondly, using only vegetation and ground surface. The registrations were solved applying the interactive orientation method. As a result, using artificial tie features leaded to a successful registration in all directions of the coordinate system axes. In the case of using natural tie features, however, the detection of correct heights was difficult causing also some tilt errors. The planimetric registration was accurate.

  15. Sensitivity of passive microwave sea ice concentration algorithms to the selection of locally and seasonally adjusted tie points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, Konrad; Schweiger, Axel

    1989-01-01

    The sensitivity of passive microwave sea-ice concentration (SIC) algorithms to the selection of tie points was analyzed. SICs were derived with the NASA Team ice algorithm for global tie points and for locally and seasonally adjusted tie points. The SSM/I SIC was then compared to Landsat-MSS-derived SICs. Preliminary results show a mean difference of SSM/I- and Landsat-derived SICs for 50 x 50 km grid cells of 2.7 percent along the ice edge of the Beaufort Sea during fall with local tie points. The accuracy decreased to 9.7 percent when global tie points were used. During freeze-up in the Beaufort Sea, with grey ice and nilas as dominant ice cover, the mean difference was 4.3 percent for local tie points and 13.9 percent for global tie points. For the spring ice cover in the Bering Sea a mean difference of 4.4 percent for local tie points and 15.7 percent for global tie points was found. This large difference reveals some limitations of the NASA-Team algorithm under freeze-up and spring conditions (thin ice areas).

  16. Onset and Saturation of the Kink Instability in a Current-Carrying Line-Tied Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bergerson, W.F.; Forest, C.B.; Fiksel, G.; Hannum, D.A.; Kendrick, R.; Sarff, J.S.; Stambler, S.

    2006-01-13

    An internal kink instability is observed to grow and saturate in a line-tied screw pinch plasma. Detailed measurements show that an ideal, line-tied kink mode begins growing when the safety factor q=(4{pi}{sup 2}r{sup 2}B{sub z}/{mu}{sub 0}I{sub p}(r)L) drops below 1 inside the plasma; the saturated state corresponds to a rotating helical equilibrium. In addition to the ideal mode, reconnection events are observed to periodically flatten the current profile and change the magnetic topology.

  17. Equation-of-State Based Tie-Simplex Parameterization for Multiphase Thermal-Compositional Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iranshahr, A.; Voskov, D.; Tchelepi, H. A.

    2011-12-01

    Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes usually involve complex phase behaviors between the injected fluid (e.g., steam, hydrocarbon, CO2, sour) and the in-situ rock-fluid system. Several fundamental questions remain regarding equation-of-state computations for mixtures than can form three, or more, phases at equilibrium. In addition, numerical and computational issues related to proper coupling of the thermodynamic phase-behavior with multiphase flow multi-component transport must be resolved in order to model the behaviors of large-scale EOR processes accurately and efficiently. We describe a general negative-flash method for multi-component, thermal systems that can form three, or more, fluid phases. We prove that the new method is convergent to the unique solution. Based on our multiphase negative-flash technique, we have developed an adaptive tie-simplex parameterization framework for thermal-compositional simulation. We also prove that the tie-simplexes change continuously as a function of pressure, temperature, and composition. The continuity of the parameterized compositional space allows for interpolation in pressure and temperature using a limited number of tie-simplexes. We show that the tie-simplex framework constrains thermodynamic computations, and converges to the global minimum of the Gibbs free energy. The extended negative-flash approach accounts rigorously for tie-simplex degeneration (critical behavior) across phase boundaries. We study the behaviors of thermal-compositional reservoir displacement processes across a wide range of fluid mixtures, pressures, and temperatures. The focus is on the complex behaviors of the tie-triangles and tie-lines associated with three-phase, thermal steam-injection problems in heterogeneous formations. The algorithms that capture the complex combinations of the appearance and disappearance of multiple phases are described in detail. This tie-simplex based parameterization framework is integrated with a general-purpose reservoir simulator, and its accuracy and computational efficiency is demonstrated for several challenging compositional (CO2, four phase sour-gas) and thermal-compositional (steam) models. The nonlinear behaviors are analyzed in terms of the particular displacement process, miscible/immiscible dynamics, number of components, and sensitivity to time step size.

  18. Knot-tying with visual and force feedback for VR laparoscopic training.

    PubMed

    Wang, F; Burdet, E; Vuillemin, R; Bleuler, H

    2005-01-01

    Real-time simulation of thread and knot-tying with visual and force feedback is an essential part of virtual reality laparoscopic training. This paper presents a physics-based thread simulator that enables realistic knot tying at haptic rendering rate. The virtual thread follows Newton's law and behaves naturally. The model considers main mechanical properties of the real thread such as stretching, compressing, bending and twisting, as well as contact forces due to self-collision and interaction with the environment, and the effect of gravity. The structure of the system has essential advantages over geometrically based approaches, as was illustrated in an implementation on the Xitact simulator. PMID:17281571

  19. Assessment of lingual function when ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) is suspected.

    PubMed

    Williams, W N; Waldron, C M

    1985-03-01

    Dental specialists are frequently confronted with the task of attempting to determine whether a cause and effect relationship exists between a short or restricting lingual frenum (ankyloglossia or tongue-tie) and a specific oral motor dysfunction. Because there is no standardized definition of what constitutes a condition of tongue-tie, the dental practitioner is often unsure as to the appropriate course of action with a patient with suspected ankyloglossia. This paper describes clinical measures that permit quantifying several anatomic and functional aspects of the tongue. Such baseline analysis provides a more definitive appraisal of lingual function as well as a more objective basis for making pre- and posttreatment comparisons. PMID:3858347

  20. Clinical inquiries. When should you treat tongue-tie in a newborn?

    PubMed

    Cho, Anthony; Kelsberg, Gary; Safranek, Sarah

    2010-12-01

    Consider treatment when the infant is having difficulty breastfeeding. Infants with mild to moderate tongue-tie, or ankyloglossia, are likely to breastfeed successfully and usually require no treatment (strength of recommendation [SOR]: B, a prospective controlled trial and a case-control study). However, mothers of infants with any degree of tongue-tie who have difficulty with breastfeeding despite lactation support report immediate improvement after frenotomy is performed on the baby. Complications from the procedure are minimal (SOR: B, a small randomized controlled trial [ RCT] and multiple uncontrolled cohort studies and case series). PMID:21135930

  1. Fit to be Tied! The Relevance of Ties in Teaching Physical Education: Umpires and Referees Must Decide Plays One Way or the Other, but Games Require No Such Decisive Conclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Douglas W.; Torres, Cesar R.

    2005-01-01

    This article has defended the notion that ties are legitimate results of sport contests and often represent the most accurate measure of relative athletic ability. In this sense, ties fully serve and honor the central purpose of competitive sport. Moreover, the authors discuss the following purposes for this article: (1) it will establish an

  2. Exploring relationship between human mobility and social ties: Physical distance is not dead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Bo; Liao, Binbing; Yuan, Ning; Wang, Wenjun

    2015-06-01

    Partly due to the difficulty of the access to a worldwide dataset that simultaneously captures the location history and social networks, our understanding of the relationship between human mobility and the social ties has been limited. However, this topic is essential for a deeper study from human dynamics and social networks aspects. In this paper, we examine the location history data and social networks data of 712 email users and 399 offline events users from a map-editing based social network website. Based on these data, we expand all our experiment both from individual aspect and community aspect. We find that the physical distance is still the most influential factor to social ties among the nine representative human mobility features extracted from our GPS trajectory dataset, although Internet revolution has made long-distance communication dramatically faster, easier and cheaper than ever before, and in turn, partly expand the physical scope of social networks. Furthermore, we find that to a certain extent, the proximity of South-North direction is more influential than East-West direction to social ties. To the our best of our knowledge, this difference between South-North and East-West is the first time to be raised and quantitatively supported by a large dataset. We believe our findings on the interplay of human mobility and social ties offer a new perspective to this field of study.

  3. Mexican American Protest, Ethnic Resiliency and Social Capital: The Mobilization Benefits of Cross-Cutting Ties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santoro, Wayne A.; Velez,, Maria B.; Keogh, Stacy M.

    2012-01-01

    Using terms like free spaces and havens, conventional wisdom views social ties by subordinate groups to dominant group members as hindering protest participation. In contrast, we draw on ethnic resiliency and social capital perspectives and argue that there are mobilization benefits to having dominant group members as friends. We offer a unique

  4. Common and specific effects of TIE2 mutations causing venous malformations.

    PubMed

    Nätynki, Marjut; Kangas, Jaakko; Miinalainen, Ilkka; Sormunen, Raija; Pietilä, Riikka; Soblet, Julie; Boon, Laurence M; Vikkula, Miikka; Limaye, Nisha; Eklund, Lauri

    2015-11-15

    Venous malformations (VMs) are localized defects in vascular morphogenesis frequently caused by mutations in the gene for the endothelial tyrosine kinase receptor TIE2. Here, we report the analysis of a comprehensive collection of 22 TIE2 mutations identified in patients with VM, either as single amino acid substitutions or as double-mutations on the same allele. Using endothelial cell (EC) cultures, mouse models and ultrastructural analysis of tissue biopsies from patients, we demonstrate common as well as mutation-specific cellular and molecular features, on the basis of which mutations cluster into categories that correlate with data from genetic studies. Comparisons of double-mutants with their constituent single-mutant forms identified the pathogenic contributions of individual changes, and their compound effects. We find that defective receptor trafficking and subcellular localization of different TIE2 mutant forms occur via a variety of mechanisms, resulting in attenuated response to ligand. We also demonstrate, for the first time, that TIE2 mutations cause chronic activation of the MAPK pathway resulting in loss of normal EC monolayer due to extracellular matrix (ECM) fibronectin deficiency and leading to upregulation of plasminogen/plasmin proteolytic pathway. Corresponding EC and ECM irregularities are observed in affected tissues from mouse models and patients. Importantly, an imbalance between plasminogen activators versus inhibitors would also account for high d-dimer levels, a major feature of unknown cause that distinguishes VMs from other vascular anomalies. PMID:26319232

  5. 10 CFR 71.45 - Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., or must be designed with strength equivalent to that required for lifting attachments. (b) Tie-down... component of 2 times the weight of the package with its contents, a horizontal component along the direction in which the vehicle travels of 10 times the weight of the package with its contents, and...

  6. Social Support and Social Network Ties among the Homeless in a Downtown Atlanta Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitzes, Donald C.; Crimmins, Timothy J.; Yarbrough, Johanna; Parker, Josie

    2011-01-01

    This study applies a typology of social support with 3 categories of social networks to investigate social ties and their benefits for homeless people. Data were derived from a 2-year long series of participant observations of homeless or precariously housed people who came regularly to a downtown Atlanta public park. The findings are as follows:

  7. Place of Origin, Types of Ties, and Support Networks in Mexico-U.S. Migration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores-Yeffal, Nadia Y.; Aysa-Lastra, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies explored how urban or rural place of origin influences the source of social capital. There remains a need to consider how the place of origin affects the type of ties--family, friends, or "paisanos" (countrymen)--with those who provide support to migrants. We use data from the Mexican Migration Project (MMP128) and perform

  8. Treatment of Complex Fistula in Ano with Cable-Tie Seton: A Prospective Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Ayaz Ahmad; Murtaza, Ghulam; Azami, Rizwan; Zafar, Hasnain; Chawla, Tabish; Laghari, Altaf Ali

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To determine the fecal incontinence and recurrence rate in patients with complex fistula in ano managed with cable tie seton at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Methods. This is a prospective case series of patients with complex anal fistula i.e. recurrent fistula or encircling >30% of external anal sphincter, managed with cable tie seton from March 2003 to March 2009. Patients were seen in the clinic after 72 hours of seton insertion under anesthesia and then every other week. Each time the cable-tie was tightened if found loose without anesthesia and incontinence was inquired according to wexner's score. Results. Seventy nine patients were treated during the study period with the age (mean standard deviation) of 41 10.6 years and. The seton was tightened with a median of six times (315 times range). Complete healing was achieved in 11.2 5.7 weeks. All the patients were followed for a minimum period of one year and none of the patients had any incontinence. Recurrence was found in 4 (5%) patients. Conclusion. The cable tie seton is safe, cost effective and low morbidity option for the treatment of complex fistulae-in-ano. It can, therefore, be recommended as the standard of treatment for complex fistulae-in-ano requiring the placement of a seton. PMID:22084768

  9. Place of Origin, Types of Ties, and Support Networks in Mexico-U.S. Migration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores-Yeffal, Nadia Y.; Aysa-Lastra, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies explored how urban or rural place of origin influences the source of social capital. There remains a need to consider how the place of origin affects the type of ties--family, friends, or "paisanos" (countrymen)--with those who provide support to migrants. We use data from the Mexican Migration Project (MMP128) and perform…

  10. Education and the Japan-America Tie in the Mid-'70s. Occasional Papers, No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on International Educational Exchange, New York, NY.

    Presented at a seminar on Resources for Educational Exchange with Japan, this paper emphasizes the closeness of the ties between Japan and the United States and the importance of the educational and cultural dimensions of the relationship. An historical treatment of the relationship between the two countries since 1872 points out the rapid change

  11. Ties That Protect: An Ecological Perspective on Latino/a Urban Pre-Adolescent Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Miles, Bart W.; Dustman, Patricia; Sills, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Surveys of 2,125 seventh-graders in eight urban Southwestern schools and interviews with 60 of them examined the role of family and school in Latino/a preadolescent substance use. Most respondents did not use hard drugs or alcohol. Strong ties to parents and school were protective factors. Recommendations for social work interventions that support

  12. Mexican American Protest, Ethnic Resiliency and Social Capital: The Mobilization Benefits of Cross-Cutting Ties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santoro, Wayne A.; Velez,, Maria B.; Keogh, Stacy M.

    2012-01-01

    Using terms like free spaces and havens, conventional wisdom views social ties by subordinate groups to dominant group members as hindering protest participation. In contrast, we draw on ethnic resiliency and social capital perspectives and argue that there are mobilization benefits to having dominant group members as friends. We offer a unique…

  13. An eosinophil immune response characterizes the inflammatory skin disease observed in Tie-2 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Voskas, Daniel; Babichev, Yael; Ling, Ling S.; Alami, Jennifer; Shaked, Yuval; Kerbel, Robert S.; Ciruna, Brian; Dumont, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Although mouse models of inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis fail to completely phenocopy disease in humans, they provide invaluable tools to examine the molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for the epidermal hyperplasia, inflammation, and excess angiogenesis observed in human disease. We have previously characterized a tyrosine kinase with immunoglobin-like and epidermal growth factor-like domain-2 (Tie-2) transgenic mouse model of an inflammatory skin disease exhibiting these features. More specifically, we demonstrated that the inflammatory component consisted of increased infiltration of CD3-positive T lymphocytes and mast cells in the skin. Here, we further characterize the inflammatory component in the blood and skin of Tie-2 transgenic mice at cellular and molecular levels. We observed increased numbers of CD3-positive T lymphocytes in the blood and increased infiltration of eosinophils in the skin. Furthermore, we characterized cytokine protein and gene expression in the blood and skin, respectively, and observed the deregulated expression of cytokines associated with Th1 and eosinophil immune responses. Interestingly, treatment of Tie-2 transgenic mice with anti-CD4 antibody appeared to resolve aspects of inflammation but did not resolve epidermal hyperplasia, suggesting an important role for eosinophils in mediating the inflammatory skin disease observed in Tie-2 transgenic mice. PMID:18443190

  14. From Gut Knowing: Every Silver Cloud Has a Black Lining. Actor Reflections on "Ties That Bind."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmes, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Makes sense of the performance of Steve Taylor's play, "Ties That Bind," from the perspective of the actors, 14 faculty members, and doctoral students from various universities in the United States by using the interpretive lens of Erving Goffman's Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. (SG)

  15. Social Tie Characteristics and Psychiatric Rehabilitation Outcomes among Adults with Serious Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Chronister, Julie Ann

    2012-01-01

    Social support has achieved national attention as a key component of the mental health recovery paradigm for persons with serious mental illness (SMI). The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of variance accounted for by four social tie characteristics (social network orientation, emotional support, tangible support, and negative

  16. Tongue-Tied: The Lives of Multilingual Children in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Ana, Otto

    2004-01-01

    Tongue-Tied is an anthology that gives voice to millions of people who, on a daily basis, are denied the opportunity to speak in their own language. First-person accounts by Amy Tan, Sherman Alexie, Bell Hooks, Richard Rodriguez, Maxine Hong Kingston, and many other authors open windows into the lives of linguistic minority students and their…

  17. Design and Calibration of Chambers for Measuring Ammonia Emissions from Tie-stall Dairy Barns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy barns are thought to emit large amounts of ammonia, which can have detrimental effects on human health and natural ecosystems. In the U.S., relatively little is known about the processes that affect the rate and magnitude of ammonia emissions from dairy barns. The end of a conventional tie-sta...

  18. A synthetic peptide mediated active targeting of cisplatin liposomes to Tie2 expressing cells.

    PubMed

    Mai, Junhua; Song, Shuxian; Rui, Mengjie; Liu, Dan; Ding, Qian; Peng, Jinliang; Xu, Yuhong

    2009-11-01

    Tie2 receptor is a receptor tyrosine kinase that plays important roles in vascular angiogenesis, and also highly expressed by a number of cancer cells. In this study, we reported an active targeting liposome system directed by a novel peptide ligand PH1 that can improve drug efficacies specifically to Tie2 expressing cells. The PH1 peptide (TMGFTAPRFPHY) was selected by phage display library screening combined with surface plasmon resonance binding assays. It was covalently conjugated to the distal end of DSPE-PEG(2000)-Maleimide lipid and loaded onto liposome membranes as the targeting ligand. These PH1-PEG-liposomes containing the anticancer drug cisplatin were showed to bind tightly to Tie2 positive cells, mediate active endocytosis of the drug containing liposomes, and result in much higher cell specific cytoxicities than mPEG coated liposomes. They can be used not only to target vascular endothelial cells for anti-angiogenesis effects, but also to improve drug delivery and release in Tie2 expressing cancer cells. Such liposome formulation may be developed into a very useful agent for metronomic chemotherapy. PMID:19576253

  19. 77 FR 21620 - Notice of the Buy America Waiver Request for Vossloh 101-LV Concrete Ties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477), or you may visit http://www.dot.gov/privacy.html... are limited to the dowel inserts and SKL-30 tension clamps. The function of the dowel insert is to provide housing for the lag screw that fastens the SKL-30 tension clamps to the tie. The SKL-30...

  20. Language of the People Forever: Bay Mills Spins Thread Tying Ojibwa Communities Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    Why would anyone want to spend thousands of hours away from home and pay hundreds of dollars in tuition to acquire one of the world's most difficult languages? For Anishinaabe people, that is an easy question to answer. The Ojibwe language is the thread that ties communities together and unites all Anishinaabe as one people sharing a common

  1. Social Support and Social Network Ties among the Homeless in a Downtown Atlanta Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitzes, Donald C.; Crimmins, Timothy J.; Yarbrough, Johanna; Parker, Josie

    2011-01-01

    This study applies a typology of social support with 3 categories of social networks to investigate social ties and their benefits for homeless people. Data were derived from a 2-year long series of participant observations of homeless or precariously housed people who came regularly to a downtown Atlanta public park. The findings are as follows:…

  2. Learning to tie well with others: bimanual versus intermanual performance of a highly practised skill.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Jamie C; Crites, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Studies indicate that novices are faster in manual tasks when performing with a partner ('intermanual') than with their own two hands ('bimanual'). The generality of this 'mode effect' was examined using a highly practised bimanual task, shoe tying, at which participants were experts. Speed-variability correlations confirmed participants were bimanually skilled but not intermanually skilled. Contrary to results using novices, intermanual was slower, such that prior skill reverses the effect. Analyses incorporating the similarity of shoe-tying strategies across dyads implicated a perceptual rather than shared knowledge/representation basis for intermanual performance. Practice effects indicated that intermanual performance built upon prior bimanual skill, such that novel relative timings between dyads' hands must be acquired. Motor transfer effects provided support for this conclusion. During shoe tying, hands were tightly coupled in the intermanual mode due to the perceptual coupling constraints of intermanual performance. Increased coupling was correlated with slower performance. Implications for real-world tasks (e.g. surgical knot tying) are described. PMID:25536870

  3. Tongue-Tied: The Lives of Multilingual Children in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Ana, Otto

    2004-01-01

    Tongue-Tied is an anthology that gives voice to millions of people who, on a daily basis, are denied the opportunity to speak in their own language. First-person accounts by Amy Tan, Sherman Alexie, Bell Hooks, Richard Rodriguez, Maxine Hong Kingston, and many other authors open windows into the lives of linguistic minority students and their

  4. Children in Residential Group Care with No Family Ties: Facing Existential Aloneness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvir, Orly; Weiner, Anita; Kupermintz, Hagai

    2012-01-01

    The issue of children living in residential group care in Israel completely without family ties is studied in order to explore the feelings of staff and uncover possible characteristics of these children. Data were collected through focus groups, questionnaires, and life stories of children who left group care at 18 years of age. Results reveal

  5. Tying the Yellow Ribbon: How School Psychologists and Educators Can Support Military Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anweiler, Justin

    2008-01-01

    Tying a yellow ribbon around the tree in one's front yard or placing a magnet on one's car is more than just a show of support. It is a promise to American military around the world that one is ready and able to support them in their time of need just as they have supported the country. Educators, including school psychologists, are especially

  6. Tying the Yellow Ribbon: How School Psychologists and Educators Can Support Military Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anweiler, Justin

    2008-01-01

    Tying a yellow ribbon around the tree in one's front yard or placing a magnet on one's car is more than just a show of support. It is a promise to American military around the world that one is ready and able to support them in their time of need just as they have supported the country. Educators, including school psychologists, are especially…

  7. The Strength of Weak Ties in Electronic Development of the Scholarly Communication System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Charles A.

    1994-01-01

    Three overlapping models of new technology diffusion are described in relation to the Internet: (1) individual threshold; (2) critical mass; and (3) strength of weak ties. The prospective role of academic libraries in the electronic development of the scholarly communication system is discussed, and further research is suggested. (55 references)…

  8. Technology Network Ties: Network Services and Technology Programs for New York State's Educational System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of Elementary and Secondary Education Planning, Testing, and Technological Services.

    The New York State Technology Network Ties (TNT) systems is a statewide telecommunications network which consists of computers, telephone lines, and telecommunications hardware and software. This network links school districts, Boards of Cooperative Educational Services (BOCES), libraries, other educational institutions, and the State Education

  9. 75 FR 34941 - Review of the Commission's Program Access Rules and Examination of Programming Tying Arrangements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Tying Arrangements, MB Docket No. 07-198, FCC 10-17, at 75 FR 9692. The Ordering Clause of the First...(c)(3) published at 75 FR 9692, March 3, 2010 are effective on June 21, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 76 Review of the Commission's Program Access Rules and Examination of...

  10. Sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies at marine sites suspected of ordnance contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, R.S.; Nipper, M.; Biedenbach, J.M.; Hooten, R.L.; Miller, K.; Saepoff, S.

    2001-01-01

    A sediment quality assessment survey and subsequent toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) study was conducted at several sites in Puget Sound, Washington. The sites were previously suspected of contamination with ordnance compounds. The initial survey employed sea urchin porewater toxicity tests to locate the most toxic stations. Sediments from the most toxic stations were selected for comprehensive chemical analyses. Based on the combined information from the toxicity and chemical data, three adjacent stations in Ostrich Bay were selected for the TIE study. The results of the phase I TIE suggested that organics and metals were primarily responsible for the observed toxicity in the sea urchin fertilization test. In addition to these contaminants, ammonia was also contributing to the toxicity for the sea urchin embryological development test. The phase II TIE study isolated the majority of the toxicity in the fraction containing nonpolar organics with high log Kow, but chemical analyses failed to identify a compound present at a concentration high enough to be responsible for the observed toxicity. The data suggest that some organic or organometallic contaminant(s) that were not included in the comprehensive suite of chemical analyses caused the observed toxicological responses.

  11. Between-group behaviour in health care: gaps, edges, boundaries, disconnections, weak ties, spaces and holes. A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gaps are typically regarded as a problem to be solved. People are stimulated to close or plug them. Researchers are moved to fill deficits in the literature in order to realise a more complete knowledge base, health authorities want to bridge policy-practice disconnections, managers to secure resources to remedy shortfalls between poor and idealised care, and clinicians to provide services to patients across the divides of organisational silos. Despite practical and policy work in many health systems to bridge gaps, it is valuable to study research examining them for the insights provided. Structural holes, spaces between social clusters and weak or absent ties represent fissures in networks, located in less densely populated parts of otherwise closely connected social structures. Such gaps are useful as they illustrate how communication potentially breaks down or interactivity fails. This paper discusses empirical and theoretical work on this phenomenon with the aim of analysing a specific exemplar, the structures of silos within health care organisations. Methods The research literature on social spaces, holes, gaps, boundaries and edges was searched systematically, and separated into health [n = 13] and non-health [n = 55] samples. The health literature was reviewed and synthesised in order to understand the circumstances between stakeholders and stakeholder groups that both provide threats to networked interactions and opportunities to strengthen the fabric of organisational and institutional inter-relationships. Results The research examples illuminate various network structure characteristics and group interactions. They explicate a range of opportunities for improved social and professional relations that understanding structural holes, social spaces and absent ties affords. A principal finding is that these kinds of gaps illustrate the conditions under which connections are strained or have been severed, where the limits of integration between groups occurs, the circumstances in which social spaces are or need to be negotiated and the way divides are bridged. The study's limitations are that it is bounded by the focus of attention and the search terms used and there is yet to be developed a probabilistic, predictive model for gaps and how to connect them. Conclusions Gaps offer insights into social structures, and how real world behaviours of participants in workplaces, organisations and institutions are fragile. The paper highlights the circumstances in which network disjunctures and group divides manifest. Knowledge of these phenomenon provides opportunities for working out ways to improve health sector organisational communications, knowledge transmission and relationships. PMID:21134295

  12. Automatic transmission adapter kit

    SciTech Connect

    Stich, R.L.; Neal, W.D.

