Science.gov

Sample records for 3d canopy architecture

  1. Performance of the Cray T3D and emerging architectures on canopy QCD applications

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, M.; Uchima, M.

    1995-11-01

    The Cray T3D, an MIMD system with NUMA shared memory capabilities and in principle very low communications latency, can support the Canopy framework for grid-oriented applications. CANOPY has been ported to the T3D, with the intent of making it available to a spectrum of users. The performance of the T3D running Canopy has been benchmarked on five QCD applications extensively run on ACPMAPS at Fermilab, requiring a variety of data access patterns. The net performance and scaling behavior reveals an efficiency relative to peak Gflops almost identical to that achieved on ACPMAPS. Detailed studies of the major factors impacting performance are presented. Generalizations applying this analysis to the newly emerging crop of commercial systems reveal where their limitations will lie. On these applications, efficiencies of above 25% are not to be expected; eliminating overheads due to Canopy will improve matters, but by less than a factor of two.

  2. Use of Very High-Resolution Airborne Images to Analyse 3d Canopy Architecture of a Vineyard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgos, S.; Mota, M.; Noll, D.; Cannelle, B.

    2015-08-01

    Differencing between green cover and grape canopy is a challenge for vigour status evaluation in viticulture. This paper presents the acquisition methodology of very high-resolution images (4 cm), using a Sensefly Swinglet CAM unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and their processing to construct a 3D digital surface model (DSM) for the creation of precise digital terrain models (DTM). The DTM was obtained using python processing libraries. The DTM was then subtracted to the DSM in order to obtain a differential digital model (DDM) of a vineyard. In the DDM, the vine pixels were then obtained by selecting all pixels with an elevation higher than 50 [cm] above the ground level. The results show that it was possible to separate pixels from the green cover and the vine rows. The DDM showed values between -0.1 and + 1.5 [m]. A manually delineation of polygons based on the RGB image belonging to the green cover and to the vine rows gave a highly significant differences with an average value of 1.23 [m] and 0.08 [m] for the vine and the ground respectively. The vine rows elevation is in good accordance with the topping height of the vines 1.35 [m] measured on the field. This mask could be used to analyse images of the same plot taken at different times. The extraction of only vine pixels will facilitate subsequent analyses, for example, a supervised classification of these pixels.

  3. Using virtual 3-D plant architecture to assess fungal pathogen splash dispersal in heterogeneous canopies: a case study with cultivar mixtures and a non-specialized disease causal agent

    PubMed Central

    Gigot, C.; de Vallavieille-Pope, C.; Huber, L.; Saint-Jean, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Recent developments in plant disease management have led to a growing interest in alternative strategies, such as increasing host diversity and decreasing the use of pesticides. Use of cultivar mixtures is one option, allowing the spread of plant epidemics to be slowed down. As dispersal of fungal foliar pathogens over short distances by rain-splash droplets is a major contibutor to the spread of disease, this study focused on modelling the physical mechanisms involved in dispersal of a non-specialized pathogen within heterogeneous canopies of cultivar mixtures, with the aim of optimizing host diversification at the intra-field level. Methods Virtual 3-D wheat-like plants (Triticum aestivum) were used to consider interactions between plant architecture and disease progression in heterogeneous canopies. A combined mechanistic and stochastic model, taking into account splash droplet dispersal and host quantitative resistance within a 3-D heterogeneous canopy, was developed. It consists of four sub-models that describe the spatial patterns of two cultivars within a complex canopy, the pathway of rain-splash droplets within this canopy, the proportion of leaf surface area impacted by dispersal via the droplets and the progression of disease severity after each dispersal event. Key Results Different spatial organization, proportions and resistance levels of the cultivars of two-component mixtures were investigated. For the eight spatial patterns tested, the protective effect against disease was found to vary by almost 2-fold, with the greatest effect being obtained with the smallest genotype unit area, i.e. the ground area occupied by an independent unit of the host population that is genetically homogeneous. Increasing both the difference between resistance levels and the proportion of the most resistant cultivar often resulted in a greater protective effect; however, this was not observed for situations in which the most resistant of the two

  4. Canopy architecture measured with a laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, Vern C.; Silva, L. F.; Bauer, M. E.

    1990-01-01

    A laser based method was employed to measure and numerically describe the architecture of a corn canopy. Use of the method provides an interception coefficient for classes of vegetation in layers of the canopy viewed in various directions. Architectural data obtained for similar corn canopies but measured by differing methods are comparable to the results obtained using the laser based method. These results provide input data to mathematical models employed in remote sensing for describing the radiation environment in a plant canopy and predicting its reflectance.

  5. Measurement of tree canopy architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martens, S. N.; Ustin, S. L.; Norman, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    The lack of accurate extensive geometric data on tree canopies has retarded development and validation of radiative transfer models. A stratified sampling method was devised to measure the three-dimensional geometry of 16 walnut trees which had received irrigation treatments of either 100 or 33 per cent of evapotranspirational (ET) demand for the previous two years. Graphic reconstructions of the three-dimensional geometry were verified by 58 independent measurements. The distributions of stem- and leaf-size classes, lengths, and angle classes were determined and used to calculate leaf area index (LAI), stem area, and biomass. Reduced irrigation trees have lower biomass of stems, leaves and fruit, lower LAI, steeper leaf angles and altered biomass allocation to large stems. These data can be used in ecological models that link canopy processes with remotely sensed measurements.

  6. Coniferous Canopy BRF Simulation Based on 3-D Realistic Scene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xin-yun; Guo, Zhi-feng; Qin, Wen-han; Sun, Guo-qing

    2011-01-01

    It is difficulties for the computer simulation method to study radiation regime at large-scale. Simplified coniferous model was investigate d in the present study. It makes the computer simulation methods such as L-systems and radiosity-graphics combined method (RGM) more powerf ul in remote sensing of heterogeneous coniferous forests over a large -scale region. L-systems is applied to render 3-D coniferous forest scenarios: and RGM model was used to calculate BRF (bidirectional refle ctance factor) in visible and near-infrared regions. Results in this study show that in most cases both agreed well. Meanwhiie at a tree and forest level. the results are also good.

  7. Coniferous canopy BRF simulation based on 3-D realistic scene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Yun; Guo, Zhi-Feng; Qin, Wen-Han; Sun, Guo-Qing

    2011-09-01

    It is difficulties for the computer simulation method to study radiation regime at large-scale. Simplified coniferous model was investigated in the present study. It makes the computer simulation methods such as L-systems and radiosity-graphics combined method (RGM) more powerful in remote sensing of heterogeneous coniferous forests over a large-scale region. L-systems is applied to render 3-D coniferous forest scenarios, and RGM model was used to calculate BRF (bidirectional reflectance factor) in visible and near-infrared regions. Results in this study show that in most cases both agreed well. Meanwhile at a tree and forest level, the results are also good. PMID:22097856

  8. Generation of 3D Collagen Gels with Controlled Diverse Architectures.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    Rat tail collagen solutions have been used as polymerizable in vitro three dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix (ECM) gels for single and collective cell migration assays as well as spheroid formation. Factors such as ECM concentration, pH, ionic concentration, and temperature can alter collagen polymerization and ECM architecture. This unit describes how to generate 3D collagen gels that have distinct architectures ranging from a highly reticular meshwork of short thin fibrils with small pores to a loose matrix consisting of stiff, parallel-bundled long fibrils by changing collagen polymerization temperature. This permits analysis of 3D cell migration in different ECM architectures found in vivo while maintaining a similar ECM concentration. Also included are collagen labeling techniques helpful for ECM visualization during live fluorescence imaging. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27580704

  9. Designed 3D architectures of high-temperature superconductors.

    PubMed

    Green, David C; Lees, Martin R; Hall, Simon R

    2013-04-14

    Self-supporting superconducting replicas of pasta shapes are reported, yielding products of differing 3D architectures. Functioning high-temperature superconductor wires are developed and refined from replicas of spaghetti, demonstrating a unique sol-gel processing technique for the design and synthesis of novel macroscopic morphologies of complex functional materials. PMID:23388857

  10. Architectural Advancements in RELAP5-3D

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. George L. Mesina

    2005-11-01

    As both the computer industry and field of nuclear science and engineering move forward, there is a need to improve the computing tools used in the nuclear industry to keep pace with these changes. By increasing the capability of the codes, the growing modeling needs of nuclear plant analysis will be met and advantage can be taken of more powerful computer languages and architecture. In the past eighteen months, improvements have been made to RELAP5-3D [1] for these reasons. These architectural advances include code restructuring, conversion to Fortran 90, high performance computing upgrades, and rewriting of the RELAP5 Graphical User Interface (RGUI) [2] and XMGR5 [3] in Java. These architectural changes will extend the lifetime of RELAP5-3D, reduce the costs for development and maintenance, and improve it speed and reliability.

  11. Automatic Texture Mapping of Architectural and Archaeological 3d Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, T. P.; Stallmann, D.

    2012-07-01

    Today, detailed, complete and exact 3D models with photo-realistic textures are increasingly demanded for numerous applications in architecture and archaeology. Manual texture mapping of 3D models by digital photographs with software packages, such as Maxon Cinema 4D, Autodesk 3Ds Max or Maya, still requires a complex and time-consuming workflow. So, procedures for automatic texture mapping of 3D models are in demand. In this paper two automatic procedures are presented. The first procedure generates 3D surface models with textures by web services, while the second procedure textures already existing 3D models with the software tmapper. The program tmapper is based on the Multi Layer 3D image (ML3DImage) algorithm and developed in the programming language C++. The studies showing that the visibility analysis using the ML3DImage algorithm is not sufficient to obtain acceptable results of automatic texture mapping. To overcome the visibility problem the Point Cloud Painter algorithm in combination with the Z-buffer-procedure will be applied in the future.

  12. Designing bioinspired composite reinforcement architectures via 3D magnetic printing

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Joshua J.; Fiore, Brad E.; Erb, Randall M.

    2015-01-01

    Discontinuous fibre composites represent a class of materials that are strong, lightweight and have remarkable fracture toughness. These advantages partially explain the abundance and variety of discontinuous fibre composites that have evolved in the natural world. Many natural structures out-perform the conventional synthetic counterparts due, in part, to the more elaborate reinforcement architectures that occur in natural composites. Here we present an additive manufacturing approach that combines real-time colloidal assembly with existing additive manufacturing technologies to create highly programmable discontinuous fibre composites. This technology, termed as ‘3D magnetic printing', has enabled us to recreate complex bioinspired reinforcement architectures that deliver enhanced material performance compared with monolithic structures. Further, we demonstrate that we can now design and evolve elaborate reinforcement architectures that are not found in nature, demonstrating a high level of possible customization in discontinuous fibre composites with arbitrary geometries. PMID:26494282

  13. Canopy architecture of a walnut orchard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ustin, Susan L.; Martens, Scott N.; Vanderbilt, Vern C.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed dataset describing the canopy geometry of a walnut orchard was acquired to support testing and comparison of the predictions of canopy microwave and optical inversion models. Measured canopy properties included the quantity, size, and orientation of stems, leaves, and fruit. Eight trees receiving 100 percent of estimated potential evapotranspiration water use and eight trees receiving 33 percent of potential water use were measured. The vertical distributions of stem, leaf, and fruit properties are presented with respect to irrigation treatment. Zenith and probability distributions for stems and leaf normals are presented. These data show that, after two years of reduced irrigation, the trees receiving only 33 percent of their potential water requirement had reduced fruit yields, lower leaf area index, and altered allocation of biomass within the canopy.

  14. 3D architectures are not just for microbatteries anymore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytle, Justin C.; Long, Jeffrey W.; Chervin, Christopher N.; Sassin, Megan B.; Rolison, Debra R.

    2011-06-01

    Building battery architectures with functional interfaces that are interpenetrated in three dimensions opens the door to major gains in performance as compared to conventional 2-D battery designs, particularly with respect to the battery footprint. We are developing 3-D solid-state Li-ion batteries that are sequentially assembled from interpenetrating and tricontinuous networks of anode, cathode, and electrolyte/separator materials. We use fiberpaper- supported carbon nanofoams as a massively parallel, conductive, ultraporous base platform within which to create the 3-D cell. The components required for battery operation are incorporated into the x,y,z-scalable papers and include nanoscale coatings of metal oxides that serve as Li-ion-insertion electrodes and ultrathin, electroninsulating/ Li-ion conducting polymer coatings that serve as the electrolyte/separator.

  15. 3D model tools for architecture and archaeology reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlad, Ioan; Herban, Ioan Sorin; Stoian, Mircea; Vilceanu, Clara-Beatrice

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of architectural and patrimonial survey is to provide a precise documentation of the status quo of the surveyed objects (monuments, buildings, archaeological object and sites) for preservation and protection, for scientific studies and restoration purposes, for the presentation to the general public. Cultural heritage documentation includes an interdisciplinary approach having as purpose an overall understanding of the object itself and an integration of the information which characterize it. The accuracy and the precision of the model are directly influenced by the quality of the measurements realized on field and by the quality of the software. The software is in the process of continuous development, which brings many improvements. On the other side, compared to aerial photogrammetry, close range photogrammetry and particularly architectural photogrammetry is not limited to vertical photographs with special cameras. The methodology of terrestrial photogrammetry has changed significantly and various photographic acquisitions are widely in use. In this context, the present paper brings forward a comparative study of TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanner) and digital photogrammetry for 3D modeling. The authors take into account the accuracy of the 3D models obtained, the overall costs involved for each technology and method and the 4th dimension - time. The paper proves its applicability as photogrammetric technologies are nowadays used at a large scale for obtaining the 3D model of cultural heritage objects, efficacious in their assessment and monitoring, thus contributing to historic conservation. Its importance also lies in highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of each method used - very important issue for both the industrial and scientific segment when facing decisions such as in which technology to invest more research and funds.

  16. RELAP5-3D Architectural Developments in 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. George L. Mesina

    2004-08-01

    Currently, RELAP5 is undergoing a transformation that will replace much of its coding with equivalent structured Fortran 90 coding. Four efforts are underway to modernize the code architecture of RELAP5-3D. These are parallelization, vectorization, code restructuring, and conversion to Fortran 90. The first two improve code run speed via on computer platforms of certain architectures. These code modifications have little effect on normal code performance on non-vector and non-parallel computers because they are mostly done with compiler directives. The third and fourth efforts involve considerable rewriting of the source code. The third code improvement effort addresses code readability and maintainability. These are being greatly enhanced by application of a Fortran code-restructuring tool. The fourth effort is conversion to Fortran 90. The bulk of the coding is being rewritten in Fortran 90. This is a ground up reworking of the coding that begins with completely reorganizing the underlying database and continues with the source code. It will reach every part of RELAP5-3D. Each of these efforts is discussed in detail in a different section. Section 1 relates background information. Section 2 covers the parallelization effort. Section 3 covers the efforts to vectorize the code. Section 4 covers the code restructuring. Section 5 covers the Fortran 90 effort. Outline Background: longevity, maintenance & development, reliability, speed Parallelization: KAI to OpenMP, previous work & current, domain decomposition, done. Vectorization: Speed - Fed init, vectors in PCs, INL Cray SV1, R5 Phant, EXV, results. Code Restructuring: Reason to restructure, study of restruct, For Study: what it does, Fortran 90: Modernization -

  17. How neighbor canopy architecture affects target plant performance

    SciTech Connect

    Tremmel, D.C.; Bazzaz, F.A. )

    1993-10-01

    Plant competition occurs through the negative effects that individual plants have on resource availability to neighboring individuals. Therefore competition experiments need to examine how different species change resource availability to their neighbors, and how different species respond to these changes-allocationally, architecturally, and physiologically-through time. In a greenhouse study we used a model system of annuals to examine how canopies of species having differing morphologies differed in their architectures and light-interception abilities, and how different species performed when grown in these canopies. Abutilon theophrasti, Datura stramonium, and Polygonum pensylvanicum were grown as [open quotes]targets[close quotes]. Plants were grown in pots, with one target plant and four neighbor plants. Detailed measurements of neighbor canopy structure and target plant canopy architecture were made at five harvests. Species with different morphologies showed large differences in canopy structure, particularly when grass and forb species were compared. Setaria, a grass, had a more open canopy than the other species (all forbs), and was a consistently weak competitor. Overall, however, the relative effects of different neighbors on target biomass varied with target species. Target biomass was poorly correlated with neighbor biomass and leaf area, but was highly correlated with a measure of target light-interception ability that took into account both target leaf deployment and neighbor light interception. Despite clear differences among neighbor species in canopy structure and effect on light penetration, the results suggest no broad generalizations about the effects of different species as neighbors. Knowledge of morphological, physiological, and life history characteristics of both the target and neighbor species may be necessary to explain the results of their competition. 53 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Numerical and measured data from the 3D salt canopy physical modeling project

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, C.; House, L.; Fehler, M.; Pearson, J.; TenCate, J.; Wiley, R.

    1997-11-01

    The evolution of salt structures in the Gulf of Mexico have been shown to provide a mechanism for the trapping of significant hydrocarbon reserves. Most of these structures have complex geometries relative to the surrounding sedimentary layers. This aspect in addition to high velocities within the salt tend to scatter and defocus seismic energy and make imaging of subsalt lithology extremely difficult. An ongoing program the SEG/EAEG modeling project (Aminzadeh et al. 1994a: Aminzadeh et al. 1994b: Aminzadeh et al. 1995), and a follow-up project funded as part of the Advanced Computational Technology Initiative (ACTI) (House et al. 1996) have sought to investigate problems with imaging beneath complex salt structures using numerical modeling and more recently, construction of a physical model patterned after the numerical subsalt model (Wiley and McKnight. 1996). To date, no direct comparison of the numerical and physical aspects of these models has been attempted. We present the results of forward modeling a numerical realization of the 3D salt canopy physical model with the French Petroleum Institute (IFP) acoustic finite difference algorithm used in the numerical subsalt tests. We compare the results from the physical salt canopy model, the acoustic modeling of the physical/numerical model and the original numerical SEG/EAEG Salt Model. We will be testing the sensitivity of migration to the presence of converted shear waves and acquisition geometry.

  19. Leaf Area Index Estimation in Vineyards from Uav Hyperspectral Data, 2d Image Mosaics and 3d Canopy Surface Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalisperakis, I.; Stentoumis, Ch.; Grammatikopoulos, L.; Karantzalos, K.

    2015-08-01

    The indirect estimation of leaf area index (LAI) in large spatial scales is crucial for several environmental and agricultural applications. To this end, in this paper, we compare and evaluate LAI estimation in vineyards from different UAV imaging datasets. In particular, canopy levels were estimated from i.e., (i) hyperspectral data, (ii) 2D RGB orthophotomosaics and (iii) 3D crop surface models. The computed canopy levels have been used to establish relationships with the measured LAI (ground truth) from several vines in Nemea, Greece. The overall evaluation indicated that the estimated canopy levels were correlated (r2 > 73%) with the in-situ, ground truth LAI measurements. As expected the lowest correlations were derived from the calculated greenness levels from the 2D RGB orthomosaics. The highest correlation rates were established with the hyperspectral canopy greenness and the 3D canopy surface models. For the later the accurate detection of canopy, soil and other materials in between the vine rows is required. All approaches tend to overestimate LAI in cases with sparse, weak, unhealthy plants and canopy.

  20. Polygonal Shapes Detection in 3d Models of Complex Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benciolini, G. B.; Vitti, A.

    2015-02-01

    A sequential application of two global models defined on a variational framework is proposed for the detection of polygonal shapes in 3D models of complex architectures. As a first step, the procedure involves the use of the Mumford and Shah (1989) 1st-order variational model in dimension two (gridded height data are processed). In the Mumford-Shah model an auxiliary function detects the sharp changes, i.e., the discontinuities, of a piecewise smooth approximation of the data. The Mumford-Shah model requires the global minimization of a specific functional to simultaneously produce both the smooth approximation and its discontinuities. In the proposed procedure, the edges of the smooth approximation derived by a specific processing of the auxiliary function are then processed using the Blake and Zisserman (1987) 2nd-order variational model in dimension one (edges are processed in the plane). This second step permits to describe the edges of an object by means of piecewise almost-linear approximation of the input edges themselves and to detects sharp changes of the first-derivative of the edges so to detect corners. The Mumford-Shah variational model is used in two dimensions accepting the original data as primary input. The Blake-Zisserman variational model is used in one dimension for the refinement of the description of the edges. The selection among all the boundaries detected by the Mumford-Shah model of those that present a shape close to a polygon is performed by considering only those boundaries for which the Blake-Zisserman model identified discontinuities in their first derivative. The output of the procedure are hence shapes, coming from 3D geometric data, that can be considered as polygons. The application of the procedure is suitable for, but not limited to, the detection of objects such as foot-print of polygonal buildings, building facade boundaries or windows contours. v The procedure is applied to a height model of the building of the Engineering

  1. Evaluating Dense 3d Reconstruction Software Packages for Oblique Monitoring of Crop Canopy Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocks, S.; Bareth, G.

    2016-06-01

    Crop Surface Models (CSMs) are 2.5D raster surfaces representing absolute plant canopy height. Using multiple CMSs generated from data acquired at multiple time steps, a crop surface monitoring is enabled. This makes it possible to monitor crop growth over time and can be used for monitoring in-field crop growth variability which is useful in the context of high-throughput phenotyping. This study aims to evaluate several software packages for dense 3D reconstruction from multiple overlapping RGB images on field and plot-scale. A summer barley field experiment located at the Campus Klein-Altendorf of University of Bonn was observed by acquiring stereo images from an oblique angle using consumer-grade smart cameras. Two such cameras were mounted at an elevation of 10 m and acquired images for a period of two months during the growing period of 2014. The field experiment consisted of nine barley cultivars that were cultivated in multiple repetitions and nitrogen treatments. Manual plant height measurements were carried out at four dates during the observation period. The software packages Agisoft PhotoScan, VisualSfM with CMVS/PMVS2 and SURE are investigated. The point clouds are georeferenced through a set of ground control points. Where adequate results are reached, a statistical analysis is performed.

  2. Studies of microwave scattering and canopy architecture for boreal forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockhart, G. Lance; Gogineni, S. P.

    1995-01-01

    This is an annual report on the project titled 'Study of Microwave Scattering and Canopy Architecture for Boreal Forests.' The objectives of our work are to study the interaction of microwave signals with vegetation components and to determine the radar's ability to provide accurate estimates of biophysical parameters such as biomass. Our research is aimed at refining the current microwave models and using these improvements to facilitate more accurate interpretations of SAR (synthetic aperture radar) imagery.

  3. An Update on Design Tools for Optimization of CMC 3D Fiber Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, J.; DiCarlo, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Describe and up-date progress for NASA's efforts to develop 3D architectural design tools for CMC in general and for SIC/SiC composites in particular. Describe past and current sequential work efforts aimed at: Understanding key fiber and tow physical characteristics in conventional 2D and 3D woven architectures as revealed by microstructures in the literature. Developing an Excel program for down-selecting and predicting key geometric properties and resulting key fiber-controlled properties for various conventional 3D architectures. Developing a software tool for accurately visualizing all the key geometric details of conventional 3D architectures. Validating tools by visualizing and predicting the Internal geometry and key mechanical properties of a NASA SIC/SIC panel with a 3D orthogonal architecture. Applying the predictive and visualization tools toward advanced 3D orthogonal SiC/SIC composites, and combining them into a user-friendly software program.

  4. 3D stereolithography printing of graphene oxide reinforced complex architectures.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dong; Jin, Shengyu; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Chao; Wang, Yiqian; Zhou, Chi; Cheng, Gary J

    2015-10-30

    Properties of polymer based nanocomposites reply on distribution, concentration, geometry and property of nanofillers in polymer matrix. Increasing the concentration of carbon based nanomaterials, such as CNTs, in polymer matrix often results in stronger but more brittle material. Here, we demonstrated the first three-dimensional (3D) printed graphene oxide complex structures by stereolithography with good combination of strength and ductility. With only 0.2% GOs, the tensile strength is increased by 62.2% and elongation increased by 12.8%. Transmission electron microscope results show that the GOs were randomly aligned in the cross section of polymer. We investigated the strengthening mechanism of the 3D printed structure in terms of tensile strength and Young's modulus. It is found that an increase in ductility of the 3D printed nanocomposites is related to increase in crystallinity of GOs reinforced polymer. Compression test of 3D GOs structure reveals the metal-like failure model of GOs nanocomposites. PMID:26443263

  5. Engineering controllable architecture in matrigel for 3D cell alignment.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jae Myung; Tran, Si-Hoai-Trung; Na, Sang Cheol; Jeon, Noo Li

    2015-02-01

    We report a microfluidic approach to impart alignment in ECM components in 3D hydrogels by continuously applying fluid flow across the bulk gel during the gelation process. The microfluidic device where each channel can be independently filled was tilted at 90° to generate continuous flow across the Matrigel as it gelled. The presence of flow helped that more than 70% of ECM components were oriented along the direction of flow, compared with randomly cross-linked Matrigel. Following the oriented ECM components, primary rat cortical neurons and mouse neural stem cells showed oriented outgrowth of neuronal processes within the 3D Matrigel matrix. PMID:25585718

  6. Self-Connected 3D Architecture of Microwires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Jean-Baptiste; Pires, David; Galerne, Yves

    2009-12-01

    A defect or disclination line, prepared at a designed place in a nematic liquid crystal, is used as a template for realizing a microwire directly connected to the electrodes with an accuracy of a few μm. The line attracts and traps silica particles, until self-assembling a complete micronecklace. We then fix the colloids in the necklace by means of pyrrole electropolymerization. The process may be extended to connect many microwires simultaneously. This provides a new route for manufacturing automatic 3D connections, which could be important for electronic applications as Moore’s law now seems to reach some limit in 2D.

  7. Correction to the plant canopy gap-size analysis theory used by the Tracing Radiation and Architecture of Canopies instrument.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Sylvain G

    2002-12-20

    A plant canopy gap-size analyzer, the Tracing Radiation and Architecture of Canopies (TRAC), developed by Chen and Cihlar [Appl Opt. 34, 6211(1995)] and commercialized and by 3rd Wave Engineering (Nepean, Canada), has been used around the world to quantify the fraction of photosynthetically activeradiation absorbed by plant canopies, the leaf area index (LAI), and canopy architectural parameters. The TRAC is walked under a canopy along transects to measure sunflecks that are converted into a gap-size distribution. A numerical gap-removal technique is performed to remove gaps that are not theoretically possible in a random canopy. The resulting reduced gap-size distribution is used to quantify the heterogeneity of the canopy and to improve LAI measurements. It is explicitly shown here that the original derivation of the clumping index was missing a normalization factor. For a very clumped canopy with a large gap faction, the resulting LAI can be more than 100% smaller than previously estimated. A test case is used to demonstrate that the new clumping index derivation allows a more accurate change of LAI to be measured. PMID:12510936

  8. Evaluating radiative transfer schemes treatment of vegetation canopy architecture in land surface models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braghiere, Renato; Quaife, Tristan; Black, Emily

    2016-04-01

    Incoming shortwave radiation is the primary source of energy driving the majority of the Earth's climate system. The partitioning of shortwave radiation by vegetation into absorbed, reflected, and transmitted terms is important for most of biogeophysical processes, including leaf temperature changes and photosynthesis, and it is currently calculated by most of land surface schemes (LSS) of climate and/or numerical weather prediction models. The most commonly used radiative transfer scheme in LSS is the two-stream approximation, however it does not explicitly account for vegetation architectural effects on shortwave radiation partitioning. Detailed three-dimensional (3D) canopy radiative transfer schemes have been developed, but they are too computationally expensive to address large-scale related studies over long time periods. Using a straightforward one-dimensional (1D) parameterisation proposed by Pinty et al. (2006), we modified a two-stream radiative transfer scheme by including a simple function of Sun zenith angle, so-called "structure factor", which does not require an explicit description and understanding of the complex phenomena arising from the presence of vegetation heterogeneous architecture, and it guarantees accurate simulations of the radiative balance consistently with 3D representations. In order to evaluate the ability of the proposed parameterisation in accurately represent the radiative balance of more complex 3D schemes, a comparison between the modified two-stream approximation with the "structure factor" parameterisation and state-of-art 3D radiative transfer schemes was conducted, following a set of virtual scenarios described in the RAMI4PILPS experiment. These experiments have been evaluating the radiative balance of several models under perfectly controlled conditions in order to eliminate uncertainties arising from an incomplete or erroneous knowledge of the structural, spectral and illumination related canopy characteristics typical

  9. Template-free synthesis of functional 3D BN architecture for removal of dyes from water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; Lei, Weiwei; Qin, Si; Chen, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) architectures are of interest in applications in electronics, catalysis devices, sensors and adsorption materials. However, it is still a challenge to fabricate 3D BN architectures by a simple method. Here, we report the direct synthesis of 3D BN architectures by a simple thermal treatment process. A 3D BN architecture consists of an interconnected flexible network of nanosheets. The typical nitrogen adsorption/desorption results demonstrate that the specific surface area for the as-prepared samples is up to 1156 m(2) g(-1), and the total pore volume is about 1.17 cm(3) g(-1). The 3D BN architecture displays very high adsorption rates and large capacities for organic dyes in water without any other additives due to its low densities, high resistance to oxidation, good chemical inertness and high surface area. Importantly, 88% of the starting adsorption capacity is maintained after 15 cycles. These results indicate that the 3D BN architecture is potential environmental materials for water purification and treatment. PMID:24663292

  10. An architecture for integrating planar and 3D cQED devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axline, C.; Reagor, M.; Heeres, R.; Reinhold, P.; Wang, C.; Shain, K.; Pfaff, W.; Chu, Y.; Frunzio, L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2016-07-01

    Numerous loss mechanisms can limit coherence and scalability of planar and 3D-based circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED) devices, particularly due to their packaging. The low loss and natural isolation of 3D enclosures make them good candidates for coherent scaling. We introduce a coaxial transmission line device architecture with coherence similar to traditional 3D cQED systems. Measurements demonstrate well-controlled external and on-chip couplings, a spectrum absent of cross-talk or spurious modes, and excellent resonator and qubit lifetimes. We integrate a resonator-qubit system in this architecture with a seamless 3D cavity, and separately pattern a qubit, readout resonator, Purcell filter, and high-Q stripline resonator on a single chip. Device coherence and its ease of integration make this a promising tool for complex experiments.

  11. Laser-assisted direct ink writing of planar and 3D metal architectures

    PubMed Central

    Skylar-Scott, Mark A.; Gunasekaran, Suman; Lewis, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to pattern planar and freestanding 3D metallic architectures at the microscale would enable myriad applications, including flexible electronics, displays, sensors, and electrically small antennas. A 3D printing method is introduced that combines direct ink writing with a focused laser that locally anneals printed metallic features “on-the-fly.” To optimize the nozzle-to-laser separation distance, the heat transfer along the printed silver wire is modeled as a function of printing speed, laser intensity, and pulse duration. Laser-assisted direct ink writing is used to pattern highly conductive, ductile metallic interconnects, springs, and freestanding spiral architectures on flexible and rigid substrates. PMID:27185932

  12. Laser-assisted direct ink writing of planar and 3D metal architectures.

    PubMed

    Skylar-Scott, Mark A; Gunasekaran, Suman; Lewis, Jennifer A

    2016-05-31

    The ability to pattern planar and freestanding 3D metallic architectures at the microscale would enable myriad applications, including flexible electronics, displays, sensors, and electrically small antennas. A 3D printing method is introduced that combines direct ink writing with a focused laser that locally anneals printed metallic features "on-the-fly." To optimize the nozzle-to-laser separation distance, the heat transfer along the printed silver wire is modeled as a function of printing speed, laser intensity, and pulse duration. Laser-assisted direct ink writing is used to pattern highly conductive, ductile metallic interconnects, springs, and freestanding spiral architectures on flexible and rigid substrates. PMID:27185932

  13. Laser-assisted direct ink writing of planar and 3D metal architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skylar-Scott, Mark A.; Gunasekaran, Suman; Lewis, Jennifer A.

    2016-05-01

    The ability to pattern planar and freestanding 3D metallic architectures at the microscale would enable myriad applications, including flexible electronics, displays, sensors, and electrically small antennas. A 3D printing method is introduced that combines direct ink writing with a focused laser that locally anneals printed metallic features “on-the-fly.” To optimize the nozzle-to-laser separation distance, the heat transfer along the printed silver wire is modeled as a function of printing speed, laser intensity, and pulse duration. Laser-assisted direct ink writing is used to pattern highly conductive, ductile metallic interconnects, springs, and freestanding spiral architectures on flexible and rigid substrates.

  14. Employing lidar to detail vegetation canopy architecture for prediction of aeolian transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sankey, Joel B.; Law, Darin J.; Breshears, David D.; Munson, Seth M.; Webb, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    The diverse and fundamental effects that aeolian processes have on the biosphere and geosphere are commonly generated by horizontal sediment transport at the land surface. However, predicting horizontal sediment transport depends on vegetation architecture, which is difficult to quantify in a rapid but accurate manner. We demonstrate an approach to measure vegetation canopy architecture at high resolution using lidar along a gradient of dryland sites ranging from 2% to 73% woody plant canopy cover. Lidar-derived canopy height, distance (gaps) between vegetation elements (e.g., trunks, limbs, leaves), and the distribution of gaps scaled by vegetation height were correlated with canopy cover and highlight potentially improved horizontal dust flux estimation than with cover alone. Employing lidar to estimate detailed vegetation canopy architecture offers promise for improved predictions of horizontal sediment transport across heterogeneous plant assemblages.

  15. Quantitative Analysis and Modeling of 3-D TSV-Based Power Delivery Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Huanyu

    As 3-D technology enters the commercial production stage, it is critical to understand different 3-D power delivery architectures on the stacked ICs and packages with through-silicon vias (TSVs). Appropriate design, modeling, analysis, and optimization approaches of the 3-D power delivery system are of foremost significance and great practical interest to the semiconductor industry in general. Based on fundamental physics of 3-D integration components, the objective of this thesis work is to quantitatively analyze the power delivery for 3D-IC systems, develop appropriate physics-based models and simulation approaches, understand the key issues, and provide potential solutions for design of 3D-IC power delivery architectures. In this work, a hybrid simulation approach is adopted as the major approach along with analytical method to examine 3-D power networks. Combining electromagnetic (EM) tools and circuit simulators, the hybrid approach is able to analyze and model micrometer-scale components as well as centimeter-scale power delivery system with high accuracy and efficiency. The parasitic elements of the components on the power delivery can be precisely modeled by full-wave EM solvers. Stack-up circuit models for the 3-D power delivery networks (PDNs) are constructed through a partition and assembly method. With the efficiency advantage of the SPICE circuit simulation, the overall 3-D system power performance can be analyzed and the 3-D power delivery architectures can be evaluated in a short computing time. The major power delivery issues are the voltage drop (IR drop) and voltage noise. With a baseline of 3-D power delivery architecture, the on-chip PDNs of TSV-based chip stacks are modeled and analyzed for the IR drop and AC noise. The basic design factors are evaluated using the hybrid approach, such as the number of stacked chips, the number of TSVs, and the TSV arrangement. Analytical formulas are also developed to evaluate the IR drop in 3-D chip stack in

  16. Effect of vegetative canopy architecture on vertical transport of massless particles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of large-eddy simulations were performed to examine the effect of canopy architecture on particle dispersion. A heterogeneous canopy geometry was simulated that consists of a set of infinitely repeating vegetation rows. Simulations in which row structure was approximately resolved were comp...

