Sample records for 345-kv transmission tie

  1. Field Measurement or Switching Surges as Modified by Unloaded 345Kv Transformers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Mcelroy; W. S. Price; H. M. Smith; D. F. Shankle

    1963-01-01

    This paper presents results and analyses of extensive field tests to determine how unloaded transformers affect switching surge waveform and magnitude when energizing and de-energizing intermediate-length lines. Particular emphasis is placed on transformer-terminated lines. Switching of transformer-tapped lines and low-side switching of combined autotransformer and connecting high-side line are discussed, and the results include data from tests on both 345-kv

  2. Venue-Mediated Weak Ties in Multiplex HIV Transmission Risk Networks Among Drug-Using Male Sex Workers and Associates

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Ross, Michael W.; Williams, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the structural characteristics of a multiplex HIV transmission risk network of drug-using male sex workers and their associates. Methods. Using a sample of 387 drug-using male sex workers and their male and female associates in Houston, Texas, we estimated an exponential random graph model to examine the venue-mediated relationships between individuals, the structural characteristics of relationships not linked to social venues, and homophily. We collected data in 2003 to 2004. The network comprised social, sexual, and drug-using relationships and affiliations with social venues. Results. Individuals affiliated with the same social venues, bars, or street intersections were more likely to have nonreciprocated (weak) ties with others. Sex workers were less likely than were other associates to have reciprocated (strong) ties to other sex workers with the same venues. Individuals tended to have reciprocated ties not linked to venues. Partner choice tended to be predicated on homophily. Conclusions. Social venues may provide a milieu for forming weak ties in HIV transmission risk networks centered on male sex workers, which may foster the efficient diffusion of prevention messages as diverse information is obtained and information redundancy is avoided. PMID:25880956

  3. Tied Up

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St-Laurent ties up to the Coast Guard Cutter Healy in the Arctic Ocean Sept. 5, 2009. The two ships are taking part in a multi-year, multi-agency Arctic survey that will help define the Arctic continental shelf....

  4. Environmental Assessment for Central Power and Light Company`s proposed Military Highway-CFE tie 138/69-kV transmission line project Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Central Power and Light Company (CPL) intends to upgrade its existing transmission line ties with the Commision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) system in Mexico. CPL currently has a single 69-kilovolt (kV) transmission line in the Brownsville area which connects CPL`s system with the system of CFE. This existing line runs between the Brownsville Switching Station, located on Laredo Road in Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas, and an existing CFE 69-kV line at the Rusteberg Bend of the Rio Grande in Cameron County. Under current conditions of need, the existing 69-kV line does not possess sufficient capability to engage in appropriate power exchanges. Therefore, CPL is proposing to build a new line to link up with CFE. This proposed line would be a double-circuit line, which would (1) continue (on a slightly relocated route) the existing 69-kV tie from CPL`s Brownsville Switching Station to CFE`s facilities, and (2) add a 138-kV tie from the Military Highway Substation, located on Military Highway (US Highway 281), to CFE`s facilities. The proposed 138/69-kV line, which will be constructed and operated by CPL, will be built primarily on steel single-pole structures within an average 60-foot (ft) wide right-of-way (ROW). It will be approximately 6900--9200 ft (1.3--1.7 miles) in length, depending on the alternative route constructed.

  5. On line tying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gibons; D. S. Spicer

    1981-01-01

    We discuss the claim frequently found in the solar physics literature that line tying in the photosphere is capable of stabilizing certain classes of both ideal and resistive MHD instabilities. Our approach is to present a picture of the physical origins of line tying and how resistive effects will affect it.

  6. Tree-Ties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresczyk, Rick

    Created to help students understand how plants were used for food, for medicine, and for arts and crafts among the Ojibwe (Chippewa) Indians, the game Tree-Ties combines earth and social sciences within a specific culture. The game requires mutual respect, understanding, and agreement to succeed. Sounding like the word "treaties", the title is a…

  7. The Tie retraction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Geerling, Gerd; Neppert, Birte; Hemmant, Bridget

    2012-12-01

    Tissue retraction is implicated in the pathogenesis of various ophthalmic disorders. Here we describe the clinical characteristics, epidemiology and pathophysiology of a form of retraction syndrome which - to the best of our knowledge - has not been reported in the ophthalmic literature so far. We have termed this condition - consisting of a slowly progressive pseudovertical shortening of tie length due to a horizontal extension of girth length - the "Tie retraction syndrome" (TRS). Other pathognomonic features include an increased tie tip to belt buckle distance and a prolapse of the subumbilical fat pad (SUFP). The syndrome has a clear male to female preponderance and shows an increasing incidence with age and income before tax. Based on a newly proposed grading scheme we discuss and illustrate the diagnosis as well as the medical and surgical management options of this abundant, but often undiagnosed condition. The authors have no explanation for the apparent lack of awareness for this widely preponderant syndrome and its severe cosmetically disfiguring potential. We thus would like to invite all fellow colleagues with expertise in the field to comment or present their views. PMID:23088329

  8. Why do leaf-tying caterpillars abandon their leaf ties?

    PubMed Central

    Sliwinski, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-tying caterpillars act as ecosystem engineers by building shelters between overlapping leaves, which are inhabited by other arthropods. Leaf-tiers have been observed to leave their ties and create new shelters (and thus additional microhabitats), but the ecological factors affecting shelter fidelity are poorly known. For this study, we explored the effects of resource limitation and occupant density on shelter fidelity and assessed the consequences of shelter abandonment. We first quantified the area of leaf material required for a caterpillar to fully develop for two of the most common leaf-tiers that feed on white oak, Quercus alba. On average, Psilocorsis spp. caterpillars consumed 21.65 ± 0.67 cm2 leaf material to complete development. We also measured the area of natural leaf ties found in a Maryland forest, to determine the distribution of resources available to caterpillars in situ. Of 158 natural leaf ties examined, 47% were too small to sustain an average Psilocorsis spp. caterpillar for the entirety of its development. We also manipulated caterpillar densities within experimental ties on potted trees to determine the effects of cohabitants on the likelihood of a caterpillar to leave its tie. We placed 1, 2, or 4 caterpillars in ties of a standard size and monitored the caterpillars twice daily to track their movement. In ties with more than one occupant, caterpillars showed a significantly greater propensity to leave their tie, and left sooner and at a faster rate than those in ties as single occupants. To understand the consequences of leaf tie abandonment, we observed caterpillars searching a tree for a site to build a shelter in the field. This is a risky behavior, as 17% of the caterpillars observed died while searching for a shelter site. Caterpillars that successfully built a shelter traveled 110 ± 20 cm and took 28 ± 7 min to find a suitable site to build a shelter. In conclusion, leaf-tying caterpillars must frequently abandon their leaf tie due to food limitation and interactions with other caterpillars, but this is a costly behavior. PMID:24109557

  9. Social ties and mental health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ichiro Kawachi; Lisa F. Berkman

    2001-01-01

    It is generally agreed that social ties play a beneficial role in the maintenance of psychological well-being. In this targeted\\u000a review, we highlight four sets of insights that emerge from the literature on social ties and mental health outcomes (defined\\u000a as stress reactions, psychological well-being, and psychological distress, including depressive symptoms and anxiety). First,\\u000a the pathways by which social networks

  10. Analysis of ILRS Site Ties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husson, V. S.; Long, J. L.; Pearlman, M.

    2001-12-01

    By the end of 2000, 94% of ILRS stations had completed station and site information forms (i.e. site logs). These forms contain six types of information. These six categories include site identifiers, contact information, approximate coordinates, system configuration history, system ranging capabilities, and local survey ties. The ILRS Central Bureau, in conjunction with the ILRS Networks and Engineering Working Group, has developed procedures to quality control site log contents. Part of this verification entails data integrity checks of local site ties and is the primary focus of this paper. Local survey ties are critical to the combination of space geodetic network coordinate solutions (i.e. GPS, SLR, VLBI, DORIS) of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Approximately 90% of active SLR sites are collocated with at least one other space geodetic technique. The process used to verify these SLR ties, at collocated sites, is identical to the approach used in ITRF2000. Local vectors (X, Y, Z) from each ILRS site log are differenced from its corresponding ITRF2000 position vectors (i.e. no transformations). These X, Y, and Z deltas are converted into North, East, and Up. Any deltas, in any component, larger than 5 millimeter is flagged for investigation. In the absence of ITRF2000 SLR positions, CSR positions were used. To further enhance this comparison and to fill gaps in information, local ties contained in site logs from the other space geodetic services (i.e. IGS, IVS, IDS) were used in addition to ITRF2000 ties. Case studies of two collocated sites (McDonald/Ft. Davis and Hartebeeshtoek) will be explored in-depth. Recommendations on how local site surveys should be conducted and how this information should be managed will also be presented.

  11. Draft environmental impact statement for construction and operation of the proposed Bangor Hydro-Electric Company`s second 345-kV transmission tie line to New Brunswick

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-10-01

    This Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) was prepared by the US Department of Energy (US DOE). The proposed action is the issuance of Presidential Permit PP-89 by DOE to Bangor Hydro-Electric Company to construct and operate a new international transmission line interconnection to New Brunswick, Canada that would consist of an 83.8 mile (US portion), 345-kilovolt (kV) alternating current transmission line from the US-Canadian border at Baileyville, Maine to an existing substation at Orrington, Maine. The principal environmental impacts of the construction and operation of the transmission line would be incremental in nature and would include the conversion of forested uplands (mostly commercial timberlands) and wetlands to right-of-way (small trees, shrubs, and herbaceous vegetation). The proposed line would also result in localized minor to moderate visual impacts and would contribute a minor incremental increase in the exposure of some individuals to electromagnetic fields. This DEIS documents the purpose and need for the proposed action, describes the proposed action and alternatives considered and provides a comparison of the proposed and alternatives routes, and provides detailed information on analyses of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and alternatives, as well as mitigative measures to minimize impacts.

  12. Minimizing knot tying during reconstructive laparoscopic urology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arieh L. Shalhav; Marcelo A. Orvieto; Gary W. Chien; Albert A. Mikhail; Gregory P. Zagaja; Kevin C. Zorn

    2006-01-01

    ObjectivesIntracorporeal knot tying during urologic reconstructive surgery is one of the most technically challenging skills of laparoscopic surgery. We describe our experience using the Lapra-Ty clip to substitute for knot tying.

  13. Dielectric Bow-tie Nanocavity

    E-print Network

    Lu, Qijing; Zou, Chang-Ling

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel dielectric bow-tie nanocavity consisting of two tip-to-tip opposite triangle semiconductor nanowires, whose end faces are coated by silver nanofilms. Based on the advantages of the dielectric slot and tip structures, and the high reflectivity from the silver mirror, light can be confined in this nanocavity with low loss. We demonstrate that the mode excited in this nanocavity has a deep subwavelength mode volume of 2.8*10^-4 um3 and a high quality factor of 4.9*10^4 (401.3), consequently an ultrahigh Purcell factor of 1.6*10^7 (1.36*10^5), at 4.5 K (300 K) around the resonance wavelength of 1550 nm. This dielectric bow-tie nanocavity may find applications for integrated nanophotonic circuits, such as high-efficiency single photon source, thresholdless nanolaser, and cavity QED strong coupling experiments.

  14. The Tying of Lending and Equity Underwriting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Drucker; Manju Puri

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the practice of tying,' which occurs when an underwriter lends to an issuer around the time of a public securities offering. We examine whether there are efficiencies from tying lending and underwriting which lead to benefits for issuers and underwriters. We find evidence consistent with tying occurring for issues when there are informational economies of scope from

  15. Distinct roles of the receptor tyrosine kinases Tie1 and Tie2 in blood vessel formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas N. Sato; Yuzuru Tozawa; Urban Deutsch; Karen Wolburg-Buchholz; Yuko Fujiwara; Maureen Gendron-Maguire; Thomas Gridley; Hartwig Wolburg; Werner Risau; Ying Qin

    1995-01-01

    TIE-1 and Tie-2 define a new class of receptor tyrosine kinases that are specifically expressed in developing vascular endothelial cells. To study the functions of Tie-1 and Tie-2 during vascular endothelial cell growth and differentiation in vivo, targeted mutations of the genes in mice were introduced by homologous recombination. Embryos deficient in Tie-1 failed to establish structural integrity of vascular

  16. Changing Views on Intergenerational Ties

    PubMed Central

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Sechrist, Jori; Birditt, Kira

    2015-01-01

    Ties to parents or grown children may be the most important social relationships in an adult’s life. Research examining intergenerational relationships has focused on three broader topics: (a) the strength of emotional bonds, (b) exchanges of social support, and (c) the effects of the relationship on individual well-being. This review considers some of the major theoretical developments in the field including solidarity and intergenerational ambivalence theory as well as the newly developed multidimensional model of support. We also consider weaknesses in the research and theories to date and provide suggestions for future research. PMID:23037718

  17. 7 CFR 7.12 - Tie votes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...day shall be settled by lot. In counties with one local administrative area, a tie vote in determining...shall be settled by lot. (b) In the county or local administrative area convention, tie votes which cannot be settled by further...

  18. Tie strength distribution in scientific collaboration networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Qing; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2014-09-01

    Science is increasingly dominated by teams. Understanding patterns of scientific collaboration and their impacts on the productivity and evolution of disciplines is crucial to understand scientific processes. Electronic bibliography offers a unique opportunity to map and investigate the nature of scientific collaboration. Recent studies have demonstrated a counterintuitive organizational pattern of scientific collaboration networks: densely interconnected local clusters consist of weak ties, whereas strong ties play the role of connecting different clusters. This pattern contrasts itself from many other types of networks where strong ties form communities while weak ties connect different communities. Although there are many models for collaboration networks, no model reproduces this pattern. In this paper, we present an evolution model of collaboration networks, which reproduces many properties of real-world collaboration networks, including the organization of tie strengths, skewed degree and weight distribution, high clustering, and assortative mixing.

  19. Wide band dual circularly polarized aperture coupled microstrip patch antenna with bow tie shaped apertures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Sharma; R. Singh; A. Mittal

    2004-01-01

    A wide band aperture coupled microstrip antenna with dual circular polarization operation is proposed. The antenna is designed and simulated to enable the transmission and reception of different circularly polarized wide band signals simultaneously with a single antenna. Instead of conventional rectangular apertures, two orthogonally placed bow-tie shaped apertures fed by a 3 dB branch line coupler are used to

  20. 23 CFR 635.111 - Tied bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...doing more favorable bids may be received. To avoid discrimination against contractors desiring to bid upon a lesser amount of work than that included in the tied combinations, provisions should be made to permit bidding separately on the...

  1. WIDEBAND BOW-TIE SLOT ANTENNA WITH TUNING STUBS

    E-print Network

    Elsherbeni, Atef Z.

    WIDEBAND BOW-TIE SLOT ANTENNA WITH TUNING STUBS Abdelnasser A. Eldek, Atef Z. Elsherbeni Senior, USA Abstract Printed bow-tie and bow-tie slot antennas are planar-type variations of the biconical stub to a bow-tie slot antenna design to enhance the antenna bandwidth for X-band operation. Our study

  2. TIE: An Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    ?mieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jaros?aw; Stolarski, Maciej S.

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions. PMID:25072656

  3. Plasma convection and line-tying

    SciTech Connect

    Fornaca, S.

    1983-03-01

    The directed motion of a low-..beta.. plasma across a toroidal magnetic field is examined as the degree of electrical contact between the plasma and a conducting end wall (line-tying) is varied in a controlled manner. Experimentally, little difference is found between the motion of a completely isolated plasma and that of a plasma in contact with a wall that does not emit electrons. As the degree of line-tying is increased by making the end wall electron-emitting, the cross-field convection of the plasma is increasingly suppressed. Beyond a critical emission current density, no further suppression is observed. When the system is in the surface-line-tying configuration, the suppression of the directed cross-field motion is accompanied by a large increase in the radial transport of plasma.

  4. Heterogeneity of Tie2 Expression in Tumor Microcirculation

    PubMed Central

    Fathers, Kelly E.; Stone, Courtney M.; Minhas, Kanwal; Marriott, Jason J.A.; Greenwood, Janice D.; Dumont, Daniel J.; Coomber, Brenda L.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the expression of the Tie2/Tek tyrosine kinase receptor in tumor blood vessels, we examined Tie2lacZ+/RAG1? mice. There was considerable heterogeneity (Tie2-negative, Tie2-positive, or Tie2-composite blood vessels) in subcutaneous xenografts of human colorectal carcinoma (HCT116; 97.5% Tie2-positive vessels) versus human melanoma (WM115; 75.9% Tie2-positive vessels). Similar patterns of Tie2 expression occurred in abdominal metastases derived from the same cell lines. Immunostaining for endothelial markers and Tie2 revealed that endogenous protein levels corresponded with transgene activity. Endothelial cells were confirmed to be of mouse origin through triple immunofluorescence staining with mouse antiserum to human nuclei, isolectin GS-IB4, and anti-Tie2. Similar Tie2 heterogeneity was observed in clinical specimens from a variety of human cancers, including malignant melanoma and colorectal carcinoma. We also examined the effect of Tek-Delta Fc anti-angiogenic therapy on tumor growth and Tie2 expression patterns in HCT116 and WM115 subcutaneous xenografts. Tek-Delta induced extensive tumor regression in HCT116 tumors and concomitant reductions in Tie2-expressing blood vessels. However, no significant responses were seen in Tek-Delta-treated WM115 tumors. Thus, vascular heterogeneity of Tie2 expression is cancer-type specific, suggesting that the tumor microenvironment and/or direct cancer cell interactions influence Tie2 endothelial expression. PMID:16314485

  5. Time-tying of EMP test data

    SciTech Connect

    McGevna, V.G.

    1983-02-16

    An algorithm for automatic time-tying of EMP data sets has been developed. The algorithm reflects the nature of the EMP data as well as the idiosyncracies of the data acquisition system. A number of performance measures which can be generated during time-tying have been identified. These can provide the capability of on-line monitoring of the data acquisition system. Computer monitoring can reduce the need for manual review of data and improve the quality of the data obtained during the course of a test.

  6. Developing Closer Ties with the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Gregor; Hoddinott, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The need for research administrators to understand and appreciate the pharmaceutical industry's research and development environment is discussed, using examples from Canada. The research administrator's role in the technology transfer process and implications for faculty are examined. Ways to build closer school-industry ties are discussed. (MSE)

  7. The Strength of Weak Terrorist Ties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Kennedy; Gabriel Weimann

    2011-01-01

    The current age of technology, mass communication, and globalization makes networks analysis an especially useful tool for understanding cell-based terrorism. Some concepts from traditional networks analysis may be especially relevant. The Strength of Weak Ties hypothesis (SWT) is particularly promising and will be used here to demonstrate the usability of traditional networks analysis for studying modern terrorism. The findings suggest

  8. Content Literacy Tied to the New Standards

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Content Literacy Tied to the New Standards Tom Peters, Ed.D. SC Coalition for Mathematics & Science Leigh Haltiwanger, Ed.M. Clemson University #12; Understand specific aspects of content literacy;When you think about "content literacy" what are some words and/or images that come to mind? #12;the

  9. Friends and Helpers: When Ties Dissolve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Ben Zion

    1977-01-01

    Examines some of the conditions associated with dissolution of the friendship tie. Subjects were 232 boys and girls between the ages of eight and 15 at a summer camp. The hypothesis that reduction in social interaction would be associated with increased probability of dissolution was not conclusively supported. (Author/HMV)

  10. NASA's Global Imagery Management System: TIE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarcon, C.; Roberts, J. T.; Huang, T.; Thompson, C. K.; Cechini, M. F.; Hall, J. R.; Murphy, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)' Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) is a system that provides full resolution imagery from a broad set of Earth science disciplines to the public. Using well-accepted standard protocols such as the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Tile Service (WMTS), GIBS delivers global imagery efficiently and responsively. Behind this service, lies The Imagery Exchange (TIE), a workflow data management solution developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. TIE is an Open Archival Information System responsible for orchestrating the workflow for acquisition, preparation, generation, and archiving of imagery to be served by the GIBS' web mapping tile service, OnEarth. The workflow collects imagery provenance throughout a product's lifecycle by leveraging the EOS Clearing House (ECHO) and other long-term metadata repositories in order to promote reproducibility. Through this focus on metadata, TIE provides spatial and temporal searching capabilities such as an OpenSearch interface as well as facilitating the generation of metadata standards such as the OGC GetCapabilities. Designed as a scalable system, TIE's subsystems can scale-up or scale-down depending on the data volume it handles through the usage of popular open source technologies such as Apache Zookeeper and Grails. This presentation will cover the challenges and solutions to developing such a horizontally scalable data management system where science products are often varied with disparate provenance pertaining to source platforms and instruments, spatial resolutions, processing algorithms, metadata models and packaging specifications.

  11. The self-cohering tied-array

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Fridman

    2010-01-01

    Context. Large radio astronomy multi-element interferometers are frequently used as single dishes in a tied-array mode when signals from separate antennas are added. Phase shifts arising during wave propagation through a turbulent atmosphere can significantly reduce the effective area of an equivalent single dish. Aims: I aim to give estimates of the impact of the ionosphere and troposphere on the

  12. Plasma convection and line-tying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Fornaca

    1983-01-01

    The directed motion of a low-? plasma across a toroidal magnetic field is examined as the degree of electrical contact between the plasma and a conducting end wall (line-tying) is varied in a controlled manner. Experimentally, little difference is found between the motion of a completely isolated plasma and that of a plasma in contact with a wall that does

  13. 5. VIEW OF NORTHWEST ELEVATIONS OF LITTLE FALLS TIE LINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF NORTHWEST ELEVATIONS OF LITTLE FALLS TIE LINE TOWERS NO. 59 AND NO. 60, EXAMPLE OF TRANSPOSITION TOWERS. LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Little Falls Tie Line Towers, Near Little Dam Falls on Spokane River, Wellpinit, Stevens County, WA

  14. 3. VIEW OF NORTHWEST CORNER OF LITTLE FALLS TIE LINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF NORTHWEST CORNER OF LITTLE FALLS TIE LINE TOWER NO. 23, STANDARD PEAK TOWER. LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Little Falls Tie Line Towers, Near Little Dam Falls on Spokane River, Wellpinit, Stevens County, WA

  15. Analysis of Academic Ties: A Case Study of Mathematics Genealogy

    E-print Network

    Gunes, Mehmet Hadi

    Analysis of Academic Ties: A Case Study of Mathematics Genealogy Engin Arslan, Mehmet Hadi Gunes the Mathematics Genealogy Project data. Additionally, using university and nation information of mathematicians over the years. Keywords - Academic ties, mathematics genealogy, social network. 1. INTRODUCTION

  16. A Tied-Mixture 2-D HMM Face Recognition System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hisham Othman; Tyseer Aboulnasr

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a simplified 2D second-order hidden Markov model (HMM) with tied state mixtures is applied to the face recognition problem. The mixture of the model states is fully-tied across all models for lower complexity. Tying HMM parameters is a well-known solution for the problem of insufficient training data leading to nonrobust estimation. We show that parameter tying in

  17. Chord, Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Detail in Plan; Crossbracing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord, Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Detail in Plan; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail in Plan; Chord Joining Detail in Plan & Elevation; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar, & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail in Section; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar & Horizontal Brace Joint Detail - Narrows Bridge, Spanning Sugar Creek at Old County Road 280 East, Marshall, Parke County, IN

  18. Tying knots: lending to win equity underwriting business

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Drucker; Manju Puri

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the practice of “tying,” which occurs when an underwriter lends to an issuer around the time of a public securities offering. We examine whether there are efficiencies from tying lending and underwriting which lead to benefits for issuers and underwriters. We find evidence consistent with tying occurring for issues when there are informational economies of scope from

  19. Structural Predictors of Tie Formation in Twitter: Transitivity and Mutuality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott A. Golder; Sarita Yardi

    2010-01-01

    New ties are often formed between people who already have friends in common. Though the social s ciences have addressed the effects of existing structural patter ns on the formation of new ties, less attention has been give n to ties in directed networks. Drawing from the microblogging service Twitter, we conducted a web-based experiment in which subjects were asked

  20. Line tying and cross-field plasma convection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. W. Fornaca

    1980-01-01

    The effects of line tying on the curvature-driven convection of plasma across magnetic field lines in open ended confinement systems were investigated. Line tying is defined as the electrical contact between the plasma and a conducting end wall. On the basis of existing theoretical models of the line tying process, the motion of the plasma in terms of measurable parameters

  1. Modeling Social Ties and Household Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Sara S.

    2013-01-01

    Underlying the aggregate phenomena of persistent problems such as urban sprawl and spatial socio-economic disparity is the individual choice of where to live. This study develops an agent-based model to simulate social and economic influences on neighborhood choice. With Danville, Illinois as an empirical context, a pattern-oriented approach is employed to examine the role of social ties in shaping intra-urban household mobility. In the model, household agents decide whether and where to relocate within the community based upon factors such as neighborhood attractiveness, affordability, and the density of a household's social network in the prospective block group. Social network and neighborhood choices are encoded with logit utility functions. The relative influence of factors affecting the formation of social ties in the simulated social network, such as geographic proximity, similarity of income, race, and presence of children, are adjusted using parameter variation to create alternative model settings. Simulated migration patterns resulting from different network and neighborhood choice coefficients are compared with observed migration patterns over a two-year period. Based upon 1000 simulation experiments, a regression of homeowner migration error (the difference between simulated and observed migration) relative to the parameter settings revealed components of social network choice such as income, race, and probability of local ties to be significant in matching observed migration patterns. A non-linear effect of simulated social networks on household mobility and thus migration error was exhibited in this study. PMID:25035520

  2. Modeling Social Ties and Household Mobility.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Sara S

    2014-01-01

    Underlying the aggregate phenomena of persistent problems such as urban sprawl and spatial socio-economic disparity is the individual choice of where to live. This study develops an agent-based model to simulate social and economic influences on neighborhood choice. With Danville, Illinois as an empirical context, a pattern-oriented approach is employed to examine the role of social ties in shaping intra-urban household mobility. In the model, household agents decide whether and where to relocate within the community based upon factors such as neighborhood attractiveness, affordability, and the density of a household's social network in the prospective block group. Social network and neighborhood choices are encoded with logit utility functions. The relative influence of factors affecting the formation of social ties in the simulated social network, such as geographic proximity, similarity of income, race, and presence of children, are adjusted using parameter variation to create alternative model settings. Simulated migration patterns resulting from different network and neighborhood choice coefficients are compared with observed migration patterns over a two-year period. Based upon 1000 simulation experiments, a regression of homeowner migration error (the difference between simulated and observed migration) relative to the parameter settings revealed components of social network choice such as income, race, and probability of local ties to be significant in matching observed migration patterns. A non-linear effect of simulated social networks on household mobility and thus migration error was exhibited in this study. PMID:25035520

  3. Inferring social ties from geographic coincidences

    PubMed Central

    Crandall, David J.; Backstrom, Lars; Cosley, Dan; Suri, Siddharth; Huttenlocher, Daniel; Kleinberg, Jon

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which social ties between people can be inferred from co-occurrence in time and space: Given that two people have been in approximately the same geographic locale at approximately the same time, on multiple occasions, how likely are they to know each other? Furthermore, how does this likelihood depend on the spatial and temporal proximity of the co-occurrences? Such issues arise in data originating in both online and offline domains as well as settings that capture interfaces between online and offline behavior. Here we develop a framework for quantifying the answers to such questions, and we apply this framework to publicly available data from a social media site, finding that even a very small number of co-occurrences can result in a high empirical likelihood of a social tie. We then present probabilistic models showing how such large probabilities can arise from a natural model of proximity and co-occurrence in the presence of social ties. In addition to providing a method for establishing some of the first quantifiable estimates of these measures, our findings have potential privacy implications, particularly for the ways in which social structures can be inferred from public online records that capture individuals’ physical locations over time. PMID:21148099

  4. Zebrafish Tie-2 shares a redundant role with Tie-1 in heart development and regulates vessel integrity

    PubMed Central

    Gjini, Evisa; Hekking, Liesbeth H.; Küchler, Axel; Saharinen, Pipsa; Wienholds, Erno; Post, Jan-Andries; Alitalo, Kari; Schulte-Merker, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Tie-2 is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family and is required for vascular remodeling and maintenance of mammalian vessel integrity. A number of mutations in the human TIE2 gene have been identified in patients suffering from cutaneomucosal venous malformations and ventricular septal defects. How exactly Tie-2 signaling pathways play different roles in both vascular development and vascular stability is unknown. We have generated a zebrafish line carrying a stop mutation in the kinase domain of the Tie-2 receptor. Mutant embryos lack Tie-2 protein, but do not display any defect in heart and vessel development. Simultaneous loss of Tie-1 and Tie-2, however, leads to a cardiac phenotype. Our study shows that Tie-1 and Tie-2 are not required for early heart development, yet they have redundant roles for the maintenance of endocardial-myocardial connection in later stages. Tie-2 and its ligand Angiopoietin-1 have also been reported to play an important role in vessel stability. We used atorvastatin and simvastatin, drugs that cause bleeding in wild-type zebrafish larvae, to challenge vessel stability in tie-2 mutants. Interestingly, recent clinical studies have reported hemorrhagic stroke as a side effect of atorvastatin treatment. Exposure of embryos to statins revealed that tie-2 mutants are significantly protected from statin-induced bleeding. Furthermore, tie-2 mutants became less resistant to bleeding after VE-cadherin knockdown. Taken together, these data show that atorvastatin affects vessel stability through Tie-2, and that VE-cadherin and Tie-2 act in concert to allow vessel remodeling while playing a role in vessel stability. Our study introduces an additional vertebrate model to study in vivo the function of Tie-2 in development and disease. PMID:21045210

  5. Zebrafish Tie2 shares a redundant role with Tie1 in heart development and regulates vessel integrity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Gjini; L. H. Hekking; A. Kuchler; P. Saharinen; E. Wienholds; J. Post; K. Alitalo; S. Schulte-Merker

    2011-01-01

    Tie-2 is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family and is required for vascular remodeling and maintenance of mammalian vessel integrity. A number of mutations in the human TIE2 gene have been identified in patients suffering from cutaneomucosal venous malformations and ventricular septal defects. How exactly Tie-2 signaling pathways play different roles in both vascular development and vascular stability

  6. Bow-tie antennas on a dielectric half-space - Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, Richard C.; Mcphedran, Ross C.; Popovic, Zorana; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.; Tong, Peter P.

    1987-01-01

    A new formulation is discussed for the rigous calculation of the radiation pattern of a bow-tie antenna of finite length and infinitesimal thickness, placed on a lossless dielectric substrate. The analysis is based on a representation of the current density on the metal surface of the antenna as a sum of an imposed (quasistatic) term and a set of current modes with unknown amplitudes. Free-space fields that are expressed in terms of continuous spectra of symmetrized plane waves are matched to the current modes using the method of moments. The resulting set of equations are solved for the unknown current amplitudes. The calculations show that for increasing bow length the antenna impedance spirals rapidly to a value predicted by transmission line theory. The theory also shows that the E-plane pattern of a two-wavelength, 60-deg bow-tie antenna is dominated by low-loss current modes propagating at the dielectric wavenumber. As the bow tie narrows, the loss of the modes increases, and the dominant wavenumber tends to the quasi-static value. Pattern measurements made at 94 GHz are shown to agree well with theoretical predictions. Measurements for a long-wire antenna, a linear array of bow-tie elements, and a log-periodic antenna are also presented.

  7. The Running Barbed Tie-over Dressing

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Kenneth M.; Kennedy, Ann-Marie; Kelly, Jack L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Barbed suture technology is becoming increasingly popular in plastic surgery and is now being used in body contouring surgery and facial rejuvenation. We describe the novel application of a barbed suture as a running tie-over dressing for skin grafts. The barbs act as anchors in the skin, so constant tensioning of the suture is not required. The bidirectional nature of the suture prevents any slippage, and the barbs even act as a grip on the underlying wool dressing. Furthermore, the method described is both quick and simple to learn and would be useful for the sole operator. PMID:25289330

  8. Migrant networks and international migration: testing weak ties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mao-Mei

    2013-08-01

    This article examines the role of migrant social networks in international migration and extends prior research by testing the strength of tie theory, decomposing networks by sources and resources, and disentangling network effects from complementary explanations. Nearly all previous empirical research has ignored friendship ties and has largely neglected extended-family ties. Using longitudinal data from the Migration between Africa and Europe project collected in Africa (Senegal) and Europe (France, Italy, and Spain), this article tests the robustness of network theory-and in particular, the role of weak ties-on first-time migration between Senegal and Europe. Discrete-time hazard model results confirm that weak ties are important and that network influences appear to be gendered, but they do not uphold the contention in previous literature that strong ties are more important than weak ties for male and female migration. Indeed, weak ties play an especially important role in male migration. In terms of network resources, having more resources as a result of strong ties appears to dampen overall migration, while having more resources as a result of weaker ties appears to stimulate male migration. Finally, the diversity of resources has varied effects for male and female migration. PMID:23703222

  9. Coupling human mobility and social ties.

    PubMed

    Toole, Jameson L; Herrera-Yaqüe, Carlos; Schneider, Christian M; González, Marta C

    2015-04-01

    Studies using massive, passively collected data from communication technologies have revealed many ubiquitous aspects of social networks, helping us understand and model social media, information diffusion and organizational dynamics. More recently, these data have come tagged with geographical information, enabling studies of human mobility patterns and the science of cities. We combine these two pursuits and uncover reproducible mobility patterns among social contacts. First, we introduce measures of mobility similarity and predictability and measure them for populations of users in three large urban areas. We find individuals' visitations patterns are far more similar to and predictable by social contacts than strangers and that these measures are positively correlated with tie strength. Unsupervised clustering of hourly variations in mobility similarity identifies three categories of social ties and suggests geography is an important feature to contextualize social relationships. We find that the composition of a user's ego network in terms of the type of contacts they keep is correlated with mobility behaviour. Finally, we extend a popular mobility model to include movement choices based on social contacts and compare its ability to reproduce empirical measurements with two additional models of mobility. PMID:25716185

  10. BSE Rap: intergenerational ties to save lives.

    PubMed

    Ehmann, J L

    1993-09-01

    This article presents an innovative public-education strategy that was created to promote breast health awareness and early breast cancer detection among minority and low-income adolescent females. Given the importance of teaching breast self-examination (BSE), program development focused on creation of the BSE Rap, a lively music-video presentation. Increasing adolescents' knowledge and awareness of BSE is viewed as a springboard for disseminating information to their mothers and grandmothers. Funding was obtained for production of a video and a breast health diary, which are the program's key components. Marketing strategies included contacts with community organizations and healthcare professionals. Program evaluations reveal that the BSE Rap serves as a positive motivator for participants to discuss BSE and mammography with their mothers and grandmothers. The BSE Rap offers oncology nurses the opportunity to save lives using a unique and creative tool that focuses on intergenerational ties. PMID:8415152

  11. Chord Panel Post, Vertical X Bracing & Horizontal Tie Joint ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord Panel Post, Vertical X Bracing & Horizontal Tie Joint Detail; Chord Joining Block & Spacer Block Detail; Cross Bracing Joint Detail; Chord Panel Post Diagonal & Horizontal Tie Joint Detail - Jackson Covered Bridge, Spanning Sugar Creek, CR 775N (Changed from Spanning Sugar Creek), Bloomingdale, Parke County, IN

  12. Processing of Cohesive Ties by EFL Arab College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Jarf, Reima Sado

    2001-01-01

    Fifty-nine English-as-a-foreign-language students in Saudi Arabia took a cohesion test in which they identified four types of cohesive ties in a reading text, including conjunction, reference, substitution, and ellipsis. Incorrect responses were analyzed. It was found that substitution was the most difficult cohesive tie to process. (Author/VWL)

  13. Week 1 Lecture Global TIES Intro: Nuts `n Bolts

    E-print Network

    Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    Week 1 Lecture Global TIES Intro: Nuts `n Bolts October 5, 2012 #12;Introductions · Mandy Bratton" - Lecture 1 10/5 Global TIES Intro: Nuts 'n Bolts 2 10/12 EH&S Training 3 10/19 TBA 4 10/26 TBA 5 11/2 TBA 6

  14. Week 1 Lecture Global TIES Intro: Nuts `n Bolts

    E-print Network

    Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    Week 1 Lecture Global TIES Intro: Nuts `n Bolts January 11, 2013 #12;Introductions · Mandy Bratton commitment ~8hrs/week #12;Lecture Schedule 1 1/11 Global TIES Intro: Nuts 'n Bolts 2 1/18 EH&S Training 3 1

  15. Week 1 Lecture Global TIES Intro: Nuts `n Bolts

    E-print Network

    Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    Week 1 Lecture Global TIES Intro: Nuts `n Bolts April 5, 2013 #12;Introductions · Mandy Bratton commitment ~8hrs/week #12;Lecture Schedule 1 4/5 Global TIES Intro: Nuts 'n Bolts 2 4/12 EH&S Training 3 4

  16. Week 2 Lecture Global TIES Intro: Nuts `n Bolts

    E-print Network

    Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    Week 2 Lecture Global TIES Intro: Nuts `n Bolts October 11, 2013 #12;Introductions · Mandy Bratton · Overall commitment ~8hrs/week #12;Lecture Schedule 1 10/4 Global TIES Intro 2 10/11 Nuts and Bolts 3 10

  17. Considering ties elasticities in high frequency rail dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knothe, K.; Ilias, N.; Goetz, M.; Ripke, B.

    1993-05-01

    The eigenfrequencies of elastic railroad ties are experimentally and numerically determined. The eigenfrequencies were experimentally obtained for vertical and lateral eigenoscillations shapes. A finite element program, which contains interpolation hermitian polynomials, was used for calculating eigenfrequencies; bending and shear stiffnesses were taken into consideration and the coupling between flexion and torsion was neglected. The results were compared with data obtained for rigid ties. An approximation formula for eigenfrequency calculation of ties, based on the assumption of a beam with constant stiffness and subjected to shear deformation and torsional inertia, was given. A model which takes into account the elastic properties of ties was developed for calculating the compliance of rails in the frequency area. From the results it can be deduced that elastic calculations for ties are only necessary for frequencies lower than 200 Hz.

  18. Grid tied PV system energy smoothing.

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, Keith Phillip; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Hund, Thomas D.

    2010-06-01

    Grid-tied PV energy smoothing was implemented by using a valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery as a temporary energy storage device to both charge and discharge as required to smooth the inverter energy output from the PV array. Inverter output was controlled by the average solar irradiance over the previous 1h time interval. On a clear day the solar irradiance power curve is offset by about 1h, while on a variable cloudy day the inverter output power curve will be smoothed based on the average solar irradiance. Test results demonstrate that this smoothing algorithm works very well. Battery state of charge was more difficult to manage because of the variable system inefficiencies. Testing continued for 30-days and established consistent operational performance for extended periods of time under a wide variety of resource conditions. Both battery technologies from Exide (Absolyte) and East Penn (Advanced Valve Regulated Lead-Acid) proved to cycle well at a partial state of charge over the time interval tested.

  19. Grid-tied PV battery systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, Keith Phillip; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Hund, Thomas D.

    2010-09-01

    Grid tied PV energy smoothing was implemented by using a valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery as a temporary energy storage device to both charge and discharge as required to smooth the inverter energy output from the PV array. Inverter output was controlled by the average solar irradiance over the previous 1h time interval. On a clear day the solar irradiance power curve is offset by about 1h, while on a variable cloudy day the inverter output power curve will be smoothed based on the average solar irradiance. Test results demonstrate that this smoothing algorithm works very well. Battery state of charge was more difficult to manage because of the variable system inefficiencies. Testing continued for 30-days and established consistent operational performance for extended periods of time under a wide variety of resource conditions. Both battery technologies from Exide (Absolyte) and East Penn (ALABC Advanced) proved to cycle well at a Partial state of charge over the time interval tested.

