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1

Radio-Influence Testing on 70 Miles of 345Kv Horizontal Bundle Conductor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio-influence (RI) test results on 70 miles of 345-kv transmission line are presented. The design of the 345-kv transmission line using 954-MCM (thousand circular mils) ACSR (aluminum cable, steel reinforced) conductor bundled at 18-inch spacing, the use of standard suspension clamps, triangular space plates, and a horizontal phase spacing of 27 feet resulted in satisfactory RI level without control rings

R. E. Graham; C. R. Bond

1961-01-01

2

Anomalous terahertz transmission in bow-tie plasmonic antenna apertures.  

PubMed

Arrays of subwavelength dipole bow-tie apertures are designed and characterized at terahertz frequencies. For an incident terahertz field perpendicular to the longer axis of the bow tie, a strong resonance enhancement, line narrowing, and a nonmonotonic frequency shift were observed with increasing length of the tapered bow-tie arms. Such characteristic behaviors primarily originate from localized surface plasmon resonances. In addition, with a decreasing aperture size, the contribution of localized plasmons becomes prominent due to an increase in plasmonic lifetime as the terahertz pulses strongly couple with the metallic surface surrounding the bow-tie apertures. PMID:21808352

Yang, Yuping; Singh, Ranjan; Zhang, Weili

2011-08-01

3

Development of 345-KV Capacitive-Graded Joint. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design of a 345-kV prefabricated capacitive-graded joint for oil-filled cables and the manufacture and testing of prototype joints are described. Tests on prototype No. 4 demonstrated the adequacy of the printed circuit design. It was not possible to ...

E. M. Allam

1980-01-01

4

Tongue-Tie (Ankyloglossia)  

MedlinePLUS

... may be serious in some individuals. When Is Tongue-tie a Problem That Needs Treatment? In Infants ... can perform a surgical procedure called a frenulectomy. Tongue-tie Surgery Considerations Tongue-tie surgery is a ...

5

Environmental Assessment for Central Power and Light Company`s proposed Military Highway-CFE tie 138/69-kV transmission line project Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Central Power and Light Company (CPL) intends to upgrade its existing transmission line ties with the Commision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) system in Mexico. CPL currently has a single 69-kilovolt (kV) transmission line in the Brownsville area which connects CPL`s system with the system of CFE. This existing line runs between the Brownsville Switching Station, located on Laredo Road in Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas, and an existing CFE 69-kV line at the Rusteberg Bend of the Rio Grande in Cameron County. Under current conditions of need, the existing 69-kV line does not possess sufficient capability to engage in appropriate power exchanges. Therefore, CPL is proposing to build a new line to link up with CFE. This proposed line would be a double-circuit line, which would (1) continue (on a slightly relocated route) the existing 69-kV tie from CPL`s Brownsville Switching Station to CFE`s facilities, and (2) add a 138-kV tie from the Military Highway Substation, located on Military Highway (US Highway 281), to CFE`s facilities. The proposed 138/69-kV line, which will be constructed and operated by CPL, will be built primarily on steel single-pole structures within an average 60-foot (ft) wide right-of-way (ROW). It will be approximately 6900--9200 ft (1.3--1.7 miles) in length, depending on the alternative route constructed.

Not Available

1992-04-01

6

Round Timbers and Ties  

Microsoft Academic Search

ound timbers and ties represent some of the most efficient uses of our forest resources. They require a minimum of processing between harvesting the tree and marketing the structural commodity. Poles and piles are debarked or peeled, seasoned, and often treated with preserva-tive prior to use as structural members. Construction logs are usually shaped to facilitate construction. Ties, used for

Ronald W. Wolfe

7

Tie my hands, tie my eyes.  

PubMed

Previous studies have demonstrated that motor abilities allow us not only to execute our own actions and to predict their consequences, but also to predict others' actions and their consequences. But just how deeply are motor abilities implicated in action observation? If an observer is prevented from acting while witnessing others' actions, will this impact on their making sense of others' behavior? We recorded proactive eye movements while participants observed an actor grasping objects. The participants' hands were either freely resting on the table or tied behind their back. Proactivity of gaze behavior was dramatically impaired when participants observed others' actions with their hands tied. Since we don't literally perceive actions with our hands, the effect may be explained by the hypothesis that effective observation of action depends not only on motor abilities but on being in a position to exercise them. This suggests, for the first time, that actions are observed best when we are actually in the position to perform them. PMID:22201461

Ambrosini, Ettore; Sinigaglia, Corrado; Costantini, Marcello

2012-04-01

8

It's a Tie  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem presents students with a situation in which the probability of an event must be determined. Students make a prediction about the probability of Kaia's father wearing the same tie during one week and simulate the event with an experiment to confirm their prediction with the experimental probability. Additional resources for the teacher are provided along with a printable version of the problem.

Team, Nrich

2013-01-01

9

Evaluation of Tie Plate Cracking on Composite Ties. Research Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Transportation Technology Center, Inc. (TTCI), in Pueblo, Colorado, conducted a study to determine the effect of tie stiffness on the durability of tie plates mounted on plastic and wood ties on the High Tonnage Loop (HTL) at the Facility for Accelerated ...

2008-01-01

10

Evolution of the USANZ tie.  

PubMed

•?The Urological Society of Australia and New Zealand (USANZ) tie represents the dual nationality of the society, the ancient history of urology, and the continuing development of urology in Australia and New Zealand. •?The earliest badge of the Urological Society of Australasia (USA) was a cartoon depiction of the cystoscopic view of a prostate from the urethra. The inception of the USANZ tie began with the borrowing of the crest of the newly granted USA coat of arms (lynx holding an exploratorium) as the logo for the USA Annual Scientific Meeting Tie in 1988. This tie was adopted de facto as the USA Society Tie; it became the template for subsequent scientific meeting ties, from which the formal USANZ tie design was adapted in 2006, to coincide with and mark the new society name, from the USA to the USANZ. This paper traces the evolution of the USANZ tie. PMID:21492368

Webb, David R; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

2011-04-01

11

Teacher, Industry and Environment (TIE).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description of the Teacher, Industry and Environment (TIE) educational improvement project at Central Missouri State Univesity is provided in this report. TIE is designed for Missouri high school chemistry teachers, involving 73 of them in a weekend workshop, meeting with chemists, engineers, and educators to assist them in using resources…

Holmes, Neal J.; Powers, Michael H.

12

Social ties and mental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally agreed that social ties play a beneficial role in the maintenance of psychological well-being. In this targeted\\u000a review, we highlight four sets of insights that emerge from the literature on social ties and mental health outcomes (defined\\u000a as stress reactions, psychological well-being, and psychological distress, including depressive symptoms and anxiety). First,\\u000a the pathways by which social networks

Ichiro Kawachi; Lisa F. Berkman

2001-01-01

13

Analysis of ILRS Site Ties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By the end of 2000, 94% of ILRS stations had completed station and site information forms (i.e. site logs). These forms contain six types of information. These six categories include site identifiers, contact information, approximate coordinates, system configuration history, system ranging capabilities, and local survey ties. The ILRS Central Bureau, in conjunction with the ILRS Networks and Engineering Working Group, has developed procedures to quality control site log contents. Part of this verification entails data integrity checks of local site ties and is the primary focus of this paper. Local survey ties are critical to the combination of space geodetic network coordinate solutions (i.e. GPS, SLR, VLBI, DORIS) of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Approximately 90% of active SLR sites are collocated with at least one other space geodetic technique. The process used to verify these SLR ties, at collocated sites, is identical to the approach used in ITRF2000. Local vectors (X, Y, Z) from each ILRS site log are differenced from its corresponding ITRF2000 position vectors (i.e. no transformations). These X, Y, and Z deltas are converted into North, East, and Up. Any deltas, in any component, larger than 5 millimeter is flagged for investigation. In the absence of ITRF2000 SLR positions, CSR positions were used. To further enhance this comparison and to fill gaps in information, local ties contained in site logs from the other space geodetic services (i.e. IGS, IVS, IDS) were used in addition to ITRF2000 ties. Case studies of two collocated sites (McDonald/Ft. Davis and Hartebeeshtoek) will be explored in-depth. Recommendations on how local site surveys should be conducted and how this information should be managed will also be presented.

Husson, V. S.; Long, J. L.; Pearlman, M.

2001-12-01

14

PWR integral tie plate and locking mechanism  

SciTech Connect

A locking mechanism for securing an upper tie plate to the tie rods of a nuclear fuel bundle is described. The mechanism includes an upper tie plate assembly and locking sleeves fixed to the ends of the tie rods. The tie plate is part of the upper tie plate assembly and is secured to the fuel bundle by securing the entire upper tie plate assembly to the locking sleeves fixed to the tie rods. The assembly includes, in addition to the tie plate, locking nuts for engaging the locking sleeves, retaining sleeves to operably connect the locking nuts to the assembly, a spring biased reaction plate to restrain the locking nuts in the locked position and a means to facilitate the removal of the entire assembly as a unit from the fuel bundle.

Flora, B.S.; Osborne, J.L.

1980-08-26

15

Hypoxia reduces endothelial Ang1-induced Tie2 activity in a Tie1-dependent manner.  

PubMed

Despite the altered expression of Tie receptors and angiopoietin ligands during hypoxic conditions, the effect of hypoxia on Tie-mediated endothelial responses has not been elucidated. In this study, we found that hypoxia increased Tie receptor expression but attenuated angiopoietin-1 (Ang1)-induced Tie2 activity, including Tie2 phosphorylation, Tie2 downstream signaling activation, and endothelial cell tube formation. However, Ang1 binding to endothelial cells was increased during hypoxic conditions. We demonstrated that Tie1 suppression restored the Tie2 activity and that Tie1-mediated Tie2 suppression was independent of tyrosine phosphatase activity. These results suggest that under hypoxic conditions, Tie1 is critical for reducing Ang1-induced Tie2 activity and angiogenesis. PMID:23770419

Yun, Jang-Hyuk; Lee, Hwan Myung; Lee, Eun Hui; Park, Jong-Wan; Cho, Chung-Hyun

2013-07-12

16

Correctional Training, Industries and Education. TIE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph includes the following seven papers: "The TIE (Training, Industries, Education) Concept--Moving from Theory to Practice" (Grieser); "Proposals for Prison Education and Training in Prison Industries" (Norris); "Implementation of TIE: Some Legislative Aspects" (Miller); "Federal Prison Industries TIE: An Update" (Muth); "Vocational…

Littlefield, John F., Ed.; West, Sharon Crook, Ed.

17

49 CFR 213.123 - Tie plates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...crossties are in use there shall be tie plates under the running rails on at least eight of any 10 consecutive ties. (b) In Classes 3 through...allowed between the base of the rail and the bearing surface of the tie plate. This paragraph...

2013-10-01

18

49 CFR 213.123 - Tie plates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...crossties are in use there shall be tie plates under the running rails on at least eight of any 10 consecutive ties. (b) In Classes 3 through...allowed between the base of the rail and the bearing surface of the tie plate. This paragraph...

2009-10-01

19

49 CFR 213.123 - Tie plates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...crossties are in use there shall be tie plates under the running rails on at least eight of any 10 consecutive ties. (b) In Classes 3 through...allowed between the base of the rail and the bearing surface of the tie plate. This paragraph...

2010-10-01

20

Distinct roles of the receptor tyrosine kinases Tie1 and Tie2 in blood vessel formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

TIE-1 and Tie-2 define a new class of receptor tyrosine kinases that are specifically expressed in developing vascular endothelial cells. To study the functions of Tie-1 and Tie-2 during vascular endothelial cell growth and differentiation in vivo, targeted mutations of the genes in mice were introduced by homologous recombination. Embryos deficient in Tie-1 failed to establish structural integrity of vascular

Thomas N. Sato; Yuzuru Tozawa; Urban Deutsch; Karen Wolburg-Buchholz; Yuko Fujiwara; Maureen Gendron-Maguire; Thomas Gridley; Hartwig Wolburg; Werner Risau; Ying Qin

1995-01-01

21

Changing views on intergenerational ties.  

PubMed

Ties to parents or grown children may be the most important social relationships in an adult's life. Research examining intergenerational relationships has focused on three broader topics: (a) the strength of emotional bonds, (b) exchanges of social support, and (c) the effects of the relationship on individual well-being. This review considers some of the major theoretical developments in the field including solidarity and intergenerational ambivalence theory as well as the newly developed multidimensional model of support. We also consider weaknesses in the research and theories to date and provide suggestions for future research. PMID:23037718

Fingerman, Karen L; Sechrist, Jori; Birditt, Kira

2013-01-01

22

Knot tying with single piece fixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knot tying poses a challenge to robotic and human manipulation due to the need to regrasp a flexible string. Without sensing, it becomes nearly impossible to guess where the string is. However, by using a fixture, the string can be continually grasped during the entire tying process. We have developed fixtures for a simple overhand knot and a square knot,

Matthew Bell; Devin J. Balkcom

2008-01-01

23

Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects Key Science program will investigate the underlying physics of SIM grid objects. Extragalactic objects in the SIM grid will be used to tie the SIM reference frame to the quasi-inertial reference frame define...

K. J. Johnston D. Boboltz A. L. Fey R. A. Gaume N. Zacharias

2004-01-01

24

Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects Key Science program will investigate the underlying physics of SIM grid objects. Extragalactic objects in the SIM grid will be used to tie the SIM reference frame to the quasi-inertial reference frame define...

K. J. Johnston D. Boboltz A. L. Fey R. A. Gaume N. Zacharias

2005-01-01

25

Software With Strong Ties to Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

TieFlow is a simple but powerful business process improvement solution. It can automate and simplify any generic or industry-specific work process, helping organizations to transform work inefficiencies and internal operations involving people, paper, and procedures into a streamlined, well-organized, electronicbased process. TieFlow increases business productivity by improving process cycle times. The software can expedite generic processes in the areas of product design and development, purchase orders, expense reports, benefits enrollment, budgeting, hiring, and sales. It can also shore up vertical market processes such as claims processing, loan application and processing, health care administration, contract management, and advertising agency traffic. The processes can be easily and rapidly captured in a graphical manner and enforced together with rules pertaining to assignments that need to be performed. Aside from boosting productivity, TieFlow also reduces organizational costs and errors. TieFlow was developed with Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) assistance from Johnson. The SBIR support entitles all Federal Government agencies to utilize the TieFlow software technology free of charge. Tietronix emphasizes that TieFlow is an outstanding workflow resource that could produce dramatic productivity and cost improvements for all agencies, just as it has done and continues to do for NASA. The Space Agency is currently using the software throughout several mission-critical offices, including the Mission Operations Directorate and the Flight Director s Office, for worldwide participation of authorized users in NASA processes. At the Flight Director s Office, TieFlow allows personnel to electronically submit and review changes to the flight rules carried out during missions.

2003-01-01

26

Ties in proximity and clustering compounds.  

PubMed

Hierarchical clustering algorithms such as Wards or complete-link are commonly used in compound selection and diversity analysis. Many such applications utilize binary representations of chemical structures, such as MACCS keys or Daylight fingerprints, and dissimilarity measures, such as the Euclidean or the Soergel measure. However, hierarchical clustering algorithms can generate ambiguous results owing to what is known in the cluster analysis literature as the ties in proximity problem, i.e., compounds or clusters of compounds that are equidistant from a compound or cluster in a given collection. Ambiguous ties can occur when clustering only a few hundred compounds, and the larger the number of compounds to be clustered, the greater the chance for significant ambiguity. Namely, as the number of "ties in proximity" increases relative to the total number of proximities, the possibility of ambiguity also increases. To ensure that there are no ambiguous ties, we show by a probabilistic argument that the number of compounds needs to be less than 2(n 1/4), where n is the total number of proximities, and the measure used to generate the proximities creates a uniform distribution without statistically preferred values. The common measures do not produce uniformly distributed proximities, but rather statistically preferred values that tend to increase the number of ties in proximity. Hence, the number of possible proximities and the distribution of statistically preferred values of a similarity measure, given a bit vector representation of a specific length, are directly related to the number of ties in proximities for a given data set. We explore the ties in proximity problem, using a number of chemical collections with varying degrees of diversity, given several common similarity measures and clustering algorithms. Our results are consistent with our probabilistic argument and show that this problem is significant for relatively small compound sets. PMID:11206366

MacCuish, J; Nicolaou, C; MacCuish, N E

2001-01-01

27

Analysis of ICPP fuel storage rack inner tie and corner tie substructures  

SciTech Connect

Finite element models were developed and analyses performed for the tie plate, inner tie block assembly, and corner tie block assembly of a 25 port fuel rack assembly designed for installation in Pool 1 of Building 666 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. These models were specifically developed to investigate the adequacy of certain welds joining components of the fuel storage rack assembly. The work scope for the task was limited to an investigation of the stress levels in the subject subassemblies when subjected to seismic loads. Structural acceptance criteria used for the elastic calculations performed were as found in the overall rack design report as issued by the rack`s designer, Holtec International. Structural acceptance criteria used for the plastic calculations performed as part of this effort were as defined in Subsection NF and Appendix F of the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The results of the analyses will also apply to the 30 port fuel storage rack design that is also scheduled for installation in Pool 1 of ICPP 666. The results obtained from the analyses performed for this task indicate that the welds joining the inner tie block and corner tie block to the surrounding rack structure meet the acceptance criteria. Further, the structural members (plates and blocks) were also found to be within the allowable stress limits established by the acceptance criteria. The separate analysis performed on the inner tie plate confirmed the structural adequacy for both the inner tie plate, corner tie plate, and tie block bolts. The analysis results verified that the inner tie and corner tie block should be capable of transferring the expected seismic load without structural failure.

Nitzel, M.E.; Rahl, R.G.

1996-01-01

28

Marine Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE): Phase 1 Guidance Document.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guidance document, using the freshwater TIE approach as a model, has been developed to aid in conducting acute and chronic marine TIEs. It focuses on Phase I of the TIE: Toxicity Characterization. Phase I of a TIE characterizes the classes of toxican...

D. L. Denton G. Chapman G. E. Morrison K. T. Ho R. M. Burgess

1996-01-01

29

78 FR 75545 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-990] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From the People's...preliminarily determines that prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire (``PC tie wire...suitable for use as prestressed tendons in concrete railroad ties (``PC tie...

2013-12-12

30

Strut-and-Tie Resources Web Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Civil Engineering Department provides a number of educational modules on the strut-and-tie method (STM) of modeling compression and tension forces in concrete. Some historical background on the method is given, followed by an explanation of the model elements and design process. Five examples that demonstrate different scenarios incorporating STM are shown. A graphical design tool software package developed at Illinois, called Computer Aided Strut-and-Tie, can be downloaded for free.

Tjhin, Tjen

2005-12-22

31

High tie versus low tie of the inferior mesenteric artery: a protocol for a systematic review  

PubMed Central

In anterior resection of rectum, the section level of inferior mesenteric artery is still subject of controversy between the advocates of high and low tie. The low tie is the division and ligation to the branching of the left colic artery and the high tie is the division and ligation at its origin at the aorta. We intend to assess current scientific evidence in literature and to establish the differences comparing technique, anatomy and physiology. The aim of this protocol is to achieve a meta-analysis that tests safety and feasibility of the two procedures with several types of outcome measures.

2011-01-01

32

High tie versus low tie of the inferior mesenteric artery: a protocol for a systematic review.  

PubMed

In anterior resection of rectum, the section level of inferior mesenteric artery is still subject of controversy between the advocates of high and low tie. The low tie is the division and ligation to the branching of the left colic artery and the high tie is the division and ligation at its origin at the aorta. We intend to assess current scientific evidence in literature and to establish the differences comparing technique, anatomy and physiology. The aim of this protocol is to achieve a meta-analysis that tests safety and feasibility of the two procedures with several types of outcome measures. PMID:22071020

Cirocchi, Roberto; Farinella, Eriberto; Trastulli, Stefano; Desiderio, Jacopo; Di Rocco, Giorgio; Covarelli, Piero; Santoro, Alberto; Giustozzi, Giammario; Redler, Adriano; Avenia, Nicola; Rulli, Antonio; Noya, Giuseppe; Boselli, Carlo

2011-01-01

33

Chemical topology: Tying up some loose ends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A linear molecule containing three bipyridine ligands can be wrapped around a single metal-ion template to form an open-knot complex. The loose ends of the knot can be 'tied' together through esterification or olefin-metathesis reactions to form closed knots that do not unravel when the metal template is removed.

Fenlon, Edward E.

2010-03-01

34

Supportive Networks: Life Ties for the Elderly.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes data showing the detrimental effects to the health of the elderly that are associated with diminution of supportive interpersonal ties. Describes six programs that illustrate the range of diversity of tasks involved in the provision of supportive associations for the elderly. (Author/GC)

Pilisuk, Marc; Minkler, Meredith

1980-01-01

35

U.S.-French Commercial Ties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. commercial ties with France are extensive, mutually profitable, and growing. With over $ 1.2 billion in commercial transactions taking place between the two countries every day of the year, each country has an increasingly large stake in the health a...

R. J. Aheam

2008-01-01

36

4. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST CORNER OF LITTLE FALLS TIE LINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST CORNER OF LITTLE FALLS TIE LINE TOWER NO. 41, OSPREY NEST ON TOWER TOP. LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Little Falls Tie Line Towers, Near Little Dam Falls on Spokane River, Wellpinit, Stevens County, WA

37

2. VIEW OF WEST ELEVATION OF LITTLE FALLS TIE LINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW OF WEST ELEVATION OF LITTLE FALLS TIE LINE TOWER NO. 23, OSPREY NEST ON TOWER TOP. LOOKING EAST - Little Falls Tie Line Towers, Near Little Dam Falls on Spokane River, Wellpinit, Stevens County, WA

38

Grid-Tied PV system energy smoothing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grid-tied PV energy smoothing was implemented by using a valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery as a temporary energy storage device to both charge and discharge as required to smooth the inverter energy output from the PV array. Inverter output was controlled by the average solar irradiance over the previous 1h time interval. On a clear day the solar irradiance power

Thomas D. Hund; Sigifredo Gonzalez; Keith Barrett

2010-01-01

39

Failure Mode and Effect Analysis of Concrete Ties inorth America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: A failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) was applied to improve the design of concrete ties in ballasted track for North American heavy haul applications. A literature review was conducted on concrete tie failure modes, failure effects, and failure causes. A survey of railroads and transit authorities in North America provided a ranking of the most critical concrete tie

John C. Zeman; J. Riley Edwards; Christopher P. L. Barkan; David A. Lange

40

Modeling Social Ties and Household Mobility  

PubMed Central

Underlying the aggregate phenomena of persistent problems such as urban sprawl and spatial socio-economic disparity is the individual choice of where to live. This study develops an agent-based model to simulate social and economic influences on neighborhood choice. With Danville, Illinois as an empirical context, a pattern-oriented approach is employed to examine the role of social ties in shaping intra-urban household mobility. In the model, household agents decide whether and where to relocate within the community based upon factors such as neighborhood attractiveness, affordability, and the density of a household's social network in the prospective block group. Social network and neighborhood choices are encoded with logit utility functions. The relative influence of factors affecting the formation of social ties in the simulated social network, such as geographic proximity, similarity of income, race, and presence of children, are adjusted using parameter variation to create alternative model settings. Simulated migration patterns resulting from different network and neighborhood choice coefficients are compared with observed migration patterns over a two-year period. Based upon 1000 simulation experiments, a regression of homeowner migration error (the difference between simulated and observed migration) relative to the parameter settings revealed components of social network choice such as income, race, and probability of local ties to be significant in matching observed migration patterns. A non-linear effect of simulated social networks on household mobility and thus migration error was exhibited in this study.

Metcalf, Sara S.

2013-01-01

41

Inferring social ties from geographic coincidences  

PubMed Central

We investigate the extent to which social ties between people can be inferred from co-occurrence in time and space: Given that two people have been in approximately the same geographic locale at approximately the same time, on multiple occasions, how likely are they to know each other? Furthermore, how does this likelihood depend on the spatial and temporal proximity of the co-occurrences? Such issues arise in data originating in both online and offline domains as well as settings that capture interfaces between online and offline behavior. Here we develop a framework for quantifying the answers to such questions, and we apply this framework to publicly available data from a social media site, finding that even a very small number of co-occurrences can result in a high empirical likelihood of a social tie. We then present probabilistic models showing how such large probabilities can arise from a natural model of proximity and co-occurrence in the presence of social ties. In addition to providing a method for establishing some of the first quantifiable estimates of these measures, our findings have potential privacy implications, particularly for the ways in which social structures can be inferred from public online records that capture individuals’ physical locations over time.

Crandall, David J.; Backstrom, Lars; Cosley, Dan; Suri, Siddharth; Huttenlocher, Daniel; Kleinberg, Jon

2010-01-01

42

Self-assembled silver nanoparticles in a bow-tie antenna configuration.  

PubMed

The self-assembly of silver nanoparticles into a bow-tie antenna configuration is achieved with the DNA origami method. Instead of complicated particle geometries, spherical silver nanoparticles are used. Formation of the structures in high yields is verified with transmission electron microscopy and agarose gel electrophoresis. According to finite-difference time-domain simulations, the antenna configuration could be used as a DNA sensor. PMID:24659271

Eskelinen, Antti-Pekka; Moerland, Robert J; Kostiainen, Mauri A; Törmä, Päivi

2014-03-26

43

Localization of the angiopoietin receptors Tie1 and Tie2 on the primary cilia in the female reproductive organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood vessel homeostasis and endothelial cell survival depend on proper signalling through angiopoietin receptors such as the receptor tyrosine kinases Tie-1 and Tie-2. We have studied the presence and subcellular localization of these receptors in murine female reproductive organs using confocal microscopy analysis of antibody stained tissue sections of ovary and oviduct. We show that Tie-2 principally localizes to primary

Stefan C. Teilmann; Søren T. Christensen

2005-01-01

44

Crystal Structures of the Tie2 Receptor Ectodomain and the Angiopoietin-2-Tie2 Complex  

SciTech Connect

The Tie receptor tyrosine kinases and their angiopoietin (Ang) ligands play central roles in developmental and tumor-induced angiogenesis. Here we present the crystal structures of the Tie2 ligand-binding region alone and in complex with Ang2. In contrast to prediction, Tie2 contains not two but three immunoglobulin (Ig) domains, which fold together with the three epidermal growth factor domains into a compact, arrowhead-shaped structure. Ang2 binds at the tip of the arrowhead utilizing a lock-and-key mode of ligand recognition--unique for a receptor kinase--where two complementary surfaces interact with each other with no domain rearrangements and little conformational change in either molecule. Ang2-Tie2 recognition is similar to antibody-protein antigen recognition, including the location of the ligand-binding site within the Ig fold. Analysis of the structures and structure-based mutagenesis provide insight into the mechanism of receptor activation and support the hypothesis that all angiopoietins interact with Tie2 in a structurally similar manner.

Barton,W.; Tzvetkova-Robev, D.; Miranda, E.; Kolev, M.; Rajashankar, K.; Himanen, J.; Nikolov, D.

2006-01-01

45

Power Generation Capabilities of Tie Tube Assemblies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Second generation nuclear thermal rocket engine designs, employing solid core reactors and expander engine cycles, generally rely on some form of nuclear-driven heater to supply the major portion of thermal energy required to preheat the turbine-drive gases. If adequate heat transfer occurs, not only will efficiency-enhancing turbine-inlet temperatures be realized, but sufficient energy will be available to enable engine operation at chamber pressures ranging to at least 2,000 psia. For the case of reactor cores employing prismatic fuel elements, the utilization of tie tube assemblies, as first employed in the core-support subsystem of the Phoebus II reactor, can provide the basis of an array of propellant (hydrogen) preheaters that offer an ample supply of energy and temperature to enable candidate expander engine cycles over a wide range of operating parameters, without reducing the total enthalpy of the core-exit gas and its attendant effect on specific impulse. By modifying the tie tube design concept set forth in LASL's Nuclear Rocket Engine definition study, a powerful, weight and packaging-effective, preheater assembly can be realized. The design features of these tie tube assemblies reflect their functional objectives, core criticality considerations, and space constraints. Since the core pressure and inertial mass loads are carried by these assemblies, the structural tubular element(s) also provide coolant passage(s) for the hydrogen. The transfer of heat to the coolant surfaces is controlled by the effective thermal conductivity of the filler structure and ``insulating sleeves,'' which surround the tubular elements and are in controlled thermal contact with the surrounding core fuel elements. An option exists to further increase the transported heat to the coolant walls by the selective loading of the filler structure, ``insulating sleeves,'' and the moderator annular element with fissionable material.

Gunn, Stanley V.; Hedstrom, James; Hundal, Rolv

1994-07-01

46

Bow-tie antennas on a dielectric half-space - Theory and experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new formulation is discussed for the rigous calculation of the radiation pattern of a bow-tie antenna of finite length and infinitesimal thickness, placed on a lossless dielectric substrate. The analysis is based on a representation of the current density on the metal surface of the antenna as a sum of an imposed (quasistatic) term and a set of current modes with unknown amplitudes. Free-space fields that are expressed in terms of continuous spectra of symmetrized plane waves are matched to the current modes using the method of moments. The resulting set of equations are solved for the unknown current amplitudes. The calculations show that for increasing bow length the antenna impedance spirals rapidly to a value predicted by transmission line theory. The theory also shows that the E-plane pattern of a two-wavelength, 60-deg bow-tie antenna is dominated by low-loss current modes propagating at the dielectric wavenumber. As the bow tie narrows, the loss of the modes increases, and the dominant wavenumber tends to the quasi-static value. Pattern measurements made at 94 GHz are shown to agree well with theoretical predictions. Measurements for a long-wire antenna, a linear array of bow-tie elements, and a log-periodic antenna are also presented.

Compton, Richard C.; Mcphedran, Ross C.; Popovic, Zorana; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.; Tong, Peter P.

1987-01-01

47

Expression of angiopoietin-TIE system components in angiosarcoma.  

PubMed

Angiosarcoma is an aggressive malignancy of endothelial differentiation. Potential roles of the endothelial angiopoietin-tunica interna endothelial cell kinase (ANGPT-TIE) system in angiosarcoma diagnosis, pathogenesis, prognosis and treatment are undefined. To examine the expression and prognostic significance of angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, TIE1 and TEK (TIE2) proteins in angiosarcoma, we immunohistochemically evaluated clinically annotated human angiosarcoma samples. Correlations of protein expression with overall survival and pathological features were explored. The cohort included 51 patients diagnosed with angiosarcoma at the age of 30-86 years (median 67). The 5-year overall survival was 45% with a median of 26 months. Moderate to strong expression of angiopoietin-1, TIE1 and TEK (TIE2) was identified in the majority of angiosarcomas and moderate to strong expression of angiopoietin-2 was observed in 42% of angiosarcomas. Increased angiopoietin-1 expression correlated with improved survival. Non-significant trends toward longer survival were also observed with increased TIE1 and TEK (TIE2) expression. Increased expression of angiopoietin-2, TIE1 and TEK (TIE2) was associated with vasoformative architecture. No differences in expression of these proteins were observed when patients were segregated by age, gender, presence or absence of metastases at diagnosis, primary tumor location, radiation association or the presence of necrosis. We conclude that components of the ANGPT-TIE system are commonly expressed in angiosarcomas. Reduced expression of these proteins is associated with non-vasoformative and clinically more aggressive lesions. PMID:23558570

Buehler, Darya; Rush, Patrick; Hasenstein, Jason R; Rice, Stephanie R; Hafez, Gholam Reza; Longley, B Jack; Kozak, Kevin R

2013-08-01

48

Expression of Angiopoietin-TIE System Components in Angiosarcoma  

PubMed Central

Angiosarcoma is an aggressive malignancy of endothelial differentiation. Potential roles of the endothelial angiopoietin-tunica internal endothelial cell kinase (ANGPT-TIE) system in angiosarcoma diagnosis, pathogenesis, prognosis and treatment are undefined. To examine the expression and prognostic significance of angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, TIE1 and TEK (TIE2) proteins in angiosarcoma, we immunohistochemically evaluated clinically annotated human angiosarcoma samples. Correlations of protein expression with overall survival and pathologic features were explored. The cohort included 51 patients diagnosed with angiosarcoma at age 30-86 years old (median 67). The 5-year overall survival was 45% with a median of 26 months. Moderate to strong expression of angiopoietin-1, TIE1 and TEK (TIE2) was identified in the majority of angiosarcomas and moderate to strong expression of angiopoietin-2 was observed in 42% of angiosarcomas. Increased angiopoietin-1 expression correlated with improved survival. Non-significant trends toward longer survival were also observed with increased TIE1 and TEK (TIE2) expression. Increased expression of angiopoietin-2, TIE1 and TEK (TIE2) was associated with vasoformative architecture. No differences in expression of these proteins were observed when patients were segregated by age, gender, presence or absence of metastases at diagnosis, primary tumor location, radiation association or the presence of necrosis. We conclude that components of the ANGPT-TIE system are commonly expressed in angiosarcomas. Reduced expression of these proteins is associated with non-vasoformative and clinically more aggressive lesions.

Buehler, Darya; Rush, Patrick; Hasenstein, Jason R.; Rice, Stephanie R.; Hafez, Gholam Reza; Longley, B. Jack; Kozak, Kevin R

2013-01-01

49

Strong Ties, Weak Ties, and Human Capital: Latino Immigrant Employment outside the Enclave  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on the role of social ties and human capital in the integration of Latino immigrants into the local economy. This analysis extends earlier research by focusing on more rural contexts with limited labor-market opportunities and less access to social resources provided by coethnics. We reconsider conclusions of previous studies by…

Pfeffer, Max J.; Parra, Pilar A.

2009-01-01

50

78 FR 75544 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-201-843] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico: Preliminary...preliminarily determines that prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire (``PC tie wire...suitable for use as prestressed tendons in concrete railroad ties (``PC tie...

2013-12-12

51

Targeting the Tie2/Tek Receptor in Astrocytomas  

PubMed Central

Tie2 is an endothelial cell-specific receptor tyrosine kinase, whose activation is positively and negatively modulated by angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2, respectively. Angiopoietin-mediated modulation of Tie2 activation contributes to normal vessel development and stability, however, its role in tumor angiogenesis is not well known. We investigated the role of Tie2 activation in malignant astrocytomas, a common and highly vascularized primary human brain tumor. We found that Tie2 expression and activation increases with increasing malignancy grade of astrocytomas. Inhibition of Tie2, using a kinase-deficient Tie2 construct, decreases growth of malignant human astrocytoma subcutaneous and intracranial xenografts. Tie2 inactivation disrupted the tumor vascularity, with a decrease in microvascular density, increased presence of abnormally dilated vessels, and loss of interaction between endothelial cells and surrounding smooth muscle cells, all collectively resulting in increased tumor cell apoptosis. Overall, these findings strongly suggest that Tie2 activation contributes significantly to astrocytoma tumor angiogenesis and growth. We postulate that targeting Tie2 activation, either independently or in conjunction with other anti-angiogenic therapies, such as against vascular endothelial growth factor, is of potential clinical interest.

Zadeh, Gelareh; Qian, Baoping; Okhowat, Ali; Sabha, Nesrin; Kontos, Christopher D.; Guha, Abhijit

2004-01-01

52

Suicidal strangulation by plastic lock tie.  

PubMed

A case of self-strangulation with a rare kind of ligature material is reported and discussed. The merit of the case lies in the 'self-retaining' nature of the ligature material deployed. The case subject was a 50 year old man found dead in an open field with a unique ligature material of 'plastic lock tie' in-situ at neck. Forensic autopsy revealed ligature mark above the level of thyroid cartilage, evidence of bleeding through mouth and nostrils along with generalized features of congestion. Toxicological analysis of blood and viscera detected organophosphorus poison in stomach contents. Cause of death was opined as mechanical asphyxia due to compression of neck by self-strangulation. The importance of a scrupulous forensic autopsy supplemented by ancillary investigations and circumstantial evidences are highlighted. The relevance of the visit of autopsy surgeon to the scene of occurrence is emphasized. PMID:23217378

Pramod Kumar, G N; Arun, M; Manjunatha, B; Balaraj, B M; Verghese, Annie J

2013-01-01

53

BSE Rap: intergenerational ties to save lives.  

PubMed

This article presents an innovative public-education strategy that was created to promote breast health awareness and early breast cancer detection among minority and low-income adolescent females. Given the importance of teaching breast self-examination (BSE), program development focused on creation of the BSE Rap, a lively music-video presentation. Increasing adolescents' knowledge and awareness of BSE is viewed as a springboard for disseminating information to their mothers and grandmothers. Funding was obtained for production of a video and a breast health diary, which are the program's key components. Marketing strategies included contacts with community organizations and healthcare professionals. Program evaluations reveal that the BSE Rap serves as a positive motivator for participants to discuss BSE and mammography with their mothers and grandmothers. The BSE Rap offers oncology nurses the opportunity to save lives using a unique and creative tool that focuses on intergenerational ties. PMID:8415152

Ehmann, J L

1993-09-01

54

T.I.E.: Integrating Training, Industry and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the author's comments at the Training, Industry, Education (T.I.E.) Conference held in Chicago in 1985. The comments cover such areas as relationships among industry, training, and education goals in a correctional setting; planning and implementation of the T.I.E. model; and staff training for the model. (CH)

Coffey, Osa D.

1986-01-01

55

Networked Learning a Relational Approach: Weak and Strong Ties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we explore the idea of weak ties in networked learning. We go back to the original conception of the strength of weak ties and relate this to Bakhtin and a dialogic understanding of networked learning. These theoretical ideas are applied to the examination of two networked settings in which educational leaders exchange ideas and…

Jones, C. R.; Ferreday, D.; Hodgson, V.

2008-01-01

56

Considering ties elasticities in high frequency rail dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eigenfrequencies of elastic railroad ties are experimentally and numerically determined. The eigenfrequencies were experimentally obtained for vertical and lateral eigenoscillations shapes. A finite element program, which contains interpolation hermitian polynomials, was used for calculating eigenfrequencies; bending and shear stiffnesses were taken into consideration and the coupling between flexion and torsion was neglected. The results were compared with data obtained for rigid ties. An approximation formula for eigenfrequency calculation of ties, based on the assumption of a beam with constant stiffness and subjected to shear deformation and torsional inertia, was given. A model which takes into account the elastic properties of ties was developed for calculating the compliance of rails in the frequency area. From the results it can be deduced that elastic calculations for ties are only necessary for frequencies lower than 200 Hz.

Knothe, K.; Ilias, N.; Goetz, M.; Ripke, B.

1993-05-01

57

Isolation of the zebrafish homologues for the tie-1 and tie-2 endothelium-specific receptor tyrosine kinases.  

PubMed

Several characteristics of the zebrafish embryo make it an attractive model in which to study the development of the cardiovascular system. The utility of the zebrafish as a model of mammalian vascular development will depend on the conservation of molecular and morphogenetic mechanisms of vessel growth. Here, we report the cloning of the zebrafish homologues of the endothelium-specific receptor tyrosine kinases tie-1 and tie-2. The Z tie-2 clone represents the first report of a full-length zebrafish endothelium-specific gene. The zebrafish tie family members have significant structural homology with their murine and human counterparts. In addition, like the murine tie-1 and tie-2 genes, expression was found predominantly in endothelial cells. At 24-hr postfertilization (HPF), Z tie-1 was expressed in all observed populations of endothelial cells. Interestingly, Z tie-2 exhibited a similar, although slightly more restricted, expression pattern. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that mechanisms of vascular development are highly conserved across species and that zebrafish will continue to be a useful model for the investigation of vertebrate embryonic vascular development. PMID:9603430

Lyons, M S; Bell, B; Stainier, D; Peters, K G

1998-05-01

58

An Improved Analysis of Rail Stresses and Rail-Tie Contact Forces, for a Cross-Tie Track.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presently, the dominant method for calculating rail stresses and rail-tie contact forces is based on the model of a beam on a Winkler base. One shortcoming of this analysis is that it neglects the effect of the moments which the ties exert on the rails, s...

A. D. Kerr

1978-01-01

59

Error assessment of local tie vectors in space geodesy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the computation of the ITRF, the data of the geometric space-geodetic techniques on co-location sites are combined. The combination increases the redundancy and offers the possibility to utilize the strengths of each technique while mitigating their weaknesses. To enable the combination of co-located techniques each technique needs to have a well-defined geometric reference point. The linking of the geometric reference points enables the combination of the technique-specific coordinate to a multi-technique site coordinate. The vectors between these reference points are called "local ties". The realization of local ties is usually reached by local surveys of the distances and or angles between the reference points. Identified temporal variations of the reference points are considered in the local tie determination only indirectly by assuming a mean position. Finally, the local ties measured in the local surveying network are to be transformed into the ITRF, the global geocentric equatorial coordinate system of the space-geodetic techniques. The current IERS procedure for the combination of the space-geodetic techniques includes the local tie vectors with an error floor of three millimeters plus a distance dependent component. This error floor, however, significantly underestimates the real accuracy of local tie determination. To fullfill the GGOS goals of 1 mm position and 0.1 mm/yr velocity accuracy, an accuracy of the local tie will be mandatory at the sub-mm level, which is currently not achievable. To assess the local tie effects on ITRF computations, investigations of the error sources will be done to realistically assess and consider them. Hence, a reasonable estimate of all the included errors of the various local ties is needed. An appropriate estimate could also improve the separation of local tie error and technique-specific error contributions to uncertainties and thus access the accuracy of space-geodetic techniques. Our investigations concern the simulation of the error contribution of each component of the local tie definition and determination. A closer look into the models of reference point definition, of accessibility, of measurement, and of transformation is necessary to properly model the error of the local tie. The effect of temporal variations on the local ties will be studied as well. The transformation of the local survey into the ITRF can be assumed to be the largest error contributor, in particular the orientation of the local surveying network to the ITRF.

Falkenberg, Jana; Heinkelmann, Robert; Schuh, Harald

2014-05-01

60

Broadband millimeter-wave GaAs transmitters and receivers using planar bow-tie antennas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report broadband monolithic transmitters and receivers IC's for mm-wave electromagnetic measurements. The IC's use nonlinear transmission lines (NLTL) and sampling circuits as picosecond pulse generators and detectors. The pulses are radiated and received by planar monolithic bow-tie antennas, collimated with silicon substrate lenses and off-axis parabolic reflectors. Through Fourier transformation of the received pulse, 30-250 GHz free space gain-frequency measurements are demonstrated with an accuracy approximately = 0.17 dB, RMS.

Konishi, Y.; Kamegawa, M.; Case, M.; Yu, R.; Rodwell, M. J. W.; York, R. A.; Rutledge, D. B.

1992-01-01

61

Broadband millimeter-wave GaAs transmitters and receivers using planar bow-tie antennas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report broadband monolithic transmitters and receivers IC's for mm-wave electromagnetic measurements. The IC's use nonlinear transmission lines (NLTL) and sampling circuits as picosecond pulse generators and detectors. The pulses are radiated and received by planar monolithic bow-tie antennas, collimated with silicon substrate lenses and off-axis parabolic reflectors. Through Fourier transformation of the received pulse, 30-250 GHz free space gain-frequency measurements are demonstrated with an accuracy approximately = 0.17 dB, RMS.

Konishi, Y.; Kamegawa, M.; Case, M.; Yu, R.; Rodwell, M. J. W.; York, R. A.; Rutledge, D. B.

62

Endoscopic Suturing and Knot Tying: Theory Into Practice  

PubMed Central

Objective To advance modern surgical techniques of endoscopic knot tying, encompassing a new appreciation of knot-tying theory and the application of second-generation, purpose-designed instruments. Summary Background Data During open surgery, surgeons automatically create the surgical half-hitch by using either instrument or hand/finger knot-tying methods (figure 4). Each of these methods, which are mirror images of each other, forms the same result, the half-hitch. Two opposing half-hitches are needed to form a square knot. There are many ways for new-generation instruments to create a secure square knot during endoscopic surgery. An overview of the current endoscopic knot-tying methods is presented. Methods The author presents a theoretical analysis of square knot-tying techniques as applied during instrument and hand/finger movements. The application of a mirror-image concept was considered in the analysis of these two contrasting methods. Results There are 12 ways to create a square knot, some of which have previously not been described or needed in open surgery. Some of these methods have particular application in endoscopic surgery. Conclusions A new understanding of knot-tying theory has been developed, with innovative methods being defined for tissue approximation during endoscopic surgery. These ergonomic, efficient, and contrasting methods of knot tying are described using second-generation endoscopic instruments. The new techniques have direct and broad application in many fields of minimally invasive surgery.