    1987-02-10

    This patent describes, in a four-wheel-drive vehicle apparatus having a power train including an automatic transmission and a transfer case, an automatic transmission adapter kit for installation of a replacement automatic transmission of shorter length than an original automatic transmission in the four-wheel-drive vehicle. The adapter kit comprises: an extension housing interposed between the replacement automatic transmission and the transfer case; an output shaft, having a first end which engages the replacement automatic transmission and a second end which engages the transfer case; first sealing means for sealing between the extension housing and the replacement automatic transmission; second sealing means for sealing between the extension housing and the transfer case; and fastening means for connecting the extension housing between the replacement automatic transmission and the transfer case.

  13. Development and Testing of a Prototype Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed and tested a prototype 2 kW DC grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system at the Center. The PV system has generated in excess of 6700 kWh since operation commenced in July 2006. The PV system is providing power to the GRC grid for use by all. Operation of the prototype PV system has been completely trouble free. A grid-tied PV power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners. GRC personnel glean valuable experience with PV power systems that are directly applicable to various space power systems, and provide valuable space program test data. PV power systems help to reduce harmful emissions and reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels. Power generated by the PV system reduces the GRC utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Present global energy concerns reinforce the need for the development of alternative energy systems. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics has been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Based upon the success of the prototype PV system, additional PV power system expansion at GRC is under consideration. The prototype grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed which served to validate the basic principles described, and the theoretical work that was performed. The report concludes that grid-tied photovoltaic power systems are reliable, maintenance free, long life power systems, and are of significant value to NASA and the community.

  14. Tie2+ Bone Marrow Endothelial Cells Regulate Hematopoietic Stem Cell Regeneration Following Radiation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Phuong L.; Russell, J. Lauren; Himburg, Heather A.; Helms, Katherine; Harris, Jeffrey; Lucas, Joseph; Holshausen, Kirsten; Meadows, Sarah K.; Daher, Pamela; Jeffords, Laura B.; Chao, Nelson J.; Kirsch, David G.; Chute, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in proximity to bone marrow endothelial cells (BM ECs) and maintenance of the HSC pool is dependent upon EC-mediated c-kit signaling. Here, we utilized genetic models to determine if radioprotection of BM ECs could facilitate hematopoietic regeneration following radiation-induced myelosuppression. We developed mice bearing deletion of the pro-apoptotic proteins, BAK and BAX, in Tie2+ endothelial cells (ECs) and HSCs (Tie2Bak/BaxFl/? mice) and compared their hematopoietic recovery following total body irradiation (TBI) with mice which retained Bax in Tie2+ cells. Mice bearing deletion of Bak and Bax in Tie2+ cells demonstrated protection of BM HSCs, preserved BM vasculature and 100% survival following lethal dose TBI. In contrast, mice that retained Bax expression in Tie2+ cells demonstrated depletion of BM HSCs, disrupted BM vasculature and 10% survival post-TBI. In a complementary study, VEcadherinBak/BaxFl/? mice, which lack Bak and Bax in VEcadherin+ ECs, also demonstrated increased recovery of BM stem/progenitor cells following TBI compared to mice which retained Bax in VEcadherin+ ECs. Importantly, chimeric mice which lacked Bak and Bax in HSCs but retained Bak and Bax in BM ECs displayed significantly decreased HSC content and survival following TBI compared to mice lacking Bak and Bax in both HSCs and BM ECs. These data suggest that the hematopoietic response to ionizing radiation is dependent upon HSC-autonomous responses but is regulated by BM EC-mediated mechanisms. Therefore, BM ECs may be therapeutically targeted as a means to augment hematopoietic reconstitution following myelosuppression. PMID:23132593

  15. Tongue-Tie Assessment and Division: A Time-Critical Intervention to Optimise Breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Donati-Bourne, Jack; Batool, Zainab; Hendrickse, Charles; Bowley, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Recent reports have highlighted the benefits of surgical division of tongue-tie (frenulotomy) in infants with breastfeeding difficulties. There is no clear consensus defining the appropriate age for this procedure to be undertaken in selected infants. We aimed to evaluate the impact of delays in time between referral and frenulotomy in relation to maternal abandonment of breastfeeding. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study done in out-patient Neonatal Surgery Department, Birmingham Heartlands Hospital, Birmingham, UK, between April 2013 and July 2013. All infants, referred to our tongue-tie clinic between April and July 2013, were studied prospectively. Referral time lags were calculated using computer records; details regarding breastfeeding were collected by an independent interviewer completing a questionnaire. Results: Seventy patients were included. The median infant age at clinic was 28.5 days [range 1-126]. Fifty eight [82%] of mothers had breastfeeding difficulty and their infants were confirmed to have a prominent tongue-tie. By the time of their clinic attendance, breastfeeding had either not been established or abandoned in 21%. Despite difficulty, 61% of mothers persisted breastfeeding and all these mothers consented for frenulotomy. At time of clinic, median age of infants whose mothers had abandoned breastfeeding was 37 days [range 1-80] compared to 27 days [range 1-126] in infants whose mothers had persisted. Conclusions: We demonstrated a time-critical dimension for frenulotomy: delay beyond 4-weeks from referral to assessment of neonatal tongue-tie is more likely to be associated with abandonment of breastfeeding. Timely assessment and division of tongue-tie in selected infants can therefore play an important role in a birthing units breastfeeding strategy. PMID:26023527

  16. Weak ties: Subtle role of information diffusion in online social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jichang; Wu, Junjie; Xu, Ke

    2010-07-01

    As a social media, online social networks play a vital role in the social information diffusion. However, due to its unique complexity, the mechanism of the diffusion in online social networks is different from the ones in other types of networks and remains unclear to us. Meanwhile, few works have been done to reveal the coupled dynamics of both the structure and the diffusion of online social networks. To this end, in this paper, we propose a model to investigate how the structure is coupled with the diffusion in online social networks from the view of weak ties. Through numerical experiments on large-scale online social networks, we find that in contrast to some previous research results, selecting weak ties preferentially to republish cannot make the information diffuse quickly, while random selection can achieve this goal. However, when we remove the weak ties gradually, the coverage of the information will drop sharply even in the case of random selection. We also give a reasonable explanation for this by extra analysis and experiments. Finally, we conclude that weak ties play a subtle role in the information diffusion in online social networks. On one hand, they act as bridges to connect isolated local communities together and break through the local trapping of the information. On the other hand, selecting them as preferential paths to republish cannot help the information spread further in the network. As a result, weak ties might be of use in the control of the virus spread and the private information diffusion in real-world applications.

  17. What’s Causing Toxicity in Sediments? Results of Twenty Years of Toxicity Identification and Evaluations (TIEs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIEs) methods have been used for twenty years to identify the causes of toxicity in sediments around the world. We summarized and categorized results of more than 80 peer-reviewed TIE studies into non-ionic organic, cationic, ammo...

  18. Social stress, locality of social ties and mental well-being: the case of rural migrant adolescents in urban China.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Nicole W T

    2014-05-01

    By comparing rural migrant and urban native adolescents in Guangzhou, the largest city in south China, this study investigated the relationships between social stress, social ties that link migrants to their host cities (local ties) and to their rural home communities (trans-local ties), and the migrants? mental well-being. Non-migration social stress was more strongly related to poor psychological health than to weak self-efficacy in both migrant and urban native adolescents. This pattern also applied to the effect of migration-specific assimilation stress on psychological health and self-efficacy in migrants. Social ties directly enhanced these two well-being outcomes in both samples, with the effects of trans-local and local ties proving equally potent among migrants. Trans-local ties were somewhat more useful for migrants in moderating the effects of non-migration social stress and assimilation stress, whereas the stress moderation function of social ties was less pronounced in urban natives. These findings extend the migration, network and social stress literature by identifying how local and trans-local ties protect mental health and mitigate stress in migrants. PMID:24607873

  19. Whats Causing Toxicity in Sediments? Results of Twenty Years of Toxicity Identification and Evaluations (TIEs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIEs) methods have been used for twenty years to identify the causes of toxicity in sediments around the world. We summarized and categorized results of more than 80 peer-reviewed TIE studies into non-ionic organic, cationic, ammo...

  20. Finite element analyses of continuous filament ties for masonry applications:final report for the Arquin Corporation.

    SciTech Connect

    Quinones, Armando; Bibeau, Tiffany A.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2006-06-01

    Finite-element analyses were performed to simulate the response of a hypothetical masonry shear wall with and without continuous filament ties to various lateral loads. The loads represented three different scenarios: (1) 100 mph wind, (2) explosive attack, and (3) an earthquake. In addition, a static loading analysis and cost comparison were performed to evaluate optimal materials and designs for the spacers affixed to the filaments. Results showed that polypropylene, ABS, and polyethylene (high density) were suitable materials for the spacers based on performance and cost, and the short T-spacer design was optimal based on its performance and functionality. Results of the shear-wall loading simulations revealed that simulated walls with the continuous filament ties yielded factors of safety that were at least ten times greater than those without the ties. In the explosive attack simulation (100 psi), the simulated wall without the ties failed (minimum factor of safety was less than one), but the simulated wall with the ties yielded a minimum factor of safety greater than one. Simulations of the walls subject to lateral loads caused by 100 mph winds (0.2 psi) and seismic events with a peak ground acceleration of 1 ''g'' (0.66 psi) yielded no failures with or without the ties. Simulations of wall displacement during the seismic scenarios showed that the wall with the ties resulted in a maximum displacement that was 20% less than the wall without the ties.

  1. Transmission control device

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Y.; Taga, Y.; Nishikawa, S.; Hayakawa, Y.; Kawai, M.

    1987-08-25

    A transmission control device is described having a speed change prohibition time setting function for setting a time wherein speed changing operation is prohibited in accordance with a running state of a vehicle and wherein the control device is used for controlling a transmission system having speed changing ratios and comprises a main transmission and a sub transmission connected to the output shaft of the main transmission. The device consists of: (a) electronic control means for receiving outputs from sensor means for sensing running state of a vehicle; (b) speed changing mechanism driving means controlled by the output from the electronic control means for driving and controlling the speed changing mechanisms in the main transmission and sub transmission; (c) speed change operation detecting means for detecting commencement of the speed change operation of the main transmission and the sub transmission; and (d) speed change prohibition time setting means for prohibiting, after detection of the commencement of the speed changing operation with one of the main and sub transmissions, the speed changing operation of the other of the main and sub transmissions over a predetermined prohibition time which corresponds to a level of a torque input of one of the main and sub transmissions.

  2. Automated manual transmission controller

    DOEpatents

    Lawrie, Robert E.; Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Bernier, David R.

    1999-12-28

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  3. Bordetella pertussis transmission.

    PubMed

    Trainor, Elizabeth A; Nicholson, Tracy L; Merkel, Tod J

    2015-11-01

    Bordetella pertussis and B. bronchiseptica are Gram-negative bacterial respiratory pathogens. Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough and is considered a human-adapted variant of B. bronchiseptica. Bordetella pertussis and B. bronchiseptica share mechanisms of pathogenesis and are genetically closely related. However, despite the close genetic relatedness, these Bordetella species differ in several classic fundamental aspects of bacterial pathogens such as host range, pathologies and persistence. The development of the baboon model for the study of B. pertussis transmission, along with the development of the swine and mouse model for the study of B. bronchiseptica, has enabled the investigation of different aspects of transmission including the route, attack rate, role of bacterial and host factors, and the impact of vaccination on transmission. This review will focus on B. pertussis transmission and how animal models of B. pertussis transmission and transmission models using the closely related B. bronchiseptica have increased our understanding of B. pertussis transmission. PMID:26374235

  4. Contextualizing nativity status, social ties, and ethnic enclaves: Implications for understanding immigrant and Latino health paradoxes

    PubMed Central

    Viruell-Fuentes, Edna A.; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.; Williams, David R.; House, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Researchers have posited that one potential explanation for the better-than-expected health outcomes observed among some Latino immigrants, vis-à-vis their U.S.-born counterparts, may be the strength of their social ties and social support among immigrants. Methods We examined the association between nativity status and social ties using data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study’s Latino subsample, which includes Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and other Latinos. First, we used Ordinary Least Squares [OLS] regression methods to model the effect of nativity status on five outcomes: informal social integration; social network diversity; network size; instrumental support; and informational support. Using multilevel mixed effects regression models, we estimated the association between Latino/immigrant neighborhood composition on our outcomes, and whether these relationships varied by nativity status. Lastly, we examined the relationship between social ties and immigrants’ length of time in the United States. Results After controlling for individual-level characteristics, immigrant Latinos had significantly lower levels of social ties than their U.S.-born counterparts for all our outcomes, except for informational support. Latino/immigrant neighborhood composition was positively associated with being socially integrated and having larger and more diverse social networks. The associations between two of our outcomes (informal social integration and network size) and living in a neighborhood with greater concentrations of Latinos and immigrants were stronger for U.S.-born Latinos than for immigrant Latinos. U.S.-born Latinos maintained a significant socialties advantage compared to immigrants—regardless of length of time in the United States—for informal social integration, network diversity, and network size. Conclusion At the individual level, our findings challenge the assumption that Latino immigrants would have larger networks and/or higher levels of support and social integration than their U.S.-born counterparts. Our study underscores the importance of understanding the contexts that promote the development of social ties. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding Latino and immigrant social ties and health outcomes. PMID:23947776

  5. Local effects of redundant terrestrial and GPS-based tie vectors in ITRF-like combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbondanza, Claudio; Altamimi, Zuheir; Sarti, Pierguido; Negusini, Monia; Vittuari, Luca

    2009-11-01

    Tie vectors (TVs) between co-located space geodetic instruments are essential for combining terrestrial reference frames (TRFs) realised using different techniques. They provide relative positioning between instrumental reference points (RPs) which are part of a global geodetic network such as the international terrestrial reference frame (ITRF). This paper gathers the set of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI)-global positioning system (GPS) local ties performed at the observatory of Medicina (Northern Italy) during the years 2001-2006 and discusses some important aspects related to the usage of co-location ties in the combinations of TRFs. Two measurement approaches of local survey are considered here: a GPS-based approach and a classical approach based on terrestrial observations (i.e. angles, distances and height differences). The behaviour of terrestrial local ties, which routinely join combinations of space geodetic solutions, is compared to that of GPS-based local ties. In particular, we have performed and analysed different combinations of satellite laser ranging (SLR), VLBI and GPS long term solutions in order to (i) evaluate the local effects of the insertion of the series of TVs computed at Medicina, (ii) investigate the consistency of GPS-based TVs with respect to space geodetic solutions, (iii) discuss the effects of an imprecise alignment of TVs from a local to a global reference frame. Results of ITRF-like combinations show that terrestrial TVs originate the smallest residuals in all the three components. In most cases, GPS-based TVs fit space geodetic solutions very well, especially in the horizontal components (N, E). On the contrary, the estimation of the VLBI RP Up component through GPS technique appears to be awkward, since the corresponding post fit residuals are considerably larger. Besides, combination tests including multi-temporal TVs display local effects of residual redistribution, when compared to those solutions where Medicina TVs are added one at a time. Finally, the combination of TRFs turns out to be sensitive to the orientation of the local tie into the global frame.

  6. Rural-to-urban migrant adolescents in Guangzhou, China: psychological health, victimization, and local and trans-local ties.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Nicole W T

    2013-09-01

    Despite the emerging literature on the health of rural-to-urban migrant children in China, few studies have addressed victimization stressors and stress-buffering mechanisms related to the social relationships that link migrants to their host cities (local ties) and home communities (trans-local ties). This study compared rural-to-urban migrant adolescents and urban native adolescents to examine the relationships between victimization, local and trans-local ties, and mental well-being that might be unique to migrants. Participants were 482 migrant students and 838 urban native students in the eighth grade in Guangzhou who completed a school-based survey in spring 2011. Victimization was associated with suboptimal psychological health in both the migrant and urban native samples. Social ties directly boosted psychological health in both samples, with the effects of trans-local and local ties proving equally important among migrant adolescents. While both local and trans-local ties moderated the effect of victimization on migrant adolescents, that moderation mattered less for urban native youth. These results highlight that a better understanding of victimization stress and how it is affected by the locality of social ties as a coping resource could help to protect the health of young migrants in urban China. PMID:23906129

  7. Temporal expression in rats of receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2 during early wound healing after tooth extraction.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hirotaka; Kasai, Shuya; Maesawa, Chihaya

    2015-01-01

    We examined the role of Tie2 in regulating wound healing after tooth extraction. Wistar rats underwent maxillary incisor tooth extraction, and immunodetection techniques were used to determine Tie2 expression in the healing wound. The wound was initially filled with blood coagulum containing densely aggregated erythrocytes, leukocytes, fibrin, and endothelial progenitor cells, indicating that blood vessel formation started in the socket. Tie2 was detected on monocytic cell membranes. On day 3, fibroblastic cells proliferated in the coagulum, small vessels appeared by day 5, and new bone formed in the vessel-rich area. Robust woven bone trabeculae were present around vessels by day 7, and woven bone and osteoclast-like giant cells were present on day 10. Woven bone surrounded sinusoidal capillary-like vessels. Full-length (140-160 kDa) Tie2 was not detected at any time, although Tie2 fragments were present in the healing wound. N-terminus- and C-terminus-specific Tie2 antibodies detected 40-kDa and 60-kDa fragments or 70-kDa and 50-kDa fragments, respectively. The levels of these fragments decreased during the first 3 days and started to increase by day 5-10. The Tie2 extracellular domain initially inhibited angiogenesis, and its degradation relieved inhibition of new vessel formation. The onset of vessel formation in the wound may be induced by scattered endothelial progenitor cells. (J Oral Sci 57, 313-318, 2015). PMID:26666854

  8. Use of marine TIE methods in determining causes of toxicity to fish in a public marine aquarium

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, K.T.; Kuhn, A.; Burgess, R.M.; Pelletier, M.; Charles, J.

    1995-12-31

    Aquarium personnel observed that a number of organisms in the coral reef tank were succumbing to fungal and other diseases. It was suspected that organisms were compromised due to a common environmental stressor because many types of fish were affected. One possible stressor was the home-made painted coral decor in the tank. The coral reef decor was crumbling in several sections of the display and release of toxic agents was suspected. A water sample containing broken pieces of the decor was shipped to the lab and a TIE performed. Phase 1 TIE results indicated that toxicity to Mysidopsis bahia (mysid shrimp) was removed after EDTA addition and to some extent after cation exchange column treatment.None of the other TIE manipulations affected toxicity. Metal analyses indicated high concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd. To rule out the possibility of pathogens, irradiation was conducted as a novel TIE method. Results of further identification and confirmation methods using differing cation exchange column treatment. None of the other TIE manipulations affected toxicity. Metal analyses indicated high concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd. To rule out the possibility of pathogens, irradiation was conducted as a novel TIE method. Results of further identification and confirmation methods using differing cation exchange columns will be presented. This study demonstrates a unique application of TIE methods.

  9. Twist1 controls lung vascular permeability and endotoxin-induced pulmonary edema by altering Tie2 expression.

    PubMed

    Mammoto, Tadanori; Jiang, Elisabeth; Jiang, Amanda; Lu, Yongbo; Juan, Aimee M; Chen, Jing; Mammoto, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    Tight regulation of vascular permeability is necessary for normal development and deregulated vascular barrier function contributes to the pathogenesis of various diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, cancer and inflammation. The angiopoietin (Ang)-Tie2 pathway is known to control vascular permeability. However, the mechanism by which the expression of Tie2 is regulated to control vascular permeability has not been fully elucidated. Here we show that transcription factor Twist1 modulates pulmonary vascular leakage by altering the expression of Tie2 in a context-dependent way. Twist1 knockdown in cultured human lung microvascular endothelial cells decreases Tie2 expression and phosphorylation and increases RhoA activity, which disrupts cell-cell junctional integrity and increases vascular permeability in vitro. In physiological conditions, where Ang1 is dominant, pulmonary vascular permeability is elevated in the Tie2-specific Twist1 knockout mice. However, depletion of Twist1 and resultant suppression of Tie2 expression prevent increase in vascular permeability in an endotoxin-induced lung injury model, where the balance of Angs shifts toward Ang2. These results suggest that Twist1-Tie2-Angs signaling is important for controlling vascular permeability and modulation of this mechanism may lead to the development of new therapeutic approaches for pulmonary edema and other diseases caused by abnormal vascular permeability. PMID:24023872

  10. Twist1 Controls Lung Vascular Permeability and Endotoxin-Induced Pulmonary Edema by Altering Tie2 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Mammoto, Tadanori; Jiang, Elisabeth; Jiang, Amanda; Lu, Yongbo; Juan, Aimee M.; Chen, Jing; Mammoto, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    Tight regulation of vascular permeability is necessary for normal development and deregulated vascular barrier function contributes to the pathogenesis of various diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, cancer and inflammation. The angiopoietin (Ang)-Tie2 pathway is known to control vascular permeability. However, the mechanism by which the expression of Tie2 is regulated to control vascular permeability has not been fully elucidated. Here we show that transcription factor Twist1 modulates pulmonary vascular leakage by altering the expression of Tie2 in a context-dependent way. Twist1 knockdown in cultured human lung microvascular endothelial cells decreases Tie2 expression and phosphorylation and increases RhoA activity, which disrupts cell-cell junctional integrity and increases vascular permeability in vitro. In physiological conditions, where Ang1 is dominant, pulmonary vascular permeability is elevated in the Tie2-specific Twist1 knockout mice. However, depletion of Twist1 and resultant suppression of Tie2 expression prevent increase in vascular permeability in an endotoxin-induced lung injury model, where the balance of Angs shifts toward Ang2. These results suggest that Twist1-Tie2-Angs signaling is important for controlling vascular permeability and modulation of this mechanism may lead to the development of new therapeutic approaches for pulmonary edema and other diseases caused by abnormal vascular permeability. PMID:24023872

  11. Longitudinal analysis of large social networks: estimating the effect of health traits on changes in friendship ties.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, A James; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2011-04-30

    We develop novel mixed effects models to examine the role of health traits on the status of peoples' close friendship nominations in the Framingham Heart Study. The health traits considered are both mutable (body mass index (BMI), smoking, blood pressure, body proportion, muscularity, and depression) and, for comparison, basically immutable (height, birth order, personality type, only child, and handedness); and the traits have varying degrees of observability. We test the hypotheses that existing ties (i.e. close friendship nominations) are more likely to dissolve between people with dissimilar (mutable and observable) health traits whereas new ties are more likely to form between those with similar (mutable and observable) traits while controlling for persons' age, gender, geographic separation, and education. The mixed effects models contain random effects for both the nominator (ego) and nominated (alter) persons in a tie to account for the fact that people were involved in multiple relationships and contributed observations at multiple exams. Results for BMI support the hypotheses that people of similar BMI are less likely to dissolve existing ties and more likely to form ties, while smoker to non-smoker ties were the least likely to dissolve and smoker to smoker ties were the most likely to form. We also validated previously known findings regarding homophily on age and gender, and found evidence that homophily also depends upon geographic separation. PMID:21287589

  12. Native leaf-tying caterpillars influence host plant use by the invasive Asiatic oak weevil through ecosystem engineering.

    PubMed

    Baer, Christina S; Marquis, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    We tested the effect of leaf-tying caterpillars, native ecosystem engineers, on the abundance and host feeding of an invasive insect, the Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus (Roelofs). Leaf quality was previously thought to be the sole factor determining host use by C. castaneus, but adult weevils congregate in leaf ties made by lepidopteran larvae (caterpillars). Adult weevil abundance was naturally higher on Quercus alba and Q. velutina compared to four other tree species tested (Acer rubrum, Carya ovata, Cornus florida, and Sassafras albidum). These differences were associated with more natural leaf ties on the two Quercus species. In the laboratory, weevils fed on all six species but again preferred Q. alba and Q. velutina. When artificial ties were added to all six tree species, controlling for differences in leaf-tie density, adult weevil density increased on all six tree species, damage increased on all species but A. rubrum, and host ranking changed based on both abundance and damage. We conclude that leaf ties increase the local abundance of C. castaneus adults and their feeding. Thus, these native leaf-tying caterpillars engender the success of an invasive species via structural modification of potential host plants, the first described example of this phenomenon. PMID:25039212

  13. Impact of Cross-Tie Properties on the Modal Behavior of Cable Networks on Cable-Stayed Bridges

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Javaid; Cheng, Shaohong; Ghrib, Faouzi

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic behaviour of cable networks is highly dependent on the installation location, stiffness, and damping of cross-ties. Thus, these are the important design parameters for a cable network. While the effects of the former two on the network response have been investigated to some extent in the past, the impact of cross-tie damping has rarely been addressed. To comprehend our knowledge of mechanics associated with cable networks, in the current study, an analytical model of a cable network will be proposed by taking into account both cross-tie stiffness and damping. In addition, the damping property of main cables in the network will also be considered in the formulation. This would allow exploring not only the effectiveness of a cross-tie design on enhancing the in-plane stiffness of a constituted cable network, but also its energy dissipation capacity. The proposed analytical model will be applied to networks with different configurations. The influence of cross-tie stiffness and damping on the modal response of various types of networks will be investigated by using the corresponding undamped rigid cross-tie network as a reference base. Results will provide valuable information on the selection of cross-tie properties to achieve more effective cable vibration control. PMID:26167539

  14. Highly modular bow-tie gene circuits with programmable dynamic behaviour.

    PubMed

    Prochazka, Laura; Angelici, Bartolomeo; Haefliger, Benjamin; Benenson, Yaakov

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic gene circuits often require extensive mutual optimization of their components for successful operation, while modular and programmable design platforms are rare. A possible solution lies in the 'bow-tie' architecture, which stipulates a focal component-a 'knot'-uncoupling circuits' inputs and outputs, simplifying component swapping, and introducing additional layer of control. Here we construct, in cultured human cells, synthetic bow-tie circuits that transduce microRNA inputs into protein outputs with independently programmable logical and dynamic behaviour. The latter is adjusted via two different knot configurations: a transcriptional activator causing the outputs to track input changes reversibly, and a recombinase-based cascade, converting transient inputs into permanent actuation. We characterize the circuits in HEK293 cells, confirming their modularity and scalability, and validate them using endogenous microRNA inputs in additional cell lines. This platform can be used for biotechnological and biomedical applications in vitro, in vivo and potentially in human therapy. PMID:25311543

  15. Employing static excitation control and tie line reactance to stabilize wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, H. H.; Mozeico, H. V.; Guo, T.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical representation of a wind turbine generator is presented which employs blade pitch angle feedback control. A mathematical model was formulated. With the functioning MOD-0 wind turbine serving as a practical case study, results of computer simulations of the model as applied to the problem of dynamic stability at rated load are also presented. The effect of the tower shadow was included in the input to the system. Different configurations of the drive train, and optimal values of the tie line reactance were used in the simulations. Computer results revealed that a static excitation control system coupled with optimal values of the tie line reactance would effectively reduce oscillations of the power output, without the use of a slip clutch.

