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1

Anomalous terahertz transmission in bow-tie plasmonic antenna apertures  

E-print Network

Anomalous terahertz transmission in bow-tie plasmonic antenna apertures Yuping Yang,1,2 Ranjan localized surface plasmon resonances. In addition, with a decreasing aperture size, the contribution of localized plasmons becomes prominent due to an increase in plasmonic lifetime as the terahertz pulses

Oklahoma State University

2

Anomalous terahertz transmission in bow-tie plasmonic antenna apertures.  

PubMed

Arrays of subwavelength dipole bow-tie apertures are designed and characterized at terahertz frequencies. For an incident terahertz field perpendicular to the longer axis of the bow tie, a strong resonance enhancement, line narrowing, and a nonmonotonic frequency shift were observed with increasing length of the tapered bow-tie arms. Such characteristic behaviors primarily originate from localized surface plasmon resonances. In addition, with a decreasing aperture size, the contribution of localized plasmons becomes prominent due to an increase in plasmonic lifetime as the terahertz pulses strongly couple with the metallic surface surrounding the bow-tie apertures. PMID:21808352

Yang, Yuping; Singh, Ranjan; Zhang, Weili

2011-08-01

3

Tied Up  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St-Laurent ties up to the Coast Guard Cutter Healy in the Arctic Ocean Sept. 5, 2009. The two ships are taking part in a multi-year, multi-agency Arctic survey that will help define the Arctic continental shelf....

2010-02-19

4

Environmental Assessment for Central Power and Light Company`s proposed Military Highway-CFE tie 138/69-kV transmission line project Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Central Power and Light Company (CPL) intends to upgrade its existing transmission line ties with the Commision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) system in Mexico. CPL currently has a single 69-kilovolt (kV) transmission line in the Brownsville area which connects CPL`s system with the system of CFE. This existing line runs between the Brownsville Switching Station, located on Laredo Road in Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas, and an existing CFE 69-kV line at the Rusteberg Bend of the Rio Grande in Cameron County. Under current conditions of need, the existing 69-kV line does not possess sufficient capability to engage in appropriate power exchanges. Therefore, CPL is proposing to build a new line to link up with CFE. This proposed line would be a double-circuit line, which would (1) continue (on a slightly relocated route) the existing 69-kV tie from CPL`s Brownsville Switching Station to CFE`s facilities, and (2) add a 138-kV tie from the Military Highway Substation, located on Military Highway (US Highway 281), to CFE`s facilities. The proposed 138/69-kV line, which will be constructed and operated by CPL, will be built primarily on steel single-pole structures within an average 60-foot (ft) wide right-of-way (ROW). It will be approximately 6900--9200 ft (1.3--1.7 miles) in length, depending on the alternative route constructed.

Not Available

1992-04-01

5

Tree-Ties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Created to help students understand how plants were used for food, for medicine, and for arts and crafts among the Ojibwe (Chippewa) Indians, the game Tree-Ties combines earth and social sciences within a specific culture. The game requires mutual respect, understanding, and agreement to succeed. Sounding like the word "treaties", the title is a…

Gresczyk, Rick

6

The Tie retraction syndrome.  

PubMed

Tissue retraction is implicated in the pathogenesis of various ophthalmic disorders. Here we describe the clinical characteristics, epidemiology and pathophysiology of a form of retraction syndrome which - to the best of our knowledge - has not been reported in the ophthalmic literature so far. We have termed this condition - consisting of a slowly progressive pseudovertical shortening of tie length due to a horizontal extension of girth length - the "Tie retraction syndrome" (TRS). Other pathognomonic features include an increased tie tip to belt buckle distance and a prolapse of the subumbilical fat pad (SUFP). The syndrome has a clear male to female preponderance and shows an increasing incidence with age and income before tax. Based on a newly proposed grading scheme we discuss and illustrate the diagnosis as well as the medical and surgical management options of this abundant, but often undiagnosed condition. The authors have no explanation for the apparent lack of awareness for this widely preponderant syndrome and its severe cosmetically disfiguring potential. We thus would like to invite all fellow colleagues with expertise in the field to comment or present their views. PMID:23088329

Geerling, Gerd; Neppert, Birte; Hemmant, Bridget

2012-12-01

7

Why do leaf-tying caterpillars abandon their leaf ties?  

PubMed

Leaf-tying caterpillars act as ecosystem engineers by building shelters between overlapping leaves, which are inhabited by other arthropods. Leaf-tiers have been observed to leave their ties and create new shelters (and thus additional microhabitats), but the ecological factors affecting shelter fidelity are poorly known. For this study, we explored the effects of resource limitation and occupant density on shelter fidelity and assessed the consequences of shelter abandonment. We first quantified the area of leaf material required for a caterpillar to fully develop for two of the most common leaf-tiers that feed on white oak, Quercus alba. On average, Psilocorsis spp. caterpillars consumed 21.65 ± 0.67 cm(2) leaf material to complete development. We also measured the area of natural leaf ties found in a Maryland forest, to determine the distribution of resources available to caterpillars in situ. Of 158 natural leaf ties examined, 47% were too small to sustain an average Psilocorsis spp. caterpillar for the entirety of its development. We also manipulated caterpillar densities within experimental ties on potted trees to determine the effects of cohabitants on the likelihood of a caterpillar to leave its tie. We placed 1, 2, or 4 caterpillars in ties of a standard size and monitored the caterpillars twice daily to track their movement. In ties with more than one occupant, caterpillars showed a significantly greater propensity to leave their tie, and left sooner and at a faster rate than those in ties as single occupants. To understand the consequences of leaf tie abandonment, we observed caterpillars searching a tree for a site to build a shelter in the field. This is a risky behavior, as 17% of the caterpillars observed died while searching for a shelter site. Caterpillars that successfully built a shelter traveled 110 ± 20 cm and took 28 ± 7 min to find a suitable site to build a shelter. In conclusion, leaf-tying caterpillars must frequently abandon their leaf tie due to food limitation and interactions with other caterpillars, but this is a costly behavior. PMID:24109557

Sliwinski, Michelle; Sigmon, Elisha

2013-01-01

8

23 CFR 635.111 - Tied bids.  

...ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Contract Procedures § 635.111 Tied bids. (a) The STD may tie or permit the tying of Federal-aid highway projects or Federal-aid and State-financed highway projects...

2014-04-01

9

Social ties and mental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally agreed that social ties play a beneficial role in the maintenance of psychological well-being. In this targeted\\u000a review, we highlight four sets of insights that emerge from the literature on social ties and mental health outcomes (defined\\u000a as stress reactions, psychological well-being, and psychological distress, including depressive symptoms and anxiety). First,\\u000a the pathways by which social networks

Ichiro Kawachi; Lisa F. Berkman

2001-01-01

10

Analysis of ILRS Site Ties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By the end of 2000, 94% of ILRS stations had completed station and site information forms (i.e. site logs). These forms contain six types of information. These six categories include site identifiers, contact information, approximate coordinates, system configuration history, system ranging capabilities, and local survey ties. The ILRS Central Bureau, in conjunction with the ILRS Networks and Engineering Working Group, has developed procedures to quality control site log contents. Part of this verification entails data integrity checks of local site ties and is the primary focus of this paper. Local survey ties are critical to the combination of space geodetic network coordinate solutions (i.e. GPS, SLR, VLBI, DORIS) of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Approximately 90% of active SLR sites are collocated with at least one other space geodetic technique. The process used to verify these SLR ties, at collocated sites, is identical to the approach used in ITRF2000. Local vectors (X, Y, Z) from each ILRS site log are differenced from its corresponding ITRF2000 position vectors (i.e. no transformations). These X, Y, and Z deltas are converted into North, East, and Up. Any deltas, in any component, larger than 5 millimeter is flagged for investigation. In the absence of ITRF2000 SLR positions, CSR positions were used. To further enhance this comparison and to fill gaps in information, local ties contained in site logs from the other space geodetic services (i.e. IGS, IVS, IDS) were used in addition to ITRF2000 ties. Case studies of two collocated sites (McDonald/Ft. Davis and Hartebeeshtoek) will be explored in-depth. Recommendations on how local site surveys should be conducted and how this information should be managed will also be presented.

Husson, V. S.; Long, J. L.; Pearlman, M.

2001-12-01

11

Sub-state Tying in Tied Mixture Hidden Markov Models Liang Gu and Kenneth Rose  

E-print Network

Sub-state Tying in Tied Mixture Hidden Markov Models Liang Gu and Kenneth Rose Department is proposed for partial tying of states of tied- mixture hidden Markov models. To facilitate tying at the sub as a ``mixture of mixtures of Gaussians.''This paradigm allows, and is complemented with, an optimization

California at Santa Barbara, University of

12

Draft environmental impact statement for construction and operation of the proposed Bangor Hydro-Electric Company`s second 345-kV transmission tie line to New Brunswick  

SciTech Connect

This Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) was prepared by the US Department of Energy (US DOE). The proposed action is the issuance of Presidential Permit PP-89 by DOE to Bangor Hydro-Electric Company to construct and operate a new international transmission line interconnection to New Brunswick, Canada that would consist of an 83.8 mile (US portion), 345-kilovolt (kV) alternating current transmission line from the US-Canadian border at Baileyville, Maine to an existing substation at Orrington, Maine. The principal environmental impacts of the construction and operation of the transmission line would be incremental in nature and would include the conversion of forested uplands (mostly commercial timberlands) and wetlands to right-of-way (small trees, shrubs, and herbaceous vegetation). The proposed line would also result in localized minor to moderate visual impacts and would contribute a minor incremental increase in the exposure of some individuals to electromagnetic fields. This DEIS documents the purpose and need for the proposed action, describes the proposed action and alternatives considered and provides a comparison of the proposed and alternatives routes, and provides detailed information on analyses of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and alternatives, as well as mitigative measures to minimize impacts.

NONE

1993-10-01

13

Minimizing knot tying during reconstructive laparoscopic urology  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesIntracorporeal knot tying during urologic reconstructive surgery is one of the most technically challenging skills of laparoscopic surgery. We describe our experience using the Lapra-Ty clip to substitute for knot tying.

Arieh L. Shalhav; Marcelo A. Orvieto; Gary W. Chien; Albert A. Mikhail; Gregory P. Zagaja; Kevin C. Zorn

2006-01-01

14

Correctional Training, Industries and Education. TIE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph includes the following seven papers: "The TIE (Training, Industries, Education) Concept--Moving from Theory to Practice" (Grieser); "Proposals for Prison Education and Training in Prison Industries" (Norris); "Implementation of TIE: Some Legislative Aspects" (Miller); "Federal Prison Industries TIE: An Update" (Muth); "Vocational…

Littlefield, John F., Ed.; West, Sharon Crook, Ed.

15

The strength of weak ties in crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to investigate whether weak ties play an important role in explaining criminal activities. We first develop a model where individuals learn about crime opportunities by interacting with other peers. These interactions can take the form of either strong or weak ties. We find that increasing the percentage of weak ties induces more transitions from

Eleonora Patacchini; Yves Zenou

2008-01-01

16

The Strength of Weak Ties in Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to investigate whether weak ties play an important role in explaining criminal activities. We first develop a model where individuals learn about crime opportunities by interacting with active criminals. These interactions can take the form of either strong or weak ties. We find that increasing the percentage of weak ties induces more transitions from

Eleonora Patacchini; Yves Zenou

2007-01-01

17

Distinct roles of the receptor tyrosine kinases Tie1 and Tie2 in blood vessel formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

TIE-1 and Tie-2 define a new class of receptor tyrosine kinases that are specifically expressed in developing vascular endothelial cells. To study the functions of Tie-1 and Tie-2 during vascular endothelial cell growth and differentiation in vivo, targeted mutations of the genes in mice were introduced by homologous recombination. Embryos deficient in Tie-1 failed to establish structural integrity of vascular

Thomas N. Sato; Yuzuru Tozawa; Urban Deutsch; Karen Wolburg-Buchholz; Yuko Fujiwara; Maureen Gendron-Maguire; Thomas Gridley; Hartwig Wolburg; Werner Risau; Ying Qin

1995-01-01

18

James (Jim) Watson wearing his RNA Tie Club tieSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jim Watson in Moscow at the International Biochemical Congress, 1961, wearing his RNA Tie Club tie. RNA Tie Club members were united by their ties as well as a desir to understand the role of RNA in protein synthesis.

2008-03-26

19

The relationship between discrimination and high-risk social ties by race/ethnicity: examining social pathways of HIV risk.  

PubMed

High-risk social ties portend differences in opportunity for HIV exposures and may contribute to racial/ethnic disparities in HIV transmission. Discrimination may affect the formation of high-risk social ties and has not been explored as a possible explanation for these persistent disparities. Using data from injection and non-injection drug users, we examined the association between the number of high-risk sex and drug ties with discrimination due to race, drug use, and incarceration stratified by race/ethnicity. Negative binomial regression models were used. While blacks had significantly fewer injecting ties than Latinos and whites, blacks who reported racial discrimination compared to blacks who did not, had more sex and injecting ties. Latinos who reported drug use discrimination compared to Latinos who did not also had more sex ties. Latinos and whites who reported drug use discrimination had more injecting ties than Latinos and whites who did not. Discrimination is associated with high-risk social ties among all racial/ethnic groups. But, these data highlight different forms of discrimination within racial/ethnic group are associated with risky social ties. More research is needed to confirm these findings and further explore the association between various forms of discrimination and social ties that may help explain racial/ethnic disparities in HIV. PMID:23749458

Crawford, Natalie D; Galea, Sandro; Ford, Chandra L; Latkin, Carl; Link, Bruce G; Fuller, Crystal

2014-02-01

20

Ties Between Celestial And Planetary Reference Frames  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents new determination of relative orientation (or frame tie) between reference frame of extra-galactic radio sources and reference frame of planetary ephemeris. Method employed for improved frame-tie estimate relies on ability to measure orientation of Earth with respect to inertial reference frame. Improves orbit determination for interplanetary spacecraft.

Finger, Mark H.; Folkner, William M.

1992-01-01

21

Tie strength distribution in scientific collaboration networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science is increasingly dominated by teams. Understanding patterns of scientific collaboration and their impacts on the productivity and evolution of disciplines is crucial to understand scientific processes. Electronic bibliography offers a unique opportunity to map and investigate the nature of scientific collaboration. Recent studies have demonstrated a counterintuitive organizational pattern of scientific collaboration networks: densely interconnected local clusters consist of weak ties, whereas strong ties play the role of connecting different clusters. This pattern contrasts itself from many other types of networks where strong ties form communities while weak ties connect different communities. Although there are many models for collaboration networks, no model reproduces this pattern. In this paper, we present an evolution model of collaboration networks, which reproduces many properties of real-world collaboration networks, including the organization of tie strengths, skewed degree and weight distribution, high clustering, and assortative mixing.

Ke, Qing; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

2014-09-01

22

Tie Strength Distribution in Scientific Collaboration Networks  

E-print Network

Science is increasingly dominated by teams. Understanding patterns of scientific collaboration and their impacts on the productivity and evolution of disciplines is crucial to understand scientific processes. Electronic bibliography offers a unique opportunity to map and investigate the nature of scientific collaboration. Recent work have demonstrated a counter-intuitive organizational pattern of scientific collaboration networks: densely interconnected local clusters consist of weak ties, whereas strong ties play the role of connecting different clusters. This pattern contrasts itself from many other types of networks where strong ties form communities while weak ties connect different communities. Although there are many models for collaboration networks, no model reproduces this pattern. In this paper, we present an evolution model of collaboration networks, which reproduces many properties of real-world collaboration networks, including the organization of tie strengths, skewed degree and weight distribut...

Ke, Qing

2014-01-01

23

The Emotional Strength of Weak Ties: Reevaluating Social Support Online  

Microsoft Academic Search

u Abstract While many theorists have argued that weak ties facilitate online social support, strong evidence within these communities clearly show that the distinction between weak ties and strong ties should be reexamined. After a short expose on tie strength and online social support, we give an example of how this research has operationalized weak ties only in terms of

Jarrid Wong; Mirit Shoham

2011-01-01

24

Software With Strong Ties to Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

TieFlow is a simple but powerful business process improvement solution. It can automate and simplify any generic or industry-specific work process, helping organizations to transform work inefficiencies and internal operations involving people, paper, and procedures into a streamlined, well-organized, electronicbased process. TieFlow increases business productivity by improving process cycle times. The software can expedite generic processes in the areas of product design and development, purchase orders, expense reports, benefits enrollment, budgeting, hiring, and sales. It can also shore up vertical market processes such as claims processing, loan application and processing, health care administration, contract management, and advertising agency traffic. The processes can be easily and rapidly captured in a graphical manner and enforced together with rules pertaining to assignments that need to be performed. Aside from boosting productivity, TieFlow also reduces organizational costs and errors. TieFlow was developed with Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) assistance from Johnson. The SBIR support entitles all Federal Government agencies to utilize the TieFlow software technology free of charge. Tietronix emphasizes that TieFlow is an outstanding workflow resource that could produce dramatic productivity and cost improvements for all agencies, just as it has done and continues to do for NASA. The Space Agency is currently using the software throughout several mission-critical offices, including the Mission Operations Directorate and the Flight Director s Office, for worldwide participation of authorized users in NASA processes. At the Flight Director s Office, TieFlow allows personnel to electronically submit and review changes to the flight rules carried out during missions.

2003-01-01

25

Analysis of ICPP fuel storage rack inner tie and corner tie substructures  

SciTech Connect

Finite element models were developed and analyses performed for the tie plate, inner tie block assembly, and corner tie block assembly of a 25 port fuel rack assembly designed for installation in Pool 1 of Building 666 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. These models were specifically developed to investigate the adequacy of certain welds joining components of the fuel storage rack assembly. The work scope for the task was limited to an investigation of the stress levels in the subject subassemblies when subjected to seismic loads. Structural acceptance criteria used for the elastic calculations performed were as found in the overall rack design report as issued by the rack`s designer, Holtec International. Structural acceptance criteria used for the plastic calculations performed as part of this effort were as defined in Subsection NF and Appendix F of the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The results of the analyses will also apply to the 30 port fuel storage rack design that is also scheduled for installation in Pool 1 of ICPP 666. The results obtained from the analyses performed for this task indicate that the welds joining the inner tie block and corner tie block to the surrounding rack structure meet the acceptance criteria. Further, the structural members (plates and blocks) were also found to be within the allowable stress limits established by the acceptance criteria. The separate analysis performed on the inner tie plate confirmed the structural adequacy for both the inner tie plate, corner tie plate, and tie block bolts. The analysis results verified that the inner tie and corner tie block should be capable of transferring the expected seismic load without structural failure.

Nitzel, M.E.; Rahl, R.G.

1996-01-01

26

Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects Key Science program will investigate the underlying physics of SIM grid objects. Extragalactic objects in the SIM grid will be used to tie the SIM reference frame to the quasi-inertial reference frame defined by extragalactic objects and to remove any residual frame rotation with respect to the extragalactic frame. The current realization of the extragalactic frame is the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The ICRF is defined by the radio positions of 212 extragalactic objects and is the IAU sanctioned fundamental astronomical reference frame. This key project will advance our knowledge of the physics of the objects which will make up the SIM grid, such as quasars and chromospherically active stars, and relates directly to the stability of the SIM reference frame. The following questions concerning the physics of reference frame tie objects will be investigated.

Johnston, Kenneth J.; Boboltz, David; Fey, Alan Lee; Gaume, Ralph A.; Zacharias, Norbert

2004-01-01

27

Social ties and adolescent sleep disruption.  

PubMed

Teens tend go to bed later, get less sleep, and report more daytime sleepiness. Medical research emphasizes biological determinants of teens' disrupted sleep (i.e., the timing of puberty and resultant drops in melatonin), rarely or inadequately considering youths' social ties as a determinant of sleep behaviors. Sociologists recognize how social ties affect health behaviors but have generally neglected sleep, especially among teens. Drawing on a sample of 974 teens from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, this study controls for developmental and social relational factors to predict changes in youths' sleep patterns between 12 and 15 years of age. In general, social relational factors outperform developmental factors in determining youths' sleep patterns, particularly pointing to the importance of parental, peer, and school ties in promoting healthy sleep behaviors. The implications of these findings for further research are briefly discussed. PMID:24311758

Maume, David J

2013-01-01

28

Content Literacy Tied to the New Standards  

E-print Network

as they relate to the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics and the Next Generation Science Standards*. #12Content Literacy Tied to the New Standards Tom Peters, Ed.D. SC Coalition for Mathematics & Science Assessment of State Standards (PASS) 2010 Of all middle grades students identified as needing additional

Stuart, Steven J.

29

PREDICTING TIE STRENGTH WITH SOCIAL MEDIA  

E-print Network

PREDICTING TIE STRENGTH WITH SOCIAL MEDIA Eric Gilbert & Karrie Karahalios University of Illinois, STRUCTURAL, EMOTIONAL SUPPORT and SOCIAL DISTANCE. As manifested in social media, can these dimensions on social media? R1. R2. #12;THE DATA overview 2,184 assessed friendships from 35 university students

Karahalios, Karrie G.

30

4. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST CORNER OF LITTLE FALLS TIE LINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST CORNER OF LITTLE FALLS TIE LINE TOWER NO. 41, OSPREY NEST ON TOWER TOP. LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Little Falls Tie Line Towers, Near Little Dam Falls on Spokane River, Wellpinit, Stevens County, WA

31

5. VIEW OF NORTHWEST ELEVATIONS OF LITTLE FALLS TIE LINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW OF NORTHWEST ELEVATIONS OF LITTLE FALLS TIE LINE TOWERS NO. 59 AND NO. 60, EXAMPLE OF TRANSPOSITION TOWERS. LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Little Falls Tie Line Towers, Near Little Dam Falls on Spokane River, Wellpinit, Stevens County, WA

32

3. VIEW OF NORTHWEST CORNER OF LITTLE FALLS TIE LINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW OF NORTHWEST CORNER OF LITTLE FALLS TIE LINE TOWER NO. 23, STANDARD PEAK TOWER. LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Little Falls Tie Line Towers, Near Little Dam Falls on Spokane River, Wellpinit, Stevens County, WA

33

2. VIEW OF WEST ELEVATION OF LITTLE FALLS TIE LINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW OF WEST ELEVATION OF LITTLE FALLS TIE LINE TOWER NO. 23, OSPREY NEST ON TOWER TOP. LOOKING EAST - Little Falls Tie Line Towers, Near Little Dam Falls on Spokane River, Wellpinit, Stevens County, WA

34

Effects of social tie content on knowledge transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this study is to explore the role of social tie content in the interpersonal knowledge transfer process and to test the effects of different social ties, i.e. distinguishing instrumental tie and expressive tie, on knowledge transfer, using cognition- and affect-based trust as the mediators. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A theoretical model was tested through a survey carried

Shihao Zhou; Felix Siu; Minhong Wang

2010-01-01

35

Inferring social ties from geographic coincidences  

PubMed Central

We investigate the extent to which social ties between people can be inferred from co-occurrence in time and space: Given that two people have been in approximately the same geographic locale at approximately the same time, on multiple occasions, how likely are they to know each other? Furthermore, how does this likelihood depend on the spatial and temporal proximity of the co-occurrences? Such issues arise in data originating in both online and offline domains as well as settings that capture interfaces between online and offline behavior. Here we develop a framework for quantifying the answers to such questions, and we apply this framework to publicly available data from a social media site, finding that even a very small number of co-occurrences can result in a high empirical likelihood of a social tie. We then present probabilistic models showing how such large probabilities can arise from a natural model of proximity and co-occurrence in the presence of social ties. In addition to providing a method for establishing some of the first quantifiable estimates of these measures, our findings have potential privacy implications, particularly for the ways in which social structures can be inferred from public online records that capture individuals’ physical locations over time. PMID:21148099

Crandall, David J.; Backstrom, Lars; Cosley, Dan; Suri, Siddharth; Huttenlocher, Daniel; Kleinberg, Jon

2010-01-01

36

Inferring social ties from geographic coincidences.  

PubMed

We investigate the extent to which social ties between people can be inferred from co-occurrence in time and space: Given that two people have been in approximately the same geographic locale at approximately the same time, on multiple occasions, how likely are they to know each other? Furthermore, how does this likelihood depend on the spatial and temporal proximity of the co-occurrences? Such issues arise in data originating in both online and offline domains as well as settings that capture interfaces between online and offline behavior. Here we develop a framework for quantifying the answers to such questions, and we apply this framework to publicly available data from a social media site, finding that even a very small number of co-occurrences can result in a high empirical likelihood of a social tie. We then present probabilistic models showing how such large probabilities can arise from a natural model of proximity and co-occurrence in the presence of social ties. In addition to providing a method for establishing some of the first quantifiable estimates of these measures, our findings have potential privacy implications, particularly for the ways in which social structures can be inferred from public online records that capture individuals' physical locations over time. PMID:21148099

Crandall, David J; Backstrom, Lars; Cosley, Dan; Suri, Siddharth; Huttenlocher, Daniel; Kleinberg, Jon

2010-12-28

37

Structural Predictors of Tie Formation in Twitter: Transitivity and Mutuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

New ties are often formed between people who already have friends in common. Though the social s ciences have addressed the effects of existing structural patter ns on the formation of new ties, less attention has been give n to ties in directed networks. Drawing from the microblogging service Twitter, we conducted a web-based experiment in which subjects were asked

Scott A. Golder; Sarita Yardi

2010-01-01

38

Impact of network ties on change in police agency practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Organizational research has suggested that network ties influence adoption of innovations and other organizational behavior. This paper aims to study the impact of network ties on change in police agency practices in a sample of city and county police agencies for which Weiss provided data on informal communication ties between agency planners. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The authors analyzed change

Aki Roberts; John M. Roberts Jr

2009-01-01

39

Chord, Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Detail in Plan; Crossbracing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Chord, Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Detail in Plan; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail in Plan; Chord Joining Detail in Plan & Elevation; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar, & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail in Section; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar & Horizontal Brace Joint Detail - Narrows Bridge, Spanning Sugar Creek at Old County Road 280 East, Marshall, Parke County, IN

40

Zebrafish Tie-2 shares a redundant role with Tie-1 in heart development and regulates vessel integrity.  

PubMed

Tie-2 is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family and is required for vascular remodeling and maintenance of mammalian vessel integrity. A number of mutations in the human TIE2 gene have been identified in patients suffering from cutaneomucosal venous malformations and ventricular septal defects. How exactly Tie-2 signaling pathways play different roles in both vascular development and vascular stability is unknown. We have generated a zebrafish line carrying a stop mutation in the kinase domain of the Tie-2 receptor. Mutant embryos lack Tie-2 protein, but do not display any defect in heart and vessel development. Simultaneous loss of Tie-1 and Tie-2, however, leads to a cardiac phenotype. Our study shows that Tie-1 and Tie-2 are not required for early heart development, yet they have redundant roles for the maintenance of endocardial-myocardial connection in later stages. Tie-2 and its ligand Angiopoietin-1 have also been reported to play an important role in vessel stability. We used atorvastatin and simvastatin, drugs that cause bleeding in wild-type zebrafish larvae, to challenge vessel stability in tie-2 mutants. Interestingly, recent clinical studies have reported hemorrhagic stroke as a side effect of atorvastatin treatment. Exposure of embryos to statins revealed that tie-2 mutants are significantly protected from statin-induced bleeding. Furthermore, tie-2 mutants became less resistant to bleeding after VE-cadherin knockdown. Taken together, these data show that atorvastatin affects vessel stability through Tie-2, and that VE-cadherin and Tie-2 act in concert to allow vessel remodeling while playing a role in vessel stability. Our study introduces an additional vertebrate model to study in vivo the function of Tie-2 in development and disease. PMID:21045210

Gjini, Evisa; Hekking, Liesbeth H; Küchler, Axel; Saharinen, Pipsa; Wienholds, Erno; Post, Jan-Andries; Alitalo, Kari; Schulte-Merker, Stefan

2011-01-01

41

Transmission of salmonella in feedlot cattle  

E-print Network

an env I! onment so hc;vily cor!ta!!in)ted. ' lt is c cause of' these dan=c! =- that ti!e transmission and carrier : tate of' salmonellae in i'ccalot cat;tie was studied. As mentioned, s:uch work has been done in establishing t2!e presence of... an env I! onment so hc;vily cor!ta!!in)ted. ' lt is c cause of' these dan=c! =- that ti!e transmission and carrier : tate of' salmonellae in i'ccalot cat;tie was studied. As mentioned, s:uch work has been done in establishing t2!e presence of...

Clinton, Nancy Adair

2012-06-07

42

The Running Barbed Tie-over Dressing  

PubMed Central

Summary: Barbed suture technology is becoming increasingly popular in plastic surgery and is now being used in body contouring surgery and facial rejuvenation. We describe the novel application of a barbed suture as a running tie-over dressing for skin grafts. The barbs act as anchors in the skin, so constant tensioning of the suture is not required. The bidirectional nature of the suture prevents any slippage, and the barbs even act as a grip on the underlying wool dressing. Furthermore, the method described is both quick and simple to learn and would be useful for the sole operator. PMID:25289330

Joyce, Kenneth M.; Kennedy, Ann-Marie; Kelly, Jack L.

2014-01-01

43

Bow-tie antennas on a dielectric half-space - Theory and experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new formulation is discussed for the rigous calculation of the radiation pattern of a bow-tie antenna of finite length and infinitesimal thickness, placed on a lossless dielectric substrate. The analysis is based on a representation of the current density on the metal surface of the antenna as a sum of an imposed (quasistatic) term and a set of current modes with unknown amplitudes. Free-space fields that are expressed in terms of continuous spectra of symmetrized plane waves are matched to the current modes using the method of moments. The resulting set of equations are solved for the unknown current amplitudes. The calculations show that for increasing bow length the antenna impedance spirals rapidly to a value predicted by transmission line theory. The theory also shows that the E-plane pattern of a two-wavelength, 60-deg bow-tie antenna is dominated by low-loss current modes propagating at the dielectric wavenumber. As the bow tie narrows, the loss of the modes increases, and the dominant wavenumber tends to the quasi-static value. Pattern measurements made at 94 GHz are shown to agree well with theoretical predictions. Measurements for a long-wire antenna, a linear array of bow-tie elements, and a log-periodic antenna are also presented.

Compton, Richard C.; Mcphedran, Ross C.; Popovic, Zorana; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.; Tong, Peter P.

1987-01-01

44

Tie - an Accessory Fashion Detail or a Symbol?  

PubMed Central

Aim The first aim of this study was to establish the frequency of wearing a tie or business neckerchief on different occasions and in relation to age and educational level. The second aim was to establish whether men who frequently wear a tie were attributed certain characteristics more often than men who rarely wear a tie and to establish whether there were differences in the attribution of these characteristics according to sex, age, educational level, and the frequency of wearing a tie. Method Data were collected in 2005 by a method of face to face interview on a national representative sample (n?=?1007). Participants estimated how often they wore a tie or business neckerchief on 9 different occasions. They also estimated whether each of 14 characteristics was more pronounced in men who frequently wear a tie. Results Tie was most frequently worn on festive and formal occasions, such as weddings and festive gatherings, and least frequently on family gatherings and when traveling. On all occasions, tie was more often worn by men of higher educational level and of older and middle age. A relatively small proportion of Croatian citizens based their conclusions on men’s characteristics on the frequency of wearing a tie. Men who frequently wear a tie were relatively most often attributed the characteristics of ambition, politeness, and respectability, with significant differences found between persons who attributed these characteristics according to sex, age, educational level, and the frequency of wearing a tie by the participants themselves. Conclusion Wearing a tie or neckerchief is an exception rather than a rule for most of the Croatian population, and is associated only with specific, primarily festive and formal occasions. Such use of the tie suggests that people adapt their style of clothing to the expectations of others and use it as a specific symbol of the occasion. PMID:17710774

Sakic, Vlado; Franc, Renata; Ivicic, Ines; Maricic, Jelena

2007-01-01

45

Distribution-free dispersion tests for data with ties  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is proposed that statistics for comparing dispersion (i.e., spread, scale; e.g., variance) when data are tied should be tie-centered. For statistics which are score sums, this means that if the highest score (indicating the least difference from a center of the data) is assigned to the. median when there are no ties, then the median should have the highest

D. Michael; B. Edwardes

2001-01-01

46

BSE Rap: intergenerational ties to save lives.  

PubMed

This article presents an innovative public-education strategy that was created to promote breast health awareness and early breast cancer detection among minority and low-income adolescent females. Given the importance of teaching breast self-examination (BSE), program development focused on creation of the BSE Rap, a lively music-video presentation. Increasing adolescents' knowledge and awareness of BSE is viewed as a springboard for disseminating information to their mothers and grandmothers. Funding was obtained for production of a video and a breast health diary, which are the program's key components. Marketing strategies included contacts with community organizations and healthcare professionals. Program evaluations reveal that the BSE Rap serves as a positive motivator for participants to discuss BSE and mammography with their mothers and grandmothers. The BSE Rap offers oncology nurses the opportunity to save lives using a unique and creative tool that focuses on intergenerational ties. PMID:8415152

Ehmann, J L

1993-09-01

47

Reading the Source Code of Social Ties  

E-print Network

Though online social network research has exploded during the past years, not much thought has been given to the exploration of the nature of social links. Online interactions have been interpreted as indicative of one social process or another (e.g., status exchange or trust), often with little systematic justification regarding the relation between observed data and theoretical concept. Our research aims to breach this gap in computational social science by proposing an unsupervised, parameter-free method to discover, with high accuracy, the fundamental domains of interaction occurring in social networks. By applying this method on two online datasets different by scope and type of interaction (aNobii and Flickr) we observe the spontaneous emergence of three domains of interaction representing the exchange of status, knowledge and social support. By finding significant relations between the domains of interaction and classic social network analysis issues (e.g., tie strength, dyadic interaction over time) w...

Aiello, Luca Maria; State, Bogdan

2014-01-01

48

A study of cross-tie domain walls in cobalt using small-aperture Foucault imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two types of cross-tie domain wall seen in a cobalt film have been studied by Foucault imaging in the transmission electron microscope. The images are taken with a contrast-forming aperture that subtends a smaller angle than the angular deflections of the electron beam introduced by the magnetization in the sample. The small-aperture Foucault technique is implemented using lens settings that produce high magnification diffraction patterns and a television camera is used to improve the limited image magnifications that are associated with this operating mode. With a small aperture the magnetic induction vector can be assigned with greater accuracy to the bright regions in the Foucault image, and the real-space origins of diffraction features are easy to identify. For the two different types of cross-tie domain wall maps of the magnetic induction are constructed from a series of Foucault images, and diffraction streaks are identified as originating from the domain wall.

Daykin, A. C.; Kim, J. D.; Jakubovics, J. P.

1996-02-01

49

Tie Formation on Twitter: Homophily and Structure of Egocentric Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both homophily and tie formation remain well studied problems in the social sciences literature since several decades. Prior empirical work on networks seems to indicate that in several situations, high degree of homophily was observed to be behind an individual's desire to establish new ties. However in the context of today's social media, not all individuals are the same, topologically.

Munmun De Choudhury

2011-01-01

50

Chord Panel Post, Vertical X Bracing & Horizontal Tie Joint ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Chord Panel Post, Vertical X Bracing & Horizontal Tie Joint Detail; Chord Joining Block & Spacer Block Detail; Cross Bracing Joint Detail; Chord Panel Post Diagonal & Horizontal Tie Joint Detail - Jackson Covered Bridge, Spanning Sugar Creek, CR 775N (Changed from Spanning Sugar Creek), Bloomingdale, Parke County, IN

51

Grid-tied PV battery systems.  

SciTech Connect

Grid tied PV energy smoothing was implemented by using a valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery as a temporary energy storage device to both charge and discharge as required to smooth the inverter energy output from the PV array. Inverter output was controlled by the average solar irradiance over the previous 1h time interval. On a clear day the solar irradiance power curve is offset by about 1h, while on a variable cloudy day the inverter output power curve will be smoothed based on the average solar irradiance. Test results demonstrate that this smoothing algorithm works very well. Battery state of charge was more difficult to manage because of the variable system inefficiencies. Testing continued for 30-days and established consistent operational performance for extended periods of time under a wide variety of resource conditions. Both battery technologies from Exide (Absolyte) and East Penn (ALABC Advanced) proved to cycle well at a Partial state of charge over the time interval tested.

Barrett, Keith Phillip; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Hund, Thomas D.

2010-09-01

52

Grid tied PV system energy smoothing.  

SciTech Connect

Grid-tied PV energy smoothing was implemented by using a valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery as a temporary energy storage device to both charge and discharge as required to smooth the inverter energy output from the PV array. Inverter output was controlled by the average solar irradiance over the previous 1h time interval. On a clear day the solar irradiance power curve is offset by about 1h, while on a variable cloudy day the inverter output power curve will be smoothed based on the average solar irradiance. Test results demonstrate that this smoothing algorithm works very well. Battery state of charge was more difficult to manage because of the variable system inefficiencies. Testing continued for 30-days and established consistent operational performance for extended periods of time under a wide variety of resource conditions. Both battery technologies from Exide (Absolyte) and East Penn (Advanced Valve Regulated Lead-Acid) proved to cycle well at a partial state of charge over the time interval tested.

Barrett, Keith Phillip; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Hund, Thomas D.

2010-06-01

53

Measuring the usage effects of tying a messenger to Windows: a treatment effect approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US case on tying Microsoft Internet Explorer to Windows has received much attention. In Europe, a similar case of tying the Microsoft media player to Windows appeared. Recently in Korea, another similar case of tying a Microsoft messenger to Windows occurred. In the messenger tying case (as well as in the other tying cases), Microsoft's main defence seems to

Myoung-jae Lee

2010-01-01

54

Error assessment of local tie vectors in space geodesy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the computation of the ITRF, the data of the geometric space-geodetic techniques on co-location sites are combined. The combination increases the redundancy and offers the possibility to utilize the strengths of each technique while mitigating their weaknesses. To enable the combination of co-located techniques each technique needs to have a well-defined geometric reference point. The linking of the geometric reference points enables the combination of the technique-specific coordinate to a multi-technique site coordinate. The vectors between these reference points are called "local ties". The realization of local ties is usually reached by local surveys of the distances and or angles between the reference points. Identified temporal variations of the reference points are considered in the local tie determination only indirectly by assuming a mean position. Finally, the local ties measured in the local surveying network are to be transformed into the ITRF, the global geocentric equatorial coordinate system of the space-geodetic techniques. The current IERS procedure for the combination of the space-geodetic techniques includes the local tie vectors with an error floor of three millimeters plus a distance dependent component. This error floor, however, significantly underestimates the real accuracy of local tie determination. To fullfill the GGOS goals of 1 mm position and 0.1 mm/yr velocity accuracy, an accuracy of the local tie will be mandatory at the sub-mm level, which is currently not achievable. To assess the local tie effects on ITRF computations, investigations of the error sources will be done to realistically assess and consider them. Hence, a reasonable estimate of all the included errors of the various local ties is needed. An appropriate estimate could also improve the separation of local tie error and technique-specific error contributions to uncertainties and thus access the accuracy of space-geodetic techniques. Our investigations concern the simulation of the error contribution of each component of the local tie definition and determination. A closer look into the models of reference point definition, of accessibility, of measurement, and of transformation is necessary to properly model the error of the local tie. The effect of temporal variations on the local ties will be studied as well. The transformation of the local survey into the ITRF can be assumed to be the largest error contributor, in particular the orientation of the local surveying network to the ITRF.

Falkenberg, Jana; Heinkelmann, Robert; Schuh, Harald

2014-05-01

55

Expression of tie receptor tyrosine kinase in leukemia cell lines.  

PubMed

The tie receptor tyrosine kinase mRNA was originally identified as an amplified product in reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of human K562 leukemia cell RNA. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that the corresponding mouse gene is expressed predominantly in endothelial cells. We have explored tie mRNA and protein expression in tumor cell lines. The 4.4 kb tie mRNA was expressed at high levels in five of five human megakaryoblastic leukemia cell lines studied and in two IL-3-dependent mouse myeloid leukemia cell lines, but not in 42 other leukemia cell lines representing various hematopoietic lineages. Increased expression of tie mRNA and protein was observed upon treatment of the megakaryoblastic leukemia cells with the tumor promoter 12-0-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), known to enhance megakaryoblastic markers. Among several cell lines from solid tumors, two fibrosarcomas, one rhabdomyosarcoma and one melanoma cell line were positive for tie mRNA. These results suggest that among hematopoietic lineages tie is predominantly expressed in cells with megakaryoblastic properties and that the tie tyrosine kinase is a receptor for a regulatory factor specific for megakaryoblasts, endothelial cells, and occasional tumor cell lines derived from mesenchymal tissues. PMID:8412320

Armstrong, E; Korhonen, J; Silvennoinen, O; Cleveland, J L; Lieberman, M A; Alitalo, R

1993-10-01

56

Transmission INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

Transmission INTRODUCTION An electrical power system requires constant, second by second, balancing of supply, demand, and transmission capability. Transmission system operators are primarily responsible for maintaining this delicate balance. Transmission system operations are organized into "control areas," whose

57

75 FR 34941 - Review of the Commission's Program Access Rules and Examination of Programming Tying Arrangements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Program Access Rules and Examination of Programming Tying Arrangements AGENCY: Federal...Program Access Rules and Examination of Programming Tying Arrangements, MB Docket No...Program Access Rules and Examination of Programming Tying Arrangements, MB Docket...

2010-06-21

58

Social network ties beyond nonredundancy: an experimental investigation of the effect of knowledge content and tie strength on creativity.  

PubMed

Social network research emphasizes the access to nonredundant knowledge content that network ties provide. I suggest that some content is more beneficial than others and that tie strength may affect creativity for reasons other than the associated structure. That is, tie strength may affect how individuals process nonredundant knowledge. I investigate 2 types of knowledge content--information (i.e., facts or data) and frames (i.e., interpretations or impressions)--and explore whether tie strength influences their effect on creativity. Drawing on creativity theory, I employ an experimental design to provide greater theoretical clarity and to isolate causality. According to the results from 2 studies, distinct frames received from contacts facilitate creativity, but the effect of distinct information is more complex. When individuals receive distinct information from strong ties, it constrains creativity compared to distinct frames. Content from weak ties appears to facilitate creativity across all scenarios. The results of mediated moderation analysis indicate the effect of framing versus information for strong ties is driven by decision-making time, as an indicator of cognitive expansion. PMID:24684668

Perry-Smith, Jill E

2014-09-01

59

Failing Vision Tied to Shorter Lifespans for Seniors  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Failing Vision Tied to Shorter Lifespans for Seniors Link could ... August 21, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Seniors' Health Vision Impairment and Blindness THURSDAY, Aug. 21, 2014 (HealthDay ...