  20. A simple and rapid method of repeated tie over dressing

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Hardeep; Aggarwal, Aditya; Khazanchi, Rakesh Kumar; Mahendru, Sanjay; Brajesh, Vimalendu; Singh, Sukhdeep; Krishnan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Tie overdressing is commonly used to secure the graft against the raw surface and prevent loss due to of hematoma or seroma. A conventional tie over dressing with silk sutures, is a useful method of securing the graft to raw area. Refixation is difficult when repeated tie over dressings are needed. We assessed a low cost repeated tie over dressing method using sterile sample collection containers and silk suture threads in eight patients. After the graft is applied on the bed, tie-over stitches are taken, and paraffin gauze is applied over with adequate padding; the tie over sutures are passed through the container and the lid is tightened over it to complete the dressing. The lid can be unscrewed easily at any time to inspect the graft and can be easily reapplied in the outpatient department. The skin graft take in all the patients was complete without any seroma or hematoma. A novel and low-cost tie over dressing that enables simple fixation of the dressing, to maintain proper position of grafts that require repeated fixation is reported here. PMID:25991891

  1. Social network ties beyond nonredundancy: an experimental investigation of the effect of knowledge content and tie strength on creativity.

    PubMed

    Perry-Smith, Jill E

    2014-09-01

    Social network research emphasizes the access to nonredundant knowledge content that network ties provide. I suggest that some content is more beneficial than others and that tie strength may affect creativity for reasons other than the associated structure. That is, tie strength may affect how individuals process nonredundant knowledge. I investigate 2 types of knowledge content--information (i.e., facts or data) and frames (i.e., interpretations or impressions)--and explore whether tie strength influences their effect on creativity. Drawing on creativity theory, I employ an experimental design to provide greater theoretical clarity and to isolate causality. According to the results from 2 studies, distinct frames received from contacts facilitate creativity, but the effect of distinct information is more complex. When individuals receive distinct information from strong ties, it constrains creativity compared to distinct frames. Content from weak ties appears to facilitate creativity across all scenarios. The results of mediated moderation analysis indicate the effect of framing versus information for strong ties is driven by decision-making time, as an indicator of cognitive expansion. PMID:24684668

  2. Views of the Apollo 11 Twentieth Anniversary Black Tie reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    View from the Apollo 11 Twentieth Anniversary Black Tie reception at the downtown Houston Hyatt Regency Hotel. Scene show NASA/JSC Director Aaron Cohen talking with NASA Administrator Richard H. Truly and his wife, Cody.

  3. 34. Detail of movable span showing center structural tie between ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Detail of movable span showing center structural tie between east and west spans centered over turning mechanism. VIEW SOUTHWEST - Broadway Bridge, Spanning Foundry Street, MBTA Yard, Fort Point Channel, & Lehigh Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  4. Chord, Horizontal Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Details; Crossbracing Center ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord, Horizontal Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Details; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Posts, Braces & Counterbrace Joint Detail - Brownsville Covered Bridge, Spanning East Fork Whitewater River (moved to Eagle Creek Park, Indianapolis), Brownsville, Union County, IN

  5. SUBSEA FABRICATION AND TIE-IN Wednesday, March 10, 2010

    E-print Network

    George, Glyn

    was awarded the fabrication of the subsea manifolds for the North Amethyst offshore oil development, operated by Husky Energy. North Amethyst will be tied in to the existing White Rose oil field, 350 kilometres off

  6. DO TIE LABORATORY BASED ASSESSMENT METHODS REALLY PREDICT FIELD EFFECTS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) methods have been developed for both porewaters and whole sediments. These relatively simple laboratory methods are designed to identify specific toxicants or classes of toxicants in sediments; however, the question of whethe...

  7. DO TIE LABORATORY BASED METHODS REALLY REFLECT FIELD CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) methods have been developed for both interstitial waters and whole sediments. These relatively simple laboratory methods are designed to identify specific toxicants or classes of toxicants in sediments; however, the question ...

  8. TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATION (TIE) RESULTS FOR METAL CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identification of contaminants in sediment is necessary for sound management decisions on sediment disposal, remediation, determination of ecological risk, and source identification. We have been developing sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) techniques that allow ...

  9. Fish Oil Tied to Better Brain Function in Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_152697.html Fish Oil Tied to Better Brain Function in Older ... 3 fatty acids -- found in many types of fish -- may benefit people at risk for Alzheimer's disease, ...

  10. Obesity Tied to Risk of Complications After Plastic Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_152353.html Obesity Tied to Risk of Complications After Plastic Surgery ... rights reserved. More Health News on: After Surgery Obesity Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery Recent Health News Related ...

  11. Mediterranean Diet Tied to Lower Odds of Uterine Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_152753.html Mediterranean Diet Tied to Lower Odds of Uterine Cancer Women ... 27, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Adhering to a Mediterranean diet may significantly reduce a woman's risk of uterine ...

  12. Week 1 Lecture Global TIES Intro: Nuts `n Bolts

    E-print Network

    Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    Week 1 Lecture Global TIES Intro: Nuts `n Bolts April 4, 2014 #12;Introductions · Mandy Bratton · Overall commitment ~8hrs/week #12;Lecture Schedule Week Activity 1: 4/4 Nuts n Bolts 2: 4/11 No lecture

  13. 18. Windlass capstan, looking aft. Windlass used for tying up ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Windlass capstan, looking aft. Windlass used for tying up as well as raising and lowering boat on starboard side. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter BRAMBLE, Waterfront at Lincoln Avenue, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

  14. ICU Delirium Tied to Higher Death Risk, Study Says

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fullstory_152834.html ICU Delirium Tied to Higher Death Risk, Study Says Researchers recommend monitoring patients' mental ... who develop delirium have a higher risk of death, longer hospital stays and are more likely to ...

  15. 25. DETAIL OF TIE ROD REINFORCING BELOW WESTERNMOST MOVABLE STAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. DETAIL OF TIE ROD REINFORCING BELOW WESTERNMOST MOVABLE STAGE SECTION, LOWER LEVEL OF STAGE, LOOKING SOUTH. TAKEN FROM A POINT JUST SOUTH OF RAM IN IL-1007-24. - Auditorium Building, 430 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  16. 16. VIEW OF STEEL FLOOR BEAMS WITH TIE RODS, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF STEEL FLOOR BEAMS WITH TIE RODS, SHOWING SWAY BRACING, SUPPORT TIMBER STRINGERS AND BECK, WEST END, LOOKING WEST - Hot Springs Bridge, Spanning Bruneau River, Hot Springs Road, Bruneau, Owyhee County, ID

  17. The relationship between perceived discrimination and high-risk social ties among illicit drug users in New York City, 2006-2009.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Natalie D; Ford, Chandra; Galea, Sandro; Latkin, Carl; Jones, Kandice C; Fuller, Crystal M

    2013-01-01

    Discrimination can influence risk of disease by promoting unhealthy behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol use). Whether it influences the formation of high-risk social ties that facilitate HIV transmission is unclear. Using cross-sectional data from a cohort of illicit drug users, this study examined the association between discrimination based on race, drug use and prior incarceration and risky sex and drug ties. Negative binomial regression models were performed. Participants who reported discrimination based on race and drug use had significantly more sex and drug-using ties. But, after accounting for both racial and drug use discrimination, only racial discrimination was associated with increased sex, drug-using, and injecting ties. Drug users who experience discrimination and subsequently develop more sex and drug-using ties, increase their risk of contracting HIV. Future longitudinal studies illuminating the pathways linking discrimination and social network development may guide intervention development and identify drug-using subpopulations at high risk for disease transmission. PMID:22638866

  18. Experimental Stabilization of Interchange Mode by Surface Line Tying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Fornaca; Y. Kiwamoto; N. Rynn

    1979-01-01

    Experiments are performed in an attempt to stabilize the magnetic-curvature-driven interchange instability (mirror flute mode) using a Q-machine plasma. The stabilization method consists of applying a tenuous plasma blanket, which is line tied to the end wall, around a flute-susceptible higher-density core plasma which has no electrical contact to the wall. By controlling the degree of line tying between the

  19. Line-tying effects on the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, Akira (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)); Kan, J.R. (Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks (United States))

    1992-08-03

    The K-H instability is important in understanding a variety of phenomena involving sheared plasma flow in space and astrophysical plasmas. Here, a three-dimensional linear analysis of the line-tied Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability is carried out. The line-tying by the conducting ionospheres has a stabilizing influence on all unstable modes, but the ionospheric stabilization of the instability can be insignificant when the eigenmode of the flow perturbation has nodes at the ionospheric boundaries.

  20. The architecture of support: The activation of preexisting ties and formation of new ties for tailored support.

    PubMed

    Gage-Bouchard, Elizabeth A; LaValley, Susan; Panagakis, Christina; Shelton, Rachel C

    2015-06-01

    This study examines differences in the resources, information, and support parents coping with pediatric cancer accessed from different types of network contacts. Using interviews with parents of childhood cancer patients (N = 80 parents), we examine (1) if parents rely on different types of network ties to access tailored information, resources or support; (2) differences in the nature or utility of information, resources, and support offered by different types of network contacts; and (3) the role of health-related professionals in brokering new network ties. Findings show that after a child's cancer diagnosis, parents received support from a broad portfolio of network members, which included preexisting network ties to friends and families as well as the formation of new ties to other cancer families and health-related professionals. Family, friends, and neighbors offered logistical support that aided balancing preexisting work and household responsibilities with new obligations. Parents formed new ties to other families coping with cancer for tailored health-related emotional and informational support. Health-related professionals served as network brokers, who fostered the development of new network ties and connected parents with supportive resources. PMID:25888807

  1. Multi-Technique Reprocessing and Combination using “Space-Ties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, T.; Dilssner, F.; Escobar, D.; Flohrer, C.; Otten, M.; Romero, I.; Dow, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    During 2008 and 2009 ESOC has reprocessed the historic data from the IDS, IGS, and ILRS! Our 3 solution were computed with one and the same software running on the same machine and using, as far as possible, identical settings, a unique achievement. Any systematic differences between the technique dependent reference frame solutions must therefore be caused by the techniques itself, and not because of model differences or errors! Our three technique dependent solutions should give us a very good understanding of the technique dependent effects. In the ITRF reference frame realisations the reference frame solutions from the individual techniques are combined using the local ties as measured at the stations. Besides possible errors and inaccuracies in these site-ties, this approach also suffers from the fact that the ILRS and IVS both offer very few stations with a far from global homogeneous distribution. At ESOC we have now made a small but significant step forward by including the SLR observations of the GNSS (GPS and GLONASS) satellites in our GNSS solutions. This allows to combine the ILRS and IGS reference frames by, besides using the site-ties at the stations, also using the “Space-Ties”. With space-ties we mean the vector between the position of the optical phase centre of the SLR laser reflector array and the GPS transmit antenna. Of course these “space-ties” are also not perfectly known but nevertheless they allow a much more rigorous combination of the two reference frames. And, very important for the GNSS technique, they allow the direct estimation of the GNSS satellite transmitter phase centre offset. In our presentation will give an overview of our IDS, IGS, and ILRS reprocessing efforts. We will conclude our presentation by demonstrating the benefits of “Space-Ties”.

  2. Transmission Communication

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sheng

    ELEC3028 Digital Transmission -- MODEM S Chen Digital Communication System . Purpose: communicate: rate, quality # spectral bandwidth requirement . Major components: CODEC, MODEM and channel modulation input output CODEC MODEM Medium 1 #12; ELEC3028 Digital Transmission -- MODEM S Chen Digital

  3. AQUIFER TRANSMISSIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of groundwater resources requires the knowledge of the capacity of aquifers to store and transmit ground water. This requires estimates of key hydraulic parameters, such as the transmissivity, among others. The transmissivity T (m2/sec) is a hydrauli...

  4. Transmission zerocrossings

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sheng

    ELEC3028 Digital Transmission -- MODEM S Chen Revision of Lecture 2 . Pulse shaping Tx/Rx filter­o# factor, and required baseband transmission bandwidth B = fs 2 (1+ #) MODEM components pulse shaping Tx: modulator/demodulator 27 #12; ELEC3028 Digital Transmission -- MODEM S Chen QAM Modulator / Demodulator

  5. Time varying networks and the weakness of strong ties

    PubMed Central

    Karsai, Márton; Perra, Nicola; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    In most social and information systems the activity of agents generates rapidly evolving time-varying networks. The temporal variation in networks' connectivity patterns and the ongoing dynamic processes are usually coupled in ways that still challenge our mathematical or computational modelling. Here we analyse a mobile call dataset and find a simple statistical law that characterize the temporal evolution of users' egocentric networks. We encode this observation in a reinforcement process defining a time-varying network model that exhibits the emergence of strong and weak ties. We study the effect of time-varying and heterogeneous interactions on the classic rumour spreading model in both synthetic, and real-world networks. We observe that strong ties severely inhibit information diffusion by confining the spreading process among agents with recurrent communication patterns. This provides the counterintuitive evidence that strong ties may have a negative role in the spreading of information across networks. PMID:24510159

  6. The Weakness of Weak Ties in the Classroom

    E-print Network

    Vaquero, Luis M

    2012-01-01

    Granovetter's "strength of weak ties" hypothesizes that isolated social ties offer limited access to external prospects, while heterogeneous social ties diversify one's opportunities. We analyze the most complete record of college student interactions to date and couple the social interaction data with the students academic scores. Our first finding is that social diversity is negatively correlated with performance. This is explained by our second finding: highly performing students interact in groups of similarly performing peers. This effect is stronger the higher the student performance is. Indeed, low performance students tend to initiate many transient interactions independently of the performance of their target. In other words, low performing students act dissasortatively with respect to their social network, whereas high scoring students act assortatively.

  7. Mechanistic modelling of the links between environment, mosquitoes and malaria transmission in the current and future climates of West Africa

    E-print Network

    Yamana, Teresa K. (Teresa Keiko)

    2015-01-01

    Malaria transmission in West Africa is closely tied to climate, as rain fed water pools provide breeding habitat for the anopheles mosquito vector, and temperature affects the mosquito's ability to spread disease. This ...

  8. Social ties and health: A social neuroscience perspective

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberger, Naomi I.

    2013-01-01

    Research over the last several decades has shown that the health of the body is intimately tied to the strength of our social connections, but why? This article reviews evidence from affective and social neuroscience suggesting that, because of the importance of social ties for mammalian survival, threats to social connection are processed by some of the same neural regions that process basic threats to survival and consequently trigger physiological threat responses that have negative health implications. Likewise, social support is processed by some of the same neural regions that process safety or protection from basic threats and inhibit these same health-relevant physiological threat responses. PMID:23395461

  9. Role Markers of Adulthood and Young Adults’ Ties to Grandparents

    PubMed Central

    Monserud, Maria A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the implications of residential independence, enrollment in postsecondary education, employment, marital status, and parenthood for contact with, and closeness to, grandparents. Data come from 1,507 young adults interviewed in Wave 3 of the National Survey of Families and Households. Findings suggest that adult roles can be either negatively or positively associated with grandparent-grandchild ties, depending on specific configurations among such factors as the adult role in question, a particular dimension of intergenerational solidarity, lineage, and grandchild’s and grandparent’s gender. Young adults’ ties to parents can mediate the adverse consequences of residential independence for contact with grandparents. PMID:20725597

  10. The linear stability of line-tied coronal magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Foote, B.J.; Craig, I.J.D. (Waikato Univ., Hamilton (New Zealand))

    1990-02-01

    The effects of MHD disturbances on line-tied coronal equilibria are analyzed. The methods developed to study these effects are described. It is observed that the kink instability is weak even for long lengths, generating dimensionless force eigenvalues less than O(0.01), and the Gold-Hoyle field is most unstable for long lengths, but is influenced by line-tying and has the longest critical length. It is noted that the power release over the linear phase is at least three orders of magnitude below dimensional expectation. 21 refs.

  11. Tie-RBAC: An application of RBAC to Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Tapiador, Antonio; Salvachúa, Joaquín

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the application of role-based access control to social networks, from the perspective of social network analysis. Each tie, composed of a relation, a sender and a receiver, involves the sender's assignation of the receiver to a role with permissions. The model is not constrained to system-defined relations and lets users define them unilaterally. It benefits of RBAC's advantages, such as policy neutrality, simplification of security administration and permissions on other roles. Tie-RBAC has been implemented in a core for building social network sites, Social Stream.

  12. Social ties and health: The benefits of social integration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teresa E. Seeman

    1996-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between level of social integration and various aspects of health. A search of the literature published since the mid-1970s (under the MEDLINE key words, “social ties”, “social network”, “social isolation”, “social environment”) presented strong evidence that social integration leads to reduced mortality risks, and to a better state of mental health. The evidence on physical

  13. Views of the Apollo 11 Twentieth Anniversary Black Tie reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Views of the Apollo 11 Twentieth Anniversary Black Tie reception at the downtown Houston Hyatt Regency Hotel. Views include former JSC Directors Robert Gilruth and Christopher C. Kraft Jr. reminiscing with keynote speaker Walter Cronkite (39934); Apollo astronauts Tom Stafford (left) and Neil Armstrong (right) talk with former Soviet cosmonaut Alexei Leonov (center) at the gala (39935).

  14. Tie Strength in Question & Answer on Social Network Sites

    E-print Network

    not have this effect, and stronger ties (close friends) provide a subtle increase in information or email. One option that's gaining traction is using a social network site, such as Facebook, MySpace information came from acquaintances who traveled in different circles and so had Permission to make digital

  15. Examination and significance of ‘tied up’ dead bodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A Elfawal; M. H. M Higazi

    1998-01-01

    Examination of dead bodies found with parts of the body tied or bound can pose a real problem for the investigators in that it may not be possible to differentiate between suicide, homicide or accidental death. This article reports five such cases.

  16. Religion and Ties Between Adult Children and Their Parents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined whether religious adults (measured by the frequency of attendance at religious services) report more extensive ties with their parents. Method. Using data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 9,002), a series of bivariate and multivariate regression models were tested. Several dimensions of adult children’s relationships with their parents were considered including relationship quality, frequency of contact, providing care to parents, and providing other assistance. Results. Adult children who attended religious services more frequently were significantly more likely to provide assistance to parents, and they reported higher quality relationships and more frequent contact with both their fathers and mothers. Results were similar for sons and daughters, and for younger and older adult children. Discussion. A better understanding of what motivates and fosters strong ties between adult children and their parents is vitally important given the “graying” of America and the consequences of such ties for the health and well-being of both generations. Religion is only one of many factors associated with adult children’s ties to parents, and this association is generally modest, but it is an important factor that should be given greater attention in future research. PMID:23908411

  17. The tangled web of self-tying knots Andrew Belmonte*

    E-print Network

    numbers most likely arose from physical counting, as in one's fingers or goats in the pasture. Topology exploration of space due to Brownian motion and the excluded- volume effect (the string cannot pass through that is tied up in some way in 3D space. One way of labeling a knot is by the minimum number of crossings

  18. The strength of the strongest ties in collaborative problem solving.

    PubMed

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez; Pentland, Alex; Lehmann, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems. PMID:24946798

  19. The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez; Pentland, Alex; Lehmann, Sune

    2014-06-01

    Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems.

  20. A floating tied platform for generating energy from ocean current

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wibisono Hartono

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a proposal for generating energy from the ocean current. A floating platform tied with cable bracing system to concrete blocks anchored to seabed will house the generators and turbines. To show that the construction of the proposed floating structure is feasible, construction method is also proposed. Whilst more research and investigation are required, the proposed system might

  1. 4. Photocopy of photograph, JANE MOSELEY (VESSEL 53) TIED UP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of photograph, JANE MOSELEY (VESSEL 53) TIED UP AT DOCK IN UNKNOWN LOCATION. Date and photographer unknown. (Original in Mariners Museum, Newport News, Virginia, negative #625) - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 53, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  2. The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving

    PubMed Central

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez; Pentland, Alex; Lehmann, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems. PMID:24946798

  3. Teaching Tongue-Tied Students: Ankyloglossia in the Instrumental Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dovel, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Ankyloglossia is a significant medical condition that has not been adequately addressed in music education literature. While practically every instructor will have students who struggle with ankyloglossia, many teachers are entirely unaware of this condition's various symptoms and treatments. Ankyloglossia, more commonly known as tongue-tie, is a…

  4. Maintaining Family Ties: Inclusive Practice in Foster Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Sally E.

    Loss and uprootedness are core problems of enforced separation, and are especially hard on children. Children in out-of-home care need help in dealing with separation, particularly in maintaining ties with family. This report details a study of how 36 social workers in 2 Canadian child protection agencies have managed separation issues with the…

  5. TIE-RESPECTING BOOTSTRAP METHODS FOR ESTIMATING DISTRIBUTIONS OF

    E-print Network

    Paul, Debashis

    #12;2 1. INTRODUCTION Bootstrap methods can be particularly effective in distribution estimationTIE-RESPECTING BOOTSTRAP METHODS FOR ESTIMATING DISTRIBUTIONS OF SETS AND FUNCTIONS OF EIGENVALUES. Bootstrap methods are widely used for distribution estimation, al- though in some problems

  6. People Interview: Black-tie science gets modern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-03-01

    INTERVIEW Black-tie science gets modern Baroness Susan Greenfield CBE is director of the Royal Institution and professor of pharmacology at Oxford where she heads a multidisciplinary group studying neurodegenerative disorders. David Smith speaks to her about specialities, keeping busy and how science is changing.

  7. Kink Stability of MHD Equilibria with Line Tying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evstati Evstatiev; Gian Luca Delzanno; John Finn; Giovanni Lapenta

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the line-tied kink stability of cylindrical equilibria for applications to solar loops and flux core spheromak formation. Our semi-analytic formulation allows in principle for plasmas or arbitrary length and arbitrary current density profiles; it involves expansion in a series of basis function which are radial eigenfunctions, some with real kz and some for which kz is complex.

  8. Tilt and shift mode stability in spheromaks with line tying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Finn; Allan Reiman

    1982-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic stability of force-free spheromak plasmas to n = 1 free boundary tilt and radial shift modes is studied. The exterior region of open field lines is treated either as a conducting plasma or as a vacuum. In the former case the effect of line tying of the open field lines is present and is found to improve stability greatly.

  9. Tilt and shift-mode stability with line tying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Finn; A. Reiman

    1981-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic stability of force free spheromak plasmas to n=1 free boundary tilt and radial shift modes was studied. The exterior region of open field lines is treated either as a conducting plasma or as a vacuum. In the former case the effect of line tying of the open field lines is present and is found to improve stability greatly. The

  10. Tilt and shift mode stability with line tying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Finn; A. Reiman

    1981-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic stability of force free spheromak plasmas to n=1 free boundary tilt and radial shift modes is studied. The exterior region of open field lines is treated either as a conducting plasma or as a vacuum. In the former case the effect of line tying of the open field lines is present and is found to improve stability greatly. The

  11. Kink Stability of MHD Equilibria with Line Tying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evstati Evstatiev

    2005-01-01

    We have studied the line-tied kink stability of cylindrical equilibria for applications to solar loops and flux core spheromak formation. Our semi-analytic formulation allows in principle for plasmas or arbitrary length and arbitrary current density profiles; it involves expansion in a series of basis function which are radial eigenfunctions, some with real kz and some for which kz is complex.

  12. Resistive tearing in line-tied magnetic fields: Slab geometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Velli; A. W. Hood

    1989-01-01

    The resistive tearing-mode instability of a current carrying plasma sheet is investigated including the stabilising photospheric line-tying boundary conditions. This end condition prohibits a single Fourier mode and so requires a series expansion in harmonics of the fundamental sheet excitation. Equilibria in which there exist field lines that do not connect to the photosphere are unstable provided the ratio of

  13. Chinese Medical Association anxious to establish ties with CMA

    PubMed Central

    Sibbald, B

    1998-01-01

    Included in China's health care reforms are plans to forge ties with businesses and physicians in Canada. The current challenges centre around the standardization of medical education in China, issues that a Chinese delegation raised during a recent visit to Canada. PMID:9835889

  14. Matrilineal Family Ties and Marital Dissolution in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takyi, Baffour K.; Gyimah, Stephen Obeng

    2007-01-01

    Although previous work has attributed the instability of African marriages to the diffusion of Western norms and values in the region, fewer attempts have been made to empirically assess how Africa's internal institutional structures, such as extended kinship ties, impact marital outcomes. Guided by rational choice and exchange theories, we argue…

  15. Preventing Cauliflower Ear with a Modified Tie-Through Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimeff, Robert J.; Hough, David O.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a quick, simple tie-through suture technique (in which a collodion packing is secured to the auricle with two buttons) for preventing cauliflower ear following external ear trauma in wrestlers and boxers. The technique ensures constant compression; multiple treatments for fluid reaccumulation are rarely necessary. (SM)

  16. HIV Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, George M.; Hunter, Eric

    2012-01-01

    HIV-1 is transmitted by sexual contact across mucosal surfaces, by maternal-infant exposure, and by percutaneous inoculation. For reasons that are still incompletely understood, CCR5-tropic viruses (R5 viruses) are preferentially transmitted by all routes. Transmission is followed by an orderly appearance of viral and host markers of infection in the blood plasma. In the acute phase of infection, HIV-1 replicates exponentially and diversifies randomly, allowing for an unambiguous molecular identification of transmitted/founder virus genomes and a precise characterization of the population bottleneck to virus transmission. Sexual transmission of HIV-1 most often results in productive clinical infection arising from a single virus, highlighting the extreme bottleneck and inherent inefficiency in virus transmission. It remains to be determined if HIV-1 transmission is largely a stochastic process whereby any reasonably fit R5 virus can be transmitted or if there are features of transmitted/founder viruses that facilitate their transmission in a biologically meaningful way. Human tissue explant models of HIV-1 infection and animal models of SIV/SHIV/HIV-1 transmission, coupled with new challenge virus strains that more closely reflect transmitted/founder viruses, have the potential to elucidate fundamental mechanisms in HIV-1 transmission relevant to vaccine design and other prevention strategies. PMID:23043157

  17. The Ties that Blog: Examining the Relationship Between Social Ties and Continued Participation in the Wallop Weblogging System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Lento; Howard T. Welser; Marc Smith; Lei Gu

    Are people who remain active as webloggers more socially con- nected to other users? How are the number and nature of social ties related to people's willingness to continue contributing con- tent to a weblog? This study uses longitudinal data taken from Wallop, a weblogging system developed by Microsoft Research, to explore patterns of user activity. In its year long

  18. Experimentally Validated Compatibility Strut and Tie Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Piers 

    E-print Network

    Scott, Reece Melby

    2010-10-12

    A compatibility-based strut-and-tie model C-STM is proposed for analyzing deep beams and disturbed regions with particular emphasis on reinforced concrete bridge piers. In addition to the normal strut-and-tie force equilibrium ...

  19. Approximations of the critical region for spearman’s rho with and without ties present

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald L. Iman; W. J. Conover

    1978-01-01

    Exact tables for Spearman’s rho are available only for n ? 16 and no ties in the data. Some accurate methods of approximating the distribution with no ties present have been used to obtain approximate tables for larger values of n. Often ties are present in the data so these tables are no longer exact. Also sometimes the tables are

  20. Tie1 deletion inhibits tumor growth and improves angiopoietin antagonist therapy

    PubMed Central

    D’Amico, Gabriela; Korhonen, Emilia A.; Anisimov, Andrey; Zarkada, Georgia; Holopainen, Tanja; Hägerling, René; Kiefer, Friedemann; Eklund, Lauri; Sormunen, Raija; Elamaa, Harri; Brekken, Rolf A.; Adams, Ralf H.; Koh, Gou Young; Saharinen, Pipsa; Alitalo, Kari

    2014-01-01

    The endothelial Tie1 receptor is ligand-less, but interacts with the Tie2 receptor for angiopoietins (Angpt). Angpt2 is expressed in tumor blood vessels, and its blockade inhibits tumor angiogenesis. Here we found that Tie1 deletion from the endothelium of adult mice inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth by decreasing endothelial cell survival in tumor vessels, without affecting normal vasculature. Treatment with VEGF or VEGFR-2 blocking antibodies similarly reduced tumor angiogenesis and growth; however, no additive inhibition was obtained by targeting both Tie1 and VEGF/VEGFR-2. In contrast, treatment of Tie1-deficient mice with a soluble form of the extracellular domain of Tie2, which blocks Angpt activity, resulted in additive inhibition of tumor growth. Notably, Tie1 deletion decreased sprouting angiogenesis and increased Notch pathway activity in the postnatal retinal vasculature, while pharmacological Notch suppression in the absence of Tie1 promoted retinal hypervasularization. Moreover, substantial additive inhibition of the retinal vascular front migration was observed when Angpt2 blocking antibodies were administered to Tie1-deficient pups. Thus, Tie1 regulates tumor angiogenesis, postnatal sprouting angiogenesis, and endothelial cell survival, which are controlled by VEGF, Angpt, and Notch signals. Our results suggest that targeting Tie1 in combination with Angpt/Tie2 has the potential to improve antiangiogenic therapy. PMID:24430181

  1. Genones: Generalized Mixture Tying in Continuous Hidden Markov ModelBased Speech Recognizers

    E-print Network

    Digalakis, Vassilis

    Genones: Generalized Mixture Tying in Continuous Hidden Markov Model­Based Speech Recognizers V modeling resolution and robustness by using a new, general scheme for tying of mixture components in contin typical tied­mixture sys­ tems. New fast algorithms for computing Gaussian likelihoods--the most time

  2. CONTEXT DEPENDENT STATE TYING FOR SPEECH RECOGNITION USING DEEP NEURAL NETWORK ACOUSTIC MODELS

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Corinna

    CONTEXT DEPENDENT STATE TYING FOR SPEECH RECOGNITION USING DEEP NEURAL NETWORK ACOUSTIC MODELS to design a tied-state inventory for a context dependent, neural network-based acoustic model for speech Tying, Context Modeling, Deep Neural Networks, Acoustic Modeling. 1. INTRODUCTION In recent years, use

  3. Who Can You Turn to? Tie Activation within Core Business Discussion Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renzulli, Linda A.; Aldrich, Howard

    2005-01-01

    We examine the connection between personal network characteristics and the activation of ties for access to resources during routine times. We focus on factors affecting business owners' use of their core network ties to obtain legal, loan, financial and expert advice. Owners rely more on core business ties when their core networks contain a high…

  4. Ties that Blind: Perpetuation of Racial Comfort and Discomfort at a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Douglas B.; Hyle, Adrienne E.; Jordan, Kitty V.

    2009-01-01

    Interviews with 17 African American students and 19 White students were employed to examine interracial relations at a predominantly White community college campus. Seen through the lens of Granovetter's strength of ties theory, the interview findings revealed that strong intraracial ties and the absence of weak interracial ties inhibited…

  5. 30 CFR 75.705-10 - Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits. 75.705-10 ...705-10 Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits. If the work of...circuit by tying into an energized high-voltage surface line is performed from...

  6. 33 CFR 401.49 - Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. 401.49 Section 401.49...401.49 Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. Except in an emergency, no vessel shall drop anchor in any canal or tie-up to any canal bank...

  7. 33 CFR 401.49 - Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. 401.49 Section 401.49...401.49 Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. Except in an emergency, no vessel shall drop anchor in any canal or tie-up to any canal bank...

  8. 33 CFR 401.49 - Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. 401.49 Section 401.49...401.49 Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. Except in an emergency, no vessel shall drop anchor in any canal or tie-up to any canal bank...

  9. 33 CFR 401.49 - Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. 401.49 Section 401.49...401.49 Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. Except in an emergency, no vessel shall drop anchor in any canal or tie-up to any canal bank...

  10. 33 CFR 401.49 - Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. 401.49 Section 401.49...401.49 Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. Except in an emergency, no vessel shall drop anchor in any canal or tie-up to any canal bank...

  11. The HTK tied-state continuous speech recogniser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip C. Woodland; Steve J. Young

    1993-01-01

    HTK is a portable software toolkit for developing systemsusing continuous density hidden Markov modelsdeveloped by the Cambridge University Speech Group.This paper describes speech recognition experimentsusing HTK based systems for the DARPA ResourceManagement (RM) task. In particular good performanceis obtained using a tied-state triphone basedmultiple mixture approach. This system was used inthe final DARPA RM evaluation (September 1992) andwas found to

  12. 'Tying the manager's hands': constraining opportunistic managerial intervention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirsten Foss; Nicolai J Foss; Xose H. Vazquez

    2005-01-01

    We discuss and examine empirically a firm-level equivalent of the ancient problem of 'tying the King's hands', namely how to avoid managerial intervention that is undertaken to reap private benefits but is harmful to overall value creation, that is, 'managerial opportunism'. The link from managerial intervention to firm-level value-creation is moderated by employee motivation. Thus, intervention in the form of

  13. Determination of the inner planet frame tie using VLBI data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelrath, Timothy P.; Bhat, Ramachandra S.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of connecting the independent reference frames formed by the planetary ephemeris and the radio source catalog is one of growing importance to spacecraft navigation. Using quasar-relative VLBI delay data collected by the Deep Space Network, and Soviet coherent data from the Venus flyby of the Soviet Vega 1 and 2 spacecraft, a self-consistent estimate of the frame tie offset has been found, along with its uncertainty.

  14. Real Time Pricing Tie Line Control: A Case Study 

    E-print Network

    Childress, R.

    1999-01-01

    . A new, fuzzy logic control system respects a multi-variable process envelope. If the process moves outside a desired operating region, the control system moves the process back into the predefined region. Any number of input constraints can... electrical power to meet the minimwn purchase amount. OPERATOR ACCEPTANCE Due to advances in fuzzy logic envelope control, the turbine responds correctly to all process situations. Like the Operators, Tie Line Control sacrifices cost optimization...

  15. A new phonetic tied-mixture model for efficient decoding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akinobu Lee; Tatsuya Kawahara; Kazuya Takeda; Kiyohiro Shikano

    2000-01-01

    A phonetic tied-mixture (PTM) model for efficient large vocabulary continuous speech recognition is presented. It is synthesized from context-independent phone models with 64 mixture components per state by assigning different mixture weights according to the shared states of triphones. Mixtures are then re-estimated for optimization. The model achieves a word error rate of 7.0% with a 20000-word dictation of newspaper

  16. A NEW PHONETIC TIED-MIXTURE MODEL FOR EFFICIENT DECODING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akinobu Lee; T. Kawahara K. Takeda; K. Shikano

    2000-01-01

    A phonetic tied-mixture (PTM) model for efficient large vo- cabulary continuous speech recognition is presented. It is synthesized from context-independent phone models with 64 mixture components per state by assigning different mix- ture weights according to the shared states of triphones. Mixtures are then re-estimated for optimization. The model achieves a word error rate of 7.0% at 20k-word dictation of

  17. The effect of line-tying on tearing modes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gian Luca Delzanno; John M. Finn

    2008-01-01

    Cylindrical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) constant-&psgr; or nonconstant-&psgr; tearing modes that are linearly unstable with periodic axial boundary conditions are studied in a line-tied cylinder. Examples of these two respective classes of modes, with m=1 and m=2 (m being the azimuthal mode number), are studied. With a suitable MHD equilibrium, the former modes are marginally stable in ideal MHD for periodic axial

  18. The role of resistivity on line-tying kink modes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evstati Evstatiev; Gian Luca Delzanno; John Finn

    2006-01-01

    In a recent paper [1], Evstatiev et al. proposed a new method to analyze the linear stage of line-tied kink modes in cylindrical geometry. The method consists of summing up a number of one-dimensional (radial) eigenfunctions to obtain the full two-dimensional solution of the problem and has been successfully applied to both ideal and resistive MHD [1]. The present work

  19. The effect of line-tying on tearing modes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gian Luca Delzanno; John M. Finn

    2008-01-01

    Cylindrical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) constant-psi or nonconstant-psi tearing modes that are linearly unstable with periodic axial boundary conditions are studied in a line-tied cylinder. Examples of these two respective classes of modes, with m=1 and m=2 (m being the azimuthal mode number), are studied. With a suitable MHD equilibrium, the former modes are marginally stable in ideal MHD for periodic axial

  20. PHD2 regulates arteriogenic macrophages through TIE2 signalling.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Alexander; Veschini, Lorenzo; Takeda, Yukiji; Costa, Sandra; Delamarre, Estelle; Squadrito, Mario Leonardo; Henze, Anne-Theres; Wenes, Mathias; Serneels, Jens; Pucci, Ferdinando; Roncal, Carmen; Anisimov, Andrey; Alitalo, Kari; De Palma, Michele; Mazzone, Massimiliano

    2013-06-01

    Occlusion of the main arterial route redirects blood flow to the collateral circulation. We previously reported that macrophages genetically modified to express low levels of prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 (PHD2) display an arteriogenic phenotype, which promotes the formation of collateral vessels and protects the skeletal muscle from ischaemic necrosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that femoral artery occlusion induces a switch in macrophage phenotype through angiopoietin-1 (ANG1)-mediated Phd2 repression. ANG blockade by a soluble trap prevented the downregulation of Phd2 expression in macrophages and their phenotypic switch, thus inhibiting collateral growth. ANG1-dependent Phd2 repression initiated a feed-forward loop mediated by the induction of the ANG receptor TIE2 in macrophages. Gene silencing and cell depletion strategies demonstrate that TIE2 induction in macrophages is required to promote their proarteriogenic functions, enabling collateral vessel formation following arterial obstruction. These results indicate an indispensable role for TIE2 in sustaining in situ programming of macrophages to a proarteriogenic, M2-like phenotype, suggesting possible new venues for the treatment of ischaemic disorders. PMID:23616286

  1. Laptop image transmission equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocenter, Michael M.

    1991-12-01

    Imagery and other visual information have become a critical element in planning and performing modern military operations. The effectiveness of this imagery information is often directly tied to the time it takes to get from the collector of this imagery to the user of the imagery. Hard copy distribution of annotated imagery to the tactical commander is hampered by the lack of effective communications paths, and the tactical use of hand held imagery is restricted by the lack of film processing facilities. The military has begun to rely on electronic imagery and digital communications technology for answers, with some success. The new obstacles created by applied electronic imagery are interoperability standards and effective use of communications bandwidth in a tactical environment. New technological developments in computer hardware/software have changed this situation by allowing for the gathering, dissemination, and transfer of near-real-time information to various intelligence audiences at any location. The Naval Air Development Center (NAVAIRDEVCEN) has coupled commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology with National Image Transmission Formats (NITF) Standards to develop a Secondary Imagery Dissemination System (SIDS) package that is designed to meet the flexibility challenge of the tactical military environment. This tailorable SIDS package is called Laptop Image Transmission Equipment (LITE). The LITE system is an extension of the Navy's existing Fleet Imagery Support Terminal (FIST) into the man-portable tactical environment. As such, LITE development is focused on developing flexible imagery input (from sources such as filmless cameras) and connectivity to tactical communications paths and ruggedization/miniaturization issues. The LITE system, in prototype form, has already found application through operational use in special operations, counter narcotics operations, and classic air/ground/sea military operations. This paper provides an overview of the LITE components, specifications, operations, and future developments for the system.

  2. TIES for Dummies 3rd Edition (Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection) Basic how to's to implement the TIES method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, Michelle R.

    2002-01-01

    The TIES method is a forecasting environment whereby the decision-maker has the ability to easily assess and trade-off the impact of various technologies without sophisticated and time-consuming mathematical formulations. TIES provides a methodical approach where technically feasible alternatives can be identified with accuracy and speed to reduce design cycle time, and subsequently, life cycle costs, and was achieved through the use of various probabilistic methods, such as Response Surface Methodology and Monte Carlo Simulations. Furthermore, structured and systematic techniques are utilized from other fields to identify possible concepts and evaluation criteria by which comparisons can be made. This objective is achieved by employing the use of Morphological Matrices and Multi-Attribute Decision Making techniques. Through the execution of each step, a family of design alternatives for a given set of customer requirements can be identified and assessed subjectively or objectively. This methodology allows for more information (knowledge) to be brought into the earlier phases of the design process and will have direct implications on the affordability of the system. The increased knowledge allows for optimum allocation of company resources and quantitative justification for program decisions. Finally, the TIES method provided novel results and quantitative justification to facilitate decision making in the early stages of design so as to produce affordable and quality products.