Murphy, Donald L.

2001-01-01

63

VEGF, its receptors and the tie receptors in recurrent miscarriage.  

PubMed

The aetiology of recurrent miscarriage (at least three consecutive miscarriages) usually remains unsolved. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family of proteins, together with their receptors and the Tie (tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin and epidermal growth factor homology domains) receptors, are crucial for embryonic development. Therefore, we used immunohistochemistry to analyse the expression of VEGF, the VEGF receptors (VEGFR)-1, -2, and -3, and the Tie-1 and Tie-2 receptors in placental and decidual tissue of women with a history of recurrent miscarriage and missed abortion (MA; n = 12) or blighted ovum (BO; n = 6), and from normal early terminated pregnancies (n = 12). Compared with controls, the MA and BO groups showed: (i) diminished placental trophoblastic VEGF immunoreactivity; (ii) weaker VEGFR-1 and -2 immunoreactivity in decidual vascular endothelium; (iii) reduced placental trophoblastic Tie-1 receptor immunoreactivity; and (iv) reduced decidual vascular endothelial Tie-1 and -2 receptor immunoreactivity. The absence of VEGFR-3 immunoreactivity in decidual vascular endothelium was also noted in all study groups. Interestingly, placental villi from the BO group presented blood vessel-like structures negative for von Willebrand factor, but positive for VEGF, VEGFR-1, -2, -3, Tie-1 and Tie-2 receptor. We conclude that the expression of these antigens may be altered in recurrent miscarriages. PMID:10694277

Vuorela, P; Carpén, O; Tulppala, M; Halmesmäki, E

2000-03-01

64

'Through-the-loop' tie for microsurgical suturing.  

PubMed

We present a technique for tying microsurgical knots called 'through-the-loop'. The main advantage of this technique is that the short end of the microsuture is always held by the instruments and thus prevented from falling and adhering to the surrounding tissue. Consequently, the short end can be easily re-grasped and the knot tied without difficulty. This technique can be performed by either right- or left-hand-dominant surgeons and can facilitate faster and more efficient microsurgical knot tying, which the novice microsurgeon may find useful. PMID:19556174

Karri, Vasu; Chang, Li-Ren; Liu, Yi-Tien; Chen, Hung-Chi

2010-07-01

65

Quality versus quantity of social ties in experimental cooperative networks  

PubMed Central

Recent studies suggest that allowing individuals to choose their partners can help to maintain cooperation in human social networks; this behaviour can supplement behavioural reciprocity, whereby humans are influenced to cooperate by peer pressure. However, it is unknown how the rate of forming and breaking social ties affects our capacity to cooperate. Here we use a series of online experiments involving 1,529 unique participants embedded in 90 experimental networks, to show that there is a ‘Goldilocks’ effect of network dynamism on cooperation. When the rate of change in social ties is too low, subjects choose to have many ties, even if they attach to defectors. When the rate is too high, cooperators cannot detach from defectors as much as defectors re-attach and, hence, subjects resort to behavioural reciprocity and switch their behaviour to defection. Optimal levels of cooperation are achieved at intermediate levels of change in social ties.

Shirado, Hirokazu; Fu, Feng; Fowler, James H.; Christakis, Nicholas A.

2013-01-01

66

Tie1 deficiency induces endothelial-mesenchymal transition.  

PubMed

Endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) has a significant role in embryonic heart formation and in various pathologies. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate EndMT induction remain to be elucidated. We show that suppression of receptor tyrosine kinase Tie1 but not Tie2 induces human endothelial cells to undergo EndMT and that Slug deficiency reverts this process. We find that Erk1/2, Erk5 and Akt cascades control Slug promoter activity induced by Tie1 deficiency. Interestingly, EndMT is present in human pancreatic tumour. We propose that EndMT associated with Tie1 downregulation participates in the pathological development of stroma observed in tumours. PMID:22421998

Garcia, Julie; Sandi, Maria José; Cordelier, Pierre; Binétruy, Bernard; Pouysségur, Jacques; Iovanna, Juan Lucio; Tournaire, Roselyne

2012-05-01

67

Tie1 deficiency induces endothelial-mesenchymal transition  

PubMed Central

Endothelial–mesenchymal transition (EndMT) has a significant role in embryonic heart formation and in various pathologies. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate EndMT induction remain to be elucidated. We show that suppression of receptor tyrosine kinase Tie1 but not Tie2 induces human endothelial cells to undergo EndMT and that Slug deficiency reverts this process. We find that Erk1/2, Erk5 and Akt cascades control Slug promoter activity induced by Tie1 deficiency. Interestingly, EndMT is present in human pancreatic tumour. We propose that EndMT associated with Tie1 downregulation participates in the pathological development of stroma observed in tumours.

Garcia, Julie; Sandi, Maria Jose; Cordelier, Pierre; Binetruy, Bernard; Pouyssegur, Jacques; Iovanna, Juan Lucio; Tournaire, Roselyne

2012-01-01

68

Thinking, Memory Problems Tied to Blockages in Neck Artery  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Thinking, Memory Problems Tied to Blockages in Neck Artery Researcher ... 21, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Carotid Artery Disease Memory Mild Cognitive Impairment MONDAY, April 21, 2014 (HealthDay ...

69

DO TIE LABORATORY BASED ASSESSMENT METHODS REALLY PREDICT FIELD EFFECTS?  

EPA Science Inventory

Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) methods have been developed for both porewaters and whole sediments. These relatively simple laboratory methods are designed to identify specific toxicants or classes of toxicants in sediments; however, the question of whethe...

70

DO TIE LABORATORY BASED METHODS REALLY REFLECT FIELD CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) methods have been developed for both interstitial waters and whole sediments. These relatively simple laboratory methods are designed to identify specific toxicants or classes of toxicants in sediments; however, the question ...

71

Certain Sedatives Tied to Breathing Problems in Older COPD Patients  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Certain Sedatives Tied to Breathing Problems in Older COPD Patients Study author urges ... widely used sedatives increases the risk of serious breathing problems in older people with the lung condition ...

72

Views of the Apollo 11 Twentieth Anniversary Black Tie reception  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

View from the Apollo 11 Twentieth Anniversary Black Tie reception at the downtown Houston Hyatt Regency Hotel. Scene show NASA/JSC Director Aaron Cohen talking with NASA Administrator Richard H. Truly and his wife, Cody.

1989-01-01

73

Quality versus quantity of social ties in experimental cooperative networks.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest that allowing individuals to choose their partners can help to maintain cooperation in human social networks; this behaviour can supplement behavioural reciprocity, whereby humans are influenced to cooperate by peer pressure. However, it is unknown how the rate of forming and breaking social ties affects our capacity to cooperate. Here we use a series of online experiments involving 1,529 unique participants embedded in 90 experimental networks, to show that there is a 'Goldilocks' effect of network dynamism on cooperation. When the rate of change in social ties is too low, subjects choose to have many ties, even if they attach to defectors. When the rate is too high, cooperators cannot detach from defectors as much as defectors re-attach and, hence, subjects resort to behavioural reciprocity and switch their behaviour to defection. Optimal levels of cooperation are achieved at intermediate levels of change in social ties. PMID:24226079

Shirado, Hirokazu; Fu, Feng; Fowler, James H; Christakis, Nicholas A

2013-01-01

74

16. VIEW OF STEEL FLOOR BEAMS WITH TIE RODS, SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. VIEW OF STEEL FLOOR BEAMS WITH TIE RODS, SHOWING SWAY BRACING, SUPPORT TIMBER STRINGERS AND BECK, WEST END, LOOKING WEST - Hot Springs Bridge, Spanning Bruneau River, Hot Springs Road, Bruneau, Owyhee County, ID

75

26. OBLIQUE VIEW OF DRAW SPAN TRUSS FRAMING. PINNED TIE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. OBLIQUE VIEW OF DRAW SPAN TRUSS FRAMING. PINNED TIE CONNECTION ON SOUTH END, LOOKING UP (Fred Small) - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

76

Experimental Study of the Vibration Characteristics of Railroad Ties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibration characteristics of railroad ties are investigated by the method of shock excitation. The feasibility of estimating the quality of railroad tracks from the harmonic analysis of these vibrations is demonstrated.

Vasil'Ev, N. A.; Dvornikov, S. I.

2000-05-01

77

TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATION (TIE) RESULTS FOR METAL CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Identification of contaminants in sediment is necessary for sound management decisions on sediment disposal, remediation, determination of ecological risk, and source identification. We have been developing sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) techniques that allow ...

78

TV in Child's Bedroom Tied to Weight Gain  

MedlinePLUS

... Child's Bedroom Tied to Weight Gain But 'active' video games might help youngsters stay slim, researchers stay (*this ... to gain weight. But kids who play active video games might lose unwanted pounds, according to two new ...

79

More Evidence Ties Poor Sleep to Obesity in Kids  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. More Evidence Ties Poor Sleep to Obesity in Kids Study highlights need for ... 19, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Obesity in Children Sleep Disorders MONDAY, May 19, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Young ...

80

1 in 10 Deaths Among Adults Tied to Alcohol: CDC  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. 1 in 10 Deaths Among Adults Tied to Alcohol: CDC Study also ... June 26, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- One in 10 deaths among U.S. adults is linked to excessive alcohol ...

81

Certain Prescription Painkillers Tied to Higher Risk of Irregular Heartbeat  

MedlinePLUS

... Tied to Higher Risk of Irregular Heartbeat: Study Dutch researchers looked at rates of atrial fibrillation and ... older who live in one area of the Dutch city. During the average follow-up period of ...

82

18. Windlass capstan, looking aft. Windlass used for tying up ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. Windlass capstan, looking aft. Windlass used for tying up as well as raising and lowering boat on starboard side. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter BRAMBLE, Waterfront at Lincoln Avenue, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

83

Tie2 and Eph receptor tyrosine kinase activation and signaling.  

PubMed

The Eph and Tie cell surface receptors mediate a variety of signaling events during development and in the adult organism. As other receptor tyrosine kinases, they are activated on binding of extracellular ligands and their catalytic activity is tightly regulated on multiple levels. The Eph and Tie receptors display some unique characteristics, including the requirement of ligand-induced receptor clustering for efficient signaling. Interestingly, both Ephs and Ties can mediate different, even opposite, biological effects depending on the specific ligand eliciting the response and on the cellular context. Here we discuss the structural features of these receptors, their interactions with various ligands, as well as functional implications for downstream signaling initiation. The Eph/ephrin structures are already well reviewed and we only provide a brief overview on the initial binding events. We go into more detail discussing the Tie-angiopoietin structures and recognition. PMID:24478383

Barton, William A; Dalton, Annamarie C; Seegar, Tom C M; Himanen, Juha P; Nikolov, Dimitar B

2014-03-01

84

Severe Obesity in Teens Tied to Possible Kidney Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Severe Obesity in Teens Tied to Possible Kidney Problems Study ... April 25, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Kidney Diseases Obesity in Children Teen Health FRIDAY, April 25, 2014 ( ...

85

Intracavity frequency conversion: from bow-ties to whispering galleries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing optical feedback by a resonator enhances the efficiency of nonlinear optical effects, e.g. frequency conversion. The bow-tie cavity is known to be a very successful scheme and it has made its way into the commercial world of second harmonic generation and parametric oscillation. We demonstrate a continuouswave optical parametric oscillator based on a bow-tie cavity converting monochromatic pump light

Ingo Breunig; Rosita Sowade; Jens Kießling; Tobias Beckmann; Heiko Linnenbank; Daniel Haertle; Karsten Buse

2010-01-01

86

Automated seismic-to-well ties using dynamic time warping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The quality of seismic-to-well tie is commonly quantified using the classical Pearson's correlation co- efficient. However the seismic wavelet is time-variant, well logging and upscaling is only approximate, and the correlation coefficient does not follow this nonlinear behavior. We introduce the Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) to automate the tying process, accounting for frequency and time variance. The Dynamic Time

Roberto H. Herrera; Mirko van der Baan

87

78 FR 75547 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Thailand: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Not...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-549-829] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Thailand: Preliminary...preliminarily determines that prestressed concrete steel rail tire wire (``PC tie wire...suitable for use as prestressed tendons in concrete railroad ties (``PC tie...

2013-12-12

88

The relationship between perceived discrimination and high-risk social ties among illicit drug users in New York City, 2006-2009.  

PubMed

Discrimination can influence risk of disease by promoting unhealthy behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol use). Whether it influences the formation of high-risk social ties that facilitate HIV transmission is unclear. Using cross-sectional data from a cohort of illicit drug users, this study examined the association between discrimination based on race, drug use and prior incarceration and risky sex and drug ties. Negative binomial regression models were performed. Participants who reported discrimination based on race and drug use had significantly more sex and drug-using ties. But, after accounting for both racial and drug use discrimination, only racial discrimination was associated with increased sex, drug-using, and injecting ties. Drug users who experience discrimination and subsequently develop more sex and drug-using ties, increase their risk of contracting HIV. Future longitudinal studies illuminating the pathways linking discrimination and social network development may guide intervention development and identify drug-using subpopulations at high risk for disease transmission. PMID:22638866

Crawford, Natalie D; Ford, Chandra; Galea, Sandro; Latkin, Carl; Jones, Kandice C; Fuller, Crystal M

2013-01-01

89

Robust tie points selection for InSAR image coregistration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image coregistration is an important step in SAR interferometry which is a well known method for DEM generation and surface displacement monitoring. A practical and widely used automatic coregistration algorithm is based on selecting a number of tie points in the master image and looking for the correspondence of each point in the slave image using correlation technique. The characteristics of these points, their number and their distribution have a great impact on the reliability of the estimated transformation. In this work, we present a method for automatic selection of suitable tie points that are well distributed over the common area without decreasing the desired tie points' number. First we select candidate points using Harris operator. Then from these points we select tie points depending on their cornerness measure (the highest first). Once a tie point is selected, its correspondence is searched for in the slave image, if the similarity measure maximum is less than a given threshold or it is at the border of the search window, this point is discarded and we proceed to the next Harris point, else, the cornerness of the remaining candidates Harris points are multiplied by a spatially radially increasing function centered at the selected point to disadvantage the points in a neighborhood of a radius determined from the size of the common area and the desired number of points. This is repeated until the desired number of points is selected. Results of an ERS1/2 tandem pair are presented and discussed.

Skanderi, Takieddine; Chabira, Boulerbah; Afifa, Belkacem; Belhadj Aissa, Aichouche

2013-10-01

90

Plasmonic coupling of bow tie antennas with Ag nanowire.  

PubMed

Ag nanowire with the receiving and transmitting Ag bow tie antenna pairs at its incident and emission ends was patterned on the SiO(2) substrate to realize an enhanced surface plasmon emission with a factor of 45 compared to the single Ag nanowire without antenna pairs. The receiving and transmitting bow tie antenna pairs enhanced the plasmon coupling and emission efficiencies of the Ag nanowire. And the maximum plasmon emission sensitively depended on the length of Ag nanowire, the arm length of bow tie antennas, and the incident angle of optical excitation. This enhanced plasmon emission was confirmed by finite-difference time-domain simulations and explored with analytical calculations using the impedance matching theory at optical frequency. PMID:21344917

Fang, Zheyu; Fan, Linran; Lin, Chenfang; Zhang, Dai; Meixner, Alfred J; Zhu, Xing

2011-04-13

91

Time varying networks and the weakness of strong ties  

PubMed Central

In most social and information systems the activity of agents generates rapidly evolving time-varying networks. The temporal variation in networks' connectivity patterns and the ongoing dynamic processes are usually coupled in ways that still challenge our mathematical or computational modelling. Here we analyse a mobile call dataset and find a simple statistical law that characterize the temporal evolution of users' egocentric networks. We encode this observation in a reinforcement process defining a time-varying network model that exhibits the emergence of strong and weak ties. We study the effect of time-varying and heterogeneous interactions on the classic rumour spreading model in both synthetic, and real-world networks. We observe that strong ties severely inhibit information diffusion by confining the spreading process among agents with recurrent communication patterns. This provides the counterintuitive evidence that strong ties may have a negative role in the spreading of information across networks.

Karsai, Marton; Perra, Nicola; Vespignani, Alessandro

2014-01-01

92

Time varying networks and the weakness of strong ties.  

PubMed

In most social and information systems the activity of agents generates rapidly evolving time-varying networks. The temporal variation in networks' connectivity patterns and the ongoing dynamic processes are usually coupled in ways that still challenge our mathematical or computational modelling. Here we analyse a mobile call dataset and find a simple statistical law that characterize the temporal evolution of users' egocentric networks. We encode this observation in a reinforcement process defining a time-varying network model that exhibits the emergence of strong and weak ties. We study the effect of time-varying and heterogeneous interactions on the classic rumour spreading model in both synthetic, and real-world networks. We observe that strong ties severely inhibit information diffusion by confining the spreading process among agents with recurrent communication patterns. This provides the counterintuitive evidence that strong ties may have a negative role in the spreading of information across networks. PMID:24510159

Karsai, Márton; Perra, Nicola; Vespignani, Alessandro

2014-01-01

93

Role Markers of Adulthood and Young Adults' Ties to Grandparents  

PubMed Central

This study investigates the implications of residential independence, enrollment in postsecondary education, employment, marital status, and parenthood for contact with, and closeness to, grandparents. Data come from 1,507 young adults interviewed in Wave 3 of the National Survey of Families and Households. Findings suggest that adult roles can be either negatively or positively associated with grandparent-grandchild ties, depending on specific configurations among such factors as the adult role in question, a particular dimension of intergenerational solidarity, lineage, and grandchild’s and grandparent’s gender. Young adults’ ties to parents can mediate the adverse consequences of residential independence for contact with grandparents.

Monserud, Maria A.

2010-01-01

94

Depression Tied to Crohn's Disease Flare-Ups  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Depression Tied to Crohn's Disease Flare-Ups Doctors should ... May 5, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Crohn's Disease Depression SATURDAY, May 3, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Depression may ...

95

59. Downstream view of Waddell Dam showing buttress ties, crane, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

59. Downstream view of Waddell Dam showing buttress ties, crane, housing over penstock outlet (left) and storage building (right). Photographer Mark Durben, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

96

Intermediate nonlinear regime of a line-tied g mode  

SciTech Connect

A sequence of nonlinear regimes is identified for the nonlinear development of a line-tied g mode. The dynamics of the intermediate nonlinear regime is described. This regime is operable when the mode's convection amplitude is comparable to the mode width in the direction of the density gradient. The governing equations are derived. Comparisons between these equations and direct magnetohydrodynamic simulations show agreement.

Zhu, P.; Hegna, C. C.; Sovinec, C. R.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Germaschewski, K. [Center for Plasma Theory and Computation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Space Science Center and Center for Magnetic Self-Organization, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824 (United States)

2007-05-15

97

Signaling Foreign Policy InterestsTying Hands versus Sinking Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author distinguishes between two types of costly signals that state leaders might employ in trying to credibly communicate their foreign policy interests to other states, whether in the realm of grand strategy or crisis diplomacy. Leaders might either (a) tie hands by creating audience costs that they will suffer ex post if they do not follow through on their

James D. Fearon

1997-01-01

98

People Interview: Black-tie science gets modern  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

INTERVIEW Black-tie science gets modern Baroness Susan Greenfield CBE is director of the Royal Institution and professor of pharmacology at Oxford where she heads a multidisciplinary group studying neurodegenerative disorders. David Smith speaks to her about specialities, keeping busy and how science is changing.

2009-03-01

99

The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving  

PubMed Central

Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems.

de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez; Pentland, Alex; Lehmann, Sune

2014-01-01

100

Diabetes Tied to Higher Risk of Pancreatic Cancer in Study  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Diabetes Tied to Higher Risk of Pancreatic Cancer in Study But it's not always clear which ... Friday, April 4, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Diabetes Pancreatic Cancer FRIDAY, April 4, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- People with ...

101

Views of the Apollo 11 Twentieth Anniversary Black Tie reception  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Views of the Apollo 11 Twentieth Anniversary Black Tie reception at the downtown Houston Hyatt Regency Hotel. Views include former JSC Directors Robert Gilruth and Christopher C. Kraft Jr. reminiscing with keynote speaker Walter Cronkite (39934); Apollo astronauts Tom Stafford (left) and Neil Armstrong (right) talk with former Soviet cosmonaut Alexei Leonov (center) at the gala (39935).

1989-01-01

102

The Verbal Facilitation Effect in Learning to Tie Nautical Knots  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Motor skills are often demonstrated with a combination of verbal information and video demonstration. In this study, participants learned to tie nautical knots with a video clip demonstrating the motor task preceded by a descriptive or a metaphorical, picture-like verbalization. In a control condition participants learned the knots with a video…

Huff, Markus; Schwan, Stephan

2012-01-01

103

Writing "Everyday Theatre": Applied Theatre, or Just TIE Rides Again?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The centre of this article is a critical description of the development and production of "Everyday Theatre's" performed pretext, called "replay@timeout", including a detailed account of the devising process and the programme's content. The programme is located within the history and traditions both of theatre in education (TIE) and process drama,…

O'Toole, John

2009-01-01

104

Functional Significance of Tie2 Signaling in the Adult Vasculature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundant data now demonstrate that the growth of new blood vessels, termed angiogenesis, plays both pathological and beneficial roles in human disease. Based on these data, a tremendous effort has been undertaken to understand the molecular mechanisms that drive blood vessel growth in adult tissues. Tie2 recently was identified as a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed principally on vascular endothelium. Disrupting

KEVIN G. PETERS; CHRISTOPHER D. KONTOS; P. CHARLES LIN; ADRIANNE L. WONG; PREMA RAO; LIWEN HUANG; MARK W. DEWHIRST; SABITA SANKAR

2010-01-01

105

Final Report on 179 Tied Arch Cracking - Neville Island Bridge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cracks were detected in the diaphragm to tie girder web welds of the 179 Neville Island Bridge in July 1983. These cracks were observed at the top and bottom ends of the transverse welds between the diaphragm and the outside plate at floor beams. Samples ...

A. W. Pense C. C. Menzemer E. J. Kauffman J. W. Fisher

1984-01-01

106

Matrilineal Family Ties and Marital Dissolution in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although previous work has attributed the instability of African marriages to the diffusion of Western norms and values in the region, fewer attempts have been made to empirically assess how Africa's internal institutional structures, such as extended kinship ties, impact marital outcomes. Guided by rational choice and exchange theories, we argue…

Takyi, Baffour K.; Gyimah, Stephen Obeng

2007-01-01

107

Considering ties elasticities in high frequency rail dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eigenfrequencies of elastic railroad ties are experimentally and numerically determined. The eigenfrequencies were experimentally obtained for vertical and lateral eigenoscillations shapes. A finite element program, which contains interpolation hermitian polynomials, was used for calculating eigenfrequencies; bending and shear stiffnesses were taken into consideration and the coupling between flexion and torsion was neglected. The results were compared with data obtained

K. Knothe; N. Ilias; M. Goetz; B. Ripke

1993-01-01

108

SHEAR STRENGTH OF DOUGLAS FIR TIMBER BRIDGE TIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests on 480 240- x 290-mm (nominal 10- x 12-in.) bridge ties, both old and new, indicate that the characteristic strengths for shear given in most North American codes of practice seem to be unduly conservative. As a result of this test program, it is suggested that design requirements for shear in timber codes of practice be revised to reflect

Borg Madsen; Robert Sweeney

1999-01-01

109

The strength of the strongest ties in collaborative problem solving.  

PubMed

Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems. PMID:24946798

de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez; Pentland, Alex; Lehmann, Sune

2014-01-01

110

U.S.-French Commercial Ties (Updated April 7, 2008).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. commercial ties with France are extensive, mutually profitable, and growing. With over $1.2 billion in commercial transactions taking place between the two countries every day of the year, each country has an increasingly large stake in the health an...

R. J. Ahearn

2008-01-01

111

4. Photocopy of photograph, JANE MOSELEY (VESSEL 53) TIED UP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Photocopy of photograph, JANE MOSELEY (VESSEL 53) TIED UP AT DOCK IN UNKNOWN LOCATION. Date and photographer unknown. (Original in Mariners Museum, Newport News, Virginia, negative #625) - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 53, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

112

Radiation characteristics of a flexible bow-tie antenna  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents simulation and measurement of a flexible bow-tie which is fabricated at the Flexible Display Center (FDC) of Arizona State University (ASU). The substrate is heat stabilized polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) which allows the antenna to be flexible. The antenna is flexed in the form of a cylinder and its radiation properties are obtained for different radii of curvature.

Ahmet C. Durgun; Constantine A. Balanis; Craig R. Birtcher; David R. Allee

2011-01-01

113

Wavelets, well ties, and the search for subtle stratigraphic traps  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the conventional methodology for ty- ing wells to processed seismic data and show why this methodology fails to allow for reliable interpretation of the seismic data for stratigraphy. We demonstrate an alternative methodology that makes the tie with- out the use of synthetic seismograms, but at the price of measuring the seismic source signature, the cost of such

Anton Ziolkowski; John R. Underhill; Rodney G. K. Johnston

1998-01-01

114

Explaining Teen Childbearing and Cohabitation: Community Embeddedness and Primary Ties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation examines whether access to social capital reduces the chance that teens will cohabit or have a nonmaritally conceived birth. Using data from a nationally representative panel study of eighth-grade girls and their parents, we hypothesize that girls who have (and whose families have) dense community ties as well as greater access…

Houseknecht, Sharon K.; Lewis, Susan K.

2005-01-01

115

Children's Books in Review: Books on Strengthening Family Ties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews children's books that emphasize the strengthening of family ties. Characters in the books realize the importance and influence of family relationships as they struggle with sibling rivalry, self-discovery, peer relationships, a search for heritage, adoption, and death. (SM)

Winfield, Evelyn T.

1991-01-01

116

The Tie-dyed pathway promotes symplastic trafficking in the phloem  

PubMed Central

The tie-dyed1 (tdy1) and tdy2 mutants of maize exhibit leaf regions with starch hyperaccumulation and display unusual genetic interactions, suggesting they function in the same physiological process. Tdy2 encodes a putative callose synthase and is expressed in developing vascular tissues of immature leaves. Radiolabelling experiments and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed symplastic trafficking within the phloem was perturbed at the companion cell/sieve element interface. Here, we show that as reported for tdy2 mutants, tdy1 yellow leaf regions display an excessive oil-droplet phenotype in the companion cells. Based on the proposed function of Tdy2 as a callose synthase, our previous work characterizing Tdy1 as a novel, transmembrane-localized protein, and the present findings, we speculate how TDY1 and TDY2 might interact to promote symplastic transport of both solutes and developmentally instructive macromolecules during vascular development at the companion cell/sieve element interface.

Baker, R. Frank; Slewinski, Thomas L.; Braun, David M.

2013-01-01

117

Terahertz heterodyne imaging with InGaAs-based bow-tie diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Room-temperature detection and imaging in transmission and reflection geometries at 0.591 THz with planar asymmetrically shaped InGaAs diodes (also called bow-tie diodes) are demonstrated in direct and heterodyne mode. The sensitivity of the diodes is found to be 6 V/W in direct mode, and the noise-equivalent power (NEP) in direct and heterodyne mode is estimated to be about 4 nW/Hz and 230 fW/Hz for a local-oscillator power of 11 ?W, respectively. The improvement of the dynamic range by heterodyning over direct power detection amounts to about 20 dB using pixel read-out times relevant to real-time imaging conditions.

Minkevi?ius, Linas; Tamošiunas, Vincas; Kašalynas, Irmantas; Seliuta, Dalius; Valušis, Gintaras; Lisauskas, Alvydas; Boppel, Sebastian; Roskos, Hartmut G.; Köhler, Klaus

2011-09-01

118

Transmission assembly  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses a transmission assembly. It comprises a first automatic transmission having a forward end adapted to be coupled to an internal combustion engine and a rearward end, the first automatic transmission including a drive shaft; a second automatic transmission having a forward end and a rearward end, and including a stator plate having a forward portion and a rearward portion. The stator plate located adjacent the forward end of the second automatic transmission, the drive shaft connecting the first automatic transmission in driving relation with the second automatic transmission; a coupling plate for connecting the rearward end of the first automatic transmission with the forward end of the second automatic transmission. The coupling plate rotatably supporting the drive shaft; and means for providing communication of pressurized transmission fluid between the first and second automatic transmissions.

Klazura, K.

1990-08-28

119

Track Component Property Tests. Volume II - Rail, Ties, Joint-Bars and Fasteners.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the test procedures and the results of the tests on the physical properties of rail, concrete ties, jointbars and fasteners. The properties obtained are the torsional rigidity of rail, bending rigidity of concrete ties, bending stiff...

I. Gitlin J. Choros

1980-01-01

120

78 FR 25303 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Nos. 731-TA-1207-1209 (Preliminary)] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Institution...materially retarded, by reason of imports from prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from China, Mexico, and Thailand,...

2013-04-30

121

Investigations on concrete railway ties suffering from alkali-silica reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigated the railway ties affected by alkali-silica reaction in Shanghai and Zhengjiang railway stations. All these ties were produced by a plant in Beijing. The results showed that about 30% ties produced in 1980~1981 are damaged when used in the stations, while 61~85% ties manufactured in 1985–1987 were cracked now. It was found that load and wet and

Tong Liang

1997-01-01

122

A Koch-Like Sided Fractal Bow-Tie Dipole Antenna  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel Koch-like fractal curve is proposed to transform ultra-wideband (UWB) bow-tie into so called Koch-like sided fractal bow-tie dipole. A small isosceles triangle is cut off from center of each side of the initial isosceles triangle, then the procedure iterates along the sides like Koch curve does, forming the Koch-like fractal bow-tie geometry. The fractal bow-tie of each iterative

Daotie Li; Jun-fa Mao

2012-01-01

123

Tie-bar extension-force online monitoring by optical fiber Bragg grating strain sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a tie-bar extension-force online monitoring system in a tie-bar arch bridge is presented. Optical fiber Bragg\\u000a grating strain sensors are embedded in the tie-bar arch bridge for online monitoring of changes in the state of internal force.\\u000a The relation between the tie-bar extension force measured by optical fiber Bragg grating strain sensors and the internal state\\u000a of

Fu Jun; Yan Xinping; Liu Shengchun

2006-01-01

124

White Dwarf Companions to Binary Neutron Stars, Astrometric Frame Ties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose WFPC2 imaging of four white dwarf companions to binary neutron stars for use in radio/optical frame tie measurements. Multiple exposures spaced by several minutes will permit detection of variability due to rotation or pulsation of the white dwarf. Most critically, the astrometry will enable us to measure the rotation of the optical reference frame relative to the radio and dynamical reference frames made from independent pulsar observations. These observations will have direct ties with on going radio pulsar timing experiments and planned very long baseline interferometry observations using the VLBA. As an added benefit the astrometric observations can be used with a second set of observations two Cycles later to measure proper motion of the white dwarfs. Proper motion observations can be used to distinguish between supernova and accretion induced collapse models for the two white-dwarf millisecond pulsars, and provide improved astrometry for all four white dwarf pulsar systems.

Foster, Roger

1996-07-01

125

It's the Recipient That Counts: Spending Money on Strong Social Ties Leads to Greater Happiness than Spending on Weak Social Ties  

PubMed Central

Previous research has shown that spending money on others (prosocial spending) increases happiness. But, do the happiness gains depend on who the money is spent on? Sociologists have distinguished between strong ties with close friends and family and weak ties—relationships characterized by less frequent contact, lower emotional intensity, and limited intimacy. We randomly assigned participants to reflect on a time when they spent money on either a strong social tie or a weak social tie. Participants reported higher levels of positive affect after recalling a time they spent on a strong tie versus a weak tie. The level of intimacy in the relationship was more important than the type of relationship; there was no significant difference in positive affect after recalling spending money on a family member instead of a friend. These results add to the growing literature examining the factors that moderate the link between prosocial behaviour and happiness.

Aknin, Lara B.; Sandstrom, Gillian M.; Dunn, Elizabeth W.; Norton, Michael I.

2011-01-01

126

Grid-tied PV system modelling: how and why  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical part of Ascension Technology's operation and monitoring of numerous grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power systems for the US Environmental Protection Agency's PV Demand-Side-Management Demonstration Projects is to insure that these PV systems are operating properly and that problems can be diagnosed by scrutiny of the data being retrieved from these systems. The objective of the work reported here was

M. C. Russell

1994-01-01

127

Getting a Job in Finance-The Strength of Collaboration Ties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the seminal papers of Mark Granovetter, Getting a Job and ‘The Strength of Weak Ties’, ithas been acknowledged that contacts are a valuable way of getting a job, and that weak ties aremore efficient than strong ties because the former convey more original information than thelatter. We would like to challenge this overemphasizing focus of network sociology oninformation. We

Olivier Godechot

2010-01-01

128

The Mediating Role of Perceived Control in the Relationship Between Social Ties and Depressive Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study first examines gender differences in the receipt and efficacy of four types of social ties. It is hypothesized that women's relationships involve more demanding social ties, which increase rather than decrease depressive symptoms. Next, this study explores the role of perceived control as a mediator in the relationship between social ties and depressive symptoms. It is hypothesized that

Susan Bullers

2001-01-01

129

Family ties, Interlocking Directors and Performance of Business Groups in Emerging Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of business groups on economic performance is controversial, both theoretically and empirically. We hypothesized that the seemingly contradictory empirical results can be explained by the differentiated governance structure of the business groups and, in particular, the role of social ties (family ties and interlocking directorates). Using a sample of Chilean firms, we analyzed the effects of social ties

Francisca Silvaa; Nicolás Majluf; Ricardo D. Paredes

130

Family ties, interlocking directors and performance of business groups in emerging countries: The case of Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of business groups on economic performance is controversial, both theoretically and empirically. We hypothesized that the seemingly contradictory empirical results can be explained by the differentiated governance structure of the business groups and, in particular, the role of social ties (family ties and interlocking directorates). Using a sample of Chilean firms, we analyzed the effects of social ties

Francisca Silva; Nicolás Majluf; Ricardo D. Paredes

2006-01-01

131

Who Can Cultivate University Ties More in China? A Local Firm or a Foreign Firm?  

Microsoft Academic Search

University ties are an important innovation resource for both foreign direct investment (FDI) firms and local firms. Since these university connections involve local personal ties, which are established through long-term efforts that require social and cul- tural embeddedness, it is probably more difficult for FDI firms to establish such ties than it is for local firms. However, FDI firms, which

Kai Xu; Kuo-Feng Huang; Shanxing Gao

2011-01-01

132

Tie1 deletion inhibits tumor growth and improves angiopoietin antagonist therapy  

PubMed Central

The endothelial Tie1 receptor is ligand-less, but interacts with the Tie2 receptor for angiopoietins (Angpt). Angpt2 is expressed in tumor blood vessels, and its blockade inhibits tumor angiogenesis. Here we found that Tie1 deletion from the endothelium of adult mice inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth by decreasing endothelial cell survival in tumor vessels, without affecting normal vasculature. Treatment with VEGF or VEGFR-2 blocking antibodies similarly reduced tumor angiogenesis and growth; however, no additive inhibition was obtained by targeting both Tie1 and VEGF/VEGFR-2. In contrast, treatment of Tie1-deficient mice with a soluble form of the extracellular domain of Tie2, which blocks Angpt activity, resulted in additive inhibition of tumor growth. Notably, Tie1 deletion decreased sprouting angiogenesis and increased Notch pathway activity in the postnatal retinal vasculature, while pharmacological Notch suppression in the absence of Tie1 promoted retinal hypervasularization. Moreover, substantial additive inhibition of the retinal vascular front migration was observed when Angpt2 blocking antibodies were administered to Tie1-deficient pups. Thus, Tie1 regulates tumor angiogenesis, postnatal sprouting angiogenesis, and endothelial cell survival, which are controlled by VEGF, Angpt, and Notch signals. Our results suggest that targeting Tie1 in combination with Angpt/Tie2 has the potential to improve antiangiogenic therapy.

D'Amico, Gabriela; Korhonen, Emilia A.; Anisimov, Andrey; Zarkada, Georgia; Holopainen, Tanja; Hagerling, Rene; Kiefer, Friedemann; Eklund, Lauri; Sormunen, Raija; Elamaa, Harri; Brekken, Rolf A.; Adams, Ralf H.; Koh, Gou Young; Saharinen, Pipsa; Alitalo, Kari

2014-01-01

133

78 FR 37236 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-1207-1209 (Preliminary)] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico...Mexico, and Thailand of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire, provided for in...reason of LTFV imports of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from China,...

2013-06-20

134

Tie2 signaling regulates osteoclastogenesis and osteolytic bone invasion of breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Breast to bone metastasis is a common occurrence in the majority of patients with advanced breast cancer. The metastases are often incurable, are associated with bone destruction and high rates of morbidity. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of how metastatic tumor cells induce bone destruction is critically important. We previously reported that Tie2, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is significantly increased in human breast cancer tissues compared to normal and benign breast tumors, and regulates tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we identify a new function of Tie2 in osteoclastogenesis and osteolytic bone invasion of breast cancer. Tie2 is present in hematopoietic stem/precursor cells. Genetic deletion of Tie2 or neutralization of Tie2 function using soluble Tie2 receptor impaired osteoclastogenesis in an embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation assay. In contrast, deletion of Tie2 has no effect on osteoblastogenesis. As CD11b myeloid cells have the potential to become osteoclast and Tie2 is present in certain population of these cells, we isolated Tie2+ and Tie2? myeloid cells. We observed a significant reduction of osteoclastogenesis in Tie2? compared to Tie2+ CD11b cells. Consistently, neutralization of Tie2 activity in vivo significantly inhibited osteolytic bone invasion and tumor growth in a mammary tumor model, which correlated with a significant reduction of osteoclast and tumor angiogenesis. Collectively, these data reveal a direct and novel role of Tie2 signaling in osteoclast differentiation. These findings identify Tie2 a therapeutic target for controlling not only tumor angiogenesis, but also osteolytic bone metastasis in breast cancer.

Min, Yongfen; Ren, Xiubao; Vaught, David B; Chen, Jin; Donnelly, Edwin; Lynch, Conor C.; Lin, P. Charles

2010-01-01

135

TIES for Dummies 3rd Edition (Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection) Basic how to's to implement the TIES method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The TIES method is a forecasting environment whereby the decision-maker has the ability to easily assess and trade-off the impact of various technologies without sophisticated and time-consuming mathematical formulations. TIES provides a methodical approach where technically feasible alternatives can be identified with accuracy and speed to reduce design cycle time, and subsequently, life cycle costs, and was achieved through the use of various probabilistic methods, such as Response Surface Methodology and Monte Carlo Simulations. Furthermore, structured and systematic techniques are utilized from other fields to identify possible concepts and evaluation criteria by which comparisons can be made. This objective is achieved by employing the use of Morphological Matrices and Multi-Attribute Decision Making techniques. Through the execution of each step, a family of design alternatives for a given set of customer requirements can be identified and assessed subjectively or objectively. This methodology allows for more information (knowledge) to be brought into the earlier phases of the design process and will have direct implications on the affordability of the system. The increased knowledge allows for optimum allocation of company resources and quantitative justification for program decisions. Finally, the TIES method provided novel results and quantitative justification to facilitate decision making in the early stages of design so as to produce affordable and quality products.

Kirby, Michelle R.

2002-01-01

136

Shingles Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... to... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Transmission Español: Transmisión Shingles cannot be passed from one ... Prevention & Treatment Related Pages Preventing Varicella Zoster Virus Transmission in Healthcare Settings Images and logos on this ...

137

AQUIFER TRANSMISSIVITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaluation of groundwater resources requires the knowledge of the capacity of aquifers to store and transmit ground water. This requires estimates of key hydraulic parameters, such as the transmissivity, among others. The transmissivity T (m2/sec) is a hydrauli...

138

Local ties survey at San Fernando Naval Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A local ties survey in the San Fernando Naval Observatory (ROA: Real Observatorio de la Armada) was carried out by the Instituto Geografico Nacional de España (IGNE) team during the summer of 2009. A SLR station (SFEL) contributing to the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) and a Continuous GPS receiver (SFER), contributing to the International GNSS Service (IGS) are collocated at ROA since 1996. Another CGPS receiver (ROAP) was installed a couple of years ago to contribute to the IGS Time Transfer Experiment. The objective of the survey was to verify old values, modifying them as needed and, to complete the information linking not only these three reference points together but also linking them with other points to allow further reviewing: there are a number of survey monuments and pillars within the observatory to be used as reference marks for the local ties determination through terrestrial connections. But local ties determination at ROA is actually complicated due to the situation of the main points. The SLR station is located inside a closed dome at the top of the Observatory main building while the intermediate reference marks are placed at the main terrace. It means that there are large height gradients, and it is also difficult to get a direct line of sight from the reference points located at the terrace to the SLR telescope reference point. Furthermore, to look for the telescope axis cross point is not an easy task due to the reduced dimensions of the SLR telescope dome. And last, but not least a background of scattered buildings of very different heights and large trees that hinder the visual intermediate between them seem to be not the best scenario to ensure uncertainty improvements. This paper shows the methodology used to perform the work made, as well as the results and accuracy that we got and delivered to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame.

Valdes, Marcelino; Dalda, Adolfo; Garate, Jorge; Quiros, Rafael; Davila, Jose Martin

2010-05-01

139

Urban characteristics attributable to density-driven tie formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by empirical evidence on the interplay between geography, population density and societal interaction, we propose a generative process for the evolution of social structure in cities. Our analytical and simulation results predict both super-linear scaling of social-tie density and information contagion as a function of the population. Here we demonstrate that our model provides a robust and accurate fit for the dependency of city characteristics with city-size, ranging from individual-level dyadic interactions (number of acquaintances, volume of communication) to population level variables (contagious disease rates, patenting activity, economic productivity and crime) without the need to appeal to heterogeneity, modularity, specialization or hierarchy.

Pan, Wei; Ghoshal, Gourab; Krumme, Coco; Cebrian, Manuel; Pentland, Alex

2013-06-01

140

Study on the tie point selection for DEM extraction from stereo PRISM images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accuracy of DEM extraction was analyzed from the view of tie point selection in the stereo ALOS/PRISM images, using PCI Geomatica software. In the analysis we considered three different parameters in the automatic tie point selection, namely, 1) the number of tie points, 2) the image correlation coefficient of tie points, and 3) the spatial resolution of DEM extraction. We found that a better DEM extraction accuracy was possible when we adopted a single tie point with large image correlation coefficient (around 0.8) and the spatial resolution of 2.5 (m) in the automatic tie point selection from the stereo PRISM images. In addition, we examined the dependence of the DEM extraction accuracy on the tie point's elevation in the manual tie point selection. However, no clear dependence on the tie point's elevation was found because of large DEM noises at tie points in the mountain area. Finally, some preliminary analysis results of DEM extraction accuracy were presented from the stereo QuickBird images.

Kawata, Yoshiyuki; Funatsu, Yukihiro; Yoshii, Satoshi; Takemata, Kazuya

2012-10-01

141

Diversity of social ties in scientific collaboration networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diversity is one of the important perspectives to characterize behaviors of individuals in social networks. It is intuitively believed that diversity of social ties accounts for competition advantage and idea innovation. However, quantitative evidences in a real large social network can be rarely found in the previous research. Thanks to the availability of scientific publication records on WWW; now we can construct a large scientific collaboration network, which provides us a chance to gain insight into the diversity of relationships in a real social network through statistical analysis. In this article, we dedicate our efforts to perform empirical analysis on a scientific collaboration network extracted from DBLP, an online bibliographic database in computer science, in a systematical way, finding the following: distributions of diversity indices tend to decay in an exponential or Gaussian way; diversity indices are not trivially correlated to existing vertex importance measures; authors of diverse social ties tend to connect to each other and these authors are generally more competitive than others.