  16. Highly modular bow-tie gene circuits with programmable dynamic behavior

    PubMed Central

    Prochazka, Laura; Angelici, Bartolomeo; Hfliger, Benjamin; Benenson, Yaakov

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic gene circuits often require extensive mutual optimization of their components for successful operation, while modular and programmable design platforms are rare. A possible solution lies in the bow-tie architecture, which stipulates a focal component - a knot - uncoupling circuits inputs and outputs, simplifying component swapping, and introducing additional layer of control. Here we construct, in cultured human cells, synthetic bow-tie circuits that transduce microRNA inputs into protein outputs with independently programmable logical and dynamic behavior. The latter is adjusted via two different knot configurations: a transcriptional activator causing the outputs to track input changes reversibly, and a recombinase-based cascade, converting transient inputs into permanent actuation. We characterize the circuits in HEK293 cells, confirming their modularity and scalability, and validate them using endogenous microRNA inputs in additional cell lines. This platform can be used for biotechnological and biomedical applications in vitro, in vivo, and potentially in human therapy. PMID:25311543

  17. Silicon-on-insulator field effect transistor with improved body ties for rad-hard applications

    DOEpatents

    Schwank, James R.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Draper, Bruce L.; Dodd, Paul E.

    2001-01-01

    A silicon-on-insulator (SOI) field-effect transistor (FET) and a method for making the same are disclosed. The SOI FET is characterized by a source which extends only partially (e.g. about half-way) through the active layer wherein the transistor is formed. Additionally, a minimal-area body tie contact is provided with a short-circuit electrical connection to the source for reducing floating body effects. The body tie contact improves the electrical characteristics of the transistor and also provides an improved single-event-upset (SEU) radiation hardness of the device for terrestrial and space applications. The SOI FET also provides an improvement in total-dose radiation hardness as compared to conventional SOI transistors fabricated without a specially prepared hardened buried oxide layer. Complementary n-channel and p-channel SOI FETs can be fabricated according to the present invention to form integrated circuits (ICs) for commercial and military applications.

  18. Mending leaky blood vessels: the angiopoietin-Tie2 pathway in sepsis.

    PubMed

    David, Sascha; Kmpers, Philipp; van Slyke, Paul; Parikh, Samir M

    2013-04-01

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to infection. A common end-feature, these patients regularly suffer from is the so-called multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, an often fatal consequence of organ hypoperfusion, coagulopathy, immune dysregulation,and mitochondrial dysfunction. Microvascular dysfunction critically contributes to the morbidity and mortality of this disease. The angiopoietin (Angpt)/Tie2 system consists of the transmembrane endothelial tyrosine kinase Tie2 and its circulating ligands (Angpt-1,-2, and -3/4). The balance between the canonical agonist Angpt-1 and its competitive inhibitor, Angpt-2, regulates basal endothelial barrier function and the leakage and vascular inflammation that develop in response to pathogens and cytokines. Here we summarize recent work in mice and men to highlight the therapeutic potential in this pathway to prevent or even reverse microvascular dysfunction in this deadly disease. PMID:23378191

  19. Is use of laser really essential for release of tongue-tie?

    PubMed

    Sane, Vikrant Dilip; Pawar, Sudhir; Modi, Sachin; Saddiwal, Rashmi; Khade, Mayur; Tendulkar, Hrishikesh

    2014-05-01

    Ankyloglossia, or tongue-tie, is a congenital condition characterized by a short, thickened, or abnormally tight lingual frenulum. This anomaly can cause a varying degree of reduced tongue mobility and has been associated with functional limitations including breastfeeding difficulties, atypical swallowing habits, speech articulation problems, mechanical problems such as inability to clean the oral cavity, and psychosocial stress. In this article, we report a 50-year-old female patient with tongue-tie having difficulty in speech and maintenance of oral hygiene due to high attachment of lingual frenum. The patient was managed by frenectomy by conventional method (scalpel and blade) under local anesthesia as an outpatient procedure without any complications. She later required speech therapy lessons for improvement of speech. PMID:24785748

  20. Accreditation of midwife lactation consultants to perform infant tongue-tie release.

    PubMed

    Amir, Lisa H; James, Jennifer P; Kelso, Georgie; Moorhead, Anita M

    2011-12-01

    Infants with a tongue-tie or ankyloglossia have a short lingual frenulum, which can lead to problems with breastfeeding: attachment difficulties, nipple pain and damage, poor weight gain and eventually a reduction in milk supply. Trained clinicians can release the frenulum (frenotomy) in infants having difficulty with breastfeeding. Although traditionally performed by medical practitioners, we argue that this simple procedure is within the scope of practice of other clinicians. This paper outlines the process of setting up and maintaining credentialing for midwife lactation consultants (International Board Certified Lactation Consultants (IBCLCs)) to assess infant tongue-ties and perform frenotomy when appropriate at a tertiary maternity hospital. Since 2005, 11 midwives/IBCLCs have been credentialed to perform frenotomies at The Breastfeeding Education and Support Services at The Royal Women's Hospital in Melbourne, Australia. We believe that nurses/midwives/lactation consultants working in other settings could be trained to perform frenotomies, thus enabling faster resolution of breastfeeding problems. PMID:22103819

  1. Neighborhood disorder, fear, and mistrust: the buffering role of social ties with neighbors.

    PubMed

    Ross, C E; Jang, S J

    2000-08-01

    This paper proposes that individuals who report that they live in neighborhoods characterized by disorder--by crime, vandalism, graffiti, danger, noise, dirt, and drugs--have high levels of fear and mistrust. It further proposes that an individual's alliances and connections with neighbors can buffer the negative effects of living in a neighborhood characterized by disorder on fear and mistrust. Results from a representative sample of 2482 Illinois residents collected by telephone in 1995 support the propositions. Living in a neighborhood with a lot of perceived disorder significantly affects mistrust and the fear of victimization, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Perceived neighborhood disorder and social ties significantly interact: informal social ties with neighbors reduce the fear- and mistrust-producing effects of disorder. However, formal participation in neighborhood organizations shows little buffering effect. PMID:10965384

  2. Utility-scale grid-tied PV inverter reliability workshop summary report.

    SciTech Connect

    Granata, Jennifer E.; Quintana, Michael A.; Tasca, Coryne Adelle; Atcitty, Stanley

    2011-07-01

    A key to the long-term success of the photovoltaic (PV) industry is confidence in the reliability of PV systems. Inverters are the most commonly noted cause of PV system incidents triggered in the field. While not all of these incidents are reliability-related or even necessarily failures, they still result in a loss of generated power. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technologies Program, Sandia National Laboratories organized a Utility-Scale Grid-Tied Inverter Reliability Workshop in Albuquerque, New Mexico, January 27-28, 2011. The workshop addressed the reliability of large (100-kilowatt+) grid-tied inverters and the implications when such inverters fail, evaluated inverter codes and standards, and provided discussion about opportunities to enhance inverter reliability. This report summarizes discussions and presentations from the workshop and identifies opportunities for future efforts.

  3. Dendrometer bands made easy: using modified cable ties to measure incremental growth of trees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anemaet, Evelyn R.; Middleton, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    Dendrometer bands are a useful way to make sequential repeated measurements of tree growth, but traditional dendrometer bands can be expensive, time consuming, and difficult to construct in the field. An alternative to the traditional method of band construction is to adapt commercially available materials. This paper describes how to construct and install dendrometer bands using smooth-edged, stainless steel, cable tie banding and attachable rollerball heads. As a performance comparison, both traditional and cable tie dendrometer bands were installed on baldcypress trees at the National Wetlands Research Center in Lafayette, Louisiana, by both an experienced and a novice worker. Band installation times were recorded, and growth of the trees as estimated by the two band types was measured after approximately one year, demonstrating equivalence of the two methods. This efficient approach to dendrometer band construction can help advance the knowledge of long-term tree growth in ecological studies.

  4. Experimental determination of tie-lines in the Hg-Cd-Te system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao-Chieh; Brebrick, R. F.

    1995-10-01

    Starting with powdered Hg1-xCdxTe, several tie-lines at 500 and 560°C were established using an energy dispersive spectrometer on a scanning electron microscope for the quantitative analysis. After holding at 500 or 560°C for time periods based upon the powder size and the published interdiffusion constant, then water quenching to room temperature, the primary grains were found to be uniform in composition and covered with a 5-6 μ layer of HgTe or low x Hg1-xCdxTe. The primary grain and overall compositions establish directions for tie-lines that are in good agreement with published experimental and theoreti-cal results.

  5. Decentralized automatic generation control of interconnected power systems incorporating asynchronous tie-lines.

    PubMed

    Ibraheem; Hasan, Naimul; Hussein, Arkan Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    This Paper presents the design of decentralized automatic generation controller for an interconnected power system using PID, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The designed controllers are tested on identical two-area interconnected power systems consisting of thermal power plants. The area interconnections between two areas are considered as (i) AC tie-line only (ii) Asynchronous tie-line. The dynamic response analysis is carried out for 1% load perturbation. The performance of the intelligent controllers based on GA and PSO has been compared with the conventional PID controller. The investigations of the system dynamic responses reveal that PSO has the better dynamic response result as compared with PID and GA controller for both type of area interconnection. PMID:25674473

  6. Selection based on the size of the black tie of the great tit may be reversed in urban habitats.

    PubMed

    Senar, Juan Carlos; Conroy, Michael J; Quesada, Javier; Mateos-Gonzalez, Fernando

    2014-07-01

    A standard approach to model how selection shapes phenotypic traits is the analysis of capture-recapture data relating trait variation to survival. Divergent selection, however, has never been analyzed by the capture-recapture approach. Most reported examples of differences between urban and nonurban animals reflect behavioral plasticity rather than divergent selection. The aim of this paper was to use a capture-recapture approach to test the hypothesis that divergent selection can also drive local adaptation in urban habitats. We focused on the size of the black breast stripe (i.e., tie width) of the great tit (Parus major), a sexual ornament used in mate choice. Urban great tits display smaller tie sizes than forest birds. Because tie size is mostly genetically determined, it could potentially respond to selection. We analyzed capture/recapture data of male great tits in Barcelona city (N = 171) and in a nearby (7 km) forest (N = 324) from 1992 to 2008 using MARK. When modelling recapture rate, we found it to be strongly influenced by tie width, so that both for urban and forest habitats, birds with smaller ties were more trap-shy and more cautious than their larger tied counterparts. When modelling survival, we found that survival prospects in forest great tits increased the larger their tie width (i.e., directional positive selection), but the reverse was found for urban birds, with individuals displaying smaller ties showing higher survival (i.e., directional negative selection). As melanin-based tie size seems to be related to personality, and both are heritable, results may be explained by cautious personalities being favored in urban environments. More importantly, our results show that divergent selection can be an important mechanism in local adaptation to urban habitats and that capture-recapture is a powerful tool to test it. PMID:25077014

  7. Phosphorylation of Threonine 794 on Tie1 by Rac1/PAK1 Reveals a Novel Angiogenesis Regulatory Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Reinardy, Jessica L.; Corey, Daniel M.; Golzio, Christelle; Mueller, Sarah B.; Katsanis, Nicholas; Kontos, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    The endothelial receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Tie1 was discovered over 20 years ago, yet its precise function and mode of action remain enigmatic. To shed light on Tie1s role in endothelial cell biology, we investigated a potential threonine phosphorylation site within the juxtamembrane domain of Tie1. Expression of a non-phosphorylatable mutant of this site (T794A) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) significantly disrupted vascular development, resulting in fish with stunted and poorly branched intersomitic vessels. Similarly, T794A-expressing human umbilical vein endothelial cells formed significantly shorter tubes with fewer branches in three-dimensional Matrigel cultures. However, mutation of T794 did not alter Tie1 or Tie2 tyrosine phosphorylation or downstream signaling in any detectable way, suggesting that T794 phosphorylation may regulate a Tie1 function independent of its RTK properties. Although T794 is within a consensus Akt phosphorylation site, we were unable to identify a physiological activator of Akt that could induce T794 phosphorylation, suggesting that Akt is not the physiological Tie1-T794 kinase. However, the small GTPase Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1), which is required for angiogenesis and capillary morphogenesis, was found to associate with phospho-T794 but not the non-phosphorylatable T794A mutant. Pharmacological activation of Rac1 induced downstream activation of p21-activated kinase (PAK1) and T794 phosphorylation in vitro, and inhibition of PAK1 abrogated T794 phosphorylation. Our results provide the first demonstration of a signaling pathway mediated by Tie1 in endothelial cells, and they suggest that a novel feedback loop involving Rac1/PAK1 mediated phosphorylation of Tie1 on T794 is required for proper angiogenesis. PMID:26436659

  8. Selection based on the size of the black tie of the great tit may be reversed in urban habitats

    PubMed Central

    Senar, Juan Carlos; Conroy, Michael J; Quesada, Javier; Mateos-Gonzalez, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    A standard approach to model how selection shapes phenotypic traits is the analysis of capturerecapture data relating trait variation to survival. Divergent selection, however, has never been analyzed by the capturerecapture approach. Most reported examples of differences between urban and nonurban animals reflect behavioral plasticity rather than divergent selection. The aim of this paper was to use a capturerecapture approach to test the hypothesis that divergent selection can also drive local adaptation in urban habitats. We focused on the size of the black breast stripe (i.e., tie width) of the great tit (Parus major), a sexual ornament used in mate choice. Urban great tits display smaller tie sizes than forest birds. Because tie size is mostly genetically determined, it could potentially respond to selection. We analyzed capture/recapture data of male great tits in Barcelona city (N = 171) and in a nearby (7 km) forest (N = 324) from 1992 to 2008 using MARK. When modelling recapture rate, we found it to be strongly influenced by tie width, so that both for urban and forest habitats, birds with smaller ties were more trap-shy and more cautious than their larger tied counterparts. When modelling survival, we found that survival prospects in forest great tits increased the larger their tie width (i.e., directional positive selection), but the reverse was found for urban birds, with individuals displaying smaller ties showing higher survival (i.e., directional negative selection). As melanin-based tie size seems to be related to personality, and both are heritable, results may be explained by cautious personalities being favored in urban environments. More importantly, our results show that divergent selection can be an important mechanism in local adaptation to urban habitats and that capturerecapture is a powerful tool to test it. PMID:25077014

  9. Current Driven Rotating Kink Mode in a Plasma Column with Non-Line-Tied Free End

    SciTech Connect

    Furno, I; Intrator, T P; Ryutov, D D; Abbate, S; Madziwa-Nussinov, T; Light, A; Dorf, L; Lapenta, G

    2006-03-28

    First experimental measurements are presented for the kink instability in a linear plasma column which is insulated from an axial boundary by finite sheath resistivity. Instability threshold below the classical Kruskal-Shafranov threshold, axially asymmetric mode structure and rotation are observed. These are accurately reproduced by a recent kink theory, which includes axial plasma flow and one end of the plasma column that is free to move due to a non-line-tied boundary condition.

  10. Application of protective relays on a large industrial-utility tie with industrial cogeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Potochney, G.J.; Powell, L.J.

    1983-05-01

    The recent emphasis on the simultaneous production of electric power and steam within the confines of the industrial plant, often utilizing waste products from the industrial process as fuel, has resulted in renewed interest in the problems of applying protective relaying at the interface between the cogenerating industrial facility and the electric utility. The considerations that must be taken into account at the consumer-utility interconnection are reviewed, and protective practices for these tie points are suggested.

  11. Distinct RNA transcriptome patterns are potentially associated with angiogenesis in Tie2-expressing monocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinjing; Dai, Zhiyuan; Wu, Xiaoli; Wang, Kai; Wang, Xipeng

    2016-04-10

    Tie2-expressing Monocytes (TEMs) were previously identified as a novel subset of monocytes and were believed to have prominent pro-angiogenesis activities in human tumors. While the molecular mechanism of the angiogenesis promoting capacity of TEMs remains unclear. RNA transcriptome pattern, including non-coding RNAs as microRNA (miRNA) and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), plays important role in cell differentiation and functions. However, little is known about the transcriptome patterns of TEMs, including those non-coding RNAs. We explore the transcriptome of TEMs and the matched monocytes that do not express Tie2 (Tie2(-)monocytes) isolated from peripheral blood of healthy adults employing the Agilent Human miRNA(8*60K,Design ID: 046064)microarray and the Agilent lncRNA Gene Expression(4*180K, Design ID: 042818)microarray. A total of 141 mRNAs, 142 lncRNAs and 75 miRNAs were found dysregulated in TEMs compared to Tie2(-)monocytes. TEMs have the distinct RNA transcriptome patterns according to the Hierarchical clustering and then the gene expression patterns were confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Functional annotation by Gene Ontology (GO) analyses showed that the up-regulated mRNAs in TEMs were associated to blood vessel remodeling and positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation, and the up-regulated insulin like growth factor 1(IGF1) mRNA was involved in both pathways. For functional analysis of those dysregulated non-coding RNAs, target genes of the miRNAs were predicted and cis/trans-regulation analysis of the lncRNAs were performed. PMID:26748243

  12. GNSS-SLR satellite co-location for the estimate of local ties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruni, Sara; Zerbini, Susanna; Errico, Maddalena; Santi, Efisio

    2013-04-01

    The current realization of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) is based on four different space-geodetic techniques, so that the benefits brought by each observing system to the definition of the frame can compensate for the drawbacks of the others and technique-specific systematic errors might be identified. The strategy used to combine the observations from the different techniques is then of prominent importance for the realization of a precise and stable reference frame. This study concentrates, in particular, on the combination of Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observations by exploiting satellite co-locations. This innovative approach is based on the fact that laser tracking of GNSS satellites, carrying on board laser reflector arrays, allows for the combination of optical and microwave signals in the determination of the spacecraft orbit. Besides, the use of satellite co-locations differs quite significantly from the traditional combination method in which each single technique solution is carried out autonomously and is interrelated in a second step. One of the benefits of the approach adopted in this study is that it allows for an independent validation of the local tie, i.e. of the vector connecting the SLR and GNSS reference points in a multi-techniques station. Typically, local ties are expressed by a single value, measured with ground-based geodetic techniques and taken as constant. In principle, however, local ties might show time variations likely caused by the different monumentation characteristics of the GNSS antennas with respect to those of a SLR system. This study evaluates the possibility of using the satellite co-location approach to generate local-ties time series by means of observations available for a selected network of ILRS stations. The data analyzed in this study were acquired as part of the NASA's Earth Science Data Systems and are archived and distributed by the Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS).

  13. Broken Ties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Katti

    2009-01-01

    As the number of people choosing to marry has plunged during recent decades, the tally of children living with one parent and having limited or no contact with the other has soared. Attuned to the hazards that such separations impose upon children but also upon parents who, studies show, fare physically and emotionally better in a thriving

  14. Tongue tie

    MedlinePLUS

    ... asleep before eating enough. Poor weight gain or weight loss Problems latching onto the nipple. The infant may just chew on the nipple instead. The breastfeeding mother may have problems with breast pain, plugged ...

  15. Mesoscopic analysis of online social networks: The role of negative ties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmailian, Pouya; Abtahi, Seyed Ebrahim; Jalili, Mahdi

    2014-10-01

    A class of networks are those with both positive and negative links. In this manuscript, we studied the interplay between positive and negative ties on mesoscopic level of these networks, i.e., their community structure. A community is considered as a tightly interconnected group of actors; therefore, it does not borrow any assumption from balance theory and merely uses the well-known assumption in the community detection literature. We found that if one detects the communities based on only positive relations (by ignoring the negative ones), the majority of negative relations are already placed between the communities. In other words, negative ties do not have a major role in community formation of signed networks. Moreover, regarding the internal negative ties, we proved that most unbalanced communities are maximally balanced, and hence they cannot be partitioned into k nonempty sub-clusters with higher balancedness (k ?2 ). Furthermore, we showed that although the mediator triad ++- (hostile-mediator-hostile) is underrepresented, it constitutes a considerable portion of triadic relations among communities. Hence, mediator triads should not be ignored by community detection and clustering algorithms. As a result, if one uses a clustering algorithm that operates merely based on social balance, mesoscopic structure of signed networks significantly remains hidden.

  16. The Tie2-agonist Vasculotide rescues mice from influenza virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Michael G.; Armstrong, Susan M.; Wang, Changsen; Hwang, David; Leong-Poi, Howard; Advani, Andrew; Advani, Suzanne; Zhang, Haibo; Szaszi, Katalin; Tabuchi, Arata; Kuebler, Wolfgang M.; Van Slyke, Paul; Dumont, Dan J.; Lee, Warren L.

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal influenza virus infections cause hundreds of thousands of deaths annually while viral mutation raises the threat of a novel pandemic strain. Antiviral drugs exhibit limited efficacy unless administered early and may induce viral resistance. Thus, targeting the host response directly has been proposed as a novel therapeutic strategy with the added potential benefit of not eliciting viral resistance. Severe influenza virus infections are complicated by respiratory failure due to the development of lung microvascular leak and acute lung injury. We hypothesized that enhancing lung endothelial barrier integrity could improve the outcome. Here we demonstrate that the Tie2-agonist tetrameric peptide Vasculotide improves survival in murine models of severe influenza, even if administered as late as 72?hours after infection; the benefit was observed using three strains of the virus and two strains of mice. The effect required Tie2, was independent of viral replication and did not impair lung neutrophil recruitment. Administration of the drug decreased lung edema, arterial hypoxemia and lung endothelial apoptosis; importantly, Vasculotide is inexpensive to produce, is chemically stable and is unrelated to any Tie2 ligands. Thus, Vasculotide may represent a novel and practical therapy for severe infections with influenza. PMID:26046800

  17. Social Features of Online Networks: The Strength of Intermediary Ties in Online Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Grabowicz, Przemyslaw A.; Ramasco, José J.; Moro, Esteban; Pujol, Josep M.; Eguiluz, Victor M.

    2012-01-01

    An increasing fraction of today's social interactions occur using online social media as communication channels. Recent worldwide events, such as social movements in Spain or revolts in the Middle East, highlight their capacity to boost people's coordination. Online networks display in general a rich internal structure where users can choose among different types and intensity of interactions. Despite this, there are still open questions regarding the social value of online interactions. For example, the existence of users with millions of online friends sheds doubts on the relevance of these relations. In this work, we focus on Twitter, one of the most popular online social networks, and find that the network formed by the basic type of connections is organized in groups. The activity of the users conforms to the landscape determined by such groups. Furthermore, Twitter's distinction between different types of interactions allows us to establish a parallelism between online and offline social networks: personal interactions are more likely to occur on internal links to the groups (the weakness of strong ties); events transmitting new information go preferentially through links connecting different groups (the strength of weak ties) or even more through links connecting to users belonging to several groups that act as brokers (the strength of intermediary ties). PMID:22247773

  18. Mesoscopic analysis of online social networks: the role of negative ties.

    PubMed

    Esmailian, Pouya; Abtahi, Seyed Ebrahim; Jalili, Mahdi

    2014-10-01

    A class of networks are those with both positive and negative links. In this manuscript, we studied the interplay between positive and negative ties on mesoscopic level of these networks, i.e., their community structure. A community is considered as a tightly interconnected group of actors; therefore, it does not borrow any assumption from balance theory and merely uses the well-known assumption in the community detection literature. We found that if one detects the communities based on only positive relations (by ignoring the negative ones), the majority of negative relations are already placed between the communities. In other words, negative ties do not have a major role in community formation of signed networks. Moreover, regarding the internal negative ties, we proved that most unbalanced communities are maximally balanced, and hence they cannot be partitioned into k nonempty sub-clusters with higher balancedness (k?2). Furthermore, we showed that although the mediator triad ++- (hostile-mediator-hostile) is underrepresented, it constitutes a considerable portion of triadic relations among communities. Hence, mediator triads should not be ignored by community detection and clustering algorithms. As a result, if one uses a clustering algorithm that operates merely based on social balance, mesoscopic structure of signed networks significantly remains hidden. PMID:25375559

  19. Stories of Change: TieVie - The Support Service for Finnish Universities Toward the Information Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kairamo, Anna-Kaarina; Sinko, Matti

    In this article, the authors discuss and evaluate the TieVie capacity building project for Finnish universities in a larger historical context of strategic developments in the use of information and communications technology (ICT) in learning. The TieVie project was a support service project for the Finnish Virtual University (FVU) which offered training in the educational use of ICT to the staff of Finnish universities in 2001-2008. It was financed by the Ministry of Education as part of the Virtual University project funding till the end of 2006. During 2007-2008, the program was fee-funded. The project was designed and implemented by the educational development support service units of five universities: Universities of Oulu, Turku, Jyväskylä, and Helsinki, and Helsinki University of Technology. The TieVie project was launched on the basis of the need to strengthen the e-Learning skills and expertise among Finnish university staff. This need was recognized in the national strategy for education, training, and research in the information society outlined by the Ministry of Education in 2000.