  3. Prion transmission

    PubMed Central

    Maddison, Ben C

    2010-01-01

    Prion diseases range from being highly infectious, for example scrapie and CWD, which show facile transmission between susceptible individuals, to showing negligible horizontal transmission, such as BSE and CJD, which are spread via food or iatrogenically, respectively. Scrapie and CWD display considerable in vivo dissemination, with PrPSc and infectivity being found in a range of peripheral tissues. This in vivo dissemination appears to facilitate the recently reported excretion of prion through multiple routes such as from skin, feces, urine, milk, nasal secretions, saliva and placenta. Furthermore, excreted scrapie and CWD agent is detected within environmental samples such as water and on the surfaces of inanimate objects. The cycle of “uptake of prion from the environment—widespread in vivo prion dissemination—prion excretion—prion persistence in the environment” is likely to explain the facile transmission and maintenance of these diseases within wild and farmed populations over many years. PMID:20948292

  4. Transmission communication

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sheng

    ELEC3028 Digital Transmission -- MODEM S Chen Revision of Lecture 1 . Major blocks of digital communication system . MODEM functions . Channel has finite bandwidth and introduces noise: two main factors recovering of transmitted data symbols MODEM components pulse shaping Tx/Rx filter pair modulator

  5. Shingles Transmission

    MedlinePLUS

    ... VZV Laboratory Surveillance Resources & References Multimedia Related Links Medline Plus NIH SeniorHealth AgePage on Shingles Immunization Action ... Zoster Virus Transmission in Healthcare Settings Related Links Medline Plus NIH SeniorHealth AgePage on Shingles Immunization Action ...

  6. Tilt and shift-mode stability with line tying

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, J.M.; Reiman, A.

    1981-10-23

    Magnetohydrodynamic stability of force free spheromak plasmas to n=1 free boundary tilt and radial shift modes is studied. The exterior region of open field lines is treated either as a conducting plasma or as a vacuum. In the former case the effect of line tying of the open field lines is present and is found to improve stability greatly. The equilibria which have optimum stability properties to the tilt and shift modes have a length to diameter ratio of 0.6, and can be stable with conducting walls at a relatively large distance.

  7. Tilt and shift mode stability in spheromaks with line tying

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, J.M.; Reiman, A.

    1982-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic stability of force-free spheromak plasmas to n = 1 free boundary tilt and radial shift modes is studied. The exterior region of open field lines is treated either as a conducting plasma or as a vacuum. In the former case the effect of line tying of the open field lines is present and is found to improve stability greatly. The equilibria which have optimum stability properties to the tilt and shift modes have a length-to-diameter ratio of 0.6, and can be stable with conducting walls at a relatively large distance.

  8. Tilt and shift mode stability with line tying

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, J.M.; Reiman, A.

    1981-10-23

    Magnetohydrodynamic stability of force free spheromak plasmas to n = 1 free boundary tilt and radial shift modes is studied. The exterior region of open field lines is treated either as a conducting plasma or as a vacuum. In the former case the effect of line tying of the open field lines is present and is found to improve stability greatly. The equilibria which have optimum stability properties to the tilt and shift modes have a length to diameter ratio of 0.6, and can be stable with conducting walls at a relatively large distance.

  9. Modal Analysis of Reflector Backed Hybrid Printed Bow Tie Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Dhiraj K.; Pande, D. C.; Bhattacharya, A.

    A reflector-backed hybrid of bow tie and elliptical antenna was designed and developed for UWB radar applications like ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and through-wall imaging radar (TWIR). Radiation pattern bandwidth of the antenna is found to be lesser than measured impedance bandwidth of the antenna. This anomaly was analyzed using characteristics modes of the antenna. Method of moments (MOM) using RWG basis function was used to calculate impedance matrix at each spot; frequencies and eigencurrents found were used to establish the optimum bandwidth of the antenna.

  10. Multi-area economic dispatch with tie line constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Streiffert, D. [ESCA Corp., Bellevue, WA (United States)] [ESCA Corp., Bellevue, WA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This paper presents a new method for solving the Multi-Area Economic Dispatch (MAED) problem with tie line constraints. This formulation extends the traditional economic dispatch methods used in study applications such as Unit Commitment to include area demand constraints, area reserve constraints, and tie line capacity constraints between the modeled areas. The MAED is formulated as a capacitated non-linear network flow problem which is solved using a high-speed network-flow code. The MAED determines the amount of power that can be economically generated in one area and transferred to another area to displace generation in the second area. The network flow model does not compute the actual power transfer between areas. The paper demonstrates that a significant number of the problem constraints may be formulated as network-type, and as a result, the method provides a robust, high-speed solution method for a surprisingly large class of utility problems including the ability to analyze potential purchases and sales in a multi-area environment.

  11. Progress in remotely controlled hyperbaric pipeline tie-ins

    SciTech Connect

    Hutt, G. [Stolt Comex Seaway Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Pachniuk, I. [Stolt Comex Seaway, S.A., Marseille (France)

    1993-12-31

    In recent years experience has been gained in the use of remotely installed and controlled equipment for hyperbaric pipeline tie-in operations. This has involved both the in-water construction tasks such as pipe alignment, preparation and habitat installation and tasks within the dry habitat. Central to these developments has been the introduction of mechanized orbital welding which was first used operationally in 1986. Since that date, the authors` Company has performed some 60 production tie-ins welds ranging in diameter from 8 inches to 40 inches and depths to 220 msw. The existing mechanized systems are all operated remotely but require divers assistance during the initial set-up in the habitat and to perform routine task during the course of welding such as measuring pipe fit-up, changing electrodes, servicing the wire feed and supervising the weldhead umbilicals. Progress towards fully diverless operations has been made by the development of a variety of sub-systems to carry out these routine tasks. Similarly, there has been a progressive introduction of ROV assisted tasks into construction projects often run in parallel with diving work with the objective of improving efficiency. The intention of this paper is to describe a number of the developments which will ultimately provide the basis for fully diverless hyperbaric welding.

  12. The effect of line-tying on tearing modes

    SciTech Connect

    Delzanno, Gian Luca; Finn, John M. [T-15 Plasma Theory Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Cylindrical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) constant-{psi} or nonconstant-{psi} tearing modes that are linearly unstable with periodic axial boundary conditions are studied in a line-tied cylinder. Examples of these two respective classes of modes, with m=1 and m=2 (m being the azimuthal mode number), are studied. With a suitable MHD equilibrium, the former modes are marginally stable in ideal MHD for periodic axial boundary conditions, and occur as fast tearing modes (resistive kinks) in the presence of resistivity {eta}. The latter modes are stable in ideal MHD for periodic axial boundary conditions, and with resistivity occur as constant-{psi} tearing modes, unstable in a range of parameters. In both cases, the results for the line-tied modes show the expected tearing scaling with {eta} for very long plasmas, but the scaling becomes {gamma}{proportional_to}{eta} for smaller cylinder lengths L. These results are consistent with the following interpretation: For L{yields}{infinity}, the modes have a tearing width characteristic of tearing, leading to characteristic tearing mode growth. As L decreases, the modes develop a geometric width, which increases as L decreases; the {gamma}{proportional_to}{eta} scaling occurs when L is small enough that the geometric width exceeds the tearing width.

  13. Tie2 Receptor Ligands, Angiopoietin-1 and Angiopoietin-2, Modulate VEGF-Induced Postnatal Neovascularization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takayuki Asahara; Donghui Chen; Tomono Takahashi; Koshi Fujikawa; Marianne Kearney; Meredith Magner; George D. Yancopoulos; Jeffrey M. Isner

    2009-01-01

    Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) has been recently identified as the major physiological ligand for the tyrosine kinase receptor Tie2 and assigned responsibility for recruiting and sustaining periendothelial support cells. Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) was found to disrupt blood vessel formation in the developing embryo by antagonizing the effects of Ang1 and Tie2 and was thus considered to represent a natural Ang1\\/Tie2 inhibitor. In vivo

  14. Smart FBG-based steel tie rod with self-monitoring functionality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianping He; Zhi Zhou; Genda Chen; Jinping Ou

    2009-01-01

    Currently, it is difficult to measure the internal forces of steel tie rods under construction and in long-term service. A novel high-durable smart steel tie rod with functionality of self-monitoring was developed by utilizing fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and installation techniques combined with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP). The sensing features for the smart steel tie rod were investigated. The

  15. Effects of Line-tying on Resistive Tearing Instability in Slab Geometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Min Huang; Ellen G. Zweibel

    2008-01-01

    The effects of line-tying on magnetohydrodynamic instabilities are an important issue for astrophysical plasmas, such as the solar corona or astrophysical jets. Recently, several laboratory experiments aimed at studying line-tying effects have been initiated. This work studies the effect of line-tying on the resistive tearing instability in the slab geometry. A strong guide field perpendicular to the conducting boundary is

  16. The effect of plasma flow on line-tied magnetohydrodynamic modes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Arcudi; Gian Luca Delzanno; John M. Finn

    2010-01-01

    The linear stability of a linear pinch to kink modes with line-tying boundary conditions and equilibrium axial flow is studied. Numerical results in visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamics show that for long plasmas, in which the line-tying stabilization effect is weak, plasma flow is stabilizing. For shorter plasmas, near the length at which line-tying stabilizes the mode for zero flow, the flow can

  17. Effects of Line-tying on Magnetohydrodynamic Instabilities and Current Sheet Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Min Huang

    2009-01-01

    The effects of line-tying on magnetohydrodynamic instabilities are an important issue for astrophysical plasmas, such as the solar corona or astrophysical jets, where magnetic field lines are deeply anchored at a dense medium. Recently, several laboratory experiments aimed at studying line-tying effects have been initiated. In this talk, the effects of line-tying on the ideal kink mode and resistive tearing

  18. Tying Dark Matter to Baryons with Self-interactions

    E-print Network

    Manoj Kaplinghat; Ryan E. Keeley; Tim Linden; Hai-Bo Yu

    2014-06-23

    Self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) models have been proposed to solve the small-scale issues with the collisionless cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm. We derive equilibrium solutions in these SIDM models for the dark matter halo density profile including the gravitational potential of both baryons and dark matter. Self-interactions drive dark matter to be isothermal and this ties the core sizes and shapes of dark matter halos to the spatial distribution of the stars, a radical departure from previous expectations and from CDM predictions. Compared to predictions of SIDM-only simulations, the core sizes are smaller and the core densities are higher, with the largest effects in baryon-dominated galaxies. As an example, we find a core size around 0.5 kpc for dark matter in the Milky Way, more than an order of magnitude smaller than the core size from SIDM-only simulations, which has important implications for indirect searches of SIDM candidates.

  19. Tying Dark Matter to Baryons with Self-Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplinghat, Manoj; Keeley, Ryan E.; Linden, Tim; Yu, Hai-Bo

    2014-07-01

    Self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) models have been proposed to solve the small-scale issues with the collisionless cold dark matter paradigm. We derive equilibrium solutions in these SIDM models for the dark matter halo density profile including the gravitational potential of both baryons and dark matter. Self-interactions drive dark matter to be isothermal and this ties the core sizes and shapes of dark matter halos to the spatial distribution of the stars, a radical departure from previous expectations and from cold dark matter predictions. Compared to predictions of SIDM-only simulations, the core sizes are smaller and the core densities are higher, with the largest effects in baryon-dominated galaxies. As an example, we find a core size around 0.3 kpc for dark matter in the Milky Way, more than an order of magnitude smaller than the core size from SIDM-only simulations, which has important implications for indirect searches of SIDM candidates.

  20. The Search-Transfer Problem: The Role of Weak Ties in Sharing Knowledge across Organization Subunits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morten T. Hansen

    1999-01-01

    This paper combines the concept of weak ties from social network research and the notion of complex knowledge to explain the role of weak ties in sharing knowledge across organization subunits in a multiunit organization. I use a network study of 120 new-product development projects undertaken by 41 divisions in a large electronics company to examine the task of developing

  1. THE TIE-ZONE WATERSHED: DEFINITION, ALGORITHM AND APPLICATIONS Romaric Audigier

    E-print Network

    Cord, Aurélien

    THE TIE-ZONE WATERSHED: DEFINITION, ALGORITHM AND APPLICATIONS Romaric Audigier , Roberto de A ­ ESIEE Noisy-Le-Grand, France coupriem@esiee.fr ABSTRACT In this work, a new type of watershed transform is intro- duced: the Tie-Zone WaterShed (TZWS). This region-based watershed transform does not depend

  2. Tie-Zone Watershed, Bottlenecks and Segmentation Robustness Analysis Romaric Audigier, Roberto de Alencar Lotufo

    E-print Network

    Cord, Aurélien

    Tie-Zone Watershed, Bottlenecks and Segmentation Robustness Analysis Romaric Audigier, Roberto de.dca.fee.unicamp.br/lotufo Abstract In a recent paper [1], a new type of watershed (WS) transform was introduced: the tie-zone watershed (TZWS). This region-based watershed transform does not depend on arbitrary implementation

  3. Social ties and their relevance to churn in mobile telecom networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koustuv Dasgupta; Rahul Singh; Balaji Viswanathan; Dipanjan Chakraborty; Sougata Mukherjea; Amit Anil Nanavati; Anupam Joshi

    2008-01-01

    Social Network Analysis has emerged as a key paradigm in modern sociology, technology, and information sciences. The paradigm stems from the view that the attributes of an individual in a network are less important than their ties (relationships) with other individuals in the network. Exploring the nature and strength of these ties can help understand the structure and dynamics of

  4. Predicting Tie Strength With Social Media Eric Gilbert and Karrie Karahalios

    E-print Network

    Karahalios, Karrie G.

    Predicting Tie Strength With Social Media Eric Gilbert and Karrie Karahalios University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign [egilber2, kkarahal]@cs.uiuc.edu ABSTRACT Social media treats all users the same model that maps social media data to tie strength. The model builds on a dataset of over 2,000 social

  5. Decision tree state tying based on segmental clustering for acoustic modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Reichl; Wu Chou

    1998-01-01

    A fast segmental clustering approach to decision tree tying based acoustic modeling is proposed for large vocabulary speech recognition. It is based on a two level clustering scheme for robust decision tree state clustering. This approach extends the conventional segmental K-means approach to phonetic decision tree state tying based acoustic modeling. It achieves high recognition performances while reducing the model

  6. WORKING PAPER N 2010 -35 Do tropical typhoons smash community ties?

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    WORKING PAPER N° 2010 - 35 Do tropical typhoons smash community ties? Theory and evidence from typhoons smash community ties? Theory and Evidence from Vietnam Yanos Zylberberg Paris School of Economics) the initial fractionalization of the community. Matching data on a wave of tropical typhoons with a panel

  7. Requisite Role of Angiopoietin-1, a Ligand for the TIE2 Receptor, during Embryonic Angiogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chitra Suri; Pamela F Jones; Sybill Patan; Sona Bartunkova; Peter C Maisonpierre; Samuel Davis; Thomas N Sato; George D Yancopoulos

    1996-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which acts via members of a family of endothelial-specific receptor tyrosine kinases, is the only factor that has been shown definitively to play a role in the formation of the embryonic vasculature. Only one other family of receptor tyrosine kinases, comprising TIE1 and TIE2, is largely endothelial cell specific. We have recently cloned a ligand

  8. 11-level Cascaded H-bridge Grid-tied Inverter Interface with Solar Panels

    E-print Network

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    11-level Cascaded H-bridge Grid-tied Inverter Interface with Solar Panels Faete Filho, Yue Cao multilevel DC-AC grid-tied inverter. Each inverter bridge is connected to a 200 W solar panel. OPAL-RT lab match. A novel SPWM scheme is proposed in this paper to be used with the solar panels that can account

  9. Institutional investments in private equity funds: social ties and the reduction of information asymmetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Freiburg; Dietmar Grichnik

    2012-01-01

    The reduction of information asymmetry between institutional investors and private equity (PE) firms is one of the key challenges for the successful fundraising of PE funds in an increasingly competitive market. Social ties provide a potential mechanism to reduce information asymmetry. Therefore, this paper investigates the role of social ties for institutional investments in PE funds. Based on our fieldwork

  10. The Relationship between Overall Comprehension and Coreferential Tie Comprehension for Second Language Readers of Spanish Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demel, Marjorie Cornell

    1994-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between overall comprehension and the comprehension of coreferential ties for second-language readers of Spanish literature. Significant correlations between overall comprehension and coreferent identification indicate that coreferential tie errors may be symptomatic of confusion about another entity in the text. (42…

  11. 10 CFR 71.45 - Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Tie-down devices: (1) If there is a system of tie-down devices that is a structural part of the package, the system must be capable of withstanding, without...generating stress in any material of the package in excess of its yield strength,...

  12. 10 CFR 71.45 - Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Tie-down devices: (1) If there is a system of tie-down devices that is a structural part of the package, the system must be capable of withstanding, without...generating stress in any material of the package in excess of its yield strength,...

  13. 10 CFR 71.45 - Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Tie-down devices: (1) If there is a system of tie-down devices that is a structural part of the package, the system must be capable of withstanding, without...generating stress in any material of the package in excess of its yield strength,...

  14. 10 CFR 71.45 - Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Tie-down devices: (1) If there is a system of tie-down devices that is a structural part of the package, the system must be capable of withstanding, without...generating stress in any material of the package in excess of its yield strength,...

  15. 10 CFR 71.45 - Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Tie-down devices: (1) If there is a system of tie-down devices that is a structural part of the package, the system must be capable of withstanding, without...generating stress in any material of the package in excess of its yield strength,...

  16. 33 CFR 401.37 - Mooring at tie-up walls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Seaway Navigation § 401.37 Mooring at tie-up walls. (a) Upon arrival at a lock, a...instructions to advance shall moor at the tie-up wall, close up to the designated limit or approach sign or to the ship preceding it, whichever...

  17. 33 CFR 401.37 - Mooring at tie-up walls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Seaway Navigation § 401.37 Mooring at tie-up walls. (a) Upon arrival at a lock, a...instructions to advance shall moor at the tie-up wall, close up to the designated limit or approach sign or to the ship preceding it, whichever...

  18. 33 CFR 401.37 - Mooring at tie-up walls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Seaway Navigation § 401.37 Mooring at tie-up walls. (a) Upon arrival at a lock, a...instructions to advance shall moor at the tie-up wall, close up to the designated limit or approach sign or to the ship preceding it, whichever...

  19. 33 CFR 401.37 - Mooring at tie-up walls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Seaway Navigation § 401.37 Mooring at tie-up walls. (a) Upon arrival at a lock, a...instructions to advance shall moor at the tie-up wall, close up to the designated limit or approach sign or to the ship preceding it, whichever...

  20. 33 CFR 401.37 - Mooring at tie-up walls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Seaway Navigation § 401.37 Mooring at tie-up walls. (a) Upon arrival at a lock, a...instructions to advance shall moor at the tie-up wall, close up to the designated limit or approach sign or to the ship preceding it, whichever...

  1. m=1 ideal kink modes in a line-tied screw pinch with finite plasma pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Svidzinski; V. V. Mirnov; H. Li

    2008-01-01

    A new method for computing ideal magnetohydrodynamic linear eigenmodes in a cylindrical screw pinch with line-tying boundary conditions at the axial ends is presented. In this method, plasma volume is reflected over one of the end planes, and equations and field components are continued into the extended volume with the continuation rules prescribed by the line-tying boundary conditions. Field components

  2. Ideal Kink Modes In a Line-Tied Screw Pinch With Finite Plasma Pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Mirnov; V. A. Svidzinski; H. Li

    2008-01-01

    A new method for computing ideal magnetohydrodynamic linear eigenmodes in a cylindrical screw pinch with line-tying boundary conditions is presented. In this method, plasma volume is reflected over one of the end plates, and equations and field components are continued on the extended volume with the continuation rules prescribed by the line-tying boundary conditions. Field components in the combined volume

  3. Simulation studies on line-tying stabilization of spheromak tilting instability

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, T.; Sato, T.

    1984-04-01

    The stabilization mechanism of the spheromak tilting instability is investigated by means of a 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulation. Evidence that line-tying can completely suppress a tilting instability is observed. It is also found that the stabilization effect of an induction current induced on a conducting wall is weaker than the line-tying effect.

  4. Growth rate reduction of the curvature-driven flute instability by plasma blanket line tying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Segal

    1983-01-01

    The effect of an annular, line-tied blanket, on the curvature-driven flute in a magnetic mirror is considered. The blanket is assumed to be line tied to a thermoionically emitting annular end plate. Reduction of the flute growth rate is computed as function of Larmor radius, blanket radius, and axial plasma conductance through either an external plasma or mirror sheath. It

  5. Effects of line tying on resistive tearing instability in slab geometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Min Huang; Ellen G. Zweibel

    2009-01-01

    The effects of line tying on resistive tearing instability in slab geometry are studied within the framework of reduced magnetohydrodynamics [B. B. Kadomtsev and O. P. Pogutse, Sov. Phys. JETP 38, 283 (1974); H. R. Strauss, Phys. Fluids 19, 134 (1976)]. It is found that line tying has a stabilizing effect. The tearing mode is stabilized when the system length

  6. On the Existence of Resistive Instabilities of Line-Tied Modes in Cylindrical Geometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. L. Delzanno; E. G. Evstatiev; J. M. Finn

    2007-01-01

    Summary form only given. Linear MHD stability with line-tying boundary conditions has been the subject of intense research in the solar physics community for the past twenty years, in an attempt to understand the dynamics of solar flares and the related mechanisms of energy release. Recently, there has been a renewed interest line-tying mainly due to two set of experiments.

  7. Relaxation of Line-tied Coronal Plasmas to MHD Equilibria with Current Singularities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bhattacharjee; C. Ng; L. Lin

    2007-01-01

    The spontaneous formation of current singularities in line-tied magnetic configurations is a problem of fundamental interest, with important applications to the problem of coronal heating. In this talk, we will discuss some rigorous results which demonstrate that such singular states are formed as an ideally unstable system relaxes to a state of minimum energy subject to the constraints of line-tying.

  8. Correlation between psychometric test scores and learning tying of surgical reef knots.

    PubMed Central

    Dashfield, A. K.; Lambert, A. W.; Campbell, J. K.; Wilkins, D. C.

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the correlation between the scores attained on a computerised psychometric test, measuring psychomotor aptitude and learning tying of a surgical reef knot. Fifteen surgical trainees performed a test of psychomotor aptitude (ADTRACK 2) from the MICROPAT testing system. They then performed a simple test of their ability to tie a surgical reef knot and were assessed by a panel of experts prior to embarking on a standardised course of instruction and practice session. The knot-tying test was repeated at the end of the day and the differences in average scores recorded. There was a significant correlation between the means of the differences in knot tying scores and ADTRACK 2 scores (r = -0.533, P < 0.05). Psychomotor abilities appear to be determinants of trainees' initial proficiency in learning to tie a surgical reef knot. PMID:11320926

  9. Smart FBG-based steel tie rod with self-monitoring functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jianping; Zhou, Zhi; Chen, Genda; Ou, Jinping

    2009-03-01

    Currently, it is difficult to measure the internal forces of steel tie rods under construction and in long-term service. A novel high-durable smart steel tie rod with functionality of self-monitoring was developed by utilizing fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and installation techniques combined with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP). The sensing features for the smart steel tie rod were investigated. The strain obtained from FBG strain sensors shows very good linearity and repeatability when the steel tie rod is under 85% of its ultimate load. The force calculated from the strain data obtained during the control loading supports those findings, within a 4% error. This type of smart steel tie rod easily reveals any stage of stress and can be regarded as a potential strain-based load cell for adjacent structures in a harsh environment.

  10. 49 CFR 1242.15 - Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other...Operating Expenses-Way and Structures § 1242.15 Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails,...

  11. 49 CFR 1242.15 - Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other...Operating Expenses-Way and Structures § 1242.15 Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails,...

  12. 49 CFR 1242.15 - Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other...Operating Expenses-Way and Structures § 1242.15 Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails,...

  13. 49 CFR 1242.15 - Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other...Operating Expenses-Way and Structures § 1242.15 Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails,...

  14. 49 CFR 1242.15 - Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other...Operating Expenses-Way and Structures § 1242.15 Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails,...

  15. Effect of line-tying on the radiative MHD stability of coronal plasmas with radial pressure profile

    SciTech Connect

    An, C.

    1984-09-01

    We have studied the effects of photospheric line-tying on the localized radiative magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes of compressible coronal plasmas. We used a simple trial function to represent the effect of line-tying.

  16. Experimental evaluation of the tie of the crystal clock vs. gps timing receiver without\\/with the negative sawtooth correction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis J. Arceo-Miquel

    2006-01-01

    The time interval error (TIE) is a measure of inaccuracy that is widely used now in timekeeping and evaluating the clock performance. In this paper, we investigate and develop a system (hardware and software) for TIE measurements. The system contains two TIE counters, a divider of frequency, reference rubidium clock, local crystal clock, and GPS timing receiver. Applied software provides

  17. COPLANAR WAVEGUIDE FED BOW-TIE SLOT ANTENNAS FOR WIDEBAND Abdelnasser A. Eldek, Atef Z. Elsherbeni, and Charles E. Smith

    E-print Network

    Elsherbeni, Atef Z.

    COPLANAR WAVEGUIDE FED BOW-TIE SLOT ANTENNAS FOR WIDEBAND OPERATIONS Abdelnasser A. Eldek, Atef Z of Electrical Engineering The University of Mississippi University, MS 38677, USA ABSTRACT: A bow-tie slot-tie slot antennas fed by one CPW is also introduced for wider bandwidth and improved gain

  18. Wideband Bow-Tie Slot Antennas with Tapered Tuning Stubs Abdelnasser A. Eldek, Atef Z. Elsherbeni and Charles E. Smith.

    E-print Network

    Elsherbeni, Atef Z.

    Wideband Bow-Tie Slot Antennas with Tapered Tuning Stubs Abdelnasser A. Eldek, Atef Z. Elsherbeni of wideband operations, a bow-tie slot antenna fed by a coplanar waveguide (CPW) is investigated. The design was realized using a tapered metal stub introduced in the middle of the bow-tie slot. The modified structure

  19. Two-dimensional axisymmetric and three-dimensional helical equilibrium in the line-tied screw pinch

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    to the study of line-tied plasma columns. This geome- try is relevant to a number of astrophysical systems to zero plasma displacement as the plasma is frozen into the magnetic field. Line-tying has been bothTwo-dimensional axisymmetric and three-dimensional helical equilibrium in the line-tied screw pinch

  20. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  1. A modified over-tie for the ligation of Incognito™ lingual fixed appliances.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Peter N

    2013-09-01

    The Incognito lingual appliance has a ribbon-wise slot with vertically inserted wires. Control of tip can be problematic with this appliance and the conventional method to overcome this is to achieve full wire engagement via the use of power-ties. Although effective, these can be very difficult to place and also create very high friction. A method of ligation is described which consists of a modified elastic double over-tie. This is easily placed and very effective at controlling tip in Incognito brackets using a variety of arch wires. This method creates less friction than the power-tie. PMID:24009324

  2. Diverless tie-in tool gets first test on deepwater line

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, D.

    1997-03-24

    A diverless, deepwater tie-in and repair tool has been developed and successfully tested on the Norwegian Sea`s Haltenpipe project. Den Norske stats oljeselskap AS (Statoil) and Hydratight Ltd., Wolverhampton, U.K., have disclosed details of the technique and installation. Statoil funded development by Hydra-tight of its Morgrip mechanical connector as a diverless pipeline tie-in and repair system for use in water too deep for existing technologies. The paper discusses welding restrictions underwater, metal-to-metal sealing, the Haltenpipe tie-in, and further development plans.

  3. Experimental investigation of line-tying effects on the spheromak tilt mode

    SciTech Connect

    Wysocki, F.J.

    1987-02-01

    A variety of passive stabilization techniques compatible with S-1 inductive spheromak formation (Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 188 (1981)) has been evaluated for effectiveness against the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) tilting instability. A line-tying stabilization effect has been previously identified theoretically. In the present work, the effects have been experimentally identified and investigated. The perturbed current patterns within passive stabilizing structures have been measured, and line-tying currents have been identified. The simple ring model of tilting has been expanded to include line tying, and has provided estimates for growth rates which agree well with the measured values.

  4. STRATEGIC TRANSMISSION INVESTMENT PLAN

    E-print Network

    ...................................................................... 6 Next Steps The New CA ISO Transmission Planning Process........................................ 21 A State-Led Transmission Corridor Planning Process...................................... 21 Coordinati

  5. The Tie That Binds? Coherence Among Emotion Experience, Behavior, and Physiology

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    The Tie That Binds? Coherence Among Emotion Experience, Behavior, and Physiology Iris B. Mauss-individual associations among experiential, facial behavioral, and peripheral physiological responses during emotional responding and (b) assessed whether emotion intensity moderates these associations. Experiential, behavioral

  6. Poor Sleep, Snoring Before Diagnosis Tied to Trouble for Breast Cancer Patients

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sleep, Snoring Before Diagnosis Tied to Trouble for Breast Cancer Patients But whether lack of sleep -- or the ... 12, 2015 FRIDAY, June 12, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Breast cancer patients who had poor sleep and frequent snoring ...

  7. Romantic Partnerships and the Dispersion of Social Ties: A Network Analysis of Relationship Status on Facebook

    E-print Network

    Backstrom, Lars

    2013-01-01

    A crucial task in the analysis of on-line social-networking systems is to identify important people --- those linked by strong social ties --- within an individual's network neighborhood. Here we investigate this question for a particular category of strong ties, those involving spouses or romantic partners. We organize our analysis around a basic question: given all the connections among a person's friends, can you recognize his or her romantic partner from the network structure alone? Using data from a large sample of Facebook users, we find that this task can be accomplished with high accuracy, but doing so requires the development of a new measure of tie strength that we term `dispersion' --- the extent to which two people's mutual friends are not themselves well-connected. The results offer methods for identifying types of structurally significant people in on-line applications, and suggest a potential expansion of existing theories of tie strength.

  8. Australia-EU Linkage Story Policy evolution tied to domestic political landscape abandonment of

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    · Australia-EU Linkage Story Policy evolution tied to domestic political landscape ­ abandonment on post-AU election results New government in Australia has policy framework of `direct action' - paying

  9. HPV Vaccination Tied to Drop in Precancerous Cervical Lesions in U.S.

    MedlinePLUS

    ... html HPV Vaccination Tied to Drop in Precancerous Cervical Lesions in U.S. But screening rules for women ... vaccines to fight human papillomavirus (HPV) could reduce cervical cancer in American women. While it's still too ...

  10. CHARACTERIZATION AND ISOLATION OF ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN WHOLE SEDIMENT TOXICITY INDENTIFICATION EVALUATIONS (TIES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of whole sediment toxicity identification and evaluation (TIEs) methods has been under way for approximately four years. These methods are necessary to define cause and effect relationships in toxic sediments during ecological risk assessments, remediation and disposa...

  11. E-Cigarette Use in College Tied to Other Risky Behaviors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_151462.html E-Cigarette Use in College Tied to Other Risky Behaviors ... than 95 percent of the respondents knew about e-cigarettes, and nearly 30 percent said they had tried ...

  12. Loads on Tie-Down Systems for Floating Drilling Rigs during Hurricane Conditions 

    E-print Network

    Bae, Yoon Hyeok

    2010-01-16

    Tie-down systems are used to fasten drilling rigs to the deck of offshore structures during harsh environmental conditions such as hurricanes. During Hurricane Ivan (2004) and Katrina (2005), a number of offshore structures ...

  13. Iron Framing Axonometric, Stringer, IBeam, Channel, Composite TieBeam, and Small ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Iron Framing Axonometric, Stringer, I-Beam, Channel, Composite Tie-Beam, and Small and Large Phoenix Columns - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. Compact modified bow-tie slot antenna fed by CPW for ultra-wideband applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chi-Hsuan Lee; Shih-Yuan Chen; Powen Hsu

    2009-01-01

    A coplanar waveguide fed compact modified bow-tie slot antenna is proposed for use in the ultra-wideband systems. The modification is made by attaching a pair of meandered slotlines to the upper ends of the small bow-tie slot. With a proper slotline length, the impedance bandwidth of the proposed antenna can be adjusted to cover the entire ultra-wideband and the antenna

  15. A Laparoscopic Knot-Tying Device for Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jernigan, Shaphan; Chanoit, Guillaume; Veeramani, Arun; Owen, S. Brian; Hilliard, Matthew; Cormier, Denis; Laffitte, Bryan; Buckner, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Intracorporeal suturing and knot tying can complicate, prolong or preclude minimally invasive surgical procedures, reducing their advantages over conventional approaches. An automated knot-tying device has been developed to speed suture fixation during minimally invasive cardiac surgery while retaining the desirable characteristics of conventional hand-tied surgeon's knots: holding strength and visual and haptic feedback. A rotating slotted disk (at the instrument's distal end) automates overhand throws, thereby eliminating the need to manually pass one suture end through a loop in the opposing end. Electronic actuation of this disk produces left or right overhand knots as desired by the operator. Methods To evaluate the effectiveness of this technology, 7 surgeons with varying laparoscopic experience tied knots within a simulated minimally invasive setting, using both the automated knot-tying tool and conventional laparoscopic tools. Suture types were 2-0 braided and 4-0 monofilament. Results Mean knot-tying times were 246 ±116 seconds and 102 ±46 seconds for conventional and automated methods, respectively, showing an average 56% reduction in time per surgeon (p=0.003, paired t-test). The peak holding strength of each knot (the force required to break the suture or loosen the knot) was measured using tensile testing equipment. These peak holding strengths were normalized by the ultimate tensile strength of each suture type (57.5 N and 22.1 N for 2-0 braided and 4-0 monofilament, respectively). Mean normalized holding strengths for all knots were 68.2% and 71.8% of ultimate tensile strength for conventional and automated methods, respectively (p= 0.914, paired t-test). Conclusions Experimental data reveal that the automated suturing device has great potential for advancing minimally invasive surgery: it significantly reduced knot-tying times while providing equivalent or greater holding strength than conventionally tied knots. PMID:19854658

  16. Four-level tied-structure for efficient representation of acoustic modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi TAKAHASHI; Shigeki SAGAYAMA

    1995-01-01

    One of the problems with context-dependent HMMs is that a large number of model parameters should be estimated using a limited amount of training data. Parameters that have the same property should be tied in order to represent acoustic models efficiently. This paper proposes four-level tied-structure for phoneme models. The four levels include 1) model level, 2) state level, 3)

  17. Financial ties and concordance between results and conclusions in meta-analyses: retrospective cohort study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veronica Yank; Drummond Rennie; Lisa A Bero

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine whether financial ties to one drug company are associated with favourable results or conclusions in meta-analyses on antihypertensive drugs.Design Retrospective cohort study.Setting Meta-analyses published up to December 2004 that were not duplicates and evaluated the effects of antihypertensive drugs compared with any comparator on clinical end points in adults. Financial ties were categorised as one drug company

  18. The role of resistivity on line-tied kink modes in cylindrical geometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. L. Delzanno; E. G. Evstatiev; J. M. Finn

    2007-01-01

    An investigation of the effect of resistivity on linear line-tied kink modes is presented in cylindrical geometry. A region near marginal stability, where the line-tied system is stable in ideal magnetohydrodynamics but unstable with resistivity, is shown. In this region, the growth rate is found to be proportional to resistivity. There is no signature of the tearing-like scaling, which occurs

  19. Ideal m=1 internal kink mode in line-tied screw pinch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Min Huang; Ellen G. Zweibel; Carl R. Sovinec

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that the radial displacement of the m=1 internal kink mode in a periodic screw pinch has a steep jump at the resonant surface where k .B=0. In a line-tied system, relevant to solar and astrophysical plasmas, the resonant surface is no longer a valid concept. It is then of interest to see how line-tying alters the

  20. Experimental investigation of line-tying effects on the spheromak tilt mode

    SciTech Connect

    Wysocki, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of passive stabilization techniques compatible with S-1 inductive spheromak formation was evaluated for effectiveness against the MHD tilting instability. A line tying stabilization effect was previously identified theoretically. In this work, the effects were experimentally identified and investigated. The perturbed current patterns within passive stabilizing structures were measured, and line typing current were identified. The simple ring model of tilting was expanded to include line tying, and gives estimates for growth rates that agree well with the measured values.

  1. Line-tying of interchange modes in a hot electron plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Gerver

    1986-01-01

    The dispersion relation of low-frequency (..omega..<<..omega..\\/sub c\\/i) electrostatic flute-like interchange modes in a mirror cell with a fraction ..cap alpha.. of hot bi-Maxwellian electrons, with bulk line-tying to cold (nonemitting) end walls, has been solved using a slab model and the local approximation. In the absence of line-tying, hot-electron interchange modes are never completely stabilized (in contrast to the conventional

  2. Line-tying of interchange modes in a hot electron plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Gerver

    1986-01-01

    The dispersion relation of low-frequency (?≪?ci) electrostatic flute-like interchange modes in a mirror cell with a fraction ? of hot bi-Maxwellian electrons, with bulk line-tying to cold (nonemitting) end walls, has been solved using a slab model and the local approximation. In the absence of line-tying, hot-electron interchange modes are never completely stabilized (in contrast to the conventional theory [Phys.

  3. Current singularities in line-tied three-dimensional magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, I. J. D. [Department of Mathematics, University of Waikato, Hamilton (New Zealand); Pontin, D. I., E-mail: i.craig@waikato.ac.nz, E-mail: dpontin@maths.dundee.ac.uk [Division of Mathematics, University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-20

    This paper considers the current distributions that derive from finite amplitude perturbations of line-tied magnetic fields comprising hyperbolic field structures. The initial equilibrium on which we principally focus is a planar magnetic X-point threaded by a uniform axial field. This field is line-tied on all surfaces but subject to three-dimensional (3D) disturbances that alter the initial topology. Results of ideal relaxation simulations are presented which illustrate how intense current structures form that can be related, through the influence of line-tying, to the quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) of the initial configuration. It is demonstrated that the location within the QSL that attracts the current, and its scaling properties, are strongly dependent on the relative dimensions of the QSL with respect to the line-tied boundaries. These results are contrasted with the behavior of a line-tied 3D field containing an isolated null point. In this case, it is found that the dominant current always forms at the null, but that the collapse is inhibited when the null is closer to a line-tied boundary.

  4. Multi-purpose grid-tied inverter with smart grid capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liyanagedera, Chamika Mihiranga

    Distributed energy storages play an important role in increasing the reliability and efficiency of the grid through means of peak load shaving, grid voltage support, and grid frequency support. It is important to have distributed energy storages that can utilize the functionalities of the modern smart grid to operate more effectively. The grid-tied inverter is one of the major components in a distributed energy storage that controls the power transfer between the grid and an energy storage device. In this research, a grid-tied inverter that can be used in distributed energy storage applications was designed, developed, and tested. This grid-tied inverter was designed with the capability to control both reactive and active power flow in either direction. The grid-tied inverter is equipped with communication capabilities so it can be remotely controlled by commands sent through a smart grid network. For demonstrative purposes, a user interface was developed to control and monitor the operation of the grid-tied inverter. Finally the operation of the grid-tied inverter was evaluated in accordance to IEEE 1547, the Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems.

  5. $m=1$ Ideal Internal Kink Modes in a Line-tied Screw Pinch

    E-print Network

    Yi-Min Huang; Ellen G. Zweibel; Carl R. Sovinec

    2006-07-17

    It is well known that the radial displacement of the $m=1$ internal kink mode in a periodic screw pinch has a steep jump at the resonant surface where $\\mathbf{k}\\cdot\\mathbf{B}=0$. In a line-tied system, relevant to solar and astrophysical plasmas, the resonant surface is no longer a valid concept. It is then of interest to see how line-tying alters the aforementioned result for a periodic system. If the line-tied kink also produces a steep gradient, corresponding to a thin current layer, it may lead to strong resistive effects even with weak dissipation. Numerical solution of the eigenmode equations shows that the fastest growing kink mode in a line-tied system still possesses a jump in the radial displacement at the location coincident with the resonant surface of the fastest growing mode in the periodic counterpart. However, line-tying thickens the inner layer and slows down the growth rate. As the system length $L$ approaches infinity, both the inner layer thickness and the growth rate approach the periodic values. In the limit of small $\\epsilon\\sim B_{\\phi}/B_{z}$, the critical length for instability $L_{c}\\sim\\epsilon^{-3}$. The relative increase in the inner layer thickness due to line-tying scales as $\\epsilon^{-1}(L_{c}/L)^{2.5}$.