Shi, Quan; Xu, Bo; Xu, Xiaomin; Xiao, Yanghua; Wang, Wei; Wang, Hengshan

2011-11-01

142

The design and application of a Transportable Inference Engine (TIE1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Transportable Inference Engine (TIE1) system has been developed by the author as part of the Interactive Experimenter Planning System (IEPS) task which is involved with developing expert systems in support of the Spacecraft Control Programs Branch at Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. Unlike traditional inference engines, TIE1 is written in the C programming language. In the TIE1 system, knowledge is represented by a hierarchical network of objects which have rule frames. The TIE1 search algorithm uses a set of strategies, including backward chaining, to obtain the values of goals. The application of TIE1 to a spacecraft scheduling problem is described. This application involves the development of a strategies interpreter which uses TIE1 to do constraint checking.

Mclean, David R.

1986-01-01

143

Automatic transmission  

SciTech Connect

An automatic transmission is described comprising: an automatic transmission mechanism portion comprising a single planetary gear unit and a dual planetary gear unit; carriers of both of the planetary gear units that are integral with one another; an input means for inputting torque to the automatic transmission mechanism, clutches for operatively connecting predetermined ones of planetary gear elements of both of the planetary gear units to the input means and braking means for restricting the rotation of predetermined ones of planetary gear elements of both of the planetary gear units. The clutches are disposed adjacent one another at an end portion of the transmission for defining a clutch portion of the transmission; a first clutch portion which is attachable to the automatic transmission mechanism portion for comprising the clutch portion when attached thereto; a second clutch portion that is attachable to the automatic transmission mechanism portion in place of the first clutch portion for comprising the clutch portion when so attached. The first clutch portion comprising first clutch for operatively connecting the input means to a ring gear of the single planetary gear unit and a second clutch for operatively connecting the input means to a single gear of the automatic transmission mechanism portion. The second clutch portion comprising a the first clutch, the second clutch, and a third clutch for operatively connecting the input member to a ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit.

Miura, M.; Aoki, H.

1988-02-02

144

Manual transmissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This new text provides the coverage of standard transmissions available. Domestic and imported cars are discussed, and a separate chapter is devoted to import vehicle drive trains. Overdrive systems are also covered in detail. Necessary tools for manual transmission servicing are listed and discussed, and safety information is highlighted throughout. Each chapter contains objectives, ''Facts to Remember'' (lists within the

1987-01-01

145

Investigation of a planar bow-tie antenna fed by a flanged rectangular waveguide  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a small planar bow-tie antenna fed by a flanged rectangular waveguide is investigated using the finite element method (FEM). The bow-tie antenna has two triangular conductive strips separated by a gap and each strip has an inverted triangular hole. Numerical results show that this bow-tie antenna can generate intense electrical field spots below the diffraction limit with

B. M. Kim; K.-P. Hwang; Y. K. Cho

2011-01-01

146

High-strength concrete columns confined by low-volumetric-ratio lateral ties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presently, test results and stress–strain models for poorly confined high-strength concrete (HSC) columns are in short supply. This is particularly so for columns with a tie volumetric ratio smaller than 2.0%. This paper presents concentric loading test results for square reinforced concrete columns confined by low-volumetric-ratio lateral ties. The test variables included measurements of concrete compressive strength; measurements of tie

Ki-Nam Hong; Sang-Hoon Han; Seong-Tae Yi

2006-01-01

147

Should Independent Board Members with Social Ties to Management Disqualify Themselves from Serving on the Board?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines whether independent directors who have social ties to management (inside directors) can effectively perform\\u000a their fiduciary duty to monitor management on behalf of shareholders. Ex ante, it is not clear whether social ties will enhance\\u000a or obstruct the quality of board performance. Theory suggests that directors who are socially tied to management are ineffective\\u000a and would make

Udi Hoitash

2011-01-01

148

Importance of tie strengths in the prisoner's dilemma game on social networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though numerous researches have shown that tie strengths play a key role in the formation of collective behavior in social networks, little work has been done to explore their impact on the outcome of evolutionary games. In this Letter, we studied the effect of tie strength in the dynamics of evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games by using online social network datasets. The results show that the fraction of cooperators has a non-trivial dependence on tie strength. Weak ties, just like previous researches on epidemics and information diffusion have shown, play a key role by the maintenance of cooperators in evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games.

Xu, Bo; Liu, Lu; You, Weijia

2011-06-01

149

Ambivalent versus Problematic Social Ties: Implications for Psychological Health, Functional Health, and Interpersonal Coping  

PubMed Central

Older adults often seek to manage their social networks to foster positive interactions, but they nonetheless sometimes experience negative interactions that detract from their health and well-being. Negative interactions may occur with ambivalent social partners (i.e., partners involved in both positive and negative exchanges) or exclusively problematic social partners (i.e., partners involved negative exchanges only), but conflicting views exist in the literature regarding which type of social partner is likely to be more detrimental to older adults’ physical and emotional health. This study examined the implications of the two kinds of network members for physical and psychological health and interpersonal coping responses in a representative sample of 916 older adults. Within this elderly sample, older age was associated with fewer ambivalent kin ties and fewer exclusively problematic kin ties. Analyses revealed that ambivalent social ties were more strongly related to functional health limitations than were exclusively problematic social ties, whereas problematic ties were more consistently related to psychological health than were ambivalent ties. Furthermore, negative exchanges that occurred with exclusively problematic social ties, as compared to those that occurred with ambivalent social ties, were associated with more avoidant and fewer conciliatory coping responses, stronger and longer-lasting negative emotions, and lower perceived coping effectiveness. A comprehensive understanding of the significance of social network ties in older adults’ lives may benefit not only from attention to sources of social support but also from efforts to distinguish between different sources of conflict and disappointment.

Rook, Karen S.; Luong, Gloria; Sorkin, Dara H.; Newsom, Jason T.; Krause, Neal

2013-01-01

150

The Importance of Local Surveys for Tying Techniques Together  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The synergistic benefits of combining observations from multiple space geodesy techniques located at a site are a main reason behind the proposal for the establishment of the International Space Geodetic and Gravimetric Network (ISGN). However, the full benefits of inter-comparison are only realized when the spatial relationships between the different space geodetic systems are accurately determined. These spatial relationships are best determined and documented by developing a local reference network of stable ground monuments and conducting periodic surveys to tie together the reference points (for example: the intersection of rotation axes of a VLBI antenna) of the space geodetic systems and the ground monument network. The data obtained from local surveys is vital to helping understand any systematic errors within an individual technique and to helping identify any local movement or deformation of the space geodetic systems over time.

Long, James L.; Bosworth, John M.

2000-01-01

151

Radio-planetary from tie from Phobos-2 VLBI data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an ongoing effort to improve the knowledge of the relative orientation (the 'frame tie') of the planetary ephemeris reference frame used in deep navigation and a second reference frame that is defined by the coordinates of a set of extragalactic radio sources, VLBI observations of the Soviet Phobos-2 spacecraft and nearby (in angle) radio sources were obtained at two epochs in 1989, shortly after the spacecraft entered orbit about Mars. The frame tie is an important systematic error source affecting both interplanetary navigation and the process of improving the theory of the Earth's orientation. The data from a single Phobos-2 VLBI session measure one component of the direction vector from Earth to Mars in the frame of the extragalactic radio sources (the 'radio frame'). The radio frame has been shown to be stable and internally consistent with an accuracy of 5 nrad. The planetary ephemeris reference frame has an internal consistency of approximately 15 nrad. The planetary and radio source reference frames were aligned prior to 1989 and measurements of occulations of the radio source 3C273 by the Moon. The Phobos-2 VLBI measurements provide improvement in the accuracy of two of the three angles describing a general rotation between the planetary and radio reference frames. A complete set of measurements is not available because data acquisition was terminated prematurely by loss of spacecraft. The analysis of the two Phobos-2 VLBI data sets indicates that, in the directions of the two rotation components determined by these data, the JPL planetary ephemeris DE200 is aligned with the radio frame as adopted by the International Earth Rotation Service within an accuracy of 20-40 nrad, depending on direction. The limiting errors in the solutions for these offsets are spacecraft trajectory (20 nrad), instrumental biases (19 nrad), and dependence of quasar coordinates on observing frequency (24 nrad).

Hildebrand, C. E.; Iijima, B. A.; Kroger, P. M.; Folkner, W. M.; Edwards, C. D.

1994-01-01

152

Software for Verifying Image-Correlation Tie Points  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program enables assessment of the quality of tie points in the image-correlation processes of the software described in the immediately preceding article. Tie points are computed in mappings between corresponding pixels in the left and right images of a stereoscopic pair. The mappings are sometimes not perfect because image data can be noisy and parallax can cause some points to appear in one image but not the other. The present computer program relies on the availability of a left- right correlation map in addition to the usual right left correlation map. The additional map must be generated, which doubles the processing time. Such increased time can now be afforded in the data-processing pipeline, since the time for map generation is now reduced from about 60 to 3 minutes by the parallelization discussed in the previous article. Parallel cluster processing time, therefore, enabled this better science result. The first mapping is typically from a point (denoted by coordinates x,y) in the left image to a point (x',y') in the right image. The second mapping is from (x',y') in the right image to some point (x",y") in the left image. If (x,y) and(x",y") are identical, then the mapping is considered perfect. The perfect-match criterion can be relaxed by introducing an error window that admits of round-off error and a small amount of noise. The mapping procedure can be repeated until all points in each image not connected to points in the other image are eliminated, so that what remains are verified correlation data.

Klimeck, Gerhard; Yagi, Gary

2008-01-01

153

HIV Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... of transmission from scratching because there is no transfer of body fluids between people. Can I get ... infected blood or semen, exposure to the air, heat from cooking, and stomach acid would destroy the ...

154

The Search-Transfer Problem: The Role of Weak Ties in Sharing Knowledge across Organization Subunits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper combines the concept of weak ties from social network research and the notion of complex knowledge to explain the role of weak ties in sharing knowledge across organization subunits in a multiunit organization. I use a network study of 120 new-product development projects undertaken by 41 divisions in a large electronics company to examine the task of developing

Morten T. Hansen

1999-01-01

155

Requisite Role of Angiopoietin-1, a Ligand for the TIE2 Receptor, during Embryonic Angiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which acts via members of a family of endothelial-specific receptor tyrosine kinases, is the only factor that has been shown definitively to play a role in the formation of the embryonic vasculature. Only one other family of receptor tyrosine kinases, comprising TIE1 and TIE2, is largely endothelial cell specific. We have recently cloned a ligand

Chitra Suri; Pamela F Jones; Sybill Patan; Sona Bartunkova; Peter C Maisonpierre; Samuel Davis; Thomas N Sato; George D Yancopoulos

1996-01-01

156

Effects of a Group Intervention on the Career Network Ties of Finnish Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors evaluated how a group-based career intervention affected career network ties among Finnish adolescents as they made educational choices and prepared for their transition to secondary education. They examined the career-related network ties of 868 students during their last year in comprehensive school (junior high school) in a…

Jokisaari, Markku; Vuori, Jukka

2011-01-01

157

A dynamic barriers implementation in Bayesian-based bow tie diagrams for risk analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bow tie diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis and safety management. This tool describes graphically, in the same scheme, the whole scenario of an identified risk and its respective preventive and protective barriers. The major problem with bow tie diagrams is that they remain limited by their technical level and by their restriction to a graphical representation of

Ahmed Badreddine; Nahla Ben Amor

2010-01-01

158

Evaluation of Steel Tie Performance at the Facility for Accelerated Service Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The original construction of the FAST Track included a segment of steel ties, which remained in service from September to December 1976. A number of performance measurements were made during this period to determine the ability of the ties to maintain geo...

F. E. Dean A. Kish

1980-01-01

159

The Structure of Intra-Group Ties: Innovation in Taiwanese Business Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business groups are a network form of multi-business firm that play central economic and technological roles in many emerging economies. We draw from the technology studies literature, complemented by concepts from studies of organizational networks, to investigate how equity, director, and operating ties between firms within groups shape their innovation opportunities. Technology studies suggest that such ties create both opportunities

Ishtiaq Mahmood; Will Mitchell; Chi-Nien Chung

2008-01-01

160

The Social Network Ties of Group Leaders: Implications for Group Performance and Leader Reputation  

Microsoft Academic Search

his paper uses data from the sales division of a financial services firm to investigate how a leader's centrality in external and internal social networks is related to the objective performance of the leader's group, and to the leader's personal reputation for leadership among subordinates, peers, and supervisors. External social network ties were based on the friendship ties among all

Ajay Mehra; Andrea L. Dixon; Daniel J. Brass; Bruce Robertson

2006-01-01

161

A transmission network model for multi-area reliability studies  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents a transmission network model suitable for use in multi-area reliability models which utilize a Monte Carlo simulation approach. The transmission network model utilizes the REI equivalent which permits accurate modeling of transmission ties between areas while reducing computational burden and permitting variations in area generating capacity and loads as required in reliability studies. The paper also presents a computationally efficient approach to generation redispatch as required to model mutual assistance between areas in multi-area reliability studies. Sample results are given for the IEEE 118 bus test system and a large power pool with 13 areas.

Patton, A.D.; Sung, S.K. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Electric Power Inst.)

1993-05-01

162

TIES - an engineering and planning methodology for deactivation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities  

SciTech Connect

Task integrated evaluation and sequencing (TIES) is a methodology developed by Fluor Daniel for the disciplined planning of complex deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) projects. TIES was developed for the deactivation and transition planning of the ROVER facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and is consistent with the U.S. Department of Energy`s strategy for deactivation of surplus facilities. The TIES methodology is particularly effective during the deactivation period of facility transition where hazards are reduced, systems are isolated, and equipment is removed. The use of TIES results in the overall planning of the deactivation effort and focuses on the achievement of the desired end points. Because it is task oriented and sequenced, TIES forms a basis for a rolling window of detailed design planning, which provides flexibility in dealing with unforeseen problems that potentially could arise during the project.

Divona, C.J.; Marchetti, S. [Fluor Engineers, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

163

Tying dark matter to baryons with self-interactions.  

PubMed

Self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) models have been proposed to solve the small-scale issues with the collisionless cold dark matter paradigm. We derive equilibrium solutions in these SIDM models for the dark matter halo density profile including the gravitational potential of both baryons and dark matter. Self-interactions drive dark matter to be isothermal and this ties the core sizes and shapes of dark matter halos to the spatial distribution of the stars, a radical departure from previous expectations and from cold dark matter predictions. Compared to predictions of SIDM-only simulations, the core sizes are smaller and the core densities are higher, with the largest effects in baryon-dominated galaxies. As an example, we find a core size around 0.3 kpc for dark matter in the Milky Way, more than an order of magnitude smaller than the core size from SIDM-only simulations, which has important implications for indirect searches of SIDM candidates. PMID:25062162

Kaplinghat, Manoj; Keeley, Ryan E; Linden, Tim; Yu, Hai-Bo

2014-07-11

164

Social ties and mortality in Evans County, Georgia.  

PubMed

In an attempt to replicate Berkman and Syme's study of social networks and mortality in Alameda County, California, the authors investigated the relationship between a social network index and survivorship from 1967 to 1980 in the Evans County, Georgia, cohort. They constructed an index modeled after the Berkman Social Network Index and tested it in race- and sex-specific proportional hazards models for 2,059 subjects who were examined in 1967-1969 during the Evans County Cardiovascular Epidemiologic Study. The present study emphasized a priori specification of the social network index and statistical hypothesis test. Descriptive analyses were consistent with a modest social networks effect (e.g., hazard ratio (95 per cent confidence interval) of 1.6 (1.2-2.2) ). Among white males, the age-adjusted hazard ratio comparing the lowest to the highest value of our six-level index was 2.0 (1.2-3.4), but control for potential confounders (principally cardiovascular disease risk factors) reduced this value to 1.5 (0.8-2.6). The social networks effect among white females, black males, and black females was weaker and clearly nonsignificant. Exploratory analyses suggested that marital status, church activities, and an alternate social network index predicted survivorship, but not in a dose-response fashion. Reduced survivorship among older subjects with few social ties was the most important feature of the data. PMID:3953538

Schoenbach, V J; Kaplan, B H; Fredman, L; Kleinbaum, D G

1986-04-01

165

Power transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a power transmission. It comprises: in combination, a master gear having at least one annular tooth set, means for drivingly engaging the master gear with a power source, driven shaft, a yoke member attached to the shaft and including a screw pump housing extending radially with respect to the shaft with a pair of ports in spaced relation, a pump screw rotatable in the housing and a pump gear attached to the screw and engaging the annular tooth set, and a casing for transmission fluid. The pump housing being located for immersion in the fluid.

Yale, O.S.

1989-12-12

166

49 CFR 1242.15 - Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast, track laying and...Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast, track laying...

2010-10-01

167

49 CFR 1242.15 - Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast, track laying and...Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast, track laying...

2009-10-01

168

Clinical evaluation of the endothelial tie-2 crossmatch in ABO compatible and ABO incompatible renal transplants.  

PubMed

The necessity of detection of other than the classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and MHC class I-related chain A (MICA) directed antibodies prior to organ transplantation has already been repeatedly reported. A commercial flow cytometric endothelial crossmatch (CM) using isolated peripheral blood tie-2 positive cells provides a tool to detect non-MHC antibodies in addition to antibodies directed to MHC class I and II. The vast majority of circulating tie-2 positive cells expresses HLA-DR but not the A, B blood group antigens. Tie-2 cells are circulating surrogate endothelial cells. In this retrospective study we evaluated the endothelial CM in 51 renal transplantations, 30 with ABO compatible grafts and 21 with ABO incompatible grafts. Fifteen of the ABO compatible recipients (group A) developed unexplained rejection episodes (RE) while the remaining 15 had no RE (group B). Five cases of group A and none of group B had a positive tie-2 CM before transplantation (p=0.042). A positive tie-2 CM was also correlated with graft failure in ABO compatible transplants (p=0.02). No significant correlation was found between a positive pre-transplant tie-2 CM and RE in the ABO incompatible group. This study strongly suggest that a positive tie-2 CM may predict post-transplantation complications in ABO compatible grafts while negative reactions are not predictive. The test is not significantly correlated with RE in ABO incompatible grafts possibly due to applied desensitization. PMID:23792052

Kafetzi, Maria L; Boletis, John N; Melexopoulou, Christine A; Tsakris, Athanassios; Iniotaki, Aliki G; Doxiadis, Ilias I N

2013-11-01

169

Intermuscular interaction via myofascial force transmission: effects of tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis longus length on force transmission from rat extensor digitorum longus muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Force transmission in rat anterior crural compartment, containing tibialis anterior (TA), extensor hallucis longus (EHL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles, was investigated. These muscles together with the muscles of the peroneal compartment were excited maximally. Force was measured at both proximal and distal tendons of EDL muscle as well as at the tied distal tendons of TA and EHL

Huub Maas; Guus C. Baan; P. A. J. B. M. Huijing

2001-01-01

170

Tie1 attenuation reduces murine atherosclerosis in a dose-dependent and shear stress-specific manner  

PubMed Central

Although the response of endothelial cells to the disturbed blood flow in the vicinity of atherosclerotic lesions is known to be distinct from that elicited by nonatherogenic laminar flow, the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Our initial studies confirmed that expression of the endothelial receptor tyrosine kinase Tie1 was evident at regions of atherogenic flow in mature animals. We therefore hypothesized that Tie1 plays a role in the endothelial response to atherogenic shear stress. Consistent with this, we found that Tie1+/– mice bred to the apoE-deficient background displayed a 35% reduction in atherosclerosis relative to Tie1+/+;Apoe–/– mice. Since deletion of Tie1 results in embryonic lethality secondary to vascular dysfunction, we used conditional and inducible mutagenesis to study the effect of endothelial-specific Tie1 attenuation on atherogenesis in Apoe–/– mice and found a dose-dependent decrease in atherosclerotic lesions. Analysis of primary aortic endothelial cells indicated that atheroprotective laminar flow decreased Tie1 expression in vitro. Attenuation of Tie1 was associated with an increase in eNOS expression and Tie2 phosphorylation. In addition, Tie1 attenuation increased IkB? expression while decreasing ICAM levels. In summary, we have found that shear stress conditions that modulate atherogenic events also regulate Tie1 expression. Therefore, Tie1 may play a novel proinflammatory role in atherosclerosis.

Woo, Kel Vin; Qu, Xianghu; Babaev, Vladimir R.; Linton, MacRae F.; Guzman, Raul J.; Fazio, Sergio; Baldwin, H. Scott

2011-01-01

171

78 FR 57619 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-549-829, A-570-990] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand...investigations of imports of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from Mexico, Thailand...People's Republic of China. See Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico,...

2013-09-19

172

Easy slip-knot: a new simple tying technique for deep sutures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Knot-tying in the deep operative field is very complicated because of the narrow working space during endoscopic transsphenoidal\\u000a surgery. We present a novel technique for tying deep knots called the “easy slip-knot,” which was developed from a knot used\\u000a to tie fishing lines.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  After threading the dura, an easy slip-knot is made outside the nostril. One end of the string

Yudo Ishii; Shigeyuki Tahara; Kenichi Oyama; Takayuki Kitamura; Akira Teramoto

2011-01-01

173

Bow-tie-tree in EPR cables after accelerated water treeing test  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes the results of accelerated water treeing test after a period of approximately one year with two recently manufactured (1988) varieties of commercial EPR cables, produced by different manufacturers and possessing different cable structures, as well as water impervious XLPE cable for comparison. In the test, bow-tie trees were found in the EPR insulation which was though to develop no or few bow-tie-trees. Examination results of bow-tie-tree in EPR cables are described in this report.

Uematsu, T.; Iwata, Z.; Irie, S.; Fujii, O. (Furukawa Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

1992-10-01

174

Performance effects of tie-truss modifications for a 70-meter centerline beam waveguide antenna  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The elevation-axis tie truss of the 70-m antennas would have to be modified to accommodate a centerline beam waveguide. To accomplish this, the center section of the tie truss has to be altered, causing a change in the tie-truss compliance and affecting structural performance. Even with the center section completely removed, the worst-case rms pathlength error due to gravity load is increased from 0.025 to only 0.030 inches. Using a simple postprocessor technique, the effects of modifying the compliance can be predicted without resorting to multiple and costly re-analyses of large finite-element models on a mainframe computer.

Cucchissi, J. J.

1989-01-01

175

Transmission Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that âÂÂprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Transmission Lines, is the fourteenth chapter in Volume II â Alternating Current. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: Circuits and the speed of light; Finite-length transmission lines; and Waveguides. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-03

176

The setting method of the specific parameters of a superconducting fault current limiter installed at the bus-tie and response of protective relays at operation of the SFCL  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the setting method of specific parameters for a resistance-type and a rectifier-type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) installed in trunk transmission lines and the response of protective relays when SFCLs operate against a system fault. This paper describes the setting method of specific parameters of an SFCL installed at a bus-tie in a trunk substation, response of

Hideyuki Kameda; Haruhito Taniguchi

2002-01-01

177

Discrete spectrum terahertz imaging using bow-tie diodes: optimized antenna designs and arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimization routes to optimize the operation of InGaAs bow-tie diodes were demonstrated using simulations based on 3D finite-difference time-domain method. Calculations of the electromagnetic field amplitude distribution in a detector plane were performed. Three types of designs - bow-tie diode itself, log-periodic antenna and log-periodic antenna coupled with the bow-tie diode were analyzed; it was determined that frequency properties of such antennacoupled device can be tuned via variation of antenna shape and size. Multi-pixel InGaAs bow-tie diodes arrays of different designs - narrow band and broadband operation - were designed and fabricated. They were demonstrated to be well suited for continuous wave room temperature spectroscopic terahertz imaging at 0.58 THz and at 1.63 THz.

Minkevi?ius, Linas; Madeikis, Karolis; Kašalynas, Irmantas; Venckevi?ius, Rimvydas; Seliuta, Dalius; TamošiÅ«nas, Vincas; Valušis, Gintaras

2013-09-01

178

Toward a Dynamic Conceptualization of Social Ties and Context: Implications for Understanding Immigrant and Latino Health  

PubMed Central

Researchers have posited that social ties and social support may contribute to better-than-expected health outcomes among Mexican immigrants vis-à-vis their US-born counterparts. However, in our review of studies examining social ties and health by immigration-related variables among this group, we found little support for this hypothesis. To better understand the social factors that contribute to the health of Mexicans in the United States, we conducted a qualitative analysis of social relationships and social context among first- and second-generation Mexican women. Our results highlight the interplay between immigration processes and social ties, draw attention to the importance of identity support and transnational social relationships, and suggest ways to reconceptualize the relationship between social contexts, social ties, and immigrant and Latino health.

Schulz, Amy J.

2009-01-01

179

Too Much or Too Little Sleep Tied to Memory Problems in Older Women  

MedlinePLUS

... Too Much or Too Little Sleep Tied to Memory Problems in Older Women Those who slept either ... Preidt Thursday, May 1, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Memory Seniors' Health Sleep Disorders THURSDAY, May 1, 2014 ( ...

180

Scientists Spot 7 New Regions of DNA Tied to Type 2 Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Scientists Spot 7 New Regions of DNA Tied to Type 2 Diabetes ... their findings could lead to the development of new treatments for the disease (*this news item will ...

181

Sleepless Nights After Divorce May Be Tied to Blood Pressure Rise  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Sleepless Nights After Divorce May Be Tied to Blood Pressure Rise Small ... Preidt Tuesday, July 22, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Divorce High Blood Pressure Sleep Disorders TUESDAY, July 22, ...

182

Poor Sleep in Gulf War Vets May Be Tied to Brain Changes  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Poor Sleep in Gulf War Vets May Be Tied to ... February 28, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Brain Diseases Sleep Disorders Veterans and Military Health FRIDAY, Feb. 28, ...

183

Natural Conception Later in Life Tied to Longer Life for Women  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Natural Conception Later in Life Tied to Longer Life ... a rate of aging indicator," he believes. "The natural ability to have a child at an older ...

184

Vertical Track Modulus in Plastic Composite Tie Test Zones at FAST.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Transportation Technology Center (TTCI) conducted vertical track modulus (stiffness) tests on existing plastic composite tie test zones on the High Tonnage Loop (HTL) at the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Facility for Accelerated Service Testing ...

R. Jimenez

2003-01-01

185

Measurement and Correlation Analysis Plan for Concrete Tie and Fastener Performance Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents an experiment plan and a correlation methodology through which the long-term performance of concrete tie track will be evaluated. The experiment plan defines test segments, instrumentation and measurement procedures for a comprehensive...

F. E. Dean H. D. Harrison R. H. Prause E. T. Selig D. McMahon

1979-01-01

186

Automatic Tie Point Generation for the Processing of HRSC Imagery of the Mars Express Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The automatic determination of tie points for the improvement of the exterior orientation of the spacecraft is carried out at Institute of Photogrammetry and GeoInformation (IPI) of Universität Hannover and is presented in this abstract.

Schmidt, R.; Spiegel, M.; Heipke, C.; Oberst, J.; Neukum, G.; HRSC Co-Investigator Team

2005-03-01

187

The Stability of Hollow and Zero-net Current Plasmas in a Line-Tied Geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Line-tied Reconnection Experiment, a linear screw pinch with line-tied axial boundaries, creates plasma via a hexagonally-packed array of nineteen electrostatic current injectors (washer guns). These guns inject individually controlled current and density filaments which merge to form azimuthally symmetric plasmas. Hollow current profiles are explored and shown to be unstable at high safety factor (>10). The eigenmodes of these instabilities display non-line tied behavior. The injection of opposing current at the center of the device stabilizes the hollow current plasmas and may provide more rigorous line tying. Plasmas with no net current are explored and undergo sudden shifts in magnetic topology reminiscent of Magnetic Reconnection. Recent improvements to the device allow simultaneous detailed measurements of equilibrium and stability.

Brookhart, Matthew; Paz-Soldan, Carlos; Eckhart, Andrew; Forest, Cary

2012-10-01

188

Study Ties Daylight Saving Time Change to Rise in Heart Attacks  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Study Ties Daylight Saving Time Change to Rise in Heart Attacks Michigan hospitals ... more) on the Monday immediately after Daylight Saving Time began. There was also a 21 percent decrease ...

189

CHARACTERIZATION AND ISOLATION OF ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN WHOLE SEDIMENT TOXICITY INDENTIFICATION EVALUATIONS (TIES)  

EPA Science Inventory

Development of whole sediment toxicity identification and evaluation (TIEs) methods has been under way for approximately four years. These methods are necessary to define cause and effect relationships in toxic sediments during ecological risk assessments, remediation and disposa...

190

EFFECTS OF BRINE ADDITION ON EFFLUENT TOXICITY AND MARINE TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATION (TIE) MANIPULATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Little information is available concerning the effect of salinity adjustment on effluent storage and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) performance. hese factors are important for accurate assessments of potential toxicity to marine organisms. he objective of this study was...

191

Common Gout Drug Tied to Lower Risk of Early Death in Study  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Common Gout Drug Tied to Lower Risk of Early Death ... Preidt Friday, March 28, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Gout Medicines FRIDAY, March 28, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- A ...

192

The effects of emitter-tied field plates on lateral PNP ionizing radiation response  

SciTech Connect

Radiation response comparisons of lateral PNP bipolar technologies reveal that device hardening may be achieved by extending the emitter contact over the active base. The emitter-tied field plate suppresses recombination of carriers with interface traps.

Barnaby, H.J.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Cirba, C.R. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Pease, R.L. [RLP Research, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fleetwood, D.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kosier, S.L. [VTC Inc., Bloomington, MN (United States)

1998-03-01

193

Managerial ties and firm performance in an emerging economy: Tests of the mediating and moderating effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the literature documents the direct effects of managerial ties on firm performance, the empirical results are divergent\\u000a and inconclusive. To explain these disparities, this study (1) develops and tests a model that establishes the role of external\\u000a resource acquisition as a salient mediating mechanism through which managers’ business and political ties influence firm performance;\\u000a and (2) examines the moderating

Gang Wang; Xu Jiang; Chang-Hong Yuan; Ya-Qun Yi

194

A CPW-fed bow-tie slot antenna with tuning stub  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a modified slot bow-tie antenna fed by a coplanar waveguide (CPW) is investigated for wideband operation. It is designed to work on a thin substrate (h = 0.787 mm) with a low dielectric constant (epsivr = 2.2) operating at two frequencies (1.8 and 2.4 GHz). Two metal stubs are introduced in the middle of the bow-tie slot

Leonidas Marantis; Paul Brennan

2008-01-01

195

Role of Angiopoietins and Tie receptor tyrosine kinases in angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on the signaling system involving the Angiopoietin1\\/Tie2 receptor, which appears to be involved in the secondary stages of blood vessel formation. Although this system is crucial for blood and lymphatic vessel formation, identifying its precise role in embryonic and adult vascular biology has been a major challenge. The evidence for the key role of the Angiopoietin\\/Tie system

Gavin Thurston

2003-01-01

196

A New Approach to Construct Optimal Bow Tie Diagrams for Risk Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bow tie diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis and safety management. This tool describes graphically, in the\\u000a same scheme, the whole scenario of an identified risk and its respective preventive and protective barriers. The major problem\\u000a with bow tie diagrams is that they remain limited by their technical level and by their restriction to the graphical representation\\u000a of

Ahmed Badreddine; Nahla Ben Amor

2010-01-01

197

Identification of the Tensile Force in Tie-rods of Historical Constructions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper addresses the problem of the bending curvature due to self-weight of tie-rods when using dynamical approach to\\u000a identify the tensile force in tie-rods of historical constructions. Although several dynamic testing methods have been proposed\\u000a in the literature, the effect of bending curvature due to self-weight of the rods on their frequency values has not been studied.\\u000a In this

Hoa T. M. Luong; Luís F. Ramos; Rafael Aguilar

198

Speaker adaptation of tied-mixture-based phoneme models for text-prompted speaker recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speaker adaptation methods for tied-mixture-based phoneme models are investigated for text-prompted speaker recognition. For this type of speaker recognition, speaker-specific phoneme models are essential for verifying both the key text and the speaker. This paper proposes a new method of creating speaker-specific phoneme models. This uses speaker-independent (universal) phoneme models consisting of tied-mixture HMMs and adapts the feature space of

T. Matsui; S. Furui

1994-01-01

199

Design, Simulation, Fabrication and Testing of Flexible Bow-Tie Antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design, simulation, fabrication and measurement of two different novel flexible bow-tie antennas, a conventional and a modified bow-tie antenna with reduced metallization, are reported inthispaper.Theantennasaremountedonaflexiblesubstratefab- ricated at the Flexible Display Center (FDC) of Arizona State Uni- versity (ASU). The substrate is heat stabilized polyethylene naph- thalate (PEN) which allows the antennas to be flexible. The an- tennasarefedbyamicrostrip-to-coplanarfeednetworkbalun.The reduction of the

Ahmet Cemal Durgun; Constantine A. Balanis; Craig R. Birtcher; David R. Allee

2011-01-01

200

The relationship between twin language, twins' close ties, and social competence.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relationship between twin language, twins' close ties, and social competence in a prospective longitudinal study. We hypothesized that twins whose tie is close would be more likely to develop a twin language, and these twins would be less likely to develop social competence. In addition, we hypothesize that some environmental factors, such as having an older sibling, preschool attendance, zygosity, and sex are also related to twin language, twins' close ties, and social competence. At baseline in 1999 a mailed questionnaire survey was conducted, and a follow-up questionnaire was distributed in 2004 among 958 mothers. As a result, 516 respondents returned the questionnaire (53.9%). In this study, we used 261 twin pairs aged from 6 to 12 years (school-age children) for analysis, excluding those with missing values. In the present study, we found that zygosity and sex were associated with twins' close ties. Having an older sibling and preschool attendance did not affect the twins' close tie, twin language, or social competence. One of the most important findings was that social competence was not affected directly by twins' close tie, but was affected when a twin language was found. PMID:24330841

Hayashi, Chisato; Mikami, Hiroshi; Nishihara, Reiko; Maeda, Chiho; Hayakawa, Kazuo

2014-02-01

201

Multi-purpose grid-tied inverter with smart grid capabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributed energy storages play an important role in increasing the reliability and efficiency of the grid through means of peak load shaving, grid voltage support, and grid frequency support. It is important to have distributed energy storages that can utilize the functionalities of the modern smart grid to operate more effectively. The grid-tied inverter is one of the major components in a distributed energy storage that controls the power transfer between the grid and an energy storage device. In this research, a grid-tied inverter that can be used in distributed energy storage applications was designed, developed, and tested. This grid-tied inverter was designed with the capability to control both reactive and active power flow in either direction. The grid-tied inverter is equipped with communication capabilities so it can be remotely controlled by commands sent through a smart grid network. For demonstrative purposes, a user interface was developed to control and monitor the operation of the grid-tied inverter. Finally the operation of the grid-tied inverter was evaluated in accordance to IEEE 1547, the Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems.

Liyanagedera, Chamika Mihiranga

202

Current Singularities in Line-tied Three-dimensional Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers the current distributions that derive from finite amplitude perturbations of line-tied magnetic fields comprising hyperbolic field structures. The initial equilibrium on which we principally focus is a planar magnetic X-point threaded by a uniform axial field. This field is line-tied on all surfaces but subject to three-dimensional (3D) disturbances that alter the initial topology. Results of ideal relaxation simulations are presented which illustrate how intense current structures form that can be related, through the influence of line-tying, to the quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) of the initial configuration. It is demonstrated that the location within the QSL that attracts the current, and its scaling properties, are strongly dependent on the relative dimensions of the QSL with respect to the line-tied boundaries. These results are contrasted with the behavior of a line-tied 3D field containing an isolated null point. In this case, it is found that the dominant current always forms at the null, but that the collapse is inhibited when the null is closer to a line-tied boundary.

Craig, I. J. D.; Pontin, D. I.

2014-06-01

203

Automatic transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an automatic transmission including a fluid torque converter, a first gear unit having three forward-speed gears and a single reverse gear, a second gear unit having a low-speed gear and a high-speed gear, and a hydraulic control system, the hydraulic control system comprising: a source of pressurized fluid; a first shift valve for controlling the shifting between the first-speed gear and the second-speed gear of the first gear unit; a second shift valve for controlling the shifting between the second-speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; a third shift valve equipped with a spool having two positions for controlling the shifting between the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit; a manual selector valve having a plurality of shift positions for distributing the pressurized fluid supply from the source of pressurized fluid to the first, second and third shift valves respectively; first, second and third solenoid valves corresponding to the first, second and third shift valves, respectively for independently controlling the operation of the respective shift valves, thereby establishing a six forward-speed automatic transmission by combining the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit with each of the first-speed gear, the second speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; and means to fixedly position the spool of the third shift valve at one of the two positions by supplying the pressurized fluid to the third shift valve when the manual selector valve is shifted to a particular shift position, thereby locking the second gear unit in one of low-speed gear and the high-speed gear, whereby the six forward-speed automatic transmission is converted to a three forward-speed automatic transmission when the manual selector valve is shifted to the particular shift position.

Miki, N.

1988-10-11

204

Minutes of the Meeting - Pennsylvania Electric Association, Engineering Section, Transmission and Distribution Committee, Fall, 1981  

SciTech Connect

This proceedings contains nine papers on various aspects of electric power systems, with special emphasis on transmission and distribution within a system and tie-ins between systems. Protection of components from overload and corrosion, quality assurance and control, salvage and reclaim, restoration of service after outage in underground distributors and some construction problems are also considered. Four papers are indexed and abstracted separately.

Not Available

1981-01-01

205

77 FR 50098 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Supplemental Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...August 1, 2012, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia...An Interstate Natural Gas Facility On My Land...agricultural land and then turn east southeastward parallel...Kings Arms Drive, and turn southeastward to tie back...developed. On natural gas facility projects,...

2012-08-20

206

Automatic transmission  

SciTech Connect

An automatic transmission is described, comprising: a torque converter including an impeller having a connected member, a turbine having an input member and a reactor; and an automatic transmission mechanism having first to third clutches and plural gear units including a single planetary gear unit with a ring gear and a dual planetary gear unit with a ring gear. The single and dual planetary gear units have respective carriers integrally coupled with each other and respective sun gears integrally coupled with each other, the input member of the turbine being coupled with the ring gear of the single planetary gear unit through the first clutch, and being coupled with the sun gear through the second clutch. The connected member of the impeller is coupled with the ring gear of the dual planetary gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be and ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be restrained as required, and the carrier is coupled with an output member.

Aoki, H.

1989-03-21

207

Modeling “unilateral” response in the cross-ties of a cable network: Deterministic vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cross-ties are employed as passive devices for the mitigation of stay-cable vibrations, exhibited on cable-stayed bridges under wind and wind-rain excitation. Large-amplitude oscillation can result in damage to the cables or perceived discomfort to bridge users. The “cable-cross-ties system” derived by connecting two or more stays by transverse cross-ties is often referred to as an “in-plane cable network”. Linear modeling of network dynamics has been available for some time. This framework, however, cannot be used to detect incipient failure in the restrainers due to slackening or snapping. A new model is proposed in this paper to analyze the effects of a complete loss in the pre-tensioning force imparted to the cross-ties, which leads to the “unilateral” free-vibration response of the network (i.e., a cross-tie with linear-elastic internal force in tension and partially inactive in compression). Deterministic free vibrations of a three-cable network are investigated by using the “equivalent linearization method”. A performance coefficient is introduced to monitor the relative reduction in the average (apparent) stiffness of the connector during free vibration response (“mode by mode”), exhibiting unilateral behavior. A reduction of fifty percent in the apparent stiffness was observed in the cross-tie when the pre-tensioning force is small in comparison with the tension force in the stay. This coefficient may be used as a damage indicator for the selection of the initial pre-tensioning force in the cross-ties needed to avoid slackening.

Giaccu, Gian Felice; Caracoglia, Luca; Barbiellini, Bernardo

2014-09-01

208

Angiopoietin-1 promotes neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglion cells positive for Tie-2 receptor.  

PubMed

The effects of vascular factors on the nervous system are still poorly investigated. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), an endothelial cell growth factor with influences on blood vessel stabilization, has been recently reported to prevent apoptosis in a neuroblastoma cell line via a pathway dependent on Tie-2 receptor. The present study focuses on the effect of Ang-1 on cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells isolated from 1-day-old rats. Three-day-old DRG cultures were exposed to Ang-1 treatment under serum-free condition for another 5 days and stained with antibodies against neurofilament (NF) 200 protein. Neurite length and density increased compared with those of controls. Double-immunofluorescence staining demonstrated the co-localization of the Tie-2 receptor in some NF-200-positive perikarya. The reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction technique identified Tie-2 receptor mRNA in intact DRG and in Ang-1-stimulated DRG cell cultures, but not in a Schwann cell line or in primary astrocyte cultures. Western blotting confirmed that the expression of NF 68 protein in cultures treated with Ang-1 or nerve growth factor was higher than that in cultures treated with medium alone. When the Tie-2 receptor was blocked with anti-Tie-2 receptor antibody, neurite outgrowth was severely impeded. Induction of trkA-receptor protein expression was observed to be dependent on the presence of Tie-2 receptors. We conclude that Ang-1 promotes neurite outgrowth from DRG cells positive for Tie-2 receptor. The signalling pathway appears to involve transactivation of the trkA receptor. PMID:15714275

Kosacka, Joanna; Figiel, Maciej; Engele, Jürgen; Hilbig, Heidegard; Majewski, Mariusz; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina

2005-04-01

209

Planetary transmission  

SciTech Connect

A planetary transmission is described comprising: an input shaft; a first planetary gear set having a first sun gear driven by the input shaft, a first planet carrier serving as the output, a first ring gear, and first brake means for selectively holding the fist ring gear stationary; a second planetary gear set having a second sun gear driven by the input shaft, a second planet carrier connected for joint rotation to the first ring gear, a second ring gear, and second brake means for selectively holding the second ring gear stationary; a third planetary gear set having a third sun gear connected for joint rotation to the second planet carrier, a third planet carrier connected for joint rotation to the second ring gear, a third ring gear, and third brake means for selectively holding the third ring gear stationary; and clutch means for connecting the third sun gear to the input shaft and providing a direct drive mode of operation.

Nerstad, K.A.; Windish, W.E.

1987-04-21

210

A field study investigating the effects of a rebar-tying machine on trunk flexion, tool usability and productivity.  

PubMed

A field study with a before-and-after experimental design was conducted to evaluate the potential reduction in the risk of musculoskeletal injuries to rodworkers when using an automatic rebar-tying machine. Eleven rodworkers participated in this experiment. All dependent variables (trunk posture, rebar-tying time and responses to a usability questionnaire) were first measured before introducing the rebar-tying machine and then after 3 months of usage all dependent variables were measured again. The results of the study indicated that working with a rebar-tying machine significantly reduced the magnitude, frequency and duration of exposure to awkward trunk posture. Tying time was reduced when participants used the machine. The usability questionnaire indicated that most participants preferred to use the rebar-tying machine for ground-level rebar construction. The field study also revealed that the rebar-tying machine is not limited to the reinforcing trade. The machine can be used for other purposes, such as tying electrical conduit and attaching radiant heat tube to steel mesh. Based on trunk posture exposure, rebar-tying time, usability and transferability, it is concluded that the rebar-tying machine can be an effective tool to reduce the frequency and duration of severe trunk flexion, improve usability and increase productivity among concrete reinforcement workers. PMID:17028088

Vi, Peter

2006-11-15

211

Tie2-Dependent Neovascularization of the Ischemic Hindlimb Is Mediated by Angiopoietin-2  

PubMed Central

The angiopoietins (ANGPT) are ligands for the endothelial cell (EC) receptor tyrosine kinase, Tie2. Angpt-1 is a Tie2 agonist that promotes vascular maturation and stabilization, whereas Angpt-2 is a partial agonist/antagonist involved in the initiation of postnatal angiogenesis. Therefore, we hypothesized that overexpression of Angpt-2 would be more effective than Angpt-1 for enhancing the perfusion recovery in the ischemic hindlimb. Perfusion recovery was markedly impaired in Tie2-deficient animals at day 35 in a model of chronic hindlimb ischemia. Injections of Angpt-2 or VEGFA plasmid at 7 days post femoral artery resection enhanced recovery and improved arteriogenesis as assessed by angiographic scores, whereas Angpt-1 or null plasmid had no effect. In addition, Angpt-2 together with VEGF resulted in greater improvement in perfusion and collateral vessel formation than VEGF alone. Similarly, conditional overexpression of Angpt-2 in mice improved ischemic limb blood flow recovery, while Angpt-1 overexpression was ineffective. These data from Tie2 heterozygote deficient mice demonstrate, for the first time, the importance of the Tie2 pathway in spontaneous neovascularization in response to chronic hindlimb ischemia. Moreover, they show that overexpression of the partial agonist, Angpt-2, but not Angpt-1, enhanced ischemic hind limb perfusion recovery and collateralization, suggesting that a coordinated sequence antagonist and agonist activity is required for effective therapeutic revascularization.