60

Common Respiratory Diseases Tied to Lung Cancer Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Common Respiratory Diseases Tied to Lung Cancer Risk Chronic ... Diseases FRIDAY, Aug. 15, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Three common respiratory diseases seem to be associated with an ...

61

Pain, Depression Tied to Delirium Risk After Surgery for Seniors  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pain, Depression Tied to Delirium Risk After Surgery for Seniors ... TUESDAY, Nov. 11, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Pain and depression before an operation may increase seniors' risk for ...

62

Certain Painkillers Tied to Raised Risk of Death After Stroke  

MedlinePLUS

... Painkillers Tied to Raised Risk of Death After Stroke Celebrex and other COX-2 inhibitors should be ... November 5, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Pain Relievers Stroke Rehabilitation WEDNESDAY, Nov. 5, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Arthritis ...

63

Quality versus quantity of social ties in experimental cooperative networks  

PubMed Central

Recent studies suggest that allowing individuals to choose their partners can help to maintain cooperation in human social networks; this behaviour can supplement behavioural reciprocity, whereby humans are influenced to cooperate by peer pressure. However, it is unknown how the rate of forming and breaking social ties affects our capacity to cooperate. Here we use a series of online experiments involving 1,529 unique participants embedded in 90 experimental networks, to show that there is a ‘Goldilocks’ effect of network dynamism on cooperation. When the rate of change in social ties is too low, subjects choose to have many ties, even if they attach to defectors. When the rate is too high, cooperators cannot detach from defectors as much as defectors re-attach and, hence, subjects resort to behavioural reciprocity and switch their behaviour to defection. Optimal levels of cooperation are achieved at intermediate levels of change in social ties. PMID:24226079

Shirado, Hirokazu; Fu, Feng; Fowler, James H.; Christakis, Nicholas A.

2013-01-01

64

Study Ties Teen Smoking to Risk of Severe Menstrual Cramps  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Study Ties Teen Smoking to Risk of Severe Menstrual Cramps Tobacco use ... Monday, November 17, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Menstruation Smoking and Youth MONDAY, Nov. 17, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

65

Obesity Tied to Higher Cancer Risk for Colon Cancer Survivors  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Obesity Tied to Higher Cancer Risk for Colon Cancer ... 30, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Cancer Colorectal Cancer Obesity TUESDAY, Sept. 30, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Colon cancer ...

66

DO TIE LABORATORY BASED METHODS REALLY REFLECT FIELD CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) methods have been developed for both interstitial waters and whole sediments. These relatively simple laboratory methods are designed to identify specific toxicants or classes of toxicants in sediments; however, the question ...

67

DO TIE LABORATORY BASED ASSESSMENT METHODS REALLY PREDICT FIELD EFFECTS?  

EPA Science Inventory

Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) methods have been developed for both porewaters and whole sediments. These relatively simple laboratory methods are designed to identify specific toxicants or classes of toxicants in sediments; however, the question of whethe...

68

Quality versus quantity of social ties in experimental cooperative networks.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest that allowing individuals to choose their partners can help to maintain cooperation in human social networks; this behaviour can supplement behavioural reciprocity, whereby humans are influenced to cooperate by peer pressure. However, it is unknown how the rate of forming and breaking social ties affects our capacity to cooperate. Here we use a series of online experiments involving 1,529 unique participants embedded in 90 experimental networks, to show that there is a 'Goldilocks' effect of network dynamism on cooperation. When the rate of change in social ties is too low, subjects choose to have many ties, even if they attach to defectors. When the rate is too high, cooperators cannot detach from defectors as much as defectors re-attach and, hence, subjects resort to behavioural reciprocity and switch their behaviour to defection. Optimal levels of cooperation are achieved at intermediate levels of change in social ties. PMID:24226079

Shirado, Hirokazu; Fu, Feng; Fowler, James H; Christakis, Nicholas A

2013-01-01

69

12. VIEW OF RIGHT ABUTMENT TIE AT LEFT, CONCRETE PLACEMENT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW OF RIGHT ABUTMENT TIE AT LEFT, CONCRETE PLACEMENT LINES AT CENTER, POWER PLANT NEARING COMPLETION, AND AGGREGATE OPERATION AT CENTER RIGHT December 16, 1926 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

70

16. VIEW OF STEEL FLOOR BEAMS WITH TIE RODS, SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. VIEW OF STEEL FLOOR BEAMS WITH TIE RODS, SHOWING SWAY BRACING, SUPPORT TIMBER STRINGERS AND BECK, WEST END, LOOKING WEST - Hot Springs Bridge, Spanning Bruneau River, Hot Springs Road, Bruneau, Owyhee County, ID

71

High Cholesterol Tied to Prostate Cancer's Return in Study  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High Cholesterol Tied to Prostate Cancer's Return in Study But ... 2015) Friday, October 10, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Cholesterol Prostate Cancer FRIDAY, Oct. 10, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

72

Location Prediction in Social Media Based on Tie Strength  

E-print Network

We propose a novel network-based approach for location estimation in social media that integrates evidence of the social tie strength between users for improved location estimation. Concretely, we propose a location estimator – Friendly...

McGee, Jeffrey A

2013-04-29

73

25. DETAIL OF TIE ROD REINFORCING BELOW WESTERNMOST MOVABLE STAGE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. DETAIL OF TIE ROD REINFORCING BELOW WESTERNMOST MOVABLE STAGE SECTION, LOWER LEVEL OF STAGE, LOOKING SOUTH. TAKEN FROM A POINT JUST SOUTH OF RAM IN IL-1007-24. - Auditorium Building, 430 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

74

Views of the Apollo 11 Twentieth Anniversary Black Tie reception  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

View from the Apollo 11 Twentieth Anniversary Black Tie reception at the downtown Houston Hyatt Regency Hotel. Scene show NASA/JSC Director Aaron Cohen talking with NASA Administrator Richard H. Truly and his wife, Cody.

1989-01-01

75

Frailty Tied to Lower Survival Rates After Kidney Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... Frailty Tied to Lower Survival Rates After Kidney Transplant Doctors should monitor such patients closely after surgery, ... to worse five-year survival rates among kidney transplant patients, regardless of their age, a new study ...

76

Eczema Tied to Bone Fracture Risk in Study  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Eczema Tied to Bone Fracture Risk in Study Risk was small; distractions ... eczema may increase slightly the risk of broken bones and injured joints, a new study reports. In ...

77

Obesity Tied to Half a Million Cancers Worldwide, Report Shows  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Obesity Tied to Half a Million Cancers Worldwide, Report Shows Largest number of obesity-related cancers diagnosed in North America and Europe, ...

78

Spacing Between Sibling Births Tied to Autism Risk in Study  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Spacing Between Sibling Births Tied to Autism Risk in Study But authors, expert stressed that ... Preidt Tuesday, September 30, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Autism Spectrum Disorder Pregnancy TUESDAY, Sept. 30, 2014 (HealthDay ...

79

Family Support Tied to Safer Sex for Young Gay Males  

MedlinePLUS

... Family Support Tied to Safer Sex for Young Gay Males: Study Closeness, open discussions with parents may ... October 15, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Family Issues Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Health Teen Sexual Health ...

80

Researchers Tie Worldwide Biodiversity Threats to Growth in Households  

NSF Publications Database

... s biodiversity and environment. Reduction in household size has led to a rapid rise in household ... a reduction in household size. In China's Wolong, a reduced average household size was tied directly ...

81

External linkage tie permits reduction in ducting system flange thickness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

External linkage tie reduces flange thickness and increases seal efficiency in high pressure ducting and piping systems. The linkage transmits the pressure separating load to the tube wall behind the flange allowing the flange to support only the seal.

Pfleger, R. O.

1966-01-01

82

Hospital Admission Day Tied to Outcomes for Children with Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hospital Admission Day Tied to Outcomes for Children With Leukemia Those ... admitted on weekends stayed in hospital 1.4 days longer, waited an average of about eight hours ...

83

The Imagery Exchange (TIE): Open Source Imagery Management System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA's Global Imagery Browse Service (GIBS) is the Earth Observation System (EOS) imagery solution for delivering global, full-resolution satellite imagery in a highly responsive manner. GIBS consists of two major subsystems, OnEarth and The Imagery Exchange (TIE). TIE is the GIBS horizontally scaled imagery workflow manager component, an Open Archival Information System (OAIS) responsible for orchestrating the acquisition, preparation, generation, and archiving of imagery to be served by OnEarth. TIE is an extension of the Data Management and Archive System (DMAS), a high performance data management system developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory by leveraging open source tools and frameworks, which includes Groovy/Grails, Restlet, Apache ZooKeeper, Apache Solr, and other open source solutions. This presentation focuses on the application of Open Source technologies in developing a horizontally scaled data system like DMAS and TIE. As part of our commitment in contributing back to the open source community, TIE is in the process of being open sourced. This presentation will also cover our current effort in getting TIE in to the hands of the community from which we benefited from.

Alarcon, C.; Huang, T.; Thompson, C. K.; Roberts, J. T.; Hall, J. R.; Cechini, M.; Schmaltz, J. E.; McGann, J. M.; Boller, R. A.; Murphy, K. J.; Bingham, A. W.

2013-12-01

84

The relationship between perceived discrimination and high-risk social ties among illicit drug users in New York City, 2006-2009.  

PubMed

Discrimination can influence risk of disease by promoting unhealthy behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol use). Whether it influences the formation of high-risk social ties that facilitate HIV transmission is unclear. Using cross-sectional data from a cohort of illicit drug users, this study examined the association between discrimination based on race, drug use and prior incarceration and risky sex and drug ties. Negative binomial regression models were performed. Participants who reported discrimination based on race and drug use had significantly more sex and drug-using ties. But, after accounting for both racial and drug use discrimination, only racial discrimination was associated with increased sex, drug-using, and injecting ties. Drug users who experience discrimination and subsequently develop more sex and drug-using ties, increase their risk of contracting HIV. Future longitudinal studies illuminating the pathways linking discrimination and social network development may guide intervention development and identify drug-using subpopulations at high risk for disease transmission. PMID:22638866

Crawford, Natalie D; Ford, Chandra; Galea, Sandro; Latkin, Carl; Jones, Kandice C; Fuller, Crystal M

2013-01-01

85

Tie Tube Heat Transfer Modeling for Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rockets  

SciTech Connect

Bimodal nuclear thermal rocket systems have been shown to reduce the weight and cost of space vehicles to Mars and beyond by utilizing the reactor for power generation in the relatively long duration between burns in an interplanetary trajectory. No information, however, is available regarding engine and reactor-level operation of such bimodal systems. The purpose of this project is to generate engine and reactor models with sufficient fidelity and flexibility to accurately study the component-level effects of operating a propulsion-designed reactor at power generation levels. Previous development of a 1-D reactor and tie tube model found that ignoring heat generation inside of the tie tube leads to under-prediction of the temperature change and over-prediction of pressure change across the tie tube. This paper will present the development and results of a tie tube model that has been extended to account for heat generation, specifically in the moderator layer. This model is based on a 1-D distribution of power in the fuel elements and tie tubes, as a precursor to an eventual neutron-driven reactor model.

Clough, Joshua A.; Starkey, Ryan P.; Lewis, Mark J. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park MD 20742 (United States); Lavelle, Thomas M. [NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States)

2007-01-30

86

8. Transmission 52 8. Transmission  

E-print Network

8. Transmission 52 ___________________________________________________________________________ 8. Transmission 8.1 Introduction The classical approach for calculations of structure-borne sound and vibration transmission is based on the assumption of a source performing rigid body motions. A multi- point coupling

Berlin,Technische Universität

87

Time varying networks and the weakness of strong ties.  

PubMed

In most social and information systems the activity of agents generates rapidly evolving time-varying networks. The temporal variation in networks' connectivity patterns and the ongoing dynamic processes are usually coupled in ways that still challenge our mathematical or computational modelling. Here we analyse a mobile call dataset and find a simple statistical law that characterize the temporal evolution of users' egocentric networks. We encode this observation in a reinforcement process defining a time-varying network model that exhibits the emergence of strong and weak ties. We study the effect of time-varying and heterogeneous interactions on the classic rumour spreading model in both synthetic, and real-world networks. We observe that strong ties severely inhibit information diffusion by confining the spreading process among agents with recurrent communication patterns. This provides the counterintuitive evidence that strong ties may have a negative role in the spreading of information across networks. PMID:24510159

Karsai, Márton; Perra, Nicola; Vespignani, Alessandro

2014-01-01

88

Time varying networks and the weakness of strong ties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most social and information systems the activity of agents generates rapidly evolving time-varying networks. The temporal variation in networks' connectivity patterns and the ongoing dynamic processes are usually coupled in ways that still challenge our mathematical or computational modelling. Here we analyse a mobile call dataset and find a simple statistical law that characterize the temporal evolution of users' egocentric networks. We encode this observation in a reinforcement process defining a time-varying network model that exhibits the emergence of strong and weak ties. We study the effect of time-varying and heterogeneous interactions on the classic rumour spreading model in both synthetic, and real-world networks. We observe that strong ties severely inhibit information diffusion by confining the spreading process among agents with recurrent communication patterns. This provides the counterintuitive evidence that strong ties may have a negative role in the spreading of information across networks.

Karsai, Márton; Perra, Nicola; Vespignani, Alessandro

2014-02-01

89

Automatic Tie Pointer for In-Situ Pointing Correction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MARSAUTOTIE program generates tie points for use with the Mars pointing correction software "In-Situ Pointing Correction and Rover Microlocalization," (NPO-46696) Soft ware Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 9 (September 2010), page 18, in a completely automated manner, with no operator intervention. It takes the place of MARSTIE, although MARSTIE can be used to interactively edit the tie points afterwards. These tie points are used to create a mosaic whose seams (boundaries of input images) have been geometrically corrected to reduce or eliminate errors and mis-registrations. The methods used to find appropriate tie points for use in creating a mosaic are unique, having been designed to work in concert with the "MARSNAV" program to be most effective in reducing or eliminating geometric seams in a mosaic. The program takes the input images and finds overlaps according to the nominal pointing. It then finds the most interesting areas using a scene activity metric. Points with higher scene activity are more likely to correlate successfully in the next step. It then uses correlation techniques to find matching points in the overlapped image. Finally, it performs a series of steps to reduce the number of tie points to a manageable level. These steps incorporate a number of heuristics that have been devised using experience gathered by tie pointing mosaics manually during MER operations. The software makes use of the PIG library as described in "Planetary Image Geometry Library" (NPO-46658), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 12 (December 2010), page 30, so it is multi-mission, applicable without change to any in-situ mission supported by PIG. The MARSAUTOTIE algorithm is automated, so it requires no user intervention. Although at the time of this reporting it has not been done, this program should be suitable for integration into a fully automated mosaic production pipeline.

Deen, Robert G/

2011-01-01

90

Welded tie plate feasibility study for ITER central solenoid structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The result of a Nitronic 50 (N50) weld-screening program conducted in support of CS-Tie Plate Structure Design and Development is reported here. The goal of this program is to evaluate four different weld practices and to select the best weld practice for thick section welding of the N50 tie plate structure. The structure design specifies both the weld and base metals have the same minimum mechanical properties requirements. The criteria for selecting the best weld practice are based on the combination of the 295 K tensile properties and the 4 K-tensile, fatigue, and fracture-toughness properties.

Walsh, R.; McRae, D.; Dalder, E.; Litherland, S.; Goddard, R.; Han, K.; Trosen, M.; Kuhlmann, D. D.

2014-01-01

91

Male Pattern Baldness Tied to Prostate Cancer, Study Suggests  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Male Pattern Baldness Tied to Prostate Cancer, Study Suggests Testosterone might be the link between ... 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Hair Loss Men's Health Prostate Cancer MONDAY, Sept. 15, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Men with ...

92

Inferring Social Ties across Heterogenous Networks Department of Computer  

E-print Network

the type of social relationships by learning across heterogeneous networks. The framework incorporates the type of social relationships in a target network, by bor- rowing knowledge from a different sourceInferring Social Ties across Heterogenous Networks Jie Tang Department of Computer Science Tsinghua

Kleinberg, Jon

93

The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving  

PubMed Central

Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems. PMID:24946798

de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez; Pentland, Alex; Lehmann, Sune

2014-01-01

94

TIE-RESPECTING BOOTSTRAP METHODS FOR ESTIMATING DISTRIBUTIONS OF  

E-print Network

TIE-RESPECTING BOOTSTRAP METHODS FOR ESTIMATING DISTRIBUTIONS OF SETS AND FUNCTIONS OF EIGENVALUES. Bootstrap methods are widely used for distribution estimation, al- though in some problems-out- of-n bootstrap can be used to deal with problems of this general type, but it is very sensitive

Paul, Debashis

95

International Project Management TIES Observation Session at UA  

E-print Network

International Project Management Office TIES Observation Session at UA May 4th 2010 Roberto Escarré + Expertise PM + IT Organizational skills OGPI UA External = DB Training/Conferences H U M A N R E S O U R C E

96

The Verbal Facilitation Effect in Learning to Tie Nautical Knots  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Motor skills are often demonstrated with a combination of verbal information and video demonstration. In this study, participants learned to tie nautical knots with a video clip demonstrating the motor task preceded by a descriptive or a metaphorical, picture-like verbalization. In a control condition participants learned the knots with a video…

Huff, Markus; Schwan, Stephan

2012-01-01

97

Inferring Social Ties between Users with Human Location History  

Microsoft Academic Search

The location-based social networks have been becoming flourishing in recent years. In this paper, we aim to estimate the similarity between users according to their physical location histories (represented by GPS trajectories). This similarity can be regarded as a potential social tie between users, thereby enabling friend and location recommendations. Different from previous work using social structures or directly matching

Xiangye Xiao; Yu Zheng; Xing Xie; Qiong Luo

2012-01-01

98

26. ROOM 210, VIEW TO THE SOUTHEAST. EXPOSED TIE BEAMS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. ROOM 210, VIEW TO THE SOUTHEAST. EXPOSED TIE BEAMS AT CEILING ARE BOXED IN PLYWOOD. WAINSCOTING IS PLYWOOD PANELING. CEILING AND UPPER WALL TREATMENT IS GYPSUM BOARD. CLERESTORY WINDOWS LINE BOTH LONG SIDES OF ROOM. - Presidio of San Francisco, Cavalry Stables, Cowles Street, between Lincoln Boulevard & McDowell Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

99

59. Downstream view of Waddell Dam showing buttress ties, crane, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

59. Downstream view of Waddell Dam showing buttress ties, crane, housing over penstock outlet (left) and storage building (right). Photographer Mark Durben, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

100

Views of the Apollo 11 Twentieth Anniversary Black Tie reception  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Views of the Apollo 11 Twentieth Anniversary Black Tie reception at the downtown Houston Hyatt Regency Hotel. Views include former JSC Directors Robert Gilruth and Christopher C. Kraft Jr. reminiscing with keynote speaker Walter Cronkite (39934); Apollo astronauts Tom Stafford (left) and Neil Armstrong (right) talk with former Soviet cosmonaut Alexei Leonov (center) at the gala (39935).

1989-01-01

101

The strength of the strongest ties in collaborative problem solving.  

PubMed

Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems. PMID:24946798

de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez; Pentland, Alex; Lehmann, Sune

2014-01-01

102

Writing "Everyday Theatre": Applied Theatre, or Just TIE Rides Again?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The centre of this article is a critical description of the development and production of "Everyday Theatre's" performed pretext, called "replay@timeout", including a detailed account of the devising process and the programme's content. The programme is located within the history and traditions both of theatre in education (TIE) and process drama,…

O'Toole, John

2009-01-01

103

Teaching Tongue-Tied Students: Ankyloglossia in the Instrumental Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ankyloglossia is a significant medical condition that has not been adequately addressed in music education literature. While practically every instructor will have students who struggle with ankyloglossia, many teachers are entirely unaware of this condition's various symptoms and treatments. Ankyloglossia, more commonly known as tongue-tie, is a…

Dovel, Jason

2010-01-01

104

Worker Layoffs Tied to Rise in Teen Suicides, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Worker Layoffs Tied to Rise in Teen Suicides, Study Finds Effect was most prominent among girls ... Thursday, August 14, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Stress Suicide Teen Mental Health THURSDAY, Aug. 14, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

105

The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems.

de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez; Pentland, Alex; Lehmann, Sune

2014-06-01

106

The tie-dyed pathway promotes symplastic trafficking in the phloem.  

PubMed

The tie-dyed1 (tdy1) and tdy2 mutants of maize exhibit leaf regions with starch hyperaccumulation and display unusual genetic interactions, suggesting they function in the same physiological process. Tdy2 encodes a putative callose synthase and is expressed in developing vascular tissues of immature leaves. Radiolabelling experiments and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed symplastic trafficking within the phloem was perturbed at the companion cell/sieve element interface. Here, we show that as reported for tdy2 mutants, tdy1 yellow leaf regions display an excessive oil-droplet phenotype in the companion cells. Based on the proposed function of Tdy2 as a callose synthase, our previous work characterizing Tdy1 as a novel, transmembrane-localized protein, and the present findings, we speculate how TDY1 and TDY2 might interact to promote symplastic transport of both solutes and developmentally instructive macromolecules during vascular development at the companion cell/sieve element interface. PMID:23603956

Baker, R Frank; Slewinski, Thomas L; Braun, David M

2013-06-01

107

The Tie-dyed pathway promotes symplastic trafficking in the phloem  

PubMed Central

The tie-dyed1 (tdy1) and tdy2 mutants of maize exhibit leaf regions with starch hyperaccumulation and display unusual genetic interactions, suggesting they function in the same physiological process. Tdy2 encodes a putative callose synthase and is expressed in developing vascular tissues of immature leaves. Radiolabelling experiments and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed symplastic trafficking within the phloem was perturbed at the companion cell/sieve element interface. Here, we show that as reported for tdy2 mutants, tdy1 yellow leaf regions display an excessive oil-droplet phenotype in the companion cells. Based on the proposed function of Tdy2 as a callose synthase, our previous work characterizing Tdy1 as a novel, transmembrane-localized protein, and the present findings, we speculate how TDY1 and TDY2 might interact to promote symplastic transport of both solutes and developmentally instructive macromolecules during vascular development at the companion cell/sieve element interface. PMID:23603956

Baker, R. Frank; Slewinski, Thomas L.; Braun, David M.

2013-01-01

108

Shingles Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... on Shingles Immunization Action Coalition Chickenpox Q&As Transmission Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir Español: ... Prevention & Treatment Related Pages Preventing Varicella Zoster Virus Transmission in Healthcare Settings Related Links Medline Plus NIH ...

109

AQUIFER TRANSMISSIVITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaluation of groundwater resources requires the knowledge of the capacity of aquifers to store and transmit ground water. This requires estimates of key hydraulic parameters, such as the transmissivity, among others. The transmissivity T (m2/sec) is a hydrauli...

110

78 FR 25303 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico...scheduling of preliminary phase investigations. AGENCY...commencement of preliminary phase antidumping investigations...concrete steel rail tie wire from China, Mexico...conference no later than three days before the...

2013-04-30

111

Department of Mechanical Engineering Fall 2011 The One-Handed Zip Tie  

E-print Network

PENNSTATE Department of Mechanical Engineering Fall 2011 The One-Handed Zip Tie Overview facing time and money constraints. Objectives Design an innovative one-handed, irreversible zip tie what is currently on the market. KC Innovations, Inc. #12;

Demirel, Melik C.

112

'Tying the manager's hands': constraining opportunistic managerial intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss and examine empirically a firm-level equivalent of the ancient problem of 'tying the King's hands', namely how to avoid managerial intervention that is undertaken to reap private benefits but is harmful to overall value creation, that is, 'managerial opportunism'. The link from managerial intervention to firm-level value-creation is moderated by employee motivation. Thus, intervention in the form of

Kirsten Foss; Nicolai J Foss; Xose H. Vazquez

2005-01-01

113

It's the recipient that counts: spending money on strong social ties leads to greater happiness than spending on weak social ties.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that spending money on others (prosocial spending) increases happiness. But, do the happiness gains depend on who the money is spent on? Sociologists have distinguished between strong ties with close friends and family and weak ties--relationships characterized by less frequent contact, lower emotional intensity, and limited intimacy. We randomly assigned participants to reflect on a time when they spent money on either a strong social tie or a weak social tie. Participants reported higher levels of positive affect after recalling a time they spent on a strong tie versus a weak tie. The level of intimacy in the relationship was more important than the type of relationship; there was no significant difference in positive affect after recalling spending money on a family member instead of a friend. These results add to the growing literature examining the factors that moderate the link between prosocial behaviour and happiness. PMID:21347326

Aknin, Lara B; Sandstrom, Gillian M; Dunn, Elizabeth W; Norton, Michael I

2011-01-01

114

Suicide: the key role of short range ties  

E-print Network

The paper explores the connection between short-range social ties (i.e. links with close relatives) and the occurrence of suicide. The objective is to discriminate between a model based on social ties and a model based on psychological traumas. Our methodological strategy is to focus on instances characterized by the severance of some social ties. We consider several situations of this kind. (i) Prisoners in the first days after their incarceration. (ii) Prisoners in solitary confinement. (iii) Prisoners who are transferred from one prison to another. (iv) Prisoners in closed versus open prisons. (v) Prisoners in the weeks following their release. (vi) Immigrants in the years following their relocation. (vii) Unmarried versus married people. Furthermore, in order to test the impact of major shocks we consider the responses in terms of suicides to the following shocks. (i) The attack of September 11, 2001 in Manhattan. (ii) The Korean War. (iii) The two world wars. (iv) The Great Depression in the United State...

Röhner, B M

2005-01-01

115

78 FR 37236 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-1207-1209 (Preliminary)] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico...Mexico, and Thailand of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire, provided for in...reason of LTFV imports of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from China,...

2013-06-20

116

Who Can Cultivate University Ties More in China? A Local Firm or a Foreign Firm?  

Microsoft Academic Search

University ties are an important innovation resource for both foreign direct investment (FDI) firms and local firms. Since these university connections involve local personal ties, which are established through long-term efforts that require social and cul- tural embeddedness, it is probably more difficult for FDI firms to establish such ties than it is for local firms. However, FDI firms, which

Kai Xu; Kuo-Feng Huang; Shanxing Gao

2011-01-01

117

33 CFR 401.37 - Mooring at tie-up walls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Mooring at tie-up walls. 401.37 Section 401.37 Navigation...Navigation § 401.37 Mooring at tie-up walls. (a) Upon arrival at a lock, a...instructions to advance shall moor at the tie-up wall, close up to the designated limit...

2010-07-01

118

33 CFR 401.37 - Mooring at tie-up walls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Mooring at tie-up walls. 401.37 Section 401.37 Navigation...Navigation § 401.37 Mooring at tie-up walls. (a) Upon arrival at a lock, a...instructions to advance shall moor at the tie-up wall, close up to the designated limit...

2012-07-01

119

33 CFR 401.37 - Mooring at tie-up walls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Mooring at tie-up walls. 401.37 Section 401.37 Navigation...Navigation § 401.37 Mooring at tie-up walls. (a) Upon arrival at a lock, a...instructions to advance shall moor at the tie-up wall, close up to the designated limit...

2011-07-01

120

33 CFR 401.37 - Mooring at tie-up walls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Mooring at tie-up walls. 401.37 Section 401.37 Navigation...Navigation § 401.37 Mooring at tie-up walls. (a) Upon arrival at a lock, a...instructions to advance shall moor at the tie-up wall, close up to the designated limit...

2013-07-01

121

Who Can You Turn to? Tie Activation within Core Business Discussion Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine the connection between personal network characteristics and the activation of ties for access to resources during routine times. We focus on factors affecting business owners' use of their core network ties to obtain legal, loan, financial and expert advice. Owners rely more on core business ties when their core networks contain a high…

Renzulli, Linda A.; Aldrich, Howard

2005-01-01

122

Getting a Job in Finance-The Strength of Collaboration Ties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the seminal papers of Mark Granovetter, Getting a Job and ‘The Strength of Weak Ties’, ithas been acknowledged that contacts are a valuable way of getting a job, and that weak ties aremore efficient than strong ties because the former convey more original information than thelatter. We would like to challenge this overemphasizing focus of network sociology oninformation. We

Olivier Godechot

2010-01-01

123

TIES for Dummies 3rd Edition (Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection) Basic how to's to implement the TIES method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The TIES method is a forecasting environment whereby the decision-maker has the ability to easily assess and trade-off the impact of various technologies without sophisticated and time-consuming mathematical formulations. TIES provides a methodical approach where technically feasible alternatives can be identified with accuracy and speed to reduce design cycle time, and subsequently, life cycle costs, and was achieved through the use of various probabilistic methods, such as Response Surface Methodology and Monte Carlo Simulations. Furthermore, structured and systematic techniques are utilized from other fields to identify possible concepts and evaluation criteria by which comparisons can be made. This objective is achieved by employing the use of Morphological Matrices and Multi-Attribute Decision Making techniques. Through the execution of each step, a family of design alternatives for a given set of customer requirements can be identified and assessed subjectively or objectively. This methodology allows for more information (knowledge) to be brought into the earlier phases of the design process and will have direct implications on the affordability of the system. The increased knowledge allows for optimum allocation of company resources and quantitative justification for program decisions. Finally, the TIES method provided novel results and quantitative justification to facilitate decision making in the early stages of design so as to produce affordable and quality products.

Kirby, Michelle R.

2002-01-01

124

Transmission eigenvalues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In inverse scattering theory, transmission eigenvalues can be seen as the extension of the notion of resonant frequencies for impenetrable objects to the case of penetrable dielectrics. The transmission eigenvalue problem is a relatively late arrival to the spectral theory of partial differential equations. Its first appearance was in 1986 in a paper by Kirsch who was investigating the denseness of far-field patterns for scattering solutions of the Helmholtz equation or, in more modern terminology, the injectivity of the far-field operator [1]. The paper of Kirsch was soon followed by a more systematic study by Colton and Monk in the context of developing the dual space method for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium [2]. In this paper they showed that for a spherically stratified media transmission eigenvalues existed and formed a discrete set. Numerical examples were also given showing that in principle transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the far-field data. This first period of interest in transmission eigenvalues was concluded with papers by Colton et al in 1989 [3] and Rynne and Sleeman in 1991 [4] showing that for an inhomogeneous medium (not necessarily spherically stratified) transmission eigenvalues, if they existed, formed a discrete set. For the next seventeen years transmission eigenvalues were ignored. This was mainly due to the fact that, with the introduction of various sampling methods to determine the shape of an inhomogeneous medium from far-field data, transmission eigenvalues were something to be avoided and hence the fact that transmission eigenvalues formed at most a discrete set was deemed to be sufficient. In addition, questions related to the existence of transmission eigenvalues or the structure of associated eigenvectors were recognized as being particularly difficult due to the nonlinearity of the eigenvalue problem and the special structure of the associated transmission eigenvalue problem. The need to answer these questions became important after a series of papers by Cakoni et al [5], and Cakoni et al [6] suggesting that these transmission eigenvalues could be used to obtain qualitative information about the material properties of the scattering object from far-field data. The first answer to the existence of transmission eigenvalues in the general case was given in 2008 when Päivärinta and Sylvester showed the existence of transmission eigenvalues for the index of refraction sufficiently large [7] followed in 2010 by the paper of Cakoni et al who removed the size restriction on the index of refraction [8]. More importantly, in the latter it was shown that transmission eigenvalues yielded qualitative information on the material properties of the scattering object and Cakoni et al established in [9] that transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the Tikhonov regularized solution of the far-field equation. Since the appearance of these papers there has been an explosion of interest in the transmission eigenvalue problem (we refer the reader to our recent survey paper [10] for a detailed account of the developments in this field up to 2012) and the papers in this special issue are representative of the myriad directions that this research has taken. Indeed, we are happy to see that many open theoretical and numerical questions raised in [10] have been answered (totally or partially) in the contributions of this special issue: the existence of transmission eigenvalues with minimal assumptions on the contrast, the numerical evaluation of transmission eigenvalues, the inverse spectral problem, applications to non-destructive testing, etc. In addition to these topics, many other new investigations and research directions have been proposed as we shall see in the brief content summary below. A number of papers in this special issue are concerned with the question of existence of transmission eigenvalues and the structure of the associated transmission eigenfunctions. The three papers by respectively Robbiano [11], Blasten and P

Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

2013-10-01

125

Urban characteristics attributable to density-driven tie formation.  

PubMed

Motivated by empirical evidence on the interplay between geography, population density and societal interaction, we propose a generative process for the evolution of social structure in cities. Our analytical and simulation results predict both super-linear scaling of social-tie density and information contagion as a function of the population. Here we demonstrate that our model provides a robust and accurate fit for the dependency of city characteristics with city-size, ranging from individual-level dyadic interactions (number of acquaintances, volume of communication) to population level variables (contagious disease rates, patenting activity, economic productivity and crime) without the need to appeal to heterogeneity, modularity, specialization or hierarchy. PMID:23736887

Pan, Wei; Ghoshal, Gourab; Krumme, Coco; Cebrian, Manuel; Pentland, Alex

2013-01-01

126

Loss of Arctic sea ice tied to natural climate variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) is a semiperiodic 60- to 90-year natural cycle in sea surface temperatures of the North Atlantic—consisting of warm and cold periods—with a pronounced influence on climate in the region. Observational evidence and paleoclimate data show that AMO has occurred semiregularly for centuries, even millennia. Recent studies suggest that the unprecedented loss of Arctic sea ice seen in recent years is tied to the warm phase of this natural fluctuation of sea surface temperatures that began in the 1990s.

Wendel, JoAnna

2014-04-01

127

Dynamical strength of social ties in information spreading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the temporal patterns of human communication and its influence on the spreading of information in social networks. The analysis of mobile phone calls of 20 million people in one country shows that human communication is bursty and happens in group conversations. These features have the opposite effects on the reach of the information: while bursts hinder propagation at large scales, conversations favor local rapid cascades. To explain these phenomena we define the dynamical strength of social ties, a quantity that encompasses both the topological and the temporal patterns of human communication.

Miritello, Giovanna; Moro, Esteban; Lara, Rubén

2011-04-01

128

Urban characteristics attributable to density-driven tie formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by empirical evidence on the interplay between geography, population density and societal interaction, we propose a generative process for the evolution of social structure in cities. Our analytical and simulation results predict both super-linear scaling of social-tie density and information contagion as a function of the population. Here we demonstrate that our model provides a robust and accurate fit for the dependency of city characteristics with city-size, ranging from individual-level dyadic interactions (number of acquaintances, volume of communication) to population level variables (contagious disease rates, patenting activity, economic productivity and crime) without the need to appeal to heterogeneity, modularity, specialization or hierarchy.

Pan, Wei; Ghoshal, Gourab; Krumme, Coco; Cebrian, Manuel; Pentland, Alex

2013-06-01

129

Modal Analysis of Reflector Backed Hybrid Printed Bow Tie Antenna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reflector-backed hybrid of bow tie and elliptical antenna was designed and developed for UWB radar applications like ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and through-wall imaging radar (TWIR). Radiation pattern bandwidth of the antenna is found to be lesser than measured impedance bandwidth of the antenna. This anomaly was analyzed using characteristics modes of the antenna. Method of moments (MOM) using RWG basis function was used to calculate impedance matrix at each spot; frequencies and eigencurrents found were used to establish the optimum bandwidth of the antenna.

Singh, Dhiraj K.; Pande, D. C.; Bhattacharya, A.

130

Force transmissibility versus displacement transmissibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well-known that when a single-degree-of-freedom (sdof) system is excited by a continuous motion of the foundation, the force transmissibility, relating the force transmitted to the foundation to the applied force, equals the displacement transmissibility. Recent developments in the generalization of the transmissibility to multiple-degree-of-freedom (mdof) systems have shown that similar simple and direct relations between both types of transmissibility do not appear naturally from the definitions, as happens in the sdof case. In this paper, the authors present their studies on the conditions under which it is possible to establish a relation between force transmissibility and displacement transmissibility for mdof systems. As far as the authors are aware, such a relation is not currently found in the literature, which is justified by being based on recent developments in the transmissibility concept for mdof systems. Indeed, it does not appear naturally, but the authors observed that the needed link is present when the displacement transmissibility is obtained between the same coordinates where the applied and reaction forces are considered in the force transmissibility case; this implies that the boundary conditions are not exactly the same and instead follow some rules. This work presents a formal derivation of the explicit relation between the force and displacement transmissibilities for mdof systems, and discusses its potential and limitations. The authors show that it is possible to obtain the displacement transmissibility from measured forces, and the force transmissibility from measured displacements, opening new perspectives, for example, in the identification of applied or transmitted forces. With this novel relation, it becomes possible, for example, to estimate the force transmissibility matrix with the structure off its supports, in free boundary conditions, and without measuring the forces. As far as force identification is concerned, this novel approach significantly decreases the computational effort when compared to conventional approaches, as it requires only local information of the sets of coordinates involved. Numerical simulations and experimental examples are presented and discussed, to illustrate the proposed developments.

Lage, Y. E.; Neves, M. M.; Maia, N. M. M.; Tcherniak, D.

2014-10-01

131

Transmission Communication  

E-print Network

ELEC3028 Digital Transmission -- MODEM S Chen Digital Communication System . Purpose: communicate Communication System (continue) . A pair of transmitter (coder, modulator) and receiver (demodulator, decoder) is called transceiver . Information theory provides us basic communication theory for communication system

Chen, Sheng

132

Progress in remotely controlled hyperbaric pipeline tie-ins  

SciTech Connect

In recent years experience has been gained in the use of remotely installed and controlled equipment for hyperbaric pipeline tie-in operations. This has involved both the in-water construction tasks such as pipe alignment, preparation and habitat installation and tasks within the dry habitat. Central to these developments has been the introduction of mechanized orbital welding which was first used operationally in 1986. Since that date, the authors` Company has performed some 60 production tie-ins welds ranging in diameter from 8 inches to 40 inches and depths to 220 msw. The existing mechanized systems are all operated remotely but require divers assistance during the initial set-up in the habitat and to perform routine task during the course of welding such as measuring pipe fit-up, changing electrodes, servicing the wire feed and supervising the weldhead umbilicals. Progress towards fully diverless operations has been made by the development of a variety of sub-systems to carry out these routine tasks. Similarly, there has been a progressive introduction of ROV assisted tasks into construction projects often run in parallel with diving work with the objective of improving efficiency. The intention of this paper is to describe a number of the developments which will ultimately provide the basis for fully diverless hyperbaric welding.

Hutt, G. [Stolt Comex Seaway Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Pachniuk, I. [Stolt Comex Seaway, S.A., Marseille (France)

1993-12-31

133

The design and application of a Transportable Inference Engine (TIE1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Transportable Inference Engine (TIE1) system has been developed by the author as part of the Interactive Experimenter Planning System (IEPS) task which is involved with developing expert systems in support of the Spacecraft Control Programs Branch at Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. Unlike traditional inference engines, TIE1 is written in the C programming language. In the TIE1 system, knowledge is represented by a hierarchical network of objects which have rule frames. The TIE1 search algorithm uses a set of strategies, including backward chaining, to obtain the values of goals. The application of TIE1 to a spacecraft scheduling problem is described. This application involves the development of a strategies interpreter which uses TIE1 to do constraint checking.

Mclean, David R.

1986-01-01

134

[Cable ties used as tool in homicide: relevance of the DNA analysis].  

PubMed

An investigation of strangulation tools often reveals DNA of the victim. In some cases, DNA of the suspect can also be demonstrated, even in strangulation tools with a smooth surface like cables. The authors report a case of strangulation of two victims with cable ties. In addition, several used and unused cable ties were found at the crime scene. The DNA analysis detected DNA of the victims, but also genomic and mitochondrial DNA of various other persons not knowingly involved in the crime. Experiments with unused cable ties revealed that even a single handling of a cable tie may leave DNA traces. An enquiry of the companies selling cable ties showed that the cable ties are manually handled, so that foreign DNA must always be expected. PMID:17380941

Poetsch, Micaela; Klaus-Peter, Philipp; Lignitz, Eberhard

2007-01-01

135

The new Tie-1 monoclonal antibodies detect angiogenesis in metastatic malignancies.  

PubMed

Tie-1 is a transmembrane receptor expressed in vascular endothelium during angiogenic events and during embryonal growth in most mammalian species. The monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) used here are generated against the extracellular part of the Tie-1 receptor protein. We analyzed the specific binding of (125)I-labeled Tie-1 mAbs in the metastatic tumor model in mouse and in human serum samples to determine the possible use of the Tie-1 mAbs in detecting malignant growth. The in vivo biodistribution of (125)I-Tie-1 mAbs (IgG1) was evaluated in the mouse model. The same Tie-1 mAbs were used to analyze Tie-1 in patient serum samples. A high accumulation of two (125)I-Tie-1 mAbs, clones 10f11g6 and 3c4c7, was detected in the lung metastases of mouse tumor model. The uptake in the metastases is 12% injected dose/gram (ID/g; 10f11g6) and 7.8% ID/g (3c4c7) at 96 h after the injections of (125)I-Tie-1 mAbs, and the accumulation to the blood is 7% and 5% ID/g with the two mAbs, respectively. The finding directed us to analyze serum samples from lung, ovarian, and breast cancer patients. High levels of Tie-1 were detected in samples related to new pelvic or thoracic metastases in patients. Here we connect the Tie-1 levels in serum to tumor progression. The results suggest that Tie-1 mAbs can be used as a surrogate marker of progressive disease. PMID:14506179

Karnani, Päivi; Kairemo, Kalevi

2003-09-01

136

Evaluation of structured and quantitative training methodsfor teaching intracorporeal knot tying  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Background: We evaluated the effectiveness of five training methods-four structured and one unstructured-for teaching intracorporeal\\u000a knot tying. Methods: Forty-three graduate students without prior laparoscopic experience were randomly assigned to one of\\u000a five training groups, and their performance in 10 intracorporeal knot tying trials was evaluated, using time to complete a\\u000a knot as the outcome measure. Results: The average knot tying

A. M. Pearson; A. G. Gallagher; J. C. Rosser; R. M. Satava

2002-01-01

137

Prion transmission  

PubMed Central

Prion diseases range from being highly infectious, for example scrapie and CWD, which show facile transmission between susceptible individuals, to showing negligible horizontal transmission, such as BSE and CJD, which are spread via food or iatrogenically, respectively. Scrapie and CWD display considerable in vivo dissemination, with PrPSc and infectivity being found in a range of peripheral tissues. This in vivo dissemination appears to facilitate the recently reported excretion of prion through multiple routes such as from skin, feces, urine, milk, nasal secretions, saliva and placenta. Furthermore, excreted scrapie and CWD agent is detected within environmental samples such as water and on the surfaces of inanimate objects. The cycle of “uptake of prion from the environment—widespread in vivo prion dissemination—prion excretion—prion persistence in the environment” is likely to explain the facile transmission and maintenance of these diseases within wild and farmed populations over many years. PMID:20948292

Maddison, Ben C

2010-01-01

138

Tying Dark Matter to Baryons with Self-interactions  

E-print Network

Self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) models have been proposed to solve the small-scale issues with the collisionless cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm. We derive equilibrium solutions in these SIDM models for the dark matter halo density profile including the gravitational potential of both baryons and dark matter. Self-interactions drive dark matter to be isothermal and this ties the core sizes and shapes of dark matter halos to the spatial distribution of the stars, a radical departure from previous expectations and from CDM predictions. Compared to predictions of SIDM-only simulations, the core sizes are smaller and the core densities are higher, with the largest effects in baryon-dominated galaxies. As an example, we find a core size around 0.5 kpc for dark matter in the Milky Way, more than an order of magnitude smaller than the core size from SIDM-only simulations, which has important implications for indirect searches of SIDM candidates.