  6. m=1 ideal internal kink modes in a line-tied screw pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Yimin; Zweibel, Ellen G.; Sovinec, Carl R. [Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, and Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, Department of Physics, and Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, and Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2006-09-15

    It is well known that the radial displacement of the m=1 internal kink mode in a periodic screw pinch has a steep jump at the resonant surface where k{center_dot}B=0 [Rosenbluth, Dagazian, and Rutherford, Phys. Fluids 16, 1894 (1973)]. In a line-tied system, relevant to solar and astrophysical plasmas, the resonant surface is no longer a valid concept. It is then of interest to see how line-tying alters the aforementioned result for a periodic system. If the line-tied kink also produces a steep gradient, corresponding to a thin current layer, it may lead to strong resistive effects even with weak dissipation. Numerical solution of the eigenmode equations shows that the fastest growing kink mode in a line-tied system still possesses a jump in the radial displacement at the location coincident with the resonant surface of the fastest growing mode in the periodic counterpart. However, line-tying thickens the inner layer and slows down the growth rate. As the system length L approaches infinity, both the inner layer thickness and the growth rate approach the periodic values. In the limit of small {epsilon}{approx}B{sub {phi}}/B{sub z}, the critical length for instability L{sub c}{approx}{epsilon}{sup -3}. The relative increase in the inner layer thickness due to line-tying scales as {epsilon}{sup -1}(L{sub c}/L){sup 2.5}.

  7. The social ties that bind: social anxiety and academic achievement across the university years.

    PubMed

    Brook, Christina A; Willoughby, Teena

    2015-05-01

    Given that engagement and integration in university/college are considered key to successful academic achievement, the identifying features of social anxiety, including fear of negative evaluation and distress and avoidance of new or all social situations, may be particularly disadvantageous in the social and evaluative contexts that are integral to university/college life. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the direct effects of social anxiety on academic achievement, as well as investigate an indirect mechanism through which social anxiety might impact on academic achievement, namely, the formation of new social ties in university. The participants were 942 (71.7 % female; M = 19 years at Time 1) students enrolled in a mid-sized university in Southern Ontario, Canada. Students completed annual assessments of social anxiety, social ties, and academic achievement for three consecutive years. The results from an autoregressive cross-lag path analysis indicated that social anxiety had a significant and negative direct relationship with academic achievement. Moreover, the negative indirect effect of social anxiety on academic achievement through social ties was significant, as was the opposing direction of effects (i.e., the indirect effect of academic achievement on social anxiety through social ties). These findings highlight the critical role that social ties appear to play in successful academic outcomes and in alleviating the effects of social anxiety during university/college. PMID:25691148

  8. StringTie enables improved reconstruction of a transcriptome from RNA-seq reads.

    PubMed

    Pertea, Mihaela; Pertea, Geo M; Antonescu, Corina M; Chang, Tsung-Cheng; Mendell, Joshua T; Salzberg, Steven L

    2015-03-01

    Methods used to sequence the transcriptome often produce more than 200 million short sequences. We introduce StringTie, a computational method that applies a network flow algorithm originally developed in optimization theory, together with optional de novo assembly, to assemble these complex data sets into transcripts. When used to analyze both simulated and real data sets, StringTie produces more complete and accurate reconstructions of genes and better estimates of expression levels, compared with other leading transcript assembly programs including Cufflinks, IsoLasso, Scripture and Traph. For example, on 90 million reads from human blood, StringTie correctly assembled 10,990 transcripts, whereas the next best assembly was of 7,187 transcripts by Cufflinks, which is a 53% increase in transcripts assembled. On a simulated data set, StringTie correctly assembled 7,559 transcripts, which is 20% more than the 6,310 assembled by Cufflinks. As well as producing a more complete transcriptome assembly, StringTie runs faster on all data sets tested to date compared with other assembly software, including Cufflinks. PMID:25690850

  9. $m=1$ Ideal Internal Kink Modes in a Line-tied Screw Pinch

    E-print Network

    Huang, Y M; Sovinec, C R; Huang, Yi-Min; Zweibel, Ellen G.; Sovinec, Carl R.

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that the radial displacement of the $m=1$ internal kink mode in a periodic screw pinch has a steep jump at the resonant surface where $\\mathbf{k}\\cdot\\mathbf{B}=0$. In a line-tied system, relevant to solar and astrophysical plasmas, the resonant surface is no longer a valid concept. It is then of interest to see how line-tying alters the aforementioned result for a periodic system. If the line-tied kink also produces a steep gradient, corresponding to a thin current layer, it may lead to strong resistive effects even with weak dissipation. Numerical solution of the eigenmode equations shows that the fastest growing kink mode in a line-tied system still possesses a jump in the radial displacement at the location coincident with the resonant surface of the fastest growing mode in the periodic counterpart. However, line-tying thickens the inner layer and slows down the growth rate. As the system length $L$ approaches infinity, both the inner layer thickness and the growth rate approach the perio...

  10. The effect of line-tying on the radiative MHD stability of coronal plasmas with radial pressure profile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C.-H. An

    1984-01-01

    The role of photospheric line-tying, i.e., solar coronal loop structures, was investigated in terms of the effect on radiative modes and the influence that different radial pressure profiles exert on the effects of line-tying on radiative MHD stability. Energy is assumed dissipated by heat conduction and radiation and zero- and first-order solutions are obtained for the radiative time scales. Line-tying

  11. Exploring the Academic Benefits of Friendship Ties for Latino Boys and Girls*

    PubMed Central

    Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; Callahan, Rebecca M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We examine how the racial/ethnic and generational status composition of Latino students' friendship groups is related to their academic achievement and whether there are differential effects by gender. Methods We use multivariate regression analyses to examine the effects of friends' characteristics on Latino students' end of high school grades, utilizing data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study (AHAA), and its parent survey, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Results For Latina girls, there are positive effects of having more friendship ties to third-plus-generation Latino peers in contrast to dominant culture peers; yet Latino boys benefit academically from ties to all co-ethnic peers. Having friends with higher parental education promotes achievement of both genders. Conclusion Our results counter notions of a pervasive negative peer influence of minority youth and suggest that co-ethnic ties are an important source of social capital for Latino students' achievement. PMID:20333266

  12. Design and construction of the tensioned ties for UX15 cavern vault

    E-print Network

    Parkin, R J H

    2002-01-01

    Due to the programme constraints for the UX15 cavern set by CERN, it has been necessary to complete the concrete lining of the vault prior to the excavation of the bench. The vault lining is therefore being temporarily suspended from a number of pre-tensioned high capacity multi-strand tensioned ties. During excavation of the bench, additional loads will be imposed onto the vault lining due to ground displacements. In order to minimise the number of ties, the previously completed linings of the PX14 and PX16 access shafts will be used to support some of the load. Three-dimensional modelling has been undertaken to design the structures and determine the expected behaviour of this complex support system. Geotechnical instrumentation has been installed in the concrete linings and the ground to monitor loads and displacements during construction. After the cavern walls have been completed, the ties will be released.

  13. A Community of Strangers: The Dis-Embedding of Social Ties

    PubMed Central

    Parigi, Paolo; State, Bogdan; Dakhlallah, Diana; Corten, Rense; Cook, Karen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore two contrasting perspectives on individuals' participation in associations. On the one hand, some have considered participation the byproduct of pre-existing friendship ties — the more friends one already has in the association, the more likely he or she is to participate. On the other hand, some have considered participation to be driven by the association's capacity to form new identities — the more new friends one meets in the association, the more likely he or she is to participate. We use detailed temporal data from an online association to adjudicate between these two mechanisms and explore their interplay. Our results show a significant impact of new friendship ties on participation, compared to a negligible impact of pre-existing friends, defined here as ties to other members formed outside of the organization's context. We relate this finding to the sociological literature on participation and we explore its implications in the discussion. PMID:23861761

  14. Influence of social ties to environmentalists on public climate change perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tindall, D. B.; Piggot, Georgia

    2015-06-01

    An emerging body of research proposes that climate change concern is shaped by one's social ties and cultural milieu. This work aligns with findings in the well-established field of social network analysis, whereby individuals are understood as being embedded in social networks, and network position can be used to predict attitudes. Here we examine whether having ties to environmental movement organization members is correlated with climate change attitudes amongst the general public. We use data from a nationwide survey of the Canadian public to demonstrate that having social ties to environmental organization members increases the likelihood that an individual member of the public has a plan to deal with climate change. These findings reinforce the value of focusing on social context when examining climate change attitudes, and highlight the role that environmental organization members play in mobilizing climate change responses.

  15. The role of resistivity on line-tied kink modes in cylindrical geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Delzanno, G. L.; Evstatiev, E. G.; Finn, J. M. [T-15 Plasma Theory Group, Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    An investigation of the effect of resistivity on linear line-tied kink modes is presented in cylindrical geometry. A region near marginal stability, where the line-tied system is stable in ideal magnetohydrodynamics but unstable with resistivity, is shown. In this region, the growth rate is found to be proportional to resistivity. There is no signature of the tearing-like scaling, which occurs in the corresponding system with periodic boundary conditions, or of the formation of boundary layers near the end plates. Instead, the resistive scaling is due to global resistivity, leading to imperfect line-tying. This feature is common to equilibrium pitch profiles that increase or decrease monotonically with radius and is not influenced by viscosity.

  16. The effect of plasma flow on line-tied magnetohydrodynamic modes

    SciTech Connect

    Arcudi, Francesco [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino (Italy); Delzanno, Gian Luca; Finn, John M. [T-5, Applied Mathematics and Plasma Physics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The linear stability of a linear pinch to kink modes with line-tying boundary conditions and equilibrium axial flow is studied. Numerical results in visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamics show that for long plasmas, in which the line-tying stabilization effect is weak, plasma flow is stabilizing. For shorter plasmas, near the length at which line-tying stabilizes the mode for zero flow, the flow can be destabilizing. A simple model using reduced ideal magnetohydrodynamics with a step-function current density and an even simpler one-dimensional sound wave model with equilibrium flow elucidate these effects. It is concluded that: (1) The stabilization in long plasmas is due to convective stabilization; (2) the destabilization for short plasmas can be explained using a picture involving the coupling of two stable waves, one propagating in the forward direction and one in the backward direction; and (3) strong magnetic shear suppresses the flow destabilization for short plasmas.

  17. Affect networks: a structural analysis of the relationship between work ties and job-related affect.

    PubMed

    Totterdell, Peter; Wall, Toby; Holman, David; Diamond, Holly; Epitropaki, Olga

    2004-10-01

    The relationship between organizational networks and employees' affect was examined in 2 organizations. In Study 1, social network analysis of work ties and job-related affect for 259 employees showed that affect converged within work interaction groups. Similarity of affect between employees depended on the presence of work ties and structural equivalence. Affect was also related to the size and density of employees' work networks. Study 2 used a 10-week diary study of 31 employees to examine a merger of 2 organizational divisions and found that negative changes in employees' affect were related to having fewer cross-divisional ties and to experiencing greater reductions in network density. The findings suggest that affect permeates through and is shaped by organizational networks. PMID:15506865

  18. Quantifying Transmission Reliability Margin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianfeng Zhang; Ian Dobson; Fernando L. Alvarado

    2002-01-01

    In bulk electric power transfer capability com- putations, the transmission reliability margin accounts for uncertainties related to the transmission system conditions, contingencies, and parameter values. We propose a formula which quantifies transmission reliability margin based on transfer capability sensitivities and a probabilistic character- ization of the various uncertainties. The formula is verified by comparison with results from two systems small

  19. Instabilities in a Line-tied Screw Pinch with Non-monotonic Current Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookhart, Matthew; Li, Yan; Stemo, Aaron; Forest, Cary

    2013-10-01

    Models suggest that voriticity in active regions of the sun may drive non-monotonic current profiles in coronal loops. Instabilities in these loops may be responsible for some solar flare types. The Line-tied Reconnection Experiment, a linear screw pinch with line-tied axial boundaries, uses electrostatic current injectors (washer guns) at both ends of a cylinder to create equilibria with centrally reversed and hollow current profiles. Reversed-current plasmas with no net current are stable at high magnetic field but undergo sawtooth-like events as axial field is decreased. The onset conditions and internal structure of these events are compared to the literature on zero-net current instabilities in coronal loops. Hollow current profiles in the line-tied geometry are unstable to several instabilities at high safety factor (q > 10), directly contradicting results on ``current holes'' in tokamaks. The growth and structure of these modes is highly dependent on equilibrium profiles. Models suggest that voriticity in active regions of the sun may drive non-monotonic current profiles in coronal loops. Instabilities in these loops may be responsible for some solar flare types. The Line-tied Reconnection Experiment, a linear screw pinch with line-tied axial boundaries, uses electrostatic current injectors (washer guns) at both ends of a cylinder to create equilibria with centrally reversed and hollow current profiles. Reversed-current plasmas with no net current are stable at high magnetic field but undergo sawtooth-like events as axial field is decreased. The onset conditions and internal structure of these events are compared to the literature on zero-net current instabilities in coronal loops. Hollow current profiles in the line-tied geometry are unstable to several instabilities at high safety factor (q > 10), directly contradicting results on ``current holes'' in tokamaks. The growth and structure of these modes is highly dependent on equilibrium profiles. Supported by DOE.

  20. Discovery of Novel Benzimidazoles as Potent Inhibitors of TIE-2 and VEGFR-2 Tyrosine Kinase Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Masaichi; Nishigaki, Naohiko; Washio, Yoshiaki; Kano, Kazuya; Harris, Philip A.; Sato, Hideyuki; Mori, Ichiro; West, Rob I.; Shibahara, Megumi; Toyoda, Hiroko; Wang, Liping; Nolte, Robert T.; Veal, James M.; Cheung, Mui (GSKNC); (GSK)

    2008-09-12

    We herein disclose a novel chemical series of benzimidazole-ureas as inhibitors of VEGFR-2 and TIE-2 kinase receptors, both of which are implicated in angiogenesis. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies elucidated a critical role for the N1 nitrogen of both the benzimidazole (segment E) and urea (segment B) moieties. The SAR results were also supported by the X-ray crystallographic elucidation of the role of the N1 nitrogen and the urea moiety when the benzimidazole-urea compounds were bound to the VEGFR-2 enzyme. The left side phenyl ring (segment A) occupies the backpocket where a 3-hydrophobic substituent was favored for TIE-2 activity.

  1. Effects of the Al content on pore structures of porous TieAl alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Jaing, Y [State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China; He, Y H [State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China; Xu, N P [Membrane Science and Technology Research Center, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009, C; Zou, J [School of Engineering and Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Queensland, QLD; Huang, B [State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China; Lui, C T [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2008-01-01

    Porous TieAl alloys with different nominal compositions were fabricated through a reactive synthesis of Ti and Al elemental powders. It has been found that the pore parameters vary with the Al contents, indicating that the nature of the pores can be manipulated through changing the Al contents. In addition, detailed structural characterizations showed that the fabricated porous TieAl alloys can have three crystalline phases (i.e., a2-Ti3Al, g-TiAl, and TiAl3) when using different compositions. The fundamental reasons behind these phenomena have been explored.

  2. Effects of line-tying on magnetohydrodynamic instabilities and current sheet formation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Yimin; Bhattacharjee, A. [Space Science Center, Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, and Center for Integrated Computation and Analysis of Reconnection and Turbulence, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824 (United States); Zweibel, Ellen G. [Department of Physics, Department of Astronomy, and Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    An overview of some recent progress on magnetohydrodynamic stability and current sheet formation in a line-tied system is given. Key results on the linear stability of the ideal internal kink mode and resistive tearing mode are summarized. For nonlinear problems, a counterexample to the recent demonstration of current sheet formation by Low and Janse [Astrophys. J. 696, 821 (2009)] is presented, and the governing equations for quasistatic evolution of a boundary driven, line-tied magnetic field are derived. Some open questions and possible strategies to resolve them are discussed.

  3. Line tying of interchange modes in a nearly collisionless mirror-trapped plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Vandegrift, G. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pennsylvania 17013 (US))

    1989-12-01

    If the confining potential of electrostatically trapped electrons fluctuates, then the number of trapped electrons also fluctuates. The linear relationship between potential fluctuations and the number of trapped electrons is investigated, considering two loss mechanisms for a nearly collisionless plasma: (1) small-angle collisions (diffusion), and (2) large-angle collisions. This nearly collisionless model predicts the line tying of interchange modes in a mirror-trapped plasma is orders of magnitude larger than previously thought for a fusion plasma, yet still not strong enough to completely line tie an axisymmetric mirror. Also, a nonlinearity in the response can occur at low amplitude.

  4. Automated manual transmission controller

    DOEpatents

    Lawrie, Robert E. (Whitmore Lake, MI); Reed, Jr., Richard G. (Royal Oak, MI); Bernier, David R. (Rochester Hills, MI)

    1999-12-28

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  5. Minutes of the Meeting: Pennsylvania Electric Association, Engineering Section, Transmission and Distribution Committee, Fall, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    This proceedings contains nine papers on various aspects of electric power systems, with special emphasis on transmission and distribution within a system and tie-ins between systems. Protection of components from overload and corrosion, quality assurance and control, salvage and reclaim, restoration of service after outage in underground distribution and some construction problems are also considered. A paper deals with HVDC interconnection between Canada and the USA via a submarine cable. One paper is indexed and abstracted separately.

  6. Sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies at marine sites suspected of ordnance contamination.

    PubMed

    Carr, R S; Nipper, M; Biedenbach, J M; Hooten, R L; Miller, K; Saepoff, S

    2001-10-01

    A sediment quality assessment survey and subsequent toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) study was conducted at several sites in Puget Sound, Washington. The sites were previously suspected of contamination with ordnance compounds. The initial survey employed sea urchin porewater toxicity tests to locate the most toxic stations. Sediments from the most toxic stations were selected for comprehensive chemical analyses. Based on the combined information from the toxicity and chemical data, three adjacent stations in Ostrich Bay were selected for the TIE study. The results of the phase I TIE suggested that organics and metals were primarily responsible for the observed toxicity in the sea urchin fertilization test. In addition to these contaminants, ammonia was also contributing to the toxicity for the sea urchin embryological development test. The phase II TIE study isolated the majority of the toxicity in the fraction containing nonpolar organics with high log K(ow), but chemical analyses failed to identify a compound present at a concentration high enough to be responsible for the observed toxicity. The data suggest that some organic or organometallic contaminant(s) that were not included in the comprehensive suite of chemical analyses caused the observed toxicological responses. PMID:11503066

  7. Watershed by image foresting transform, tie-zone, and theoretical relationships with

    E-print Network

    Cord, Aurélien

    Watershed by image foresting transform, tie-zone, and theoretical relationships with other watershed denitions Romaric Audigier and Roberto de A. Lotufo Faculdade de Engenharia Elétrica e de@dca.fee.unicamp.br, lotufo@unicamp.br Abstract To better understand the numerous solutions related to watershed transform (WT

  8. Modified Printed Bow-Tie Antenna For C And X Bands Wideband Phased Array Systems

    E-print Network

    Elsherbeni, Atef Z.

    Printed microstrip antennas are widely used in wireless communication and phased array applicationsModified Printed Bow-Tie Antenna For C And X Bands Wideband Phased Array Systems Abdelnasser A for wideband phased array systems. The operating band of the proposed antenna simultaneously covers

  9. Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 49, 5369, 2004 CHARACTERISTICS OF BOW-TIE SLOT ANTENNA

    E-print Network

    Elsherbeni, Atef Z.

    for different frequency bands. The antenna shows wideband characteristics for radar and wireless communication integrated circuits (MMIC) [1]. Bow-tie slot antennas have the advantage of wide bandwidth. A number of bow of this antenna yields a design procedure and six designs at different operating frequency bands are introduced

  10. An Agent Model for a Human's Social Support Network Tie Preference during Depression

    E-print Network

    Treur, Jan

    An Agent Model for a Human's Social Support Network Tie Preference during Depression Azizi A. Aziz}@few.vu.nl Abstract Seeking support from their environment is important for people suffering from a depression. People. Keywords: depression, social support networks preference, simulation model 1. INTRODUCTION Depression

  11. Department Bent Grant Rules, GAO Finds. Award Tied to Bennett's Former Firm Questioned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education (DOE) bypassed its own policies when officials awarded a grant early in President Bush's first term that benefited a company founded by former Secretary of Education William J. Bennett, as well as others to groups with close ties to the administration, federal auditors have concluded. The Government Accountability…

  12. Exploring relationship between human mobility and social ties: Physical distance is not dead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Bo; Liao, Binbing; Yuan, Ning; Wang, Wenjun

    2015-06-01

    Partly due to the difficulty of the access to a worldwide dataset that simultaneously captures the location history and social networks, our understanding of the relationship between human mobility and the social ties has been limited. However, this topic is essential for a deeper study from human dynamics and social networks aspects. In this paper, we examine the location history data and social networks data of 712 email users and 399 offline events users from a map-editing based social network website. Based on these data, we expand all our experiment both from individual aspect and community aspect. We find that the physical distance is still the most influential factor to social ties among the nine representative human mobility features extracted from our GPS trajectory dataset, although Internet revolution has made long-distance communication dramatically faster, easier and cheaper than ever before, and in turn, partly expand the physical scope of social networks. Furthermore, we find that to a certain extent, the proximity of South-North direction is more influential than East-West direction to social ties. To the our best of our knowledge, this difference between South-North and East-West is the first time to be raised and quantitatively supported by a large dataset. We believe our findings on the interplay of human mobility and social ties offer a new perspective to this field of study.

  13. Social Ties and Cognitive Recovery after Stroke: Does Social Integration Promote Cognitive Resilience?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Maria Glymour; Jennifer Weuve; Martha E. Fay; Thomas Glass; Lisa F. Berkman

    2008-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Little is known about the possible effects of social resources on stroke survivors’ level and change in cognitive outcomes. Understanding this association may help us identify strategies to improve stroke recovery and help elucidate the etiology of dementia. Methods: We examined the relationship of social ties and social support to cognitive function and cognitive change 6 months after stroke.

  14. Complex Singular Points of the Tie-Line Vector Field Diagrams of Ternary Mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Serafimov; T. V. Chelyuskina

    2005-01-01

    Complex singular points of the tie-line vector field diagrams of liquid-vapor ternary systems are considered in terms of the theory of stationary vector fields and bifurcation theory. These complex singular points are found to be tangential azeotropic points of different orders, which play a decisive role in transformations of the diagrams of heterogeneous mixtures.

  15. Positive Cross-Regulatory Loop Ties GATA-3 to Estrogen Receptor A Expression in Breast Cancer

    E-print Network

    Brown, Myles

    Positive Cross-Regulatory Loop Ties GATA-3 to Estrogen Receptor A Expression in Breast Cancer Je Abstract The transcription factor GATA-3 is required for normal mammary gland development, and its, the functional role of GATA-3 in ERA- positive breast cancers is yet to be established. Here, we show that GATA-3

  16. On Facebook, Most Ties are Weak The emergence of pervasive socio-technical networks brings new

    E-print Network

    Ferrara, Emilio

    On Facebook, Most Ties are Weak Abstract The emergence of pervasive socio-technical networks brings's theory can be extended to online social networks like Facebook, suggesting to use interaction data requires knowledge of the topology of the social network, e.g., who is friend with whom on Facebook. Our

  17. Tying the Yellow Ribbon: How School Psychologists and Educators Can Support Military Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anweiler, Justin

    2008-01-01

    Tying a yellow ribbon around the tree in one's front yard or placing a magnet on one's car is more than just a show of support. It is a promise to American military around the world that one is ready and able to support them in their time of need just as they have supported the country. Educators, including school psychologists, are especially…

  18. The Role of Offspring and In-Laws in Grandparents' Ties to Their Grandchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingerman, Karen L.

    2004-01-01

    Prior research has considered the influence of the middle generation on ties between grandparents and grandchildren but has not differentiated between gender of parent and kinship to grandparent (e.g., daughter vs. daughter-in-law and son vs. son-in-law). Eighty-six grandparents provided information about the qualities of their relationships with…

  19. Local search for stable marriage problems with ties and incomplete lists

    E-print Network

    Rossi, Francesca

    Local search for stable marriage problems with ties and incomplete lists M. Gelain1 , M. S. Pini1`a di Padova, Italy E-mail: {mgelain,mpini,frossi,kvenable}@math.unipd.it 2 NICTA and UNSW Sydney, Australia, Email: Toby.Walsh@nicta.com.au Abstract. The stable marriage problem has a wide variety

  20. Geometric effects in designing bow-tie nanoantenna for optical resonance investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wu Yu-Ming; Li Le-Wei; Liu Bo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an investigation on the topic of the bow-tie nanoantenna for optical application is carried out. Based on the broad band calculations in the visible and near infrared range of the optical spectrum implemented through the finite integration technique, we focus our study on such nanoantenna's near-field optical properties. It is found that characterized by surface plasmon resonance,

  1. Heart Defects in Gulf Tuna Seen Tied to 2010 BP Oil Spill

    E-print Network

    Grosell, Martin

    Heart Defects in Gulf Tuna Seen Tied to 2010 BP Oil Spill By Jim Efstathiou Jr. Mar 25, 2014 12 exposed tuna larvae raised in land-based hatcheries to oil collected at the time of the spill:00 AM ET Photographer: Gerard Soury Atlantic Bluefin Tuna. Crude oil from BP Plc (BP/)'s 2010 Gulf

  2. Tying and Freebie in Two-Sided Markets Preliminary and Incomplete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Amelioand; Bruno Jullieny

    In two-sided markets where platforms are constrained to set non- negative prices, we study the eect of tying and of pure bundling. Bundling can be deployed by platforms as a tool to introduce im- plicit subsidies on one side of the market in order to solve the usual coordination failure in two sided market framework. A multi-product monopoly platform uses

  3. Chesapeake Bay Land Margin Ecosystem Research (LMER): Trophic Interactions in Estuarine Systems (TIES)

    E-print Network

    investigates factors regulating secondary production in distinctive regions of the land-sea interface using patches. 2001 Accomplishments In FY2001 we collaborated with other TIES researchers to compile and analyze into a collaboration and analysis phase of the project, so communications among investigators have intensified

  4. A Smart Machine Vision System for PCB Inspection Tie Qi Chen1

    E-print Network

    Lu, Yi

    A Smart Machine Vision System for PCB Inspection Tie Qi Chen1 , JianXin Zhang1 , YouNing Zhou2 board (PCB) inspection. It has advantages over the traditional manual inspection by its higher of a PCB board. The OLI module runs on-line to inspect PCB boards using a high-resolution 2-D sensor

  5. The Attributional Responses of Young Female Athletes after Winning, Tying, and Losing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Tara K.; Passer, Michael W.

    1980-01-01

    This study examined the attributions of female athletes for their personal and their team's performance after winning, tying, and losing a competitive soccer game. Players' attributions were made to the internal factors of ability and effort and to the external factors of opponent difficulty and luck. (Authors/CJ)

  6. Place of Origin, Types of Ties, and Support Networks in Mexico-U.S. Migration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores-Yeffal, Nadia Y.; Aysa-Lastra, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies explored how urban or rural place of origin influences the source of social capital. There remains a need to consider how the place of origin affects the type of ties--family, friends, or "paisanos" (countrymen)--with those who provide support to migrants. We use data from the Mexican Migration Project (MMP128) and perform…

  7. The relationship between modes of governance and relational tie in new product development relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ebrahim Teimoury; Mehdi Fesharaki; Afshar Bazyar

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to examine the impact of trust, norm of information sharing, and vertical control on relational ties in new product development (NPD) relationships. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Survey research was conducted to collect data from 112 NPD relationships and structural equation modeling was conducted to test the hypotheses. Findings – The results suggest that trust and norms of

  8. Technology Network Ties: Network Services and Technology Programs for New York State's Educational System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of Elementary and Secondary Education Planning, Testing, and Technological Services.

    The New York State Technology Network Ties (TNT) systems is a statewide telecommunications network which consists of computers, telephone lines, and telecommunications hardware and software. This network links school districts, Boards of Cooperative Educational Services (BOCES), libraries, other educational institutions, and the State Education…

  9. Guilt by Association: United States Ties and Vulnerability to Transnational Terrorist Attacks 

    E-print Network

    Warhol, Matthew Grant

    2011-02-22

    arena to force the more powerful nation to change its policy stance. Focusing on the United States, I examine how a nation's economic and foreign policy ties to the U.S. affect its vulnerability to transnational terrorist attacks. I test my expectations...

  10. Magnetoconductance at tunnel junction contacts with disordered granular materials Monique Tie b

    E-print Network

    Niewczas, Marek

    Magnetoconductance at tunnel junction contacts with disordered granular materials Monique Tie b Magnetoresistance Magnetoconductance reflectionless tunneling Electronic transport Layer-by-layer self at tunnel junction contacts with disordered nor- mal (DN) materials. We use self-assembled 1,4-butanedithiol

  11. Language of the People Forever: Bay Mills Spins Thread Tying Ojibwa Communities Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    Why would anyone want to spend thousands of hours away from home and pay hundreds of dollars in tuition to acquire one of the world's most difficult languages? For Anishinaabe people, that is an easy question to answer. The Ojibwe language is the thread that ties communities together and unites all Anishinaabe as one people sharing a common…

  12. Season and Bedding Impacts on Ammonia Emissions from Tie-stall Dairy Barns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Casler USDA-ARS

    Federal and state regulations are being promulgated under the Clean Air Act to reduce hazardous air emissions from livestock operations. Few data are available on emissions from livestock facilities in the USA and the management practices that may minimize emissions. Th e objective of this study was to measure seasonal and bedding impacts on ammonia emissions from tie- stall dairy

  13. Innovation search of new ventures in a technology cluster: the role of ties with service intermediaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Zhang; Haiyang Li

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we examine the relationships between new ventures' ties with service intermediaries (i.e., technology service firms, accounting and financial service firms, law firms, and talent search firms) and their product innovation in the context of a technology cluster. Because service intermediaries sit at the intersection of many firms, organizations and industries, they maintain extensive networks in a cluster.

  14. Effects of line-tying on magnetohydrodynamic instabilities and current sheet formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Min Huang; A. Bhattacharjee; Ellen G. Zweibel

    2010-01-01

    An overview of some recent progress on magnetohydrodynamic stability and current sheet formation in a line-tied system is given. Key results on the linear stability of the ideal internal kink mode and resistive tearing mode are summarized. For nonlinear problems, a counterexample to the recent demonstration of current sheet formation by Low and Janse [Astrophys. J. 696, 821 (2009)] is

  15. Interchange instability with line-tying and finite Larmor radius effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Riordan; C. W. Hartman

    1977-01-01

    Interchange instabilities in collisionless low-beta plasmas bounded by sheaths of finite conductance are investigated. The results of the study may have bearing on the interchange instabilities observed in a partially line-tied plasma at mode numbers which should have been stabilized by finite Larmor radius effects. In particular, if the external plasma density is a significant fraction of the confined density,

  16. The influence of line-tying on coronal perturbations in a gravitationally stratified equilibrium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. M. VAN DER LINDEN; A. W. Hood; J. P. Goedbloed

    1994-01-01

    We study the influence of gravitational stratification of the solar atmosphere on the stability of coronal magnetic structures. In particular we question whether the (presumably stabilizing) influence of the anchoring of the magnetic field lines in the solar photosphere (‘line-tying’) can be adequately modelled by either ‘rigid wall’ or ‘flow-through’ boundary conditions on the coronal perturbations, as is commonly done.

  17. Line tying of interchange modes in a nearly collisionless mirror-trapped plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guy Vandegrift

    1989-01-01

    If the confining potential of electrostatically trapped electrons fluctuates, then the number of trapped electrons also fluctuates. The linear relationship between potential fluctuations and the number of trapped electrons is investigated, considering two loss mechanisms for a nearly collisionless plasma: (1) small-angle collisions (diffusion), and (2) large-angle collisions. This nearly collisionless model predicts the line tying of interchange modes in

  18. Effects of line-tied boundary conditions on internal current-driven kink mode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Mirnov; C. B. Forest; C. C. Hegna

    2006-01-01

    MHD kink instabilities caused by current passing though high temperature plasma in magnetic field is a topic of importance to astrophysical and lab plasmas. Recent theoretical study of external kink mode stability in line-tied geometry[1] has shown the existence of complex axial wave numbers kz in spatial spectrum of the system. Similar to the external kink mode complex kz were

  19. MHD stability of high-beta tokamak equilibria with pedestal and line-tying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Lee; M.-S. Chu

    1984-01-01

    A high-beta circular tokamak equilibrium with a large pressure gradient near the plasma edge is examined with respect to magnetohydrodynamic stability including external kink, tearing, and ballooning modes with and without line-tying effects. As the edge pressure gradient increases, the linear growth rate decreases and the mode spectrum broadens with the perturbation increasingly localized near the edge.

  20. m=1 ideal kink modes in a line-tied screw pinch with finite plasma pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Svidzinski, V. A.; Li, H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Mirnov, V. V. [Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    A new method for computing ideal magnetohydrodynamic linear eigenmodes in a cylindrical screw pinch with line-tying boundary conditions at the axial ends is presented. In this method, plasma volume is reflected over one of the end planes, and equations and field components are continued into the extended volume with the continuation rules prescribed by the line-tying boundary conditions. Field components in the combined volume are expanded in Fourier series in the axial coordinate. The resulting set of coupled differential equations is solved numerically in the radial coordinate by a finite difference method yielding growth rates and eigenmodes for the system. An example of an m=1 (m is the poloidal wave number) internal kink instability in a force-free plasma equilibrium with uniform pressure is considered. In contrast to a periodic screw pinch, marginally stable perturbations are essentially compressible in the line-tied geometry. Finite compressibility makes the mode more stable in addition to the usual line-tying stabilization in zero pressure plasma. The critical length corresponding to the marginal stability increases with the increase of plasma beta. A universal axial dependence for marginally stable density perturbations {rho}(r,z)={rho}(r)exp[-iz{mu}(r)] is predicted analytically and confirmed numerically, where {mu}(r) depends on the equilibrium magnetic field components as {mu}(r)=B{sub {theta}}/rB{sub z}.

  1. Comments on the MHD stability of coronal plasmas with line-tying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C.-H. An

    1984-01-01

    The effect of line-tying in the photosphere on the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability of coronal loops has been investigated by a number of authors. The author comments on the various boundary conditions, plasma displacement functions, and other assumptions used by a number of investigators. Then he studies kink instabilities in cylindrical plasmas. The results are very different from those of a

  2. Current sheet formation due to nonlinear kink modes in periodic and line-tied configurations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Lionello; Dalton D. Schnack; Giorgio Einaudi; Marco Velli

    1998-01-01

    The full magnetohydrodynamic evolution of kink instabilities in cylindrical geometry is computed. The equilibria investigated serve as generic models of coronal loops. The effects of both periodic and line-tying boundary conditions at the axial ends of the cylinder are compared and contrasted. The net axial current, which is distributed internally to the loop, can be varied from case to case.

  3. The influence of line-tying on coronal perturbations in a gravitationally stratified equilibrium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. M. van der Linden; A. W. Hood; J. P. Goedbloed

    1994-01-01

    We study the influence of gravitational stratification of the solar atmosphere on the stability of coronal magnetic structures. In particular we question whether the (presumably stabilizing) influence of the anchoring of the magnetic field lines in the solar photosphere ('line-tying') can be adequately modeled by either 'rigid wall' or 'flow through' boundary conditions on the coronal perturbations, as is commonly

  4. Free boundary n = 1 magnetohydrodynamic modes in spheromaks with line tying

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, J.; Reiman, A.

    1981-11-01

    Wall stabilization of the free boundary n = 1 magnetohydrodynamic modes of the spheromak has been studied numerically. Line tying of the open field lines has been found to improve stability dramatically. The dependence of stability on separatrix shape and current profile has also been determined.

  5. Amygdala Subregions Tied to SSRI and Placebo Response in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder

    E-print Network

    Amygdala Subregions Tied to SSRI and Placebo Response in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder Hospital and Quintiles AB Phase I Services, Uppsala, Sweden The amygdala is a key structure reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and placebo seem to induce anxiolytic effects by attenuating amygdala

  6. Kinship, the biological tie, and infertility: Factors that affect the willingness to adopt a child

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Scott Bausch

    1993-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model that explains an individual's willingness to adopt a child. Several factors are explored as possible determinants of willingness to adopt, including the importance of the biological tie in family relationships, the presence of pronatalist beliefs, attitudes toward adoptive parenthood as inferior to biological parenthood, and definitions of infertility

  7. Undervoltage relay settings for the tie-lines tripping in an upgrading cogeneration plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng-Ting Hsu

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the modification of under-voltage relays to trip tie lines of an industrial customer when a new cogeneration unit and two main transformers are installed. First, system configuration and operation condition of the cogeneration facility are introduced. To examine the dynamic responses of the cogeneration system during the fault contingencies, the mathematical models of the cogeneration units, excitation

  8. Low Birth Weight Tied to Higher Type 2 Diabetes Risk Decades Later

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Article URL of this page: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_153692.html Low Birth Weight Tied to Higher Type 2 Diabetes Risk Decades Later Risk was even greater ...

  9. State parameters interconnections of power system including a high frequency synchronous generator with an asynchonous tie

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Filyaev

    2008-01-01

    The last progresses in power mechanical engineering and power electronics had permitted to construct gas turbine power units (GTPU) with high frequency synchronous generators (HFSG) and static frequency converters (SFC) operating as asynchronous tie (AT). Such GTPU has a number of advantages over conventional one: 1) does not have a reduction gear between turbine and generator shafts; 2) gives an

  10. Finite element analyses of continuous filament ties for masonry applications:final report for the Arquin Corporation.

    SciTech Connect

    Quinones, Armando (Arquin Corporation, La Luz, NM); Bibeau, Tiffany A.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2006-06-01

    Finite-element analyses were performed to simulate the response of a hypothetical masonry shear wall with and without continuous filament ties to various lateral loads. The loads represented three different scenarios: (1) 100 mph wind, (2) explosive attack, and (3) an earthquake. In addition, a static loading analysis and cost comparison were performed to evaluate optimal materials and designs for the spacers affixed to the filaments. Results showed that polypropylene, ABS, and polyethylene (high density) were suitable materials for the spacers based on performance and cost, and the short T-spacer design was optimal based on its performance and functionality. Results of the shear-wall loading simulations revealed that simulated walls with the continuous filament ties yielded factors of safety that were at least ten times greater than those without the ties. In the explosive attack simulation (100 psi), the simulated wall without the ties failed (minimum factor of safety was less than one), but the simulated wall with the ties yielded a minimum factor of safety greater than one. Simulations of the walls subject to lateral loads caused by 100 mph winds (0.2 psi) and seismic events with a peak ground acceleration of 1 ''g'' (0.66 psi) yielded no failures with or without the ties. Simulations of wall displacement during the seismic scenarios showed that the wall with the ties resulted in a maximum displacement that was 20% less than the wall without the ties.

  11. TIE Climate, Water and Carbon Annual Report Year 1 (July 1,2006 through May 31,2007)

    E-print Network

    Howat, Ian M.

    of the TIE capability has materialized. This will tap in nicely to the initiatives in super-computing indicators of an abruptly changing climate that is happening now because of drastic perturbationsTIE Climate, Water and Carbon Annual Report Year 1 (July 1,2006 through May 31,2007) Submitted by

  12. Repulsive interaction of N eel walls, and the internal length scale of the cross{tie wall

    E-print Network

    Otto, Felix

    Repulsive interaction of N#19;eel walls, and the internal length scale of the cross{tie wall;eel walls and cross{tie walls are two structures commonly seen in ferro- magnetic thin #12;lms studies (a) the repulsive interaction of one{dimensional N#19;eel walls; and (b) the inter- nal length

  13. Design and Construction of an Array of Vertically Oriented Bow-Tie Antennas for a New Generation of Radio Telescopes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Arts; A. B. Smolders

    1999-01-01

    In this paper an array of vertically oriented bow-tie antennas is described. This array is part of the One Square Meter Array (OSMA): A demonstrator phased array system (receive only) with mixed RF and digital beamforming. OSMA consists of 64 active vertical bow-tie elements surrounded by 80 dummy (passive) elements. The scan performance of the array was measured and simulated.

  14. An archaeological survey of the Proposed Natural Gas Pipeline Location Tie-in in Orange County, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Moore, William

    2015-06-16

    AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE PROPOSED NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LOCATION TIE-IN IN ORANGE COUNTY, TEXAS By William E. Moore Brazos Valley Research Associates Contract Report Number 82... 2001 AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE PROPOSED NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LOCATION TIE-IN IN ORANGE COUNTY, TEXAS BVRA Project Number 01-17 Principal Investigator William E. Moore Prepared by Brazos...