  17. Reconstruction, Quantification, and Visualization of Forest Canopy Based on 3d Triangulations of Airborne Laser Scanning Point Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vauhkonen, J.

    2015-03-01

    Reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) forest canopy is described and quantified using airborne laser scanning (ALS) data with densities of 0.6-0.8 points m-2 and field measurements aggregated at resolutions of 400-900 m2. The reconstruction was based on computational geometry, topological connectivity, and numerical optimization. More precisely, triangulations and their filtrations, i.e. ordered sets of simplices belonging to the triangulations, based on the point data were analyzed. Triangulating the ALS point data corresponds to subdividing the underlying space of the points into weighted simplicial complexes with weights quantifying the (empty) space delimited by the points. Reconstructing the canopy volume populated by biomass will thus likely require filtering to exclude that volume from canopy voids. The approaches applied for this purpose were (i) to optimize the degree of filtration with respect to the field measurements, and (ii) to predict this degree by means of analyzing the persistent homology of the obtained triangulations, which is applied for the first time for vegetation point clouds. When derived from optimized filtrations, the total tetrahedral volume had a high degree of determination (R2) with the stem volume considered, both alone (R2=0.65) and together with other predictors (R2=0.78). When derived by analyzing the topological persistence of the point data and without any field input, the R2 were lower, but the predictions still showed a correlation with the field-measured stem volumes. Finally, producing realistic visualizations of a forested landscape using the persistent homology approach is demonstrated.

  18. 3D-SoftChip: A Novel Architecture for Next-Generation Adaptive Computing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chul; Rassau, Alex; Lachowicz, Stefan; Lee, Mike Myung-Ok; Eshraghian, Kamran

    2006-12-01

    This paper introduces a novel architecture for next-generation adaptive computing systems, which we term 3D-SoftChip. The 3D-SoftChip is a 3-dimensional (3D) vertically integrated adaptive computing system combining state-of-the-art processing and 3D interconnection technology. It comprises the vertical integration of two chips (a configurable array processor and an intelligent configurable switch) through an indium bump interconnection array (IBIA). The configurable array processor (CAP) is an array of heterogeneous processing elements (PEs), while the intelligent configurable switch (ICS) comprises a switch block, 32-bit dedicated RISC processor for control, on-chip program/data memory, data frame buffer, along with a direct memory access (DMA) controller. This paper introduces the novel 3D-SoftChip architecture for real-time communication and multimedia signal processing as a next-generation computing system. The paper further describes the advanced HW/SW codesign and verification methodology, including high-level system modeling of the 3D-SoftChip using SystemC, being used to determine the optimum hardware specification in the early design stage.

  19. Fabrication of Single, Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes in 3D Nanoscale Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Anupama B.; Megerian, Krikor G.; Von Allmen, Paul A.; Baron, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and high-throughput manufacturing techniques for integrating single, aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into novel 3D nanoscale architectures have been developed. First, the PECVD growth technique ensures excellent alignment of the tubes, since the tubes align in the direction of the electric field in the plasma as they are growing. Second, the tubes generated with this technique are all metallic, so their chirality is predetermined, which is important for electronic applications. Third, a wafer-scale manufacturing process was developed that is high-throughput and low-cost, and yet enables the integration of just single, aligned tubes with nanoscale 3D architectures with unprecedented placement accuracy and does not rely on e-beam lithography. Such techniques should lend themselves to the integration of PECVD grown tubes for applications ranging from interconnects, nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), sensors, bioprobes, or other 3D electronic devices. Chemically amplified polyhydroxystyrene-resin-based deep UV resists were used in conjunction with excimer laser-based (lambda = 248 nm) step-and-repeat lithography to form Ni catalyst dots = 300 nm in diameter that nucleated single, vertically aligned tubes with high yield using dc PECVD growth. This is the first time such chemically amplified resists have been used, resulting in the nucleation of single, vertically aligned tubes. In addition, novel 3D nanoscale architectures have been created using topdown techniques that integrate single, vertically aligned tubes. These were enabled by implementing techniques that use deep-UV chemically amplified resists for small-feature-size resolution; optical lithography units that allow unprecedented control over layer-to-layer registration; and ICP (inductively coupled plasma) etching techniques that result in near-vertical, high-aspect-ratio, 3D nanoscale architectures, in conjunction with the use of materials that are

  20. Hybrid Three-Dimensional (3-D) Woven Thick Composite Architectures in Bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankow, Mark; Quabili, Ashiq; Yen, Chian-Fong

    2013-11-01

    In this study, three 3-dimensional (3-D) woven composite materials were examined to determine how yarn tow configurations affect the flexural response of the structure. Woven fabric preforms were manufactured with a Z-fiber architecture in 2-3 in. thicknesses. These preforms contained S-2 Glass (AGY, Aiken, SC, USA), carbon, and Twaron (Teijin Aramid, Arnhem, The Netherlands) yarns in different architectures creating a hybrid material system. Due to the thickness of the material, these samples required a significant span length (30 in.). The results showed a change in the strength and degradation after failure with the addition of carbon layers in tension.

  1. Damage Accumulation in SiC/SiC Composites with 3D Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.; Yun, Hee-Mann; DiCarlo, James A.

    2003-01-01

    The formation and propagation of multiple matrix cracks in relatively dense ceramic matrix composites when subjected to increasing tensile stress is necessary for high strength and tough composites. However, the occurrence of matrix cracks at low stresses may limit the usefulness of some non-oxide composite systems when subjected to oxidizing environments for long times at stresses sufficient to cause matrix cracking. For SiC fiber-reinforced composites with two-dimensional woven architectures and chemically vapor infiltrated (CVI) SiC matrix and melt-infiltrated (MI) Si/SiC matrix composites, the matrix cracking behavior has been fairly well characterized for different fiber-types and woven architectures. It was found that the occurrence, degree, and growth of matrix cracks depends on the material properties of the composite constituents as well as other physical properties of the composite or architecture, e.g., matrix porosity and size of the fiber bundle. In this study, matrix cracking in SiC fiber reinforced, melt-infiltrated SiC composites with a 3D orthogonal architecture was determined for specimens tested in tension at room temperature. Acoustic emission (AE) was used to monitor the matrix cracking activity, which was later confirmed by microscopic examination of specimens that had failed. The determination of the exact location of AE demonstrated that initial cracking occurred in the matrix rich regions when a large z-direction fiber bundle was used. For specimens with large z-direction fiber tows, the earliest matrix cracking could occur at half the stress for standard 2D woven composites with similar constituents. Damage accumulation in 3D architecture composites will be compared to damage accumulation in 2D architecture composites and discussed with respect to modeling composite stress-strain behavior and use of these composites at elevated temperatures.

  2. An unprecedented 3D POM-Ag architecture with intertwined and homological helical structures.

    PubMed

    Sha, Jing-Quan; Li, Meng-Ting; Sun, Jing-Wen; Zhang, Yu-Nan; Yan, Peng-Fei; Li, Guang-Ming

    2013-06-01

    A new hybrid compound, Na[Ag6(pyttz)2(H2O)][PMo12O40] (pyttz = 3-(pyrid-3-yl)-5-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)-1,2,4-triazolyl), has been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by routine techniques. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the title compound is constructed by the 2D Ag-pyttz coordination polymer and 3D Ag-POM architecture with helix. A fascinating structural feature is the assembling fashion of the right- and left-helical chain, namely, the helical chains with different orientations are intertwined with each other forming intertwined double helical layers along the c-axis, and the identical left- or right-handed helical chains are fused together in a hand-by-hand mode generating another homological helical layer along the a-axis. As a result, these helical layers intersect each other obtaining an unprecedented 3D POM-Ag inorganic architecture. Note that the 3D framework with a helix constructed by POMs and metal ions has never been observed up to date. Additionally, its photocatalytic degradation of RhB was also investigated. PMID:23558903

  3. 3-D System-on-System (SoS) Biomedical-Imaging Architecture for Health-Care Applications.

    PubMed

    Sang-Jin Lee; Kavehei, O; Yoon-Ki Hong; Tae Won Cho; Younggap You; Kyoungrok Cho; Eshraghian, K

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents the implementation of a 3-D architecture for a biomedical-imaging system based on a multilayered system-on-system structure. The architecture consists of a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor image sensor layer, memory, 3-D discrete wavelet transform (3D-DWT), 3-D Advanced Encryption Standard (3D-AES), and an RF transmitter as an add-on layer. Multilayer silicon (Si) stacking permits fabrication and optimization of individual layers by different processing technology to achieve optimal performance. Utilization of through silicon via scheme can address required low-power operation as well as high-speed performance. Potential benefits of 3-D vertical integration include an improved form factor as well as a reduction in the total wiring length, multifunctionality, power efficiency, and flexible heterogeneous integration. The proposed imaging architecture was simulated by using Cadence Spectre and Synopsys HSPICE while implementation was carried out by Cadence Virtuoso and Mentor Graphic Calibre. PMID:23853380

  4. Retrieval of Vegetation Structural Parameters and 3-D Reconstruction of Forest Canopies Using Ground-Based Echidna® Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strahler, A. H.; Yao, T.; Zhao, F.; Yang, X.; Schaaf, C.; Woodcock, C. E.; Jupp, D. L.; Culvenor, D.; Newnham, G.; Lovell, J.

    2010-12-01

    A ground-based, scanning, near-infrared lidar, the Echidna® validation instrument (EVI), built by CSIRO Australia, retrieves structural parameters of forest stands rapidly and accurately, and by merging multiple scans into a single point cloud, the lidar also provides 3-D stand reconstructions. Echidna lidar technology scans with pulses of light at 1064 nm wavelength and digitizes the full return waveform sufficiently finely to recover and distinguish the differing shapes of return pulses as they are scattered by leaves, trunks, and branches. Deployments in New England in 2007 and the southern Sierra Nevada of California in 2008 tested the ability of the instrument to retrieve mean tree diameter, stem count density (stems/ha), basal area, and above-ground woody biomass from single scans at points beneath the forest canopy. Parameters retrieved from five scans located within six 1-ha stand sites matched manually-measured parameters with values of R2 = 0.94-0.99 in New England and 0.92-0.95 in the Sierra Nevada. Retrieved leaf area index (LAI) values were similar to those of LAI-2000 and hemispherical photography. In New England, an analysis of variance showed that EVI-retrieved values were not significantly different from other methods (power = 0.84 or higher). In the Sierra, R2 = 0.96 and 0.81 for hemispherical photos and LAI-2000, respectively. Foliage profiles, which measure leaf area with canopy height, showed distinctly different shapes for the stands, depending on species composition and age structure. New England stand heights, obtained from foliage profiles, were not significantly different (power = 0.91) from RH100 values observed by LVIS in 2003. Three-dimensional stand reconstruction identifies one or more “hits” along the pulse path coupled with the peak return of each hit expressed as apparent reflectance. Returns are classified as trunk, leaf, or ground returns based on the shape of the return pulse and its location. These data provide a point

  5. Canopy architecture and morphology of switchgrass populations differing in forage yield

    SciTech Connect

    Redfearn, D.D.; Moore, K.J.; Vogel, K.P.

    1997-03-01

    Phenotypic selection has been used to improve forage yield in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD), but the effects on canopy architecture and morphology are not understood. Our objectives were to determine if canopy architecture and morphology can explain genotype x environment (G x E) yield difference in switchgrass (Panicum L.) and to evaluate canopy architecture and morphology as selection criteria for increasing yield. This study was conducted in 1993 near Mead, NE, and near Ames, IA. The experimental design was a randomized complete block experiment with a split-plot arrangement of four replicates at each location. Whole plots were tiller population and subplots were sward maturity. Tiller populations were harvested on 9 June, 19 July, and 27 August at Ames and on 10 June, 27 July, and 26 August at Mead and were classified morphologically. Tillers were separated into primary yield components and dried at 55{degrees}C to determine total forage yield and dry matter contribution of morphological components. Genotype x environment interactions occurred for total forage yield and IVDMD apparently altered morphological changes within the canopy of selected switchgrass populations. The most apparent changes were development of additional collared leaves and internodes in some populations across locations. Although canopy architecture may not be a useful selection criterion because of variability associated with individual canopy traits, indirect measurements showed that leaf area index (LAI) has some potential as a selection criterion for increasing total forage yield. However, selection for individual canopy traits may be most effective for modifying sward growth habits. 36 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  6. Architectures and algorithms for all-optical 3D signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giglmayr, Josef

    1999-07-01

    All-optical signal processing by >= 2D lightwave circuits (LCs) is (i) aimed to allow the (later) inclusion of the frequency domain and is (ii) subject to photonic integration and thus the architectural and algorithmic framework has to be prepared carefully. Much work has been done in >= 2D algebraic system theory/modern control theory which has been applied in the electronic field of signal and image processing. For the application to modeling, analysis and design of the proposed 3D lightwave circuits (LCs) some elements are needed to describe and evalute the system efficiency as the number of system states of 3D LCs increases dramatically with regard to the number of i/o. Several problems, arising throughput such an attempt, are made transparent and solutions are proposed.

  7. From Tls to Hbim. High Quality Semantically-Aware 3d Modeling of Complex Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattrini, R.; Malinverni, E. S.; Clini, P.; Nespeca, R.; Orlietti, E.

    2015-02-01

    In order to improve the framework for 3D modeling, a great challenge is to obtain the suitability of Building Information Model (BIM) platform for historical architecture. A specific challenge in HBIM is to guarantee appropriateness of geometrical accuracy. The present work demonstrates the feasibility of a whole HBIM approach for complex architectural shapes, starting from TLS point clouds. A novelty of our method is to work in a 3D environment throughout the process and to develop semantics during the construction phase. This last feature of HBIM was analyzed in the present work verifying the studied ontologies, enabling the data enrichment of the model with non-geometrical information, such as historical notes, decay or deformation evidence, decorative elements etc. The case study is the Church of Santa Maria at Portonovo, an abbey from the Romanesque period. Irregular or complex historical architecture, such as Romanesque, needs the construction of shared libraries starting from the survey of its already existing elements. This is another key aspect in delivering Building Information Modeling standards. In particular, we focus on the quality assessment of the obtained model, using an open-source sw and the point cloud as reference. The proposed work shows how it is possible to develop a high quality 3D model semantic-aware, capable of connecting geometrical-historical survey with descriptive thematic databases. In this way, a centralized HBIM will serve as comprehensive dataset of information about all disciplines, particularly for restoration and conservation. Moreover, the geometric accuracy will ensure also reliable visualization outputs.

  8. Microsurgical anatomy and internal architecture of the brainstem in 3D images: surgical considerations.

    PubMed

    Párraga, Richard Gonzalo; Possatti, Lucas Loss; Alves, Raphael Vicente; Ribas, Guilherme Carvalhal; Türe, Uğur; de Oliveira, Evandro

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT Brainstem surgery remains a challenge for the neurosurgeon despite recent improvements in neuroimaging, microsurgical techniques, and electrophysiological monitoring. A detailed knowledge of the microsurgical anatomy of the brainstem surface and its internal architecture is mandatory to plan appropriate approaches to the brainstem, to choose the safest point of entry, and to avoid potential surgical complications. METHODS An extensive review of the literature was performed regarding the brainstem surgical approaches, and their correlations with the pertinent anatomy were studied and illustrated through dissection of human brainstems properly fixed with 10% formalin. The specimens were dissected using the fiber dissection technique, under ×6 to ×40 magnification. 3D stereoscopic photographs were obtained (anaglyphic 3D) for better illustration of this study. RESULTS The main surgical landmarks and their relationship with the cerebellum and vascular structures were identified on the surface of the brainstem. The arrangements of the white matter (ascending and descending pathways as well as the cerebellar peduncles) were demonstrated on each part of the brainstem (midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata), with emphasis on their relationships with the surface. The gray matter, constituted mainly by nuclei of the cranial nerves, was also studied and illustrated. CONCLUSIONS The objective of this article is to review the microsurgical anatomy and the surgical approaches pertinent to the brainstem, providing a framework of its external and internal architecture to guide the neurosurgeon during its related surgical procedures. PMID:26517774

  9. Temporal dynamics and developmental memory of 3D chromatin architecture at Hox gene loci

    PubMed Central

    Noordermeer, Daan; Leleu, Marion; Schorderet, Patrick; Joye, Elisabeth; Chabaud, Fabienne; Duboule, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Hox genes are essential regulators of embryonic development. Their step-wise transcriptional activation follows their genomic topology and the various states of activation are subsequently memorized into domains of progressively overlapping gene products. We have analyzed the 3D chromatin organization of Hox clusters during their early activation in vivo, using high-resolution circular chromosome conformation capture. Initially, Hox clusters are organized as single chromatin compartments containing all genes and bivalent chromatin marks. Transcriptional activation is associated with a dynamic bi-modal 3D organization, whereby the genes switch autonomously from an inactive to an active compartment. These local 3D dynamics occur within a framework of constitutive interactions within the surrounding Topological Associated Domains, indicating that this regulation process is mostly cluster intrinsic. The step-wise progression in time is fixed at various body levels and thus can account for the chromatin architectures previously described at a later stage for different anterior to posterior levels. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02557.001 PMID:24843030

  10. An unusual 3D interdigitated architecture assembled from Keggin polyoxometalates and dinuclear copper(II) complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, Haijun; Yang, Ming; Kang, Lu; Ma, Huiyuan; Liu, Bo; Li, Shaobin; Liu, Heng

    2013-02-15

    A novel organic-inorganic hybrid compound, [Cu{sub 2}(bipy){sub 3}({mu}{sub 1}-H{sub 2}O){sub 2}({mu}{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O)({mu}{sub 2}-OH)(H{sub 2}BW{sub 12}O{sub 40})]{center_dot}4 H{sub 2}O (1) (bipy=4,4 Prime -bipy), has been synthesized in hydrothermal condition and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectrum, TG analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 possesses poly-pendant layered motifs composed of 12-tungstoborates and dinuclear copper(II) complexes, in which the mono-coordinated bipy molecules are orderly appended to both sides of the layer, respectively. Adjacent layers mutually engage in a zipper-like pattern to result in a novel 3D interdigitated architecture. The variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility of 1 showed that there existed weak antiferromagnetic interaction in 1. Toward the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, 1 has good electrocatalytic activity and remarkable stability. - A new compound has been obtained, which represents the first interdigitated architecture assembled by POMs and dinuclear copper(II) complexes. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The first example of interdigitated architecture assembled by POMs and dinuclear copper(II) complexes is observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A zipper-like pattern is observed in the structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The IR, TG, XRPD, magnetism and electrochemical property of the title compound were studied.

  11. Architecture of web services in the enhancement of real-time 3D video virtualization in cloud environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bada, Adedayo; Wang, Qi; Alcaraz-Calero, Jose M.; Grecos, Christos

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to improving the application of 3D video rendering and streaming by jointly exploring and optimizing both cloud-based virtualization and web-based delivery. The proposed web service architecture firstly establishes a software virtualization layer based on QEMU (Quick Emulator), an open-source virtualization software that has been able to virtualize system components except for 3D rendering, which is still in its infancy. The architecture then explores the cloud environment to boost the speed of the rendering at the QEMU software virtualization layer. The capabilities and inherent limitations of Virgil 3D, which is one of the most advanced 3D virtual Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) available, are analyzed through benchmarking experiments and integrated into the architecture to further speed up the rendering. Experimental results are reported and analyzed to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed approach.

  12. Improving and validating 3D models for the leaf energy balance in canopy-scale problems with complex geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, B.; Stoll, R., II; Miller, N. E.; Pardyjak, E.; Mahaffee, W.

    2014-12-01

    Plants cover the majority of Earth's land surface, and thus play a critical role in the surface energy balance. Within individual plant communities, the leaf energy balance is a fundamental component of most biophysical processes. Absorbed radiation drives the energy balance and provides the means by which plants produce food. Available energy is partitioned into sensible and latent heat fluxes to determine surface temperature, which strongly influences rates of metabolic activity and growth. The energy balance of an individual leaf is coupled with other leaves in the community through longwave radiation emission and advection through the air. This complex coupling can make scaling models from leaves to whole-canopies difficult, specifically in canopies with complex, heterogeneous geometries. We present a new three-dimensional canopy model that simultaneously resolves sub-tree to whole-canopy scales. The model provides spatially explicit predictions of net radiation exchange, boundary-layer and stomatal conductances, evapotranspiration rates, and ultimately leaf surface temperature. The radiation model includes complex physics such as anisotropic emission and scattering. Radiation calculations are accelerated by leveraging graphics processing unit (GPU) technology, which allows canopy-scale problems to be performed on a standard desktop workstation. Since validating the three-dimensional distribution of leaf temperature can be extremely challenging, we used several independent measurement techniques to quantify errors in measured and modeled values. When compared with measured leaf temperatures, the model gave a mean error of about 2°C, which was close to the estimated measurement uncertainty.

  13. High-Performance 3D Compressive Sensing MRI Reconstruction Using Many-Core Architectures

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daehyun; Trzasko, Joshua; Smelyanskiy, Mikhail; Haider, Clifton; Dubey, Pradeep; Manduca, Armando

    2011-01-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) describes how sparse signals can be accurately reconstructed from many fewer samples than required by the Nyquist criterion. Since MRI scan duration is proportional to the number of acquired samples, CS has been gaining significant attention in MRI. However, the computationally intensive nature of CS reconstructions has precluded their use in routine clinical practice. In this work, we investigate how different throughput-oriented architectures can benefit one CS algorithm and what levels of acceleration are feasible on different modern platforms. We demonstrate that a CUDA-based code running on an NVIDIA Tesla C2050 GPU can reconstruct a 256 × 160 × 80 volume from an 8-channel acquisition in 19 seconds, which is in itself a significant improvement over the state of the art. We then show that Intel's Knights Ferry can perform the same 3D MRI reconstruction in only 12 seconds, bringing CS methods even closer to clinical viability. PMID:21922017

  14. Pseudocapacitive behavior of unidirectional CdS nanoforest in 3D architecture through solution chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Nikila; Majumder, Sutripto; Sankapal, Babasaheb R.

    2016-08-01

    Two step soft chemical route has been utilized for the fabrication of CdS nanowire electrode in 3D architecture at room temperature (300 K). The electrochemical pseudocapacitive behavior of thin film consisting of CdS nanowires has been evaluated by using cyclic voltammetry, charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in an aqueous media. The electrochemical test revealed that CdS nanowire attained a specific capacitance of 181 F/g at a scan rate of 5 mV/s. An energy density of 1.72 Wh/kg and power density of 27.14 W/kg has been achieved at 89 mA/g current density in 1 M Na2SO3 solution.

  15. Studies of microwave scattering and canopy architecture for boreal forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockhart, G. Lance; Gogineni, S. P.

    1994-01-01

    Our primary objectives during the last year have been to develop a helicopter-borne radar system for measuring microwave backscatter from vegetation and to use this system to study the characteristics of backscatter from the boreal forest. Our research is aimed at refining the current microwave models and using these improvements for more accurate interpretation of SAR data. SAR data are very useful for monitoring the boreal forest region because of the microwave signal's ability to penetrate clouds and to see at night. Meeting these objectives involves several stages of development. The first stage is the design and implementation of a frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FM-CW) radar system with the capability of measuring backscatter at three frequencies and four polarizations at each frequency. These requirements necessitate a twelve-channel radar system. Using three frequencies is advantageous because it allows us to look at different parts of the canopy. For instance, the lower frequency signal penetrates deeper into the canopy and allows us to see the ground while the high frequency signal is scattered more by the leaves and needles and typically does not penetrate to the floor of the forest. We designed the radar starting with the antenna system. We then developed the intermediate frequency (IF) and radio frequency (RF) sections of the radar. Also, the need to collect data from twelve channels during each flight line presented a complex data acquisition problem that we solved by using a high-speed data acquisition board. After construction, the radar was tested at the lab. We performed extensive testing of the IF and RF systems of the radar during this time. Once we were satisfied with the operation of the radar it was shipped to Canada for use in the second intensive field campaign (IFC-2) from July 16 - August 8, 1994. During IFC-2, we collected backscatter data over the experimental sites in the southern study area (SSA). Additionally, we used a ground

  16. 3D Architecture of the Trypanosoma brucei Flagella Connector, a Mobile Transmembrane Junction

    PubMed Central

    Höög, Johanna L.; Lacomble, Sylvain; Bouchet-Marquis, Cedric; Briggs, Laura; Park, Kristin; Hoenger, Andreas; Gull, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Background Cellular junctions are crucial for the formation of multicellular organisms, where they anchor cells to each other and/or supportive tissue and enable cell-to-cell communication. Some unicellular organisms, such as the parasitic protist Trypanosoma brucei, also have complex cellular junctions. The flagella connector (FC) is a three-layered transmembrane junction that moves with the growing tip of a new flagellum and attaches it to the side of the old flagellum. The FC moves via an unknown molecular mechanism, independent of new flagellum growth. Here we describe the detailed 3D architecture of the FC suggesting explanations for how it functions and its mechanism of motility. Methodology/Principal Findings We have used a combination of electron tomography and cryo-electron tomography to reveal the 3D architecture of the FC. Cryo-electron tomography revealed layers of repetitive filamentous electron densities between the two flagella in the interstitial zone. Though the FC does not change in length and width during the growth of the new flagellum, the interstitial zone thickness decreases as the FC matures. This investigation also shows interactions between the FC layers and the axonemes of the new and old flagellum, sufficiently strong to displace the axoneme in the old flagellum. We describe a novel filament, the flagella connector fibre, found between the FC and the axoneme in the old flagellum. Conclusions/Significance The FC is similar to other cellular junctions in that filamentous proteins bridge the extracellular space and are anchored to underlying cytoskeletal structures; however, it is built between different portions of the same cell and is unique because of its intrinsic motility. The detailed description of its structure will be an important tool to use in attributing structure / function relationships as its molecular components are discovered in the future. The FC is involved in the inheritance of cell shape, which is important for the life

  17. 3D-electrode architectures for enhanced direct bioelectrocatalysis of pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent glucose dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Sarauli, David; Peters, Kristina; Xu, Chenggang; Schulz, Burkhard; Fattakhova-Rohlfing, Dina; Lisdat, Fred

    2014-10-22

    We report on the fabrication of a complex electrode architecture for efficient direct bioelectrocatalysis. In the developed procedure, the redox enzyme pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent glucose dehydrogenase entrapped in a sulfonated polyaniline [poly(2-methoxyaniline-5-sulfonic acid)-co-aniline] was immobilized on macroporous indium tin oxide (macroITO) electrodes. The use of the 3D-conducting scaffold with a large surface area in combination with the conductive polymer enables immobilization of large amounts of enzyme and its efficient communication with the electrode, leading to enhanced direct bioelectrocatalysis. In the presence of glucose, the fabricated bioelectrodes show an exceptionally high direct bioelectrocatalytical response without any additional mediator. The catalytic current is increased more than 200-fold compared to planar ITO electrodes. Together with a high long-term stability (the current response is maintained for >90% of the initial value even after 2 weeks of storage), the transparent 3D macroITO structure with a conductive polymer represents a valuable basis for the construction of highly efficient bioelectronic units, which are useful as indicators for processes liberating glucose and allowing optical and electrochemical transduction. PMID:25230089

  18. Predicting the Electronic Properties of 3D, Million-atom Semiconductor nanostructure Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Jack Dongarra; Stanimire Tomov

    2012-03-15

    This final report describes the work done by Jack Dongarra (University Distinguished Professor) and Stanimire Tomov (Research Scientist) related to the DOE project entitled Predicting the Electronic Properties of 3D, Million-Atom Semiconductor Nanostructure Architectures. In this project we addressed the mathematical methodology required to calculate the electronic and transport properties of large nanostructures with comparable accuracy and reliability to that of current ab initio methods. This capability is critical for further developing the field, yet it is missing in all the existing computational methods. Additionally, quantitative comparisons with experiments are often needed for a qualitative understanding of the physics, and for guiding the design of new nanostructures. We focused on the mathematical challenges of the project, in particular on solvers and preconditioners for large scale eigenvalue problems that occur in the computation of electronic states of large nanosystems. Usually, the states of interest lie in the interior of the spectrum and their computation poses great difficulties for existing algorithms. The electronic properties of a semiconductor nanostructure architecture can be predicted/determined by computing its band structure. Of particular importance are the 'band edge states' (electronic states near the energy gap) which can be computed from a properly defined interior eigenvalue problem. Our primary mathematics and computational challenge here has been to develop an efficient solution methodology for finding these interior states for very large systems. Our work has produced excellent results in terms of developing both new and extending current state-of-the-art techniques.

  19. Mechanical properties of aligned carbon nanotube architectures: origin from 3D morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Itai Y.; Wardle, Brian L.

    The scale-dependent properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) continue to motivate their study for next-generation material architectures. While recent work has shown that aligned CNT arrays can be made on the cm-scale, such systems exhibit properties that are orders of magnitude below those predicted by existing theories. This deviation mainly stems from the rudimentary assumptions made about the CNT morphology: CNTs are either devoid of local curvature (i.e. waviness) or have waviness that is easy to model, e.g. using helices and sine waves. Here, we use a simulation framework comprised of 105 CNTs with realistic 3D stochastic morphologies to elucidate the role morphology plays in the orders of magnitude over-prediction of the effective stiffness of aligned CNT structures. Application to aligned CNT polymer and carbon matrix nanocomposites reveals that the elimination of the torsion deformation mechanism, which dominates the effective compliance of CNT arrays, through CNT interactions with the matrix is responsible for the stiffness enhancement in CNT nanocomposites. This works paves the way to more accurate property prediction of CNT nanocomposites, and further work to predict the transport properties of aligned CNT architectures is planned.

  20. The potential of 3D-FISH and super-resolution structured illumination microscopy for studies of 3D nuclear architecture: 3D structured illumination microscopy of defined chromosomal structures visualized by 3D (immuno)-FISH opens new perspectives for studies of nuclear architecture.

    PubMed

    Markaki, Yolanda; Smeets, Daniel; Fiedler, Susanne; Schmid, Volker J; Schermelleh, Lothar; Cremer, Thomas; Cremer, Marion

    2012-05-01

    Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) has opened up new possibilities to study nuclear architecture at the ultrastructural level down to the ~100 nm range. We present first results and assess the potential using 3D-SIM in combination with 3D fluorescence in situ hybridization (3D-FISH) for the topographical analysis of defined nuclear targets. Our study also deals with the concern that artifacts produced by FISH may counteract the gain in resolution. We address the topography of DAPI-stained DNA in nuclei before and after 3D-FISH, nuclear pores and the lamina, chromosome territories, chromatin domains, and individual gene loci. We also look at the replication patterns of chromocenters and the topographical relationship of Xist-RNA within the inactive X-territory. These examples demonstrate that an appropriately adapted 3D-FISH/3D-SIM approach preserves key characteristics of the nuclear ultrastructure and that the gain in information obtained by 3D-SIM yields new insights into the functional nuclear organization. PMID:22508100

  1. Relevance of 2D radiographic texture analysis for the assessment of 3D bone micro-architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Apostol, Lian; Boudousq, Vincent; Basset, Oliver; Odet, Christophe; Yot, Sophie; Tabary, Joachim; Dinten, Jean-Marc; Boller, Elodie; Kotzki, Pierre-Olivier; Peyrin, Francoise

    2006-09-15

    Although the diagnosis of osteoporosis is mainly based on dual x-ray absorptiometry, it has been shown that trabecular bone micro-architecture is also an important factor in regard to fracture risk. In vivo, techniques based on high-resolution x-ray radiography associated to texture analysis have been proposed to investigate bone micro-architecture, but their relevance for giving pertinent 3D information is unclear. Thirty-three calcaneus and femoral neck bone samples including the cortical shells (diameter: 14 mm, height: 30-40 mm) were imaged using 3D-synchrotron x-ray micro-CT at the ESRF. The 3D reconstructed images with a cubic voxel size of 15 {mu}m were further used for two purposes: (1) quantification of three-dimensional trabecular bone micro-architecture (2) simulation of realistic x-ray radiographs under different acquisition conditions. The simulated x-ray radiographs were then analyzed using a large variety of texture analysis methods (co-occurrence, spectral density, fractal, morphology, etc.). The range of micro-architecture parameters was in agreement with previous studies and rather large, suggesting that the population was representative. More than 350 texture parameters were tested. A small number of them were selected based on their correlation to micro-architectural morphometric parameters. Using this subset of texture parameters, multiple regression allowed one to predict up to 93% of the variance of micro-architecture parameters using three texture features. 2D texture features predicting 3D micro-architecture parameters other than BV/TV were identified. The methodology proposed for evaluating the relationships between 3D micro-architecture and 2D texture parameters may also be used for optimizing the conditions for radiographic imaging. Further work will include the application of the method to physical radiographs. In the future, this approach could be used in combination with DXA to refine osteoporosis diagnosis.