Manoj Kaplinghat; Ryan E. Keeley; Tim Linden; Hai-Bo Yu

2013-11-26

139

The Importance of Local Surveys for Tying Techniques Together  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The synergistic benefits of combining observations from multiple space geodesy techniques located at a site are a main reason behind the proposal for the establishment of the International Space Geodetic and Gravimetric Network (ISGN). However, the full benefits of inter-comparison are only realized when the spatial relationships between the different space geodetic systems are accurately determined. These spatial relationships are best determined and documented by developing a local reference network of stable ground monuments and conducting periodic surveys to tie together the reference points (for example: the intersection of rotation axes of a VLBI antenna) of the space geodetic systems and the ground monument network. The data obtained from local surveys is vital to helping understand any systematic errors within an individual technique and to helping identify any local movement or deformation of the space geodetic systems over time.

Long, James L.; Bosworth, John M.

2000-01-01

140

Rotorcraft transmissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Highlighted here is that portion of the Lewis Research Center's helicopter propulsion systems program that deals with drive train technology and the related mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase life, reliability, and maintainability, to reduce weight, noise, and vibration, and to maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development, followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for transmission research in the future is presented.

Coy, John J.

1990-01-01

141

Australia-EU Linkage Story Policy evolution tied to domestic political landscape abandonment of  

E-print Network

· Australia-EU Linkage Story Policy evolution tied to domestic political landscape ­ abandonment linkages Integrity of schemes essential ­ structural imbalances (usually a saturated, oversupplied market

California at Davis, University of

142

Software for Verifying Image-Correlation Tie Points  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program enables assessment of the quality of tie points in the image-correlation processes of the software described in the immediately preceding article. Tie points are computed in mappings between corresponding pixels in the left and right images of a stereoscopic pair. The mappings are sometimes not perfect because image data can be noisy and parallax can cause some points to appear in one image but not the other. The present computer program relies on the availability of a left- right correlation map in addition to the usual right left correlation map. The additional map must be generated, which doubles the processing time. Such increased time can now be afforded in the data-processing pipeline, since the time for map generation is now reduced from about 60 to 3 minutes by the parallelization discussed in the previous article. Parallel cluster processing time, therefore, enabled this better science result. The first mapping is typically from a point (denoted by coordinates x,y) in the left image to a point (x',y') in the right image. The second mapping is from (x',y') in the right image to some point (x",y") in the left image. If (x,y) and(x",y") are identical, then the mapping is considered perfect. The perfect-match criterion can be relaxed by introducing an error window that admits of round-off error and a small amount of noise. The mapping procedure can be repeated until all points in each image not connected to points in the other image are eliminated, so that what remains are verified correlation data.

Klimeck, Gerhard; Yagi, Gary

2008-01-01

143

Transmission Information  

E-print Network

Transmission Half of the unit: . Information Theory . MODEM (modulator and demodulator) Professor Sheng Chen Some improved 2G, HSCSD: high­speed circuit switched data, GPRS: general packet radio service, EDGE source demodu . Input/output are considered digital (analogue sampled/quantised) . CODEC, MODEM, channel

Chen, Sheng

144

Information Transmission Media  

E-print Network

Outline Information Transmission Media Multiplexing PSTN Local Loops Switching Physical Layer Transmission Media Multiplexing PSTN Local Loops Switching 1 Outline 2 Information Bandwidth Capacity Modulation 3 Transmission Media Guided Transmission Wireless Transmission 4 Multiplexing FDM WDM TDM CDMA 5

Ramkumar, Mahalingam

145

Information Transmission Media  

E-print Network

Outline Information Transmission Media Modulation and Multiplexing Local Loops Physical Layer Transmission Media Modulation and Multiplexing Local Loops 1 Outline 2 Information Bandwidth Capacity 3 Transmission Media Guided Transmission Wireless (Unguided) Transmission 4 Modulation and Multiplexing

Ramkumar, Mahalingam

146

Transmission Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that âÂÂprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Transmission Lines, is the fourteenth chapter in Volume II â Alternating Current. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: Circuits and the speed of light; Finite-length transmission lines; and Waveguides. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-03

147

Rotorcraft transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command share an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, this presentation outlines that portion of the program that applies to the drive train and its various mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability; reduce the weight, noise, and vibration; and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for transmission research in the future is presented.

Coy, John J.

1987-01-01

148

Being online, living offline: the influence of social ties over the appropriation of social network sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on social network sites has examined how people integrate offline and online life, but with a particular emphasis on their use by friendship groups. We extend earlier work by examining a case in which offline ties are non-existent, but online ties strong. Our case is a study of bodybuilders, who explore their passion with like-minded offline 'strangers' in tightly

Bernd Ploderer; Steve Howard; Peter Thomas

2008-01-01

149

Genones: Generalized Mixture Tying in Continuous Hidden Markov ModelBased Speech Recognizers  

E-print Network

Genones: Generalized Mixture Tying in Continuous Hidden Markov Model­Based Speech Recognizers V modeling resolution and robustness by using a new, general scheme for tying of mixture components in contin­ uous mixture­density hidden Markov model (HMM)­based speech recognizers. The sets of HMM states

Digalakis, Vassilis

150

The role of strong and weak ties in Facebook: a community structure perspective  

E-print Network

The role of strong and weak ties in Facebook: a community structure perspective Emilio Ferrara the original intuition underlying so-called weak ties and their role in complex social networks. The analysis In this paper we report our findings on the analysis of two large datasets representing the friendship structure

Ferrara, Emilio

151

Strong, Weak, and Latent Ties and the Impact of New Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that consideration of the strength of ties between communicators can help reconcile disparate results on the impact of new media on social relations. Suggests that viewing results from the perspective of the strength and nature of the social network tie can help in the use of electronic and nonelectronic means of communication. (Contains…

Haythornthwaite, Caroline

2002-01-01

152

Tie-Zone Watershed, Bottlenecks and Segmentation Robustness Analysis Romaric Audigier, Roberto de Alencar Lotufo  

E-print Network

. In this article, we define the new concept of "bottle- necks" in the watermerging paradigm. Intuitively, the bot in the image where different colored waters meet and tie and from which may begin, therefore, the tie arbitrary choices). If they are preferentially assigned to one or another colored water ac- cording

Cord, Aurélien

153

Structure, Tie Persistence and Event Detection in Large Phone and SMS Networks  

E-print Network

the studies were carried out using questionnaire data. In recent years analysis of large scale networks has through strong ties versus weak ties. Hidalgo et. al. [4] analyzed different attributes from local network struc- Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom

Murphy, Robert F.

154

Taiwan's Foreign Economic Relations with Developing Nations: A Case Study of Its Ties with Palau  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the world began shifting its diplomatic recognition and economic ties away from the Republic of China (Taiwan), and toward the People's Republic of China1 in the 1970s, the Taiwan government has solicited political and economic support from smaller nations. As of early 2000, Taiwan had formal relations with some twenty-nine countries, and most of these ties were cemented with

Eric Harwit

2000-01-01

155

The Search-Transfer Problem: The Role of Weak Ties in Sharing Knowledge across Organization Subunits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper combines the concept of weak ties from social network research and the notion of complex knowledge to explain the role of weak ties in sharing knowledge across organization subunits in a multiunit organization. I use a network study of 120 new-product development projects undertaken by 41 divisions in a large electronics company to examine the task of developing

Morten T. Hansen

1999-01-01

156

Experimentally Validated Compatibility Strut and Tie Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Piers  

E-print Network

A compatibility-based strut-and-tie model C-STM is proposed for analyzing deep beams and disturbed regions with particular emphasis on reinforced concrete bridge piers. In addition to the normal strut-and-tie force equilibrium requirements the model...

Scott, Reece Melby

2010-10-12

157

Effects of a Group Intervention on the Career Network Ties of Finnish Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors evaluated how a group-based career intervention affected career network ties among Finnish adolescents as they made educational choices and prepared for their transition to secondary education. They examined the career-related network ties of 868 students during their last year in comprehensive school (junior high school) in a…

Jokisaari, Markku; Vuori, Jukka

2011-01-01

158

CONTEXT DEPENDENT STATE TYING FOR SPEECH RECOGNITION USING DEEP NEURAL NETWORK ACOUSTIC MODELS  

E-print Network

CONTEXT DEPENDENT STATE TYING FOR SPEECH RECOGNITION USING DEEP NEURAL NETWORK ACOUSTIC MODELS of neural networks as the acoustic model of a speech recognition system has gone from novel to the most to design a tied-state inventory for a context dependent, neural network-based acoustic model for speech

Cortes, Corinna

159

Phenological variation in the composition of a temperate forest leaf tie community.  

PubMed

Arthropod communities in an array of temperate ecosystems follow similar phenological patterns of distinct compositional turnovers during the course of a season. The arthropod community inhabiting leaf ties is no exception. Many caterpillars build leaf ties, shelters between overlapping leaves attached together with silk, which are colonized secondarily by a variety of arthropods. We created experimental leaf ties by clipping overlapping leaves together with metal clips. We censused the arthropod community within experimental ties on two host plants, American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart), and white oak (Quercus alba L.), weekly for 10 wk during the summer of 2009. Diversity measures for leaf-tying caterpillars and the entire arthropod community within ties varied little between tree species and sampling periods, but caterpillar and arthropod density per tie was significantly higher on white oak than beech and abundance increased on both tree species as the season progressed. The composition (i.e., species presence and abundance) of the leaf-tying caterpillar community and the arthropod community as a whole differed between host-tree species and sampling periods. Although the arthropod communities on American beech and white oak differed, they showed similar patterns of compositional turnover, with distinct communities in early and late summer and a transitional community midsummer. PMID:23339783

Sigmon, Elisha; Lill, John T

2013-02-01

160

DEVELOPMENT OF A TOXICITY INDENTIFICATION EVALUATION (TIE) PROCEDURE FOR CHARACTERIZING METAL TOXICITY IN MARINE SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A multi-Agency effort is underway to develop whole sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) methods. Whole sediment TIE methods will be critical tools for characterizing toxicity at hazardous waste sites (e.g., Superfund sites) and in the conduct of environmental risk as...

161

DEVELOPMENT OF A TOXICITY INDENTIFICATION EVALUATION (TIE) PROCEDURE FOR CHARACTERIZING METAL TOXICITY IN MARINE SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

multiagency effort is underway to develop whole sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) methods. Whole sediment TIE methods will be critical tools for characterizing toxicity at hazardous waste sites (e.g., Superfund sites) and in the conduct of environmental risk asse...

162

On the Complexity of Voting Manipulation under Randomized Tie-Breaking Svetlana Obraztsova Edith Elkind  

E-print Network

On the Complexity of Voting Manipulation under Randomized Tie-Breaking Svetlana Obraztsova Edith Computational complexity of voting manipulation is one of the most actively studied topics in the area that whenever several candidates receive the top score with respect to the given voting rule, the resulting tie

Elkind, Edith

163

The Eastern Iowa Community College District's (EICCD) Televised Interactive Education (TIE) Evaluation Report, 1989-1990.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this report is to provide both formative and summative results concerning the 1990 academic year operation of the Eastern Iowa Community College District's (EICCD) Televised Interactive Education (TIE) system. The TIE system is composed of a two-way microwave connection whereby two colleges and one university are able to produce and…

Kabat, Ellen J.; Friedel, Janice N.

164

Social support and social interaction ties on internet addiction: integrating online and offline contexts.  

PubMed

This study explores the relationship between social support and social interaction ties on Internet addiction by integrating both online and offline social encounters. A total of 1,642 members of online social communities participated in this research, for which structural equation modeling was used for analysis. The findings show that social support is positively associated with social interaction ties in both online and offline contexts. In addition, online social support and online social interaction ties are positively associated with Internet addiction, whereas offline social support and social interaction ties on Internet addiction are negatively associated. This finding has important implications not only for understanding the cause of Internet addiction but also for understanding the diminishing Internet addiction due to social support and social interaction ties. PMID:23848959

Wang, Edward Shih-Tse; Wang, Michael Chih-Hung

2013-11-01

165

Tying dark matter to baryons with self-interactions.  

PubMed

Self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) models have been proposed to solve the small-scale issues with the collisionless cold dark matter paradigm. We derive equilibrium solutions in these SIDM models for the dark matter halo density profile including the gravitational potential of both baryons and dark matter. Self-interactions drive dark matter to be isothermal and this ties the core sizes and shapes of dark matter halos to the spatial distribution of the stars, a radical departure from previous expectations and from cold dark matter predictions. Compared to predictions of SIDM-only simulations, the core sizes are smaller and the core densities are higher, with the largest effects in baryon-dominated galaxies. As an example, we find a core size around 0.3 kpc for dark matter in the Milky Way, more than an order of magnitude smaller than the core size from SIDM-only simulations, which has important implications for indirect searches of SIDM candidates. PMID:25062162

Kaplinghat, Manoj; Keeley, Ryan E; Linden, Tim; Yu, Hai-Bo

2014-07-11

166

STRATEGIC TRANSMISSION INVESTMENT PLAN  

E-print Network

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STRATEGIC TRANSMISSION INVESTMENT PLAN Prepared in Support of the 2005 Summary and Recommendations ............................................................. 1 Transmission Transmission System Problems............................................................................. 4

167

STRATEGIC TRANSMISSION INVESTMENT PLAN  

E-print Network

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STRATEGIC TRANSMISSION INVESTMENT PLAN Prepared in Support of the 2005 ............................................................. 1 Transmission Planning and Permitting.............................................................................................. 2 Transmission System Problems

168

Primary monocytes regulate endothelial cell survival through secretion of Angiopoietin-1 and activation of endothelial Tie2  

E-print Network

Objective—Monocyte recruitment and interaction with the endothelium is imperative to vascular recovery. Tie2 plays a key role in endothelial health and vascular remodeling. We studied monocyte-mediated Tie2/angiopoietin ...

Schubert, Shai Y.

169

49 CFR 1242.15 - Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast...Structures § 1242.15 Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material,...

2011-10-01

170

49 CFR 1242.15 - Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material, ballast...Structures § 1242.15 Roadway, tunnels and subways, bridges and culverts, ties, rails, other track material,...

2010-10-01

171

Experimental investigation of line-tying effects on the spheromak tilt mode  

SciTech Connect

A variety of passive stabilization techniques compatible with S-1 inductive spheromak formation has been evaluated for effectiveness against the MHD tilting instability. A line-tying stabilization effect has been previously identified theoretically. In the present work, the effects have been experimentally identified and investigated. The perturbed current patterns within passive stabilizing structures have been measured, and line-tying currents have been identified. The simple ring model of tilting has been expanded to include line-tying, and has provided estimates for growth rates which agree well with the measured values. 51 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

Wysocki, F.J.

1986-02-01

172

78 FR 57619 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-549-829, A-570-990] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand...investigations of imports of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from Mexico, Thailand...People's Republic of China. See Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico,...

2013-09-19

173

The setting method of the specific parameters of a superconducting fault current limiter installed at the bus-tie and response of protective relays at operation of the SFCL  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the setting method of specific parameters for a resistance-type and a rectifier-type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) installed in trunk transmission lines and the response of protective relays when SFCLs operate against a system fault. This paper describes the setting method of specific parameters of an SFCL installed at a bus-tie in a trunk substation, response of

Hideyuki Kameda; Haruhito Taniguchi

2002-01-01

174

75 FR 70235 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...as a parallel loop to Columbia's Line SM-116 in Lincoln County. Columbia states...compressor station and tie in with Line SM-116 at the suction side of the Hamlin...Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC, P.O. Box 1273, Charleston, West...

2010-11-17

175

78 FR 75545 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...determines that prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire...is high carbon steel wire; stress relieved or low relaxation; indented or otherwise...suitable for use as prestressed tendons in concrete...High carbon steel is defined as...

2013-12-12

176

More Evidence Ties Some Bone-Building Drugs to Rare Fractures  

MedlinePLUS

... Evidence Ties Some Bone-Building Drugs to Rare Fractures But experts say benefits of bisphosphonates outweigh risks ... September 4, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Drug Reactions Fractures Osteoporosis THURSDAY, Sept. 4, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Taking ...

177

TIE VOXEL METHOD AND ITS QUALITY FOR 3D AIRBORNE LIDAR BLOCK ADJUSTMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

For achieving high-quality LIDARgrammetry and performing surface reconstruction by 3D point clouds acquired at different locations or in different coordinate systems, a novel method was proposed and is called tie voxel method, in which voxel denotes \\

Jaan-Rong Tsay; Chin-Yeh Liu

178

Kidney, Urinary Birth Defects Tied to Obesity in Moms-To-Be  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Kidney, Urinary Birth Defects Tied to Obesity in Moms-to-Be As weight increased, so ... Children's Hospital. "The more we find out about obesity, the more we find out what a public ...

179

Romantic Partnerships and the Dispersion of Social Ties: A Network Analysis of Relationship Status on Facebook  

E-print Network

A crucial task in the analysis of on-line social-networking systems is to identify important people --- those linked by strong social ties --- within an individual's network neighborhood. Here we investigate this question for a particular category of strong ties, those involving spouses or romantic partners. We organize our analysis around a basic question: given all the connections among a person's friends, can you recognize his or her romantic partner from the network structure alone? Using data from a large sample of Facebook users, we find that this task can be accomplished with high accuracy, but doing so requires the development of a new measure of tie strength that we term `dispersion' --- the extent to which two people's mutual friends are not themselves well-connected. The results offer methods for identifying types of structurally significant people in on-line applications, and suggest a potential expansion of existing theories of tie strength.

Backstrom, Lars

2013-01-01

180

Iron Framing Axonometric, Stringer, IBeam, Channel, Composite TieBeam, and Small ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Iron Framing Axonometric, Stringer, I-Beam, Channel, Composite Tie-Beam, and Small and Large Phoenix Columns - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

181

Toward a Dynamic Conceptualization of Social Ties and Context: Implications for Understanding Immigrant and Latino Health  

PubMed Central

Researchers have posited that social ties and social support may contribute to better-than-expected health outcomes among Mexican immigrants vis-à-vis their US-born counterparts. However, in our review of studies examining social ties and health by immigration-related variables among this group, we found little support for this hypothesis. To better understand the social factors that contribute to the health of Mexicans in the United States, we conducted a qualitative analysis of social relationships and social context among first- and second-generation Mexican women. Our results highlight the interplay between immigration processes and social ties, draw attention to the importance of identity support and transnational social relationships, and suggest ways to reconceptualize the relationship between social contexts, social ties, and immigrant and Latino health. PMID:19833986

Schulz, Amy J.

2009-01-01

182

Comparison of Methods for Evaluating Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Tie-Tube Designs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the fundamental structural components in a nuclear thermal rocket design is the tie tube. Proper cooling and flow modeling is important both for the structural integrity of the reactor core and for proper design of downstream components that operate on the hydrogen exiting the tie tube. Two models have been developed. The first is a spreadsheet-based tool designed for sizing tie-tube components, considering mechanical stress and strain limits, deposited moderator power, thermal expansion along the flow path, and conduction from adjacent fuel blocks. The second is a three-dimensional SINDA/FLUINT model used as a benchmark, containing a complete finite-element fuel block and a 1/6th tie-tube model. This paper discusses the performance of both models, as well as the advantages and limitations of each.

Kapernick, Richard J.; Dixon, David D.

2008-01-01

183

CHARACTERIZATION AND ISOLATION OF ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN WHOLE SEDIMENT TOXICITY INDENTIFICATION EVALUATIONS (TIES)  

EPA Science Inventory

Development of whole sediment toxicity identification and evaluation (TIEs) methods has been under way for approximately four years. These methods are necessary to define cause and effect relationships in toxic sediments during ecological risk assessments, remediation and disposa...

184

Discrete spectrum terahertz imaging using bow-tie diodes: optimized antenna designs and arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimization routes to optimize the operation of InGaAs bow-tie diodes were demonstrated using simulations based on 3D finite-difference time-domain method. Calculations of the electromagnetic field amplitude distribution in a detector plane were performed. Three types of designs - bow-tie diode itself, log-periodic antenna and log-periodic antenna coupled with the bow-tie diode were analyzed; it was determined that frequency properties of such antennacoupled device can be tuned via variation of antenna shape and size. Multi-pixel InGaAs bow-tie diodes arrays of different designs - narrow band and broadband operation - were designed and fabricated. They were demonstrated to be well suited for continuous wave room temperature spectroscopic terahertz imaging at 0.58 THz and at 1.63 THz.

Minkevi?ius, Linas; Madeikis, Karolis; Kašalynas, Irmantas; Venckevi?ius, Rimvydas; Seliuta, Dalius; TamošiÅ«nas, Vincas; Valušis, Gintaras

2013-09-01

185

Discovery of 100-Plus Genes Tied to Autism May Improve Treatments  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Discovery of 100-Plus Genes Tied to Autism May Improve Treatments Disorder has ... 29, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Autism Spectrum Disorder Genes and Gene Therapy WEDNESDAY, Oct. 29, 2014 (HealthDay ...

186

For Immediate Release --Tuesday, Apr. 23, 2013 University of Lethbridge strengthens ties with high school  

E-print Network

strengthens ties with high school students with 2nd Annual Let's DO Science Day with local high school students by organizing an event that provides hands inspire them to consider careers in science after graduating from high school

Morris, Joy

187

Bucket wheel excavator: Integrity assessment of the bucket wheel boom tie-rod welded joint  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bucket wheel boom tie-rods are vital structural parts of the bucket wheel excavators (BWE). Their failures inevitably cause BWE collapse and are followed, among other things, by a substantial financial loss (millions of €). Non-destructive testing revealed a flaw in the butt welded joint of the body and eye-plate of the bucket wheel tie-rod. Its size exceeds the level

Sr?an M. Bošnjak; Miodrag A. Arsi?; Nenad ?. Zrni?; Marko P. Rakin; Milorad P. Panteli?

2011-01-01

188

Diverless flowline connector makes three tie-ins in 1,000-ft water  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews a remote operated vehicle (ROV) by Sonsub International Inc. in the South China Sea. In March, 1996 this company completed three subsea diverless flowline tie-ins in over 1000 feet of water at the Amoco Orient Petroleum Co. operated Liuhua 11-1 field. The paper briefly describes the design and operation of the equipment and the methods actually used by the ROV to tie in the flow lines.

NONE

1996-07-01

189

Inhibition of Tyrosine Kinase Receptor Tie2 Reverts HCV-Induced Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease (CLD) and is frequently linked to intrahepatic microvascular disorders. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) is a central event in liver damage, due to their contribution to hepatic renewal and to the development of fibrosis and hepatocarcinoma. During the progression of CLDs, HSC attempt to restore injured tissue by stimulating repair processes, such as fibrosis and angiogenesis. Because HSC express the key vascular receptor Tie2, among other angiogenic receptors and mediators, we analyzed its involvement in the development of CLD. Methods Tie2 expression was monitored in HSC cultures that were exposed to media from HCV-expressing cells (replicons). The effects of Tie2 blockade on HSC activation by either neutralizing antibody or specific signaling inhibitors were also examined. Results Media from HCV-replicons enhanced HSC activation and invasion and upregulated Tie2 expression. Notably, the blockade of Tie2 receptor (by a specific neutralizing antibody) or signaling (by selective AKT and MAPK inhibitors) significantly reduced alpha-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) expression and the invasive potential of HCV-conditioned HSC. Conclusions These findings ascribe a novel profibrogenic function to Tie2 receptor in the progression of chronic hepatitis C, highlighting the significance of its dysregulation in the evolution of CLDs and its potential as a novel therapeutic target. PMID:25302785

Lopez-Rodriguez, Rosario; Hernandez-Bartolome, Angel; Borque-Inurrita, Maria Jesus; Molina-Jimenez, Francisca; Garcia-Buey, Luisa; Moreno-Otero, Ricardo; Sanz-Cameno, Paloma

2014-01-01

190

$m=1$ Ideal Internal Kink Modes in a Line-tied Screw Pinch  

E-print Network

It is well known that the radial displacement of the $m=1$ internal kink mode in a periodic screw pinch has a steep jump at the resonant surface where $\\mathbf{k}\\cdot\\mathbf{B}=0$. In a line-tied system, relevant to solar and astrophysical plasmas, the resonant surface is no longer a valid concept. It is then of interest to see how line-tying alters the aforementioned result for a periodic system. If the line-tied kink also produces a steep gradient, corresponding to a thin current layer, it may lead to strong resistive effects even with weak dissipation. Numerical solution of the eigenmode equations shows that the fastest growing kink mode in a line-tied system still possesses a jump in the radial displacement at the location coincident with the resonant surface of the fastest growing mode in the periodic counterpart. However, line-tying thickens the inner layer and slows down the growth rate. As the system length $L$ approaches infinity, both the inner layer thickness and the growth rate approach the periodic values. In the limit of small $\\epsilon\\sim B_{\\phi}/B_{z}$, the critical length for instability $L_{c}\\sim\\epsilon^{-3}$. The relative increase in the inner layer thickness due to line-tying scales as $\\epsilon^{-1}(L_{c}/L)^{2.5}$.

Yi-Min Huang; Ellen G. Zweibel; Carl R. Sovinec

2006-07-17

191

West Nile Virus: Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... About CDC.gov . West Nile Virus Share Compartir Transmission West Nile virus is most commonly transmitted to ... fully cooking meat from either birds or mammals. Transmission cycle West Nile Virus Transmission Cycle [PDF - 1 ...

192

STRATEGIC TRANSMISSION INVESTMENT PLAN  

E-print Network

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STRATEGIC TRANSMISSION INVESTMENT PLAN Prepared in Support of the 2007. Blevins #12; i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The 2007 Strategic Transmission Investment Plan was prepared: Bartridge, James, Judy Grau, Mark Hesters, Don Kondoleon, Chuck Najarian. 2007 Strategic Transmission

193

STRATEGIC TRANSMISSION INVESTMENT PLAN  

E-print Network

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STRATEGIC TRANSMISSION INVESTMENT PLAN Prepared in Support of the 2007 B. B. Blevins Executive Director #12; i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The 2007 Strategic Transmission Kondoleon, Chuck Najarian. 2007 Strategic Transmission Investment Plan. California Energy Commission

194

Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations  

SciTech Connect

The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

2011-02-01

195

Merchant transmission investment  

E-print Network

We examine the performance attributes of a merchant transmission investment framework that relies on "market driven" transmission investment to provide the infrastructure to support competitive wholesale markets for ...

Joskow, Paul L.

2003-01-01

196

Mental activation of supportive ties, hostility, and cardiovascular reactivity to laboratory stress in young men and women.  

PubMed

In addition to actual social interactions, internal representations of supportive ties could affect mechanisms linking relationships and health. Undergraduates (41 men, 41 women) wrote about supportive ties or casual acquaintances. Supportive ties were rated as warmer and less controlling than acquaintances, and writing about them evoked reductions in negative affect, especially for low-hostile participants. Compared with the acquaintance condition, the supportive tie condition resulted in reduced heart rate and blood pressure response during a subsequent speech stressor. Among women, the supportive tie condition reduced blood pressure response among low- but not among high-hostile participants. Hence, mental activation of supportive ties altered effects of laboratory stress and might be relevant to the effects of social relations on health. PMID:15367067

Smith, Timothy W; Ruiz, John M; Uchino, Bert N

2004-09-01

197

Ties between event times and jump times in the Cox model.  

PubMed

Methods for dealing with tied event times in the Cox proportional hazards model are well developed. Also, the partial likelihood provides a natural way to handle covariates that change over time. However, ties between event times and the times that discrete time-varying covariates change have not been systematically studied in the literature. In this article, we discuss the default behavior of current software and propose some simple methods for dealing with such ties. A simulation study shows that the default behavior of current software can lead to biased estimates of the coefficient of a binary time-varying covariate and that two proposed methods (Random Jitter and Equally Weighted) reduce estimation bias. The proposed methods can be easily implemented with existing software. The methods are illustrated on the well-known Stanford heart transplant data and data from a study on intimate partner violence and smoking. PMID:23172770

Xin, X; Horrocks, J; Darlington, G A

2013-06-30

198

Relief of Residual Stress in Streamline Tie Rods by Heat Treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

About two-thirds of the residual stress in cold-worked SAE 1050 steel tie rods was relieved by heating 30 minutes at 600 degrees Fahrenheit. Cold-worked austenitic stainless-steel tie rods could be heated at temperatures up to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit without lowering the important physical properties. The corrosion resistance, in laboratory corrosion test, of straight 18:8 and titanium-treated 18:8 materials appeared to be impaired after heating at temperatures above 800 degrees or 900 degrees fahrenheit. Columbium-treated and molybdenum-treated 18:8 steel exhibited improved stability over a wide range of temperatures. Tie rods of either material could be heated 30 minutes with safety at any temperature up to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit. At this temperature most of the residual stress would be relieved.

Pollard, R E; Reinhart, Fred M

1941-01-01

199

RTS-ROV operated tie-in system for low cost subsea developments  

SciTech Connect

A new type pull-in and connection system is developed for very deep waters. The system is called ROV-operated Tie-in System (RTS). Main objectives during the development phase was to make a tool system more or less independent of water depth, use of simple low cost installation vessels, minimum equipment left subsea, minimum support structure sizes, simple control system, various launching methods possible and use of field proven clamp hub and seal assemblies. The result has been a very cost effective tie-in system which is a key factor for reduction of total field development costs. The capacity for the tool is 10 inch 3,000 psi flexible flow lines or alternatively 9 inch 5,000 psi. The RTS replaces divers during tie-in operations and can be used down to at least 1500 m water depth.

Halle, P.O.

1995-12-31

200

A New Strategy for Tie-Line Power Regulation of HydroThermal Interconnected Power System Based on Benefit Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering different character between hydroelectric power and thermal power contributed to tie-line, as well as the cost function of the whole interconnected system under electric power market environments, this paper presents a new optimization strategy based on benefit analysis to solve the power regulation on tie-line in hydro-thermal interconnected power system. The units relating to tie-line can be procured by

Wu Jiekang; Han Junfeng; Jiang Cheng; Lu Wenling

2009-01-01

201

Early diagenetic degradation products of bacteriohopanepolyols produced by Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain TIE-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anoxygenic purple non-sulphur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain TIE-1 has emerged as an excellent model organism to study hopanoid biosynthesis and function. It produces several C30 hopanoids, tetrahymanol, as well as various bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs). In addition, TIE-1 is capable of methylating various hopanoids and the non-hopanoid pentacyclic terpenoid tetrahymanol at C-2, which is rare among hopanoid producers. Here, the lipid inventory of TIE-1 under anoxic photoautotrophic growth conditions using either H2 or Fe(II) as electron donor was studied. Adenosylhopane, aminotriol and bacteriohopanetetrol (BHT) were abundant when TIE-1 was grown on H2, but aminotriol and BHT were only found in traces when grown with Fe(II). Only during growth on Fe(II), BHT was found with and without C-2 methylation (25% of both BHT homologues), whereas the other BHPs were not C-2 methylated independent of growth mode. In C30 hopanoids and tetrahymanol, C-2 methylated compounds accounted for as much as 59% of the respective C-2 methylated/non-methylated homologues during growth with Fe(II), but only up to 24% during growth with H2. This observation reveals that C-2 methylated hopanoids may have a specific function in TIE-1 and are preferably synthesized in response to elevated Fe(II) concentrations. Further, we exposed the bacterial cells of strain TIE-1 to elevated temperatures and pressure aiming to produce early degradation products of bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs). While so far, only few BHPs such as 32,35-anhydrobacteriohopanetetrol (anhydroBHT) have been identified as early diagenetic degradation products, in our experiments bacteriohopanetetrol (BHT) and possibly adenosylhopane were degraded to various anhydroBHT isomers, and new N-containing degradation products were discovered and tentatively assigned as anhydroaminotriols.

Eickhoff, Merle; Birgel, Daniel; Talbot, Helen M.; Peckmann, Jörn; Kappler, Andreas

2014-05-01

202

Effects of the Al content on pore structures of porous TieAl alloys  

SciTech Connect

Porous TieAl alloys with different nominal compositions were fabricated through a reactive synthesis of Ti and Al elemental powders. It has been found that the pore parameters vary with the Al contents, indicating that the nature of the pores can be manipulated through changing the Al contents. In addition, detailed structural characterizations showed that the fabricated porous TieAl alloys can have three crystalline phases (i.e., a2-Ti3Al, g-TiAl, and TiAl3) when using different compositions. The fundamental reasons behind these phenomena have been explored.

Jaing, Y [State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China; He, Y H [State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China; Xu, N P [Membrane Science and Technology Research Center, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009, C; Zou, J [School of Engineering and Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Queensland, QLD; Huang, B [State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China; Lui, C T [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

2008-01-01

203

Flexible AC transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation and components of the flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) are described. FACTS, designed to overcome the limitations of the present mechanically controlled AC power transmission systems, uses reliable, high-speed power electronic controllers. Its benefits are examined. These include greater control of power, so that it flows on the prescribed transmission routes; secure loading of transmission lines to levels

N. G. Hingorani

1993-01-01

204

Taurine prevents high glucose-induced angiopoietin-2/tie-2 system alterations and apoptosis in retinal microvascular pericytes.  

PubMed

Previously, we confirmed that taurine prevented diabetes-induced apoptosis in retinal glial cells via its anti-oxidation and anti-glutamate excitotoxicity mechanisms. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of taurine on angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2)/Tie-2 system expressions and apoptosis in high glucose-treated retinal microvascular pericytes (RMPs). Also, the possible mechanism involved in the inhibition of taurine on RMPs apoptosis is investigated. The expressions of Ang-2, Tie-2 were detected by qRT-PCR and ELISA. The level of phosphorylated Tie-2 (P-Tie-2) was examined by ELISA. Hoechst 33342 and Annexin V/PI staining were used to detect RMPs apoptosis. The activity of caspase-3 was detected by assay kit. In 25 mM high glucose group, the expression of Ang-2 was increased significantly, taurine down-regulated Ang-2 in a dose (0.1, 1, and 10 mM)-dependent manner (P < 0.05). The Tie-2 expression and P-Tie-2 level were decreased in high glucose group (P < 0.05). Interestingly, taurine at 1 and 10 mM showed significant increase in Tie-2 expression and P-Tie-2 level (P < 0.05). The number of apoptotic RMPs and the activity of caspase-3 increased in the presence of high glucose (P < 0.05). Treatment with taurine at 1 mM decreased the number of apoptotic RMPs and the activity of caspase-3 (P < 0.05). Blocking antibody and small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment showed that taurine required Tie-2 to perform its anti-apoptotic effect. Taken together, our data suggest that high glucose-induced Ang-2/Tie-2 system expressions alteration can be reversed by taurine, and that taurine can inhibit high glucose-induced RMPs apoptosis via Tie-2. PMID:25060907

Zeng, Kaihong; Ming, Jian; Yang, Na; Wang, Jing; Yu, Xuemei; Song, Yi; Yang, Yongtao

2014-11-01

205

Place of Origin, Types of Ties, and Support Networks in Mexico-U.S. Migration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies explored how urban or rural place of origin influences the source of social capital. There remains a need to consider how the place of origin affects the type of ties--family, friends, or "paisanos" (countrymen)--with those who provide support to migrants. We use data from the Mexican Migration Project (MMP128) and perform…

Flores-Yeffal, Nadia Y.; Aysa-Lastra, Maria

2011-01-01

206

Local search for stable marriage problems with ties and incomplete lists  

E-print Network

means finding a stable marriage of maximum size. In this paper we investigate the use of a local searchLocal search for stable marriage problems with ties and incomplete lists M. Gelain1 , M. S. Pini1. Stability is an envy-free notion: no man and woman who are not married to each other would both prefer each

Rossi, Francesca

207

The Learning Region: The Impact of Social Capital and Weak Ties on Innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hauser C., Tappeiner G. and Walde J. (2007) The learning region: the impact of social capital and weak ties on innovation, Regional Studies41, 75–88. Theories that emphasize the role of proximity and tacit knowledge in innovation processes highlight the importance of social interaction and networking for the diffusion of knowledge. A concept that captures the impact of human relations on

Christoph Hauser; Gottfried Tappeiner; Janette Walde

2007-01-01

208

Family ties, parental discipline, and delinquency: A study of youthful misbehavior by parochial high school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The links among family ties, parental discipline, as measured by the use of physical punishment, and self?reported acts of misbehavior have intrigued sociologists for almost 75 years. However, the available literature regarding the incidence of youthful misbehavior provides few insights into these putative links for families where the parents make the effort to send their child or children to a

Larry E. Williams; Lawrence Clinton; L. Thomas Winfree; Robert E. Clark

1992-01-01

209

Oligopsonistic Landlords, Segmented Labor Markets, and the Persistence of Tied-Labor Contracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines contractual labor arrangements in agrarian economies that persist as a consequence of market power on the part of landlords faced with output uncertainty. We show that a segmented labor market characterized by tied-labor contracts and involuntary unemployment in the lean season are optimal as compared to a labor hiring arrangement that guarantees full employment of labor in

Arnab K. Basu

2002-01-01

210

An Agent Model for a Human's Social Support Network Tie Preference during Depression  

E-print Network

An Agent Model for a Human's Social Support Network Tie Preference during Depression Azizi A. Aziz}@few.vu.nl Abstract Seeking support from their environment is important for people suffering from a depression. People. Keywords: depression, social support networks preference, simulation model 1. INTRODUCTION Depression

Treur, Jan

211

Heart Defects in Gulf Tuna Seen Tied to 2010 BP Oil Spill  

E-print Network

Heart Defects in Gulf Tuna Seen Tied to 2010 BP Oil Spill By Jim Efstathiou Jr. Mar 25, 2014 12 exposed tuna larvae raised in land-based hatcheries to oil collected at the time of the spill:00 AM ET Photographer: Gerard Soury Atlantic Bluefin Tuna. Crude oil from BP Plc (BP/)'s 2010 Gulf

Grosell, Martin

212

Ideal Kink Modes In a Line-Tied Screw Pinch With Finite Plasma Pressure*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for computing ideal magnetohydrodynamic linear eigenmodes in a cylindrical screw pinch with line-tying boundary conditions is presented. In this method, plasma volume is reflected over one of the end plates, and equations and field components are continued on the extended volume with the continuation rules prescribed by the line-tying boundary conditions. Field components in the combined volume are expanded in Fourier series in the axial coordinate. The resulting set of coupled differential equations is solved numerically in the radial coordinate yielding growth rates and eigenmodes for the system. Example of an m=1 (m is poloidal mode number) internal kink instability in force-free plasma equilibrium with uniform pressure is considered. In contrast to a periodic screw pinch, marginally stable perturbations are essentially compressible in line-tied geometry. Finite compressibility makes the mode more stable in addition to usual line-tying stabilization in zero pressure plasma. The critical length corresponding to marginal stability increases with the increase of plasma beta. A universal axial dependence for marginally stable density perturbations ?(r, z) = ?(r) exp(- i z / q(r)) is predicted analytically and confirmed numerically (q = r Bz/B? ). The work was supported by the U.S. D.O.E. and N.S.F.

Mirnov, V. V.; Svidzinski, V. A.; Li, H.

2008-11-01

213

m =1 ideal kink modes in a line-tied screw pinch with finite plasma pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for computing ideal magnetohydrodynamic linear eigenmodes in a cylindrical screw pinch with line-tying boundary conditions at the axial ends is presented. In this method, plasma volume is reflected over one of the end planes, and equations and field components are continued into the extended volume with the continuation rules prescribed by the line-tying boundary conditions. Field components in the combined volume are expanded in Fourier series in the axial coordinate. The resulting set of coupled differential equations is solved numerically in the radial coordinate by a finite difference method yielding growth rates and eigenmodes for the system. An example of an m =1 (m is the poloidal wave number) internal kink instability in a force-free plasma equilibrium with uniform pressure is considered. In contrast to a periodic screw pinch, marginally stable perturbations are essentially compressible in the line-tied geometry. Finite compressibility makes the mode more stable in addition to the usual line-tying stabilization in zero pressure plasma. The critical length corresponding to the marginal stability increases with the increase of plasma beta. A universal axial dependence for marginally stable density perturbations ?(r ,z)=?(r)exp[-iz?(r)] is predicted analytically and confirmed numerically, where ?(r ) depends on the equilibrium magnetic field components as ?(r )=B¯?/rB¯z.

Svidzinski, V. A.; Mirnov, V. V.; Li, H.

