Science.gov

Sample records for 38261-38310 alphabetical listing

  1. NASA Thesaurus. Volume 1: Alphabetical listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The NASA Thesaurus -- Volume 1, Alphabetical Listing -- contains all subject terms (postable and nonpostable) approved for use in the NASA scientific and technical information system. Included are the subject terms of the Preliminary Edition of the NASA Thesaurus (NASA SP-7030, December 1967); of the NASA Thesaurus Alphabetical Update (NASA SP-7040, September 1971); and terms approved, added or changed through May 31, 1975. Thesaurus structuring, including scope notes, a generic structure with broader-term/narrower-term (BT-NT) relationships displayed in embedded hierarchies, and other cross references, is provided for each term, as appropriate.

  2. Skylab-2 handheld photography alphabetized geographical features list

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcniel, J. L.; Devalcourt, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    This publication represents a relisting of the Skylab-2, PTD Handheld Photography Catalog. The purpose of this publication is to provide imagery researchers a supplement to the PTD Catalog by alphabetically sorting together all similar major and minor features. Some cross-referencing of feature names was accomplished where the authors deemed necessary; however, no attempt was made to exhaust all possible means of cross-referencing. An example of the cross-referencing which was done: Kuril Islands may be found under the major feature column and also as a minor feature of Islands.

  3. Skylab-3 handheld photography alphabetized geographical features list

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcniel, J. L.; Deyalcourt, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    The data was thoroughly researched using the Times Index-Gazetteer of the World, the Times Atlas of the World, and the National Atlas of the United States of America to ensure correct spelling and location of named features. The spelling and major geographical features applied to smaller features (minor) such as cities, towns, mountain peaks, etc., are in accordance with these publications. It is understood that some political boundaries and names of countries are subject to change. The data was written on NASA keypunch transmittal sheets and punched into data cards. These data cards were then machine sorted alphabetically by major feature and minor feature.

  4. 40 CFR Appendix to Subpart M of... - Alphabetical Listing of Tribes and Corresponding Sections

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Corresponding Sections Appendix to Subpart M of Part 49 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Implementation Plans for Tribes-Region X Pt. 49, Subpt. M, App. Appendix to Subpart M of Part 49—Alphabetical Listing of Tribes and Corresponding Sections Indian Tribe Refer to the following sections in subpart...

  5. Preliminary metallogenic map of North America; an alphabetical listing of deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guild, Philip White

    1981-01-01

    The names of 4,215 ore deposits shown on the Preliminary Metallogenic Map of North America are listed in alphabetical order by country, and by subdivisions of the larger countries (Canada, Mexico, and the United States). Map numbers, major and minor constituents, geographic coordinates, and a geologic code are given for each entry.

  6. 40 CFR Appendix to Subpart M of... - Alphabetical Listing of Tribes and Corresponding Sections

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alphabetical Listing of Tribes and Corresponding Sections Appendix to Subpart M of Part 49 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY Implementation Plans for...

  7. Energy Data Base: Serial titles with ISSN listing: Part 1, Alphabetic arrangement by title

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, J.H.

    1986-12-01

    ''Serial Titles with ISSN Listing'' lists periodical titles which have been included in the OSTI (Office of Scientific and Technical Information) Journal Authority. The OSTI Journal Authority was established to standardize the citing of the approximately 23,000 titles contained in this authority. It is also a valuable tool for identifying journals by ISSN and CODEN, especially for journals with the same title which are published in different locations. This Part 1 is an alphabetical listing by full title of the journal publication and also includes abbreviated title, CODEN, ISSN, coverage code, and country code.

  8. 76 FR 38533 - Alphabetical Listings: Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons; Blocked Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... A to Part 560, to reflect changes to the list since Appendix A to Part 560 was last published (75 FR... note); E.O. 13466, 73 FR 36787, June 27, 2008, 3 CFR, 2008 Comp., p. 195; E.O. 13551, 75 FR 53837, September 1, 2010; E.O. 13570, 76 FR 22291, April 20, 2011. Subpart B--Prohibitions 0 4. Revise Notes 1...

  9. Albert's Alphabet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Ann R.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how she introduced a lesson called Albert's Alphabet to her kindergarten students. This lesson introduces the design thinking process to kindergartners in a developmentally appropriate way. She began the lesson by reading Leslie Tyron's book "Albert's Alphabet," which tells the story of Albert Goose, the…

  10. Admission to Selective Schools, Alphabetically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurajda, Stepan; Munich, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    One's position in an alphabetically sorted list may be important in determining access to over-subscribed public services. Motivated by anecdotal evidence, we investigate the importance of the position in the alphabet of Czech students for their admission chances into over-subscribed schools. Empirical evidence based on the population of students…

  11. Alphabetical Order Effects in School Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurajda, Štepán; Münich, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    If school admission committees use alphabetically sorted lists of applicants in their evaluations, one's position in the alphabet according to last name initial may be important in determining access to selective schools. Jurajda and Münich (2010) "Admission to Selective Schools, Alphabetically". "Economics of Education…

  12. Making the Alphabet Dance: Recreational Wordplay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckler, Ross

    From showing readers the longest words in common usage (22 letters--counterrevolutionaries, deinstitutionalization), to providing readers with a list of words in which all 5 vowels must appear in alphabetical order (abstemious, facetious), to discovering the name in an American phone book where the most letters of the alphabet are used without…

  13. OPERATION ALPHABET 1, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COATES, ROBERT H., ED.

    THE TEACHER'S GUIDE PROVIDES SUGGESTIONS FOR INTRODUCING EACH OF THE 100 LESSONS IN OPERATION ALPHABET 1, A WORKBOOK TO HELP ADULTS LEARN TO READ AND WRITE. IT LISTS MATERIALS NEEDED, AND OUTLINES THE PRESENTATION AND WRITING PRACTICE. AN INTRODUCTORY SECTION COVERS ABILITY GROUPING WITHIN A CLASS, READING RATES, AND GUIDEPOSTS TO GOOD TEACHING OF…

  14. The Cataldic Alphabet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cataldo, John W.

    1990-01-01

    Describes how the author, influenced by Celtic, Trajan, and contemporary alphabets, created his own alphabet. Discusses the developmental drawing process, color determinations, and how he created his final large scale letter forms in plywood. Outlines how students can adopt these ideas to develop their own alphabet. (KM)

  15. Exploring the Alphabet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exploring, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This issue of "Exploring," is devoted primarily to examination of alphabets and the languages they represent. Major articles include: "Shrinking the Alphabet" (Pat Murphy), a comparison of alphabet composition for different languages; "The Puzzle of Linear B" (Paul Doherty), a history of archaeologists' deciphering of an early form of written…

  16. Alphabet, Mother of Invention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLuhan, Marshall; Logan, R. K.

    1977-01-01

    Traces the history of the alphabet; cites recent developments in the field of neurophysiology that tend to support the hypothesis that the alphabet produced a situation favorable for the development of logic, rational thought, and science. Also comments on the reemergence of the oral tradition. (GT)

  17. Makah Alphabet Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makah Cultural and Research Center, Neah Bay, WA.

    The book presents the Makah alphabet decided upon in a public workshop held by the Makah Language Program in 1978, before which there was no standard Makah orthography. The 10 vowels and 34 consonants of the alphabet are presented in relation to English sounds. The book groups vowels sounds together but devotes a page to each consonant telling how…

  18. Alphabet Antics: Hundreds of Activities To Challenge and Enrich

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinton, Ken

    Presenting activities, facts, and illustrations, this book takes learning the alphabet to a new level. After an introduction and a brief cartoon look at the history of the alphabet, the book presents 26 four-page mini-chapters (1 for each letter) that include a brief visual history of the letter; trivia tidbits; project ideas; a list of people,…

  19. OPERATION ALPHABET, 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COATES, ROBERT H., ED.

    OPERATION ALPHABET 1 IS THE FIRST OF A SERIES OF WORKBOOKS PLANNED TO HELP ADULTS LEARN TO READ AND WRITE. EACH OF THE 100 LESSONS DEVELOPS ONE IDEA OF INTEREST TO ADULTS, EMPHASIZING KEY WORDS AND PRACTICE WRITING EXERCISES. WORDS USED IN THE LESSONS ARE DEFINED AT THE END OF THE BOOK. THIS DOCUMENT IS AVAILABLE FROM NOBLE AND NOBLE, PUBLISHERS,…

  20. Index to Educational Overhead Transparencies. Volume 2, Alphabetical Guide (G-Z), Producer/Distributor Code Section. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. National Information Center for Educational Media.

    The second in a two-volume set on educational overhead transparencies, this volume contains the second half of the alphabetical listing of transparencies by title. It also contains directories of producers and distributors--one alphabetical by code and one alphabetical by name. (PF)

  1. The expanded genetic alphabet.

    PubMed

    Malyshev, Denis A; Romesberg, Floyd E

    2015-10-01

    All biological information, since the last common ancestor of all life on Earth, has been encoded by a genetic alphabet consisting of only four nucleotides that form two base pairs. Long-standing efforts to develop two synthetic nucleotides that form a third, unnatural base pair (UBP) have recently yielded three promising candidates, one based on alternative hydrogen bonding, and two based on hydrophobic and packing forces. All three of these UBPs are replicated and transcribed with remarkable efficiency and fidelity, and the latter two thus demonstrate that hydrogen bonding is not unique in its ability to underlie the storage and retrieval of genetic information. This Review highlights these recent developments as well as the applications enabled by the UBPs, including the expansion of the evolution process to include new functionality and the creation of semi-synthetic life that stores increased information. PMID:26304162

  2. Optimal alphabets for an RNA world.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Paul P; Holland, Barbara R; Moulton, Vincent; Hendy, Mike; Penny, David

    2003-01-01

    Experiments have shown that the canonical AUCG genetic alphabet is not the only possible nucleotide alphabet. In this work we address the question 'is the canonical alphabet optimal?' We make the assumption that the genetic alphabet was determined in the RNA world. Computational tools are used to infer the RNA secondary structure (shape) from a given RNA sequence, and statistics from RNA shapes are gathered with respect to alphabet size. Then, simulations based upon the replication and selection of fixed-sized RNA populations are used to investigate the effect of alternative alphabets upon RNA's ability to step through a fitness landscape. These results show that for a low copy fidelity the canonical alphabet is fitter than two-, six- and eight-letter alphabets. In higher copy-fidelity experiments, six-letter alphabets outperform the four-letter alphabets, suggesting that the canonical alphabet is indeed a relic of the RNA world. PMID:12816657

  3. Alphabetic Literacy and Brain Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Kerckhove, Derrick

    1986-01-01

    Hypothesizes that writing systems affect cognitive strategies at a deeper level of human information-processing than is generally accepted in present day psychology. Discusses why almost all varieties of alphabets, syllabaries, and consonantal systems have been written to the left while vocalic systems have been written to the right. (JD)

  4. OPERATION ALPHABET 2, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COATES, ROBERT H., ED.

    STEPS IN TEACHING EACH LESSON IN OPERATION ALPHABET 2, A SERIES OF WORKBOOKS FOR ADULTS LEARNING TO READ AND WRITE, ARE OUTLINE--STIMULATING INTEREST, NEW WORDS, SILENT READING, QUESTIONING FOR COMPREHENSION, REEXAMINATION OF NEW WORDS, READING EXERCISES, WRITING PRACTICE, AND PARAGRAPH WRITING. LESSON PLANS FOR BOTH VOLUMES ARE INCLUDED. THIS…

  5. Getting Artsy with the Alphabet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainer, Ruth Straus

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the combined artistry of third, fourth, and fifth graders as they illuminate a formerly dark corner of their school's entry plaza with a sparkling mosaic mural. The students worked in small groups to form the letters of the alphabet on 12" x 15" (30.5 x 38 cm) panels of cement board decorated with flat-backed…

  6. Sharing Alphabet Books in Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Barbara A.; Jones, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    To achieve academically, young children need a strong foundation in literacy. Alphabet knowledge is one aspect of early literacy. This article presents the importance of and the components of alphabet knowledge. An exploratory study in which prekindergarten and kindergarten teachers read aloud three different alphabet books to their students in a…

  7. The Alphabet and the Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebeuf, A.

    2011-06-01

    Since the beginning of the 17th century the letters of the Greek alphabet are used to identify the stars of constellation by order of magnitude. This was simply a practical means of astronomical classification. In several instances the Bible uses such metaphors as "The sky rolled up like a scroll". The idea of associating letters of different alphabets with stars, constellations and the sky in general can be found to day in the marginal subculture. The persistence of such an association of writing with astronomy or cosmology is at least of interest for cultural reasons, but the problem might be of good interest as well for the history of astronomy and cosmology. I present here two examples of this tradition in works of art. The first a painted representation of the Revelation of Saint John in the Orthodox church tradition, and the other in the construction of the late bronze age sacred well at Santa Cristina in Sardinia, Italy.

  8. NASA thesaurus alphabetical update: Subject terms for indexing scientific and technical information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The NASA THESAURUS - ALPHABETICAL UPDATE is an alphabetical listing of all subject terms (postable and nonpostable) that are currently approved for use in the NASA scientific and technical information system. Contained in the listing are the subject terms that were listed in the Preliminary Edition of the NASA THESAURUS and the additional subject terms that were approved during the period January 1, 1967 June 30, 1971. Complete Thesaurus structuring, including scope notes, category assignments, and cross-references, is provided for each term as appropriate.

  9. The Alphabetic Principle and Learning To Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberman, Isabelle Y.; Shankweiler, Donald; Liberman, Alvin M.

    Proper application of the alphabetic principle rests on an awareness of the internal phonological (and morphophonological) structure of words that the alphabet represents. Unfortunately for the would-be reader-writer, such awareness is not an automatic consequence of speaking a language, because the biological specialization for speech manages the…

  10. Why Young Children Need Alphabet Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Laverne; Weiss, Sara

    2005-01-01

    This article explains the importance of alphabet books in early reading development. Alphabet books encourage literacy development in the following ways: (1) unlock the symbols of language; (2) connect knowledge to other sources; (3) provide book usage knowledge to young children; (4) complement children's enjoyment of books; and (5) aid early…

  11. 47 CFR Alphabetical Index - Part 74

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Part 74 Index Alphabetical Index Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO.... Pt. 74, Index Alphabetical Index—Part 74 A Additional orders by FCC (All Services) 74.28...

  12. 47 CFR Alphabetical Index - Part 78

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Part 78 Index Alphabetical Index Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Technical Regulations Modulation limits. Pt. 78, Index Alphabetical Index—Part 78 A...

  13. 47 CFR Alphabetical Index - Part 76

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Part 76 Index Alphabetical Index Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND..., Index Alphabetical Index—Part 76 A A and B grade contours 76.5 Access, Channel enforcement 76.10...

  14. 47 CFR Alphabetical Index - Part 78

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Part 78 Index Alphabetical Index Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Technical Regulations Modulation limits. Pt. 78, Index Alphabetical Index—Part 78 A...

  15. 47 CFR Alphabetical Index - Part 78

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Part 78 Index Alphabetical Index Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Technical Regulations Modulation limits. Pt. 78, Index Alphabetical Index—Part 78 A...