  20. A Comparative Study in Learning Curves of Two Different Intracorporeal Knot Tying Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Thiyagarajan, Manuneethimaran; Ravindrakumar, Chandru

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. In our study we are aiming to analyse the learning curves in our surgical trainees by using two standard methods of intracorporeal knot tying. Material and Method. Two randomized groups of trainees are trained with two different intracorporeal knot tying techniques (loop and winding) by single surgeon for eight sessions. In each session participants were allowed to make as many numbers of knots in thirty minutes. The duration for each set of knots and the number of knots for each session were calculated. At the end each session, participants were asked about their frustration level, difficulty in making knot, and dexterity. Results. In winding method the number of knots tied was increasing significantly in each session with less frustration and less difficulty level. Discussion. The suturing and knotting skill improved in every session in both groups. But group B (winding method) trainees made significantly higher number of knots and they took less time for each set of knots than group A (loop method). Although both knotting methods are standard methods, the learning curve is better in loop method. Conclusion. The winding method of knotting is simpler and easier to perform, especially for the surgeons who have limited laparoscopic experience.

  1. A genome-wide scan for tying-up syndrome in Japanese Thoroughbreds.

    PubMed

    Tozaki, T; Hirota, K; Sugita, S; Ishida, N; Miyake, T; Oki, H; Hasegawa, T

    2010-12-01

    Tying-up syndrome, also known as recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis in Thoroughbreds, is a common muscle disorder for racehorses. In this study, we performed a multipoint linkage analysis using LOKI based on the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method using 5 half-sib families (51 affected and 277 nonaffected horses in total), and a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using microsatellites (144 affected and 144 nonaffected horses) to map candidate regions for tying-up syndrome in Japanese Thoroughbreds. The linkage analysis identified one strong L-score (82.45) between the loci UCDEQ411 and COR058 (24.9-27.9 Mb) on ECA12. The GWAS identified two suggestive genomic regions on ECA12 (24.9-27.8 Mb) and ECA20 (29.3-33.5 Mb). Based on both results, the genomic region between UCDEQ411 and TKY499 (24.9-27.8 Mb) on ECA12 was the most significant and was considered as a candidate region for tying-up syndrome in Japanese Thoroughbreds. PMID:21070280

  2. Comparison of Two-Fluid and Kinetic Simulations of Magnetic Reconnection in Line-Tied Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akcay, C.; Daughton, W. S.; Stanier, A.; Lukin, V. S.

    2014-12-01

    The evolution of plasmas in magnetically dominated low-? regimes often leads to the formation of nearly force-free current sheets where magnetic reconnection may be triggered by the tearing instability. In three-dimensional systems, the tearing of a current sheet and ensuing magnetic reconnection can result in the formation and interaction of magnetic flux ropes. In addition, many space and laboratory plasmas feature current sheets of finite extent that are embedded in larger systems with line-tied field boundary conditions. Motivated by these properties, we examine the influence of line-tied boundary conditions on the onset and development of three-dimensional magnetic reconnection in kinetic-scale force-free layers. To better understand the physics, we perform cross-comparisons between fully kinetic VPIC simulations and two-fluid HiFi simulations. We focus on a range of guide fields Bg=(1-10)B0 relevant to both space and laboratory plasmas, and compare the evolution between systems with line-tied and periodic boundary conditions.

  3. Onset and Evolution of Magnetic Reconnection in Line-Tied Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daughton, W. S.; Akcay, C.; Billey, Z.; Finn, J.; Zweibel, E.; Gekelman, W. N.

    2014-12-01

    In space and astrophysical plasmas, current sheets arise spontaneously from the interaction of large-scale flows or magnetic structures. As these current layers approach kinetic scales, they may become unstable to the collisionless tearing instability, resulting in the formation and interaction of magnetic flux ropes. While theoretical treatments of the tearing instability have largely focused on 1D equilibria with periodic boundary conditions, current sheets in nature have a finite spatial extent and are embedded within larger open systems. In many applications, the field boundary conditions are line-tied as in the case of flux ropes on the dayside magnetopause where the ionosphere acts as a conducting surface. To assess the applicability of existing tearing theory to these more realistic configurations, we consider a series of 3D kinetic simulations of initially force-free current layers with line-tied boundary conditions for the fields, and open boundaries for the particles. The geometry and plasma parameters are motivated by a new laboratory experiment on the Large Plasma Device at UCLA. For sufficiently long systems, we demonstrate that key aspects of the theory remain valid, and a threshold condition is derived for the onset of reconnection in line-tied systems. To gain additional insight into the nonlinear evolution, field-line mapping diagnostics are employed to characterize the 3D structure of the magnetic field, the nonlinear reconnection rate and the dominant non-ideal terms in the generalized Ohm's law.

  4. The development of a tongue assessment tool to assist with tongue-tie identification

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Jenny; Johnson, Debbie; Copeland, Marion; Churchill, Cathy; Taylor, Hazel; Emond, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Aim To produce a simple tool with good transferability to provide a consistent assessment of tongue appearance and function in infants with tongue-tie. Methods The Bristol Tongue Assessment Tool (BTAT) was developed based on clinical practice and with reference to the Hazelbaker Assessment Tool for Lingual Frenulum Function (ATLFF). This paper documents 224 tongue assessments using the BTAT. There were 126 tongue assessments recorded using the BTAT and ATLFF tools to facilitate comparisons between them. Paired BTAT assessments were obtained from eight midwives who were using the new assessment tool. Results There was acceptable internal reliability for the four-item BTAT (Cronbach's ?=0.708) and the eight midwives who used it showed good correlation in the consistency of its use (ICC=0.760). The BTAT showed a strong and significant correlation (0.89) with the ATLFF, indicating that the simpler BTAT could be used in place of the more detailed assessment tool to score the extent of a tongue-tie. Midwives found it quick and easy to use and felt that it would be easy to teach to others. Conclusions The BTAT provides an objective, clear and simple measure of the severity of a tongue-tie, to inform selection of infants for frenotomy and to monitor the effect of the procedure. PMID:25877288

  5. MHD stability properties of a line-tied linear screw pinch plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergerson, William; Forest, C. B.; Fiksel, G.; Grierson, B.; Hannum, D.; Hegna, C.; Kendrick, R.; Oliva, S.; Sarff, J.; Stambler, S.

    2004-11-01

    The MHD stability properties of a line-tied screw pinch have been studied without a nearby conducting shell in the rotating wall machine. Theory states the line-tied plasma will be unstable in the no-wall limit when qa < 1, and for a perfectly conducting wall qa < 1 - (a/b)^2, where a is the plasma radius and b is the wall radius. The region between these two values is where the resistive wall mode can be found. Initial experiments have been focused on finding the ideal stability limits with and without a wall present. The main diagnostic for measuring the MHD stability without a wall is a 2D array of 80 radial magnetic field sensors surrounding the plasma column. The experimental properties of the instability are a pronounced increase in the magnetic fluctuations when qa falls below one. qa is changed by controlling the plasma diameter, the external magnetic field, and the current in the plasma. The instability observed when using one gun can be stabilized when the central column is surrounded with plasma. The instability oscillates with a real frequency typical of an alfven wave propagation time along the axis of the machine. The 2D array indicate the unstable eigenfunction is line tied and predominantly n=1, m=1, consistent with predictions from theory. The adjacent poster discusses equilibrium measurements done on the plasma with a langmuir probe and b dot probe. This work was supported by the DoE.

  6. Tie-mediated signal from apoptotic cells protects stem cells in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yalan; Su, Tin Tin; Ruohola-Baker, Hannele

    2015-01-01

    Many types of normal and cancer stem cells are resistant to killing by genotoxins, but the mechanism for this resistance is poorly understood. Here we show that adult stem cells in Drosophila melanogaster germline and midgut are resistant to ionizing radiation (IR) or chemically induced apoptosis and dissect the mechanism for this protection. We find that upon IR the receptor tyrosine kinase Tie/Tie-2 is activated, leading to the upregulation of microRNA bantam that represses FOXO-mediated transcription of pro-apoptotic Smac/DIA-BLO orthologue, Hid in germline stem cells. Knockdown of the IR-induced putative Tie ligand, Pvf1, a functional homologue of human Angiopoietin, in differentiating daughter cells renders germline stem cells sensitive to IR, suggesting that the dying daughters send a survival signal to protect their stem cells for future repopulation of the tissue. If conserved in cancer stem cells, this mechanism may provide therapeutic options for the eradication of cancer. PMID:25959206

  7. Fast-shock formation in line-tied magnetic reconnection models of solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, T. G.

    1986-01-01

    In a previous study by the author, an approximately stationary fast shock was tentatively identified in a numerical experiment designed to study line-tied magnetic reconnection. Here the evidence for the occurrence of a stationary fast shock is reexamined, and the previous identification is confirmed. In the numerical experiment, line-tied reconnection is modeled by a configuration which produces two supermagnetosonic outflow jets - one directed upward, away from the photosphere, and one directed downward, toward an arcade of closed magnetic loops tied to the photosphere. The fast shock occurs when the downward-directed jet encounters the obstacle formed by the closed loops. Although the existence of a stationary, or nearly stationary, fast shock is confirmed, the transition from the supermagnetosonic flow region upstream of the shock to the nearly static region downstream of the shock is more complicated than was previously thought. Immediately downstream of the shock, there exists a deflection sheath in which the submagnetosonic flow coming out of the shock is diverted around the region of static closed loops. The MHD jump conditions are used to investigate the characteristics of the fast shock and to show that a stationary shock cannot exist unless accompanied by a deflection sheath. Analysis of the shock's location and dimensions suggests that such fast shocks may contribute to particle acceleration and to thermal condensation in flares.

  8. Finite element analyses of continuous filament ties for masonry applications : final report for the Arquin Corporation.

    SciTech Connect

    Quinones, Armando, Sr.; Bibeau, Tiffany A.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2008-08-01

    Finite-element analyses were performed to simulate the response of a hypothetical vertical masonry wall subject to different lateral loads with and without continuous horizontal filament ties laid between rows of concrete blocks. A static loading analysis and cost comparison were also performed to evaluate optimal materials and designs for the spacers affixed to the filaments. Results showed that polypropylene, ABS, and polyethylene (high density) were suitable materials for the spacers based on performance and cost, and the short T-spacer design was optimal based on its performance and functionality. Simulations of vertical walls subject to static loads representing 100 mph winds (0.2 psi) and a seismic event (0.66 psi) showed that the simulated walls performed similarly and adequately when subject to these loads with and without the ties. Additional simulations and tests are required to assess the performance of actual walls with and without the ties under greater loads and more realistic conditions (e.g., cracks, non-linear response).

  9. Quantifying tie-chain content in semicrystalline polyolefins with vapor-flow small-angle neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermott, Amanda; Snyder, Chad; Deslauriers, Paul; Jones, Ronald

    2015-03-01

    Tie molecules bridging adjacent crystalline lamellae in semicrystalline polymers strongly impact mechanical properties, but they remain difficult to characterize. In this work we apply equilibrium swelling theory, balancing the entropic cost of tie-chain extension against the free energy of mixing, to small-angle neutron scattering patterns from semicrystalline polyethylene films whose interlamellar amorphous regions are swollen with deuterated organic solvent. Results show that for a linear polyethylene and several ethylene-hexene copolymers, these vapor-flow SANS measurements of tie-chain content compare favorably with a primary structural parameter (PSP2) that is calculated from molecular architecture and correlates with slow crack growth behavior.

  10. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Judson, Seth; Prescott, Joseph; Munster, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus. PMID:25654239

  11. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOEpatents

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  12. Transmission of Flu (Influenza)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Research Topics Labs & Scientific Resources Funding About NIAID News & Events Volunteer NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Flu > Understanding Flu Flu Understanding Flu Overview Cause Transmission Symptoms ...

  13. Air transmissivity of feathers

    PubMed

    MULler; Patone

    1998-09-01

    The flight feathers and their coverts of a European kestrel Falco tinnunculus have been tested for their air transmissivity. The transmissivity was measured in both directions, i.e. from ventral to dorsal and vice versa; the mean difference between the two directions was less than 10 %. However, the transmissivity of the inner versus outer vanes of the remiges and coverts differed significantly, with the outer vanes being more transmissive than the inner vanes. A functional interpretation of the different transmissivities of the inner and outer vanes is given, and we propose that its significance lies in the formation of a smooth, continuous wing surface. The individual feathers are pushed firmly towards one another as a result of the different transmissivities, which cause a pressure gradient to build up from the less-transmissive inner vane towards the overlying, more-transmissive outer vane of the adjacent feather. In another test series, the transmissivity of the flight and covert feathers of 27 species was measured; the differences found between species were small. PMID:9716511

  14. Measurement of bow tie profiles in CT scanners using a real-time dosimeter

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, Bruce R.; Evans, Joshua D.; Dohatcu, Andreea C.; Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Politte, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Several areas of computed tomography (CT) research require knowledge about the intensity profile of the x-ray fan beam that is introduced by a bow tie filter. This information is considered proprietary by CT manufacturers, so noninvasive measurement methods are required. One method using real-time dosimeters has been proposed in the literature. A commercially available dosimeter was used to apply that method, and analysis techniques were developed to extract fan beam profiles from measurements. Methods: A real-time ion chamber was placed near the periphery of an empty CT gantry and the dose rate versus time waveform was recorded as the x-ray source rotated about the isocenter. In contrast to previously proposed analysis methods that assumed a pointlike detector, the finite-size ion chamber received varying amounts of coverage by the collimated x-ray beam during rotation, precluding a simple relationship between the source intensity as a function of fan beam angle and measured intensity. A two-parameter model for measurement intensity was developed that included both effective collimation width and source-to-detector distance, which then was iteratively solved to minimize the error between duplicate measurements at corresponding fan beam angles, allowing determination of the fan beam profile from measured dose-rate waveforms. Measurements were performed on five different scanner systems while varying parameters such as collimation, kVp, and bow tie filters. On one system, direct measurements of the bow tie profile were collected for comparison with the real-time dosimeter technique. Results: The data analysis method for a finite-size detector was found to produce a fan beam profile estimate with a relative error between duplicate measurement intensities of <5%. It was robust over a wide range of collimation widths (e.g., 1–40 mm), producing fan beam profiles that agreed with a relative error of 1%–5%. Comparison with a direct measurement technique on one system produced agreement with a relative error of 2%–6%. Fan beam profiles were found to differ for different filter types on a given system and between different vendors. Conclusions: A commercially available real-time dosimeter probe was found to be a convenient and accurate instrument for measuring fan beam profiles. An analysis method was developed that could handle a wide range of collimation widths by explicitly considering the finite width of the ion chamber. Relative errors in the profiles were found to be less than 5%. Measurements of five different clinical scanners demonstrate the variation in bow tie designs, indicating that generic bow tie models will not be adequate for CT system research. PMID:25281967

  15. Development and Testing of the Glenn Research Center Visitor's Center Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed, installed, and tested a 12 kW DC grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system at the GRC Visitor s Center. This system utilizes a unique ballast type roof mount for installing the photovoltaic panels on the roof of the Visitor s Center with no alterations or penetrations to the roof. The PV system has generated in excess of 15000 kWh since operation commenced in August 2008. The PV system is providing power to the GRC grid for use by all. Operation of the GRC Visitor s Center PV system has been completely trouble free. A grid-tied PV power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners. GRC personnel glean valuable experience with PV power systems that are directly applicable to various space power systems, and provides valuable space program test data. PV power systems help to reduce harmful emissions and reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels. Power generated by the PV system reduces the GRC utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Present global energy concerns reinforce the need for the development of alternative energy systems. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics has been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Based upon the success of the GRC Visitor s Center PV system, additional PV power system expansion at GRC is under consideration. The GRC Visitor s Center grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed which served to validate the basic principles described, and the theoretical work that was performed. The report concludes that grid-tied photovoltaic power systems are reliable, maintenance free, long life power systems, and are of significant value to NASA and the community.

  16. Design of a Glenn Research Center Solar Field Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) designed, developed, and installed, a 37.5 kW DC photovoltaic (PV) Solar Field in the GRC West Area in the 1970s for the purpose of testing PV panels for various space and terrestrial applications. The PV panels are arranged to provide a nominal 120 VDC. The GRC Solar Field has been extremely successful in meeting its mission. The PV panels and the supporting electrical systems are all near their end of life. GRC has designed a 72 kW DC grid-tied PV power system to replace the existing GRC West Area Solar Field. The 72 kW DC grid-tied PV power system will provide DC solar power for GRC PV testing applications, and provide AC facility power for all times that research power is not required. A grid-tied system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility for use by all. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners. GRC personnel glean valuable experience with PV power systems that are directly applicable to various space power systems, and provide valuable space program test data. PV power systems help to reduce harmful emissions and reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels. Power generated by the PV system reduces the GRC utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Present global energy concerns reinforce the need for the development of alternative energy systems. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics has been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. The report concludes that the GRC West Area grid-tied PV power system design is viable for a reliable, maintenance free, long life power system that is of significant value to NASA and the community.

  17. Measurement of bow tie profiles in CT scanners using a real-time dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, Bruce R.; Evans, Joshua D.; Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Dohatcu, Andreea C.; Politte, David G.

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Several areas of computed tomography (CT) research require knowledge about the intensity profile of the x-ray fan beam that is introduced by a bow tie filter. This information is considered proprietary by CT manufacturers, so noninvasive measurement methods are required. One method using real-time dosimeters has been proposed in the literature. A commercially available dosimeter was used to apply that method, and analysis techniques were developed to extract fan beam profiles from measurements. Methods: A real-time ion chamber was placed near the periphery of an empty CT gantry and the dose rate versus time waveform was recorded as the x-ray source rotated about the isocenter. In contrast to previously proposed analysis methods that assumed a pointlike detector, the finite-size ion chamber received varying amounts of coverage by the collimated x-ray beam during rotation, precluding a simple relationship between the source intensity as a function of fan beam angle and measured intensity. A two-parameter model for measurement intensity was developed that included both effective collimation width and source-to-detector distance, which then was iteratively solved to minimize the error between duplicate measurements at corresponding fan beam angles, allowing determination of the fan beam profile from measured dose-rate waveforms. Measurements were performed on five different scanner systems while varying parameters such as collimation, kVp, and bow tie filters. On one system, direct measurements of the bow tie profile were collected for comparison with the real-time dosimeter technique. Results: The data analysis method for a finite-size detector was found to produce a fan beam profile estimate with a relative error between duplicate measurement intensities of <5%. It was robust over a wide range of collimation widths (e.g., 140 mm), producing fan beam profiles that agreed with a relative error of 1%5%. Comparison with a direct measurement technique on one system produced agreement with a relative error of 2%6%. Fan beam profiles were found to differ for different filter types on a given system and between different vendors. Conclusions: A commercially available real-time dosimeter probe was found to be a convenient and accurate instrument for measuring fan beam profiles. An analysis method was developed that could handle a wide range of collimation widths by explicitly considering the finite width of the ion chamber. Relative errors in the profiles were found to be less than 5%. Measurements of five different clinical scanners demonstrate the variation in bow tie designs, indicating that generic bow tie models will not be adequate for CT system research.

  18. On inferring liquid-liquid phase boundaries and tie lines from ternary mixture light scattering.

    PubMed

    Wahle, Chris W; Ross, David S; Thurston, George M

    2012-07-21

    We investigate the possibility of using light scattering data in the single-phase regions of a ternary liquid mixture phase diagram to infer ternary mixture coexistence curves, and to infer tie lines joining the compositions of isotropic liquid phases in thermodynamic equilibrium. Previous analyses of a nonlinear light scattering partial differential equation (LSPDE) show that it provides for reconstruction of ternary [D. Ross, G. Thurston, and C. Lutzer, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 064106 (2008); C. Wahle, D. Ross, and G. Thurston, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 034201 (2012)] and quaternary [C. Wahle, D. Ross, and G. Thurston, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 034202 (2012)] mixing free energies from light scattering data, and that if the coexistence curves are already known, it can also yield ternary tie lines and triangles [D. Ross, G. Thurston, and C. Lutzer, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 064106 (2008)]. Here, we show that the LSPDE can be used more generally, to infer phase boundaries and tie lines from light scattering data in the single-phase region, without prior knowledge of the coexistence curve, if the single-phase region is connected. The method extends the fact that the reciprocal light scattering intensity approaches zero at the thermodynamic spinodal. Expressing the free energy as the sum of ideal and excess parts leads to a natural family of Padé approximants for the reciprocal Rayleigh ratio. To test the method, we evaluate the single-phase reciprocal Rayleigh ratio resulting from the mean-field, regular solution model on a fine grid. We then use a low-order approximant to extrapolate the reciprocal Rayleigh ratio into metastable and unstable regions. In the metastable zone, the extrapolation estimates light scattering prior to nucleation and growth of a new phase. In the unstable zone, the extrapolation produces a negative function that in the present context is a computational convenience. The original and extrapolated reciprocal light scattering are jointly used as input to solving the LSPDE to deduce the mixing free energy and its convex hull. When projected onto the composition triangle, the boundary of the convexified part of the free energy is the phase boundary, and lines on the convexified region along which the second directional derivative is zero are the tie lines. We find that the tie lines and phase boundaries so deduced agree well with their exact values. This work is a step toward developing methods for inferring phase boundaries from real light scattering intensities measured with noise, from mixtures having compositions on a coarser grid. PMID:22830695

  19. Social capital and core network ties: a validation study of individual-level social capital measures and their association with extra- and intra-neighborhood ties, and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Moore, Spencer; Bockenholt, Ulf; Daniel, Mark; Frohlich, Katherine; Kestens, Yan; Richard, Lucie

    2011-03-01

    Research on social capital and health has assumed that measures of trust, participation, and perceived cohesion capture aspects of people's neighborhood social connections. This study uses data on the personal networks of 2707 Montreal adults in 300 different neighborhoods to examine the association of socio-demographic and social capital variables with the likelihood of having core ties, core neighborhood ties, and high self-rated health (SRH). Persons with higher household income were more likely to have core ties, but less likely to have core neighborhood ties. Persons with greater diversity in extra-neighborhood network capital were more likely to have core ties, and persons with greater diversity in intra-neighborhood network capital were more likely to have core neighborhood ties. Generalized trust, perceived neighborhood cohesion, and extra-neighborhood network diversity were shown associated with high SRH. Conventional measures of social capital may not capture network mechanisms. Findings suggest a critical appraisal of the mechanisms linking social capital and health, and the further delineation of network and psychosocial mechanisms in understanding these links. PMID:21208822

  20. 78 FR 75544 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... Countervailing Duty Investigations, 76 FR 61042 (October 3, 2011). International Trade Commission (``ITC... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico: Preliminary.... SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce (``Department'') preliminarily determines that prestressed...

  1. Creative benefits from well-connected leaders: leader social network ties as facilitators of employee radical creativity.

    PubMed

    Venkataramani, Vijaya; Richter, Andreas W; Clarke, Ronald

    2014-09-01

    Employee radical creativity critically depends on substantive informational resources from others across the wider organization. We propose that the social network ties of employees' immediate leaders assume a central role in garnering these resources, thereby fostering their employees' radical creativity both independent of and interactively with employees' own network ties. Drawing on data from 214 employees working in 30 teams of a public technology and environmental services organization, we find that team leaders' betweenness centrality in the idea network within their teams as well as among their peer leaders provides creative benefits beyond employees' own internal and external ties. Further, employees' and leaders' ties within and external to the team interactively predict employee radical creativity. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:24911179

  2. USE OF ZEOLITE FOR REMOVING AMMONIA AND AMMONIA-CAUSED TOXCITY IN MARINE TOXICITY IDENTIFCATION EVALUATIONS (TIES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ammonia occurs in marine waters including effluents, receiving waters, and sediment interstitial waters. At sufficiently high concentrations, ammonia can be toxic to aquatic species. Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) methods provide researchers with tools for identifyi...

  3. Evaluation of the Polyethylene Reverse Sampler as a Dosing System in Marine Phase II Whole Sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIEs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminated marine sediments can cause acute and chronic impairments to benthic organisms. Nonionic organic contaminants (NOCs) are often a primary cause of impairment. Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIEs) are used to identify chemicals causing toxicity in sediments. Ph...

  4. Data Transmission Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Introduces some basic concepts related to the transmission of data from a computer to its peripherals to help distance educators make decisions regarding computer equipment purchases for their institutions. The following data transmission concepts are described: cables, serial and parallel, synchronous and asynchronous, bandwidth, and analog and

  5. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  6. Transmission market support system

    SciTech Connect

    Reinschmidt, K.F.; Coles, B.C.