Lekas, Michael; Lekas, Poli; Mei, Shirley H. J.; Deng, Yupu; Dumont, Daniel J.; Stewart, Duncan J.

2012-01-01

212

Modified bow-tie antenna with strong broadband field enhancement for RF photonic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel design of a subwavelength modified bow-tie antenna that is capable of generating strong broadband field enhancement in its extended feed gap. This modified bow-tie antenna is comprised of a conventional bow-tie antenna with capacitive extended bars attached to the apex points of the bow-tie. The feed gap between the two capacitive bars is separated with a deep subwavelength width for the generation of enhanced local electrical field. Threedimensional finite element method model is utilized to systematically explore the properties of this antenna design. Through adjusting the bow-tie geometry and the substrate properties, the antenna structure is optimized with a central resonant frequency at 100 GHz. Highly enhanced electrical field is created between the extended bar under radio frequency (RF) illumination. With the optimized design, numerical simulations show that a uniform field enhancement of more than 200 through the entire feed gap with a bandwidth of 40 GHz can be achieved. The strongly enhanced RF field within the gap can be applied to directly modulate guided optical wave propagating in a waveguide embedded in the substrate underneath the feed gap. This work builds up a bridge between devices in the RF and optical frequency regimes that may find many potential applications in RF photonic devices and systems.

Wang, Shiyi; Zhan, Qiwen

2013-09-01

213

Sequential toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) for characterizing toxicity of Venice Lagoon sediments: Comparison of two different approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

A toxicity identification evaluation phase-I (TIE-1) procedure was carried out on five pore water samples extracted from sediments of the Venice Lagoon previously investigated to assess both chemical contamination and toxic effects on the biota. Two different sequential TIE procedures were tested. A first sequence (TIE-1) provided for adding Na2S2O3, adding Na-EDTA, filtering, elution through a C18-SPE column and removing

Marco Picone; Martina Bergamin; Elisa Volpato; Eugenia Delaney; Clara Turetta; Martina Ranaldo; Gabriele Capodaglio; Cristina Nasci

2009-01-01

214

Expression Patterns of Angiopoietin-1, -2, and Tie2 Receptor in Ulcerative Colitis Support Involvement of the Angiopoietin\\/Tie Pathway in the Progression of Ulcerative Colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The active stage of ulcerative colitis (UC) involves transmigration of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells to colonic epithelia.\\u000a The angiopoietin (Ang) pathway plays a role as the regulator of PMN transmigration. To clarify the role of the Ang\\/Tie pathway\\u000a in the activation of UC, especially in cypt abscess formation, 67 tissue samples were obtained from patients with UC and ten\\u000a controls without

Ayumi Yoshizaki; Toshiyuki Nakayama; Shinji Naito; Ichiro Sekine

2009-01-01

215

Orientation of tie-lines in the phase diagram of DOPC/DPPC/cholesterol model biomembranes.  

PubMed

We report the direction of tie-lines of coexisting phases in a ternary diagram of DOPC/DPPC/cholesterol lipid bilayers, which has been a system of interest in the discussion of biological rafts. For coexisting Ld and Lo phases, we find that the orientation angle ? of the tie-lines increases as the cholesterol concentration increases and it also increases as temperature increases from T = 15 °C to T = 30 °C. Results at lower cholesterol concentrations support the existence of a different two-phase coexistence region of Ld and So phases and the existence of a three-phase region separating the two two-phase regions. Our method uses the X-ray lamellar D-spacings observed in oriented bilayers as a function of varying hydration. Although this method does not obtain the ends of the tie-lines, it gives precise values (±1°) of their angles ? in the ternary phase diagram. PMID:20968281

Uppamoochikkal, Pradeep; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Nagle, John F

2010-11-16

216

Exploring the Academic Benefits of Friendship Ties for Latino Boys and Girls*  

PubMed Central

Objectives We examine how the racial/ethnic and generational status composition of Latino students' friendship groups is related to their academic achievement and whether there are differential effects by gender. Methods We use multivariate regression analyses to examine the effects of friends' characteristics on Latino students' end of high school grades, utilizing data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study (AHAA), and its parent survey, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Results For Latina girls, there are positive effects of having more friendship ties to third-plus-generation Latino peers in contrast to dominant culture peers; yet Latino boys benefit academically from ties to all co-ethnic peers. Having friends with higher parental education promotes achievement of both genders. Conclusion Our results counter notions of a pervasive negative peer influence of minority youth and suggest that co-ethnic ties are an important source of social capital for Latino students' achievement.

Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; Callahan, Rebecca M.

2010-01-01

217

A determination of the radio-planetary frame tie and the DSN tracking station locations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The orientation of the reference frame of radio source catalogs relative to that of planetary ephemerides is uncertain by 30 mas (150 nrad). At this level of uncertainty this orientation offset, or 'frame tie', can be a major systematic error source for interplanetary spacecraft orbit determination. This work presents a method of determining the radio-planetary frame tie from a comparison of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) station coordinate and earth orientation parameter estimates. Preliminary results are presented which indicate that accuracies of 5 mas or better may be achieved with this method. An important by-product of this method of frame tie determination is a set of Deep Space Network (DSN) station locations with 10 cm per component accuracy. This station set is in a geocentric coordinate system with known orientation relative to the radio and planetary frames.

Finger, Mark H.; Folkner, William M.

1990-01-01

218

Orientation of Tie-Lines in the Phase Diagram of DOPC:DPPC:Cholesterol Model Biomembranes  

PubMed Central

We report the direction of tie-lines of coexisting phases in a ternary diagram of DOPC:DPPC:Cholesterol lipid bilayers, which has been a system of interest in the discussion of biological rafts. For coexisting Ld and Lo phases we find that the orientation angle ? of the tie-lines increases as the cholesterol concentration increases and it also increases as temperature increases from T=15 °C to T=30 °C. Results at lower cholesterol concentrations support the existence of a different 2-phase coexistence region of Ld and So phases and the existence of a 3-phase region separating the two 2-phase regions. Our method uses the X-ray lamellar D-spacings observed in oriented bilayers as a function of varying hydration. Although this method does not obtain the ends of the tie-lines, it gives precise values (±1°) of their angles ? in the ternary phase diagram.

Uppamoochikkal, Pradeep; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Nagle, John F.

2010-01-01

219

A Community of Strangers: The Dis-Embedding of Social Ties  

PubMed Central

In this paper we explore two contrasting perspectives on individuals' participation in associations. On the one hand, some have considered participation the byproduct of pre-existing friendship ties — the more friends one already has in the association, the more likely he or she is to participate. On the other hand, some have considered participation to be driven by the association's capacity to form new identities — the more new friends one meets in the association, the more likely he or she is to participate. We use detailed temporal data from an online association to adjudicate between these two mechanisms and explore their interplay. Our results show a significant impact of new friendship ties on participation, compared to a negligible impact of pre-existing friends, defined here as ties to other members formed outside of the organization's context. We relate this finding to the sociological literature on participation and we explore its implications in the discussion.

Parigi, Paolo; State, Bogdan; Dakhlallah, Diana; Corten, Rense; Cook, Karen

2013-01-01

220

A community of strangers: the dis-embedding of social ties.  

PubMed

In this paper we explore two contrasting perspectives on individuals' participation in associations. On the one hand, some have considered participation the byproduct of pre-existing friendship ties--the more friends one already has in the association, the more likely he or she is to participate. On the other hand, some have considered participation to be driven by the association's capacity to form new identities--the more new friends one meets in the association, the more likely he or she is to participate. We use detailed temporal data from an online association to adjudicate between these two mechanisms and explore their interplay. Our results show a significant impact of new friendship ties on participation, compared to a negligible impact of pre-existing friends, defined here as ties to other members formed outside of the organization's context. We relate this finding to the sociological literature on participation and we explore its implications in the discussion. PMID:23861761

Parigi, Paolo; State, Bogdan; Dakhlallah, Diana; Corten, Rense; Cook, Karen

2013-01-01

221

Affect networks: a structural analysis of the relationship between work ties and job-related affect.  

PubMed

The relationship between organizational networks and employees' affect was examined in 2 organizations. In Study 1, social network analysis of work ties and job-related affect for 259 employees showed that affect converged within work interaction groups. Similarity of affect between employees depended on the presence of work ties and structural equivalence. Affect was also related to the size and density of employees' work networks. Study 2 used a 10-week diary study of 31 employees to examine a merger of 2 organizational divisions and found that negative changes in employees' affect were related to having fewer cross-divisional ties and to experiencing greater reductions in network density. The findings suggest that affect permeates through and is shaped by organizational networks. PMID:15506865

Totterdell, Peter; Wall, Toby; Holman, David; Diamond, Holly; Epitropaki, Olga

2004-10-01

222

Relief of Residual Stress in Streamline Tie Rods by Heat Treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

About two-thirds of the residual stress in cold-worked SAE 1050 steel tie rods was relieved by heating 30 minutes at 600 degrees Fahrenheit. Cold-worked austenitic stainless-steel tie rods could be heated at temperatures up to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit without lowering the important physical properties. The corrosion resistance, in laboratory corrosion test, of straight 18:8 and titanium-treated 18:8 materials appeared to be impaired after heating at temperatures above 800 degrees or 900 degrees fahrenheit. Columbium-treated and molybdenum-treated 18:8 steel exhibited improved stability over a wide range of temperatures. Tie rods of either material could be heated 30 minutes with safety at any temperature up to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit. At this temperature most of the residual stress would be relieved.

Pollard, R E; Reinhart, Fred M

1941-01-01

223

Effects of brine addition on effluent toxicity and marine toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) manipulations  

SciTech Connect

Little information is available concerning the effect of salinity adjustment on effluent storage and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) performance. These factors are important for accurate assessments of potential toxicity to marine organisms. The objective of this study was to determine (a) the effect of salinity adjustment using hypersaline brine on the toxicity of effluents stored up to 40 d, and (b) to determine the effect of salinity adjustment on TIE manipulations. Changes in effluent toxicity over time were examined by using a municipal and an industrial effluent. A toxicity time series was performed for 16 d for the industrial effluent and 40 d for the municipal effluent. Toxicity was measured with modified 48-h acute Mysidopsis bahia and Menidia beryllina tests. Results indicate that, compared to day 0 test results, effluent stored with brine had fewer significant changes in toxicity than did effluent stored without brine. To determine the effects of brine addition on TIE manipulations, the authors conducted a series of manipulations in which one aliquot of an effluent had brine added prior to the TIE manipulations and the other aliquot had brine added after the TIE manipulation. The manipulations conducted were EDTA addition, sodium thiosulfate addition, C[sub 18] extraction, aeration, filtration, and graduated pH manipulations. Toxicity was measured with the modified 48-h acute mysid test. Addition of brine had no effect on the outcome of TIE manipulations. They have concluded that it is operationally easier to add brine as soon as possible after sampling and that effluent tests should be conducted as soon as practical.

Ho, K.T.; Burgess, R.M. (Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States)); Mitchell, K. (Xavier Univ. of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA (United States). Biology Dept.); Zappala, M. (Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States))

1995-02-01

224

Early diagenetic degradation products of bacteriohopanepolyols produced by Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain TIE-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anoxygenic purple non-sulphur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain TIE-1 has emerged as an excellent model organism to study hopanoid biosynthesis and function. It produces several C30 hopanoids, tetrahymanol, as well as various bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs). In addition, TIE-1 is capable of methylating various hopanoids and the non-hopanoid pentacyclic terpenoid tetrahymanol at C-2, which is rare among hopanoid producers. Here, the lipid inventory of TIE-1 under anoxic photoautotrophic growth conditions using either H2 or Fe(II) as electron donor was studied. Adenosylhopane, aminotriol and bacteriohopanetetrol (BHT) were abundant when TIE-1 was grown on H2, but aminotriol and BHT were only found in traces when grown with Fe(II). Only during growth on Fe(II), BHT was found with and without C-2 methylation (25% of both BHT homologues), whereas the other BHPs were not C-2 methylated independent of growth mode. In C30 hopanoids and tetrahymanol, C-2 methylated compounds accounted for as much as 59% of the respective C-2 methylated/non-methylated homologues during growth with Fe(II), but only up to 24% during growth with H2. This observation reveals that C-2 methylated hopanoids may have a specific function in TIE-1 and are preferably synthesized in response to elevated Fe(II) concentrations. Further, we exposed the bacterial cells of strain TIE-1 to elevated temperatures and pressure aiming to produce early degradation products of bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs). While so far, only few BHPs such as 32,35-anhydrobacteriohopanetetrol (anhydroBHT) have been identified as early diagenetic degradation products, in our experiments bacteriohopanetetrol (BHT) and possibly adenosylhopane were degraded to various anhydroBHT isomers, and new N-containing degradation products were discovered and tentatively assigned as anhydroaminotriols.

Eickhoff, Merle; Birgel, Daniel; Talbot, Helen M.; Peckmann, Jörn; Kappler, Andreas

2014-05-01

225

Automatic transmission  

SciTech Connect

1. An automatic transmission with four forward speeds and one reverse position, is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets each having a sun gear, a ring gear and a carrier supporting a pinion in mesh with the sun gear and ring gear; the carrier of the first gear set, the ring gear of the second gear set and the output member all being connected; the ring gear of the first gear set connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a first clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the first gear set, including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a second clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the second gear set a third clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the carrier of the second gear set including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a first drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear of the first gear set and the carrier of the second gear set in only one direction and, alternatively, in any direction; a second drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the sun gear of the second gear set; and a drum being open to the first planetary gear set, with a cylindrical intermediate wall, an inner peripheral wall and outer peripheral wall and forming the hydraulic servos of the first and third clutch means between the intermediate wall and the inner peripheral wall and between the intermediate wall and the outer peripheral wall respectively.

Miura, M.; Inuzuka, T.

1986-08-26

226

Power transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a transmission. It comprises a housing having first and second end covers; an input shaft rotatably mounted in the first end cover; an output shaft rotatably supported on the input shaft and in the second end cover; first and second countershafts rotatably supported in the end covers for rotation on respective axis parallel with the input shaft and the output shaft; a first head gear continuously rotatable with the input shaft; second and third head gears meshing with the first head gear and continuously rotatable with the first and second countershafts respectively; ratio gears rotatably supported on each of the countershafts including a first ratio gear on the first countershaft and a second ratio gear on the second countershaft; reverse gear means including a first ratio gear on the first countershaft and a second ratio gear on the second countershaft; reverse gear means including a first member rotatable with the first ratio gear means including a first member rotatable with the first ratio gear and a second member rotatably supported on the second countershaft; synchronizer clutch means selectively and alternatively connectible with the second ratio gear and the second member of the reverse gear means; output gear means drivingly connected with the output shaft and including a first ratio output gear meshing with the second ratio gear; first selectively engageable friction clutch means for connecting the first ratio gear with the first countershaft for completing a low forward drive ratio between the input and output shafts; and second selectively engageable friction clutch means for selectively connecting the synchronizer clutch means to the second countershaft and cooperating therewith to selectively alternatively complete a reverse drive ratio between the input shaft and the output shaft and another forward drive ratio between the input and output shafts.

Ordo, J.P.; Raszkowski, J.A.; Klemen, D.

1991-04-23

227

Effects of line-tying on magnetohydrodynamic instabilities and current sheet formation  

SciTech Connect

An overview of some recent progress on magnetohydrodynamic stability and current sheet formation in a line-tied system is given. Key results on the linear stability of the ideal internal kink mode and resistive tearing mode are summarized. For nonlinear problems, a counterexample to the recent demonstration of current sheet formation by Low and Janse [Astrophys. J. 696, 821 (2009)] is presented, and the governing equations for quasistatic evolution of a boundary driven, line-tied magnetic field are derived. Some open questions and possible strategies to resolve them are discussed.

Huang Yimin; Bhattacharjee, A. [Space Science Center, Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, and Center for Integrated Computation and Analysis of Reconnection and Turbulence, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824 (United States); Zweibel, Ellen G. [Department of Physics, Department of Astronomy, and Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2010-05-15

228

Equation-of-State Based Tie-Simplex Parameterization for Multiphase Thermal-Compositional Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes usually involve complex phase behaviors between the injected fluid (e.g., steam, hydrocarbon, CO2, sour) and the in-situ rock-fluid system. Several fundamental questions remain regarding equation-of-state computations for mixtures than can form three, or more, phases at equilibrium. In addition, numerical and computational issues related to proper coupling of the thermodynamic phase-behavior with multiphase flow multi-component transport must be resolved in order to model the behaviors of large-scale EOR processes accurately and efficiently. We describe a general negative-flash method for multi-component, thermal systems that can form three, or more, fluid phases. We prove that the new method is convergent to the unique solution. Based on our multiphase negative-flash technique, we have developed an adaptive tie-simplex parameterization framework for thermal-compositional simulation. We also prove that the tie-simplexes change continuously as a function of pressure, temperature, and composition. The continuity of the parameterized compositional space allows for interpolation in pressure and temperature using a limited number of tie-simplexes. We show that the tie-simplex framework constrains thermodynamic computations, and converges to the global minimum of the Gibbs free energy. The extended negative-flash approach accounts rigorously for tie-simplex degeneration (critical behavior) across phase boundaries. We study the behaviors of thermal-compositional reservoir displacement processes across a wide range of fluid mixtures, pressures, and temperatures. The focus is on the complex behaviors of the tie-triangles and tie-lines associated with three-phase, thermal steam-injection problems in heterogeneous formations. The algorithms that capture the complex combinations of the appearance and disappearance of multiple phases are described in detail. This tie-simplex based parameterization framework is integrated with a general-purpose reservoir simulator, and its accuracy and computational efficiency is demonstrated for several challenging compositional (CO2, four phase sour-gas) and thermal-compositional (steam) models. The nonlinear behaviors are analyzed in terms of the particular displacement process, miscible/immiscible dynamics, number of components, and sensitivity to time step size.

Iranshahr, A.; Voskov, D.; Tchelepi, H. A.

2011-12-01

229

Discovery of Novel Benzimidazoles as Potent Inhibitors of TIE-2 and VEGFR-2 Tyrosine Kinase Receptors  

SciTech Connect

We herein disclose a novel chemical series of benzimidazole-ureas as inhibitors of VEGFR-2 and TIE-2 kinase receptors, both of which are implicated in angiogenesis. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies elucidated a critical role for the N1 nitrogen of both the benzimidazole (segment E) and urea (segment B) moieties. The SAR results were also supported by the X-ray crystallographic elucidation of the role of the N1 nitrogen and the urea moiety when the benzimidazole-urea compounds were bound to the VEGFR-2 enzyme. The left side phenyl ring (segment A) occupies the backpocket where a 3-hydrophobic substituent was favored for TIE-2 activity.

Hasegawa, Masaichi; Nishigaki, Naohiko; Washio, Yoshiaki; Kano, Kazuya; Harris, Philip A.; Sato, Hideyuki; Mori, Ichiro; West, Rob I.; Shibahara, Megumi; Toyoda, Hiroko; Wang, Liping; Nolte, Robert T.; Veal, James M.; Cheung, Mui (GSKNC); (GSK)

2008-09-12

230

Fit to be Tied! The Relevance of Ties in Teaching Physical Education: Umpires and Referees Must Decide Plays One Way or the Other, but Games Require No Such Decisive Conclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article has defended the notion that ties are legitimate results of sport contests and often represent the most accurate measure of relative athletic ability. In this sense, ties fully serve and honor the central purpose of competitive sport. Moreover, the authors discuss the following purposes for this article: (1) it will establish an…

McLaughlin, Douglas W.; Torres, Cesar R.

2005-01-01

231

Experience with elastic rubber bands for the tie-over dressing in skin graft  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derived a dressing using elastic rubber bands to tie over the skin graft. This is a simple, easy to perform, timesaving, inexpensive and reliable method for applying pressure over the skin graft compared with traditional methods. Between September 2002 and August 2004, we have used the present dressing technique in 35 patients with 36 grafts in various parts of

Li-Fu Cheng; Jiunn-Tat Lee; Trong-Duo Chou; Tai-Feng Chiu; Tzong-Bor Sun; Chien-Hsing Wang; Sou-Hsin Chien; Hsian-Jenn Wang

2006-01-01

232

The impact of multilateral and tied bilateral aid on the UK economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In line with their commitment to reduce public spending, the Conservative government under Thatcher cut the aid budget by some six per cent in real terms in their first five years in power, with the brunt of the cuts falling on bilateral aid. Business groups deplored this trend and argued that it be reversed because tied bilateral aid generated greater

Oliver Morrissey

1990-01-01

233

The relationship between modes of governance and relational tie in new product development relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to examine the impact of trust, norm of information sharing, and vertical control on relational ties in new product development (NPD) relationships. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Survey research was conducted to collect data from 112 NPD relationships and structural equation modeling was conducted to test the hypotheses. Findings – The results suggest that trust and norms of

Ebrahim Teimoury; Mehdi Fesharaki; Afshar Bazyar

2010-01-01

234

Social Support and Social Network Ties among the Homeless in a Downtown Atlanta Park  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study applies a typology of social support with 3 categories of social networks to investigate social ties and their benefits for homeless people. Data were derived from a 2-year long series of participant observations of homeless or precariously housed people who came regularly to a downtown Atlanta public park. The findings are as follows:…

Reitzes, Donald C.; Crimmins, Timothy J.; Yarbrough, Johanna; Parker, Josie

2011-01-01

235

Children in Residential Group Care with No Family Ties: Facing Existential Aloneness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of children living in residential group care in Israel completely without family ties is studied in order to explore the feelings of staff and uncover possible characteristics of these children. Data were collected through focus groups, questionnaires, and life stories of children who left group care at 18 years of age. Results reveal…

Dvir, Orly; Weiner, Anita; Kupermintz, Hagai

2012-01-01

236

30 CFR 77.704-10 - Tying into energized high-voltage surface circuits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

If the work of forming an additional circuit by tying into an energized high-voltage surface line is performed from the ground, any person performing such work must wear and employ all of the protective equipment and clothing required under the provisions of §§ 77.704-5 and...

2010-07-01

237

Ideal Kink Modes In a Line-Tied Screw Pinch With Finite Plasma Pressure*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for computing ideal magnetohydrodynamic linear eigenmodes in a cylindrical screw pinch with line-tying boundary conditions is presented. In this method, plasma volume is reflected over one of the end plates, and equations and field components are continued on the extended volume with the continuation rules prescribed by the line-tying boundary conditions. Field components in the combined volume are expanded in Fourier series in the axial coordinate. The resulting set of coupled differential equations is solved numerically in the radial coordinate yielding growth rates and eigenmodes for the system. Example of an m=1 (m is poloidal mode number) internal kink instability in force-free plasma equilibrium with uniform pressure is considered. In contrast to a periodic screw pinch, marginally stable perturbations are essentially compressible in line-tied geometry. Finite compressibility makes the mode more stable in addition to usual line-tying stabilization in zero pressure plasma. The critical length corresponding to marginal stability increases with the increase of plasma beta. A universal axial dependence for marginally stable density perturbations ?(r, z) = ?(r) exp(- i z / q(r)) is predicted analytically and confirmed numerically (q = r Bz/B? ). The work was supported by the U.S. D.O.E. and N.S.F.

Mirnov, V. V.; Svidzinski, V. A.; Li, H.

2008-11-01

238

Social Ties and Cognitive Recovery after Stroke: Does Social Integration Promote Cognitive Resilience?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Little is known about the possible effects of social resources on stroke survivors’ level and change in cognitive outcomes. Understanding this association may help us identify strategies to improve stroke recovery and help elucidate the etiology of dementia. Methods: We examined the relationship of social ties and social support to cognitive function and cognitive change 6 months after stroke.

M. Maria Glymour; Jennifer Weuve; Martha E. Fay; Thomas Glass; Lisa F. Berkman

2008-01-01

239

10 CFR 71.45 - Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...designed so that failure of any lifting device under excessive...being rendered inoperable for lifting the package during transport...equivalent to that required for lifting attachments. (b) Tie-down...vertical component of 2 times the weight of the package with its...

2009-01-01

240

10 CFR 71.45 - Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...designed so that failure of any lifting device under excessive...being rendered inoperable for lifting the package during transport...equivalent to that required for lifting attachments. (b) Tie-down...vertical component of 2 times the weight of the package with its...

2010-01-01

241

Newspaper Readership and Community Ties; Precision Journalism: Coming of Age. ANPA News Research Report No. 18.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first of two articles in this report offers a survey of how community ties lead to various psychological needs that are the motivation for newspaper reading. It identifies three distinct audience segments: the traditional audience, with permanent bonds to the community, whose need for information, guidance, and community surveillance leads to…

Stevenson, Robert L.; Ismach, Arnold H.

242

Language of the People Forever: Bay Mills Spins Thread Tying Ojibwa Communities Together  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why would anyone want to spend thousands of hours away from home and pay hundreds of dollars in tuition to acquire one of the world's most difficult languages? For Anishinaabe people, that is an easy question to answer. The Ojibwe language is the thread that ties communities together and unites all Anishinaabe as one people sharing a common…

Austin, Brenda

2008-01-01

243

Genones: generalized mixture tying in continuous hidden Markov model-based speech recognizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm is proposed that achieves a good tradeoff between modeling resolution and robustness by using a new, general scheme for tying of mixture components in continuous mixture-density hidden Markov model (HMM)-based speech recognizers. The sets of HMM states that share the same mixture components are determined automatically using agglomerative clustering techniques. Experimental results on ARPA's Wall Street Journal corpus

Vassilios V. Digalakis; Peter Monaco; H. Murveit

1996-01-01

244

Analysis and computation of a least-squares method for consistent mesh tying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the finite element method, a standard approach to mesh tying is to apply Lagrange multipliers. If the interface is curved, however, discretization generally leads to adjoining surfaces that do not coincide spatially. Straightforward Lagrange multiplier methods lead to discrete formulations failing a first-order patch test [T.A. Laursen, M.W. Heinstein, Consistent mesh-tying methods for topologically distinct discretized surfaces in non-linear solid mechanics, Internat. J. Numer. Methods Eng. 57 (2003) 1197-1242]. This paper presents a theoretical and computational study of a least-squares method for mesh tying [P. Bochev, D.M. Day, A least-squares method for consistent mesh tying, Internat. J. Numer. Anal. Modeling 4 (2007) 342-352], applied to the partial differential equation -[backward difference]2[phi]+[alpha][phi]=f. We prove optimal convergence rates for domains represented as overlapping subdomains and show that the least-squares method passes a patch test of the order of the finite element space by construction. To apply the method to subdomain configurations with gaps and overlaps we use interface perturbations to eliminate the gaps. Theoretical error estimates are illustrated by numerical experiments.

Day, David; Bochev, Pavel

2008-08-01

245

A Cyclosporine-Sensitive Psoriasis-Like Disease Produced in Tie2 Transgenic Mice  

PubMed Central

Psoriasis is a common, persistent skin disorder characterized by recurrent erythematous lesions thought to arise as a result of inflammatory cell infiltration and activation of keratinocyte proliferation. Unscheduled angiogenic growth has also been proposed to mediate the pathogenesis of psoriasis although the cellular and molecular basis for this response remains unclear. Recently, a role for the angiopoietin signaling system in psoriasis has been suggested by studies that demonstrate an up-regulation of the tyrosine kinase receptor Tie2 (also known as Tek) as well as angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 in human psoriatic lesions. To examine temporal expression of Tie2, we have developed a binary transgenic approach whereby expression of Tie2 can be conditionally regulated by the presence of tetracycline analogs in double-transgenic mice. A psoriasis-like phenotype developed in double-transgenic animals within 5 days of birth and persisted throughout adulthood. The skin of affected mice exhibited many cardinal features of human psoriasis including epidermal hyperplasia, inflammatory cell accumulation, and altered dermal angiogenesis. These skin abnormalities resolved completely with tetracycline-mediated suppression of transgene expression, thereby illustrating a complete dependence on Tie2 signaling for disease maintenance and progression. Furthermore, the skin lesions in double-transgenic mice markedly improved after administration of the immunosuppressive anti-psoriatic agent cyclosporine, thus demonstrating the clinical significance of this new model.

Voskas, Daniel; Jones, Nina; Van Slyke, Paul; Sturk, Celina; Chang, Wing; Haninec, Alex; Babichev, Yael Olya; Tran, Jennifer; Master, Zubin; Chen, Stephen; Ward, Nicole; Cruz, Maribelle; Jones, Jamie; Kerbel, Robert S.; Jothy, Serge; Dagnino, Lina; Arbiser, Jack; Klement, Giannoula; Dumont, Daniel J.

2005-01-01

246

Low Birth Weight, Lack of Breast-Feeding Tied to Inflammation Risk in Adulthood  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Low Birth Weight, Lack of Breast-Feeding Tied to Inflammation Risk in Adulthood Study of ... April 17, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Birth Weight Breastfeeding THURSDAY, April 17, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Years later, ...

247

Innovation search of new ventures in a technology cluster: the role of ties with service intermediaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examine the relationships between new ventures' ties with service intermediaries (i.e., technology service firms, accounting and financial service firms, law firms, and talent search firms) and their product innovation in the context of a technology cluster. Because service intermediaries sit at the intersection of many firms, organizations and industries, they maintain extensive networks in a cluster.

Yan Zhang; Haiyang Li

2009-01-01

248

Effectiveness of Body Ties for Imporving the Soft Error Tolerance of SOI Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Floating body effects can undermine the soft-error tolerance of partially- depleted SOI technologies (1, 2). Body ties are used to mitigate floating body effects (3,4). In this paper, we study the charge collection properties and effectiveness of differen...

P. E. Dodd B. L. Draper J. R. Schwank M. R. Shaneyfelt

1999-01-01

249

Tying the Yellow Ribbon: How School Psychologists and Educators Can Support Military Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tying a yellow ribbon around the tree in one's front yard or placing a magnet on one's car is more than just a show of support. It is a promise to American military around the world that one is ready and able to support them in their time of need just as they have supported the country. Educators, including school psychologists, are especially…

Anweiler, Justin

2008-01-01

250

Transnational Ties, Poverty, and Identity: Latin American Immigrant Women in Public Housing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used ethnographic data to examine the nature and functions of transnational relationships of low-income Latin American women who had immigrated to the United States and were living in areas of extreme poverty. Findings indicated that these Latin American mothers utilized transnational ties to help maintain the cultural identities of…

Dominguez, Silvia; Lubitow, Amy

2008-01-01

251

Cancer sequencing initiative discovers mutations tied to aggressive childhood brain tumors  

Cancer.gov

Researchers studying a rare, lethal childhood tumor of the brainstem discovered that nearly 80 percent of the tumors have mutations in genes not previously tied to cancer. Early evidence suggests the alterations play a unique role in other aggressive pediatric brain tumors as well.

252

Arsenic in Well Water Tied to Less Brain Power in U.S. Study  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Arsenic in Well Water Tied to Less Brain Power in U.S. Study ... 8, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Arsenic Child Development Water Pollution TUESDAY, April 8, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure ...

253

The Search-Transfer Problem: The Role of Weak Ties in Sharing Knowledge across Organization Subunits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses a network study of 120 projects undertaken by 41 divisions in a large electronics company to examine development of new products in the least amount of time. Weak interunit ties help project teams search for useful knowledge in other subunits but impede transfer of complex knowledge. (49 references) (MLH)

Hansen, Morten T.

1999-01-01

254

Method for evaluating bow tie filter angle-dependent attenuation in CT: Theory and simulation results  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Dosimetry in computed tomography (CT) is increasingly based on Monte Carlo studies that define the dose in the patient (in mGy) as a function of air kerma (free in air) at isocenter (mGy). The accuracy of Monte Carlo studies depends in part on the accuracy of the characterization of the bow tie filter for a given CT scanner model. A simple method for characterizing the bow tie filter attenuation profile in CT scanners would therefore be very useful. The theory behind such a method is proposed. Methods: A measurement protocol is discussed mathematically and demonstrated using computer simulation. The proposed method requires the placement of a radiation monitor at the periphery of the CT field, and the time domain signal (kerma rate versus time) is measured with good temporal resolution ({approx}200 Hz or better) and with all other objects (e.g., patient couch) retracted from the field of view. Knowledge of the source to isocenter distance (or alternately, the isocenter to probe distance) is required. The stationary detector records the kerma rate versus time signal as the gantry rotates through several revolutions. From this temporal data, signal processing techniques are used to extract in-phase peaks, as well as out-of-phase kerma rate levels. From these data, the distance from isocenter to the probe can be determined (or, alternatively, the source to isocenter distance), and the angle-dependent bow tie filter attenuation can be computed. By measuring the angle-dependent bow tie filter attenuation at several kVp settings, the bow tie composition versus fan angle can be computed using basis decomposition techniques. Results: The simulations illustrated that with 2% added noise in the kerma rate versus time signal, the attenuation properties of a hypothetical two component (aluminum and polymethyl methacrylate) bow tie filter could be determined (r{sup 2}>0.99). Although the computed basis material thicknesses were not exactly equal to the actual thicknesses, their combined attenuation factors matched that of the actual filter across kVp's to within an average of 0.057%. Conclusions: It is concluded that the proposed method may provide a simple noninvasive approach to characterizing the performance of bow tie filters in CT systems; however, experimental validation is necessary.

Boone, John M. [Department of Radiology and Department of Biomedical Engineering, UC Davis Medical Center, University of California, Davis, 4860 Y Street, Suite 3100, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)

2010-01-15

255

Design and Construction of an Array of Vertically Oriented Bow-Tie Antennas for a New Generation of Radio Telescopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper an array of vertically oriented bow-tie antennas is described. This array is part of the One Square Meter Array (OSMA): A demonstrator phased array system (receive only) with mixed RF and digital beamforming. OSMA consists of 64 active vertical bow-tie elements surrounded by 80 dummy (passive) elements. The scan performance of the array was measured and simulated.

M. J. Arts; A. B. Smolders

1999-01-01

256

Finite element analyses of continuous filament ties for masonry applications:final report for the Arquin Corporation.  

SciTech Connect

Finite-element analyses were performed to simulate the response of a hypothetical masonry shear wall with and without continuous filament ties to various lateral loads. The loads represented three different scenarios: (1) 100 mph wind, (2) explosive attack, and (3) an earthquake. In addition, a static loading analysis and cost comparison were performed to evaluate optimal materials and designs for the spacers affixed to the filaments. Results showed that polypropylene, ABS, and polyethylene (high density) were suitable materials for the spacers based on performance and cost, and the short T-spacer design was optimal based on its performance and functionality. Results of the shear-wall loading simulations revealed that simulated walls with the continuous filament ties yielded factors of safety that were at least ten times greater than those without the ties. In the explosive attack simulation (100 psi), the simulated wall without the ties failed (minimum factor of safety was less than one), but the simulated wall with the ties yielded a minimum factor of safety greater than one. Simulations of the walls subject to lateral loads caused by 100 mph winds (0.2 psi) and seismic events with a peak ground acceleration of 1 ''g'' (0.66 psi) yielded no failures with or without the ties. Simulations of wall displacement during the seismic scenarios showed that the wall with the ties resulted in a maximum displacement that was 20% less than the wall without the ties.

Quinones, Armando (Arquin Corporation, La Luz, NM); Bibeau, Tiffany A.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

2006-06-01

257

Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from creosoted railroad ties and their relevance for life cycle assessment (LCA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the analysis of cross sections of railroad ties, which were in use for up to 46 years, inventory, emission factors and total yearly emissions of creosote, PAH and phenols from the Swiss railway network were determined. During the service time of a railroad tie of 20 to 30 years, roughly 5 kg creosote are emitted. PAH emissions are

M. Kohler; T. Künniger

2003-01-01

258

Social stress, locality of social ties and mental well-being: The case of rural migrant adolescents in urban China.  

PubMed

By comparing rural migrant and urban native adolescents in Guangzhou, the largest city in south China, this study investigated the relationships between social stress, social ties that link migrants to their host cities (local ties) and to their rural home communities (trans-local ties), and the migrants? mental well-being. Non-migration social stress was more strongly related to poor psychological health than to weak self-efficacy in both migrant and urban native adolescents. This pattern also applied to the effect of migration-specific assimilation stress on psychological health and self-efficacy in migrants. Social ties directly enhanced these two well-being outcomes in both samples, with the effects of trans-local and local ties proving equally potent among migrants. Trans-local ties were somewhat more useful for migrants in moderating the effects of non-migration social stress and assimilation stress, whereas the stress moderation function of social ties was less pronounced in urban natives. These findings extend the migration, network and social stress literature by identifying how local and trans-local ties protect mental health and mitigate stress in migrants. PMID:24607873

Cheung, Nicole W T

2014-05-01

259

Development and Testing of a Prototype Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed and tested a prototype 2 kW DC grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system at the Center. The PV system has generated in excess of 6700 kWh since operation commenced in July 2006. The PV system is providing power to the GRC grid for use by all. Operation of the prototype PV system has been completely trouble free. A grid-tied PV power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners. GRC personnel glean valuable experience with PV power systems that are directly applicable to various space power systems, and provide valuable space program test data. PV power systems help to reduce harmful emissions and reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels. Power generated by the PV system reduces the GRC utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Present global energy concerns reinforce the need for the development of alternative energy systems. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics has been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Based upon the success of the prototype PV system, additional PV power system expansion at GRC is under consideration. The prototype grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed which served to validate the basic principles described, and the theoretical work that was performed. The report concludes that grid-tied photovoltaic power systems are reliable, maintenance free, long life power systems, and are of significant value to NASA and the community.

Eichenberg, Dennis J.

2009-01-01

260

Between-group behaviour in health care: gaps, edges, boundaries, disconnections, weak ties, spaces and holes. A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Gaps are typically regarded as a problem to be solved. People are stimulated to close or plug them. Researchers are moved to fill deficits in the literature in order to realise a more complete knowledge base, health authorities want to bridge policy-practice disconnections, managers to secure resources to remedy shortfalls between poor and idealised care, and clinicians to provide services to patients across the divides of organisational silos. Despite practical and policy work in many health systems to bridge gaps, it is valuable to study research examining them for the insights provided. Structural holes, spaces between social clusters and weak or absent ties represent fissures in networks, located in less densely populated parts of otherwise closely connected social structures. Such gaps are useful as they illustrate how communication potentially breaks down or interactivity fails. This paper discusses empirical and theoretical work on this phenomenon with the aim of analysing a specific exemplar, the structures of silos within health care organisations. Methods The research literature on social spaces, holes, gaps, boundaries and edges was searched systematically, and separated into health [n = 13] and non-health [n = 55] samples. The health literature was reviewed and synthesised in order to understand the circumstances between stakeholders and stakeholder groups that both provide threats to networked interactions and opportunities to strengthen the fabric of organisational and institutional inter-relationships. Results The research examples illuminate various network structure characteristics and group interactions. They explicate a range of opportunities for improved social and professional relations that understanding structural holes, social spaces and absent ties affords. A principal finding is that these kinds of gaps illustrate the conditions under which connections are strained or have been severed, where the limits of integration between groups occurs, the circumstances in which social spaces are or need to be negotiated and the way divides are bridged. The study's limitations are that it is bounded by the focus of attention and the search terms used and there is yet to be developed a probabilistic, predictive model for gaps and how to connect them. Conclusions Gaps offer insights into social structures, and how real world behaviours of participants in workplaces, organisations and institutions are fragile. The paper highlights the circumstances in which network disjunctures and group divides manifest. Knowledge of these phenomenon provides opportunities for working out ways to improve health sector organisational communications, knowledge transmission and relationships.

2010-01-01

261

sVEGF R1 and Tie-2 levels during chemotherapy of lung cancer patients.  

PubMed

Angiogenesis plays important role in tumor growth and development. Protein ligands and their receptor tyrosine kinases are crucial in tumor related angiogenesis. Ligand/receptor systems such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and epidermal growth factor homology domains (Tie) family play important role in this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration of soluble receptor of VEGF (sVEGF R1) and Tie-2 domain in plasma of lung cancer patients before and after chemotherapy. Forty four lung cancer patients, 11 with small lung cancer (SCLC), 5 females and 6 males (mean age 60.2, range 39-72 years), and 33 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (N-SCLC), 6 females and 27 males (mean age 61.9, range 42-78 years) received four courses of chemotherapy. Control group consisted of 44 patients with COPD, 4 females and 40 males (mean age 37.1, 18-60 years). In all cases clinical partial response was achieved. Both sVEGF R1 and Tie-2 concentrations were elevated in cancer group before treatment compared with control: sVEGF (pg/ml): 60.7 and 66.2 vs. 48.8 and Tie-2 (ng/ml): 37.3 and 37.5 vs. 30.7 in SCLC and N-SCLC vs. C, respectively. Treatment decreased sVEGF R1 (pg/ml): 66.7 vs. 11.6 (p < 0.05) and 66.2 vs. 14.39 (p < 0.001), and Tie-2 (ng/ml): 37.3 vs. 26.3 (p < 0.05) and 37.5 vs. 25.7 (p < 0.001) in SCLC and N-SCLC, respectively. We conclude that VEGF R1and Tie-2 receptors may play important role in lung cancer development and their receptor concentrations may reflect the patients' response to treatment. PMID:22836649

Mroz, R M; Korniluk, M; Panek, B; Ossolinska, M; Chyczewska, E

2013-01-01

262

Global TIE Observatories: Real Time Observational Astronomy Through a Robotic Telescope Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy in grades K-12 is traditionally taught (if at all) using textbooks and a few simple hands-on activities. Teachers are generally not trained in observational astronomy techniques and are unfamiliar with the most basic astronomical concepts. In addition, most students, by High School graduation, will never have even looked through the eyepiece of a telescope. The problem becomes even more challenging in inner cities, remote rural areas and low socioeconomic communities where educational emphasis on topics in astronomy as well as access to observing facilities is limited or non existent. Access to most optical telescope facilities is limited to monthly observing nights that cater to a small percentage of the general public living near the observatory. Even here, the observing experience is a one-time event detached from the process of scientific enquiry and sustained educational application. Additionally, a number of large, "research grade" observatory facilities are largely unused, partially due to the slow creep of light pollution around the facilities as well as the development of newer, more capable telescopes. Though cutting edge science is often no longer possible at these sights, real research opportunities in astronomy remain numerous for these facilities as educational tools. The possibility now exists to establish a network of research grade telescopes, no longer useful to the professional astronomical community, that can be made accessible through classrooms, after school, and community based programs all across the country through existing IT technologies and applications. These telescopes could provide unparalleled research and educational opportunities for a broad spectrum of students and turns underutilized observatory facilities into valuable, state-of-the-art teaching centers. The NASA sponsored Telescopes In Education project has been wildly successful in engaging the K-12 education community in real-time, hands-on, interactive astronomy activities. Hundreds of schools in the US, Australia, Canada, England, and Japan have participated in the TIE program, remotely controlling the 24-inch telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory from their classrooms. In recent years, several (approximately 20 to date) other telescopes have been, or are in the process of being, outfitted for remote use as TIE affiliates. Global TIE integrates these telescopes seamlessly into one virtual observatory and provides the services required to operate this facility, including a scheduling service, tools for data manipulation, an online proposal review environment, an online "Virtual TIE Student Ap J" for publication of results, and access to related educational materials provided by the TIE community. This presentation describes the Global TIE Observatory data and organizational systems and details the technology, partnerships, operational capabilities, science applications, and learning opportunities that this powerful virtual observatory network will provide.

Clark, G.; Mayo, L. A.