  16. 47 CFR Alphabetical Index - Part 78

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Part 78 Index Alphabetical Index Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Technical Regulations Modulation limits. Pt. 78, Index Alphabetical Index—Part 78 A...

  17. 47 CFR Alphabetical Index - Part 76

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Part 76 Index Alphabetical Index Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND..., Index Alphabetical Index—Part 76 A A and B grade contours 76.5 Access, Channel enforcement 76.10...

  18. 47 CFR Alphabetical Index - Part 74

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Part 74 Index Alphabetical Index Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO.... Pt. 74, Index Alphabetical Index—Part 74 A Additional orders by FCC (All Services) 74.28...

  19. 47 CFR Alphabetical Index - Part 76

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Part 76 Index Alphabetical Index Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND..., Index Alphabetical Index—Part 76 A A and B grade contours 76.5 Access, Channel enforcement 76.10...

  20. 47 CFR Alphabetical Index - Part 78

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Part 78 Index Alphabetical Index Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Technical Regulations Modulation limits. Pt. 78, Index Alphabetical Index—Part 78 A...

  1. 47 CFR Alphabetical Index - Part 74

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Part 74 Index Alphabetical Index Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO.... Pt. 74, Index Alphabetical Index—Part 74 A Additional orders by FCC (All Services) 74.28...

  2. 47 CFR Alphabetical Index - Part 76

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Part 76 Index Alphabetical Index Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND..., Index Alphabetical Index—Part 76 A A and B grade contours 76.5 Access, Channel enforcement 76.10...

  3. 47 CFR Alphabetical Index - Part 74

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Part 74 Index Alphabetical Index Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO.... Pt. 74, Index Alphabetical Index—Part 74 A Additional orders by FCC (All Services) 74.28...

  4. 47 CFR Alphabetical Index - Part 74

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Part 74 Index Alphabetical Index Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO.... Pt. 74, Index Alphabetical Index—Part 74 A Additional orders by FCC (All Services) 74.28...

  5. 47 CFR Alphabetical Index - Part 73

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Part 73 Index Alphabetical Index Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Incorporated Standards Incorporation by reference. Pt. 73, Index Alphabetical Index—Part 73 Rules Apply to All Services, AM, FM, and TV,...

  6. Story-List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Lanaii

    The program, STORY-LIST, generates alphabetized cumulative word lists by story number within a school grade. It is designed to read a group of cards until it finds a new grade/story number. Each word read is stored in an array, sorted, and an asterisk is added to each word in the array. This array is then merged with the old sorted word list and…

  7. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 11, Alphabetically indexed bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  8. Reduced alphabet for protein folding prediction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jitao T; Wang, Titi; Huang, Shanran R; Li, Xin

    2015-04-01

    What are the key building blocks that would have been needed to construct complex protein folds? This is an important issue for understanding protein folding mechanism and guiding de novo protein design. Twenty naturally occurring amino acids and eight secondary structures consist of a 28-letter alphabet to determine folding kinetics and mechanism. Here we predict folding kinetic rates of proteins from many reduced alphabets. We find that a reduced alphabet of 10 letters achieves good correlation with folding rates, close to the one achieved by full 28-letter alphabet. Many other reduced alphabets are not significantly correlated to folding rates. The finding suggests that not all amino acids and secondary structures are equally important for protein folding. The foldable sequence of a protein could be designed using at least 10 folding units, which can either promote or inhibit protein folding. Reducing alphabet cardinality without losing key folding kinetic information opens the door to potentially faster machine learning and data mining applications in protein structure prediction, sequence alignment and protein design. PMID:25641420

  9. What is the protein design alphabet?

    PubMed

    Dokholyan, Nikolay V

    2004-03-01

    Selecting a protein sequence that corresponds to a specific three-dimensional protein structure is known as the protein design problem. One principal bottleneck in solving this problem is our lack of knowledge of precise atomic interactions. Using a simple model of amino acid interactions, we determine three crucial factors that are important for solving the protein design problem. Among these factors is the protein alphabet-a set of sequence elements that encodes protein structure. Our model predicts that alphabet size is independent of protein length, suggesting the possibility of designing a protein of arbitrary length with the natural protein alphabet. We also find that protein alphabet size is governed by protein structural properties and the energetic properties of the protein alphabet units. We discover that the usage of average types of amino acid in proteins is less than expected if amino acids were chosen randomly with naturally occurring frequencies. We propose three possible scenarios that account for amino acid underusage in proteins. These scenarios suggest the possibility that amino acids themselves might not constitute the alphabet of natural proteins. PMID:14997558

  10. Who on Earth Invented the Alphabet?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassoon, John

    1990-01-01

    Considers opinions about how the alphabet might have been invented. Concludes that it probably occurred in a single "giant leap" taken by one man. Reviews the inventor's necessary background, creation of letter shapes, the writing medium, and direction of script. Postulates possibilities for initial acceptance and diffusion. Encapsulates the whole…

  11. Alphabetic Phonics. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Alphabetic Phonics" is an ungraded, multisensory curriculum distributed by School Specialty Intervention (formerly Educators Publishing Service) that teachers the structure of the English language and can be taught to individuals or small groups of elementary or secondary school students. This phonetic program teaches reading, handwriting,…

  12. Learning to Use an Alphabetic Writing System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treiman, Rebecca; Kessler, Brett

    2013-01-01

    Gaining facility with spelling is an important part of becoming a good writer. Here we review recent work on how children learn to spell in alphabetic writing systems. Statistical learning plays an important role in this process. Young children learn about some of the salient graphic characteristics of written texts and attempt to reproduce these…

  13. Study of Sort Stories: Leveled Reading Supplement to Words Their Way: Word Sorts for Letter Name-Alphabet Spellers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zugel, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    "Sort Stories: Leveled Reading Supplement to Words Their Way: Word Sorts for Letter Name-Alphabet Spellers" effectiveness was tested using five English language learner (ELL) students in the fifth and sixth grade. "Sort Stories" uses the word lists and accompanying clip-art from "Words Their Way" in developmental, grade-level specific, short read…

  14. Chemical Mutagenesis of an Emissive RNA Alphabet.

    PubMed

    Rovira, Alexander R; Fin, Andrea; Tor, Yitzhak

    2015-11-25

    An evolved fluorescent ribonucleoside alphabet comprising isomorphic purine ((tz)A, (tz)G) and pyrimidine ((tz)U, (tz)C) analogues, all derived from isothiazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine as a common heterocyclic core, is described. Structural and biochemical analyses illustrate that the nucleosides, particularly the C-nucleosidic purine analogues, are faithful isomorphic and isofunctional surrogates of their natural counterparts and show improved features when compared to an RNA alphabet derived from thieno[3,4-d]-pyrimidine. The restoration of the nitrogen in a position equivalent to the purines' N7 leads to "isofunctional" behavior, as illustrated by the ability of adenosine deaminase to deaminate (tz)A as effectively as adenosine, the native substrate. PMID:26523462

  15. NSSDC data listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The first part of this listing, Satellite Data, is in an abbreviated form compared to the data catalogs published by NSSDC. It is organized by NSSDC spacecraft common name. The launch date and NSSDC ID are printed for each spacecraft. The experiments are listed alphabetically by the principal investigator's or team leader's last name following the spacecraft name. The experiment name and NSSDC ID are printed for each experiment. The data sets are listed by NSSDC ID following the experiment name. The data set name, data form code, quantity of data, and the time span of the data as verified by NSSDC are printed for each data set.

  16. Compression and Predictive Distributions for Large Alphabets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao

    Data generated from large alphabet exist almost everywhere in our life, for example, texts, images and videos. Traditional universal compression algorithms mostly involve small alphabets and assume implicitly an asymptotic condition under which the extra bits induced in the compression process vanishes as an infinite number of data come. In this thesis, we put the main focus on compression and prediction for large alphabets with the alphabet size comparable or larger than the sample size. We first consider sequences of random variables independent and identically generated from a large alphabet. In particular, the size of the sample is allowed to be variable. A product distribution based on Poisson sampling and tiling is proposed as the coding distribution, which highly simplifies the implementation and analysis through independence. Moreover, we characterize the behavior of the coding distribution through a condition on the tail sum of the ordered counts, and apply it to sequences satisfying this condition. Further, we apply this method to envelope classes. This coding distribution provides a convenient method to approximately compute the Shtarkov's normalized maximum likelihood (NML) distribution. And the extra price paid for this convenience is small compared to the total cost. Furthermore, we find this coding distribution can also be used to calculate the NML distribution exactly. And this calculation remains simple due to the independence of the coding distribution. Further, we consider a more realistic class---the Markov class, and in particular, tree sources. A context tree based algorithm is designed to describe the dependencies among the contexts. It is a greedy algorithm which seeks for the greatest savings in codelength when constructing the tree. Compression and prediction of individual counts associated with the contexts uses the same coding distribution as in the i.i.d case. Combining these two procedures, we demonstrate a compression algorithm based

  17. NSSDC Data listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A convenient reference to space science and supportive data available from the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) is provided. Satellite data are organized by NSSDC spacecraft common name. The launch date and NSSDC ID are given. Experiments are listed alphabetically by the principal investigator or team leader. The experiment name and NSSDC ID, data set ID, data set name, data form code, quantity of data, and the time span of the data as verified by NSSDC are shown. Ground-based data, models, computer routines, and composite spacecraft data that are available from NSSDC are listed alphabetically by discipline, source, data type, data content, and data set. The data set name, data form code, quantity of data, and the time span covered where appropriate are included.

  18. New assessment of a structural alphabet.

    PubMed

    de Brevern, Alexandre G

    2005-01-01

    A statistical analysis of the Protein Databank (PDB) structures had led us to define a set of small 3D structural prototypes called Protein Blocks (PBs). This structural alphabet includes 16 PBs, each one defined by the (phi, psi) dihedral angles of 5 consecutive residues. Here, we analyze the effect of the enlargement of the PDB on the PBs' definition. The results highlight the quality of the 3D approximation ensured by the PBs. These last could be of great interest in ab initio modeling. PMID:15996119

  19. RF model of the distribution system as a communication channel, phase 2. Volume 4: Sofware source program and illustrations ASCII database listings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rustay, R. C.; Gajjar, J. T.; Rankin, R. W.; Wentz, R. C.; Wooding, R.

    1982-01-01

    Listings of source programs and some illustrative examples of various ASCII data base files are presented. The listings are grouped into the following categories: main programs, subroutine programs, illustrative ASCII data base files. Within each category files are listed alphabetically.

  20. American Indian Languages: Classifications and List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisa, Charles A.

    This document lists the indigenous languages of North and South America, with the exception of the Eskimo-Aleut languages, the European-based Creoles, and languages which represent Post-Columbian intrusions. Section I consists of genetic classification of the languages included (948 language-level entries). Section II is an alphabetic list of all…

  1. An Annotated Publications List on Homelessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutunjian, Beth Ann

    This annotated publications list on homelessness contains citations for 19 publications, most of which deal with problems of alcohol or drug abuse among homeless persons. Citations are listed alphabetically by author and cover the topics of homelessness and alcoholism, drug abuse, public policy, research methodologies, mental illness, alcohol- and…

  2. Alphabet Knowledge in Preschool: A Rasch Model Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drouin, Michelle; Horner, Sherri L.; Sondergeld, Toni A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used Rasch model analyses to examine (1) the unidimensionality of the alphabet knowledge construct and (2) the relative difficulty of different alphabet knowledge tasks (uppercase letter recognition, names, and sounds, and lowercase letter names) within a sample of preschoolers (n=335). Rasch analysis showed that the four…

  3. Familial Colorectal Cancer: Understanding the Alphabet Soup.

    PubMed

    Giglia, Matthew D; Chu, Daniel I

    2016-09-01

    While most colorectal cancers (CRCs) originate from nonhereditary spontaneous mutations, one-third of cases are familial or hereditary. Hereditary CRCs, which account for < 5% of all CRCs, have identifiable germline mutations and phenotypes, such as Lynch syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Familial CRCs, which account for up to 30% of CRCs, have no identifiable germline mutation or specific pattern of inheritance, but higher-than-expected incidence within a family. Since the discovery that certain genotypes can lead to development of CRC, thousands of mutations have now been implicated in CRC. These new findings have enhanced our ability to identify at-risk patients, initiate better surveillance, and take preventative measures. Given the large number of genes now associated with hereditary and familial CRCs, clinicians should be familiar with the alphabet soup of genes to provide the highest quality of care for patients and families. PMID:27582643

  4. An analysis of auditory alphabet confusions.

    PubMed

    Walker, M E

    1989-04-01

    The present study, using the nonhierarchical overlapping clustering algorithm MAPCLUS to fit the Shepard-Arabie (1979) ADCLUS model, attempted to derive a set of features that would accurately describe the auditory alphabet confusions present in the data matrices of Conrad (1964) and Hull (1973). Separate nine-cluster solutions accounted for 80% and 89% of the variance in the matrices, respectively. The clusters revealed that the most frequently confused letter names contained common vowels and phonetically similar consonants. Further analyses using INDCLUS, an individual differences extension of the MAPCLUS algorithm and ADCLUS model, indicated that while the patterns of errors in the two matrices were remarkably similar, some differences were also apparent. These differences reflected the differing amounts of background noise present in the two studies. PMID:2710632

  5. Learning to Use an Alphabetic Writing System

    PubMed Central

    Treiman, Rebecca; Kessler, Brett

    2013-01-01

    Gaining facility with spelling is an important part of becoming a good writer. Here we review recent work on how children learn to spell in alphabetic writing systems. Statistical learning plays an important role in this process. Thus, young children learn about some of the salient graphic characteristics of written texts and attempt to reproduce these characteristics in their own productions even before they use letters to represent phonemes. Later, children apply their statistical learning skills to links between phonemes and spellings, including those that are conditioned by context and morphology. Children use what they know about language and about letter names when learning about spelling, and learning to spell in turn influences their ideas about language. Although children learn about some aspects of spelling implicitly, explicit instruction has an important role to play. We discuss some implications of the research for the design of that instruction. PMID:24077986

  6. Methods for optimizing the structure alphabet sequences of proteins.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qi-wen; Wang, Xiao-long; Lin, Lei

    2007-11-01

    Protein structure prediction based on fragment assemble has made great progress in recent years. Local protein structure prediction is receiving increased attention. One essential step of local protein structure prediction method is that the three-dimensional conformations must be compressed into one-dimensional series of letters of a structural alphabet. The traditional method assigns each structure fragment the structure alphabet that has the best local structure similarity. However, such locally optimal structure alphabet sequence does not guarantee to produce the globally optimal structure. This study presents two efficient methods trying to find the optimal structure alphabet sequence, which can model the native structures as accuracy as possible. First, a 28-letter structure alphabet is derived by clustering fragment in Cartesian space with fragment length of seven residues. The average quantization error of the 28 letters is 0.82 A in term of root mean square deviation. Then, two efficient methods are presented to encode the protein structures into series of structure alphabet letters, that is, the greedy and dynamic programming algorithm. They are tested on PDB database using the structure alphabet developed in Cartesian coordinates space (our structure alphabet) and in torsion angles space (the PB structure alphabet), respectively. The experimental results show that these two methods can find the approximately optimal structure alphabet sequences by searching a small fraction of the modeling space. The traditional local-optimization method achieves 26.27 A root mean square deviations between the reconstructed structures and the native one, while the modeling accuracy is improved to 3.28 A by the greedy algorithm. The results are helpful for local protein structure prediction. PMID:17493604

  7. NSSDC data listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Richard

    1991-01-01

    The purpose here is to identify, in a highly summarized way, data available from the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). Most data are maintained as offline data sets gathered from individual instruments carried on spacecraft; these comprise the Satellite Data Listing. Descriptive names, time spans, data form, and quality of these data sets are identified in the listing, which is sorted alphabetically, first by spacecraft name and then by the principal investigator's or team leader's last name. Several data sets not associated with individual spaceflight instruments are identified in separate listings following the Satellite Data Listing. These include composite spacecraft data sets, ground based data, models, and computer routines. NSSDC also offers data via special services and systems in a number of areas, including the Astronomical Data Center, Coordinated Data Analysis Workshops, NASA Climate Data System, Pilot Land Data System, and Crustal Dynamics Data Information System.