  15. Effects of tied ridges and mulch on barley ( Hordeum vulgare) rainwater use efficiency and production in Northern Ethiopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Araya; L. Stroosnijder

    2010-01-01

    Two alternative in situ area rainwater conservation practices (tied ridging and mulching) were evaluated for four seasons (2004, 2007, 2008 and 2009) at an experimental station in Mekelle, Ethiopia. The objectives were to evaluate the performance of barley as influenced by mulch and tied ridge and to understand the relationships of rainfall and runoff on barley fields. About 16–30% of

  16. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOEpatents

    Buckles, Robert A. (Livermore, CA); Booth, Rex (Livermore, CA); Yen, Boris T. (El Cerrito, CA)

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  17. Patterns of transmission investment

    E-print Network

    Joskow, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines a number of issues associated with alternative analytical approaches for evaluating investments in electricity transmission infrastructure and alternative institutional arrangements to govern network ...

  18. Contextualizing nativity status, social ties, and ethnic enclaves: Implications for understanding immigrant and Latino health paradoxes

    PubMed Central

    Viruell-Fuentes, Edna A.; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.; Williams, David R.; House, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Researchers have posited that one potential explanation for the better-than-expected health outcomes observed among some Latino immigrants, vis-à-vis their U.S.-born counterparts, may be the strength of their social ties and social support among immigrants. Methods We examined the association between nativity status and social ties using data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study’s Latino subsample, which includes Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and other Latinos. First, we used Ordinary Least Squares [OLS] regression methods to model the effect of nativity status on five outcomes: informal social integration; social network diversity; network size; instrumental support; and informational support. Using multilevel mixed effects regression models, we estimated the association between Latino/immigrant neighborhood composition on our outcomes, and whether these relationships varied by nativity status. Lastly, we examined the relationship between social ties and immigrants’ length of time in the United States. Results After controlling for individual-level characteristics, immigrant Latinos had significantly lower levels of social ties than their U.S.-born counterparts for all our outcomes, except for informational support. Latino/immigrant neighborhood composition was positively associated with being socially integrated and having larger and more diverse social networks. The associations between two of our outcomes (informal social integration and network size) and living in a neighborhood with greater concentrations of Latinos and immigrants were stronger for U.S.-born Latinos than for immigrant Latinos. U.S.-born Latinos maintained a significant socialties advantage compared to immigrants—regardless of length of time in the United States—for informal social integration, network diversity, and network size. Conclusion At the individual level, our findings challenge the assumption that Latino immigrants would have larger networks and/or higher levels of support and social integration than their U.S.-born counterparts. Our study underscores the importance of understanding the contexts that promote the development of social ties. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding Latino and immigrant social ties and health outcomes. PMID:23947776

  19. Passenger car transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book is organized under the following headings. The Mercedes-Benz 5-speed automatic transmission targets and comparison of concepts. 1991 model year Chrysler mini-van all wheel drive vehicle. Mesh stiffness and transmission error of spur and helical gears. High precision cutting tool system for the manufacture of world class powertrain components.

  20. Transmission Modulator/demodulator --

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sheng

    ELEC3028 Digital Transmission -- MODEM S Chen Revision of Lecture 3 . Modulator -- Carrier recovery and timing recovery This lecture: bits map # symbols MODEM components pulse shaping Tx several bits into a symbol? 40 #12; ELEC3028 Digital Transmission -- MODEM S Chen Bits to Symbols

  1. Transmission line: design manual

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farr

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to outline the various requirements for, and the procedures to be followed in the design of power transmission lines by the Bureau of Reclamation, US Department of the Interior. Numerous design studies, which have been made on specific aspects of transmission line design, are included with explanations of their applications. Information is presented concerning

  2. Nonlinear magnetoinductive transmission lines

    E-print Network

    Lazarides, Nikos; Tsironis, G P

    2011-01-01

    Power transmission in one-dimensional nonlinear magnetic metamaterials driven at one end is investigated numerically and analytically in a wide frequency range. The nonlinear magnetic metamaterials are composed of varactor-loaded split-ring resonators which are coupled magnetically through their mutual inductances, forming thus a magnetoiductive transmission line. In the linear limit, significant power transmission along the array only appears for frequencies inside the linear magnetoinductive wave band. We present analytical, closed form solutions for the magnetoinductive waves transmitting the power in this regime, and their discrete frequency dispersion. When nonlinearity is important, more frequency bands with significant power transmission along the array may appear. In the equivalent circuit picture, the nonlinear magnetoiductive transmission line driven at one end by a relatively weak electromotive force, can be modeled by coupled resistive-inductive-capacitive (RLC) circuits with voltage-dependent cap...

  3. Automatic transmission control method

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.; Ishiguro, T.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes a method of controlling an automatic transmission of an automotive vehicle. The transmission has a gear train which includes a brake for establishing a first lowest speed of the transmission, the brake acting directly on a ring gear which meshes with a pinion, the pinion meshing with a sun gear in a planetary gear train, the ring gear connected with an output member, the sun gear being engageable and disengageable with an input member of the transmission by means of a clutch. The method comprises the steps of: detecting that a shift position of the automatic transmission has been shifted to a neutral range; thereafter introducing hydraulic pressure to the brake if present vehicle velocity is below a predetermined value, whereby the brake is engaged to establish the first lowest speed; and exhausting hydraulic pressure from the brake if present vehicle velocity is higher than a predetermined value, whereby the brake is disengaged.

  4. Religious and Non-religious Activity Engagement as Assets in Promoting Social Ties Throughout University: The Role of Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Semplonius, Thalia; Good, Marie; Willoughby, Teena

    2015-08-01

    Emerging adulthood is a time of many changes. For example, one change that occurs for a subset of emerging adults is leaving home and starting university. Importantly, the creation of social ties can aid in promoting positive adjustment during university. This study investigated whether involvement in religious activities promotes social ties among university students directly and/or indirectly through emotion regulation. Importantly, involvement in religious activities may promote self-regulatory skills, and the ability to effectively regulate emotions can aid in navigating social interactions. To rule out potentially important confounding variables, spirituality and involvement in non-religious clubs were statistically controlled in all analyses. The participants included 1,132 university students (70.5 % female) from a university in Ontario, Canada who were surveyed each year over a period of 3 years. The results indicated that involvement in religious activities indirectly predicted more social ties over time through emotion regulation. Spirituality did not predict social ties or emotion regulation. Furthermore, non-religious clubs directly predicted more social ties over time. Thus, although involvement in religious and non-religious activities both predicted more social ties in a university setting over time, the mechanism by which these activities promote social ties differed. PMID:25323829

  5. Rural-to-urban migrant adolescents in Guangzhou, China: psychological health, victimization, and local and trans-local ties.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Nicole W T

    2013-09-01

    Despite the emerging literature on the health of rural-to-urban migrant children in China, few studies have addressed victimization stressors and stress-buffering mechanisms related to the social relationships that link migrants to their host cities (local ties) and home communities (trans-local ties). This study compared rural-to-urban migrant adolescents and urban native adolescents to examine the relationships between victimization, local and trans-local ties, and mental well-being that might be unique to migrants. Participants were 482 migrant students and 838 urban native students in the eighth grade in Guangzhou who completed a school-based survey in spring 2011. Victimization was associated with suboptimal psychological health in both the migrant and urban native samples. Social ties directly boosted psychological health in both samples, with the effects of trans-local and local ties proving equally important among migrant adolescents. While both local and trans-local ties moderated the effect of victimization on migrant adolescents, that moderation mattered less for urban native youth. These results highlight that a better understanding of victimization stress and how it is affected by the locality of social ties as a coping resource could help to protect the health of young migrants in urban China. PMID:23906129

  6. Selection based on the size of the black tie of the great tit may be reversed in urban habitats

    PubMed Central

    Senar, Juan Carlos; Conroy, Michael J; Quesada, Javier; Mateos-Gonzalez, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    A standard approach to model how selection shapes phenotypic traits is the analysis of capture–recapture data relating trait variation to survival. Divergent selection, however, has never been analyzed by the capture–recapture approach. Most reported examples of differences between urban and nonurban animals reflect behavioral plasticity rather than divergent selection. The aim of this paper was to use a capture–recapture approach to test the hypothesis that divergent selection can also drive local adaptation in urban habitats. We focused on the size of the black breast stripe (i.e., tie width) of the great tit (Parus major), a sexual ornament used in mate choice. Urban great tits display smaller tie sizes than forest birds. Because tie size is mostly genetically determined, it could potentially respond to selection. We analyzed capture/recapture data of male great tits in Barcelona city (N = 171) and in a nearby (7 km) forest (N = 324) from 1992 to 2008 using MARK. When modelling recapture rate, we found it to be strongly influenced by tie width, so that both for urban and forest habitats, birds with smaller ties were more trap-shy and more cautious than their larger tied counterparts. When modelling survival, we found that survival prospects in forest great tits increased the larger their tie width (i.e., directional positive selection), but the reverse was found for urban birds, with individuals displaying smaller ties showing higher survival (i.e., directional negative selection). As melanin-based tie size seems to be related to personality, and both are heritable, results may be explained by cautious personalities being favored in urban environments. More importantly, our results show that divergent selection can be an important mechanism in local adaptation to urban habitats and that capture–recapture is a powerful tool to test it. PMID:25077014

  7. Selection based on the size of the black tie of the great tit may be reversed in urban habitats.

    PubMed

    Senar, Juan Carlos; Conroy, Michael J; Quesada, Javier; Mateos-Gonzalez, Fernando

    2014-07-01

    A standard approach to model how selection shapes phenotypic traits is the analysis of capture-recapture data relating trait variation to survival. Divergent selection, however, has never been analyzed by the capture-recapture approach. Most reported examples of differences between urban and nonurban animals reflect behavioral plasticity rather than divergent selection. The aim of this paper was to use a capture-recapture approach to test the hypothesis that divergent selection can also drive local adaptation in urban habitats. We focused on the size of the black breast stripe (i.e., tie width) of the great tit (Parus major), a sexual ornament used in mate choice. Urban great tits display smaller tie sizes than forest birds. Because tie size is mostly genetically determined, it could potentially respond to selection. We analyzed capture/recapture data of male great tits in Barcelona city (N = 171) and in a nearby (7 km) forest (N = 324) from 1992 to 2008 using MARK. When modelling recapture rate, we found it to be strongly influenced by tie width, so that both for urban and forest habitats, birds with smaller ties were more trap-shy and more cautious than their larger tied counterparts. When modelling survival, we found that survival prospects in forest great tits increased the larger their tie width (i.e., directional positive selection), but the reverse was found for urban birds, with individuals displaying smaller ties showing higher survival (i.e., directional negative selection). As melanin-based tie size seems to be related to personality, and both are heritable, results may be explained by cautious personalities being favored in urban environments. More importantly, our results show that divergent selection can be an important mechanism in local adaptation to urban habitats and that capture-recapture is a powerful tool to test it. PMID:25077014

  8. Interplay of network dynamics and heterogeneity of ties on spreading dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreri, Luca; Bajardi, Paolo; Giacobini, Mario; Perazzo, Silvia; Venturino, Ezio

    2014-07-01

    The structure of a network dramatically affects the spreading phenomena unfolding upon it. The contact distribution of the nodes has long been recognized as the key ingredient in influencing the outbreak events. However, limited knowledge is currently available on the role of the weight of the edges on the persistence of a pathogen. At the same time, recent works showed a strong influence of temporal network dynamics on disease spreading. In this work we provide an analytical understanding, corroborated by numerical simulations, about the conditions for infected stable state in weighted networks. In particular, we reveal the role of heterogeneity of edge weights and of the dynamic assignment of weights on the ties in the network in driving the spread of the epidemic. In this context we show that when weights are dynamically assigned to ties in the network, a heterogeneous distribution is able to hamper the diffusion of the disease, contrary to what happens when weights are fixed in time.

  9. Birds of a feather or strange birds? Ties among personality dimensions, similarity, and marital quality.

    PubMed

    Gattis, Krista S; Berns, Sara; Simpson, Lorelei E; Christensen, Andrew

    2004-12-01

    The authors examined the relationship between 6 personality dimensions (Big Five personality factors and positive expressivity) and marital satisfaction in 132 distressed, treatment-seeking couples and 48 nondistressed couples. This study's focus on personality similarity in distressed couples, a population of interest to researchers and clinicians, is unique. Results suggest that higher neuroticism, lower agreeableness, lower conscientiousness, and less positive expressivity are tied to marital dissatisfaction. However, low overall levels of partner similarity were found on these variables. Furthermore, partner similarity on these variables did not independently predict relationship satisfaction. This suggests that nonpathological variations in these personality dimensions do not contribute to satisfaction, and that similarity between partners' personalities may not be closely tied to marital happiness. PMID:15598162

  10. Utility-scale grid-tied PV inverter reliability workshop summary report.

    SciTech Connect

    Granata, Jennifer E.; Quintana, Michael A.; Tasca, Coryne Adelle (SRA International, Inc., Fairfax, VA); Atcitty, Stanley

    2011-07-01

    A key to the long-term success of the photovoltaic (PV) industry is confidence in the reliability of PV systems. Inverters are the most commonly noted cause of PV system incidents triggered in the field. While not all of these incidents are reliability-related or even necessarily failures, they still result in a loss of generated power. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technologies Program, Sandia National Laboratories organized a Utility-Scale Grid-Tied Inverter Reliability Workshop in Albuquerque, New Mexico, January 27-28, 2011. The workshop addressed the reliability of large (100-kilowatt+) grid-tied inverters and the implications when such inverters fail, evaluated inverter codes and standards, and provided discussion about opportunities to enhance inverter reliability. This report summarizes discussions and presentations from the workshop and identifies opportunities for future efforts.

  11. Effects of line tying on resistive tearing instability in slab geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Yimin [Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas and Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Zweibel, Ellen G. [Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas and Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    The effects of line tying on resistive tearing instability in slab geometry are studied within the framework of reduced magnetohydrodynamics [B. B. Kadomtsev and O. P. Pogutse, Sov. Phys. JETP 38, 283 (1974); H. R. Strauss, Phys. Fluids 19, 134 (1976)]. It is found that line tying has a stabilizing effect. The tearing mode is stabilized when the system length L is shorter than a critical length L{sub c}, which is independent of the resistivity {eta}. When L is not too much longer than L{sub c}, the growth rate {gamma} is proportional to {eta}. When L is sufficiently long, the tearing mode scaling {gamma}{approx}{eta}{sup 3/5} is recovered. The transition from {gamma}{approx}{eta} to {gamma}{approx}{eta}{sup 3/5} occurs at a transition length L{sub t}{approx}{eta}{sup -2/5}.

  12. Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, S.; Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2010-07-01

    This report describes transmission cost allocation methodologies for transmission projects developed to maintain or enhance reliability, to interconnect new generators, or to access new resources and enhance competitive bulk power markets, otherwise known as economic transmission projects.

  13. Current Driven Rotating Kink Mode in a Plasma Column with Non-Line-Tied Free End

    SciTech Connect

    Furno, I; Intrator, T P; Ryutov, D D; Abbate, S; Madziwa-Nussinov, T; Light, A; Dorf, L; Lapenta, G

    2006-03-28

    First experimental measurements are presented for the kink instability in a linear plasma column which is insulated from an axial boundary by finite sheath resistivity. Instability threshold below the classical Kruskal-Shafranov threshold, axially asymmetric mode structure and rotation are observed. These are accurately reproduced by a recent kink theory, which includes axial plasma flow and one end of the plasma column that is free to move due to a non-line-tied boundary condition.

  14. Novel compact bow-tie slot antennas for ultra-wideband applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liang Zhou; Shaobin Liu; Yu Chen

    2010-01-01

    The increase of mobile applications requires antennas ever smaller in form factor. In this paper, three kinds of bow-tie slot antennas have been proposed for ultra-wide band (UWB) applications in the 3.1-10.6 GHz band including full-size, half-size and half-size antennas with a band notch. The half-size antenna with dimensions of 30×29 mm2 is proposed by halving the full-size symmetrical antenna.

  15. Double-sided printed bow-tie antenna for UWB communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsuki Kiminami; Akimasa Hirata; Toshiyuki Shiozawa

    2004-01-01

    This letter proposes a double-sided printed bow-tie antenna for ultra wide band (UWB) applications. The frequency band considered is 3.1-10.6 GHz, which has been approved by the Federal Communications Commission as a commercial UWB band. The proposed antenna has a return loss less than 10 dB, phase linearity, and gain flatness over the above frequency band.

  16. Bow-tie optical antenna probes for single-emitter scanning near-field optical microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Javad N. Farahani; Hans-Jürgen Eisler; Dieter W. Pohl; Michaël Pavius; Philippe Flückiger; Philippe Gasser; Bert Hecht

    2007-01-01

    A method for the fabrication of bow-tie optical antennas at the apex of pyramidal Si3N4 atomic force microscopy tips is described. We demonstrate that these novel optical probes are capable of sub-wavelength imaging of single quantum dots at room temperature. The enhanced and confined optical near-field at the antenna feed gap leads to locally enhanced photoluminescence (PL) of single quantum

  17. Time-resolved magnetization dynamics of cross-tie domain walls in permalloy microstructures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Miguel; J. Sánchez-Barriga; D. Bayer; J. Kurde; B. Heitkamp; M. Piantek; F. Kronast; M. Aeschlimann; H. A. Dürr; W. Kuch

    2009-01-01

    We report on a picosecond time-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroic-photoelectron emission microscopy study of the evolution of the magnetization components of a microstructured permalloy platelet comprising three cross-tie domain walls. A laser-excited photoswitch has been used to apply a triangular 80 Oe, 160 ps magnetic pulse. Micromagnetic calculations agree well with the experimental results, both in time and frequency, illustrating

  18. Tying and Freebies in Two-Sided Markets Preliminary and Incomplete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Amelio; Bruno Jullien

    In two-sided markets where platforms are constrained to set non- negative prices, we study the eect of tying and pure bundling. Bundling can be deployed by platforms as a tool to introduce implicit subsidies on one side of the market in order to solve the usual coordination failure in a two-sided market framework. A multi-product monopoly platform uses bundles to

  19. Examining the Conditional Limits of Relational Governance: Specialized Assets, Performance Ambiguity, and Long-Standing Ties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Poppo; Kevin Zheng Zhou; Todd R. Zenger

    2008-01-01

    abstract? Despite recognition of the benefits of relational governance in inter-organizational exchanges, factors that may erode its value have received little examination. We extend the literature by asking whether self-interested opportunities and long-standing ties erode the positive association between relational governance and performance. Consistent with transaction cost and moral hazard logics, exchange hazards, particularly asset specificity and difficult performance measurement,

  20. Pharmacophore modeling studies of type I and type II kinase inhibitors of Tie2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing-Qing Xie; Huan-Zhang Xie; Ji-Xia Ren; Lin-Li Li; Sheng-Yong Yang

    2009-01-01

    In this study, chemical feature based pharmacophore models of type I and type II kinase inhibitors of Tie2 have been developed with the aid of HipHop and HypoRefine modules within Catalyst program package. The best HipHop pharmacophore model Hypo1_I for type I kinase inhibitors contains one hydrogen-bond acceptor, one hydrogen-bond donor, one general hydrophobic, one hydrophobic aromatic, and one ring

  1. La función semiótica del protagonista en El extensionista y Eles Não Usam Black-Tie

    E-print Network

    Bissett, Judith I.

    1989-04-01

    SPRING 1989 95 La función semiótica del protagonista en El extensionista y Eles Não Usam Black-tie Judith Ishmael Bissett El teatro comprometido tiene por objeto hacer que el público reciba un mensaje presentado a través de la reproducción... dramática de aspectos de la realidad-aspectos seleccionados por su significado político o social. Es decir, el teatro comprometido no sólo crea mundos posibles que se refieren al mundo real sino que también examina problemas reales y trata de indicar, de...

  2. Note: auto-relock system for a bow-tie cavity for second harmonic generation.

    PubMed

    Haze, Shinsuke; Hata, Sousuke; Fujinaga, Munekazu; Mukaiyama, Takashi

    2013-02-01

    This Note reports on the implementation of an automatic relocking system for a bow-tie cavity for second harmonic generation to produce an ultra-violet laser source. The system is based on a sample-and-hold technique for controlling the cavity length using simple servo electronics. Long-term stabilization of the cavity output power is successfully achieved, which makes this system suitable for designing stable atomic physics experiments. PMID:23464273

  3. Line-tying of interchange modes in a hot electron plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Gerver, M.J.; Lane, B.G.

    1986-07-01

    The dispersion relation of low-frequency (..omega..<<..omega../sub c/i) electrostatic flute-like interchange modes in a mirror cell with a fraction ..cap alpha.. of hot bi-Maxwellian electrons, with bulk line-tying to cold (nonemitting) end walls, has been solved using a slab model and the local approximation. In the absence of line-tying, hot-electron interchange modes are never completely stabilized (in contrast to the conventional theory (Phys. Fluids 9, 820 (1966); Phys. Fluids 19, 1255 (1976)), which assumes monoenergetic hot electrons and has little relevance to real plasmas). In the presence of line-tying, hot-electron interchange modes are more effectively stabilized than magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) interchange modes, because (1) the line-tying is enhanced by a factor of (..omega../..nu../sub e/)/sup 1//sup ///sup 2/ when the wave frequency ..omega.. is greater than the cold-electron collision frequency ..nu../sub e/; and (2) hot-electron interchange modes can be completely stabilized, rather than merely having their growth rates reduced, if there is a spread of hot-electron-curvature drift velocities. Predictions of the minimum ..cap alpha.. needed for instability and of the first azimuthal mode number m to go unstable, and of the scaling of these quantities with neutral gas pressure, are in good quantitative agreement with observations of hot-electron interchange instabilities in the Tara tendem mirror experiment (Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 30, 1581 (1985)), provided a correction is made for the fact that the modes in Tara are not flute-like, but should have higher amplitudes in the plug than in the central cell.

  4. Internal Current-Driven Kink Modes in Line Tied Screw Pinch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Mirnov

    2005-01-01

    In recent theoretical studies of external kink mode stability in line-tied geometry, a current channel was assumed to be isolated from a cylindrical conducting wall by a vacuum gap [1,2]. In a more general model [3], the current channel was surrounded by a low density external plasma yielding the no-wall marginal stability condition qb =1 where b is the radius

  5. Ion confinement in a simple mirror stabilized by surface line tying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy N. Good; Harold R. Thompson; Nathan Rynn

    1988-01-01

    Experiments were conducted using a barium plasma in a simple axisymmetric mirror machine that was stabilized against the magnetic curvature-driven interchange mode by surface line tying. Ion cyclotron resonance heating was applied to heat ions, producing a mirror-trapped ion population. The ion-velocity distribution function was diagnosed nonperturbatively by using laser-induced fluorescence techniques. The rf heated distribution was a non-Maxwellian in

  6. m=1 ideal internal kink modes in a line-tied screw pinch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Min Huang; Ellen G. Zweibel; Carl R. Sovinec

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that the radial displacement of the m=1 internal kink mode in a periodic screw pinch has a steep jump at the resonant surface where k.B=0 [Rosenbluth, Dagazian, and Rutherford, Phys. Fluids 16, 1894 (1973)]. In a line-tied system, relevant to solar and astrophysical plasmas, the resonant surface is no longer a valid concept. It is then

  7. m=1 ideal internal kink modes in a line-tied screw pinch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Min Huang; Ellen G. Zweibel; Carl R. Sovinec

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that the radial displacement of the m=1 internal kink mode in a periodic screw pinch has a steep jump at the resonant surface where k?B=0 [Rosenbluth, Dagazian, and Rutherford, Phys. Fluids 16, 1894 (1973)]. In a line-tied system, relevant to solar and astrophysical plasmas, the resonant surface is no longer a valid concept. It is then

  8. Partial line-tying of the flute mode in a magnetic mirror

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guy Vandegrift; Timothy N. Good

    1986-01-01

    The amount of electron emission required to partially line-tie the m=1 flute mode is measured on an axisymmetric mirror-confined plasma. The results are consistent with an ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) calculation with a sheath dissipation term added. The minimum electron emission required is approximately the ion saturation current. The sheath impedance is also calculated for the case when the electron emission

  9. IM Golf ~ Sept. 26, 2010 PSU WHITE COURSE *** TIE for FIRST broken by matching score cards. ***

    E-print Network

    Yener, Aylin

    30 254 8 Tommy Davis F Sigma Nu 6 5 8 7 3 5 4 4 4 5 5 4 6 5 5 5 5 5 91 31 249 6 tie Michael Muir F Runyan F Delta Upsilon 6 7 7 7 5 7 5 6 5 7 6 4 7 3 5 4 6 8 105 44 319 15 Alex Costello F Alpha Chi Rho 7

  10. Automatic Tie Point Extraction using the OEEPE\\/ISPRS Test Data - The Swissphoto Investigations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Kersten; Silvio Haering

    1998-01-01

    In this report we present the investigations and results from Swissphoto Vermessung AG for the OEEPE\\/ISPRS test on performance of tie point extraction in automatic aerial triangulation. For this test all six test data sets which were de- livered by the pilot centre were processed on a digital photogrammetric workstation DPW670 (Mono-station) of LH Systems using the software package HATS

  11. Finite element analyses of continuous filament ties for masonry applications : final report for the Arquin Corporation.

    SciTech Connect

    Quinones, Armando, Sr. (Arquin Corporation, La Luz, NM); Bibeau, Tiffany A.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2008-08-01

    Finite-element analyses were performed to simulate the response of a hypothetical vertical masonry wall subject to different lateral loads with and without continuous horizontal filament ties laid between rows of concrete blocks. A static loading analysis and cost comparison were also performed to evaluate optimal materials and designs for the spacers affixed to the filaments. Results showed that polypropylene, ABS, and polyethylene (high density) were suitable materials for the spacers based on performance and cost, and the short T-spacer design was optimal based on its performance and functionality. Simulations of vertical walls subject to static loads representing 100 mph winds (0.2 psi) and a seismic event (0.66 psi) showed that the simulated walls performed similarly and adequately when subject to these loads with and without the ties. Additional simulations and tests are required to assess the performance of actual walls with and without the ties under greater loads and more realistic conditions (e.g., cracks, non-linear response).

  12. Stories of Change: TieVie - The Support Service for Finnish Universities Toward the Information Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kairamo, Anna-Kaarina; Sinko, Matti

    In this article, the authors discuss and evaluate the TieVie capacity building project for Finnish universities in a larger historical context of strategic developments in the use of information and communications technology (ICT) in learning. The TieVie project was a support service project for the Finnish Virtual University (FVU) which offered training in the educational use of ICT to the staff of Finnish universities in 2001-2008. It was financed by the Ministry of Education as part of the Virtual University project funding till the end of 2006. During 2007-2008, the program was fee-funded. The project was designed and implemented by the educational development support service units of five universities: Universities of Oulu, Turku, Jyväskylä, and Helsinki, and Helsinki University of Technology. The TieVie project was launched on the basis of the need to strengthen the e-Learning skills and expertise among Finnish university staff. This need was recognized in the national strategy for education, training, and research in the information society outlined by the Ministry of Education in 2000.

  13. Mesoscopic analysis of online social networks: The role of negative ties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmailian, Pouya; Abtahi, Seyed Ebrahim; Jalili, Mahdi

    2014-10-01

    A class of networks are those with both positive and negative links. In this manuscript, we studied the interplay between positive and negative ties on mesoscopic level of these networks, i.e., their community structure. A community is considered as a tightly interconnected group of actors; therefore, it does not borrow any assumption from balance theory and merely uses the well-known assumption in the community detection literature. We found that if one detects the communities based on only positive relations (by ignoring the negative ones), the majority of negative relations are already placed between the communities. In other words, negative ties do not have a major role in community formation of signed networks. Moreover, regarding the internal negative ties, we proved that most unbalanced communities are maximally balanced, and hence they cannot be partitioned into k nonempty sub-clusters with higher balancedness (k ?2 ). Furthermore, we showed that although the mediator triad ++- (hostile-mediator-hostile) is underrepresented, it constitutes a considerable portion of triadic relations among communities. Hence, mediator triads should not be ignored by community detection and clustering algorithms. As a result, if one uses a clustering algorithm that operates merely based on social balance, mesoscopic structure of signed networks significantly remains hidden.

  14. The Tie2-agonist Vasculotide rescues mice from influenza virus infection.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Michael G; Armstrong, Susan M; Wang, Changsen; Hwang, David; Leong-Poi, Howard; Advani, Andrew; Advani, Suzanne; Zhang, Haibo; Szaszi, Katalin; Tabuchi, Arata; Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Van Slyke, Paul; Dumont, Dan J; Lee, Warren L

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal influenza virus infections cause hundreds of thousands of deaths annually while viral mutation raises the threat of a novel pandemic strain. Antiviral drugs exhibit limited efficacy unless administered early and may induce viral resistance. Thus, targeting the host response directly has been proposed as a novel therapeutic strategy with the added potential benefit of not eliciting viral resistance. Severe influenza virus infections are complicated by respiratory failure due to the development of lung microvascular leak and acute lung injury. We hypothesized that enhancing lung endothelial barrier integrity could improve the outcome. Here we demonstrate that the Tie2-agonist tetrameric peptide Vasculotide improves survival in murine models of severe influenza, even if administered as late as 72?hours after infection; the benefit was observed using three strains of the virus and two strains of mice. The effect required Tie2, was independent of viral replication and did not impair lung neutrophil recruitment. Administration of the drug decreased lung edema, arterial hypoxemia and lung endothelial apoptosis; importantly, Vasculotide is inexpensive to produce, is chemically stable and is unrelated to any Tie2 ligands. Thus, Vasculotide may represent a novel and practical therapy for severe infections with influenza. PMID:26046800

  15. The development of a tongue assessment tool to assist with tongue-tie identification

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Jenny; Johnson, Debbie; Copeland, Marion; Churchill, Cathy; Taylor, Hazel; Emond, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Aim To produce a simple tool with good transferability to provide a consistent assessment of tongue appearance and function in infants with tongue-tie. Methods The Bristol Tongue Assessment Tool (BTAT) was developed based on clinical practice and with reference to the Hazelbaker Assessment Tool for Lingual Frenulum Function (ATLFF). This paper documents 224 tongue assessments using the BTAT. There were 126 tongue assessments recorded using the BTAT and ATLFF tools to facilitate comparisons between them. Paired BTAT assessments were obtained from eight midwives who were using the new assessment tool. Results There was acceptable internal reliability for the four-item BTAT (Cronbach's ?=0.708) and the eight midwives who used it showed good correlation in the consistency of its use (ICC=0.760). The BTAT showed a strong and significant correlation (0.89) with the ATLFF, indicating that the simpler BTAT could be used in place of the more detailed assessment tool to score the extent of a tongue-tie. Midwives found it quick and easy to use and felt that it would be easy to teach to others. Conclusions The BTAT provides an objective, clear and simple measure of the severity of a tongue-tie, to inform selection of infants for frenotomy and to monitor the effect of the procedure. PMID:25877288

  16. The Tie2-agonist Vasculotide rescues mice from influenza virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Michael G.; Armstrong, Susan M.; Wang, Changsen; Hwang, David; Leong-Poi, Howard; Advani, Andrew; Advani, Suzanne; Zhang, Haibo; Szaszi, Katalin; Tabuchi, Arata; Kuebler, Wolfgang M.; Van Slyke, Paul; Dumont, Dan J.; Lee, Warren L.

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal influenza virus infections cause hundreds of thousands of deaths annually while viral mutation raises the threat of a novel pandemic strain. Antiviral drugs exhibit limited efficacy unless administered early and may induce viral resistance. Thus, targeting the host response directly has been proposed as a novel therapeutic strategy with the added potential benefit of not eliciting viral resistance. Severe influenza virus infections are complicated by respiratory failure due to the development of lung microvascular leak and acute lung injury. We hypothesized that enhancing lung endothelial barrier integrity could improve the outcome. Here we demonstrate that the Tie2-agonist tetrameric peptide Vasculotide improves survival in murine models of severe influenza, even if administered as late as 72?hours after infection; the benefit was observed using three strains of the virus and two strains of mice. The effect required Tie2, was independent of viral replication and did not impair lung neutrophil recruitment. Administration of the drug decreased lung edema, arterial hypoxemia and lung endothelial apoptosis; importantly, Vasculotide is inexpensive to produce, is chemically stable and is unrelated to any Tie2 ligands. Thus, Vasculotide may represent a novel and practical therapy for severe infections with influenza. PMID:26046800

  17. Marital status, family ties, and self-rated health among elders in South India.

    PubMed

    Sudha, S; Suchindran, Chirayath; Mutran, Elizabeth J; Rajan, S Irudaya; Sarma, P Sankara

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the impact of familial social support ties (indicated by marital status, kin availability, sources of economic support, and frequency and quality of emotional interaction) on subjective health perception among a sample of elderly men and women aged 60 and older in South India. We used 1993 survey data from three states of South India: Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka. We hypothesized that (a) widowhood would be associated with poorer self-rated health, (b) number of kin ties would be positively associated with self-rated health, (c) economic and emotional support from kin would improve outcomes, and (d) these associations would be stronger among women than among men. Results of logistic regression techniques supported the first hypothesis and partially supported the third. With regard to the second hypothesis, the presence of specific kin rather than the number of each type of family member was important. For the fourth hypothesis, results suggest that men and women in this sample have broadly similar associations between widowhood and self-rated health. For women however, controlling for socioeconomic status did not weaken the association between widowhood and self-rated health, suggesting the symbolic/cultural importance of this status. In general, these findings suggest that theories on the importance of marital status and kin ties for older adults' self-rated health, which were developed and tested in Western societies, need to be refined for Asian societies, where the nature of marriage and widowhood are different. PMID:17242992

  18. Slowing heterosexual HIV transmission.

    PubMed

    Ronald, A R

    1995-06-01

    HIV-1 is spreading rapidly through heterosexual intercourse in many societies. Slowing the transmission of this virus is the most urgent global public health priority. Our understanding of the biologic differences between societies that account for most vacancies in heterosexual HIV transmission are now understood. Effective interventions to slow transmission must be designed, implemented, and evaluated. Human and fiscal resources must be provided through a shared global effort. The consequences of failing to do so will lead to a world catastrophe of unprecedented magnitude. PMID:7673667

  19. Broken Ties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Katti

    2009-01-01

    As the number of people choosing to marry has plunged during recent decades, the tally of children living with one parent and having limited or no contact with the other has soared. Attuned to the hazards that such separations impose upon children but also upon parents who, studies show, fare physically and emotionally better in a thriving…

  20. Design of a Glenn Research Center Solar Field Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) designed, developed, and installed, a 37.5 kW DC photovoltaic (PV) Solar Field in the GRC West Area in the 1970s for the purpose of testing PV panels for various space and terrestrial applications. The PV panels are arranged to provide a nominal 120 VDC. The GRC Solar Field has been extremely successful in meeting its mission. The PV panels and the supporting electrical systems are all near their end of life. GRC has designed a 72 kW DC grid-tied PV power system to replace the existing GRC West Area Solar Field. The 72 kW DC grid-tied PV power system will provide DC solar power for GRC PV testing applications, and provide AC facility power for all times that research power is not required. A grid-tied system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility for use by all. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners. GRC personnel glean valuable experience with PV power systems that are directly applicable to various space power systems, and provide valuable space program test data. PV power systems help to reduce harmful emissions and reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels. Power generated by the PV system reduces the GRC utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Present global energy concerns reinforce the need for the development of alternative energy systems. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics has been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. The report concludes that the GRC West Area grid-tied PV power system design is viable for a reliable, maintenance free, long life power system that is of significant value to NASA and the community.

  1. Dairy cows welfare quality in tie-stall housing system with or without access to exercise

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tie-stall housing of dairy cows is used extensively worldwide, despite of the welfare concerns regarding the restriction of voluntary movement and limitation of expression of the cows’ natural behaviour. The aim of this study was to compare the welfare quality of dairy cows kept in two types of tie-stall housing systems: with regular outdoor exercise and without access to exercise. In addition, the study investigated the relationship between different welfare measures of dairy cows kept in tie-stalls. Methods 3,192 lactating cows were assessed using the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for cattle in 80 commercial dairy farms, half of the farms providing outdoor access for the animals to exercise. The descriptive statistical indicators were determined for the assessed measures and for the welfare criteria and principle scores. The data obtained in the two housing types were compared and the correlation coefficients were calculated between the different welfare measures. Results The significant differences found between the two housing systems for the majority of the animal based measures indicate the positive effect of exercise on the welfare of tethered cows. Many of the animal welfare parameters correlated with each other. For the farms allowing the cows’ turnout in a paddock, pasture or both, the mean scores for the welfare criteria and principles were higher than for the farms with permanent tethering of the cows, except the criteria absence of prolonged hunger and expression of social behaviours. The lowest scores were obtained for the criterion positive emotional state, in both housing systems. With regard to the overall classification, none of the farms were considered excellent. In the not classified category were only farms with all-year-round tethering of the animals and in the enhanced category only farms where the cows had outdoor access. Conclusions The welfare quality of the investigated dairy cows was significantly better in the tie-stall farms which allow exercise for cows (paddocks, pasture or both) than in those which do not. In the light of our results we consider that dairy cattle welfare is not necessarily poor in tie-stall housing systems, its quality depending on the management practices. PMID:23724804

  2. STAT1 activation by venous malformations mutant Tie2-R849W antagonizes VEGF-A-mediated angiogenic response partly via reduced bFGF production.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Hsien; Wu, Ming-Ping; Pan, Shin-Chen; Su, Wu-Chou; Chen, Yi-Wen; Wu, Li-Wha

    2013-01-01

    A missense mutation from arginine to tryptophan at residue 849 in the kinase domain of Tie2 (Tie2-R849W) is commonly identified in familial venous malformations. The mechanistic action of Tie2-R849W variant expression on angiogenic cascades including smooth muscle cell recruitment, however, remains elusive. To avoid confounding factors from endogenous Tie2 expression, Tie2-depleted endothelial cells (ECs) were used to study the effects of ectopic shRNA-resistant Tie2 variant expression, Tie2-WT* and Tie2-R849W*, on vascular cell proliferation, migration, tube formation, and smooth muscle cell (SMC) recruitment. Tie2-R849W* induced STAT1 phosphorylation at Tyr701. Tie2-R849W*-expressing cells had reduced ability to migrate and form tubes on Matrigel than their wildtype counterparts. STAT1 phosphorylation attenuated VEGF-A-induced STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation in Tie2-R849W*-expressing HUVECs. The induced STAT1 activation also decreased VEGF-A-induced bFGF mRNA expression by competing with activated STAT3 for a direct binding to the consensus STAT-binding site at positions -997 to -989 bp from transcription start site in the bFGF promoter. Depleting STAT1 expression rescued the inability of Tie2-R849W expression to mediate angiogenesis. Moreover, bFGF neutralization or constitutive STAT1 activation, reminiscence of Tie2-R849W* expression, suppressed the smooth muscle cell recruiting ability of endothelial conditioned medium. This work reveals an anti-angiogenic role of STAT1 activation that acts in Tie2-R849W-expressing ECs to impair VEGF-A-mediated STAT3 signaling, bFGF production, and smooth muscle cell recruitment. A balancing activity of STAT1 and STAT3 may be important for Tie2-mediated vascular homeostasis. PMID:23086340

  3. Transmission of Flu (Influenza)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Flu (Influenza) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Transmission How Flu Spreads Coughing and Sneezing People with flu can ...

  4. Designing electricity transmission auctions

    E-print Network

    Greve, Thomas; Pollitt, Michael G.

    2012-10-26

    The UK has ambitious plans for exploiting offshore wind for electricity production in order to meet its challenging target under the EU Renewable Energy Directive. This could involve investing up to 20bn in transmission assets to bring electricity...

  5. Dodder transmission of phytoplasmas.

    PubMed

    P?ibylová, Jaroslava; Spak, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Transmission of phytoplasmas from naturally infected plant host species using the parasitic plant Cuscuta spp. (dodder) to Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle) is an effective way to maintain a wide range of phytoplasmas for further research. Here, we describe transmission via dodder from an infected medicinal plant Rehmannia glutinosa var. purpurea and from a symptomatic redcurrant plant (Ribes spp.) to C. roseus indicator plants using a "stable bridges" method. In both cases, typical symptoms of phytoplasma disease on periwinkle plants were obtained: virescent flowers with an increased number of axillary shoots and smaller leaves after transmission from R. glutinosa, and greening petals (virescence) after transmission from Ribes spp. Phytoplasmas could be detected in donor and recipient plants by electron microscopy and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays using universal phytoplasma primer pairs. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of PCR fragments can also be used to confirm the identity of the phytoplasmas from donor and recipient plants. PMID:22987404

  6. Chickenpox (Varicella): Transmission

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Manual Manual Appendices References & Resources Multimedia Related Links Medline Plus Healthfinder.gov Shingles Transmission Language: English Español ( ... Related Pages Chickenpox Signs and Symptoms Related Links Medline Plus Healthfinder.gov Shingles Language: English Español (Spanish) ...