  2. Dryland Wheat Domestication Changed the Development of Aboveground Architecture for a Well-Structured Canopy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pu-Fang; Cheng, Zheng-Guo; Ma, Bao-Luo; Palta, Jairo A.; Kong, Hai-Yan; Mo, Fei; Wang, Jian-Yong; Zhu, Ying; Lv, Guang-Chao; Batool, Asfa; Bai, Xue; Li, Feng-Min; Xiong, You-Cai

    2014-01-01

    We examined three different-ploidy wheat species to elucidate the development of aboveground architecture and its domesticated mechanism under environment-controlled field conditions. Architecture parameters including leaf, stem, spike and canopy morphology were measured together with biomass allocation, leaf net photosynthetic rate and instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi). Canopy biomass density was decreased from diploid to tetraploid wheat, but increased to maximum in hexaploid wheat. Population yield in hexaploid wheat was higher than in diploid wheat, but the population fitness and individual competition ability was higher in diploid wheats. Plant architecture was modified from a compact type in diploid wheats to an incompact type in tetraploid wheats, and then to a more compact type of hexaploid wheats. Biomass accumulation, population yield, harvest index and the seed to leaf ratio increased from diploid to tetraploid and hexaploid, associated with heavier specific internode weight and greater canopy biomass density in hexaploid and tetraploid than in diploid wheat. Leaf photosynthetic rate and WUEi were decreased from diploid to tetraploid and increased from tetraploid to hexaploid due to more compact leaf type in hexaploid and diploid than in tetraploid. Grain yield formation and WUEi were closely associated with spatial stance of leaves and stems. We conclude that the ideotype of dryland wheats could be based on spatial reconstruction of leaf type and further exertion of leaf photosynthetic rate. PMID:25181037

  3. Genome architecture: from linear organisation of chromatin to the 3D assembly in the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Sequeira-Mendes, Joana; Gutierrez, Crisanto

    2016-06-01

    The genetic information is stored in the eukaryotic nucleus in the form of chromatin. This is a macromolecular entity that includes genomic DNA and histone proteins that form nucleosomes, plus a large variety of chromatin-associated non-histone proteins. Chromatin is structurally and functionally organised at various levels. One reveals the linear topography of DNA, histones and their post-translational modifications and non-histone proteins along each chromosome. This level provides regulatory information about the association of genomic elements with particular signatures that have been used to define chromatin states. Importantly, these chromatin states correlate with structural and functional genomic features. Another regulatory layer is established at the level of the 3D organisation of chromatin within the nucleus, which has been revealed clearly as non-random. Instead, a variety of intra- and inter-chromosomal genomic domains with specific epigenetic and functional properties has been identified. In this review, we discuss how the recent advances in genomic approaches have contributed to our understanding of these two levels of genome architecture. We have emphasised our analysis with the aim of integrating information available for yeast, Arabidopsis, Drosophila, and mammalian cells. We consider that this comparative study helps define common and unique features in each system, providing a basis to better understand the complexity of genome organisation. PMID:26330112

  4. The 3D plant canopy radiative transfer analysis in an Alaskan black spruce forest: the characteristics of fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation in the heterogeneous landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Suzuki, R.; Nagai, S.; Nakai, T.; Kim, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Over the last couple of decades, the three dimensional plant canopy radiative transfer models have been developed, improved and used for the retrievals of biophysical variables of vegetative surface. Fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR) by plant canopy, a similar variable to heating rate in the atmosphere, is one of the important biophysical variables to infer the terrestrial plant canopy photosynthesis. FAPAR can be estimated by the radiative transfer model inversion or the empirical relationships between FAPAR and vegetation indices such as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). To date, some global FAPAR products are publicly available. These products are estimated from the moderate resolution satellites such as MODIS and SPOT-VEGETATION. One may apply the similar FAPAR algorithms to higher spatial resolution satellites if the ecosystem structures are horizontally homogeneous, which means that the adjacent satellite pixels have a similar spectral properties. If the vegetation surface is highly heterogeneous, "domain average FAPAR", which assumes no net horizontal radiation fluxes, can be unrealistically high (more than 1). In this presentation, we analyzed the characteristics of FAPAR in a heterogeneous landscape. As a case study, we selected our study site in a sparse black spruce forest in Alaska. We conducted the field campaigns to measure forest structural and optical properties that are used in the radiative transfer simulation. We used a 3D radiative transfer, FLiES (Kobayashi, H. and H. Iwabuchi (2008), A coupled 1-D atmosphere and 3-D canopy radiative transfer model for canopy reflectance, light environment, and photosynthesis simulation in a heterogeneous landscape, Remote Sensing of Environment, 112, 173-185) to create a high resolution simulated spectral reflectance and FAPAR images over the course of the growing season. From the analysis, we show (1) FAPAR with no net horizontal fluxes assumption can be higher than

  5. Comparison and functional implications of the 3D architectures of viral tRNA-like structures.

    PubMed

    Hammond, John A; Rambo, Robert P; Filbin, Megan E; Kieft, Jeffrey S

    2009-02-01

    RNA viruses co-opt the host cell's biological machinery, and their infection strategies often depend on specific structures in the viral genomic RNA. Examples are tRNA-like structures (TLSs), found at the 3' end of certain plant viral RNAs, which can use the cell's aminoacyl tRNA-synthetases (AARSs) to drive addition of an amino acid to the 3' end of the viral RNA. TLSs are multifunctional RNAs involved in processes such as viral replication, translation, and viral RNA stability; these functions depend on their fold. Experimental result-based structural models of TLSs have been published. In this study, we further examine these structures using a combination of biophysical and biochemical approaches to explore the three-dimensional (3D) architectures of TLSs from the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV), tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), and brome mosaic virus (BMV). We find that despite similar function, these RNAs are biophysically diverse: the TYMV TLS adopts a characteristic tRNA-like L shape, the BMV TLS has a large compact globular domain with several helical extensions, and the TMV TLS aggregates in solution. Both the TYMV and BMV TLS RNAs adopt structures with tight backbone packing and also with dynamic structural elements, suggesting complexities and subtleties that cannot be explained by simple tRNA mimicry. These results confirm some aspects of existing models and also indicate how these models can be improved. The biophysical characteristics of these TLSs show how these multifunctional RNAs might regulate various viral processes, including negative strand synthesis, and also allow comparison with other structured RNAs. PMID:19144910

  6. Conductive-bridging random access memory: challenges and opportunity for 3D architecture.

    PubMed

    Jana, Debanjan; Roy, Sourav; Panja, Rajeswar; Dutta, Mrinmoy; Rahaman, Sheikh Ziaur; Mahapatra, Rajat; Maikap, Siddheswar

    2015-01-01

    The performances of conductive-bridging random access memory (CBRAM) have been reviewed for different switching materials such as chalcogenides, oxides, and bilayers in different structures. The structure consists of an inert electrode and one oxidized electrode of copper (Cu) or silver (Ag). The switching mechanism is the formation/dissolution of a metallic filament in the switching materials under external bias. However, the growth dynamics of the metallic filament in different switching materials are still debated. All CBRAM devices are switching under an operation current of 0.1 μA to 1 mA, and an operation voltage of ±2 V is also needed. The device can reach a low current of 5 pA; however, current compliance-dependent reliability is a challenging issue. Although a chalcogenide-based material has opportunity to have better endurance as compared to an oxide-based material, data retention and integration with the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process are also issues. Devices with bilayer switching materials show better resistive switching characteristics as compared to those with a single switching layer, especially a program/erase endurance of >10(5) cycles with a high speed of few nanoseconds. Multi-level cell operation is possible, but the stability of the high resistance state is also an important reliability concern. These devices show a good data retention of >10(5) s at >85°C. However, more study is needed to achieve a 10-year guarantee of data retention for non-volatile memory application. The crossbar memory is benefited for high density with low power operation. Some CBRAM devices as a chip have been reported for proto-typical production. This review shows that operation current should be optimized for few microamperes with a maintaining speed of few nanoseconds, which will have challenges and also opportunities for three-dimensional (3D) architecture. PMID:25977660

  7. A Canopy Architectural Model to Study the Competitive Ability of Chickpea with Sowthistle

    PubMed Central

    Cici, S-Zahra-Hosseini; Adkins, Steve; Hanan, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Improving the competitive ability of crops is a sustainable method of weed management. This paper shows how a virtual plant model of competition between chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus) can be used as a framework for discovering and/or developing more competitive chickpea cultivars. Methods The virtual plant models were developed using the L-systems formalism, parameterized according to measurements taken on plants at intervals during their development. A quasi-Monte Carlo light-environment model was used to model the effect of chickpea canopy on the development of sowthistle. The chickpea–light environment–sowthistle model (CLES model) captured the hypothesis that the architecture of chickpea plants modifies the light environment inside the canopy and determines sowthistle growth and development pattern. The resulting CLES model was parameterized for different chickpea cultivars (viz. ‘Macarena’, ‘Bumper’, ‘Jimbour’ and ‘99071-1001’) to compare their competitive ability with sowthistle. To validate the CLES model, an experiment was conducted using the same four chickpea cultivars as different treatments with a sowthistle growing under their canopy. Results and Conclusions The growth of sowthistle, both in silico and in glasshouse experiments, was reduced most by ‘99071-1001’, a cultivar with a short phyllochron. The second rank of competitive ability belonged to ‘Macarena’ and ‘Bumper’, while ‘Jimbour’ was the least competitive cultivar. The architecture of virtual chickpea plants modified the light inside the canopy, which influenced the growth and development of the sowthistle plants in response to different cultivars. This is the first time that a virtual plant model of a crop–weed interaction has been developed. This virtual plant model can serve as a platform for a broad range of applications in the study of chickpea–weed interactions and their environment. PMID:18375962

  8. Multithreaded real-time 3D image processing software architecture and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandra, Vikas; Atanassov, Kalin; Aleksic, Milivoje; Goma, Sergio R.

    2011-03-01

    Recently, 3D displays and videos have generated a lot of interest in the consumer electronics industry. To make 3D capture and playback popular and practical, a user friendly playback interface is desirable. Towards this end, we built a real time software 3D video player. The 3D video player displays user captured 3D videos, provides for various 3D specific image processing functions and ensures a pleasant viewing experience. Moreover, the player enables user interactivity by providing digital zoom and pan functionalities. This real time 3D player was implemented on the GPU using CUDA and OpenGL. The player provides user interactive 3D video playback. Stereo images are first read by the player from a fast drive and rectified. Further processing of the images determines the optimal convergence point in the 3D scene to reduce eye strain. The rationale for this convergence point selection takes into account scene depth and display geometry. The first step in this processing chain is identifying keypoints by detecting vertical edges within the left image. Regions surrounding reliable keypoints are then located on the right image through the use of block matching. The difference in the positions between the corresponding regions in the left and right images are then used to calculate disparity. The extrema of the disparity histogram gives the scene disparity range. The left and right images are shifted based upon the calculated range, in order to place the desired region of the 3D scene at convergence. All the above computations are performed on one CPU thread which calls CUDA functions. Image upsampling and shifting is performed in response to user zoom and pan. The player also consists of a CPU display thread, which uses OpenGL rendering (quad buffers). This also gathers user input for digital zoom and pan and sends them to the processing thread.

  9. In-body tissue-engineered aortic valve (Biovalve type VII) architecture based on 3D printer molding.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yasuhide; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Sumikura, Hirohito; Yamanami, Masashi; Matsui, Yuichi; Oie, Tomonori; Kishimoto, Yuichiro; Arakawa, Mamoru; Ohmuma, Kentaro; Tajikawa, Tsutomu; Kanda, Keiichi; Tatsumi, Eisuke

    2015-01-01

    In-body tissue architecture--a novel and practical regeneration medicine technology--can be used to prepare a completely autologous heart valve, based on the shape of a mold. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) printer was used to produce the molds. A 3D printer can easily reproduce the 3D-shape and size of native heart valves within several processing hours. For a tri-leaflet, valved conduit with a sinus of Valsalva (Biovalve type VII), the mold was assembled using two conduit parts and three sinus parts produced by the 3D printer. Biovalves were generated from completely autologous connective tissue, containing collagen and fibroblasts, within 2 months following the subcutaneous embedding of the molds (success rate, 27/30). In vitro evaluation, using a pulsatile circulation circuit, showed excellent valvular function with a durability of at least 10 days. Interposed between two expanded polytetrafluoroethylene grafts, the Biovalves (N = 3) were implanted in goats through an apico-aortic bypass procedure. Postoperative echocardiography showed smooth movement of the leaflets with minimal regurgitation under systemic circulation. After 1 month of implantation, smooth white leaflets were observed with minimal thrombus formation. Functional, autologous, 3D-shaped heart valves with clinical application potential were formed following in-body embedding of specially designed molds that were created within several hours by 3D printer. PMID:24764308

  10. Initiator-integrated 3D printing enables the formation of complex metallic architectures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolong; Guo, Qiuquan; Cai, Xiaobing; Zhou, Shaolin; Kobe, Brad; Yang, Jun

    2014-02-26

    Three-dimensional printing was used to fabricate various metallic structures by directly integrating a Br-containing vinyl-terminated initiator into the 3D resin followed by surface-initiated atomic-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and subsequent electroless plating. Cu- and Ni-coated complex structures, such as microlattices, hollow balls, and even Eiffel towers, were prepared. Moreover, the method is also capable of fabricating ultralight cellular metals with desired structures by simply etching the polymer template away. By combining the merits of 3D printing in structure design with those of ATRP in surface modification and polymer-assisted ELP of metals, this universal, robust, and cost-effective approach has largely extended the capability of 3D printing and will make 3D printing technology more practical in areas of electronics, acoustic absorption, thermal insulation, catalyst supports, and others. PMID:24328276

  11. Study on Information Management for the Conservation of Traditional Chinese Architectural Heritage - 3d Modelling and Metadata Representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Y. N.; Weng, K. H.; Huang, H. Y.

    2013-07-01

    After over 30 years of practise and development, Taiwan's architectural conservation field is moving rapidly into digitalization and its applications. Compared to modern buildings, traditional Chinese architecture has considerably more complex elements and forms. To document and digitize these unique heritages in their conservation lifecycle is a new and important issue. This article takes the caisson ceiling of the Taipei Confucius Temple, octagonal with 333 elements in 8 types, as a case study for digitization practise. The application of metadata representation and 3D modelling are the two key issues to discuss. Both Revit and SketchUp were appliedin this research to compare its effectiveness to metadata representation. Due to limitation of the Revit database, the final 3D models wasbuilt with SketchUp. The research found that, firstly, cultural heritage databasesmustconvey that while many elements are similar in appearance, they are unique in value; although 3D simulations help the general understanding of architectural heritage, software such as Revit and SketchUp, at this stage, could onlybe used tomodel basic visual representations, and is ineffective indocumenting additional critical data ofindividually unique elements. Secondly, when establishing conservation lifecycle information for application in management systems, a full and detailed presentation of the metadata must also be implemented; the existing applications of BIM in managing conservation lifecycles are still insufficient. Results of the research recommends SketchUp as a tool for present modelling needs, and BIM for sharing data between users, but the implementation of metadata representation is of the utmost importance.

  12. Leaf-architectured 3D Hierarchical Artificial Photosynthetic System of Perovskite Titanates Towards CO2 Photoreduction Into Hydrocarbon Fuels

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Han; Guo, Jianjun; Li, Peng; Fan, Tongxiang; Zhang, Di; Ye, Jinhua

    2013-01-01

    The development of an “artificial photosynthetic system” (APS) having both the analogous important structural elements and reaction features of photosynthesis to achieve solar-driven water splitting and CO2 reduction is highly challenging. Here, we demonstrate a design strategy for a promising 3D APS architecture as an efficient mass flow/light harvesting network relying on the morphological replacement of a concept prototype-leaf's 3D architecture into perovskite titanates for CO2 photoreduction into hydrocarbon fuels (CO and CH4). The process uses artificial sunlight as the energy source, water as an electron donor and CO2 as the carbon source, mimicking what real leaves do. To our knowledge this is the first example utilizing biological systems as “architecture-directing agents” for APS towards CO2 photoreduction, which hints at a more general principle for APS architectures with a great variety of optimized biological geometries. This research would have great significance for the potential realization of global carbon neutral cycle. PMID:23588925

  13. Condiment-Derived 3D Architecture Porous Carbon for Electrochemical Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Qian, Wenjing; Zhu, Jingyue; Zhang, Ye; Wu, Xiao; Yan, Feng

    2015-10-01

    The one-step synthesis of porous carbon nanoflakes possessing a 3D texture is achieved by cooking (carbonization) a mixture containing two condiments, sodium glutamate (SG) and sodium chloride, which are commonly used in kitchens. The prepared 3D porous carbons are composed of interconnected carbon nanoflakes and possess instinct heteroatom doping such as nitrogen and oxygen, which furnishes the electrochemical activity. The combination of micropores and mesopores with 3D configurations facilitates persistent and fast ion transport and shorten diffusion pathways for high-performance supercapacitor applications. Sodium glutamate carbonized at 800 °C exhibits high charge storage capacity with a specific capacitance of 320 F g(-1) in 6 m KOH at a current density of 1 A g(-1) and good stability over 10,000 cycles. PMID:26150228

  14. Software architecture as a freedom for 3D content providers and users along with independency on purposes and used devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultana, Razia; Christ, Andreas; Meyrueis, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    The improvements in the hardware and software of communication devices have allowed running Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) applications on those. Nowadays, it is possible to overlay synthetic information on real images, or even to play 3D on-line games on smart phones or some other mobile devices. Hence the use of 3D data for business and specially for education purposes is ubiquitous. Due to always available at hand and always ready to use properties of mobile phones, those are considered as most potential communication devices. The total numbers of mobile phone users are increasing all over the world every day and that makes mobile phones the most suitable device to reach a huge number of end clients either for education or for business purposes. There are different standards, protocols and specifications to establish the communication among different communication devices but there is no initiative taken so far to make it sure that the send data through this communication process will be understood and used by the destination device. Since all the devices are not able to deal with all kind of 3D data formats and it is also not realistic to have different version of the same data to make it compatible with the destination device, it is necessary to have a prevalent solution. The proposed architecture in this paper describes a device and purpose independent 3D data visibility any time anywhere to the right person in suitable format. There is no solution without limitation. The architecture is implemented in a prototype to make an experimental validation of the architecture which also shows the difference between theory and practice.

  15. Architectural integration of the components necessary for electrical energy storage on the nanoscale and in 3D.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Christopher P; Long, Jeffrey W; Pettigrew, Katherine A; Stroud, Rhonda M; Rolison, Debra R

    2011-04-01

    We describe fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) multifunctional nanoarchitectures in which the three critical components of a battery--cathode, separator/electrolyte, and anode--are internally assembled as tricontinuous nanoscopic phases. The architecture is initiated using sol-gel chemistry and processing to erect a 3D self-wired nanoparticulate scaffold of manganese oxide (>200 m(2) g(-1)) with a continuous, open, and mesoporous void volume. The integrated 3D system is generated by exhaustive coverage of the oxide network by an ultrathin, conformal layer of insulating polymer that forms via self-limiting electrodeposition of poly(phenylene oxide). The remaining interconnected void volume is then wired with RuO(2) nanowebs using subambient thermal decomposition of RuO(4). Transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that the three nanoscopic charge-transfer functional components--manganese oxide, polymer separator/cation conductor, and RuO(2)--exhibit the stratified, tricontinuous design of the phase-by-phase construction. This architecture contains all three components required for a solid-state energy storage device within a void volume sized at tens of nanometres such that nanometre-thick distances are established between the opposing electrodes. We have now demonstrated the ability to assemble multifunctional energy-storage nanoarchitectures on the nanoscale and in three dimensions. PMID:21327256

  16. BOREAS TE-23 Canopy Architecture and Spectral Data from Hemispherical Photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, Paul M.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-23 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected hemispherical photographs in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on estimates of canopy architecture and radiative transfer properties for most BOREAS study sites. Various Old Aspen (OA), Old Black Spruce (OBS), Old Jack Pine (OJP), Young Jack Pine (YJP), and Young Aspen (YA) sites in the boreal forest were measured from May to August 1994. The hemispherical photographs were used to derive values of leaf area index (LAI), leaf angle, gap fraction, and clumping index. This documentation describes these derived values. The derived data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The hemispherical photographs are stored in the original set of 42 CD-ROMs that were supplied by TE-23. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  17. 3D phenotyping and quantitative trait locus mapping identify core regions of the rice genome controlling root architecture

    PubMed Central

    Topp, Christopher N.; Iyer-Pascuzzi, Anjali S.; Anderson, Jill T.; Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Zurek, Paul R.; Symonova, Olga; Zheng, Ying; Bucksch, Alexander; Mileyko, Yuriy; Galkovskyi, Taras; Moore, Brad T.; Harer, John; Edelsbrunner, Herbert; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Weitz, Joshua S.; Benfey, Philip N.

    2013-01-01

    Identification of genes that control root system architecture in crop plants requires innovations that enable high-throughput and accurate measurements of root system architecture through time. We demonstrate the ability of a semiautomated 3D in vivo imaging and digital phenotyping pipeline to interrogate the quantitative genetic basis of root system growth in a rice biparental mapping population, Bala × Azucena. We phenotyped >1,400 3D root models and >57,000 2D images for a suite of 25 traits that quantified the distribution, shape, extent of exploration, and the intrinsic size of root networks at days 12, 14, and 16 of growth in a gellan gum medium. From these data we identified 89 quantitative trait loci, some of which correspond to those found previously in soil-grown plants, and provide evidence for genetic tradeoffs in root growth allocations, such as between the extent and thoroughness of exploration. We also developed a multivariate method for generating and mapping central root architecture phenotypes and used it to identify five major quantitative trait loci (r2 = 24–37%), two of which were not identified by our univariate analysis. Our imaging and analytical platform provides a means to identify genes with high potential for improving root traits and agronomic qualities of crops. PMID:23580618

  18. Lithospheric architecture of the Slave craton, northwest Canada, as determined from an interdisciplinary 3-D model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, D. B.; Hillier, M. J.; Kjarsgaard, B. A.; de Kemp, E. A.; Craven, J. A.

    2014-05-01

    geologic structures characteristic of mantle lithosphere within cratons found in continent interiors are interpreted using geo-registered diverse data sets from the Slave craton of northwest Canada. We developed and applied a new method for mapping seismic discontinuities in three dimensions using multiyear observations at sparse, individual broadband receivers. New, fully 3-D conductivity models used all available magnetotelluric data. Discontinuity surfaces and conductivity models were geo-registered with previously published P-wave and surface-wave velocity models to confirm first-order structures such as a midlithosphere discontinuity. Our 3-D model to 400 km depth was calibrated by "drill hole" observations derived from xenolith suites extracted from kimberlites. A number of new structural discontinuities emerge from direct comparison of coregistered data sets and models. Importantly, we distinguish primary mantle layers from secondary features related to younger metasomatism. Subhorizontal Slave craton layers with tapered, wedge-shaped margins indicate construction of the craton core at 2.7 Ga by underthrusting and flat stacking of lithosphere. Mapping of conductivity and metasomatism in 3-D, the latter inferred via mineral recrystallization and resetting of isotopic ages in xenoliths, indicates overprinting of the primary layered structures. The observed distribution of relatively conductive mantle at 100-200 km depths is consistent with pervasive metasomatism; vertical "chimneys" reaching to crustal depths in locations where kimberlites erupted or where Au mineralization is known.

  19. Scalable, High-performance 3D Imaging Software Platform: System Architecture and Application to Virtual Colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Wu, Yin; Cai, Wenli; Brett, Bevin

    2013-01-01

    One of the key challenges in three-dimensional (3D) medical imaging is to enable the fast turn-around time, which is often required for interactive or real-time response. This inevitably requires not only high computational power but also high memory bandwidth due to the massive amount of data that need to be processed. In this work, we have developed a software platform that is designed to support high-performance 3D medical image processing for a wide range of applications using increasingly available and affordable commodity computing systems: multi-core, clusters, and cloud computing systems. To achieve scalable, high-performance computing, our platform (1) employs size-adaptive, distributable block volumes as a core data structure for efficient parallelization of a wide range of 3D image processing algorithms; (2) supports task scheduling for efficient load distribution and balancing; and (3) consists of a layered parallel software libraries that allow a wide range of medical applications to share the same functionalities. We evaluated the performance of our platform by applying it to an electronic cleansing system in virtual colonoscopy, with initial experimental results showing a 10 times performance improvement on an 8-core workstation over the original sequential implementation of the system. PMID:23366803

  20. Direct 3D-printing of cell-laden constructs in microfluidic architectures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Justin; Hwang, Henry H; Wang, Pengrui; Whang, Grace; Chen, Shaochen

    2016-04-21

    Microfluidic platforms have greatly benefited the biological and medical fields, however standard practices require a high cost of entry in terms of time and energy. The utilization of three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies has greatly enhanced the ability to iterate and build functional devices with unique functions. However, their inability to fabricate within microfluidic devices greatly increases the cost of producing several different devices to examine different scientific questions. In this work, a variable height micromixer (VHM) is fabricated using projection 3D-printing combined with soft lithography. Theoretical and flow experiments demonstrate that altering the local z-heights of VHM improved mixing at lower flow rates than simple geometries. Mixing of two fluids occurs as low as 320 μL min(-1) in VHM whereas the planar zigzag region requires a flow rate of 2.4 mL min(-1) before full mixing occurred. Following device printing, to further demonstrate the ability of this projection-based method, complex, user-defined cell-laden scaffolds are directly printed inside the VHM. The utilization of this unique ability to produce 3D tissue models within a microfluidic system could offer a unique platform for medical diagnostics and disease modeling. PMID:26980159

  1. Construction of Modular Hydrogel Sheets for Micropatterned Macro-scaled 3D Cellular Architecture.

    PubMed

    Son, Jaejung; Bae, Chae Yun; Park, Je-Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogels can be patterned at the micro-scale using microfluidic or micropatterning technologies to provide an in vivo-like three-dimensional (3D) tissue geometry. The resulting 3D hydrogel-based cellular constructs have been introduced as an alternative to animal experiments for advanced biological studies, pharmacological assays and organ transplant applications. Although hydrogel-based particles and fibers can be easily fabricated, it is difficult to manipulate them for tissue reconstruction. In this video, we describe a fabrication method for micropatterned alginate hydrogel sheets, together with their assembly to form a macro-scale 3D cell culture system with a controlled cellular microenvironment. Using a mist form of the calcium gelling agent, thin hydrogel sheets are easily generated with a thickness in the range of 100 - 200 µm, and with precise micropatterns. Cells can then be cultured with the geometric guidance of the hydrogel sheets in freestanding conditions. Furthermore, the hydrogel sheets can be readily manipulated using a micropipette with an end-cut tip, and can be assembled into multi-layered structures by stacking them using a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) frame. These modular hydrogel sheets, which can be fabricated using a facile process, have potential applications of in vitro drug assays and biological studies, including functional studies of micro- and macrostructure and tissue reconstruction. PMID:26779839

  2. An approach to architecture 3D scaffold with interconnective microchannel networks inducing angiogenesis for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiaoxia; Wang, Yuanliang; Qian, Zhiyong; Hu, Chenbo

    2011-11-01

    The angiogenesis of 3D scaffold is one of the major current limitations in clinical practice tissue engineering. The new strategy of construction 3D scaffold with microchannel circulation network may improve angiogenesis. In this study, 3D poly(D: ,L: -lactic acid) scaffolds with controllable microchannel structures were fabricated using sacrificial sugar structures. Melt drawing sugar-fiber network produced by a modified filament spiral winding method was used to form the microchannel with adjustable diameters and porosity. This fabrication process was rapid, inexpensive, and highly scalable. The porosity, microchannel diameter, interconnectivity and surface topographies of the scaffold were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical properties were evaluated by compression tests. The mean porosity values of the scaffolds were in the 65-78% and the scaffold exhibited microchannel structure with diameter in the 100-200 μm range. The results showed that the scaffolds exhibited an adequate porosity, interconnective microchannel network, and mechanical properties. The cell culture studies with endothelial cells (ECs) demonstrated that the scaffold allowed cells to proliferate and penetrate into the volume of the entire scaffold. Overall, these findings suggest that the fabrication process offers significant advantages and flexibility in generating a variety of non-cytotoxic tissue engineering scaffolds with controllable distributions of porosity and physical properties that could provide the necessary physical cues for ECs and further improve angiogenesis for tissue engineering. PMID:21861076

  3. A multiscale approach for the reconstruction of the fiber architecture of the human brain based on 3D-PLI.

    PubMed

    Reckfort, Julia; Wiese, Hendrik; Pietrzyk, Uwe; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin; Axer, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Structural connectivity of the brain can be conceptionalized as a multiscale organization. The present study is built on 3D-Polarized Light Imaging (3D-PLI), a neuroimaging technique targeting the reconstruction of nerve fiber orientations and therefore contributing to the analysis of brain connectivity. Spatial orientations of the fibers are derived from birefringence measurements of unstained histological sections that are interpreted by means of a voxel-based analysis. This implies that a single fiber orientation vector is obtained for each voxel, which reflects the net effect of all comprised fibers. We have utilized two polarimetric setups providing an object space resolution of 1.3 μm/px (microscopic setup) and 64 μm/px (macroscopic setup) to carry out 3D-PLI and retrieve fiber orientations of the same tissue samples, but at complementary voxel sizes (i.e., scales). The present study identifies the main sources which cause a discrepancy of the measured fiber orientations observed when measuring the same sample with the two polarimetric systems. As such sources the differing optical resolutions and diverging retardances of the implemented waveplates were identified. A methodology was implemented that enables the compensation of measured different systems' responses to the same birefringent sample. This opens up new ways to conduct multiscale analysis in brains by means of 3D-PLI and to provide a reliable basis for the transition between different scales of the nerve fiber architecture. PMID:26388744

  4. A multiscale approach for the reconstruction of the fiber architecture of the human brain based on 3D-PLI

    PubMed Central

    Reckfort, Julia; Wiese, Hendrik; Pietrzyk, Uwe; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin; Axer, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Structural connectivity of the brain can be conceptionalized as a multiscale organization. The present study is built on 3D-Polarized Light Imaging (3D-PLI), a neuroimaging technique targeting the reconstruction of nerve fiber orientations and therefore contributing to the analysis of brain connectivity. Spatial orientations of the fibers are derived from birefringence measurements of unstained histological sections that are interpreted by means of a voxel-based analysis. This implies that a single fiber orientation vector is obtained for each voxel, which reflects the net effect of all comprised fibers. We have utilized two polarimetric setups providing an object space resolution of 1.3 μm/px (microscopic setup) and 64 μm/px (macroscopic setup) to carry out 3D-PLI and retrieve fiber orientations of the same tissue samples, but at complementary voxel sizes (i.e., scales). The present study identifies the main sources which cause a discrepancy of the measured fiber orientations observed when measuring the same sample with the two polarimetric systems. As such sources the differing optical resolutions and diverging retardances of the implemented waveplates were identified. A methodology was implemented that enables the compensation of measured different systems' responses to the same birefringent sample. This opens up new ways to conduct multiscale analysis in brains by means of 3D-PLI and to provide a reliable basis for the transition between different scales of the nerve fiber architecture. PMID:26388744

  5. Viral Infection at High Magnification: 3D Electron Microscopy Methods to Analyze the Architecture of Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Brey, Inés; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    As obligate intracellular parasites, viruses need to hijack their cellular hosts and reprogram their machineries in order to replicate their genomes and produce new virions. For the direct visualization of the different steps of a viral life cycle (attachment, entry, replication, assembly and egress) electron microscopy (EM) methods are extremely helpful. While conventional EM has given important information about virus-host cell interactions, the development of three-dimensional EM (3D-EM) approaches provides unprecedented insights into how viruses remodel the intracellular architecture of the host cell. During the last years several 3D-EM methods have been developed. Here we will provide a description of the main approaches and examples of innovative applications. PMID:26633469

  6. WARP3D-Release 10.8: Dynamic Nonlinear Analysis of Solids using a Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient Software Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koppenhoefer, Kyle C.; Gullerud, Arne S.; Ruggieri, Claudio; Dodds, Robert H., Jr.; Healy, Brian E.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes theoretical background material and commands necessary to use the WARP3D finite element code. WARP3D is under continuing development as a research code for the solution of very large-scale, 3-D solid models subjected to static and dynamic loads. Specific features in the code oriented toward the investigation of ductile fracture in metals include a robust finite strain formulation, a general J-integral computation facility (with inertia, face loading), an element extinction facility to model crack growth, nonlinear material models including viscoplastic effects, and the Gurson-Tver-gaard dilatant plasticity model for void growth. The nonlinear, dynamic equilibrium equations are solved using an incremental-iterative, implicit formulation with full Newton iterations to eliminate residual nodal forces. The history integration of the nonlinear equations of motion is accomplished with Newmarks Beta method. A central feature of WARP3D involves the use of a linear-preconditioned conjugate gradient (LPCG) solver implemented in an element-by-element format to replace a conventional direct linear equation solver. This software architecture dramatically reduces both the memory requirements and CPU time for very large, nonlinear solid models since formation of the assembled (dynamic) stiffness matrix is avoided. Analyses thus exhibit the numerical stability for large time (load) steps provided by the implicit formulation coupled with the low memory requirements characteristic of an explicit code. In addition to the much lower memory requirements of the LPCG solver, the CPU time required for solution of the linear equations during each Newton iteration is generally one-half or less of the CPU time required for a traditional direct solver. All other computational aspects of the code (element stiffnesses, element strains, stress updating, element internal forces) are implemented in the element-by- element, blocked architecture. This greatly improves

  7. Quantitative Assessment of Cancer Vascular Architecture by Skeletonization of High-resolution 3-D Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound Images

    PubMed Central

    Molinari, F.; Meiburger, K. M.; Giustetto, P.; Rizzitelli, S.; Boffa, C.; Castano, M.; Terreno, E.