  8. National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) Data Listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Satellite and nonsatellite data available from the National Space Science Data Center are listed. The Satellite Data listing includes the spacecraft name, launch date, and an alphabetical list of experiments. The Non-Satellite Data listing contains ground based data, models, computer routines, and composite spacecraft data. The data set name, data form code, quantity of data, and the time space covered are included in the data sets of both listings where appropriate. Geodetic tracking data sets are also included.

  9. Optimal alphabets for noise-resistant quantum cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sych, Denis V.; Grishanin, Boris A.; Zadkov, Victor N.

    2005-06-01

    Possibilities of improving critical error rate of quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols for different strategies of eavesdropping are investigated. QKD-protocols with discrete alphabets letters of which form regular polyhedrons on the Bloch sphere (tetrahedron octahedron cube icosahedron and dodecahedron which have 4, 6, 8, 12 and 20 vertexes respectively) and QKD-protocol with continuous alphabet which corresponds to the limiting case of a polyhedron with infinitive number of vortexes are considered. Stability of such QKD-protocols to the noise in a quantum channel which is due to the Eve's interference that apply either intercept-receipt or optimal eavesdropping strategy at the individual attacks is studied in detail. It is shown that in case of optimal eavesdropping strategy after bases reconciliation the QKD-protocol with continuous alphabet surpasses all other protocols in terms of noise-resistance. Without basis reconciliation the highest critical error rate have the protocol with tetrahedron-type alphabet.

  10. Adaptive Source Coding Schemes for Geometrically Distributed Integer Alphabets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, K-M.; Smyth, P.

    1993-01-01

    Revisit the Gallager and van Voorhis optimal source coding scheme for geometrically distributed non-negative integer alphabets and show that the various subcodes in the popular Rice algorithm can be derived from the Gallager and van Voorhis code.

  11. Kazakh (Qazaq-) Grammatical Sketch with Affix List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krippes, Karl A.

    Facts on the grammar of Kazakh, spoken in Kazakhstan, are presented. They are intended as a guide, not an instructional text. Information is presented in the form of notes and word lists on the following topics: orthography (the Cyrillic alphabet, spelling reform, stylistic and dialectal alternations, common misspellings, and homographs);…

  12. An Incompleat [sic] Alphabet Book of Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Gwen

    1992-01-01

    Lists a variety of techniques, activities, and attitudes that could be utilized by secondary teachers of writing to enhance and improve the quality and results of instruction. Covers numerous classroom situations, teacher student relationship issues, and comments on student papers. Includes samples of students' writing. (HB)

  13. "Do You Have Another One about . . .": A List of Sequels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlaw, M. Jean

    1985-01-01

    Lists sequels or books in series published from 1973 to mid-1985 and intended for grades 4-12. Titles are grouped by author in six categories (fantasy and science fiction, historical fiction, autobiographical fiction, modern realistic fiction, mystery, sports); sequels are listed in preferred order of reading; series alphabetically by title. (EJS)

  14. Films and Videotapes on Animal Development--A Check List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downie, Roger; Alexander, Lynne

    1986-01-01

    Provides an updated list of films and videotapes that was initially developed in 1970 for the British Society for Developmental Biology. Includes sections on cellular and genetic aspects, invertebrates, and vertebrates. The newer films are listed by title, in alphabetical order, with details of the maker, content, and duration. (ML)

  15. National priorities list sites: Kansas, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by the site name.

  16. National priorities list sites: Kentucky, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by site name.

  17. National priorities list sites: Montana, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by the site name.

  18. National priorities list sites: Idaho, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by the site name.

  19. National priorities list sites: Florida, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by the site name.

  20. National priorities list sites: Iowa, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by the site name.

  1. National priorities list sites: Wisconsin, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by the site name.

  2. National priorities list sites: Vermont, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by the site name.

  3. National priorities list sites: Rhode Island, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by the site name.

  4. National priorities list sites: Oregon, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by the site name.

  5. National priorities list sites: New Hampshire, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by the site name.

  6. National priorities list sites: Colorado, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by the site name.

  7. National priorities list sites: Missouri, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by the site name.

  8. National priorities list sites: Michigan, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by site name.

  9. National priorities list sites: Indiana, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by site name.

  10. National priorities list sites: Ohio, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by the site name.

  11. National priorities list sites: Maine, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by the site name.

  12. National priorities list sites: New Mexico, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by the site name.

  13. National priorities list sites: Arkansas, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by site name.

  14. National priorities list sites: Massachusetts, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by site name.

  15. National priorities list sites: Alaska, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by the site name.

  16. National priorities list site: Mississippi, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by the site name.

  17. National priorities list sites: Louisiana, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by the site name.

  18. National priorities list sites: Nebraska, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by site name.

  19. National priorities list sites: Oklahoma, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by site name.

  20. National priorities list sites: Illinois, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by site name.

  1. National priorities list sites: Georgia, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by the site name.

  2. National priorities list sites: Minnesota, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by site name.

  3. National priorities list sites: South Carolina, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by site name.

  4. National priorities list sites: Alabama, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by site name.

  5. National priorities list sites: New Jersey, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by site name.

  6. National priorities list sites: New York, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by the site name.

  7. National priorities list sites: Wyoming, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by the site name.

  8. National priorities list sites: Maryland, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by site name.

  9. National priorities list sites: Texas, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by site name.

  10. National priorities list sites: California, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by the site name.

  11. National priorities list sites: Connecticut, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by the site name.

  12. National priorities list sites: Hawaii, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by the site name.

  13. National priorities list sites: Delaware, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by site name.

  14. National priorities list sites: Tennessee, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by the site name.

  15. National priorities list sites: North Carolina, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by site name.

  16. National priorities list sites: Pennsylvania, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by site name.

  17. Encoding of multi-alphabet sources by binary arithmetic coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Muling; Oka, Takahumi; Kato, Shigeo; Kajiwara, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Naoto

    1998-12-01

    In case of encoding a multi-alphabet source, the multi- alphabet symbol sequence can be encoded directly by a multi- alphabet arithmetic encoder, or the sequence can be first converted into several binary sequences and then each binary sequence is encoded by binary arithmetic encoder, such as the L-R arithmetic coder. Arithmetic coding, however, requires arithmetic operations for each symbol and is computationally heavy. In this paper, a binary representation method using Huffman tree is introduced to reduce the number of arithmetic operations, and a new probability approximation for L-R arithmetic coding is further proposed to improve the coding efficiency when the probability of LPS (Least Probable Symbol) is near 0.5. Simulation results show that our proposed scheme has high coding efficacy and can reduce the number of coding symbols.

  18. Evaluation of local structure alphabets based on residue burial.

    PubMed

    Karchin, Rachel; Cline, Melissa; Karplus, Kevin

    2004-05-15

    Residue burial, which describes a protein residue's exposure to solvent and neighboring atoms, is key to protein structure prediction, modeling, and analysis. We assessed 21 alphabets representing residue burial, according to their predictability from amino acid sequence, conservation in structural alignments, and utility in one fold-recognition scenario. This follows upon our previous work in assessing nine representations of backbone geometry.1 The alphabet found to be most effective overall has seven states and is based on a count of C(beta) atoms within a 14 A-radius sphere centered at the C(beta) of a residue of interest. When incorporated into a hidden Markov model (HMM), this alphabet gave us a 38% performance boost in fold recognition and 23% in alignment quality. PMID:15103615

  19. Quantum error-correcting codes over mixed alphabets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhuo; Yu, Sixia; Fan, Heng; Oh, C. H.

    2013-08-01

    We study the quantum error-correcting codes over mixed alphabets to deal with a more complicated and practical situation in which the physical systems for encoding may have different numbers of energy levels. In particular we investigate their constructions and propose the theory of quantum Singleton bound. Two kinds of code constructions are presented: a projection-based construction for general case and a graphical construction based on a graph-theoretical object composite coding clique dealing with the case of reducible alphabets. We find out some optimal one-error correcting or detecting codes over two alphabets. Our method of composite coding clique also sheds light on constructing standard quantum error-correcting codes, and other families of optimal codes are found.

  20. Structural alphabet motif discovery and a structural motif database.

    PubMed

    Ku, Shih-Yen; Hu, Yuh-Jyh

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a general framework for structural motif discovery. The framework is based on a modular design in which the system components can be modified or replaced independently to increase its applicability to various studies. It is a two-stage approach that first converts protein 3D structures into structural alphabet sequences, and then applies a sequence motif-finding tool to these sequences to detect conserved motifs. We named the structural motif database we built the SA-Motifbase, which provides the structural information conserved at different hierarchical levels in SCOP. For each motif, SA-Motifbase presents its 3D view; alphabet letter preference; alphabet letter frequency distribution; and the significance. SA-Motifbase is available at http://bioinfo.cis.nctu.edu.tw/samotifbase/. PMID:22099701

  1. Fostering Alphabet Knowledge Development: A Comparison of Two Instructional Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Purpura, David J.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2009-01-01

    Preschool-aged children (n = 58) were randomly assigned to receive small group instruction in letter names and/or sounds or numbers (treated control). Alphabet instruction followed one of two approaches currently utilized in early childhood classrooms: combined letter name and sound instruction or letter sound only instruction. Thirty-four 15 minute lessons were provided, with children pre- and post-tested on alphabet, phonological awareness, letter-word identification, emergent reading, and developmental spelling measures. Results suggest benefits of combined letter name and sound instruction in promoting children’s letter sound acquisition. Benefits did not generalize to other emergent literacy skills. PMID:20563245

  2. List of current and planned projects of the trace elements program, U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vickers, Rollin C., (compiler)

    1951-01-01

    This summary lists the Geological Survey's current and future investigations of uranium and other elements of related interest. The titles of the investigations are grouped under the headings listed in the table of contents. Entries in each category are listed alphabetically, according to author or project leader, and numbered consecutively.

  3. A Selected List of Films Related to Black Literature. WCTE Service Bulletin No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, David C., Comp.; Davis, Madeline, Comp.

    The 29 entries listed in this document cover a variety of topics and include titles of films (listed alphabetically) and titles of literary items--prose and poetry--related to film topics (listed by reading level). Some of the film topics are ancient Africans, heritage of slavery, the city in winter, diary of a Harlem family, discovering the music…

  4. Resources for Educators of Adults: Acquisition List, Pamphlet File at E.S. Bird Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charters, Alexander N., Comp.

    This document reproduces the adult education listings in the Syracuse University Bird Library Pamphlet File. All entries are classified under the subject Education--Adult, with each item listed alphabetically by title under one or more of the descriptive subject headings. One update listing, which is organized the same way, is also included. A…

  5. An Alphabetical Guide to Motion Picture, Television and Videotape Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, Eli L.

    Those engaged in any aspect of the production of motion pictures, television program material, or videotape presentations will find in this guide facts on the materials, equipment, processes, and techniques used in production. The entries are arranged alphabetically and describe, in language which is as non-technical as possible, the processes and…

  6. Changes in Speech Production Associated with Alphabet Supplementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustad, Katherine C.; Lee, Jimin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effect of alphabet supplementation (AS) on temporal and spectral features of speech production in individuals with cerebral palsy and dysarthria. Method: Twelve speakers with dysarthria contributed speech samples using habitual speech and while using AS. One hundred twenty listeners orthographically transcribed…

  7. English Alphabet Book 1: Spanish Phonetic Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Francis H.; Medina, Edward

    This manual presents an English phonetic reading program based upon pictures which provide clues to each fundamental speech in the language. Pupils are thus able, through auditory and visual discrimination exercises, to match an English speech sound with its proper alphabet symbol. For related documents, see FL 003 749, FL 003 750, and FL 003…

  8. Spanish Alphabet Book 1: Spanish Phonetic Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Francis H.; Medina, Edward

    This manual presents a Spanish phonetic reading program based upon pictures which provide clues to each fundamental speech sound in the language. Pupils are thus able, through auditory and visual discrimination exercises, to match a Spanish speech sound with its proper alphabet symbol. For related documents, see FL 003 749, FL 003 750, and FL 003…

  9. Parents' Goals for and Perceptions of Alphabet Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Sarah N.; Evans, Mary Ann

    2013-01-01

    This study examined parents' goals for reading ABC books with their children and their perceptions of page features. Factor analysis of a questionnaire answered by 225 parents of junior and senior kindergarten students revealed four goals for reading alphabet books. In order of importance as rated by parents the goals were: Learning to Read,…

  10. ALPHABET "Ante Portas": How English Text Invades Japanese Public Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backhaus, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the prominence of written English on shop signs in Japan. Based on data from a larger empirical study into multilingual signs in Tokyo, the most common ways of using English and the roman alphabet on Japanese shops signs are identified. It is argued that the ambivalent nature of English loan words plays a key role in the ever…

  11. Toward a Keyboard-Compatible English Phonetic Alphabet for ESL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hieke, A. E.

    A discussion of phonetic transcription looks at the weaknesses of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), a cumbersome system to use with typewriter and computer keyboards, and offers an alternative. It is noted that the IPA, a system of symbols devised for handwritten transcription, is rarely used by second language teachers or instructional…

  12. Alphabet and Bibliological Terms in Some Early Judeo- Christian Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witty, Francis J.