  7. Diffuse Source Transmissibility Upscaling

    E-print Network

    Nunna, Krishna Chaitanya

    2014-10-03

    applicable. Historically, our upscaling algorithms have relied upon steady state concepts of flow, which are no longer applicable to unconventional reservoirs. In the current study, a novel diffuse source transmissibility upscaling approach is described...

  8. Transmission of Mumps

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Resources MMWR Articles Outbreak Articles Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Transmission of Mumps Language: English Español ( ... Put Your Hands Together (3:48) Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats ...

  9. National transmission grid study

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, Spencer

    2003-05-31

    The National Energy Policy Plan directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a study to examine the benefits of establishing a national electricity transmission grid and to identify transmission bottlenecks and measures to address them. DOE began by conducting an independent analysis of U.S. electricity markets and identifying transmission system bottlenecks using DOE’s Policy Office Electricity Modeling System (POEMS). DOE’s analysis, presented in Section 2, confirms the central role of the nation’s transmission system in lowering costs to consumers through increased trade. More importantly, DOE’s analysis also confirms the results of previous studies, which show that transmission bottlenecks and related transmission system market practices are adding hundreds of millions of dollars to consumers’ electricity bills each year. A more detailed technical overview of the use of POEMS is provided in Appendix A. DOE led an extensive, open, public input process and heard a wide range of comments and recommendations that have all been considered.1 More than 150 participants registered for three public workshops held in Detroit, MI (September 24, 2001); Atlanta, GA (September 26, 2001); and Phoenix, AZ (September 28, 2001).

  10. Isolation of Angiopoietin-1, a Ligand for the TIE2 Receptor, by Secretion-Trap Expression Cloning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel Davis; Thomas H Aldrich; Pamela F Jones; Ann Acheson; Debra L Compton; Vivek Jain; Terence E Ryan; Joanne Bruno; Czeslaw Radziejewski; Peter C Maisonpierre; George D Yancopoulos

    1996-01-01

    TIE2 is a receptor-like tyrosine kinase expressed almost exclusively in endothelial cells and early hemopoietic cells and required for the normal development of vascular structures during embryogenesis. We report the identification of a secreted ligand for TIE2, termed Angiopoietin-1, using a novel expression cloning technique that involves intracellular trapping and detection of the ligand in COS cells. The structure of

  11. Generation of strut-and-tie models by topology design using different material properties in tension and compression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariano Victoria; Osvaldo M. Querin; Pascual Martí

    2011-01-01

    The Strut-and-Tie Method is considered a basic tool for analysis and design of reinforced concrete structures and has been\\u000a incorporated in different codes of practice such as: EC-2, BS 8110, ACI 318-08, EHE-08, etc. The stress trajectories or load\\u000a path methods have been used to generate strut-and-tie models. However, the models produced by these methods are not unique,\\u000a with the

  12. Small passenger car transmission test: Dodge Omni A-404 transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid eighty percent range for both drive performance test and coast performance tests.

  13. Insect vector transmission assays.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Domenico; Tedeschi, Rosemarie

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are transmitted in a persistent propagative manner by phloem-feeding vectors belonging to the order Hemiptera, suborder Homoptera. Following acquisition from the infected source plant, there is a latent period before the vector can transmit, so transmission assays consist of three basic steps: acquisition, latency, and inoculation. More than 90 vector species (plant-, leafhoppers, and psyllids) have been discovered so far but many others are still undiscovered, and their role in spreading economically important crop diseases is neglected. Therefore, screening for vectors is an essential step in developing rational control strategies targeted against the actual vectors for phytoplasma-associated diseases. The mere detection of a phytoplasma in an insect does not imply that the insect is a vector; a transmission assay is required to provide conclusive evidence. Transmission experiments can be carried out using insects from phytoplasma-free laboratory colonies or field-collections. Moreover, transmission assays can be performed by feeding vectors on an artificial diet through Parafilm(®), after which phytoplasmas can be detected in the sucrose feeding medium by PCR. Transmission trials involve the use of different techniques according to the biology of the different vector species; planthoppers, leafhoppers, and psyllids. PMID:22987407

  14. Tension in the tie-down chains of a shipping container for hazardous material

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, T.Y.

    1995-03-17

    Chains are frequently used to tie the shipping containers of hazardous material to a truck bed. The tie-down system is nonlinear when the container is subjected to a triaxial force during transit. It is nonlinear because chains cannot carry compressive force, and the base of the container may partially lift off from the truck bed. A method was developed to calculate the amount of tension in the chains. This methodology includes three assumptions: (1) No friction exists between the container and the truck bed; (2) The container and the truck bed are rigid; and (3) All chains are properly tightened (i.e., no slacks) during preparation for shipment. The methodology employs an iterative process of a linear tie-down system. This linear system is derived from the nonlinear system with two additional assumptions: (a) All chains can carry compression as well as tension; and (b) There is a point contact between the container and the truck bed. This linear system has a closed-form solution. After the first solution of the linear system is obtained, the unreasonable, or physically impossible, rotational degree of freedom of the container and the chains with compressive force are eliminated in the follow-up iterative calculations using the same linear system. Unreasonable rotation is detected when the results indicate a rotation of the container into the truck bed. Zero rotational value is assigned to this degree of freedom in the follow-up iterations. For chains under compression, the chain length is replaced with a fictitiously large value because a long chain carries essentially no load. This process usually needs only two or three iterations and can easily be carried out in a spread sheet using such programs as Microsoft Excel or LOTUS 123.

  15. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Ikezi, H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; DeGrassie, J.S.

    1991-08-27

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other. 5 figures.

  16. Observation of resistive and ferritic wall modes in a line-tied pinch.

    PubMed

    Bergerson, W F; Hannum, D A; Hegna, C C; Kendrick, R D; Sarff, J S; Forest, C B

    2008-12-01

    The resistive wall mode is experimentally identified and characterized in a line-tied, cylindrical screw pinch when the edge safety factor is less than a critical value. Different wall materials have been used to change the wall time and show that the growth rates for the RWM scale with wall time and safety factor as expected by theory. The addition of a ferritic wall material outside the conducting shell leads to growth rates larger than the observed RWM and larger than theoretical predictions for the ferritic wall mode. PMID:19113564

  17. Link Prediction and the Role of Stronger Ties in Networks of Face-to-Face Proximity

    E-print Network

    Scholz, Christoph; Stumme, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the structures why links are formed is an important and prominent research topic. In this paper, we therefore consider the link prediction problem in face-to-face contact networks, and analyze the predictability of new and recurring links. Furthermore, we study additional influence factors, and the role of stronger ties in these networks. Specifically, we compare neighborhood-based and path-based network proximity measures in a threshold-based analysis for capturing temporal dynamics. The results and insights of the analysis are a first step onto predictability applications for human contact networks, for example, for improving recommendations.

  18. Millimeter-wave near-field imaging with bow-tie antennas.

    PubMed

    Omarouayache, Rachid; Payet, Pierre; Raoult, Jérémy; Chusseau, Laurent

    2015-05-01

    A near-field reflectometry experiment operating at 60 GHz is built in view of material and circuit inspection. Experiments are always obtained in constant height mode of operation. The bow-tie near-field probe acts mostly as a linearly-polarized electric dipole and allows strongly subwavelength resolution of ? ?/130. Its interaction with sample is shown polarization dependent and sensitive to both the local topography and the local dielectric constant or metal conductivity. Resonant and non-resonant probes are both evaluated. PMID:25969302

  19. kV Beam Model for Flat Panel Imaging System with Bow Tie Filter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Blessing; M. Bhagwat; Y. Lyatskaya; J. Bellon; P. Zygmanski

    \\u000a Purpose: Kilovoltage flat-panel imaging systems are used for cone-beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) and digital Tomosynthesis\\u000a (DTS). Hereby, the presence of scatter and relatively large dose from imaging are challenging factors. In this project a phenomenological\\u000a beam model was developed to characterize imager response to imaging beams with a bow tie filter (Varian OBI system).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Method: The kilovoltage beam

  20. Near-field enhanced ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy using aluminum bow-tie nano-antenna

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling; Fang Lim, Shuang; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Riehn, Robert; Hallen, H. D.

    2012-01-01

    An aluminum bow-tie nano-antenna is combined with the resonance Raman effect in the deep ultraviolet to dramatically increase the sensitivity of Raman spectra to a small volume of material, such as benzene used here. We further demonstrate gradient-field Raman peaks for several strong infrared modes. We achieve a gain of ?105 in signal intensity from the near field enhancement due to the surface plasmon resonance in the aluminum nanostructure. The on-line resonance enhancement contributes another factor of several thousands, limited by the laser line width. Thus, an overall gain of hundreds of million is achieved. PMID:23066168

  1. Modification of the macroscopic stability of a tandem mirror by partial line-tying

    SciTech Connect

    Molvik, A.W.; Breun, R.A.; Golovato, S.N.; Hershkowitz, N.; McVey, B.; Post, R.S.; Smatlak, D.; Yujiri, L.

    1984-11-01

    Increased stability is observed during experiments with gun injection in the Phaedrus tandem mirror. This is manifested by three effects. First, a magnetic mirror cell with bad average curvature, adjacent to a plasma gun, confines plasma with betas up to 20%. Second, the central cell, also with bad curvature, is stable at betas up to 20%, exceeding the minimum-B interchange stability limit by a factor of 20. Third, the quadrupole magnetic field required for interchange stability is reduced. These effects are shown to agree with a theory of line-tying stabilization, supplemented by minimum-B stabilization.

  2. Near-Field Enhanced UV Resonance Raman Spectroscopy Using Aluminum Bow-tie Nano-antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ling [North Carolina State University; Lim, Shuang Fang [North Carolina State University; Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Riehn, Robert [North Carolina State University; Hallen, Hans [North Carolina State University

    2012-01-01

    An aluminum bow-tie nano-antenna is combined with the resonance Raman eect in the deep ultraviolet to dramatically increase the sensitivity of Raman spectra to a small volume of material, such as benzene used here. We further demonstrate gradient-eld Raman peaks for several strong IR modes. We achieve a gain of 105 in signal intensity from the near eld enhancement due to the surface plasmon resonance in the aluminum nanostructure. The on-line resonance enhancement contributes another factor of several thousands, limited by the laser line width. Thus, an overall gain of hundreds of million is achieved.

  3. Static Dissipative Cable Ties, Such as for Radiation Belt Storm Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langley, Patrick T. (Inventor); Siddique, Fazle E. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods of cyclically heating and cooling an article formed of a static dissipative ETFE resin, such as to reduce an electrical resistivity and/or to increase a tensile strength of the article, and methods of irradiating an article formed of a static dissipative ETFE resin, such as to increase a tensile strength of the article. Also disclosed herein are articles formed of a static dissipative ETFE resin, and processed in accordance with methods disclosed herein. Such an article may include, for example and without limitation, a cable strap to wrap, support, and/or secure one or more wires or cables, such as a cable tie.

  4. Automotive transmission linkage system

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, F.Y.; Ardayfio, D.D.

    1990-10-02

    This patent describes a system for converting a manual multi-speed transmission to operate as an automatic-manual transmission, the system being disposed within a vehicle, the transmission having a conventional gearshift lever and a clutch pedal. It comprises: a gearshift position selection panel, the panel being located apart from the gearshift lever, the panel enabling a driver to select the desired gear position of the gearshift lever by manipulating the panel without the necessity of the driver handling the gearshift lever; a controller which transforms the gearshift selection of the driver to an output signal, the signal corresponding to the gearshift position selected by the driver; and actuating means for mechanically repositioning the gearshift lever automatically in accordance with the output signal.

  5. Transmissivity variations in mudstones.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Alan M; Kemp, Simon J; Davies, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    Many people in sub-Saharan Africa have to rely on meager water resources within mudstones for their only water supply. Although mudstones have been extensively researched for their low permeability behavior, little research has been undertaken to examine their ability to provide sustainable water supplies. To investigate the factors controlling the occurrence of usable ground water in mudstone environments, an area of Cretaceous mudstones in southeastern Nigeria was studied over a 3 yr period. Transmissivity (T) variations in a range of mudstone environments were studied. The investigations demonstrate that within the top 40 m of mudstones, transmissivity can be sufficient to develop village water supplies (T > 1 m2/d). Transmissivity is controlled by two factors: low-grade metamorphism and the presence of other, subordinate, lithologies within the mudstones. Largely unaltered mudstones (early diagenetic zone), comprising mainly smectite clays, are mostly unfractured and have a low T of < 0.1 m2/d. Mudstones that have undergone limited metamorphism (late diagenetic zone) comprise mixed layered illite/smectite clays, and ground water is found in widely spaced fracture zones (T > 1 m2/d in large fracture zones; T < 0.1 m2/d away from fracture zones). Mudstones that have been further altered and approach the anchizone comprise illite clays, are pervasively fractured, and have the highest transmissivity values (T > 4 m2/d). Dolerite intrusions in unaltered, smectitic mudstones are highly fractured with transmissivity in the range of 1 < T < 60 m2/d. Thin limestone and sandstone layers can also enhance transmissivity sufficiently to provide community water supplies. PMID:15819947

  6. Transmission line capital costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.

  7. [Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies].

    PubMed

    Vujosevi?, M

    1997-01-01

    The great interest for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, transmissible neurodegenerative diseases has been rapidly grown in the last 10 years, especially after their epidemic appearance in domestic and wild animals in Great Britain and the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy ("mad cow diseases") in England has provoked the increased interest in veterinary and medical researches. The opinion that prions are due to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies was accepted by Prusiner and al. 1982. Prions are defined as "Little infective pathogens, which contain protein and which are resistant to procedures which modify and hydrolyze nucleic acid". These diseases in animals and humans have a long incubation period and a long clinical course, and are always fatal. Neuropathological features consist of neuronal vacuolization, neuronal death and gliosis with hyperastrocytosis. Transmissible neurodegenerative diseases are transmissible, infectious and inherited diseases. The inflammatory syndrome, immunological reactions or interferon cannot be detected in the central nervous system. The precise diagnosis of transmissible neurodegenerative diseases can be established only by the examination of the central nervous system after biopsy or autopsy. During the last two years a new variation of Creutzfeld-Jakob disease was detected in England which is different from the classical Creutzfeld-Jakob diseases. The clinical course and the absence of EEG features are typical for Creutzfeld-Jakob disease, and neuropathological changes show extensive curu plaques in the cerebrum and the cerebellum. According to the latest researches it has been established that the abnormal PrP, PrPsc are the same or similar strains which cause the bovine spongiform encephalopathy and a new variation of Creutzfeld-Jakob disease, what is of great medical and epidemiological significance. PMID:9304238

  8. Freewheel flywheel transmission system

    SciTech Connect

    Molina, A.F.

    1986-08-19

    A freewheel flywheel transmission system is described comprising: a frame; shafts rotatively supported by the frame; flywheels mounted on each shaft; a power means mounted on the frame for providing rotational movement; transmission means for transmitting rotational movement when the power means is activated in succession from the power means to a first through a last shaft of the plurality of shafts and thereby to flywheels mounted on each shaft of the shafts; and a means for converting the rotational movement of shafts and the flywheels mounted on each of the shafts to electrical power.

  9. Quantum Anonymous Transmissions

    E-print Network

    Matthias Christandl; Stephanie Wehner

    2005-08-15

    We consider the problem of hiding sender and receiver of classical and quantum bits (qubits), even if all physical transmissions can be monitored. We present a quantum protocol for sending and receiving classical bits anonymously, which is completely traceless: it successfully prevents later reconstruction of the sender. We show that this is not possible classically. It appears that entangled quantum states are uniquely suited for traceless anonymous transmissions. We then extend this protocol to send and receive qubits anonymously. In the process we introduce a new primitive called anonymous entanglement, which may be useful in other contexts as well.

  10. The Response of Environmental Capacity for Malaria Transmission in West Africa to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamana, T. K.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    The climate of West Africa is characterized by north-south gradients in temperature and rainfall. Environmental capacity for malaria transmission (e.g. as measured by vectorial capacity) is strongly tied to these two variables; temperature affects the development rate of the malaria parasite, as well as the lifespan of the mosquitoes that transmit the disease, and rainfall is tied to mosquito abundance, as the vector lays its eggs in rain-fed water pools. A change in climate is therefore expected to lead to changes in the distribution of malaria transmission. Current general circulation models agree that the temperature in West Africa is expected to increase by several degrees in the next century. However they predict a wide range of possible rainfall scenarios in the future, from intense drying to significant increases in rainfall (Christensen et al., 2007). The effects these changes will have on environmental capacity for malaria transmission depend on the magnitude and direction of the changes, and on current conditions. For example, malaria transmission will be more sensitive to positive changes in rainfall in dry areas where mosquito populations are currently limited by water availability than in relatively wet areas. Here, we analyze combinations of changes in rainfall and temperature within the ranges predicted by GCMs, and assess the impact these combinations will have on the environmental capacity for malaria transmission. In particular, we identify climate change scenarios that are likely to have the greatest impact on environmental capacity for malaria transmission, as well as geographic "hot spots" where the greatest changes are to be expected. Christensen, J. H., Busuioc, A., & et al. (2007). Regional climate projections. In S. Solomon (Ed.), Climate change 2007: The physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

  11. Ground-state magnetic phase diagram of bow-tie graphene nanoflakes in external magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Sza?owski, Karol, E-mail: kszalowski@uni.lodz.pl, E-mail: kszalowski@wp.pl [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of ?ód?, ul. Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 ?ód? (Poland)

    2013-12-28

    The magnetic phase diagram of a ground state is studied theoretically for graphene nanoflakes of bow-tie shape and various sizes in external in-plane magnetic field. The tight-binding Hamiltonian supplemented with Hubbard term is used to model the electronic structure of the systems in question. The existence of the antiferromagnetic phase with magnetic moments localized at the sides of the bow-tie is found for low field and a field-induced spin-flip transition to ferromagnetic state is predicted to occur in charge-undoped structures. For small nanoflake doped with a single charge carrier, the low-field phase is ferrimagnetic and a metamagnetic transition to ferromagnetic ordering can be forced by the field. The critical field is found to decrease with increasing size of the nanoflake. The influence of diagonal and off-diagonal disorder on the mentioned magnetic properties is studied. The effect of off-diagonal disorder is found to be more important than that of diagonal disorder, leading to significantly widened distribution of critical fields for disordered population of nanoflakes.

  12. Quasi-separatrix layer diagnostics and electron force balance in line-tied systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billey, Zachary; Zweibel, Ellen; Finn, John; Daughton, William

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection plays a key role in processes such as coronal mass ejections, solar/stellar dynamics, planetary magnetospheres and accretion disk flares. Magnetic reconnection may be influenced by the line-tied boundary conditions in these systems. For example, magnetic field lines that enter and exit a stellar surface are fixed to the surface at the timescales which coronal magnetic reconnection events take place. In some systems, temperatures may be high enough and densities low enough that collisionless effects play the dominant role. Motivated by this, we investigate collisionless magnetic reconnection in line tied geometry with a series of fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulations of varying lengths. To understand the reconnection physics, we employ field line integrated reconnection diagnostics to examine the formation of quasi-separatrix layers and their association with the integrated parallel electric field. In addition, we examine the electron force balance along field lines to identify the nature of non-ideal behavior in the reconnection region and its connection to magnetic topology.

  13. Phase Diagram and Tie-Line Determination for the Ternary Mixture DOPC/eSM/Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Bezlyepkina, N.; Gracià, R.S.; Shchelokovskyy, P.; Lipowsky, R.; Dimova, R.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel, to our knowledge, method for the determination of tie lines in a phase diagram of ternary lipid mixtures. The method was applied to a system consisting of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), egg sphingomyelin (eSM), and cholesterol (Chol). The approach is based on electrofusion of single- or two-component homogeneous giant vesicles in the fluid phase and analyses of the domain areas of the fused vesicle. The electrofusion approach enables us to create three-component vesicles with precisely controlled composition, in contrast to conventional methods for giant vesicle formation. The tie lines determined in the two-liquid-phase coexistence region are found to be not parallel, suggesting that the dominant mechanism of lipid phase separation in this region changes with the membrane composition. We provide a phase diagram of the DOPC/eSM/Chol mixture and predict the location of the critical point. Finally, we evaluate the Gibbs free energy of transfer of individual lipid components from one phase to the other. PMID:23561522

  14. Use of a Barbed Suture Tie-Over Technique for Skin Graft Dressings: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Cormac W; Mahon, Nicola; Kelly, Jack L

    2015-01-01

    Background A tie-over dressing is the accepted method to secure skin grafts in order to prevent haematoma or seroma formation. We describe the novel application of a barbed suture tie-over for skin graft dressing. The barbs act as anchors in the skin so constant tensioning of the suture is not required. Methods From January 2014 to August 2014 we used the technique in 30 patients with skin defects requiring split-thickness or full-thickness grafts. Patient demographics, clinicopathological details and graft outcome were collected prospectively. Results The majority of cases were carried out for split-thickness skin grafts (n=19) used on the lower limb (n=20). The results of this novel technique were excellent with complete (100%) graft take in all patients. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the clinical application of a barbed device for securing skin grafts with excellent results. We find the technique quick to perform and the barbed device easy to handle, which can be applied without the need for an assistant. PMID:26015891

  15. Quasi-separatrix layers and three-dimensional reconnection diagnostics for line-tied tearing modes

    E-print Network

    Richardson, A S

    2011-01-01

    In three-dimensional magnetic configurations for a plasma in which no closed field line or magnetic null exists, no magnetic reconnection can occur, by the strictest definition of reconnection. A finitely long pinch with line-tied boundary conditions, in which all the magnetic field lines start at one end of the system and proceed to the opposite end, is an example of such a system. Nevertheless, for a long system of this type, the physical behavior in resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) essentially involves reconnection. This has been explained in terms comparing the geometric and tearing widths [1, 2]. The concept of a quasi-separatrix layer[3, 4] was developed for such systems. In this paper we study a model for a line-tied system in which the corresponding periodic system has an unstable tearing mode. We analyze this system in terms of two magnetic field line diagnostics, the squashing factor[3-5] and the electrostatic potential difference used in kinematic reconnection studies[6, 7]. We discuss the phys...

  16. Ground-state magnetic phase diagram of bow-tie graphene nanoflakes in external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sza?owski, Karol

    2013-12-01

    The magnetic phase diagram of a ground state is studied theoretically for graphene nanoflakes of bow-tie shape and various sizes in external in-plane magnetic field. The tight-binding Hamiltonian supplemented with Hubbard term is used to model the electronic structure of the systems in question. The existence of the antiferromagnetic phase with magnetic moments localized at the sides of the bow-tie is found for low field and a field-induced spin-flip transition to ferromagnetic state is predicted to occur in charge-undoped structures. For small nanoflake doped with a single charge carrier, the low-field phase is ferrimagnetic and a metamagnetic transition to ferromagnetic ordering can be forced by the field. The critical field is found to decrease with increasing size of the nanoflake. The influence of diagonal and off-diagonal disorder on the mentioned magnetic properties is studied. The effect of off-diagonal disorder is found to be more important than that of diagonal disorder, leading to significantly widened distribution of critical fields for disordered population of nanoflakes.

  17. Transmission Modulator/demodulator

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sheng

    ELEC3028 Digital Transmission -- MODEM S Chen Revision of Lecture 4 . We have discussed all basic components of MODEM -- Pulse shaping Tx/Rx filter pair -- Modulator/demodulator -- Bits map # symbols be compensated MODEM components pulse shaping Tx/Rx filter pair modulator/demodulator bits map # symbols

  18. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1997-03-25

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

  19. Ultradense bidirectional optical transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stojan Radic

    2001-01-01

    Present efforts towards construction of large capacity long-haul links are focused on either increase of channel data rate or a very dense channel plans. The latter is of particular interest since it enables spectrally efficient WDM links simply by multiplying the channel count of existing transmission lines. Unfortunately, very dense channel spacing necessarily leads to increased four-wave (FWM) mixing penalty.

  20. Transmission of gaseous hydrogen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G. Leeth

    1977-01-01

    For any hydrogen energy system, pipeline transport of gaseous hydrogen is clearly a major element. A summary is provided of the present status of hydrogen pipeline knowledge. Gas pipelines are considered along with aspects of gas pipeline dynamics, gas pipeline costs, hydrogen pipeline analyses, hydrogen pipeline safety, and hydrogen pipeline operating experience. It is found that the transmission of hydrogen

  1. Categories and Music Transmission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatien, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Lucy Green's (2008) "Music, Informal Learning, and the School: A New Classroom Pedagogy" gives rise to an interesting corollary. Does the manner of music's transmission inform one's understanding of a musical category? While categories of music can be difficult to define according to strict musical characteristics, a better understanding of…

  2. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1993-03-23

    A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  3. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M. (4675 W. 3825 S, Salt Lake City, UT 84120)

    1997-01-01

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

  4. Application of transmission reliability assessment in probabilistic planning of BC Hydro Vancouver South Metro system

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.; Mansour, Y.; Korczynski, J.K.; Mills, B.J. [BC Hydro, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Regional System Planning] [BC Hydro, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Regional System Planning

    1995-05-01

    This paper presents a basic method of probabilistic transmission planning used in BC Hydro. The method is based on transmission system reliability evaluation and an overall economic analysis including damage cost due to system unreliability. Four alternatives for the Vancouver South Metro system of BC Hydro have been evaluated using the method. The first one is addition of a 230 kV line, the second one local configuration changes (cuts and ties) in the 69 kV subsystem, the third one operational manipulation and the fourth one curtailable industrial load management. The third and the fourth alternatives can be considered as non-investment reinforcements. The results indicate that the cut-and-tie alternative in the 69 kv subsystem can provide the same reliability level as the 230 kV line addition but with much lower investment and therefore the initial 230 kV line addition could be deferred by 10 years. This deferral allows a major capital expenditure of $26.4 million (1997 $) to be avoided. The studies show that the application of quantitative transmission reliability assessment in power system planning can provide utilities with significant economic benefits.

  5. Small passenger car transmission test; Chevrolet LUV transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    A 1978 Chevrolet LUV manual transmission tested per the applicable portions of a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the upper ninety percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test (torque, speed, and efficiency curves) are presented. Graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Chevrolet LUV transmission.

  6. A GPS, VLBI and local tie inter-comparison: first results for the Australian AuScope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, G.; Titov, O.; Dawson, J. H.; Hu, G.

    2012-12-01

    AuScope is part of the Australian Government's National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) and has the objective of upgrading the accuracy of the terrestrial reference frame in Australia to 1 mm based on the development of new geodetic infrastructure which includes three new Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observatories and 100 Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations. Each of the AuScope VLBI observatories, located at Hobart, Yarragadee and Katherine, are equipped with a 12.1 metre antenna designed and constructed by COBHAM Satcom, Patriot Products division. In a preliminary multi-technique inter-comparison, GPS data have been analysed in the Bernese software and VLBI and local tie data have been analysed in the in-house developed software OCCAM and Axis, respectively. Our experiences and techniques for undertaking local tie surveys of the Patriot antennas are overviewed, and results of the GPS, VLBI and local tie inter-comparison are presented.

  7. Drive transmission means

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, M. R.

    1985-01-15

    This invention provides apparatus for use in a drive transmission system comprising a pump adapted to perform work on a medium and means repetitively and automatically to unload the pump. When connected with a flywheel driven by a prime mover an embodiment alternately performs work and then is unloaded to permit acceleration of the flywheel. In use in a driven transmission system there is provided a flywheel driven by an engine, a pump driven by the flywheel, powered by the pump, and means repetitively to unload the pump permitting the engine to accelerate the flywheel and compensation means to power the hydraulic motor while the pump is unloaded. The pump is preferably a rotary positive displacement pump having relief galleries eliminating the seal between pumping elements driving each cycle.

  8. Drill string transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Bradford, Kline (Orem, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2006-03-28

    A transmission line assembly for transmitting information along a downhole tool comprising a pin end, a box end, and a central bore traveling between the pin end and the box end, is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a protective conduit. A transmission line is routed through the protective conduit. The protective conduit is routed through the central bore and the ends of the protective conduit are routed through channels formed in the pin end and box end of the downhole tool. The protective conduit is elastically forced into a spiral or other non-linear path along the interior surface of the central bore by compressing the protective conduit to a length within the downhole tool shorter than the protective conduit.

  9. Patterns of Transmission Investment

    E-print Network

    Joskow, Paul

    2006-03-14

    at different network locations to achieve economic and reliability goals and supports the development of demand response options for wholesale and retail market participants. Electricity sector liberalization has not changed the physical constraints... for “economic” transmission investments. Reliability investments can have significant effects on current and forecast locational marginal prices (LMPs) for energy and operating reserves, can have significant effects on intra- TSO congestion and losses...

  10. Remanent transmission neutron polarizer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen Stahn; Daniel Clemens

    2002-01-01

    Our goal is to develop magnetically remanent neutron supermirrors using the material combinations Fe\\/Si and FeCo\\/Si. With these we plan to build compact neutron transmission polarizers and neutron polarizers which can be operated with their magnetization oriented antiparallel to the guide field. In the latter case no spin flipper is necessary to switch to the other spin state. The supermirrors

  11. Intrasperm vertical symbiont transmission

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenji; Yukuhiro, Fumiko; Matsuura, Yu; Fukatsu, Takema; Noda, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria are commonly associated with cells and tissues of diverse animals and other organisms, which affect hosts’ biology in a variety of ways. Most of these symbionts are present in the cytoplasm of host cells and maternally transmitted through host generations. The paucity of paternal symbiont transmission is likely relevant to the extremely streamlined sperm structure: the head consisting of condensed nucleus and the tail made of microtubule bundles, without the symbiont-harboring cytoplasm that is discarded in the process of spermatogenesis. Here, we report a previously unknown mechanism of paternal symbiont transmission via an intrasperm passage. In the leafhopper Nephotettix cincticeps, a facultative Rickettsia symbiont was found not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus of host cells. In male insects, strikingly, most sperm heads contained multiple intranuclear Rickettsia cells. The Rickettsia infection scarcely affected the host fitness including normal sperm functioning. Mating experiments revealed both maternal and paternal transmission of the Rickettsia symbiont through host generations. When cultured with mosquito and silkworm cell lines, the Rickettsia symbiont was preferentially localized within the insect cell nuclei, indicating that the Rickettsia symbiont itself must have a mechanism for targeting nucleus. The mechanisms underlying the sperm head infection without disturbing sperm functioning are, although currently unknown, of both basic and applied interest. PMID:24799707

  12. Hydrostatic continuously variable transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, T.; Saito, M.; Matsuto, T.; Nakajima, Y.; Sakakibara, K.; Yakigaya, N.; Nakamura, K.

    1989-05-09

    A hydrostatic continuously variable transmission is described, comprising: a swashplate type hydraulic pump having a pump swashplate and annularly arranged pump plungers whose suction and discharge strokes are provided by the pump swashplate; a swashplate type hydraulic motor having a motor swashplate and annularly arranged motor plungers whose expansion and shrinkage strokes are provided by the motor swashplate; and a hydraulic closed circuit formed between the hydraulic pump and the hydraulic motor. The transmission has at least one of a relationship that a middle point of a discharge region of the hydraulic pump is angularly delayed at a given angle in a direction of rotation of the hydraulic pump relative to a tilting axis of the pump swashplate and a relationship that a middle point of an expansion region of the hydraulic motor is angularly advanced at a given angle in a direction of rotation of the hydraulic motor relative to a tilting axis of the motor swashplate, wherein the transmission has at least one of a relationship that a suction region of the hydraulic pump is set at an angle larger than that of the discharge region thereof and a relationship that a shrinkage region of the hydraulic motor is set at an angle larger than that of the expansion region of the motor.

  13. Directional gear ratio transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafever, A. E. (inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Epicyclic gear transmissions which transmit output at a gear ratio dependent only upon the input's direction are considered. A transmission housing envelops two epicyclic gear assemblies, and has shafts extending from it. One shaft is attached to a sun gear within the first epicyclic gear assembly. Planet gears are held symmetrically about the sun gear by a planet gear carrier and are in mesh with both the sun gear and a ring gear. Two unidirectional clutches restrict rotation of the first planet gear carrier and ring gear to one direction. A connecting shaft drives a second sun gear at the same speed and direction as the first planet gear carrier while a connecting portion drives a second planet gear carrier at the same speed and direction as the first ring gear. The transmission's output is then transmitted by the second ring gear to the second shaft. Input is transmitted at a higher gear ratio and lower speed for all inputs in the first direction than in the opposite direction.

  14. I-Gate Body-Tied Silicon-on-Insulator MOSFETs With Improved High-Frequency Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chieh-Lin Wu; Chikuang Yu; Hisashi Shichijo; Kenneth K. O

    2011-01-01

    A new body-tied (BT) (I-gate) silicon-on-insulator transistor with comparable fT and fmax as those of floating-body transistors and comparable analog performance as those of T-gate BT transistors is demonstrated. The structure is fabricated with- out process modifications by selectively blocking silicide formation and source\\/drain implant in a foundry technology. Index Terms—Body tie, floating body (FB), I-gate, MOSFET, silicon-on-insulator (SOI), T-gate.

  15. Offset semi-parabolic nanoantenna made of a photonic crystal parabolic mirror and a plasmonic bow-tie antenna.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Haroldo T

    2014-10-10

    In a parabolic mirror, light coming parallel to the antenna passes through its focal point. In this work, a waveguide feeds a semi-parabolic photonic crystal mirror and the emerging beam feeds a bow-tie antenna placed at the mirror's focal point-it is shown that the antenna system can not only feed a bow-tie antenna (producing a localized moderately high electric field) but also produces a directional radiation beam. The semi-parabolic mirror is also modified to reduce reflection back to the feeding waveguide. PMID:25322381

  16. Impact of Inter-technique Vector Tie Errors at Future GGOS Core Sites on the ITRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, Erricos C.; Kuzmicz-Cieslak, Magdalena

    2013-04-01

    The Global Geodetic Observing System—GGOS, has identified as its main task the establishment, maintenance and wide distribution of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF), requiring a high accuracy and stability goal set at 1 mm and 0.1 mm/y. The four "geometric" Services of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG), IDS, IGS, ILRS and IVS are responsible for the provision of the required analysis products that form the input in the ITRF development step. The network of sites that will host all four techniques with an optimal global distribution comprises the so-called "GGOS Core Sites Network—GCSN". Simulation studies over the past few years determined the size and distribution of the sites in order to meet the goals of GGOS. Assuming that all techniques are present with their state-of-the-art equipment, it has been determined that a network of about thirty sites is sufficient to achieve our goal. This result presupposes the ability of the techniques to relate their reference points, those to which their results refer, to a common one representing the site, with an accuracy that is better than 1 mm at any time. These "survey ties" between the invariant reference points between techniques are the subject of extensive research, theoretical as well as practical, in order to develop a modus operandi that realizes with certainty the required accuracy ties at all sites. One can separate the problem for each of the techniques into two distinct components: the survey that determines the offset of the common marker to a physical point of reference on the antenna or telescope used by the technique, and a second much more difficult to determine offset, of the physical point from the actual electronic or optical invariant point to which the observations of each technique refer. The first part is rather easily controlled with precision surveying, most likely through automated procedures using modern technology. The second part is the most difficult to determine and depends on several factors, from the type of the technique in question, to environmental changes, to tracking geometry and local conditions specific to each site. So far, the assumption is that the combined error from the two parts remains ~1 mm. This is a topic of separate studies for each of the contributing techniques. A question that requires an answer before the final design of the survey system is the actual level of total error that one can tolerate at each site, before the GGOS network accuracy goal is compromised. Our presentation focuses on this question using simulations of survey errors at the core sites of a 32-site GCSN, with varying distribution of the site-tie errors in terms of the level of the errors as well as a function of the contributing techniques. These simulations will provide some guidelines on the level of effort that each of the techniques should devote in determining the technique-specific error component and the improvement (if any) required for the common survey tie component at each site.

  17. Impact of Survey Tie Errors in the GGOS Core Site Network on the ITRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, E. C.; Kuzmicz-Cieslak, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Global Geodetic Observing System—GGOS, has identified as its main task the establishment, maintenance and wide distribution of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF), requiring a high accuracy and stability goal set at 1 mm and 0.1 mm/y. The four "geometric" Services of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG), IDS, IGS, ILRS and IVS are responsible for the provision of the required analysis products that form the input in the ITRF development step. The network of sites that will host all four techniques with an optimal global distribution comprises the so-called "GGOS Core Sites Network—GCSN". Simulation studies over the past few years determined the size and distribution of the sites in order to meet the goals of GGOS. Assuming that all techniques are present with their state-of-the-art equipment, it has been determined that a network of about thirty sites is sufficient to achieve our goal. This result presupposes the ability of the techniques to relate their reference points, those to which their results refer, to a common one representing the site, with an accuracy that is better than 1 mm at any time. These "survey ties" between the invariant reference points between techniques are the subject of extensive research, theoretical as well as practical, in order to develop a modus operandi that realizes with certainty the required accuracy ties at all sites. One can separate the problem for each of the techniques into two distinct components: the survey that determines the offset of the common marker to a physical point of reference on the antenna or telescope used by the technique, and a second much more difficult to determine offset, of the physical point from the actual electronic or optical invariant point to which the observations of each technique refer. The first part is rather easily controlled with precision surveying, most likely through automated procedures using modern technology. The second part is the most difficult to determine and depends on several factors, from the type of the technique in question, to environmental changes, to tracking geometry and local conditions specific to each site. So far, the assumption is that the combined error from the two parts remains 1 mm. This is a topic of separate studies for each of the contributing techniques. A question that requires an answer before the final design of the survey system is the actual level of total error that one can tolerate at each site, before the GGOS network accuracy goal is compromised. Our presentation focuses on this question using simulations of survey errors at the core sites of a 32-site GCSN, with varying distribution of the site-tie errors in terms of the level of the errors as well as a function of the contributing techniques. These simulations will provide some guidelines on the level of effort that each of the techniques should devote in determining the technique-specific error component and the improvement (if any) required for the common survey tie component at each site.

  18. Molecular ties between the cell cycle and differentiation in embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Victor C.; Kirschner, Marc W.

    2014-01-01

    Attainment of the differentiated state during the final stages of somatic cell differentiation is closely tied to cell cycle progression. Much less is known about the role of the cell cycle at very early stages of embryonic development. Here, we show that molecular pathways involving the cell cycle can be engineered to strongly affect embryonic stem cell differentiation at early stages in vitro. Strategies based on perturbing these pathways can shorten the rate and simplify the lineage path of ES differentiation. These results make it likely that pathways involving cell proliferation intersect at various points with pathways that regulate cell lineages in embryos and demonstrate that this knowledge can be used profitably to guide the path and effectiveness of cell differentiation of pluripotent cells. PMID:24979803

  19. Public Response to Residential Grid-Tied PV Systems in Colorado: A Qualitative Market Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Farhar, B. C.; Buhrmann, J.

    1998-07-01

    The early adopters of residential grid-tied photovoltaics (PV) have complex motivations to pay today's costs, including altruistic, environmental, and financial reasons. Focused interviews were conducted with a self-selected purposive sample interested in purchasing 2-kW or 3-kW PV systems with an installed cost of $8,000 to $12,000. The sample tended to be men or married couples ranging in age from their early thirties to their mid-eighties; professionals, managers, or small business owners; relatively financially secure, with experience with energy efficiency and renewable energy. Product attributes they preferred were net metering, warranties, guarantees, utility financing, maintenance, an option to own or lease, a battery option, and an aesthetically pleasing system. Potential PV customers needed more information before making a purchase decision.

  20. Ion confinement in a simple mirror stabilized by surface line tying

    SciTech Connect

    Good, T.N.; Thompson H.R. Jr.; Rynn, N.