    2014-01-01

    The accurate characterization and description of the vascular network of a cancer lesion is of paramount importance in clinical practice and cancer research in order to improve diagnostic accuracy or to assess the effectiveness of a treatment. The aim of this study was to show the effectiveness of liposomes as an ultrasound contrast agent to describe the 3-D vascular architecture of a tumor. Eight C57BL/6 mice grafted with syngeneic B16-F10 murine melanoma cells were injected with a bolus of 1,2-Distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocoline (DSPC)-based non-targeted liposomes and with a bolus of microbubbles. 3-D contrast-enhanced images of the tumor lesions were acquired in three conditions: pre-contrast, after the injection of microbubbles, and after the injection of liposomes. By using a previously developed reconstruction and characterization image processing technique, we obtained the 3-D representation of the vascular architecture in these three conditions. Six descriptive parameters of these networks were also computed: the number of vascular trees (NT), the vascular density (VD), the number of branches, the 2-D curvature measure, the number of vascular flexes of the vessels, and the 3-D curvature. Results showed that all the vascular descriptors obtained by liposome-based images were statistically equal to those obtained by using microbubbles, except the VD which was found to be lower for liposome images. All the six descriptors computed in pre-contrast conditions had values that were statistically lower than those computed in presence of contrast, both for liposomes and microbubbles. Liposomes have already been used in cancer therapy for the selective ultrasound-mediated delivery of drugs. This work demonstrated their effectiveness also as vascular diagnostic contrast agents, therefore proving that liposomes can be used as efficient “theranostic” (i.e. therapeutic + diagnostic) ultrasound probes. PMID:24206210

  8. Rationally designed graphene-nanotube 3D architectures with a seamless nodal junction for efficient energy conversion and storage

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yuhua; Ding, Yong; Niu, Jianbing; Xia, Zhenhai; Roy, Ajit; Chen, Hao; Qu, Jia; Wang, Zhong Lin; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 2D single-atomic layer graphene have superior thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties. However, these nanomaterials exhibit poor out-of-plane properties due to the weak van der Waals interaction in the transverse direction between graphitic layers. Recent theoretical studies indicate that rationally designed 3D architectures could have desirable out-of-plane properties while maintaining in-plane properties by growing CNTs and graphene into 3D architectures with a seamless nodal junction. However, the experimental realization of seamlessly-bonded architectures remains a challenge. We developed a strategy of creating 3D graphene-CNT hollow fibers with radially aligned CNTs (RACNTs) seamlessly sheathed by a cylindrical graphene layer through a one-step chemical vapor deposition using an anodized aluminum wire template. By controlling the aluminum wire diameter and anodization time, the length of the RACNTs and diameter of the graphene hollow fiber can be tuned, enabling efficient energy conversion and storage. These fibers, with a controllable surface area, meso-/micropores, and superior electrical properties, are excellent electrode materials for all-solid-state wire-shaped supercapacitors with poly(vinyl alcohol)/H2SO4 as the electrolyte and binder, exhibiting a surface-specific capacitance of 89.4 mF/cm2 and length-specific capacitance up to 23.9 mF/cm, — one to four times the corresponding record-high capacities reported for other fiber-like supercapacitors. Dye-sensitized solar cells, fabricated using the fiber as a counter electrode, showed a power conversion efficiency of 6.8% and outperformed their counterparts with an expensive Pt wire counter electrode by a factor of 2.5. These novel fiber-shaped graphene-RACNT energy conversion and storage devices are so flexible they can be woven into fabrics as power sources. PMID:26601246

  9. Rationally designed graphene-nanotube 3D architectures with a seamless nodal junction for efficient energy conversion and storage.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yuhua; Ding, Yong; Niu, Jianbing; Xia, Zhenhai; Roy, Ajit; Chen, Hao; Qu, Jia; Wang, Zhong Lin; Dai, Liming

    2015-09-01

    One-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 2D single-atomic layer graphene have superior thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties. However, these nanomaterials exhibit poor out-of-plane properties due to the weak van der Waals interaction in the transverse direction between graphitic layers. Recent theoretical studies indicate that rationally designed 3D architectures could have desirable out-of-plane properties while maintaining in-plane properties by growing CNTs and graphene into 3D architectures with a seamless nodal junction. However, the experimental realization of seamlessly-bonded architectures remains a challenge. We developed a strategy of creating 3D graphene-CNT hollow fibers with radially aligned CNTs (RACNTs) seamlessly sheathed by a cylindrical graphene layer through a one-step chemical vapor deposition using an anodized aluminum wire template. By controlling the aluminum wire diameter and anodization time, the length of the RACNTs and diameter of the graphene hollow fiber can be tuned, enabling efficient energy conversion and storage. These fibers, with a controllable surface area, meso-/micropores, and superior electrical properties, are excellent electrode materials for all-solid-state wire-shaped supercapacitors with poly(vinyl alcohol)/H2SO4 as the electrolyte and binder, exhibiting a surface-specific capacitance of 89.4 mF/cm(2) and length-specific capacitance up to 23.9 mF/cm, - one to four times the corresponding record-high capacities reported for other fiber-like supercapacitors. Dye-sensitized solar cells, fabricated using the fiber as a counter electrode, showed a power conversion efficiency of 6.8% and outperformed their counterparts with an expensive Pt wire counter electrode by a factor of 2.5. These novel fiber-shaped graphene-RACNT energy conversion and storage devices are so flexible they can be woven into fabrics as power sources. PMID:26601246

  10. The exopolysaccharide matrix modulates the interaction between 3D architecture and virulence of a mixed-species oral biofilm.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jin; Klein, Marlise I; Falsetta, Megan L; Lu, Bingwen; Delahunty, Claire M; Yates, John R; Heydorn, Arne; Koo, Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Virulent biofilms are responsible for a range of infections, including oral diseases. All biofilms harbor a microbial-derived extracellular-matrix. The exopolysaccharides (EPS) formed on tooth-pellicle and bacterial surfaces provide binding sites for microorganisms; eventually the accumulated EPS enmeshes microbial cells. The metabolic activity of the bacteria within this matrix leads to acidification of the milieu. We explored the mechanisms through which the Streptococcus mutans-produced EPS-matrix modulates the three-dimensional (3D) architecture and the population shifts during morphogenesis of biofilms on a saliva-coated-apatitic surface using a mixed-bacterial species system. Concomitantly, we examined whether the matrix influences the development of pH-microenvironments within intact-biofilms using a novel 3D in situ pH-mapping technique. Data reveal that the production of the EPS-matrix helps to create spatial heterogeneities by forming an intricate network of exopolysaccharide-enmeshed bacterial-islets (microcolonies) through localized cell-to-matrix interactions. This complex 3D architecture creates compartmentalized acidic and EPS-rich microenvironments throughout the biofilm, which triggers the dominance of pathogenic S. mutans within a mixed-species system. The establishment of a 3D-matrix and EPS-enmeshed microcolonies were largely mediated by the S. mutans gtfB/gtfC genes, expression of which was enhanced in the presence of Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus oralis. Acidic pockets were found only in the interiors of bacterial-islets that are protected by EPS, which impedes rapid neutralization by buffer (pH 7.0). As a result, regions of low pH (<5.5) were detected at specific locations along the surface of attachment. Resistance to chlorhexidine was enhanced in cells within EPS-microcolony complexes compared to those outside such structures within the biofilm. Our results illustrate the critical interaction between matrix architecture and p

  11. The Exopolysaccharide Matrix Modulates the Interaction between 3D Architecture and Virulence of a Mixed-Species Oral Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jin; Klein, Marlise I.; Falsetta, Megan L.; Lu, Bingwen; Delahunty, Claire M.; Yates, John R.; Heydorn, Arne; Koo, Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Virulent biofilms are responsible for a range of infections, including oral diseases. All biofilms harbor a microbial-derived extracellular-matrix. The exopolysaccharides (EPS) formed on tooth-pellicle and bacterial surfaces provide binding sites for microorganisms; eventually the accumulated EPS enmeshes microbial cells. The metabolic activity of the bacteria within this matrix leads to acidification of the milieu. We explored the mechanisms through which the Streptococcus mutans-produced EPS-matrix modulates the three-dimensional (3D) architecture and the population shifts during morphogenesis of biofilms on a saliva-coated-apatitic surface using a mixed-bacterial species system. Concomitantly, we examined whether the matrix influences the development of pH-microenvironments within intact-biofilms using a novel 3D in situ pH-mapping technique. Data reveal that the production of the EPS-matrix helps to create spatial heterogeneities by forming an intricate network of exopolysaccharide-enmeshed bacterial-islets (microcolonies) through localized cell-to-matrix interactions. This complex 3D architecture creates compartmentalized acidic and EPS-rich microenvironments throughout the biofilm, which triggers the dominance of pathogenic S. mutans within a mixed-species system. The establishment of a 3D-matrix and EPS-enmeshed microcolonies were largely mediated by the S. mutans gtfB/gtfC genes, expression of which was enhanced in the presence of Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus oralis. Acidic pockets were found only in the interiors of bacterial-islets that are protected by EPS, which impedes rapid neutralization by buffer (pH 7.0). As a result, regions of low pH (<5.5) were detected at specific locations along the surface of attachment. Resistance to chlorhexidine was enhanced in cells within EPS-microcolony complexes compared to those outside such structures within the biofilm. Our results illustrate the critical interaction between matrix architecture and p

  12. Prolonged presence of VEGF promotes vascularization in 3D bioprinted scaffolds with defined architecture.

    PubMed

    Poldervaart, Michelle T; Gremmels, Hendrik; van Deventer, Kelly; Fledderus, Joost O; Oner, F Cumhur; Verhaar, Marianne C; Dhert, Wouter J A; Alblas, Jacqueline

    2014-06-28

    Timely vascularization is essential for optimal performance of bone regenerative constructs. Vascularization is efficiently stimulated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a substance with a short half-life time. This study investigates the controlled release of VEGF from gelatin microparticles (GMPs) as a means to prolong VEGF activity at the preferred location within 3D bioprinted scaffolds, and the effects on subsequent vascularization. The release of VEGF from GMPs was continuous for 3 weeks during in vitro studies, and bioactivity was confirmed using human endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in migration assays. Traditional and real-time migration assays showed immediate and efficient EPC migration in the presence of GMP-released VEGF, indistinguishable from VEGF-solution that was added to the medium. Matrigel scaffolds containing EPCs and VEGF, which was released either in a fast or sustained fashion by application of GMPs, were investigated for their in vivo vasculogenic capacity. Implantation in subcutaneous pockets in nude mice for one week demonstrated that vessel formation was significantly higher in the VEGF sustained-release group compared to the fast release group. In addition, regional differences with respect to VEGF release were introduced in 3D bioprinted EPC-laden scaffolds and their influence on vasculogenesis was investigated in vivo. The different regions were retained and vessel formation occurred analogous with the results seen in the Matrigel plugs. We conclude that GMPs are suitable to generate sustained release profiles of bioactive VEGF, and that they can be used to create defined differentiation regions in 3D bioprinted heterogeneous constructs, allowing a new generation of smart scaffold design. The prolonged presence of VEGF led to a significant increase in scaffold vascularization when applied in vivo. PMID:24727077

  13. The DANTE Boltzmann transport solver: An unstructured mesh, 3-D, spherical harmonics algorithm compatible with parallel computer architectures

    SciTech Connect

    McGhee, J.M.; Roberts, R.M.; Morel, J.E.

    1997-06-01

    A spherical harmonics research code (DANTE) has been developed which is compatible with parallel computer architectures. DANTE provides 3-D, multi-material, deterministic, transport capabilities using an arbitrary finite element mesh. The linearized Boltzmann transport equation is solved in a second order self-adjoint form utilizing a Galerkin finite element spatial differencing scheme. The core solver utilizes a preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm. Other distinguishing features of the code include options for discrete-ordinates and simplified spherical harmonics angular differencing, an exact Marshak boundary treatment for arbitrarily oriented boundary faces, in-line matrix construction techniques to minimize memory consumption, and an effective diffusion based preconditioner for scattering dominated problems. Algorithm efficiency is demonstrated for a massively parallel SIMD architecture (CM-5), and compatibility with MPP multiprocessor platforms or workstation clusters is anticipated.

  14. CTCF-Mediated Human 3D Genome Architecture Reveals Chromatin Topology for Transcription.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhonghui; Luo, Oscar Junhong; Li, Xingwang; Zheng, Meizhen; Zhu, Jacqueline Jufen; Szalaj, Przemyslaw; Trzaskoma, Pawel; Magalska, Adriana; Wlodarczyk, Jakub; Ruszczycki, Blazej; Michalski, Paul; Piecuch, Emaly; Wang, Ping; Wang, Danjuan; Tian, Simon Zhongyuan; Penrad-Mobayed, May; Sachs, Laurent M; Ruan, Xiaoan; Wei, Chia-Lin; Liu, Edison T; Wilczynski, Grzegorz M; Plewczynski, Dariusz; Li, Guoliang; Ruan, Yijun

    2015-12-17

    Spatial genome organization and its effect on transcription remains a fundamental question. We applied an advanced chromatin interaction analysis by paired-end tag sequencing (ChIA-PET) strategy to comprehensively map higher-order chromosome folding and specific chromatin interactions mediated by CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) and RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) with haplotype specificity and nucleotide resolution in different human cell lineages. We find that CTCF/cohesin-mediated interaction anchors serve as structural foci for spatial organization of constitutive genes concordant with CTCF-motif orientation, whereas RNAPII interacts within these structures by selectively drawing cell-type-specific genes toward CTCF foci for coordinated transcription. Furthermore, we show that haplotype variants and allelic interactions have differential effects on chromosome configuration, influencing gene expression, and may provide mechanistic insights into functions associated with disease susceptibility. 3D genome simulation suggests a model of chromatin folding around chromosomal axes, where CTCF is involved in defining the interface between condensed and open compartments for structural regulation. Our 3D genome strategy thus provides unique insights in the topological mechanism of human variations and diseases. PMID:26686651

  15. 3D Microstructural Architecture of Muscle Attachments in Extant and Fossil Vertebrates Revealed by Synchrotron Microtomography

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Sophie; Dupret, Vincent; Tafforeau, Paul; Trinajstic, Katherine M.; Ryll, Bettina; Gouttenoire, Pierre-Jean; Wretman, Lovisa; Zylberberg, Louise; Peyrin, Françoise; Ahlberg, Per E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Firm attachments binding muscles to skeleton are crucial mechanical components of the vertebrate body. These attachments (entheses) are complex three-dimensional structures, containing distinctive arrangements of cells and fibre systems embedded in the bone, which can be modified during ontogeny. Until recently it has only been possible to obtain 2D surface and thin section images of entheses, leaving their 3D histology largely unstudied except by extrapolation from 2D data. Entheses are frequently preserved in fossil bones, but sectioning is inappropriate for rare or unique fossil material. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we present the first non-destructive 3D investigation, by propagation phase contrast synchrotron microtomography (PPC-SRµCT), of enthesis histology in extant and fossil vertebrates. We are able to identify entheses in the humerus of the salamander Desmognathus from the organization of bone-cell lacunae and extrinsic fibres. Statistical analysis of the lacunae differentiates types of attachments, and the orientation of the fibres, reflect the approximate alignment of the muscle. Similar histological structures, including ontogenetically related pattern changes, are perfectly preserved in two 380 million year old fossil vertebrates, the placoderm Compagopiscis croucheri and the sarcopterygian fish Eusthenopteron foordi. Conclusions/Significance We are able to determine the position of entheses in fossil vertebrates, the approximate orientation of the attached muscles, and aspects of their ontogenetic histories, from PPC-SRµCT data. Sub-micron microtomography thus provides a powerful tool for studying the structure, development, evolution and palaeobiology of muscle attachments. PMID:23468901

  16. Assembly of one dimensional inorganic nanostructures into functional 2D and 3D architectures. Synthesis, arrangement and functionality.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Ravi K; Schneider, Jörg J

    2012-08-01

    This review will focus on the synthesis, arrangement, structural assembly, for current and future applications, of 1D nanomaterials (tubes, wires, rods) in 2D and 3D ordered arrangements. The ability to synthesize and arrange one dimensional nanomaterials into ordered 2D or 3D micro or macro sized structures is of utmost importance in developing new devices and applications of these materials. Micro and macro sized architectures based on such 1D nanomaterials (e.g. tubes, wires, rods) provide a platform to integrate nanostructures at a larger and thus manageable scale into high performance electronic devices like field effect transistors, as chemo- and biosensors, catalysts, or in energy material applications. Carbon based, metal oxide and metal based 1D arranged materials as well as hybrid or composite 1D materials of the latter provide a broad materials platform, offering a perspective for new entries into fascinating structures and future applications of such assembled architectures. These architectures allow bridging the gap between 1D nanostructures and the micro and macro world and are the basis for an assembly of 1D materials into higher hierarchy domains. This critical review is intended to provide an interesting starting point to view the current state of the art and show perspectives for future developments in this field. The emphasis is on selected nanomaterials and the possibilities for building three dimensional arrays starting from one dimensional building blocks. Carbon nanotubes, metal oxide nanotubes and nanowires (e.g. ZnO, TiO(2), V(2)O(5), Cu(2)O, NiO, Fe(2)O(3)), silicon and germanium nanowires, and group III-V or II-VI based 1D semiconductor nanostructures like GaS and GaN, pure metals as well as 1D hybrid materials and their higher organized architectures (foremost in 3D) will be focussed. These materials have been the most intensively studied within the last 5-10 years with respect to nano-micro integration aspects and their functional and

  17. Insight into the 3D-trabecular architecture of the human patella.

    PubMed

    Hoechel, Sebastian; Schulz, Georg; Müller-Gerbl, Magdalena

    2015-07-01

    The subchondral bone plate (SBP), a dynamic component of the osteochondral unit, shows functional adaptation to long-term loading by distribution of the mineral content in a manner best serving the mechanical demands. Since the received joint-load is transmitted into the trabecular system, the spongy bone also exhibits differences in strain energy density which models it for optimal support. To evaluate the regional variations in trabecular architecture, in accordance with the density distribution of the SBP revealing its long-term load intake, CT- and μCT-datasets of ten physiologic patellae were analysed for defined parameters of bony structure. For the SBP, the density distributions as well as area measurements were used. The trabecular architecture was described using parameters of bone morphology comprising the first 5mm (examined in 1mm steps) below the SBP. The obtained measurements are: Bone volume fraction (BV/TV); Bone surface density (BS/TV); Trabecular number (Tb.N); Trabecular separation (Tb.Sp); Trabecular thickness (Tb.Th); structure model index (SMI); and the Degree of anisotropy (DA). The evaluated architectural parameters varied within the trabecular system and showed an inhomogeneous distribution pattern. It proved to be distinctive with maxima of material and stability situated below areas of the highest long-term load intake. With increasing depth, the pattern of distribution was persistent but lessened in intensity. The parameters significantly correlated with the density distribution of the SBP within the first and second millimetres. With increasing depth down to the fifth millimetre, the coefficients of correlation decreased for all values. The trabecular network adapts to its mechanical needs and is therefore not homogenously built. Dependent upon the long-term load intake, the trabecular model optimizes the support with significant correlation to the density distribution of the SBP. PMID:25835353

  18. Time-dependent 3-D dterministic transport on parallel architectures using Dantsys/MPI

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.S.; Alcouffe, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    In addition to the ability to solve the static transport equation, we have also incorporated time dependence into our parallel 3-D S{sub {ital N}} code DANTSYS/MPI. Using a semi-implicit scheme, DANTSYS/MPI is capable of performing time-dependent calculations for both fissioning and pure source driven problems. We have applied this to various types of problems such as nuclear well logging and prompt fission experiments. This paper describes the form of the time- dependent equations implemented, their solution strategies in DANTSYS/MPI including iteration acceleration, and the strategies used for time-step control. Results are presented for a model nuclear well logging calculation.

  19. Demonstrating Multi-Qubit Operations in a Superconducting 3D circuit QED Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, Hanhee; Sandberg, M. O.; Mezzacapo, A.; McClure, D. T.; Abdo, B.; Dial, O. E.; Cross, A. W.; Corcoles, A. D.; Sheldon, S.; Magesan, E.; Srinivasan, S. J.; Gambetta, J. M.; Chow, J. M.; Bogorin, D.; Plourde, B. L. T.

    We present our recent results on multi-qubit operations in a superconducting 3D circuit QED (cQED) system using a resonator-induced phase (RIP) gate. In our system, four qubits are coupled by a single bus resonator. The RIP gate is implemented by applying a microwave pulse to the bus that performs entangling operations. We demonstrate controlled-phase gates using RIP on 2-qubit subsystems with gate fidelities between 95%-97% evaluated by randomized benchmarking. Via a multi-qubit echo scheme, we perform isolated two-qubit interactions in the full 4-qubit system to generate a GHZ state. We acknowledge support from IARPA under Contract W911NF-10-1-0324.

  20. Status of the phenomena representation, 3D modeling, and cloud-based software architecture development

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Curtis L.; Prescott, Steven; Kvarfordt, Kellie; Sampath, Ram; Larson, Katie

    2015-09-01

    Early in 2013, researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory outlined a technical framework to support the implementation of state-of-the-art probabilistic risk assessment to predict the safety performance of advanced small modular reactors. From that vision of the advanced framework for risk analysis, specific tasks have been underway in order to implement the framework. This report discusses the current development of a several tasks related to the framework implementation, including a discussion of a 3D physics engine that represents the motion of objects (including collision and debris modeling), cloud-based analysis tools such as a Bayesian-inference engine, and scenario simulations. These tasks were performed during 2015 as part of the technical work associated with the Advanced Reactor Technologies Program.

  1. Ardnamurchan 3D cone-sheet architecture explained by a single elongate magma chamber.

    PubMed

    Burchardt, Steffi; Troll, Valentin R; Mathieu, Lucie; Emeleus, Henry C; Donaldson, Colin H

    2013-01-01

    The Palaeogene Ardnamurchan central igneous complex, NW Scotland, was a defining place for the development of the classic concepts of cone-sheet and ring-dyke emplacement and has thus fundamentally influenced our thinking on subvolcanic structures. We have used the available structural information on Ardnamurchan to project the underlying three-dimensional (3D) cone-sheet structure. Here we show that a single elongate magma chamber likely acted as the source of the cone-sheet swarm(s) instead of the traditionally accepted model of three successive centres. This proposal is supported by the ridge-like morphology of the Ardnamurchan volcano and is consistent with the depth and elongation of the gravity anomaly underlying the peninsula. Our model challenges the traditional model of cone-sheet emplacement at Ardnamurchan that involves successive but independent centres in favour of a more dynamical one that involves a single, but elongate and progressively evolving magma chamber system. PMID:24100542

  2. Ardnamurchan 3D cone-sheet architecture explained by a single elongate magma chamber

    PubMed Central

    Burchardt, Steffi; Troll, Valentin R.; Mathieu, Lucie; Emeleus, Henry C.; Donaldson, Colin H.

    2013-01-01

    The Palaeogene Ardnamurchan central igneous complex, NW Scotland, was a defining place for the development of the classic concepts of cone-sheet and ring-dyke emplacement and has thus fundamentally influenced our thinking on subvolcanic structures. We have used the available structural information on Ardnamurchan to project the underlying three-dimensional (3D) cone-sheet structure. Here we show that a single elongate magma chamber likely acted as the source of the cone-sheet swarm(s) instead of the traditionally accepted model of three successive centres. This proposal is supported by the ridge-like morphology of the Ardnamurchan volcano and is consistent with the depth and elongation of the gravity anomaly underlying the peninsula. Our model challenges the traditional model of cone-sheet emplacement at Ardnamurchan that involves successive but independent centres in favour of a more dynamical one that involves a single, but elongate and progressively evolving magma chamber system. PMID:24100542

  3. Design Curve Generation for 3D SiC Fiber Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Jerry; Dicarlo, James A.

    2014-01-01

    The design tool provides design curves that allow a simple and quick way to examine multiple factors that can influence the processing and key properties of the preforms and their final SiC-reinforced ceramic composites without over obligating financial capital for the fabricating of materials. Tool predictions for process and fiber fraction properties have been validated for a HNS 3D preform.The virtualization aspect of the tool will be used to provide a quick generation of solid models with actual fiber paths for finite element evaluation to predict mechanical and thermal properties of proposed composites as well as mechanical displacement behavior due to creep and stress relaxation to study load sharing characteristic between constitutes for better performance.Tool predictions for the fiber controlled properties of the SiCSiC CMC fabricated from the HNS preforms will be valuated and up-graded from the measurements on these CMC

  4. Single, aligned carbon nanotubes in 3D nanoscale architectures enabled by top-down and bottom-up manufacturable processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaul, Anupama B.; Megerian, Krikor G.; von Allmen, Paul; Baron, Richard L.

    2009-02-01

    We have developed manufacturable approaches for forming single, vertically aligned carbon nanotubes, where the tubes are centered precisely, and placed within a few hundred nm of 1-1.5 µm deep trenches. These wafer-scale approaches were enabled by using chemically amplified resists and high density, low pressure plasma etching techniques to form the 3D nanoscale architectures. The tube growth was performed using dc plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), and the materials used in the pre-fabricated 3D architectures were chemically and structurally compatible with the high temperature (700 °C) PECVD synthesis of our tubes, in an ammonia and acetylene ambient. Such scalable, high throughput top-down fabrication processes, when integrated with the bottom-up tube synthesis techniques, should accelerate the development of plasma grown tubes for a wide variety of applications in electronics, such as nanoelectromechanical systems, interconnects, field emitters and sensors. Tube characteristics were also engineered to some extent, by adjusting the Ni catalyst thickness, as well as the pressure and plasma power during growth.

  5. Single, aligned carbon nanotubes in 3D nanoscale architectures enabled by top-down and bottom-up manufacturable processes.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Anupama B; Megerian, Krikor G; von Allmen, Paul; Baron, Richard L

    2009-02-18

    We have developed manufacturable approaches for forming single, vertically aligned carbon nanotubes, where the tubes are centered precisely, and placed within a few hundred nm of 1-1.5 microm deep trenches. These wafer-scale approaches were enabled by using chemically amplified resists and high density, low pressure plasma etching techniques to form the 3D nanoscale architectures. The tube growth was performed using dc plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), and the materials used in the pre-fabricated 3D architectures were chemically and structurally compatible with the high temperature (700 degrees C) PECVD synthesis of our tubes, in an ammonia and acetylene ambient. Such scalable, high throughput top-down fabrication processes, when integrated with the bottom-up tube synthesis techniques, should accelerate the development of plasma grown tubes for a wide variety of applications in electronics, such as nanoelectromechanical systems, interconnects, field emitters and sensors. Tube characteristics were also engineered to some extent, by adjusting the Ni catalyst thickness, as well as the pressure and plasma power during growth. PMID:19417414

  6. Intra-chain 3D segment swapping spawns the evolution of new multidomain protein architectures.

    PubMed

    Szilágyi, András; Zhang, Yang; Závodszky, Péter

    2012-01-01

    Multidomain proteins form in evolution through the concatenation of domains, but structural domains may comprise multiple segments of the chain. In this work, we demonstrate that new multidomain architectures can evolve by an apparent three-dimensional swap of segments between structurally similar domains within a single-chain monomer. By a comprehensive structural search of the current Protein Data Bank (PDB), we identified 32 well-defined segment-swapped proteins (SSPs) belonging to 18 structural families. Nearly 13% of all multidomain proteins in the PDB may have a segment-swapped evolutionary precursor as estimated by more permissive searching criteria. The formation of SSPs can be explained by two principal evolutionary mechanisms: (i) domain swapping and fusion (DSF) and (ii) circular permutation (CP). By large-scale comparative analyses using structural alignment and hidden Markov model methods, it was found that the majority of SSPs have evolved via the DSF mechanism, and a much smaller fraction, via CP. Functional analyses further revealed that segment swapping, which results in two linkers connecting the domains, may impart directed flexibility to multidomain proteins and contributes to the development of new functions. Thus, inter-domain segment swapping represents a novel general mechanism by which new protein folds and multidomain architectures arise in evolution, and SSPs have structural and functional properties that make them worth defining as a separate group. PMID:22079367

  7. Nuclear organization and 3D chromatin architecture in cognition and neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Medrano-Fernández, Alejandro; Barco, Angel

    2016-01-01

    The current view of neuroplasticity depicts the changes in the strength and number of synaptic connections as the main physical substrate for behavioral adaptation to new experiences in a changing environment. Although transcriptional regulation is known to play a role in these synaptic changes, the specific contribution of activity-induced changes to both the structure of the nucleus and the organization of the genome remains insufficiently characterized. Increasing evidence indicates that plasticity-related genes may work in coordination and share architectural and transcriptional machinery within discrete genomic foci. Here we review the molecular and cellular mechanisms through which neuronal nuclei structurally adapt to stimuli and discuss how the perturbation of these mechanisms can trigger behavioral malfunction. PMID:27595843

  8. Acceleration of 3D Finite Difference AWP-ODC for seismic simulation on GPU Fermi Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, J.; Cui, Y.; Choi, D.

    2011-12-01

    AWP-ODC, a highly scalable parallel finite-difference application, enables petascale 3D earthquake calculations. This application generates realistic dynamic earthquake source description and detailed physics-based anelastic ground motions at frequencies pertinent to safe building design. In 2010, the code achieved M8, a full dynamical simulation of a magnitude-8 earthquake on the southern San Andreas fault up to 2-Hz, the largest-ever earthquake simulation. Building on the success of the previous work, we have implemented CUDA on AWP-ODC to accelerate wave propagation on GPU platform. Our CUDA development aims on aggressive parallel efficiency, optimized global and shared memory access to make the best use of GPU memory hierarchy. The benchmark on NVIDIA Tesla C2050 graphics cards demonstrated many tens of speedup in single precision compared to serial implementation at a testing problem size, while an MPI-CUDA implementation is in the progress to extend our solver to multi-GPU clusters. Our CUDA implementation has been carefully verified for accuracy.

  9. CRISPR Double Cutting through the Labyrinthine Architecture of 3D Genomes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiyan; Wu, Qiang

    2016-05-20

    The genomes are organized into ordered and hierarchical topological structures in interphase nuclei. Within discrete territories of each chromosome, topologically associated domains (TADs) play important roles in various nuclear processes such as gene regulation. Inside TADs separated by relatively constitutive boundaries, distal elements regulate their gene targets through specific chromatin-looping contacts such as long-distance enhancer-promoter interactions. High-throughput sequencing studies have revealed millions of potential regulatory DNA elements, which are much more abundant than the mere ∼20,000 genes they control. The recently emerged CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing technologies have enabled efficient and precise genetic and epigenetic manipulations of genomes. The multiplexed and high-throughput CRISPR capabilities facilitate the discovery and dissection of gene regulatory elements. Here, we describe the applications of CRISPR for genome, epigenome, and 3D genome editing, focusing on CRISPR DNA-fragment editing with Cas9 and a pair of sgRNAs to investigate topological folding of chromatin TADs and developmental gene regulation. PMID:27210040

  10. Separating Leaves from Trunks and Branches with Dual-Wavelength Terrestrial Lidar Scanning: Improving Canopy Structure Characterization in 3-D Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Strahler, A. H.; Schaaf, C.; Howe, G.; Martel, J.; Hewawasam, K.; Douglas, E. S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Cook, T.; Paynter, I.; Saenz, E.; Wang, Z.; Yang, X.; Yao, T.; Zhao, F.; Woodcock, C.; Jupp, D.; Schaefer, M.; Culvenor, D.; Newnham, G.; Lowell, J.

    2013-12-01

    branches and avoids the misclassification of trunk edges as leaves. Such classified waveforms and point clouds can provide gap probabilities of leafy and woody materials separately and thus provide better estimate LAI, thereby characterizing 3-D canopy structure more accurately for use in modeling radiation regimes and terrestrial ecosystems. NDI image (part of a scan here) from waveform mean intensities at the two wavelengths. Azimuth angle in X axis and Zenith angle in Y axis

  11. Thermostructural Properties Of Sic/Sic Panels With 2.5d And 3d Fiber Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, H. M.; DeCarlo, J. A.; Bhatt, R. H.; Jaskowiak, M. H.

    2005-01-01

    CMC hot-section components in advanced engines for power and propulsion will typically require high cracking strength, high ultimate strength and strain, high creep- rupture resistance, and high thermal conductivity in all directions. In the past, NASA has demonstrated fabrication of a variety of SiC/SiC flat panels and round tubes with various 2D fiber architectures using the high-modulus high-performance Sylramic-iBN Sic fiber and Sic-based matrices derived by CVI, MI, and/or PIP processes. The thermo- mechanical properties of these CMC have shown state-of-the-art performance, but primarily in the in-plane directions. Currently NASA is extending the thermostructural capability of these SiC/SiC systems in the thru-thickness direction by using various 2.5D and 3D fiber architectures. NASA is also using specially designed fabrication steps to optimize the properties of the BN-based interphase and Sic-based matrices. In this study, Sylramic-iBN/SiC panels with 2D plain weave, 2.5D satin weave, 2.5D ply-to-ply interlock weave, and 3D angle interlock fiber architectures, all woven at AITI, were fabricated using matrix densification routes previously established between NASA and GEPSC for CVI-MI processes and between NASA and Starfire-Systems for PIP processes. Introduction of the 2.5 D fiber architecture along with an improved matrix process was found to increase inter-laminar tensile strength from 1.5 -2 to 3 - 4 ksi and thru-thickness thermal conductivity from 15-20 to 30-35 BTU/ft.hr.F with minimal reduction in in-plane strength and creep-rupture properties. Such improvements should reduce thermal stresses and increase the thermostructural operating envelope for SiC/SiC engine components. These results are analyzed to offer general guidelines for selecting fiber architectures and constituent processes for high-performance SiC/SiC engine components.

  12. 3D-Printing of inverted pyramid suspending architecture for pyroelectric infrared detectors with inhibited microphonic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qing; Zhao, Xiangyong; Li, Xiaobing; Deng, Hao; Yan, Hong; Yang, Linrong; Di, Wenning; Luo, Haosu; Neumann, Norbert

    2016-05-01

    A sensitive chip with ultralow dielectric loss based on Mn doped PMNT (71/29) has been proposed for high-end pyroelectric devices. The dielectric loss at 1 kHz is 0.005%, one order lower than the minimum value reported so far. The detective figure of merit (Fd) is up to 92.6 × 10-5 Pa-1/2 at 1 kHz and 53.5 × 10-5 Pa-1/2 at 10 Hz, respectively. In addition, an inverted pyramid suspending architecture for supporting the sensitive chip has been designed and manufactured by 3D printing technology. The combination of this sensitive chip and the proposed suspending architecture largely enhances the performance of the pyroelectric detectors. The responsivity and specific detectivity are 669,811 V/W and 3.32 × 109 cm Hz1/2/W at 10 Hz, respectively, 1.9 times and 1.5 times higher than those of the highest values in literature. Furthermore, the microphonic effect can be largely inhibited according to the theoretical and experimental analysis. This architecture will have promising applications in high-end and stable pyroelectric infrared detectors.

  13. 4-D stratigraphic architecture and 3-D reservoir zonation of the Mirado Formation, Cusiana Field, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Fajardo, A.A.; Cross, T.A.

    1996-12-31

    A high-resolution sequence stratigraphic study using 2300 feet of core calibrated with geophysical logs from 14 wells and 1800 measurements of porosity and permeability established the 4-D stratigraphy and 3-D reservoir zonation of the Mirador. Virtually all reservoir-quality facies are through cross-stratified sandstones which occur in channel facies successions in the lower Mirador, but in bay-head delta and estuarine channel facies successions in the upper Mirador. Petrophysical properties and the geometry, continuity and volume of reservoir-quality sandstones change regularly as function of their stratigraphic position. These vertical facies successions reflect increasing accommodation-to-sediment supply (A/S) ratio through each intermediate-term cycle. The upper long-term cycle comprises four intermediate-term, landward-stepping, symmetrical base-level cycles. These cycles consist of estuarine channel, bay-head to bay-fill facies successions. The transition from channel to bay-head to bay-fill facies successions represents an increase in A/S ratio, and the reverse transition indicates a decrease in A/S ratio. Sixteen reservoir zones were defined within the Cusiana field. Reservoirs within the upper and lower long-term cycles are separated by a continuous middle Mirador mudstone which creates two large reservoir divisions. At the second level of zonation, the reservoir compartments and fluid-flow retardants coincide with the intermediate-term stratigraphic cycles. A third level of reservoir compartmentalization follows the distribution of facies successions within the intermediate-term cycles. A strong stratigraphic control on reservoir properties occurs at the three scales of stratigraphic cyclicity. In all cases as A/S ratio increases, porosity and permeability decrease.

  14. 4-D stratigraphic architecture and 3-D reservoir zonation of the Mirado Formation, Cusiana Field, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Fajardo, A.A. ); Cross, T.A. )

    1996-01-01

    A high-resolution sequence stratigraphic study using 2300 feet of core calibrated with geophysical logs from 14 wells and 1800 measurements of porosity and permeability established the 4-D stratigraphy and 3-D reservoir zonation of the Mirador. Virtually all reservoir-quality facies are through cross-stratified sandstones which occur in channel facies successions in the lower Mirador, but in bay-head delta and estuarine channel facies successions in the upper Mirador. Petrophysical properties and the geometry, continuity and volume of reservoir-quality sandstones change regularly as function of their stratigraphic position. These vertical facies successions reflect increasing accommodation-to-sediment supply (A/S) ratio through each intermediate-term cycle. The upper long-term cycle comprises four intermediate-term, landward-stepping, symmetrical base-level cycles. These cycles consist of estuarine channel, bay-head to bay-fill facies successions. The transition from channel to bay-head to bay-fill facies successions represents an increase in A/S ratio, and the reverse transition indicates a decrease in A/S ratio. Sixteen reservoir zones were defined within the Cusiana field. Reservoirs within the upper and lower long-term cycles are separated by a continuous middle Mirador mudstone which creates two large reservoir divisions. At the second level of zonation, the reservoir compartments and fluid-flow retardants coincide with the intermediate-term stratigraphic cycles. A third level of reservoir compartmentalization follows the distribution of facies successions within the intermediate-term cycles. A strong stratigraphic control on reservoir properties occurs at the three scales of stratigraphic cyclicity. In all cases as A/S ratio increases, porosity and permeability decrease.

  15. Evolving technologies for growing, imaging and analyzing 3D root system architecture of crop plants.

    PubMed

    Piñeros, Miguel A; Larson, Brandon G; Shaff, Jon E; Schneider, David J; Falcão, Alexandre Xavier; Yuan, Lixing; Clark, Randy T; Craft, Eric J; Davis, Tyler W; Pradier, Pierre-Luc; Shaw, Nathanael M; Assaranurak, Ithipong; McCouch, Susan R; Sturrock, Craig; Bennett, Malcolm; Kochian, Leon V

    2016-03-01

    A plant's ability to maintain or improve its yield under limiting conditions, such as nutrient deficiency or drought, can be strongly influenced by root system architecture (RSA), the three-dimensional distribution of the different root types in the soil. The ability to image, track and quantify these root system attributes in a dynamic fashion is a useful tool in assessing desirable genetic and physiological root traits. Recent advances in imaging technology and phenotyping software have resulted in substantive progress in describing and quantifying RSA. We have designed a hydroponic growth system which retains the three-dimensional RSA of the plant root system, while allowing for aeration, solution replenishment and the imposition of nutrient treatments, as well as high-quality imaging of the root system. The simplicity and flexibility of the system allows for modifications tailored to the RSA of different crop species and improved throughput. This paper details the recent improvements and innovations in our root growth and imaging system which allows for greater image sensitivity (detection of fine roots and other root details), higher efficiency, and a broad array of growing conditions for plants that more closely mimic those found under field conditions. PMID:26683583

  16. Tree architecture and forest canopy structure obtained from terrestrial LiDAR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Reiner; Bittner, Sebastian; Ritter, Daniel; Priesack, Eckart

    2013-04-01

    ranging from single tree architectures to tree stand architecture of almost 100 deciduous trees of 25 meter height. The handling of the effects of self-shadowing and data gaps and the limits of the algorithm is discussed as well as the requirements for the laser scanner hardware and data acquisition. We show the use of the obtained tree and canopy architectures to simulate water uptake, water storage, and transpiration in combination with light absorption and leaf photosynthesis using a ray tracer model.