    1970-01-01

    Texts are presented which employ the word alphabet" and are earlier than D. Diringer's citation for its first appearance in literature. Terms, not adequately treated in the standard lexica, need thorough examination in individual Christian writers of the early period. (Author/NH)

  13. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 220 - Recommended Phonetic Alphabet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... appendix A of part 220 does not exist in 49 CFR parts 200 to 399, revised as of Oct. 1, 1997. ...—Recommended Phonetic Alphabet A—ALFA B—BRAVO C—CHARLIE D—DELTA E—ECHO F—FOXTROT G—GOLF H—HOTEL I—INDIA...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 220 - Recommended Phonetic Alphabet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... appendix A of part 220 does not exist in 49 CFR parts 200 to 399, revised as of Oct. 1, 1997. ...—Recommended Phonetic Alphabet A—ALFA B—BRAVO C—CHARLIE D—DELTA E—ECHO F—FOXTROT G—GOLF H—HOTEL I—INDIA...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 220 - Recommended Phonetic Alphabet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... appendix A of part 220 does not exist in 49 CFR parts 200 to 399, revised as of Oct. 1, 1997. ...—Recommended Phonetic Alphabet A—ALFA B—BRAVO C—CHARLIE D—DELTA E—ECHO F—FOXTROT G—GOLF H—HOTEL I—INDIA...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 220 - Recommended Phonetic Alphabet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... appendix A of part 220 does not exist in 49 CFR parts 200 to 399, revised as of Oct. 1, 1997. ...—Recommended Phonetic Alphabet A—ALFA B—BRAVO C—CHARLIE D—DELTA E—ECHO F—FOXTROT G—GOLF H—HOTEL I—INDIA...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 220 - Recommended Phonetic Alphabet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... appendix A of part 220 does not exist in 49 CFR parts 200 to 399, revised as of Oct. 1, 1997. ...—Recommended Phonetic Alphabet A—ALFA B—BRAVO C—CHARLIE D—DELTA E—ECHO F—FOXTROT G—GOLF H—HOTEL I—INDIA...

  18. The effects of alphabet and expertise on letter perception.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Robert W; Wilson, Colin; Rapp, Brenda

    2016-08-01

    Long-standing questions in human perception concern the nature of the visual features that underlie letter recognition and the extent to which the visual processing of letters is affected by differences in alphabets and levels of viewer expertise. We examined these issues in a novel approach using a same-different judgment task on pairs of letters from the Arabic alphabet with 2 participant groups: 1 with no prior exposure to Arabic and 1 with reading proficiency. Hierarchical clustering and linear mixed-effects modeling of reaction times and accuracy provide evidence that both the specific characteristics of the alphabet and observers' previous experience with it affect how letters are perceived and visually processed. The findings of this research further our understanding of the multiple factors that affect letter perception and support the view of a visual system that dynamically adjusts its weighting of visual features as expert readers come to more efficiently and effectively discriminate the letters of the specific alphabet they are viewing. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26913778

  19. Mastering the International Phonetic Alphabet; Guide and Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Donald M.

    The present volume, containing lessons with practice and review exercises, offers a systematic presentation of the symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) most widely used as a simplified means of representing the pronunciation of General American English. The transcription symbols presented are those primarily employed by Kenyon and…

  20. Fostering Alphabet Knowledge Development: A Comparison of Two Instructional Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Purpura, David J.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Preschool-aged children (n = 58) were randomly assigned to receive small group instruction in letter names and/or sounds or numbers (treated control). Alphabet instruction followed one of two approaches currently utilized in early childhood classrooms: combined letter name and sound instruction or letter sound only instruction. Thirty-four 15…

  1. The Coral Reef Alphabet Book for American Samoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madrigal, Larry G.

    This book, produced for the American Samoa Department of Education Marine Enhancement Program, presents underwater color photography of coral reef life in an alphabetical resource. The specimens are described in English, and some are translated into the Samoan language. A picture-matching learning exercise and a glossary of scientific and oceanic…

  2. Enhancing Alphabet Knowledge Instruction: Research Implications and Practical Strategies for Early Childhood Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Cindy D.; Clark, Sarah K.; Reutzel, D. Ray

    2013-01-01

    Alphabet knowledge is consistently recognized as the strongest, most durable predictor of later literacy achievement. Recent research offers practical implications for increased effectiveness of teaching alphabet knowledge to young children. In this article, we outline Enhanced Alphabet Knowledge instruction (EAK), a method of practical…

  3. Developing Early Literacy Skills: A Meta-Analysis of Alphabet Learning and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Alphabet knowledge is a hallmark of early literacy and facilitating its development has become a primary objective of preschool instruction and intervention. However, little agreement exists about how to promote the development of alphabet knowledge effectively. A meta-analysis of the effects of instruction on alphabet outcomes demonstrated that…

  4. Alphabetics: A History of Our Alphabet. A Source Guide for Self-Directed Units. Great Ideas Series. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Sally J.

    This teaching resource presents a historical perspective of the alphabet which encompasses a study of major contributions by: (1) "Prehistoric People"; (2) "The Sumerians"; (3) "The Egyptians"; (4) "The Chinese"; (5) "The Greeks"; and (6) "The Romans." Background information, vocabulary study, student activities, a letter history, and a…

  5. NSSDC data listing. [spaceborne experiments and photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) Data Listing is in an abbreviated form compared to the data catalogs normally published by NSSDC/WDC-A-R&S. It is organized by NSSDC spacecraft common name. The launch date and NSSDC ID are printed for each spacecraft. The experiments are listed alphabetically by the principal investigator's name and NSSDC ID are printed for each experiment. The data sets are listed by NSSDC ID following the experiment name. The data set name, data form code, quantity of data, and the time span of the data as verified by NSSDC are printed for each data set. Information on NSSDC facilities and ordering procedures are included.

  6. Protein short loop prediction in terms of a structural alphabet.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Manoj; Bornot, Aurélie; Offmann, Bernard; de Brevern, Alexandre G

    2009-08-01

    Loops connect regular secondary structures. In many instances, they are known to play crucial biological roles. To bypass the limitation of secondary structure description, we previously defined a structural alphabet composed of 16 structural prototypes, called Protein Blocks (PBs). It leads to an accurate description of every region of 3D protein backbones and has been used in local structure prediction. In the present study, we used our structural alphabet to predict the loops connecting two repetitive structures. Thus, we showed interest to take into account the flanking regions, leading to prediction rate improvement up to 19.8%, but we also underline the sensitivity of such an approach. This research can be used to propose different structures for the loops and to probe and sample their flexibility. It is a useful tool for ab initio loop prediction and leads to insights into flexible docking approach. PMID:19625218

  7. A Semi-Synthetic Organism with an Expanded Genetic Alphabet

    PubMed Central

    Malyshev, Denis A.; Dhami, Kirandeep; Lavergne, Thomas; Chen, Tingjian; Dai, Nan; Foster, Jeremy M.; Corrêa, Ivan R.; Romesberg, Floyd E.

    2014-01-01

    Organisms are defined by the information encoded in their genomes, and since the evolution of life, this information has been encoded using a two base pair genetic alphabet (A-T and G-C). In vitro, the alphabet has been expanded to include several unnatural base pairs (UBPs)1–3. We have developed a class of UBPs formed between nucleotides bearing hydrophobic nucleobases, exemplified by the pair formed between d5SICS and dNaM (d5SICS-dNaM, Fig. 1a), which is efficiently PCR amplified1 and transcribed4,5 in vitro, and whose unique mechanism of replication has been characterized6,7. However, expansion of a organism’s genetic alphabet presents new and unprecedented challenges: the unnatural nucleoside triphosphates must enter the cell; endogenous polymerases must be able to faithfully incorporate the unnatural triphosphates into DNA within the complex cellular milieu; and finally, the UBP must be stable in the presence of pathways that maintain the integrity of DNA. Here we show that an exogenously expressed algal nucleotide triphosphate transporter efficiently imports the triphosphates of both d5SICS and dNaM (d5SICSTP and dNaMTP) into E. coli, and that the endogenous replication machinery uses them to accurately replicate a plasmid containing d5SICS-dNaM. Neither the presence of the unnatural triphosphates nor the replication of the UBP introduces a significant growth burden. Lastly, we find that the UBP is not efficiently excised by DNA repair pathways. Thus, the resulting bacterium is the first organism to stably propagate an expanded genetic alphabet. PMID:24805238

  8. Optimal source codes for geometrically distributed integer alphabets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallager, R. G.; Van Voorhis, D. C.

    1975-01-01

    An approach is shown for using the Huffman algorithm indirectly to prove the optimality of a code for an infinite alphabet if an estimate concerning the nature of the code can be made. Attention is given to nonnegative integers with a geometric probability assignment. The particular distribution considered arises in run-length coding and in encoding protocol information in data networks. Questions of redundancy of the optimal code are also investigated.

  9. Did Evolution Select a Nonrandom "Alphabet" of Amino Acids?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, Gayle K.; Freeland, Stephen J.

    2011-04-01

    The last universal common ancestor of contemporary biology (LUCA) used a precise set of 20 amino acids as a standard alphabet with which to build genetically encoded protein polymers. Considerable evidence indicates that some of these amino acids were present through nonbiological syntheses prior to the origin of life, while the rest evolved as inventions of early metabolism. However, the same evidence indicates that many alternatives were also available, which highlights the question: what factors led biological evolution on our planet to define its standard alphabet? One possibility is that natural selection favored a set of amino acids that exhibits clear, nonrandom properties - a set of especially useful building blocks. However, previous analysis that tested whether the standard alphabet comprises amino acids with unusually high variance in size, charge, and hydrophobicity (properties that govern what protein structures and functions can be constructed) failed to clearly distinguish evolution's choice from a sample of randomly chosen alternatives. Here, we demonstrate unambiguous support for a refined hypothesis: that an optimal set of amino acids would spread evenly across a broad range of values for each fundamental property. Specifically, we show that the standard set of 20 amino acids represents the possible spectra of size, charge, and hydrophobicity more broadly and more evenly than can be explained by chance alone.

  10. Priors in Whole-Genome Regression: The Bayesian Alphabet Returns

    PubMed Central

    Gianola, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Whole-genome enabled prediction of complex traits has received enormous attention in animal and plant breeding and is making inroads into human and even Drosophila genetics. The term “Bayesian alphabet” denotes a growing number of letters of the alphabet used to denote various Bayesian linear regressions that differ in the priors adopted, while sharing the same sampling model. We explore the role of the prior distribution in whole-genome regression models for dissecting complex traits in what is now a standard situation with genomic data where the number of unknown parameters (p) typically exceeds sample size (n). Members of the alphabet aim to confront this overparameterization in various manners, but it is shown here that the prior is always influential, unless n ≫ p. This happens because parameters are not likelihood identified, so Bayesian learning is imperfect. Since inferences are not devoid of the influence of the prior, claims about genetic architecture from these methods should be taken with caution. However, all such procedures may deliver reasonable predictions of complex traits, provided that some parameters (“tuning knobs”) are assessed via a properly conducted cross-validation. It is concluded that members of the alphabet have a room in whole-genome prediction of phenotypes, but have somewhat doubtful inferential value, at least when sample size is such that n ≪ p. PMID:23636739

  11. Users manual for the IMA program. Appendix C: Profile design program listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The source code for the Profile Design Program (PDP) for the Impulsive Mission Analysis (IMA) program is divided into several files. In a similar manner, the FORTRAN listings of the PDP's subroutines and function routines are organized into several groups in this appendix. Within each group, the FORTRAN listings are ordered alphabetically by routine name. Names and brief descriptions of each routine are listed in the same order as the Fortran listings.

  12. Bicentennial of the Constitution Resource List for Elementary and Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Studies Review, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a list of resources on the U.S. Constitution for elementary and secondary schools. Listed alphabetically and topically, the resources include organizations which provide classroom materials, teacher training, and other services. Included are special sections on the cultural and political contexts of the bicentennial, women and the…

  13. Special Project Grants Awarded for Improvement in Nurse Training. A Listing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. Div. of Nursing.

    This current directory lists alphabetically by state, special projects funded by the Title II Nurse Training Act of the Health Manpower Act of 1968, which are awarded for improvement programs in nurse training. Projects funded through June 1971 are listed and briefly annotated, including planning grants awarded for the first time during the fiscal…

  14. Selected List of Books and Journals for the Small Medical Library *

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, Alfred N.

    1967-01-01

    This updated list of 388 books and 140 journals is intended as a selection aid for the small library of a hospital, medical society, clinic, or similar organization. Books and journals are arranged by subject, with the books followed by an author index, and the journals by an alphabetical title listing. PMID:6041826

  15. Selected List of Books and Journals for the Small Medical Library

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, Alfred N.

    1965-01-01

    This list of 358 books and 123 journals is intended as a selection aid for the small library of a hospital, medical society, clinic, or similar organization. Books and journals are arranged by subject, with the books followed by an author index, and the journals by an alphabetical title listing. PMID:14308899

  16. NSSDC data listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Richard; King, Joseph H.

    1990-01-01

    In a highly summarized way, data available from the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) is identified. Most data are offline data sets (on magnetic tape or as film/print products of various sizes) from individual instruments carried on spacecraft; these compose the Satellite Data Listing. Descriptive names, time spans, data form, and quantity of these data sets are identified in the listing, which is sorted alphabetically-first by spacecraft name and then by the principal investigator's or team leader's last name. Several data sets held at NSSDC, not associated with individual spaceflight instruments, are identified in separate listings following the Satellite Data Listing. These data sets make up the Supplementary Data Listings and include composite spacecraft data sets, ground-based data, models, and computer routines. The identifiers used in the Supplementary Data Listings were created by NSSDC and are explained in the pages preceding the listings. Data set form codes are listed. NSSDC offers primarily archival, retrieval, replication, and dissemination services associated with the data sets discussed in the two major listings identified above. NSSDC also provides documentation which enables the data recipient to use the data received. NSSDC is working toward expanding presently limited capabilities for data subsetting and for promotion of data files to online residence for user downloading. NSSDC data holdings span the range of scientific disciplines in which NASA is involved, and include astrophysics, lunar and planetary science, solar physics, space plasma physics, and Earth science. In addition to the functions mentioned above, NSSDC offers data via special services and systems in a number of areas, including Astronomical Data Center (ADC), Coordinated Data Analysis Workshops (CDAWs), NASA Climate Data System (NCDS), Pilot Land Data System (PLDS), and Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS). Furthermore, NSSDC has a no-password account on its

  17. National priorities list sites: Arizona and Nevada, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by the site name.

  18. National priorities list sites: North and South Dakota, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by site name.

  19. National priorities list sites: The United States Territories, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by site name.

  20. National priorities list sites: Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The fact sheets describe hazardous waste sites on the NPL and their locations, as well as the conditions leading to their listing (Site Description). The summaries list the types of contaminants that have been discovered and related threats to public and ecological health (Threats and Contaminants). Cleanup Approach presents an overview of the cleanup activities completed, underway, or planned. The fact sheets are arranged in alphabetical order by site name.

  1. Are Molecular Alphabets Universal Enabling Factors for the Evolution of Complex Life?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Ian S.

    2013-12-01

    Terrestrial biosystems depend on macromolecules, and this feature is often considered as a likely universal aspect of life. While opinions differ regarding the importance of small-molecule systems in abiogenesis, escalating biological functional demands are linked with increasing complexity in key molecules participating in biosystem operations, and many such requirements cannot be efficiently mediated by relatively small compounds. It has long been recognized that known life is associated with the evolution of two distinct molecular alphabets (nucleic acid and protein), specific sequence combinations of which serve as informational and functional polymers. In contrast, much less detailed focus has been directed towards the potential universal need for molecular alphabets in constituting complex chemically-based life, and the implications of such a requirement. To analyze this, emphasis here is placed on the generalizable replicative and functional characteristics of molecular alphabets and their concatenates. A primary replicative alphabet based on the simplest possible molecular complementarity can potentially enable evolutionary processes to occur, including the encoding of secondarily functional alphabets. Very large uniquely specified (`non-alphabetic') molecules cannot feasibly underlie systems capable of the replicative and evolutionary properties which characterize complex biosystems. Transitions in the molecular evolution of alphabets can be related to progressive bridging of barriers which enable higher levels of biosystem organization. It is thus highly probable that molecular alphabets are an obligatory requirement for complex chemically-based life anywhere in the universe. In turn, reference to molecular alphabets should be usefully applied in current definitions of life.