2008-09-01

214

The relationship between governance and NPD performance and the mediating role of tie strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of governance modes (trust and unilateral control) on new product development (NPD) performance and the mediating role of tie strength. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Survey research was conducted to collect data from 112 NPD relationships and structural equation modeling was conducted to test the hypotheses. Findings – The results suggest

E. Teimoury; M. Fesharaki; A. Bazyar

2011-01-01

215

The relationship between modes of governance and relational tie in new product development relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to examine the impact of trust, norm of information sharing, and vertical control on relational ties in new product development (NPD) relationships. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Survey research was conducted to collect data from 112 NPD relationships and structural equation modeling was conducted to test the hypotheses. Findings – The results suggest that trust and norms of

Ebrahim Teimoury; Mehdi Fesharaki; Afshar Bazyar

2010-01-01

216

Language of the People Forever: Bay Mills Spins Thread Tying Ojibwa Communities Together  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why would anyone want to spend thousands of hours away from home and pay hundreds of dollars in tuition to acquire one of the world's most difficult languages? For Anishinaabe people, that is an easy question to answer. The Ojibwe language is the thread that ties communities together and unites all Anishinaabe as one people sharing a common…

Austin, Brenda

2008-01-01

217

Non-Equilibrium and Current Sheet Formation in Line-Tied  

E-print Network

· A theorem on Parker's model [Ng & Bhattacharjee, 1998] · Future directions Solar corona: heating problem://science.nasa.gov/ssl/PAD/solar/quests.htm Solar corona: heating problem #12;Solar corona: basic parameters photosphere corona Temperature DensityNon-Equilibrium and Current Sheet Formation in Line-Tied Magnetic Fields: Heating of the Solar

Ng, Chung-Sang

218

TIE2-expressing monocytes/macrophages regulate revascularization of the ischemic limb  

PubMed Central

A third of patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) will eventually require limb amputation. Therapeutic neovascularization using unselected mononuclear cells to salvage ischemic limbs has produced modest results. The TIE2-expressing monocytes/macrophages (TEMs) are a myeloid cell subset known to be highly angiogenic in tumours. This study aimed to examine the kinetics of TEMs in patients with CLI and whether these cells promote neovascularization of the ischemic limb. Here we show that there are 10-fold more circulating TEMs in CLI patients, and removal of ischemia reduces their numbers to normal levels. TEM numbers in ischemic muscle are two-fold greater than normoxic muscle from the same patient. TEMs from patients with CLI display greater proangiogenic activity than TIE2-negative monocytes in vitro. Using a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia, lentiviral-based Tie2 knockdown in TEMs impaired recovery from ischemia, whereas delivery of mouse macrophages overexpressing TIE2, or human TEMs isolated from CLI patients, rescued limb ischemia. These data suggest that enhancing TEM recruitment to the ischemic muscle may have the potential to improve limb neovascularization in CLI patients. PMID:23653322

Patel, Ashish S; Smith, Alberto; Nucera, Silvia; Biziato, Daniela; Saha, Prakash; Attia, Rizwan Q; Humphries, Julia; Mattock, Katherine; Grover, Steven P; Lyons, Oliver T; Guidotti, Luca G; Siow, Richard; Ivetic, Aleksandar; Egginton, Stuart; Waltham, Matthew; Naldini, Luigi; De Palma, Michele; Modarai, Bijan

2013-01-01

219

DYADS, COLLECTIVE SANCTIONS, AND CULTURE: WEAKNESS OF STRONG TIES IN A CHINESE MICROLOAN PROGRAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT What is the relationship of strong dyadic ties to collective sanctions? This article considers three perspectives on sanctions (as power, as burden, and as cultural constructs) in investigatinga case in rural China where villagers in a group incentive microcredit program are held accountable for one another’s conduct. Relying on 94 interviews in Yunnan villages, this article finds that social

Becky Hsu

220

Financial Ties between DSM-IV Panel Members and the Pharmaceutical Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Increasing attention has been given to the transparency of potential conflicts of interest in clinical medicine and biomedical sciences, particularly in journal publishing and science advisory panels. The authors examined the degree and type of financial ties to the pharmaceutical industry of panel members responsible for revisions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders(DSM). Methods: By using

Lisa Cosgrove; Sheldon Krimsky; Manisha Vijayaraghavan; Lisa Schneider

2006-01-01

221

Structural experimentation: The lintel arch, corbel and tie in western Roman architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper investigates the origins and development of the lintel arch, corbel and metal tie in Roman architecture, concentrating on the structural principles involved and the structural and constructional advantages of each, as a means of investigating the processes of Roman architectural innovation outside the normal parameters of the ‘concrete revolution’. All three devices are seen to derive ultimately from

Janet DeLaine

1990-01-01

222

Failure Mode and Effect Analysis of Concrete Ties in orth America  

E-print Network

Failure Mode and Effect Analysis of Concrete Ties in orth America John C. Zeman, J. Riley Edwards Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Summary: A failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA in the context of the system. An analysis procedure that is commonly used to predict and prevent failures

Barkan, Christopher P.L.

223

Response of FBGs in Microstructured and Bow Tie Fibers Embedded in Laminated Composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fiber Bragg gratings in bow tie fiber and highly birefringent microstructured optical fiber are embedded in a carbon fiber reinforced epoxy. The Bragg peak wavelength shifts of the embedded gratings are measured under controlled bending, transversal loading, and thermal cycling of the composite sample. We obtain similar axial and transversal strain sensitivities for the two embedded fiber types. We also

Geert Luyckx; Eli Voet; Thomas Geernaert; Karima Chah; Tomasz Nasilowski; Wim De Waele; Wim Van Paepegem; Martin Becker; Hartmut Bartelt; Waclaw Urbanczyk; Jan Wojcik; Joris Degrieck; Francis Berghmans; Hugo Thienpont

2009-01-01

224

The Representation of Multiplication Facts: Developmental Changes in the Problem Size, Five, and Tie Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we investigated the development of basic effects that have been found in single-digit multiplication arithmetic: the problem size, five, and tie effects. Participants (9-,10-, and 11-year-olds and adults) performed a production task on simple multiplication. The procedure replicated Campbell and Graham's (1985) study ["Canadian…

De Brauwer, Jolien; Verguts, Tom; Fias, Wim

2006-01-01

225

Motivation vs. relevance: Using strong ties to find a job in Urban China  

E-print Network

While the idea that contacts matter in finding a job is intuitively appealing, we still do not know—after decades of research—how and why strong ties benefit job seekers. To resolve this confusion, we need to theorize how ...

Obukhova, Elena

226

The Ties That Bond: Re-Examining the Relationship between Facebook Use and Bonding Social Capital  

E-print Network

The Ties That Bond: Re-Examining the Relationship between Facebook Use and Bonding Social Capital established a positive relationship between measures of Facebook use and perceptions of social capital. Like other social network sites, Facebook is especially well-positioned to enhance users' bridging social

Michigan, University of

227

On Facebook, Most Ties are Weak The emergence of pervasive socio-technical networks brings new  

E-print Network

On Facebook, Most Ties are Weak Abstract The emergence of pervasive socio-technical networks brings's theory can be extended to online social networks like Facebook, suggesting to use interaction data requires knowledge of the topology of the social network, e.g., who is friend with whom on Facebook. Our

Ferrara, Emilio

228

CIVIL ENGINEERING "Our future as a nation will be closely tied to space, energy, the  

E-print Network

CIVIL ENGINEERING Memphisat "Our future as a nation will be closely tied to space, energy, the environment, and our ability to interact with and compete in the global economy. As a civil engineer, you, or management ­ civil engineering offers you a wide range of career choices." -American Society of Civil

Dasgupta, Dipankar

229

Business Advisor at TIE Center andysons@c3bb.com  

E-print Network

Andy Sons Business Advisor at TIE Center andysons@c3bb.com Summary Warehouse Manager for two. Manage our family owned business. Responsible for payroll and tax liabilities. Maintain corporate records. Small Business Advisor for Indiana Small Business Development Center in South Eastern Indiana. Provide

230

Abstract.-Reeffish communi-ties at Gray's ReefNational Marine  

E-print Network

Abstract.-Reeffish communi- ties at Gray's ReefNational Marine Sanctuary, Georgia, differed over, composition, and habitat utilization at Gray~ Reef National Marine Sanctuary, Georgia Richard O. Parker Jr changes in commu- nity structure associated with dif- ferent depths and water tempera- tures. Although

231

Social Ties within School Classes: The Roles of Gender, Ethnicity, and Having Older Siblings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we identify the lines along which social ties between high-school teenagers are primarily formed. To this end, we introduce interaction weights between pupils in the same school class that are a function of exogenous individual background characteristics, such as gender, ethnicity, and having older siblings. The resulting model with endogenous interactions and school-specific fixed effects is estimated

Adriaan R. Soetevent; Peter Kooremany

2005-01-01

232

The Length of Bridge Ties: Structural and Geographic Properties of Online Social Interactions  

E-print Network

The Length of Bridge Ties: Structural and Geographic Properties of Online Social Interactions Yana Volkovich Barcelona Media Foundation yana.volkovich@barcelonamedia.org Salvatore Scellato University of Cambridge ss824@cam.ac.uk David Laniado Barcelona Media Foundation david.laniado@barcelonamedia.org Cecilia

Mascolo, Cecilia

233

Tongue-Tied: The Lives of Multilingual Children in Public Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tongue-Tied is an anthology that gives voice to millions of people who, on a daily basis, are denied the opportunity to speak in their own language. First-person accounts by Amy Tan, Sherman Alexie, Bell Hooks, Richard Rodriguez, Maxine Hong Kingston, and many other authors open windows into the lives of linguistic minority students and their…

Santa Ana, Otto

2004-01-01

234

Social Ties and Cognitive Recovery after Stroke: Does Social Integration Promote Cognitive Resilience?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Little is known about the possible effects of social resources on stroke survivors’ level and change in cognitive outcomes. Understanding this association may help us identify strategies to improve stroke recovery and help elucidate the etiology of dementia. Methods: We examined the relationship of social ties and social support to cognitive function and cognitive change 6 months after stroke.

M. Maria Glymour; Jennifer Weuve; Martha E. Fay; Thomas Glass; Lisa F. Berkman

2008-01-01

235

Overview of UIUC's Concrete Cross-tie and Fastening System Laboratory Study  

E-print Network

· Instrumentation plan overview · Preliminary laboratory test ­ Built up load cell feasibility study ­ Partial Laboratory Study Slide 7 · Strain gauge locations: Lateral built-up load cell ­ moment & shear force Vertical Built-up Load Cell #12;Overview of UIUC's Concrete Cross Tie and Fastening System Laboratory Study Slide

Barkan, Christopher P.L.

236

Rat liver microsomal desaturase activi-ties during undernutrition. N Narce 1,2,N Narce  

E-print Network

Rat liver microsomal desaturase activi- ties during undernutrition. N Narce 1,2,N Narce JP Poisson in the rat liver these enzyme activities dur- ing a 40- and 60-d diet restriction period. Ten control Wistar activities were determined by incubation of liver microsomes in the presence of appropriate labelled

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

237

Department Bent Grant Rules, GAO Finds. Award Tied to Bennett's Former Firm Questioned  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. Department of Education (DOE) bypassed its own policies when officials awarded a grant early in President Bush's first term that benefited a company founded by former Secretary of Education William J. Bennett, as well as others to groups with close ties to the administration, federal auditors have concluded. The Government Accountability…

Davis, Michelle R.

2006-01-01

238

o blind people develop superior abili-ties in auditory perception to compen-  

E-print Network

D o blind people develop superior abili- ties in auditory perception to compen- sate for their lack, but it is not clear whether this enhanced awareness extends to other auditory domains, such as listening to music of pitch change between sounds, even when the speed of change is ten times faster than that perceived

Behe, Michael J.

239

Non-Equilibrium and Current Sheet Formation in Line-Tied  

E-print Network

mapping connected with the identity mapping, there is at most one smooth equilibrium. (Ng & Bhattacharjee. Field-lines are tied at z = 0 and z = L. Footpoint Mapping: x (z) = X[x (0),z], x (L) = X[x (0), L on a field line) Can we have more than one smooth equilibrium for a given smooth footpoint mapping? #12;A

Ng, Chung-Sang

240

Positive Cross-Regulatory Loop Ties GATA-3 to Estrogen Receptor A Expression in Breast Cancer  

E-print Network

Positive Cross-Regulatory Loop Ties GATA-3 to Estrogen Receptor A Expression in Breast Cancer Je, the functional role of GATA-3 in ERA- positive breast cancers is yet to be established. Here, we show that GATA-3 is required for estradiol stimulation of cell cycle progression in breast cancer cells. The role of GATA-3

Brown, Myles

241

Innovation search of new ventures in a technology cluster: the role of ties with service intermediaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examine the relationships between new ventures' ties with service intermediaries (i.e., technology service firms, accounting and financial service firms, law firms, and talent search firms) and their product innovation in the context of a technology cluster. Because service intermediaries sit at the intersection of many firms, organizations and industries, they maintain extensive networks in a cluster.

Yan Zhang; Haiyang Li

2009-01-01

242

Where's @wally? A Classification Approach to Geolocating Users Based on their Social Ties  

E-print Network

Where's @wally? A Classification Approach to Geolocating Users Based on their Social Ties Dominic an approach to geolocating users of on- line social networks, based solely on their `friendship' con- nections, in many cases, a person's social network is sufficient to reveal their location. The geolocation problem

Bontcheva, Kalina

243

Being the Boss Tied to Depression Risk for Women, but Not Men  

MedlinePLUS

... Being the Boss Tied to Depression Risk for Women, But Not Men Women in powerful positions may be judged harshly, researcher ... 21, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Depression Occupational Health Women's Health FRIDAY, Nov. 21, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Being ...

244

Complex Singular Points of the Tie-Line Vector Field Diagrams of Ternary Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex singular points of the tie-line vector field diagrams of liquid-vapor ternary systems are considered in terms of the theory of stationary vector fields and bifurcation theory. These complex singular points are found to be tangential azeotropic points of different orders, which play a decisive role in transformations of the diagrams of heterogeneous mixtures.

L. A. Serafimov; T. V. Chelyuskina

2005-01-01

245

Cancer sequencing initiative discovers mutations tied to aggressive childhood brain tumors  

Cancer.gov

Researchers studying a rare, lethal childhood tumor of the brainstem discovered that nearly 80 percent of the tumors have mutations in genes not previously tied to cancer. Early evidence suggests the alterations play a unique role in other aggressive pediatric brain tumors as well.

246

Laboratory Testing to Address the Potential for Damaging Hydraulic Pressure in the Concrete Tie Rail Seat  

E-print Network

Rail Seat TRB 11-3395 Submitted for publication in the proceedings of the Transportation Research Board@illinois.edu 3 Corresponding author #12;Zeman et al. 11-3395 1 ABSTRACT Rail seat deterioration (RSD water pressure in a laboratory rail seat using tie pads of differing material composition and geometry

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

247

Treatment of Complex Fistula in Ano with Cable-Tie Seton: A Prospective Case Series  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine the fecal incontinence and recurrence rate in patients with complex fistula in ano managed with cable tie seton at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Methods. This is a prospective case series of patients with complex anal fistula i.e. recurrent fistula or encircling >30% of external anal sphincter, managed with cable tie seton from March 2003 to March 2009. Patients were seen in the clinic after 72 hours of seton insertion under anesthesia and then every other week. Each time the cable-tie was tightened if found loose without anesthesia and incontinence was inquired according to wexner's score. Results. Seventy nine patients were treated during the study period with the age (mean ± standard deviation) of 41 ± 10.6 years and. The seton was tightened with a median of six times (3–15 times range). Complete healing was achieved in 11.2 ± 5.7 weeks. All the patients were followed for a minimum period of one year and none of the patients had any incontinence. Recurrence was found in 4 (5%) patients. Conclusion. The cable tie seton is safe, cost effective and low morbidity option for the treatment of complex fistulae-in-ano. It can, therefore, be recommended as the standard of treatment for complex fistulae-in-ano requiring the placement of a seton. PMID:22084768

Memon, Ayaz Ahmad; Murtaza, Ghulam; Azami, Rizwan; Zafar, Hasnain; Chawla, Tabish; Laghari, Altaf Ali

2011-01-01

248

Maintaining Ties on Social Media Sites: The Competing Effects of Balance, Exchange, and Betweenness  

E-print Network

for using social media data to begin isolating the effects of three distinct social forces on relationshipMaintaining Ties on Social Media Sites: The Competing Effects of Balance, Exchange, and Betweenness@cs.cornell.edu Abstract When users interact with one another on social media sites, the volume and frequency

Kleinberg, Jon

249

From Gut Knowing: Every Silver Cloud Has a Black Lining. Actor Reflections on "Ties That Bind."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Makes sense of the performance of Steve Taylor's play, "Ties That Bind," from the perspective of the actors, 14 faculty members, and doctoral students from various universities in the United States by using the interpretive lens of Erving Goffman's Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. (SG)

Elmes, Michael

2003-01-01

250

The Attributional Responses of Young Female Athletes after Winning, Tying, and Losing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the attributions of female athletes for their personal and their team's performance after winning, tying, and losing a competitive soccer game. Players' attributions were made to the internal factors of ability and effort and to the external factors of opponent difficulty and luck. (Authors/CJ)

Scanlan, Tara K.; Passer, Michael W.

1980-01-01

251

Method for evaluating bow tie filter angle-dependent attenuation in CT: Theory and simulation results  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Dosimetry in computed tomography (CT) is increasingly based on Monte Carlo studies that define the dose in the patient (in mGy) as a function of air kerma (free in air) at isocenter (mGy). The accuracy of Monte Carlo studies depends in part on the accuracy of the characterization of the bow tie filter for a given CT scanner model. A simple method for characterizing the bow tie filter attenuation profile in CT scanners would therefore be very useful. The theory behind such a method is proposed. Methods: A measurement protocol is discussed mathematically and demonstrated using computer simulation. The proposed method requires the placement of a radiation monitor at the periphery of the CT field, and the time domain signal (kerma rate versus time) is measured with good temporal resolution (?200 Hz or better) and with all other objects (e.g., patient couch) retracted from the field of view. Knowledge of the source to isocenter distance (or alternately, the isocenter to probe distance) is required. The stationary detector records the kerma rate versus time signal as the gantry rotates through several revolutions. From this temporal data, signal processing techniques are used to extract in-phase peaks, as well as out-of-phase kerma rate levels. From these data, the distance from isocenter to the probe can be determined (or, alternatively, the source to isocenter distance), and the angle-dependent bow tie filter attenuation can be computed. By measuring the angle-dependent bow tie filter attenuation at several kVp settings, the bow tie composition versus fan angle can be computed using basis decomposition techniques. Results: The simulations illustrated that with 2% added noise in the kerma rate versus time signal, the attenuation properties of a hypothetical two component (aluminum and polymethyl methacrylate) bow tie filter could be determined (r2>0.99). Although the computed basis material thicknesses were not exactly equal to the actual thicknesses, their combined attenuation factors matched that of the actual filter across kVp’s to within an average of 0.057%. Conclusions: It is concluded that the proposed method may provide a simple noninvasive approach to characterizing the performance of bow tie filters in CT systems; however, experimental validation is necessary. PMID:20175464

Boone, John M.

2010-01-01

252

Development and Testing of a Prototype Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed and tested a prototype 2 kW DC grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system at the Center. The PV system has generated in excess of 6700 kWh since operation commenced in July 2006. The PV system is providing power to the GRC grid for use by all. Operation of the prototype PV system has been completely trouble free. A grid-tied PV power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners. GRC personnel glean valuable experience with PV power systems that are directly applicable to various space power systems, and provide valuable space program test data. PV power systems help to reduce harmful emissions and reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels. Power generated by the PV system reduces the GRC utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Present global energy concerns reinforce the need for the development of alternative energy systems. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics has been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Based upon the success of the prototype PV system, additional PV power system expansion at GRC is under consideration. The prototype grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed which served to validate the basic principles described, and the theoretical work that was performed. The report concludes that grid-tied photovoltaic power systems are reliable, maintenance free, long life power systems, and are of significant value to NASA and the community.

Eichenberg, Dennis J.

2009-01-01

253

Weak ties: Subtle role of information diffusion in online social networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a social media, online social networks play a vital role in the social information diffusion. However, due to its unique complexity, the mechanism of the diffusion in online social networks is different from the ones in other types of networks and remains unclear to us. Meanwhile, few works have been done to reveal the coupled dynamics of both the structure and the diffusion of online social networks. To this end, in this paper, we propose a model to investigate how the structure is coupled with the diffusion in online social networks from the view of weak ties. Through numerical experiments on large-scale online social networks, we find that in contrast to some previous research results, selecting weak ties preferentially to republish cannot make the information diffuse quickly, while random selection can achieve this goal. However, when we remove the weak ties gradually, the coverage of the information will drop sharply even in the case of random selection. We also give a reasonable explanation for this by extra analysis and experiments. Finally, we conclude that weak ties play a subtle role in the information diffusion in online social networks. On one hand, they act as bridges to connect isolated local communities together and break through the local trapping of the information. On the other hand, selecting them as preferential paths to republish cannot help the information spread further in the network. As a result, weak ties might be of use in the control of the virus spread and the private information diffusion in real-world applications.

Zhao, Jichang; Wu, Junjie; Xu, Ke

2010-07-01

254

Finite element analyses of continuous filament ties for masonry applications:final report for the Arquin Corporation.  

SciTech Connect

Finite-element analyses were performed to simulate the response of a hypothetical masonry shear wall with and without continuous filament ties to various lateral loads. The loads represented three different scenarios: (1) 100 mph wind, (2) explosive attack, and (3) an earthquake. In addition, a static loading analysis and cost comparison were performed to evaluate optimal materials and designs for the spacers affixed to the filaments. Results showed that polypropylene, ABS, and polyethylene (high density) were suitable materials for the spacers based on performance and cost, and the short T-spacer design was optimal based on its performance and functionality. Results of the shear-wall loading simulations revealed that simulated walls with the continuous filament ties yielded factors of safety that were at least ten times greater than those without the ties. In the explosive attack simulation (100 psi), the simulated wall without the ties failed (minimum factor of safety was less than one), but the simulated wall with the ties yielded a minimum factor of safety greater than one. Simulations of the walls subject to lateral loads caused by 100 mph winds (0.2 psi) and seismic events with a peak ground acceleration of 1 ''g'' (0.66 psi) yielded no failures with or without the ties. Simulations of wall displacement during the seismic scenarios showed that the wall with the ties resulted in a maximum displacement that was 20% less than the wall without the ties.

Quinones, Armando (Arquin Corporation, La Luz, NM); Bibeau, Tiffany A.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

2006-06-01

255

Transmission Cycles of Plague  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image contains the transmission sylvatic and urban cycles of plague (Yersinia pestis)in the United States. It also shows some of the differences in transmission between bubonic and pneumonic plague.

American Society For Microbiology;

2004-08-27

256

Chickenpox (Varicella): Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... Multimedia Related Links Medline Plus Healthfinder.gov Shingles Transmission Español: Transmisión "Chickenpox Parties"—Don't Take the ... For more information about how shingles spreads, see Transmission . When Is a Person Contagious? A person with ...

257

Lyme Disease Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... Veterinarians Tool kit Lyme disease quiz Lyme disease transmission The Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi , is spread ... treatment. There are no reports of Lyme disease transmission from breast milk. Although no cases of Lyme ...

258

Transmission of Mumps  

MedlinePLUS

... this page: About CDC.gov . Mumps Share Compartir Transmission of Mumps Español: Transmisión de las paperas Mumps ... and rubs their mouth or nose. Most mumps transmission likely occurs before the salivary glands begin to ...

259

Genetically engineered neural transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural transmission is a communication between neurons and target cells, resulting in behavioral and physiological changes. Defective or altered neural transmission is thought to occur in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative illnesses. To probe the biological consequences of defective or altered neural transmission, various genetically engineered transgenic mouse models have been developed, together with conventional pharmacological manipulation. Via genetic manipulation, we are

J H Son; T H Joh

1997-01-01

260

Scale effects in transmissivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterogeneity accounts for several paradoxes in groundwater flow and solute transport. One of the most striking observations is the emergence of scale effects in transmissivity, that is, the increase in effective transmissivity (or hydraulic conductivity, for that matter) with increasing scale of observation. Traditional stochastic approaches, where transmissivity is treated as a multilog-normal random function, lead to a large-scale effective

Xavier Sánchez-Vila; Jesús Carrera; Jorge P. Girardi

1996-01-01

261

Transmission through the  

E-print Network

Optimum Transmission through the GMAC D. Calabuig, R. Gohary, H. Yanikomero. 1/22 Introduction System model Optimization Algorithm Conclusions Optimum Transmission through the Gaussian Multiple Access Engineering Carleton University Ottawa, Canada July 8, 2013 #12;Optimum Transmission through the GMAC D

Yanikomeroglu, Halim

262

Performance Incentives for Transmission  

E-print Network

Performance Incentives for Transmission FERC's Standard Market Design should accommodate a performance-based regulation mechanism that is designed to align the interests of transmission operators to investment, transmission investors would be entitled to the CRRs or CRR auc- tion revenues engendered

Oren, Shmuel S.

263

Space laser power transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed laser transmission applications are reviewed. Technologies for laser power transmissions are assessed. Feasible laser mission systems are set out. Components by wavelength are summarized. Feasible space to space laser power transmission systems are summarized. Space laser transmitter masses for 1 MW and 100 KW output power are summarized.

1982-01-01

264

Contextualizing nativity status, social ties, and ethnic enclaves: Implications for understanding immigrant and Latino health paradoxes  

PubMed Central

Objectives Researchers have posited that one potential explanation for the better-than-expected health outcomes observed among some Latino immigrants, vis-à-vis their U.S.-born counterparts, may be the strength of their social ties and social support among immigrants. Methods We examined the association between nativity status and social ties using data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study’s Latino subsample, which includes Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and other Latinos. First, we used Ordinary Least Squares [OLS] regression methods to model the effect of nativity status on five outcomes: informal social integration; social network diversity; network size; instrumental support; and informational support. Using multilevel mixed effects regression models, we estimated the association between Latino/immigrant neighborhood composition on our outcomes, and whether these relationships varied by nativity status. Lastly, we examined the relationship between social ties and immigrants’ length of time in the United States. Results After controlling for individual-level characteristics, immigrant Latinos had significantly lower levels of social ties than their U.S.-born counterparts for all our outcomes, except for informational support. Latino/immigrant neighborhood composition was positively associated with being socially integrated and having larger and more diverse social networks. The associations between two of our outcomes (informal social integration and network size) and living in a neighborhood with greater concentrations of Latinos and immigrants were stronger for U.S.-born Latinos than for immigrant Latinos. U.S.-born Latinos maintained a significant socialties advantage compared to immigrants—regardless of length of time in the United States—for informal social integration, network diversity, and network size. Conclusion At the individual level, our findings challenge the assumption that Latino immigrants would have larger networks and/or higher levels of support and social integration than their U.S.-born counterparts. Our study underscores the importance of understanding the contexts that promote the development of social ties. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding Latino and immigrant social ties and health outcomes. PMID:23947776

Viruell-Fuentes, Edna A.; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.; Williams, David R.; House, James S.

2014-01-01

265

Local effects of redundant terrestrial and GPS-based tie vectors in ITRF-like combinations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tie vectors (TVs) between co-located space geodetic instruments are essential for combining terrestrial reference frames (TRFs) realised using different techniques. They provide relative positioning between instrumental reference points (RPs) which are part of a global geodetic network such as the international terrestrial reference frame (ITRF). This paper gathers the set of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI)-global positioning system (GPS) local ties performed at the observatory of Medicina (Northern Italy) during the years 2001-2006 and discusses some important aspects related to the usage of co-location ties in the combinations of TRFs. Two measurement approaches of local survey are considered here: a GPS-based approach and a classical approach based on terrestrial observations (i.e. angles, distances and height differences). The behaviour of terrestrial local ties, which routinely join combinations of space geodetic solutions, is compared to that of GPS-based local ties. In particular, we have performed and analysed different combinations of satellite laser ranging (SLR), VLBI and GPS long term solutions in order to (i) evaluate the local effects of the insertion of the series of TVs computed at Medicina, (ii) investigate the consistency of GPS-based TVs with respect to space geodetic solutions, (iii) discuss the effects of an imprecise alignment of TVs from a local to a global reference frame. Results of ITRF-like combinations show that terrestrial TVs originate the smallest residuals in all the three components. In most cases, GPS-based TVs fit space geodetic solutions very well, especially in the horizontal components (N, E). On the contrary, the estimation of the VLBI RP Up component through GPS technique appears to be awkward, since the corresponding post fit residuals are considerably larger. Besides, combination tests including multi-temporal TVs display local effects of residual redistribution, when compared to those solutions where Medicina TVs are added one at a time. Finally, the combination of TRFs turns out to be sensitive to the orientation of the local tie into the global frame.

Abbondanza, Claudio; Altamimi, Zuheir; Sarti, Pierguido; Negusini, Monia; Vittuari, Luca

2009-11-01

266

The Missing Link: the Role of Floodplain Tie Channels in Connecting Off River Water Bodies to Lowland Rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along lowland river systems across the globe the exchange of water, sediment, carbon, nutrients and biota between main stem rivers and off-river water bodies (ORWB) is facilitated by the presence of stable secondary channels referred to here as tie channels. Sixty five percent of the ORWB along the middle Fly River in Papua New Guinea connect to the river through such channels. A similar percentage of the 37 ORWB located between Baton Rouge and Memphis on the lower Mississippi River at one time were linked to the river by tie or batture (as they are locally known) channels. Levee construction and other alterations aimed at flood control or navigation on the Mississippi have left only a handful of lakes connected to the river, of these, most are heavily altered by dredging or other modifications. Tie channels were also once common along major tributaries to the Mississippi, such as the Red River. In the much less disturbed Alaskan environment, tie channels are still common, especially along Birch Creek and the Koyukuk and Black rivers. Our studies on the Mississippi River, in Alaska and in Papua New Guinea indicate that tie channels possess a common channel form that is stable and self-maintaining for hundreds to possibly a thousand years. Tie channels exhibit narrow width to depth ratios (~ 5.5) and consistently scale in cross-sectional dimensions to the size of the lake into which they flow. Variations in river and lake stage drive flow bi-directionally through tie channels. A local high or sill in the bed of tie channels controls the degree and duration of connection between the river and ORWB, with many lakes becoming isolated during periods of low stage. The life-span of a tie channel depends on the rate of sediment loading to the ORWB. Our research indicates that this rate directly corresponds to the sediment loading in the main stem river. Along the Fly River, for example, a 5 to 7 fold increase in the river sediment load has resulted increases of 6 to 17 times in tie channel progradation rates. In a few instances Fly River tie channels have become filled with sediment following the increase in sediment loading. The precise role of tie channels in the ecology of lowland river systems has yet to be quantified, but given their critical role in connecting rivers with floodplain habitats it is likely they provide an important source of refuge, breeding habitat, and biomass production for many aquatic organisms. As restoration efforts increasingly focus on the improving or reestablishing connectivity between lowland rivers and their floodplains, consideration should be given as to whether tie channels are an important missing component of such systems.

Rowland, J. C.; Dietrich, W. E.; Day, G.

2005-05-01

267

RF Transmission Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. After completing this module, learners will be able to describe the type of transmission lines needed in RF systems and how transmission lines work together with other RF system components to deliver maximum power while maintaining reflected power. They also learn how to interpret transmission line specifications, select a transmission line for a given application, calculate transmission line power losses, and measure standing wave ratio. Finally, this module will use visual examples and present industry best practices for identifying type of connectors used with transmission lines and procedures for transmission line testing and troubleshooting.

2012-12-07

268

Use of marine TIE methods in determining causes of toxicity to fish in a public marine aquarium  

SciTech Connect

Aquarium personnel observed that a number of organisms in the coral reef tank were succumbing to fungal and other diseases. It was suspected that organisms were compromised due to a common environmental stressor because many types of fish were affected. One possible stressor was the home-made painted coral decor in the tank. The coral reef decor was crumbling in several sections of the display and release of toxic agents was suspected. A water sample containing broken pieces of the decor was shipped to the lab and a TIE performed. Phase 1 TIE results indicated that toxicity to Mysidopsis bahia (mysid shrimp) was removed after EDTA addition and to some extent after cation exchange column treatment.None of the other TIE manipulations affected toxicity. Metal analyses indicated high concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd. To rule out the possibility of pathogens, irradiation was conducted as a novel TIE method. Results of further identification and confirmation methods using differing cation exchange column treatment. None of the other TIE manipulations affected toxicity. Metal analyses indicated high concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd. To rule out the possibility of pathogens, irradiation was conducted as a novel TIE method. Results of further identification and confirmation methods using differing cation exchange columns will be presented. This study demonstrates a unique application of TIE methods.

Ho, K.T.; Kuhn, A.; Burgess, R.M.; Pelletier, M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States); Charles, J. [Science Application International Corp., Narragansett, RI (United States)

1995-12-31

269

Rural-to-urban migrant adolescents in Guangzhou, China: psychological health, victimization, and local and trans-local ties.  

PubMed

Despite the emerging literature on the health of rural-to-urban migrant children in China, few studies have addressed victimization stressors and stress-buffering mechanisms related to the social relationships that link migrants to their host cities (local ties) and home communities (trans-local ties). This study compared rural-to-urban migrant adolescents and urban native adolescents to examine the relationships between victimization, local and trans-local ties, and mental well-being that might be unique to migrants. Participants were 482 migrant students and 838 urban native students in the eighth grade in Guangzhou who completed a school-based survey in spring 2011. Victimization was associated with suboptimal psychological health in both the migrant and urban native samples. Social ties directly boosted psychological health in both samples, with the effects of trans-local and local ties proving equally important among migrant adolescents. While both local and trans-local ties moderated the effect of victimization on migrant adolescents, that moderation mattered less for urban native youth. These results highlight that a better understanding of victimization stress and how it is affected by the locality of social ties as a coping resource could help to protect the health of young migrants in urban China. PMID:23906129

Cheung, Nicole W T

2013-09-01

270

Dendrometer bands made easy: using modified cable ties to measure incremental growth of trees  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dendrometer bands are a useful way to make sequential repeated measurements of tree growth, but traditional dendrometer bands can be expensive, time consuming, and difficult to construct in the field. An alternative to the traditional method of band construction is to adapt commercially available materials. This paper describes how to construct and install dendrometer bands using smooth-edged, stainless steel, cable tie banding and attachable rollerball heads. As a performance comparison, both traditional and cable tie dendrometer bands were installed on baldcypress trees at the National Wetlands Research Center in Lafayette, Louisiana, by both an experienced and a novice worker. Band installation times were recorded, and growth of the trees as estimated by the two band types was measured after approximately one year, demonstrating equivalence of the two methods. This efficient approach to dendrometer band construction can help advance the knowledge of long-term tree growth in ecological studies.

Anemaet, Evelyn R.; Middleton, Beth A.

2013-01-01

271

Highly modular bow-tie gene circuits with programmable dynamic behaviour.  

PubMed

Synthetic gene circuits often require extensive mutual optimization of their components for successful operation, while modular and programmable design platforms are rare. A possible solution lies in the 'bow-tie' architecture, which stipulates a focal component-a 'knot'-uncoupling circuits' inputs and outputs, simplifying component swapping, and introducing additional layer of control. Here we construct, in cultured human cells, synthetic bow-tie circuits that transduce microRNA inputs into protein outputs with independently programmable logical and dynamic behaviour. The latter is adjusted via two different knot configurations: a transcriptional activator causing the outputs to track input changes reversibly, and a recombinase-based cascade, converting transient inputs into permanent actuation. We characterize the circuits in HEK293 cells, confirming their modularity and scalability, and validate them using endogenous microRNA inputs in additional cell lines. This platform can be used for biotechnological and biomedical applications in vitro, in vivo and potentially in human therapy. PMID:25311543

Prochazka, Laura; Angelici, Bartolomeo; Haefliger, Benjamin; Benenson, Yaakov

2014-01-01

272

Interplay of network dynamics and heterogeneity of ties on spreading dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of a network dramatically affects the spreading phenomena unfolding upon it. The contact distribution of the nodes has long been recognized as the key ingredient in influencing the outbreak events. However, limited knowledge is currently available on the role of the weight of the edges on the persistence of a pathogen. At the same time, recent works showed a strong influence of temporal network dynamics on disease spreading. In this work we provide an analytical understanding, corroborated by numerical simulations, about the conditions for infected stable state in weighted networks. In particular, we reveal the role of heterogeneity of edge weights and of the dynamic assignment of weights on the ties in the network in driving the spread of the epidemic. In this context we show that when weights are dynamically assigned to ties in the network, a heterogeneous distribution is able to hamper the diffusion of the disease, contrary to what happens when weights are fixed in time.

Ferreri, Luca; Bajardi, Paolo; Giacobini, Mario; Perazzo, Silvia; Venturino, Ezio

2014-07-01

273

Utility-scale grid-tied PV inverter reliability workshop summary report.  

SciTech Connect

A key to the long-term success of the photovoltaic (PV) industry is confidence in the reliability of PV systems. Inverters are the most commonly noted cause of PV system incidents triggered in the field. While not all of these incidents are reliability-related or even necessarily failures, they still result in a loss of generated power. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technologies Program, Sandia National Laboratories organized a Utility-Scale Grid-Tied Inverter Reliability Workshop in Albuquerque, New Mexico, January 27-28, 2011. The workshop addressed the reliability of large (100-kilowatt+) grid-tied inverters and the implications when such inverters fail, evaluated inverter codes and standards, and provided discussion about opportunities to enhance inverter reliability. This report summarizes discussions and presentations from the workshop and identifies opportunities for future efforts.

Granata, Jennifer E.; Quintana, Michael A.; Tasca, Coryne Adelle (SRA International, Inc., Fairfax, VA); Atcitty, Stanley

2011-07-01

274

Employing static excitation control and tie line reactance to stabilize wind turbine generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical representation of a wind turbine generator is presented which employs blade pitch angle feedback control. A mathematical model was formulated. With the functioning MOD-0 wind turbine serving as a practical case study, results of computer simulations of the model as applied to the problem of dynamic stability at rated load are also presented. The effect of the tower shadow was included in the input to the system. Different configurations of the drive train, and optimal values of the tie line reactance were used in the simulations. Computer results revealed that a static excitation control system coupled with optimal values of the tie line reactance would effectively reduce oscillations of the power output, without the use of a slip clutch.

Hwang, H. H.; Mozeico, H. V.; Guo, T.

1978-01-01

275

Neighborhood disorder, fear, and mistrust: the buffering role of social ties with neighbors.  

PubMed

This paper proposes that individuals who report that they live in neighborhoods characterized by disorder--by crime, vandalism, graffiti, danger, noise, dirt, and drugs--have high levels of fear and mistrust. It further proposes that an individual's alliances and connections with neighbors can buffer the negative effects of living in a neighborhood characterized by disorder on fear and mistrust. Results from a representative sample of 2482 Illinois residents collected by telephone in 1995 support the propositions. Living in a neighborhood with a lot of perceived disorder significantly affects mistrust and the fear of victimization, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Perceived neighborhood disorder and social ties significantly interact: informal social ties with neighbors reduce the fear- and mistrust-producing effects of disorder. However, formal participation in neighborhood organizations shows little buffering effect. PMID:10965384

Ross, C E; Jang, S J

2000-08-01

276

Silicon-on-insulator field effect transistor with improved body ties for rad-hard applications  

DOEpatents

A silicon-on-insulator (SOI) field-effect transistor (FET) and a method for making the same are disclosed. The SOI FET is characterized by a source which extends only partially (e.g. about half-way) through the active layer wherein the transistor is formed. Additionally, a minimal-area body tie contact is provided with a short-circuit electrical connection to the source for reducing floating body effects. The body tie contact improves the electrical characteristics of the transistor and also provides an improved single-event-upset (SEU) radiation hardness of the device for terrestrial and space applications. The SOI FET also provides an improvement in total-dose radiation hardness as compared to conventional SOI transistors fabricated without a specially prepared hardened buried oxide layer. Complementary n-channel and p-channel SOI FETs can be fabricated according to the present invention to form integrated circuits (ICs) for commercial and military applications.

Schwank, James R. (Albuquerque, NM); Shaneyfelt, Marty R. (Albuquerque, NM); Draper, Bruce L. (Albuquerque, NM); Dodd, Paul E. (Tijeras, NM)

2001-01-01

277

Inter-organisational knowledge transfer in social networks: A definition of intermediate ties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A social network perspective helps identify and analyse informal knowledge transfer among people and organisations with the\\u000a aim to recommend organisational interventions and improvements, for example in the form of Information and Communication Technology\\u000a (ICT) support. This paper particularly focuses on a key concept of social network analysis (SNA), the concept of tie strength,\\u000a in an inter-organisational knowledge transfer context.

Silke Retzer; Pak Yoong; Val Hooper

278

Estimation of the Force on the Syringe Tie-rods from Fringing  

E-print Network

SS304L or SS316L. · However Stainless Steel 17-4 PH was used. ­ This stainless steel is martensitic-rod is in blue · Tie-rod is assumed to have the B-H properties of 1010 steel for these calculations. · The lower on a Surface Surrounding the Steel · The force from the Maxwell stress tensor is given by the following

McDonald, Kirk

279

Can guanxi be a problem? Contexts, ties, and some unfavorable consequences of social capital in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social capital is generally believed to enhance the effectiveness of organizations in certain cultural contexts. However,\\u000a even with substantial social capital in place, China, during its economic transition towards market systems in the past decades,\\u000a witnessed problems stemming from underdevelopment and organizational dysfunction. To address this paradox, we delineate a\\u000a unique type of networks-based social capital in China: dense strong-ties

Jun Lin; Steven X. Si

2010-01-01

280

Experience with elastic rubber bands for the tie-over dressing in skin graft.  