  17. Pulmonary surfactant expression analysis--role of cell-cell interactions and 3-D tissue-like architecture.

    PubMed

    Nandkumar, Maya A; Ashna, U; Thomas, Lynda V; Nair, Prabha D

    2015-03-01

    Surfactant production is important in maintaining alveolar function both in vivo and in vitro, but surfactant expression is the primary property lost by alveolar Type II Pneumocytes in culture and its maintenance is a functional requirement. To develop a functional tissue-like model, the in vivo cell-cell interactions and three dimensional architecture has to be reproduced. To this end, 3D button-shaped synthetic gelatin vinyl acetate (GeVAc) co-polymer scaffold was seeded with different types of lung cells. Functionality of the construct was studied under both static and dynamic conditions. The construct was characterized by Environmental Scanning Electron and fluorescent microscopy, and functionality of the system was analyzed by studying mRNA modulations of all four surfactant genes A, B, C, and D by real time-PCR and varying culture conditions. The scaffold supports alveolar cell adhesion and maintenance of cuboidal morphology, and the alveolar-specific property of surfactant synthesis, which would otherwise be rapidly lost in culture. This is a novel 3D system that expresses all 4 surfactants for a culture duration of 3 weeks. PMID:25262918

  18. Identification of couple-stress moduli of vertebral trabecular bone based on the 3D internal architectures.

    PubMed

    Goda, Ibrahim; Ganghoffer, Jean-François

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a homogeneous, orthotropic couple-stress continuum model as a substitute of the 3D periodic heterogeneous cellular solid model of vertebral trabecular bone. Vertebral trabecular bone is modeled as a porous material with an idealized periodic structure made of 3D open cubic cells, which is effectively orthotropic. The chosen architecture is based on studies of samples taken from the central part of vertebral bodies. The effective properties are obtained based on the response of the representative volume element under prescribed boundary conditions. Mixed boundary conditions comprising both traction and displacement boundary conditions are applied on the structure boundaries. In this contribution, the effective mechanical constants of the effective couple-stress continuum are deduced by an equivalent strain energy method. The characteristic lengths for bending and torsion are identified from the resulting homogenized orthotropic moduli. We conduct this study computationally using a finite element approach. Vertebral trabecular bone is modeled either as a cellular solid or as a two-phase material consisting of bone tissue (stiff phase) forming a trabecular network, and a surrounding soft tissue referring to the bone marrow present in the pores. Both the bone tissue forming the network and the pores are assumed to be homogeneous linear elastic, and isotropic media. The scale effects on the predicted couple stress moduli of these networks are investigated by varying the size of the bone specimens over which the boundary conditions are applied. The analysis using mixed boundary conditions gives results that are independent of unit cell size when computing the first couple stress tensor, while it is dependent on the cell size as to the second couple stress tensor moduli. This study provides overall guidance on how the size of the trabecular specimen influence couple stresses elastic moduli of cellular materials, with focus on bones

  19. Performance of Composites from 3D Orthogonal Woven Preforms in terms of Architecture and Sample Location during Resin Infusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ince, Mehmet Erdem

    Geometric modeling of woven preforms is a useful tool to predict preform thickness, preform areal density and fiber volume fraction (FVF) of constituent yarns. Previous geometrical models of 3D orthogonal woven preforms, which are extensively reviewed in Chapter 2, were limited to plain weave interlacing pattern in jammed case. In this study, generalized geometric models in terms of weave design (represented by a numerical value termed "weave factor") were developed. The models cover both jammed and non-jammed cases, consider circular, racetrack, and rectangular yarn cross-sectional shapes. The models predict thickness, constituent yarn weights, and FVFs of 3D orthogonal woven preforms. The models illustrated fabric architecture potential of 3D orthogonal woven preforms. Numerical results for hypothetical structures showed how to control through the thickness components of the z-yarn and total FVF, that have direct effect on the in-plane and out-of-plane properties, with interlacing pattern (weave factor) and z-yarn linear density. The models were demonstrated as an essential design tool that may be used to develop composites with predicted level of structural parameters and performance. Broad range of 3D orthogonal woven preforms from glass fibers with different architectures were woven and consolidated by vacuum infusion process (VIP) with different z-yarn interlacing pattern, number of y-yarn layers, and x-yarn spacing to verify the model for filament yarns. Dry preform thickness and weight of in-plane yarns predicted by the geometric model for filament yarns correlated well with experimental results. Z-yarn weight of dry preform was 24.3% overestimated by the model due to shortening of z-yarn at cross overs in real preforms due to the flattening of x-yarns caused by the tension of z-yarns. Total FVF of actual dry preform was 0.4% greater than model prediction. However, total FVF of composite was 5.4% overestimated by the model, which is within the experimental

  20. A 3D Porous Architecture of Si/graphene Nanocomposite as High-performance Anode Materials for Li-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Xin X.; Zhu Y.; Zhou, X.; Wang, F.; Yao, X.; Xu, X.; Liu, Z.

    2012-04-28

    A 3D porous architecture of Si/graphene nanocomposite has been rationally designed and constructed through a series of controlled chemical processes. In contrast to random mixture of Si nanoparticles and graphene nanosheets, the porous nanoarchitectured composite has superior electrochemical stability because the Si nanoparticles are firmly riveted on the graphene nanosheets through a thin SiO{sub x} layer. The 3D graphene network enhances electrical conductivity, and improves rate performance, demonstrating a superior rate capability over the 2D nanostructure. This 3D porous architecture can deliver a reversible capacity of {approx}900 mA h g{sup -1} with very little fading when the charge rates change from 100 mA g{sup -1} to 1 A g{sup -1}. Furthermore, the 3D nanoarchitechture of Si/graphene can be cycled at extremely high Li{sup +} extraction rates, such as 5 A g{sup -1} and 10 A g{sup -1}, for over than 100 times. Both the highly conductive graphene network and porous architecture are considered to contribute to the remarkable rate capability and cycling stability, thereby pointing to a new synthesis route to improving the electrochemical performances of the Si-based anode materials for advanced Li-ion batteries.

  1. A task-based parallelism and vectorized approach to 3D Method of Characteristics (MOC) reactor simulation for high performance computing architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramm, John R.; Gunow, Geoffrey; He, Tim; Smith, Kord S.; Forget, Benoit; Siegel, Andrew R.

    2016-05-01

    In this study we present and analyze a formulation of the 3D Method of Characteristics (MOC) technique applied to the simulation of full core nuclear reactors. Key features of the algorithm include a task-based parallelism model that allows independent MOC tracks to be assigned to threads dynamically, ensuring load balancing, and a wide vectorizable inner loop that takes advantage of modern SIMD computer architectures. The algorithm is implemented in a set of highly optimized proxy applications in order to investigate its performance characteristics on CPU, GPU, and Intel Xeon Phi architectures. Speed, power, and hardware cost efficiencies are compared. Additionally, performance bottlenecks are identified for each architecture in order to determine the prospects for continued scalability of the algorithm on next generation HPC architectures.

  2. Visualizing the 3D Architecture of Multiple Erythrocytes Infected with Plasmodium at Nanoscale by Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Soares Medeiros, Lia Carolina; De Souza, Wanderley; Jiao, Chengge; Barrabin, Hector; Miranda, Kildare

    2012-01-01

    Different methods for three-dimensional visualization of biological structures have been developed and extensively applied by different research groups. In the field of electron microscopy, a new technique that has emerged is the use of a focused ion beam and scanning electron microscopy for 3D reconstruction at nanoscale resolution. The higher extent of volume that can be reconstructed with this instrument represent one of the main benefits of this technique, which can provide statistically relevant 3D morphometrical data. As the life cycle of Plasmodium species is a process that involves several structurally complex developmental stages that are responsible for a series of modifications in the erythrocyte surface and cytoplasm, a high number of features within the parasites and the host cells has to be sampled for the correct interpretation of their 3D organization. Here, we used FIB-SEM to visualize the 3D architecture of multiple erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium chabaudi and analyzed their morphometrical parameters in a 3D space. We analyzed and quantified alterations on the host cells, such as the variety of shapes and sizes of their membrane profiles and parasite internal structures such as a polymorphic organization of hemoglobin-filled tubules. The results show the complex 3D organization of Plasmodium and infected erythrocyte, and demonstrate the contribution of FIB-SEM for the obtainment of statistical data for an accurate interpretation of complex biological structures. PMID:22432024

  3. Porting the 3D Gyrokinetic Particle-in-cell Code GTC to the CRAY/NEC SX-6 Vector Architecture: Perspectives and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    S. Ethier; Z. Lin

    2003-09-15

    Several years of optimization on the super-scalar architecture has made it more difficult to port the current version of the 3D particle-in-cell code GTC to the CRAY/NEC SX-6 vector architecture. This paper explains the initial work that has been done to port this code to the SX-6 computer and to optimize the most time consuming parts. Early performance results are shown and compared to the same test done on the IBM SP Power 3 and Power 4 machines.

  4. High-Throughput Top-Down and Bottom-Up Processes for Forming Single-Nanotube Based Architectures for 3D Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Anupama B.; Megerian, Krikor G.; von Allmen, Paul; Kowalczyk, Robert; Baron, Richard

    2009-01-01

    We have developed manufacturable approaches to form single, vertically aligned carbon nanotubes, where the tubes are centered precisely, and placed within a few hundred nm of 1-1.5 micron deep trenches. These wafer-scale approaches were enabled by chemically amplified resists and inductively coupled Cryo-etchers for forming the 3D nanoscale architectures. The tube growth was performed using dc plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), and the materials used for the pre-fabricated 3D architectures were chemically and structurally compatible with the high temperature (700 C) PECVD synthesis of our tubes, in an ammonia and acetylene ambient. Tube characteristics were also engineered to some extent, by adjusting growth parameters, such as Ni catalyst thickness, pressure and plasma power during growth. Such scalable, high throughput top-down fabrication techniques, combined with bottom-up tube synthesis, should accelerate the development of PECVD tubes for applications such as interconnects, nano-electromechanical (NEMS), sensors or 3D electronics in general.

  5. Tree architecture of pillar and standard peach affect canopy transpiration and water use efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of productive high density peach orchards is often limited by the excessive vegetative growth of the trees that reduces productivity and quality. Dwarfing rootstocks are not available but upright tree architectures have been developed for high density peach production. The purpose ...

  6. Quantitative assessment of cancer vascular architecture by skeletonization of high-resolution 3-D contrast-enhanced ultrasound images: role of liposomes and microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Molinari, F; Meiburger, K M; Giustetto, P; Rizzitelli, S; Boffa, C; Castano, M; Terreno, E

    2014-12-01

    The accurate characterization and description of the vascular network of a cancer lesion is of paramount importance in clinical practice and cancer research in order to improve diagnostic accuracy or to assess the effectiveness of a treatment. The aim of this study was to show the effectiveness of liposomes as an ultrasound contrast agent to describe the 3-D vascular architecture of a tumor. Eight C57BL/6 mice grafted with syngeneic B16-F10 murine melanoma cells were injected with a bolus of 1,2-Distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocoline (DSPC)-based non-targeted liposomes and with a bolus of microbubbles. 3-D contrast-enhanced images of the tumor lesions were acquired in three conditions: pre-contrast, after the injection of microbubbles, and after the injection of liposomes. By using a previously developed reconstruction and characterization image processing technique, we obtained the 3-D representation of the vascular architecture in these three conditions. Six descriptive parameters of these networks were also computed: the number of vascular trees (NT), the vascular density (VD), the number of branches, the 2-D curvature measure, the number of vascular flexes of the vessels, and the 3-D curvature. Results showed that all the vascular descriptors obtained by liposome-based images were statistically equal to those obtained by using microbubbles, except the VD which was found to be lower for liposome images. All the six descriptors computed in pre-contrast conditions had values that were statistically lower than those computed in presence of contrast, both for liposomes and microbubbles. Liposomes have already been used in cancer therapy for the selective ultrasound-mediated delivery of drugs. This work demonstrated their effectiveness also as vascular diagnostic contrast agents, therefore proving that liposomes can be used as efficient "theranostic" (i.e. therapeutic 1 diagnostic) ultrasound probes. PMID:24206210

  7. Quantification of the effects of architectural traits on dry mass production and light interception of tomato canopy under different temperature regimes using a dynamic functional–structural plant model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tsu-Wei; Nguyen, Thi My Nguyet; Kahlen, Katrin; Stützel, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest in evaluating the environmental effects on crop architectural traits and yield improvement. However, crop models describing the dynamic changes in canopy structure with environmental conditions and the complex interactions between canopy structure, light interception, and dry mass production are only gradually emerging. Using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) as a model crop, a dynamic functional–structural plant model (FSPM) was constructed, parameterized, and evaluated to analyse the effects of temperature on architectural traits, which strongly influence canopy light interception and shoot dry mass. The FSPM predicted the organ growth, organ size, and shoot dry mass over time with high accuracy (>85%). Analyses of this FSPM showed that, in comparison with the reference canopy, shoot dry mass may be affected by leaf angle by as much as 20%, leaf curvature by up to 7%, the leaf length:width ratio by up to 5%, internode length by up to 9%, and curvature ratios and leaf arrangement by up to 6%. Tomato canopies at low temperature had higher canopy density and were more clumped due to higher leaf area and shorter internodes. Interestingly, dry mass production and light interception of the clumped canopy were more sensitive to changes in architectural traits. The complex interactions between architectural traits, canopy light interception, dry mass production, and environmental conditions can be studied by the dynamic FSPM, which may serve as a tool for designing a canopy structure which is ‘ideal’ in a given environment. PMID:25183746

  8. Syntheses, structures, and photoluminescence of d 10 coordination architectures: From 1D to 3D complexes based on mixed ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Gang; Shao, Kui-Zhan; Du, Dong-Ying; Wang, Xin-Long; Su, Zhong-Min

    2011-05-01

    Six new compounds, namely, {[Cd 3(Himpy) 3(tda) 2]·3H 2O} n ( 1), {[Zn 3(bipy) 2(tda) 2(H 2O) 2]·4H 2O} n ( 2), {[Cd 3(bipy) 3(tda) 2]·4H 2O} n ( 3), {[Cd 3(tda) 2(H 2O) 3Cl]·H 2O} n ( 4), {[Zn 2(tz)(tda)(H 2O) 2]·H 2O} n ( 5) and {[Cd 7(pz)(tda) 4(OAc)(H 2O) 7]·3H 2O} n ( 6) [H 3tda = 1H-1,2,3-triazole-4,5-dicarboxylic acid, Himpy = 2-(1H-imidazol-2-yl)pyridine, bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine, Htz = 1H-1,2,4-triazole, H 2pz = piperazine] have been prepared under hydrothermal condition and characterized by elemental analyses, infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Compound 1 is a 1D column-like structure and displays a 3D supramolecular network via the π···π stacking interaction. The compounds 2 and 3 exhibit similar 2D layer-like structure, which further extend to 3D supermolecular structure by the π···π stacking interaction. All of compounds 4- 6 display 3D framework with diverse topology constructed from the tda 3- ligands in different coordination modes and secondary ligands (or bridging atom) connecting metal ions. Furthermore, the thermal stabilities and photoluminescent properties of compounds 1- 6 were studied.

  9. 3D strain engineered self-rolled thin-film architecture for high-energy density lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godbey, Griffin; Gong, Chen; Yu, Cynthia; Blythe, Clayton; Leite, Marina

    Recently, multiple 3D geometries have been implemented into energy storage devices (e . g . nanowire anodes and arrays of interdigitated rods) in order to better accommodate the large volume expansion experienced by the anode during lithiation and to increase the structure energy density. However, most approached structures are difficult to scale up. Here we show how self-rolled thin-films can maintain a high energy density and can potentially accommodate the volume expansion suffered by the anode. The self-rolled tubes are fabricated by physical deposition of the active layers, creating a stress gradient between thin-film stack due to differences in coefficient of thermal expansion. Upon a sacrificial layer removal, the thin-film rolls to relieve this built-in stress. We predict the final dimension of self-rolled battery tubes using known elastic properties of materials commonly used as the active layers of the device. We will discuss an appropriate figure-of-merit that defines how the winding process can ultimately affect the volumetric capacity of 3D self-rolled batteries.

  10. 3D Polyaniline Architecture by Concurrent Inorganic and Organic Acid Doping for Superior and Robust High Rate Supercapacitor Performance.

    PubMed

    Gawli, Yogesh; Banerjee, Abhik; Dhakras, Dipti; Deo, Meenal; Bulani, Dinesh; Wadgaonkar, Prakash; Shelke, Manjusha; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2016-01-01

    A good high rate supercapacitor performance requires a fine control of morphological (surface area and pore size distribution) and electrical properties of the electrode materials. Polyaniline (PANI) is an interesting material in supercapacitor context because it stores energy Faradaically. However in conventional inorganic (e.g. HCl) acid doping, the conductivity is high but the morphological features are undesirable. On the other hand, in weak organic acid (e.g. phytic acid) doping, interesting and desirable 3D connected morphological features are attained but the conductivity is poorer. Here the synergy of the positive quality factors of these two acid doping approaches is realized by concurrent and optimized strong-inorganic (HCl) and weak-organic (phytic) acid doping, resulting in a molecular composite material that renders impressive and robust supercapacitor performance. Thus, a nearly constant high specific capacitance of 350 F g(-1) is realized for the optimised case of binary doping over the entire range of 1 A g(-1) to 40 A g(-1) with stability of 500 cycles at 40 A g(-1). Frequency dependant conductivity measurements show that the optimized co-doped case is more metallic than separately doped materials. This transport property emanates from the unique 3D single molecular character of such system. PMID:26867570

  11. 3D Polyaniline Architecture by Concurrent Inorganic and Organic Acid Doping for Superior and Robust High Rate Supercapacitor Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawli, Yogesh; Banerjee, Abhik; Dhakras, Dipti; Deo, Meenal; Bulani, Dinesh; Wadgaonkar, Prakash; Shelke, Manjusha; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2016-02-01

    A good high rate supercapacitor performance requires a fine control of morphological (surface area and pore size distribution) and electrical properties of the electrode materials. Polyaniline (PANI) is an interesting material in supercapacitor context because it stores energy Faradaically. However in conventional inorganic (e.g. HCl) acid doping, the conductivity is high but the morphological features are undesirable. On the other hand, in weak organic acid (e.g. phytic acid) doping, interesting and desirable 3D connected morphological features are attained but the conductivity is poorer. Here the synergy of the positive quality factors of these two acid doping approaches is realized by concurrent and optimized strong-inorganic (HCl) and weak-organic (phytic) acid doping, resulting in a molecular composite material that renders impressive and robust supercapacitor performance. Thus, a nearly constant high specific capacitance of 350 F g-1 is realized for the optimised case of binary doping over the entire range of 1 A g-1 to 40 A g-1 with stability of 500 cycles at 40 A g-1. Frequency dependant conductivity measurements show that the optimized co-doped case is more metallic than separately doped materials. This transport property emanates from the unique 3D single molecular character of such system.

  12. 3D Polyaniline Architecture by Concurrent Inorganic and Organic Acid Doping for Superior and Robust High Rate Supercapacitor Performance

    PubMed Central

    Gawli, Yogesh; Banerjee, Abhik; Dhakras, Dipti; Deo, Meenal; Bulani, Dinesh; Wadgaonkar, Prakash; Shelke, Manjusha; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2016-01-01

    A good high rate supercapacitor performance requires a fine control of morphological (surface area and pore size distribution) and electrical properties of the electrode materials. Polyaniline (PANI) is an interesting material in supercapacitor context because it stores energy Faradaically. However in conventional inorganic (e.g. HCl) acid doping, the conductivity is high but the morphological features are undesirable. On the other hand, in weak organic acid (e.g. phytic acid) doping, interesting and desirable 3D connected morphological features are attained but the conductivity is poorer. Here the synergy of the positive quality factors of these two acid doping approaches is realized by concurrent and optimized strong-inorganic (HCl) and weak-organic (phytic) acid doping, resulting in a molecular composite material that renders impressive and robust supercapacitor performance. Thus, a nearly constant high specific capacitance of 350 F g−1 is realized for the optimised case of binary doping over the entire range of 1 A g−1 to 40 A g−1 with stability of 500 cycles at 40 A g−1. Frequency dependant conductivity measurements show that the optimized co-doped case is more metallic than separately doped materials. This transport property emanates from the unique 3D single molecular character of such system. PMID:26867570

  13. Fabrication of 3D hierarchical MoS₂/polyaniline and MoS₂/C architectures for lithium-ion battery applications.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lianren; Ren, Yumei; Yang, Hongxia; Xu, Qun

    2014-08-27

    In this work, three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical MoS2/polyaniline (PANI) nanoflowers were successfully fabricated via a simple hydrothermal method. The crystal structure and morphology of the MoS2/PANI nanoflowers were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, XPS, and FT-IR spectra, revealing that the nanoflowers were composed of ultrathin nanoplates which consisted of few-layered MoS2 nanosheets with enlarged interlayer distance of the (002) plane and PANI. The excellent electrochemical performance of the 3D hierarchical MoS2/PANI nanoflowers was demonstrated. Further 3D hierarchical MoS2/C nanoflowers can be prepared conveniently by annealing the MoS2/PANI sample in a N2 atmosphere at 500 °C for 4 h. The obtained MoS2/C sample exhibited more excellent electrochemical performance due to its excellent electronic conductivity resulting from the close integration of MoS2 nanosheets with carbon matrix. High reversible capacity of 888.1 mAh g(-1) with the Coulombic efficiency maintained at above 90% from the first cycle were achieved at a current density of 100 mA g(-1). Even at a current density of 1000 mA g(-1), the reversible capacity of the MoS2/C sample could be retained at 511 mAh g(-1). The excellent electrochemical performance of these two samples could be attributed to the combined action of enlarged interlayer distance of the ultrathin MoS2 nanosheets, 3D architectures, hierarchical structures, and conductive material. Thus, these 3D hierarchical nanoflowers are competent as promising anode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. PMID:25100439

  14. Analysis of trabecular bone architectural changes induced by osteoarthritis in rabbit femur using 3D active shape model and digital topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, P. K.; Rajapakse, C. S.; Williams, D. S.; Duong, L.; Coimbra, A.

    2007-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic joint disease, which causes the cartilage between the bone joints to wear away, leading to pain and stiffness. Currently, progression of OA is monitored by measuring joint space width using x-ray or cartilage volume using MRI. However, OA affects all periarticular tissues, including cartilage and bone. It has been shown previously that in animal models of OA, trabecular bone (TB) architecture is particularly affected. Furthermore, relative changes in architecture are dependent on the depth of the TB region with respect to the bone surface and main direction of load on the bone. The purpose of this study was to develop a new method for accurately evaluating 3D architectural changes induced by OA in TB. Determining the TB test domain that represents the same anatomic region across different animals is crucial for studying disease etiology, progression and response to therapy. It also represents a major technical challenge in analyzing architectural changes. Here, we solve this problem using a new active shape model (ASM)-based approach. A new and effective semi-automatic landmark selection approach has been developed for rabbit distal femur surface that can easily be adopted for many other anatomical regions. It has been observed that, on average, a trained operator can complete the user interaction part of landmark specification process in less than 15 minutes for each bone data set. Digital topological analysis and fuzzy distance transform derived parameters are used for quantifying TB architecture. The method has been applied on micro-CT data of excised rabbit femur joints from anterior cruciate ligament transected (ACLT) (n = 6) and sham (n = 9) operated groups collected at two and two-to-eight week post-surgery, respectively. An ASM of the rabbit right distal femur has been generated from the sham group micro-CT data. The results suggest that, in conjunction with ASM, digital topological parameters are suitable for

  15. 3D crustal architecture of the Alps-Apennines join — a new view on seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, M. E.; Laubscher, H. P.

    1996-08-01

    Seismic data from the Alps-Apennines join have usually been interpreted in the form of 2D cross-sections, passing either through the Western Alps or the Ligurian Alps-Monferrato Apennines. However, the oblique SE-NW convergence of Adria and Europa and superimposed rotations imply a distinct 3D kinematic development around the Adriatic Indenter (AI), the westernmost spur of Adria. In order to develop kinematic models, data on motion at the different margins of AI must be coordinated. Along the northern margin, the dextrally transpressive Insubric line (IL) was active between 25 and 16 Ma (Insubric-Helvetic phase of Alpine orogeny). Contemporaneously, along the southern margin (Paleo-Apenninic phase), a complementary sinistral motion took place along the Villalvernia-Varzi line (VVL). It emplaced the Monferrato Apennines westward to the north of the Ligurian Alps by carrying them westward on top of AI. Between 14 and 6 Ma (Jura-Lombardic phase of Alpine orogeny) the Lombardic thrust belt developed on the northern margin of AI, now largely hidden under the Po plain. Its continuation to the southwest is impeded by older thrust masses along the Western Alps that consist largely of basement, their sediments having been eroded, as noted on the deep reflection line CROP ALPI-1 by earlier investigators. This line, moreover, contains a deep reflection band originating in the autochthonous Mesozoic of the Apenninic foredeep. In order to better visualize this origin and the relation of further elements identified on reflection lines around the northwestern end of the Monferrato Apennines, a 3D fence diagram was constructed. It helps in establishing a 3D structural-kinematic model of the Alps-Apennines join based on the kinematics of AI. This model features an underthrust of AI under the western Alps in the Paleo-Apenninic phase. In the course of this underthrust, the Paleo-Apenninic elements of the Monferrato moved under the marginal thrusts of the western Alps. Subsequent Neo

  16. In vivo imaging of bone micro-architecture in mice with 3D synchrotron radiation micro-tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayat, S.; Apostol, L.; Boller, E.; Brochard, T.; Peyrin, F.

    2005-08-01

    Micro-tomographic imaging of bone micro-architecture is increasingly used on wild and transgenic mice to follow effects of diseases or therapeutics. Synchrotron radiation micro-tomography (SR micro-CT) provides quantitative images at very high spatial resolution but has mainly been used in vitro. The aim of this work was to show the feasibility of SR micro-CT for assessing bone mineral density and micro-architecture in vivo in mice. Imaging with a pixel size of 10 μm was performed on beam line ID19 at the ESRF using a special mouse holder. Two strains of mice (C3H/HeJ and C57BL/6J) were used for the experiment. First tests were performed in order to optimize the imaging conditions with respect to dose. Then, six mice of each group were imaged at doses of 7 and 13 Gy (total scan time <5 min). A similar volume of interest was selected in each image to perform quantitative analysis. The first results on bone volume and mineralization revealed significant differences between the strains as expected. Although there was no apparent damage, the imaged femurs will be further investigated by histology to evaluate the effect of irradiation on bone cells. In conclusion, SR micro-CT provides in vivo images with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), very short scan time and may be used in longitudinal studies.

  17. Stratigraphic architecture and fault offsets of alluvial terraces at Te Marua, Wellington fault, New Zealand, revealed by pseudo-3D GPR investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauprêtre, S.; Manighetti, I.; Garambois, S.; Malavieille, J.; Dominguez, S.

    2013-08-01

    earthquake slips on faults are commonly determined by measuring morphological offsets at current ground surface. Because those offsets might not always be well preserved, we examine whether the first 10 m below ground surface contains relevant information to complement them. We focus on the Te Marua site, New Zealand, where 11 alluvial terraces have been dextrally offset by the Wellington fault. We investigated the site using pseudo-3D Ground Penetrating Radar and also produced a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the zone to constrain the surface slip record. The GPR data reveal additional information: (1) they image the 3D stratigraphic architecture of the seven youngest terraces and show that they are strath terraces carved into graywacke bedrock. Each strath surface is overlain by 3-5 m of horizontally bedded gravel sheets, including two pronounced and traceable reflectors; (2) thanks to the multilayer architecture, terrace risers and channels are imaged at three depths and their lateral offsets can be measured three to four times, constraining respective offsets and their uncertainties more reliably; and (3) the offsets are better preserved in the subsurface than at the ground surface, likely due to subsequent erosion-deposition on the latter. From surface and subsurface data, we infer that Te Marua has recorded six cumulative offsets of 2.9, 7.6, 18, 23.2, 26, and 31 m (± 1-2 m). Large earthquakes on southern Wellington fault might produce 3-5 m of slip, slightly less than previously proposed. Pseudo-3D GPR thus provides a novel paleoseismological tool to complement and refine surface investigations.

  18. Direct laser-writing of ferroelectric single-crystal waveguide architectures in glass for 3D integrated optics.

    PubMed

    Stone, Adam; Jain, Himanshu; Dierolf, Volkmar; Sakakura, Masaaki; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Miura, Kiyotaka; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Lapointe, Jerome; Kashyap, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Direct three-dimensional laser writing of amorphous waveguides inside glass has been studied intensely as an attractive route for fabricating photonic integrated circuits. However, achieving essential nonlinear-optic functionality in such devices will also require the ability to create high-quality single-crystal waveguides. Femtosecond laser irradiation is capable of crystallizing glass in 3D, but producing optical-quality single-crystal structures suitable for waveguiding poses unique challenges that are unprecedented in the field of crystal growth. In this work, we use a high angular-resolution electron diffraction method to obtain the first conclusive confirmation that uniform single crystals can be grown inside glass by femtosecond laser writing under optimized conditions. We confirm waveguiding capability and present the first quantitative measurement of power transmission through a laser-written crystal-in-glass waveguide, yielding loss of 2.64 dB/cm at 1530 nm. We demonstrate uniformity of the crystal cross-section down the length of the waveguide and quantify its birefringence. Finally, as a proof-of-concept for patterning more complex device geometries, we demonstrate the use of dynamic phase modulation to grow symmetric crystal junctions with single-pass writing. PMID:25988599

  19. Direct laser-writing of ferroelectric single-crystal waveguide architectures in glass for 3D integrated optics

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Adam; Jain, Himanshu; Dierolf, Volkmar; Sakakura, Masaaki; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Miura, Kiyotaka; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Lapointe, Jerome; Kashyap, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Direct three-dimensional laser writing of amorphous waveguides inside glass has been studied intensely as an attractive route for fabricating photonic integrated circuits. However, achieving essential nonlinear-optic functionality in such devices will also require the ability to create high-quality single-crystal waveguides. Femtosecond laser irradiation is capable of crystallizing glass in 3D, but producing optical-quality single-crystal structures suitable for waveguiding poses unique challenges that are unprecedented in the field of crystal growth. In this work, we use a high angular-resolution electron diffraction method to obtain the first conclusive confirmation that uniform single crystals can be grown inside glass by femtosecond laser writing under optimized conditions. We confirm waveguiding capability and present the first quantitative measurement of power transmission through a laser-written crystal-in-glass waveguide, yielding loss of 2.64 dB/cm at 1530 nm. We demonstrate uniformity of the crystal cross-section down the length of the waveguide and quantify its birefringence. Finally, as a proof-of-concept for patterning more complex device geometries, we demonstrate the use of dynamic phase modulation to grow symmetric crystal junctions with single-pass writing. PMID:25988599

  20. An algorithm to correct 2D near-infrared fluorescence signals using 3D intravascular ultrasound architectural information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallas, Georgios; Brooks, Dana H.; Rosenthal, Amir; Vinegoni, Claudio; Calfon, Marcella A.; Razansky, R. Nika; Jaffer, Farouc A.; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2011-03-01

    Intravascular Near-Infrared Fluorescence (NIRF) imaging is a promising imaging modality to image vessel biology and high-risk plaques in vivo. We have developed a NIRF fiber optic catheter and have presented the ability to image atherosclerotic plaques in vivo, using appropriate NIR fluorescent probes. Our catheter consists of a 100/140 μm core/clad diameter housed in polyethylene tubing, emitting NIR laser light at a 90 degree angle compared to the fiber's axis. The system utilizes a rotational and a translational motor for true 2D imaging and operates in conjunction with a coaxial intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) device. IVUS datasets provide 3D images of the internal structure of arteries and are used in our system for anatomical mapping. Using the IVUS images, we are building an accurate hybrid fluorescence-IVUS data inversion scheme that takes into account photon propagation through the blood filled lumen. This hybrid imaging approach can then correct for the non-linear dependence of light intensity on the distance of the fluorescence region from the fiber tip, leading to quantitative imaging. The experimental and algorithmic developments will be presented and the effectiveness of the algorithm showcased with experimental results in both saline and blood-like preparations. The combined structural and molecular information obtained from these two imaging modalities are positioned to enable the accurate diagnosis of biologically high-risk atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary arteries that are responsible for heart attacks.

  1. An open medical imaging workstation architecture for platform-independent 3-D medical image processing and visualization.

    PubMed

    Cosić, D

    1997-12-01

    A need for an entirely new medical workstation design was identified to increase the deployment of 3-D medical imaging and multimedia communication. Recent wide acceptance of the Word Wide Web (WWW) as a general communication service within the global network has shown how big the impact of standards and open systems can be. Information is shared among heterogeneous systems and diverse applications on various hardware platforms only by agreeing on a common format for information distribution. For medical image communications, the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) standard is possibly anticipating such a role. Logically, the next step is open software: platform-independent tools, which can as easily be transferred and used on multiple platforms. Application of the platform-independent programming language Java enables creation of plug-in tools, which can easily extend the basic system. Performance problems inherent to all interpreter systems can be circumvented by using a hybrid approach. Computationally intensive functions like image processing functions can be integrated into a natively implemented optimized image processing kernel. Plug-in tools implemented in Java can utilize the kernel functions via a Java-wrapper library. This approach is comparable to the implementation of computationally intensive operations in hardware. PMID:11020831

  2. Non-covalent bonded 2D-3D supramolecular architectures based on 4-dimethylaminopyridine and organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huan; Jin, Shouwen; Wen, Xianhong; Liu, Bin; Fang, Yang; Zhang, Yani; Wang, Daqi

    2015-07-01

    Studies concentrating on non-covalent weak interactions between the organic base of 4-dimethylaminopyridine, and acidic derivatives have led to an increased understanding of the role 4-dimethylaminopyridine has in binding with the organic acid derivatives. Here anhydrous and hydrous multicomponent organic acid-base adducts of 4-dimethylaminopyridine have been prepared with organic acids such as 1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 5-chlorosalicylic acid, 5-bromosalicylic acid, 5-nitrosalicylic acid, and 5-sulfosalicylic acid. The 4-dimethylaminopyridine is only monoprotonated. All compounds are organic salts with the 1:1 ratio of the cation and the anion. For the 5-sulfosalicylic acid only one H is ionized to exhibit the valence number of -1. The eight crystalline complexes were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. These structures adopted the hetero supramolecular synthons. Analysis of the crystal packing of 1-8 suggests that there are Nsbnd H⋯O, Osbnd H⋯O, and Osbnd H⋯S hydrogen bonds (charge assisted or neutral) between the organic acid and the 4-dimethylaminopyridine moieties in the studied compounds. Except the classical hydrogen bonding interactions, the secondary propagating interactions also play important roles in structure extension. For the synergistic effect of the various non-covalent interactions, the complexes displayed 2D-3D framework structures.