  2. Are molecular alphabets universal enabling factors for the evolution of complex life?

    PubMed

    Dunn, Ian S

    2013-12-01

    Terrestrial biosystems depend on macromolecules, and this feature is often considered as a likely universal aspect of life. While opinions differ regarding the importance of small-molecule systems in abiogenesis, escalating biological functional demands are linked with increasing complexity in key molecules participating in biosystem operations, and many such requirements cannot be efficiently mediated by relatively small compounds. It has long been recognized that known life is associated with the evolution of two distinct molecular alphabets (nucleic acid and protein), specific sequence combinations of which serve as informational and functional polymers. In contrast, much less detailed focus has been directed towards the potential universal need for molecular alphabets in constituting complex chemically-based life, and the implications of such a requirement. To analyze this, emphasis here is placed on the generalizable replicative and functional characteristics of molecular alphabets and their concatenates. A primary replicative alphabet based on the simplest possible molecular complementarity can potentially enable evolutionary processes to occur, including the encoding of secondarily functional alphabets. Very large uniquely specified ('non-alphabetic') molecules cannot feasibly underlie systems capable of the replicative and evolutionary properties which characterize complex biosystems. Transitions in the molecular evolution of alphabets can be related to progressive bridging of barriers which enable higher levels of biosystem organization. It is thus highly probable that molecular alphabets are an obligatory requirement for complex chemically-based life anywhere in the universe. In turn, reference to molecular alphabets should be usefully applied in current definitions of life. PMID:24510462

  3. 75 FR 38211 - Alphabetical Listing of Blocked Persons, Blocked Vessels, Specially Designated Nationals...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Executive Order 13536 (75 FR 19869, April 15, 2010), which blocks all property and interests in property of.... 1701-1706; Pub. L. 110-286, 122 Stat. 2632; E.O. 12947, 60 FR 5079, 3 CFR, 1995 Comp., p. 319; E.O. 12957, 60 FR 14615, 3 CFR, 1995 Comp., p. 332; E.O. 12959, 60 FR 24757, 3 CFR, 1995 Comp., p. 356;...

  4. 46 CFR Table I to Part 150 - Alphabetical List of Cargoes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... chain alkaryl(C11-C50) sulfonate 34 BCA Barium long chain alkyl(C8-C14)phenate sulfide 34 BCH Behenyl... phosphorosulfide mixture 34 CPX Calcium alkyl salicylate, see Calcium long chain alkyl salicylate (C13+) CAK... solution, see also Lignin liquor 43 Calcium long chain alkaryl sulfonate (C11-C50) 34 CAY Calcium...

  5. 46 CFR Table I to Part 150 - Alphabetical List of Cargoes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... chain alkaryl(C11-C50) sulfonate 34 BCA Barium long chain alkyl(C8-C14)phenate sulfide 34 BCH Behenyl... phosphorosulfide mixture 34 CPX Calcium alkyl salicylate, see Calcium long chain alkyl salicylate (C13+) CAK... solution, see also Lignin liquor 43 Calcium long chain alkaryl sulfonate (C11-C50) 34 CAY Calcium...

  6. 46 CFR Table I to Part 150 - Alphabetical List of Cargoes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... emulsion (ORIMULSION) 33 ASQ Aviation alkylates 33 AVA GAV Barium long chain alkaryl(C11-C50) sulfonate 34 BCA Barium long chain alkyl(C8-C14)phenate sulfide 34 BCH Behenyl alcohol 20 Benzene 32 BNZ Benzene... mixture 34 CPX Calcium alkyl salicylate, see Calcium long chain alkyl salicylate (C13+) CAK...

  7. 46 CFR Table I to Part 150 - Alphabetical List of Cargoes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... chain alkaryl(C11-C50) sulfonate 34 BCA Barium long chain alkyl(C8-C14)phenate sulfide 34 BCH Behenyl... phosphorosulfide mixture 34 CPX Calcium alkyl salicylate, see Calcium long chain alkyl salicylate (C13+) CAK... solution, see also Lignin liquor 43 Calcium long chain alkaryl sulfonate (C11-C50) 34 CAY Calcium...

  8. 46 CFR Table I to Part 150 - Alphabetical List of Cargoes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... chain alkaryl(C11-C50) sulfonate 34 BCA Barium long chain alkyl(C8-C14)phenate sulfide 34 BCH Behenyl... phosphorosulfide mixture 34 CPX Calcium alkyl salicylate, see Calcium long chain alkyl salicylate (C13+) CAK... solution, see also Lignin liquor 43 Calcium long chain alkaryl sulfonate (C11-C50) 34 CAY Calcium...

  9. Acquisition of Alphabet Knowledge in Kindergarten: Impact of Multiple Means of Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, La'Tondra; Stone, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Learning the alphabet is essential to learning how to read. This study focuses on teaching Kindergarten students the alphabet using multiple means of representation. The 24 Kindergarten students in this study have been exposed to activities that reflect their learning styles, interaction among various group settings, and they have been allowed to…

  10. Beginning at the Beginning: The Alphabet's Origins as the Foundation for Interdisciplinary Writing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman, Joel

    The origins of written language and the study of the alphabet's evolution from pictographic icon or glyph to phonetic, syllabic code are fundamental to the study of writing. Electronically-generated typographies have reawakened interest in letterforms, alphabets, typefaces, and the physical arrangement of words on the page. Fonts, a word that…

  11. Ideograms Versus Alphabets: Effects of Script on Memory in "Biscriptual" Korean Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Soja; Arbuckle, Tannis Y.

    1977-01-01

    Four experiments examined the memory of Korean subjects for words written in the two writing systems used in Korea, one alphabetic, the other ideographic. The impetus for the investigation was the apparently different encoding properties of the two scripts, with alphabets seeming to encode sound and ideograms, meaning. (Editor)

  12. A Multisensory Language Approach to the Introduction of the Alphabet to Hearing Impaired Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaworski, Anne Porter; Schroder, Ann

    The project was designed to develop a multisensory, language-oriented curriculum to introduce the letters of the alphabet to six hearing impaired preschoolers. Every week a new letter is introduced via such tasks as art and cooking activities, snacks, beginning sound picture cards, yarn and lacing letters, sandpaper letters, alphabet string beads,…

  13. Reading on the Utah Frontier, 1850-1877: The History of the Deseret Alphabet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Susan Hendricks; Cranney, A. Garr

    This report presents a history of the Deseret alphabet, beginning with a chapter on English orthography in general and the various attempts that have been made in orthographic reform. The second chapter examines the motives behind the creation of the Deseret alphabet, including the possibilities of a secret Mormon code, a protection from…

  14. Moving to Assessment-Guided Differentiated Instruction to Support Young Children's Alphabet Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piasta, Shayne B.

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood educators are increasingly asked to support the alphabet knowledge development of children enrolled in their classrooms. Children in the same classroom, however, often show vastly different alphabet learning needs. Moreover, recent research suggests that some letters are more difficult to learn. These facts run counter to…

  15. Letter Names and Alphabet Book Reading by Senior Kindergarteners: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Mary Ann; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Landry, Nadine

    2009-01-01

    The study monitored the eye movements of twenty 5-year-old children while reading an alphabet book to examine the manner in which the letters, words, and pictures were fixated and the relation of attention to print to alphabetic knowledge. Children attended little to the print, took longer to first fixate print than illustrations, and labeled…

  16. 77 FR 17104 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Ecstatic Alphabets/Heaps...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Ecstatic Alphabets/Heaps of Language... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Ecstatic Alphabets/Heaps of...

  17. The Initial Teaching Alphabet as a Teaching Strategy with Moderately Handicapped Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkman, Erwin H.; Sutton, Ruth H.

    1978-01-01

    First graders taught with the initial teaching alphabet showed superior word recognition when compared with matched subjects taught in the traditional English alphabet instructional format. Retesting in third grade showed no significant differences between the groups, but indicated that auditory memory affected reading performance in both…

  18. Reading Alphabet Books in Kindergarten: Effects of Instructional Emphasis and Media Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brabham, Edna G.; Murray, Bruce A.; Bowden, Shelly Hudson

    2006-01-01

    This study compared literacy learning for kindergartners as 12 teachers read 10 popular alphabet books aloud, emphasizing meanings or phonemes, and used centers for independent practice with an alphabet book on audiotape or CD-ROM over a period of four weeks. Researchers taught half the teachers to read the books with an emphasis on phonemes…

  19. Structural alphabets for protein structure classification: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Le, Quan; Pollastri, Gianluca; Koehl, Patrice

    2009-03-27

    Finding structural similarities between proteins often helps reveal shared functionality, which otherwise might not be detected by native sequence information alone. Such similarity is usually detected and quantified by protein structure alignment. Determining the optimal alignment between two protein structures, however, remains a hard problem. An alternative approach is to approximate each three-dimensional protein structure using a sequence of motifs derived from a structural alphabet. Using this approach, structure comparison is performed by comparing the corresponding motif sequences or structural sequences. In this article, we measure the performance of such alphabets in the context of the protein structure classification problem. We consider both local and global structural sequences. Each letter of a local structural sequence corresponds to the best matching fragment to the corresponding local segment of the protein structure. The global structural sequence is designed to generate the best possible complete chain that matches the full protein structure. We use an alphabet of 20 letters, corresponding to a library of 20 motifs or protein fragments having four residues. We show that the global structural sequences approximate well the native structures of proteins, with an average coordinate root mean square of 0.69 A over 2225 test proteins. The approximation is best for all alpha-proteins, while relatively poorer for all beta-proteins. We then test the performance of four different sequence representations of proteins (their native sequence, the sequence of their secondary-structure elements, and the local and global structural sequences based on our fragment library) with different classifiers in their ability to classify proteins that belong to five distinct folds of CATH. Without surprise, the primary sequence alone performs poorly as a structure classifier. We show that addition of either secondary-structure information or local information from the

  20. Prediction of protein folding rates from simplified secondary structure alphabet.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jitao T; Wang, Titi; Huang, Shanran R; Li, Xin

    2015-10-21

    Protein folding is a very complicated and highly cooperative dynamic process. However, the folding kinetics is likely to depend more on a few key structural features. Here we find that secondary structures can determine folding rates of only large, multi-state folding proteins and fails to predict those for small, two-state proteins. The importance of secondary structures for protein folding is ordered as: extended β strand > α helix > bend > turn > undefined secondary structure>310 helix > isolated β strand > π helix. Only the first three secondary structures, extended β strand, α helix and bend, can achieve a good correlation with folding rates. This suggests that the rate-limiting step of protein folding would depend upon the formation of regular secondary structures and the buckling of chain. The reduced secondary structure alphabet provides a simplified description for the machine learning applications in protein design. PMID:26247139

  1. A structural alphabet for local protein structures: improved prediction methods.

    PubMed

    Etchebest, Catherine; Benros, Cristina; Hazout, Serge; de Brevern, Alexandre G

    2005-06-01

    Three-dimensional protein structures can be described with a library of 3D fragments that define a structural alphabet. We have previously proposed such an alphabet, composed of 16 patterns of five consecutive amino acids, called Protein Blocks (PBs). These PBs have been used to describe protein backbones and to predict local structures from protein sequences. The Q16 prediction rate reaches 40.7% with an optimization procedure. This article examines two aspects of PBs. First, we determine the effect of the enlargement of databanks on their definition. The results show that the geometrical features of the different PBs are preserved (local RMSD value equal to 0.41 A on average) and sequence-structure specificities reinforced when databanks are enlarged. Second, we improve the methods for optimizing PB predictions from sequences, revisiting the optimization procedure and exploring different local prediction strategies. Use of a statistical optimization procedure for the sequence-local structure relation improves prediction accuracy by 8% (Q16 = 48.7%). Better recognition of repetitive structures occurs without losing the prediction efficiency of the other local folds. Adding secondary structure prediction improved the accuracy of Q16 by only 1%. An entropy index (Neq), strongly related to the RMSD value of the difference between predicted PBs and true local structures, is proposed to estimate prediction quality. The Neq is linearly correlated with the Q16 prediction rate distributions, computed for a large set of proteins. An "expected" prediction rate QE16 is deduced with a mean error of 5%. PMID:15822101

  2. The Amino Acid Alphabet and the Architecture of the Protein Sequence-Structure Map. I. Binary Alphabets

    PubMed Central

    Ferrada, Evandro

    2014-01-01

    The correspondence between protein sequences and structures, or sequence-structure map, relates to fundamental aspects of structural, evolutionary and synthetic biology. The specifics of the mapping, such as the fraction of accessible sequences and structures, or the sequences' ability to fold fast, are dictated by the type of interactions between the monomers that compose the sequences. The set of possible interactions between monomers is encapsulated by the potential energy function. In this study, I explore the impact of the relative forces of the potential on the architecture of the sequence-structure map. My observations rely on simple exact models of proteins and random samples of the space of potential energy functions of binary alphabets. I adopt a graph perspective and study the distribution of viable sequences and the structures they produce, as networks of sequences connected by point mutations. I observe that the relative proportion of attractive, neutral and repulsive forces defines types of potentials, that induce sequence-structure maps of vastly different architectures. I characterize the properties underlying these differences and relate them to the structure of the potential. Among these properties are the expected number and relative distribution of sequences associated to specific structures and the diversity of structures as a function of sequence divergence. I study the types of binary potentials observed in natural amino acids and show that there is a strong bias towards only some types of potentials, a bias that seems to characterize the folding code of natural proteins. I discuss implications of these observations for the architecture of the sequence-structure map of natural proteins, the construction of random libraries of peptides, and the early evolution of the natural amino acid alphabet. PMID:25473967

  3. The amino acid alphabet and the architecture of the protein sequence-structure map. I. Binary alphabets.

    PubMed

    Ferrada, Evandro

    2014-12-01

    The correspondence between protein sequences and structures, or sequence-structure map, relates to fundamental aspects of structural, evolutionary and synthetic biology. The specifics of the mapping, such as the fraction of accessible sequences and structures, or the sequences' ability to fold fast, are dictated by the type of interactions between the monomers that compose the sequences. The set of possible interactions between monomers is encapsulated by the potential energy function. In this study, I explore the impact of the relative forces of the potential on the architecture of the sequence-structure map. My observations rely on simple exact models of proteins and random samples of the space of potential energy functions of binary alphabets. I adopt a graph perspective and study the distribution of viable sequences and the structures they produce, as networks of sequences connected by point mutations. I observe that the relative proportion of attractive, neutral and repulsive forces defines types of potentials, that induce sequence-structure maps of vastly different architectures. I characterize the properties underlying these differences and relate them to the structure of the potential. Among these properties are the expected number and relative distribution of sequences associated to specific structures and the diversity of structures as a function of sequence divergence. I study the types of binary potentials observed in natural amino acids and show that there is a strong bias towards only some types of potentials, a bias that seems to characterize the folding code of natural proteins. I discuss implications of these observations for the architecture of the sequence-structure map of natural proteins, the construction of random libraries of peptides, and the early evolution of the natural amino acid alphabet. PMID:25473967

  4. Solar thermal energy contract list, fiscal year 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The federal government has conducted the national Solar Thermal Technology Program since 1975. Its purpose is to provide focus, direction, and funding for the development of solar thermal technology as an energy option for the United States. This year's document is more concise than the summaries of previous years. The FY 1990 contract overview comprises a list of all subcontracts begun, ongoing, or completed during FY 1990 (October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1990). Under each managing laboratory projects are listed alphabetically by project area and then by subcontractor name. Amount of funding milestones are listed.