2001-12-01

263

Local effects of redundant terrestrial and GPS-based tie vectors in ITRF-like combinations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tie vectors (TVs) between co-located space geodetic instruments are essential for combining terrestrial reference frames (TRFs) realised using different techniques. They provide relative positioning between instrumental reference points (RPs) which are part of a global geodetic network such as the international terrestrial reference frame (ITRF). This paper gathers the set of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI)-global positioning system (GPS) local ties performed at the observatory of Medicina (Northern Italy) during the years 2001-2006 and discusses some important aspects related to the usage of co-location ties in the combinations of TRFs. Two measurement approaches of local survey are considered here: a GPS-based approach and a classical approach based on terrestrial observations (i.e. angles, distances and height differences). The behaviour of terrestrial local ties, which routinely join combinations of space geodetic solutions, is compared to that of GPS-based local ties. In particular, we have performed and analysed different combinations of satellite laser ranging (SLR), VLBI and GPS long term solutions in order to (i) evaluate the local effects of the insertion of the series of TVs computed at Medicina, (ii) investigate the consistency of GPS-based TVs with respect to space geodetic solutions, (iii) discuss the effects of an imprecise alignment of TVs from a local to a global reference frame. Results of ITRF-like combinations show that terrestrial TVs originate the smallest residuals in all the three components. In most cases, GPS-based TVs fit space geodetic solutions very well, especially in the horizontal components (N, E). On the contrary, the estimation of the VLBI RP Up component through GPS technique appears to be awkward, since the corresponding post fit residuals are considerably larger. Besides, combination tests including multi-temporal TVs display local effects of residual redistribution, when compared to those solutions where Medicina TVs are added one at a time. Finally, the combination of TRFs turns out to be sensitive to the orientation of the local tie into the global frame.

Abbondanza, Claudio; Altamimi, Zuheir; Sarti, Pierguido; Negusini, Monia; Vittuari, Luca

2009-11-01

264

Longitudinal analysis of large social networks: estimating the effect of health traits on changes in friendship ties.  

PubMed

We develop novel mixed effects models to examine the role of health traits on the status of peoples' close friendship nominations in the Framingham Heart Study. The health traits considered are both mutable (body mass index (BMI), smoking, blood pressure, body proportion, muscularity, and depression) and, for comparison, basically immutable (height, birth order, personality type, only child, and handedness); and the traits have varying degrees of observability. We test the hypotheses that existing ties (i.e. close friendship nominations) are more likely to dissolve between people with dissimilar (mutable and observable) health traits whereas new ties are more likely to form between those with similar (mutable and observable) traits while controlling for persons' age, gender, geographic separation, and education. The mixed effects models contain random effects for both the nominator (ego) and nominated (alter) persons in a tie to account for the fact that people were involved in multiple relationships and contributed observations at multiple exams. Results for BMI support the hypotheses that people of similar BMI are less likely to dissolve existing ties and more likely to form ties, while smoker to non-smoker ties were the least likely to dissolve and smoker to smoker ties were the most likely to form. We also validated previously known findings regarding homophily on age and gender, and found evidence that homophily also depends upon geographic separation. PMID:21287589

O'Malley, A James; Christakis, Nicholas A

2011-04-30

265

Rural-to-urban migrant adolescents in Guangzhou, China: psychological health, victimization, and local and trans-local ties.  

PubMed

Despite the emerging literature on the health of rural-to-urban migrant children in China, few studies have addressed victimization stressors and stress-buffering mechanisms related to the social relationships that link migrants to their host cities (local ties) and home communities (trans-local ties). This study compared rural-to-urban migrant adolescents and urban native adolescents to examine the relationships between victimization, local and trans-local ties, and mental well-being that might be unique to migrants. Participants were 482 migrant students and 838 urban native students in the eighth grade in Guangzhou who completed a school-based survey in spring 2011. Victimization was associated with suboptimal psychological health in both the migrant and urban native samples. Social ties directly boosted psychological health in both samples, with the effects of trans-local and local ties proving equally important among migrant adolescents. While both local and trans-local ties moderated the effect of victimization on migrant adolescents, that moderation mattered less for urban native youth. These results highlight that a better understanding of victimization stress and how it is affected by the locality of social ties as a coping resource could help to protect the health of young migrants in urban China. PMID:23906129

Cheung, Nicole W T

2013-09-01

266

Lagrangian Simulations of Current Sheet Formation During Relaxation of an Unstable Line-Tied Equilibrium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our recent theory, based on reduced MHD equations, predicts the formation of current sheets (tangential discontinuities) in an ideal line-tied plasma when an unstable equilibrium relaxes to a state of minimum energy [C. S. Ng and A. Bhattacharjee, Phys. Plasmas 5, 4028 (1998)]. This mechanism has important implications for the heating of the solar corona, first envisioned by E. N. Parker. Testing of this prediction using conventional Eulerian simulations is subjected to the intrinsic numerical difficulty that the magnetic field line mapping is not kept fixed explicitly, as required by the line-tied condition. In fact, field line mapping can change substantially by reconnection due to numerical resistivity. To overcome this obstacle, we have developed a Lagrangian relaxation algorithm to simulate the evolution of an unstable equilibrium by following the movement of magnetic field lines explicitly. Preliminary simulation results will be presented.

Lin, Liwei; Ng, C. S.; Bhattacharjee, A.

2007-11-01

267

Is Use of LASER Really Essential for Release of Tongue-Tie?  

PubMed

Ankyloglossia, or tongue-tie, is a congenital condition characterized by a short, thickened, or abnormally tight lingual frenulum. This anomaly can cause a varying degree of reduced tongue mobility and has been associated with functional limitations including breastfeeding difficulties, atypical swallowing habits, speech articulation problems, mechanical problems such as inability to clean the oral cavity, and psychosocial stress. In this article, we report a 50-year-old female patient with tongue-tie having difficulty in speech and maintenance of oral hygiene due to high attachment of lingual frenum. The patient was managed by frenectomy by conventional method (scalpel and blade) under local anesthesia as an outpatient procedure without any complications. She later required speech therapy lessons for improvement of speech. PMID:24785748

Sane, Vikrant Dilip; Pawar, Sudhir; Modi, Sachin; Saddiwal, Rashmi; Khade, Mayur; Tendulkar, Hrishikesh

2014-05-01

268

Physical experience leads to enhanced object perception in parietal cortex: Insights from knot tying  

PubMed Central

What does it mean to “know” what an object is? Viewing objects from different categories (e.g., tools vs. animals) engages distinct brain regions, but it is unclear whether these differences reflect object categories themselves or the tendency to interact differently with objects from different categories (grasping tools, not animals). Here we test how the brain constructs representations of objects that one learns to name or physically manipulate. Participants learned to name or tie different knots and brain activity was measured whilst performing a perceptual discrimination task with these knots before and after training. Activation in anterior intraparietal sulcus, a region involved in object manipulation, was specifically engaged when participants viewed knots they learned to tie. This suggests that object knowledge is linked to sensorimotor experience and its associated neural systems for object manipulation. Findings are consistent with a theory of embodiment in which there can be clear overlap in brain systems that support conceptual knowledge and control of object manipulation.

Cross, Emily S.; Cohen, Nichola Rice; de Hamilton, Antonia F. C.; Ramsey, Richard; Wolford, George; Grafton, Scott T.

2012-01-01

269

Hydrostatic pressure effects on mode propagation in highly birefringent two-mode bow-tie fibers.  

PubMed

An experimental study on the effects of high hydrostatic pressure of as much as 100 MPa on mode propagation in a highly birefringent two-mode bow-tie fiber is presented. Hydrostatic pressure is found to produce a large phase shift between both orthogonal polarizations in fundamental and second-order modes and also between the two lowest-order spatial modes in the highly birefringent two-mode bow-tie fiber. The pressure-induced effects are expressed in terms of birefringence changes and pressure phase sensitivity, both described by the experimental parameter T(p). The results indicate that pressure phase sensitivity between the two spatial modes, 1.3 rad/MPa-m, is approximately one order lower than for polarization modes. PMID:19771113

Bock, W J; Woli?ski, T R

1990-12-15

270

Effects of line tying on resistive tearing instability in slab geometry  

SciTech Connect

The effects of line tying on resistive tearing instability in slab geometry are studied within the framework of reduced magnetohydrodynamics [B. B. Kadomtsev and O. P. Pogutse, Sov. Phys. JETP 38, 283 (1974); H. R. Strauss, Phys. Fluids 19, 134 (1976)]. It is found that line tying has a stabilizing effect. The tearing mode is stabilized when the system length L is shorter than a critical length L{sub c}, which is independent of the resistivity {eta}. When L is not too much longer than L{sub c}, the growth rate {gamma} is proportional to {eta}. When L is sufficiently long, the tearing mode scaling {gamma}{approx}{eta}{sup 3/5} is recovered. The transition from {gamma}{approx}{eta} to {gamma}{approx}{eta}{sup 3/5} occurs at a transition length L{sub t}{approx}{eta}{sup -2/5}.

Huang Yimin [Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas and Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Zweibel, Ellen G. [Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas and Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2009-04-15

271

The influence of family ties on men's prostate cancer screening, biopsy, and treatment decisions.  

PubMed

Extensive research has focused on understanding family dynamics of men with prostate cancer. However, little qualitative work has examined the role of family ties on men's prostate cancer decisions across the spectrum of screening, diagnosis, and treatment. Using data from a larger study, we qualitatively explored the influence of family ties on men's prostate cancer decisions. Semistructured interviews were conducted with men ages ?50 (N = 64), and data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach and a series of immersion/crystallization cycles. Three major themes of spousal/family member influence were identified: (a) spousal/family member alliance marked by open communication and shared decision making, (b) men who actively opposed spouse/family member pressure and made final decisions themselves, and (c) men who yielded to spouse/family member pressure. Our findings provide insights into men's relational dynamics that are important to consider for the shared decision-making process across the prostate cancer spectrum. PMID:23459024

Shaw, Eric K; Scott, John G; Ferrante, Jeanne M

2013-11-01

272

Selection based on the size of the black tie of the great tit may be reversed in urban habitats.  

PubMed

A standard approach to model how selection shapes phenotypic traits is the analysis of capture-recapture data relating trait variation to survival. Divergent selection, however, has never been analyzed by the capture-recapture approach. Most reported examples of differences between urban and nonurban animals reflect behavioral plasticity rather than divergent selection. The aim of this paper was to use a capture-recapture approach to test the hypothesis that divergent selection can also drive local adaptation in urban habitats. We focused on the size of the black breast stripe (i.e., tie width) of the great tit (Parus major), a sexual ornament used in mate choice. Urban great tits display smaller tie sizes than forest birds. Because tie size is mostly genetically determined, it could potentially respond to selection. We analyzed capture/recapture data of male great tits in Barcelona city (N = 171) and in a nearby (7 km) forest (N = 324) from 1992 to 2008 using MARK. When modelling recapture rate, we found it to be strongly influenced by tie width, so that both for urban and forest habitats, birds with smaller ties were more trap-shy and more cautious than their larger tied counterparts. When modelling survival, we found that survival prospects in forest great tits increased the larger their tie width (i.e., directional positive selection), but the reverse was found for urban birds, with individuals displaying smaller ties showing higher survival (i.e., directional negative selection). As melanin-based tie size seems to be related to personality, and both are heritable, results may be explained by cautious personalities being favored in urban environments. More importantly, our results show that divergent selection can be an important mechanism in local adaptation to urban habitats and that capture-recapture is a powerful tool to test it. PMID:25077014

Senar, Juan Carlos; Conroy, Michael J; Quesada, Javier; Mateos-Gonzalez, Fernando

2014-07-01

273

Selection based on the size of the black tie of the great tit may be reversed in urban habitats  

PubMed Central

A standard approach to model how selection shapes phenotypic traits is the analysis of capture–recapture data relating trait variation to survival. Divergent selection, however, has never been analyzed by the capture–recapture approach. Most reported examples of differences between urban and nonurban animals reflect behavioral plasticity rather than divergent selection. The aim of this paper was to use a capture–recapture approach to test the hypothesis that divergent selection can also drive local adaptation in urban habitats. We focused on the size of the black breast stripe (i.e., tie width) of the great tit (Parus major), a sexual ornament used in mate choice. Urban great tits display smaller tie sizes than forest birds. Because tie size is mostly genetically determined, it could potentially respond to selection. We analyzed capture/recapture data of male great tits in Barcelona city (N = 171) and in a nearby (7 km) forest (N = 324) from 1992 to 2008 using MARK. When modelling recapture rate, we found it to be strongly influenced by tie width, so that both for urban and forest habitats, birds with smaller ties were more trap-shy and more cautious than their larger tied counterparts. When modelling survival, we found that survival prospects in forest great tits increased the larger their tie width (i.e., directional positive selection), but the reverse was found for urban birds, with individuals displaying smaller ties showing higher survival (i.e., directional negative selection). As melanin-based tie size seems to be related to personality, and both are heritable, results may be explained by cautious personalities being favored in urban environments. More importantly, our results show that divergent selection can be an important mechanism in local adaptation to urban habitats and that capture–recapture is a powerful tool to test it.

Senar, Juan Carlos; Conroy, Michael J; Quesada, Javier; Mateos-Gonzalez, Fernando

2014-01-01

274

Broadband Slotline-to-Rectangular Waveguide Transition Using a Truncated Bow-Tie Antenna  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a broadband slotline- to-rectangular waveguide transition using a truncated bow-tie antenna. Our design yields a single transition that has a 37% fractional bandwidth for which the return loss is larger than 20 dB, almost covering the whole X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz). Furthermore, in order to miniaturize the proposed transition, a stepped-impedance resonator (SIR) is used in

Ruei-Ying Fang; Chun-Long Wang

2011-01-01

275

Vibration of hangers on a tied-arch bridge due to vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on Component Mode Synthesis method, the vehicle-bridge interaction problem of a concrete-filled steel tubular tied-arch bridge was analyzed. The mathematical model assumed a finite element representation of the bridge together with beam, shell, and link elements. And the vehicle simulation employed a three dimensional linear vehicle model with seven independent degrees of freedom. A well-known power spectral density of

Yang Jian-rong; Li Jian-zhong

2010-01-01

276

Marital Status, Family Ties, and Self-rated Health Among Elders In South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the impact of familial social support ties (indicated by marital status, kin availability, sources of\\u000a economic support, and frequency and quality of emotional interaction) on subjective health perception among a sample of elderly\\u000a men and women aged 60 and older in South India. We used 1993 survey data from three states of South India: Kerala, Tamil Nadu,

S. Sudha; Chirayath Suchindran; Elizabeth J. Mutran; S. Irudaya Rajan; P. Sankara Sarma

2006-01-01

277

Lifetime-oriented modelling of wind-induced vibrations on vertical bridge tie rods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vortex-induced across-wind vibrations of vertical bridge tie rods, often dominated by the so-called lock-in effect, have been proved as a prominent load factor in the dimensioning of particular arched steel bridges. In order to realistically predict the oscillation amplitudes of the bridge hangers, an improved load model has been developed and validated by means of full scale experiments on

A. Wellmann Jelic; D. Hartmann

278

Tie2Cre Transgenic Mice: A New Model for Endothelial Cell-Lineage Analysis in Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocardial cells are thought to contribute at least in part to the formation of the endocardial cushion mesenchyme. Here, we created Tie2-Cre transgenic mice, in which expression of Cre recombinase is driven by an endothelial-specific promoter\\/enhancer. To analyze the lineage of Cre expressing cells, we used CAG-CAT-Z transgenic mice, in which expression of lacZ is activated only after Cre-mediated recombination.

Yaz Y Kisanuki; Robert E Hammer; Jun-ichi Miyazaki; S. Clay Williams; James A Richardson; Masashi Yanagisawa

2001-01-01

279

Toward an integrated ice core chronology using relative and orbital tie-points  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precise ice cores chronologies are essential to better understand the mechanisms linking climate change to orbital and greenhouse gases concentration forcing. A tool for ice core dating (DATICE [developed by Lemieux-Dudon et al., 2010] permits to generate a common time-scale integrating relative and absolute dating constraints on different ice cores, using an inverse method. Nevertheless, this method has only been applied for a 4-ice cores scenario and for the 0-50 kyr time period. Here, we present the bases for an extension of this work back to 800 ka using (1) a compilation of published and new relative and orbital tie-points obtained from measurements of air trapped in ice cores and (2) an adaptation of the DATICE inputs to 5 ice cores for the last 800 ka. We first present new measurements of ?18Oatm and ?O2/N2 on the Talos Dome and EPICA Dome C (EDC) ice cores with a particular focus on Marine Isotopic Stages (MIS) 5, and 11. Then, we show two tie-points compilations. The first one is based on new and published CH4 and ?18Oatm measurements on 5 ice cores (NorthGRIP, EPICA Dronning Maud Land, EDC, Talos Dome and Vostok) in order to produce a table of relative gas tie-points over the last 400 ka. The second one is based on new and published records of ?O2/N2, ?18Oatm and air content to provide a table of orbital tie-points over the last 800 ka. Finally, we integrate the different dating constraints presented above in the DATICE tool adapted to 5 ice cores to cover the last 800 ka and show how these constraints compare with the established gas chronologies of each ice core.

Bazin, L.; Landais, A.; Lemieux-Dudon, B.; Toyé Mahamadou Kele, H.; Blunier, T.; Capron, E.; Chappellaz, J.; Fischer, H.; Leuenberger, M.; Lipenkov, V.; Loutre, M.-F.; Martinerie, P.; Parrenin, F.; Prié, F.; Raynaud, D.; Veres, D.; Wolff, E.

2012-04-01

280

On the frame tie between VLBI and GNSS established by VLBI observations to satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are two of four space geodetic techniques contributing to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). For observing natural radiation of extragalactic radio sources with large radio telescopes on the one hand, and receiving artificial radio signals emitted by satellites with compact GNSS antennas on the other hand, both systems use different hardware. If we want to generate combined products in terms of station coordinates or Earth Orientation Parameters, the systems have to be referenced to each other carefully. Today, the determination of this so-called frame tie is the limiting factor for the establishment of precise reference frames. Plus, for a consistent multi-technique combination in the sense of GGOS, new strategies and ways of observation need to be identified. In this presentation, we discuss the derivation of the frame tie between VLBI and GNSS by using VLBI observations to satellites of the GNSS. Therefore, such observations are simulated and analysed in the standard VLBI method, solving for station coordinates. In the analysis, common troposphere delays and common clocks are determined at the stations. The accuracy of the frame tie is finally assessed by comparison of station coordinates of the observing sites in the quasar and the satellite frame. Monte Carlo simulations allow us to give estimates of the expected accuracies of the products, namely the station coordinates and the frame ties in terms of Helmert parameters. Our results are generated using different ways of including VLBI-GNSS observations in routine 24h VLBI experiments as well as changing analysis strategies.

Plank, Lucia; Boehm, Johannes; Schuh, Harald

2014-05-01

281

Instructional Advice and Information Providing and Receiving Behavior in Elementary Schools: Exploring Tie Formation as a Building Block in Social Capital Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies identify those factors that might account for the development of social capital. Understanding those factors associated with the existence of a social tie among actors in schools is important because absent social ties, individuals do not have access to social resources. We investigate social tie formation in schools focusing on advice…

Spillane, James P.; Kim, Chong Min; Frank, Kenneth A.

2012-01-01

282

Social Features of Online Networks: The Strength of Intermediary Ties in Online Social Media  

PubMed Central

An increasing fraction of today's social interactions occur using online social media as communication channels. Recent worldwide events, such as social movements in Spain or revolts in the Middle East, highlight their capacity to boost people's coordination. Online networks display in general a rich internal structure where users can choose among different types and intensity of interactions. Despite this, there are still open questions regarding the social value of online interactions. For example, the existence of users with millions of online friends sheds doubts on the relevance of these relations. In this work, we focus on Twitter, one of the most popular online social networks, and find that the network formed by the basic type of connections is organized in groups. The activity of the users conforms to the landscape determined by such groups. Furthermore, Twitter's distinction between different types of interactions allows us to establish a parallelism between online and offline social networks: personal interactions are more likely to occur on internal links to the groups (the weakness of strong ties); events transmitting new information go preferentially through links connecting different groups (the strength of weak ties) or even more through links connecting to users belonging to several groups that act as brokers (the strength of intermediary ties).

Grabowicz, Przemyslaw A.; Ramasco, Jose J.; Moro, Esteban; Pujol, Josep M.; Eguiluz, Victor M.

2012-01-01

283

Social features of online networks: the strength of intermediary ties in online social media.  

PubMed

An increasing fraction of today's social interactions occur using online social media as communication channels. Recent worldwide events, such as social movements in Spain or revolts in the Middle East, highlight their capacity to boost people's coordination. Online networks display in general a rich internal structure where users can choose among different types and intensity of interactions. Despite this, there are still open questions regarding the social value of online interactions. For example, the existence of users with millions of online friends sheds doubts on the relevance of these relations. In this work, we focus on Twitter, one of the most popular online social networks, and find that the network formed by the basic type of connections is organized in groups. The activity of the users conforms to the landscape determined by such groups. Furthermore, Twitter's distinction between different types of interactions allows us to establish a parallelism between online and offline social networks: personal interactions are more likely to occur on internal links to the groups (the weakness of strong ties); events transmitting new information go preferentially through links connecting different groups (the strength of weak ties) or even more through links connecting to users belonging to several groups that act as brokers (the strength of intermediary ties). PMID:22247773

Grabowicz, Przemyslaw A; Ramasco, José J; Moro, Esteban; Pujol, Josep M; Eguiluz, Victor M

2012-01-01

284

Plasma Fibronectin Promotes Tumor Cell Survival and Invasion through Regulation of Tie2  

PubMed Central

Our previous research has shown that plasma fibronectin promotes lung metastasis by facilitating tumor cell invasion in clotted plasma. To evaluate the role of clotted plasma for tumor cell survival, we treated B16F1 cells embedded in a 3-dimensional matrix of fibrin with tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?), a cytokine with anti-tumor activity. Under these conditions, TNF? caused significant cytotoxicity, which was prevented when we added plasma fibronectin to the fibrin clot. Fibronectin-mediated TNF? resistance was dependent on PI3-kinase, which also mediated the pro-adhesive and pro-invasive effects of plasma fibronectin on tumor cells. To further investigate the role of plasma fibronectin in tumor cell signaling, we performed a gene array that showed specific upregulation of Tie2 in B16F1 cells embedded in fibrin-fibronectin compared to fibrin. Importantly, inhibition of Tie2 resulted in decreased tumor cell invasion, reduced colony formation and increased tumor cell death in response to TNF?. Together, our findings indicate that plasma fibronectin induces tumor cell invasion and protects tumor cells from the cytotoxic effects of inflammatory mediators through up-regulation of Tie2.

Knowles, Lynn M.; Malik, Gunjan; Pilch, Jan

2013-01-01

285

Nonlinear g-Mode of Line-tied Magnetic Flux Tubes near Marginal Stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonlinear dynamics of the convective instability induced by gravity (``g-mode'') of a line-tied magnetic flux tube near marginal stability is crucial to the understanding of the fast, large scale eruptions of flux tubes in a variety of plasma systems. Analytic calculations have predicted the presence of an explosive nonlinear phase of the instability [S. C. Cowley and M. Artun, Phys. Rep., 283, 185 (1997)]. However, explosive growth was not observed in recent direct MHD simulations [P. Zhu, A. Bhattacharjee, and K. Germaschewski, submitted (2005)]. Instead, the evolution of a line-tied flux tube driven by marginal g-modes is dominated by perpendicular convections of the flux tube at the density gradient scale from early to the intermediate nonlinear stage. The convection induced reconfiguration tends to move the system away from the marginal stable equilibrium where the previous detonation model may apply. In this work, a new perturbative nonlinear MHD model is being developed and compared with the NIMROD code to study the dynamics between the nonlinear line-bending and quasilinear reconfiguration in the development of g-mode of a line-tied magnetic flux tube near marginal stability. *Research supported by U.S. DoE under grant No. DE-FG02-86ER53218.

Zhu, P.

2005-10-01

286

Majority rules with random tie-breaking in Boolean gene regulatory networks.  

PubMed

We consider threshold boolean gene regulatory networks, where the update function of each gene is described as a majority rule evaluated among the regulators of that gene: it is turned ON when the sum of its regulator contributions is positive (activators contribute positively whereas repressors contribute negatively) and turned OFF when this sum is negative. In case of a tie (when contributions cancel each other out), it is often assumed that the gene keeps it current state. This framework has been successfully used to model cell cycle control in yeast. Moreover, several studies consider stochastic extensions to assess the robustness of such a model. Here, we introduce a novel, natural stochastic extension of the majority rule. It consists in randomly choosing the next value of a gene only in case of a tie. Hence, the resulting model includes deterministic and probabilistic updates. We present variants of the majority rule, including alternate treatments of the tie situation. Impact of these variants on the corresponding dynamical behaviours is discussed. After a thorough study of a class of two-node networks, we illustrate the interest of our stochastic extension using a published cell cycle model. In particular, we demonstrate that steady state analysis can be rigorously performed and can lead to effective predictions; these relate for example to the identification of interactions whose addition would ensure that a specific state is absorbing. PMID:23922761

Chaouiya, Claudine; Ourrad, Ouerdia; Lima, Ricardo

2013-01-01

287

Phase Tomography Reconstructed by 3D TIE in Hard X-ray Microscope  

SciTech Connect

X-ray phase tomography and phase imaging are promising ways of investigation on low Z material. A polymer blend of PE/PS sample was used to test the 3D phase retrieval method in the parallel beam illuminated microscope. Because the polymer sample is thick, the phase retardation is quite mixed and the image can not be distinguished when the 2D transport intensity equation (TIE) is applied. In this study, we have provided a different approach for solving the phase in three dimensions for thick sample. Our method involves integration of 3D TIE/Fourier slice theorem for solving thick phase sample. In our experiment, eight sets of de-focal series image data sets were recorded covering the angular range of 0 to 180 degree. Only three set of image cubes were used in 3D TIE equation for solving the phase tomography. The phase contrast of the polymer blend in 3D is obviously enhanced, and the two different groups of polymer blend can be distinguished in the phase tomography.

Yin, G.-C. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Department of Photonics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Chen, F.-R. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Department of Photonics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Department of Eng. and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Pyun, Ahram; Je, Jung Ho [Department of material science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Hwu, Yeukuang [Institute of Physic, Academic Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Liang, Keng S. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China)

2007-01-19

288

The Power of the Sign Test Given Uncertainty in the Proportion of Tied Observations  

PubMed Central

Background The sign test is a well-known nonparametric approach for testing whether one of two conditions is preferable to another. In medicine, this method may be used when one is interested in testing in the context of a clinical trial whether either of two treatments that are provided to study subjects is favored over the other. When neither treatment outperforms the other within a given individual, a “tie” is said to have occurred. When planning such a trial and estimating statistical power and/or sample size, one should consider the probability of a tie occurring (PT). This paper quantifies the degree to which uncertainty in PT affects a study’s statistical power. Methods Binomial theory was used to calculate power given varying levels of uncertainty and varying distributional forms (i.e. beta, uniform) for PT. Results Across a range of prior distributions for PT, power was reduced (i.e. <80%) for 46 (71.9%) of 64 experimental conditions, with large reductions (i.e. power <70%) for 10 (15.6%) of them. Conclusions When designing a clinical trial that will incorporate the sign test to compare 2 conditions, ignoring potential variation in the probability of a tie occurring will tend to result in an underpowered study. These findings have implications to the design of any clinical trial for which assumptions are made in calculating an appropriate sample size.

Nietert, Paul J.; Dooley, Mary J.

2010-01-01

289

Stories of Change: TieVie - The Support Service for Finnish Universities Toward the Information Society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, the authors discuss and evaluate the TieVie capacity building project for Finnish universities in a larger historical context of strategic developments in the use of information and communications technology (ICT) in learning. The TieVie project was a support service project for the Finnish Virtual University (FVU) which offered training in the educational use of ICT to the staff of Finnish universities in 2001-2008. It was financed by the Ministry of Education as part of the Virtual University project funding till the end of 2006. During 2007-2008, the program was fee-funded. The project was designed and implemented by the educational development support service units of five universities: Universities of Oulu, Turku, Jyväskylä, and Helsinki, and Helsinki University of Technology. The TieVie project was launched on the basis of the need to strengthen the e-Learning skills and expertise among Finnish university staff. This need was recognized in the national strategy for education, training, and research in the information society outlined by the Ministry of Education in 2000.

Kairamo, Anna-Kaarina; Sinko, Matti

290

Finite element analyses of continuous filament ties for masonry applications : final report for the Arquin Corporation.  

SciTech Connect

Finite-element analyses were performed to simulate the response of a hypothetical vertical masonry wall subject to different lateral loads with and without continuous horizontal filament ties laid between rows of concrete blocks. A static loading analysis and cost comparison were also performed to evaluate optimal materials and designs for the spacers affixed to the filaments. Results showed that polypropylene, ABS, and polyethylene (high density) were suitable materials for the spacers based on performance and cost, and the short T-spacer design was optimal based on its performance and functionality. Simulations of vertical walls subject to static loads representing 100 mph winds (0.2 psi) and a seismic event (0.66 psi) showed that the simulated walls performed similarly and adequately when subject to these loads with and without the ties. Additional simulations and tests are required to assess the performance of actual walls with and without the ties under greater loads and more realistic conditions (e.g., cracks, non-linear response).

Quinones, Armando, Sr. (Arquin Corporation, La Luz, NM); Bibeau, Tiffany A.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

2008-08-01

291

Broken Ties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the number of people choosing to marry has plunged during recent decades, the tally of children living with one parent and having limited or no contact with the other has soared. Attuned to the hazards that such separations impose upon children but also upon parents who, studies show, fare physically and emotionally better in a thriving…

Gray, Katti

2009-01-01

292

Minutes of the Meeting: Pennsylvania Electric Association, Engineering Section, Transmission and Distribution Committee, Fall, 1981  

SciTech Connect

This proceedings contains nine papers on various aspects of electric power systems, with special emphasis on transmission and distribution within a system and tie-ins between systems. Protection of components from overload and corrosion, quality assurance and control, salvage and reclaim, restoration of service after outage in underground distribution and some construction problems are also considered. A paper deals with HVDC interconnection between Canada and the USA via a submarine cable. One paper is indexed and abstracted separately.

Not Available

1981-10-01

293

Design of a Glenn Research Center Solar Field Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) designed, developed, and installed, a 37.5 kW DC photovoltaic (PV) Solar Field in the GRC West Area in the 1970s for the purpose of testing PV panels for various space and terrestrial applications. The PV panels are arranged to provide a nominal 120 VDC. The GRC Solar Field has been extremely successful in meeting its mission. The PV panels and the supporting electrical systems are all near their end of life. GRC has designed a 72 kW DC grid-tied PV power system to replace the existing GRC West Area Solar Field. The 72 kW DC grid-tied PV power system will provide DC solar power for GRC PV testing applications, and provide AC facility power for all times that research power is not required. A grid-tied system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility for use by all. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners. GRC personnel glean valuable experience with PV power systems that are directly applicable to various space power systems, and provide valuable space program test data. PV power systems help to reduce harmful emissions and reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels. Power generated by the PV system reduces the GRC utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Present global energy concerns reinforce the need for the development of alternative energy systems. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics has been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. The report concludes that the GRC West Area grid-tied PV power system design is viable for a reliable, maintenance free, long life power system that is of significant value to NASA and the community.

Eichenberg, Dennis J.

2009-01-01

294

Development and Testing of the Glenn Research Center Visitor's Center Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed, installed, and tested a 12 kW DC grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system at the GRC Visitor s Center. This system utilizes a unique ballast type roof mount for installing the photovoltaic panels on the roof of the Visitor s Center with no alterations or penetrations to the roof. The PV system has generated in excess of 15000 kWh since operation commenced in August 2008. The PV system is providing power to the GRC grid for use by all. Operation of the GRC Visitor s Center PV system has been completely trouble free. A grid-tied PV power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners. GRC personnel glean valuable experience with PV power systems that are directly applicable to various space power systems, and provides valuable space program test data. PV power systems help to reduce harmful emissions and reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels. Power generated by the PV system reduces the GRC utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Present global energy concerns reinforce the need for the development of alternative energy systems. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics has been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Based upon the success of the GRC Visitor s Center PV system, additional PV power system expansion at GRC is under consideration. The GRC Visitor s Center grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed which served to validate the basic principles described, and the theoretical work that was performed. The report concludes that grid-tied photovoltaic power systems are reliable, maintenance free, long life power systems, and are of significant value to NASA and the community.

Eichenberg, Dennis J.

2009-01-01

295

On inferring liquid-liquid phase boundaries and tie lines from ternary mixture light scattering  

PubMed Central

We investigate the possibility of using light scattering data in the single-phase regions of a ternary liquid mixture phase diagram to infer ternary mixture coexistence curves, and to infer tie lines joining the compositions of isotropic liquid phases in thermodynamic equilibrium. Previous analyses of a nonlinear light scattering partial differential equation (LSPDE) show that it provides for reconstruction of ternary [D. Ross, G. Thurston, and C. Lutzer, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 064106 (2008)10.1063/1.2937902; C. Wahle, D. Ross, and G. Thurston, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 034201 (2012)10.1063/1.4731694] and quaternary [C. Wahle, D. Ross, and G. Thurston, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 034202 (2012)] mixing free energies from light scattering data, and that if the coexistence curves are already known, it can also yield ternary tie lines and triangles [D. Ross, G. Thurston, and C. Lutzer, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 064106 (2008)10.1063/1.2937902]. Here, we show that the LSPDE can be used more generally, to infer phase boundaries and tie lines from light scattering data in the single-phase region, without prior knowledge of the coexistence curve, if the single-phase region is connected. The method extends the fact that the reciprocal light scattering intensity approaches zero at the thermodynamic spinodal. Expressing the free energy as the sum of ideal and excess parts leads to a natural family of Padé approximants for the reciprocal Rayleigh ratio. To test the method, we evaluate the single-phase reciprocal Rayleigh ratio resulting from the mean-field, regular solution model on a fine grid. We then use a low-order approximant to extrapolate the reciprocal Rayleigh ratio into metastable and unstable regions. In the metastable zone, the extrapolation estimates light scattering prior to nucleation and growth of a new phase. In the unstable zone, the extrapolation produces a negative function that in the present context is a computational convenience. The original and extrapolated reciprocal light scattering are jointly used as input to solving the LSPDE to deduce the mixing free energy and its convex hull. When projected onto the composition triangle, the boundary of the convexified part of the free energy is the phase boundary, and lines on the convexified region along which the second directional derivative is zero are the tie lines. We find that the tie lines and phase boundaries so deduced agree well with their exact values. This work is a step toward developing methods for inferring phase boundaries from real light scattering intensities measured with noise, from mixtures having compositions on a coarser grid.

Wahle, Chris W.; Ross, David S.; Thurston, George M.

2012-01-01

296

On inferring liquid-liquid phase boundaries and tie lines from ternary mixture light scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the possibility of using light scattering data in the single-phase regions of a ternary liquid mixture phase diagram to infer ternary mixture coexistence curves, and to infer tie lines joining the compositions of isotropic liquid phases in thermodynamic equilibrium. Previous analyses of a nonlinear light scattering partial differential equation (LSPDE) show that it provides for reconstruction of ternary [D. Ross, G. Thurston, and C. Lutzer, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 064106 (2008); C. Wahle, D. Ross, and G. Thurston, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 034201 (2012)] and quaternary [C. Wahle, D. Ross, and G. Thurston, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 034202 (2012)] mixing free energies from light scattering data, and that if the coexistence curves are already known, it can also yield ternary tie lines and triangles [D. Ross, G. Thurston, and C. Lutzer, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 064106 (2008)]. Here, we show that the LSPDE can be used more generally, to infer phase boundaries and tie lines from light scattering data in the single-phase region, without prior knowledge of the coexistence curve, if the single-phase region is connected. The method extends the fact that the reciprocal light scattering intensity approaches zero at the thermodynamic spinodal. Expressing the free energy as the sum of ideal and excess parts leads to a natural family of Padé approximants for the reciprocal Rayleigh ratio. To test the method, we evaluate the single-phase reciprocal Rayleigh ratio resulting from the mean-field, regular solution model on a fine grid. We then use a low-order approximant to extrapolate the reciprocal Rayleigh ratio into metastable and unstable regions. In the metastable zone, the extrapolation estimates light scattering prior to nucleation and growth of a new phase. In the unstable zone, the extrapolation produces a negative function that in the present context is a computational convenience. The original and extrapolated reciprocal light scattering are jointly used as input to solving the LSPDE to deduce the mixing free energy and its convex hull. When projected onto the composition triangle, the boundary of the convexified part of the free energy is the phase boundary, and lines on the convexified region along which the second directional derivative is zero are the tie lines. We find that the tie lines and phase boundaries so deduced agree well with their exact values. This work is a step toward developing methods for inferring phase boundaries from real light scattering intensities measured with noise, from mixtures having compositions on a coarser grid.

Wahle, Chris W.; Ross, David S.; Thurston, George M.

2012-07-01

297

Dairy cows welfare quality in tie-stall housing system with or without access to exercise  

PubMed Central

Background Tie-stall housing of dairy cows is used extensively worldwide, despite of the welfare concerns regarding the restriction of voluntary movement and limitation of expression of the cows’ natural behaviour. The aim of this study was to compare the welfare quality of dairy cows kept in two types of tie-stall housing systems: with regular outdoor exercise and without access to exercise. In addition, the study investigated the relationship between different welfare measures of dairy cows kept in tie-stalls. Methods 3,192 lactating cows were assessed using the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for cattle in 80 commercial dairy farms, half of the farms providing outdoor access for the animals to exercise. The descriptive statistical indicators were determined for the assessed measures and for the welfare criteria and principle scores. The data obtained in the two housing types were compared and the correlation coefficients were calculated between the different welfare measures. Results The significant differences found between the two housing systems for the majority of the animal based measures indicate the positive effect of exercise on the welfare of tethered cows. Many of the animal welfare parameters correlated with each other. For the farms allowing the cows’ turnout in a paddock, pasture or both, the mean scores for the welfare criteria and principles were higher than for the farms with permanent tethering of the cows, except the criteria absence of prolonged hunger and expression of social behaviours. The lowest scores were obtained for the criterion positive emotional state, in both housing systems. With regard to the overall classification, none of the farms were considered excellent. In the not classified category were only farms with all-year-round tethering of the animals and in the enhanced category only farms where the cows had outdoor access. Conclusions The welfare quality of the investigated dairy cows was significantly better in the tie-stall farms which allow exercise for cows (paddocks, pasture or both) than in those which do not. In the light of our results we consider that dairy cattle welfare is not necessarily poor in tie-stall housing systems, its quality depending on the management practices.

2013-01-01

298

On inferring liquid-liquid phase boundaries and tie lines from ternary mixture light scattering.  

PubMed

We investigate the possibility of using light scattering data in the single-phase regions of a ternary liquid mixture phase diagram to infer ternary mixture coexistence curves, and to infer tie lines joining the compositions of isotropic liquid phases in thermodynamic equilibrium. Previous analyses of a nonlinear light scattering partial differential equation (LSPDE) show that it provides for reconstruction of ternary [D. Ross, G. Thurston, and C. Lutzer, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 064106 (2008); C. Wahle, D. Ross, and G. Thurston, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 034201 (2012)] and quaternary [C. Wahle, D. Ross, and G. Thurston, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 034202 (2012)] mixing free energies from light scattering data, and that if the coexistence curves are already known, it can also yield ternary tie lines and triangles [D. Ross, G. Thurston, and C. Lutzer, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 064106 (2008)]. Here, we show that the LSPDE can be used more generally, to infer phase boundaries and tie lines from light scattering data in the single-phase region, without prior knowledge of the coexistence curve, if the single-phase region is connected. The method extends the fact that the reciprocal light scattering intensity approaches zero at the thermodynamic spinodal. Expressing the free energy as the sum of ideal and excess parts leads to a natural family of Pade? approximants for the reciprocal Rayleigh ratio. To test the method, we evaluate the single-phase reciprocal Rayleigh ratio resulting from the mean-field, regular solution model on a fine grid. We then use a low-order approximant to extrapolate the reciprocal Rayleigh ratio into metastable and unstable regions. In the metastable zone, the extrapolation estimates light scattering prior to nucleation and growth of a new phase. In the unstable zone, the extrapolation produces a negative function that in the present context is a computational convenience. The original and extrapolated reciprocal light scattering are jointly used as input to solving the LSPDE to deduce the mixing free energy and its convex hull. When projected onto the composition triangle, the boundary of the convexified part of the free energy is the phase boundary, and lines on the convexified region along which the second directional derivative is zero are the tie lines. We find that the tie lines and phase boundaries so deduced agree well with their exact values. This work is a step toward developing methods for inferring phase boundaries from real light scattering intensities measured with noise, from mixtures having compositions on a coarser grid. PMID:22830695

Wahle, Chris W; Ross, David S; Thurston, George M

2012-07-21

299

Directional Gear Ratio Transmission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Epicyclic gear transmissions which transmit output at a gear ratio dependent only upon the input's direction are considered. A transmission housing envelops two epicyclic gear assemblies, and has shafts extending from it. One shaft is attached to a sun ge...

A. E. Lefever

1982-01-01

300

Transmission Cycles of Plague  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image contains the transmission sylvatic and urban cycles of plague (Yersinia pestis)in the United States. It also shows some of the differences in transmission between bubonic and pneumonic plague.

American Society For Microbiology;

2004-08-27

301

Chickenpox (Varicella): Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... Multimedia Related Links Medline Plus Healthfinder.gov Shingles Transmission Español: Transmisión "Chickenpox Parties"—Don't Take the ... For more information about how shingles spreads, see Transmission . When Is a Person Contagious? A person with ...

302

HIV Transmission Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks HIV Transmission Risk The risk of getting HIV varies widely ... blood transfusion, carry a much higher risk of transmission than other exposures, such as oral sex. For ...

303

50 CFR 86.31 - How much money may I charge the public to use tie-up facilities?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE AND SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT (BIG) PROGRAM Public Use of the Facility § 86.31 How much money may I charge the public to use tie-up facilities?...

2013-10-01

304

Stall dimensions and the prevalence of lameness, injury, and cleanliness on 317 tie-stall dairy farms in Ontario  

PubMed Central

Abstract The study objectives were to provide a province-wide description of stall dimensions and the aspects of cattle welfare linked to stall design in the tie-stall industry. Data on stall design; stall dimensions; and the prevalence of lameness, injury, and hind limb and udder cleanliness in lactating dairy cattle were collected from a sample of 317 tie-stall farms across Ontario. The majority of the study farms (90%) had stalls with dimensions (length, width, tie-chain length, and tie rail height) that were less than the current recommendations. This may explain, in part, the prevalence of lameness measured as the prevalence of back arch (3.2%) and severe hind claw rotation (23%), hock lesions (44%), neck lesions (3.8%), broken tails (3%), dirty hind limbs (23%), and dirty udders (4.6%). Veterinarians and producers may use this information to compare farms with the industry averages and target areas in need of improvement.

2005-01-01

305

Evaluation of the Polyethylene Reverse Sampler as a Dosing System in Marine Phase II Whole Sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIEs)  

EPA Science Inventory

Contaminated marine sediments can cause acute and chronic impairments to benthic organisms. Nonionic organic contaminants (NOCs) are often a primary cause of impairment. Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIEs) are used to identify chemicals causing toxicity in sediments. Ph...

306

The analysis of multiple ties in longitudinal egocentric network data: A case study on bidirectional relationships between trust and drug use  

PubMed Central

We extend multi-level models to examine single egocentric network ties to the joint analysis of paired dynamic ties. Two analytic challenges are addressed. First, inference needs to account for multiple layers of nesting: ties are nested within pairs, pairs are nested within time points, and time points are nested within egos. Second, the focus is on the relationship between two dynamic ties; specification of outcome and predictor may be difficult. Instead, we treat both ties as outcomes. Our approach is used to analyze trust and reported drug use between egos and alters over time in a Bayesian framework.

Comulada, W. Scott; Muth, Stephen Q.; Latkin, Carl A.

2012-01-01

307

The interaction of soluble Tie2 with angiopoietins and pulmonary vascular permeability in septic and nonseptic critically ill patients.  