    1995-09-01

    An interactive, computer-based market support system has been developed for transmission access that is efficient, equitable, and fair to all parties concerned with electrical transmission: utilities, electric generators, owners of transmission networks, and wholesale purchasers of electrical power. Each participant transmits electronically to the computer system his proposed price schedule for buying, selling, or transmitting power for each future time period. The price for transmission on a single line in one direction can differ from the price in the other direction. The total quantity offered in the transmission bid represents the capacity of the line, and the flow on the line cannot exceed this value. The system automatically computes the prices that clear the market; that is, the price that each generator receives at each bus, the price that each transmission operator receives on each line, and the price that each customer pays at each bus. The computer system maximizes the benefits to all three classes while satisfying the electrical characteristics of the transmission system by means of load flow calculations. Customers never pay more than their bid prices (but may pay less), and generators and transmission operators never receive less than their bid prices (but may receive more). The price at each bus applies to all buyers and sellers at that bus: all buyers at the same bus pay the same price and all generators at a bus receive the same price.

  7. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-28

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  8. The analysis of multiple ties in longitudinal egocentric network data: A case study on bidirectional relationships between trust and drug use

    PubMed Central

    Comulada, W. Scott; Muth, Stephen Q.; Latkin, Carl A.

    2012-01-01

    We extend multi-level models to examine single egocentric network ties to the joint analysis of paired dynamic ties. Two analytic challenges are addressed. First, inference needs to account for multiple layers of nesting: ties are nested within pairs, pairs are nested within time points, and time points are nested within egos. Second, the focus is on the relationship between two dynamic ties; specification of outcome and predictor may be difficult. Instead, we treat both ties as outcomes. Our approach is used to analyze trust and reported drug use between egos and alters over time in a Bayesian framework. PMID:23243335

  9. Automatic transmission control method

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.; Ishiguro, T.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes a method of controlling an automatic transmission of an automotive vehicle. The transmission has a gear train which includes a brake for establishing a first lowest speed of the transmission, the brake acting directly on a ring gear which meshes with a pinion, the pinion meshing with a sun gear in a planetary gear train, the ring gear connected with an output member, the sun gear being engageable and disengageable with an input member of the transmission by means of a clutch. The method comprises the steps of: detecting that a shift position of the automatic transmission has been shifted to a neutral range; thereafter introducing hydraulic pressure to the brake if present vehicle velocity is below a predetermined value, whereby the brake is engaged to establish the first lowest speed; and exhausting hydraulic pressure from the brake if present vehicle velocity is higher than a predetermined value, whereby the brake is disengaged.

  10. Efficient access transmission pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Hassink, P.; Jones, S.

    1996-11-01

    Steering between the whirlpool (postage stamp rates) and the rock (distance-sensitive pricing), efficient access pricing tends to discourage actions that increase loadings on the bulk power transmission system and encourage actions that reduce loadings. Transmission systems are undergoing a profound redefinition. As the purpose of the transmission system is redefined to fit a competitive model, pricing of transmission services must also change. A natural companion to a fairly constructed market-driven bulk power market must be a new transmission pricing concept - one which recognizes parallel flows, accounts for all impacts on transmission facilities and allocates cost burdens equitably within a region. This is essential because participants will need to make the economic and reliability tradeoffs between generating costs and transmissions. To prevent transmission users from gaining an uneconomic competitive advantage, it is also essential that they pay the transmission costs associated with their use. A paradox of transmission pricing, however, is that any distance-sensitive pricing method that recognizes parallel flows will also tend to restrict the scope of the bulk power market, because parallel flows tend to multiply with distance. An obvious solution to this problem is to ignore it and pretend that parallel flows either do not exist or that they are not as important as other objectives. One logical outcome of this approach would be to adopt a region-wide postage stamp rate. This would eliminate the pancaking that is involved in traditional contract path-postage stamp pricing, when multiple control areas are in the contract path. On the negative side, postage stamp pricing also eliminates what little distance-sensitive pricing the traditional method does provide. Fortunately, a better method is available that will permit vigorous bulk power competition in a region, but also recognize and resolve the parallel flow problem.

  11. Interfering with VE-PTP stabilizes endothelial junctions in vivo via Tie-2 in the absence of VE-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Frye, Maike; Dierkes, Martina; Küppers, Verena; Vockel, Matthias; Tomm, Janina; Zeuschner, Dagmar; Rossaint, Jan; Zarbock, Alexander; Koh, Gou Young; Peters, Kevin; Nottebaum, Astrid Fee; Vestweber, Dietmar

    2015-12-14

    Vascular endothelial (VE)-protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) associates with VE-cadherin, thereby supporting its adhesive activity and endothelial junction integrity. VE-PTP also associates with Tie-2, dampening the tyrosine kinase activity of this receptor that can support stabilization of endothelial junctions. Here, we have analyzed how interference with VE-PTP affects the stability of endothelial junctions in vivo. Blocking VE-PTP by antibodies, a specific pharmacological inhibitor (AKB-9778), and gene ablation counteracted vascular leak induction by inflammatory mediators. In addition, leukocyte transmigration through the endothelial barrier was attenuated. Interference with Tie-2 expression in vivo reversed junction-stabilizing effects of AKB-9778 into junction-destabilizing effects. Furthermore, lack of Tie-2 was sufficient to weaken the vessel barrier. Mechanistically, inhibition of VE-PTP stabilized endothelial junctions via Tie-2, which triggered activation of Rap1, which then caused the dissolution of radial stress fibers via Rac1 and suppression of nonmuscle myosin II. Remarkably, VE-cadherin gene ablation did not abolish the junction-stabilizing effect of the VE-PTP inhibitor. Collectively, we conclude that inhibition of VE-PTP stabilizes challenged endothelial junctions in vivo via Tie-2 by a VE-cadherin-independent mechanism. In the absence of Tie-2, however, VE-PTP inhibition destabilizes endothelial barrier integrity in agreement with the VE-cadherin-supportive effect of VE-PTP. PMID:26642851

  12. Subliminal Activation of Social Ties Moderates Cardiovascular Reactivity during Acute Stress

    PubMed Central

    Carlisle, McKenzie; Uchino, Bert N.; Sanbonmatsu, David M.; Smith, Timothy W.; Cribbet, Matthew R.; Birmingham, Wendy; Light, Kathleen C.; Vaughn, Allison A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The quality of one’s personal relationships has been reliably linked to important physical health outcomes, perhaps through the mechanism of physiological stress responses. Most studies of this mechanism have focused on whether more conscious interpersonal transactions influence cardiovascular reactivity. However, whether such relationships can be automatically activated in memory to influence physiological processes has not been determined. The primary aims of this study were to examine if subliminal activation of relationships could influence health-relevant physiological processes, and to examine this question in the context of a more general relationship model that incorporates both positive and negative dimensions. Method We randomly assigned participants to be subliminally primed with existing relationships that varied in their underlying positivity and negativity (i.e., indifferent, supportive, aversive, ambivalent). They then performed acute psychological stressors while cardiovascular and self-report measures were assessed. Results Priming negative relationships was associated with greater threat, lower feelings of control, and higher diastolic blood pressure reactivity during stress. Moreover, priming relationships high in positivity and negativity (ambivalent ties) was associated with the highest heart rate reactivity and greatest respiratory sinus arrhythmia decreases during stress. Exploratory analyses during the priming task itself suggested that the effects of negative primes on biological measures were prevalent across tasks, whereas the links to ambivalent ties was specific to the subsequent stressor task. Conclusions These data highlight novel mechanisms by which social ties may impact cardiovascular health, and further suggest the importance of incorporating both positivity and negativity in the study of relationships and physical health. PMID:21842996

  13. Comparison of commercial cation exchange media for performing marine Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIEs)

    SciTech Connect

    Charles, J.B.; Burgess, R.M.; Kuhn, A.; Ho, K.T.

    1995-12-31

    In the environment, adverse effects of metals resulting from anthropogenic activity can be manifested as effluent, receiving water, and sediment toxicity to aquatic organisms. In TIEs, the chelator EDTA is commonly used to discriminate metal toxicity from other possible sources of toxicity present in an environmental sample. EDTA is extremely effective at reducing the aqueous bioavailability of toxic divalent transition metals (e.g., Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) but, unlike C{sub 18} solid phase extraction (SPE), EDTA does not allow for retrieval of toxicity or toxicants for further identification. In this presentation, the authors report the results of comparisons of five commercially available cation exchange media for use in TIEs. Cation exchange media included three pre-packed SPE columns (Alltech, Supelco, Waters) and two loose packing materials evaluated with both metal spiked seawater and deionized water. Preliminary comparisons demonstrated that Alltech and Supelco SPE columns functioned most effectively. Blank toxicity to two marine species was not observed. Extensive studies of Alltech and Supelco columns using seawater spiked with a range of metal concentrations (e.g., 600 to 10 {micro}g/L) illustrated good precision and quality. both columns removed, on average, {ge} 90% of five metals from seawater. Furthermore, when eluted with small volumes of acid, {ge} 85% of original metal levels were recovered. Evaluations performed with a metal plating industry effluent demonstrated effective removal and subsequent elution of several toxic metals. This study shows the utility of commercial cation exchange columns for removing metals from seawater, and freshwater, for TIE applications.

  14. Angiopoietin-2 regulates gene expression in TIE2-expressing monocytes and augments their inherent proangiogenic functions.

    PubMed

    Coffelt, Seth B; Tal, Andrea O; Scholz, Alexander; De Palma, Michele; Patel, Sunil; Urbich, Carmen; Biswas, Subhra K; Murdoch, Craig; Plate, Karl H; Reiss, Yvonne; Lewis, Claire E

    2010-07-01

    TIE2-expressing monocytes/macrophages (TEM) are a highly proangiogenic subset of myeloid cells in tumors. Here, we show that circulating human TEMs are already preprogrammed in the circulation to be more angiogenic and express higher levels of such proangiogenic genes as matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), VEGFA, COX-2, and WNT5A than TIE2(-) monocytes. Additionally, angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) markedly enhanced the proangiogenic activity of TEMs and increased their expression of two proangiogenic enzymes: thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and cathepsin B (CTSB). Three "alternatively activated" (or M2-like) macrophage markers were also upregulated by ANG-2 in TEMs: interleukin-10, mannose receptor (MRC1), and CCL17. To investigate the effects of ANG-2 on the phenotype and function of TEMs in tumors, we used a double-transgenic (DT) mouse model in which ANG-2 was specifically overexpressed by endothelial cells. Syngeneic tumors grown in these ANG-2 DT mice were more vascularized and contained greater numbers of TEMs than those in wild-type (WT) mice. In both tumor types, expression of MMP-9 and MRC1 was mainly restricted to tumor TEMs rather than TIE2(-) macrophages. Furthermore, tumor TEMs expressed higher levels of MRC1, TP, and CTSB in ANG-2 DT tumors than WT tumors. Taken together, our data show that although circulating TEMs are innately proangiogenic, exposure to tumor-derived ANG-2 stimulates these cells to exhibit a broader, tumor-promoting phenotype. As such, the ANG-2-TEM axis may represent a new target for antiangiogenic cancer therapies. PMID:20530679

  15. Slowing heterosexual HIV transmission.

    PubMed

    Ronald, A R

    1995-06-01

    HIV-1 is spreading rapidly through heterosexual intercourse in many societies. Slowing the transmission of this virus is the most urgent global public health priority. Our understanding of the biologic differences between societies that account for most vacancies in heterosexual HIV transmission are now understood. Effective interventions to slow transmission must be designed, implemented, and evaluated. Human and fiscal resources must be provided through a shared global effort. The consequences of failing to do so will lead to a world catastrophe of unprecedented magnitude. PMID:7673667

  16. Gravity wave transmission diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomikawa, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A new method of obtaining power spectral distribution of gravity waves as a function of ground-based horizontal phase speed and propagation direction from airglow observations has recently been proposed. To explain gravity wave power spectrum anisotropy, a new gravity wave transmission diagram was developed in this study. Gravity wave transmissivity depends on the existence of critical and turning levels for waves that are determined by background horizontal wind distributions. Gravity wave transmission diagrams for different horizontal wavelengths in simple background horizontal winds with constant vertical shear indicate that the effects of the turning level reflection are significant and strongly dependent on the horizontal wavelength.

  17. Observation of Resistive and Ferritic Wall Modes in a Line-Tied Pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Bergerson, W. F.; Hannum, D. A.; Hegna, C. C.; Kendrick, R. D.; Sarff, J. S.; Forest, C. B.

    2008-12-05

    The resistive wall mode is experimentally identified and characterized in a line-tied, cylindrical screw pinch when the edge safety factor is less than a critical value. Different wall materials have been used to change the wall time and show that the growth rates for the RWM scale with wall time and safety factor as expected by theory. The addition of a ferritic wall material outside the conducting shell leads to growth rates larger than the observed RWM and larger than theoretical predictions for the ferritic wall mode.

  18. Near-field enhanced ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy using aluminum bow-tie nano-antenna

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling; Fang Lim, Shuang; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Riehn, Robert; Hallen, H. D.

    2012-01-01

    An aluminum bow-tie nano-antenna is combined with the resonance Raman effect in the deep ultraviolet to dramatically increase the sensitivity of Raman spectra to a small volume of material, such as benzene used here. We further demonstrate gradient-field Raman peaks for several strong infrared modes. We achieve a gain of ?105 in signal intensity from the near field enhancement due to the surface plasmon resonance in the aluminum nanostructure. The on-line resonance enhancement contributes another factor of several thousands, limited by the laser line width. Thus, an overall gain of hundreds of million is achieved. PMID:23066168

  19. Much ado about nothing: two millenia of controversy on tongue-tie.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Tongue-tie, or ankyloglossia, is poorly defined and involves a short, thick, fibrosed, or fixed lingual frenulum. Operative interventions were proposed already in Greek medicine. In the Middle Ages, competition arose between midwives, who used their nails to detach the frenulum, and surgeons, who were allowed to use instruments. During the last century, the justification for frenotomy shifted from improved language to enhanced feeding. Despite the high frequency of the intervention, little research has been performed on its benefit, which remains a controversial topic among different groups of health professionals. PMID:19707023

  20. Static Dissipative Cable Ties, Such as for Radiation Belt Storm Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langley, Patrick T. (Inventor); Siddique, Fazle E. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods of cyclically heating and cooling an article formed of a static dissipative ETFE resin, such as to reduce an electrical resistivity and/or to increase a tensile strength of the article, and methods of irradiating an article formed of a static dissipative ETFE resin, such as to increase a tensile strength of the article. Also disclosed herein are articles formed of a static dissipative ETFE resin, and processed in accordance with methods disclosed herein. Such an article may include, for example and without limitation, a cable strap to wrap, support, and/or secure one or more wires or cables, such as a cable tie.

  1. Millimeter-wave near-field imaging with bow-tie antennas.

    PubMed

    Omarouayache, Rachid; Payet, Pierre; Raoult, Jérémy; Chusseau, Laurent

    2015-05-01

    A near-field reflectometry experiment operating at 60 GHz is built in view of material and circuit inspection. Experiments are always obtained in constant height mode of operation. The bow-tie near-field probe acts mostly as a linearly-polarized electric dipole and allows strongly subwavelength resolution of ≈ λ/130. Its interaction with sample is shown polarization dependent and sensitive to both the local topography and the local dielectric constant or metal conductivity. Resonant and non-resonant probes are both evaluated. PMID:25969302

  2. Tractor Transmissions. A Teaching Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Agricultural Engineering and Vocational Agriculture, Athens, GA.

    The manual was developed as a reference for teaching students about transmissions in farm tractors. The manual is divided into five sections: (1) transmission history, (2) gears and bearings in transmission, (3) sliding-gear transmissions, (4) planetary gearing, and (5) glossary. The working principles of the sliding-gear transmission, the most

  3. Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, S.; Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2010-07-01

    This report describes transmission cost allocation methodologies for transmission projects developed to maintain or enhance reliability, to interconnect new generators, or to access new resources and enhance competitive bulk power markets, otherwise known as economic transmission projects.

  4. Transmission of bilharziasis

    PubMed Central

    Webbe, G.

    1965-01-01

    Accurate quantitative assessment is essential to any study of disease transmission; in relation to the transmission of bilharziasis the most important characteristics that have to be determined include density, reproduction and mortality rates, the age and sex structure of the population, dispersion and the intrinsic rate of natural increase (the biotic potential). The author discusses techniques that have been developed to yield this and other information and stresses the need to evaluate such techniques objectively. Some basic principles of population ecology are defined and discussed in relation to the control of transmission. It is considered that laboratory studies can be usefully carried on in conjunction with field work but that they cannot be substituted for field investigations in determining the parameters of bilharziasis transmission for a given area. PMID:5294586

  5. Down hole transmission system

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT)

    2007-07-24

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. The electrically conducting coil comprises at least two generally fractional loops. In the preferred embodiment, the transmission elements are connected by an electrical conductor. Preferably, the electrical conductor is a coaxial cable. Preferably, the MCEI trough comprises ferrite. In the preferred embodiment, the fractional loops are connected by a connecting cable. In one aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a pair of twisted wires. In one embodiment the connecting cable is a shielded pair of twisted wires. In another aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a coaxial cable. The connecting cable may be disposed outside of the MCEI circular trough.

  6. Multiplex television transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, W. R.

    1967-01-01

    Time-multiplexing system enables several cameras to share a single commercial television transmission channel. This system is useful in industries for visually monitoring several operating areas or instrument panels from a remote location.

  7. Transmission of Mumps

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Articles Outbreak Articles Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Transmission of Mumps Language: English Español (Spanish) ... Hands Save Lives! Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: ...

  8. Chickenpox (Varicella): Transmission

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Resources Multimedia Related Links Medline Plus Healthfinder.gov Shingles Transmission Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... Chickenpox can also be spread from people with shingles . Varicella-zoster virus also causes shingles. A person ...

  9. Downhole transmission system

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe

    2008-01-15

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. An electrical conductor connects both the transmission elements. The electrical conductor comprises at least three electrically conductive elements insulated from each other. In the preferred embodiment the electrical conductor comprises an electrically conducting outer shield, an electrically conducting inner shield and an electrical conducting core. In some embodiments of the present invention, the electrical conductor comprises an electrically insulating jacket. In other embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises a pair of twisted wires. In some embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises semi-conductive material.

  10. Multistate differential transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, B.

    1987-09-01

    A multistate transmission is described having an input shaft and an output shaft comprising: a. planetary gear train means having a ring gear, planetary gears with planetary gear carrier, and a sun gear, the planetary gear train means connected to the output shaft; b. first bypass means connecting the input shaft to the planetary gear train means; c. differential transmission means for receiving its input from the input shaft and having means to adjust the torque and speed output infinitely variable over its range of operation for each state of the transmission; d. power return means for receiving the output of the differential transmission means; e. means including clutch operated speed reversing means for interconnecting the sun gear in the planetary gear train means with the power return means; f. the power return means including a first gear to receive the output of the differential transmission means; g. first multispeed transmission means connecting the means for supporting the carrier shaft to the first bypass means.

  11. National transmission grid study

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, Spencer

    2003-05-31

    The National Energy Policy Plan directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a study to examine the benefits of establishing a national electricity transmission grid and to identify transmission bottlenecks and measures to address them. DOE began by conducting an independent analysis of U.S. electricity markets and identifying transmission system bottlenecks using DOE’s Policy Office Electricity Modeling System (POEMS). DOE’s analysis, presented in Section 2, confirms the central role of the nation’s transmission system in lowering costs to consumers through increased trade. More importantly, DOE’s analysis also confirms the results of previous studies, which show that transmission bottlenecks and related transmission system market practices are adding hundreds of millions of dollars to consumers’ electricity bills each year. A more detailed technical overview of the use of POEMS is provided in Appendix A. DOE led an extensive, open, public input process and heard a wide range of comments and recommendations that have all been considered.1 More than 150 participants registered for three public workshops held in Detroit, MI (September 24, 2001); Atlanta, GA (September 26, 2001); and Phoenix, AZ (September 28, 2001).

  12. 77 FR 6554 - Zephyr Power Transmission, LLC; Pathfinder Power Transmission, LLC; Duke-American Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Zephyr Power Transmission, LLC; Pathfinder Power Transmission, LLC; Duke... (Commission), 18 CFR 381.302, Zephyr Power Transmission, LLC (Zephyr), Pathfinder Power Transmission, LLC (PPT... to exercise its negotiated rate authority for Zephyr Power Transmission Project; (2) that...

  13. Phase Diagram and Tie-Line Determination for the Ternary Mixture DOPC/eSM/Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Bezlyepkina, N.; Gracià, R.S.; Shchelokovskyy, P.; Lipowsky, R.; Dimova, R.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel, to our knowledge, method for the determination of tie lines in a phase diagram of ternary lipid mixtures. The method was applied to a system consisting of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), egg sphingomyelin (eSM), and cholesterol (Chol). The approach is based on electrofusion of single- or two-component homogeneous giant vesicles in the fluid phase and analyses of the domain areas of the fused vesicle. The electrofusion approach enables us to create three-component vesicles with precisely controlled composition, in contrast to conventional methods for giant vesicle formation. The tie lines determined in the two-liquid-phase coexistence region are found to be not parallel, suggesting that the dominant mechanism of lipid phase separation in this region changes with the membrane composition. We provide a phase diagram of the DOPC/eSM/Chol mixture and predict the location of the critical point. Finally, we evaluate the Gibbs free energy of transfer of individual lipid components from one phase to the other. PMID:23561522

  14. Physical experience leads to enhanced object perception in parietal cortex: insights from knot tying.

    PubMed

    Cross, Emily S; Cohen, Nichola Rice; Hamilton, Antonia F de C; Ramsey, Richard; Wolford, George; Grafton, Scott T

    2012-12-01

    What does it mean to "know" what an object is? Viewing objects from different categories (e.g., tools vs. animals) engages distinct brain regions, but it is unclear whether these differences reflect object categories themselves or the tendency to interact differently with objects from different categories (grasping tools, not animals). Here we test how the brain constructs representations of objects that one learns to name or physically manipulate. Participants learned to name or tie different knots and brain activity was measured whilst performing a perceptual discrimination task with these knots before and after training. Activation in anterior intraparietal sulcus, a region involved in object manipulation, was specifically engaged when participants viewed knots they learned to tie. This suggests that object knowledge is linked to sensorimotor experience and its associated neural systems for object manipulation. Findings are consistent with a theory of embodiment in which there can be clear overlap in brain systems that support conceptual knowledge and control of object manipulation. PMID:23022108

  15. Venous malformation-causative TIE2 mutations mediate an AKT-dependent decrease in PDGFB

    PubMed Central

    Uebelhoer, Melanie; Ntynki, Marjut; Kangas, Jaakko; Mendola, Antonella; Nguyen, Ha-Long; Soblet, Julie; Godfraind, Catherine; Boon, Laurence M.; Eklund, Lauri; Limaye, Nisha; Vikkula, Miikka

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the endothelial cell (EC) tyrosine kinase receptor TIE2 cause inherited and sporadic forms of venous malformation. The recurrent somatic mutation L914F and common germline mutation R849W differ in terms of phosphorylation level, as well as sub-cellular localization and trafficking of the receptor. Previous studies have shed light on certain pathogenic properties of R849W, but the mechanisms of action of L914F are unknown. We used global gene expression profiling to study the effects of L914F on ECs. We found that L914F strongly dysregulates genes involved in vascular development, cell migration and extracellular matrix processing, while R849W has weak effects. We also demonstrate, for the first time, that TIE2-mutant ECs are deficient in the production of PDGFB, both in vitro and ex vivo in patient tissues. This defect is mediated by the chronic, ligand-independent activation of AKT by the mutant receptors. Inadequate secretion of the major mural cell attractant likely plays an important role in the development of abnormal vascular channels, contributing to the characteristic paucity of surrounding vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:23633549

  16. Diarrhea and intestinal invasiveness of Aeromonas strains in the removable intestinal tie rabbit model.

    PubMed Central

    Pazzaglia, G; Sack, R B; Bourgeois, A L; Froehlich, J; Eckstein, J

    1990-01-01

    Twelve Aeromonas strains were tested for virulence by using the removable intestinal tie adult rabbit diarrhea model. Mortality was 50% or greater for 7 of 12 strains; 23 of 37 rabbits that died developed diarrhea before death, and 11 of 27 surviving rabbits developed diarrhea. Aeromonas bacteremia was detected in 36 of 37 (97%) animals that died, but only in 2 of 27 (7%) survivors. Death, diarrhea, and bacteremia were all strongly strain dependent. Gastrointestinal lesions varied from moderate focal enteritis to severe multifocal necrosis and hemorrhage of the ileal mucosa, often accompanied by hepatic and splenic lesions. Intestinal colonization assays performed after infection indicated that the ileum was the most heavily colonized portion of the gut and the probable site of invasion. The application of the removable intestinal tie adult rabbit diarrhea model for intestinal challenge with Aeromonas strains has shown that some isolates are capable of invading the mucosa of rabbits, causing diarrhea and bacteremia. These data suggest that such strains may be important in causing human invasive diarrhea. Images PMID:2341185

  17. Contrasting effects of strong ties on SIR and SIS processes in temporal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kaiyuan; Baronchelli, Andrea; Perra, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    Most real networks are characterized by connectivity patterns that evolve in time following complex, non-Markovian, dynamics. Here we investigate the impact of this ubiquitous feature by studying the Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) and Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) epidemic models on activity driven networks with and without memory (i.e., Markovian and non-Markovian). We find that memory inhibits the spreading process in SIR models by shifting the epidemic threshold to larger values and reducing the final fraction of recovered nodes. On the contrary, in SIS processes memory reduces the epidemic threshold and, for a wide range of disease parameters, increases the fraction of nodes affected by the disease in the endemic state. The heterogeneity in tie strengths, and the frequent repetition of strong ties it entails, allows in fact less virulent SIS-like diseases to survive in tightly connected local clusters that serve as reservoir for the virus. We validate this picture by studying both processes on two real temporal networks.