  3. Noncovalent-bonded 1D-3D supramolecular architectures from 2-methylquinoline/quinoline with monocarboxylic acid and dicarboxylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xingjun; Jin, Shouwen; Jin, Li; Ye, XiangHang; Zheng, Lu; Li, JingWen; Jin, BinPeng; Wang, Daqi

    2014-10-01

    Studies concentrating on noncovalent weak interactions between the organic base of 2-methylquinoline/quinoline, and carboxylic acid derivatives have led to an increased understanding of the role 2-methylquinoline/quinoline have in binding with carboxylic acids. Here anhydrous multicomponent organic acid-base adducts of 2-methylquinoline/quinoline have been prepared with carboxylic acids that ranged from monocarboxylic acid to dicarboxylic acid such as p-nitrobenzoic acid, (4-chloro-phenoxy)-acetic acid, 4-hydroxy-benzoic acid, 5-bromosalicylic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, and 4-nitrophthalic acid. The seven crystalline complexes were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, m.p., and elemental analysis. These structures adopted the hetero supramolecular synthons. Analysis of the crystal packing of 1-7 suggests that there are Nsbnd H⋯O, Osbnd H⋯N, and Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds (charge assisted or neutral) between the acid and quinoline moieties in the studied compounds. Except the classical hydrogen bonding interactions, the secondary propagating interactions also play important roles in structure extension. These weak interactions combined, these compounds displayed 1D-3D framework structure.

  4. Architectural improvements and 28 nm FPGA implementation of the APEnet+ 3D Torus network for hybrid HPC systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, Roberto; Biagioni, Andrea; Frezza, Ottorino; Lo Cicero, Francesca; Stanislao Paolucci, Pier; Lonardo, Alessandro; Rossetti, Davide; Simula, Francesco; Tosoratto, Laura; Vicini, Piero

    2014-06-01

    Modern Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) are now considered accelerators for general purpose computation. A tight interaction between the GPU and the interconnection network is the strategy to express the full potential on capability computing of a multi-GPU system on large HPC clusters; that is the reason why an efficient and scalable interconnect is a key technology to finally deliver GPUs for scientific HPC. In this paper we show the latest architectural and performance improvement of the APEnet+ network fabric, a FPGA-based PCIe board with 6 fully bidirectional off-board links with 34 Gbps of raw bandwidth per direction, and X8 Gen2 bandwidth towards the host PC. The board implements a Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) protocol that leverages upon peer-to-peer (P2P) capabilities of Fermi- and Kepler-class NVIDIA GPUs to obtain real zero-copy, low-latency GPU-to-GPU transfers. Finally, we report on the development activities for 2013 focusing on the adoption of the latest generation 28 nm FPGAs and the preliminary tests performed on this new platform.

  5. A versatile pipeline for the multi-scale digital reconstruction and quantitative analysis of 3D tissue architecture

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Navarrete, Hernán; Segovia-Miranda, Fabián; Klukowski, Piotr; Meyer, Kirstin; Nonaka, Hidenori; Marsico, Giovanni; Chernykh, Mikhail; Kalaidzidis, Alexander; Zerial, Marino; Kalaidzidis, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    A prerequisite for the systems biology analysis of tissues is an accurate digital three-dimensional reconstruction of tissue structure based on images of markers covering multiple scales. Here, we designed a flexible pipeline for the multi-scale reconstruction and quantitative morphological analysis of tissue architecture from microscopy images. Our pipeline includes newly developed algorithms that address specific challenges of thick dense tissue reconstruction. Our implementation allows for a flexible workflow, scalable to high-throughput analysis and applicable to various mammalian tissues. We applied it to the analysis of liver tissue and extracted quantitative parameters of sinusoids, bile canaliculi and cell shapes, recognizing different liver cell types with high accuracy. Using our platform, we uncovered an unexpected zonation pattern of hepatocytes with different size, nuclei and DNA content, thus revealing new features of liver tissue organization. The pipeline also proved effective to analyse lung and kidney tissue, demonstrating its generality and robustness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11214.001 PMID:26673893

  6. Black border, mask 3D effects: covering challenges of EUV mask architecture for 22nm node and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydova, Natalia; van Setten, Eelco; de Kruif, Robert; Connolly, Brid; Fukugami, Norihito; Kodera, Yutaka; Morimoto, Hiroaki; Sakata, Yo; Kotani, Jun; Kondo, Shinpei; Imoto, Tomohiro; Rolff, Haiko; Ullrich, Albrecht; Jaganatharaja, Ramasubramanian Kottumakulal; Lammers, Ad; Oorschot, Dorothe; Man, Cheuk-Wah; Schiffelers, Guido; van Dijk, Joep

    2014-10-01

    Photomask is at the heart of a lithographic scanner's optical path. It cannot be left non-optimized from the imaging point of view. In this work we provide new insights on two critical aspects of EUV mask architecture: optimization of absorber for 16 nm half-pitch imaging and a systematic approach to black border EUV and DUV reflectance specifications. Good 16 nm imaging is demonstrated on ASML NXE:3300 EUV scanner. Currently a relatively high dose resist is used for imaging and the dose reduction is desired. Optimization (reduction) of absorber height and mask CD bias can allow for up to 30% dose reduction without essential contrast loss. Disadvantages of absorber height reduction are ~7 nm increase of best focus range through pitch and tighter absorber height mean to target and uniformity requirements. A disadvantage of a smaller reticle CD (down to 14 nm 1x) is manufacturing process uniformity over the reticle. A systematic approach of black border reflections impact on imaging is established. The image border is a pattern free dark area surrounding the image field and preventing exposure of the image field neighborhood on wafer. Currently accepted design of the black border on EUV reticle is an image border where the absorber and multilayer stack are etched down to the substrate and EUV reflectance is reduced to <0.05%. DUV reflectance of such a black border is about 5%. It is shown that a tighter DUV reflectance specification <1.5% is required driven by the impact of DUV reflections from the black border on imaging. NXE:3300 and NXE:3100 experimental imaging results are shown. The need of low DUV wavelength reflectance metrology (in the range 100-300 nm) is demonstrated using an estimated NXE scanner out-of-band DUV spectrum. Promising results of low DUV reflectance of the black border are shown.

  7. Distinct 3D Architecture and Dynamics of the Human HtrA2(Omi) Protease and Its Mutated Variants.

    PubMed

    Gieldon, Artur; Zurawa-Janicka, Dorota; Jarzab, Miroslaw; Wenta, Tomasz; Golik, Przemyslaw; Dubin, Grzegorz; Lipinska, Barbara; Ciarkowski, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    HtrA2(Omi) protease controls protein quality in mitochondria and plays a major role in apoptosis. Its HtrA2S306A mutant (with the catalytic serine routinely disabled for an X-ray study to avoid self-degradation) is a homotrimer whose subunits contain the serine protease domain (PD) and the regulatory PDZ domain. In the inactive state, a tight interdomain interface limits penetration of both PDZ-activating ligands and PD substrates into their respective target sites. We successfully crystalized HtrA2V226K/S306A, whose active counterpart HtrA2V226K has had higher proteolytic activity, suggesting higher propensity to opening the PD-PDZ interface than that of the wild type HtrA2. Yet, the crystal structure revealed the HtrA2V226K/S306A architecture typical of the inactive protein. To get a consistent interpretation of crystallographic data in the light of kinetic results, we employed molecular dynamics (MD). V325D inactivating mutant was used as a reference. Our simulations demonstrated that upon binding of a specific peptide ligand NH2-GWTMFWV-COOH, the PDZ domains open more dynamically in the wild type protease compared to the V226K mutant, whereas the movement is not observed in the V325D mutant. The movement relies on a PDZ vs. PD rotation which opens the PD-PDZ interface in a lid-like (budding flower-like in trimer) fashion. The noncovalent hinges A and B are provided by two clusters of interfacing residues, harboring V325D and V226K in the C- and N-terminal PD barrels, respectively. The opening of the subunit interfaces progresses in a sequential manner during the 50 ns MD simulation. In the systems without the ligand only minor PDZ shifts relative to PD are observed, but the interface does not open. Further activation-associated events, e.g. PDZ-L3 positional swap seen in any active HtrA protein (vs. HtrA2), were not observed. In summary, this study provides hints on the mechanism of activation of wtHtrA2, the dynamics of the inactive HtrA2V325D, but does not

  8. Distinct 3D Architecture and Dynamics of the Human HtrA2(Omi) Protease and Its Mutated Variants

    PubMed Central

    Gieldon, Artur; Zurawa-Janicka, Dorota; Jarzab, Miroslaw; Wenta, Tomasz; Golik, Przemyslaw; Dubin, Grzegorz; Lipinska, Barbara; Ciarkowski, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    HtrA2(Omi) protease controls protein quality in mitochondria and plays a major role in apoptosis. Its HtrA2S306A mutant (with the catalytic serine routinely disabled for an X-ray study to avoid self-degradation) is a homotrimer whose subunits contain the serine protease domain (PD) and the regulatory PDZ domain. In the inactive state, a tight interdomain interface limits penetration of both PDZ-activating ligands and PD substrates into their respective target sites. We successfully crystalized HtrA2V226K/S306A, whose active counterpart HtrA2V226K has had higher proteolytic activity, suggesting higher propensity to opening the PD-PDZ interface than that of the wild type HtrA2. Yet, the crystal structure revealed the HtrA2V226K/S306A architecture typical of the inactive protein. To get a consistent interpretation of crystallographic data in the light of kinetic results, we employed molecular dynamics (MD). V325D inactivating mutant was used as a reference. Our simulations demonstrated that upon binding of a specific peptide ligand NH2-GWTMFWV-COOH, the PDZ domains open more dynamically in the wild type protease compared to the V226K mutant, whereas the movement is not observed in the V325D mutant. The movement relies on a PDZ vs. PD rotation which opens the PD-PDZ interface in a lid-like (budding flower-like in trimer) fashion. The noncovalent hinges A and B are provided by two clusters of interfacing residues, harboring V325D and V226K in the C- and N-terminal PD barrels, respectively. The opening of the subunit interfaces progresses in a sequential manner during the 50 ns MD simulation. In the systems without the ligand only minor PDZ shifts relative to PD are observed, but the interface does not open. Further activation-associated events, e.g. PDZ-L3 positional swap seen in any active HtrA protein (vs. HtrA2), were not observed. In summary, this study provides hints on the mechanism of activation of wtHtrA2, the dynamics of the inactive HtrA2V325D, but does not

  9. Synthesis and photoluminescence of novel 3D flower-like CaMoO4 architectures hierarchically self-assembled with tetragonal bipyramid nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoguang; Li, Ling; Noh, Hyeon Mi; Park, Sung Heum; Jeong, Jung Hyun; Yang, Hyun Kyoung; Jang, Kiwan; Shin, Dong Soo

    2015-05-01

    Novel three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical flowerlike CaMoO4 microarchitectures self-assembled with octahedral nanocrystals (tetragonal bipyramid) (OF-CaMoO4) have been synthesized via β-Cyclodextrin-assisted precipitation-hydrothermal process. The OF-CaMoO4 microflowers have a diameter of about 2-4 μm, and are composed of octahedral nanocrystals of about 200-500 nm that connect to each other by surface-to-surface attachments. β-Cyclodextrin plays a crucial role in achieving the good dispersibility and octahedral nanocrystals of the final product. The OF-CaMoO4 superstructures display an enhanced photoluminescence. Our work provides an easy and novel synthetic route for the controllable construction of inorganic phosphors with hierarchical architectures.

  10. 3D-architectured nickel-cobalt-manganese layered double hydroxide/reduced graphene oxide composite for high-performance supercapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Cheng, J. P.; Liu, F.; Zhang, X. B.

    2015-11-01

    Pure flower-like NiCoMn layered double hydroxide (LDH) and 3D-architectured NiCoMn LDH/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite are fabricated by a solution method. The NiCoMn hydroxide nanoflakes are tightly deposited on the surface of rGO. Electrochemical measurements prove that rGO can greatly improve its capacitive performances, compared with the pure counterpart. A high-specific capacitance of 912 F g-1, high-rate capability and long cycle life are achieved for the composite. A NiCoMn LDH/rGO//activated carbon hybrid capacitor is also fabricated. It possesses a high-specific capacitance of 206 F g-1 and an energy density of 92.8 W h kg-1 in 1.8 V.

  11. Determining the Architecture of a Protein-DNA Complex by Combining FeBABE Cleavage Analyses, 3-D Printed Structures, and the ICM Molsoft Program.

    PubMed

    James, Tamara; Hsieh, Meng-Lun; Knipling, Leslie; Hinton, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Determining the structure of a protein-DNA complex can be difficult, particularly if the protein does not bind tightly to the DNA, if there are no homologous proteins from which the DNA binding can be inferred, and/or if only portions of the protein can be crystallized. If the protein comprises just a part of a large multi-subunit complex, other complications can arise such as the complex being too large for NMR studies, or it is not possible to obtain the amounts of protein and nucleic acids needed for crystallographic analyses. Here, we describe a technique we used to map the position of an activator protein relative to the DNA within a large transcription complex. We determined the position of the activator on the DNA from data generated using activator proteins that had been conjugated at specific residues with the chemical cleaving reagent, iron bromoacetamidobenzyl-EDTA (FeBABE). These analyses were combined with 3-D models of the available structures of portions of the activator protein and B-form DNA to obtain a 3-D picture of the protein relative to the DNA. Finally, the Molsoft program was used to refine the position, revealing the architecture of the protein-DNA within the transcription complex. PMID:26404142

  12. 3D PLUS HI-REL DDR2 Termination Regulator Module- A Building Block Function for High Reliability SDRAM DDR2 System Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrot, Nicolas; Dubus, Patrick; Garcia-Sanchez, Esther

    2015-09-01

    Memory system architectures using DDR2 technology need to be compliant with JEDEC JESD8-15A standard [1]. Therefore a bus termination regulator able to sink and source current while regulating VTT voltage is used for this purpose. Such module has been developed by 3D PLUS and is the first space qualified DDR Termination Regulator (DDR2-TR) available on the market. It is based on an innovative Bang-Bang regulation principle, chosen for its speed performance and to guarantee an output voltage that remains within the predefined limits regardless of any output current transients. The output filter type is selected to make the module rugged to any overload condition without complex protection circuits. The module has been specifically designed for low input voltage, low noise and high reliability systems where space is a key consideration. The module uses the 3D PLUS SIP (System-In-Package) technology embedding 3 stacked PCBs. No external filters or decoupling capacitors are needed.

  13. From trigonal bipyramidal to platonic solids: self-assembly and self-sorting study of terpyridine-based 3D architectures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Wang, Chao; Hao, Xin-Qi; Li, Xiaohong; Vaughn, Tyler J; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Yu, Yihua; Li, Zhong-Yu; Song, Mao-Ping; Yang, Hai-Bo; Li, Xiaopeng

    2014-07-23

    Using a series of tritopic 2,2':6',2″-terpyridine (tpy) ligands constructed on adamantane, three discrete 3D metallo-supramolecular architectures were assembled, i.e., trigonal bipyramidal, tetrahedron, and cube. The self-assembly used tritopic ligands as corner directing units and metal ions as glue units at the edge. The angles of the linkers between adamantane and tpy head play a critical role in guiding the assembled structures, which have the general formula of M3nL2n, where M denotes metal ion and L denotes ligand. All complexes were fully characterized by (1)H, (13)C NMR, diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy, ESI-MS, and traveling-wave ion mobility-mass spectrometry. The binary mixtures of LA and LC or LB and LC underwent a self-sorting process that led to the self-assembly of discrete 3D structures. The self-sorting behavior is solely based on the angles precoded within the arm of tritopic ligands. Moreover, kinetic study of preassembled cube and tetrahedron demonstrated a slow ligand exchange process toward a statistical mixture of hetero tetrahedrons with LA and LB. PMID:24978202

  14. Extending a Mobile Device with Low-Cost 3d Modeling and Building-Scale Mapping Capabilities, for Application in Architecture and Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancona, M.; Clini, P.; Dellacasa, A.; Falzone, P.; La Camera, A.; Quattrini, R.; Sommariva, E.; Stephens, J.

    2015-02-01

    One of the most challenging problem in architecture is the automated construction of 3D (and 4D) digital models of cultural objects with the aim of implementing open data repositories, scientifically authenticated and responding to well accepted standards of validation, evaluation, preservation, publication, updating and dissemination. The realization of such an ambitious objective requires the adoption of special technological instruments. In this paper we plan to use portable devices (i.e. smartphones, tablets or PDAs eventually extended to wearable ones), extended with a small plug-in, for automatically extracting 3D models of single objects and building-scale mapping of the surrounding environment. At the same time, the device will provide the capability of inserting notes and observations. Where the instrument cannot be directly applied, for example for exploring the top of a complex building, we consider mounting our device, or using equivalent existing equipment, on a drone, in a modular approach for obtaining data de-facto interchangeable. The approach based on the expansion packs has the advantage of anticipating (or even promoting) future extensions of new mobile devices, when the spectrum of possible applications justify the corresponding increased costs. In order to experiment and verify this approach we plan to test it in two specific scenarios of the cultural heritage domain in which such devices seem particularly promising: Strada Nuova in Genoa and Palazzo Ducale in Urbino, both located in Italy.

  15. Synthesis of novel 3D SnO flower-like hierarchical architectures self-assembled by nano-leaves and its photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Yongkui; Wang, Fengping Iqbal, M. Zubair; Wang, Ziya; Li, Yan; Tu, Jianhai

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Novel 3D SnO flowers self-assembled by 2D nano-leaves were synthesized by hydrothermal method. • The SnO nano-leaf is of single crystalline nature. • The band gap of 2.59 eV of as-prepared products was obtained. • The as-synthesized material will be a promising photocatalytic material. - Abstract: In this report, the novel 3D SnO flower-like hierarchical architectures self-assembled by 2D SnO nano-leaves are successfully synthesized via template-free hydrothermal approach under facile conditions. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy results demonstrate that the 2D nano-leaves structure is of single crystalline nature. The band gap 2.59 eV for prepared product is obtained from UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectrum. The photocatalysis of the as prepared SnO for degrading methyl orange (MO) has been studied. A good photocatalytic activity is obtained and the mechanism is discussed in detail. Results indicate that the SnO nanostructures are the potential candidates for photocatalyst applications.

  16. Image-Based 3d Modeling VS Laser Scanning for the Analysis of Medieval Architecture: the Case of ST. Croce Church in Bergamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardaci, A.; Versaci, A.

    2013-07-01

    The Church of St. Croce in Bergamo (second half of the 11th century), is a small four-sided building consisting of two overlapping volumes located in the courtyard adjacent to the Bishop's Palace. In the last years, archaeological excavations have unearthed parts of the edifice, until that time hidden because buried during the construction of the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore and now restored its original form. Due to the recent discoveries, a critical review of all the existing documentation in order to clarify the relationship of the various building components has been considered necessary. A quick, well-timed, chromatically characterized and accurate survey aimed at the complete digital reconstruction of this interesting example of medieval Italian architecture was then needed. This has suggested simultaneously testing two of the most innovative technologies: the 3D laser scanning survey ensuring high-resolution and complete models within a short time, and the photogrammetric automatic image-based modelling, allowing a three-dimensional reconstruction of the architectural objects. This paper intends to show the results achieved by the analytical comparison between the two methodologies, and thus analyse their differences, the advantages and the deficiencies of both of them and the opportunities for future enhancements and developments.

  17. High-resolution sub-bottom sonar imaging and 3D modeling of drowned Pleistocene river paleochannel architecture (Strunjan bay, Adriatic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trobec, Ana; Šmuc, Andrej; Poglajen, Sašo; Vrabec, Marko

    2015-04-01

    facies. Acoustic facies C represents the position of the river channel prior to channel migration. This channel and its levees are partially eroded by the subsequent activity of the facies B channel. Acoustic facies D is characterized by strong reflections with parallel geometry and high to medium frequency, which become wavy and less pronounced towards the present-day shore, and is interpreted as alluvial plain deposits. The new dataset shows that the lateral truncations of strata, initially assumed to be expression of faulting, are running parallel to the meandering paleoriver channel and must be therefore sedimentologically controlled. Furthermore, 3D stratal architecture clearly shows that the observed linear morphological flexure in seabottom bathymetry originated by sea-current erosion and not by faulting, and no vertical offsets of the river channel were found. Our work clearly demonstrates advantages of utilizing the 3D approach rather than interpretation from isolated 2D profiles when studying architecturally complex continental alluvial deposits. This research was funded from ARRS L1-5452 grant.

  18. European Society of Biomechanics S.M. Perren Award 2008: using temporal trends of 3D bone micro-architecture to predict bone quality.

    PubMed

    Pauchard, Yves; Mattmann, Corinne; Kuhn, Andreas; Gasser, Jürg A; Boyd, Steven K

    2008-10-20

    In longitudinal studies, three-dimensional (3D) bone images are acquired at sequential time points essentially resulting in four-dimensional (4D) data for an individual. Based on the 4D data, we propose to calculate temporal trends and project these trends to estimate future bone architecture. Multiple consecutive deformation fields, calculated with Demons deformable image registration algorithm, were extrapolated on a voxel-by-voxel basis. Test data were from in vivo micro-computed tomography (microCT) scans of the proximal tibia of Wistar rats that were either ovariectomized (OVX; N=5) or sham operated (SHAM; N=6). Measurements performed at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks were the basis to predict the 12 week data. Predicted and actual 12 week data were compared using qualitative (3D rendering) and quantitative (geometry, morphology and micro-finite element, microFE) methods. The results indicated a voxel-based linear extrapolation scheme yielded mean geometric errors that were smaller than the voxel size of 15 microm. Key morphological parameters that were estimated included bone volume ratio (BV/TV; mean error 0.4%, maximum error 9%), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th; -1.1%, 11%), connectivity density (Conn.D; 9.0%, 18.5%) and the apparent Young's modulus (E(1); 6.0%, 32%). These data demonstrated a promising and novel approach for quantitatively capturing in vivo bone dynamics at the local trabecular level. The method does not require an a priori understanding of the diseases state, and can provide information about the trends of the bone remodeling process that may be used for better monitoring and treatment of diseases such as osteoporosis. PMID:18805535

  19. Electron Tomography of Cryo-Immobilized Plant Tissue: A Novel Approach to Studying 3D Macromolecular Architecture of Mature Plant Cell Walls In Situ

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Purbasha; Bosneaga, Elena; Yap, Edgar G.; Das, Jyotirmoy; Tsai, Wen-Ting; Cabal, Angelo; Neuhaus, Erica; Maji, Dolonchampa; Kumar, Shailabh; Joo, Michael; Yakovlev, Sergey; Csencsits, Roseann; Yu, Zeyun; Bajaj, Chandrajit; Downing, Kenneth H.; Auer, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Cost-effective production of lignocellulosic biofuel requires efficient breakdown of cell walls present in plant biomass to retrieve the wall polysaccharides for fermentation. In-depth knowledge of plant cell wall composition is therefore essential for improving the fuel production process. The precise spatial three-dimensional (3D) organization of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and lignin within plant cell walls remains unclear to date since the microscopy techniques used so far have been limited to two-dimensional, topographic or low-resolution imaging, or required isolation or chemical extraction of the cell walls. In this paper we demonstrate that by cryo-immobilizing fresh tissue, then either cryo-sectioning or freeze-substituting and resin embedding, followed by cryo- or room temperature (RT) electron tomography, respectively, we can visualize previously unseen details of plant cell wall architecture in 3D, at macromolecular resolution (∼2 nm), and in near-native state. Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed that wall organization of cryo-immobilized samples were preserved remarkably better than conventionally prepared samples that suffer substantial extraction. Lignin-less primary cell walls were well preserved in both self-pressurized rapidly frozen (SPRF), cryo-sectioned samples as well as high-pressure frozen, freeze-substituted and resin embedded (HPF-FS-resin) samples. Lignin-rich secondary cell walls appeared featureless in HPF-FS-resin sections presumably due to poor stain penetration, but their macromolecular features could be visualized in unprecedented details in our cryo-sections. While cryo-tomography of vitreous tissue sections is currently proving to be instrumental in developing 3D models of lignin-rich secondary cell walls, here we confirm that the technically easier method of RT-tomography of HPF-FS-resin sections could be used immediately for routine study of low-lignin cell walls. As a proof of principle, we characterized the

  20. Electron tomography of cryo-immobilized plant tissue: a novel approach to studying 3D macromolecular architecture of mature plant cell walls in situ.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Purbasha; Bosneaga, Elena; Yap, Edgar G; Das, Jyotirmoy; Tsai, Wen-Ting; Cabal, Angelo; Neuhaus, Erica; Maji, Dolonchampa; Kumar, Shailabh; Joo, Michael; Yakovlev, Sergey; Csencsits, Roseann; Yu, Zeyun; Bajaj, Chandrajit; Downing, Kenneth H; Auer, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Cost-effective production of lignocellulosic biofuel requires efficient breakdown of cell walls present in plant biomass to retrieve the wall polysaccharides for fermentation. In-depth knowledge of plant cell wall composition is therefore essential for improving the fuel production process. The precise spatial three-dimensional (3D) organization of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and lignin within plant cell walls remains unclear to date since the microscopy techniques used so far have been limited to two-dimensional, topographic or low-resolution imaging, or required isolation or chemical extraction of the cell walls. In this paper we demonstrate that by cryo-immobilizing fresh tissue, then either cryo-sectioning or freeze-substituting and resin embedding, followed by cryo- or room temperature (RT) electron tomography, respectively, we can visualize previously unseen details of plant cell wall architecture in 3D, at macromolecular resolution (∼ 2 nm), and in near-native state. Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed that wall organization of cryo-immobilized samples were preserved remarkably better than conventionally prepared samples that suffer substantial extraction. Lignin-less primary cell walls were well preserved in both self-pressurized rapidly frozen (SPRF), cryo-sectioned samples as well as high-pressure frozen, freeze-substituted and resin embedded (HPF-FS-resin) samples. Lignin-rich secondary cell walls appeared featureless in HPF-FS-resin sections presumably due to poor stain penetration, but their macromolecular features could be visualized in unprecedented details in our cryo-sections. While cryo-tomography of vitreous tissue sections is currently proving to be instrumental in developing 3D models of lignin-rich secondary cell walls, here we confirm that the technically easier method of RT-tomography of HPF-FS-resin sections could be used immediately for routine study of low-lignin cell walls. As a proof of principle, we characterized the

  1. Performance of linear and nonlinear texture measures in 2D and 3D for monitoring architectural changes in osteoporosis using computer-generated models of trabecular bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, Holger F.; Link, Thomas M.; Monetti, Roberto A.; Mueller, Dirk; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Raeth, Christoph W.

    2005-04-01

    Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease leading to de-mineralization and increased risk of fracture. The two major factors that determine the biomechanical competence of bone are the degree of mineralization and the micro-architectural integrity. Today, modern imaging modalities (high resolution MRI, micro-CT) are capable of depicting structural details of trabecular bone tissue. From the image data, structural properties obtained by quantitative measures are analysed with respect to the presence of osteoporotic fractures of the spine (in-vivo) or correlated with biomechanical strength as derived from destructive testing (in-vitro). Fairly well established are linear structural measures in 2D that are originally adopted from standard histo-morphometry. Recently, non-linear techniques in 2D and 3D based on the scaling index method (SIM), the standard Hough transform (SHT), and the Minkowski Functionals (MF) have been introduced, which show excellent performance in predicting bone strength and fracture risk. However, little is known about the performance of the various parameters with respect to monitoring structural changes due to progression of osteoporosis or as a result of medical treatment. In this contribution, we generate models of trabecular bone with pre-defined structural properties which are exposed to simulated osteoclastic activity. We apply linear and non-linear texture measures to the models and analyse their performance with respect to detecting architectural changes. This study demonstrates, that the texture measures are capable of monitoring structural changes of complex model data. The diagnostic potential varies for the different parameters and is found to depend on the topological composition of the model and initial "bone density". In our models, non-linear texture measures tend to react more sensitively to small structural changes than linear measures. Best performance is observed for the 3rd and 4th Minkowski Functionals and for the scaling

  2. Evaluation of cell binding to collagen and gelatin: a study of the effect of 2D and 3D architecture and surface chemistry.

    PubMed

    Davidenko, Natalia; Schuster, Carlos F; Bax, Daniel V; Farndale, Richard W; Hamaia, Samir; Best, Serena M; Cameron, Ruth E

    2016-10-01

    Studies of cell attachment to collagen-based materials often ignore details of the binding mechanisms-be they integrin-mediated or non-specific. In this work, we have used collagen and gelatin-based substrates with different dimensional characteristics (monolayers, thin films and porous scaffolds) in order to establish the influence of composition, crosslinking (using carbodiimide) treatment and 2D or 3D architecture on integrin-mediated cell adhesion. By varying receptor expression, using cells with collagen-binding integrins (HT1080 and C2C12 L3 cell lines, expressing α2β1, and Rugli expressing α1β1) and a parent cell line C2C12 with gelatin-binding receptors (αvβ3 and α5β1), the nature of integrin binding sites was studied in order to explain the bioactivity of different protein formulations. We have shown that alteration of the chemical identity, conformation and availability of free binding motifs (GxOGER and RGD), resulting from addition of gelatin to collagen and crosslinking, have a profound effect on the ability of cells to adhere to these formulations. Carbodiimide crosslinking ablates integrin-dependent cell activity on both two-dimensional and three-dimensional architectures while the three-dimensional scaffold structure also leads to a high level of non-specific interactions remaining on three-dimensional samples even after a rigorous washing regime. This phenomenon, promoted by crosslinking, and attributed to cell entrapment, should be considered in any assessment of the biological activity of three-dimensional substrates. Spreading data confirm the importance of integrin-mediated cell engagement for further cell activity on collagen-based compositions. In this work, we provide a simple, but effective, means of deconvoluting the effects of chemistry and dimensional characteristics of a substrate, on the cell activity of protein-derived materials, which should assist in tailoring their biological properties for specific tissue engineering

  3. 3-D architecture modeling using high-resolution seismic data and sparse well control: Example from the Mars {open_quotes}Pink{close_quotes} reservoir, Mississippi Canyon Area, Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Chapin, M.A.; Tiller, G.M.; Mahaffie, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    Economic considerations of the deep-water turbidite play, in the Gulf of Mexico and elsewhere, require large reservoir volumes to be drained by relatively few, very expensive wells. Deep-water development projects to date have been planned on the basis of high-quality 3-D seismic data and sparse well control. The link between 3-D seismic, well control, and the 3-D geological and reservoir architecture model are demonstrated here for Pliocene turbidite sands of the {open_quotes}Pink{close_quotes} reservoir, Prospect Mars, Mississippi Canyon Areas 763 and 807, Gulf of Mexico. This information was used to better understand potential reservoir compartments for development well planning.

  4. Creating 3D Hierarchical Carbon Architectures with Micro-, Meso-, and Macropores via a Simple Self-Blowing Strategy for a Flow-through Deionization Capacitor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shanshan; Yan, Tingting; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Jianping; Shi, Liyi; Zhang, Dengsong

    2016-07-20

    In this work, 3D hierarchical carbon architectures (3DHCAs) with micro-, meso-, and macropores were prepared via a simple self-blowing strategy as highly efficient electrodes for a flow-through deionization capacitor (FTDC). The obtained 3DHCAs have a hierarchically porous structure, large accessible specific surface area (2061 m(2) g(-1)), and good wettability. The electrochemical tests show that the 3DHCA electrode has a high specific capacitance and good electric conductivity. The deionization experiments demonstrate that the 3DHCA electrodes possess a high deionization capacity of 17.83 mg g(-1) in a 500 mg L(-1) NaCl solution at 1.2 V. Moreover, the 3DHCA electrodes present a fast deionization rate in 100-500 mg L(-1) NaCl solutions at 0.8-1.4 V. The 3DHCA electrodes also present a good regeneration behavior in the reiterative regeneration test. These above factors render the 3DHCAs a promising FTDC electrode material. PMID:27352100

  5. A Comparison of the influence of material on in vitro cartilage tissue engineering with PCL, PGS, and POC 3D scaffold architecture seeded with chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Claire G.; Hollister, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine material effects on cartilage regeneration for scaffolds with the same controlled architecture. The 3D polycaprolactone (PCL), poly (glycerol sebacate) (PGS), and poly (1,8 octanediol-co-citrate) (POC) scaffolds of the same design were physically characterized and tissue regeneration in terms of cell phenotype, cellular proliferation and differentiation, and matrix production were compared to find which material would be most optimal for cartilage regeneration in vitro. POC provided the best support for cartilage regeneration in terms of tissue ingrowth, matrix production, and relative mRNA expressions for chondrocyte differentiation (Col2/Col1). PGS was seen as the least favorable material for cartilage based on its relatively high de-differentiation (Col1), hypertrophic mRNA expression (Col10) and high matrix degradation (MMP13, MMP3) results. PCL still provided microenvironments suitable for cells to be active yet it seemed to cause de-differentiation (Col1) of chondrocytes inside the scaffold while many cells migrated out, growing cartilage outside the scaffold. PMID:20219243

  6. The persistence and role of basin structures on the 3D architecture of the Marañón Fold-Thrust Belt, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherrenberg, Arne F.; Holcombe, Rodney J.; Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2014-04-01

    The 3D architecture of fold-thrust belts commonly involves thin-skinned and thick-skinned deformation. Both thick- and thin-skinned deformation styles have been suggested to occur in the Marañón Fold-Thrust Belt (MFTB) in Peru, but the relative timing and strain partitioning associated with them are not well understood. We demonstrate that inherited basement structures along the Peruvian convergent margin reactivated during the evolution of the MFTB. We present results from field mapping, interpretation of remote sensing imagery, and cross section construction and restoration. The results show that the Chonta Fault, a median pre-folding basin normal fault, was inverted and acted as a mechanical buttress during initial east-vergent contraction of the fold-thrust belt. This fault separates the belt into two domains of distinctly different structural styles. During the Eocene, units to the west of the Chonta Fault deformed by folding, using the fault as a buttress, and subsequently propagated eastward by thin-skinned thrusting. This was followed in the Miocene by west-vergent, basement-involved deformation, which overprinted the earlier east-vergent, thin-skinned structures. The proposed tectonic model of the MFTB highlights the role of basement-fault reactivation during orogenesis and the involvement of deep structures in partitioning deformation styles.

  7. Late Cretaceous Localized Crustal Thickening as a Primary Control on the 3-D Architecture and Exhumation Histories of Cordilleran Metamorphic Core Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gans, P. B.; Wong, M.