PubMed

We derived a dressing using elastic rubber bands to tie over the skin graft. This is a simple, easy to perform, timesaving, inexpensive and reliable method for applying pressure over the skin graft compared with traditional methods. Between September 2002 and August 2004, we have used the present dressing technique in 35 patients with 36 grafts in various parts of the body. We chose this method, because of some anatomic areas, such as back, and buttock, which are frequently quite difficult to maintain pressure dressings in place, minimal movement can cause the skin graft to dislodge. The elastic rubber bands, rather than threads, are used as tie-over. Such a dressing permits expansion and contraction, providing a dynamic quality in the most difficult anatomic locations. The patient group consisted of 23 males and 12 females. The age ranged from 34 to 82 years (mean 52.4 years). Defect size ranged from 3x2.5 to 30x20 cm2 (mean 11.2x7.0 cm2 in size). The average follow-up was 5.8 months (range: 1-12 months). Among the 36 grafts in our study, all grafts except four showed good to excellent results. The mean graft successful rate is 88%. With our procedure no hematoma formation or shearing force (except one case) occurred in this group of patients during the phase of revascularization, there was, hence, good fixation of the graft by the "tie-over" dressing using elastic rubber bands compared with conventional tie-over dressing, especially in skin grafts of the back site of body and at large graft area. However, it is not suitable for the potentially infectious granulation beds, especially near joint area. PMID:16448764

Cheng, Li-Fu; Lee, Jiunn-Tat; Chou, Trong-Duo; Chiu, Tai-Feng; Sun, Tzong-Bor; Wang, Chien-Hsing; Chien, Sou-Hsin; Wang, Hsian-Jenn

2006-03-01

281

CO[sub 2] for EOR is plentiful but tied to oil price  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of the US CO[sub 2] resources from the Rocky Mountain area are tied to West Texas and New Mexico Permian basin enhanced oil recovery projects and the price relationship of crude oil to CO[sub 2]. Several general areas within the US are known to contain in situ commercial grade CO[sub 2] deposits, including central Mississippi and a number of

1994-01-01

282

Differential Disclosure Across Social Network Ties Among Women Living with HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women’s disclosure of their HIV serostatus across social network ties was examined in a sample of women living in Los Angeles\\u000a (n = 234), using multivariate random intercept logistic regressions. Women with disclosure-averse attitudes were less likely\\u000a to disclose, while women with higher CD4+ counts were significantly more likely to disclose, regardless of relationship type.\\u000a Relative to all other types of relationships,

Eric Rice; Scott Comulada; Sara Green; Elizabeth Mayfield Arnold; Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus

2009-01-01

283

Selection based on the size of the black tie of the great tit may be reversed in urban habitats  

PubMed Central

A standard approach to model how selection shapes phenotypic traits is the analysis of capture–recapture data relating trait variation to survival. Divergent selection, however, has never been analyzed by the capture–recapture approach. Most reported examples of differences between urban and nonurban animals reflect behavioral plasticity rather than divergent selection. The aim of this paper was to use a capture–recapture approach to test the hypothesis that divergent selection can also drive local adaptation in urban habitats. We focused on the size of the black breast stripe (i.e., tie width) of the great tit (Parus major), a sexual ornament used in mate choice. Urban great tits display smaller tie sizes than forest birds. Because tie size is mostly genetically determined, it could potentially respond to selection. We analyzed capture/recapture data of male great tits in Barcelona city (N = 171) and in a nearby (7 km) forest (N = 324) from 1992 to 2008 using MARK. When modelling recapture rate, we found it to be strongly influenced by tie width, so that both for urban and forest habitats, birds with smaller ties were more trap-shy and more cautious than their larger tied counterparts. When modelling survival, we found that survival prospects in forest great tits increased the larger their tie width (i.e., directional positive selection), but the reverse was found for urban birds, with individuals displaying smaller ties showing higher survival (i.e., directional negative selection). As melanin-based tie size seems to be related to personality, and both are heritable, results may be explained by cautious personalities being favored in urban environments. More importantly, our results show that divergent selection can be an important mechanism in local adaptation to urban habitats and that capture–recapture is a powerful tool to test it. PMID:25077014

Senar, Juan Carlos; Conroy, Michael J; Quesada, Javier; Mateos-Gonzalez, Fernando

2014-01-01

284

Angiopoietin/Tie2 Signaling Transforms Capillaries into Venules Primed for Leukocyte Trafficking in Airway Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key angiogenic factor in tumors, but less is known about what drives vascular remodeling in inflammation, where plasma leakage and leukocyte influx are prominent features. In chronic airway inflammation in mice infected by the bacterium Mycoplasma pulmonis (M. pulmonis), the segment of the microvasculature that supports leukocyte adhesion and migration expands through remodeling of capillaries into vessels with features of venules. Here, we report that the angiopoietin/Tie2 pathway is an essential driving force for capillary remodeling into venules in M. pulmonis–infected mouse airways. Similar to M. pulmonis infection, systemic overexpression of angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) resulted in remodeling of airway capillaries into venular-like vessels that expressed venous markers like P-selectin, ICAM-1, and EphB4 and were sites of leukocyte adhesion during lipopolysaccharide-induced acute inflammation. Ang1 and Ang2 protein increased in M. pulmonis–infected mouse airways but came from different cellular sources: Ang1 was expressed in infiltrating neutrophils and Ang2 in endothelial cells. Indeed, systemic administration of soluble Tie2 inhibited capillary remodeling, induction of venous markers, and leukocyte influx in M. pulmonis–infected mouse airways. Together, these findings suggest that blockade of the Ang/Tie2 pathway may represent a therapeutic approach in airway inflammation. PMID:20133818

Fuxe, Jonas; Lashnits, Erin; O'Brien, Shaun; Baluk, Peter; Tabruyn, Sebastien P.; Kuhnert, Frank; Kuo, Calvin; Thurston, Gavin; McDonald, Donald M.

2010-01-01

285

Social Features of Online Networks: The Strength of Intermediary Ties in Online Social Media  

PubMed Central

An increasing fraction of today's social interactions occur using online social media as communication channels. Recent worldwide events, such as social movements in Spain or revolts in the Middle East, highlight their capacity to boost people's coordination. Online networks display in general a rich internal structure where users can choose among different types and intensity of interactions. Despite this, there are still open questions regarding the social value of online interactions. For example, the existence of users with millions of online friends sheds doubts on the relevance of these relations. In this work, we focus on Twitter, one of the most popular online social networks, and find that the network formed by the basic type of connections is organized in groups. The activity of the users conforms to the landscape determined by such groups. Furthermore, Twitter's distinction between different types of interactions allows us to establish a parallelism between online and offline social networks: personal interactions are more likely to occur on internal links to the groups (the weakness of strong ties); events transmitting new information go preferentially through links connecting different groups (the strength of weak ties) or even more through links connecting to users belonging to several groups that act as brokers (the strength of intermediary ties). PMID:22247773

Grabowicz, Przemyslaw A.; Ramasco, José J.; Moro, Esteban; Pujol, Josep M.; Eguiluz, Victor M.

2012-01-01

286

Finite element analyses of continuous filament ties for masonry applications : final report for the Arquin Corporation.  

SciTech Connect

Finite-element analyses were performed to simulate the response of a hypothetical vertical masonry wall subject to different lateral loads with and without continuous horizontal filament ties laid between rows of concrete blocks. A static loading analysis and cost comparison were also performed to evaluate optimal materials and designs for the spacers affixed to the filaments. Results showed that polypropylene, ABS, and polyethylene (high density) were suitable materials for the spacers based on performance and cost, and the short T-spacer design was optimal based on its performance and functionality. Simulations of vertical walls subject to static loads representing 100 mph winds (0.2 psi) and a seismic event (0.66 psi) showed that the simulated walls performed similarly and adequately when subject to these loads with and without the ties. Additional simulations and tests are required to assess the performance of actual walls with and without the ties under greater loads and more realistic conditions (e.g., cracks, non-linear response).

Quinones, Armando, Sr. (Arquin Corporation, La Luz, NM); Bibeau, Tiffany A.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

2008-08-01

287

Mesoscopic analysis of online social networks - The role of negative ties  

E-print Network

A class of networks are those with both positive and negative links.In this manuscript, we studied the interplay between positive and negative ties on mesoscopic level of these networks, i.e., their community structure.A community is considered as a tightly interconnected group of actors; therefore, it does not borrow any assumption from balance theory and merely uses the well-known assumption in the community detection literature.We found that if one detects the communities based on only positive relations (by ignoring the negative ones), the majority of negative relations are already placed between the communities.In other words, negative ties do not have a major role in community formation of signed networks.Moreover, regarding the internal negative ties, we proved that most unbalanced communities are maximally balanced, and hence they cannot be partitioned into k nonempty sub-clusters with higher balancedness (k >= 2).Furthermore, we showed that although the mediator triad + + - (hostile-mediator-hostile)...

Esmailian, Pouya; Jalili, Mahdi

2014-01-01

288

Mesoscopic analysis of online social networks: The role of negative ties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A class of networks are those with both positive and negative links. In this manuscript, we studied the interplay between positive and negative ties on mesoscopic level of these networks, i.e., their community structure. A community is considered as a tightly interconnected group of actors; therefore, it does not borrow any assumption from balance theory and merely uses the well-known assumption in the community detection literature. We found that if one detects the communities based on only positive relations (by ignoring the negative ones), the majority of negative relations are already placed between the communities. In other words, negative ties do not have a major role in community formation of signed networks. Moreover, regarding the internal negative ties, we proved that most unbalanced communities are maximally balanced, and hence they cannot be partitioned into k nonempty sub-clusters with higher balancedness (k ?2 ). Furthermore, we showed that although the mediator triad ++- (hostile-mediator-hostile) is underrepresented, it constitutes a considerable portion of triadic relations among communities. Hence, mediator triads should not be ignored by community detection and clustering algorithms. As a result, if one uses a clustering algorithm that operates merely based on social balance, mesoscopic structure of signed networks significantly remains hidden.

Esmailian, Pouya; Abtahi, Seyed Ebrahim; Jalili, Mahdi

2014-10-01

289

Weak Ties and the Diffusion of Information in Dynamic Networks Cindy Hui, Mark Goldberg, Malik Magdon-Ismail, William A. Wallace  

E-print Network

the effect of the social network structure and trust on the diffusion process in the context of weak ties itself as well as the structure and properties of the social network supporting the diffusion. This research focuses on the role of weak ties in the flow of information in social networks. Weak ties connect

Goldberg, Mark

290

On inferring liquid-liquid phase boundaries and tie lines from ternary mixture light scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the possibility of using light scattering data in the single-phase regions of a ternary liquid mixture phase diagram to infer ternary mixture coexistence curves, and to infer tie lines joining the compositions of isotropic liquid phases in thermodynamic equilibrium. Previous analyses of a nonlinear light scattering partial differential equation (LSPDE) show that it provides for reconstruction of ternary [D. Ross, G. Thurston, and C. Lutzer, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 064106 (2008); C. Wahle, D. Ross, and G. Thurston, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 034201 (2012)] and quaternary [C. Wahle, D. Ross, and G. Thurston, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 034202 (2012)] mixing free energies from light scattering data, and that if the coexistence curves are already known, it can also yield ternary tie lines and triangles [D. Ross, G. Thurston, and C. Lutzer, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 064106 (2008)]. Here, we show that the LSPDE can be used more generally, to infer phase boundaries and tie lines from light scattering data in the single-phase region, without prior knowledge of the coexistence curve, if the single-phase region is connected. The method extends the fact that the reciprocal light scattering intensity approaches zero at the thermodynamic spinodal. Expressing the free energy as the sum of ideal and excess parts leads to a natural family of Padé approximants for the reciprocal Rayleigh ratio. To test the method, we evaluate the single-phase reciprocal Rayleigh ratio resulting from the mean-field, regular solution model on a fine grid. We then use a low-order approximant to extrapolate the reciprocal Rayleigh ratio into metastable and unstable regions. In the metastable zone, the extrapolation estimates light scattering prior to nucleation and growth of a new phase. In the unstable zone, the extrapolation produces a negative function that in the present context is a computational convenience. The original and extrapolated reciprocal light scattering are jointly used as input to solving the LSPDE to deduce the mixing free energy and its convex hull. When projected onto the composition triangle, the boundary of the convexified part of the free energy is the phase boundary, and lines on the convexified region along which the second directional derivative is zero are the tie lines. We find that the tie lines and phase boundaries so deduced agree well with their exact values. This work is a step toward developing methods for inferring phase boundaries from real light scattering intensities measured with noise, from mixtures having compositions on a coarser grid.

Wahle, Chris W.; Ross, David S.; Thurston, George M.

2012-07-01

291

Development and Testing of the Glenn Research Center Visitor's Center Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed, installed, and tested a 12 kW DC grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system at the GRC Visitor s Center. This system utilizes a unique ballast type roof mount for installing the photovoltaic panels on the roof of the Visitor s Center with no alterations or penetrations to the roof. The PV system has generated in excess of 15000 kWh since operation commenced in August 2008. The PV system is providing power to the GRC grid for use by all. Operation of the GRC Visitor s Center PV system has been completely trouble free. A grid-tied PV power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners. GRC personnel glean valuable experience with PV power systems that are directly applicable to various space power systems, and provides valuable space program test data. PV power systems help to reduce harmful emissions and reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels. Power generated by the PV system reduces the GRC utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Present global energy concerns reinforce the need for the development of alternative energy systems. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics has been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Based upon the success of the GRC Visitor s Center PV system, additional PV power system expansion at GRC is under consideration. The GRC Visitor s Center grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed which served to validate the basic principles described, and the theoretical work that was performed. The report concludes that grid-tied photovoltaic power systems are reliable, maintenance free, long life power systems, and are of significant value to NASA and the community.

Eichenberg, Dennis J.

2009-01-01

292

Series Transmission Line Transformer  

SciTech Connect

A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

Buckles, Robert A. (Livermore, CA); Booth, Rex (Livermore, CA); Yen, Boris T. (El Cerrito, CA)

2004-06-29

293

Patterns of transmission investment  

E-print Network

This paper examines a number of issues associated with alternative analytical approaches for evaluating investments in electricity transmission infrastructure and alternative institutional arrangements to govern network ...

Joskow, Paul L.

2005-01-01

294

Evaluation of the Polyethylene Reverse Sampler as a Dosing System in Marine Phase II Whole Sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIEs)  

EPA Science Inventory

Contaminated marine sediments can cause acute and chronic impairments to benthic organisms. Nonionic organic contaminants (NOCs) are often a primary cause of impairment. Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIEs) are used to identify chemicals causing toxicity in sediments. Ph...

295

USE OF ZEOLITE FOR REMOVING AMMONIA AND AMMONIA-CAUSED TOXCITY IN MARINE TOXICITY IDENTIFCATION EVALUATIONS (TIES)  

EPA Science Inventory

Ammonia occurs in marine waters including effluents, receiving waters, and sediment interstitial waters. At sufficiently high concentrations, ammonia can be toxic to aquatic species. Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) methods provide researchers with tools for identifyi...

296

Creative benefits from well-connected leaders: leader social network ties as facilitators of employee radical creativity.  

PubMed

Employee radical creativity critically depends on substantive informational resources from others across the wider organization. We propose that the social network ties of employees' immediate leaders assume a central role in garnering these resources, thereby fostering their employees' radical creativity both independent of and interactively with employees' own network ties. Drawing on data from 214 employees working in 30 teams of a public technology and environmental services organization, we find that team leaders' betweenness centrality in the idea network within their teams as well as among their peer leaders provides creative benefits beyond employees' own internal and external ties. Further, employees' and leaders' ties within and external to the team interactively predict employee radical creativity. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:24911179

Venkataramani, Vijaya; Richter, Andreas W; Clarke, Ronald

2014-09-01

297

Priority Encoding Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new method, called Priority Encoding Transmission,for sending messages over lossy packet-based networks. Whena message is to be transmitted, the user specifies a priority value foreach part of the message. Based on the priorities, the system encodesthe message into packets for transmission and sends them to (possiblymultiple) receivers. The priority value of each part of the messagedetermines the

Andres Albanese; Johannes Blömer; Jeff Edmonds; Michael Luby; Madhu Sudan

1994-01-01

298

Priority encoding transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new method, called priority encoding transmission, for sending messages over lossy packet-based networks. When a message is to be transmitted, the user specifies a priority value for each part of the message. Based on the priorities, the system encodes the message into packets for transmission and sends them to (possibly multiple) receivers. The priority value of each

Andres Albanese; Johannes Blömer; Jeff Edmonds; Michael Luby; Madhu Sudan

1996-01-01

299

Transmission Enhancement Technology Report  

E-print Network

of Existing Transmission 6 5. Potential New Equipment to Improve Transmission Capability 9 6. Potential New parties for the sites that should be studied as potential locations for new generation and to consult for the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act 2002, Public Law 107-66, states, "Within the amount

300

Use of genotoxicity tests in a TIE to identify chemicals potentially affecting human health  

SciTech Connect

Imperial Oil operates a sour gas processing plant in southern Alberta that has, for the past several years, been the focus of considerable public and regulatory concern over perceived contamination of soils and groundwater on a nearby ranch. Elevated concentrations of DOC ({approximately}140 mg/L) have been received in groundwater underlying the plant site. Two process-related chemicals, sulfolane and diisopropanolamine (DIPA), had been previously identified as the primary components of the DOC plume, although the chemicals associated with 30% of the DOC could not be identified. A risk assessment was initiated in 1994 to determine whether off-site migration of sulfolane and DIPA or of other unidentified contaminants poses a risks to human health and/or ecological receptors. One component of the risk assessment included conducting a TIE to help identify the chemical(s) in contaminated groundwater underlying the gas plant that might adversely affect human health. Three endpoints were utilized in the TIE: MicroTox, SOS-Chromotest and the Ames test. MicroTox was used since it exhibited a response to whole groundwater from the site, while the genotoxicity tests were used because DIPA reportedly causes a response in the Ames test and because of the concern over potential human health affects arising from other unidentified contaminants. Results of the TIE indicated that the chemicals causing the toxicity in the groundwater sample were water soluble compounds, with similar characteristics to the process chemicals used at the gas plant and detected at high concentrations in groundwater from the plant site. These results provided additional evidence to help focus the risk assessment on the chemicals sulfolane and diisopropanolamine.

Goudey, J.S. [HydroQual Labs. Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Shaw, R.D.; Swanson, S.M. [Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Nadeau, S. [Imperial Oil Resources Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1995-12-31

301

A new cable-tie-based sternal closure device: infectious considerations†  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To determine the difference in sternal infection and other infectious events between conventional wire and cable-tie-based closure techniques post-sternotomy in a collective of patients after cardiac surgery. METHODS The sternal ZipFix™ (ZF) system consists of a biocompatible poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) cable-tie that surrounds the sternum through the intercostal space and provides a large implant-to-bone contact. Between 1 February 2011 and 31 January 2012, 680 cardiac operations were performed via sternotomy at our institution. After the exclusion of operations for active endocarditis and early mortality within 7 days, 95 patients were exclusively closed with ZF and could be compared with 498 who were closed with conventional wires (CWs) during the same period. A multivariable logistic regression analysis, including body mass index, renal impairment and emergency as suspected confounders and inverse propensity weights was performed on the infection rate. RESULTS Total infection rate was 6.1%, with a total of 36 diagnosed sternal infections (5 in ZF and 31 in CW). Comparing ZF with CW with regard to sternal infection, there is no statistically significant difference related to the device (odds ratio: 0.067, confidence interval: 0.04–9.16, P = 0.72). The propensity modelling provided excellent overlap and the mean propensity was almost the same in both groups. Thus, we have observed no difference in receiving either ZF or CW. No sternal instability was observed with the ZF device, unlike 4/31 patients in the CW group. The overall operation time is reduced by 11 min in the ZF group with identical perfusion and clamping times. CONCLUSIONS Our study underlines a neutral effect of the sternal ZipFix™ system in patients regarding sternal infection. Postoperative complications are similar in both sternal closure methods. The cable-tie-based system is fast, easy to use, reliable and safe. PMID:23624983

Melly, Ludovic; Gahl, Brigitta; Meinke, Ruth; Rueter, Florian; Matt, Peter; Reuthebuch, Oliver; Eckstein, Friedrich S.; Grapow, Martin T.R.

2013-01-01

302

Link Prediction and the Role of Stronger Ties in Networks of Face-to-Face Proximity  

E-print Network

Understanding the structures why links are formed is an important and prominent research topic. In this paper, we therefore consider the link prediction problem in face-to-face contact networks, and analyze the predictability of new and recurring links. Furthermore, we study additional influence factors, and the role of stronger ties in these networks. Specifically, we compare neighborhood-based and path-based network proximity measures in a threshold-based analysis for capturing temporal dynamics. The results and insights of the analysis are a first step onto predictability applications for human contact networks, for example, for improving recommendations.

Scholz, Christoph; Stumme, Gerd

2014-01-01

303

Near-Field Enhanced UV Resonance Raman Spectroscopy Using Aluminum Bow-tie Nano-antenna  

SciTech Connect

An aluminum bow-tie nano-antenna is combined with the resonance Raman eect in the deep ultraviolet to dramatically increase the sensitivity of Raman spectra to a small volume of material, such as benzene used here. We further demonstrate gradient-eld Raman peaks for several strong IR modes. We achieve a gain of 105 in signal intensity from the near eld enhancement due to the surface plasmon resonance in the aluminum nanostructure. The on-line resonance enhancement contributes another factor of several thousands, limited by the laser line width. Thus, an overall gain of hundreds of million is achieved.

Li, Ling [North Carolina State University; Lim, Shuang Fang [North Carolina State University; Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Riehn, Robert [North Carolina State University; Hallen, Hans [North Carolina State University

2012-01-01

304

Near-field enhanced ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy using aluminum bow-tie nano-antenna  

PubMed Central

An aluminum bow-tie nano-antenna is combined with the resonance Raman effect in the deep ultraviolet to dramatically increase the sensitivity of Raman spectra to a small volume of material, such as benzene used here. We further demonstrate gradient-field Raman peaks for several strong infrared modes. We achieve a gain of ?105 in signal intensity from the near field enhancement due to the surface plasmon resonance in the aluminum nanostructure. The on-line resonance enhancement contributes another factor of several thousands, limited by the laser line width. Thus, an overall gain of hundreds of million is achieved. PMID:23066168

Li, Ling; Fang Lim, Shuang; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Riehn, Robert; Hallen, H. D.

2012-01-01

305

Quasi-separatrix layer reconnection for nonlinear line-tied collisionless tearing modes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quasi-separatrix layer (QSL) diagnostics are used to diagnose nonlinear line-tied tearing modes using particle-in-cell code simulation results. For a force-free current sheet, nonlinear tearing mode cases are shown over a wide range of plasma lengths with line-tying boundary conditions at the ends of the plasma. The methods used for performing the field line integrations with noisy PIC data are described. The QSL diagnostics used are the squashing degree Q (Priest and Demoulin 1995 J. Geophys. Res. 100 23443) and the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) scalar potential ?i of Richardson and Finn (2012 Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul. 17 2132). We also introduce the non-ideal scalar potential ?n, the analog of the resistive MHD scalar potential ?r of Richardson and Finn (2012). These QSL diagnostics are compared with the helical flux contours of the primary modes. They are used in the late linear regime and near mode saturation. For non-overlapping islands, these diagnostics show the QSL associated with the X-lines and their separatrices. These are shown to indicate well field line behavior such as chaotic scattering and separatrix crossing. For overlapping islands, they indicate chaotic scattering behavior either related to Chirikov overlap (Chirikov 1979 Phys. Rep. 52 263) or to separatrix crossing (Tennyson et al 1986 Phys. Rev. Lett. 56 2117).

Finn, J. M.; Billey, Z.; Daughton, W.; Zweibel, E.

2014-06-01

306

Ground-state magnetic phase diagram of bow-tie graphene nanoflakes in external magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

The magnetic phase diagram of a ground state is studied theoretically for graphene nanoflakes of bow-tie shape and various sizes in external in-plane magnetic field. The tight-binding Hamiltonian supplemented with Hubbard term is used to model the electronic structure of the systems in question. The existence of the antiferromagnetic phase with magnetic moments localized at the sides of the bow-tie is found for low field and a field-induced spin-flip transition to ferromagnetic state is predicted to occur in charge-undoped structures. For small nanoflake doped with a single charge carrier, the low-field phase is ferrimagnetic and a metamagnetic transition to ferromagnetic ordering can be forced by the field. The critical field is found to decrease with increasing size of the nanoflake. The influence of diagonal and off-diagonal disorder on the mentioned magnetic properties is studied. The effect of off-diagonal disorder is found to be more important than that of diagonal disorder, leading to significantly widened distribution of critical fields for disordered population of nanoflakes.

Sza?owski, Karol, E-mail: kszalowski@uni.lodz.pl, E-mail: kszalowski@wp.pl [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of ?ód?, ul. Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 ?ód? (Poland)

2013-12-28

307

Phase Diagram and Tie-Line Determination for the Ternary Mixture DOPC/eSM/Cholesterol  

PubMed Central

We propose a novel, to our knowledge, method for the determination of tie lines in a phase diagram of ternary lipid mixtures. The method was applied to a system consisting of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), egg sphingomyelin (eSM), and cholesterol (Chol). The approach is based on electrofusion of single- or two-component homogeneous giant vesicles in the fluid phase and analyses of the domain areas of the fused vesicle. The electrofusion approach enables us to create three-component vesicles with precisely controlled composition, in contrast to conventional methods for giant vesicle formation. The tie lines determined in the two-liquid-phase coexistence region are found to be not parallel, suggesting that the dominant mechanism of lipid phase separation in this region changes with the membrane composition. We provide a phase diagram of the DOPC/eSM/Chol mixture and predict the location of the critical point. Finally, we evaluate the Gibbs free energy of transfer of individual lipid components from one phase to the other. PMID:23561522

Bezlyepkina, N.; Gracia, R.S.; Shchelokovskyy, P.; Lipowsky, R.; Dimova, R.

2013-01-01

308

Venous malformation-causative TIE2 mutations mediate an AKT-dependent decrease in PDGFB  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the endothelial cell (EC) tyrosine kinase receptor TIE2 cause inherited and sporadic forms of venous malformation. The recurrent somatic mutation L914F and common germline mutation R849W differ in terms of phosphorylation level, as well as sub-cellular localization and trafficking of the receptor. Previous studies have shed light on certain pathogenic properties of R849W, but the mechanisms of action of L914F are unknown. We used global gene expression profiling to study the effects of L914F on ECs. We found that L914F strongly dysregulates genes involved in vascular development, cell migration and extracellular matrix processing, while R849W has weak effects. We also demonstrate, for the first time, that TIE2-mutant ECs are deficient in the production of PDGFB, both in vitro and ex vivo in patient tissues. This defect is mediated by the chronic, ligand-independent activation of AKT by the mutant receptors. Inadequate secretion of the major mural cell attractant likely plays an important role in the development of abnormal vascular channels, contributing to the characteristic paucity of surrounding vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:23633549

Uebelhoer, Melanie; Natynki, Marjut; Kangas, Jaakko; Mendola, Antonella; Nguyen, Ha-Long; Soblet, Julie; Godfraind, Catherine; Boon, Laurence M.; Eklund, Lauri; Limaye, Nisha; Vikkula, Miikka

2013-01-01

309

Can TIE-2 expressing monocytes represent a novel marker for hepatocellular carcinoma?  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the predominant form of primary liver cancer, is a global health problem representing the sixth most common cancer and the third cause of cancer related death worldwide. The number of deaths per year in HCC is comparable to the incidence number, underlying the aggressive behavior of HCC and the modest efficacy of available curative treatments. Effective HCC treatment is problematic also due to the lack of early and specific diagnostic markers. In this regard, particular interest has been put on the tyrosine kinase with Ig and endothelial growth factor (EGF) homology domains 2 (TIE2), a receptor of angiopoietins, predominantly present on endothelial cells but also observed on monocytes [TIE-2-expressing monocytes (TEMs)]. Recently, a work by Matsubara et al. showed that the amount of circulating TEMs is higher in hepatitis virus C (HCV)/HCC patients compared to HCV patients or healthy subjects. Additionally the authors showed that TEMs have a diagnostic potential for HCC. Whereas the molecular mechanisms responsible for this observation remain elusive and further studies are necessary to confirm this finding, the work of Matsubara et al. may contribute to the identification of a novel HCC prognostic and diagnostic marker.

Dapas, Barbara; Grassi, Mario

2014-01-01

310

Diverless tie-in and connection of pipelines/flowlines by use of hard pipe spools  

SciTech Connect

Diverless pipeline connection operations by use of custom built hard pipe spools has proven to be an economically viable approach. Over the last few years, required tooling and methods to perform subsea measurements and subsequent construction of such custom built jumper spools has been developed and successfully demonstrated. This allows a field operator a high degree of flexibility in his scheduling and selection of surface support for tie-in operations. Tie-in of pre-laid pipe/flowlines can be performed from unsophisticated vessels as no ROT systems are required. An ROV deploys and operates simple tools to perform linear and angular position recordings for the adjacent hubs. These measurements are used to duplicate the actual hub configurations on jig fixtures located on a surface vessel or at an onshore fabrication base. The jumper is then built to fit between these hubs. This form of diverless connection systems has proven to be cost effective and at the same time eliminate the need for high energy connection methods such as direct deflection and pull-in systems. A thorough understanding of the tooling as well as handling and installation of the jumper spools is of essence to achieve a successful connection. Clearly defined design parameters is a pre-requisite to ensure that the spool configuration and geometry will accommodate loads and deflections experienced throughout the service life of the spool.

Hals, B.E.; Reddy, S.K.; Douglas, L.D.

1996-12-31

311

Down hole transmission system  

DOEpatents

A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. The electrically conducting coil comprises at least two generally fractional loops. In the preferred embodiment, the transmission elements are connected by an electrical conductor. Preferably, the electrical conductor is a coaxial cable. Preferably, the MCEI trough comprises ferrite. In the preferred embodiment, the fractional loops are connected by a connecting cable. In one aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a pair of twisted wires. In one embodiment the connecting cable is a shielded pair of twisted wires. In another aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a coaxial cable. The connecting cable may be disposed outside of the MCEI circular trough.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT)

2007-07-24

312

Multiplex television transmission system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Time-multiplexing system enables several cameras to share a single commercial television transmission channel. This system is useful in industries for visually monitoring several operating areas or instrument panels from a remote location.

Reed, W. R.

1967-01-01

313

Designing electricity transmission auctions  

E-print Network

The UK has ambitious plans for exploiting offshore wind for electricity production in order to meet its challenging target under the EU Renewable Energy Directive. This could involve investing up to 20bn in transmission assets to bring electricity...

Greve, Thomas; Pollitt, Michael G.

2012-10-26

314

47 CFR 25.212 - Narrowband analog transmissions, digital transmissions, and video transmissions in the GSO Fixed...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...transmissions, digital transmissions, and video transmissions in the GSO Fixed-Satellite...transmissions, digital transmissions, and video transmissions in the GSO Fixed-Satellite...wideband digital services, including digital video services, if the maximum input...

2012-10-01

315

[Nosocomial transmission of listeriosis].  

PubMed

Listeriosis is a severe and possibly fatal disease. Its incidence in the Czech Republic is low, with the most common vehicles of transmission being cheese, pastes, meat products, and salads. Nosocomial transmission is rare in the Czech Republic. Phylogenetic analysis and genotyping of isolated Listeria strains are very helpful in identifying the source of infection. A careful adherence to the preventive anti-epidemic measures in the health care institutions is still critically important. PMID:25025675

Jágrová, Z; Karpíšková, R; Marešová, M; Polanecká, L

2014-06-01

316

Maximum ratio transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the concept, principles, and analysis of maximum ratio transmission for wireless communications, where multiple antennas are used for both transmission and reception. The principles and analysis are applicable to general cases, including maximum-ratio combining. Simulation results agree with the analysis. The analysis shows that the average overall signal-to-mise ratio (SNR) is proportional to the cross correlation between

Titus K. Y. Lo

1999-01-01

317

HIV Transmission Networks  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review Over the past several years, one segment of the complex field of HIV transmission dynamics —heterosexual networks—has dominated theoretical and empirical investigation. This review provides an overview of recent work on HIV risks and networks, with a focus on recent findings in heterosexual network dynamics. Recent findings Qualitative (ethnographic) assessments have demonstrated the heterogeneity and complexity of heterosexual connections, particular in Africa where tradition, official polygamy, and unofficial multi-person arrangements lead to concurrency of sexual partnerships. A large, quantitative study on Likoma Island, Malawi, demonstrated the considerable, interlocking sexual connections that arise from a high-concurrency sexual setting, even with a low average number of partnerships (low-degree) of long duration. Such settings, as suggested by ethnographic studies, may be common in Africa and, coupled with newer information about transmissibility during acute and early infection, may provide a plausible explanation for endemic transmission and possibly for rapid HIV propagation. Summary Recognition of high- concurrency, low-degree networks is an important development for understanding HIV transmission dynamics. Their relevance to heterosexual transmission, and possible extension to other epidemiologic settings, reinforces the heterogeneity and complexity of HIV transmission dynamics. PMID:19532062

Rothenberg, Richard

2010-01-01

318

Instrument Series: Microscopy Environmental Transmission  

E-print Network

Instrument Series: Microscopy Environmental Transmission Electron Microscope EMSL's environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM) provides in situ capabilities that enable atomic-resolution imaging

319

Impact of elastic stall partitions on tied dairy cows' behaviour and stall cleanliness.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of soft elastic stall partitions on the positions in own or neighbouring stalls by dairy cows, faeces and urine, and of contact between animal and partition. There were two designs of a soft elastic partition, here called I-partition and lambda-partition. The study was performed on a commercial dairy herd where the partitions had been developed. After clinical examination 16 lactating cows were selected and used as focal animals, and paired for video recordings. The animals were placed, according to their size, on stalls with different breadths and lengths. Each pair of focal animals was video recorded continuously for 9 days according to the following sequence: (1) with partition 3x24 h; (2) without partition 3x24 h; (3) with partition again 3x24 h. Before each such session each focal pair was again clinically examined. Behaviours were analysed per hour, summarised per 24h and analysed with a mixed linear model or Wilcoxon Rank Sum test. Without partitions more urine (p<0.05) and faeces (p<0.05) landed on the neighbouring cow's stall and the time standing 45 degrees to the manger was longer (p<0.01), whereas the time standing 90 degrees to the manger was shorter (p<0.01). Without partitions three out of the 16 cows were standing and three were lying parallel to the manger. Presence or absence of partitions did not influence the total lying time per 24 h. Cows with the lambda-partition defecated more seldom in neighbouring stalls than cows with the I-partition (p<0.01). It is concluded that without partitions between tied animals more eliminations on neighbouring stalls and more deviations from the 90 degrees position in relation to the manger occurred. This seems to be the first experimental study of how partitions influence the behaviour of tied cattle and the results support the general advice that tied cattle should have partitions. PMID:19674800

Aland, Andres; Lidfors, Lena; Ekesbo, Ingvar

2009-11-01

320

TRANSMISSION MEDIA 4.1 Guided Transmission Media  

E-print Network

CHAPTER 4 TRANSMISSION MEDIA 4.1 Guided Transmission Media Twisted Pair Coaxial Cable Optical Fiber 4.2 Wireless Transmission Antennas Terrestrial Microwave Satellite Microwave Broadcast Radio.4 Line-of-Sight Transmission Free Space Loss Atmospheric Absorption Multipath Refraction 4.5 Recommended

Scarano, Vittorio

321

Torque feedback transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an infinitely variable transmission of inline configuration for interconnecting a primer mover with a load for clutch free operation in a range of speed including hydraulic neutral comprising: a. planetary gear train means having a ring gear, planetary gears supported by a planetary gear carrier, and a sun gear, the sun gear being connected mechanically to the load, output shaft means for joining the sun gear to the load; b. variable torque feedback means comprising (i) a variable displacement hydraulic motor whose rotor shaft is in line with the output shaft means and drivingly connected to the prime mover and the planetary gear carrier during the full range of operation of the transmission, and (ii) a fixed displacement hydraulic pump connected hydraulically to the motor, the rotor shaft of the pump being connected mechanically to the ring gear and being axially displaced from the output shaft means; c. means for adjusting the displacement volume within the hydraulic motor for controlling the torque feedback in the transmission to provide infinitely variable coupling between the prime mover and the load over the full range of the transmission including hydraulic neutral; d. a speed reducer between the primer mover and the motor rotor shaft and a speed multiplier between the sun gear and the load; and e. mechanical transmission assembly means between the speed multiplier and the load in line with the motor rotor shaft and the output shaft means for providing selection of drive, reverse, park, and neutral.

Whalen, B.L.

1987-01-20

322

Ultrahigh transmission optical nanofibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a procedure for reproducibly fabricating ultrahigh transmission optical nanofibers (530 nm diameter and 84 mm stretch) with single-mode transmissions of 99.95 ± 0.02%, which represents a loss from tapering of 2.6 × 10-5 dB/mm when normalized to the entire stretch. When controllably launching the next family of higher-order modes on a fiber with 195 mm stretch, we achieve a transmission of 97.8 ± 2.8%, which has a loss from tapering of 5.0 × 10-4 dB/mm when normalized to the entire stretch. Our pulling and transfer procedures allow us to fabricate optical nanofibers that transmit more than 400 mW in high vacuum conditions. These results, published as parameters in our previous work, present an improvement of two orders of magnitude less loss for the fundamental mode and an increase in transmission of more than 300% for higher-order modes, when following the protocols detailed in this paper. We extract from the transmission during the pull, the only reported spectrogram of a fundamental mode launch that does not include excitation to asymmetric modes; in stark contrast to a pull in which our cleaning protocol is not followed. These results depend critically on the pre-pull cleanliness and when properly following our pulling protocols are in excellent agreement with simulations.

Hoffman, J. E.; Ravets, S.; Grover, J. A.; Solano, P.; Kordell, P. R.; Wong-Campos, J. D.; Orozco, L. A.; Rolston, S. L.

2014-06-01

323

Using Space Telescope to tie the HIPPARCOS and extragalactic reference frames together  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hubble Space Telescope observations will be made to tie the HIPPARCOS Instrumental System (HIS) to extragalactic objects, to determine the overall rotation of the HIS with respect to a set of extragalactic objects; to compare the HIS to an accurate radio reference frame; and to look for motions in the optical centroids of compact extragalactic objects at the level of 0.001 arcseconds per year. About 75 radio sources and extragalactic objects will be chosen from the initial group of 414 pairs. The egos will have their positions and proper motions determined relative to the HIPPARCOS Input Catalog stars. The candidate stars are being screened by ground based speckle interferometry to select a final set.

Hemenway, P. D.; Duncombe, R. L.; Jefferys, W. H.; Shelus, P. J.

1985-01-01

324

Differential disclosure across social network ties among women living with HIV.  

PubMed

Women's disclosure of their HIV serostatus across social network ties was examined in a sample of women living in Los Angeles (n = 234), using multivariate random intercept logistic regressions. Women with disclosure-averse attitudes were less likely to disclose, while women with higher CD4+ counts were significantly more likely to disclose, regardless of relationship type. Relative to all other types of relationships, spouses/romantic partners were greater than four times more likely to be the targets of disclosure. Women were more than 2.5 times more likely to disclose to a given network member if that target provided the woman with social support. Social network members whom women believed to be HIV-positive were more than 10 times more likely to be the targets of disclosure. The implications for how social roles and social identities are manifest in these results are discussed, including the implications such an interpretation has for future prevention research. PMID:19357944

Rice, Eric; Comulada, Scott; Green, Sara; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

2009-12-01

325

Bow-tie nano-antenna assisted generation of extreme ultraviolet radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the generation of extreme ultraviolet radiation utilizing the plasmonic field enhancement in arrays of bow-tie gold optical antennae. Furthermore, their suitability to support high-order harmonic generation is examined by means of finite-difference time-domain calculations and experiments. Particular emphasis is paid to the thermal properties, which become significant at the employed peak intensities. A damage threshold depending on the antenna length is predicted and confirmed by our experimental findings. Moreover, the gas density in the vicinity of the antennae is characterized experimentally to determine the number of atoms contributing to the measured radiation, which is almost an order of magnitude larger than previously reported.

Pfullmann, N.; Waltermann, C.; Noack, M.; Rausch, S.; Nagy, T.; Reinhardt, C.; Kova?ev, M.; Knittel, V.; Bratschitsch, R.; Akemeier, D.; Hütten, A.; Leitenstorfer, A.; Morgner, U.

2013-09-01

326

Molecular ties between the cell cycle and differentiation in embryonic stem cells.  

PubMed

Attainment of the differentiated state during the final stages of somatic cell differentiation is closely tied to cell cycle progression. Much less is known about the role of the cell cycle at very early stages of embryonic development. Here, we show that molecular pathways involving the cell cycle can be engineered to strongly affect embryonic stem cell differentiation at early stages in vitro. Strategies based on perturbing these pathways can shorten the rate and simplify the lineage path of ES differentiation. These results make it likely that pathways involving cell proliferation intersect at various points with pathways that regulate cell lineages in embryos and demonstrate that this knowledge can be used profitably to guide the path and effectiveness of cell differentiation of pluripotent cells. PMID:24979803

Li, Victor C; Kirschner, Marc W

2014-07-01

327

The emergence and role of strong ties in time-varying communication networks  

E-print Network

In most social, information, and collaboration systems the complex activity of agents generates rapidly evolving time-varying networks. Temporal changes in the network structure and the dynamical processes occurring on its fabric are usually coupled in ways that still challenge our mathematical or computational modelling. Here we analyse a mobile call dataset describing the activity of millions of individuals and investigate the temporal evolution of their egocentric networks. We empirically observe a simple statistical law characterizing the memory of agents that quantitatively signals how much interactions are more likely to happen again on already established connections. We encode the observed dynamics in a reinforcement process defining a generative computational network model with time-varying connectivity patterns. This activity-driven network model spontaneously generates the basic dynamic process for the differentiation between strong and weak ties. The model is used to study the effect of time-varyi...

Karsai, Márton; Vespignani, Alessandro

2014-01-01

328

Oxidation of graphene 'bow tie' nanofuses for permanent, write-once-read-many data storage devices.  

PubMed

We have fabricated nanoscale fuses from CVD graphene sheets with a 'bow tie' geometry for write-once-read-many data storage applications. The fuses are programmed using thermal oxidation driven by Joule heating. Fuses that were 250 nm wide with 2.5 ?m between contact pads were programmed with average voltages and powers of 4.9 V and 2.1 mW, respectively. The required voltages and powers decrease with decreasing fuse sizes. Graphene shows extreme chemical and electronic stability; fuses require temperatures of about 400 °C for oxidation, indicating that they are excellent candidates for permanent data storage. To further demonstrate this stability, fuses were subjected to applied biases in excess of typical read voltages; stable currents were observed when a voltage of 10 V was applied to the devices in the off state and 1 V in the on state for 90 h each. PMID:23478811

Pearson, A C; Jamieson, S; Linford, M R; Lunt, B M; Davis, R C

2013-04-01

329

The strength-of-weak-ties perspective on creativity: a comprehensive examination and extension.  

PubMed

Disentangling the effects of weak ties on creativity, the present study separated, both theoretically and empirically, the effects of the size and strength of actors' idea networks and examined their joint impact while simultaneously considering the separate, moderating role of network diversity. I hypothesized that idea networks of optimal size and weak strength were more likely to boost creativity when they afforded actors access to a wide range of different social circles. In addition, I examined whether the joint effects of network size, strength, and diversity on creativity were further qualified by the openness to experience personality dimension. As expected, results indicated that actors were most creative when they maintained idea networks of optimal size, weak strength, and high diversity and when they scored high on the openness dimension. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:20476837

Baer, Markus

2010-05-01

330

Use of tongue ties in thoroughbred racehorses in the United Kingdom, and its association with surgery for dorsal displacement of the soft palate.  

PubMed

The prevalence of the use of tongue ties, calculated from 60 randomly selected race meetings held in the UK during 2001 to 2003, was 5.0 per cent. After its first use on an individual horse a tongue tie was used in an average of 77 per cent of its races during the first 12 months, but after this time period, in only 55 per cent of its races. Thirty-nine per cent of horses that underwent surgery for dorsal displacement of the soft palate raced with a tongue tie preoperatively, and 41 per cent of these surgical cases raced with a tongue tie postoperatively. PMID:19734559

Barakzai, S Z; Finnegan, C; Dixon, P M; Hillyer, M H; Boden, L A

2009-09-01

331

The pio Operon Is Essential for Phototrophic Fe(II) Oxidation in Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1?  