PubMed

Circulating angiopoietin (Ang) 1 may inhibit and Ang-2 may enhance pulmonary vascular permeability in septic and nonseptic patients with or at risk for acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. We hypothesized that the soluble form of the Ang-binding Tie2 receptor (sTie2), whose shedding may be induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels, may bind circulating Angs and thereby inhibit their effects on pulmonary vascular permeability. In 24 septic and 40 nonseptic mechanically ventilated patients, sTie2, Ang-1, Ang-2, and VEGF plasma levels were measured together with the pulmonary leak index (PLI) for (67)Gallium-labeled transferrin as a measure of pulmonary vascular permeability. Soluble Tie2 and VEGF levels correlated (r = 0.53, P = 0.001). Soluble Tie2 was higher in septic than in nonseptic patients (7.43 [6.57 - 8.40] vs. 5.03 [4.57 - 5.54] ng/mL; P < 0.001). Soluble Tie2 was associated with the PLI (standardized regression coefficient [beta] = 0.26; P = 0.006) but lost its association with the PLI when the Angs were included in a multivariate model. Soluble Tie2 did not affect the association between Ang-1 or Ang-2 and the PLI (beta = -0.39, P < 0.001; beta = 0.52, P < 0.001, respectively), independently of underlying disease. Although limited to correlations and associations, the clinical data support in vivo shedding of sTie2 through VEGF signaling upon pulmonary vascular injury. However, this shedding may not prevent a direct role of Angs in pulmonary vascular permeability. PMID:19543148

van der Heijden, Melanie; van Nieuw Amerongen, Geerten P; van Hinsbergh, Victor W M; Groeneveld, A B Johan

2010-03-01

308

Social Ties and Perceived SupportTwo Dimensions of Social Relationships and Health among the Elderly in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Assess the effects of social relationships on physical and mental health among the elderly in Taiwan. Methods: Using 4 waves of a survey of the elderly, we examine the relationship between social ties and perceived support and four health outcomes—mortality, functional status, self-assessed health, and depression. Results:Perceived support and social ties are related to health, but many of the

Jennifer C. Cornman; Noreen Goldman; Dana A. Glei; Maxine Weinstein; Ming-Cheng Chang

2003-01-01

309

Double-Sided Bow-Tie Antenna for 2G\\/3G\\/WiFi and Mobile WiMAX  

Microsoft Academic Search

A double-sided dual-band bow-tie antenna with two arms printed on top and bottom of dielectric substrate of epsivr=2.2 is proposed to operate at both the CDMA\\/GSM band ranging from 800 MHz to 960 MHz and the mobile 3G \\/WiFi\\/WiMAX band ranging from 1.7 GHz to 2.69 GHz. The two arms of the bow-tie are overlapped to tune the operation band

Xiaoqin Liu; Gang Wang; Xin Lai

2008-01-01

310

Dual-band bow-tie slot antenna fed by CPW for WiFi\\/WiMAX system applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a dual-band bow-tie slot antenna design for WiFi and WiMAX system applications. The designed antenna utilizes the coplanar waveguide (CPW) feeding with the inductive coupling. The twin bow-tie slots with special feeding slot arrangements make the dual resonant response with the almost independent tuning mechanism for the individual band. Measured results include the operation frequencies in 2.393

Cheng-Feng Hou; Chien-Chang Huang

2007-01-01

311

Comparative study of two stages and single stage topologies for grid-tie photovoltaic generation by PSCAD\\/EMTDC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comparison study of a typical grid-tie photovoltaic system between two types of topologies: the two stages (boost circuit adds inverter) and the single stage (inverter alone adds a step-up transformer). Some essential models built in this paper include PV array, Boost chopper and grid-tie inverter. The basic characteristics and descriptions of these two topologies are described.

YongLi Zhu; JianGuo Yao; Di Wu

2011-01-01

312

Disorganized vascular structures in sporadic venous malformations: a possible correlation with balancing effect between Tie2 and TGF-?  

PubMed Central

Venous malformations (VMs) are among the most common slow-flow vascular malformations characterized by irregular venous channels, luminal thrombi, and phleboliths. To systematically manifest the disorganized vascular structures in sporadic VMs, we initially evaluated histopathological characteristics, perivascular cell coverage, adhesion molecules expression and vascular ultrastructures. Then, the expression of Tie2 and TGF-? in VMs was detected. Meanwhile, the in vitro studies were performed for mechanism investigation. Our data showed that the perivascular ?-SMA+ cell coverage and expression of adhesion molecules in VMs were significantly decreased compared with those in the normal skin tissues. We also found that the expression and phosphorylation levels of Tie2 were upregulated, whereas TGF-? was downregulated in VMs, and they were negatively correlated. Moreover, the in vitro results also revealed a possible balancing effect between Tie2 and TGF-?, as demonstrated by the findings that Ang-1 (agonist of Tie2) treatment significantly downregulated TGF-? expression, and treatment with recombinant TGF-? could also suppress Tie2 expression and phosphorylation. This study provided strong evidence supporting the disorganized vascular structures and dysregulation of related molecules in sporadic VMs, and demonstrated a possible balancing effect between Tie2 and TGF-?, which might help to develop novel therapeutics for vascular disorganization-related disorders.

Chen, Gang; Ren, Jian-Gang; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Yan-Fang; Wang, Feng-Qin; Li, Rui-Fang; Zhang, Jian; Zhao, Yi-Fang

2014-01-01

313

Automated manual transmission controller  

DOEpatents

A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

Lawrie, Robert E. (Whitmore Lake, MI); Reed, Jr., Richard G. (Royal Oak, MI); Bernier, David R. (Rochester Hills, MI)

1999-12-28

314

RF Transmission Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. After completing this module, learners will be able to describe the type of transmission lines needed in RF systems and how transmission lines work together with other RF system components to deliver maximum power while maintaining reflected power. They also learn how to interpret transmission line specifications, select a transmission line for a given application, calculate transmission line power losses, and measure standing wave ratio. Finally, this module will use visual examples and present industry best practices for identifying type of connectors used with transmission lines and procedures for transmission line testing and troubleshooting.

2012-12-07

315

Pellicle transmission uniformity requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controlling critical dimensions of devices is a constant battle for the photolithography engineer. Current DUV lithographic process exposure latitude is typically 12 to 15% of the total dose. A third of this exposure latitude budget may be used up by a variable related to masking that has not previously received much attention. The emphasis on pellicle transmission has been focused on increasing the average transmission. Much less, attention has been paid to transmission uniformity. This paper explores the total demand on the photospeed latitude budget, the causes of pellicle transmission nonuniformity and examines reasonable expectations for pellicle performance. Modeling is used to examine how the two primary errors in pellicle manufacturing contribute to nonuniformity in transmission. World-class pellicle transmission uniformity standards are discussed and a comparison made between specifications of other components in the photolithographic process. Specifications for other materials or parameters are used as benchmarks to develop a proposed industry standard for pellicle transmission uniformity.

Brown, Thomas L.; Ito, Kunihiro

1998-12-01

316

Reconnection and Current Sheet Formation in Line-Tied Magnetic Flux Tubes: Energetics and Stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Line-tied magnetic fields play a central role in Parker's model of coronal heating [E. N. Parker, Astrophys. J., 174, 499, 1972]. Our previous result [C. S. Ng and A. Bhattacharjee, Phys. Plasmas, 5, 4028, 1998] shows that this model can be realized if a line-tied magnetic equilibrium produced by a smooth footpoint mapping becomes unstable and relaxes to a state with current sheets, leading to magnetic reconnection and heating. A flux-tube tectonics model driven by random footpoint motion [E. R. Priest, J. F. Heyvaerts, and A. M. Title, Astrophys. J., 576, 533, 2002] is revisited. It is shown that if the magnetic field is driven to a statistically steady state, a large current density inversely proportional to the square root of resistivity can fill the whole volume and thus results in a heating rate independent of resistivity. However, the field structures are likely to become unstable and reconnect before they can reach the statistically steady state. The three-dimensional line-tied island coalescence instability -- a possible instability in such systems -- is studied with numerical simulations. Magnetic reconnection in this configuration, which contains neither magnetic nulls nor closed field lines, is discussed. A generalization of the concept of quasi-separatrix layers and a new criterion for the detection of such layers is developed. The new criterion is shown to correlate strongly with reconnection sites. Scaling results from higher resolution simulations will be discussed. This research is supported by a National Science Foundation grant AST-0434322 and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Ng, C.; Bhattacharjee, A.

2006-12-01

317

[Cable tie used for suicidal ligature strangulation--a case report].  

PubMed

Based on a case of self-strangulation committed with two connected cable ties, criteria for the differentiation of homicidal and suicidal ligature strangulation are discussed. Differentiation may be difficult and demands close cooperation between the police and the forensic experts. Apart from the history and general circumstances of the case, not only the kind of strangulation, but also the presence of any concomitant injuries, the degree of congestion and any internal injuries are of relevance for the criminalistic evaluation. As self-strangulations are rare, these cases demand special attention. PMID:19746825

Doberentz, Elke; Hagemeier, Lars; Madea, Burkhard

2009-01-01

318

Time-resolved magnetization dynamics of cross-tie domain walls in permalloy microstructures.  

PubMed

We report on a picosecond time-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroic-photoelectron emission microscopy study of the evolution of the magnetization components of a microstructured permalloy platelet comprising three cross-tie domain walls. A laser-excited photoswitch has been used to apply a triangular 80 Oe, 160 ps magnetic pulse. Micromagnetic calculations agree well with the experimental results, both in time and frequency, illustrating the large angle precession in the magnetic domains with magnetization perpendicular to the applied pulse, and showing how the magnetic vortices revert their core magnetization while the antivortices remain unaffected. PMID:21836205

Miguel, J; Sánchez-Barriga, J; Bayer, D; Kurde, J; Heitkamp, B; Piantek, M; Kronast, F; Aeschlimann, M; Dürr, H A; Kuch, W

2009-12-01

319

Near-Field Enhanced UV Resonance Raman Spectroscopy Using Aluminum Bow-tie Nano-antenna  

SciTech Connect

An aluminum bow-tie nano-antenna is combined with the resonance Raman eect in the deep ultraviolet to dramatically increase the sensitivity of Raman spectra to a small volume of material, such as benzene used here. We further demonstrate gradient-eld Raman peaks for several strong IR modes. We achieve a gain of 105 in signal intensity from the near eld enhancement due to the surface plasmon resonance in the aluminum nanostructure. The on-line resonance enhancement contributes another factor of several thousands, limited by the laser line width. Thus, an overall gain of hundreds of million is achieved.

Li, Ling [North Carolina State University; Lim, Shuang Fang [North Carolina State University; Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Riehn, Robert [North Carolina State University; Hallen, Hans [North Carolina State University

2012-01-01

320

Hydromagnetic stability of coronal arcade structures The effects of photospheric line tying  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model is given of the magnetic-field equilibrium and possible dynamic excitations of a solar coronal arcade. Such structures are well observed in the spectral range from H-alpha to X-rays and often give rise to two-ribbon flares. However, the preflare state must be stable to ideal magnetohydrodynamic disturbances, and this problem is treated with particular attention to the necessary foot-point boundary conditions. With reasonably general perturbation set, an energy-principle analysis is used to show the strong stabilizing influence of inertial field-line tying at the photosphere.

Ray, A.; Van Hoven, G.

1982-01-01

321

Effects of two stall flooring systems on the behaviour of tied dairy cows.  

PubMed

Effects on dairy cow behaviour of a new type of flooring in tie-stalls, with the ability to drain faeces and urine, was studied in a controlled randomised trial in one Swedish university herd. Forty-two Swedish Red and White cows were kept tied in traditional long-stalls (2.20m). In 21 stalls (one stall row), the rearmost 0.74m of the solid stall floor had been replaced with nine rubber-coated 53mm wide slats, divided by 29mm slots. Stalls with rubber slats were equipped with 20mm ethyl-vinyl-acetate (EVA) mats in the front part and littered with 0.7kg of wood shavings daily, while stalls with a solid floor had standard rubber mats and received 3kg of chopped straw daily as bedding. Behaviour was compared between the two stall types, using video recordings of 12 matched pairs of cows for two complete 24h periods each. Statistical analysis was done using the Student's t-test for matched pairs or the sign test. Cows on the rubber slatted flooring lie down and rise normally and without any increased risk of slipping. They lay down more comfortably, i.e. spent on an average 23% less time preparing to lie down, and slipped less frequently during rising. There was some evidence of a preference for a solid floor when lying. PMID:11376835

Hultgren, J

2001-08-01

322

Quasi-separatrix layer reconnection for nonlinear line-tied collisionless tearing modes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quasi-separatrix layer (QSL) diagnostics are used to diagnose nonlinear line-tied tearing modes using particle-in-cell code simulation results. For a force-free current sheet, nonlinear tearing mode cases are shown over a wide range of plasma lengths with line-tying boundary conditions at the ends of the plasma. The methods used for performing the field line integrations with noisy PIC data are described. The QSL diagnostics used are the squashing degree Q (Priest and Demoulin 1995 J. Geophys. Res. 100 23443) and the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) scalar potential ?i of Richardson and Finn (2012 Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul. 17 2132). We also introduce the non-ideal scalar potential ?n, the analog of the resistive MHD scalar potential ?r of Richardson and Finn (2012). These QSL diagnostics are compared with the helical flux contours of the primary modes. They are used in the late linear regime and near mode saturation. For non-overlapping islands, these diagnostics show the QSL associated with the X-lines and their separatrices. These are shown to indicate well field line behavior such as chaotic scattering and separatrix crossing. For overlapping islands, they indicate chaotic scattering behavior either related to Chirikov overlap (Chirikov 1979 Phys. Rep. 52 263) or to separatrix crossing (Tennyson et al 1986 Phys. Rev. Lett. 56 2117).

Finn, J. M.; Billey, Z.; Daughton, W.; Zweibel, E.

2014-06-01

323

Modelling of Site Specific Effects and the Impact upon Local Tie Residuals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that site specific effects such as far-field and near-field multipath do not average out over time and that the time varying geometry of GNSS constellations leads to draconitic aliasing of these unmodelled signals into station position time series. Studies have also shown that the structures on which GNSS antennae are mounted introduce near-field multipath effects that can cause position errors reaching magnitudes of 4-5 cm at Polar Regions, and that unmodelled radomes have a significant impact on the Phase Centre Variation (PCV) of Global Positioning System (GPS) antennae, also leading to biases in coordinate time series. In this work we evaluate the efficacy of using empirical site models (ESM) to improve the realisation of the combined multi technique international terrestrial reference frame (ITRF). We use a comparison of local tie residuals, at ITRF, VLBI, SLR and GPS co-location sites, obtained from GPS solutions with and without Empirical Site Models applied. We will show that in order to achieve 1mm local tie residuals between the different space geodetic observation techniques, site specific modelling needs to be taken into consideration.

Moore, M. J.; Mcclusky, S.

2012-12-01

324

The influence of line-tying on coronal perturbations in a gravitationally stratified equilibrium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the influence of gravitational stratification of the solar atmosphere on the stability of coronal magnetic structures. In particular we question whether the (presumably stabilizing) influence of the anchoring of the magnetic field lines in the solar photosphere ('line-tying') can be adequately modeled by either 'rigid wall' or 'flow through' boundary conditions on the coronal perturbations, as is commonly done. Using the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model without gravitational effects, inertial line-tying alone cannot lead to a full stabilization, as marginal stability cannot be crossed by including only the rapid density increase at the photospheric interface. We demonstrate, using the (localized) ballooning ordering, that when gravity and the corresponding intrinsically stable stratification of the photosphere is included, the points of marginal stability are no longer independent of the density. The sharp increase in density and associated decrease in pressure scale height at the solar surface leads to a stabilizing effect, which may result in a full transition from unstable to stable modes. Gravitational effects imply that rigid wall conditions represent photospheric field line anchoring better than flow-through conditions for determining the stability or modes of oscillation of a coronal equilibrium. Applying rigid wall conditions gives good approximations for frequencies that are much larger than photospheric time scales when the plasma is stable, and growth rates when the plasma is unstable. At the same time we show however that near marginal stability, even when gravity is included, rigid wall conditions are still violated.

van der Linden, R. A. M.; Hood, A. W.; Goedbloed, J. P.

1994-09-01

325

Phase Diagram and Tie-Line Determination for the Ternary Mixture DOPC/eSM/Cholesterol  

PubMed Central

We propose a novel, to our knowledge, method for the determination of tie lines in a phase diagram of ternary lipid mixtures. The method was applied to a system consisting of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), egg sphingomyelin (eSM), and cholesterol (Chol). The approach is based on electrofusion of single- or two-component homogeneous giant vesicles in the fluid phase and analyses of the domain areas of the fused vesicle. The electrofusion approach enables us to create three-component vesicles with precisely controlled composition, in contrast to conventional methods for giant vesicle formation. The tie lines determined in the two-liquid-phase coexistence region are found to be not parallel, suggesting that the dominant mechanism of lipid phase separation in this region changes with the membrane composition. We provide a phase diagram of the DOPC/eSM/Chol mixture and predict the location of the critical point. Finally, we evaluate the Gibbs free energy of transfer of individual lipid components from one phase to the other.

Bezlyepkina, N.; Gracia, R.S.; Shchelokovskyy, P.; Lipowsky, R.; Dimova, R.

2013-01-01

326

Series Transmission Line Transformer  

DOEpatents

A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

Buckles, Robert A. (Livermore, CA); Booth, Rex (Livermore, CA); Yen, Boris T. (El Cerrito, CA)

2004-06-29

327

E. coli Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... Events NIAID > Health & Research Topics > E. coli > Understanding E. coli Understanding Overview Cause Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Prevention Complications Research Skip Website Tools Website Tools Print ...

328

High Soft-Error Tolerance Body-Tied Silicon-on-Insulator Technology with Partial Trench Isolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents soft-error tolerance for partially depleted silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices with partial trench isolation (PTI) that realize a body-tied structure. Mechanism of charge collections due to alpha-particle strikes is clarified for a body-tied SOI device with the PTI structure and a body-floating SOI device. It is estimated that the soft-error tolerance of the body-floating SOI device is lower than that of the body-tied one because of parasitic bipolar action. Soft-error testing by using 0.18 ?m 4 Mbit static random-access memory (SRAM) indicates that the body-tied SOI devices with the PTI structure have high soft-error tolerance as compared with bulk devices. The charge collections for the PTI structure are also investigated to mitigate the soft errors. It is demonstrated that the body-tied PTI SOI technology is one of the best solutions for high-performance system LSIs with high soft-error tolerance.

Hirano, Yuuichi; Iwamatsu, Toshiaki; Shiga, Katsuya; Nii, Koji; Sonoda, Kenichiro; Ipposhi, Takashi; Maegawa, Shigeto; Inoue, Yasuo

2008-01-01

329

Transmission Line Security Monitor  

ScienceCinema

The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

None

2013-05-28

330

Priority Encoding Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new method, called Priority Encoding Transmission,for sending messages over lossy packet-based networks. Whena message is to be transmitted, the user specifies a priority value foreach part of the message. Based on the priorities, the system encodesthe message into packets for transmission and sends them to (possiblymultiple) receivers. The priority value of each part of the messagedetermines the

Andres Albanese; Johannes Blömer; Jeff Edmonds; Michael Luby; Madhu Sudan

1994-01-01

331

Priority encoding transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new method, called priority encoding transmission, for sending messages over lossy packet-based networks. When a message is to be transmitted, the user specifies a priority value for each part of the message. Based on the priorities, the system encodes the message into packets for transmission and sends them to (possibly multiple) receivers. The priority value of each

Andres Albanese; Johannes Blömer; Jeff Edmonds; Michael Luby; Madhu Sudan

1996-01-01

332

Pilot Assisted Wireless Transmissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of pilot assisted wireless transmissions is considered from signal processing and information theoretical perspectives. A general pilot placement model is presented and related figures of merit discussed. A survey of recent pilot assisted transmission theory and techniques is provided.

Lang Tong; Brian M. Sadler; Min Dong

333

Transmission Line Security Monitor  

SciTech Connect

The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

None

2011-01-01

334

Manual transmission synchronizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transmission synchronizer is described which consists of: a synchro hub formed with an aperture; a coupling sleeve formed with first splines on an internal surface thereof, the splines having chamfers at each end; a baulk ring operatively associated with a transmission gear, the baulk ring being formed with second splines which are engageable with the first splines; and a

K. Hiraiwa; A. Kawaguchi

1986-01-01

335

Automatic transmission control method  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of controlling an automatic transmission of an automotive vehicle. The transmission has a gear train which includes a brake for establishing a first lowest speed of the transmission, the brake acting directly on a ring gear which meshes with a pinion, the pinion meshing with a sun gear in a planetary gear train, the ring gear connected with an output member, the sun gear being engageable and disengageable with an input member of the transmission by means of a clutch. The method comprises the steps of: detecting that a shift position of the automatic transmission has been shifted to a neutral range; thereafter introducing hydraulic pressure to the brake if present vehicle velocity is below a predetermined value, whereby the brake is engaged to establish the first lowest speed; and exhausting hydraulic pressure from the brake if present vehicle velocity is higher than a predetermined value, whereby the brake is disengaged.

Hasegawa, H.; Ishiguro, T.

1989-07-04

336

Use of tongue ties in thoroughbred racehorses in the United Kingdom, and its association with surgery for dorsal displacement of the soft palate.  

PubMed

The prevalence of the use of tongue ties, calculated from 60 randomly selected race meetings held in the UK during 2001 to 2003, was 5.0 per cent. After its first use on an individual horse a tongue tie was used in an average of 77 per cent of its races during the first 12 months, but after this time period, in only 55 per cent of its races. Thirty-nine per cent of horses that underwent surgery for dorsal displacement of the soft palate raced with a tongue tie preoperatively, and 41 per cent of these surgical cases raced with a tongue tie postoperatively. PMID:19734559

Barakzai, S Z; Finnegan, C; Dixon, P M; Hillyer, M H; Boden, L A

2009-09-01

337

Influence of high hydrostatic pressure on beat length in highly birefringent single-mode bow tie fibers.  

PubMed

New experimental studies on the effects of high hydrostatic pressure on highly birefringent optical fibers are presented. Using Rayleigh scattering, the effect of beat length modification in highly birefringent singlemode bow tie fibers under high pressure up to 100 MPa was investigated. The results indicate that the beat length decreases with pressure, with the mean coefficient of 1/L(B0)|dL(B)/dp| = 0.15%/MPa. A similar decrease of beat length was observed when uniaxial longitudinal stress was applied to the bow tie fiber. A more developed semiphenomenological interpretation of these experimental results is also presented in the paper. PMID:20567441

Bock, W J; Doma?ski, A W; Woli?ski, T R

1990-08-20

338

Toward Stronger Ties: The AAS Working Group on Professional-Amateur Collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experienced amateur astronomers represent a unique resource for their professional counterparts. Many knowledgeable amateurs now have telescopes in the 0.2- to 0.5-m class equipped with high-grade CCDs and software. To foster stronger ties between these observers and astronomical researchers, the AAS Council established a Working Group for Professional-Amateur Collaboration (WGPAC) during the Society's 193rd meeting in January 1999. Initially given a five-year charter, the WGPAC was made permanent at the 202nd Council meeting in May 2003. Since its creation the WGPAC has coordinated its activities with major amateur-astronomy organizations, sponsored a tutorial workshop at the annual meeting of the Astronomical League, laid the groundwork for a national registry of highly qualified amateur observers, and promoted pro-am collaborations through articles in the AAS Newsletter and leading amateur-astronomy publications.

Beatty, J. K.; White, J. C.

2004-05-01

339

[The influence of organizational ties in the consolidation of Psychosocial Care Centers].  

PubMed

This article seeks to investigate the influence of organizational ties in the consolidation of Psychosocial Care Centers (CAPS - II and AD [Alcohol and Drugs]) in the city of Petrolina, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Based on qualitative research, semi-structured interviews were conducted with a multi-professional team from both CAPS, with the sample consisting of one representative from each professional category. A critical review of the data was based on content analysis prepared from categorization of the discourses. The results showed that, in general, the teams do not possess sufficient theoretical knowledge about the system of which they are part. Moreover, although there is a high level of satisfaction, precarious working conditions and a lack of professional recognition and labor input can negatively affect the institutional dynamics. Lastly, a quantitative equivalence was also detected regarding affective and calculative aspects of organizational commitment and a close relationship between length of service and involvement with the work. PMID:24061023

Alves, Haiana Maria de Carvalho; Dourado, Lidiane Bento Ribeiro; Côrtes, Verônica da Nova Quadros

2013-10-01

340

Dysregulation of the angiopoietin-Tie-2 axis in sepsis and ARDS.  

PubMed

Dynamic changes in microvascular endothelial structure and function are pivotal in the acute inflammatory response, the body's rapid, coordinated effort to localize, sequester, and eliminate microbial invaders at their portal of entry. To achieve this, the endothelium becomes leaky and inflamed, providing innate immune cells and humoral effector molecules access to the site of infection. During sepsis this locally adaptive response becomes manifest throughout the body, leading to dangerous host consequences. Increased leakiness in the pulmonary circulation contributes to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a complication of sepsis associated with 40% mortality. Understanding the molecular governance of vascular leak and inflammation has major diagnostic, prognostic, and potentially therapeutic implications for this common and pernicious disease. This review summarizes results from cell-based experiments, animal models, and observational human studies; together, these studies suggest that an endothelial receptor called Tie2 and its ligands, called angiopoietins, form a signaling axis key to the vascular dyshomeostasis that underlies sepsis. PMID:23652985

Parikh, Samir M

2013-08-15

341

The representation of multiplication facts: developmental changes in the problem size, five, and tie effects.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the development of basic effects that have been found in single-digit multiplication arithmetic: the problem size, five, and tie effects. Participants (9-, 10-, and 11-year-olds and adults) performed a production task on simple multiplication. The procedure replicated study [Canadian Journal of Psychology, Vol. 39, pp. 338-366], but the results show that the gradual decrease of the problem size effect ends in sixth grade. We report analyses on raw latencies and state trace analyses that take into account reaction time scaling as a function of age. The results show that 11-year-olds do not differ significantly from adults on any of the three effects. Before 11 years of age, interesting developmental changes occur. PMID:16376370

De Brauwer, Jolien; Verguts, Tom; Fias, Wim

2006-05-01

342

Bow-tie nano-antenna assisted generation of extreme ultraviolet radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the generation of extreme ultraviolet radiation utilizing the plasmonic field enhancement in arrays of bow-tie gold optical antennae. Furthermore, their suitability to support high-order harmonic generation is examined by means of finite-difference time-domain calculations and experiments. Particular emphasis is paid to the thermal properties, which become significant at the employed peak intensities. A damage threshold depending on the antenna length is predicted and confirmed by our experimental findings. Moreover, the gas density in the vicinity of the antennae is characterized experimentally to determine the number of atoms contributing to the measured radiation, which is almost an order of magnitude larger than previously reported.

Pfullmann, N.; Waltermann, C.; Noack, M.; Rausch, S.; Nagy, T.; Reinhardt, C.; Kova?ev, M.; Knittel, V.; Bratschitsch, R.; Akemeier, D.; Hütten, A.; Leitenstorfer, A.; Morgner, U.

2013-09-01

343

Impact of Inter-technique Vector Tie Errors at Future GGOS Core Sites on the ITRF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Geodetic Observing System—GGOS, has identified as its main task the establishment, maintenance and wide distribution of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF), requiring a high accuracy and stability goal set at 1 mm and 0.1 mm/y. The four "geometric" Services of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG), IDS, IGS, ILRS and IVS are responsible for the provision of the required analysis products that form the input in the ITRF development step. The network of sites that will host all four techniques with an optimal global distribution comprises the so-called "GGOS Core Sites Network—GCSN". Simulation studies over the past few years determined the size and distribution of the sites in order to meet the goals of GGOS. Assuming that all techniques are present with their state-of-the-art equipment, it has been determined that a network of about thirty sites is sufficient to achieve our goal. This result presupposes the ability of the techniques to relate their reference points, those to which their results refer, to a common one representing the site, with an accuracy that is better than 1 mm at any time. These "survey ties" between the invariant reference points between techniques are the subject of extensive research, theoretical as well as practical, in order to develop a modus operandi that realizes with certainty the required accuracy ties at all sites. One can separate the problem for each of the techniques into two distinct components: the survey that determines the offset of the common marker to a physical point of reference on the antenna or telescope used by the technique, and a second much more difficult to determine offset, of the physical point from the actual electronic or optical invariant point to which the observations of each technique refer. The first part is rather easily controlled with precision surveying, most likely through automated procedures using modern technology. The second part is the most difficult to determine and depends on several factors, from the type of the technique in question, to environmental changes, to tracking geometry and local conditions specific to each site. So far, the assumption is that the combined error from the two parts remains ~1 mm. This is a topic of separate studies for each of the contributing techniques. A question that requires an answer before the final design of the survey system is the actual level of total error that one can tolerate at each site, before the GGOS network accuracy goal is compromised. Our presentation focuses on this question using simulations of survey errors at the core sites of a 32-site GCSN, with varying distribution of the site-tie errors in terms of the level of the errors as well as a function of the contributing techniques. These simulations will provide some guidelines on the level of effort that each of the techniques should devote in determining the technique-specific error component and the improvement (if any) required for the common survey tie component at each site.

Pavlis, Erricos C.; Kuzmicz-Cieslak, Magdalena

2013-04-01

344

Molecular ties between the cell cycle and differentiation in embryonic stem cells.  

PubMed

Attainment of the differentiated state during the final stages of somatic cell differentiation is closely tied to cell cycle progression. Much less is known about the role of the cell cycle at very early stages of embryonic development. Here, we show that molecular pathways involving the cell cycle can be engineered to strongly affect embryonic stem cell differentiation at early stages in vitro. Strategies based on perturbing these pathways can shorten the rate and simplify the lineage path of ES differentiation. These results make it likely that pathways involving cell proliferation intersect at various points with pathways that regulate cell lineages in embryos and demonstrate that this knowledge can be used profitably to guide the path and effectiveness of cell differentiation of pluripotent cells. PMID:24979803

Li, Victor C; Kirschner, Marc W

2014-07-01

345

InGaAs bow-tie diodes for terahertz imaging: low frequency noise characterisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noise characteristics of bow-tie InGaAs diodes in forward and backward directions were measured in frequency range from 10 Hz to 20 kHz at room temperature. It was found that the spectral density of voltage fluctuations changes with frequency approximately as 1/f, indicating that origin of noise is superposition of generation and recombination processes in defects of the structure. It was determined that the dependence of spectral density of current fluctuation on current in backward and forward directions at different frequencies exhibits asymmetry which reflects non-uniform electric field distribution within the structure. As both noise and sensitivity increase with bias current, optimal conditions for device operation are discussed.

Minkevi?ius, Linas; Ragauskas, Mantas; Matukas, Jonas; Palenskis, Vilius; Pralgauskaite, Sandra; Seliuta, Dalius; Kašalynas, Irmantas; Valušis, Gintaras

2012-10-01

346

Selective removal of organic contaminants from sediments: A methodology for toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aqueous slurries of a test sediment spiked with dibenz[a,h]anthracene, 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, p,p'-DDE, or phenanthrene were subjected to decontamination experimentation. The spiked sediments were agitated at elevated temperatures for at least 96 h in the presence of either of the two contaminant-absorbing media: clusters of polyethylene membrane or lipid- containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs). The effects of treatment temperature and surface area of media on the removal of contaminants were explored. This work is part of a larger methodology for whole-sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE). A method is being sought that is capable of detoxifying sediments with respect to organic contaminants while leaving toxicity attributable to inorganic contaminants unaffected. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Lebo, J. A.; Huckins, J. N.; Petty, J. D.; Ho, K. T.; Stern, E. A.

2000-01-01

347

Oxidation of graphene 'bow tie' nanofuses for permanent, write-once-read-many data storage devices.  

PubMed

We have fabricated nanoscale fuses from CVD graphene sheets with a 'bow tie' geometry for write-once-read-many data storage applications. The fuses are programmed using thermal oxidation driven by Joule heating. Fuses that were 250 nm wide with 2.5 ?m between contact pads were programmed with average voltages and powers of 4.9 V and 2.1 mW, respectively. The required voltages and powers decrease with decreasing fuse sizes. Graphene shows extreme chemical and electronic stability; fuses require temperatures of about 400 °C for oxidation, indicating that they are excellent candidates for permanent data storage. To further demonstrate this stability, fuses were subjected to applied biases in excess of typical read voltages; stable currents were observed when a voltage of 10 V was applied to the devices in the off state and 1 V in the on state for 90 h each. PMID:23478811

Pearson, A C; Jamieson, S; Linford, M R; Lunt, B M; Davis, R C

2013-04-01

348

Oxidation of graphene ‘bow tie’ nanofuses for permanent, write-once-read-many data storage devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have fabricated nanoscale fuses from CVD graphene sheets with a ‘bow tie’ geometry for write-once-read-many data storage applications. The fuses are programmed using thermal oxidation driven by Joule heating. Fuses that were 250 nm wide with 2.5 ?m between contact pads were programmed with average voltages and powers of 4.9 V and 2.1 mW, respectively. The required voltages and powers decrease with decreasing fuse sizes. Graphene shows extreme chemical and electronic stability; fuses require temperatures of about 400?°C for oxidation, indicating that they are excellent candidates for permanent data storage. To further demonstrate this stability, fuses were subjected to applied biases in excess of typical read voltages; stable currents were observed when a voltage of 10 V was applied to the devices in the off state and 1 V in the on state for 90 h each.

Pearson, A. C.; Jamieson, S.; Linford, M. R.; Lunt, B. M.; Davis, R. C.

2013-04-01

349

Source and event selection for radio-planetary frame-tie measurements using the Phobos Landers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Soviet Phobos Lander mission will place two spacecraft on the Martian moon Phobos in 1989. Measurements of the range from Earth-based stations to the landers will allow an accurate determination of the ephemerides of Phobos and Mars. Delta Very Long Base Interferometry (VLBI) between the landers and compact radio sources nearby on the sky will be used to obtain precise estimates of the angular offset between the radio and planetary reference frames. The accuracy of this frame-tie estimate is expected to be in the vicinity of 10 mrad, depending on how well several error sources can be controlled (calibrated or reduced). Many candidate radio sources for VLBI measurements were identified, but additional work is necessary to select those sources which have characteristics appropriate to the present application. Strategies for performing the source selection are described.

Linfield, R.; Ulvestad, J.

1988-01-01

350

Quantitative spectroscopy on individual wire, slot, bow-tie, rectangular, and square-shaped optical antennas.  

PubMed

By using a recently introduced approach combining a focus-modulation technique with a common-path interferometer, we measure quantitatively the extinction, scattering, and absorption cross-section spectra of individual optical antennas. The experimental results on thin-wire antennas, slot antennas, bow-tie antennas, rectangular antennas, and square-shaped antennas resonating at around 1.4 ?m wavelength are discussed. We find increased resonant scattering cross sections for the latter four antennas compared to the thin-wire antenna, both in absolute terms and relative to the absorption cross section. The square-shaped antenna's resonant extinction cross section approaches the limit of a coherent point dipole. However, the ratio of the resonant extinction cross section to the geometrical cross section of 38 is largest for the simple thin-wire antenna. PMID:24322083

Husnik, Martin; Niegemann, Jens; Busch, Kurt; Wegener, Martin

2013-11-15

351

The design and development of a spacecraft appendage tie down mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and evolution is described of a spacecraft Appendage Tie Down Mechanism (ATDM). Particular emphasis is paid to the mechanical aspects of using dry lubricants to increase the efficiency of acme threads and worm gearing. The ATDM consists of five major components. These are a dc torque motor, a worm gear speed reducer, the tension bolt (or T-bolt), nut capture and centering jaws and the capture nut. In addition, there are several minor components such as limit switch assemblies and an antibackdrive mechanism which couples the drive motor to the worm shaft. A development model of the ATDM in various configurations was under test for some time. In its latest version, it has successfully completed thermal vacuum testing, vibration testing, and extended life testing.

Nygren, W. D.; Head, R.

1985-01-01

352

Creosote released from railway-ties recycled and the sanitary risks.  

PubMed

Through the history of railways, wooden crossties impregnated with potentially hazardous creosote tar, have been used for years. There are six major classes of compounds in the creosote: aromatic hydrocarbons; tar acids/phenolics; tar bases/nitrogen-containing heterocycles; aromatic amines; sulfur-containing heterocycles; and oxygen-containing heterocycles. The creosote molecules applied in railway crossties can be released in the environment and they can bioaccumulate in animals and vegetables. Some constituents (benzo(a)pyrene and phenolics like benzene) are considered as being carcinogenic which renders the entire complex of creosote to be classified as potentially carcinogenic. After several decades of use the railway-ties are been recycled for varies uses like fences, stakes for agriculture and fruit production or bank protection. In this paper are examined some environmental and sanitary risks from wood impregnated with creosote reported in the literature. PMID:23743701

Zicari, Giuseppe; Allegro, Giuseppe; Russo, Domenico; Rivetti, Daniela; Soardo, Vincenzo; Cerrato, Elena

2013-01-01

353

Household Structure, Family Ties, and Psychological Distress among US-born and Immigrant Latino Women  

PubMed Central

Latino women endorse the highest rates of past-month depressive symptoms relative to Latino men and to non-Latino White men and women. Yet, research into the specific domains of family life that reduce or engender psychological distress among Latinas is sparse. We examine the hypothesis that indicators of household structure and family ties will relate to psychological distress among Latinas in the USA, and that these associations will vary by nativity status. We employed nationally representative data of Latina adults (N = 1,427) from the National Latino and Asian American Study. Nativity-stratified regression analyses revealed that strained family ties (i.e., family burden, family cultural conflict) were associated with greater levels of past-month psychological distress for both US-born and immigrant Latinas. Yet, the effect of household structures on psychological distress differed by nativity status. Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, lower levels of household income were associated with greater psychological distress; and having children/adolescents in the household was associated with lower levels of psychological distress among US-born Latinas. In contrast, for immigrant Latinas, being out of the labor force was associated with greater levels of psychological distress. Results suggest that dynamics of both the household and family context predict differential as well as similar mental health outcomes across segments of the Latina population in the USA. These findings underscore the need to understand the pathways by which different facets of family life—structural and social domains—relate to mental health status among subgroups of Latinas. Our results also have implications for the development of tailored interventions to meet the specific needs of Latinas.

Molina, Kristine M.; Alcantara, Carmela

2013-01-01

354

Challenging Ties between State and Tobacco Industry: Advocacy Lessons from India  

PubMed Central

Background: Globally, tobacco use is a major public health concern given its huge morbidity and mortality burden that is inequitably high in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization has suggested banning the advertisement, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco. However, governments in some countries, including India, are either directly engaged in tobacco industry operations or have a mandate to promote tobacco industry development. This paper analyses a short-term advocacy campaign that challenged the state-tobacco industry ties to draw lessons for effective public health advocacy. Method: This paper uses a case study method to analyze advocacy efforts in India to thwart the state-tobacco industry partnership: the Indian government’s sponsorship and support to a global tobacco industry event. The paper explores multiple strategies employed in the five-month advocacy campaign (May to October 2010) to challenge this state-industry tie. In doing so, we describe the challenges faced and the lessons learnt for effective advocacy. Results: Government withdrew participation and financial sponsorship from the tobacco industry event. Use of multiple strategies including engaging all concerned government agencies from the beginning, strategic use of media, presence and mobilization of civil society, and use of legal tools to gain information and judicial action, were complementary in bringing desired outcomes. Conclusion: Use of multiple and complementary advocacy strategies could lead to positive outcomes in a short-time campaign. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control could form an important advocacy tool, especially in countries that have ratified it, to advocate for improvements in national tobacco control regulations.

Bhojani, Upendra; Venkataraman, Vidya; Manganawar, Bheemaray

2013-01-01

355

Randomised controlled trial of early frenotomy in breastfed infants with mild-moderate tongue-tie  

PubMed Central

Trial design A randomised, parallel group, pragmatic trial. Setting A large UK maternity hospital. Participants Term infants <2?weeks old with a mild or moderate degree of tongue-tie, and their mothers who were having difficulties breastfeeding. Objectives To determine if immediate frenotomy was better than standard breastfeeding support. Interventions Participants were randomised to an early frenotomy intervention group or a ‘standard care’ comparison group. Outcomes Primary outcome was breastfeeding at 5?days, with secondary outcomes of breastfeeding self-efficacy and pain on feeding. Final assessment was at 8?weeks; 20 also had qualitative interviews. Researchers assessing outcomes, but not participants, were blinded to group assignment. Results 107 infants were randomised, 55 to the intervention group and 52 to the comparison group. Five-day outcome measures were available for 53 (96%) of the intervention group and 52 (100%) of the comparison group, and intention-to-treat analysis showed no difference in the primary outcome—Latch, Audible swallowing, nipple Type, Comfort, Hold score. Frenotomy did improve the tongue-tie and increased maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy. At 5?days, there was a 15.5% increase in bottle feeding in the comparison group compared with a 7.5% increase in the intervention group. After the 5-day clinic, 44 of the comparison group had requested a frenotomy; by 8?weeks only 6 (12%) were breastfeeding without a frenotomy. At 8?weeks, there were no differences between groups in the breastfeeding measures or in the infant weight. No adverse events were observed. Conclusions Early frenotomy did not result in an objective improvement in breastfeeding but was associated with improved self-efficacy. The majority in the comparison arm opted for the intervention after 5?days.

Emond, Alan; Ingram, Jenny; Johnson, Debbie; Blair, Peter; Whitelaw, Andrew; Copeland, Marion; Sutcliffe, Alastair

2014-01-01

356

The pio Operon Is Essential for Phototrophic Fe(II) Oxidation in Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1?  

PubMed Central

Phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria couple the oxidation of ferrous iron [Fe(II)] to reductive CO2 fixation by using light energy, but until recently, little has been understood about the molecular basis for this process. Here we report the discovery, with Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1 as a model organism, of a three-gene operon, designated the pio operon (for phototrophic iron oxidation), that is necessary for phototrophic Fe(II) oxidation. The first gene in the operon, pioA, encodes a c-type cytochrome that is upregulated under Fe(II)-grown conditions. PioA contains a signal sequence and shares homology with MtrA, a decaheme c-type cytochrome from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. The second gene, pioB, encodes a putative outer membrane beta-barrel protein. PioB is a homologue of MtrB from S. oneidensis MR-1. The third gene, pioC, encodes a putative high potential iron sulfur protein (HiPIP) with a twin-arginine translocation (Tat) signal sequence and is similar to the putative Fe(II) oxidoreductase (Iro) from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Like PioA, PioB and PioC appear to be secreted proteins. Deletion of the pio operon results in loss of Fe(II) oxidation activity and growth on Fe(II). Complementation studies confirm that the phenotype of this mutant is due to loss of the pio genes. Deletion of pioA alone results in loss of almost all Fe(II) oxidation activity; however, deletion of either pioB or pioC alone results in only partial loss of Fe(II) oxidation activity. Together, these results suggest that proteins encoded by the pio operon are essential and specific for phototrophic Fe(II) oxidation in R. palustris TIE-1.

Jiao, Yongqin; Newman, Dianne K.

2007-01-01

357

Household structure, family ties, and psychological distress among U.S.-born and immigrant Latino women.  

PubMed

Latino women endorse the highest rates of past-month depressive symptoms relative to Latino men and non-Latino White men and women. Yet, research into the specific domains of family life that reduce or engender psychological distress among Latinas is sparse. We examine the hypothesis that indicators of household structure and family ties will relate to psychological distress among Latinas in the United States, and that these associations will vary by nativity status. We employed nationally representative data of Latina adults (N = 1,427) from the National Latino and Asian American Study. Nativity-stratified regression analyses revealed that strained family ties (i.e., family burden, family cultural conflict) were associated with greater levels of past-month psychological distress for both U.S.-born and immigrant Latinas. Yet, the effect of household structures on psychological distress differed by nativity status. Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, lower levels of household income were associated with greater psychological distress; and having children in the household was associated with lower levels of psychological distress among U.S.-born Latinas. In contrast, for immigrant Latinas, being out of the labor force was associated with greater levels of psychological distress. Results suggest that dynamics of both the household and family context predict differential as well as similar mental-health outcomes across segments of the Latina population in the United States. These findings underscore the need to understand the pathways by which different facets of family life-structural and social domains-relate to mental-health status among subgroups of Latinas. Our results also have implications for the development of tailored interventions to meet the specific needs of Latinas. PMID:23421842

Molina, Kristine M; Alcántara, Carmela

2013-02-01

358

Superconducting microwave transmission lines  

SciTech Connect

Superconducting microwave transmission lines can be designed to have lower loss, lower dispersion, and lower phase velocity than conventional metal lines. These properties make superconducting transmission lines attractive for use in many devices and systems such as filters and analog to digital converters. The problem with designing microwave circuits which utilizes these lines is that accurate circuit models do not exist. This paper present models for the microwave transmission line parameters (phase velocity, attenuation, and characteristic impedance) of superconducting lines as a function of temperature and geometry. An experiment to verify these models is also presented.