    2014-12-01

    The juxtaposition of mylonitic mid-crustal rocks and faulted supracrustal rocks in metamorphic core complexes (MMCs) is usually portrayed in 2 dimensions and attributed to a single event of large-scale slip ± isostatic doming along a low-angle "detachment fault"/ shear zone. This paradigm does not explain dramatic along strike (3-D) variations in slip magnitude, footwall architecture, and burial / exhumation histories of most MMCs. A fundamental question posed by MMCs is how did their earlier thickening and exhumation histories influence the geometric evolution and 3-D slip distribution on the subsequent detachment faults? New geologic mapping and 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology from the Snake Range-Kern Mts-Deep Creek Mts (SKDC) complex in eastern Nevada offer important insights into this question. Crustal shortening and thickening by large-scale non-cylindrical recumbent folds and associated thrust faults during the late Cretaceous (90-80 Ma) resulted in deep burial (650°C, 20-25 km) of the central part of the footwall, but metamorphic grade decreases dramatically to the N and S in concert with decreasing amplitude on the shortening structures. Subsequent Paleogene extensional exhumation by normal faulting and ESE-directed mylonitic shearing is greatest in areas of maximum earlier thickening and brought highest grade rocks back to depths of~10-12 km. After ≥15 Ma of quiescence, rapid E-directed slip initiated along the brittle Miocene Snake Range detachment at 20 Ma and reactivated the Eocene shear zone. The ≥200°C gradient across the footwall at this time implies that the Miocene slip surface originated as a moderately E-dipping normal fault. This Miocene slip surface can be tracked for more than 100 km along strike, but the greatest amount of Miocene slip also coincides with parts of the footwall that were most deeply buried in the Cretaceous. These relations indicate that not only is the SKDC MMC a composite feature, but that the crustal welt created by

  8. Architectural strategies of Cornus sericea, a native but invasive shrub of Southern Quebec, Canada, under an open or a closed canopy

    PubMed Central

    Charles-Dominique, T.; Edelin, C.; Bouchard, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Qualitative and quantitative studies of the pattern of invasive plant development is considered a key aspect in understanding invasiveness. An architectural analysis was therefore performed in order to understand the relationship between shoot architecture and invasiveness in red-osier dogwood, Cornus sericea (Cornaceae). Methods The structural and ontogenic characteristics of individuals in invading and non-invading populations in the native range of the species were compared to test the implication of developmental plasticity on invasiveness. Key Results and Conclusions The results show that the shrub has a modular architecture governed by strong developmental rules. Cornus sericea is made up of two levels of organization, each with its own intrinsic sequence of differentiation. These intrinsic mechanisms were used as a framework for comparison and it was found that, in response to the light environment, developmental plasticity was elevated, resulting in two architectural strategies. This developmental plasticity concerns the growth direction and the size of the modules, the speed of their time-course changes, their branching and flowering. Under an open canopy, C. sericea rapidly develops large vertical structures and abundant flowering. This strategy leads the plant to be invasive by excluding competitors and disseminating in the landscape. In the understorey, C. sericea slowly develops long horizontal structures which creep across the soil surface, while assimilating structures are poorly developed. This strategy does not lead to invasiveness but may allow the plant to survive in the understorey and reach sunny patches. PMID:19900945

  9. Vegetation species composition and canopy architecture information expressed in leaf water absorption measured in the 1000 nm and 2200 spectral region by an imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Roberts, Dar A.

    1995-01-01

    Plant species composition and plant architectural attributes are critical parameters required for the measuring, monitoring, and modeling of terrestrial ecosystems. Remote sensing is commonly cited as an important tool for deriving vegetation properties at an appropriate scale for ecosystem studies, ranging from local to regional and even synoptic scales. Classical approaches rely on vegetation indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to estimate biophysical parameters such as leaf area index or intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (IPAR). Another approach is to apply a variety of classification schemes to map vegetation and thus extrapolate fine-scale information about specific sites to larger areas of similar composition. Imaging spectrometry provides additional information that is not obtainable through broad-band sensors and that may provide improved inputs both to direct biophysical estimates as well as classification schemes. Some of this capability has been demonstrated through improved discrimination of vegetation, estimates of canopy biochemistry, and liquid water estimates from vegetation. We investigate further the potential of leaf water absorption estimated from Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data as a means for discriminating vegetation types and deriving canopy architectural information. We expand our analysis to incorporate liquid water estimates from two spectral regions, the 1000-nm region and the 2200-nm region. The study was conducted in the vicinity of Jasper Ridge, California, which is located on the San Francisco peninsula to the west of the Stanford University campus. AVIRIS data were acquired over Jasper Ridge, CA, on June 2, 1992, at 19:31 UTC. Spectra from three sites in this image were analyzed. These data are from an area of healthy grass, oak woodland, and redwood forest, respectively. For these analyses, the AVIRIS-measured upwelling radiance spectra for the entire Jasper

  10. FPGA architectures for electronically scanned wide-band RF beams using 3-D FIR/IIR digital filters for rectangular array aperture receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijayaratna, Sewwandi; Madanayake, Arjuna; Beall, Brandon D.; Bruton, Len T.

    2014-05-01

    Real-time digital implementation of three-dimensional (3-D) infinite impulse response (IIR) beam filters are discussed. The 3-D IIR filter building blocks have filter coefficients, which are defined using algebraic closed-form expressions that are functions of desired beam personalities, such as the look-direction of the aperture, the bandwidth and sampling frequency of interest, inter antenna spacing, and 3dB beam size. Real-time steering of such 3-D beam filters are obtained by proposed calculation of filter coefficients. Application specific computing units for rapidly calculating the 3-D IIR filter coefficients at nanosecond speed potentially allows fast real-time tracking of low radar cross section (RCS) objects at close range. Proposed design consists of 3-D IIR beam filter with 4 4 antenna grid and the filter coefficient generation block in separate FPGAs. The hardware is designed and co-simulated using a Xilinx Virtex-6 XC6VLX240T FPGA. The 3-D filter operates over 90 MHz and filter coefficient computing structure can operate at up to 145 MHz.

  11. Modeling Diurnal and Seasonal 3D Light Profiles in Amazon Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, D. C.; Rubio, J.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J.; Cook, B. D.; Hunter, M. O.; Yin, T.; Nagol, J. R.; Keller, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    The complex horizontal and vertical structure in tropical forests generates a diversity of light environments for canopy and understory trees. These 3D light profiles are dynamic on diurnal and seasonal time scales based on changes in solar illumination and the fraction of diffuse light. Understanding this variability is critical for improving ecosystem models and interpreting optical and LiDAR remote sensing data from tropical forests. Here, we initialized the Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART) model using dense airborne LiDAR data (>20 returns m2) from three forest sites in the central and eastern Amazon. Forest scenes derived from airborne LiDAR data were tested using modeled and observed large-footprint LiDAR data from the ICESat-GLAS sensor. Next, diurnal and seasonal profiles of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for each forest site were simulated under clear sky and cloudy conditions using DART. Incident PAR was summarized for canopy, understory, and ground levels. Our study illustrates the importance of realistic canopy models for accurate representation of LiDAR and optical radiative transfer. In particular, canopy rugosity and ground topography information from airborne LiDAR data provided critical 3D information that cannot be recreated using stem maps and allometric relationships for crown dimensions. The spatial arrangement of canopy trees altered PAR availability, even for dominant individuals, compared to downwelling measurements from nearby eddy flux towers. Pseudo-realistic branch and leaf architecture was also essential for recreating multiple scattering within canopies at near-infrared wavelengths commonly used for LiDAR remote sensing and quantifying PAR attenuation from shading within and between canopies. These findings point to the need for more spatial information on forest structure to improve the representation of light availability in models of tropical forest productivity.

  12. 3D architecture constructed via the confined growth of MoS2 nanosheets in nanoporous carbon derived from metal-organic frameworks for efficient hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yun; Zhou, Xiaoli; Ding, Tao; Wang, Chunde; Yang, Qing

    2015-10-01

    The design and synthesis of robust, high-performance and low-cost three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structured materials for the electrochemical reduction of water to generate hydrogen is of great significance for practical water splitting applications. In this study, we develop an in situ space-confined method to synthesize an MoS2-based 3D hierarchical structure, in which the MoS2 nanosheets grow in the confined nanopores of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)-derived 3D carbons as electrocatalysts for efficient hydrogen production. Benefiting from its unique structure, which has more exposed active sites and enhanced conductivity, the as-prepared MoS2/3D nanoporous carbon (3D-NPC) composite exhibits remarkable electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) with a small onset overpotential of ~0.16 V, large cathodic currents, small Tafel slope of 51 mV per decade and good durability. We anticipate that this in situ confined growth provides new insights into the construction of high performance catalysts for energy storage and conversion.The design and synthesis of robust, high-performance and low-cost three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structured materials for the electrochemical reduction of water to generate hydrogen is of great significance for practical water splitting applications. In this study, we develop an in situ space-confined method to synthesize an MoS2-based 3D hierarchical structure, in which the MoS2 nanosheets grow in the confined nanopores of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)-derived 3D carbons as electrocatalysts for efficient hydrogen production. Benefiting from its unique structure, which has more exposed active sites and enhanced conductivity, the as-prepared MoS2/3D nanoporous carbon (3D-NPC) composite exhibits remarkable electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) with a small onset overpotential of ~0.16 V, large cathodic currents, small Tafel slope of 51 mV per decade and good durability. We

  13. Superior adsorption performance for triphenylmethane dyes on 3D architectures assembled by ZnO nanosheets as thin as ∼1.5nm.

    PubMed

    Pei, Cuijin; Han, Guoping; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Hua; Liu, Bin; Cheng, Lijuan; Yang, Heqing; Liu, Shengzhong

    2016-11-15

    The 3-dimensional hierarchical ZnO flower-like architectures have been synthesized in a Zn(Ac)2·2H2O-Na2SeO3-KBH4-pyridine solvothermal system at 100°C for 24h. The flower-like architecture is assembled from ZnO nanosheets with a thickness of ∼1.5nm, and the flower-like architecture specific surface area is 132m(2)/g. When the ZnO flower-like architecture is used as the adsorbent for acid fuschin (AF), malachite green (MG), basic fuchsin (BF), congo red (CR) and acid red (AR) in water, the adsorption capacities for AF, MG, BF, CR and AR are 7154.9, 2587.0, 1377.9, 85.0 and 38.0mg/g, respectively. Evidently, the as-obtained ZnO flower-like architectures show excellent adsorption performances for triphenylmethane dyes, and the adsorption capacity of 7154.9mg/g for AF is the highest of all adsorbents for dyes. The adsorption mechanism can be attributed to the electrostatic attraction and the formation of ion-association complex between triphenylmethane dyes and ZnO hierarchical flower-like architectures. PMID:27493012

  14. Automated 3D architecture reconstruction from photogrammetric structure-and-motion: A case study of the One Pilla pagoda, Hanoi, Vienam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    To, T.; Nguyen, D.; Tran, G.

    2015-04-01

    Heritage system of Vietnam has decline because of poor-conventional condition. For sustainable development, it is required a firmly control, space planning organization, and reasonable investment. Moreover, in the field of Cultural Heritage, the use of automated photogrammetric systems, based on Structure from Motion techniques (SfM), is widely used. With the potential of high-resolution, low-cost, large field of view, easiness, rapidity and completeness, the derivation of 3D metric information from Structure-and- Motion images is receiving great attention. In addition, heritage objects in form of 3D physical models are recorded not only for documentation issues, but also for historical interpretation, restoration, cultural and educational purposes. The study suggests the archaeological documentation of the "One Pilla" pagoda placed in Hanoi capital, Vietnam. The data acquired through digital camera Cannon EOS 550D, CMOS APS-C sensor 22.3 x 14.9 mm. Camera calibration and orientation were carried out by VisualSFM, CMPMVS (Multi-View Reconstruction) and SURE (Photogrammetric Surface Reconstruction from Imagery) software. The final result represents a scaled 3D model of the One Pilla Pagoda and displayed different views in MeshLab software.

  15. 3D periodic multiscale TiO2 architecture: a platform decorated with graphene quantum dots for enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhen; Yin, Min; Sun, Jing; Ding, Guqiao; Lu, Linfeng; Chang, Paichun; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Li, Dongdong

    2016-03-01

    Micropatterned TiO2 nanorods (TiO2NRs) via three-dimensional (3D) geometry engineering in both microscale and nanoscale decorated with graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have been demonstrated successfully. First, micropillar (MP) and microcave (MC) arrays of anatase TiO2 films are obtained through the sol-gel based thermal nanoimprinting method. Then they are employed as seed layers in hydrothermal growth to fabricate the 3D micropillar/microcave arrays of rutile TiO2NRs (NR), which show much-improved photoelectrochemical water-splitting performance than the TiO2NRs grown on flat seed layer. The zero-dimensional GQDs are sequentially deposited onto the surfaces of the microscale patterned nanorods. Owing to the fast charge separation that resulted from the favorable band alignment of the GQDs and rutile TiO2, the MP-NR-GQDs electrode achieves a photocurrent density up to 2.92 mA cm-2 under simulated one-sun illumination. The incident-photon-to-current-conversion efficiency (IPCE) value up to 72% at 370 nm was achieved on the MP-NR-GQDs electrode, which outperforms the flat-NR counterpart by 69%. The IPCE results also imply that the improved photocurrent mainly benefits from the distinctly enhanced ultraviolet response. The work provides a cost-effective and flexible pathway to develop periodic 3D micropatterned photoelectrodes and is promising for the future deployment of high performance optoelectronic devices.

  16. Morphology-Tuned Synthesis of NiCo2 O4 -Coated 3D Graphene Architectures Used as Binder-Free Electrodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunfei; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2016-03-18

    Nanostructured NiCo2 O4 is directly grown on the surface of three-dimensional graphene-coated nickel foam (3D-GNF) by a facile electrodeposition technique and subsequent annealing. The resulting NiCo2 O4 possesses a distinct flower or sheet morphology, tuned by potential or current variation electrodeposition, which are used as binder-free lithium-ion battery anodes for the first time. Both samples exhibit high lithium storage capacity, profiting from the unique binder-free electrode structures. The flower-type NiCo2 O4 demonstrates high reversible discharge capacity (1459 mAh g(-1) at 200 mA g(-1) ) and excellent cyclability with around 71 % retention of the reversible capacity after 60 cycles, which are superior to the sheet-type NiCo2 O4 . Such superb performance can be attributed to high volume utilization efficiency with unique morphological character, a well-preserved connection between the active materials and the current collector, a short lithium-ion diffusion path, and fast electrolyte transfer in the binder-free NiCo2 O4 -coated 3D graphene structure. The simple preparation process and easily controllable morphology make the binder-free NiCo2 O4 /3D-GNF hybrid a potential material for commercial applications. PMID:26918287

  17. 3D Reconstructed Cyto-, Muscarinic M2 Receptor, and Fiber Architecture of the Rat Brain Registered to the Waxholm Space Atlas.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Nicole; Axer, Markus; Schober, Martin; Huynh, Anh-Minh; Huysegoms, Marcel; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Bjaalie, Jan G; Leergaard, Trygve B; Kirlangic, Mehmet E; Amunts, Katrin; Zilles, Karl

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution multiscale and multimodal 3D models of the brain are essential tools to understand its complex structural and functional organization. Neuroimaging techniques addressing different aspects of brain organization should be integrated in a reference space to enable topographically correct alignment and subsequent analysis of the various datasets and their modalities. The Waxholm Space (http://software.incf.org/software/waxholm-space) is a publicly available 3D coordinate-based standard reference space for the mapping and registration of neuroanatomical data in rodent brains. This paper provides a newly developed pipeline combining imaging and reconstruction steps with a novel registration strategy to integrate new neuroimaging modalities into the Waxholm Space atlas. As a proof of principle, we incorporated large scale high-resolution cyto-, muscarinic M2 receptor, and fiber architectonic images of rat brains into the 3D digital MRI based atlas of the Sprague Dawley rat in Waxholm Space. We describe the whole workflow, from image acquisition to reconstruction and registration of these three modalities into the Waxholm Space rat atlas. The registration of the brain sections into the atlas is performed by using both linear and non-linear transformations. The validity of the procedure is qualitatively demonstrated by visual inspection, and a quantitative evaluation is performed by measurement of the concordance between representative atlas-delineated regions and the same regions based on receptor or fiber architectonic data. This novel approach enables for the first time the generation of 3D reconstructed volumes of nerve fibers and fiber tracts, or of muscarinic M2 receptor density distributions, in an entire rat brain. Additionally, our pipeline facilitates the inclusion of further neuroimaging datasets, e.g., 3D reconstructed volumes of histochemical stainings or of the regional distributions of multiple other receptor types, into the Waxholm Space

  18. 3D Reconstructed Cyto-, Muscarinic M2 Receptor, and Fiber Architecture of the Rat Brain Registered to the Waxholm Space Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Nicole; Axer, Markus; Schober, Martin; Huynh, Anh-Minh; Huysegoms, Marcel; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Bjaalie, Jan G.; Leergaard, Trygve B.; Kirlangic, Mehmet E.; Amunts, Katrin; Zilles, Karl

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution multiscale and multimodal 3D models of the brain are essential tools to understand its complex structural and functional organization. Neuroimaging techniques addressing different aspects of brain organization should be integrated in a reference space to enable topographically correct alignment and subsequent analysis of the various datasets and their modalities. The Waxholm Space (http://software.incf.org/software/waxholm-space) is a publicly available 3D coordinate-based standard reference space for the mapping and registration of neuroanatomical data in rodent brains. This paper provides a newly developed pipeline combining imaging and reconstruction steps with a novel registration strategy to integrate new neuroimaging modalities into the Waxholm Space atlas. As a proof of principle, we incorporated large scale high-resolution cyto-, muscarinic M2 receptor, and fiber architectonic images of rat brains into the 3D digital MRI based atlas of the Sprague Dawley rat in Waxholm Space. We describe the whole workflow, from image acquisition to reconstruction and registration of these three modalities into the Waxholm Space rat atlas. The registration of the brain sections into the atlas is performed by using both linear and non-linear transformations. The validity of the procedure is qualitatively demonstrated by visual inspection, and a quantitative evaluation is performed by measurement of the concordance between representative atlas-delineated regions and the same regions based on receptor or fiber architectonic data. This novel approach enables for the first time the generation of 3D reconstructed volumes of nerve fibers and fiber tracts, or of muscarinic M2 receptor density distributions, in an entire rat brain. Additionally, our pipeline facilitates the inclusion of further neuroimaging datasets, e.g., 3D reconstructed volumes of histochemical stainings or of the regional distributions of multiple other receptor types, into the Waxholm Space

  19. 3D Porous Architecture of Stacks of β-TCP Granules Compared with That of Trabecular Bone: A microCT, Vector Analysis, and Compression Study

    PubMed Central

    Chappard, Daniel; Terranova, Lisa; Mallet, Romain; Mercier, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The 3D arrangement of porous granular biomaterials usable to fill bone defects has received little study. Granular biomaterials occupy 3D space when packed together in a manner that creates a porosity suitable for the invasion of vascular and bone cells. Granules of beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) were prepared with either 12.5 or 25 g of β-TCP powder in the same volume of slurry. When the granules were placed in a test tube, this produced 3D stacks with a high (HP) or low porosity (LP), respectively. Stacks of granules mimic the filling of a bone defect by a surgeon. The aim of this study was to compare the porosity of stacks of β-TCP granules with that of cores of trabecular bone. Biomechanical compression tests were done on the granules stacks. Bone cylinders were prepared from calf tibia plateau, constituted high-density (HD) blocks. Low-density (LD) blocks were harvested from aged cadaver tibias. Microcomputed tomography was used on the β-TCP granule stacks and the trabecular bone cores to determine porosity and specific surface. A vector-projection algorithm was used to image porosity employing a frontal plane image, which was constructed line by line from all images of a microCT stack. Stacks of HP granules had porosity (75.3 ± 0.4%) and fractal lacunarity (0.043 ± 0.007) intermediate between that of HD (respectively 69.1 ± 6.4%, p < 0.05 and 0.087 ± 0.045, p < 0.05) and LD bones (respectively 88.8 ± 1.57% and 0.037 ± 0.014), but exhibited a higher surface density (5.56 ± 0.11 mm2/mm3 vs. 2.06 ± 0.26 for LD, p < 0.05). LP granular arrangements created large pores coexisting with dense areas of material. Frontal plane analysis evidenced a more regular arrangement of β-TCP granules than bone trabecule. Stacks of HP granules represent a scaffold that resembles trabecular bone in its porous microarchitecture. PMID:26528240

  20. All-in-one assembly based on 3D-intertangled and cross-jointed architectures of Si/Cu 1D-nanowires for lithium ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Chihyun; Kim, Tae-Hee; Cho, Yoon-Gyo; Kim, Jieun; Song, Hyun-Kon

    2015-01-01

    All-in-one assemblies of separator, electrode and current collector (SECA) for lithium ion batteries are presented by using 1D nanowires of Si and Cu (nwSi and nwCu). Even without binders, integrity of SECA is secured via structural joints based on ductility of Cu as well as entanglement of nwSi and nwCu. By controlling the ratio of the nanowires, the number of contact points and voids accommodating volume expansion of Si active material are tunable. Zero volume expansion and high energy density are simultaneously achievable by the architecture. PMID:25720334

  1. Rapid 360 degree imaging and stitching of 3D objects using multiple precision 3D cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Thomas; Yin, Stuart; Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Jiangan; Wu, Frank

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we present the system architecture of a 360 degree view 3D imaging system. The system consists of multiple 3D sensors synchronized to take 3D images around the object. Each 3D camera employs a single high-resolution digital camera and a color-coded light projector. The cameras are synchronized to rapidly capture the 3D and color information of a static object or a live person. The color encoded structure lighting ensures the precise reconstruction of the depth of the object. A 3D imaging system architecture is presented. The architecture employs the displacement of the camera and the projector to triangulate the depth information. The 3D camera system has achieved high depth resolution down to 0.1mm on a human head sized object and 360 degree imaging capability.

  2. 3D Networked Tin Oxide/Graphene Aerogel with a Hierarchically Porous Architecture for High-Rate Performance Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiuqiang; Chen, Shuangqiang; Sun, Bing; Wang, Chengyin; Wang, Guoxiu

    2015-09-01

    Low-cost and sustainable sodium-ion batteries are regarded as a promising technology for large-scale energy storage and conversion. The development of high-rate anode materials is highly desirable for sodium-ion batteries. The optimization of mass transport and electron transfer is crucial in the discovery of electrode materials with good high-rate performances. Herein, we report the synthesis of 3 D interconnected SnO2 /graphene aerogels with a hierarchically porous structure as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries. The unique 3 D architecture was prepared by a facile in situ process, during which cross-linked 3 D conductive graphene networks with macro-/meso-sized hierarchical pores were formed and SnO2 nanoparticles were dispersed uniformly on the graphene surface simultaneously. Such a 3 D functional architecture not only facilitates the electrode-electrolyte interaction but also provides an efficient electron pathway within the graphene networks. When applied as anode materials in sodium-ion batteries, the as-prepared SnO2 /graphene aerogel exhibited high reversible capacity, improved cycling performance compared to SnO2 , and promising high-rate capability. PMID:26079600

  3. New High-Resolution 3D Seismic Imagery of Deformation and Fault Architecture Along Newport-Inglewood/Rose Canyon Fault in the Inner California Borderlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, J. J.; Bormann, J. M.; Driscoll, N. W.; Kent, G.; Harding, A. J.; Wesnousky, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    The tectonic deformation and geomorphology of the Inner California Borderlands (ICB) records the transition from a convergent plate margin to a predominantly dextral strike-slip system. Geodetic measurements of plate boundary deformation onshore indicate that approximately 15%, or 6-8 mm/yr, of the total Pacific-North American relative plate motion is accommodated by faults offshore. The largest near-shore fault system, the Newport-Inglewood/Rose Canyon (NI/RC) fault complex, has a Holocene slip rate estimate of 1.5-2.0 mm/yr, according to onshore trenching, and current models suggest the potential to produce an Mw 7.0+ earthquake. The fault zone extends approximately 120 km, initiating from the south near downtown San Diego and striking northwards with a constraining bend north of Mt. Soledad in La Jolla and continuing northwestward along the continental shelf, eventually stepping onshore at Newport Beach, California. In late 2013, we completed the first high-resolution 3D seismic survey (3.125 m bins) of the NI/RC fault offshore of San Onofre as part of the Southern California Regional Fault Mapping project. We present new constraints on fault geometry and segmentation of the fault system that may play a role in limiting the extent of future earthquake ruptures. In addition, slip rate estimates using piercing points such as offset channels will be explored. These new observations will allow us to investigate recent deformation and strain transfer along the NI/RC fault system.

  4. 2.5D/3D Models for the enhancement of architectural-urban heritage. An Virtual Tour of design of the Fascist headquarters in Littoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ippoliti, E.; Calvano, M.; Mores, L.

    2014-05-01

    Enhancement of cultural heritage is not simply a matter of preserving material objects but comes full circle only when the heritage can be enjoyed and used by the community. This is the rationale behind this presentation: an urban Virtual Tour to explore the 1937 design of the Fascist Headquarters in Littoria, now part of Latina, by the architect Oriolo Frezzotti. Although the application is deliberately "simple", it was part of a much broader framework of goals. One such goal was to create "friendly and perceptively meaningful" interfaces by integrating different "3D models" and so enriching. In fact, by exploiting the activation of natural mechanisms of visual perception and the ensuing emotional emphasis associated with vision, the illusionistic simulation of the scene facilitates access to the data even for "amateur" users. A second goal was to "contextualise the information" on which the concept of cultural heritage is based. In the application, communication of the heritage is linked to its physical and linguistic context; the latter is then used as a basis from which to set out to explore and understand the historical evidence. A third goal was to foster the widespread dissemination and sharing of this heritage of knowledge. On the one hand we worked to make the application usable from the Web, on the other, we established a reliable, rapid operational procedure with high quality processed data and ensuing contents. The procedure was also repeatable on a large scale.

  5. Reconstruction of forest geometries from terrestrial laser scanning point clouds for canopy radiative transfer modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremer, Magnus; Schmidtner, Korbinian; Rutzinger, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The architecture of forest canopies is a key parameter for forest ecological issues helping to model the variability of wood biomass and foliage in space and time. In order to understand the nature of subpixel effects of optical space-borne sensors with coarse spatial resolution, hypothetical 3D canopy models are widely used for the simulation of radiative transfer in forests. Thereby, radiation is traced through the atmosphere and canopy geometries until it reaches the optical sensor. For a realistic simulation scene we decompose terrestrial laser scanning point cloud data of leaf-off larch forest plots in the Austrian Alps and reconstruct detailed model ready input data for radiative transfer simulations. The point clouds are pre-classified into primitive classes using Principle Component Analysis (PCA) using scale adapted radius neighbourhoods. Elongated point structures are extracted as tree trunks. The tree trunks are used as seeds for a Dijkstra-growing procedure, in order to obtain single tree segmentation in the interlinked canopies. For the optimized reconstruction of branching architectures as vector models, point cloud skeletonisation is used in combination with an iterative Dijkstra-growing and by applying distance constraints. This allows conducting a hierarchical reconstruction preferring the tree trunk and higher order branches and avoiding over-skeletonization effects. Based on the reconstructed branching architectures, larch needles are modelled based on the hierarchical level of branches and the geometrical openness of the canopy. For radiative transfer simulations, branch architectures are used as mesh geometries representing branches as cylindrical pipes. Needles are either used as meshes or as voxel-turbids. The presented workflow allows an automatic classification and single tree segmentation in interlinked canopies. The iterative Dijkstra-growing using distance constraints generated realistic reconstruction results. As the mesh representation

  6. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  7. Modelisation de l'architecture des forets pour ameliorer la teledetection des attributs forestiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cote, Jean-Francois

    The quality of indirect measurements of canopy structure, from in situ and satellite remote sensing, is based on knowledge of vegetation canopy architecture. Technological advances in ground-based, airborne or satellite remote sensing can now significantly improve the effectiveness of measurement programs on forest resources. The structure of vegetation canopy describes the position, orientation, size and shape of elements of the canopy. The complexity of the canopy in forest environments greatly limits our ability to characterize forest structural attributes. Architectural models have been developed to help the interpretation of canopy structural measurements by remote sensing. Recently, the terrestrial LiDAR systems, or TLiDAR (Terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging), are used to gather information on the structure of individual trees or forest stands. The TLiDAR allows the extraction of 3D structural information under the canopy at the centimetre scale. The methodology proposed in my Ph.D. thesis is a strategy to overcome the weakness in the structural sampling of vegetation cover. The main objective of the Ph.D. is to develop an architectural model of vegetation canopy, called L-Architect (LiDAR data to vegetation Architecture), and to focus on the ability to document forest sites and to get information on canopy structure from remote sensing tools. Specifically, L-Architect reconstructs the architecture of individual conifer trees from TLiDAR data. Quantitative evaluation of L-Architect consisted to investigate (i) the structural consistency of the reconstructed trees and (ii) the radiative coherence by the inclusion of reconstructed trees in a 3D radiative transfer model. Then, a methodology was developed to quasi-automatically reconstruct the structure of individual trees from an optimization algorithm using TLiDAR data and allometric relationships. L-Architect thus provides an explicit link between the range measurements of TLiDAR and structural attributes

  8. Strong light scattering and broadband (UV to IR) photoabsorption in stretchable 3D hybrid architectures based on Aerographite decorated by ZnO nanocrystallites.

    PubMed

    Tiginyanu, Ion; Ghimpu, Lidia; Gröttrup, Jorit; Postolache, Vitalie; Mecklenburg, Matthias; Stevens-Kalceff, Marion A; Ursaki, Veaceslav; Payami, Nader; Feidenhansl, Robert; Schulte, Karl; Adelung, Rainer; Mishra, Yogendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In present work, the nano- and microscale tetrapods from zinc oxide were integrated on the surface of Aerographite material (as backbone) in carbon-metal oxide hybrid hierarchical network via a simple and single step magnetron sputtering process. The fabricated hybrid networks are characterized for morphology, microstructural and optical properties. The cathodoluminescence investigations revealed interesting luminescence features related to carbon impurities and inherent host defects in zinc oxide. Because of the wide bandgap of zinc oxide and its intrinsic defects, the hybrid network absorbs light in the UV and visible regions, however, this broadband photoabsorption behavior extends to the infrared (IR) region due to the dependence of the optical properties of ZnO architectures upon size and shape of constituent nanostructures and their doping by carbon impurities. Such a phenomenon of broadband photoabsorption ranging from UV to IR for zinc oxide based hybrid materials is novel. Additionally, the fabricated network exhibits strong visible light scattering behavior. The developed Aerographite/nanocrystalline ZnO hybrid network materials, equipped with broadband photoabsorption and strong light scattering, are very promising candidates for optoelectronic technologies. PMID:27616632

  9. The 3D fault and vein architecture of strike-slip releasing- and restraining bends: Evidence from volcanic-centre-relatedmineral deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, B.R.

    2007-01-01

    High-temperature, volcanic-centre-related hydrothermal systems involve large fluid-flow volumes and are observed to have high discharge rates in the order of 100-400 kg/s. The flows and discharge occur predominantly on networks of critically stressed fractures. The coupling of hydrothermal fluid flow with deformation produces the volumes of veins found in epithermal mineral deposits. Owing to this coupling, veins provide information on the fault-fracture architecture in existence at the time of mineralization. They therefore provide information on the nature of deformation within fault zones, and the relations between different fault sets. The Virginia City and Goldfield mining districts, Nevada, were localized in zones of strike-slip transtension in an Early to Mid-Miocene volcanic belt along the western margin of North America. The Camp Douglas mining area occurs within the same belt, but is localized in a zone of strike-slip transpression. The vein systems in these districts record the spatial evolution of strike-slip extensional and contractional stepovers, as well as geometry of faulting in and adjacent to points along strike-slip faults where displacement has been interrupted and transferred into releasing and restraining stepovers. ?? The Geological Society of London 2007.

  10. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  11. 3D Bioprinting Using a Templated Porous Bioink.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, James P K; Burke, Madeline; Carter, Benjamin M; Davis, Sean A; Perriman, Adam W

    2016-07-01

    3D tissue printing with adult stem cells is reported. A novel cell-containing multicomponent bioink is used in a two-step 3D printing process to engineer bone and cartilage architectures. PMID:27125336

  12. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  13. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  14. Third Radiation Transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: Documenting progress in canopy reflectance models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widlowski, J.-L.; Taberner, M.; Pinty, B.; Bruniquel-Pinel, V.; Disney, M.; Fernandes, R.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J.-P.; Gobron, N.; Kuusk, A.; Lavergne, T.; Leblanc, S.; Lewis, P. E.; Martin, E.; Mõttus, M.; North, P. R. J.; Qin, W.; Robustelli, M.; Rochdi, N.; Ruiloba, R.; Soler, C.; Thompson, R.; Verhoef, W.; Verstraete, M. M.; Xie, D.

    2007-05-01

    The Radiation Transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) initiative benchmarks canopy reflectance models under well-controlled experimental conditions. Launched for the first time in 1999, this triennial community exercise encourages the systematic evaluation of canopy reflectance models on a voluntary basis. The first phase of RAMI focused on documenting the spread among radiative transfer (RT) simulations over a small set of primarily 1-D canopies. The second phase expanded the scope to include structurally complex 3-D plant architectures with and without background topography. Here sometimes significant discrepancies were noted which effectively prevented the definition of a reliable "surrogate truth," over heterogeneous vegetation canopies, against which other RT models could then be compared. The present paper documents the outcome of the third phase of RAMI, highlighting both the significant progress that has been made in terms of model agreement since RAMI-2 and the capability of/need for RT models to accurately reproduce local estimates of radiative quantities under conditions that are reminiscent of in situ measurements. Our assessment of the self-consistency and the relative and absolute performance of 3-D Monte Carlo models in RAMI-3 supports their usage in the generation of a "surrogate truth" for all RAMI test cases. This development then leads (1) to the presentation of the "RAMI Online Model Checker" (ROMC), an open-access web-based interface to evaluate RT models automatically, and (2) to a reassessment of the role, scope, and opportunities of the RAMI project in the future.

  15. 3-D sedimentological and geophysical studies of clastic reservoir analogs: Facies architecture, reservoir properties, and flow behavior within delta front facies elements of the Cretaceous Wall Creek Member, Frontier Formation, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Janok P. Bhattacharya; George A. McMechan

    2007-02-16

    This project examined the internal architecture of delta front sandstones at two locations within the Turonian-age Wall Creek Member of the Frontier Formation, in Wyoming. The project involved traditional outcrop field work integrated with core-data, and 2D and 3D ground penetrating radar (GPR) imaging from behind the outcrops. The fluid-flow engineering work, handled through a collaborative grant given to PI Chris White at LSU, focused on effects on fluid flow of late-stage calcite cement nodules in 3D. In addition to the extensive field component, the work funded 2 PhD students (Gani and Lee) and resulted in publication of 10 technical papers, 17 abstracts, and 4 internal field guides. PI Bhattacharya also funded an additional 3 PhD students that worked on the Wall Creek sandstone funded separately through an industrial consortium, two of whom graduated in the fall 2006 ((Sadeque and Vakarelov). These additional funds provided significant leverage to expand the work to include a regional stratigraphic synthesis of the Wall Creek Member of the Frontier Formation, in addition to the reservoir-scale studies that DOE directly funded. Awards given to PI Bhattacharya included the prestigious AAPG Distinguished Lecture Award, which involved a tour of about 25 Universities and Geological Societies in the US and Canada in the fall of 2005 and Spring of 2006. Bhattacharya gave two talks, one entitled “Applying Deltaic and Shallow Marine Outcrop Analogs to the Subsurface”, which highlighted the DOE sponsored work and the other titled “Martian River Deltas and the Origin of Life”. The outcrop analog talk was given at about 1/2 of the venues visited.