PubMed Central

Phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria couple the oxidation of ferrous iron [Fe(II)] to reductive CO2 fixation by using light energy, but until recently, little has been understood about the molecular basis for this process. Here we report the discovery, with Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1 as a model organism, of a three-gene operon, designated the pio operon (for phototrophic iron oxidation), that is necessary for phototrophic Fe(II) oxidation. The first gene in the operon, pioA, encodes a c-type cytochrome that is upregulated under Fe(II)-grown conditions. PioA contains a signal sequence and shares homology with MtrA, a decaheme c-type cytochrome from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. The second gene, pioB, encodes a putative outer membrane beta-barrel protein. PioB is a homologue of MtrB from S. oneidensis MR-1. The third gene, pioC, encodes a putative high potential iron sulfur protein (HiPIP) with a twin-arginine translocation (Tat) signal sequence and is similar to the putative Fe(II) oxidoreductase (Iro) from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Like PioA, PioB and PioC appear to be secreted proteins. Deletion of the pio operon results in loss of Fe(II) oxidation activity and growth on Fe(II). Complementation studies confirm that the phenotype of this mutant is due to loss of the pio genes. Deletion of pioA alone results in loss of almost all Fe(II) oxidation activity; however, deletion of either pioB or pioC alone results in only partial loss of Fe(II) oxidation activity. Together, these results suggest that proteins encoded by the pio operon are essential and specific for phototrophic Fe(II) oxidation in R. palustris TIE-1. PMID:17189359

Jiao, Yongqin; Newman, Dianne K.

2007-01-01

332

Randomised controlled trial of early frenotomy in breastfed infants with mild-moderate tongue-tie  

PubMed Central

Trial design A randomised, parallel group, pragmatic trial. Setting A large UK maternity hospital. Participants Term infants <2?weeks old with a mild or moderate degree of tongue-tie, and their mothers who were having difficulties breastfeeding. Objectives To determine if immediate frenotomy was better than standard breastfeeding support. Interventions Participants were randomised to an early frenotomy intervention group or a ‘standard care’ comparison group. Outcomes Primary outcome was breastfeeding at 5?days, with secondary outcomes of breastfeeding self-efficacy and pain on feeding. Final assessment was at 8?weeks; 20 also had qualitative interviews. Researchers assessing outcomes, but not participants, were blinded to group assignment. Results 107 infants were randomised, 55 to the intervention group and 52 to the comparison group. Five-day outcome measures were available for 53 (96%) of the intervention group and 52 (100%) of the comparison group, and intention-to-treat analysis showed no difference in the primary outcome—Latch, Audible swallowing, nipple Type, Comfort, Hold score. Frenotomy did improve the tongue-tie and increased maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy. At 5?days, there was a 15.5% increase in bottle feeding in the comparison group compared with a 7.5% increase in the intervention group. After the 5-day clinic, 44 of the comparison group had requested a frenotomy; by 8?weeks only 6 (12%) were breastfeeding without a frenotomy. At 8?weeks, there were no differences between groups in the breastfeeding measures or in the infant weight. No adverse events were observed. Conclusions Early frenotomy did not result in an objective improvement in breastfeeding but was associated with improved self-efficacy. The majority in the comparison arm opted for the intervention after 5?days. PMID:24249695

Emond, Alan; Ingram, Jenny; Johnson, Debbie; Blair, Peter; Whitelaw, Andrew; Copeland, Marion; Sutcliffe, Alastair

2014-01-01

333

Challenging Ties between State and Tobacco Industry: Advocacy Lessons from India  

PubMed Central

Background: Globally, tobacco use is a major public health concern given its huge morbidity and mortality burden that is inequitably high in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization has suggested banning the advertisement, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco. However, governments in some countries, including India, are either directly engaged in tobacco industry operations or have a mandate to promote tobacco industry development. This paper analyses a short-term advocacy campaign that challenged the state-tobacco industry ties to draw lessons for effective public health advocacy. Method: This paper uses a case study method to analyze advocacy efforts in India to thwart the state-tobacco industry partnership: the Indian government’s sponsorship and support to a global tobacco industry event. The paper explores multiple strategies employed in the five-month advocacy campaign (May to October 2010) to challenge this state-industry tie. In doing so, we describe the challenges faced and the lessons learnt for effective advocacy. Results: Government withdrew participation and financial sponsorship from the tobacco industry event. Use of multiple strategies including engaging all concerned government agencies from the beginning, strategic use of media, presence and mobilization of civil society, and use of legal tools to gain information and judicial action, were complementary in bringing desired outcomes. Conclusion: Use of multiple and complementary advocacy strategies could lead to positive outcomes in a short-time campaign. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control could form an important advocacy tool, especially in countries that have ratified it, to advocate for improvements in national tobacco control regulations. PMID:24688958

Bhojani, Upendra; Venkataraman, Vidya; Manganawar, Bheemaray

2013-01-01

334

Small passenger car transmission test: Dodge Omni A-404 transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid eighty percent range for both drive performance test and coast performance tests.

Bujold, M. P.

1980-01-01

335

China's transmission mushrooms  

SciTech Connect

Thirty years ago, when the People's Republic of China was founded, there were only three high-voltage transmission grids in the entire country, totaling only 500 km (311 mi.) in length. Today, there are 13 distinct major regional networks, plus a number of smaller ones, with a cumulative length of 230,000 km (142,900 mi) and operating at voltages up to 330 kV. Those transmission lines that did exist in 1949 operated at only 35 kV, with the single exception of one regional grid of 220 kV in northeastern China. Even for those modest voltages, essentially all transmission and distribution equipment had to be imported.

Defang, C.

1980-08-01

336

Advanced rotorcraft transmission program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is an Army-funded, joint Army/NASA program to develop and demonstrate lightweight, quiet, durable drivetrain systems for next generation rotorcraft. ART addresses the drivetrain requirements of two distinct next generation aircraft classes: Future Air Attack Vehicle, a 10,000 to 20,000 lb. aircraft capable of undertaking tactical support and air-to-air missions; and Advanced Cargo Aircraft, a 60,000 to 80,000 lb. aircraft capable of heavy life field support operations. Both tiltrotor and more conventional helicopter configurations are included in the ART program. Specific objectives of ART include reduction of drivetrain weight by 25 percent compared to baseline state-of-the-art drive systems configured and sized for the next generation aircraft, reduction of noise level at the transmission source by 10 dB relative to a suitably sized and configured baseline, and attainment of at least a 5000 hr mean-time-between-removal. The technical approach for achieving the ART goals includes application of the latest available component, material, and lubrication technology to advanced concept drivetrains that utilize new ideas in gear configuration, transmission layout, and airframe/drivetrain integration. To date, candidate drivetrain systems were carried to a conceptual design stage, and tradeoff studies were conducted resulting in selection of an ART transmission configuration for each of the four contractors. The final selection was based on comparative weight, noise, and reliability studies. A description of each of the selected ART designs is included. Preliminary design of each of the four selected ART transmission was completed, as have mission impact studies wherein comparisons of aircraft mission performance and life cycle costs are undertaken for the next generation aircraft with ART and with the baseline transmission.

Bill, Robert C.

1990-01-01

337

Transmission line capital costs  

SciTech Connect

The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.

Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

1995-05-01

338

Licklider Transmission Protocol Implementation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This software is an implementation of the Licklider Transmission Protocol (LTP), a communications protocol intended to support the Bundle Protocol in Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) operations. LTP is designed to provide retransmission-based reliability over links characterized by extremely long message round-trip times and/or frequent interruptions in connectivity. Communication in interplanetary space is the most prominent example of this sort of environment, and LTP is principally aimed at supporting long-haul reliable transmission over deep-space RF links. Like any reliable transport service employing ARQ (Automatic Repeat re-Quests), LTP is stateful. In order to assure the reception of a block of data it has sent, LTP must retain for possible retransmission all portions of that block which might not have been received yet. In order to do so, it must keep track of which portions of the block are known to have been received so far, and which are not, together with any additional information needed for purposes of retransmitting part, or all, of the block. Long round-trip times mean substantial delay between the transmission of a block of data and the reception of an acknowledgement from the block s destination, signaling arrival of the block. If LTP postponed transmission of additional blocks of data until it received acknowledgement of the arrival of all prior blocks, valuable opportunities to use what little deep space transmission bandwidth is available would be forever lost. For this reason, LTP is based in part on a notion of massive state retention. Any number of requested transmission conversations (sessions) may be concurrently in flight at various displacements along the link between two LTP engines, and the LTP engines must necessarily retain transmission status and retransmission resources for all of them. Moreover, if any of the data of a given block are lost en route, it will be necessary to retain the state of that transmission during an additional round trip while the lost data are retransmitted; even multiple retransmission cycles may be necessary. LTP's possible multiplicity of sessions per association makes it necessary for each segment of application data to include an additional demultiplexing token: a session ID that uniquely identifies the session in which the segment was issued and, implicitly, the block of data being conveyed by this session. This software comprises a prototype implementation developed by Johns Hopkins University APL in cooperation with JPL, together with adaptations that improve the robustness, correctness, and operability of that implementation.

Burleigh, Scott C.; Krupiarz, Chris

2011-01-01

339

Transmission Electron Microscopy Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive site from the University of Liverpool is a set of resources based on the textbook Transmission Electron Microscopy - Basics by D.B.Williams and C.B.Carter. The tutorial is designed to accompany an introductory course on transmission electron microscopy for students with an understanding of elementary physics. Topics include electron scattering, electron atom interactions, the electron gun, probe size, lenses, depth of field and depth of focus, and others. Each chapter includes interactive Java applets that facilitate understanding of the concepts presented.

Goodhew, Peter; Matter.org

340

Quantum Anonymous Transmissions  

E-print Network

We consider the problem of hiding sender and receiver of classical and quantum bits (qubits), even if all physical transmissions can be monitored. We present a quantum protocol for sending and receiving classical bits anonymously, which is completely traceless: it successfully prevents later reconstruction of the sender. We show that this is not possible classically. It appears that entangled quantum states are uniquely suited for traceless anonymous transmissions. We then extend this protocol to send and receive qubits anonymously. In the process we introduce a new primitive called anonymous entanglement, which may be useful in other contexts as well.

Matthias Christandl; Stephanie Wehner

2004-09-28

341

Printed circuit dispersive transmission line  

DOEpatents

A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other.

Ikezi, Hiroyuki (Rancho Santa Fe, CA); Lin-Liu, Yuh-Ren (San Diego, CA); DeGrassie, John S. (Encinitas, CA)

1991-01-01

342

New gene mutations tied to schizophrenia -Flash Player Installation http://www.myfoxal.com/story/19765365/new-gene-mutations-tied-to-schizophrenia[11/12/2012 12:13:55 PM  

E-print Network

might trigger red meat allergy Better economic status tied to peanut allergy in kids Pollen increasing consumer understanding and education only and is not intended to be and is not a substitute Radar Contests · Exercise Monday · WBRCMD · MyFoxMarket · Get Coupons · LawCall · Advertise · Proud

343

Production and Transmission Measurement  

E-print Network

Production and Transmission of Light · Measurement · Light and color production ­ Pigments;Sources of color · Pigments ­ Molecules which selectively absorb photons of some wavelengths and transmit others ­ Size of molecule affects wavelength absorption ­ Short chain molecules require high energy

Wilkinson, Gerald S.

344

Categories and Music Transmission  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lucy Green's (2008) "Music, Informal Learning, and the School: A New Classroom Pedagogy" gives rise to an interesting corollary. Does the manner of music's transmission inform one's understanding of a musical category? While categories of music can be difficult to define according to strict musical characteristics, a better understanding of…

Gatien, Greg

2009-01-01

345

The electrical variable transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

First, an electromechanical converter with two mechanical ports and one electrical port (consisting of two concentric machines and two inverters) is considered. This converter works as a continuously variable transmission between the mechanical ports and may, for example, replace the clutch, gearbox, generator, and starter motor in a motor vehicle. The working principle of this converter is explained. Next, a

Martin J. Hoeijmakers; Jan A. Ferreira

2004-01-01

346

The electric variable transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

First, an electromechanical converter with two mechanical ports and one electrical port (consisting of two concentric machines and two inverters) is considered. This converter works as a continuously variable transmission between the mechanical ports and may, e.g., replace the clutch, gearbox, generator, and starter motor in a motor vehicle. The working principle of this converter is explained. Next, a new

Martin J. Hoeijmakers; Jan A. Ferreira

2006-01-01

347

Packetized voice transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problems of transmitting packetized voice signals are reviewed and the distortions resulting from digitization, speech detection, channel errors, and constant and stochastic transmission delays are analyzed. Measures to overcome distortions, and progress and goals in experimental networks which include satellite-based experiments are discussed.

Noll, P.; Leesemann, V.; Wessels, G.

1984-11-01

348

Torque feedback transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an infinitely variable transmission of inline configuration for interconnecting a primer mover with a load for clutch free operation in a range of speed including hydraulic neutral comprising: a. planetary gear train means having a ring gear, planetary gears supported by a planetary gear carrier, and a sun gear, the sun gear being connected mechanically to the

Whalen

1987-01-01

349

Multistate differential transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a multistate transmission suitable for a colinear configuration having a stationary housing and an input shaft and an output shaft comprising: a first pair of planetary gear trains comprising a first common ring gear having a torque reducing gear train consisting of a sun gear and a planetary gears connected by way of a carrier to the

Whalen

1989-01-01

350

Autonomous data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1997-03-25

351

Laser power transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of previous studies related to laser power transmission is presented. Particular attention is given to the use of solar pumped lasers for space power applications. Three general laser mechanisms are addressed: photodissociation lasing driven by sunlight, photoexcitation lasing driven directly by sunlight, and photoexcitation lasing driven by thermal radiation.

Conway, Edmund J.

1992-01-01

352

Autonomous data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

Kotlyar, Oleg M. (4675 W. 3825 S, Salt Lake City, UT 84120)

1997-01-01

353

A microwave transmission spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and performance of a microwave transmission spectrometer operating in the 12.4-18 GHz frequency range is described. This spectrometer measures the microwave power passing through a magnetic, metallic sample as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field. Significant features of the apparatus are the use of a solid state microwave amplifier as the homodyne receiver's front end and the inclusion of a calibration signal which is injected into the receiver simultaneously with the signal to be measured. The excellent noise figure (<2 dB) and gain (?34 dB) of the amplifier yield a receiver sensitivity of ?10-20 W in a 1 Hz bandwidth. The present microwave source is a dielectric resonant oscillator which generates 100 mW at 16.95 GHz, although the system can also operate with a klystron or microwave sweep oscillator locked to any frequency between 12.4 and 18 GHz. The first use of the system was to measure the transmission through the amorphous ferromagnet Metglas(R) 2605SC (Allied Chemical Corporation). A peak in the transmission was observed at ferromagnetic resonance. This transmission peak was contaminated by a signal going around, not through, the sample which we tentatively identify with surface acoustic waves.

Waldfried, Carlo; Wadewitz, Scott; Dewar, G.

1994-05-01

354

Borehole data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A borehole data transmission apparatus whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

Kotlyar, Oleg M. (1739 Grandview #2, Idaho Falls, ID 83402)

1993-01-01

355

Borehole data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1993-03-23

356

Transmission of gaseous hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

For any hydrogen energy system, pipeline transport of gaseous hydrogen is clearly a major element. A summary is provided of the present status of hydrogen pipeline knowledge. Gas pipelines are considered along with aspects of gas pipeline dynamics, gas pipeline costs, hydrogen pipeline analyses, hydrogen pipeline safety, and hydrogen pipeline operating experience. It is found that the transmission of hydrogen

G. G. Leeth

1977-01-01

357

Social networks of experientially similar others: Formation, activation, and consequences of network ties on the health care experience  

PubMed Central

Research documents that interactions among experientially similar others (individuals facing a common stressor) shape health care behavior and ultimately health outcomes. However, we have little understanding of how ties among experientially similar others are formed, what resources and information flows through these networks, and how network embeddedness shapes health care behavior. This paper uses in-depth interviews with 76 parents of pediatric cancer patients to examine network ties among experientially similar others after a serious medical diagnosis. Interviews were conducted between August 2009 and May 2011. Findings demonstrate that many parents formed ties with other families experiencing pediatric cancer, and that information and resources were exchanged during the everyday activities associated with their child’s care. Network flows contained emotional support, caregiving strategies, information about second opinions, health-related knowledge, and strategies for navigating the health care system. Diffusion of information, resources, and support occurred through explicit processes (direct information and support exchanges) and implicit processes (parents learning through observing other families). Network flows among parents shaped parents’ perceptions of the health care experience and their role in their child’s care. These findings contribute to the social networks and social support literatures by elucidating the mechanisms through which network ties among experientially similar others influence health care behavior and experiences. PMID:22999229

Gage, Elizabeth A.

2013-01-01

358

The Missing Link: the Role of Floodplain Tie Channels in Connecting Off River Water Bodies to Lowland Rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along lowland river systems across the globe the exchange of water, sediment, carbon, nutrients and biota between main stem rivers and off-river water bodies (ORWB) is facilitated by the presence of stable secondary channels referred to here as tie channels. Sixty five percent of the ORWB along the middle Fly River in Papua New Guinea connect to the river through

J. C. Rowland; W. E. Dietrich; G. Day

2005-01-01

359

Emerging roles of the Angiopoietin-Tie and the ephrin-Eph systems as regulators of cell trafficking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) have been identified as critical regulatory signaling molecules of developmental and adult vas- cular morphogenic processes (vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptorssprouting; EphB receptorsassembly; Tie2 receptormaturation and quiescence). It is intriguing that the same mol- ecules that control the growth of blood and lym- phatic vessels play critical roles in the adult to regulate maintenance

Dennis Pfaff; Ulrike Fiedler; Hellmut G. Augustin

2006-01-01

360

Are You Ready to Tie the Knot? A Quick Checklist1 Lisa M. Leslie and Victor W. Harris2  

E-print Network

FCS2318 Are You Ready to Tie the Knot? A Quick Checklist1 Lisa M. Leslie and Victor W. Harris2 1 publication date August 2012. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu. 2. Lisa M. Leslie, Extension

Jawitz, James W.

361

TIE: Principled Reverse Engineering of Types in Binary Programs JongHyup Lee, Thanassis Avgerinos, and David Brumley  

E-print Network

TIE: Principled Reverse Engineering of Types in Binary Programs JongHyup Lee, Thanassis Avgerinos" the compilation to recover high-level information so that programmers, security professionals, and analyses can all more easily reason about the binary code. In this paper we develop novel techniques for reverse

Brumley, David

362

Exploring the effects of online social ties on knowledge sharing: A comparative analysis of collocated vs dispersed teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the different mechanisms of online social ties underlying individual knowledge sharing through comparative perspectives of collocated vs geographically dispersed teams. By integrating social capital theory and social cognitive theory, this study develops a theoretical model that predicts individual knowledge sharing. Next, the study uses social network analysis to empirically test the proposed model using 186 participants: 84

Ayoung Suh; Kyung-shik Shin

2010-01-01

363

Major ion toxicity of six produced waters to three freshwater species: Application of ion toxicity models and TIE procedures  

SciTech Connect

Previous research to characterize the acute toxicity of major ions to freshwater organisms resulted in the development of statistical toxicity models for three freshwater species (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas, and Daphnia magna). These ion toxicity models estimate the toxicity of seven major ions utilizing logistic regression. In this study, the ion toxicity models were used in conjunction with Phase 1 toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) procedures to evaluate the contribution of major ion toxicity to the total toxicity of six produced water samples ranging in total salinity from 1.7 to 58.1 g/L. Initial toxicities of all six samples were compared to the model predictions. Four produced waters were found to have toxicity consistent with toxicity attributable to major ion concentrations only. Two produced waters were found to exhibit more toxicity than expected from ion concentrations alone. These samples were subjected to Phase 1 TIE procedures. Toxicities were reduced by specific Phase 1 TIE manipulations to those predicted by the ion toxicity models. Mock effluents were used to verify the results. The combination of the ion toxicity models with Phase 1 TIE procedures successfully quantified the toxicity due to major ions in six produced water samples.

Tietge, J.E.; Hockett, J.R. [ENSR Consulting and Engineering, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Evans, J.M. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

1997-10-01

364

Discrimination of ion toxicity in six produced waters using the freshwater salinity toxicity relationships and TIE procedures  

SciTech Connect

Research to characterize the toxicity of common ions to freshwater organisms resulted in the development of predictive toxicity models (FW STR) for three freshwater species (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas, and Daphnia magna). The FW STR models, derived from acute toxicity data, focused on the toxicity of seven common ions. These predictive models were used in conjuntion with Phase I TIE procedures to evaluate the contribution of common ion toxicity in six produced water samples ranging in total salinity from 1.7 to 58.1 g/L. Initial toxicities of all six samples were compared to the model predictions. Four produced water samples were found to have toxicity due to common ion concentrations only. Two samples were found to exhibit more toxicity than expected from ion concentrations alone. These samples were subjected to Phase I TIE procedures. Toxicities were reduced by specific Phase I TIE manipulations to those predicted by the FW STR models. Mock effluents were used to verify the results. The combination of the FW STR models with Phase I TIE procedures successfully quantified the toxicity due to common ions.

Tietge, J.E.; Hockett, J.R.; Evans, J.M.

1995-12-01

365

Nonequilibrium and current sheet formation in line-tied magnetic fields C. S. Ng and A. Bhattacharjee  

E-print Network

that the plasma can be assumed to be in static equilibrium nearly everywhere, if such equilib- rium exists one smooth magnetostatic equilibrium for a given smooth footpoint mapping between two end plates to which field lines are line-tied. If such a smooth equilibrium is deformed continuously by further

Ng, Chung-Sang

366

Strong and Weak Ties From the book Networks, Crowds, and Markets: Reasoning about a Highly Connected World.  

E-print Network

different perspectives on distant friendships -- one structural, focusing on the way these friendships span consequences that follow from a friendship between two people being either strong or weak. In this way AND WEAK TIES B A C G F E D (a) Before B-C edge forms. B A C G F E D (b) After B-C edge forms. Figure 3

Kleinberg, Jon

367

Failure analysis of the end eye connection of the bucket wheel excavator portal tie-rod support  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the failure analysis results of the bucket wheel excavator (BWE) portal tie-rod support. The results of finite elements analysis (FEA) point out the occurrence of pronounced stress concentration, whereby multiple stresses in the failure zone exceed the yield stress of the basic material. Experimental investigation on fracture surfaces by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscope (LM)

Srdjan Bošnjak; Nenad Zrni?; Aleksandar Simonovi?; Dejan Mom?ilovi?

2009-01-01

368

Exploring Social-Historical Ties on Location-Based Social Networks Huiji Gao, Jiliang Tang, and Huan Liu  

E-print Network

.Liu}@asu.edu Abstract Location-based social networks (LBSNs) have become a popular form of social media in recent years user's check-in be- havior on LBSNs. Our model integrates the social and historical effects prediction. Introduction Social media extends the physical boundary of user activi- ties. As a new type

Liu, Huan

369

UConn Extension App Challenge The UConn Extension App Challenge is a contest to develop innovative apps that tie  

E-print Network

UConn Extension App Challenge The UConn Extension App Challenge is a contest to develop innovative apps that tie UConn's research to real life. Students are invited to work with a UConn Extension innovative and effective apps Student Prizes: 1st Place: $1500 2nd Place: $1000 3rd Place: $500 Winners

Demurjian, Steven A.

370

Patterns in Tie-Dye and Batik from West Africa. An Instructional Unit for Eighth and Ninth Grade Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the premise that familiarity with art forms of other cultures can broaden students' cultural understandings, the teaching guide presents instructions for creating two West African art forms--batik and tie-dye. The unit is intended as the basis of a three and one-half week minicourse for students in art courses in grades eight and nine.…

Spangler, Leandra

371

The Response of Environmental Capacity for Malaria Transmission in West Africa to Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The climate of West Africa is characterized by north-south gradients in temperature and rainfall. Environmental capacity for malaria transmission (e.g. as measured by vectorial capacity) is strongly tied to these two variables; temperature affects the development rate of the malaria parasite, as well as the lifespan of the mosquitoes that transmit the disease, and rainfall is tied to mosquito abundance, as the vector lays its eggs in rain-fed water pools. A change in climate is therefore expected to lead to changes in the distribution of malaria transmission. Current general circulation models agree that the temperature in West Africa is expected to increase by several degrees in the next century. However they predict a wide range of possible rainfall scenarios in the future, from intense drying to significant increases in rainfall (Christensen et al., 2007). The effects these changes will have on environmental capacity for malaria transmission depend on the magnitude and direction of the changes, and on current conditions. For example, malaria transmission will be more sensitive to positive changes in rainfall in dry areas where mosquito populations are currently limited by water availability than in relatively wet areas. Here, we analyze combinations of changes in rainfall and temperature within the ranges predicted by GCMs, and assess the impact these combinations will have on the environmental capacity for malaria transmission. In particular, we identify climate change scenarios that are likely to have the greatest impact on environmental capacity for malaria transmission, as well as geographic "hot spots" where the greatest changes are to be expected. Christensen, J. H., Busuioc, A., & et al. (2007). Regional climate projections. In S. Solomon (Ed.), Climate change 2007: The physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Yamana, T. K.; Eltahir, E. A.

2011-12-01

372

Noncanonical PAR3 activation by factor Xa identifies a novel pathway for Tie2 activation and stabilization of vascular integrity.  

PubMed

Endothelial barrier protective effects of activated protein C (APC) require the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR), protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1, and PAR3. In contrast, PAR1 and PAR3 activation by thrombin results in barrier disruption. Noncanonical PAR1 and PAR3 activation by APC vs canonical activation by thrombin provides an explanation for the functional selectivity of these proteases. Here we found that factor Xa (FXa) activated PAR1 at canonical Arg41 similar to thrombin but cleaved PAR3 at noncanonical Arg41 similar to APC. This unique PAR1-PAR3 activation profile permitted the identification of noncanonical PAR3 activation as a novel activation pathway for barrier protective tunica intima endothelial receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (Tie2). APC, FXa, and the noncanonical PAR3 tethered-ligand peptide induced prolonged activation of Tie2, whereas thrombin and the canonical PAR3 tethered-ligand peptide did not. Tie2 activation by FXa required PAR3 and EPCR. FXa and the noncanonical PAR3 tethered-ligand peptide induced Tie2- and PAR3-dependent upregulation of tight-junction-associated protein zona occludens 1 (ZO-1), translocation of ZO-1 to cell-cell borders, and the formation of typical ZO-1 honeycomb patterns that are indicative of tight-junction stabilization. These data provide intriguing novel insights into the diversification of functional selectivity of protease signaling achievable by canonical and noncanonical PAR activation, such as the activation of vascular-protective Tie2 by noncanonical PAR3 activation. PMID:25320242

Stavenuiter, Fabian; Mosnier, Laurent O

2014-11-27

373

The Ties That Bind: How Cooperative Norms and Readiness to Change Shape the Role of Established Relationships in Business-to-Business E-Commerce  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Mainstream research indicates that close, long-term ties with business customers have beneficial effects; however, an alternative stream advances the possibility of a “dark side” of close relations, especially when the original conditions of the relationships change. This empirical study investigates how established buyer–seller relationships respond to significant changes in their exchange context by considering the value of close ties

Andrea Ordanini

2011-01-01

374

The Strength of Strong Ties for Older Rural Adults: Regional Distinctions in the Relationship between Social Interaction and Subjective Well-Being  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classic and contemporary sociological theories suggest that social interaction differs in rural and urban areas. Intimate, informal interactions (strong ties) are theorized to characterize rural areas while urban areas may possess more formal and rationalized interactions (weak ties). Aging and social support literature stresses social interaction…

Mair, Christine A.; Thivierge-Rikard, R. V.

2010-01-01

375

Quality resource networks for young women in science: The role of Internet-facilitated ties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In communications, a new approach to the study of online interaction has been suggested by social network analysts. Garton, Haythornthwaite, and Wellman (1997) have outlined the importance of using network analysis to study how media are interconnected with other social aspects of a media user's world. As applied here, this approach to communication when combined with recent network studies from the fields of education and rural development, provides a method for looking at the role of Internet-facilitated ties in the development of resource networks in the learning communities of young women from seven rural schools across the state of Washington. Twenty-six young women (ages 14-16) from diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds (approximately half of the participants are Hispanic or Native American, the other half are White) participated in the research. Participants were selected because they shared a common educational orientation through Rural Girls in Science, a NSF-funded program at the Northwest Center for Research on Women at the University of Washington. As part of the school-based component of the Rural Girls in Science program, all 26 participants designed and conducted year-long, community-based research projects in science. Each school in the program was provided an Internet workstation for communication and research. Through the Internet, students could conceivably maintain distant ties with mentors and research scientists whom they met at summer camp as well as seek additional information resources. Toward the conclusion of the long-term research projects, each student participant was interviewed using a participatory form of network analysis that included a combined qualitative and quantitative approach. Given the small number of participants and schools in the sample, the results from the analysis can not be generalized to a larger population. However the study of the structure and composition of networks among individuals and school groups provided insight into how media are implicated in the development of resource networks, in particular for a subset of students who have been underrepresented in science--young ethnic minority women.

Gillette, Shana Cecile

376

Drill string transmission line  

DOEpatents

A transmission line assembly for transmitting information along a downhole tool comprising a pin end, a box end, and a central bore traveling between the pin end and the box end, is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a protective conduit. A transmission line is routed through the protective conduit. The protective conduit is routed through the central bore and the ends of the protective conduit are routed through channels formed in the pin end and box end of the downhole tool. The protective conduit is elastically forced into a spiral or other non-linear path along the interior surface of the central bore by compressing the protective conduit to a length within the downhole tool shorter than the protective conduit.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Bradford, Kline (Orem, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

2006-03-28

377

Advanced transmission studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command share an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, this paper presents highlights from that portion of the program in drive train technology and the related mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability; reduce the weight, noise, and vibration; and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advance configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for future transmission research is presented.

Coy, John J.; Bill, Robert C.

1988-01-01

378

Advanced transmission studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command share an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, this paper presents highlights from that portion of the program in drive train technology and the related mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability; reduce the weight, noise, and vibration; and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for future transmission research is presented.

Coy, John J.; Bill, Robert C.

1988-01-01

379

Video transmission for telemedicine.  

PubMed

The transmission of moving pictures to remote locations is an important part of telemedicine. Although the first videoconferencing demonstrations were performed in the 1930s, the technology is still fragmented and its quality is sometimes too poor for it to be useful. Conventional television technology is analogue (the fundamental television standards were developed before the Second World War) and does not 'fit' the digital world very well. This paper reviews video transmission and videoconferencing technologies and the results that can be expected. While trained professionals may be able to make use of poor-quality video systems, real advances in telemedicine require studio-quality video, which is possible only with high-bandwidth technology. PMID:10505363

Squibb, N J

1999-01-01

380

Data transmission networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A task order was written by the High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video Technology (HHVT) project engineers to investigate data compression techniques that could be applied to the HHVT system, and both existing and planned downlink/uplink capabilities of the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. The following tasks were included: (1) Investigate signal channel availability and determine both the maximum possible data rate and the average data rate; (2) Identify time blocks for HHVT video transmission assuming time sharing and interruptions in the communication links; (3) Determine the bit error rates to be expected; and (4) Define the transmit and receive interfaces. A summary chart of the data transmission capabilities for Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), the Space Shuttle, Space Station Freedom, Spacelab, and USLab are also presented.

Alexovich, Robert

1990-01-01

381

The Transmission Electron Microscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A typical commercial transmission electron microscope (TEM) costs about 5 for each electron volt (eV) of energy in the beam and, if you add on all available options, it can easily cost up to5 for each electron volt (eV) of energy in the beam\\u000a and, if you add on all available options, it can easily cost up to 10 per

David B. Williams; C. Barry Carter

382

Merchant Transmission Investment  

E-print Network

TO investment mediated through a regional planning process appears to be gaining favor. 9 operating or SO) functions in this model is motivated by two considerations. First, a market driven transmission system leads to multiple owners of parts of the grid; while... to exercise market power against themselves (Joskow 2002). The configuration of the legacy network must be taken into account in the evaluation of alternative institutional arrangements to govern its operation and investments to expand its capabilities...

Joskow, Paul; Tirole, Jean

2004-06-16

383

Nosocomial transmission of SARS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe acute respiratory syndrome is a newly emerged infectious disease with moderately high transmissibility. Nosocomial\\u000a outbreaks were responsible for the propagation of the epidemic worldwide. Health care workers (HCW) are at particular high\\u000a risk because of their close contact with patients, involvement in medical procedures, and handling of excreta\\/fomites. Good\\u000a hospital organization and appropriate infection control strategies are essential to

Nelson Lee; Joseph J. Y. Sung

2003-01-01

384

Intrasperm vertical symbiont transmission.  

PubMed

Symbiotic bacteria are commonly associated with cells and tissues of diverse animals and other organisms, which affect hosts' biology in a variety of ways. Most of these symbionts are present in the cytoplasm of host cells and maternally transmitted through host generations. The paucity of paternal symbiont transmission is likely relevant to the extremely streamlined sperm structure: the head consisting of condensed nucleus and the tail made of microtubule bundles, without the symbiont-harboring cytoplasm that is discarded in the process of spermatogenesis. Here, we report a previously unknown mechanism of paternal symbiont transmission via an intrasperm passage. In the leafhopper Nephotettix cincticeps, a facultative Rickettsia symbiont was found not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus of host cells. In male insects, strikingly, most sperm heads contained multiple intranuclear Rickettsia cells. The Rickettsia infection scarcely affected the host fitness including normal sperm functioning. Mating experiments revealed both maternal and paternal transmission of the Rickettsia symbiont through host generations. When cultured with mosquito and silkworm cell lines, the Rickettsia symbiont was preferentially localized within the insect cell nuclei, indicating that the Rickettsia symbiont itself must have a mechanism for targeting nucleus. The mechanisms underlying the sperm head infection without disturbing sperm functioning are, although currently unknown, of both basic and applied interest. PMID:24799707

Watanabe, Kenji; Yukuhiro, Fumiko; Matsuura, Yu; Fukatsu, Takema; Noda, Hiroaki

2014-05-20

385

Manual transmission synchronizer  

SciTech Connect

A transmission synchronizer is described which consists of: a synchro hub formed with an aperture; a coupling sleeve formed with first splines on an internal surface thereof, the splines having chamfers at each end; a baulk ring operatively associated with a transmission gear, the baulk ring being formed with second splines which are engageable with the first splines; and a single piece spring disposed in the aperture, the spring comprising: first and second side members extending radially with respect to the synchro hub and being flexible toward each other in a direction which is essentially normal to the radius of the synchro hub, the first and second side members being formed with portions which are engageable with the chamfers on the first splines; a base member which extends radially inward into the aperture to a level which is radially inferior of the second splines formed on the baulk ring and which is engageable with the baulk ring to bias the baulk ring in an axial direction thereof upon axial movement of the coupling sleeve toward the transmission gear.

Hiraiwa, K.; Kawaguchi, A.

1986-04-29

386

Why less may be more: a mixed methods study of the work and relatedness of 'weak ties' in supporting long-term condition self-management  

PubMed Central

Background The distribution of the roles and responsibilities of long-term condition management (LTCM) outside of formal health services implicates a wide set of relationships and activities of involvement. Yet, compared to studies of professional implementation, patient systems of implementation remain under-investigated. The aim of this paper is to explore the work, meaning and function attributed to ‘weaker’ ties relative to other more bonding relationships in order to identify the place of these within a context of systems of support for long-term conditions. Methods This is a mixed methods survey with nested qualitative study. A total of 300 people from deprived areas in the North West of England with chronic illnesses took part in a survey conducted in 2010 to 2011. A concentric circles diagram was used as a research tool with which participants identified 2,544 network members who contributed to illness management. Notions of ‘work’ were used to describe activities associated with chronic illness and to identify how weaker ties are included and perceived to be involved through social network members (SNM) contributions. Results The results provide an articulation of how SNMs are substantially involved in weak tie illness management. Weaker ties constituted 16.1% of network membership involved in illness work. The amount of work undertaken was similar but less than that of stronger ties. Weaker ties appeared more durable and less liable to loss over time than stronger ties. The qualitative accounts suggested that weak ties enabled the moral positioning of the self-managing ‘self’ and acted on the basis of a strong sense of reciprocity. Conclusions Weak ties act as an acceptable bridge between a sense of personal agency and control and the need for external support because it is possible to construct a sense of moral acceptability through reciprocal exchange. Access to weak tie resources needs to be taken into account when considering the ways in which systems of health implementation for chronic illness are designed and delivered. PMID:24524253

2014-01-01

387

Nonlinear Growth of a Line-tied g-Mode Near Marginal Stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical framework has been developed for the study of the nonlinear gravitational (g-) mode of a line-tied flux tube near marginal stability. The theory is based on an expansion using two small parameters, ?˜|?|/Leq1, and n-1˜k/k1, with ? denoting the plasma displacement, Leq the characteristic equilibrium scale, k and k the dominant wavenumber of perturbation parallel and perpendicular to equilibrium magnetic field lines respectively. When ?˜n-1, the Cowley-Artun regime is recovered where plasma is to the lowest order incompressible [S. C. Cowley and M. Artun, Phys. Rep., 283, 185-211 (1997)]. The detonation regime where the nonlinear growth of the mode is finite-time singular is a narrower subset of the Cowley-Artun regime. However, the validity of this regime breaks down when ?n-1. In the intermediate nonlinear phase when ?˜n-1/2, the lowest order plasma compression [˜?.?˜O(1)] is nonzero. Direct MHD simulations with both a finite difference code and NIMROD indicate that the mode remains bounded in magnitude with a slightly reduced nonlinear growth [P. Zhu, A. Bhattacharjee, and K. Germaschewski, to appear in PRL (2006); P. Zhu, C. C. Hegna, and C. R. Sovinec, DPP2005]. During this phase, the coupled growth of the mode amplitude ? and plasma compression may contribute to a nonlinear stabilization. The corresponding governing model equations for this intermediate nonlinear phase are derived.

Zhu, P.; Hegna, C. C.; Sovinec, C. R.

2006-04-01

388

Performance degradation of grid-tied photovoltaic modules in a hot-dry climatic condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) modules under open circuit conditions typically degrade at a rate of about 0.5% per year. However, it is suspected that the modules in an array level may degrade, depending on equipment/frame grounding and array grounding, at higher rates because of higher string voltage and increased module mismatch over the years of operation in the field. This paper compares and analyzes the degradation rates of grid-tied photovoltaic modules operating over 10-17 years in a desert climatic condition of Arizona. The nameplate open-circuit voltages of the arrays ranged between 400 and 450 V. Six different types/models of crystalline silicon modules with glass/glass and glass/polymer constructions were evaluated. About 1865 modules were inspected using an extended visual inspection checklist and infrared (IR) scanning. The visual inspection checklist included encapsulant discoloration, cell/interconnect cracks, delamination and corrosion. Based on the visual inspection and IR studies, a large fraction of these modules were identified as allegedly healthy and unhealthy modules and they were electrically isolated from the system for currentvoltage (I-V) measurements of individual modules. The annual degradation rate for each module type is determined based on the I-V measurements.

Suleske, Adam; Singh, Jaspreet; Kuitche, Joseph; Tamizh-Mani, Govindasamy

2011-09-01

389

Impact of Magnetic Draping, Convection, and Field Line Tying on Magnetopause Reconnection Under Northward IMF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We simulate a northward IMF cusp reconnection event at the magnetopause using the OpenGGCM resistive MHD code. The ACE input data, solar wind parameters, and dipole tilt belong to a 2002 reconnection event observed by IMAGE and Cluster. Based on a fully three-dimensional skeleton separators, nulls, and parallel electric fields, we show magnetic draping, convection, ionospheric field line tying play a role in producing a series of locally reconnecting nulls with flux ropes. The flux ropes in the cusp along the global separator line of symmetry. In 2D projection, the flux ropes the appearance of a tearing mode with a series of 'x's' and 'o's' but bearing a kind of 'guide field' that exists only within the magnetopause. The reconnecting field lines in the string of ropes involve IMF and both open and closed Earth magnetic field lines. The observed magnetic geometry reproduces the findings of a superposed epoch impact parameter study derived from the Cluster magnetometer data for the same event. The observed geometry has repercussions for spacecraft observations of cusp reconnection and for the imposed boundary conditions reconnection simulations.

Wendel, Deirdre E.; Reiff, Patricia H.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.

2010-01-01

390

Partial Shading Detection and MPPT Controller for Total Cross Tied Photovoltaic using ANFIS  

E-print Network

(MPPT) controller for solving partial shading problems in photovoltaic (PV) systems. It is well-known that partial shading is often encountered in PV system issue with many consequences. In this research, PV array is connected using TCT (total cross-tied) configuration including sensors to measure voltage and currents. The sensors provide inputs for MPPT controller in order to achieve optimum output power. The Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) is utilized in this paper as the controller methods. Then, the output of MPPT controller is the optimum power duty cycle (?) to drive the performance DC-DC converter. The simulation shows that the proposed MPPT controller can provide PV voltage (V MPP) nearly to the maximum power point voltage. The accuracy of our proposed method is measured by performance index defined as Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE). In addition, the main purpose of this work is to present a new method for detecting partial condition of photovoltaic TCT configuration using only 3 sensors. Thus, this method can streamline the time and reduce operating costs. Index Terms—Photovoltaic, TCT, MPPT, duty cycle, optimum power.

Donny Radianto; Dimas Anton Asfani; Takashi Hiyama

391

Transformative ties: gendered violence, forms of recovery, and shifting subjectivities in Chile.  

PubMed

Although a significant body of scholarship on trauma has emerged in medical anthropology, there has been little examination of how gendered expectations shape the aftermath of extreme human experience, forms of recovery, and subjectivity. Here, I show how domestic and other forms of violence have shaped Luz's suffering in the dictatorial (1973-90) and officially democratic (1990-present) eras in Chile. I then elucidate how Luz's engagement with Safe Space, an NGO connected to UN violence against women frameworks, and other globally connected women's groups, have allowed her to generate transformative ties with other women. These relationships provide support for Luz's self-defined project of transforming herself and society, largely in relationship to gendered expectations, so that her recovered sense of self will have more of a home in the world, outside the boundaries of narrowly defined gender roles. This analysis is based on ethnographic research in Santiago, Chile, over 19 months in 2000-04 and 2009, including participant-observation at two domestic violence centers and life history interviews with 18 women who sought help there. PMID:20420302

Parson, Nia

2010-03-01

392

Recent global-warming hiatus tied to equatorial Pacific surface cooling.  