  5. Recognition of Arabic Sign Language Alphabet Using Polynomial Classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assaleh, Khaled; Al-Rousan, M.

    2005-12-01

    Building an accurate automatic sign language recognition system is of great importance in facilitating efficient communication with deaf people. In this paper, we propose the use of polynomial classifiers as a classification engine for the recognition of Arabic sign language (ArSL) alphabet. Polynomial classifiers have several advantages over other classifiers in that they do not require iterative training, and that they are highly computationally scalable with the number of classes. Based on polynomial classifiers, we have built an ArSL system and measured its performance using real ArSL data collected from deaf people. We show that the proposed system provides superior recognition results when compared with previously published results using ANFIS-based classification on the same dataset and feature extraction methodology. The comparison is shown in terms of the number of misclassified test patterns. The reduction in the rate of misclassified patterns was very significant. In particular, we have achieved a 36% reduction of misclassifications on the training data and 57% on the test data.

  6. Protein flexibility in the light of structural alphabets

    PubMed Central

    Craveur, Pierrick; Joseph, Agnel P.; Esque, Jeremy; Narwani, Tarun J.; Noël, Floriane; Shinada, Nicolas; Goguet, Matthieu; Leonard, Sylvain; Poulain, Pierre; Bertrand, Olivier; Faure, Guilhem; Rebehmed, Joseph; Ghozlane, Amine; Swapna, Lakshmipuram S.; Bhaskara, Ramachandra M.; Barnoud, Jonathan; Téletchéa, Stéphane; Jallu, Vincent; Cerny, Jiri; Schneider, Bohdan; Etchebest, Catherine; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; Gelly, Jean-Christophe; de Brevern, Alexandre G.

    2015-01-01

    Protein structures are valuable tools to understand protein function. Nonetheless, proteins are often considered as rigid macromolecules while their structures exhibit specific flexibility, which is essential to complete their functions. Analyses of protein structures and dynamics are often performed with a simplified three-state description, i.e., the classical secondary structures. More precise and complete description of protein backbone conformation can be obtained using libraries of small protein fragments that are able to approximate every part of protein structures. These libraries, called structural alphabets (SAs), have been widely used in structure analysis field, from definition of ligand binding sites to superimposition of protein structures. SAs are also well suited to analyze the dynamics of protein structures. Here, we review innovative approaches that investigate protein flexibility based on SAs description. Coupled to various sources of experimental data (e.g., B-factor) and computational methodology (e.g., Molecular Dynamic simulation), SAs turn out to be powerful tools to analyze protein dynamics, e.g., to examine allosteric mechanisms in large set of structures in complexes, to identify order/disorder transition. SAs were also shown to be quite efficient to predict protein flexibility from amino-acid sequence. Finally, in this review, we exemplify the interest of SAs for studying flexibility with different cases of proteins implicated in pathologies and diseases. PMID:26075209

  7. Protein flexibility in the light of structural alphabets.

    PubMed

    Craveur, Pierrick; Joseph, Agnel P; Esque, Jeremy; Narwani, Tarun J; Noël, Floriane; Shinada, Nicolas; Goguet, Matthieu; Leonard, Sylvain; Poulain, Pierre; Bertrand, Olivier; Faure, Guilhem; Rebehmed, Joseph; Ghozlane, Amine; Swapna, Lakshmipuram S; Bhaskara, Ramachandra M; Barnoud, Jonathan; Téletchéa, Stéphane; Jallu, Vincent; Cerny, Jiri; Schneider, Bohdan; Etchebest, Catherine; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; Gelly, Jean-Christophe; de Brevern, Alexandre G

    2015-01-01

    Protein structures are valuable tools to understand protein function. Nonetheless, proteins are often considered as rigid macromolecules while their structures exhibit specific flexibility, which is essential to complete their functions. Analyses of protein structures and dynamics are often performed with a simplified three-state description, i.e., the classical secondary structures. More precise and complete description of protein backbone conformation can be obtained using libraries of small protein fragments that are able to approximate every part of protein structures. These libraries, called structural alphabets (SAs), have been widely used in structure analysis field, from definition of ligand binding sites to superimposition of protein structures. SAs are also well suited to analyze the dynamics of protein structures. Here, we review innovative approaches that investigate protein flexibility based on SAs description. Coupled to various sources of experimental data (e.g., B-factor) and computational methodology (e.g., Molecular Dynamic simulation), SAs turn out to be powerful tools to analyze protein dynamics, e.g., to examine allosteric mechanisms in large set of structures in complexes, to identify order/disorder transition. SAs were also shown to be quite efficient to predict protein flexibility from amino-acid sequence. Finally, in this review, we exemplify the interest of SAs for studying flexibility with different cases of proteins implicated in pathologies and diseases. PMID:26075209

  8. Searching for protein signatures using a multilevel alphabet.

    PubMed

    Hod, Ronit; Kohen, Refael; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2013-06-01

    Short motifs are known to play diverse roles in proteins, such as in mediating the interactions with other molecules, binding to membranes, or conducting a specific biological function. Standard approaches currently employed to detect short motifs in proteins search for enrichment of amino acid motifs considering mostly the sequence information. Here, we presented a new approach to search for common motifs (protein signatures) which share both physicochemical and structural properties, looking simultaneously at different features. Our method takes as an input an amino acid sequence and translates it to a new alphabet that reflects its intrinsic structural and chemical properties. Using the MEME search algorithm, we identified the proteins signatures within subsets of protein which encompass common sequence and structural information. We demonstrated that we can detect enriched structural motifs, such as the amphipathic helix, from large datasets of linear sequences, as well as predicting common structural properties (such as disorder, surface accessibility, or secondary structures) of known functional-motifs. Finally, we applied the method to the yeast protein interactome and identified novel putative interacting motifs. We propose that our approach can be applied for de novo protein function prediction given either sequence or structural information. PMID:23386227

  9. Enhanced protein fold recognition using a structural alphabet.

    PubMed

    Deschavanne, Patrick; Tufféry, Pierre

    2009-07-01

    Fold recognition from sequence can be an important step in protein structure and function prediction. Many methods have tackled this goal. Most of them, based on sequence alignment, fail for sequences of low similarity. Alignment-free approaches can provide an efficient alternative. For such approaches, the identification of efficient fold discriminatory features is critical. We propose a new fold recognition approach that relies on the encoding of the local structure of proteins using a Hidden Markov Model Structural Alphabet. This encoding provides a 1D description of the conformation of complete proteins structures, including loops. At the fold level, compared with the classical secondary structure helix, strand, and coil states, such encoding is expected to provide the means of a better discrimination between loop conformations, hence providing better fold identification. Compared with previous related approaches, this supplement of information results in significant improvement. When combining this information with supplementary information of secondary structure and residue burial, we obtain a fold recognition accuracy of 78% for 27 protein families, that is, 8% higher than the best available method so far, and of 68% for 60 families. Corresponding scores at the class level are of 92% and 90% indicating that mispredictions are mostly within structural classes. PMID:19089985

  10. A hidden markov model derived structural alphabet for proteins.

    PubMed

    Camproux, A C; Gautier, R; Tufféry, P

    2004-06-01

    Understanding and predicting protein structures depends on the complexity and the accuracy of the models used to represent them. We have set up a hidden Markov model that discretizes protein backbone conformation as series of overlapping fragments (states) of four residues length. This approach learns simultaneously the geometry of the states and their connections. We obtain, using a statistical criterion, an optimal systematic decomposition of the conformational variability of the protein peptidic chain in 27 states with strong connection logic. This result is stable over different protein sets. Our model fits well the previous knowledge related to protein architecture organisation and seems able to grab some subtle details of protein organisation, such as helix sub-level organisation schemes. Taking into account the dependence between the states results in a description of local protein structure of low complexity. On an average, the model makes use of only 8.3 states among 27 to describe each position of a protein structure. Although we use short fragments, the learning process on entire protein conformations captures the logic of the assembly on a larger scale. Using such a model, the structure of proteins can be reconstructed with an average accuracy close to 1.1A root-mean-square deviation and for a complexity of only 3. Finally, we also observe that sequence specificity increases with the number of states of the structural alphabet. Such models can constitute a very relevant approach to the analysis of protein architecture in particular for protein structure prediction. PMID:15147844

  11. Letter names and alphabet book reading by senior kindergarteners: an eye movement study.

    PubMed

    Evans, Mary Ann; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Landry, Nadine

    2009-01-01

    The study monitored the eye movements of twenty 5-year-old children while reading an alphabet book to examine the manner in which the letters, words, and pictures were fixated and the relation of attention to print to alphabetic knowledge. Children attended little to the print, took longer to first fixate print than illustrations, and labeled fewer letters than when presented with letters in isolation. After controlling for receptive vocabulary, regressions revealed that children knowing more letters were quicker to look at the featured letter on a page and spent more time looking at the featured letter, the word, and its first letter. Thus, alphabet books along with letter knowledge may facilitate entrance into the partial alphabetic stage of word recognition. PMID:19930354

  12. The Effects of Observational Learning on Preschoolers' Book-Related Behaviors and Alphabet Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Sherri L.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated effects of observational learning on preschoolers' attention to print, use of a questioning technique, and knowledge of the alphabet. Found that young children are able to extract a concept or rule through a brief exposure to observational learning. (SD)

  13. Accuracy of sequence alignment and fold assessment using reduced amino acid alphabets.

    PubMed

    Melo, Francisco; Marti-Renom, Marc A

    2006-06-01

    Reduced or simplified amino acid alphabets group the 20 naturally occurring amino acids into a smaller number of representative protein residues. To date, several reduced amino acid alphabets have been proposed, which have been derived and optimized by a variety of methods. The resulting reduced amino acid alphabets have been applied to pattern recognition, generation of consensus sequences from multiple alignments, protein folding, and protein structure prediction. In this work, amino acid substitution matrices and statistical potentials were derived based on several reduced amino acid alphabets and their performance assessed in a large benchmark for the tasks of sequence alignment and fold assessment of protein structure models, using as a reference frame the standard alphabet of 20 amino acids. The results showed that a large reduction in the total number of residue types does not necessarily translate into a significant loss of discriminative power for sequence alignment and fold assessment. Therefore, some definitions of a few residue types are able to encode most of the relevant sequence/structure information that is present in the 20 standard amino acids. Based on these results, we suggest that the use of reduced amino acid alphabets may allow to increasing the accuracy of current substitution matrices and statistical potentials for the prediction of protein structure of remote homologs. PMID:16506243

  14. Nutrition, Learning and Behavior in Children: A Resource List for Professionals. March 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvall, Jennifer K.; Hill, Elizabeth N.

    2004-01-01

    This Food and Nutrition Information Center (FNIC) Resource List is a quick guide designed to help professionals find information related to nutrition, learning and behavior in children. Each resource has been placed into one of five categories, in alphabetical order, by title.

  15. Improvement of protein structure comparison using a structural alphabet.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Srinivasan, N; de Brevern, Alexandre G

    2011-09-01

    The three dimensional structure of a protein provides major insights into its function. Protein structure comparison has implications in functional and evolutionary studies. A structural alphabet (SA) is a library of local protein structure prototypes that can abstract every part of protein main chain conformation. Protein Blocks (PBs) is a widely used SA, composed of 16 prototypes, each representing a pentapeptide backbone conformation defined in terms of dihedral angles. Through this description, the 3D structural information can be translated into a 1D sequence of PBs. In a previous study, we have used this approach to compare protein structures encoded in terms of PBs. A classical sequence alignment procedure based on dynamic programming was used, with a dedicated PB Substitution Matrix (SM). PB-based pairwise structural alignment method gave an excellent performance, when compared to other established methods for mining. In this study, we have (i) refined the SMs and (ii) improved the Protein Block Alignment methodology (named as iPBA). The SM was normalized in regards to sequence and structural similarity. Alignment of protein structures often involves similar structural regions separated by dissimilar stretches. A dynamic programming algorithm that weighs these local similar stretches has been designed. Amino acid substitutions scores were also coupled linearly with the PB substitutions. iPBA improves (i) the mining efficiency rate by 6.8% and (ii) more than 82% of the alignments have a better quality. A higher efficiency in aligning multi-domain proteins could be also demonstrated. The quality of alignment is better than DALI and MUSTANG in 81.3% of the cases. Thus our study has resulted in an impressive improvement in the quality of protein structural alignment. PMID:21569819

  16. NASA directives master list and index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This handbook sets forth in two parts, Master List of Management Directives and Index to NASA Management Directives, the following information for the guidance of users of the NASA Management Directives System. Chapter 1 contains introductory information material on how to use this handbook. Chapter 2 is a complete master list of agencywide management directives, describing each directive by type, number, effective date, expiration date, title, and organization code of the office responsible for the directive. Chapter 3 includes a consolidated numerical list of all delegations of authority and a breakdown of such delegation by the office or center to which special authority is assigned. Chapter 4 sets forth a consolidated list of all NASA handbooks (NHB's) and important footnotes covering the control and ordering of such documents. Chapter 5 is a consolidated list of NASA management directives applicable to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Chapter 6 is a consolidated list of NASA regulations published in the Code of Federal Regulations. Chapter 7 is a consolidated list of NASA regulations published in Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Complementary manuals to the NASA Management Directives System are described in Chapter 8. The second part contains an in depth alphabetical index to all NASA management directives other than handbooks, most of which are indexed by titles only.

  17. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Burlison, J.S.

    1980-06-01

    The fifteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Division of Financial Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Rocky Flats Area Office; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: Isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographical location of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1979.

  18. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Burlison, J.S.

    1981-08-01

    The sixteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboraory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; (2) alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; (3) alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; (4) geographical location of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1980.

  19. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Burlison, J.S.

    1982-09-01

    The seventeenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory: Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; (2) alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; (3) alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; (4) geographical location of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1980.

  20. Institute of Educational Technology. Series List. Reports and Papers Produced in Series 1969-1991. A Companion to "The Institute Bibliography."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Don J., Comp.

    Compiled to make available details of reports which contain the record of work by the research groups of the Open University's Institute of Educational Technology, this list is divided into two sections: (1) Completed Series; and (2) Current Series. Within each section the lists are placed in alphabetical order by program and, where known, the…

  1. Software List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Computers in Chemical Education Newsletter, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Lists and briefly describes computer programs recently added to those currently available from Project SERAPHIM. Program name, subject, hardware, author, supplier, and current cost are provided in separate listings for Apple, Atari, Pet, VIC-20, TRS-80, and IBM-PC. (JN)

  2. TIP list

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, M E

    2006-06-22

    Subcontractors and vendors providing services, including the installation of purchased goods, are required to complete a TIP List. This list does not include every Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) related concern at LLNL. It is intended to highlight major concerns common to most on-site service activities.