  18. Rotating kink modes in a non-line tied plasma column in the Reconnection Scaling experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madziwa-Nussinov, Tsitsi; Ryutov, Dmitri; Abbate, Sara

    2005-10-01

    The screw pinch is one of the simplest MHD equilibria, and is relevant to fusion physics, astro-physics, and basic plasma physics. It has been studied for many years, but usually in the context of a periodic toroidal plasma column. Reconnection Scaling Experiment (RSX)[1] is a cylindrical device built to study the linear and non-linear evolution of the current carrying screw pinch. A plasma column is injected into one end of the chamber from a plasma gun, and terminates at an anode that can be biased to draw current. This anode acts as an adjustable non-line tied end boundary for the column. Line-tying appears to give rise to several unexpected characteristics including finite rotation frequency, and a kink instability threshold less than the Kruskal Shafranov predictions. Experimental data is compared to a phenomenological theory of the kink instability developed for a slender plasma[2] column, including effects such as boundary conditions at the electrodes, finite plasma resistivity and axial flow. [1] I. Furno et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2324 (2003).2] D. Ryutov et al., to be submitted to Phys. Plasmas.

  19. Physical experience leads to enhanced object perception in parietal cortex: Insights from knot tying

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Emily S.; Cohen, Nichola Rice; de Hamilton, Antonia F. C.; Ramsey, Richard; Wolford, George; Grafton, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    What does it mean to know what an object is? Viewing objects from different categories (e.g., tools vs. animals) engages distinct brain regions, but it is unclear whether these differences reflect object categories themselves or the tendency to interact differently with objects from different categories (grasping tools, not animals). Here we test how the brain constructs representations of objects that one learns to name or physically manipulate. Participants learned to name or tie different knots and brain activity was measured whilst performing a perceptual discrimination task with these knots before and after training. Activation in anterior intraparietal sulcus, a region involved in object manipulation, was specifically engaged when participants viewed knots they learned to tie. This suggests that object knowledge is linked to sensorimotor experience and its associated neural systems for object manipulation. Findings are consistent with a theory of embodiment in which there can be clear overlap in brain systems that support conceptual knowledge and control of object manipulation. PMID:23022108

  20. The influence of body weight on social network ties among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mir M; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr; Rizzo, John A

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of negative stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination towards obese individuals has been widely documented. However, the effect of a larger body size on social network ties or friendship formations is less well understood. In this paper, we explore the extent to which higher body weight results in social marginalization of adolescents. Using data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents, we estimate endogeneity-corrected models including school-level fixed effects that account for bi-directionality and unobserved confounders to ascertain the effect of body weight on social network ties. We find that obese adolescents have fewer friends and are less socially integrated than their non-obese counterparts. We also find that such penalties in friendship networks are present among whites but not African-Americans or Hispanics, with the largest effect among white females. These results are robust to common environmental influences at the school-level and to controls for preferences, risk attitudes, low self-esteem and objective measures of physical attractiveness. PMID:22056235

  1. Technical Note: Measurement of bow tie profiles in CT scanners using radiochromic film

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, Bruce R.; Dohatcu, Andreea C.; Evans, Joshua D.; Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Politte, David G.

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To provide a noninvasive technique to measure the intensity profile of the fan beam in a computed tomography (CT) scanner that is cost effective and easily implemented without the need to access proprietary scanner information or service modes. Methods: The fabrication of an inexpensive aperture is described, which is used to expose radiochromic film in a rotating CT gantry. A series of exposures is made, each of which is digitized on a personal computer document scanner, and the resulting data set is analyzed to produce a self-consistent calibration of relative radiation exposure. The bow tie profiles were analyzed to determine the precision of the process and were compared to two other measurement techniques, direct measurements from CT gantry detectors and a dynamic dosimeter. Results: The radiochromic film method presented here can measure radiation exposures with a precision of ?6% root-mean-square relative error. The intensity profiles have a maximum 25% root-mean-square relative error compared with existing techniques. Conclusions: The proposed radiochromic film method for measuring bow tie profiles is an inexpensive (?$100 USD + film costs), noninvasive method to measure the fan beam intensity profile in CT scanners.

  2. PREECLAMPSIA AND SMALL FOR GESTATIONAL AGE ARE ASSOCIATED WITH DECREASED CONCENTRATIONS OF A FACTOR INVOLVED IN ANGIOGENESIS: SOLUBLE TIE-2

    PubMed Central

    Gotsch, Francesca; Romero, Roberto; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Dombrowski, Michael; Erez, Offer; Than, Nandor Gabor; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Mittal, Pooja; Espinoza, Jimmy; Hassan, Sonia S

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE An anti-angiogenic state has been described in patients with preeclampsia, small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses and fetal death, and changes in the concentration of circulating angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors can precede the clinical recognition of preeclampsia and small for gestational age by several weeks. Gene deletion studies demonstrate that a selective group of endothelial growth factors are required for vascular development, including members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family, as well as Angiopoietin-1 and Angiopoietin-2, both ligands for the tyrosine kinase endothelial cell receptor Tie-2. These angiogenic factors have been proposed to promote angiogenesis in a coordinated and complementary fashion. Soluble Tie-2 (sTie-2) is the soluble form of the Tie-2 receptor which is detectable in biological fluids. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients with preeclampsia and mothers who deliver a small for gestational age neonate have changes in the plasma concentrations of sTie-2. STUDY DESIGN This cross-sectional study included patients in the following groups: 1) non-pregnant women (n=40); 2) women with normal pregnancies (n=135); 3) patients with preeclampsia (n=112); and 4) patients who delivered a small for gestational age (SGA) neonate (n=53). Maternal plasma concentrations of sTie-2 were measured by a sensitive immunoassay. Parametric statistics were used for analysis. RESULTS 1) The median maternal plasma concentration of sTie-2 was lower in normal pregnant women than in non-pregnant women [median 16.0 ng/ml (range 5.0–71.6) vs. median 20.7 ng/ml (range 10.8–52.4), respectively; p=0.01)]; 2) Plasma sTie-2 concentrations in normal pregnancy changed significantly as a function of gestational age; 3) Patients with preeclampsia and those who delivered SGA neonates had a lower median maternal plasma concentration of sTie-2 than those with a normal pregnancy [Preeclampsia: median 14.9 ng/ml (range 4.9–67.3); SGA: median 10.9 ng/ml (range 5.1–29.1); Normal pregnancy: median 16.0 ng/ml (range 5.0–71.6); p=0.048 and p<0.001, respectively]; 4) Patients with SGA neonates had a lower median plasma concentration of sTie-2 than that of those with preeclampsia [median 10.9 ng/ml (range 5.1–29.1) vs. median 14.9 ng/ml (range 4.9–67.3), respectively; p<0.001)]; and 5) Patients with early-onset preeclampsia (≤34 weeks) had lower concentrations of sTie-2 than women with late-onset preeclampsia (>34 weeks) [median of delta values: −0.13 ng/ml (range −0.47–0.58) vs. median of delta values: −0.09 ng/ml (range: −0.60–0.58), respectively; p=0.043]. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the maternal plasma sTie-2 concentration between women with severe and mild preeclampsia (p=0.6). CONCLUSION Patients with preeclampsia and those with SGA fetuses have lower median plasma concentrations of soluble Tie-2 than women with normal pregnancies. PMID:18570117

  3. Infinitely variable steering transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, B.O.

    1989-04-04

    A steering transmission is described comprising: first and second drive units each driven at a substantially constant speed for producing respective first and second unidirectional, continuous outputs infinitely variable between a minimum speed and a maximum speed; a first output planetary gear drivingly connected to a first transmission output; a second output planetary gear set drivingly connected to a second transmission output; an input gear set; means interconnecting the first and second output planetary gear sets; means connecting the first drive unit to the first output planetary gear set; means applying the second drive unit output to the second output planetary gear set; means applying a substantially constant speed input to the input gear set; means for selectively conditioning the input gear set to drive the one output planetary gear set at a speed having a first predetermined fixed ratio to the constant speed input, whereby to operate the transmission in one speed range; and means for selectively applying the first drive unit output to second output planetary gear set, whereby to operate the transmission in another speed range different from the one speed range.

  4. Torque feedback transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, B.L.

    1987-01-20

    This patent describes an infinitely variable transmission of inline configuration for interconnecting a primer mover with a load for clutch free operation in a range of speed including hydraulic neutral comprising: a. planetary gear train means having a ring gear, planetary gears supported by a planetary gear carrier, and a sun gear, the sun gear being connected mechanically to the load, output shaft means for joining the sun gear to the load; b. variable torque feedback means comprising (i) a variable displacement hydraulic motor whose rotor shaft is in line with the output shaft means and drivingly connected to the prime mover and the planetary gear carrier during the full range of operation of the transmission, and (ii) a fixed displacement hydraulic pump connected hydraulically to the motor, the rotor shaft of the pump being connected mechanically to the ring gear and being axially displaced from the output shaft means; c. means for adjusting the displacement volume within the hydraulic motor for controlling the torque feedback in the transmission to provide infinitely variable coupling between the prime mover and the load over the full range of the transmission including hydraulic neutral; d. a speed reducer between the primer mover and the motor rotor shaft and a speed multiplier between the sun gear and the load; and e. mechanical transmission assembly means between the speed multiplier and the load in line with the motor rotor shaft and the output shaft means for providing selection of drive, reverse, park, and neutral.

  5. Contrast Transmission In Rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winchester, L. W., Jr.; Gimmestad, G. G.; Jackovich, J. E.

    1983-09-01

    While the propagation of visible and infrared radiation in adverse weather has been studied by many investigators, the effect of rain on contrast transmission or visual range have received little attention. A theoretical and experimental program examining contrast transmission in adverse weather will be described in this paper. Measurements of contrast transmission were made using bar targets consisting of parallel flourescent light bulbs. The bulb spacing is four times the bulb diameter. Data is obtained by photographing the target from a distance of two hundred meters using a camera fitted with an eight-hundred millimeter lens under both clear and obscured conditions. The negatives are then analyzed using a microdensitometer and contrast is defined by C = (I MAX - i MAX + i MIN)-1 where I-MAX and I-MIN are the intensity maximum and minimum, respectively. In addition to contrast measurements, simultaneous measurements of atmospheric transmission, snow particle phase function, and all relevant weather parameters are made. A computer model, based on scattering theory, has been developed for predicting contrast transmission. The model computes zero, first and second order scattering contributions in a three-dimensional atmosphere using phase function computations based on Mie theory.

  6. Hybrid Transmission Corridor study

    SciTech Connect

    Clairmont, B.A.; Johnson, G.B.; Zaffanella, L.E. )

    1992-06-01

    Hybrid Transmission Corridors are areas where High Voltage Alternating Current (HVAC) transmission lines and High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission lines exist in close proximity of each other. Because of the acceptance of HVDC as a means of transporting electric power over long distances and the difficulties associated with obtaining new right-of-ways, HVDC lines may have to share the same transmission corridor with HVAC lines. The interactions between conductors energized with different types of voltages causes changes in the electrical stresses applied to the conductors and insulators. As a result, corona phenomena, field effects and insulation performance can be affected. This report presents the results of an investigation of the HVAC-HVDC interaction and its effect on corona and AC and DC electric field phenomena. The method of investigation was based on calculation methods developed at the EPRI High Voltage Transmission Research Center (HVTRC) and supported by the results of full and reduced-scale line tests. Also, a survey of existing hybrid corridors is given along with the results of measurements made at one of those corridors. A number of examples in which an existing AC corridor may be transformed into a hybrid corridor are discussed. The main result of the research is an analytical/empirical model for predicting the electrical/environmental performance of hybrid corridors, a definition of ACDC interaction and a set of criteria for specifying when the interaction becomes significant, and a set of design rules.

  7. Automotive transmission linkage system

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, F.Y.; Ardayfio, D.D.

    1990-10-02

    This patent describes a system for converting a manual multi-speed transmission to operate as an automatic-manual transmission, the system being disposed within a vehicle, the transmission having a conventional gearshift lever and a clutch pedal. It comprises: a gearshift position selection panel, the panel being located apart from the gearshift lever, the panel enabling a driver to select the desired gear position of the gearshift lever by manipulating the panel without the necessity of the driver handling the gearshift lever; a controller which transforms the gearshift selection of the driver to an output signal, the signal corresponding to the gearshift position selected by the driver; and actuating means for mechanically repositioning the gearshift lever automatically in accordance with the output signal.

  8. Advanced rotorcraft transmission program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is an Army-funded, joint Army/NASA program to develop and demonstrate lightweight, quiet, durable drivetrain systems for next generation rotorcraft. ART addresses the drivetrain requirements of two distinct next generation aircraft classes: Future Air Attack Vehicle, a 10,000 to 20,000 lb. aircraft capable of undertaking tactical support and air-to-air missions; and Advanced Cargo Aircraft, a 60,000 to 80,000 lb. aircraft capable of heavy life field support operations. Both tiltrotor and more conventional helicopter configurations are included in the ART program. Specific objectives of ART include reduction of drivetrain weight by 25 percent compared to baseline state-of-the-art drive systems configured and sized for the next generation aircraft, reduction of noise level at the transmission source by 10 dB relative to a suitably sized and configured baseline, and attainment of at least a 5000 hr mean-time-between-removal. The technical approach for achieving the ART goals includes application of the latest available component, material, and lubrication technology to advanced concept drivetrains that utilize new ideas in gear configuration, transmission layout, and airframe/drivetrain integration. To date, candidate drivetrain systems were carried to a conceptual design stage, and tradeoff studies were conducted resulting in selection of an ART transmission configuration for each of the four contractors. The final selection was based on comparative weight, noise, and reliability studies. A description of each of the selected ART designs is included. Preliminary design of each of the four selected ART transmission was completed, as have mission impact studies wherein comparisons of aircraft mission performance and life cycle costs are undertaken for the next generation aircraft with ART and with the baseline transmission.

  9. Transmission line capital costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.

  10. Implications of MODIS bow-tie distortion on aerosol optical depth retrievals, and techniques for mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.

    2015-12-01

    The scan geometry of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors, combined with the Earth's curvature, results in a pixel shape distortion known as the "bow-tie effect". Specifically, sensor pixels near the edge of the swath are elongated along-track and across-track compared to pixels near the centre of the swath, resulting in an increase of pixel area by up to a factor of ∼ 9 and, additionally, the overlap of pixels acquired from consecutive scans. The Deep Blue and Dark Target aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval algorithms aggregate sensor pixels and provide level 2 (L2) AOD at a nominal horizontal pixel size of 10 km, but the bow-tie distortion means that they also suffer from this size increase and overlap. This means that the spatial characteristics of the data vary as a function of satellite viewing zenith angle (VZA) and, for VZA > 30°, corresponding to approximately 50 % of the data, are areally enlarged by a factor of 50 % or more compared to this nominal pixel area and are not spatially independent of each other. This has implications for retrieval uncertainty and aggregated statistics, causing a narrowing of AOD distributions near the edge of the swath, as well as for data comparability from the application of similar algorithms to sensors without this level of bow-tie distortion. Additionally, the pixel overlap is not obvious to users of the L2 aerosol products because only pixel centres, not boundaries, are provided within the L2 products. A two-step procedure is proposed to mitigate the effects of this distortion on the MODIS aerosol products. The first (simple) step involves changing the order in which pixels are aggregated in L2 processing to reflect geographical location rather than scan order, which removes the bulk of the overlap between L2 pixels and slows the rate of growth of L2 pixel size vs. VZA. This can be achieved without significant changes to existing MODIS processing algorithms. The second step involves additionally changing the number of sensor pixels aggregated across-track as a function of VZA, which preserves L2 pixel size at around 10 km × 10 km across the whole swath but would require algorithmic quality assurance tests to be re-evaluated. Both of these steps also improve the extent to which the pixel locations a user would infer from the L2 data products represent the actual spatial extent of the L2 pixels.

  11. Small passenger car transmission test: Dodge Omni A-404 transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid eighty percent range for both drive performance test and coast performance tests.

  12. Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1981-01-01

    The testing of a Mercury Lynx automatic transmission is reported. The transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-ninety percent range both for drive performance test and coast performance tests. The torque, speed, and efficiency curves are presented, which provide the complete performance characteristics for the Mercury Lynx automatic transmission.

  13. An energy-efficient tie-type architecture for stable and wavelength-tunable SOA-based fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, C. H.; Chow, C. W.; Wu, Y. F.; Lu, S. S.

    2012-10-01

    A new and energy-efficient tie-type architecture for stable and wavelength-tunable semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA)-based fiber ring laser is proposed and experimentally investigated. Here, the tie-type laser configuration is constructed by two Sagnac fiber loops. The proposed laser also can extend the lasing wavelength to longer wavelength (L-band) even only the C-band SOA is used. The proposed tie-type architecture has >5 dB higher output optical power at bias current of 80 mA when compared with the single ring SOA-based fiber laser. In this measurement, the output power, wavelength tuning range, side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) and output stability of proposed fiber laser have also been analyzed and discussed.

  14. Licklider Transmission Protocol Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Krupiarz, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This software is an implementation of the Licklider Transmission Protocol (LTP), a communications protocol intended to support the Bundle Protocol in Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) operations. LTP is designed to provide retransmission-based reliability over links characterized by extremely long message round-trip times and/or frequent interruptions in connectivity. Communication in interplanetary space is the most prominent example of this sort of environment, and LTP is principally aimed at supporting long-haul reliable transmission over deep-space RF links. Like any reliable transport service employing ARQ (Automatic Repeat re-Quests), LTP is stateful. In order to assure the reception of a block of data it has sent, LTP must retain for possible retransmission all portions of that block which might not have been received yet. In order to do so, it must keep track of which portions of the block are known to have been received so far, and which are not, together with any additional information needed for purposes of retransmitting part, or all, of the block. Long round-trip times mean substantial delay between the transmission of a block of data and the reception of an acknowledgement from the block s destination, signaling arrival of the block. If LTP postponed transmission of additional blocks of data until it received acknowledgement of the arrival of all prior blocks, valuable opportunities to use what little deep space transmission bandwidth is available would be forever lost. For this reason, LTP is based in part on a notion of massive state retention. Any number of requested transmission conversations (sessions) may be concurrently in flight at various displacements along the link between two LTP engines, and the LTP engines must necessarily retain transmission status and retransmission resources for all of them. Moreover, if any of the data of a given block are lost en route, it will be necessary to retain the state of that transmission during an additional round trip while the lost data are retransmitted; even multiple retransmission cycles may be necessary. LTP's possible multiplicity of sessions per association makes it necessary for each segment of application data to include an additional demultiplexing token: a session ID that uniquely identifies the session in which the segment was issued and, implicitly, the block of data being conveyed by this session. This software comprises a prototype implementation developed by Johns Hopkins University APL in cooperation with JPL, together with adaptations that improve the robustness, correctness, and operability of that implementation.

  15. Facsimile transmission of microforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saffady, W.

    1983-12-01

    Libraries and technical information centers are storing increasingly large amounts of information in microform. In the process, they have generated a tremendous problem in delivering documents to the end user. When needed research documents are available in microform, no rapid transmission of the information contained in them is possible. Mailing microforms is too slow a method to meet information needs of today's researcher. Some form of telefacsimile transmission of microform is needed. This study is designed to describe the current status of the technology, and to recommend directions for future research and development.

  16. Disturbance legacies of historic tie-drives persistently alter geomorphology and large wood characteristics in headwater streams, southeast Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffing, Claire M.; Daniels, Melinda D.; Dwire, Kathleen A.

    2015-02-01

    Instream wood is recognized as an integral component of stream morphology in forested areas. However, few studies have evaluated the legacy effects of historic wood removal activities and associated impacts on channel morphology, contemporary wood loading, and recruitment. This study investigates the role of historic tie-driving, a widespread channel disturbance legacy, in shaping present-day stream channel conditions in southern Wyoming. Geomorphic and riparian surveys were used to assess the extent of disturbance and degree of recovery within three sets of paired tie-driven and non-driven study reaches. Tie-driven streams were narrower, shallower, and had low cross-sectional roughness and higher width-to-depth ratios when compared to non-driven streams. Study reaches in first-order tie-driven streams were characterized by predominantly plane-bed morphologies and an extremely low abundance of wood compared to paired, non-driven reaches. Wood loads in second-order tie-driven reaches were similar to non-driven reaches, but overall wood distribution varied and was more likely to accumulate in jams. Existing wood loads in tie-driven reaches exhibited a narrower range of geomorphic functions and were less stable overall, although the relative state of decay was similar across all reaches. Basal area, stream power, and reach slope were identified as key mechanisms driving wood retention in the study reaches. The results of this study suggest that contemporary channel morphology and wood loads continue to reflect disturbance histories but have not yet been affected by other contemporary disturbances expected to influence wood loads such as bark beetle infestations.

  17. Tie2-mediated loss of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? in mice causes PDGF receptor-?-dependent pulmonary arterial muscularization

    PubMed Central

    Guignabert, C.; Alvira, C. M.; Alastalo, T.-P.; Sawada, H.; Hansmann, G.; Zhao, M.; Wang, L.; El-Bizri, N.

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? is reduced in pulmonary arteries (PAs) of patients with PA hypertension (PAH), and we reported that deletion of PPAR? in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of transgenic mice results in PAH. However, the sequelae of loss of PPAR? in PA endothelial cells (ECs) are unknown. Therefore, we bred Tie2-Cre mice with PPAR?flox/flox mice to induce EC loss of PPAR? (Tie2 PPAR??/?), and we assessed PAH by right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), RV hypertrophy (RVH), and muscularized distal PAs in room air (RA), after chronic hypoxia (CH), and after 4 wk of recovery in RA (Rec-RA). The Tie2 PPAR??/? mice developed spontaneous PAH in RA with increased RVSP, RVH, and muscularized PAs vs. wild type (WT); both genotypes exhibited a similar degree of PAH following chronic hypoxia, but Tie2 PPAR??/? mice had more residual PAH compared with WT mice after Rec-RA. The Tie2 PPAR??/? vs. WT mice in RA had increased platelet-derived growth factor receptor-? (PDGF-R?) expression and signaling, despite an elevation in the PPAR? target apolipoprotein E, an inhibitor of PDGF signaling. Inhibition of PDGF-R? signaling with imatinib, however, was sufficient to reverse the PAH observed in the Tie2 PPAR??/? mice. Thus the disruption of PPAR? signaling in EC is sufficient to cause mild PAH and to impair recovery from CH-induced PAH. Inhibition of heightened PDGF-R? signaling is sufficient to reverse PAH in this genetic model. PMID:19801450

  18. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Ikezi, H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; DeGrassie, J.S.

    1991-08-27

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other. 5 figures.

  19. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Ikezi, Hiroyuki (Rancho Santa Fe, CA); Lin-Liu, Yuh-Ren (San Diego, CA); DeGrassie, John S. (Encinitas, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other.

  20. The design and development of a spacecraft appendage tie down mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nygren, W. D.; Head, R.

    1985-01-01

    The design and evolution is described of a spacecraft Appendage Tie Down Mechanism (ATDM). Particular emphasis is paid to the mechanical aspects of using dry lubricants to increase the efficiency of acme threads and worm gearing. The ATDM consists of five major components. These are a dc torque motor, a worm gear speed reducer, the tension bolt (or T-bolt), nut capture and centering jaws and the capture nut. In addition, there are several minor components such as limit switch assemblies and an antibackdrive mechanism which couples the drive motor to the worm shaft. A development model of the ATDM in various configurations was under test for some time. In its latest version, it has successfully completed thermal vacuum testing, vibration testing, and extended life testing.

  1. Creosote released from railway-ties recycled and the sanitary risks.

    PubMed

    Zicari, Giuseppe; Allegro, Giuseppe; Russo, Domenico; Rivetti, Daniela; Soardo, Vincenzo; Cerrato, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Through the history of railways, wooden crossties impregnated with potentially hazardous creosote tar, have been used for years. There are six major classes of compounds in the creosote: aromatic hydrocarbons; tar acids/phenolics; tar bases/nitrogen-containing heterocycles; aromatic amines; sulfur-containing heterocycles; and oxygen-containing heterocycles. The creosote molecules applied in railway crossties can be released in the environment and they can bioaccumulate in animals and vegetables. Some constituents (benzo(a)pyrene and phenolics like benzene) are considered as being carcinogenic which renders the entire complex of creosote to be classified as potentially carcinogenic. After several decades of use the railway-ties are been recycled for varies uses like fences, stakes for agriculture and fruit production or bank protection. In this paper are examined some environmental and sanitary risks from wood impregnated with creosote reported in the literature. PMID:23743701

  2. Strong ties promote the epidemic prevalence in susceptible-infected-susceptible spreading dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Ai-Xiang; Yang, Zimo; Zhou, Tao

    2016-03-01

    We propose a weighted susceptible-infected-susceptible model on complex networks, where the weight of an edge is defined by the topological proximity of the two associated nodes. Each infected individual is allowed to select a limited number of neighbors to contact, and a tunable parameter is introduced to control the preference to contact through high-weight or low-weight edges. Simulation results on six real networks show that the epidemic prevalence can be largely promoted when strong ties are favored. By comparing with two statistical null models, we show that the distribution pattern of weights, rather than the topological structure, mainly contributes to the observations. Further analysis suggests that the weight-weight correlation strongly affects the results: high-weight edges are more significant in keeping high epidemic prevalence when the weight-weight correlation is positive.