    1988-05-01

    Experiments were conducted using a barium plasma in a simple axisymmetric mirror machine that was stabilized against the magnetic curvature-driven interchange mode by surface line tying. Ion cyclotron resonance heating was applied to heat ions, producing a mirror-trapped ion population. The ion-velocity distribution function was diagnosed nonperturbatively by using laser-induced fluorescence techniques. The rf heated distribution was a non-Maxwellian in f/sub I/(v/sub perpendicular/), and a sloshing distribution in f/sub I/(v/sub parallel/). When the plasma source was cut off, the plasma decay was studied to determine the confinement properties of the plasma afterglow and the effects of the stabilizing blanket. Mirror-trapped ions were lost axially at the classical ion--ion collision rate. Analysis of the temporal evolution of radial profiles of ion-energy density, in the afterglow, indicates that axial loss rates dominanted over radial losses.

  1. [Nongovernmental organizations and AIDS, social intervention, and new ties in social solidarity].

    PubMed

    da Silva, C L

    1998-01-01

    Starting with a brief contextual analysis of the social scenario in which the AIDS epidemic is occurring in Brazil, the article focuses on the formation of the country's first nongovernmental organizations in the struggle against AIDS. There are peculiarities to AIDS NGOs to the extent that they display an ambivalence between the characteristics of a professional institution and a lobbying group, apart from the fact that dealing with sexuality and death breaks down the line between the public and the private spheres. The case in point is the Grupo Pela Vidda (For Life Group) in Rio de Janeiro, which seeks to represent the enhancement of a group of individuals and the principle of universality. The study supports the hypothesis that AIDS NGOs renew ties of social solidarity through the relationships established between various researchers involved in this sector and other NGOs with governmental spheres. PMID:9700232

  2. Optimal dispatch under transmission contracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Fang; A. K. David

    1999-01-01

    Open transmission access is now the most topical issue in power system deregulation. Power system operation poses the greatest challenge to a competitive environment incorporating open transmission access and there are some fundamental operational problems that are still unresolved. This paper seeks to provide an approach to the power dispatch problem in a structure dominated by bilateral and multilateral transmission

  3. Transmission Line Circuit Alexander Glasser

    E-print Network

    Anlage, Steven

    (t) - Transmission Line (Zo, T) #12;5 Cf/Cr 1000 Vf Capacitance Voltage Cf Cr Model for Nonlinear CapacitorChaos in a Transmission Line Circuit Alexander Glasser Marshal Miller With... Prof. Edward Ott Prof times become shorter, circuit connections behave more and more like transmission lines. Theoretical

  4. Dispatchable transmission in RTO markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard P. O'Neill; Ross Baldick; Udi Helman; Michael H. Rothkopf; William Stewart

    2005-01-01

    We consider transmission owners that bid capacity, under appropriate Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) market rules, at a positive price into forward and spot (dispatch) auctions to derive congestion revenues. This can encompass daily, monthly, or multimonthly auctions, allowing for commitment of transmission to reflect market needs in different time periods, e.g., seasons. We provide two and three node examples and

  5. Gender Differences in Physicians’ Financial Ties to Industry: A Study of National Disclosure Data

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Susannah L.; Sanghani, Ruchi M.; Schmidt, Cory; Karafa, Matthew T.; Kodish, Eric; Chisolm, Guy M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Academic literature extensively documents gender disparities in the medical profession with regard to salary, promotion, and government funded research. However, gender differences in the value of financial ties to industry have not been adequately studied despite industry’s increasing contribution to income and research funding to physicians in the U.S. Methods & Findings We analyzed publicly reported financial relationships among 747,603 physicians and 432 pharmaceutical, device and biomaterials companies. Demographic and payment information were analyzed using hierarchical regression models to determine if statistically significant gender differences exist in physician-industry interactions regarding financial ties, controlling for key covariates. In 2011, 432 biomedical companies made an excess of $17,991,000 in payments to 220,908 physicians. Of these physicians, 75.1% were male. Female physicians, on average, received fewer total dollars (-$3,598.63, p<0.001) per person than men. Additionally, female physicians received significantly lower amounts for meals (-$41.80, p<0.001), education (-$1,893.14, p<0.001), speaker fees (-$2,898.44, p<0.001), and sponsored research (-$15,049.62, p=0.05). For total dollars, an interaction between gender and institutional reputation was statistically significant, implying that the differences between women and men differed based on industry’s preference for an institution, with larger differences at higher reputation institutions. Conclusions Female physicians receive significantly lower compensation for similarly described activities than their male counterparts after controlling for key covariates. As regulations lead to increased transparency regarding these relationships, efforts to standardize compensation should be considered to promote equitable opportunities for all physicians. PMID:26067810

  6. Household Structure, Family Ties, and Psychological Distress among US-born and Immigrant Latino Women

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Kristine M.; Alcántara, Carmela

    2013-01-01

    Latino women endorse the highest rates of past-month depressive symptoms relative to Latino men and to non-Latino White men and women. Yet, research into the specific domains of family life that reduce or engender psychological distress among Latinas is sparse. We examine the hypothesis that indicators of household structure and family ties will relate to psychological distress among Latinas in the USA, and that these associations will vary by nativity status. We employed nationally representative data of Latina adults (N = 1,427) from the National Latino and Asian American Study. Nativity-stratified regression analyses revealed that strained family ties (i.e., family burden, family cultural conflict) were associated with greater levels of past-month psychological distress for both US-born and immigrant Latinas. Yet, the effect of household structures on psychological distress differed by nativity status. Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, lower levels of household income were associated with greater psychological distress; and having children/adolescents in the household was associated with lower levels of psychological distress among US-born Latinas. In contrast, for immigrant Latinas, being out of the labor force was associated with greater levels of psychological distress. Results suggest that dynamics of both the household and family context predict differential as well as similar mental health outcomes across segments of the Latina population in the USA. These findings underscore the need to understand the pathways by which different facets of family life—structural and social domains—relate to mental health status among subgroups of Latinas. Our results also have implications for the development of tailored interventions to meet the specific needs of Latinas. PMID:23421842

  7. Transnational Ties and Past-Year Major Depressive Episodes Among Latino Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, Carmela; Chen, Chih-Nan; Alegría, Margarita

    2014-08-01

    Latino immigrants live in an increasingly global world in which maintaining contact with kin in the home country is easier than ever. We examined (a) the annual distribution of remittances burden (percentage of remittances/household income) and visits to the home country, (b) the association of these transnational ties with a past-year major depressive episode (MDE), and (c) moderation by Latino subethnicity or gender. We conducted weighted logistic regression analyses with the Latino immigrant subsample (N = 1,614) of the National Latino and Asian American Study. Mexican and Other Latino immigrants had greater remittances burden than Puerto Rican migrants. Cuban immigrants made the fewest visits back home. After adjustment for sociodemographics and premigration psychiatric history, remittances burden decreased odds of MDE (odds ratio [OR] = 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.67, .0.98]), whereas visits back home increased odds of MDE (OR = 1.04, 95% CI [1.01, 1.06]). Latino subethnicity was not a significant moderator. Visits back home were more strongly linked to depression among women than men. The distribution of transnational ties differs by Latino subgroup, although its association with depression is similar across groups. Monetary giving through remittances might promote a greater sense of self-efficacy, and caregiving for relatives back home that positively affect mental health. Visits back home, especially for women, might signal social stress from strained relationships with kin, spouses, or children left behind, or increased caregiving demands that negatively affect mental health. Clinical practice with immigrants should routinely assess the social resources and strains that fall outside national borders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25090146

  8. Challenging Ties between State and Tobacco Industry: Advocacy Lessons from India

    PubMed Central

    Bhojani, Upendra; Venkataraman, Vidya; Manganawar, Bheemaray

    2013-01-01

    Background: Globally, tobacco use is a major public health concern given its huge morbidity and mortality burden that is inequitably high in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization has suggested banning the advertisement, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco. However, governments in some countries, including India, are either directly engaged in tobacco industry operations or have a mandate to promote tobacco industry development. This paper analyses a short-term advocacy campaign that challenged the state-tobacco industry ties to draw lessons for effective public health advocacy. Method: This paper uses a case study method to analyze advocacy efforts in India to thwart the state-tobacco industry partnership: the Indian government’s sponsorship and support to a global tobacco industry event. The paper explores multiple strategies employed in the five-month advocacy campaign (May to October 2010) to challenge this state-industry tie. In doing so, we describe the challenges faced and the lessons learnt for effective advocacy. Results: Government withdrew participation and financial sponsorship from the tobacco industry event. Use of multiple strategies including engaging all concerned government agencies from the beginning, strategic use of media, presence and mobilization of civil society, and use of legal tools to gain information and judicial action, were complementary in bringing desired outcomes. Conclusion: Use of multiple and complementary advocacy strategies could lead to positive outcomes in a short-time campaign. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control could form an important advocacy tool, especially in countries that have ratified it, to advocate for improvements in national tobacco control regulations. PMID:24688958

  9. Household structure, family ties, and psychological distress among U.S.-born and immigrant Latino women.

    PubMed

    Molina, Kristine M; Alcántara, Carmela

    2013-02-01

    Latino women endorse the highest rates of past-month depressive symptoms relative to Latino men and non-Latino White men and women. Yet, research into the specific domains of family life that reduce or engender psychological distress among Latinas is sparse. We examine the hypothesis that indicators of household structure and family ties will relate to psychological distress among Latinas in the United States, and that these associations will vary by nativity status. We employed nationally representative data of Latina adults (N = 1,427) from the National Latino and Asian American Study. Nativity-stratified regression analyses revealed that strained family ties (i.e., family burden, family cultural conflict) were associated with greater levels of past-month psychological distress for both U.S.-born and immigrant Latinas. Yet, the effect of household structures on psychological distress differed by nativity status. Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, lower levels of household income were associated with greater psychological distress; and having children in the household was associated with lower levels of psychological distress among U.S.-born Latinas. In contrast, for immigrant Latinas, being out of the labor force was associated with greater levels of psychological distress. Results suggest that dynamics of both the household and family context predict differential as well as similar mental-health outcomes across segments of the Latina population in the United States. These findings underscore the need to understand the pathways by which different facets of family life-structural and social domains-relate to mental-health status among subgroups of Latinas. Our results also have implications for the development of tailored interventions to meet the specific needs of Latinas. PMID:23421842

  10. Raj JainThe Ohio State University Data TransmissionData TransmissionData Transmission

    E-print Network

    Jain, Raj

    Raj JainThe Ohio State University 2-1 Data TransmissionData TransmissionData Transmission Raj Jain Professor of CIS The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210 Jain@ACM.Org http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/~jain/ Raj JainThe Ohio State University 2-2 Time Domain and Frequency Domain Bit, Hertz Decibels Data vs

  11. Automated manual transmission clutch controller

    DOEpatents

    Lawrie, Robert E. (9375 Kearney Rd., Whitmore Lake, MI 48189); Reed, Jr., Richard G. (3003 Bembridge, Royal Oak, MI 48073); Rausen, David J. (519 S. Gaylord St., Denver, CO 80209)

    1999-11-30

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  12. Transmission scanning II

    SciTech Connect

    Alberi, J.L.; Kraner, H.W.; Bradley-Moore, P.; Atkins, H.L.

    1973-01-01

    From nuclear science symposium; San Francisco, California, USA (14 Nov 1973). Work has been continued on the development of techniques for imaging spatial elemental distributions by means of differential absorption about the K- absorption edge of the particular element Z. A method to correct for spurious effects due to differential absorption in overlying absorber is described. Initial clinical studies of thyroid iodine images on patierts are presented. Application of absorption edge transmission scanning to measurements of Ca cortent in thin in-vitro samples of rat bone is also discussed. An x-ray source with a broad energy spectrum was used. (CH)

  13. Conventional transmission electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Winey, Mark; Meehl, Janet B.; O'Toole, Eileen T.; Giddings, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to make contributions to cell biology for well over 50 years, and TEM continues to be an important technology in our field. We briefly present for the neophyte the components of a TEM-based study, beginning with sample preparation through imaging of the samples. We point out the limitations of TEM and issues to be considered during experimental design. Advanced electron microscopy techniques are listed as well. Finally, we point potential new users of TEM to resources to help launch their project. PMID:24482357

  14. Lightning proof transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, R.B. Jr.; Drabkin, M. (Lightning Elimination Associates, Santa Fe Springs, CA (USA))

    1988-01-01

    Lightning is prone to strike electrical transmission and distribution lines. Design of protection is difficult. Failure to design for the worst case conditions cost U.S.A. utilities 20 million annually. These costs can be prevented. During the past 16 years, LEC, Inc. has developed and proven a system that prevents strikes as well as insulator flashover from nearby strikes. LEC's Dual Dissipator System, presented in this paper, replaces the need for the static line for lightning considerations, eliminating the need for lightning arrestors. The insulation requirements transformers and switchgear can be reduced which reduce original costs.

  15. Will Economic Crises in Africa Weaken Rural-Urban Ties? Insights from Child Fosterage Trends in Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eloundou-Enyegue, Parfait M.; Stokes, C. Shannon

    2002-01-01

    In many African countries, rural-urban kinship ties support the education and economic mobility of rural children through fosterage into urban families. Demographic survey data from central Cameroon indicate major rural-urban differences in child fosterage relative to family characteristics and child's school performance, and show lower rural…

  16. The Tie That Binds: Leadership and Liberal Arts Institutions' Civic Engagement Commitment in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Hunter Phillips

    2014-01-01

    Community boundary spanners create ties that bind the campus and its surrounding region for reciprocal relationships. Using community boundary spanning literature as a conceptual framework, this study went beyond existing research on public and 4-year comprehensive universities to examine how university leadership at rural, private liberal arts…

  17. THE FAUNA OF ATLANTIC MARINE CAVES: EVIDENCE OF DISPERSAL BY SEA FLOOR SPREADING WHILE MAINTAINING TIES TO DEEP WATERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Hart; R. B. Manning; T. M. Iliffe

    Evidence is presented that significant ties exist between the faunas of marine caves and those of the deep seas, that marine cave faunas may contain very old elements, and that marine caves have served as faunal refuges over very long periods of time. In addition, the term \\

  18. From the Cotton Fields to the Ties That Bind: Jim Pusack's Enduring Impact on Today's CALL Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Linda C.

    2010-01-01

    From 1981 to today, the encouragement Jim Pusack and his colleague Sue Otto gave faculty to develop and/or implement CALL into the curriculum has been vital to our L2 teaching evolution. This article describes how their efforts evolved over the last two and a half decades and the ties that bind their efforts with today's CALL development.

  19. 50 CFR 86.31 - How much money may I charge the public to use tie-up facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How much money may I charge the public to use tie-up...RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT (BIG) PROGRAM Public Use of the Facility § 86.31 How much money may I charge the public to use...

  20. 50 CFR 86.31 - How much money may I charge the public to use tie-up facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How much money may I charge the public to use tie-up...RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT (BIG) PROGRAM Public Use of the Facility § 86.31 How much money may I charge the public to use...

  1. 50 CFR 86.31 - How much money may I charge the public to use tie-up facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How much money may I charge the public to use tie-up...RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT (BIG) PROGRAM Public Use of the Facility § 86.31 How much money may I charge the public to use...

  2. 50 CFR 86.31 - How much money may I charge the public to use tie-up facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How much money may I charge the public to use tie-up...RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT (BIG) PROGRAM Public Use of the Facility § 86.31 How much money may I charge the public to use...

  3. 50 CFR 86.31 - How much money may I charge the public to use tie-up facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How much money may I charge the public to use tie-up...RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT (BIG) PROGRAM Public Use of the Facility § 86.31 How much money may I charge the public to use...

  4. Family Ties and Health Cross-Nationally: The Contextualizing Role of Familistic Culture and Public Pension Spending in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Although previous research theorizes that cross-national variation in the relationship between family ties and health is due to nation-level differences in culture and policy/economics, no study has examined this theorization empirically. Method. Using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), this study uses multilevel modeling to analyze individual-, nation-, and cross-level effects for 30,291 older adults in 14 nations. Results. Family ties to spouses/partners and parents are associated with better health, but ties to coresident children are associated with poorer health in certain contexts. Familistic culture and public pension spending have a weak but statistically significant moderating effect on the relationship between intergenerational family ties and health. Discussion. This article underscores the complexity of family and highlights the need for continued theorization and measurement at the nation level to promote older adults’ health in diverse contexts. PMID:24043356

  5. EFL Doctoral Students' Conceptions of Authorial Stance in Academic Knowledge Claims and the Tie to Epistemic Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Peichin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Taking an effective authorial stance in research argumentation has been designated as both vitally important and challenging. The study investigated English as a foreign language (EFL) doctoral students' conceptions of authorial stance, the role of domains in affecting their conceptions, and the ties of the conceptions to the…

  6. Vasculotide reduces endothelial permeability and tumor cell extravasation in the absence of binding to or agonistic activation of Tie2

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Florence TH; Lee, Christina R; Bogdanovic, Elena; Prodeus, Aaron; Gariépy, Jean; Kerbel, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) activation of Tie2 receptors on endothelial cells (ECs) reduces adhesion by tumor cells (TCs) and limits junctional permeability to TC diapedesis. We hypothesized that systemic therapy with Vasculotide (VT)—a purported Ang1 mimetic, Tie2 agonist—can reduce the extravasation of potentially metastatic circulating TCs by similarly stabilizing the host vasculature. In vitro, VT and Ang1 treatments impeded endothelial hypermeability and the transendothelial migration of MDA-MB-231•LM2-4 (breast), HT29 (colon), or SN12 (renal) cancer cells to varying degrees. In mice, VT treatment inhibited the transit of TCs through the pulmonary endothelium, but not the hepatic or lymphatic endothelium. In the in vivo LM2-4 model, VT monotherapy had no effect on primary tumors, but significantly delayed distant metastatic dissemination to the lungs. In the post-surgical adjuvant treatment setting, VT therapeutically complemented sunitinib therapy, an anti-angiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitor which limited the local growth of residual disease. Unexpectedly, detailed investigations into the putative mechanism of action of VT revealed no evidence of Tie2 agonism or Tie2 binding; alternative mechanisms have yet to be determined. PMID:25851538

  7. Harvesting Natural You envy these salmon farmers. They don't have to rope or tie their product, they

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Douglas R.

    Project2 Harvesting Natural Resources You envy these salmon farmers. They don't have to rope or tie, they always know how many salmon they will be able to sell. All they have to do is feed their product salmon fishing in territorial waters near Glacier Bay, Alaska.* Your problem is that you never know how

  8. The Korean Pivot: Challenges and Opportunities from Evolving Chinese-Russian and U.S.Japanese Security Ties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Weitz

    2007-01-01

    cies of China, Russia, and Japan toward the two Koreas. China and Russia, North Korea's primary allies during the Cold War, have maintained their connections with Pyongyang while simultaneously cultivating new ties, es- pecially in the economic dimension, with South Korea. In contrast, relations between Japan and the two Koreas re- main troubled by historical burdens and other differences. The

  9. 10 POINTS TO REMEMBER when Applying for a NonImmigrant Visa 1. TIES TO HOME COUNTRY.

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    10 POINTS TO REMEMBER when Applying for a NonImmigrant Visa 1. TIES TO HOME COUNTRY. Under U.S. law, all applicants for nonimmigrant visas are viewed as intending immigrants until they can convince. ENGLISH. Anticipate that the interview will be conducted in English and not in your native language. One

  10. Major ion toxicity of six produced waters to three freshwater species: Application of ion toxicity models and TIE procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Tietge, J.E.; Hockett, J.R. [ENSR Consulting and Engineering, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Evans, J.M. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Previous research to characterize the acute toxicity of major ions to freshwater organisms resulted in the development of statistical toxicity models for three freshwater species (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas, and Daphnia magna). These ion toxicity models estimate the toxicity of seven major ions utilizing logistic regression. In this study, the ion toxicity models were used in conjunction with Phase 1 toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) procedures to evaluate the contribution of major ion toxicity to the total toxicity of six produced water samples ranging in total salinity from 1.7 to 58.1 g/L. Initial toxicities of all six samples were compared to the model predictions. Four produced waters were found to have toxicity consistent with toxicity attributable to major ion concentrations only. Two produced waters were found to exhibit more toxicity than expected from ion concentrations alone. These samples were subjected to Phase 1 TIE procedures. Toxicities were reduced by specific Phase 1 TIE manipulations to those predicted by the ion toxicity models. Mock effluents were used to verify the results. The combination of the ion toxicity models with Phase 1 TIE procedures successfully quantified the toxicity due to major ions in six produced water samples.

  11. Discrimination of ion toxicity in six produced waters using the freshwater salinity toxicity relationships and TIE procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Tietge, J.E.; Hockett, J.R.; Evans, J.M.

    1995-12-01

    Research to characterize the toxicity of common ions to freshwater organisms resulted in the development of predictive toxicity models (FW STR) for three freshwater species (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas, and Daphnia magna). The FW STR models, derived from acute toxicity data, focused on the toxicity of seven common ions. These predictive models were used in conjuntion with Phase I TIE procedures to evaluate the contribution of common ion toxicity in six produced water samples ranging in total salinity from 1.7 to 58.1 g/L. Initial toxicities of all six samples were compared to the model predictions. Four produced water samples were found to have toxicity due to common ion concentrations only. Two samples were found to exhibit more toxicity than expected from ion concentrations alone. These samples were subjected to Phase I TIE procedures. Toxicities were reduced by specific Phase I TIE manipulations to those predicted by the FW STR models. Mock effluents were used to verify the results. The combination of the FW STR models with Phase I TIE procedures successfully quantified the toxicity due to common ions.

  12. Activated Protein C Enhances Human Keratinocyte Barrier Integrity via Sequential Activation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Tie2*

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Meilang; Chow, Shu-Oi; Dervish, Suat; Chan, Yee-Ka Agnes; Julovi, Sohel M.; Jackson, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Keratinocytes play a critical role in maintaining epidermal barrier function. Activated protein C (APC), a natural anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory and endothelial barrier protective properties, significantly increased the barrier impedance of keratinocyte monolayers, measured by electric cell substrate impedance sensing and FITC-dextran flux. In response to APC, Tie2, a tyrosine kinase receptor, was rapidly activated within 30 min, and relocated to cell-cell contacts. APC also increased junction proteins zona occludens, claudin-1 and VE-cadherin. Inhibition of Tie2 by its peptide inhibitor or small interfering RNA abolished the barrier protective effect of APC. Interestingly, APC did not activate Tie2 through its major ligand, angiopoietin-1, but instead acted by binding to endothelial protein C receptor, cleaving protease-activated receptor-1 and transactivating EGF receptor. Furthermore, when activation of Akt, but not ERK, was inhibited, the barrier protective effect of APC on keratinocytes was abolished. Thus, APC activates Tie2, via a mechanism requiring, in sequential order, the receptors, endothelial protein C receptor, protease-activated receptor-1, and EGF receptor, which selectively enhances the PI3K/Akt signaling to enhance junctional complexes and reduce keratinocyte permeability. PMID:21173154

  13. Travel Grants --Conference Presentations TIE provides awards to offset transportation costs and conference registration fees for Tufts

    E-print Network

    Dennett, Daniel

    Travel Grants -- Conference Presentations TIE provides awards to offset transportation costs and conference registration fees for Tufts students who are making presentations at environmental conferences available to support travel to conferences and workshops that address the environment and/or sustainability

  14. 176 IEEE ANTENNAS AND WIRELESS PROPAGATION LETTERS, VOL. 3, 2004 FDTD Analysis of Bow-Tie Antenna by Incorporating

    E-print Network

    Park, Seong-Ook

    176 IEEE ANTENNAS AND WIRELESS PROPAGATION LETTERS, VOL. 3, 2004 FDTD Analysis of Bow-Tie Antenna-domain (FDTD) method, locally conformal grid, static field solution. I. INTRODUCTION THE finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is com- monly used for calculating various electromagnetic prob- lems because of its

  15. Effects of line-tying on free-boundary global modes in high-beta tokamak plasmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Lee

    1984-01-01

    Axisymmetric line-tying, as may occur in an H-mode discharge or in a toroidal limiter, is modeled through a rigid or conducting boundary condition. It is shown effective in reducing the linear growth rate of global free-boundary magnetohydrodynamic modes in high- ..beta..\\/sub p\\/ circular cross-section tokamaks. Various parameter dependencies are also examined.

  16. Role of external background plasma and non-MHD effects for kink stability of line tied screw pinch^

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Mirnov; C. B. Forest; C. C. Hegna

    2004-01-01

    In recent kink stability studies of a line tied screw pinch, the plasma was assumed to be isolated from the external wall by a vacuum gap. Another scenario of interest has a central current channel that is surrounded by a low density plasma. For a resistive outer plasma, this is equivalent to having the current surrounded by vacuum. Under more

  17. Effects of line-tying on free-boundary global modes in high-beta tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.K.

    1984-04-01

    Axisymmetric line-tying, as may occur in an H-mode discharge or in a toroidal limiter, is modeled through a rigid or conducting boundary condition. It is shown effective in reducing the linear growth rate of global free-boundary magnetohydrodynamic modes in high- ..beta../sub p/ circular cross-section tokamaks. Various parameter dependencies are also examined.

  18. Experimental verification of the Kruskal-Shafranov stability limit in line-tied partial-toroidal plasmas

    E-print Network

    Ji, Hantao

    Experimental verification of the Kruskal-Shafranov stability limit in line-tied partial-toroidal plasmas E. Oz,a) C. E. Myers, M. Yamada,b) H. Ji, R. M. Kulsrud, and J. Xiec) Princeton Plasma Physics Experiment (MRX) [Yamada et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 1936 (1997)]. The three dimensional evolution of these flux

  19. Effects of line-tying on free-boundary global modes in high-beta tokamak plasmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Lee

    1984-01-01

    Axisymmetric line-tying, as may occur in an H-mode discharge or in a toroidal limiter, is modeled through a rigid or conducting boundary condition. It is shown effective in reducing the linear growth rate of global free-boundary magnetohydrodynamic modes in high- ?p circular cross-section tokamaks. Various parameter dependencies are also examined.

  20. NETWORK TIE FORMATION IN A TWO-MODE NETWORK--IS IT TECHNICAL OR SOCIAL CAPITAL THAT MATTERS?

    E-print Network

    Lin, Xiaodong

    by social capital as trust and access to information about partners, leading to rather dense clusters (Ahuja1 NETWORK TIE FORMATION IN A TWO-MODE NETWORK--IS IT TECHNICAL OR SOCIAL CAPITAL THAT MATTERS? Anke Piepenbrink Department of Management and Global Business Rutgers Business School--Newark and New Brunswick 1

  1. Composition of alkali silica gel and ettringite in concrete railroad ties: SEM-EDX and X-ray diffraction analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niels Thaulow; Ulla Hjorth Jakobsen; Boyd Clark

    1996-01-01

    Alkali silica gel and ettringite observed in concrete railroad ties were analysed by SEM-EDX and X-ray diffraction. The compositions, represented in the Si? Ca?Na + K system, of clear gel were in the range of 53 to 63 atomic% Si and 20 to 30 atomic% Ca. The K + Na contents were constant and about 15% (excluding oxygen, water and

  2. Unemployment and well-being in Europe. The effect of country unemployment rate, work ethics and family ties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MIKUCKA Malgorzata

    2011-01-01

    Subjective well-being literature shows that higher unemployment rate corresponds to lower psychological cost of own unemployment. The goal of the paper is to deepen the understanding of this regularity by investigating the role played by the work ethics and the strength of family ties. I analyze the European Values Study data (2008) for 36 countries using multilevel regression methodology. First,

  3. Ultradense bidirectional optical transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radic, Stojan

    2001-07-01

    Present efforts towards construction of large capacity long-haul links are focused on either increase of channel data rate or a very dense channel plans. The latter is of particular interest since it enables spectrally efficient WDM links simply by multiplying the channel count of existing transmission lines. Unfortunately, very dense channel spacing necessarily leads to increased four-wave (FWM) mixing penalty. FWM penalty can be decreased in straightforward manner by lowering signal launch power. Indeed, high spectral efficiency optical link operating with 25GHz spaced signals has been recently demonstrated using hybrid Raman/EDFA amplification architecture: FWM process is minimized by operating in quasilinear transmission regime1. A different approach that does not require deployment of Raman amplifiers relays on combining two closely spaced counterpropagating interleaved channel grids.2 We will describe fundamental design issues encountered in such dense bidirectional optical links. While bidirectional link potentially doubles deployed capacity over single strand of fiber, its realization is made more difficult by host of qualitatively new problems, commonly not seen in conventional unidirectional lines. We describe latest efforts in constructing very dense bidirectional long-haul links over standard and non-zero dispersion shifted fiber.

  4. Modulated powershift transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Goodbar, E.; Testerman, M.D.

    1986-09-01

    The design and development of a four speed transmission, with special emphasis on the electronic control of clutch pressure during engagement involves many engineering interactions. The case at hand had, as a primary objective, creation of a unit which would perform to specific functional requirements while maintaining costs competitive in present and future marketing environments. Specific functional design requirements included the four forward and reverse ratios (from 4.2 to 0.6), and a baseline design point to be turbine torque and speed of 805 lb-ft (1091 N . m) and 500 rpm. A transmission in-service B-10 life of 9000-10,000 h as applied to a 3.5-4.5 yd/sup 3/ (2.7-3.5 m/sup 3/) rubber-tired wheel loader duty cycle was needed. Limitations were placed on maximum shaft slopes at bearing locations, and spline and shaft capacities for a 350 lb-ft (473 N . m) power take-off. Directional clutch thermal capacities had to survive the vehicle's duty cycle. Adjustable and accurate control of clutch supply pressure during engagements was needed, as were four-wheel drive disconnects, ground driven pump, midship, engine, and remote mount, and converter lock-up. Cost effectiveness considerations were: material and processing, commonality of components, serviceability, and operational reliability.

  5. Colorado Electrical Transmission Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Xcel Energy Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado XcelEnergy NonXcel Transmission Network Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains transmission network of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4540689.017558 m Left: 160606.141934 m Right: 758715.946645 m Bottom: 4098910.893397m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shapefile

  6. Transmission shift control assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Dzioba, D.L.

    1989-04-18

    This patent describes a transmission shift control assembly mounted on a steering column having a longitudinal axis comprising: bracket means secured to the steering column; transmission shift cable means having a portion secured to the bracket means and a portion linearly movable relative to the secured portion; mounting means on the bracket cable drive arm means having an axis and being rotatably mounted on the rotary axis on the mounting means oblique to the longitudinal axis and including a cable connecting portion secured to the movable portion of the cable means and lever mounting means adjacent the mounting means; operator control means including lever means, pin means for pivotally mounting the lever means on the lever mounting means on an axis substantially perpendicular to the rotary axis and positioning arm means formed on the lever means and extending from the pin means; and detent gate means disposed on the bracket means in position to abut the positioning arm means for limiting the extent of pivotal movement of the lever means.

  7. Tie2 Signaling Cooperates with TNF to Promote the Pro-Inflammatory Activation of Human Macrophages Independently of Macrophage Functional Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    García, Samuel; Krausz, Sarah; Ambarus, Carmen A.; Fernández, Beatriz Malvar; Hartkamp, Linda M.; van Es, Inge E.; Hamann, Jörg; Baeten, Dominique L.; Tak, Paul P.; Reedquist, Kris A.

    2014-01-01

    Angiopoietin (Ang) -1 and -2 and their receptor Tie2 play critical roles in regulating angiogenic processes during development, homeostasis, tumorigenesis, inflammation and tissue repair. Tie2 signaling is best characterized in endothelial cells, but a subset of human and murine circulating monocytes/macrophages essential to solid tumor formation express Tie2 and display immunosuppressive properties consistent with M2 macrophage polarization. However, we have recently shown that Tie2 is strongly activated in pro-inflammatory macrophages present in rheumatoid arthritis patient synovial tissue. Here we examined the relationship between Tie2 expression and function during human macrophage polarization. Tie2 expression was observed under all polarization conditions, but was highest in IFN-? and IL-10 –differentiated macrophages. While TNF enhanced expression of a common restricted set of genes involved in angiogenesis and inflammation in GM-CSF, IFN-? and IL-10 –differentiated macrophages, expression of multiple chemokines and cytokines, including CXCL3, CXCL5, CXCL8, IL6, and IL12B was further augmented in the presence of Ang-1 and Ang-2, via Tie2 activation of JAK/STAT signaling. Conditioned medium from macrophages stimulated with Ang-1 or Ang-2 in combination with TNF, sustained monocyte recruitment. Our findings suggest a general role for Tie2 in cooperatively promoting the inflammatory activation of macrophages, independently of polarization conditions. PMID:24404127

  8. The Ties That Bind: How Cooperative Norms and Readiness to Change Shape the Role of Established Relationships in Business-to-Business E-Commerce

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Ordanini

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Mainstream research indicates that close, long-term ties with business customers have beneficial effects; however, an alternative stream advances the possibility of a “dark side” of close relations, especially when the original conditions of the relationships change. This empirical study investigates how established buyer–seller relationships respond to significant changes in their exchange context by considering the value of close ties

  9. Switching transmission-line construction to the fast track

    SciTech Connect

    Morsilli, H.J. [Maguire Group Inc., Foxboro, MA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Culminating 20 years of planning and construction, the final and most critical 22.5-mi phase of an 80-mile 138-kV transmission line was recently completed by City Electric System of Key West, and the Florida Keys Electric Cooperative of Tavernier, Fla. Designed by Maguire Group Inc, Foxboro, Mass, the line is known as the `tie-line` project since it connects the lower and upper Florida Keys into the state`s mainland power grid through Florida Power & Light Co facilities. Awarded to Kohler, the project was complete and made operational on Mar 1, 1995, nearly a year and a half ahead of the original schedule. Total construction cost for both phases was approximately $12.7-million and change orders amounted to 1% of the total construction cost. Completion of the project on such a fast-track schedule with minimal change orders is an excellent example of team-work on the part of the owner, contractor, and engineer. This paper describes briefly the planning, design, and construction of this transmission line. 6 figs.

  10. Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Bujold, M P

    1981-09-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. This report covers the 1981 Mercury Lynx ATX transaxle. This transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the 93% range for drive performance tests. The major results of this test are the torque, speed and efficiency curves which are located in the data section of this report. These graphs map performance characteristics for the Mercury Lynx ATX transmission.

  11. Small passenger car transmission test-Chevrolet 200 transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission was tested to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commerically available transmissions which would enable them to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers could estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. A 1979 Chevrolet Model 200 automatic transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. The transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. Torque, speed and efficiency curves map the complete performance characteristics for Chevrolet Model 200 transmission.

  12. Regional Seismic Architecture Tied to Cores: Results from IODP Exp313

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mountain, G.; Proust, J.; Monteverde, D.; Scienceparty, E.

    2010-12-01

    Siliciclastic sediments at passive margins contain stratal discontinuities at many scales; most can be imaged in seismic profiles. Regional unconformities associated with lowering of baselevel (‘sequence boundaries’) are of special importance because they provide the means to objectively divide the stratigraphic record, and intervening sequences provide the basis for evaluating controls on facies successions and overall sedimentary architecture. Furthermore, sequences of similar age and shape at margins of contrasting tectonic and sedimentary histories suggest eustatic control, though this needs to be tested. IODP Exp313 was designed to contribute to such a test by determining the age and facies of sediments cored at several locations within mid-Tertiary sequences ~45-65 km offshore New Jersey. The reliability of seismic-core correlations essential to this effort required high core recovery, high resolution seismic data, and techniques for matching the two; here we report progress in this effort. Three holes were drilled and logged in ~35 m of water in May-July 2009. Roughly 9500 km of profiles were examined and correlated to these and 6 additional sites drilled previously on the outer shelf and upper slope. 13 additional holes drilled into correlative sediments on the adjacent coastal plain provided up-dip facies and age control, though onshore seismic data are lacking. Prior studies identified seismic sequence boundaries at the NJ margin on the basis of seismic onlap/offlap and ties to drill cores on the continental slope. 15 regionally mapped reflectors intersect the Exp313 sites, and as a first step in tying each to a feature in a core, stacking velocities from the processing of seismic data passing through Exp313 sites were used to derive an acoustic travel time to depth-below-seafloor conversion. This relationship provided expectations of depths at which surfaces and/or facies changes would be found. Typically these occur within 5-10 m of a probable match to features in the cores or to various properties measured by wireline logs and/or the Multi-Sensor Core Logger. Within clinoform top-set beds these reflectors often match transgressive or regressive facies and an accompanying change in density over a depth of 10 cm or less. Finer toe-set strata seaward of clinoform slopes contain beds of gravity-transported sediment where again abrupt changes in bulk density is a typical cause of acoustic reflections. A previously mapped 500 km2 seismic surface ties to the deeply eroded core of a clinoform buildup that failed locally and was redeposited in mass-flow deposits 10's of km seaward of its original location; that it can be traced elsewhere to an intact deposit underscores the importance of along-strike mapping that guards against hasty conclusions of eustatic influence. Facies changes separated by less than 5 m are difficult to link to one in a group of closely-spaced reflectors. Physical properties measured in core material or derived from wireline logs will be used in the future to develop synthetic seismograms and refine core-log-seismic correlations further.

  13. Development of circumferential seal for helicopter transmissions: Results of bench and flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strom, T. N.; Ludwig, L. P.

    1975-01-01

    A modified circumferential segmented ring seal was designed for direct replacement of a helicopter transmission elastomeric lip seal operating on a shaft diameter of 13.91 centimeters (5.481 in.) at sliding velocities to 52.48 m/sec (10 330 ft/min). The modifications involved the garter spring tension, shaft roundness, seal housing flatness, and pumping grooves to inhibit leakage. Operation of the seals in bench tests under simulated helicopter transmission conditions revealed that the seal leakage rate was within acceptable limits and that the wear rate was negligible. The low leakage and wear rates were confirmed in flight tests of 600 and 175 hours (sliding speed, 48.11 m/sec (9470 ft/min)). An additional 200 hours of air worthiness qualification testing (aircraft tie down) demonstrated that the seal can operate at the advanced sliding conditions of 52.48 m/sec (10 330 ft/min).

  14. Dynamic Light Scattering in Network-Forming Oxide Melts: Ties Between Structure and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Tri; Schnell, Stanley; Sidebottom, David

    2013-03-01

    We report results from a series of dynamic light scattering studies of network-forming oxide glasses obtained using photon correlation spectroscopy. These studies focus specifically on how the dynamics of these viscous melts are influenced by systematic changes in the chemical structure of the oxide network and include studies of both sodium phosphate and sodium aluminophosphate melts. The fragility, a dynamical property of the liquid near the glass transition point, is determined from these measurements and seen to decrease with increases in the average density of bridging oxygen bonds regardless of the alkali content. Moreover, this dependence of the fragility on bond density is shown to be identically reproduced in both alkali borate melts and chalcogenide glasses, provided accommodations are made for the presence of structural entities in the borate system that contribute to their intermediate range order. The universal pattern that emerges suggests a significant tie between network structure and dynamics that is consistent with predictions for a rigidity transition near an average bond number of 2.4 and within the framework of a simple two-state bond model, may be traced to a common dependence of the configurational entropy on connectivity. We report results from a series of dynamic light scattering studies of network-forming oxide glasses obtained using photon correlation spectroscopy. These studies focus specifically on how the dynamics of these viscous melts are influenced by systematic changes in the chemical structure of the oxide network and include studies of both sodium phosphate and sodium aluminophosphate melts. The fragility, a dynamical property of the liquid near the glass transition point, is determined from these measurements and seen to decrease with increases in the average density of bridging oxygen bonds regardless of the alkali content. Moreover, this dependence of the fragility on bond density is shown to be identically reproduced in both alkali borate melts and chalcogenide glasses, provided accommodations are made for the presence of structural entities in the borate system that contribute to their intermediate range order. The universal pattern that emerges suggests a significant tie between network structure and dynamics that is consistent with predictions for a rigidity transition near an average bond number of 2.4 and within the framework of a simple two-state bond model, may be traced to a common dependence of the configurational entropy on connectivity. This work is funded by NSF grant no. DMR-0906640

  15. Why less may be more: a mixed methods study of the work and relatedness of ‘weak ties’ in supporting long-term condition self-management

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The distribution of the roles and responsibilities of long-term condition management (LTCM) outside of formal health services implicates a wide set of relationships and activities of involvement. Yet, compared to studies of professional implementation, patient systems of implementation remain under-investigated. The aim of this paper is to explore the work, meaning and function attributed to ‘weaker’ ties relative to other more bonding relationships in order to identify the place of these within a context of systems of support for long-term conditions. Methods This is a mixed methods survey with nested qualitative study. A total of 300 people from deprived areas in the North West of England with chronic illnesses took part in a survey conducted in 2010 to 2011. A concentric circles diagram was used as a research tool with which participants identified 2,544 network members who contributed to illness management. Notions of ‘work’ were used to describe activities associated with chronic illness and to identify how weaker ties are included and perceived to be involved through social network members (SNM) contributions. Results The results provide an articulation of how SNMs are substantially involved in weak tie illness management. Weaker ties constituted 16.1% of network membership involved in illness work. The amount of work undertaken was similar but less than that of stronger ties. Weaker ties appeared more durable and less liable to loss over time than stronger ties. The qualitative accounts suggested that weak ties enabled the moral positioning of the self-managing ‘self’ and acted on the basis of a strong sense of reciprocity. Conclusions Weak ties act as an acceptable bridge between a sense of personal agency and control and the need for external support because it is possible to construct a sense of moral acceptability through reciprocal exchange. Access to weak tie resources needs to be taken into account when considering the ways in which systems of health implementation for chronic illness are designed and delivered. PMID:24524253

  16. Technology of optical azimuth transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Honggang; Hu, Chunsheng; Wang, Xingshu; Gao, Yang

    2012-11-01

    It often needs transfer a reference from one place to another place in aerospace and guided missile launching. At first, principles of several typical optical azimuth transmission methods are presented. Several typical methods are introduced, such as Theodolite (including gyro-theodolite) collimation method, Camera series method, Optical apparatus for azimuth method and polarization modulated light transmission method. For these typical azimuth transmission methods, their essential theories are elaborated. Then the devices, the application fields and limitations of these typical methods' are presented. Theodolite (including gyro-theodolite) collimation method is used in the ground assembly of spacecraft. Camera series method and optical apparatus for azimuth method are used in azimuth transmission between different decks of ship. Polarization modulated light transmission method is used in azimuth transmission of rocket and guided missile. At the last, the further developments of these methods are discussed.