PubMed

Despite the continued increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, the annual-mean global temperature has not risen in the twenty-first century, challenging the prevailing view that anthropogenic forcing causes climate warming. Various mechanisms have been proposed for this hiatus in global warming, but their relative importance has not been quantified, hampering observational estimates of climate sensitivity. Here we show that accounting for recent cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific reconciles climate simulations and observations. We present a novel method of uncovering mechanisms for global temperature change by prescribing, in addition to radiative forcing, the observed history of sea surface temperature over the central to eastern tropical Pacific in a climate model. Although the surface temperature prescription is limited to only 8.2% of the global surface, our model reproduces the annual-mean global temperature remarkably well with correlation coefficient r = 0.97 for 1970-2012 (which includes the current hiatus and a period of accelerated global warming). Moreover, our simulation captures major seasonal and regional characteristics of the hiatus, including the intensified Walker circulation, the winter cooling in northwestern North America and the prolonged drought in the southern USA. Our results show that the current hiatus is part of natural climate variability, tied specifically to a La-Niña-like decadal cooling. Although similar decadal hiatus events may occur in the future, the multi-decadal warming trend is very likely to continue with greenhouse gas increase. PMID:23995690

Kosaka, Yu; Xie, Shang-Ping

2013-09-19

393

TIE of a PAH-contaminated sediment using reproductive responses and EROD induction in rainbow trout  

SciTech Connect

PAH-contaminated sediments have been shown to cause a range of effects in fish. However, identifying the effective compounds can be time consuming and expensive. A toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) involves the analysis of mixtures by initially separating the mixture into toxic and non-toxic constituents. In this study, sediment was collected from Hamilton Harbor, Lake Ontario, and either extracted wet using methanol (MeOH) and dichloromethane (DCM), or freeze-dried and soxhlet extracted with MeOH and DCM. DCM extracts were solvent exchanged with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed through the water to wet, freeze-dried, or extracted sediment, or to the MeOH or DMSO extracts for 4 days. Fish were analyzed for hepatic EROD activity, and plasma DMSO extracts, but was unaffected in fish exposed to extracted sediment. Estradiol levels were increased in fish exposed to the wet sediment, but not in fish exposed to the freeze-dried or extracted sediment, nor either of the solvent extracts. The response of testosterone to wet, freeze-dried and extracted sediment was inconsistent. Results indicate that both of the extraction methods efficiently removed from the sediment the compounds responsible for the effects on EROD activity and estradiol levels. However, neither method retained in the solvent extracts the compounds causing the increases in estradiol levels. Work continues to refine the freeze-drying and extraction methods; extracts will then be further fractionated using HPLC to identify the compounds of concern.

Brumley, C.M.; Kraak, G. van der [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Zoology; Munkittrick, K.R. [Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

1995-12-31

394

Strength of social tie predicts cooperative investment in a human social network.  

PubMed

Social networks--diagrams which reflect the social structure of animal groups--are increasingly viewed as useful tools in behavioural ecology and evolutionary biology. Network structure may be especially relevant to the study of cooperation, because the action of mechanisms which affect the cost:benefit ratio of cooperating (e.g. reciprocity, punishment, image scoring) is likely to be mediated by the relative position of actor and recipient in the network. Social proximity could thus affect cooperation in a similar manner to biological relatedness. To test this hypothesis, we recruited members of a real-world social group and used a questionnaire to reveal their network. Participants were asked to endure physical discomfort in order to earn money for themselves and other group members, allowing us to explore relationships between willingness to suffer a cost on another's behalf and the relative social position of donor and recipient. Cost endured was positively correlated with the strength of the social tie between donor and recipient. Further, donors suffered greater costs when a relationship was reciprocated. Interestingly, participants regularly suffered greater discomfort for very close peers than for themselves. Our results provide new insight into the effect of social structure on the direct benefits of cooperation. PMID:21479173

Harrison, Freya; Sciberras, James; James, Richard

2011-01-01

395

Platelet rich plasma extract promotes angiogenesis through the angiopoietin1-Tie2 pathway.  

PubMed

Development and regeneration of tissues and organs require precise coordination among endothelial, epithelial and mesenchymal morphogenesis. Angiogenesis plays key roles in normal development, wound healing, recovery from ischemic disease, and organ regeneration. It has been recognized that the combination of various angiogenic factors in an appropriate physiological ratio is critical for long-term functional blood vessel formation. Here we show that mouse soluble platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) extract, which includes abundant angiopoetin-1 (Ang1) and other angiogenic factors, stimulates endothelial cell growth, migration and differentiation in cultured human dermal microvascular endothelial cells in vitro and neonatal mouse retinal angiogenesis in vivo. Mouse platelet rich fibrin (PRF) matrix, the three-dimensional fibrin matrix that releases angiogenic factors with similar concentrations and proportions to the PRP extract, also recapitulates robust angiogenesis inside the matrix when implanted subcutaneously on the living mouse. Inhibition of Ang1-Tie2 signaling suppresses PRP extract-induced angiogenesis in vitro and angiogenic ability of the PRF matrix in vivo. Since human PRP extract and PRF matrix can be prepared from autologous peripheral blood, our findings may lead to the development of novel therapeutic interventions for various angiogenesis-related diseases as well as to the improvement of strategies for tissue engineering and organ regeneration. PMID:23660186

Mammoto, Tadanori; Jiang, Amanda; Jiang, Elisabeth; Mammoto, Akiko

2013-09-01

396

Spore formation in Myxococcus xanthus is tied to cytoskeleton functions and polysaccharide spore coat deposition  

PubMed Central

Summary Myxococcus xanthus is a Gram-negative bacterium that differentiates into environmentally resistant spores. Spore differentiation involves septation-independent remodelling of the rod-shaped vegetative cell into a spherical spore and deposition of a thick and compact spore coat outside of the outer membrane. Our analyses suggest that spore coat polysaccharides are exported to the cell surface by the Exo outer membrane polysaccharide export/polysaccharide co-polymerase 2a (OPX/PCP-2a) machinery. Conversion of the capsule-like polysaccharide layer into a compact spore coat layer requires the Nfs proteins which likely form a complex in the cell envelope. Mutants in either nfs, exo, or two other genetic loci encoding homologs of polysaccharide synthesis enzymes, fail to complete morphogenesis from rods to spherical spores and instead produce a transient state of deformed cell morphology before reversion into typical rods. We additionally provide evidence that the cell cytoskeletal protein, MreB, plays an important role in rod to spore morphogenesis and for spore outgrowth. These studies provide evidence that this novel gram-negative differentiation process is tied to cytoskeleton functions and polysaccharide spore coat deposition. PMID:22188356

Muller, Frank D.; Schink, Christian W.; Hoiczyk, Egbert; Cserti, Emoke; Higgs, Penelope I.

2011-01-01

397

Physiology and Mechanism of Phototrophic Fe(II) Oxidation by Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria use electrons from ferrous iron [Fe(II)] and energy from light to drive reductive CO2 fixation. This metabolism is thought to be ancient in origin, and plays an important role in environmental iron cycling. It has been implicated in the deposition of Banded Iron Formations, a class of ancient sedimentary iron deposits. Consistent with this hypothesis, we discovered that hydrogen gas, a thermodynamically favorable electron donor to Fe(II), in an Archean atmosphere would not have inhibited phototrophic Fe(II) oxidation. To understand this physiology and the connection to BIF formation at the molecular level, the mechanisms of phototrophic Fe(II) oxidation were examined in a model organism Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1. Increased expression of a putative decaheme c-type cytochrome, encoded by pioA, was observed when cells were grown under Fe(II)-oxidizing conditions. Two genes located immediately downstream of pioA in the same operon, pioB and pioC, encode a putative outer membrane beta-barrel protein and a putative high potential iron-sulfur protein, respectively. Deletion studies demonstrated that all three genes are involved in phototrophic Fe(II) oxidation. This study provides our first insight into the molecular mechanisms of this metabolism, which will be further characterized by in vitro biochemical studies.

Jiao, Y.; Newman, D.

2007-12-01

398

Identification and characterization of Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1 hopanoid biosynthesis mutants.  

PubMed

Hopanes preserved in both modern and ancient sediments are recognized as the molecular fossils of bacteriohopanepolyols, pentacyclic hopanoid lipids. Based on the phylogenetic distribution of hopanoid production by extant bacteria, hopanes have been used as indicators of specific bacterial groups and/or their metabolisms. However, our ability to interpret them ultimately depends on understanding the physiological roles of hopanoids in modern bacteria. Toward this end, we set out to identify genes required for hopanoid biosynthesis in the anoxygenic phototroph Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1 to enable selective control of hopanoid production. We attempted to delete 17 genes within a putative hopanoid biosynthetic gene cluster to determine their role, if any, in hopanoid biosynthesis. Two genes, hpnH and hpnG, are required to produce both bacteriohopanetetrol and aminobacteriohopanetriol, whereas a third gene, hpnO, is required only for aminobacteriohopanetriol production. None of the genes in this cluster are required to exclusively synthesize bacteriohopanetetrol, indicating that at least one other hopanoid biosynthesis gene is located elsewhere on the chromosome. Physiological studies with the different deletion mutants demonstrated that unmethylated and C(30) hopanoids are sufficient to maintain cytoplasmic but not outer membrane integrity. These results imply that hopanoid modifications, including methylation of the A-ring and the addition of a polar head group, may have biologic functions beyond playing a role in membrane permeability. PMID:22221333

Welander, P V; Doughty, D M; Wu, C-H; Mehay, S; Summons, R E; Newman, D K

2012-03-01

399

Influence of Water and Ion Diffusion on Generation and Progress of Bow-tie Tree  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bow-tie tree(BTT) generated from contaminant, e.g., metal, carbon, amber(over cured resin) or void is a deterioration factor of XLPE cable. In particular, BTT in contact with inner or outer semi-conductive shield could significantly lower residual AC breakdown voltage of HV power cable. To evaluate influence of water and ion diffusion on generation and progress of BTT, we investigated relationship between water content of XLPE and the generation of BTT by various accelerated aging. The number of BTT in XLPE samples with accelerated aging under open condition, involving evaporation of water in which samples were immersed, was very large compared with closed condition. Furthermore, when samples were intermittently immersed in water, the number of BTT in samples was large compared with samples immersed continuously. In these experiments the generation of BTT seemed to have nothing to do with changes in water content before and after accelerated aging. Therefore, it was suggested that diffusion of ions rather than water in XLPE played an important role in the generation of BTT.

Kumazawa, Takao; Nakagawa, Wataru; Tsurumaru, Hidekazu

400

Experimental Study on Behavior of Bow-tie Tree Generation by Using Heavy Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bow-tie tree (BTT) generated from contaminant, e.g., metal, carbon, amber(over cured resin) or void in insulator is a significant deterioration factor of XLPE power cable. However, essential role of water in generation and progress of BTT is not yet sufficiently cleared. In order to investigate the role of water we paid attention to difference in chemical properties of light water (H2O) and heavy water (D2O), moreover we evaluated influence of isotopic effect due to hydrogen and deuterium on behavior of BTT generation. In accelerated aging test the number of BTT in XLPE sample, in which copper powder of 500ppm was contaminated as BTT cores, dipped in heavy water (D2O:100wt%) decreased to one third compared with light water(D2O:0wt%). Furthermore, the maximum length of BTT decreased with increase in concentration of heavy water. The experimental results show that heavy water exerted a depression effect on generation and progress of BTT. We considered that the depression effect due to hydrogen isotope appeared by inhibiting ionization and elution of BTT cores, because salt-solubility and ionic mobility of heavy water are about 15 to 20% smaller than those of light water. Therefore, the essential role of water seemed to be production and transport of ions in XLPE.

Kumazawa, Takao; Nakagawa, Wataru; Tsurumaru, Hidekazu

401

The potential of VLBI satellite tracking for inter-technique ties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current realizations of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) follow the GGOS goal of integrating the various space geodetic techniques but face the problem of an imperfect inter-technique connection. One solution might be the use of space-ties by a satellite that can be utilized as observational target from different techniques. In this presentation we propose VLBI satellite tracking to a satellite whose position is accurately given by alternative techniques, e.g. GNSS, SLR or DORIS, and focus on the precise coordinate determination of the observing sites. We simulate observations in VLBI mode, meaning that at least two stations observe the target at the same epoch, and account for turbulence in the troposphere, clock errors and a measurement noise. Considering possible heights of the observed satellite and the related restrictions on common visibility, regional as well as global station networks are investigated. Facing the troposphere as the main error source, the influence of the observation interval and the benefit of additional observations to quasars in order to increase the sky coverage for each station will also be treated.

Plank, Lucia; Boehm, Johannes; Krásná, Hana; Schuh, Harald

2013-04-01

402

Random Forest with semantic tie points for classifying landforms and creating rigorous shaded relief representations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we tested Random Forest (RF) with semantic tie points to classify discrete landforms, which would be ultimately useful for increasing the accuracy of shaded relief representations. We therefore focused our efforts on the following landforms: rock outcrops, screes, alluvial fans and low relief areas. A characteristic of RF, which makes it a good algorithm for geomorphological mapping, is its ability to generate thousands of classification trees. Each tree provides a classification and the value classified by the majority of the trees is the final output of the algorithm. Furthermore, having multiple classifications provides a measure of uncertainty. This is very important because it gives practitioners an idea of areas where the method is less accurate, which would require more effort in terms of sampling or surveying. This method was applied in two mountainous areas of Switzerland, the first where we trained and calibrated it and the second where we used it for classification. The results were validated using existing geomorphological maps, and they show that this method can obtain good training accuracy with a relatively small starting dataset. Moreover, both calibration and classification present a percentage of agreement with existing geomorphological maps of over 70%. Some geomorphological classes, alluvial fans and screes, present a classification accuracy that is lower than the calibration, which is in line with previous tests found in the literature. However, for other classes, i.e., rock outcrops and low relief areas, the accuracy increases, suggesting that this method can be employed extensively and relatively securely for these landforms.

Veronesi, F.; Hurni, L.

2014-11-01

403

LOFAR tied-array imaging of Type III solar radio bursts  

E-print Network

The Sun is an active source of radio emission which is often associated with energetic phenomena such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). At low radio frequencies (<100 MHz), the Sun has not been imaged extensively because of the instrumental limitations of previous radio telescopes. Here, the combined high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution of the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) was used to study solar Type III radio bursts at 30-90 MHz and their association with CMEs. The Sun was imaged with 126 simultaneous tied-array beams within 5 solar radii of the solar centre. This method offers benefits over standard interferometric imaging since each beam produces high temporal (83 ms) and spectral resolution (12.5 kHz) dynamic spectra at an array of spatial locations centred on the Sun. LOFAR's standard interferometric output is currently limited to one image per second. Over a period of 30 minutes, multiple Type III radio bursts were observed, a number of which were found to be located at high...

Morosan, D E; Zucca, P; Fallows, R; Carley, E P; Mann, G; Bisi, M M; Kerdraon, A; Konovalenko, A A; MacKinnon, A L; Rucker, H O; Thidé, B; Magdaleni?, J; Vocks, C; Reid, H; Anderson, J; Asgekar, A; Avruch, I M; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Bonafede, A; Bregman, J; Breitling, F; Broderick, J; Brüggen, M; Butcher, H R; Ciardi, B; Conway, J E; de Gasperin, F; de Geus, E; Deller, A; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Engels, D; Falcke, H; Ferrari, C; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Grießmeier, J; Gunst, A W; Hassall, T E; Hessels, J W T; Hoeft, M; Hörandel, J; Horneffer, A; Iacobelli, M; Juette, E; Karastergiou, A; Kondratiev, V I; Kramer, M; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; Maat, P; Markoff, S; McKean, J P; Mulcahy, D D; Munk, H; Nelles, A; Norden, M J; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pandey, V N; Pietka, G; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Scaife, A M M; Schwarz, D; Serylak, M; Smirnov, O; Stappers, B W; Stewart, A; Tagger, M; Tang, Y; Tasse, C; Thoudam, S; Toribio, C; Vermeulen, R; van Weeren, R J; Wucknitz, O; Yatawatta, S; Zarka, P

2014-01-01

404

Identification and characterization of Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1 hopanoid biosynthesis mutants  

PubMed Central

Hopanes preserved in both modern and ancient sediments are recognized as the molecular fossils of bacteriohopanepolyols, pentacyclic hopanoid lipids. Based on the phylogenetic distribution of hopanoid production by extant bacteria, hopanes have been used as indicators of specific bacterial groups and/or their metabolisms. However, our ability to interpret them ultimately depends on understanding the physiological roles of hopanoids in modern bacteria. Towards this end, we set out to identify genes required for hopanoid biosynthesis in the anoxygenic phototroph Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1 to enable selective control of hopanoid production. We attempted to delete seventeen genes within a putative hopanoid biosynthetic gene cluster to determine their role, if any, in hopanoid biosynthesis. Two genes, hpnH and hpnG, are required to produce both bacteriohopanetetrol and aminobacteriohopanetriol, whereas a third gene, hpnO, is required only for aminobacteriohopanetriol production. None of the genes in this cluster are required to exclusively synthesize bacteriohopanetetrol, indicating that at least one other hopanoid biosynthesis gene is located elsewhere on the chromosome. Physiological studies with the different deletion mutants demonstrated that unmethylated and C30 hopanoids are sufficient to maintain cytoplasmic but not outer membrane integrity. These results imply that hopanoid modifications, including methylation of the A-ring and the addition of a polar head group, may have biological functions beyond playing a role in membrane permeability. PMID:22221333

Welander, Paula V.; Doughty, David M.; Wu, Chia-Hung; Mehay, Sabine; Summons, Roger E.; Newman, Dianne K.

2012-01-01

405

Rayleigh Laser Guide Star Systems UnISIS Bow Tie Shutter and CCD39 Wavefront Camera  

E-print Network

Laser guide star systems based on Rayleigh scattering require some means to deal with the flash of low altitude laser light that follows immediately after each laser pulse. These systems also need a fast shutter to isolate the high altitude portion of the focused laser beam to make it appear star-like to the wavefront sensor. We describe how these tasks are accomplished with UnISIS, the Rayleigh laser guided adaptive optics system at the Mt. Wilson Observatory 2.5-m telescope. We use several methods: a 10,000 RPM rotating disk, dichroics, a fast sweep and clear mode of the CCD readout electronics on a 10 $\\mu$s timescale, and a Pockel's cell shutter system. The Pockel's cell shutter would be conventional in design if the laser light were naturally polarized, but the UnISIS 351 nm laser is unpolarized. So we have designed and put into operation a dual Pockel's cell shutter in a unique bow tie arrangement.

Thompson, L A; Crawford, S L; Leach, R W; Thompson, Laird A.; Teare, Scott W.; Crawford, Samuel L.; Leach, Robert W.

2002-01-01

406

Rayleigh Laser Guide Star Systems: UnISIS Bow Tie Shutter and CCD39 Wavefront Camera  

E-print Network

Laser guide star systems based on Rayleigh scattering require some means to deal with the flash of low altitude laser light that follows immediately after each laser pulse. These systems also need a fast shutter to isolate the high altitude portion of the focused laser beam to make it appear star-like to the wavefront sensor. We describe how these tasks are accomplished with UnISIS, the Rayleigh laser guided adaptive optics system at the Mt. Wilson Observatory 2.5-m telescope. We use several methods: a 10,000 RPM rotating disk, dichroics, a fast sweep and clear mode of the CCD readout electronics on a 10 $\\mu$s timescale, and a Pockel's cell shutter system. The Pockel's cell shutter would be conventional in design if the laser light were naturally polarized, but the UnISIS 351 nm laser is unpolarized. So we have designed and put into operation a dual Pockel's cell shutter in a unique bow tie arrangement.

Laird A. Thompson; Scott W. Teare; Samuel L. Crawford; Robert W. Leach

2002-07-10

407

Intracorporeal Suturing and Knot Tying Broadens the Clinical Applicability of Laparoscopy  

PubMed Central

Objective: As surgeons become more experienced with basic laparoscopic procedures like cholecystectomy, they are able to expand this approach to less common operations. However, without laparoscopic suturing skills, like those obtained with Nissen fundoplication, many operations cannot be completed laparoscopically. We present a series of 10 patients with less common surgical illnesses who were successfully treated with minimal access techniques and intracorporeal suturing. Methods: Over a 6-month period at 2 medical centers, 10 patients underwent operations with laparoscopic intracorporeal suturing and knot tying. Diagnoses included bowel obstruction due to gallstone ileus (n=1), perforated uterus from an intrauterine device (n=1), urinary bladder diverticulum (n=1), bleeding Meckel's diverticulum (n=3), and perforated duodenal ulcer (n=4). Results: Each patient was treated with standard surgical interventions performed entirely laparoscopically with intracorporeal suturing. No morbidity or mortality occurred in any patient due to the operation. Conclusions: Although each of these operations has been previously reported, as a series, they point out the importance of mastering laparoscopic suturing. Although devices are commercially available to facilitate certain suturing scenarios, we encourage residents and fellows to sew manually. We believe that none of these operations could have been completed as effectively by using a suture device. The ability to suture laparoscopically markedly broadens the number of clinical scenarios in which minimal access techniques can be used. PMID:12856844

Rivas, Homero; Cacchione, Robert N.; Ferzli, George S.

2003-01-01

408

Meningococcal Disease: Causes and Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... Campaign Podcast: Meningitis Immunization for Adolescents Meningitis Causes & Transmission Share Compartir Causes Meningococcal disease is caused by ... certain illnesses, which are known as meningococcal disease. Transmission Neisseria meningitidis bacteria are spread through the exchange ...

409

Transmission eigenvalues for elliptic operators  

E-print Network

A reduction of the transmission eigenvalue problem for multiplicative sign-definite perturbations of elliptic operators with constant coefficients to an eigenvalue problem for a non-selfadjoint compact operator is given. Sufficient conditions for the existence of transmission eigenvalues and completeness of generalized eigenstates for the transmission eigenvalue problem are derived. In the trace class case, the generic existence of transmission eigenvalues is established.

Michael Hitrik; Katsiaryna Krupchyk; Petri Ola; Lassi Päivärinta

2010-07-03

410

49 CFR 191.13 - Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems reporting distribution...191.13 Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering...

2011-10-01

411

49 CFR 191.13 - Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems reporting distribution...191.13 Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering...

2012-10-01

412

49 CFR 191.13 - Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems reporting distribution...191.13 Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering...

2010-10-01

413

Planetary Transmission Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a methodology for detecting and diagnosing gear faults in the planetary stage of a helicopter transmission. This diagnostic technique is based on the constrained adaptive lifting algorithm. The lifting scheme, developed by Wim Sweldens of Bell Labs, is a time domain, prediction-error realization of the wavelet transform that allows for greater flexibility in the construction of wavelet bases. Classic lifting analyzes a given signal using wavelets derived from a single fundamental basis function. A number of researchers have proposed techniques for adding adaptivity to the lifting scheme, allowing the transform to choose from a set of fundamental bases the basis that best fits the signal. This characteristic is desirable for gear diagnostics as it allows the technique to tailor itself to a specific transmission by selecting a set of wavelets that best represent vibration signals obtained while the gearbox is operating under healthy-state conditions. However, constraints on certain basis characteristics are necessary to enhance the detection of local wave-form changes caused by certain types of gear damage. The proposed methodology analyzes individual tooth-mesh waveforms from a healthy-state gearbox vibration signal that was generated using the vibration separation (synchronous signal-averaging) algorithm. Each waveform is separated into analysis domains using zeros of its slope and curvature. The bases selected in each analysis domain are chosen to minimize the prediction error, and constrained to have the same-sign local slope and curvature as the original signal. The resulting set of bases is used to analyze future-state vibration signals and the lifting prediction error is inspected. The constraints allow the transform to effectively adapt to global amplitude changes, yielding small prediction errors. However, local wave-form changes associated with certain types of gear damage are poorly adapted, causing a significant change in the prediction error. The constrained adaptive lifting diagnostic algorithm is validated using data collected from the University of Maryland Transmission Test Rig and the results are discussed.

Lewicki, David G. (Technical Monitor); Samuel, Paul D.; Conroy, Joseph K.; Pines, Darryll J.

2004-01-01

414

Conventional transmission electron microscopy  

PubMed Central

Researchers have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to make contributions to cell biology for well over 50 years, and TEM continues to be an important technology in our field. We briefly present for the neophyte the components of a TEM-based study, beginning with sample preparation through imaging of the samples. We point out the limitations of TEM and issues to be considered during experimental design. Advanced electron microscopy techniques are listed as well. Finally, we point potential new users of TEM to resources to help launch their project. PMID:24482357

Winey, Mark; Meehl, Janet B.; O'Toole, Eileen T.; Giddings, Thomas H.

2014-01-01

415

Conventional transmission electron microscopy.  

PubMed

Researchers have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to make contributions to cell biology for well over 50 years, and TEM continues to be an important technology in our field. We briefly present for the neophyte the components of a TEM-based study, beginning with sample preparation through imaging of the samples. We point out the limitations of TEM and issues to be considered during experimental design. Advanced electron microscopy techniques are listed as well. Finally, we point potential new users of TEM to resources to help launch their project. PMID:24482357

Winey, Mark; Meehl, Janet B; O'Toole, Eileen T; Giddings, Thomas H

2014-02-01

416

[Oral transmission of Chagas' disease].  

PubMed

The traditional transmission pathways of Chagas' disease are vectorial, transfusional, transplacental and organ transplantation. However, oral transmission is gaining importance. The first evidence of oral transmission was reported in Brazil in 1965. Nowadays the oral route is the transmission mode in 50% of cases in the Amazon river zone. Oral infection is produced by the ingestion of infected triatomine bugs or their feces, undercooked meat from infested host animals and food contaminated with urine or anal secretion of infected marsupials. Therefore travelers to those zones should be advised about care to be taken with ingested food. In Chile, this new mode of transmission should be considered in public health policies. PMID:21773665

Toso M, Alberto; Vial U, Felipe; Galanti, Norbel

2011-02-01

417

Coexpression of ang1 and tie2 in odontoblasts of mouse developing and mature teeth-a new insight into dentinogenesis.  

PubMed

Angiopoietin-1 regulates vascular angiogenesis and stabilization, and is reported to promote bone formation by facilitating angiogenesis. To estimate the role of Ang1 in odontogenesis, we explored the distribution of Ang1 and the receptor, Tie2 in the mouse developing and mature first molar of the mandible. At embryonic day 18, when differentiation of odontoblasts begins, immunosignals for Ang1 were intensely detected in the basement membrane and the distal side, which faced the basement membrane of odontoblasts. In situ hybridization revealed that Ang1 was expressed in odontoblasts and ameloblasts facing the basement membrane. Tie2 was localized in the distal side of odontoblasts. After birth, Ang1 was detected in the predentin, whereas both Ang1 and Tie2 were colocalized in odontoblasts and odontoblast processes. These distributions were retained up to 8 weeks. In contrast to odontoblasts, ameloblasts, cementoblasts and osteoblasts expressed Ang1 but did not express Tie2. Colocalization of Ang1 and Tie2 in odontoblasts and selective expression of Tie2 in odontoblasts among cells responsible for calcified tissue formation suggested the involvement of autocrine signals of Ang1-Tie2 in dentinogenesis. PMID:24761046

Nakajima, Kazunori; Shibata, Yasuaki; Hishikawa, Yoshitaka; Suematsu, Takashi; Mori, Masako; Fukuhara, Shigetomo; Koji, Takehiko; Sawase, Takashi; Ikeda, Tohru

2014-02-27

418

Applications of carboxylesterase activity in environmental monitoring and toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs).  

PubMed

This review has examined a number of issues surrounding the use of carboxylesterase activity in environmental monitoring. It is clear that carboxylesterases are important enzymes that deserve increased study. This class of enzymes appears to have promise for employment in environmental monitoring with a number of organisms and testing scenarios, and it is appropriate for inclusion in standard monitoring assays. Given the ease of most activity assays, it is logical to report carboxylesterase activity levels as well as other esterases (e.g., acetylcholinesterase). Although it is still unclear as to whether acetylcholinesterase or carboxylesterase is the most "appropriate" biomarker, there are sufficient data to suggest that at the very least further studies should be performed with carboxylesterases. Most likely, data will show that it is optimal to measure activity for both enzymes whenever possible. Acetylcholinesterase has the distinct advantage of a clear biological function, whereas the endogenous role of carboxylesterases is still unclear. However, a combination of activity measurements for the two enzyme systems will provide a much more detailed picture of organism health and insecticide exposure. The main outstanding issues are the choice of substrate for activity assays and which tissues/organisms are most appropriate for monitoring studies. Substrate choice is very important, because carboxylesterase activity consists of multiple isozymes that most likely fluctuate on an organism- and tissue-specific basis. It is therefore difficult to compare work in one organism with a specific substrate with work performed in a different organism with a different substrate. An attempt should therefore be made to standardize the method. The most logical choice is PNPA (p-nitrophenyl acetate), as this substrate is commercially available, requires inexpensive optics for assay measurements, and has been used extensively in the literature. However, none of these beneficial properties indicates that the substrate is an appropriate surrogate for a specific compound, e.g., pyrethroid-hydrolyzing activity. It will most likely be necessary to have more specific surrogate substrates for use in assays that require information on the ability to detoxify/hydrolyze specific environmental contaminants. The use of carboxylesterase activity in TIE protocols appears to have excellent promise, but there are further technical issues that should be addressed to increase the utility of the method. The main concerns include the large amount of nonspecific protein added to the testing system, which can lead to undesirable side effects including nonspecific reductions in observed toxicity, decrease in dissolved oxygen content, and organism growth. It is probable that these issues can be resolved with further assay development. The ideal solution would be to have a commercial recombinant carboxylesterase that possessed elevated pyrethroid-hydrolysis activity and which was readily available, homogeneous, and inexpensive. The availability of such an enzyme would address nearly all the current method shortcomings. Such a preparation would be extremely useful for the aquatic toxicology community. Further work should focus on screening available esterases for stability, cost, and activity on pyrethroids, with specific focus on esterases capable of distinguishing type I from type II pyrethroids. It would also be beneficial to identify esterases that are not sensitive to OP insecticides. Many esterases and lipases are available as sets to test chemical reactions for green chemistry, enabling large-scale screening. Other potential approaches to increase the utility of the enzyme include derivatization with polyethylene glycol (PEG) or cyanuric acid chloride to increase stability and reduce microbial degradation. It is also possible that the enzyme could be formulated in a sol gel preparation to increase stability. It is likely that the use of carboxylesterase addition will increase for applications in sediment TIEs. Carboxylesterases are an interestin

Wheelock, Craig E; Phillips, Bryn M; Anderson, Brian S; Miller, Jeff L; Miller, Mike J; Hammock, Bruce D

2008-01-01

419

Nonlinear growth of a line-tied g mode near marginal stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical framework is developed for the study of the nonlinear gravitational (g) mode of a line-tied flux tube near marginal stability. The theory is based on an expansion using two small parameters, ? ˜???/Leq?1 and n-1˜k?/k??1, with ? denoting the plasma displacement, Leq the characteristic equilibrium length scale, and k? and k? the dominant wavenumbers parallel and perpendicular to the equilibrium magnetic field, respectively. A particular nonlinear regime is described through the imposition of the ordering ? ˜n-1. This regime corresponds to the nonlinear phase previously described by S. C. Cowley and M. Artun [Phys. Rep. 283, 185 (1997)], where the plasma is to lowest order incompressible and the lowest-order Lagrangian compression ?0•? is zero. In this regime, nonlinearity modifies the envelope equation of the linear global mode. The detonation regime, where the nonlinear growth of the mode dominates the linear response and becomes finite-time singular, is a narrower subset of the Cowley-Artun regime. However, at sufficient amplitude the validity of this regime breaks down and subsequently transitions to an intermediate nonlinear regime where the ordering ? ˜n-1/2 holds. In this regime, the lowest-order Lagrangian compression is nonzero [?0•?˜O(1)]. Direct magnetohydrodynamic simulations with both a finite difference code and NIMROD code indicate that the mode remains bounded in magnitude with a slightly reduced growth in the nonlinear phase relative to the linear growth rate. During the intermediate nonlinear phase, nonlinearity directly modifies the growth of linear local modes. The corresponding governing equations for the intermediate nonlinear phase are derived.

Zhu, P.; Hegna, C. C.; Sovinec, C. R.

2006-10-01

420

System identification of a tied arch bridge using reference-based wireless sensor networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibration-based methods of structural health monitoring are generally founded on the principle that localized damage to a structure would exhibit changes within the global dynamic response. Upon this basis, accelerometers provide a unique health monitoring strategy in that a distributed network of sensors provides the technical feasibility to isolate the onset of damage without requiring that any sensor be located exactly on or in close proximity to the damage. While in theory this may be sufficient, practical experience has shown significant improvement in the application of damage diagnostic routines when mode shapes characterized by strongly localized behavior of specific elements are captured by the instrumentation array. In traditional applications, this presents a challenge since the cost and complexity of cable-based systems often effectively limits the number of instrumented locations thereby constraining the modal parameter extraction to only global modal responses. The advent of the low-cost RF chip transceiver with wireless networking capabilities has afforded a means by which a substantial number of output locations can be measured through referencebased testing using large-scale wireless sensor networks. In the current study, this approach was applied to the Prairie du Chien Bridge over the Mississippi River to extract operational mode shapes with high spatial reconstruction, including strongly localized modes. The tied arch bridge was instrumented at over 230 locations with single-axis accelerometers conditioned and acquired over a high-rate lossless wireless sensor network with simultaneous sampling capabilities. Acquisition of the dynamic response of the web plates of the arch rib was specifically targeted within the instrumentation array for diagnostic purposes. Reference-based operational modal analysis of the full structure through data-driven stochastic subspace identification is presented alongside finite element analysis results for confirmation of modal parameter plausibility. Particular emphasis is placed on the identification and reconstruction of modal response with large contribution from the arch rib web plates.

Hietbrink, Colby; Whelan, Matthew J.

2012-04-01

421

The formation and maintenance of single-thread tie channels entering floodplain lakes: observations from three diverse river systems  

SciTech Connect

Tie channels connect rivers to floodplain lakes on many lowland rivers and thereby play a central role in floodplain sedimentology and ecology, yet they are generally unrecognized and little studied. here we report the results of field studies focused on tie channel origin and morphodynamics in three contrasting systems: the Middle Fly River, Papua New Guinea, the Lower Mississippi River, and Birch Creek in Alaska. Across these river systems, tie channels vary by an order of magnitude in size but exhibit the same characteristic morphology and appear to develop and evolve by a similar set of processes. In all three systems, the channels are characterized by a narrow, leveed single-thread morphology with maximum width approximately one tenth the width of the mainstem river. The channels typically have a V shaped cross-section, unlike most fluvial channels. These channels develop as lakes become isolated from the river by sedimentation. Narrowing of the connection between river and lake causes a sediment-laden jet to develop. Levees develop along the margins of the jet leading to channel emergence and eventual levee aggradation to the height of the mainstem levees. Bi-directional flow in these channels is common. Outflows from the lake scour sediment and prevent channel blockage. We propose that channel geometry and size are then controlled by a dynamic balance between channel narrowing by suspended sediment deposition and incision and widening by mass failure of banks during outflows. Tie channels are laterally stable and may convey flow for hundreds to a few thousand of years.

Rowland, Joel C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dietrich, William E [UC BERKELEY; Day, Geoff [NEWCREST MINING; Parker, Gary [UNIV OF ILLINOIS

2009-01-01

422

The availability of community ties predicts likelihood of peer referral for mammography: geographic constraints on viral marketing.  

PubMed

Engaging social networks to encourage preventive health behavior offers a supplement to conventional mass media campaigns and yet we do not fully understand the conditions that facilitate or hamper such interpersonal diffusion. One set of factors that should affect the diffusion of health campaign information involves a person's community. Variables describing geographic communities should predict the likelihood of residents accepting campaign invitations to pass along information to friends, family, and others. We investigate two aspects of a community--the availability of community ties and residential stability--as potential influences on diffusion of publicly-funded breast cancer screening in the United States in 2008-2009. In a survey study of 1515 participants living in 91 zip codes across the State of Minnesota, USA, we focus on the extent to which women refer others when given the opportunity to nominate family, friends, and peers to receive free mammograms. We predicted nomination tendency for a particular zip code would be a function of available community ties, measured as religious congregation density in that zip code, and also expected the predictive power of available ties would be greatest in communities with relatively high residential stability (meaning lower turnover in home residence). Results support our hypotheses. Congregation density positively predicted nomination tendency both in bivariate analysis and in Tobit regression models, and was most predictive in zip codes above the median in residential stability. We conclude that having a local infrastructure of social ties available in a community predicts the diffusion of available health care services in that community. PMID:20864236

Southwell, Brian G; Slater, Jonathan S; Rothman, Alexander J; Friedenberg, Laura M; Allison, Tiffany R; Nelson, Christina L

2010-11-01

423

MALARIA I N NIGERIA: CDNSTRAINED CaYTINUXIS-TIE MARKDV MmLS A3R DISCRETE-TIME  

E-print Network

MALARIA I N NIGERIA: CDNSTRAINED CaYTINUXIS-TIE MARKDV MmLS A3R DISCRETE-TIME ~ I T U D I N of the endemicity of malaria will be essential i n a population which is t o receive an acceptable malaria vaccine another." V. Nabokov (1972, p. 8) Abstract A research project on malaria i n the Garki d i s t r i c

Cohen, Joel E.

424

They Don't Wear Black-Tie: Intellectuals and Workers in São Paulo, Brazil, 1958-1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1979, film-maker Leon Hirszman (1937-1987) collaborated with playwright Gian- francesco Guarnieri on a film adaption of Guarnieri's famous play about Brazilian working-class life, They Don't Wear Black-Tie.1 The resulting film, released in 1981, reconfigured the politics and content of the 1958 play to fit the new era of the late 1970s when dramatic metalworkers' strikes placed São Paulo on

John D. French

425

Transmission vibration viscous damper  

SciTech Connect

A manual transmission is described comprising an input shaft adapted to be clutched to the crankshaft of an internal combustion engine, the input shaft having an input gear integral; the input gear forms with peripheral teeth and has a concentric axial bore formed as an integral part of the input shaft; a transmission output shaft supported at its forward end by journal means located in the axial bore; the output shaft having a speed gear formed with peripheral teeth journalled thereon, a countershaft having an axis of rotation parallel with the axis of rotation of the output shaft. The improvement wherein the countershaft has a viscous fluid damper coupling supported thereon. The coupling comprises a first driven gear journalled on the countershaft, and the first drive gear has peripheral teeth in constant meshed engagement with the input gear peripheral teeth. A second driven gear is fixed on the countershaft for rotation. The second driven gear has peripheral teeth in constant meshed engagement with the speed gear peripheral teeth, a diametrical through bore extending through the countershaft intermediate the first and second driven gears. Each first and second driven gears formed with a set of longitudinally extending mirror image axial teeth are arranged concentrically about axis of rotation. The sets of axial teeth are sized to mesh in a loose fitting manner defining predetermined interconnected clearance spaces between the sets of axial teeth.

Filkins, T.J.

1987-07-07

426

Colorado Electrical Transmission Grid  

SciTech Connect

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Xcel Energy Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado XcelEnergy NonXcel Transmission Network Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains transmission network of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4540689.017558 m Left: 160606.141934 m Right: 758715.946645 m Bottom: 4098910.893397m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shapefile

Richard E. Zehner

2012-02-01

427

Improvement of the Accuracy of InSAR Image Co-Registration Based On Tie Points - A Review  

PubMed Central

Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a new measurement technology, making use of the phase information contained in the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. InSAR has been recognized as a potential tool for the generation of digital elevation models (DEMs) and the measurement of ground surface deformations. However, many critical factors affect the quality of InSAR data and limit its applications. One of the factors is InSAR data processing, which consists of image co-registration, interferogram generation, phase unwrapping and geocoding. The co-registration of InSAR images is the first step and dramatically influences the accuracy of InSAR products. In this paper, the principle and processing procedures of InSAR techniques are reviewed. One of important factors, tie points, to be considered in the improvement of the accuracy of InSAR image co-registration are emphatically reviewed, such as interval of tie points, extraction of feature points, window size for tie point matching and the measurement for the quality of an interferogram. PMID:22399966

Zou, Weibao; Li, Yan; Li, Zhilin; Ding, Xiaoli

2009-01-01

428

Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Characteristics, Coethnic Social Ties, and Health: Evidence From the National Jewish Population Survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We explored whether a White ethnic group with a history of structural disadvantage, Jewish Americans, shows evidence of continuing health impact independent of socioeconomic position (SEP), whether coethnic social ties appear health protective, and whether the strength of any protection varies by SEP. Methods. In a series of ordered logistic regressions, we analyzed data from the National Jewish Population Survey, 2000–2001, regressing self-rated health on race/ethnicity, education, and income for US Blacks, Jews, and other Whites and, for Jews alone, indicators of coethnic social ties. Results. controlling for SEP indicators, the self-rated health of Jews converged with that of Blacks and was significantly worse than that of other Whites. Access to coethnic social ties was associated with better self-rated health among Jews, with the strongest estimated association among those of lower SEP. Conclusions. The finding that a White ethnic group with a favorable socioeconomic profile reported significantly worse health than did other Whites, after controlling for SEP, calls for better understanding of the complex interplay of cultural, psychosocial, and socioeconomic resources in shaping population health. PMID:21164093

Pearson, Jay A.

2011-01-01

429

Amigos and Amistades: The role of men's social network ties in shaping HIV vulnerability in the Dominican Republic  

PubMed Central

While men’s social networks have been identified as a source of influence on sexual behaviour, less is known about the different types of friendship ties within men’s networks. We analysed data from qualitative in-depth interviews with 36 men in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic who were current or former sexual partners of female sex workers to understand how a) men describe trust and communication with different types of friendship ties, b) characteristics of trust and communication reflect norms of masculinity, and c) these friendship ties influence HIV-related behaviours. We identified a distinction between amistades, social drinking buddies who are not trusted, and amigos, trusted friends. The majority of men lacked any amigos and some had neither amigos nor amistades. In general, men reflected traditional norms of masculinity and said they did not feel they could discuss their relationships or emotional topics with other men. Trust and communication dynamics, and how norms of masculinity shape those dynamics, should be understood and addressed in the design of HIV prevention efforts with men’s social networks as they have implications for the potential effectiveness of such efforts. PMID:24939001

Fleming, Paul J.; Barrington, Clare; Perez, Martha; Donastorg, Yeycy; Kerrigan, Deanna

2014-01-01

430

Blue-Violet Bow-Tie Self-Pulsating Laser Diode with a Peak Power of 20 W and a Pulse Energy of 310 pJ  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We generated single-transverse-mode optical pulses with a peak power of 20 W and a pulse energy of 310 pJ from a bow-tie self-pulsating GaN-based laser diode (SP-LD) under dc bias operation. Introducing the bow-tie structure, which has flared waveguides in both gain regions, increased the average output power and the optical pulse energy. An incorporation of the bow-tie structure resulted in an improved optical peak power that was twice that of a non tapered SP-LD.