McClay, C.P.; Soares, S.; Weitzman, P.S.

1991-10-01

359

Downhole transmission system  

DOEpatents

A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. An electrical conductor connects both the transmission elements. The electrical conductor comprises at least three electrically conductive elements insulated from each other. In the preferred embodiment the electrical conductor comprises an electrically conducting outer shield, an electrically conducting inner shield and an electrical conducting core. In some embodiments of the present invention, the electrical conductor comprises an electrically insulating jacket. In other embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises a pair of twisted wires. In some embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises semi-conductive material.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT) [Provo, UT; Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT) [Spanish Fork, UT

2008-01-15

360

Thyristors for HVDC transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To make HVDC transmission competitive, the number of components - of which thyristors are of paramount importance - must be reduced. This article looks at the fabrication of thyristors with high blocking voltages.

Mitlehner, H.; Schulze, H.-J.

1988-09-01

361

Down hole transmission system  

DOEpatents

A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. The electrically conducting coil comprises at least two generally fractional loops. In the preferred embodiment, the transmission elements are connected by an electrical conductor. Preferably, the electrical conductor is a coaxial cable. Preferably, the MCEI trough comprises ferrite. In the preferred embodiment, the fractional loops are connected by a connecting cable. In one aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a pair of twisted wires. In one embodiment the connecting cable is a shielded pair of twisted wires. In another aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a coaxial cable. The connecting cable may be disposed outside of the MCEI circular trough.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT)

2007-07-24

362

Lyme Disease Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Officials Veterinarians Tool kit Lyme disease quiz Lyme disease transmission The Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi , is ... blacklegged ticks Are there other ways to get Lyme disease? There is no evidence that Lyme disease is ...

363

Transmission of Flu (Influenza)  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Flu (Influenza) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Transmission How Flu Spreads Coughing and Sneezing People with flu can ...

364

Maximum ratio transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the concept, principles, and analysis of maximum ratio transmission for wireless communications, where multiple antennas are used for both transmission and reception. The principles and analysis are applicable to general cases, including maximum-ratio combining. Simulation results agree with the analysis. The analysis shows that the average overall signal-to-mise ratio (SNR) is proportional to the cross correlation between

Titus K. Y. Lo

1999-01-01

365

Broadband Millimeter-Wave GaAs Transmitters and Receivers Using Planar Bow-Tie Antennas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We report broadband monolithic transmitters and receivers IC's for mm-wave electromagnetic measurements. The IC's use nonlinear transmission lines (NLTL) and sampling circuits as picosecond pulse generators and detectors. The pulses are radiated and recei...

Y. Konishi M. Kamegawa M. Case R. Yu M. J. W. Rodwell

1992-01-01

366

Keratinocyte but Not Endothelial Cell-Specific Overexpression of Tie2 Leads to the Development of Psoriasis  

PubMed Central

Psoriasis is initiated and maintained through a multifaceted interplay between keratinocytes, blood vessels, gene expression, and the immune system. One previous psoriasis model demonstrated that overexpression of the angiopoietin receptor Tie2 in endothelial cells and keratinocytes led to the development of a psoriasiform phenotype; however, the etiological significance of overexpression in each cell type alone was unclear. We have now engineered two new mouse models whereby Tie2 expression is confined to either endothelial cells or keratinocytes. Both lines of mice have significant increases in dermal vasculature but only the KC-Tie2-overexpressing mice developed a cutaneous psoriasiform phenotype. These mice spontaneously developed characteristic hallmarks of human psoriasis, including extensive acanthosis, increases in dermal CD4+ T cells, infiltrating epidermal CD8+ T cells, dermal dendritic cells and macrophages, and increased expression of cytokines and chemokines associated with psoriasis, including interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor-?, and interleukins 1?, 6, 12, 22, 23, and 17. Host-defense molecules, cathelicidin, ?-defensin, and S100A8/A9, were also up-regulated in the hyperproliferative skin. All of the phenotypic traits were completely reversed without any scarring following repression of the transgene and were significantly improved following treatment with the anti-psoriasis systemic therapeutic, cyclosporin A. Therefore, confining Tie2 overexpression solely to keratinocytes results in a mouse model that meets the clinical, histological, immunophenotypic, biochemical, and pharmacological criteria required for an animal model of human psoriasis.

Wolfram, Julie A.; Diaconu, Doina; Hatala, Denise A.; Rastegar, Jessica; Knutsen, Dorothy A.; Lowther, Abigail; Askew, David; Gilliam, Anita C.; McCormick, Thomas S.; Ward, Nicole L.

2009-01-01

367

Tying and untying the trouser-cord: Dimensions of normativity, morality, and emotion in Pakistani body behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on a study of the multi-functional trouser-cord (that ties traditional Pakistani trousers) and its connotations within the Islamic dress tradition as well as local concepts of the body. Comparable to the importance of belts and loincloths in other cultures of the Muslim, Christian, and Hindu world, the apparently simple and unpretentious drawstring plays a central role in

Jürgen Wasim Frembgen

2004-01-01

368

From the Cotton Fields to the Ties That Bind: Jim Pusack's Enduring Impact on Today's CALL Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From 1981 to today, the encouragement Jim Pusack and his colleague Sue Otto gave faculty to develop and/or implement CALL into the curriculum has been vital to our L2 teaching evolution. This article describes how their efforts evolved over the last two and a half decades and the ties that bind their efforts with today's CALL development.

Jones, Linda C.

2010-01-01

369

Unemployment and well-being in Europe. The effect of country unemployment rate, work ethics and family ties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjective well-being literature shows that higher unemployment rate corresponds to lower psychological cost of own unemployment. The goal of the paper is to deepen the understanding of this regularity by investigating the role played by the work ethics and the strength of family ties. I analyze the European Values Study data (2008) for 36 countries using multilevel regression methodology. First,

MIKUCKA Malgorzata

2011-01-01

370

Composition of alkali silica gel and ettringite in concrete railroad ties: SEM-EDX and X-ray diffraction analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkali silica gel and ettringite observed in concrete railroad ties were analysed by SEM-EDX and X-ray diffraction. The compositions, represented in the Si? Ca?Na + K system, of clear gel were in the range of 53 to 63 atomic% Si and 20 to 30 atomic% Ca. The K + Na contents were constant and about 15% (excluding oxygen, water and

Niels Thaulow; Ulla Hjorth Jakobsen; Boyd Clark

1996-01-01

371

Multi-Omics Classification of Head and Neck Cancer Ties TP53 Mutation To 3p Loss - Andrew M. Gross, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2014  

Cancer.gov

Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Multi-Omics Classification of Head and Neck Cancer Ties TP53 Mutation To 3p Loss - Andrew M. Gross Multi-Omics Classification of Head and Neck Cancer Ties TP53 Mutation To 3p Loss - Andrew M. Gross,

372

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Report in Massachusetts: Trackman Dies after Being Caught Between a People Mover and a Clip Applicator While Replacing Railroad Ties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On June 22, 2006, a 36-year-old male trackman was fatally injured while working with a tie gang to replace railroad ties. The victim's main task as a trackman during this project was to retrieve clips from a clip bag located at the rear of the clip applic...

2009-01-01

373

The Strength of Strong Ties for Older Rural Adults: Regional Distinctions in the Relationship between Social Interaction and Subjective Well-Being  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classic and contemporary sociological theories suggest that social interaction differs in rural and urban areas. Intimate, informal interactions (strong ties) are theorized to characterize rural areas while urban areas may possess more formal and rationalized interactions (weak ties). Aging and social support literature stresses social interaction…

Mair, Christine A.; Thivierge-Rikard, R. V.

2010-01-01

374

The Ties That Bind: How Cooperative Norms and Readiness to Change Shape the Role of Established Relationships in Business-to-Business E-Commerce  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Mainstream research indicates that close, long-term ties with business customers have beneficial effects; however, an alternative stream advances the possibility of a “dark side” of close relations, especially when the original conditions of the relationships change. This empirical study investigates how established buyer–seller relationships respond to significant changes in their exchange context by considering the value of close ties

Andrea Ordanini

2011-01-01

375

Isolation and Characterization of a Genetically Tractable Photoautotrophic Fe(II)-Oxidizing Bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris Strain TIE-1  

PubMed Central

We report the isolation and characterization of a phototrophic ferrous iron [Fe(II)]-oxidizing bacterium named TIE-1 that differs from other Fe(II)-oxidizing phototrophs in that it is genetically tractable. Under anaerobic conditions, TIE-1 grows photoautotrophically with Fe(II), H2, or thiosulfate as the electron donor and photoheterotrophically with a variety of organic carbon sources. TIE-1 also grows chemoheterotrophically in the dark. This isolate appears to be a new strain of the purple nonsulfur bacterial species Rhodopseudomonas palustris, based on physiological and phylogenetic analysis. Fe(II) oxidation is optimal at pH 6.5 to 6.9. The mineral products of Fe(II) oxidation are pH dependent: below pH 7.0 goethite (?-FeOOH) forms, and above pH 7.2 magnetite (Fe3O4) forms. TIE-1 forms colonies on agar plates and is sensitive to a variety of antibiotics. A hyperactive mariner transposon is capable of random insertion into the chromosome with a transposition frequency of ?10?5. To identify components involved in phototrophic Fe(II) oxidation, mutants of TIE-1 were generated by transposon mutagenesis and screened for defects in Fe(II) oxidation in a cell suspension assay. Among approximately 12,000 mutants screened, 6 were identified that are specifically impaired in Fe(II) oxidation. Five of these mutants have independent disruptions in a gene that is predicted to encode an integral membrane protein that appears to be part of an ABC transport system; the sixth mutant has an insertion in a gene that is a homolog of CobS, an enzyme involved in cobalamin (vitamin B12) biosynthesis.

Jiao, Yongqin; Kappler, Andreas; Croal, Laura R.; Newman, Dianne K.

2005-01-01

376

Regional Seismic Architecture Tied to Cores: Results from IODP Exp313  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Siliciclastic sediments at passive margins contain stratal discontinuities at many scales; most can be imaged in seismic profiles. Regional unconformities associated with lowering of baselevel (‘sequence boundaries’) are of special importance because they provide the means to objectively divide the stratigraphic record, and intervening sequences provide the basis for evaluating controls on facies successions and overall sedimentary architecture. Furthermore, sequences of similar age and shape at margins of contrasting tectonic and sedimentary histories suggest eustatic control, though this needs to be tested. IODP Exp313 was designed to contribute to such a test by determining the age and facies of sediments cored at several locations within mid-Tertiary sequences ~45-65 km offshore New Jersey. The reliability of seismic-core correlations essential to this effort required high core recovery, high resolution seismic data, and techniques for matching the two; here we report progress in this effort. Three holes were drilled and logged in ~35 m of water in May-July 2009. Roughly 9500 km of profiles were examined and correlated to these and 6 additional sites drilled previously on the outer shelf and upper slope. 13 additional holes drilled into correlative sediments on the adjacent coastal plain provided up-dip facies and age control, though onshore seismic data are lacking. Prior studies identified seismic sequence boundaries at the NJ margin on the basis of seismic onlap/offlap and ties to drill cores on the continental slope. 15 regionally mapped reflectors intersect the Exp313 sites, and as a first step in tying each to a feature in a core, stacking velocities from the processing of seismic data passing through Exp313 sites were used to derive an acoustic travel time to depth-below-seafloor conversion. This relationship provided expectations of depths at which surfaces and/or facies changes would be found. Typically these occur within 5-10 m of a probable match to features in the cores or to various properties measured by wireline logs and/or the Multi-Sensor Core Logger. Within clinoform top-set beds these reflectors often match transgressive or regressive facies and an accompanying change in density over a depth of 10 cm or less. Finer toe-set strata seaward of clinoform slopes contain beds of gravity-transported sediment where again abrupt changes in bulk density is a typical cause of acoustic reflections. A previously mapped 500 km2 seismic surface ties to the deeply eroded core of a clinoform buildup that failed locally and was redeposited in mass-flow deposits 10's of km seaward of its original location; that it can be traced elsewhere to an intact deposit underscores the importance of along-strike mapping that guards against hasty conclusions of eustatic influence. Facies changes separated by less than 5 m are difficult to link to one in a group of closely-spaced reflectors. Physical properties measured in core material or derived from wireline logs will be used in the future to develop synthetic seismograms and refine core-log-seismic correlations further.

Mountain, G.; Proust, J.; Monteverde, D.; Scienceparty, E.

2010-12-01

377

Why less may be more: a mixed methods study of the work and relatedness of 'weak ties' in supporting long-term condition self-management  

PubMed Central

Background The distribution of the roles and responsibilities of long-term condition management (LTCM) outside of formal health services implicates a wide set of relationships and activities of involvement. Yet, compared to studies of professional implementation, patient systems of implementation remain under-investigated. The aim of this paper is to explore the work, meaning and function attributed to ‘weaker’ ties relative to other more bonding relationships in order to identify the place of these within a context of systems of support for long-term conditions. Methods This is a mixed methods survey with nested qualitative study. A total of 300 people from deprived areas in the North West of England with chronic illnesses took part in a survey conducted in 2010 to 2011. A concentric circles diagram was used as a research tool with which participants identified 2,544 network members who contributed to illness management. Notions of ‘work’ were used to describe activities associated with chronic illness and to identify how weaker ties are included and perceived to be involved through social network members (SNM) contributions. Results The results provide an articulation of how SNMs are substantially involved in weak tie illness management. Weaker ties constituted 16.1% of network membership involved in illness work. The amount of work undertaken was similar but less than that of stronger ties. Weaker ties appeared more durable and less liable to loss over time than stronger ties. The qualitative accounts suggested that weak ties enabled the moral positioning of the self-managing ‘self’ and acted on the basis of a strong sense of reciprocity. Conclusions Weak ties act as an acceptable bridge between a sense of personal agency and control and the need for external support because it is possible to construct a sense of moral acceptability through reciprocal exchange. Access to weak tie resources needs to be taken into account when considering the ways in which systems of health implementation for chronic illness are designed and delivered.

2014-01-01

378

2006 Final Transmission Proposal.  

SciTech Connect

This Record of Decision (ROD) contains the decisions of the Administrator of the Bonneville Power Administration BPABPA with respect to the adoption of transmission and ancillary services rates for the two-year rate period beginning October 1, 2005, and ending September 30, 2007 (fiscal years (FY) 2006-2007)(2006 Final Transmission and Ancillary Services Rate Proposal). These decisions are based on the record compiled in this rate proceeding. The transmission and ancillary services rates adopted in this ROD are the rates proposed as a result of a comprehensive settlement agreement between BPA's Transmission Business Line (BPA-TBL) and a diverse group of transmission customers, including BPA's Power Business Line (BPA-PBL), regional investor-owned utilities, partial and full requirements customers of the BPA-PBL, Direct Services Industrial (DSI) customers, and merchant generators. The decisions in this ROD to adopt the rates and charges proposed by the settlement agreement are not intended to create or imply any factual , legal, procedural or substantive precedent, or to create agreement to any underlying principle or methodology.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

2005-06-01

379

Ultrahigh transmission optical nanofibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a procedure for reproducibly fabricating ultrahigh transmission optical nanofibers (530 nm diameter and 84 mm stretch) with single-mode transmissions of 99.95 ± 0.02%, which represents a loss from tapering of 2.6 × 10-5 dB/mm when normalized to the entire stretch. When controllably launching the next family of higher-order modes on a fiber with 195 mm stretch, we achieve a transmission of 97.8 ± 2.8%, which has a loss from tapering of 5.0 × 10-4 dB/mm when normalized to the entire stretch. Our pulling and transfer procedures allow us to fabricate optical nanofibers that transmit more than 400 mW in high vacuum conditions. These results, published as parameters in our previous work, present an improvement of two orders of magnitude less loss for the fundamental mode and an increase in transmission of more than 300% for higher-order modes, when following the protocols detailed in this paper. We extract from the transmission during the pull, the only reported spectrogram of a fundamental mode launch that does not include excitation to asymmetric modes; in stark contrast to a pull in which our cleaning protocol is not followed. These results depend critically on the pre-pull cleanliness and when properly following our pulling protocols are in excellent agreement with simulations.

Hoffman, J. E.; Ravets, S.; Grover, J. A.; Solano, P.; Kordell, P. R.; Wong-Campos, J. D.; Orozco, L. A.; Rolston, S. L.

2014-06-01

380

Small passenger car transmission test: Dodge Omni A-404 transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid eighty percent range for both drive performance test and coast performance tests.

Bujold, M. P.

1980-01-01

381

Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The testing of a Mercury Lynx automatic transmission is reported. The transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-ninety percent range both for drive performance test and coast performance tests. The torque, speed, and efficiency curves are presented, which provide the complete performance characteristics for the Mercury Lynx automatic transmission.

Bujold, M. P.

1981-01-01

382

Advanced rotorcraft transmission program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is an Army-funded, joint Army/NASA program to develop and demonstrate lightweight, quiet, durable drivetrain systems for next generation rotorcraft. ART addresses the drivetrain requirements of two distinct next generation aircraft classes: Future Air Attack Vehicle, a 10,000 to 20,000 lb. aircraft capable of undertaking tactical support and air-to-air missions; and Advanced Cargo Aircraft, a 60,000 to 80,000 lb. aircraft capable of heavy life field support operations. Both tiltrotor and more conventional helicopter configurations are included in the ART program. Specific objectives of ART include reduction of drivetrain weight by 25 percent compared to baseline state-of-the-art drive systems configured and sized for the next generation aircraft, reduction of noise level at the transmission source by 10 dB relative to a suitably sized and configured baseline, and attainment of at least a 5000 hr mean-time-between-removal. The technical approach for achieving the ART goals includes application of the latest available component, material, and lubrication technology to advanced concept drivetrains that utilize new ideas in gear configuration, transmission layout, and airframe/drivetrain integration. To date, candidate drivetrain systems were carried to a conceptual design stage, and tradeoff studies were conducted resulting in selection of an ART transmission configuration for each of the four contractors. The final selection was based on comparative weight, noise, and reliability studies. A description of each of the selected ART designs is included. Preliminary design of each of the four selected ART transmission was completed, as have mission impact studies wherein comparisons of aircraft mission performance and life cycle costs are undertaken for the next generation aircraft with ART and with the baseline transmission.

Bill, Robert C.

1990-01-01

383

Nonlinear Growth of a Line-tied g-Mode Near Marginal Stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical framework has been developed for the study of the nonlinear gravitational (g-) mode of a line-tied flux tube near marginal stability. The theory is based on an expansion using two small parameters, ?˜|?|/Leq1, and n-1˜k/k1, with ? denoting the plasma displacement, Leq the characteristic equilibrium scale, k and k the dominant wavenumber of perturbation parallel and perpendicular to equilibrium magnetic field lines respectively. When ?˜n-1, the Cowley-Artun regime is recovered where plasma is to the lowest order incompressible [S. C. Cowley and M. Artun, Phys. Rep., 283, 185-211 (1997)]. The detonation regime where the nonlinear growth of the mode is finite-time singular is a narrower subset of the Cowley-Artun regime. However, the validity of this regime breaks down when ?n-1. In the intermediate nonlinear phase when ?˜n-1/2, the lowest order plasma compression [˜?.?˜O(1)] is nonzero. Direct MHD simulations with both a finite difference code and NIMROD indicate that the mode remains bounded in magnitude with a slightly reduced nonlinear growth [P. Zhu, A. Bhattacharjee, and K. Germaschewski, to appear in PRL (2006); P. Zhu, C. C. Hegna, and C. R. Sovinec, DPP2005]. During this phase, the coupled growth of the mode amplitude ? and plasma compression may contribute to a nonlinear stabilization. The corresponding governing model equations for this intermediate nonlinear phase are derived.

Zhu, P.; Hegna, C. C.; Sovinec, C. R.

2006-04-01

384

Frictional resistance of orthodontic wires tied with 3 types of elastomeric ligatures.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to determine and compare frictional resistance obtained by low-friction and conventional elastomeric ligatures in the presence of artificial saliva, and observe whether this variable changed after 21 days. Super Slick® low-friction elastomeric ligatures and conventional ligatures of the brands TP conventional® and Unitek® were placed on standard edgewise maxillary central incisor metal brackets, slot .022" × .028" tying rectangular orthodontic wires .018" × .025". Three experimental groups were arranged according to the type of ligature and a control group in which no wires were used. The friction values obtained between the bracket/wire/ligature set were measured using a Universal Test Machine at a speed of 20 mm/minute, at two experimental time intervals: T0 - immediately after specimen fabrication; and T1 - 21 days after fabrication and immersion in artificial saliva at 37 ºC. Conventional Unitek ligatures and the low-friction ligature (Super Slick) showed the lowest friction values at T0. After 21 days (T1), however, conventional Unitek ligatures presented the lowest value. All groups assessed from T0 to T1 showed a numerical reduction in friction values, suggesting that time, heat and humidity may cause elastic degradation, however this was not verified statistically (P > 0.05). PMID:22147233

Cunha, Amanda Carneiro da; Marquezan, Mariana; Freitas, Amanda Osório Ayres; Nojima, Lincoln Issamu

2011-01-01

385

Dynamic Light Scattering in Network-Forming Oxide Melts: Ties Between Structure and Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report results from a series of dynamic light scattering studies of network-forming oxide glasses obtained using photon correlation spectroscopy. These studies focus specifically on how the dynamics of these viscous melts are influenced by systematic changes in the chemical structure of the oxide network and include studies of both sodium phosphate and sodium aluminophosphate melts. The fragility, a dynamical property of the liquid near the glass transition point, is determined from these measurements and seen to decrease with increases in the average density of bridging oxygen bonds regardless of the alkali content. Moreover, this dependence of the fragility on bond density is shown to be identically reproduced in both alkali borate melts and chalcogenide glasses, provided accommodations are made for the presence of structural entities in the borate system that contribute to their intermediate range order. The universal pattern that emerges suggests a significant tie between network structure and dynamics that is consistent with predictions for a rigidity transition near an average bond number of 2.4 and within the framework of a simple two-state bond model, may be traced to a common dependence of the configurational entropy on connectivity.

Tran, Tri; Schnell, Stanley; Sidebottom, David

2013-03-01

386

Impact of Magnetic Draping, Convection, and Field Line Tying on Magnetopause Reconnection Under Northward IMF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We simulate a northward IMF cusp reconnection event at the magnetopause using the OpenGGCM resistive MHD code. The ACE input data, solar wind parameters, and dipole tilt belong to a 2002 reconnection event observed by IMAGE and Cluster. Based on a fully three-dimensional skeleton separators, nulls, and parallel electric fields, we show magnetic draping, convection, ionospheric field line tying play a role in producing a series of locally reconnecting nulls with flux ropes. The flux ropes in the cusp along the global separator line of symmetry. In 2D projection, the flux ropes the appearance of a tearing mode with a series of 'x's' and 'o's' but bearing a kind of 'guide field' that exists only within the magnetopause. The reconnecting field lines in the string of ropes involve IMF and both open and closed Earth magnetic field lines. The observed magnetic geometry reproduces the findings of a superposed epoch impact parameter study derived from the Cluster magnetometer data for the same event. The observed geometry has repercussions for spacecraft observations of cusp reconnection and for the imposed boundary conditions reconnection simulations.

Wendel, Deirdre E.; Reiff, Patricia H.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.

2010-01-01

387

Identification and characterization of Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1 hopanoid biosynthesis mutants  

PubMed Central

Hopanes preserved in both modern and ancient sediments are recognized as the molecular fossils of bacteriohopanepolyols, pentacyclic hopanoid lipids. Based on the phylogenetic distribution of hopanoid production by extant bacteria, hopanes have been used as indicators of specific bacterial groups and/or their metabolisms. However, our ability to interpret them ultimately depends on understanding the physiological roles of hopanoids in modern bacteria. Towards this end, we set out to identify genes required for hopanoid biosynthesis in the anoxygenic phototroph Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1 to enable selective control of hopanoid production. We attempted to delete seventeen genes within a putative hopanoid biosynthetic gene cluster to determine their role, if any, in hopanoid biosynthesis. Two genes, hpnH and hpnG, are required to produce both bacteriohopanetetrol and aminobacteriohopanetriol, whereas a third gene, hpnO, is required only for aminobacteriohopanetriol production. None of the genes in this cluster are required to exclusively synthesize bacteriohopanetetrol, indicating that at least one other hopanoid biosynthesis gene is located elsewhere on the chromosome. Physiological studies with the different deletion mutants demonstrated that unmethylated and C30 hopanoids are sufficient to maintain cytoplasmic but not outer membrane integrity. These results imply that hopanoid modifications, including methylation of the A-ring and the addition of a polar head group, may have biological functions beyond playing a role in membrane permeability.

Welander, Paula V.; Doughty, David M.; Wu, Chia-Hung; Mehay, Sabine; Summons, Roger E.; Newman, Dianne K.

2012-01-01

388

Intracorporeal Suturing and Knot Tying Broadens the Clinical Applicability of Laparoscopy  

PubMed Central

Objective: As surgeons become more experienced with basic laparoscopic procedures like cholecystectomy, they are able to expand this approach to less common operations. However, without laparoscopic suturing skills, like those obtained with Nissen fundoplication, many operations cannot be completed laparoscopically. We present a series of 10 patients with less common surgical illnesses who were successfully treated with minimal access techniques and intracorporeal suturing. Methods: Over a 6-month period at 2 medical centers, 10 patients underwent operations with laparoscopic intracorporeal suturing and knot tying. Diagnoses included bowel obstruction due to gallstone ileus (n=1), perforated uterus from an intrauterine device (n=1), urinary bladder diverticulum (n=1), bleeding Meckel's diverticulum (n=3), and perforated duodenal ulcer (n=4). Results: Each patient was treated with standard surgical interventions performed entirely laparoscopically with intracorporeal suturing. No morbidity or mortality occurred in any patient due to the operation. Conclusions: Although each of these operations has been previously reported, as a series, they point out the importance of mastering laparoscopic suturing. Although devices are commercially available to facilitate certain suturing scenarios, we encourage residents and fellows to sew manually. We believe that none of these operations could have been completed as effectively by using a suture device. The ability to suture laparoscopically markedly broadens the number of clinical scenarios in which minimal access techniques can be used.

Rivas, Homero; Cacchione, Robert N.; Ferzli, George S.

2003-01-01

389

A New Approach to Design of an optimized Grid Tied Smart Solar Photovoltaic (PV) System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy is the key element for the economical development of a country. With the increasing concern about the global demand for Renewable Energy (RE) energy, it is very much important to reduce the cost of the whole solar photovoltaic (PV) system. Still now most of the solar photovoltaic (PV) system is highly expensive. In this paper we have shown that grid tied solar system can be developed by omitting the energy storage device like large capacity battery bank. It will not only reduce the internallosses for charging and discharging of battery bank but also at the same time a large amount of cost of the battery will be reduced. So, the system maintenance cost will be reduced also. We have proposed a new approach to design a photovoltaic (PV) solar power system which can be operated by feeding the solar power to the national grid along with the residential load. Again if there is an extra power demand for residential load along with the solar power then this system can also provide an opportunity to consume the power from the national grid. The total system is controlled with the help of some the sensors and a microcontroller. As a whole a significant reduction in the system costs and efficient system performance can be realized.

Farhad, M. Mehedi; Ali, M. Mohammad; Iqbal, M. Asif; Islam, N. Nahar; Ashraf, N.

2012-11-01

390

Current hiatus of global warming tied to equatorial Pacific surface cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the continued increase of atmospheric greenhouse gases, the annual-mean global temperature has not risen in this century, challenging the prevailing view that anthropogenic forcing causes climate warming. Two schools of idea exist regarding what causes this hiatus in global warming: one suggests a slowdown in radiative forcing due to the stratospheric water vapour, the rapid increase of aerosols, and the solar minimum around 2009, while the other considers the hiatus as part of internal variability, especially a La Niña-like cooling in the tropical Pacific. We present a method to unravel mechanisms for global temperature change by prescribing the observed history of sea surface temperature over the deep tropical Pacific (8.2% of Earth's surface) in a coupled climate model, in addition to radiative forcing. Our model reproduces the annual-mean global temperature remarkably well with a correlation coefficient of 0.97 for 1970-2012, a period including the current hiatus and an accelerated global warming from the 1970s to the late 1990s. Moreover, our simulation captures major seasonal and regional characteristics of the hiatus, including the intensified Walker circulation, weakening of Aleutian Low, the winter cooling in northwestern North America and prolonged drought in the southern US. Our results show that the current hiatus is part of natural climate variability, tied specifically to a La Niña-like decadal cooling. While similar decadal hiatus events may occur in the future, multi-decadal warming trend is very likely to continue with greenhouse gas increase.

Kosaka, Yu; Xie, Shang-Ping

2014-05-01

391

Recent global-warming hiatus tied to equatorial Pacific surface cooling.  

PubMed

Despite the continued increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, the annual-mean global temperature has not risen in the twenty-first century, challenging the prevailing view that anthropogenic forcing causes climate warming. Various mechanisms have been proposed for this hiatus in global warming, but their relative importance has not been quantified, hampering observational estimates of climate sensitivity. Here we show that accounting for recent cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific reconciles climate simulations and observations. We present a novel method of uncovering mechanisms for global temperature change by prescribing, in addition to radiative forcing, the observed history of sea surface temperature over the central to eastern tropical Pacific in a climate model. Although the surface temperature prescription is limited to only 8.2% of the global surface, our model reproduces the annual-mean global temperature remarkably well with correlation coefficient r = 0.97 for 1970-2012 (which includes the current hiatus and a period of accelerated global warming). Moreover, our simulation captures major seasonal and regional characteristics of the hiatus, including the intensified Walker circulation, the winter cooling in northwestern North America and the prolonged drought in the southern USA. Our results show that the current hiatus is part of natural climate variability, tied specifically to a La-Niña-like decadal cooling. Although similar decadal hiatus events may occur in the future, the multi-decadal warming trend is very likely to continue with greenhouse gas increase. PMID:23995690

Kosaka, Yu; Xie, Shang-Ping

2013-09-19

392

Social Network Ties and Inflammation in U.S. Adults with Cancer  

PubMed Central

The growing evidence linking social connectedness and chronic diseases such as cancer calls for a better understanding of the underlying biophysiological mechanisms. This study assessed the associations between social network ties and multiple measures of inflammation in a nationally representative sample of adults with a history of cancer (N = 1,075) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988–94). Individuals with lower social network index (SNI) scores showed significantly greater inflammation marked by C-reactive protein and fibrinogen, adjusting for age and sex. Compared to fully socially integrated individuals (SNI 4), those who were more socially isolated or had a SNI score of 3 or less exhibited = increasingly elevated inflammation burdens. Specifically, the age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios (95%CI) for SNIs of 3, 2, and 0–1 were 1.49 (1.08, 2.06), 1.69 (1.21, 2.36), and 2.35 (1.62, 3.40), respectively (p < .001). Adjusting for other covariates attenuated these associations. The SNI gradients in the risks of inflammation were particularly salient for the lower socioeconomic status groups and remained significant after adjusting for other social, health behavioral, and illness factors. This study provided initial insights into the immunological pathways by which social connections are related to morbidity and mortality outcomes of cancer in particular and aging-related diseases in general.

YANG, YANG CLAIRE; LI, TING; FRENK, STEVEN M.

2014-01-01

393

Current hiatus of global-warming tied to natural variability of the equatorial Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the continued increase of atmospheric greenhouse gases, the annual-mean global temperature has not risen in this century, challenging the prevailing view that anthropogenic forcing causes climate warming. Various mechanisms have been proposed for this hiatus of global warming, but their relative importance has not been quantified, hampering observational estimates of climate sensitivity. Here we show that accounting for recent cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific reconciles climate simulations and observations. We present a novel method to unravel mechanisms for global temperature change by prescribing the observed history of sea surface temperature over the deep tropical Pacific in a climate model, in addition to radiative forcing. Although the surface temperature prescription is limited to only 8.2% of the global surface, our model reproduces the annual-mean global temperature remarkably well with r = 0.97 for 1970-2012 (a period including the current hiatus and an accelerated global warming). Moreover, our simulation captures major seasonal and regional characteristics of the hiatus, including the intensified Walker circulation, the winter cooling in northwestern and prolonged drought in southern North America. Our results show that the current hiatus is part of natural climate variability, tied specifically to a La Niña-like decadal cooling. While similar decadal hiatus events may occur in the future, multi-decadal warming trend is very likely to continue with greenhouse gas increase.

Xie, S.; Kosaka, Y.

2013-12-01

394

High strength-of-ties and low mobility enable the evolution of third-party punishment.  

PubMed

As punishment can be essential to cooperation and norm maintenance but costly to the punisher, many evolutionary game-theoretic studies have explored how direct punishment can evolve in populations. Compared to direct punishment, in which an agent acts to punish another for an interaction in which both parties were involved, the evolution of third-party punishment (3PP) is even more puzzling, because the punishing agent itself was not involved in the original interaction. Despite significant empirical studies of 3PP, little is known about the conditions under which it can evolve. We find that punishment reputation is not, by itself, sufficient for the evolution of 3PP. Drawing on research streams in sociology and psychology, we implement a structured population model and show that high strength-of-ties and low mobility are critical for the evolution of responsible 3PP. Only in such settings of high social-structural constraint are punishers able to induce self-interested agents toward cooperation, making responsible 3PP ultimately beneficial to individuals as well as the collective. Our results illuminate the conditions under which 3PP is evolutionarily adaptive in populations. Responsible 3PP can evolve and induce cooperation in cases where other mechanisms alone fail to do so. PMID:24335985

Roos, Patrick; Gelfand, Michele; Nau, Dana; Carr, Ryan

2014-02-01

395

Viewing transmission issues in perspective  

SciTech Connect

This article examines electric power transmission from the perspective of the power producers. The article discusses the impact to transmission line routing policy of the health effects of, and public opinion about, electromagnetic fields. The author examines past pricing policy for transmission access and encourages the power producers and owners of transmission lines to become more involved in the regulatory process.

Casazza, J.A.

1993-10-01

396

Technologies of Wireless Power Transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are three types of the wireless power transmission ; inductive coupling, radio wave, and resonance coupling. These are the same technologies based on Maxwell equations, however, method of the power transmission is different and characteristics are different. In this paper, we show the wireless power transmission technologies, mainly wireless power transmission via microwave.

Shinohara, Naoki

397

Licklider Transmission Protocol Implementation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This software is an implementation of the Licklider Transmission Protocol (LTP), a communications protocol intended to support the Bundle Protocol in Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) operations. LTP is designed to provide retransmission-based reliability over links characterized by extremely long message round-trip times and/or frequent interruptions in connectivity. Communication in interplanetary space is the most prominent example of this sort of environment, and LTP is principally aimed at supporting long-haul reliable transmission over deep-space RF links. Like any reliable transport service employing ARQ (Automatic Repeat re-Quests), LTP is stateful. In order to assure the reception of a block of data it has sent, LTP must retain for possible retransmission all portions of that block which might not have been received yet. In order to do so, it must keep track of which portions of the block are known to have been received so far, and which are not, together with any additional information needed for purposes of retransmitting part, or all, of the block. Long round-trip times mean substantial delay between the transmission of a block of data and the reception of an acknowledgement from the block s destination, signaling arrival of the block. If LTP postponed transmission of additional blocks of data until it received acknowledgement of the arrival of all prior blocks, valuable opportunities to use what little deep space transmission bandwidth is available would be forever lost. For this reason, LTP is based in part on a notion of massive state retention. Any number of requested transmission conversations (sessions) may be concurrently in flight at various displacements along the link between two LTP engines, and the LTP engines must necessarily retain transmission status and retransmission resources for all of them. Moreover, if any of the data of a given block are lost en route, it will be necessary to retain the state of that transmission during an additional round trip while the lost data are retransmitted; even multiple retransmission cycles may be necessary. LTP's possible multiplicity of sessions per association makes it necessary for each segment of application data to include an additional demultiplexing token: a session ID that uniquely identifies the session in which the segment was issued and, implicitly, the block of data being conveyed by this session. This software comprises a prototype implementation developed by Johns Hopkins University APL in cooperation with JPL, together with adaptations that improve the robustness, correctness, and operability of that implementation.

Burleigh, Scott C.; Krupiarz, Chris

2011-01-01

398

Transmission Electron Microscopy Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive site from the University of Liverpool is a set of resources based on the textbook Transmission Electron Microscopy - Basics by D.B.Williams and C.B.Carter. The tutorial is designed to accompany an introductory course on transmission electron microscopy for students with an understanding of elementary physics. Topics include electron scattering, electron atom interactions, the electron gun, probe size, lenses, depth of field and depth of focus, and others. Each chapter includes interactive Java applets that facilitate understanding of the concepts presented.

Goodhew, Peter; Matter.org

399

Printed circuit dispersive transmission line  

DOEpatents

A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other.

Ikezi, Hiroyuki (Rancho Santa Fe, CA); Lin-Liu, Yuh-Ren (San Diego, CA); DeGrassie, John S. (Encinitas, CA)

1991-01-01

400

Printed circuit dispersive transmission line  

DOEpatents

A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other. 5 figures.

Ikezi, H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; DeGrassie, J.S.

1991-08-27

401

Transmission ratio control system for a continuously variable transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a control system for a continuously variable transmission for transmitting the power of an internal combustion engine having a throttle valve to driving wheels of a motor vehicle through a clutch. The improvement in the system consists of: means for sensing operating conditions of the engine and for producing a corresponding first signal; means responsive to the first signal for determining a desired transmission ratio; means responsive to the desired transmission ratio for shifting the spool of the transmission ratio control valve so as to provide an actual transmission ratio of the transmission corresponding to the desired transmission ratio; means for detecting actual rapid deceleration of the vehicle above a predetermined value of rapid deceleration and producing a rapid deceleration signal when the actual rapid deceleration is above the predetermined value; and means responsive to the rapid deceleration signal for increasing the desired transmission ratio so as via the second means to increase the actual transmission ratio.

Ohkuma, H.

1989-02-14

402

Optical transmission techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optical transmission system is a method of transferring information in the shape of bits or symbols for the case of digital systems, and of analogue waves for the case of analogue systems, between fixed points located on a fiber optics cable. Today and in the near future there are numerous such transmission techniques available. The increase of demands for data transfer from phone subscribers can be met only by means of digital techniques applied in the local network, in addition to the use of digital telephone exchange and of the digital transmission systems in the trees network. In order to increase the quantity of information transferred through one fiber, optical multiplexing techniques have been conceived and tested. The optical multiplexing is additional to the electrical signal multiplexing. The requests for the access network will become more and more complex, a larger flexibility and a wider band being needed. For the purpose of complying with these requests, the coherent simultaneous or alternative transmission towards the optical amplifiers represents a factor of technical progress. The multiplexing with wave length division allows for more channels to be transported through the same fiber with different wave lengths, in one or both directions.

Vasile, Irina B.; Filip, Luminita E.; Vasile, Alexandru

2005-08-01

403

Automobile Transmission Oil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An automobile transmission oil is described in the Russian patent and is characterized by the fact that its composition includes 3-5% dibutyl trithiocarbonate, 1-3% esters of phosphorous acids, and up to 100% mineral oil, or 0.2-0.4% alkylamine salt of 0....

A. N. Pereferkovich E. S. Shepeleva I. E. Vinogradoua M. G. Voronkov N. N. Bulon

1973-01-01

404

Transmission planning in China  

SciTech Connect

Though China is well along in restructuring its power markets, it still has some way to travel before economic considerations receive adequate weight in transmission planning decisions. Adoption of more sophisticated tools such as multi-agent modeling will help China continue in its progress in achieving this. (author)

Dong, Jun; Zhang, Jing

2009-07-15

405

Borehole data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1993-03-23

406

Borehole data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A borehole data transmission apparatus whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

Kotlyar, Oleg M. (1739 Grandview #2, Idaho Falls, ID 83402)

1993-01-01

407

Categories and Music Transmission  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lucy Green's (2008) "Music, Informal Learning, and the School: A New Classroom Pedagogy" gives rise to an interesting corollary. Does the manner of music's transmission inform one's understanding of a musical category? While categories of music can be difficult to define according to strict musical characteristics, a better understanding of…

Gatien, Greg

2009-01-01

408

EC Transmission Line Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this document is to identify materials acceptable for use in the US ITER Project Office (USIPO)-supplied components for the ITER Electron cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH&CD) transmission lines (TL), PBS-52. The source of material p...

T. Bigelow

2012-01-01

409

Autonomous data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1997-03-25

410

hvdc transmission assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the rebirth of hvdc transmission in Europe in 1954, for long distance underwater application, there are more than 20 hvdc systems totalling about 15,000 MW capacity in either commercial operation or construction throughout the world. Performance of hvdc systems, in terms of availability and utilization, has been improving rapidly with the advent of solid-state valves. Applications of hvdc systems

K. R. Shah; W. F. Griffard; F. A. Denbrock

1977-01-01

411

Transmission line capacitance measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacitance of coplanar lines is measured with two new techniques, one utilizing the resistance of the line and the other that of a resistor embedded in the line. The results of both measurements agree closely with calculations. A technique for directly comparing the capacitances of two similar transmission lines is also demonstrated. The relevance of these measurements to the

Dylan F. Williams; Roger B. Marks

1991-01-01

412

Infinitely Variable Ratio Transmission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This patent application discloses an infinitely variable ration transmission comprising an input sun gear, a plurality of orbiting planet gears, and an output sun gear. One of the planet gears is engaged with a nominally stationary sun gear. A disc brake ...

E. F'Geppert

1987-01-01

413

ANG-1 TIE-2 and BMPR Signalling Defects Are Not Seen in the Nitrofen Model of Pulmonary Hypertension and Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia  

PubMed Central

Background Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a lethal disease that is associated with characteristic histological abnormalities of the lung vasculature and defects of angiopoetin-1 (ANG-1), TIE-2 and bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR)-related signalling. We hypothesized that if these signalling defects cause PH generically, they will be readily identifiable perinatally in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), where the typical pulmonary vascular changes are present before birth and are accompanied by PH after birth. Methods CDH (predominantly left-sided, LCDH) was created in Sprague-Dawley rat pups by e9.5 maternal nitrofen administration. Left lungs from normal and LCDH pups were compared at fetal and postnatal time points for ANG-1, TIE-2, phosphorylated-TIE-2, phosphorylated-SMAD1/5/8 and phosphorylated-ERK1/2 by immunoprecipitation and Western blotting of lung protein extracts and by immunohistochemistry on lung sections. Results In normal lung, pulmonary ANG-1 protein levels fall between fetal and postnatal life, while TIE-2 levels increase. Over the corresponding time period, LCDH lung retained normal expression of ANG-1, TIE-2, phosphorylated-TIE-2 and, downstream of BMPR, phosphorylated-SMAD1/5/8 and phosphorylated-p44/42. Conclusion In PH and CDH defects of ANG-1/TIE-2/BMPR-related signalling are not essential for the lethal vasculopathy.

Corbett, Harriet Jane; Connell, Marilyn Gwen; Fernig, David Garth

2012-01-01

414

Coexpression of Ang1 and Tie2 in Odontoblasts of Mouse Developing and Mature Teeth--A New Insight into Dentinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Angiopoietin-1 regulates vascular angiogenesis and stabilization, and is reported to promote bone formation by facilitating angiogenesis. To estimate the role of Ang1 in odontogenesis, we explored the distribution of Ang1 and the receptor, Tie2 in the mouse developing and mature first molar of the mandible. At embryonic day 18, when differentiation of odontoblasts begins, immunosignals for Ang1 were intensely detected in the basement membrane and the distal side, which faced the basement membrane of odontoblasts. In situ hybridization revealed that Ang1 was expressed in odontoblasts and ameloblasts facing the basement membrane. Tie2 was localized in the distal side of odontoblasts. After birth, Ang1 was detected in the predentin, whereas both Ang1 and Tie2 were colocalized in odontoblasts and odontoblast processes. These distributions were retained up to 8 weeks. In contrast to odontoblasts, ameloblasts, cementoblasts and osteoblasts expressed Ang1 but did not express Tie2. Colocalization of Ang1 and Tie2 in odontoblasts and selective expression of Tie2 in odontoblasts among cells responsible for calcified tissue formation suggested the involvement of autocrine signals of Ang1-Tie2 in dentinogenesis.