  3. Selective removal of organic contaminants from sediments: A methodology for toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lebo, J.A.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.; Ho, K.T.; Stern, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    Aqueous slurries of a test sediment spiked with dibenz[a,h]anthracene, 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, p,p'-DDE, or phenanthrene were subjected to decontamination experimentation. The spiked sediments were agitated at elevated temperatures for at least 96 h in the presence of either of the two contaminant-absorbing media: clusters of polyethylene membrane or lipid- containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs). The effects of treatment temperature and surface area of media on the removal of contaminants were explored. This work is part of a larger methodology for whole-sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE). A method is being sought that is capable of detoxifying sediments with respect to organic contaminants while leaving toxicity attributable to inorganic contaminants unaffected. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  4. Public Response to Residential Grid-Tied PV Systems in Colorado: A Qualitative Market Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Farhar, B. C.; Buhrmann, J.

    1998-07-01

    The early adopters of residential grid-tied photovoltaics (PV) have complex motivations to pay today's costs, including altruistic, environmental, and financial reasons. Focused interviews were conducted with a self-selected purposive sample interested in purchasing 2-kW or 3-kW PV systems with an installed cost of $8,000 to $12,000. The sample tended to be men or married couples ranging in age from their early thirties to their mid-eighties; professionals, managers, or small business owners; relatively financially secure, with experience with energy efficiency and renewable energy. Product attributes they preferred were net metering, warranties, guarantees, utility financing, maintenance, an option to own or lease, a battery option, and an aesthetically pleasing system. Potential PV customers needed more information before making a purchase decision.

  5. Impact of Inter-technique Vector Tie Errors at Future GGOS Core Sites on the ITRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, Erricos C.; Kuzmicz-Cieslak, Magdalena

    2013-04-01

    The Global Geodetic Observing SystemGGOS, has identified as its main task the establishment, maintenance and wide distribution of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF), requiring a high accuracy and stability goal set at 1 mm and 0.1 mm/y. The four "geometric" Services of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG), IDS, IGS, ILRS and IVS are responsible for the provision of the required analysis products that form the input in the ITRF development step. The network of sites that will host all four techniques with an optimal global distribution comprises the so-called "GGOS Core Sites NetworkGCSN". Simulation studies over the past few years determined the size and distribution of the sites in order to meet the goals of GGOS. Assuming that all techniques are present with their state-of-the-art equipment, it has been determined that a network of about thirty sites is sufficient to achieve our goal. This result presupposes the ability of the techniques to relate their reference points, those to which their results refer, to a common one representing the site, with an accuracy that is better than 1 mm at any time. These "survey ties" between the invariant reference points between techniques are the subject of extensive research, theoretical as well as practical, in order to develop a modus operandi that realizes with certainty the required accuracy ties at all sites. One can separate the problem for each of the techniques into two distinct components: the survey that determines the offset of the common marker to a physical point of reference on the antenna or telescope used by the technique, and a second much more difficult to determine offset, of the physical point from the actual electronic or optical invariant point to which the observations of each technique refer. The first part is rather easily controlled with precision surveying, most likely through automated procedures using modern technology. The second part is the most difficult to determine and depends on several factors, from the type of the technique in question, to environmental changes, to tracking geometry and local conditions specific to each site. So far, the assumption is that the combined error from the two parts remains ~1 mm. This is a topic of separate studies for each of the contributing techniques. A question that requires an answer before the final design of the survey system is the actual level of total error that one can tolerate at each site, before the GGOS network accuracy goal is compromised. Our presentation focuses on this question using simulations of survey errors at the core sites of a 32-site GCSN, with varying distribution of the site-tie errors in terms of the level of the errors as well as a function of the contributing techniques. These simulations will provide some guidelines on the level of effort that each of the techniques should devote in determining the technique-specific error component and the improvement (if any) required for the common survey tie component at each site.

  6. Impact of Survey Tie Errors in the GGOS Core Site Network on the ITRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, E. C.; Kuzmicz-Cieslak, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Global Geodetic Observing SystemGGOS, has identified as its main task the establishment, maintenance and wide distribution of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF), requiring a high accuracy and stability goal set at 1 mm and 0.1 mm/y. The four "geometric" Services of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG), IDS, IGS, ILRS and IVS are responsible for the provision of the required analysis products that form the input in the ITRF development step. The network of sites that will host all four techniques with an optimal global distribution comprises the so-called "GGOS Core Sites NetworkGCSN". Simulation studies over the past few years determined the size and distribution of the sites in order to meet the goals of GGOS. Assuming that all techniques are present with their state-of-the-art equipment, it has been determined that a network of about thirty sites is sufficient to achieve our goal. This result presupposes the ability of the techniques to relate their reference points, those to which their results refer, to a common one representing the site, with an accuracy that is better than 1 mm at any time. These "survey ties" between the invariant reference points between techniques are the subject of extensive research, theoretical as well as practical, in order to develop a modus operandi that realizes with certainty the required accuracy ties at all sites. One can separate the problem for each of the techniques into two distinct components: the survey that determines the offset of the common marker to a physical point of reference on the antenna or telescope used by the technique, and a second much more difficult to determine offset, of the physical point from the actual electronic or optical invariant point to which the observations of each technique refer. The first part is rather easily controlled with precision surveying, most likely through automated procedures using modern technology. The second part is the most difficult to determine and depends on several factors, from the type of the technique in question, to environmental changes, to tracking geometry and local conditions specific to each site. So far, the assumption is that the combined error from the two parts remains 1 mm. This is a topic of separate studies for each of the contributing techniques. A question that requires an answer before the final design of the survey system is the actual level of total error that one can tolerate at each site, before the GGOS network accuracy goal is compromised. Our presentation focuses on this question using simulations of survey errors at the core sites of a 32-site GCSN, with varying distribution of the site-tie errors in terms of the level of the errors as well as a function of the contributing techniques. These simulations will provide some guidelines on the level of effort that each of the techniques should devote in determining the technique-specific error component and the improvement (if any) required for the common survey tie component at each site.

  7. Ideal kink instabilities in line-tied coronal loops - Growth rates and geometrical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Velli, M.; Hood, A.W.; Einaudi, G. Firenze, Universita, Florence )

    1990-02-01

    A detailed analysis of the ideal kink instability in line-tied cylindrically symmetric coronal loops is presented. Using a rapidly converging Fourier series expansion technique, the growth rate, as well as the eigenfunction, of ideal m = 1 kink modes is calculated for two topologically distinct models of force-free static MHD equilibria: one in which all the magnetic field lines are connected to the photosphere and one presenting a polarity inversion surface. The growth rates depend crucially on the loop length. Loops of the former type are found to be more unstable, and possess higher growth rates, than loops of the latter type, which are unstable to sausage-tearing modes and may also be unstable to m = 1 resistive kink modes. Applications of these results to the structure of coronal loops are presented. 14 refs.

  8. Tapered gain guides in diode lasers and picosecond Q- switched bow tie laser arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitcher, Daniel John

    The use of the tapered waveguide to simultaneously expand and amplify the output of a diode laser has recently led to an order-of-magnitude increase in the continuous power and the picosecond pulsed output that can be obtained from a diode laser in a single spatial mode. The theoretical and experimental investigation of gain- guiding has been used as a basis for detailed investigation of gain guided single taper lasers. It was found that the narrow gain guide was prone to launch a spatial mode structure with highly undesirable asymmetry from a high quality beam waist which was located at the apex of the taper. Symmetry could be restored and stabilised by a ground connection to the narrow region of the taper. This avoided divergence that is normally induced by gain-guiding in the narrow region. Building on the achievements of bow tie lasers, further increases to power were sought by combination of many parallel stripes to create a novel bow tie array. Novel diode laser array structures were fabricated and measurements of the spatial mode properties of these are presented. Multiple contact laser arrays were tested with the narrow stripe regions in the centre used as a saturable absorber for Q-switching. Nanosecond current pulses were used to generate single Q-switched pulses of up to 17W peak power and down to 11ps duration (fwhm) from a monolithic diode laser. The potentially chaotic spatial and temporal nonuniformity of broad area diode lasers was observed to influence the performance of arrays within the duration of picosecond- range pulses. A trade-off of nonuniformity against pulse duration could be optimised by an external control voltage to the absorber. Optimised pulses could be generated with a subpicosecond rise time and 1.6ps relative jitter between stripes of the diode laser array.

  9. LOFAR tied-array imaging and spectroscopy of solar S bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morosan, D. E.; Gallagher, P. T.; Zucca, P.; O'Flannagain, A.; Fallows, R.; Reid, H.; Magdaleni?, J.; Mann, G.; Bisi, M. M.; Kerdraon, A.; Konovalenko, A. A.; MacKinnon, A. L.; Rucker, H. O.; Thid, B.; Vocks, C.; Alexov, A.; Anderson, J.; Asgekar, A.; Avruch, I. M.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Bonafede, A.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J. W.; Brouw, W. N.; Butcher, H. R.; Ciardi, B.; de Geus, E.; Eislffel, J.; Falcke, H.; Frieswijk, W.; Garrett, M. A.; Griemeier, J.; Gunst, A. W.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Hoeft, M.; Karastergiou, A.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kuper, G.; van Leeuwen, J.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; McKean, J. P.; Munk, H.; Orru, E.; Paas, H.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Sluman, J.; Tasse, C.; Toribio, M. C.; Vermeulen, R.; Zarka, P.

    2015-08-01

    Context. The Sun is an active source of radio emission that is often associated with energetic phenomena ranging from nanoflares to coronal mass ejections (CMEs). At low radio frequencies (<100 MHz), numerous millisecond duration radio bursts have been reported, such as radio spikes or solar S bursts (where S stands for short). To date, these have neither been studied extensively nor imaged because of the instrumental limitations of previous radio telescopes. Aims: Here, LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) observations were used to study the spectral and spatial characteristics of a multitude of S bursts, as well as their origin and possible emission mechanisms. Methods: We used 170 simultaneous tied-array beams for spectroscopy and imaging of S bursts. Since S bursts have short timescales and fine frequency structures, high cadence (~50 ms) tied-array images were used instead of standard interferometric imaging, that is currently limited to one image per second. Results: On 9 July 2013, over 3000 S bursts were observed over a time period of ~8 h. S bursts were found to appear as groups of short-lived (<1 s) and narrow-bandwidth (~2.5 MHz) features, the majority drifting at ~3.5 MHz s-1 and a wide range of circular polarisation degrees (2-8 times more polarised than the accompanying Type III bursts). Extrapolation of the photospheric magnetic field using the potential field source surface (PFSS) model suggests that S bursts are associated with a trans-equatorial loop system that connects an active region in the southern hemisphere to a bipolar region of plage in the northern hemisphere. Conclusions: We have identified polarised, short-lived solar radio bursts that have never been imaged before. They are observed at a height and frequency range where plasma emission is the dominant emission mechanism, however, they possess some of the characteristics of electron-cyclotron maser emission. A movie associated to Fig. 3 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  10. Randomised controlled trial of early frenotomy in breastfed infants with mildmoderate tongue-tie

    PubMed Central

    Emond, Alan; Ingram, Jenny; Johnson, Debbie; Blair, Peter; Whitelaw, Andrew; Copeland, Marion; Sutcliffe, Alastair

    2014-01-01

    Trial design A randomised, parallel group, pragmatic trial. Setting A large UK maternity hospital. Participants Term infants <2?weeks old with a mild or moderate degree of tongue-tie, and their mothers who were having difficulties breastfeeding. Objectives To determine if immediate frenotomy was better than standard breastfeeding support. Interventions Participants were randomised to an early frenotomy intervention group or a standard care comparison group. Outcomes Primary outcome was breastfeeding at 5?days, with secondary outcomes of breastfeeding self-efficacy and pain on feeding. Final assessment was at 8?weeks; 20 also had qualitative interviews. Researchers assessing outcomes, but not participants, were blinded to group assignment. Results 107 infants were randomised, 55 to the intervention group and 52 to the comparison group. Five-day outcome measures were available for 53 (96%) of the intervention group and 52 (100%) of the comparison group, and intention-to-treat analysis showed no difference in the primary outcomeLatch, Audible swallowing, nipple Type, Comfort, Hold score. Frenotomy did improve the tongue-tie and increased maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy. At 5?days, there was a 15.5% increase in bottle feeding in the comparison group compared with a 7.5% increase in the intervention group. After the 5-day clinic, 44 of the comparison group had requested a frenotomy; by 8?weeks only 6 (12%) were breastfeeding without a frenotomy. At 8?weeks, there were no differences between groups in the breastfeeding measures or in the infant weight. No adverse events were observed. Conclusions Early frenotomy did not result in an objective improvement in breastfeeding but was associated with improved self-efficacy. The majority in the comparison arm opted for the intervention after 5?days. PMID:24249695

  11. Challenging Ties between State and Tobacco Industry: Advocacy Lessons from India

    PubMed Central

    Bhojani, Upendra; Venkataraman, Vidya; Manganawar, Bheemaray

    2013-01-01

    Background: Globally, tobacco use is a major public health concern given its huge morbidity and mortality burden that is inequitably high in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization has suggested banning the advertisement, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco. However, governments in some countries, including India, are either directly engaged in tobacco industry operations or have a mandate to promote tobacco industry development. This paper analyses a short-term advocacy campaign that challenged the state-tobacco industry ties to draw lessons for effective public health advocacy. Method: This paper uses a case study method to analyze advocacy efforts in India to thwart the state-tobacco industry partnership: the Indian governments sponsorship and support to a global tobacco industry event. The paper explores multiple strategies employed in the five-month advocacy campaign (May to October 2010) to challenge this state-industry tie. In doing so, we describe the challenges faced and the lessons learnt for effective advocacy. Results: Government withdrew participation and financial sponsorship from the tobacco industry event. Use of multiple strategies including engaging all concerned government agencies from the beginning, strategic use of media, presence and mobilization of civil society, and use of legal tools to gain information and judicial action, were complementary in bringing desired outcomes. Conclusion: Use of multiple and complementary advocacy strategies could lead to positive outcomes in a short-time campaign. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control could form an important advocacy tool, especially in countries that have ratified it, to advocate for improvements in national tobacco control regulations. PMID:24688958

  12. Gender Differences in Physicians’ Financial Ties to Industry: A Study of National Disclosure Data

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Susannah L.; Sanghani, Ruchi M.; Schmidt, Cory; Karafa, Matthew T.; Kodish, Eric; Chisolm, Guy M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Academic literature extensively documents gender disparities in the medical profession with regard to salary, promotion, and government funded research. However, gender differences in the value of financial ties to industry have not been adequately studied despite industry’s increasing contribution to income and research funding to physicians in the U.S. Methods & Findings We analyzed publicly reported financial relationships among 747,603 physicians and 432 pharmaceutical, device and biomaterials companies. Demographic and payment information were analyzed using hierarchical regression models to determine if statistically significant gender differences exist in physician-industry interactions regarding financial ties, controlling for key covariates. In 2011, 432 biomedical companies made an excess of $17,991,000 in payments to 220,908 physicians. Of these physicians, 75.1% were male. Female physicians, on average, received fewer total dollars (-$3,598.63, p<0.001) per person than men. Additionally, female physicians received significantly lower amounts for meals (-$41.80, p<0.001), education (-$1,893.14, p<0.001), speaker fees (-$2,898.44, p<0.001), and sponsored research (-$15,049.62, p=0.05). For total dollars, an interaction between gender and institutional reputation was statistically significant, implying that the differences between women and men differed based on industry’s preference for an institution, with larger differences at higher reputation institutions. Conclusions Female physicians receive significantly lower compensation for similarly described activities than their male counterparts after controlling for key covariates. As regulations lead to increased transparency regarding these relationships, efforts to standardize compensation should be considered to promote equitable opportunities for all physicians. PMID:26067810

  13. Case study installation of a HDPE curtain wall with sheetpile tie-in on both ends

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, R.M.; Maltese, P.C.

    1997-12-31

    The plans for eliminating the off-site migration of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) from a refinery into a nearby river included the installation of a High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) curtain wall and an underdrain system. A 640 m (2100 lineal feet) HDPE Curtain Wall was installed along the river boundary, tying into an existing sheet pile wall on both ends. The wall varied from approximately 4.5 m (15 feet) deep at the northern end to about 7 m (23 feet) deep at the southern end, running approximately 3 to 3.6 m (10 to 12 feet) inland of an existing wooden bulkhead. The curtain wall was successfully installed through a slurry supported trench. A 930 m (3050 lineal feet) interception/collection trench was installed parallel to the HDPE Curtain Wall, continuing on beyond the curtain wall on the southern end. The depth of the trench varied from approximately 3 to 4 m (10 to 13 feet) deep. A 20.32 cm (8 inch) diameter perforated HDPE header pipe was placed in the trench to convey groundwater and product to two sumps. The trench is 53.34 cm (21 inches) wide and contained aggregate to approximately 0.9 m (3 feet) below ground. This work was accomplished using the bio-polymer slurry drainage trench (BP Drain) technique. This paper briefly describes the construction methods utilized during this project, specifically HDPE curtain wall installation thru a bentonite slurry and tie-in to the existing sheet pile wall.

  14. Transnational ties and past-year major depressive episodes among Latino immigrants.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, Carmela; Chen, Chih-Nan; Alegría, Margarita

    2015-07-01

    Latino immigrants live in an increasingly global world in which maintaining contact with kin in the home country is easier than ever. We examined (a) the annual distribution of remittances burden (percentage of remittances/household income) and visits to the home country, (b) the association of these transnational ties with a past-year major depressive episode (MDE), and (c) moderation by Latino subethnicity or gender. We conducted weighted logistic regression analyses with the Latino immigrant subsample (N = 1,614) of the National Latino and Asian American Study. Mexican and Other Latino immigrants had greater remittances burden than Puerto Rican migrants. Cuban immigrants made the fewest visits back home. After adjustment for sociodemographics and premigration psychiatric history, remittances burden decreased odds of MDE (odds ratio [OR] = 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.67, .0.98]), whereas visits back home increased odds of MDE (OR = 1.04, 95% CI [1.01, 1.06]). Latino subethnicity was not a significant moderator. Visits back home were more strongly linked to depression among women than men. The distribution of transnational ties differs by Latino subgroup, although its association with depression is similar across groups. Monetary giving through remittances might promote a greater sense of self-efficacy, and caregiving for relatives back home that positively affect mental health. Visits back home, especially for women, might signal social stress from strained relationships with kin, spouses, or children left behind, or increased caregiving demands that negatively affect mental health. Clinical practice with immigrants should routinely assess the social resources and strains that fall outside national borders. PMID:25090146

  15. Categories and Music Transmission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatien, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Lucy Green's (2008) "Music, Informal Learning, and the School: A New Classroom Pedagogy" gives rise to an interesting corollary. Does the manner of music's transmission inform one's understanding of a musical category? While categories of music can be difficult to define according to strict musical characteristics, a better understanding of…

  16. Lyme Disease Transmission

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sex with a person who has Lyme disease. Lyme disease acquired during pregnancy may lead to infection of the placenta and possible stillbirth; however, no negative effects on the fetus have been found ... of Lyme disease transmission from breast milk. Although no cases of ...

  17. Graphite transmission ionization chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Austerlitz, C.; Sibata, C.H.; de Almeida, C.E.

    1987-11-01

    A pancake-type transmission chamber made of high-purity graphite and open to the atmosphere has been designed and constructed at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL-Rio de Janeiro). Tests performed on the chamber following the International Electrotechnical Commission recommendations indicate that its performance characteristics are comparable to those expected from a secondary standard ionization chamber.

  18. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1993-03-23

    A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  19. Continuously variable transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, H.; Okada, M.

    1986-11-25

    This patent describes a continuously variable transmission for transmitting a torque from an engine to a final reduction gear, comprising: an input shaft connected with the engine at one end thereof; a continuously variable transmission means having a driving pulley with a fixed member and a movable member, the movable member being actuated by an hydraulic cylinder to form a V-shaped opening between the fixed member and movable member, a driven pulley with another fixed member and another movable member. The other movable member is similarly actuated by another hydraulic cylinder to form another V-shaped opening between the other fixed member and the other movable member, and a belt member spanning the pulleys provides for a continuously variable transmission ratio; a planetary gear unit including a sun gear, a plurality of pinion gears which mesh with the sun gear and are connected with the driven pulley and a ring gear which meshes with the plurality of pinion gears; and a rotation transmitting means for transmitting rotation of the input shaft to the planetary gear unit. The rotation transmitting means is provided between the input shaft and the planetary gear unit and includes a shaft connected with the sun gear of the planetary gear unit and a first gear connected with the input shaft. The first gear is located between the engine and the continuously variable transmission means.

  20. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    1997-01-01

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

  1. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M. (1739 Grandview #2, Idaho Falls, ID 83402)

    1993-01-01

    A borehole data transmission apparatus whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  2. Laser power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Edmund J.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of previous studies related to laser power transmission is presented. Particular attention is given to the use of solar pumped lasers for space power applications. Three general laser mechanisms are addressed: photodissociation lasing driven by sunlight, photoexcitation lasing driven directly by sunlight, and photoexcitation lasing driven by thermal radiation.

  3. Design of transmission shafting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    Formula considers flexure fatigue characteristics of shaft material under combined cyclic bending and static torsion stress. Formula permits selecting shaft sizes that meet common loading conditions without adding on excessive shaft material. Formula is applicable to design of rotary power or torque transmission shafting external to machine elements.

  4. Categories and Music Transmission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatien, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Lucy Green's (2008) "Music, Informal Learning, and the School: A New Classroom Pedagogy" gives rise to an interesting corollary. Does the manner of music's transmission inform one's understanding of a musical category? While categories of music can be difficult to define according to strict musical characteristics, a better understanding of

  5. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1997-03-25

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

  6. HBV Perinatal Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Umar, Muhammad; Hamama-tul-Bushra; Umar, Shifa; Khan, Haider Ali

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis B is a serious public health problem all around the world. It is a blood-borne and sexually transmitted DNA virus in adults, but mother to child transmission of hepatitis B virus also occurs in infants born to hepatitis B surface antigen positive mothers. PMID:23738081

  7. HIV Transmission Risk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Transmission Risk Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  8. Calibrating Atmospheric Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, Peter C.; McGraw, J. T.; Vorobiev, D. M.; Zirzow, D. C.; Karle, J. C.; Lykke, K. R.; Woodward, J. T.; Cramer, C. E.

    2012-01-01

    Earth's atmosphere is a wavelength-, directionally- and time-dependent turbid refractive element for every ground-based telescope. Changes in atmospheric transmission are the most significant systematic error limiting photometric measurement precision and accuracy. While considerable resources have been devoted to correcting the effects of the atmosphere on angular resolution, the effects on precision photometry have largely been ignored. To correct photometric measurements for the transmission of the atmosphere requires direct measurements of the wavelength-dependent transmission in the same direction and at the same time that the supported photometric telescope is acquiring its data. We describe the multi-wavelength lidar, the Facility Lidar for Astronomical Measurement of Extinction (FLAME) that observes the stable stratosphere, and a spectrophotometer (the Astronomical Extinction Spectrophotometer - AESoP) that creates and maintains NIST absolute standard stars, the combination of which enables fundamentally statistically limited photometric precision of both the stellar spectra and atmospheric transmission. The throughput of both FLAME and AESoP are calibrated to NIST radiometric standards. This inexpensive and replicable instrument suite provides the lidar-determined monochromatic transmission of Earth's atmosphere at visible and near-infrared wavelengths to 0.25% per airmass and the wavelength-dependent transparency to less than 1% uncertainty per nanometer per minute of time. These atmospheric data are merged to create a metadata stream that allows throughput corrections from data acquired at the time of the scientific observations to be applied to broadband and spectrophotometric scientific data. This new technique replaces the classical use of nightly mean atmospheric extinction coefficients, which invoke a stationary and plane-parallel atmosphere and ultimately limit ground-based all-sky photometry to 1% - 2% precision. This research is supported by NIST Award 60NANB9D9121 and NSF Grant AST-1009878.

  9. Tie-dyed2 Encodes a Callose Synthase That Functions in Vein Development and Affects Symplastic Trafficking within the Phloem of Maize Leaves12[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Slewinski, Thomas L.; Baker, R. Frank; Stubert, Adam; Braun, David M.

    2012-01-01

    The tie-dyed2 (tdy2) mutant of maize (Zea mays) displays variegated green and yellow leaves. Intriguingly, the yellow leaf tissues hyperaccumulate starch and sucrose, the soluble sugar transported long distance through the phloem of veins. To determine the molecular basis for Tdy2 function, we cloned the gene and found that Tdy2 encodes a callose synthase. RNA in situ hybridizations revealed that in developing leaves, Tdy2 was most highly expressed in the vascular tissue. Comparative expression analysis with the vascular marker maize PINFORMED1a-yellow fluorescent protein confirmed that Tdy2 was expressed in developing vein tissues. To ascertain whether the defect in tdy2 leaves affected the movement of sucrose into the phloem or its long-distance transport, we performed radiolabeled and fluorescent dye tracer assays. The results showed that tdy2 yellow leaf regions were defective in phloem export but competent in long-distance transport. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy of tdy2 yellow leaf regions showed incomplete vascular differentiation and implicated a defect in cell-to-cell solute movement between phloem companion cells and sieve elements. The disruption of sucrose movement in the phloem in tdy2 mutants provides evidence that the Tdy2 callose synthase functions in vascular maturation and that the vascular defects result in impaired symplastic trafficking into the phloem translocation stream. PMID:22932757

  10. Tie-dyed2 encodes a callose synthase that functions in vein development and affects symplastic trafficking within the phloem of maize leaves.