Watanabe, Hideki; Kuramoto, Masaru; Kono, Shunsuke; Ikeda, Masao; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki

2010-12-01

431

Characterization of Cracking and Crack Growth Properties of the C5A Aircraft Tie-Box Forging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed destructive examinations were conducted to characterize the integrity and material properties of two aluminum alloy (7075-T6) horizontal stabilizer tie box forgings removed.from US. Air Force C5A and C5B transport aircraft. The C5B tie box forging was,found to contain no evidence of cracking. Thirteen cracks were found in the CSA,forging. All but one of the cracks observed in the C5A component were located along the top cap region (one crack was located in the bottom cap region). The cracks in the C5A component initiated at fastener holes and propagated along a highly tunneled intergranular crack path. The tunneled crack growth configuration is a likelv result of surface compressive stress produced during peening of the .forging suijace. The tie box forging ,fatigue crack growth, fracture and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) properties were characterized. Reported herein are the results of laboratory air ,fatigue crack growth tests and 95% relative humidity SCC tests conducted using specimens machined from the C5A ,forging. SCC test results revealed that the C5A ,forging material was susceptible to intergranular environmental assisted cracking: the C5A forging material exhibited a SCC crack-tip stress-intensity factor threshold of less than 6 MPadn. Fracture toughness tests revealed that the C5A forging material exhibited a fracture toughness that was 25% less than the C5B forging. The C5A forging exhibited rapid laboratory air fatigue crack growth rates having a threshold crack-tip stress-intensity factor range of less than 0.8 MPa sup m. Detailed fractographic examinations revealed that the ,fatigue crack intergranular growth crack path was similar to the cracking observed in the C5A tie box forging. Because both fatigue crack propagation and SCC exhibit similar intergranular crack path behavior, the damage mechanism resulting in multi-site cracking of tie box forgings cannot be determined unless local cyclic stresses can be quantified.

Piascik, Robert S.; Smith, Stephen W.; Newman, John A.; Willard, Scott A.

2003-01-01

432

Light Transmission through Sub-Wavelength Apertures  

E-print Network

Light Transmission through Sub-Wavelength Apertures #12;#12;VRIJE UNIVERSITEIT Light Transmission Transmission through a Single Sub-wavelength Slit 59 3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 3.2 The configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 3.3 Transmission

Visser, Taco D.

433

Power of TDT The Power of Transmission  

E-print Network

Power of TDT The Power of Transmission Disequilibrium Tests for Quantitative Traits Jinming Li propose to group haplotypes on the basis of haplotype similarity before performing transmission words: transmission/disequilibrium test, quantitative trait, haplotype INTRODUCTION The transmission

Sun, Fengzhu - Sun, Fengzhu

434

Transmission seal development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental evaluation was performed on a high-speed (72.9 m/s, 14,349 ft/min) transmission seal of the synergistic type. During testing of the seal, oil leakage occurred at positive bearing cavity pressures. Modifications were made in an attempt to eliminate the leakage but none were completely successful. Leakage appears to be the result of questionable positioning of the sealing elements resulting in inadequate shaft contact by the oil side sealing element. This condition may be related to the nonsymmetrical shape of the elastomeric retainer and to dimensional changes caused by swelling of the elastomeric retainer from exposure to the sealed fluid. Indications of a speed dependent leakage characteristic were also observed.

Brien, M.

1977-01-01

435

Television Transmission Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The VKP-7990 Multistage Depressed Collector (MDC) Klystron is a result of cooperative development by Varian Associates, Inc., the National Association of Broadcasters, Lewis Research Center, the Public Broadcasting System and TV transmitter manufacturers. The effort was initiated to make power amplifying devices with efficiencies comparable to VHF available to UHF operators. The klystron is a vacuum tube used to generate and amplify ultrahigh frequencies but at low efficiencies because most of the energy is dissipated as waste heat. Lewis had earlier developed the MDC to enhance the efficiency of communications satellite transmissions. Varian Microwave Power Tube Products, which has since become Communications and Power Industries, and Lewis combined the MDC and the klystron, resulting in a product which increases efficiency by recovering some of the residual energy that normally would be lost as heat. The MDC klystron cuts the electric power consumption of UHF-TV transmitters in half; there are 90 units in operation in 36 UHF-TV stations.

1996-01-01

436

Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic transmission electron microscopy (DTEM) combines the benefits of high spatial resolution electron microscopy with the high temporal resolution of ultrafast lasers. The incorporation of these two components into a single instrument provides a perfect platform for in situ observations of material processes. However, previous DTEM applications have focused on observing structural changes occurring in samples exposed to high vacuum. Therefore, in order to expand the pump-probe experimental regime to more natural environmental conditions, in situ gas and liquid chambers must be coupled with Dynamic TEM. This chapter describes the current and future applications of in situ liquid DTEM to permit time-resolved atomic scale observations in an aqueous environment, Although this chapter focuses mostly on in situ liquid imaging, the same research potential exists for in situ gas experiments and the successful integration of these techniques promises new insights for understanding nanoparticle, catalyst and biological protein dynamics with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution.

Evans, James E.; Jungjohann, K. L.; Browning, Nigel D.

2012-10-12

437

Nature limits filarial transmission  

PubMed Central

Lymphatic filariasis, caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and B. timori is a public health problem of considerable magnitude of the tropics and subtropics. Presently 1.3 billion people are at risk of lymphatic filariasis (LF) infection and about 120 million people are affected in 83 countries. In this context it is worth mentioning that 'nature' itself limits filarial transmission to a great extent in a number of ways such as by reducing vector populations, parasitic load and many other bearings. Possibilities to utilize these bearings of natural control of filariasis should be searched and if manipulations on nature, like indiscriminate urbanization and deforestation, creating sites favourable for the breeding of filarial vectors and unsanitary conditions, water pollution with organic matters etc., are reduced below the threshold level, we will be highly benefited. Understandings of the factors related to natural phenomena of control of filariasis narrated in this article may help to adopt effective control strategies. PMID:18500974

Chandra, Goutam

2008-01-01

438

Network Structure and the Risk for HIV Transmission Among Rural Drug Users  

PubMed Central

Research suggests that structural properties of drug users’ social networks can have substantial effects on HIV risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the structural properties of Appalachian drug users’ risk networks could lend insight into the potential for HIV transmission in this population. Data from 503 drug users recruited through respondent-driven sampling were used to construct a sociometric risk network. Network ties represented relationships in which partners had engaged in unprotected sex and/or shared injection equipment. Compared to 1,000 randomly generated networks, the observed network was found to have a larger main component and exhibit more cohesiveness and centralization than would be expected at random. Thus, the risk network structure in this sample has many structural characteristics shown to be facilitative of HIV transmission. This underscores the importance of primary prevention in this population and prompts further investigation into the epidemiology of HIV in the region. PMID:23184464

Young, A. M.; Jonas, A. B.; Mullins, U. L.; Halgin, D. S.

2012-01-01

439

Jupiter's transmission spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In relation to the gas giants that have been observed, Jupiter is located relatively far from its star. Observing Jupiter as an exoplanet can provide information about what to expect when getting data from similar gas giants around other stars. Even though Jupiter's transmission spectrum can be difficult to observe when looking from the Earth, it is possible to do it by using one of the Moons orbiting the planet as a mirror while in Jupiter's shadow. For example, Formisano et al. (2003) reported the detection of Jupiter's methane absorption bands when the Cassini VIMS experiment observed the occultation of the moon Io during its flyby in December 2000. Here, we present the first detection of Jupiter's transmission spectrum from ground-based observations. The first set of observations were taken from La Palma, Spain on the night of the 6th of October 2012, with the William Herchel Telescope (WHT) using the Long-slit Intermediate Resolution Infrared Spectrograph (LIRIS) instrument, which covers the spectral range of 900- 2400 nm with a spectral resolution, R, around 2000: we used Ganymede as a mirror that night. The second set of observations were taken during the nights of the 10th and 17th of November, 2012 from Cerro Paranal using the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and Xshooter, a multiwavelength spectrograph with three different arms: UVB, with the wavelength range of 300- 559.5 nm and R=9900, VIS for 559.5-1024 nm and R=18200 and NIR, for 1024-2480 nm and R=10500. During the first night, Europa was used as a mirror, while during the second one it was Ganymede again.

González-Merino, B.; Montañes-Rodríguez, P.; Palle, E.

2014-03-01

440

Intermediate Nonlinear Development of a Line-tied g-Mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonlinear gravitational instability (g-mode) of a line-tied plasma flux tube is a prototypical model for edge localized modes (ELMs) in tokamaks and magnetotail substorms. Earlier theory predicted the explosive nonlinear growth of these modes near marginal stability [S. C. Cowley and M. Artun, Phys. Rep., 283, 185-211 (1997)]. Recent direct MHD simulations with both a finite-difference code and NIMROD indicate that the mode remains bounded in magnitude throughout, from early to intermediate nonlinear phases [P. Zhu, A. Bhattacharjee, and K. Germaschewski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 065001 (2006); P. Zhu, C. C. Hegna, and C. R. Sovinec, submitted to Phys. Plasmas (2006)]. The mode grows nonlinearly at a rate near or smaller than the linear growth rate, producing shock-like discontinuities and large sheared flows. To understand these simulation results, a new theoretical framework has been developed. The theory is based on an expansion using two small parameters, ?˜|?|/Leq1, and n-1˜k/k1, where ? denotes the plasma displacement, Leq is the characteristic equilibrium scale, and k and k are the dominant wavenumbers of the perturbation parallel and perpendicular to equilibrium magnetic field lines, respectively. When ?˜n-1, the Cowley-Artun regime is recovered where the plasma is incompressible to the lowest order and the Lagrangian compression is very small [?0.?˜O(n-1)]. In this regime, the nonlinearities only modify the development of the global mode envelop across field lines whereas the local eigenmode structure along field lines remains intact. The detonation regime where the nonlinear growth of the mode tends to a finite-time singularity is a narrower subset of the Cowley-Artun regime. However, this regime is not generic and breaks down when ?n-1. In the intermediate nonlinear phase when ?˜n-1/2, the lowest order Lagrangian compression is significant [?0.?˜O(1)]. During this phase, the nonlinearities directly influence the growth of the local eigenmodes, and couple the global mode structure across and along field lines. The corresponding governing equations for this intermediate nonlinear phase are derived. Comparison of the predictions of analytic theory and numerical simulations will be discussed.

Zhu, Ping

2006-10-01

441

Meta-analysis of thyroidectomy with ultrasonic dissector versus conventional clamp and tie  

PubMed Central

Background We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the role of Ultrasonic dissector (UAS) versus conventional clamp and tie in thyroidectomy. Materials and methods We searched for all published RCT in into electronic databases. To be included in the analysis, the studies had to compare thyroidectomy with UAS versus conventional vessel ligation and tight (conventional technique = CT). The following outcomes were used to compare the total thyroidectomy group with UAS versus CT group: operative duration, operative blood loss, overall drainage volume during the first 24 hours, transiet laryngeal nerve palsy, permanent laryngeal nerve palsy, transiet hypocalcaemia and permanent hypocalcaemia. Results There are currently 7 RCT on this issue to compare thyroidectomy with UAS versus CT. From the analysis of these studies it was possible to confront 608 cases: 303 undergoing to thyroidectomy with UAS versus 305 that were treated with CT. Actually, it was shown a relevant advantage of cost-effectiveness in patients treated with UAS; there is a statistically significant reduction of the operative duration (weighted mean difference [WMD], -18.74 minutes; 95% confidence interval [CI], (-26.97 to -10.52 minutes) (P = 0.00001), intraoperative blood loss (WMD, -60.10 mL; 95% CI, -117.04 to 3.16 mL) (P = 0.04) and overall drainage volume (WMD, -35.30 mL; 95% CI, -49.24 to 21.36 mL) (P = 0.00001) in the patients underwent thyroidectomy with UAS. Although the analysis showed that the patients who were treated with USA presented more favourable results in incidence of post-operative complications (transient laryngeal nerve palsy: P = 0.11; permanent laryngeal nerve palsy: not estimable; transient hypocalcaemia: P = 0.24; permanent hypocalcaemia: P = 0.45), these data didn't present statistical relevance. Conclusion This meta-analysis shown a relevant advantage only in terms of cost-effectiveness in patients treated with UAS; it is subsequent to statistically significant reduction of operation duration, intraoperative blood loss and of overall drainage volume during the first 24 hours. Although the analysis showed that the patients who were treated with UAS presented more favourable results in incidence of post-operative complications (transiet laryngeal nerve palsy; transiet hypocalcaemia and permanent hypocalcaemia), these data didn't present statistical relevance. PMID:21176243

2010-01-01

442

2001 GPS and Classical Survey at Medicina Observatory: Local Tie and VLBI Antenna's Reference Point Determination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a 6 days campaign in June 2001, we have performed a local survey at Medicina Observatory using classical geodesy and GPS techniques in order to determine the effects of an undergone track repair. We have determined the position of the reference point P within a local and ITRF2000 (epoch 1997.0) reference frames using trilateration and triangulation: Pclas_{loc}^{2001}=(21.580pm0.001,45.536pm0.001,17.699pm0.001) Pclas_{loc}^{2001}=(21.580pm0.001,45.536pm0.001,17.699pm0.001) Pclas_{ITRF2000}^{1997.0}=(4461369.982pm0.001,919596.818pm0.001,4449559.207pm0.001) Kinematic GPS has also given interesting results:tie between the 3-D forced centered local ground control network (materialised in May 2000) and the widely used older network (which is now experiencing some problems due to the disgregation of the concrete where bolts are situated) has also been realised. This will allow inter-comparison of results obtained by the different campaigns that have been carried out in the last decade. Finally, the position of the ASI-GPS permanent station has been estimated within the local ground control network. Thus, using classical methodology, a precise determination of the VLBI-GPS ex-centre vector has been possible.

Vittuari, Luca; Sarti, Pierguido; Tomasi, Paolo

2001-12-01

443

Keep Your Friends Close and Your Facebook Friends Closer: A Multiplex Network Approach to the Analysis of Offline and Online Social Ties  

E-print Network

Social media allow for an unprecedented amount of interaction between people online. A fundamental aspect of human social behavior, however, is the tendency of people to associate themselves with like-minded individuals, forming homogeneous social circles both online and offline. In this work, we apply a new model that allows us to distinguish between social ties of varying strength, and to observe evidence of homophily with regards to politics, music, health, residential sector & year in college, within the online and offline social network of 74 college students. We present a multiplex network approach to social tie strength, here applied to mobile communication data - calls, text messages, and co-location, allowing us to dimensionally identify relationships by considering the number of communication channels utilized between students. We find that strong social ties are characterized by maximal use of communication channels, while weak ties by minimal use. We are able to identify 75% of close friendshi...

Hristova, Desislava; Mascolo, Cecilia

2014-01-01

444

The RND-family transporter, HpnN, is required for hopanoid localization to the outer membrane of Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1  

E-print Network

Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1 is a Gram-negative bacterium that produces structurally diverse hopanoid lipids that are similar to eukaryotic steroids. Its genome encodes several homologues to proteins involved in ...

Doughty, David M.

445

Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Augments Tie2-Expressing Monocyte Differentiation, Angiogenic Function, and Recruitment in a Mouse Model of Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Reports demonstrate the role of M-CSF (CSF1) in tumor progression in mouse models as well as the prognostic value of macrophage numbers in breast cancer patients. Recently, a subset of CD14+ monocytes expressing the Tie2 receptor, once thought to be predominantly expressed on endothelial cells, has been characterized. We hypothesized that increased levels of CSF1 in breast tumors can regulate differentiation of Tie2- monocytes to a Tie2+ phenotype. We treated CD14+ human monocytes with CSF1 and found a significant increase in CD14+/Tie2+ positivity. To understand if CSF1-induced Tie2 expression on these cells improved their migratory ability, we pre-treated CD14+ monocytes with CSF1 and used Boyden chemotaxis chambers to observe enhanced response to angiopoietin-2 (ANG2), the chemotactic ligand for the Tie2 receptor. We found that CSF1 pre-treatment significantly augmented chemotaxis and that Tie2 receptor upregulation was responsible as siRNA targeting Tie2 receptor abrogated this effect. To understand any augmented angiogenic effect produced by treating these cells with CSF1, we cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with conditioned supernatants from CSF1-pre-treated CD14+ monocytes for a tube formation assay. While supernatants from CSF1-pre-treated TEMs increased HUVEC branching, a neutralizing antibody against the CSF1R abrogated this activity, as did siRNA against the Tie2 receptor. To test our hypothesis in vivo, we treated PyMT tumor-bearing mice with CSF1 and observed an expansion in the TEM population relative to total F4/80+ cells, which resulted in increased angiogenesis. Investigation into the mechanism of Tie2 receptor upregulation on CD14+ monocytes by CSF1 revealed a synergistic contribution from the PI3 kinase and HIF pathways as the PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002, as well as HIF-1?-deficient macrophages differentiated from the bone marrow of HIF-1?fl/fl/LysMcre mice, diminished CSF1-stimulated Tie2 receptor expression. PMID:24892425

Forget, Mary A.; Voorhees, Jeffrey L.; Cole, Sara L.; Dakhlallah, Duaa; Patterson, Ivory L.; Gross, Amy C.; Moldovan, Leni; Mo, Xiaokui; Evans, Randall; Marsh, Clay B.; Eubank, Tim D.

2014-01-01

446

Arbovirus Phenotype Alters Transmission Potential.  

E-print Network

??Extrinsic and environmental factors are known to affect the transmission of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), including variations in the arthropod vector populations. Differences among these factors… (more)

Christofferson, Rebecca C.

2011-01-01

447

Worldwide underground transmission cable practices  

SciTech Connect

Underground transmission cables are a vital part of any power transmission system which means that the selection of a particular cable must be based upon many considerations ranging from the cost of losses to environmental concerns. The focus of this paper is on the design, selection, and testing of transmission cables within specific geographic regions. Design considerations on a regional basis includes temperature constraints, voltage and voltage stress limits, capacity and ampacity, backfill requirements, cooling and bonding. The material presented in this paper covers land based transmission cables only. Submarine cables, URD or UD cables are not included.

Orton, H.E. [Consulting Engineers International Ltd., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)] [Consulting Engineers International Ltd., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Samm, R. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)] [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1997-04-01

448

The interior transmission problem and bounds on transmission eigenvalues  

E-print Network

We study the interior transmission eigenvalue problem for sign-definite multiplicative perturbations of the Laplacian in a bounded domain. We show that all but finitely many complex transmission eigenvalues are confined to a parabolic neighborhood of the positive real axis.

Michael Hitrik; Katsiaryna Krupchyk; Petri Ola; Lassi Päivärinta

2010-09-28

449

Transmission of digital data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, established a pilot project to evaluate equipment that would transmit date recorded on 16-channel paper tapes over voice-grade telephone lines from field offices to the Washington, D.C., Automatic Data Processing Unit (A.D.P. Unit). Such equipment would allow computer-processed data for current-purpose hydrologic data stations to be made available in a more timely manner. The specifications for the equipment were prepared in March 1970; invitations to bid were solicited, a contract was awarded and the equipment was delivered in November 1970. The equipment included two reader/transmitter units, and one receiver/recorder unit. The reader/transmitter units transmit manually entered fixed information, i.e. station number, beginning date and time, and ending date and time, and photoelectrically read and transmit the 16-channel paper tape data. The receiver/recorder unit records the transmitted information on IBM-compatible magnetic tape. This report summarizes the information gained from a year of pilot operation of the equipment, with and without a computer terminal at the field level, and makes recommendations for establishing a data-transmission system in the Water Resources Division.

Showen, Charles R.

1971-01-01

450

Sealed pressure transmission system  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive program was developed and carried out by The Babcock and Wilcox company (BandW) for the design, fabrication, and testing of both pressure and differential pressure transducers that will operate reliably, accurately, and safely at process operating conditions of 380 psi and 800/degree/F. All of the development work was preformed at the BandW Research and Development Division. The program included the following tasks: project work plan, survey of past experience, and preliminary design; detailed design; and construction, fabrication, and laboratory testing. The field testing was conducted at the Stearns-Catalytic, Inc. coal liquefaction pilot plant located in Wilsonville, Alabama. On completion of the field test, the instrumentation was returned to the BandW Research and Development Center for analysis. A previous report, DOE/PC/7005-9, Sept 1987, documented the development, testing, and evaluation of sealed pressure transmission systems for high-temperature, high-pressure applications such as coal liquefaction. This supplemental report documents the analysis of the pressure system components following the field tests. 12 figs., 1 tab.

Berthold, J.W.; Ghering, W.L.; McCue, T.R.

1988-07-01

451

EC Transmission Line Materials  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to identify materials acceptable for use in the US ITER Project Office (USIPO)-supplied components for the ITER Electron cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH&CD) transmission lines (TL), PBS-52. The source of material property information for design analysis shall be either the applicable structural code or the ITER Material Properties Handbook. In the case of conflict, the ITER Material Properties Handbook shall take precedence. Materials selection, and use, shall follow the guidelines established in the Materials Assessment Report (MAR). Materials exposed to vacuum shall conform to the ITER Vacuum Handbook. [Ref. 2] Commercial materials shall conform to the applicable standard (e.g., ASTM, JIS, DIN) for the definition of their grade, physical, chemical and electrical properties and related testing. All materials for which a suitable certification from the supplier is not available shall be tested to determine the relevant properties, as part of the procurement. A complete traceability of all the materials including welding materials shall be provided. Halogenated materials (example: insulating materials) shall be forbidden in areas served by the detritiation systems. Exceptions must be approved by the Tritium System and Safety Section Responsible Officers.

Bigelow, Tim S [ORNL

2012-05-01

452

Semiclassical transmission across transition states  

E-print Network

It is shown that the probability of quantum-mechanical transmission across a phase space bottleneck can be compactly approximated using an operator derived from a complex Poincar\\'e return map. This result uniformly incorporates tunnelling effects with classically-allowed transmission and generalises a result previously derived for a classically small region of phase space.

Stephen C. Creagh

2005-06-01

453

HVDC power transmission technology assessment  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to develop an assessment of the national utility system`s needs for electric transmission during the period 1995-2020 that could be met by future reduced-cost HVDC systems. The assessment was to include an economic evaluation of HVDC as a means for meeting those needs as well as a comparison with competing technologies such as ac transmission with and without Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers. The role of force commutated dc converters was to be assumed where appropriate. The assessment begins by identifying the general needs for transmission in the U.S. in the context of a future deregulated power industry. The possible roles for direct current transmission are then postulated in terms of representative scenarios. A few of the scenarios are illustrated with the help of actual U.S. system examples. non-traditional applications as well as traditional applications such as long lines and asynchronous interconnections are discussed. The classical ``break-even distance`` concept for comparing HVDC and ac lines is used to assess the selected scenarios. The impact of reduced-cost converters is reflected in terms of the break-even distance. This report presents a comprehensive review of the functional benefits of HVDC transmission and updated cost data for both ac and dc system components. It also provides some provocative thoughts on how direct current transmission might be applied to better utilize and expand our nation`s increasingly stressed transmission assets.

Hauth, R.L.; Tatro, P.J.; Railing, B.D. [New England Power Service Co., Westborough, MA (United States); Johnson, B.K.; Stewart, J.R. [Power Technologies, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States); Fink, J.L.

1997-04-01

454

NWCC Transmission Case Study III  

Microsoft Academic Search

OAK-B135 Transmission System Improvements for Wind Energy Development in the Upper Midwest and Great Plains: Opportunities and Obstacles. This case study set out to ascertain the validity of three assumptions from the perspectives of stakeholders involved in wind energy and transmission issues in the Upper Midwest and Great Plains. The assumptions, and the stakeholders' reactions to each, are summarized below:

Terry Allison; Steve Wiese

2000-01-01

455

A transmission line phase stabilizer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To meet the phase stability requirements of certain experiments performed with the Deep Space Network, transmission lines carrying reference signals must be stabilized to reduce changes in their electrical length due to mechanical movement or changes in ambient temperature. A transmission line phase stabilizer being developed at JPL to perform this function is described.

Lutes, G. F.

1979-01-01

456

Amphibian ranavirus transmission and persistence  

E-print Network

Amphibian ranavirus transmission and persistence Jesse Brunner With an emphasis on ecological & Owens 2002 " ATV Brunner et al. 2005 " FV3 Pearman et al. 2004, Hoverman et al. 2010, Warne et al or Cophixalus ornatus adults (Cullen & Owen 2002) #12;Routes of transmission: direct contact Brunner et al

Gray, Matthew

457

Divergent Regulation of Angiopoietin-1 and -2, Tie-2, and Thrombospondin-1 Expression by Estrogen in the Baboon Endometrium  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Estrogen has an important role in the reconstruction of a new vascular network in the endometrium during each menstrual cycle; however, the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) promotes vessel assembly, whereas Ang-2 and thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) cause vessel breakdown. To determine the potential effect of estrogen on the expression of these angioregulatory factors in the endometrium, Ang-1, Ang-2, TSP-1, and Tie-2 receptor mRNA levels were assessed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in glandular epithelial and stromal cells isolated from the endometrium of ovariectomized baboons treated acutely with estradiol. Corresponding protein expression was assessed by immunocytochemistry and the proximity ligation assay (PLA) during advancing stages of the baboon menstrual cycle. Serum estradiol levels in ovariectomized baboons were 400 pg/ml within 4–6 hr of estradiol treatment. Ang-1 mRNA levels in glandular epithelial cells increased threefold (P < 0.01) within 4 hr of estradiol administration. In contrast, TSP-1 mRNA levels decreased four- to fivefold (P < 0.01) in endometrial glandular epithelial and stromal cells 4–6 hr after estradiol, whereas Ang-2 and Tie-2 expression was unaltered. Immunostaining for Ang-1 increased, TSP-1 decreased, and Ang-2 and Tie-2 were unaltered in the endometrium during the secretory compared with the proliferative phase of the cycle. Endometrial Ang-1 protein expression, quantified by PLA, increased 10-fold (P < 0.05) between the early proliferative and late proliferative/mid-secretory phases of the menstrual cycle in association with the rise in estrogen. In summary, estrogen induced a rapid, divergent, and cell-specific change in expression of angiostimulatory and angioinhibitory growth factors in the endometrium of the nonhuman primate. PMID:20140967

Bonagura, Thomas W.; Aberdeen, Graham W.; Babischkin, Jeffery S.; Koos, Robert D.; Pepe, Gerald J.; Albrecht, Eugene D.

2010-01-01

458

Determination of the extragalactic-planetary frame tie from joint analysis of radio interferometric and lunar laser ranging measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations of extragalactic radio sources provide the basis for defining an accurate non-rotating reference frame in terms of angular positions of the sources. Measurements of the distance from the Earth to the Moon and to the inner planets provide the basis for defining an inertial planetary ephemeris reference frame. The relative orientation, or frame tie, between these two reference frames is of interest for combining Earth orientation measurements, for comparing Earth orientation results with theories referred to the mean equator and equinox, and for determining the positions of the planets with respect to the extragalactic reference frame. This work presents an indirect determination of the extragalactic-planetary frame tie from a combined reduction of VLBI and Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) observations. For this determination, data acquired by LLR tracking stations since 1969 have been analyzed and combined with 14 years of VLBI data acquired by NASA's Deep Space Network since 1978. The frame tie derived from this joint analysis, with an accuracy of 0.003 sec, is the most accurate determination obtained so far. This result, combined with a determination of the mean ecliptic (defined in the rotating sense), shows that the mean equinox of epoch J2000 is offset from the x-axis of the extragalactic frame adopted by the International Earth Rotation Service for astrometric and geodetic applications by 0.078 sec +/- 0.010 sec along the y-direction and y 0.019 sec +/- 0.001 sec. along the z-direction.

Folkner, W. M.; Charlot, P.; Finger, M. H.; Williams, J. G.; Sovers, O. J.; Newhall, XX; Standish, E. M., Jr.

1994-01-01

459

Energy Transmission and Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

The objective of Energy Transmission and Infrastructure Northern Ohio (OH) was to lay the conceptual and analytical foundation for an energy economy in northern Ohio that will: • improve the efficiency with which energy is used in the residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation sectors for Oberlin, Ohio as a district-wide model for Congressional District OH-09; • identify the potential to deploy wind and solar technologies and the most effective configuration for the regional energy system (i.e., the ratio of distributed or centralized power generation); • analyze the potential within the district to utilize farm wastes to produce biofuels; • enhance long-term energy security by identifying ways to deploy local resources and building Ohio-based enterprises; • identify the policy, regulatory, and financial barriers impeding development of a new energy system; and • improve energy infrastructure within Congressional District OH-09. This objective of laying the foundation for a renewable energy system in Ohio was achieved through four primary areas of activity: 1. district-wide energy infrastructure assessments and alternative-energy transmission studies; 2. energy infrastructure improvement projects undertaken by American Municipal Power (AMP) affiliates in the northern Ohio communities of Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; 3. Oberlin, OH-area energy assessment initiatives; and 4. a district-wide conference held in September 2011 to disseminate year-one findings. The grant supported 17 research studies by leading energy, policy, and financial specialists, including studies on: current energy use in the district and the Oberlin area; regional potential for energy generation from renewable sources such as solar power, wind, and farm-waste; energy and transportation strategies for transitioning the City of Oberlin entirely to renewable resources and considering pedestrians, bicyclists, and public transportation as well as drivers in developing transportation policies; energy audits and efficiency studies for Oberlin-area businesses and Oberlin College; identification of barriers to residential energy efficiency and development of programming to remove these barriers; mapping of the solar-photovoltaic and wind-energy supply chains in northwest Ohio; and opportunities for vehicle sharing and collaboration among the ten organizations in Lorain County from the private, government, non-profit, and educational sectors. With non-grant funds, organizations have begun or completed projects that drew on the findings of the studies, including: creation of a residential energy-efficiency program for the Oberlin community; installation of energy-efficient lighting in Oberlin College facilities; and development by the City of Oberlin and Oberlin College of a 2.27 megawatt solar photovoltaic facility that is expected to produce 3,000 megawatt-hours of renewable energy annually, 12% of the College’s yearly power needs. Implementation of these and other projects is evidence of the economic feasibility and technical effectiveness of grant-supported studies, and additional projects are expected to advance to implementation in the coming years. The public has benefited through improved energydelivery systems and reduced energy use for street lighting in Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; new opportunities for assistance and incentives for residential energy efficiency in the Oberlin community; new opportunities for financial and energy savings through vehicle collaboration within Lorain County; and decreased reliance on fossil fuels and expanded production of renewable energy in the region. The dissemination conference and the summary report developed for the conference also benefited the public, but making the findings and recommendations of the regional studies broadly available to elected officials, city managers, educators, representatives of the private sector, and the general public.

Mathison, Jane

2012-12-31

460

77 FR 75186 - Notice of Closure, Target Shooting Public Safety Closure on the Lake Mountains in Utah County, UT  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...10, and the SE\\1/4\\SW\\1/4\\ lying east of the 345 KV power line\\*\\; Sec...of lots 11 and 12, and the NW\\1/4\\ lying east of the 345 KV power line\\*\\; Sec...portions of the N\\1/2\\NW\\1/4\\ lying east of the 345 KV power...

2012-12-19

461

NWCC Transmission Case Study III  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 Transmission System Improvements for Wind Energy Development in the Upper Midwest and Great Plains: Opportunities and Obstacles. This case study set out to ascertain the validity of three assumptions from the perspectives of stakeholders involved in wind energy and transmission issues in the Upper Midwest and Great Plains. The assumptions, and the stakeholders' reactions to each, are summarized below: Assumption 1--Transmission system improvements would provide significant benefits to the electricity network and its customers. Respondents acknowledge the potential for overall system benefits in the form of reduced line losses, improved grid stability and reliability, and enhanced ability to conduct spot market transactions. They also agree that these benefits relate to specific regional needs. However, there is disagreement over the extent of other benefits such as efficiency gains and cost savings from reduced line losses. Further, environmental and community interest groups point out that none of these benefits are realized without significant financial, environmental and social costs. Assumption 2--The benefits of transmission improvements would be helpful, but not confined, to wind power. All respondents agree that wind energy could benefit from transmission system improvements. But they also acknowledge, reluctantly, in the case of environmental stakeholders, that the benefits of an improved transmission system cannot be limited to environmentally preferable forms of generation. Some environmental and community advocate respondents also feel that transmission system improvement projects can be avoided altogether through energy conservation and efficiency measures, and by substituting wind energy for fossil generation. Assumption 3--Transmission alliances among stakeholders within and external to the wind community can provide benefits in the public interest. The fractured, multi-jurisdictional governance of the regional transmission system, and the distrust and diversity of perspectives among affected stakeholders, may make the formation of multi-stakeholder alliances necessary to accomplishing transmission goals. If the wind industry and utilities want to partner with environmental and community advocate groups in supporting a transmission project, they may have to convince these groups that the project would result in a net environmental benefit. The project proponents would have to make the case that the benefits of the additional wind energy will at least offset the emissions of any additional fossil generation made possible by the transmission project, as well as offset the environmental impact of the transmission project itself.

Terry Allison, Steve Wiese

2000-03-01

462

78 FR 59666 - Transmission Infrastructure Program; Proposed Transmission Infrastructure Program Updates and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Transmission Infrastructure Program; Proposed Transmission Infrastructure Program Updates and Request...hereby announces updates to its Transmission Infrastructure Program (``the...

2013-09-27

463

The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies  

E-print Network

Detailing the Electrical Transmission System Expansion Planconnected electrical network. The transmission element thatelectrical system modeling. Summary All of the studies in our sample address transmission

Mills, Andrew D.

2009-01-01

464

Human communication dynamics in digital footsteps: a study of the agreement between self-reported ties and email networks.  

PubMed

Digital communication data has created opportunities to advance the knowledge of human dynamics in many areas, including national security, behavioral health, and consumerism. While digital data uniquely captures the totality of a person's communication, past research consistently shows that a subset of contacts makes up a person's "social network" of unique resource providers. To address this gap, we analyzed the correspondence between self-reported social network data and email communication data with the objective of identifying the dynamics in e-communication that correlate with a person's perception of a significant network tie. First, we examined the predictive utility of three popular methods to derive social network data from email data based on volume and reciprocity of bilateral email exchanges. Second, we observed differences in the response dynamics along self-reported ties, allowing us to introduce and test a new method that incorporates time-resolved exchange data. Using a range of robustness checks for measurement and misreporting errors in self-report and email data, we find that the methods have similar predictive utility. Although e-communication has lowered communication costs with large numbers of persons, and potentially extended our number of, and reach to contacts, our case results suggest that underlying behavioral patterns indicative of friendship or professional contacts continue to operate in a classical fashion in email interactions. PMID:22114665

Wuchty, Stefan; Uzzi, Brian

2011-01-01

465

Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy-induced glioma invasion is associated with accumulation of Tie2-expressing monocytes  

PubMed Central

The addition of anti-angiogenic therapy to the few treatments available to patients with malignant gliomas was based on the fact that these tumors are highly vascularized and on encouraging results from preclinical and clinical studies. However, tumors that initially respond to this therapy invariably recur with the acquisition of a highly aggressive and invasive phenotype. Although several myeloid populations have been associated to this pattern of recurrence, a specific targetable population has not been yet identified. Here, we present evidence for the accumulation of Tie2-expressing monocytes/macrophages (TEMs) at the tumor/normal brain interface of mice treated with anti-VEGF therapies in regions with heightened tumoral invasion. Furthermore, we describe the presence of TEMs in malignant glioma surgical specimens that recurred after bevacizumab treatment. Our studies showed that TEMs enhanced the invasive properties of glioma cells and secreted high levels of gelatinase enzymatic proteins. Accordingly, Tie2+MMP9+ monocytic cells were consistently detected in the invasive tumor edge upon anti-VEGF therapies. Our results suggest the presence of a specific myeloid/monocytic subpopulation that plays a pivotal role in the mechanism of escape of malignant gliomas from anti-VEGF therapies and therefore constitutes a new cellular target for combination therapies in patients selected for anti-angiogenesis treatment. PMID:24809734

Hossain, Mohammad B.; Conrad, Charles A.; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Fuller, Gregory N.; Marini, Frank C.; Alonso, Marta M.; Idoate, Miguel Angel; Gilbert, Mark R.; Fueyo, Juan; Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria

2014-01-01

466

Cross-border ties and self-rated health status for young Latino adults in Southern California.  

PubMed

At the same time that health researchers have mostly ignored the cross-border nature of immigrant social networks, scholars of immigrant "transnationalism" have left health largely unexamined. This paper addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between cross-border ties and self-rated health status for young Latino adults living in the greater Los Angeles area (n = 1268). Findings based on an ordered logistic regression analysis suggest that cross-border relationships may have both protective and adverse effects on overall health status. Specifically, those reporting a period of extended parental cross-border separation during childhood have lower odds of reporting better categories of self-rated health, all else equal. Conversely, a significant positive association was found between having a close relative living abroad and self-rated health status for foreign-born respondents when interacted with immigrant generation (foreign versus U.S.-born). Given the findings of significant negative and positive relationships between cross-border ties and self-rated general health status, I discuss the implications for future research on the social determinants of immigrant health. PMID:23312794

Torres, Jacqueline M

2013-03-01

467

Two-dimensional axisymmetric and three-dimensional helical equilibrium in the line-tied screw pinch  

SciTech Connect

The line-tying condition at a conducting anode is shown to provide a localized modification to the well-understood 1-D screw pinch equilibrium in the presence of bulk plasma diamagnetism. Diamagnetic currents cannot flow near the conducting anode and are measured to disappear in a localized boundary layer, causing a weak mirror configuration that breaks 1-D equilibrium and causes large parallel pressure gradients suggestive of significant radial outflows. For sufficiently large plasma currents, the paramagnetic nature of parallel current drives the equilibrium to paramagnetism and destroys the mirror effect. At a critical plasma current, the axisymmetric equilibrium is found to transition to a long-lived, rotating, helical 3-D equilibrium state. Internal measurements of this state via multi-point correlation analysis techniques illustrate that it preserves the flux surfaces and pressure profile of the axisymmetric equilibrium. Measurements indicate that despite the fact that the flux surfaces wander at the anode, the line-tied boundary conditions are not necessarily violated.

Paz-Soldan, C.; Brookhart, M. I.; Clinch, A. J.; Hannum, D. A.; Forest, C. B. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2011-05-15

468

Contextualising migrants' health behaviour - a qualitative study of transnational ties and their implications for participation in mammography screening  

PubMed Central

Background Lower participation rates in mammography screening are common among migrant women compared to native-born women. Explanations of these lower rates have mainly been based on behavioural theories investigating how lack of knowledge, access to services and culture influence the screening behaviour. The aim of the present study was to contextualise screening behaviour by exploring migrants’ transnational ties and their influence on participation in mammography screening in Denmark. Methods The study is based on the analysis of qualitative interviews with 29 women residing in greater Copenhagen, Denmark and born in Somalia, Turkey, India, Iran, Pakistan and Arab-speaking countries. Results We found that while women had knowledge about breast cancer and mammography screening, it was not prioritised. All women were embedded in transnational ties, which they struggled to retain through emotional and financial obligations, and these current struggles in their everyday life seemed to leave little room for concerns about breast cancer and therefore seemed to contribute to their lower participation in screening. Conclusions The study emphasises the need to take into account the multi-layered and multi-sided factors in migrants’ everyday life in order to further understand their health behaviour. PMID:23641820

2013-01-01

469

Cross-border ties and self-rated health status for young Latino adults in Southern California  

PubMed Central

At the same time that health researchers have mostly ignored the cross-border nature of immigrant social networks, scholars of immigrant “transnationalism” have left health largely unexamined. This paper addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between cross-border ties and self-rated health status for young Latino adults living in the greater Los Angeles area (n=1268). Findings based on an ordered logistic regression analysis suggest that cross-border relationships may have both protective and adverse effects on overall health status. Specifically, those reporting a period of extended parental cross-border separation during childhood have lower odds of reporting better categories of self-rated health, all else equal. Conversely, a significant positive association was found between having a close relative living abroad and self-rated health status for foreign-born respondents when interacted with immigrant generation (foreign versus U.S.-born). Given the findings of significant negative and positive relationships between cross-border ties and self-rated general health status, I discuss the implications for future research on the social determinants of immigrant health. PMID:23312794

Torres, Jacqueline M.

2013-01-01

470

Two-particle quantum transmission  

E-print Network

Two-photon interference is a fundamental phenomenon in quantum mechanics and stands at the base of numerous experimental observations. Here another manifestation of this phenomenon is described, taking place at a Y junction. Specifically it is shown how the r^2+t^2 term which is behind previous observations of two-photon interference, may give rise to different states at a beam-splitter and different two-particle transmission coefficients at a Y junction. Different from previous descriptions of quantum transmission based on one-particle physics, the enhanced transmission described here is due to two-particle physics.

Ron Folman

2012-01-15

471

Electrical transmission line diametrical retainer  

DOEpatents

The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within down hole components. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to with stand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

2004-12-14

472

Load Distribution in Transmissions "Split"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transmission system of a helicopter must meet particularly critical requirements. It must transmit engine power to the rotor, at the same time ensuring a typical speed reduction of 60 to 1. It must also be safe, reliable, light, and reach a high level of performance while, at the same time, it must produce few vibrations and little noise. Helicopter transmissions have achieved high-level performances thanks to the combination of analyses, experiments, and the application of practical field experience. However, the new generation of helicopters will require transmission systems that are even safer, lighter, less noisy, and more reliable.

Krantz, Timothy L.; Delgado, Irebert R.

1998-01-01

473

Intertwined arbovirus transmission activity: reassessing the transmission cycle paradigm  

PubMed Central

Arboviruses are emerging/reemerging infectious agents worldwide. The factors within this scenario include vector and host population fluctuations, climatic changes, anthropogenic activities that disturb ecosystems, an increase in international flights, human mobility, and genetic mutations that allow spill-over phenomenon. Arboviruses are maintained by biologic transmission among vectors and hosts. Sometimes this biological transmission is specific and includes one vector and host species such as Chikungunya (CHIKV), Dengue (DENV), and urban Yellow Fever (YFV). However, most of the arboviruses are generalist and they use many vectors and hosts species. From this perspective, arboviruses are maintained through a transmission network rather than a transmission cycle. This allows us to understand the complexity and dynamics of the transmission and maintenance of arboviruses in the ecosystems. The old perspective that arboviruses are maintained in close and stable transmission cycles should be modified by a new more integrative and dynamic idea, representing the real scenario where biological interactions have a much broader representation, indicating the constant adaptability of the biological entities. PMID:23335900

Diaz, Luis A.; Flores, Fernando S.; Quaglia, Agustin; Contigiani, Marta S.

2013-01-01

474

Video transmission over wireless networks  

E-print Network

Compressed video bitstream transmissions over wireless networks are addressed in this work. We first consider error control and power allocation for transmitting wireless video over CDMA networks in conjunction