Nakajima, Kazunori; Shibata, Yasuaki; Hishikawa, Yoshitaka; Suematsu, Takashi; Mori, Masako; Fukuhara, Shigetomo; Koji, Takehiko; Sawase, Takashi; Ikeda, Tohru

2014-01-01

415

Tying the loose ends together in DNA double strand break repair with 53BP1  

Microsoft Academic Search

To maintain genomic stability and ensure the fidelity of chromosomal transmission, cells respond to various forms of genotoxic stress, including DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs), through the activation of DNA damage response signaling networks. In response to DSBs as induced by ionizing radiation (IR), during DNA replication, or through immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) rearrangements in B cells of lymphoid origin, the

Melissa M Adams; Phillip B Carpenter

2006-01-01

416

Morphologies of emulsions of conjugate phase pairs of amphiphile/oil/water {open_quotes}microemulsion{close_quotes} tie triangles  

SciTech Connect

Electrical conductivity measurements were made on emulsions formed, respectively, from the conjugate top-middle, top-bottom, and middle-bottom phase pairs that define the three sides of various nonionic amphiphile/oil/water {open_quotes}microemulsion{close_quotes} tie triangles. Effective-medium conductivity models and observations of creaming behavior were used to substantiate assignments of steady-state emulsion morphologies. The phase volume fractions at which morphology changes occurred were measured for both directions along each tie line, and the hysteresis was obtained as the difference between the volume fractions for the two directions. The results support the dispersion morphology diagram previously postulated, including the formation of mixtures of emulsions whose morphologies are the inverse of each other. 31 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Smith, D.H.; Nwosu, S.N.; Johnson, G.K. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

1992-04-01

417

Comparison of TIE-GCM ?O/N2 Column Ratios with Measurements of the SSUSI Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The column-integrated ratio of atomic oxygen to molecular nitrogen (?O/N2) in the thermosphere is currently monitored during the daytime by several satellite instruments. Among these is the Special Sensor Ultraviolet Spectrographic Imager (SSUSI) currently operational on DMSP F-16, -17, and -18, and scheduled for two additional launches in upcoming years. These measurements constitute a significant portion of all data currently available for characterizing the thermosphere. With this in mind, we present a comparison of these measurements with the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM) in an effort to illuminate the discrepancies between measured and modeled behavior. Based on the insights gained from this study, we offer a method for adjusting the energy and forcing inputs of TIE-GCM in an effort to achieve improved agreement.

Sutton, E. K.; Lin, C. S.; Cable, S. B.

2012-12-01

418

DC voltage sensorless control strategy of grid-tied two-stage three-phase photovoltaic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variable dc voltage generated by photovoltaic (PV) array can be harnessed as much as possible through the well-known two-stage inversion in grid- tied configuration, where the controlled dc-link voltage can be maintained stably to ensure the desired low harmonic ac output. Traditionally, the front-end dc Boost converter generally operates to track the maximum power point (MPP) of PV array

Jianhua Yuan; Feng Gao; Houlei Gao

2011-01-01

419

The formation and maintenance of single-thread tie channels entering floodplain lakes: observations from three diverse river systems  

SciTech Connect

Tie channels connect rivers to floodplain lakes on many lowland rivers and thereby play a central role in floodplain sedimentology and ecology, yet they are generally unrecognized and little studied. here we report the results of field studies focused on tie channel origin and morphodynamics in three contrasting systems: the Middle Fly River, Papua New Guinea, the Lower Mississippi River, and Birch Creek in Alaska. Across these river systems, tie channels vary by an order of magnitude in size but exhibit the same characteristic morphology and appear to develop and evolve by a similar set of processes. In all three systems, the channels are characterized by a narrow, leveed single-thread morphology with maximum width approximately one tenth the width of the mainstem river. The channels typically have a V shaped cross-section, unlike most fluvial channels. These channels develop as lakes become isolated from the river by sedimentation. Narrowing of the connection between river and lake causes a sediment-laden jet to develop. Levees develop along the margins of the jet leading to channel emergence and eventual levee aggradation to the height of the mainstem levees. Bi-directional flow in these channels is common. Outflows from the lake scour sediment and prevent channel blockage. We propose that channel geometry and size are then controlled by a dynamic balance between channel narrowing by suspended sediment deposition and incision and widening by mass failure of banks during outflows. Tie channels are laterally stable and may convey flow for hundreds to a few thousand of years.

Rowland, Joel C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dietrich, William E [UC BERKELEY; Day, Geoff [NEWCREST MINING; Parker, Gary [UNIV OF ILLINOIS

2009-01-01

420

Improved methods for decreasing stresses of concrete slab of large-span through tied-arch composite bridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical behavior of concrete slab of large-span through tied-arch composite bridge was investigated by finite element analysis\\u000a (FEA). Improved methods to decrease concrete stresses were discussed based on comparisons of different deck schemes, construction\\u000a sequences and measures, and ratios of reinforcement. The results show that the mechanical behavior of concrete slab gets worse\\u000a with the increase of composite regions between

De Zhou; Mei-xin Ye; Ru-deng Luo

2010-01-01

421

A deep parametric study of resistor-loaded bow-tie antennas for ground-penetrating radar applications using FDTD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistor-loaded bow-tie antennas are analyzed thoroughly to find out their performance on ground-penetrating radar (GPR) applications. The analysis is done with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique. The antenna is pulse driven and enclosed in a rectangular conducting cavity. The ability to detect a buried conducting sheet using two such identical antennas for transmitting and receiving is investigated. Simulations are carried

Disala Uduwawala; Martin Norgren; Peter Fuks; Aruna W. Gunawardena

2004-01-01

422

Simulation of bow-tie THz antenna using hybrid finite element method and spectral ray tracing technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a hybrid method that uses commercially available Finite Element Method (FEM) software and our in-house developed Spectral Ray Tracing (SRT) algorithm. The method is used for calculating the radiation patterns of complex lens antenna such as a bow-tie antenna backed by silicon lens. A traveling-wave terahertz photomixer integrated with a coplanar stripline (CPS) waveguide is

Daniel M. Hailu; Iraj A. Ehtezazi; Mohammad Neshat; Safieddin Safavi-Naeini

2009-01-01

423

2D Backstripping The Mid-Atlantic Transect Tied To Results Of IODP Exp313  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 'Mid-Atlantic Transect' connecting the New Jersey coastal plain to the continental slope has been the focus of studies of passive margin stratigraphic evolution for many years. IODP Expedition 313 drilled, logged and cored 3 sites along the 'MAT' to provide a long-awaited missing link between previous sample locations. All 3 sites were 45-65 km offshore in 33-35 m of water at the rollovers of Oligocene to mid-Miocene clinoforms where the imprint of past sea-level variations is most clearly expressed and feasible to drill. Litho- and biofacies successions and lateral associations, tied to a grid of high-resolution seismic profiles, are being analyzed to (1) calibrate the imprint of baselevel changes on sequence architecture and litho- and biofacies successions, and (2) extract global sea-level history during times of known glaciation. Here we report on progress in applying 2D backstripping along the MAT aimed at reconstructing elevations of the seafloor from the Early Oligocene to the present. Several factors control base-level changes at continental margins: eustasy, sediment supply, thermal subsidence, isostatic/flexural loading and sediment compaction. New Jersey is an old continental margin in which the tectonic subsidence rate is low and slowly varying. The flexural rigidity has been estimated previously using thermomechanical models. The significance of compaction is often overlooked or roughly estimated due to the lack of reliably quantified information derived from detailed porosity measurements. However, porosity influences both the isostatic unloading and the decompaction calculations. Exp313 Sites M27A-M29A enable us to assemble porosity values derived from log measurements within the boreholes, from MultiSensorCoreLogger measurements of unsplit cores, and from discrete samples extracted from each 1.5 m core section. We've used backstripping to reconstruct more than two dozen sequence boundaries and other surfaces mapped with seismic profiles across the New Jersey margin and tied to the Exp 313 sites. Uncertainties have been estimated by varying the lithologic character and compaction parameters determined at these 3 sites. The result is a reconstruction of the paleogeometry of the margin showing the shapes of the clinoforms at their times of deposition. Not surprisingly, the present seaward tilt of nearly all surfaces and the relief of buried Miocene clinoforms (some approach 400 m between topsets and toesets) are products of post-depositional processes; tilt and relief were much smaller when these surfaces were at the seafloor. However, actual paleo-water depths along each surface depends on past global sea-level elevation. We estimate sea level at the times of choice sequence boundaries by matching our derived paleobathymetry to the litho- and biofacies data from Expedition 313.

Mountain, G.; Steckler, M. S.

2011-12-01

424

Blue-Violet Bow-Tie Self-Pulsating Laser Diode with a Peak Power of 20 W and a Pulse Energy of 310 pJ  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We generated single-transverse-mode optical pulses with a peak power of 20 W and a pulse energy of 310 pJ from a bow-tie self-pulsating GaN-based laser diode (SP-LD) under dc bias operation. Introducing the bow-tie structure, which has flared waveguides in both gain regions, increased the average output power and the optical pulse energy. An incorporation of the bow-tie structure resulted in an improved optical peak power that was twice that of a non tapered SP-LD.

Watanabe, Hideki; Kuramoto, Masaru; Kono, Shunsuke; Ikeda, Masao; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki

2010-12-01

425

Mild Renal Dysfunction and Metabolites Tied to Low HDL Cholesterol Are Associated With Monocytosis and Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background The number of circulating blood monocytes impacts atherosclerotic lesion size, and in mouse models, elevated levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol suppress blood monocyte counts and atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that individuals with mild renal dysfunction at increased cardiovascular risk would have reduced high-density lipoprotein levels, high blood monocyte counts, and accelerated atherosclerosis. Methods and Results To test whether mild renal dysfunction is associated with an increase in a leukocyte subpopulation rich in monocytes that has a known association with future coronary events, we divided individuals from the Malmö Diet and Cancer study (MDC) into baseline cystatin C quintiles (n=4757). Lower levels of renal function were accompanied by higher monocyte counts, and monocytes were independently associated with carotid bulb intima-media thickness cross-sectionally (P=0.02). Cystatin C levels were positively and plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels negatively associated with monocyte counts at baseline, after adjustment for traditional risk factors. Several amino acid metabolites tied to low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and insulin resistance measured in a subset of individuals (n=752) by use of liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry were independently associated with a 22% to 34% increased risk of being in the top quartile of monocytes (P<0.05). Conclusions A low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, insulin resistance phenotype occurs in subjects with mild renal dysfunction and is associated with elevated monocytes and atherosclerosis. High blood monocyte counts may represent a previously unrecognized mechanism underlying the strong relationship between cystatin C and cardiovascular risk.

Ganda, Anjali; Magnusson, Martin; Yvan-Charvet, Laurent; Hedblad, Bo; Engstrom, Gunnar; Ai, Ding; Wang, Thomas J.; Gerszten, Robert E.; Melander, Olle; Tall, Alan R.

2014-01-01

426

System identification of a tied arch bridge using reference-based wireless sensor networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibration-based methods of structural health monitoring are generally founded on the principle that localized damage to a structure would exhibit changes within the global dynamic response. Upon this basis, accelerometers provide a unique health monitoring strategy in that a distributed network of sensors provides the technical feasibility to isolate the onset of damage without requiring that any sensor be located exactly on or in close proximity to the damage. While in theory this may be sufficient, practical experience has shown significant improvement in the application of damage diagnostic routines when mode shapes characterized by strongly localized behavior of specific elements are captured by the instrumentation array. In traditional applications, this presents a challenge since the cost and complexity of cable-based systems often effectively limits the number of instrumented locations thereby constraining the modal parameter extraction to only global modal responses. The advent of the low-cost RF chip transceiver with wireless networking capabilities has afforded a means by which a substantial number of output locations can be measured through referencebased testing using large-scale wireless sensor networks. In the current study, this approach was applied to the Prairie du Chien Bridge over the Mississippi River to extract operational mode shapes with high spatial reconstruction, including strongly localized modes. The tied arch bridge was instrumented at over 230 locations with single-axis accelerometers conditioned and acquired over a high-rate lossless wireless sensor network with simultaneous sampling capabilities. Acquisition of the dynamic response of the web plates of the arch rib was specifically targeted within the instrumentation array for diagnostic purposes. Reference-based operational modal analysis of the full structure through data-driven stochastic subspace identification is presented alongside finite element analysis results for confirmation of modal parameter plausibility. Particular emphasis is placed on the identification and reconstruction of modal response with large contribution from the arch rib web plates.

Hietbrink, Colby; Whelan, Matthew J.

2012-03-01

427

The view from two worlds: The convergence of social network reports between mental health clients and their ties.  

PubMed

Traditionally, concerns with the similarities and discrepancies between the reports of persons (or focal respondents) and their collaterals (or network ties/respondents) about the former's social support network is framed as a methodological concern. As individuals experience the devastating effects of illness, and especially as their cognitive capabilities or social perceptions may be impaired by mental health problems, these listings are seen as potentially problematic. While we share this concern, we expand the investigation of the comparison of network ties from focal and network respondents to consider the nature of differences. Using data from Wave I of the Indianapolis Network Mental Health Study, we target the "health matters" network of individuals making their first major contact with the city's largest public and voluntary facilities. Overall, we find that the networks on which "first timers" rely to discuss health matters are small, with both focal and network respondents mentioning four individuals on average. The overlap in ties mentioned is just over 2 people (or 56 percent), on average, and differ with regard to the number of friends and health care professionals mentioned. Ironically, listings are more accurate for focal respondents who have more serious mental illnesses or larger networks. The extent of overlap is lower for women focal respondents than men. In sum, while convergence is in a range considered acceptable in network studies, the substantive nature of discrepancies have interesting and important theoretical and clinical implications. PMID:14990379

Pescosolido, Bernice A; Wright, Eric R

2004-05-01

428

Effects-directed analysis (EDA) and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE): Complementary but different approaches for diagnosing causes of environmental toxicity.  

PubMed

Currently, 2 approaches are available for performing environmental diagnostics on samples like municipal and industrial effluents, interstitial waters, and whole sediments to identify anthropogenic contaminants causing toxicological effects. One approach is toxicity identification evaluation (TIE), which was developed primarily in North America to determine active toxicants to whole-organism endpoints. The second approach is effects-directed analysis (EDA), which has origins in both Europe and North America. Unlike TIE, EDA uses primarily in vitro endpoints with an emphasis on organic contaminants as the cause of observed toxicity. The 2 approaches have fundamental differences that make them distinct techniques. In EDA, the sophisticated and elegant fractionation and chemical analyses performed to identify the causes of toxicity with a high degree of specificity often compromise contaminant bioavailability. In contrast, in TIE, toxicant bioavailability is maintained and is considered critical to accurately identifying the causes of environmental toxicity. However, maintaining contaminant bioavailability comes with the cost of limiting, at least until recently, the use of the types of sophisticated fractionation and elegant chemical analyses that have resulted in the high specificity of toxicant diagnosis performed in EDA. The present study provides an overview of each approach and highlights areas where the 2 approaches can complement one another and lead to the improvement of both. PMID:23893495

Burgess, Robert M; Ho, Kay T; Brack, Werner; Lamoree, Marja

2013-09-01

429

Improvement of the Accuracy of InSAR Image Co-Registration Based On Tie Points - A Review.  

PubMed

Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a new measurement technology, making use of the phase information contained in the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. InSAR has been recognized as a potential tool for the generation of digital elevation models (DEMs) and the measurement of ground surface deformations. However, many critical factors affect the quality of InSAR data and limit its applications. One of the factors is InSAR data processing, which consists of image co-registration, interferogram generation, phase unwrapping and geocoding. The co-registration of InSAR images is the first step and dramatically influences the accuracy of InSAR products. In this paper, the principle and processing procedures of InSAR techniques are reviewed. One of important factors, tie points, to be considered in the improvement of the accuracy of InSAR image co-registration are emphatically reviewed, such as interval of tie points, extraction of feature points, window size for tie point matching and the measurement for the quality of an interferogram. PMID:22399966

Zou, Weibao; Li, Yan; Li, Zhilin; Ding, Xiaoli

2009-01-01

430

Radiation Attenuates Physiological Angiogenesis by Differential Expression of VEGF, Ang-1, Tie-2 and Ang-2 in Rat Brain  

PubMed Central

The etiology of radiation-induced cerebrovascular rare-faction remains unknown. In the present study, we examined the effect of whole-brain irradiation on endothelial cell (EC) proliferation/apoptosis and expression of various angiogenic factors in rat brain. F344×BN rats received either whole-brain irradiation (a single dose of 10 Gy ? rays) or sham irradiation and were maintained for 4, 8 and 24 h after irradiation. Double immunofluorescence staining was employed to visualize EC proliferation/apoptosis in brain. The mRNA and protein expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), endothelial-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (Tie-2), and Ang-2 in brain were determined by real-time RT-PCR and immunofluores-cence staining. A significant reduction in CD31-immunore-active cells was detected in irradiated rat brains compared with sham-irradiated controls. Whole-brain irradiation significantly suppressed EC proliferation and increased EC apoptosis. In addition, a significant decrease in mRNA and protein expression of VEGF, Ang-1 and Tie-2 was observed in irradiated rat brains. In contrast, whole-brain irradiation significantly upregulated Ang-2 expression in rat brains. The present study provides novel evidence that whole-brain irradiation differentially affects mRNA and protein expression of VEGF, Ang-1, Tie-2 and Ang-2. These changes are closely associated with decreased EC proliferation and increased EC apoptosis in brain.

Lee, Won Hee; Cho, Hyung Joon; Sonntag, William E.; Lee, Yong Woo

2011-01-01

431

Small Passenger Car Transmission Test: Chevrolet Luv Transmission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more ...

M. P. Bujold

1980-01-01

432

Small Passenger Car Transmission Test; Chevrolet LUV Transmission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 1978 Chevrolet LUV manual transmission tested per the applicable portions of a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the ...

M. P. Bujold

1980-01-01

433

Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Army/NASA Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is charged with developing and demonstrating a light, quiet, and durable drivetrain for next-generation rotorcraft in two classes: a 10,000-20,000 Future Attack Air Vehicle capable of both tactical ground support and air-to-air missions, and a 60,000-80,000 lb Advanced Cargo Aircraft, for heavy-lift field-support operations. Specific ART objectives encompass a 25-percent reduction in drivetrain weight, a 10-dB noise level reduction at the transmission source, and the achievement of a 5000-hr MTBF. Four candidate drivetrain systems have been carried to a conceptual design stage, together with projections of their mission performance and life-cycle costs.

Bill, Robert C.

1990-01-01

434

Transmissible encephalopathy agents  

PubMed Central

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are caused by infectious agents with stable virulence characteristics that are not encoded by the host. Agent-specific features of virulence include disease latency and tissue pathology in a given host, as well as the ability to spread to many species. Such cross-species infections contradict predictions based on the prion hypothesis. Recent transmissions of several human agents to normal mice, and to monotypic neural cells in culture, underscore the existence of unique agent clades that are prevalent in particular geographic regions. Examples include the epidemic UK bovine agent (BSE) and the New Guinea kuru agent. The virus-like biology of unique TSE agents, including epidemic spread, mutation and superinfection, can be used to systematically define features of virulence that distinguish common endemic from newly emerging strains.

2010-01-01

435

Drill string transmission line  

DOEpatents

A transmission line assembly for transmitting information along a downhole tool comprising a pin end, a box end, and a central bore traveling between the pin end and the box end, is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a protective conduit. A transmission line is routed through the protective conduit. The protective conduit is routed through the central bore and the ends of the protective conduit are routed through channels formed in the pin end and box end of the downhole tool. The protective conduit is elastically forced into a spiral or other non-linear path along the interior surface of the central bore by compressing the protective conduit to a length within the downhole tool shorter than the protective conduit.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Bradford, Kline (Orem, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

2006-03-28

436

Advanced transmission studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command share an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, this paper presents highlights from that portion of the program in drive train technology and the related mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability; reduce the weight, noise, and vibration; and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for future transmission research is presented.

Coy, John J.; Bill, Robert C.

1988-01-01

437

Small passenger car transmission test; Ford C4 transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 1979 Ford C4 automatic transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test (torque, speed, and efficiency curves) are presented. Graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Ford C4 transmission.

Bujold, M. P.

1980-01-01

438

Small passenger car transmission test; Chevrolet LUV transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 1978 Chevrolet LUV manual transmission tested per the applicable portions of a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the upper ninety percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test (torque, speed, and efficiency curves) are presented. Graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Chevrolet LUV transmission.

Bujold, M. P.

1980-01-01

439

[Mumps vaccine virus transmission].  

PubMed

In this work we report the mumps vaccine virus shedding based on the laboratory confirmed cases of the mumps virus (MuV) infection. The likely epidemiological sources of the transmitted mumps virus were children who were recently vaccinated with the mumps vaccine containing Leningrad-Zagreb or Leningrad-3 MuV. The etiology of the described cases of the horizontal transmission of both mumps vaccine viruses was confirmed by PCR with the sequential restriction analysis. PMID:24772647

Otrashevskaia, E V; Kulak, M V; Otrashevskaia, A V; Karpov, I A; Fisenko, E G; Ignat'ev, G M

2013-01-01

440

Transmission Genetics Online Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Transmission Genetics, a new resource from Baylor College of MedicineâÂÂs comprehensive website, BioEd Online, is one module of a three-part, interactive Web-based course called Genes, Health and Society. [The course, which explores the rapidly evolving world of genetics and genomics, can be taken free of charge for professional or personal development. Each module stands alone. Educators can work through the modules in sequence or move freely among them.

Nancy Moreno (Baylor College of Medicine;)

2010-05-27

441

Angiopoietin-1 and Angiopoietin-2 Activate Trophoblast Tie-2 to Promote Growth and Migration during Placental Development  

PubMed Central

Human placental development involves coordinated angiogenesis and trophoblast outgrowth that are compromised in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). As Tie-2(?/?) mice exhibit growth retardation and vascular network malformation, the expression of Tie-2 and its ligands, angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), were investigated in human placenta from normal pregnancies and those complicated by severe IUGR. Ribonucleotide protection assays showed no significant change in the expression of Ang-2 mRNA between gestationally matched normal and IUGR placentas; however, immunoblots revealed that Ang-2 protein was significantly decreased in IUGR, suggesting that this may contribute to the abnormal development of the villous vasculature. In situ hybridization studies showed that Ang-1 and Tie-2 were detected in the cyto/syncytiotrophoblast bilayer in first-trimester placenta, whereas Ang-2 mRNA was restricted to the cytotrophoblast, suggesting their role in trophoblast function. At term, Ang-1 mRNA and immunoreactive protein were restricted to the paravascular tissues of the primary stem villi, supporting its role in vessel maturation. In contrast, Ang-2 was expressed throughout the term villous core, perhaps to permit the developing placental vascular network to remain in a state of fluidity. As these studies also revealed that trophoblast, in addition to endothelial cells, expressed Tie-2 receptors, we investigated the potential role of Ang-1/Ang-2 on trophoblast proliferation, migration, and the release of NO. Using spontaneously transformed first-trimester trophoblast cell lines that exhibit cytotrophoblast-like (ED27) and extravillous trophoblast-like (ED77) properties, we show that the addition of Ang-2 (250 ng/ml) stimulated DNA synthesis in ED27 trophoblast cells and triggered the release of NO. Ang-1 stimulated trophoblast (ED77) migration in a dose-dependent manner that was inhibited by recombinant Tie-2-FC. These data thus imply, for the first time, a specific role for angiopoietins as regulators of trophoblast behavior in the development of the utero/fetoplacental circulation, an action independent of their well-established roles in vascular endothelium.

Dunk, Caroline; Shams, Munjiba; Nijjar, Sarbjit; Rhaman, Mabub; Qiu, Yan; Bussolati, Benedetta; Ahmed, Asif

2000-01-01

442

Characterization of Cracking and Crack Growth Properties of the C5A Aircraft Tie-Box Forging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed destructive examinations were conducted to characterize the integrity and material properties of two aluminum alloy (7075-T6) horizontal stabilizer tie box forgings removed.from US. Air Force C5A and C5B transport aircraft. The C5B tie box forging was,found to contain no evidence of cracking. Thirteen cracks were found in the CSA,forging. All but one of the cracks observed in the C5A component were located along the top cap region (one crack was located in the bottom cap region). The cracks in the C5A component initiated at fastener holes and propagated along a highly tunneled intergranular crack path. The tunneled crack growth configuration is a likelv result of surface compressive stress produced during peening of the .forging suijace. The tie box forging ,fatigue crack growth, fracture and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) properties were characterized. Reported herein are the results of laboratory air ,fatigue crack growth tests and 95% relative humidity SCC tests conducted using specimens machined from the C5A ,forging. SCC test results revealed that the C5A ,forging material was susceptible to intergranular environmental assisted cracking: the C5A forging material exhibited a SCC crack-tip stress-intensity factor threshold of less than 6 MPadn. Fracture toughness tests revealed that the C5A forging material exhibited a fracture toughness that was 25% less than the C5B forging. The C5A forging exhibited rapid laboratory air fatigue crack growth rates having a threshold crack-tip stress-intensity factor range of less than 0.8 MPa sup m. Detailed fractographic examinations revealed that the ,fatigue crack intergranular growth crack path was similar to the cracking observed in the C5A tie box forging. Because both fatigue crack propagation and SCC exhibit similar intergranular crack path behavior, the damage mechanism resulting in multi-site cracking of tie box forgings cannot be determined unless local cyclic stresses can be quantified.

Piascik, Robert S.; Smith, Stephen W.; Newman, John A.; Willard, Scott A.

2003-01-01

443

Hydrostatic continuously variable transmission  

SciTech Connect

A hydrostatic continuously variable transmission is described, comprising: a swashplate type hydraulic pump having a pump swashplate and annularly arranged pump plungers whose suction and discharge strokes are provided by the pump swashplate; a swashplate type hydraulic motor having a motor swashplate and annularly arranged motor plungers whose expansion and shrinkage strokes are provided by the motor swashplate; and a hydraulic closed circuit formed between the hydraulic pump and the hydraulic motor. The transmission has at least one of a relationship that a middle point of a discharge region of the hydraulic pump is angularly delayed at a given angle in a direction of rotation of the hydraulic pump relative to a tilting axis of the pump swashplate and a relationship that a middle point of an expansion region of the hydraulic motor is angularly advanced at a given angle in a direction of rotation of the hydraulic motor relative to a tilting axis of the motor swashplate, wherein the transmission has at least one of a relationship that a suction region of the hydraulic pump is set at an angle larger than that of the discharge region thereof and a relationship that a shrinkage region of the hydraulic motor is set at an angle larger than that of the expansion region of the motor.

Hayashi, T.; Saito, M.; Matsuto, T.; Nakajima, Y.; Sakakibara, K.; Yakigaya, N.; Nakamura, K.

1989-05-09

444

Intrasperm vertical symbiont transmission.  

PubMed

Symbiotic bacteria are commonly associated with cells and tissues of diverse animals and other organisms, which affect hosts' biology in a variety of ways. Most of these symbionts are present in the cytoplasm of host cells and maternally transmitted through host generations. The paucity of paternal symbiont transmission is likely relevant to the extremely streamlined sperm structure: the head consisting of condensed nucleus and the tail made of microtubule bundles, without the symbiont-harboring cytoplasm that is discarded in the process of spermatogenesis. Here, we report a previously unknown mechanism of paternal symbiont transmission via an intrasperm passage. In the leafhopper Nephotettix cincticeps, a facultative Rickettsia symbiont was found not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus of host cells. In male insects, strikingly, most sperm heads contained multiple intranuclear Rickettsia cells. The Rickettsia infection scarcely affected the host fitness including normal sperm functioning. Mating experiments revealed both maternal and paternal transmission of the Rickettsia symbiont through host generations. When cultured with mosquito and silkworm cell lines, the Rickettsia symbiont was preferentially localized within the insect cell nuclei, indicating that the Rickettsia symbiont itself must have a mechanism for targeting nucleus. The mechanisms underlying the sperm head infection without disturbing sperm functioning are, although currently unknown, of both basic and applied interest. PMID:24799707

Watanabe, Kenji; Yukuhiro, Fumiko; Matsuura, Yu; Fukatsu, Takema; Noda, Hiroaki

2014-05-20

445

Intrasperm vertical symbiont transmission  

PubMed Central

Symbiotic bacteria are commonly associated with cells and tissues of diverse animals and other organisms, which affect hosts’ biology in a variety of ways. Most of these symbionts are present in the cytoplasm of host cells and maternally transmitted through host generations. The paucity of paternal symbiont transmission is likely relevant to the extremely streamlined sperm structure: the head consisting of condensed nucleus and the tail made of microtubule bundles, without the symbiont-harboring cytoplasm that is discarded in the process of spermatogenesis. Here, we report a previously unknown mechanism of paternal symbiont transmission via an intrasperm passage. In the leafhopper Nephotettix cincticeps, a facultative Rickettsia symbiont was found not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus of host cells. In male insects, strikingly, most sperm heads contained multiple intranuclear Rickettsia cells. The Rickettsia infection scarcely affected the host fitness including normal sperm functioning. Mating experiments revealed both maternal and paternal transmission of the Rickettsia symbiont through host generations. When cultured with mosquito and silkworm cell lines, the Rickettsia symbiont was preferentially localized within the insect cell nuclei, indicating that the Rickettsia symbiont itself must have a mechanism for targeting nucleus. The mechanisms underlying the sperm head infection without disturbing sperm functioning are, although currently unknown, of both basic and applied interest.

Watanabe, Kenji; Yukuhiro, Fumiko; Matsuura, Yu; Fukatsu, Takema; Noda, Hiroaki

2014-01-01

446

Remanent transmission neutron polarizer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our goal is to develop magnetically remanent neutron supermirrors using the material combinations Fe/Si and FeCo/Si. With these we plan to build compact neutron transmission polarizers and neutron polarizers which can be operated with their magnetization oriented antiparallel to the guide field. In the latter case no spin flipper is necessary to switch to the other spin state. The supermirrors are produced by magnetron sputtering. The preparation conditions were optimized by producing series of multilayers where the sputtering parameters gas pressures, plasma power and the speed of substrate translation were varied. Neutron reflectivity and transmission were measured with the polarized neutron diffractometer TOPSI at SINQ. Stress and magnetic behavior were determined using a profilometer and a vibrating sample magnetometer, respectively. The existence of an easy axis of magnetization is caused by anisotropic tensile stress in the Fe layers. Since the stress in Si is compressive it is possible to reduce the total stress while keeping the remanence by adding the reactive gases O2 and N2 to Si. In this way it was possible to produce Fe/Si supermirrors which show polarizing efficiencies of 96% to 99%. These supermirrors having 299 layers in total, reflect spin up neutrons up to q = 0.55/nm (m=2.5) which allows for their use as transmission polarizers in Ni coated beam guides.

Stahn, Jochen; Clemens, Daniel

2002-11-01

447

Optimal Automatic Generation Control of Interconnected Power System with Asynchronous Tie-lines under Deregulated Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the design of optimal automatic generation control regulators for an interconnected power system operating in a deregulated environment. An extra-high-voltage AC transmission line in parallel with a high-voltage DC link is considered as an area interconnection between the two areas. The dynamic model of the power system under consideration is developed by incorporating various types of possible

Ibraheem; Prabhat Kumar; Naimul Hasan; Yadav Singh

2012-01-01

448

Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (Prion Diseases)  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Information Page Synonym(s): Prion Diseases Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies? Is there any treatment? What is the prognosis? What ...

449

Meningococcal Disease: Causes and Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Causes and Transmission Causes Meningococcal disease is caused by the bacterium ... certain illnesses, which are known as meningococcal disease. Transmission Neisseria meningitidis bacteria are spread through the exchange ...

450

PRICING ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION IN MEXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a combined merchant-regulatory framework for incentives to expand the large interregional transmission links of the Mexican transmission network. We make an initial implementation of a pricing two-part tariff model within the context of the \\

Juan Rosellón

451

Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Augments Tie2-Expressing Monocyte Differentiation, Angiogenic Function, and Recruitment in a Mouse Model of Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Reports demonstrate the role of M-CSF (CSF1) in tumor progression in mouse models as well as the prognostic value of macrophage numbers in breast cancer patients. Recently, a subset of CD14+ monocytes expressing the Tie2 receptor, once thought to be predominantly expressed on endothelial cells, has been characterized. We hypothesized that increased levels of CSF1 in breast tumors can regulate differentiation of Tie2- monocytes to a Tie2+ phenotype. We treated CD14+ human monocytes with CSF1 and found a significant increase in CD14+/Tie2+ positivity. To understand if CSF1-induced Tie2 expression on these cells improved their migratory ability, we pre-treated CD14+ monocytes with CSF1 and used Boyden chemotaxis chambers to observe enhanced response to angiopoietin-2 (ANG2), the chemotactic ligand for the Tie2 receptor. We found that CSF1 pre-treatment significantly augmented chemotaxis and that Tie2 receptor upregulation was responsible as siRNA targeting Tie2 receptor abrogated this effect. To understand any augmented angiogenic effect produced by treating these cells with CSF1, we cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with conditioned supernatants from CSF1-pre-treated CD14+ monocytes for a tube formation assay. While supernatants from CSF1-pre-treated TEMs increased HUVEC branching, a neutralizing antibody against the CSF1R abrogated this activity, as did siRNA against the Tie2 receptor. To test our hypothesis in vivo, we treated PyMT tumor-bearing mice with CSF1 and observed an expansion in the TEM population relative to total F4/80+ cells, which resulted in increased angiogenesis. Investigation into the mechanism of Tie2 receptor upregulation on CD14+ monocytes by CSF1 revealed a synergistic contribution from the PI3 kinase and HIF pathways as the PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002, as well as HIF-1?-deficient macrophages differentiated from the bone marrow of HIF-1?fl/fl/LysMcre mice, diminished CSF1-stimulated Tie2 receptor expression.

Forget, Mary A.; Voorhees, Jeffrey L.; Cole, Sara L.; Dakhlallah, Duaa; Patterson, Ivory L.; Gross, Amy C.; Moldovan, Leni; Mo, Xiaokui; Evans, Randall; Marsh, Clay B.; Eubank, Tim D.

2014-01-01

452

Intermediate Nonlinear Development of a Line-tied g-Mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonlinear gravitational instability (g-mode) of a line-tied plasma flux tube is a prototypical model for edge localized modes (ELMs) in tokamaks and magnetotail substorms. Earlier theory predicted the explosive nonlinear growth of these modes near marginal stability [S. C. Cowley and M. Artun, Phys. Rep., 283, 185-211 (1997)]. Recent direct MHD simulations with both a finite-difference code and NIMROD indicate that the mode remains bounded in magnitude throughout, from early to intermediate nonlinear phases [P. Zhu, A. Bhattacharjee, and K. Germaschewski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 065001 (2006); P. Zhu, C. C. Hegna, and C. R. Sovinec, submitted to Phys. Plasmas (2006)]. The mode grows nonlinearly at a rate near or smaller than the linear growth rate, producing shock-like discontinuities and large sheared flows. To understand these simulation results, a new theoretical framework has been developed. The theory is based on an expansion using two small parameters, ?˜|?|/Leq1, and n-1˜k/k1, where ? denotes the plasma displacement, Leq is the characteristic equilibrium scale, and k and k are the dominant wavenumbers of the perturbation parallel and perpendicular to equilibrium magnetic field lines, respectively. When ?˜n-1, the Cowley-Artun regime is recovered where the plasma is incompressible to the lowest order and the Lagrangian compression is very small [?0.?˜O(n-1)]. In this regime, the nonlinearities only modify the development of the global mode envelop across field lines whereas the local eigenmode structure along field lines remains intact. The detonation regime where the nonlinear growth of the mode tends to a finite-time singularity is a narrower subset of the Cowley-Artun regime. However, this regime is not generic and breaks down when ?n-1. In the intermediate nonlinear phase when ?˜n-1/2, the lowest order Lagrangian compression is significant [?0.?˜O(1)]. During this phase, the nonlinearities directly influence the growth of the local eigenmodes, and couple the global mode structure across and along field lines. The corresponding governing equations for this intermediate nonlinear phase are derived. Comparison of the predictions of analytic theory and numerical simulations will be discussed.

Zhu, Ping

2006-10-01

453

2001 GPS and Classical Survey at Medicina Observatory: Local Tie and VLBI Antenna's Reference Point Determination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a 6 days campaign in June 2001, we have performed a local survey at Medicina Observatory using classical geodesy and GPS techniques in order to determine the effects of an undergone track repair. We have determined the position of the reference point P within a local and ITRF2000 (epoch 1997.0) reference frames using trilateration and triangulation: Pclas_{loc}^{2001}=(21.580pm0.001,45.536pm0.001,17.699pm0.001) Pclas_{loc}^{2001}=(21.580pm0.001,45.536pm0.001,17.699pm0.001) Pclas_{ITRF2000}^{1997.0}=(4461369.982pm0.001,919596.818pm0.001,4449559.207pm0.001) Kinematic GPS has also given interesting results:tie between the 3-D forced centered local ground control network (materialised in May 2000) and the widely used older network (which is now experiencing some problems due to the disgregation of the concrete where bolts are situated) has also been realised. This will allow inter-comparison of results obtained by the different campaigns that have been carried out in the last decade. Finally, the position of the ASI-GPS permanent station has been estimated within the local ground control network. Thus, using classical methodology, a precise determination of the VLBI-GPS ex-centre vector has been possible.

Vittuari, Luca; Sarti, Pierguido; Tomasi, Paolo

2001-12-01

454

Meta-analysis of thyroidectomy with ultrasonic dissector versus conventional clamp and tie  

PubMed Central

Background We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the role of Ultrasonic dissector (UAS) versus conventional clamp and tie in thyroidectomy. Materials and methods We searched for all published RCT in into electronic databases. To be included in the analysis, the studies had to compare thyroidectomy with UAS versus conventional vessel ligation and tight (conventional technique = CT). The following outcomes were used to compare the total thyroidectomy group with UAS versus CT group: operative duration, operative blood loss, overall drainage volume during the first 24 hours, transiet laryngeal nerve palsy, permanent laryngeal nerve palsy, transiet hypocalcaemia and permanent hypocalcaemia. Results There are currently 7 RCT on this issue to compare thyroidectomy with UAS versus CT. From the analysis of these studies it was possible to confront 608 cases: 303 undergoing to thyroidectomy with UAS versus 305 that were treated with CT. Actually, it was shown a relevant advantage of cost-effectiveness in patients treated with UAS; there is a statistically significant reduction of the operative duration (weighted mean difference [WMD], -18.74 minutes; 95% confidence interval [CI], (-26.97 to -10.52 minutes) (P = 0.00001), intraoperative blood loss (WMD, -60.10 mL; 95% CI, -117.04 to 3.16 mL) (P = 0.04) and overall drainage volume (WMD, -35.30 mL; 95% CI, -49.24 to 21.36 mL) (P = 0.00001) in the patients underwent thyroidectomy with UAS. Although the analysis showed that the patients who were treated with USA presented more favourable results in incidence of post-operative complications (transient laryngeal nerve palsy: P = 0.11; permanent laryngeal nerve palsy: not estimable; transient hypocalcaemia: P = 0.24; permanent hypocalcaemia: P = 0.45), these data didn't present statistical relevance. Conclusion This meta-analysis shown a relevant advantage only in terms of cost-effectiveness in patients treated with UAS; it is subsequent to statistically significant reduction of operation duration, intraoperative blood loss and of overall drainage volume during the first 24 hours. Although the analysis showed that the patients who were treated with UAS presented more favourable results in incidence of post-operative complications (transiet laryngeal nerve palsy; transiet hypocalcaemia and permanent hypocalcaemia), these data didn't present statistical relevance.

2010-01-01

455

Strengthening the ties between university and school - Bilingual geography is the future for our multifarious subject  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An incessantly growing interaction between numerous fields of human activity asks for an open-minded approach and interdisciplinarity. No subject matches geography when it comes to bridging the gaps between different aspects of human life. Geography does not only describe, analyse and explain the "natural" state of the world we live in, it does also connect the disciplines within the physical branch of the subject with disciplines in the human or anthropogenic part, which describes the state of the world "as is". Geography is, therefore, in itself multi-disciplinary. Considering the immense importance of geography as the subject dealing with our environment and facing the fact that it is this environment which is already endangered by the multiple forms of human interference, geography and its multi-disciplinary character deserve even increased attention. The growth of the world's population, future climatic change and shortages of natural resources add to the importance of geography as the one subject in school dealing with these problems. In our societies, which are constantly growing together in political and economic issues, the structures of communication additionally mainly rely on an easily accessible and widely spread language like English to serve the needs of modern international contact. In Bavaria, the signs of the times have been recognized quite early. Nearly 8000 pupils at more than 80 high-level secondary schools ("Gymnasien") attend bilingual teaching, a large part of which is performed in geography. The Adolf-Weber-Gymnasium serves as an example, since it has the largest group of pupils instructed in bilingual geography in Munich. Next term, more than 150 boys and girls from five grades will be taught geography in English. Our goal is, in contrast to concepts of bilingual teaching in some other German states, not only to improve the language capability of our pupils. It is more an investment in scientific propaedeutics. It strenghtens the ties between university and school, since it enables future students to comprehend the character of geography and the aspects of its underlying diversity, and it, consequently, improves the students' ability to understand and solve geographical problems of the future.

Barnikel, F.

2003-04-01

456

Dispatchable transmission in RTO markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider transmission owners that bid capacity, under appropriate Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) market rules, at a positive price into forward and spot (dispatch) auctions to derive congestion revenues. This can encompass daily, monthly, or multimonthly auctions, allowing for commitment of transmission to reflect market needs in different time periods, e.g., seasons. We provide two and three node examples and

Richard P. O'Neill; Ross Baldick; Udi Helman; Michael H. Rothkopf; William Stewart

2005-01-01

457

Power transmission with power electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most power electronics applications have, until now, been aimed at enabling a more efficient utilisation of electricity at the point of use, for example in motor drives. However, power electronics is now playing an increasingly important role in the transmission of power. There are two main uses for power electronics in power transmission: in HVDC transmission, and to enhance AC

Colin C Davidson

2011-01-01

458

Lightning proof transmission lines  

SciTech Connect

Lightning is prone to strike electrical transmission and distribution lines. Design of protection is difficult. Failure to design for the worst case conditions cost U.S.A. utilities 20 million annually. These costs can be prevented. During the past 16 years, LEC, Inc. has developed and proven a system that prevents strikes as well as insulator flashover from nearby strikes. LEC's Dual Dissipator System, presented in this paper, replaces the need for the static line for lightning considerations, eliminating the need for lightning arrestors. The insulation requirements transformers and switchgear can be reduced which reduce original costs.

Carpenter, R.B. Jr.; Drabkin, M. (Lightning Elimination Associates, Santa Fe Springs, CA (USA))

1988-01-01

459

Offset Waveguide Transmission Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes measurements to determine transmission losses in S-band (2.60-3.95 GHz) waveguide sections due to misalignment of the sections relative to each other. The experiments were performed in support of the Hydrostar program to determine the feasibility of using deployable waveguide sections in a large space radiometer. The waveguide sections would possibly be hinged and folded for launch, then deployed in space to form long sections of waveguide. Since very low losses are required for radiometer applications, the effects of potential misalignment after deployment of the waveguide sections may be significant. These measurements were performed in the Electromagnetic Properties Measurement Laboratory in the Electromagnetics Research Branch.

Cravey, Robin

1997-01-01

460

Conventional transmission electron microscopy  

PubMed Central

Researchers have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to make contributions to cell biology for well over 50 years, and TEM continues to be an important technology in our field. We briefly present for the neophyte the components of a TEM-based study, beginning with sample preparation through imaging of the samples. We point out the limitations of TEM and issues to be considered during experimental design. Advanced electron microscopy techniques are listed as well. Finally, we point potential new users of TEM to resources to help launch their project.

Winey, Mark; Meehl, Janet B.; O'Toole, Eileen T.; Giddings, Thomas H.

2014-01-01