  3. Industry and Child Care Resource Bank. Alphabetical Title Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulder Child Care Support Center, CO.

    This bibliography contains every listing available, as of the summer of 1982, in the Industry and Child Care Resource Bank located at the Boulder Child Care Support Center at 2160 Spruce Street, Boulder, Colorado. Each entry is annotated. References thought to be excellent sources of information are indicated by a star placed in the left hand…

  4. Selected List of Books and Journals for the Small Medical Library *

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, Alfred N.

    1969-01-01

    This updated list of 398 books and 141 journals is intended as a selection aid for the small library of a hospital, medical society, clinic, or similar organization. Books and journals are arranged by subject, with the books followed by an author index, and the journals by an alphabetical title listing. Items suggested for first purchase by smaller libraries are noted by an asterisk. PMID:4888285

  5. Selected List of Books and Journals for the Small Medical Library *

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, Alfred N.

    1971-01-01

    This updated list of 389 books and 135 journals is intended as a selection aid for the small library of a hospital, medical society, clinic, or similar organization. Books and journals are arranged by subject, with the books followed by an author index, and the journals by an alphabetical title listing. Items suggested for first purchase by smaller libraries are noted by an asterisk. PMID:5582092

  6. Common synonyms: For chemicals listed under section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This glossary contains chemical names and synonyms for substances covered by the reporting requirements of section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) (Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA)) (40 CFR Part 372). Part I is a listing in Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) registry number order. The CAS number is followed by the name by which the chemical is listed under section 313. Chemicals should be reported to TRI by their listing names. Each CAS number and associated listing name is followed by synonyms in alphabetical order. Part II of the glossary is an alphabetical list of chemical names and synonyms, with CAS numbers. In this list, section 313 names are followed by an asterisk and are footnoted as listing names.

  7. NASA Small Business Innovation Research Program. Composite List of Projects, 1983 to 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The NASA SBIR Composite List of Projects, 1983 to 1989, includes all projects that have been selected for support by the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program of NASA. The list describes 1232 Phase 1 and 510 Phase 2 contracts that had been awarded or were in negotiation for award in August 1990. The main body is organized alphabetically by name of the small businesses. Four indexes cross-reference the list. The objective of this listing is to provide information about the SBIR program to anyone concerned with NASA research and development activities.

  8. Listing people.

    PubMed

    Delbourgo, James

    2012-12-01

    Historians and commentators have long discussed tensions between specialist and lay expertise in the making of scientific knowledge. Such accounts have often described quarrels over the distribution of expertise in nineteenth-century "popular" and imperial sciences. The "crowdsourcing" of science on a global scale, however, arguably began in the early modern era. This essay examines the lists of specimen suppliers, the artifacts of a worldwide collecting campaign, published by the London apothecary James Petiver at the turn of the eighteenth century. Listing suppliers helped Petiver advertise his status as a global specimen broker in the Republic of Letters. However, publicly listing his sources drew criticism over the social character of his collecting project, while lists became synonymous with the debasement of learning in polemics over natural history. PMID:23488241

  9. Wind energy contract list, fiscal year 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The federal Wind Energy Program performs applied research in the sciences of wind turbine dynamics and the development of advanced components and systems. These efforts have resulted in major advances in the development and commercialization of wind technology as an alternative energy source. In the past, a summary was prepared each year to provide an overview of the government-funded activities within the federal Wind Energy Program. Tasks conducted in-house by participating national laboratories or under contract by industrial, academic, and other research institutes were highlighted. This year's document is more concise than the summaries of previous years. The FY 1990 contract overview comprises a lists of all subcontracts begun, ongoing, or completed during FY 1990 (October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1990). Under each managing laboratory, projects are listed alphabetically by project area.

  10. Amino acid alphabet reduction preserves fold information contained in contact interactions in proteins.

    PubMed

    Solis, Armando D

    2015-12-01

    To reduce complexity, understand generalized rules of protein folding, and facilitate de novo protein design, the 20-letter amino acid alphabet is commonly reduced to a smaller alphabet by clustering amino acids based on some measure of similarity. In this work, we seek the optimal alphabet that preserves as much of the structural information found in long-range (contact) interactions among amino acids in natively-folded proteins. We employ the Information Maximization Device, based on information theory, to partition the amino acids into well-defined clusters. Numbering from 2 to 19 groups, these optimal clusters of amino acids, while generated automatically, embody well-known properties of amino acids such as hydrophobicity/polarity, charge, size, and aromaticity, and are demonstrated to maintain the discriminative power of long-range interactions with minimal loss of mutual information. Our measurements suggest that reduced alphabets (of less than 10) are able to capture virtually all of the information residing in native contacts and may be sufficient for fold recognition, as demonstrated by extensive threading tests. In an expansive survey of the literature, we observe that alphabets derived from various approaches-including those derived from physicochemical intuition, local structure considerations, and sequence alignments of remote homologs-fare consistently well in preserving contact interaction information, highlighting a convergence in the various factors thought to be relevant to the folding code. Moreover, we find that alphabets commonly used in experimental protein design are nearly optimal and are largely coherent with observations that have arisen in this work. PMID:26407535

  11. The Alphabet of Nature and the Alphabet of Culture in the Eighteenth Century. Botany, Diplomatics, and Ethno-Linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In the middle of the eighteenth century, Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner attempted to realize the old idea of deciphering the alphabet of the world, which Francis Bacon had raised as a general postulate of science. This article describes these attempts and their interrelations. Linné used the model of the alphabet to classify plants according to the characters of this fruiting body. Gatterer, one of the leading German historians during the Enlightenment, adopted the botanical method of classification by genus and species to classify the history of scripts. He used the forms of the alphabetic characters to measure the age of manuscripts and to map the process of history as a genealogy of culture. Gatterer collaborated closely with Büttner, the first Göttingen professor of natural history. Büttner constructed a general alphabet of languages which connected the phonetics of language with the historically known alphabets. Early on, diplomatics and ethnography combined the natural order of natural history and the cultural order of the alphabet with the attempt to register development and to document development by the evolution of forms. Based on the shared model of the alphabet and on the common necessity to classify their empirical material, natural history and the description of culture were related attempts in the middle of the eighteenth century to comprehend the alphabetically organized nature and a naturally ordered culture. PMID:20665241

  12. A Multi-Alphabet Arithmetic Coding Hardware Implementation for Small FPGA Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biasizzo, Anton; Novak, Franc; Korošec, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Arithmetic coding is a lossless compression algorithm with variable-length source coding. It is more flexible and efficient than the well-known Huffman coding. In this paper we present a non-adaptive FPGA implementation of a multi-alphabet arithmetic coding with separated statistical model of the data source. The alphabet of the data source is a 256-symbol ASCII character set and does not include the special end-of-file symbol. No context switching is used in the proposed design which gives maximal throughput without pipelining. We have synthesized the design for Xilinx FPGA devices and used their built-in hardware resources.

  13. Are Alphabetic Language-Derived Models of L2 Reading Relevant to L1 Logographic Background Readers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrich, John Fitzgerald; Zhang, Lawrence Jun; Mu, Jon Congjun; Ehrich, Lisa Catherine

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that second language (L2) reading research, which has been informed by studies involving first language (L1) alphabetic English reading, may be less relevant to L2 readers with non-alphabetic reading backgrounds, such as Chinese readers with an L1 logographic (Chinese character) learning history. We provide both…

  14. NASA directives: Master list and index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This Handbook sets forth in two parts the following information for the guidance of users of the NASA Management Directives System. Chapter 1 contains introductory information material on how to use this Handbook. Chapter 2 is a complete master list of Agency-wide management directives, describing each directive by type, number, effective date, expiration date, title, and organization code of the office responsible for the directive. Chapter 3 includes a consolidated numerical list of all delegations of authority and a breakdown of such delegation by the office of Installation to which special authority is assigned. Chapter 4 sets forth a consolidated list of all NASA Handbooks (NHB's) and important footnotes covering the control and ordering of such documents. Chapter 5 is a consolidated list of NASA management directives applicable to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Chapter 6 is a consolidated list of NASA management directives published in the code of Federal Regulations. Complementary manuals to the NASA Management Directives System are described in Chapter 7. Part B contains an in-depth alphabetical index to all NASA management directives other than Handbooks.

  15. Comparative characteristics of quantum key distribution protocols with alphabets corresponding to the regular polyhedrons on the Bloch sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sych, Denis V.; Grishanin, Boris A.; Zadkov, Victor N.

    2005-06-01

    Possibilities of improving characteristics of quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols via variation of character set in quantum alphabets are investigated. QKD protocols with discrete alphabets letters of which form regular polyhedrons on the Bloch sphere (tetrahedron octahedron cube icosahedron and dodecahedron which have 4, 6, 8, 12, and 20 vertexes) and QKD protocol with continuous alphabet which corresponds to the limiting case of a polyhedron with infinitive number of vertexes are considered. Stability of such QKD protocols to the interceptresend and optimal eavesdropping strategies at the individual attacks is studied in detail. It is shown that in case of optimal eavesdropping strategy after safety bases reconciliation critical error rate of the QKD protocol with continuous alphabet surpasses all other protocols. Without basis reconciliation the highest critical error rate have the protocol with tetrahedron-type alphabet.

  16. Links between DRD4, Executive Attention, and Alphabetic Skills in a Nonclinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegel, Cornelia A. T.; Bus, Adriana G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) has been linked to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and reading disorders. In this study, we examined whether diminished anticipatory dopamine cell firing--typical of the long variant of the DRD4 allele--is related to emergent and advanced alphabetic skills, and whether executive…

  17. Recognition of a sequence as a structure containing series of recurring vectors from an alphabet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kel'manov, A. V.; Mikhailova, L. V.

    2013-07-01

    A polynomial-time algorithm is designed for finding an optimal solution of a discrete optimization problem to which a pattern recognition problem is reduced, namely, the noise-proof recognition of a sequence as a structure consisting of contiguous subsequences in the form of series of identical nonzero vectors from an alphabet of vectors in the Euclidean space that alternate with zero vectors.

  18. The Universality of Symbolic Representation for Reading in Asian and Alphabetic Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi

    2007-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of reading have identified unique patterns of activation for individuals reading in alphabetic and Asian languages, suggesting the involvement of different processes in each. The present study investigates the extent to which a cognitive prerequisite for reading, the understanding of the symbolic function of print, is common…

  19. The Colors of the Alphabet: Naturally-Biased Associations between Shape and Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Ferrinne; Maurer, Daphne

    2011-01-01

    Many letters of the alphabet are consistently mapped to specific colors in English-speaking adults, both in the general population and in individuals with grapheme-color synaesthesia who perceive letters in color. Here, across six experiments, we tested the ubiquity of the color/letter associations with typically developing toddlers, literate…

  20. Interrelationships among Selected Alphabet, Visual and Auditory Discrimination Tests for Nursery School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Harriet R.

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the relationships among alphabet skills, auditory discrimination, and visual discrimination for five-year-olds prior to kindergarten were similar to those found in studies of subskills of first grade children. The sample consisted of 23 middle class nursery school children between the ages of 5.1 and…

  1. The Nature of Traditional Orthography and the Initial Teaching Alphabet. Review of Historical Research: Summary #4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandel, Lenore

    In the traditional alphabet, 26 letters represent 40 different and distinct sounds of the spoken English language in transcription. This prevents a one-to-one phoneme-grapheme correspondence since some of the written symbols represent more than one sound. These inconsistencies in the writing system, recognized as the source of difficulty in…

  2. Teaching Children to Discriminate Letters of the Alphabet through Errorless Discrimination Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egeland, Byron; And Others

    Errorless discrimination training is a technique in which the discriminative stimulus is supplemented with a salient cue which is gradually removed or faded during the course of training. In this study errorless discrimination training was used to teach preschool children the distinctive features of letters of the alphabet that are difficult to…

  3. Collaborative Research: The Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study as an Example of Collaborative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormsley, Diane P.; Emerson, Robert Wall; Erin, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the Alphabetic Braille Contracted Braille Study in relation to the dimensions of collaborative research: extent, intensity, substance, heterogeneity, velocity, formality, and productivity. It also discusses the dimensions of financing research and researchers' attitudes. The overall consensus is that the study would not have…

  4. Legislative Alphabet Soup: Federal Laws that Affect Your Work as a Library Media Specialist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Helen R.

    2006-01-01

    Today, federal laws often seem like an alphabet soup with acronyms like CIPA (Children's Internet Protection Act), CTEA (Copyright Term Extension Act), ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act), IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act), YMCA (Digital Millennium Copyright Act), and NC LB (No Child Left Behind). These letters stand for federal…

  5. One Complicated Extended Family: The Influence of Alphabetic Knowledge and Vocabulary on Phonemic Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette, Gene P.; Haley, Allyson

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated possible sources of individual differences in early explicit, smaller segment phonological awareness. In particular, the unique contributions of oral vocabulary and alphabetic knowledge to phonemic awareness acquisition were examined across the first year of school. A total of 57 participants were tested in kindergarten…

  6. The Psychological Reality of the Apparent Perceptual Dimensions of the Alphabet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redalia, Barbara

    An experiment using an analysis of the distinctive features of lower case letters of the English alphabet to predict high- and low-confusible alternates for each letter was reported. Ten disadvantaged 5-year-old Negro children served as their own controls, circling in booklets the letters seen after a 1-second presentation by memory drum. The…

  7. Effect of pattern complexity on the visual span for Chinese and alphabet characters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; He, Xuanzi; Legge, Gordon E

    2014-01-01

    The visual span for reading is the number of letters that can be recognized without moving the eyes and is hypothesized to impose a sensory limitation on reading speed. Factors affecting the size of the visual span have been studied using alphabet letters. There may be common constraints applying to recognition of other scripts. The aim of this study was to extend the concept of the visual span to Chinese characters and to examine the effect of the greater complexity of these characters. We measured visual spans for Chinese characters and alphabet letters in the central vision of bilingual subjects. Perimetric complexity was used as a metric to quantify the pattern complexity of binary character images. The visual span tests were conducted with four sets of stimuli differing in complexity--lowercase alphabet letters and three groups of Chinese characters. We found that the size of visual spans decreased with increasing complexity, ranging from 10.5 characters for alphabet letters to 4.5 characters for the most complex Chinese characters studied. A decomposition analysis revealed that crowding was the dominant factor limiting the size of the visual span, and the amount of crowding increased with complexity. Errors in the spatial arrangement of characters (mislocations) had a secondary effect. We conclude that pattern complexity has a major effect on the size of the visual span, mediated in large part by crowding. Measuring the visual span for Chinese characters is likely to have high relevance to understanding visual constraints on Chinese reading performance. PMID:24993020

  8. Using the Initial Teaching Alphabet to Improve Articulation. Children's Workbook and Index for Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Ronald; And Others

    Designed to enable parents to help preschool, speech handicapped children enrolled in a program of speech correction by using materials based on the Initial Teaching Alphabet (ITA), these activities correlate with those used in therapy. A short period of time (15 to 20 minutes), a relaxed atmosphere, a regular schedule, and a quiet,…

  9. Effect of pattern complexity on the visual span for Chinese and alphabet characters

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; He, Xuanzi; Legge, Gordon E.