  17. Failsafe system in automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Iwatsuki, K.; Shindo, Y.

    1988-11-22

    This patent describes a failsafe system in an automatic transmission for a vehicle, comprising: means for detecting an output shaft rotary speed of the automatic transmission; means for detecting engine rotary speed; means for detecting engine load; means for detecting whether a lockup clutch of the automatic transmission is engaged; means for detecting whether a prescribed period of time has elapsed from either a shift judgment or a shift command of the automatic transmission; means for determining a correlation between the output shaft rotary speed and the engine rotary speed when the engine load is higher than a predetermined value, the lockup clutch is engaged, and the prescribed period of time has elapsed form either of the shift judgment or shift command of the automatic transmission; means for judging whether the correlation is abnormal; and means for increasing oil pressure in a hydraulic control device of the automatic transmission when the correlation is judged to be abnormal.

  18. Integration of Spatial and Social Network Analysis in Disease Transmission Studies

    PubMed Central

    Root, Elisabeth D; Giebultowicz, Sophia; Ali, Mohammad; Perez-Heydrich, Carolina; Yunus, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a case study of how social network and spatial analytical methods can be used simultaneously for disease transmission modeling. The paper first reviews strategies employed in previous studies and then offers the example of transmission of two bacterial diarrheal diseases in rural Bangladesh. The goal is to understand how diseases vary socially above and beyond the effects of the local neighborhood context. Patterns of cholera and shigellosis incidence are analyzed in space and within kinship-based social networks in Matlab, Bangladesh. Data include a spatially referenced longitudinal demographic database which consists of approximately 200,000 people and laboratory-confirmed cholera and shigellosis cases from 1983 to 2003. Matrices are created of kinship ties between households using a complete network design and distance matrices are also created to model spatial relationships. Moran's I statistics are calculated to measure clustering within both social and spatial matrices. Combined spatial effects-spatial disturbance models are built to simultaneously analyze spatial and social effects while controlling for local environmental context. Results indicate that cholera and shigellosis always clusters in space and only sometimes within social networks. This suggests that the local environment is most important for understanding transmission of both diseases however kinship-based social networks also influence their transmission. Simultaneous spatial and social network analysis can help us better understand disease transmission and this study has offered several strategies on how. PMID:24163443

  19. Astrocytes Potentiate Synaptic Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadkarni, Suhita

    2005-03-01

    A recent experimental study shows that astrocytes, a subtype of glia, are able to influence the spontaneous activity in the brain via calcium dependent glutamate release. We model the coupling mechanism between an astrocyte and a neuron based on experimental data. This coupling is dynamic and bi-directional, such that the modulations in intracellular calcium concentrations in astrocytes affect neuronal excitability and vice versa via a glutamatergic pathway. We demonstrate through simple neural-glial circuits that increases in the intracellular calcium concentration in astrocytes nearby can enhance spontaneous activity in a neuron, a significant mechanism said to be involved in plasticity and learning. The pattern of this marked increase in spontaneous firing rate in our model quantitatively follows that observed in the experiment. Further, depending on the type of synaptic connections diverging from the neuron, it can either inhibit or excite the ensuing dynamics and potentiate synaptic transmission, thus reinstating the integral role played by astrocytes in normal neuronal dynamics.

  20. Fiber optic data transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shreve, Steven T.

    1987-01-01

    The Ohio University Avionics Engineering Center is currently developing a fiber optic data bus transmission and reception system that could eventually replace copper cable connections in airplanes. The original form of the system will transmit information from an encoder to a transponder via a fiber optic cable. An altimeter and an altitude display are connected to a fiber optic transmitter by copper cable. The transmitter converts the altimetry data from nine bit parallel to serial form and send these data through a fiber optic cable to a receiver. The receiver converts the data using a cable similar to that used between the altimeter and display. The transmitting and receiving ends also include a display readout. After completion and ground testing of the data bus, the system will be tested in an airborne environment.

  1. Transmission for a tractor

    SciTech Connect

    Takagi, M.; Watashi, M.

    1986-09-09

    A transmission for a tractor having front and rear wheels is described which consists of: an input shaft operatively connected to an engine; running-travel shaft means operatively connected between the input shaft and a rear wheel drive shaft for driving the rear wheels of the tractor, the running-travel shaft means including a main change speed means; PTO shaft means operatively connected to the input shaft and including a PTO counter shaft; a first gear rotatably mounted on the PTO counter shaft and operatively connected to the rear wheel drive shaft; front wheel drive shaft means disposed below the PTO counter shaft and including a second gear rotatably mounted thereon, the front wheel drive shaft means being adapted to be operatively connectable to the rear wheel drive shaft through the first gear; a mid-PTO shaft disposed below the front wheel drive shaft means and operatively connected to the PTO counter shaft through the second gear.

  2. Broadband Transmission EPR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Wilfred R.

    2013-01-01

    EPR spectroscopy employs a resonator operating at a single microwave frequency and phase-sensitive detection using modulation of the magnetic field. The X-band spectrometer is the general standard with a frequency in the 9–10 GHz range. Most (bio)molecular EPR spectra are determined by a combination of the frequency-dependent electronic Zeeman interaction and a number of frequency-independent interactions, notably, electron spin – nuclear spin interactions and electron spin – electron spin interactions, and unambiguous analysis requires data collection at different frequencies. Extant and long-standing practice is to use a different spectrometer for each frequency. We explore the alternative of replacing the narrow-band source plus single-mode resonator with a continuously tunable microwave source plus a non-resonant coaxial transmission cell in an unmodulated external field. Our source is an arbitrary wave digital signal generator producing an amplitude-modulated sinusoidal microwave in combination with a broadband amplifier for 0.8–2.7 GHz. Theory is developed for coaxial transmission with EPR detection as a function of cell dimensions and materials. We explore examples of a doublet system, a high-spin system, and an integer-spin system. Long, straigth, helical, and helico-toroidal cells are developed and tested with dilute aqueous solutions of spin label hydroxy-tempo. A detection limit of circa 5 µM HO-tempo in water at 800 MHz is obtained for the present setup, and possibilities for future improvement are discussed. PMID:23555819

  3. Optional dispatch under transmission contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, R.S.; David, A.K. [Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Kowloon (Hong Kong). Dept. of Electrical Engineering] [Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Kowloon (Hong Kong). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1999-05-01

    Open transmission access is now the most topical issue in power system deregulation. Power system operation poses the greatest challenge to a competitive environment incorporating open transmission access and there are some fundamental operational problems that are still unresolved. This paper seeks to provide an approach to the power dispatch problem in a structure dominated by bilateral and multilateral transmission contracts. A framework for price-based operation under these conditions is developed and a methodology for optimal transmission dispatch is proposed. The case study results illustrate that the proposed market arrangement and operating mechanisms are compatible with this new business environment.

  4. Refinement of Strut-and-Tie Model for Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams

    PubMed Central

    Panjehpour, Mohammad; Chai, Hwa Kian; Voo, Yen Lei

    2015-01-01

    Deep beams are commonly used in tall buildings, offshore structures, and foundations. According to many codes and standards, strut-and-tie model (STM) is recommended as a rational approach for deep beam analyses. This research focuses on the STM recommended by ACI 318-11 and AASHTO LRFD and uses experimental results to modify the strut effectiveness factor in STM for reinforced concrete (RC) deep beams. This study aims to refine STM through the strut effectiveness factor and increase result accuracy. Six RC deep beams with different shear span to effective-depth ratios (a/d) of 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, and 2.00 were experimentally tested under a four-point bending set-up. The ultimate shear strength of deep beams obtained from non-linear finite element modeling and STM recommended by ACI 318-11 as well as AASHTO LRFD (2012) were compared with the experimental results. An empirical equation was proposed to modify the principal tensile strain value in the bottle-shaped strut of deep beams. The equation of the strut effectiveness factor from AASHTTO LRFD was then modified through the aforementioned empirical equation. An investigation on the failure mode and crack propagation in RC deep beams subjected to load was also conducted. PMID:26110268

  5. Strength of social tie predicts cooperative investment in a human social network.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Freya; Sciberras, James; James, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Social networks--diagrams which reflect the social structure of animal groups--are increasingly viewed as useful tools in behavioural ecology and evolutionary biology. Network structure may be especially relevant to the study of cooperation, because the action of mechanisms which affect the cost:benefit ratio of cooperating (e.g. reciprocity, punishment, image scoring) is likely to be mediated by the relative position of actor and recipient in the network. Social proximity could thus affect cooperation in a similar manner to biological relatedness. To test this hypothesis, we recruited members of a real-world social group and used a questionnaire to reveal their network. Participants were asked to endure physical discomfort in order to earn money for themselves and other group members, allowing us to explore relationships between willingness to suffer a cost on another's behalf and the relative social position of donor and recipient. Cost endured was positively correlated with the strength of the social tie between donor and recipient. Further, donors suffered greater costs when a relationship was reciprocated. Interestingly, participants regularly suffered greater discomfort for very close peers than for themselves. Our results provide new insight into the effect of social structure on the direct benefits of cooperation. PMID:21479173

  6. Application of TIEs in studies of urban stormwater impacts on marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Jirik, A.W.; Bay, S.M.; Greenstein, D.J.; Zellers, A. [Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, Westminster, CA (United States); Lau, S.L. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Civil Engineering Dept.

    1998-12-31

    Urban stormwater runoff is a significant, yet poorly understood, source of contaminants to the marine environment. One of the largest sources of stormwater inputs to Santa Monica Bay (California) is the Ballona Creek watershed. Receiving water and runoff water samples were collected during several storms in both the 1995--96 and 1996--97 wet seasons. Sea urchin fertilization tests indicated toxicity in most Ballona Creek stormwater samples; EC{sub 50} values were about 12--20%. Receiving water samples were also toxic, with the magnitude of effects generally corresponding to the concentration of runoff present. Selected Phase 1 TIE (toxicity identification evaluation) manipulations were applied to samples showing toxicity. Ballona Creek samples had a consistent response pattern; EDTA addition removed virtually all toxicity, implicating divalent trace metals as the probable toxic constituents. Santa Monica Bay surface water samples showed a similar response pattern but other manipulations also removed some toxicity. Toxicity of receiving water samples tended to degrade with storage, while runoff sample toxicity was more stable. Chemical analysis of runoff and comparison to spiking studies showed that concentrations of zinc and occasionally copper were sufficient to produce toxicity. Evaluation of the relative effectiveness of EDTA versus sodium thiosulfate in toxicity removal also suggested zinc as a likely cause of toxicity.

  7. Spore formation in Myxococcus xanthus is tied to cytoskeleton functions and polysaccharide spore coat deposition

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Frank D.; Schink, Christian W.; Hoiczyk, Egbert; Cserti, Emöke; Higgs, Penelope I.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Myxococcus xanthus is a Gram-negative bacterium that differentiates into environmentally resistant spores. Spore differentiation involves septation-independent remodelling of the rod-shaped vegetative cell into a spherical spore and deposition of a thick and compact spore coat outside of the outer membrane. Our analyses suggest that spore coat polysaccharides are exported to the cell surface by the Exo outer membrane polysaccharide export/polysaccharide co-polymerase 2a (OPX/PCP-2a) machinery. Conversion of the capsule-like polysaccharide layer into a compact spore coat layer requires the Nfs proteins which likely form a complex in the cell envelope. Mutants in either nfs, exo, or two other genetic loci encoding homologs of polysaccharide synthesis enzymes, fail to complete morphogenesis from rods to spherical spores and instead produce a transient state of deformed cell morphology before reversion into typical rods. We additionally provide evidence that the cell cytoskeletal protein, MreB, plays an important role in rod to spore morphogenesis and for spore outgrowth. These studies provide evidence that this novel gram-negative differentiation process is tied to cytoskeleton functions and polysaccharide spore coat deposition. PMID:22188356

  8. Rayleigh Laser Guide Star Systems: UnISIS Bow Tie Shutter and CCD39 Wavefront Camera

    E-print Network

    Laird A. Thompson; Scott W. Teare; Samuel L. Crawford; Robert W. Leach

    2002-07-10

    Laser guide star systems based on Rayleigh scattering require some means to deal with the flash of low altitude laser light that follows immediately after each laser pulse. These systems also need a fast shutter to isolate the high altitude portion of the focused laser beam to make it appear star-like to the wavefront sensor. We describe how these tasks are accomplished with UnISIS, the Rayleigh laser guided adaptive optics system at the Mt. Wilson Observatory 2.5-m telescope. We use several methods: a 10,000 RPM rotating disk, dichroics, a fast sweep and clear mode of the CCD readout electronics on a 10 $\\mu$s timescale, and a Pockel's cell shutter system. The Pockel's cell shutter would be conventional in design if the laser light were naturally polarized, but the UnISIS 351 nm laser is unpolarized. So we have designed and put into operation a dual Pockel's cell shutter in a unique bow tie arrangement.

  9. Refinement of Strut-and-Tie Model for Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams.

    PubMed

    Panjehpour, Mohammad; Chai, Hwa Kian; Voo, Yen Lei

    2015-01-01

    Deep beams are commonly used in tall buildings, offshore structures, and foundations. According to many codes and standards, strut-and-tie model (STM) is recommended as a rational approach for deep beam analyses. This research focuses on the STM recommended by ACI 318-11 and AASHTO LRFD and uses experimental results to modify the strut effectiveness factor in STM for reinforced concrete (RC) deep beams. This study aims to refine STM through the strut effectiveness factor and increase result accuracy. Six RC deep beams with different shear span to effective-depth ratios (a/d) of 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, and 2.00 were experimentally tested under a four-point bending set-up. The ultimate shear strength of deep beams obtained from non-linear finite element modeling and STM recommended by ACI 318-11 as well as AASHTO LRFD (2012) were compared with the experimental results. An empirical equation was proposed to modify the principal tensile strain value in the bottle-shaped strut of deep beams. The equation of the strut effectiveness factor from AASHTTO LRFD was then modified through the aforementioned empirical equation. An investigation on the failure mode and crack propagation in RC deep beams subjected to load was also conducted. PMID:26110268

  10. TIE of a PAH-contaminated sediment using reproductive responses and EROD induction in rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Brumley, C.M.; Kraak, G. van der [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Zoology; Munkittrick, K.R. [Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    PAH-contaminated sediments have been shown to cause a range of effects in fish. However, identifying the effective compounds can be time consuming and expensive. A toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) involves the analysis of mixtures by initially separating the mixture into toxic and non-toxic constituents. In this study, sediment was collected from Hamilton Harbor, Lake Ontario, and either extracted wet using methanol (MeOH) and dichloromethane (DCM), or freeze-dried and soxhlet extracted with MeOH and DCM. DCM extracts were solvent exchanged with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed through the water to wet, freeze-dried, or extracted sediment, or to the MeOH or DMSO extracts for 4 days. Fish were analyzed for hepatic EROD activity, and plasma DMSO extracts, but was unaffected in fish exposed to extracted sediment. Estradiol levels were increased in fish exposed to the wet sediment, but not in fish exposed to the freeze-dried or extracted sediment, nor either of the solvent extracts. The response of testosterone to wet, freeze-dried and extracted sediment was inconsistent. Results indicate that both of the extraction methods efficiently removed from the sediment the compounds responsible for the effects on EROD activity and estradiol levels. However, neither method retained in the solvent extracts the compounds causing the increases in estradiol levels. Work continues to refine the freeze-drying and extraction methods; extracts will then be further fractionated using HPLC to identify the compounds of concern.

  11. Small passenger car transmission test: Chevrolet Luv transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bujold

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific roadload performance

  12. Cell Planning for Cooperative Transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Dexter Garcia; Kei Sakaguchi; Kiyomichi Araki

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative transmission (CT) (i.e. base station cooperation, multicell transmission) techniques have been shown to theoretically increase the average and cell-edge spectral efficiencies of cellular networks. These techniques aim to suppress or even take advantage of intercell signals. However, to realize the benefits of CT in actual cellular networks, cell planning parameters must be adjusted accordingly. This paper builds a framework

  13. Semiclassical transmission across transition states

    E-print Network

    Stephen C. Creagh

    2005-06-01

    It is shown that the probability of quantum-mechanical transmission across a phase space bottleneck can be compactly approximated using an operator derived from a complex Poincar\\'e return map. This result uniformly incorporates tunnelling effects with classically-allowed transmission and generalises a result previously derived for a classically small region of phase space.

  14. Transmission offset adaptation in UTRAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mats Sågfors; Janne Peisa; S. Malomsoky

    2004-01-01

    We propose an adaptive frame transmission offset method for systems supporting soft handover. With the suggested method, the transmission offset is continuously adapted to the momentary network delay. The solution is targeted for interactive class packet data traffic, for which the end-to-end delay has a crucial effect on the performance. The application studied is a UMTS terrestrial radio access network

  15. A longitudinal examination of the bidirectional association between sleep problems and social ties at university: the mediating role of emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Tavernier, Royette; Willoughby, Teena

    2015-02-01

    Despite the growing body of research linking sleep problems and social ties, research investigating the direction of effects between these two constructs is lacking. Furthermore, there remains a dearth of research examining the mechanisms that may explain the association between sleep problems and social ties within a longitudinal design. The present 3-year longitudinal study addressed two research questions: (1) Is there a bidirectional association between sleep problems and social ties at university? and (2) Does emotion regulation mediate the association between sleep problems and social ties at university? Participants (N = 942, 71.5% female; M = 19.01 years at Time 1, SD = 0.90) were university students who completed annual assessments of sleep problems, social ties, and emotion regulation, for three consecutive years. Results of path analysis indicated that the bidirectional association between sleep problems and social ties was statistically significant (controlling for demographics, sleep-wake inconsistency, sleep duration, and alcohol). Analyses of indirect effects indicated that emotion regulation mediated this link, such that better sleep quality (i.e., less sleep problems) led to more effective emotion regulation, which, subsequently, led to more positive social ties. In addition, more positive social ties led to more effective emotion regulation, which, in turn, led to less sleep problems. The findings highlight the critical role that emotional regulation plays in the link between sleep problems and social ties, and emphasize the need for students as well as university administration to pay close attention to both the sleep and social environment of university students. PMID:24578222

  16. An unbiased FIR filter for TIE model of a local clock in applications to GPS-based timekeeping.

    PubMed

    Shmaliy, Yuriy S

    2006-05-01

    An unbiased finite impulse response (FIR) filter is proposed to estimate the time-interval error (TIE) K-degree polynomial model of a local clock in global positioning system (GPS)-based timekeeping in the presence of noise that is not obligatory Gaussian. Generic coefficients for the unbiased FIRs are derived. The low-degree FIRs and noise power gains are given. An estimation algorithm is proposed and examined for the TIE measurements of a crystal clock in the presence of the uniformly distributed sawtooth noise induced by the multichannel GPS timing receiver. Based upon this algorithm, we show that the unbiased FIR estimates are consistent with the reference (rubidium) measurements and fit them better than the standard Kalman filter. PMID:16764441

  17. Morphologies of emulsions of conjugate phase pairs of amphiphile/oil/water {open_quotes}microemulsion{close_quotes} tie triangles

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.H.; Nwosu, S.N.; Johnson, G.K. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

    1992-04-01

    Electrical conductivity measurements were made on emulsions formed, respectively, from the conjugate top-middle, top-bottom, and middle-bottom phase pairs that define the three sides of various nonionic amphiphile/oil/water {open_quotes}microemulsion{close_quotes} tie triangles. Effective-medium conductivity models and observations of creaming behavior were used to substantiate assignments of steady-state emulsion morphologies. The phase volume fractions at which morphology changes occurred were measured for both directions along each tie line, and the hysteresis was obtained as the difference between the volume fractions for the two directions. The results support the dispersion morphology diagram previously postulated, including the formation of mixtures of emulsions whose morphologies are the inverse of each other. 31 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Electronically controlled automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.; Shiba, H.; Nakamura, K.

    1989-03-28

    This patent describes an electronically controlled automatic transmission having a manual valve working in connection with a manual shift lever, shift valves operated by solenoid valves which are driven by an electronic control circuit previously memorizing shift patterns, and a hydraulic circuit controlled by these manual valve and shift valves for driving brakes and a clutch in order to change speed. Shift patterns of 2-range and L-range, in addition to a shift pattern of D-range, are memorized previously in the electronic control circuit, an operation switch is provided which changes the shift pattern of the electronic control circuit to any shift pattern among those of D-range, 2-range and L-range at time of the manual shift lever being in a D-range position, a releasable lock mechanism is provided which prevents the manual shift lever from entering 2-range and L-range positions, and the hydraulic circuit is set to a third speed mode when the manual shift lever is in the D-range position. The circuit is set to a second speed mode when it is in the 2-range position, and the circuit is set to a first speed mode when it is in the L-range position, respectively, in case where the shift valves are not working.

  19. Onset and Saturation of the Kink Instability in a Current-Carrying Line-Tied Plasma W. F. Bergerson, C. B. Forest,* G. Fiksel, D. A. Hannum, R. Kendrick, J. S. Sarff, and S. Stambler

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Onset and Saturation of the Kink Instability in a Current-Carrying Line-Tied Plasma W. F. Bergerson pinch plasma. Detailed measurements show that an ideal, line-tied kink mode begins growing when theoretical effort has been made to under- stand the instability onset by modeling these plasmas as line-tied

  20. Modulation of forelimb and hindlimb muscle activity during quadrupedal tied-belt and split-belt locomotion in intact cats.

    PubMed

    Frigon, A; Thibaudier, Y; Hurteau, M-F

    2015-04-01

    The modulation of the neural output to forelimb and hindlimb muscles when the left and right sides step at different speeds from one another in quadrupeds was assessed by obtaining electromyography (EMG) in seven intact adult cats during split-belt locomotion. To determine if changes in EMG during split-belt locomotion were modulated according to the speed of the belt the limb was stepping on, values were compared to those obtained during tied-belt locomotion (equal left-right speeds) at matched speeds. Cats were chronically implanted for EMG, which was obtained from six muscles: biceps brachii, triceps brachii, flexor carpi ulnaris, sartorius, vastus lateralis and medial gastrocnemius. During tied-belt locomotion, cats stepped from 0.4 to 1.0m/s in 0.1m/s increments whereas during split-belt locomotion, cats stepped with left-right speed differences of 0.1 to 0.4m/s in 0.1m/s increments. During tied-belt locomotion, EMG burst durations and mean EMG amplitudes of all muscles respectively decreased and increased with increasing speed. During split-belt locomotion, there was a clear differential modulation of the EMG patterns between flexors and extensors and between the slow and fast sides. Changes in the EMG pattern of some muscles could be explained by the speed of the belt the limb was stepping on, while in other muscles there were clear dissociations from tied-belt values at matched speeds. Therefore, results show that EMG patterns during split-belt locomotion are modulated to meet task requirements partly via signals related to the stepping speed of the homonymous limb and from the other limbs. PMID:25644423

  1. Current driven rotating kink mode in a plasma column with a non-line-tied free end

    E-print Network

    Furno, I; Abbate, S; Madziwa-Nussinov, T; Light, A; Dorf, L; Lapenta, G; Ryutov, D D

    2006-01-01

    First experimental measurements are presented for the kink instability in a linear plasma column which is insulated from an axial boundary by finite sheath resistivity. Instability threshold below the classical Kruskal-Shafranov threshold, axially asymmetric mode structure and rotation are observed. These are accurately reproduced by a recent kink theory, which includes axial plasma flow and one end of the plasma column that is free to move due to a non-line-tied boundary condition.

  2. Current-driven rotating-kink mode in a plasma column with a non-line-tied free end.

    PubMed

    Furno, I; Intrator, T P; Ryutov, D D; Abbate, S; Madziwa-Nussinov, T; Light, A; Dorf, L; Lapenta, G

    2006-07-01

    First experimental measurements are presented for the kink instability in a linear plasma column which is insulated from an axial boundary by finite sheath resistivity. An instability threshold below the classical Kruskal-Shafranov threshold, axially asymmetric mode structure, and rotation are observed. These are accurately reproduced by a recent kink theory, which includes axial plasma flow and one end of the plasma column that is free to move due to a non-line-tied boundary condition. PMID:16907381

  3. Current-Driven Rotating-Kink Mode in a Plasma Column with a Non-Line-Tied Free End

    SciTech Connect

    Furno, I.; Intrator, T.P.; Abbate, S.; Madziwa-Nussinov, T.; Light, A.; Dorf, L.; Lapenta, G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop E526, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Ryutov, D.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2006-07-07

    First experimental measurements are presented for the kink instability in a linear plasma column which is insulated from an axial boundary by finite sheath resistivity. An instability threshold below the classical Kruskal-Shafranov threshold, axially asymmetric mode structure, and rotation are observed. These are accurately reproduced by a recent kink theory, which includes axial plasma flow and one end of the plasma column that is free to move due to a non-line-tied boundary condition.

  4. MALARIA I N NIGERIA: CDNSTRAINED CaYTINUXIS-TIE MARKDV MmLS A3R DISCRETE-TIME

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Joel E.

    MALARIA I N NIGERIA: CDNSTRAINED CaYTINUXIS-TIE MARKDV MmLS A3R DISCRETE-TIME ~ I T U D I N of the endemicity of malaria will be essential i n a population which is t o receive an acceptable malaria vaccine another." V. Nabokov (1972, p. 8) Abstract A research project on malaria i n the Garki d i s t r i c

  5. DC voltage sensorless control strategy of grid-tied two-stage three-phase photovoltaic system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianhua Yuan; Feng Gao; Houlei Gao

    2011-01-01

    The variable dc voltage generated by photovoltaic (PV) array can be harnessed as much as possible through the well-known two-stage inversion in grid- tied configuration, where the controlled dc-link voltage can be maintained stably to ensure the desired low harmonic ac output. Traditionally, the front-end dc Boost converter generally operates to track the maximum power point (MPP) of PV array

  6. Application of strut-and-tie model for design of interior anchorage zone in post-tensioned concrete structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-li Zhao; Shui-long Shen; Yang Sun

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an application of strut-and-tie model (STM) to design the interior anchorage zone (IAZ) in the post-tensioned\\u000a concrete structure. The STM theory and range of IAZ are introduced. Then, based on the finite element analysis, a series of\\u000a simplified equations to calculate internal forces in IAZ are presented. Finally, the STM model for IAZ is given. In the

  7. High soft-error tolerance body-tied SOI technology with partial trench isolation (PTI) for next generation devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Hirano; T. Iwamatsu; K. Shiga; K. Nii; K. Sonoda; T. Matsumoto; S. Maeda; Y. Yamaguchi; T. Ipposhi; S. Maegawa; Y. Inoue

    2002-01-01

    It was proven that the body-tied SOI technology with partial trench isolation (PTI) has significant high soft-error immunity. As compared with the bulk, a three-order reduction of the soft-error rate for a 0.18 ?m SOI 4 Mbit SRAM with the PTI was successfully realized by the balanced combination of the SOI thickness and well resistance. It is estimated that the

  8. BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. 351 lYQ.-TIE FISH O F DEVIL'S I;AILE, DAKOTA.

    E-print Network

    BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. 351 lYQ.-TIE FISH O F DEVIL'S I;AILE, DAKOTA. B y HENRY W. LORD. [From e letter to Prof. S.F.Baird.] Devil's Lake is about 80 miles long, and has a shore@datoryfish. Bels would also do moll in tho fresh-waterIskes, DEVIL%LAKE,DAKOTA,JuZy 28,1884. #12;

  9. Two-dimensional axisymmetric and three-dimensional helical equilibrium in the line-tied screw pinch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Paz-Soldan; M. I. Brookhart; A. J. Clinch; D. A. Hannum; C. B. Forest

    2011-01-01

    The line-tying condition at a conducting anode is shown to provide a localized modification to the well-understood 1-D screw pinch equilibrium in the presence of bulk plasma diamagnetism. Diamagnetic currents cannot flow near the conducting anode and are measured to disappear in a localized boundary layer, causing a weak mirror configuration that breaks 1-D equilibrium and causes large parallel pressure

  10. Improvement of the Accuracy of InSAR Image Co-Registration Based On Tie Points – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Weibao; Li, Yan; Li, Zhilin; Ding, Xiaoli

    2009-01-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a new measurement technology, making use of the phase information contained in the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. InSAR has been recognized as a potential tool for the generation of digital elevation models (DEMs) and the measurement of ground surface deformations. However, many critical factors affect the quality of InSAR data and limit its applications. One of the factors is InSAR data processing, which consists of image co-registration, interferogram generation, phase unwrapping and geocoding. The co-registration of InSAR images is the first step and dramatically influences the accuracy of InSAR products. In this paper, the principle and processing procedures of InSAR techniques are reviewed. One of important factors, tie points, to be considered in the improvement of the accuracy of InSAR image co-registration are emphatically reviewed, such as interval of tie points, extraction of feature points, window size for tie point matching and the measurement for the quality of an interferogram. PMID:22399966

  11. Amigos and amistades: the role of men's social network ties in shaping HIV vulnerability in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Paul J; Barrington, Clare; Perez, Martha; Donastorg, Yeycy; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    While men's social networks have been identified as a source of influence on sexual behaviour, less is known about the different types of friendship ties within men's networks. We analysed data from qualitative in-depth interviews with 36 men in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic who are current or former sexual partners of female sex workers to understand how: (1) men describe trust and communication with different types of friendship ties, (2) characteristics of trust and communication reflect norms of masculinity, and (3) these friendship ties influence HIV-related behaviours. We identified a distinction between amistades, social drinking buddies who are not trusted, and amigos, trusted friends. The majority of men lacked any amigos and some had neither amigos nor amistades. In general, men reflected traditional norms of masculinity and said they did not feel they could discuss their relationships or emotional topics with other men. Trust and communication dynamics, and how norms of masculinity shape those dynamics, should be understood and addressed in the design of HIV prevention efforts with men's social networks as they have implications for the potential effectiveness of such efforts. PMID:24939001

  12. Amigos and Amistades: The role of men’s social network ties in shaping HIV vulnerability in the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Paul J.; Barrington, Clare; Perez, Martha; Donastorg, Yeycy; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    While men’s social networks have been identified as a source of influence on sexual behaviour, less is known about the different types of friendship ties within men’s networks. We analysed data from qualitative in-depth interviews with 36 men in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic who were current or former sexual partners of female sex workers to understand how a) men describe trust and communication with different types of friendship ties, b) characteristics of trust and communication reflect norms of masculinity, and c) these friendship ties influence HIV-related behaviours. We identified a distinction between amistades, social drinking buddies who are not trusted, and amigos, trusted friends. The majority of men lacked any amigos and some had neither amigos nor amistades. In general, men reflected traditional norms of masculinity and said they did not feel they could discuss their relationships or emotional topics with other men. Trust and communication dynamics, and how norms of masculinity shape those dynamics, should be understood and addressed in the design of HIV prevention efforts with men’s social networks as they have implications for the potential effectiveness of such efforts. PMID:24939001

  13. Tying Biological Activity to Changes in Sea Spray Aerosol Chemical Composition via Single Particle Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultana, C. M.; Lee, C.; Collins, D. B.; Axson, J. L.; Laskina, O.; Grandquist, J. R.; Grassian, V. H.; Prather, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    In remote marine environments, sea spray aerosols (SSA) often represent the greatest aerosol burden, thus having significant impacts on direct radiative interactions and cloud processes. Previous studies have shown that SSA is a complex mixture of inorganic salts and an array of dissolved and particulate organic components. Enrichment of SSA organic content is often correlated to seawater chlorophyll concentrations, a measure of oceanic biological activity. As the physical and chemical properties of aerosols control their radiative effects, recent studies conducted by the Center for Aerosol Impacts on Climate and the Environment have endeavored to further elucidate the ties between marine biological activity and primary SSA chemical composition using highly time resolved single particle analyses. A series of experiments performed in the recently developed Marine Aerosol Reference Tank evaluated the effect of changing marine microbial populations on SSA chemical composition, which was monitored via an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer and a variety of offline spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. Each experiment was initiated using unfiltered and untreated seawater, thus maintaining a high level of biogeochemical complexity. This study is the first of its kind to capture daily changes in the primary SSA mixing state over the growth and death of a natural phytoplankton bloom. Increases in organic aerosol types (0.4-3 ?m), internally and externally mixed with sea salt, could not be correlated to chlorophyll concentrations. Maximum production of these populations occurred two to four days after the in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence peaked in intensity. This work is in contrast to the current paradigm of correlating SSA organic content to seawater chlorophyll concentration.

  14. Pharmacophore modeling studies of type I and type II kinase inhibitors of Tie2.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qing-Qing; Xie, Huan-Zhang; Ren, Ji-Xia; Li, Lin-Li; Yang, Sheng-Yong

    2009-02-01

    In this study, chemical feature based pharmacophore models of type I and type II kinase inhibitors of Tie2 have been developed with the aid of HipHop and HypoRefine modules within Catalyst program package. The best HipHop pharmacophore model Hypo1_I for type I kinase inhibitors contains one hydrogen-bond acceptor, one hydrogen-bond donor, one general hydrophobic, one hydrophobic aromatic, and one ring aromatic feature. And the best HypoRefine model Hypo1_II for type II kinase inhibitors, which was characterized by the best correlation coefficient (0.976032) and the lowest RMSD (0.74204), consists of two hydrogen-bond donors, one hydrophobic aromatic, and two general hydrophobic features, as well as two excluded volumes. These pharmacophore models have been validated by using either or both test set and cross validation methods, which shows that both the Hypo1_I and Hypo1_II have a good predictive ability. The space arrangements of the pharmacophore features in Hypo1_II are consistent with the locations of the three portions making up a typical type II kinase inhibitor, namely, the portion occupying the ATP binding region (ATP-binding-region portion, AP), that occupying the hydrophobic region (hydrophobic-region portion, HP), and that linking AP and HP (bridge portion, BP). Our study also reveals that the ATP-binding-region portion of the type II kinase inhibitors plays an important role to the bioactivity of the type II kinase inhibitors. Structural modifications on this portion should be helpful to further improve the inhibitory potency of type II kinase inhibitors. PMID:19138543

  15. TRANSMISSION MEDIA 4.1 Guided Transmission Media

    E-print Network

    Scarano, Vittorio

    4.2 Wireless Transmission Antennas Terrestrial Microwave Satellite Microwave Broadcast Radio for information com- munications include broadcast radio, terrestrial microwave, and satellite. Infrared microphones Microwave Radar Microwave antennas Magnetrons Infrared Lasers Guided missiles Rangefinders Radio

  16. Characterization of Cracking and Crack Growth Properties of the C5A Aircraft Tie-Box Forging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Smith, Stephen W.; Newman, John A.; Willard, Scott A.

    2003-01-01

    Detailed destructive examinations were conducted to characterize the integrity and material properties of two aluminum alloy (7075-T6) horizontal stabilizer tie box forgings removed.from US. Air Force C5A and C5B transport aircraft. The C5B tie box forging was,found to contain no evidence of cracking. Thirteen cracks were found in the CSA,forging. All but one of the cracks observed in the C5A component were located along the top cap region (one crack was located in the bottom cap region). The cracks in the C5A component initiated at fastener holes and propagated along a highly tunneled intergranular crack path. The tunneled crack growth configuration is a likelv result of surface compressive stress produced during peening of the .forging suijace. The tie box forging ,fatigue crack growth, fracture and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) properties were characterized. Reported herein are the results of laboratory air ,fatigue crack growth tests and 95% relative humidity SCC tests conducted using specimens machined from the C5A ,forging. SCC test results revealed that the C5A ,forging material was susceptible to intergranular environmental assisted cracking: the C5A forging material exhibited a SCC crack-tip stress-intensity factor threshold of less than 6 MPadn. Fracture toughness tests revealed that the C5A forging material exhibited a fracture toughness that was 25% less than the C5B forging. The C5A forging exhibited rapid laboratory air fatigue crack growth rates having a threshold crack-tip stress-intensity factor range of less than 0.8 MPa sup m. Detailed fractographic examinations revealed that the ,fatigue crack intergranular growth crack path was similar to the cracking observed in the C5A tie box forging. Because both fatigue crack propagation and SCC exhibit similar intergranular crack path behavior, the damage mechanism resulting in multi-site cracking of tie box forgings cannot be determined unless local cyclic stresses can be quantified.

  17. Midwest Transmission Workshop I Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Bryan

    2001-05-01

    OAK-B135 The meeting was opened with a review of the purposes of the workshop: (1) Present and discuss key studies and assessments of transmission upgrades, additions and related issues for the upper Midwest, including work that addresses the full range of views on these topics; (2) Understand the various transmission issues in the upper Midwest and discuss options for addressing the issues; and (3) Identify the decision makers and entities that need to play an active role if transmission issues are to be resolved, and agree on next steps for engaging these individuals and organizations through education, outreach, and information dissemination.

  18. Electrical transmission line diametrical retainer

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2004-12-14

    The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within down hole components. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to with stand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

  19. AC and DC power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The technical and economic assessment of AC and DC transmission systems; long distance transmission, cable transmission, system inter-connection, voltage support, reactive compensation, stabilisation of systems; parallel operation of DC links with AC systems; comparison between alternatives for particular schemes. Design and application equipment: design, testing and application of equipment for HVDC, series and shunt static compensated AC schemes, including associated controls. Installations: overall design of stations and conductor arrangements for HVDC, series and shunt static AC schemes including insulation co-ordination. System analysis and modelling.

  20. Keep Your Friends Close and Your Facebook Friends Closer: A Multiplex Network Approach to the Analysis of Offline and Online Social Ties

    E-print Network

    Hristova, Desislava; Mascolo, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Social media allow for an unprecedented amount of interaction between people online. A fundamental aspect of human social behavior, however, is the tendency of people to associate themselves with like-minded individuals, forming homogeneous social circles both online and offline. In this work, we apply a new model that allows us to distinguish between social ties of varying strength, and to observe evidence of homophily with regards to politics, music, health, residential sector & year in college, within the online and offline social network of 74 college students. We present a multiplex network approach to social tie strength, here applied to mobile communication data - calls, text messages, and co-location, allowing us to dimensionally identify relationships by considering the number of communication channels utilized between students. We find that strong social ties are characterized by maximal use of communication channels, while weak ties by minimal use. We are able to identify 75% of close friendshi...