    PubMed

    Slewinski, Thomas L; Baker, R Frank; Stubert, Adam; Braun, David M

    2012-11-01

    The tie-dyed2 (tdy2) mutant of maize (Zea mays) displays variegated green and yellow leaves. Intriguingly, the yellow leaf tissues hyperaccumulate starch and sucrose, the soluble sugar transported long distance through the phloem of veins. To determine the molecular basis for Tdy2 function, we cloned the gene and found that Tdy2 encodes a callose synthase. RNA in situ hybridizations revealed that in developing leaves, Tdy2 was most highly expressed in the vascular tissue. Comparative expression analysis with the vascular marker maize PINFORMED1a-yellow fluorescent protein confirmed that Tdy2 was expressed in developing vein tissues. To ascertain whether the defect in tdy2 leaves affected the movement of sucrose into the phloem or its long-distance transport, we performed radiolabeled and fluorescent dye tracer assays. The results showed that tdy2 yellow leaf regions were defective in phloem export but competent in long-distance transport. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy of tdy2 yellow leaf regions showed incomplete vascular differentiation and implicated a defect in cell-to-cell solute movement between phloem companion cells and sieve elements. The disruption of sucrose movement in the phloem in tdy2 mutants provides evidence that the Tdy2 callose synthase functions in vascular maturation and that the vascular defects result in impaired symplastic trafficking into the phloem translocation stream. PMID:22932757

  11. The Response of Environmental Capacity for Malaria Transmission in West Africa to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamana, T. K.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    The climate of West Africa is characterized by north-south gradients in temperature and rainfall. Environmental capacity for malaria transmission (e.g. as measured by vectorial capacity) is strongly tied to these two variables; temperature affects the development rate of the malaria parasite, as well as the lifespan of the mosquitoes that transmit the disease, and rainfall is tied to mosquito abundance, as the vector lays its eggs in rain-fed water pools. A change in climate is therefore expected to lead to changes in the distribution of malaria transmission. Current general circulation models agree that the temperature in West Africa is expected to increase by several degrees in the next century. However they predict a wide range of possible rainfall scenarios in the future, from intense drying to significant increases in rainfall (Christensen et al., 2007). The effects these changes will have on environmental capacity for malaria transmission depend on the magnitude and direction of the changes, and on current conditions. For example, malaria transmission will be more sensitive to positive changes in rainfall in dry areas where mosquito populations are currently limited by water availability than in relatively wet areas. Here, we analyze combinations of changes in rainfall and temperature within the ranges predicted by GCMs, and assess the impact these combinations will have on the environmental capacity for malaria transmission. In particular, we identify climate change scenarios that are likely to have the greatest impact on environmental capacity for malaria transmission, as well as geographic "hot spots" where the greatest changes are to be expected. Christensen, J. H., Busuioc, A., & et al. (2007). Regional climate projections. In S. Solomon (Ed.), Climate change 2007: The physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

  12. 49 CFR 1242.15 - Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast, track laying and surfacing, and road property damaged... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Way and Structures § 1242.15 Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges...

  13. Social networks of experientially similar others: Formation, activation, and consequences of network ties on the health care experience

    PubMed Central

    Gage, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Research documents that interactions among experientially similar others (individuals facing a common stressor) shape health care behavior and ultimately health outcomes. However, we have little understanding of how ties among experientially similar others are formed, what resources and information flows through these networks, and how network embeddedness shapes health care behavior. This paper uses in-depth interviews with 76 parents of pediatric cancer patients to examine network ties among experientially similar others after a serious medical diagnosis. Interviews were conducted between August 2009 and May 2011. Findings demonstrate that many parents formed ties with other families experiencing pediatric cancer, and that information and resources were exchanged during the everyday activities associated with their childs care. Network flows contained emotional support, caregiving strategies, information about second opinions, health-related knowledge, and strategies for navigating the health care system. Diffusion of information, resources, and support occurred through explicit processes (direct information and support exchanges) and implicit processes (parents learning through observing other families). Network flows among parents shaped parents perceptions of the health care experience and their role in their childs care. These findings contribute to the social networks and social support literatures by elucidating the mechanisms through which network ties among experientially similar others influence health care behavior and experiences. PMID:22999229

  14. From the Cotton Fields to the Ties That Bind: Jim Pusack's Enduring Impact on Today's CALL Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Linda C.

    2010-01-01

    From 1981 to today, the encouragement Jim Pusack and his colleague Sue Otto gave faculty to develop and/or implement CALL into the curriculum has been vital to our L2 teaching evolution. This article describes how their efforts evolved over the last two and a half decades and the ties that bind their efforts with today's CALL development.

  15. Family Ties and Health Cross-Nationally: The Contextualizing Role of Familistic Culture and Public Pension Spending in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Although previous research theorizes that cross-national variation in the relationship between family ties and health is due to nation-level differences in culture and policy/economics, no study has examined this theorization empirically. Method. Using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), this study uses multilevel modeling to analyze individual-, nation-, and cross-level effects for 30,291 older adults in 14 nations. Results. Family ties to spouses/partners and parents are associated with better health, but ties to coresident children are associated with poorer health in certain contexts. Familistic culture and public pension spending have a weak but statistically significant moderating effect on the relationship between intergenerational family ties and health. Discussion. This article underscores the complexity of family and highlights the need for continued theorization and measurement at the nation level to promote older adults’ health in diverse contexts. PMID:24043356

  16. A Multi-Dimensional Heat Transfer Model of a Tie-Tube and Hexagonal Fuel Element for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, C. F.; Mireles, O. R.; Stewart, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Space Capable Cryogenic Thermal Engine (SCCTE) effort considers a nuclear thermal rocket design based around a Low-Enriched Uranium (LEU) design fission reactor. The reactor core is comprised of bundled hexagonal fuel elements that directly heat hydrogen for expansion in a thrust chamber and hexagonal tie-tubes that house zirconium hydride moderator mass for the purpose of thermalizing fast neutrons resulting from fission events. Created 3D steady state Hex fuel rod model with 1D flow channels. Hand Calculation were used to set up initial conditions for fluid flow. The Hex Fuel rod uses 1D flow paths to model the channels using empirical correlations for heat transfer in a pipe. Created a 2-D axisymmetric transient to steady state model using the CFD turbulent flow and Heat Transfer module in COMSOL. This model was developed to find and understand the hydrogen flow that might effect the thermal gradients axially and at the end of the tie tube where the flow turns and enters an annulus. The Hex fuel rod and Tie tube models were made based on requirements given to us by CSNR and the SCCTE team. The models helped simplify and understand the physics and assumptions. Using pipe correlations reduced the complexity of the 3-D fuel rod model and is numerically more stable and computationally more time-efficient compared to the CFD approach. The 2-D axisymmetric tie tube model can be used as a reference "Virtual test model" for comparing and improving 3-D Models.

  17. The Synthetic Tie2 Agonist Peptide Vasculotide Protects Renal Vascular Barrier Function In Experimental Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Rübig, Eva; Stypmann, Jörg; Van Slyke, Paul; Dumont, Daniel J; Spieker, Tilmann; Buscher, Konrad; Reuter, Stefan; Goerge, Tobias; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Kümpers, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular barrier dysfunction plays a major role in the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury (AKI). Angiopoietin-1, the natural agonist ligand for the endothelial-specific Tie2 receptor, is a non-redundant endothelial survival and vascular stabilization factor. Here we evaluate the efficacy of a polyethylene glycol-clustered Tie2 agonist peptide, vasculotide (VT), to protect against endothelial-cell activation with subsequent microvascular dysfunction in a murine model of ischemic AKI. Renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) was induced by clamping of the renal arteries for 35 minutes. Mice were treated with VT or PEGylated cysteine before IRI. Sham-operated animals served as time-matched controls. Treatment with VT significantly reduced transcapillary albumin flux and renal tissue edema after IRI. The protective effects of VT were associated with activation of Tie2 and stabilization of its downstream effector, VE-cadherin in renal vasculature. VT abolished the decline in renal tissue blood flow, attenuated the increase of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen after IRI, improved recovery of renal function and markedly reduced mortality compared to PEG [HR 0.14 (95% CI 0.05–0.78) P < 0.05]. VT is inexpensive to produce, chemically stable and unrelated to any Tie2 ligands. Thus, VT may represent a novel therapy to prevent AKI in patients. PMID:26911791

  18. EFL Doctoral Students' Conceptions of Authorial Stance in Academic Knowledge Claims and the Tie to Epistemic Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Peichin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Taking an effective authorial stance in research argumentation has been designated as both vitally important and challenging. The study investigated English as a foreign language (EFL) doctoral students' conceptions of authorial stance, the role of domains in affecting their conceptions, and the ties of the conceptions to the

  19. 78 FR 57619 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... People's Republic of China, and Thailand: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 78 FR 29325 (May... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the...- 4007, Katherine Johnson (Thailand) (202-482-4929) or Brian Smith (PRC) (202) 482-1766;...

  20. Hereditary cutaneomucosal venous malformations are caused by TIE2 mutations with widely variable hyper-phosphorylating effects

    PubMed Central

    Wouters, Vinciane; Limaye, Nisha; Uebelhoer, Melanie; Irrthum, Alexandre; Boon, Laurence M; Mulliken, John B; Enjolras, Odile; Baselga, Eulalia; Berg, Jonathan; Dompmartin, Anne; Ivarsson, Sten A; Kangesu, Loshan; Lacassie, Yves; Murphy, Jill; Teebi, Ahmad S; Penington, Anthony; Rieu, Paul; Vikkula, Miikka

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in the angiopoietin receptor TIE2/TEK have been identified as the cause for autosomal dominantly inherited cutaneomucosal venous malformation (VMCM). Thus far, two specific germline substitutions (R849W and Y897S), located in the kinase domain of TIE2, have been reported in five families. The mutations result in a fourfold increase in ligand-independent phosphorylation of the receptor. Here, we report 12 new families with TEK mutations. Although the phenotype is primarily characterized by small multifocal cutaneous vascular malformations, many affected members also have mucosal lesions. In addition, cardiac malformations are observed in some families. Six of the identified mutations are new, with three located in the tyrosine kinase domain, two in the kinase insert domain, and another in the carboxy terminal tail. The remaining six are R849W substitutions. Overexpression of the new mutants resulted in ligand-independent hyperphosphorylation of the receptor, suggesting this is a general feature of VMCM-causative TIE2 mutations. Moreover, variation in the level of activation demonstrates, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, that widely differing levels of chronic TIE2 hyperphosphorylation are tolerated in the heterozygous state, and are compatible with normal endothelial cell function except in the context of highly localized areas of lesion pathogenesis. PMID:19888299

  1. Discrimination of ion toxicity in six produced waters using the freshwater salinity toxicity relationships and TIE procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Tietge, J.E.; Hockett, J.R.; Evans, J.M.

    1995-12-01

    Research to characterize the toxicity of common ions to freshwater organisms resulted in the development of predictive toxicity models (FW STR) for three freshwater species (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas, and Daphnia magna). The FW STR models, derived from acute toxicity data, focused on the toxicity of seven common ions. These predictive models were used in conjuntion with Phase I TIE procedures to evaluate the contribution of common ion toxicity in six produced water samples ranging in total salinity from 1.7 to 58.1 g/L. Initial toxicities of all six samples were compared to the model predictions. Four produced water samples were found to have toxicity due to common ion concentrations only. Two samples were found to exhibit more toxicity than expected from ion concentrations alone. These samples were subjected to Phase I TIE procedures. Toxicities were reduced by specific Phase I TIE manipulations to those predicted by the FW STR models. Mock effluents were used to verify the results. The combination of the FW STR models with Phase I TIE procedures successfully quantified the toxicity due to common ions.

  2. Major ion toxicity of six produced waters to three freshwater species: Application of ion toxicity models and TIE procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Tietge, J.E.; Hockett, J.R.; Evans, J.M.

    1997-10-01

    Previous research to characterize the acute toxicity of major ions to freshwater organisms resulted in the development of statistical toxicity models for three freshwater species (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas, and Daphnia magna). These ion toxicity models estimate the toxicity of seven major ions utilizing logistic regression. In this study, the ion toxicity models were used in conjunction with Phase 1 toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) procedures to evaluate the contribution of major ion toxicity to the total toxicity of six produced water samples ranging in total salinity from 1.7 to 58.1 g/L. Initial toxicities of all six samples were compared to the model predictions. Four produced waters were found to have toxicity consistent with toxicity attributable to major ion concentrations only. Two produced waters were found to exhibit more toxicity than expected from ion concentrations alone. These samples were subjected to Phase 1 TIE procedures. Toxicities were reduced by specific Phase 1 TIE manipulations to those predicted by the ion toxicity models. Mock effluents were used to verify the results. The combination of the ion toxicity models with Phase 1 TIE procedures successfully quantified the toxicity due to major ions in six produced water samples.

  3. Social networks of experientially similar others: formation, activation, and consequences of network ties on the health care experience.

    PubMed

    Gage, Elizabeth A

    2013-10-01

    Research documents that interactions among experientially similar others (individuals facing a common stressor) shape health care behavior and ultimately health outcomes. However, we have little understanding of how ties among experientially similar others are formed, what resources and information flows through these networks, and how network embeddedness shapes health care behavior. This paper uses in-depth interviews with 76 parents of pediatric cancer patients to examine network ties among experientially similar others after a serious medical diagnosis. Interviews were conducted between August 2009 and May 2011. Findings demonstrate that many parents formed ties with other families experiencing pediatric cancer, and that information and resources were exchanged during the everyday activities associated with their child's care. Network flows contained emotional support, caregiving strategies, information about second opinions, health-related knowledge, and strategies for navigating the health care system. Diffusion of information, resources, and support occurred through explicit processes (direct information and support exchanges) and implicit processes (parents learning through observing other families). Network flows among parents shaped parents' perceptions of the health care experience and their role in their child's care. These findings contribute to the social networks and social support literatures by elucidating the mechanisms through which network ties among experientially similar others influence health care behavior and experiences. PMID:22999229

  4. Will Economic Crises in Africa Weaken Rural-Urban Ties? Insights from Child Fosterage Trends in Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eloundou-Enyegue, Parfait M.; Stokes, C. Shannon

    2002-01-01

    In many African countries, rural-urban kinship ties support the education and economic mobility of rural children through fosterage into urban families. Demographic survey data from central Cameroon indicate major rural-urban differences in child fosterage relative to family characteristics and child's school performance, and show lower rural

  5. Activated Protein C Enhances Human Keratinocyte Barrier Integrity via Sequential Activation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Tie2*

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Meilang; Chow, Shu-Oi; Dervish, Suat; Chan, Yee-Ka Agnes; Julovi, Sohel M.; Jackson, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Keratinocytes play a critical role in maintaining epidermal barrier function. Activated protein C (APC), a natural anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory and endothelial barrier protective properties, significantly increased the barrier impedance of keratinocyte monolayers, measured by electric cell substrate impedance sensing and FITC-dextran flux. In response to APC, Tie2, a tyrosine kinase receptor, was rapidly activated within 30 min, and relocated to cell-cell contacts. APC also increased junction proteins zona occludens, claudin-1 and VE-cadherin. Inhibition of Tie2 by its peptide inhibitor or small interfering RNA abolished the barrier protective effect of APC. Interestingly, APC did not activate Tie2 through its major ligand, angiopoietin-1, but instead acted by binding to endothelial protein C receptor, cleaving protease-activated receptor-1 and transactivating EGF receptor. Furthermore, when activation of Akt, but not ERK, was inhibited, the barrier protective effect of APC on keratinocytes was abolished. Thus, APC activates Tie2, via a mechanism requiring, in sequential order, the receptors, endothelial protein C receptor, protease-activated receptor-1, and EGF receptor, which selectively enhances the PI3K/Akt signaling to enhance junctional complexes and reduce keratinocyte permeability. PMID:21173154

  6. Keratinocyte but Not Endothelial Cell-Specific Overexpression of Tie2 Leads to the Development of Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Wolfram, Julie A.; Diaconu, Doina; Hatala, Denise A.; Rastegar, Jessica; Knutsen, Dorothy A.; Lowther, Abigail; Askew, David; Gilliam, Anita C.; McCormick, Thomas S.; Ward, Nicole L.

    2009-01-01

    Psoriasis is initiated and maintained through a multifaceted interplay between keratinocytes, blood vessels, gene expression, and the immune system. One previous psoriasis model demonstrated that overexpression of the angiopoietin receptor Tie2 in endothelial cells and keratinocytes led to the development of a psoriasiform phenotype; however, the etiological significance of overexpression in each cell type alone was unclear. We have now engineered two new mouse models whereby Tie2 expression is confined to either endothelial cells or keratinocytes. Both lines of mice have significant increases in dermal vasculature but only the KC-Tie2-overexpressing mice developed a cutaneous psoriasiform phenotype. These mice spontaneously developed characteristic hallmarks of human psoriasis, including extensive acanthosis, increases in dermal CD4+ T cells, infiltrating epidermal CD8+ T cells, dermal dendritic cells and macrophages, and increased expression of cytokines and chemokines associated with psoriasis, including interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor-?, and interleukins 1?, 6, 12, 22, 23, and 17. Host-defense molecules, cathelicidin, ?-defensin, and S100A8/A9, were also up-regulated in the hyperproliferative skin. All of the phenotypic traits were completely reversed without any scarring following repression of the transgene and were significantly improved following treatment with the anti-psoriasis systemic therapeutic, cyclosporin A. Therefore, confining Tie2 overexpression solely to keratinocytes results in a mouse model that meets the clinical, histological, immunophenotypic, biochemical, and pharmacological criteria required for an animal model of human psoriasis. PMID:19342373

  7. The Tie That Binds: Leadership and Liberal Arts Institutions' Civic Engagement Commitment in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Hunter Phillips

    2014-01-01

    Community boundary spanners create ties that bind the campus and its surrounding region for reciprocal relationships. Using community boundary spanning literature as a conceptual framework, this study went beyond existing research on public and 4-year comprehensive universities to examine how university leadership at rural, private liberal arts

  8. The Synthetic Tie2 Agonist Peptide Vasculotide Protects Renal Vascular Barrier Function In Experimental Acute Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Rübig, Eva; Stypmann, Jörg; Van Slyke, Paul; Dumont, Daniel J; Spieker, Tilmann; Buscher, Konrad; Reuter, Stefan; Goerge, Tobias; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Kümpers, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular barrier dysfunction plays a major role in the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury (AKI). Angiopoietin-1, the natural agonist ligand for the endothelial-specific Tie2 receptor, is a non-redundant endothelial survival and vascular stabilization factor. Here we evaluate the efficacy of a polyethylene glycol-clustered Tie2 agonist peptide, vasculotide (VT), to protect against endothelial-cell activation with subsequent microvascular dysfunction in a murine model of ischemic AKI. Renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) was induced by clamping of the renal arteries for 35 minutes. Mice were treated with VT or PEGylated cysteine before IRI. Sham-operated animals served as time-matched controls. Treatment with VT significantly reduced transcapillary albumin flux and renal tissue edema after IRI. The protective effects of VT were associated with activation of Tie2 and stabilization of its downstream effector, VE-cadherin in renal vasculature. VT abolished the decline in renal tissue blood flow, attenuated the increase of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen after IRI, improved recovery of renal function and markedly reduced mortality compared to PEG [HR 0.14 (95% CI 0.05-0.78) P < 0.05]. VT is inexpensive to produce, chemically stable and unrelated to any Tie2 ligands. Thus, VT may represent a novel therapy to prevent AKI in patients. PMID:26911791

  9. Establishing and Enriching School-Community Ties in Small Schools. Small Schools Network Information Exchange Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Laboratory for Educational Improvement of the Northeast & Islands, Andover, MA.

    This information packet contains 14 articles reprinted from various books and journals. Establishing and enriching school-community ties in small schools is the theme for this "Information Exchange Packet," the sixth in a series developed for Small Schools Network members. The articles and their authors are: "Skills in Building Support for

  10. 30 CFR 585.223 - What does BOEM do if there is a tie for the highest bid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What does BOEM do if there is a tie for the highest bid? 585.223 Section 585.223 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Issuance of OCS Renewable...

  11. 49 CFR 1242.15 - Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast, track laying and surfacing, and road property damaged... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Way and Structures § 1242.15 Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges...

  12. 49 CFR 1242.15 - Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast, track laying and surfacing, and road property damaged... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Way and Structures § 1242.15 Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges...

  13. 49 CFR 1242.15 - Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast, track laying and surfacing, and road property damaged... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Way and Structures § 1242.15 Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges...

  14. 49 CFR 1242.15 - Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast, track laying and surfacing, and road property damaged... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Way and Structures § 1242.15 Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges...

  15. Vasculotide reduces endothelial permeability and tumor cell extravasation in the absence of binding to or agonistic activation of Tie2

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Florence TH; Lee, Christina R; Bogdanovic, Elena; Prodeus, Aaron; Gariépy, Jean; Kerbel, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) activation of Tie2 receptors on endothelial cells (ECs) reduces adhesion by tumor cells (TCs) and limits junctional permeability to TC diapedesis. We hypothesized that systemic therapy with Vasculotide (VT)—a purported Ang1 mimetic, Tie2 agonist—can reduce the extravasation of potentially metastatic circulating TCs by similarly stabilizing the host vasculature. In vitro, VT and Ang1 treatments impeded endothelial hypermeability and the transendothelial migration of MDA-MB-231•LM2-4 (breast), HT29 (colon), or SN12 (renal) cancer cells to varying degrees. In mice, VT treatment inhibited the transit of TCs through the pulmonary endothelium, but not the hepatic or lymphatic endothelium. In the in vivo LM2-4 model, VT monotherapy had no effect on primary tumors, but significantly delayed distant metastatic dissemination to the lungs. In the post-surgical adjuvant treatment setting, VT therapeutically complemented sunitinib therapy, an anti-angiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitor which limited the local growth of residual disease. Unexpectedly, detailed investigations into the putative mechanism of action of VT revealed no evidence of Tie2 agonism or Tie2 binding; alternative mechanisms have yet to be determined. PMID:25851538

  16. Application of transmission reliability assessment in probabilistic planning of BC Hydro Vancouver South Metro system

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.; Mansour, Y.; Korczynski, J.K.; Mills, B.J.

    1995-05-01

    This paper presents a basic method of probabilistic transmission planning used in BC Hydro. The method is based on transmission system reliability evaluation and an overall economic analysis including damage cost due to system unreliability. Four alternatives for the Vancouver South Metro system of BC Hydro have been evaluated using the method. The first one is addition of a 230 kV line, the second one local configuration changes (cuts and ties) in the 69 kV subsystem, the third one operational manipulation and the fourth one curtailable industrial load management. The third and the fourth alternatives can be considered as non-investment reinforcements. The results indicate that the cut-and-tie alternative in the 69 kv subsystem can provide the same reliability level as the 230 kV line addition but with much lower investment and therefore the initial 230 kV line addition could be deferred by 10 years. This deferral allows a major capital expenditure of $26.4 million (1997 $) to be avoided. The studies show that the application of quantitative transmission reliability assessment in power system planning can provide utilities with significant economic benefits.

  17. Transmission of bilharziasis

    PubMed Central

    Webbe, G.

    1965-01-01

    While a knowledge of cercarial infection rates is essential to an understanding of the dynamics of bilharziasis transmission, rather little attention has been paid to methods of determining these rates. The author considers that the most valuable information is likely to be obtained if studies of infectivity are carried out hand in hand with studies of snail population density and structure. Different methods employed in examining snail populations for infection are discussed, together with the patterns of Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni cercarial production in relation to natural infections. Other important aspects considered are cercarial shedding in relation to unisexual and bisexual infections, and the use of laboratory animal exposure in natural waters as a means of determining transmission patterns. The author stresses that infection rates and worm burdens obtained from the animal exposure method have to be evaluated carefully in relation to the state of the habitat. PMID:5294587

  18. Drive transmission means

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, M. R.

    1985-01-15

    This invention provides apparatus for use in a drive transmission system comprising a pump adapted to perform work on a medium and means repetitively and automatically to unload the pump. When connected with a flywheel driven by a prime mover an embodiment alternately performs work and then is unloaded to permit acceleration of the flywheel. In use in a driven transmission system there is provided a flywheel driven by an engine, a pump driven by the flywheel, powered by the pump, and means repetitively to unload the pump permitting the engine to accelerate the flywheel and compensation means to power the hydraulic motor while the pump is unloaded. The pump is preferably a rotary positive displacement pump having relief galleries eliminating the seal between pumping elements driving each cycle.

  19. Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Army/NASA Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is charged with developing and demonstrating a light, quiet, and durable drivetrain for next-generation rotorcraft in two classes: a 10,000-20,000 Future Attack Air Vehicle capable of both tactical ground support and air-to-air missions, and a 60,000-80,000 lb Advanced Cargo Aircraft, for heavy-lift field-support operations. Specific ART objectives encompass a 25-percent reduction in drivetrain weight, a 10-dB noise level reduction at the transmission source, and the achievement of a 5000-hr MTBF. Four candidate drivetrain systems have been carried to a conceptual design stage, together with projections of their mission performance and life-cycle costs.

  20. Advanced transmission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.; Bill, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command share an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, this paper presents highlights from that portion of the program in drive train technology and the related mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability; reduce the weight, noise, and vibration; and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for future transmission research is presented.