    2014-01-01

    The visual span for reading is the number of letters that can be recognized without moving the eyes and is hypothesized to impose a sensory limitation on reading speed. Factors affecting the size of the visual span have been studied using alphabet letters. There may be common constraints applying to recognition of other scripts. The aim of this study was to extend the concept of the visual span to Chinese characters and to examine the effect of the greater complexity of these characters. We measured visual spans for Chinese characters and alphabet letters in the central vision of bilingual subjects. Perimetric complexity was used as a metric to quantify the pattern complexity of binary character images. The visual span tests were conducted with four sets of stimuli differing in complexity—lowercase alphabet letters and three groups of Chinese characters. We found that the size of visual spans decreased with increasing complexity, ranging from 10.5 characters for alphabet letters to 4.5 characters for the most complex Chinese characters studied. A decomposition analysis revealed that crowding was the dominant factor limiting the size of the visual span, and the amount of crowding increased with complexity. Errors in the spatial arrangement of characters (mislocations) had a secondary effect. We conclude that pattern complexity has a major effect on the size of the visual span, mediated in large part by crowding. Measuring the visual span for Chinese characters is likely to have high relevance to understanding visual constraints on Chinese reading performance. PMID:24993020

  10. Random countable alphabet conformal iterated function systems satisfying the transversality condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbański, Mariusz

    2016-03-01

    Dealing with with countable (finite and infinite alike) alphabet random conformal iterated function systems with overlaps, we formulate appropriate transversality conditions and then prove the relevant, in such a context, the Moran-Bowen formula which determines the Hausdorff dimension of random limit sets in dynamical terms. We also provide large classes of examples of such random systems satisfying the transversality condition.

  11. Child Miscues and Parental Feedback during Shared Alphabet Book Reading and Relations with Child Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Bronwen J.; Evans, Mary Ann; Reynolds, Kailey Pearl

    2010-01-01

    We studied 52 parent-child dyads reading an alphabet book to examine the nature of children's miscues and parents' feedback, and whether miscues and feedback were related to each other and to preliteracy skills. Letter knowledge, phonological awareness, and expressive vocabulary were assessed in 5-year-old nonreaders who were also audiotaped…

  12. Enhanced Alphabet Knowledge Instruction: Exploring a Change of Frequency, Focus, and Distributed Cycles of Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Cindy D.; Reutzel, D. Ray

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a 2-year exploratory research study of alphabet knowledge instruction in 13 kindergarten classrooms in four at-risk urban schools. Based on insights for teaching from five evidence-based advantages that influence acquisition of letter names and sounds, instruction of letter names and sounds was enhanced to increase students'…

  13. Teaching Letter-Sound Connections with Picture Mnemonics: "Itchy's Alphabet" and Early Decoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLorenzo, Kim E.; Rody, Carlotta A.; Bucholz, Jessica L.; Brady, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    The authors explored "Itchy's Alphabet" as an innovative approach to teaching letter-sound connections through multisensory cues. This is the initial demonstration of this instructional method for increasing students' sublexical skills (letter identification, letter-sound knowledge, and phonological awareness). To examine the effectiveness of the…

  14. Teaching Beginning Braille Reading Using an Alphabet or Uncontracted Braille Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Janice Neibaur; McDonnell, Andrea P.; O'Neill, Rob

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of using a research based print reading program modified to accommodate beginning braille readers using an alphabet or uncontracted braille reading approach with five beginning braille readers. Four of the 5 participants displayed a clear increase in their ability to read high frequency words when they began using…

  15. Beyond the Alphabetic: Using William Blake's "The Tyger" as a Way to Teach Modal Affordances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keaton, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Scholars and teachers often focus only on alphabetic texts in the classroom (Palmeri; Alexander and Rhodes; Jewitt; Selfe; Shipka); however, we do our students a disservice if we do not prepare them to compose with and understand the rhetorical consequences of using a variety of modes. In this article, I argue that we need to teach our students to…

  16. Effects of Alphabet-Supplemented Speech on Brain Activity of Listeners: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fercho, Kelene; Baugh, Lee A.; Hanson, Elizabeth K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to examine the neural mechanisms associated with increases in speech intelligibility brought about through alphabet supplementation. Method: Neurotypical participants listened to dysarthric speech while watching an accompanying video of a hand pointing to the 1st letter spoken of each word on an alphabet…

  17. Effective Teaching Strategies: Case Studies from the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Lizbeth; Herlich, Stephanie A.; Sacks, Sharon Zell

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses some of the qualitative data that were documented during the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study. Two case studies of students are described, highlighting many effective teaching strategies used by their teachers of students with visual impairments that resulted in the students' successful academic progress.…

  18. List of State-Administered Research and Development Projects in Vocational Education Supported under Section 131(b) of Part C, the Vocational Education Amendments of 1968, Fiscal Year 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braaten, Larry; Miller, Annette

    This publication provides a listing of federally funded state-administered research and development vocational education projects which were conducted in 1976 under the provisions of the Vocational Education Amendments of 1968. The listing is arranged alphabetically by states and for each state includes the total funds allotted and obligated for…

  19. Reading Hidden Messages Through Deciphered Manual Alphabets on Classic Artwork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castronovo, Joseph Anthony, Jr.

    1998-10-01

    , viewing and visual representing, to the traditional list of reading, writing, speaking and listening. Students will master these two new skills far more effectively when they are exposed to such a signing community.

  20. 31 CFR Appendix A to Chapter V - Alphabetical Listing of Blocked Persons, Blocked Vessels, Specially Designated Nationals...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPLEX; a.k.a. 7TH OF TIR INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX; a.k.a. 7TH OF TIR INDUSTRIES; a.k.a. 7TH OF TIR INDUSTRIES..., Khartoum 11, Sudan; E-mail Address admico@sudanmail.net (Sudan) ADVANCED PETROLEUM COMPANY (a.k.a. APCO... Mexico, Mexico; R.F.C. ACO-031113-MB8 (Mexico) AEROSPACE INDUSTRIES ORGANIZATION (a.k.a. SAZMANE...

  1. Energy data base. Serial titles with ISSN listing

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, P.L.

    1984-03-01

    This issue of Serial Titles with ISSN Listing is the first revision of DOE/TIC-4579 to include the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) for journals. The TIC journal authority was established to bring about conformity in citing the approximately 16,000 titles contained in this authority. It can prove to be a valuable tool in establishing the precise journal by ISSN and CODEN indication, especially for journals with the same title published in different locations. Serial Titles with ISSN Listing is comprised of two parts. Part 1 is an alphabetical listing by full title of the publication and also includes abbreviated title, CODEN, ISSN, coverage code, and country code. Part 2 is an ISSN-title correlation arranged in numeric order by ISSN and also includes the CODEN and full title.

  2. Selected list of Books and Journals for the small medical library.

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, A N; Hill, D R

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of the "Selected List" to collection development is explored in the introduction to this revised list of 559 books and 135 journals. The list is intended as a selection guide for the small or medium-sized library in a hospital or comparable medical facility or as a core collection for a consortium of small hospital libraries. Books and journals are categorized by subject; the book list is followed by an author/editor index and the subject list of journals by an alphabetical title listing. Items suggested for initial purchase by smaller libraries (155 books and 54 journals) are indicated by asterisks. To purchase the entire collection of books and to pay for annual subscriptions would require an expenditure of about $38,900. The cost of only the asterisked items totals approximately $13,200. PMID:6190523

  3. Selected list of books and journals for the small medical library.

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, A N; Hill, D R

    1985-01-01

    The interrelationship of print and electronic media in the hospital library and the relevance of the "Selected List" in 1985 are discussed in the introduction to this revised list of 583 books and 138 journals. The list is meant to be a selection guide for the small or medium-size library in a hospital or comparable medical facility, or a core collection for a consortium of small hospital libraries. Books and journals are categorized by subject; the book list is followed by an author/editor index and the subject list of journals by an alphabetical title listing. Items suggested for initial purchase by smaller libraries are indicated by asterisks. To purchase the entire collection of books and to pay for 1985 subscriptions to all the journals would require about $45,200. The cost of only the asterisked items totals approximately $16,100. PMID:3888331

  4. A Critique of Research with the Initial Teaching Alphabet and Some Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, J. R.

    1966-01-01

    Research on the Initial Teaching Alphabet (i.t.a.) is viewed from two aspects--its limitations and how it can be improved. Thus far research has indicated that (1) transition from i.t.a. to traditional orthography is not the problem expected and (2) the children who are taught with i.t.a. read no better or worse than children taught with the…

  5. A reduced amino acid alphabet for understanding and designing protein adaptation to mutation.

    PubMed

    Etchebest, C; Benros, C; Bornot, A; Camproux, A-C; de Brevern, A G

    2007-11-01

    Protein sequence world is considerably larger than structure world. In consequence, numerous non-related sequences may adopt similar 3D folds and different kinds of amino acids may thus be found in similar 3D structures. By grouping together the 20 amino acids into a smaller number of representative residues with similar features, sequence world simplification may be achieved. This clustering hence defines a reduced amino acid alphabet (reduced AAA). Numerous works have shown that protein 3D structures are composed of a limited number of building blocks, defining a structural alphabet. We previously identified such an alphabet composed of 16 representative structural motifs (5-residues length) called Protein Blocks (PBs). This alphabet permits to translate the structure (3D) in sequence of PBs (1D). Based on these two concepts, reduced AAA and PBs, we analyzed the distributions of the different kinds of amino acids and their equivalences in the structural context. Different reduced sets were considered. Recurrent amino acid associations were found in all the local structures while other were specific of some local structures (PBs) (e.g Cysteine, Histidine, Threonine and Serine for the alpha-helix Ncap). Some similar associations are found in other reduced AAAs, e.g Ile with Val, or hydrophobic aromatic residues Trp with Phe and Tyr. We put into evidence interesting alternative associations. This highlights the dependence on the information considered (sequence or structure). This approach, equivalent to a substitution matrix, could be useful for designing protein sequence with different features (for instance adaptation to environment) while preserving mainly the 3D fold. PMID:17565494

  6. NASA directives master list and index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This Handbook sets forth in two parts the following information for the guidance of users of the NASA Management Directives System. Part A is a master list of management directives in force as of March 31, 1993. Chapter 1 contains introductory informative material on how to use this Handbook. Chapter 2 is a complete master list of Agencywide management directives, describing each directive by type, number, effective date, expiration date, title, and organization code of the office responsible for the directive. Chapter 3 includes a consolidated numerical list of all delegations of authority and a breakdown of such delegation by the office or installation to which special authority is assigned. Chapter 4 sets forth a consolidated list of all NASA Handbooks (NHB's) and important footnotes covering the control and ordering of such documents. Chapter 5 is a consolidated list of NASA management directives applicable to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Chapter 6 is a consolidated list of NASA management directives published in the Code of Federal Regulations. Complementary manuals to the NASA Management Directives System are described in Chapter 7. Part B is the index to NASA management directives in force as of March 31, 1993. This part contains an in-depth alphabetical index to all NASA management directives other than Handbooks. NHB's 1610.6, 'NASA Personnel Security Handbook,' 1620.3, 'NASA Physical Security Handbook,' 1640.4, 'NASA Information Security Program,' 1900.1, 'Standards of Conduct for NASA Employees,' 5103.6, 'Source Evaluation Board Handbook,' and 7400.1, 'Budget Administration Manual,' are indexed in-depth. All other NHB's are indexed by titles only.

  7. Reading acquisition reorganizes the phonological awareness network only in alphabetic writing systems.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Christine; Cao, Fan; Pedroarena-Leal, Nicole; McNorgan, Chris; Booth, James R

    2013-12-01

    It is unknown how experience with different types of orthographies influences the neural basis of oral language processing. In order to determine the effects of alphabetic and nonalphabetic writing systems, the current study examined the influence of learning to read on oral language in English and Chinese speakers. Children (8-12 years olds) and adults made rhyming judgments to pairs of spoken words during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Developmental increases were seen only for English speakers in the left hemisphere phonological network (superior temporal gyrus (STG), inferior parietal lobule, and inferior frontal gyrus). The increase in the STG was more pronounced for words with conflicting orthography (e.g. pint-mint; jazz-has) even though access to orthography was irrelevant to the task. Moreover, higher reading skill was correlated with greater activation in the STG only for English speaking children. The effects suggest that learning to read reorganizes the phonological awareness network only for alphabetic and not logographic writing systems because of differences in the principles for mapping between orthographic and phonological representations. The reorganization of the auditory cortex may result in better phonological awareness skills in alphabetic readers. PMID:22815229

  8. The Athlete's Alphabet for Self-Improvement (i.e., Some Motivational Guidelines for Athletes to Stay Focused)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Thomas S.; Spier, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The hardest part of being an athlete is staying motivated, i.e., being the best they can be routinely. This Alphabet is set up so that athletes can look at it when they are lacking the motivation that is needed, and possibly catch a spark to do better. In addition, athletes could glance at this alphabet in order to stay more focused and/or…

  9. Surveying determinants of protein structure designability across different energy models and amino-acid alphabets: A consensus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchler, Nicolas E. G.; Goldstein, Richard A.

    2000-02-01

    A variety of analytical and computational models have been proposed to answer the question of why some protein structures are more "designable" (i.e., have more sequences folding into them) than others. One class of analytical and statistical-mechanical models has approached the designability problem from a thermodynamic viewpoint. These models highlighted specific structural features important for increased designability. Furthermore, designability was shown to be inherently related to thermodynamically relevant energetic measures of protein folding, such as the foldability F and energy gap Δ10. However, many of these models have been done within a very narrow focus: Namely, pair-contact interactions and two-letter amino-acid alphabets. Recently, two-letter amino-acid alphabets for pair-contact models have been shown to contain designability artifacts which disappear for larger-letter amino-acid alphabets. In addition, a solvation model was demonstrated to give identical designability results to previous two-letter amino-acid alphabet pair-contact models. In light of these discordant results, this report synthesizes a broad consensus regarding the relationship between specific structural features, foldability F, energy gap Δ10, and structure designability for different energy models (pair-contact vs solvation) across a wide range of amino-acid alphabets. We also propose a novel measure Zdk which is shown to be well correlated to designability. Finally, we conclusively demonstrate that two-letter amino-acid alphabets for pair-contact models appear to be solvation models in disguise.

  10. List based prefetch

    DOEpatents

    Boyle, Peter; Christ, Norman; Gara, Alan; Kim; ,Changhoan; Mawhinney, Robert; Ohmacht, Martin; Sugavanam, Krishnan

    2012-08-28

    A list prefetch engine improves a performance of a parallel computing system. The list prefetch engine receives a current cache miss address. The list prefetch engine evaluates whether the current cache miss address is valid. If the current cache miss address is valid, the list prefetch engine compares the current cache miss address and a list address. A list address represents an address in a list. A list describes an arbitrary sequence of prior cache miss addresses. The prefetch engine prefetches data according to the list, if there is a match between the current cache miss address and the list address.