  16. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  17. Methane emissions from canopy wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinson, G. O.; Conrad, R.

    2012-12-01

    Ground wetlands are the main natural source of methane but they fail to explain the observed amounts of methane over tropical forests. Bromeliad tanks are discrete habitats for aquatic organisms and up to several thousand of bromeliad individuals per hectare of tropical forest create a unique canopy wetland ecosystem in neotropical forests. Recently, we have discovered that canopy wetlands inhabit methanogenic archaea, emit substantial amounts of methane and may help to explain the high amounts of methane over neotropical forests. However, the pathway of methane formation and potential methane production in canopy wetlands of different tropical forest ecosystems have not yet been studied. In this study, we investigated the stable carbon isotope fractionation, methanogenic pathway and potential methane production of bromeliad tanks along an elevation gradient in neotropical forests for the first time. We sampled the bromeliad tank-substrate of 3 tank bromeliads per functional type and elevation (1000 m, 2000 m and 3000 m above the sea level). We distinguished three functional types of tank bromeliads, based on plant architecture and ecological niche preference. Functional type I-tank bromeliads are concentrated in the understory and on the ground. Functional type II and type III are concentrated in the mid and overstory. We conducted tank-substrate incubation experiments and measured CH4, CO2, 13CH4 and 13CO2 at regular time intervals during the incubation period. The methane production potential of bromeliad tanks correlated positively with tank-substrate carbon concentration and decreased with increasing canopy height and increasing elevation. The dominant pathway of methane formation in bromeliad tanks was hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis (>50%) and this dominance increased with increasing canopy height and increasing elevation. Our results provide novel insights into the pathway of methane formation in neotropical canopy wetlands and suggest that canopy height is

  18. TRACE 3-D documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, K.R.

    1987-08-01

    TRACE 3-D is an interactive beam-dynamics program that calculates the envelopes of a bunched beam, including linear space-charge forces, through a user-defined transport system. TRACE 3-D provides an immediate graphics display of the envelopes and the phase-space ellipses and allows nine types of beam-matching options. This report describes the beam-dynamics calculations and gives detailed instruction for using the code. Several examples are described in detail.

  19. How We 3D-Print Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-23

    A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The 3D printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the 3D printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.

  20. Interactions between Fragmented Seagrass Canopies and the Local Hydrodynamics

    PubMed Central

    El Allaoui, Nazha; Colomer, Jordi; Soler, Marianna; Casamitjana, Xavier; Oldham, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    The systematic creation of gaps within canopies results in fragmentation and the architecture of fragmented canopies differs substantially from non-fragmented canopies. Canopy fragmentation leads to spatial heterogeneity in hydrodynamics and therefore heterogeneity in the sheltering of canopy communities. Identifying the level of instability due to canopy fragmentation is important for canopies in coastal areas impacted by human activities and indeed, climate change. The gap orientation relative to the wave direction is expected to play an important role in determining wave attenuation and sheltering. Initially we investigated the effect of a single transversal gap within a canopy (i.e. a gap oriented perpendicular to the wave direction) on hydrodynamics, which was compared to fully vegetated canopies (i.e. no gaps) and also to bare sediment. The wave velocity increased with gap width for the two canopy densities studied (2.5% and 10% solid plant fraction) reaching wave velocities found over bare sediments. The turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) within the gap also increased, but was more attenuated by the adjacent vegetation than the wave velocity. As expected, denser canopies produced a greater attenuation of both the wave velocity and the turbulent kinetic energy within an adjacent gap, compared to sparse canopies. Using non-dimensional analysis and our experimental data, a parameterization for predicting TKE in a canopy gap was formulated, as a function of easily measured variables. Based on the experimental results, a fragmented canopy model was then developed to determine the overall mixing level in such canopies. The model revealed that canopies with large gaps present more mixing than canopies with small gaps despite having the same total gap area in the canopy. Furthermore, for the same total gap area, dense fragmented canopies provide more shelter than sparse fragmented canopies. PMID:27227321

  1. Interactions between Fragmented Seagrass Canopies and the Local Hydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    El Allaoui, Nazha; Serra, Teresa; Colomer, Jordi; Soler, Marianna; Casamitjana, Xavier; Oldham, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    The systematic creation of gaps within canopies results in fragmentation and the architecture of fragmented canopies differs substantially from non-fragmented canopies. Canopy fragmentation leads to spatial heterogeneity in hydrodynamics and therefore heterogeneity in the sheltering of canopy communities. Identifying the level of instability due to canopy fragmentation is important for canopies in coastal areas impacted by human activities and indeed, climate change. The gap orientation relative to the wave direction is expected to play an important role in determining wave attenuation and sheltering. Initially we investigated the effect of a single transversal gap within a canopy (i.e. a gap oriented perpendicular to the wave direction) on hydrodynamics, which was compared to fully vegetated canopies (i.e. no gaps) and also to bare sediment. The wave velocity increased with gap width for the two canopy densities studied (2.5% and 10% solid plant fraction) reaching wave velocities found over bare sediments. The turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) within the gap also increased, but was more attenuated by the adjacent vegetation than the wave velocity. As expected, denser canopies produced a greater attenuation of both the wave velocity and the turbulent kinetic energy within an adjacent gap, compared to sparse canopies. Using non-dimensional analysis and our experimental data, a parameterization for predicting TKE in a canopy gap was formulated, as a function of easily measured variables. Based on the experimental results, a fragmented canopy model was then developed to determine the overall mixing level in such canopies. The model revealed that canopies with large gaps present more mixing than canopies with small gaps despite having the same total gap area in the canopy. Furthermore, for the same total gap area, dense fragmented canopies provide more shelter than sparse fragmented canopies. PMID:27227321

  2. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  3. A specification of 3D manipulation in virtual environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, S. Augustine; Furuta, Richard

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the modeling of three basic kinds of 3-D manipulations in the context of a logical hand device and our virtual panel architecture. The logical hand device is a useful software abstraction representing hands in virtual environments. The virtual panel architecture is the 3-D component of the 2-D window systems. Both of the abstractions are intended to form the foundation for adaptable 3-D manipulation.

  4. RAG-3D: a search tool for RNA 3D substructures.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-10-30

    To address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D-a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool-designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding. PMID:26304547

  5. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  6. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  7. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-01

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions < ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C T . We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N . We also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  8. Effects of light availability and tree size on the architecture of assimilative surface in the canopy of Picea abies: variation in needle morphology.

    PubMed

    Niinemets, U; Kull, O

    1995-05-01

    Needle dimensions, needle surface area, needle dry weight per area (LWA) and needle density (ND, needle weight per volume) were measured in terminal current-year shoots in a natural canopy of variably sized Picea abies (L.) Karst. trees growing along a light gradient. Needle shape was described as a rhomboid. Needle width (D(2)) increased with increasing diffuse site factor, a(d) (relative amount of penetrating diffuse solar radiation), whereas needle thickness (D(1)) remained nearly constant, resulting in an inverse relationship between D(1)/D(2) and a(d) and an increase in the ratio of total (TLA) to projected needle surface area (PLA) with increasing a(d). Because of the variations in needle morphology with respect to light availability, the shoot parameters used in present canopy models are also expected to be light-sensitive, and studies involving shoot morphology should also consider the variability in needle geometry. Needle dimensions and total tree height were not correlated. However, LWA increase with both increasing a(d) and total tree height. When LWA was expressed as the product of ND and needle height (NH, height of the rhomboidal transverse section of a needle), LWA appeared to increase with irradiance, because of changing NH, and with total tree height, because of changing needle density. PMID:14965954

  9. VitiCanopy: A Free Computer App to Estimate Canopy Vigor and Porosity for Grapevine

    PubMed Central

    De Bei, Roberta; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Gilliham, Matthew; Tyerman, Steve; Edwards, Everard; Bianchini, Nicolò; Smith, Jason; Collins, Cassandra

    2016-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) and plant area index (PAI) are common and important biophysical parameters used to estimate agronomical variables such as canopy growth, light interception and water requirements of plants and trees. LAI can be either measured directly using destructive methods or indirectly using dedicated and expensive instrumentation, both of which require a high level of know-how to operate equipment, handle data and interpret results. Recently, a novel smartphone and tablet PC application, VitiCanopy, has been developed by a group of researchers from the University of Adelaide and the University of Melbourne, to estimate grapevine canopy size (LAI and PAI), canopy porosity, canopy cover and clumping index. VitiCanopy uses the front in-built camera and GPS capabilities of smartphones and tablet PCs to automatically implement image analysis algorithms on upward-looking digital images of canopies and calculates relevant canopy architecture parameters. Results from the use of VitiCanopy on grapevines correlated well with traditional methods to measure/estimate LAI and PAI. Like other indirect methods, VitiCanopy does not distinguish between leaf and non-leaf material but it was demonstrated that the non-leaf material could be extracted from the results, if needed, to increase accuracy. VitiCanopy is an accurate, user-friendly and free alternative to current techniques used by scientists and viticultural practitioners to assess the dynamics of LAI, PAI and canopy architecture in vineyards, and has the potential to be adapted for use on other plants. PMID:27120600

  10. VitiCanopy: A Free Computer App to Estimate Canopy Vigor and Porosity for Grapevine.

    PubMed

    De Bei, Roberta; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Gilliham, Matthew; Tyerman, Steve; Edwards, Everard; Bianchini, Nicolò; Smith, Jason; Collins, Cassandra

    2016-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) and plant area index (PAI) are common and important biophysical parameters used to estimate agronomical variables such as canopy growth, light interception and water requirements of plants and trees. LAI can be either measured directly using destructive methods or indirectly using dedicated and expensive instrumentation, both of which require a high level of know-how to operate equipment, handle data and interpret results. Recently, a novel smartphone and tablet PC application, VitiCanopy, has been developed by a group of researchers from the University of Adelaide and the University of Melbourne, to estimate grapevine canopy size (LAI and PAI), canopy porosity, canopy cover and clumping index. VitiCanopy uses the front in-built camera and GPS capabilities of smartphones and tablet PCs to automatically implement image analysis algorithms on upward-looking digital images of canopies and calculates relevant canopy architecture parameters. Results from the use of VitiCanopy on grapevines correlated well with traditional methods to measure/estimate LAI and PAI. Like other indirect methods, VitiCanopy does not distinguish between leaf and non-leaf material but it was demonstrated that the non-leaf material could be extracted from the results, if needed, to increase accuracy. VitiCanopy is an accurate, user-friendly and free alternative to current techniques used by scientists and viticultural practitioners to assess the dynamics of LAI, PAI and canopy architecture in vineyards, and has the potential to be adapted for use on other plants. PMID:27120600

  11. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally describedmore » in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.« less

  12. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.

  13. RAG-3D: a search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    PubMed Central

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    To address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding. PMID:26304547

  14. 3D microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2008-02-01

    In order to circumvent the fact that only one observer can view the image from a stereoscopic microscope, an attachment was devised for displaying the 3D microscopic image on a large LCD monitor for viewing by multiple observers in real time. The principle of operation, design, fabrication, and performance are presented, along with tolerance measurements relating to the properties of the cellophane half-wave plate used in the design.

  15. Vegetation Species Composition and Canopy Architecture Information Expressed in Leaf Water Absorption Measured in the 1000nm and 2200 nm Spectral Region by an Imaging Spectometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. O.; Roberts, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    Plant species composition and plant architectural attributes are critical parameters required for the measuring, monitoring and modeling of terrestrial ecosystems. Remote sensing is commonly cited as an important tool for deriving vegetation properties at an appropriate scale for ecosystem studies, ranging from local, to regional and even synoptic scales (e.g. Wessman 1992).

  16. Multiviewer 3D monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Aye, Tin M.; Kim, Dai Hyun; Esterkin, Vladimir; Savant, Gajendra D.

    1998-09-01

    Physical Optics Corporation has developed an advanced 3-D virtual reality system for use with simulation tools for training technical and military personnel. This system avoids such drawbacks of other virtual reality (VR) systems as eye fatigue, headaches, and alignment for each viewer, all of which are due to the need to wear special VR goggles. The new system is based on direct viewing of an interactive environment. This innovative holographic multiplexed screen technology makes it unnecessary for the viewer to wear special goggles.

  17. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  18. Shinnery oak bidirectional reflectance properties and canopy model inversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deering, Donald W.; Eck, Thomas F.; Grier, Toby

    1992-01-01

    Field measurements are presented, together with the results of a 3D canopy-model inversion for sand shinnery oak community in western Texas. The spectral bidirectional radiance measurements were in three spectral channels encompassing both the complete land surface and sky hemispheres. The changes in canopy reflectance that occur with variations in solar zenith angle and view direction for two seasons of the year were evaluated, and the 3D radiation-interaction model was inverted to estimate the oak leaf area index and canopy density from the reflectance data.

  19. 3D Surgical Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  20. Interior Reconstruction Using the 3d Hough Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitru, R.-C.; Borrmann, D.; Nüchter, A.

    2013-02-01

    Laser scanners are often used to create accurate 3D models of buildings for civil engineering purposes, but the process of manually vectorizing a 3D point cloud is time consuming and error-prone (Adan and Huber, 2011). Therefore, the need to characterize and quantify complex environments in an automatic fashion arises, posing challenges for data analysis. This paper presents a system for 3D modeling by detecting planes in 3D point clouds, based on which the scene is reconstructed at a high architectural level through removing automatically clutter and foreground data. The implemented software detects openings, such as windows and doors and completes the 3D model by inpainting.

  1. [Estimation of canopy chlorophyll content using hyperspectral data].

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing-Jing; Wang, Li; Niu, Zheng

    2009-11-01

    Many researches have developed models to estimate chlorophyl content at leaf and canopy level, but they were species-specific. The objective of the present paper was to develop a new model. First, canopy reflectance was simulated for different species and different canopy architecture using radiative transfer models. Based on the simulated canopy reflectance, the relationship between canopy reflectance and canopy chlorophyll content was studied, and then a chlorophyll estimation model was built using the method of spectral index. The coefficient of determination (R2) between spectral index based model and canopy chlorophyll content reached 0.75 for simulated data. To investigate the applicability of this chlorophyll model, the authors chose a field sample area in Gansu Province to carry out the measurement of leaf chlorophyll content, canopy reflectance and other parameters. Besides, the authors also ordered the synchronous Hyperion data, a hyperspectral image with a spatial resolution of 30 m. Canopy reflectance from field measurment and reflectance from Hyperion image were respectively used as the input parameter for the chlorophyll estimation model. Both of them got good results, which indicated that the model could be used for accurate canopy chlorophyll estimation using canopy reflectance. However, while using spaceborne hyperspectral data to estimate canopy chlorophyll content, good atmospheric correction is required. PMID:20101973

  2. Highly compressible 3D periodic graphene aerogel microlattices.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Cheng; Han, T Yong-Jin; Duoss, Eric B; Golobic, Alexandra M; Kuntz, Joshua D; Spadaccini, Christopher M; Worsley, Marcus A

    2015-01-01

    Graphene is a two-dimensional material that offers a unique combination of low density, exceptional mechanical properties, large surface area and excellent electrical conductivity. Recent progress has produced bulk 3D assemblies of graphene, such as graphene aerogels, but they possess purely stochastic porous networks, which limit their performance compared with the potential of an engineered architecture. Here we report the fabrication of periodic graphene aerogel microlattices, possessing an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The 3D printed graphene aerogels are lightweight, highly conductive and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90% compressive strain). Moreover, the Young's moduli of the 3D printed graphene aerogels show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials with comparable geometric density and possess large surface areas. Adapting the 3D printing technique to graphene aerogels realizes the possibility of fabricating a myriad of complex aerogel architectures for a broad range of applications. PMID:25902277

  3. Highly compressible 3D periodic graphene aerogel microlattices

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Cheng; Han, T. Yong-Jin; Duoss, Eric B.; Golobic, Alexandra M.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Worsley, Marcus A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene is a two-dimensional material that offers a unique combination of low density, exceptional mechanical properties, large surface area and excellent electrical conductivity. Recent progress has produced bulk 3D assemblies of graphene, such as graphene aerogels, but they possess purely stochastic porous networks, which limit their performance compared with the potential of an engineered architecture. Here we report the fabrication of periodic graphene aerogel microlattices, possessing an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The 3D printed graphene aerogels are lightweight, highly conductive and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90% compressive strain). Moreover, the Young's moduli of the 3D printed graphene aerogels show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials with comparable geometric density and possess large surface areas. Adapting the 3D printing technique to graphene aerogels realizes the possibility of fabricating a myriad of complex aerogel architectures for a broad range of applications. PMID:25902277

  4. Highly compressible 3D periodic graphene aerogel microlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Cheng; Han, T. Yong-Jin; Duoss, Eric B.; Golobic, Alexandra M.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Worsley, Marcus A.

    2015-04-22

    Graphene is a two-dimensional material that offers a unique combination of low density, exceptional mechanical properties, large surface area and excellent electrical conductivity. Recent progress has produced bulk 3D assemblies of graphene, such as graphene aerogels, but they possess purely stochastic porous networks, which limit their performance compared with the potential of an engineered architecture. Here we report the fabrication of periodic graphene aerogel microlattices, possessing an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The 3D printed graphene aerogels are lightweight, highly conductive and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90% compressive strain). Moreover, the Young’s moduli of the 3D printed graphene aerogels show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials with comparable geometric density and possess large surface areas. Ultimately, adapting the 3D printing technique to graphene aerogels realizes the possibility of fabricating a myriad of complex aerogel architectures for a broad range of applications.

  5. Fusion of multisensor passive and active 3D imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, David A.; Verly, Jacques G.; Braun, Michael I.; Frost, Carl E.; Racamato, Joseph P.; Waxman, Allen M.

    2001-08-01

    We have extended our previous capabilities for fusion of multiple passive imaging sensors to now include 3D imagery obtained from a prototype flash ladar. Real-time fusion of low-light visible + uncooled LWIR + 3D LADAR, and SWIR + LWIR + 3D LADAR is demonstrated. Fused visualization is achieved by opponent-color neural networks for passive image fusion, which is then textured upon segmented object surfaces derived from the 3D data. An interactive viewer, coded in Java3D, is used to examine the 3D fused scene in stereo. Interactive designation, learning, recognition and search for targets, based on fused passive + 3D signatures, is achieved using Fuzzy ARTMAP neural networks with a Java-coded GUI. A client-server web-based architecture enables remote users to interact with fused 3D imagery via a wireless palmtop computer.

  6. Computational fluid dynamic studies of a solid and ribbon 12-gore parachute canopy in subsonic and supersonic flow

    SciTech Connect

    Nelsen, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    Computational fluid dynamic studies of 3-D, fixed geometry, gore-shaped parachute canopies are presented. Both solid and ribbon canopies with a 10% vent diameter are investigated. The flowfields analyzed are laminar and compressible, broaching both the subsonic and supersonic regimes. Results presented include characterization of the local and global flowfields and the internal and external canopy surface pressure distributions. The canopy surface pressure distributions may be utilized in subsequent structural analyses to assess the integrity of the parachute canopy fabric components.

  7. 3D polarimetric purity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, José J.; San José, Ignacio

    2010-11-01

    From our previous definition of the indices of polarimetric purity for 3D light beams [J.J. Gil, J.M. Correas, P.A. Melero and C. Ferreira, Monogr. Semin. Mat. G. de Galdeano 31, 161 (2004)], an analysis of their geometric and physical interpretation is presented. It is found that, in agreement with previous results, the first parameter is a measure of the degree of polarization, whereas the second parameter (called the degree of directionality) is a measure of the mean angular aperture of the direction of propagation of the corresponding light beam. This pair of invariant, non-dimensional, indices of polarimetric purity contains complete information about the polarimetric purity of a light beam. The overall degree of polarimetric purity is obtained as a weighted quadratic average of the degree of polarization and the degree of directionality.

  8. 3D field harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

    1991-03-30

    We have developed an harmonic representation for the three dimensional field components within the windings of accelerator magnets. The form by which the field is presented is suitable for interfacing with other codes that make use of the 3D field components (particle tracking and stability). The field components can be calculated with high precision and reduced cup time at any location (r,{theta},z) inside the magnet bore. The same conductor geometry which is used to simulate line currents is also used in CAD with modifications more readily available. It is our hope that the format used here for magnetic fields can be used not only as a means of delivering fields but also as a way by which beam dynamics can suggest correction to the conductor geometry. 5 refs., 70 figs.

  9. 'Bonneville' in 3-D!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this 3-D navigation camera mosaic of the crater called 'Bonneville' after driving approximately 13 meters (42.7 feet) to get a better vantage point. Spirit's current position is close enough to the edge to see the interior of the crater, but high enough and far enough back to get a view of all of the walls. Because scientists and rover controllers are so pleased with this location, they will stay here for at least two more martian days, or sols, to take high resolution panoramic camera images of 'Bonneville' in its entirety. Just above the far crater rim, on the left side, is the rover's heatshield, which is visible as a tiny reflective speck.

  10. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  11. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  12. 3D Elastic Wavefield Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guasch, L.; Warner, M.; Stekl, I.; Umpleby, A.; Shah, N.

    2010-12-01

    or less than 300x300x300 nodes, and it under-samples the wavefield reducing the number of stored time-steps by an order of magnitude. For bigger models the wavefield is stored only at the boundaries of the model and then re-injected while the residuals are backpropagated allowing to compute the correlation 'on the fly'. In terms of computational resource, the elastic code is an order of magnitude more demanding than the equivalent acoustic code. We have combined shared memory with distributed memory parallelisation using OpenMP and MPI respectively. Thus, we take advantage of the increasingly common multi-core architecture processors. We have successfully applied our inversion algorithm to different realistic complex 3D models. The models had non-linear relations between pressure and shear wave velocities. The shorter wavelengths of the shear waves improve the resolution of the images obtained with respect to a purely acoustic approach.

  13. 3-D Packaging: A Technology Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strickland, Mark; Johnson, R. Wayne; Gerke, David

    2005-01-01

    Traditional electronics are assembled as a planar arrangement of components on a printed circuit board (PCB) or other type of substrate. These planar assemblies may then be plugged into a motherboard or card cage creating a volume of electronics. This architecture is common in many military and space electronic systems as well as large computer and telecommunications systems and industrial electronics. The individual PCB assemblies can be replaced if defective or for system upgrade. Some applications are constrained by the volume or the shape of the system and are not compatible with the motherboard or card cage architecture. Examples include missiles, camcorders, and digital cameras. In these systems, planar rigid-flex substrates are folded to create complex 3-D shapes. The flex circuit serves the role of motherboard, providing interconnection between the rigid boards. An example of a planar rigid - flex assembly prior to folding is shown. In both architectures, the interconnection is effectively 2-D.

  14. Evaluation of one dimensional analytical models for vegetation canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goel, Narendra S.; Kuusk, Andres

    1992-01-01

    The SAIL model for one-dimensional homogeneous vegetation canopies has been modified to include the specular reflectance and hot spot effects. This modified model and the Nilson-Kuusk model are evaluated by comparing the reflectances given by them against those given by a radiosity-based computer model, Diana, for a set of canopies, characterized by different leaf area index (LAI) and leaf angle distribution (LAD). It is shown that for homogeneous canopies, the analytical models are generally quite accurate in the visible region, but not in the infrared region. For architecturally realistic heterogeneous canopies of the type found in nature, these models fall short. These shortcomings are quantified.

  15. Plant canopy gap-size analysis theory for improving optical measurements of leaf-area index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing M.; Cihlar, Josef

    1995-09-01

    Optical instruments currently available for measuring the leaf-area index (LAI) of a plant canopy all utilize only the canopy gap-fraction information. These instruments include the Li-Cor LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer, Decagon, and Demon. The advantages of utilizing both the canopy gap-fraction and gap-size information are shown. For the purpose of measuring the canopy gap size, a prototype sunfleck-LAI instrument named Tracing Radiation and Architecture of Canopies (TRAC), has been developed and tested in two pure conifer plantations, red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb). A new gap-size-analysis theory is presented to quantify the effect of canopy architecture on optical measurements of LAI based on the gap-fraction principle. The theory is an improvement on that of Lang and Xiang [Agric. For. Meteorol. 37, 229 (1986)]. In principle, this theory can be used for any heterogeneous canopies.

  16. A Three-dimensional Statistical Reconstruction Model of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Simulating Canopy Structure Variability within and between Cultivar/Training System Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Louarn, Gaëtan; Lecoeur, Jérémie; Lebon, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims In grapevine, canopy-structure-related variations in light interception and distribution affect productivity, yield and the quality of the harvested product. A simple statistical model for reconstructing three-dimensional (3D) canopy structures for various cultivar–training system (C × T) pairs has been implemented with special attention paid to balance the time required for model parameterization and accuracy of the representations from organ to stand scales. Such an approach particularly aims at overcoming the weak integration of interplant variability using the usual direct 3D measurement methods. Model This model is original in combining a turbid-medium-like envelope enclosing the volume occupied by vine shoots with the use of discrete geometric polygons representing leaves randomly located within this volume to represent plant structure. Reconstruction rules were adapted to capture the main determinants of grapevine shoot architecture and their variability. Using a simplified set of parameters, it was possible to describe (1) the 3D path of the main shoot, (2) the volume occupied by the foliage around this path and (3) the orientation of individual leaf surfaces. Model parameterization (estimation of the probability distribution for each parameter) was carried out for eight contrasting C × T pairs. Key Results and Conclusions The parameter values obtained in each situation were consistent with our knowledge of grapevine architecture. Quantitative assessments for the generated virtual scenes were carried out at the canopy and plant scales. Light interception efficiency and local variations of light transmittance within and between experimental plots were correctly simulated for all canopies studied. The approach predicted these key ecophysiological variables significantly more accurately than the classical complete digitization method with a limited number of plants. In addition, this model accurately reproduced the characteristics of a

  17. 3D Imaging with Structured Illumination for Advanced Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle; Dagel, Amber Lynn; Kast, Brian A.; Smith, Collin S.

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) information in a physical security system is a highly useful dis- criminator. The two-dimensional data from an imaging systems fails to provide target dis- tance and three-dimensional motion vector, which can be used to reduce nuisance alarm rates and increase system effectiveness. However, 3D imaging devices designed primarily for use in physical security systems are uncommon. This report discusses an architecture favorable to physical security systems; an inexpensive snapshot 3D imaging system utilizing a simple illumination system. The method of acquiring 3D data, tests to understand illumination de- sign, and software modifications possible to maximize information gathering capability are discussed.

  18. 3D printed PLA-based scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Tiziano; Mateos-Timoneda, Miguel A; Planell, Josep A; Navarro, Melba

    2013-01-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP), also known as additive manufacturing (AM), has been well received and adopted in the biomedical field. The capacity of this family of techniques to fabricate customized 3D structures with complex geometries and excellent reproducibility has revolutionized implantology and regenerative medicine. In particular, nozzle-based systems allow the fabrication of high-resolution polylactic acid (PLA) structures that are of interest in regenerative medicine. These 3D structures find interesting applications in the regenerative medicine field where promising applications including biodegradable templates for tissue regeneration purposes, 3D in vitro platforms for studying cell response to different scaffolds conditions and for drug screening are considered among others. Scaffolds functionality depends not only on the fabrication technique, but also on the material used to build the 3D structure, the geometry and inner architecture of the structure, and the final surface properties. All being crucial parameters affecting scaffolds success. This Commentary emphasizes the importance of these parameters in scaffolds’ fabrication and also draws the attention toward the versatility of these PLA scaffolds as a potential tool in regenerative medicine and other medical fields. PMID:23959206

  19. The New Realm of 3-D Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Dimension Technologies Inc., developed a line of 2-D/3-D Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screens, including a 15-inch model priced at consumer levels. DTI's family of flat panel LCD displays, called the Virtual Window(TM), provide real-time 3-D images without the use of glasses, head trackers, helmets, or other viewing aids. Most of the company initial 3-D display research was funded through NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The images on DTI's displays appear to leap off the screen and hang in space. The display accepts input from computers or stereo video sources, and can be switched from 3-D to full-resolution 2-D viewing with the push of a button. The Virtual Window displays have applications in data visualization, medicine, architecture, business, real estate, entertainment, and other research, design, military, and consumer applications. Displays are currently used for computer games, protein analysis, and surgical imaging. The technology greatly benefits the medical field, as surgical simulators are helping to increase the skills of surgical residents. Virtual Window(TM) is a trademark of Dimension Technologies Inc.

  20. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  1. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  2. 3D Integration for Wireless Multimedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimmich, Georg

    The convergence of mobile phone, internet, mapping, gaming and office automation tools with high quality video and still imaging capture capability is becoming a strong market trend for portable devices. High-density video encode and decode, 3D graphics for gaming, increased application-software complexity and ultra-high-bandwidth 4G modem technologies are driving the CPU performance and memory bandwidth requirements close to the PC segment. These portable multimedia devices are battery operated, which requires the deployment of new low-power-optimized silicon process technologies and ultra-low-power design techniques at system, architecture and device level. Mobile devices also need to comply with stringent silicon-area and package-volume constraints. As for all consumer devices, low production cost and fast time-to-volume production is key for success. This chapter shows how 3D architectures can bring a possible breakthrough to meet the conflicting power, performance and area constraints. Multiple 3D die-stacking partitioning strategies are described and analyzed on their potential to improve the overall system power, performance and cost for specific application scenarios. Requirements and maturity of the basic process-technology bricks including through-silicon via (TSV) and die-to-die attachment techniques are reviewed. Finally, we highlight new challenges which will arise with 3D stacking and an outlook on how they may be addressed: Higher power density will require thermal design considerations, new EDA tools will need to be developed to cope with the integration of heterogeneous technologies and to guarantee signal and power integrity across the die stack. The silicon/wafer test strategies have to be adapted to handle high-density IO arrays, ultra-thin wafers and provide built-in self-test of attached memories. New standards and business models have to be developed to allow cost-efficient assembly and testing of devices from different silicon and technology

  3. Nano-spatial parameters from 3D to 2D lattice dimensionality by organic variant in [ZnCl4]- [R]+ hybrid materials: Structure, architecture-lattice dimensionality, microscopy, optical Eg and PL correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajit; Verma, Sanjay K.; Alvi, P. A.; Jasrotia, Dinesh

    2016-04-01

    The nanospatial morphological features of [ZnCl]- [C5H4NCH3]+ hybrid derivative depicts 28 nm granular size and 3D spreader shape packing pattern as analyzed by FESEM and single crystal XRD structural studies. The organic moiety connect the inorganic components through N-H+…Cl- hydrogen bond to form a hybrid composite, the replacement of organic derivatives from 2-methylpyridine to 2-Amino-5-choloropyridine results the increase in granular size from 28nm to 60nm and unit cell packing pattern from 3D-2D lattice dimensionality along ac plane. The change in optical energy direct band gap value from 3.01eV for [ZnCl]- [C5H4NCH3]+ (HM1) to 3.42eV for [ZnCl]- [C5H5ClN2]+ (HM2) indicates the role of organic moiety in optical properties of hybrid materials. The photoluminescence emission spectra is observed in the wavelength range of 370 to 600 nm with maximum peak intensity of 9.66a.u. at 438 nm for (HM1) and 370 to 600 nm with max peak intensity of 9.91 a.u. at 442 nm for (HM2), indicating that the emission spectra lies in visible range. PL excitation spectra depicts the maximum excitation intensity [9.8] at 245.5 nm for (HM1) and its value of 9.9 a.u. at 294 nm, specify the excitation spectra lies in UV range. Photoluminescence excitation spectra is observed in the wavelength range of 280 to 350 nm with maximum peak intensity of 9.4 a.u. at 285.5 nm and 9.9 a.u. at 294 and 297 nm, indicating excitation in the UV spectrum. Single crystal growth process and detailed physiochemical characterization such as XRD, FESEM image analysis photoluminescence property reveals the structure stability with non-covalent interactions, lattice dimensionality (3D-2D) correlations interweaving into the design of inorganic-organic hybrid materials.

  4. Modular 3-D Transport model

    EPA Science Inventory

    MT3D was first developed by Chunmiao Zheng in 1990 at S.S. Papadopulos & Associates, Inc. with partial support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Starting in 1990, MT3D was released as a pubic domain code from the USEPA. Commercial versions with enhanced capab...

  5. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  6. LLNL-Earth3D

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  7. [3-D ultrasound in gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Zoller, W G; Liess, H

    1994-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) sonography represents a development of noninvasive diagnostic imaging by real-time two-dimensional (2D) sonography. The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a 3D effect. The objective of the present study was to optimate 3D presentation of abdominal findings. Additional investigations were made with a new volumetric program to determine the volume of selected findings of the liver. The results were compared with the estimated volumes of 2D sonography and 2D computer tomography (CT). For the processing of 3D images, typical parameter constellations were found for the different findings, which facilitated processing of 3D images. In more than 75% of the cases examined we found an optimal 3D presentation of sonographic findings with respect to the evaluation criteria developed by us for the 3D imaging of processed data. Great differences were found for the estimated volumes of the findings of the liver concerning the three different techniques applied. 3D ultrasound represents a valuable method to judge morphological appearance in abdominal findings. The possibility of volumetric measurements enlarges its potential diagnostic significance. Further clinical investigations are necessary to find out if definite differentiation between benign and malign findings is possible. PMID:7919882

  8. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  9. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-02-26

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  10. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  11. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  12. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26657435

  13. 3D Printed Programmable Release Capsules.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Maneesh K; Meng, Fanben; Johnson, Blake N; Kong, Yong Lin; Tian, Limei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Masters, Nina; Singamaneni, Srikanth; McAlpine, Michael C

    2015-08-12

    The development of methods for achieving precise spatiotemporal control over chemical and biomolecular gradients could enable significant advances in areas such as synthetic tissue engineering, biotic-abiotic interfaces, and bionanotechnology. Living organisms guide tissue development through highly orchestrated gradients of biomolecules that direct cell growth, migration, and differentiation. While numerous methods have been developed to manipulate and implement biomolecular gradients, integrating gradients into multiplexed, three-dimensional (3D) matrices remains a critical challenge. Here we present a method to 3D print stimuli-responsive core/shell capsules for programmable release of multiplexed gradients within hydrogel matrices. These capsules are composed of an aqueous core, which can be formulated to maintain the activity of payload biomolecules, and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA, an FDA approved polymer) shell. Importantly, the shell can be loaded with plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs), which permits selective rupturing of the capsule when irradiated with a laser wavelength specifically determined by the lengths of the nanorods. This precise control over space, time, and selectivity allows for the ability to pattern 2D and 3D multiplexed arrays of enzyme-loaded capsules along with tunable laser-triggered rupture and release of active enzymes into a hydrogel ambient. The advantages of this 3D printing-based method include (1) highly monodisperse capsules, (2) efficient encapsulation of biomolecular payloads, (3) precise spatial patterning of capsule arrays, (4) "on the fly" programmable reconfiguration of gradients, and (5) versatility for incorporation in hierarchical architectures. Indeed, 3D printing of programmable release capsules may represent a powerful new tool to enable spatiotemporal control over biomolecular gradients. PMID:26042472

  14. 3D Printed Programmable Release Capsules

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Maneesh K.; Meng, Fanben; Johnson, Blake N.; Kong, Yong Lin; Tian, Limei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Masters, Nina; Singamaneni, Srikanth; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    The development of methods for achieving precise spatiotemporal control over chemical and biomolecular gradients could enable significant advances in areas such as synthetic tissue engineering, biotic–abiotic interfaces, and bionanotechnology. Living organisms guide tissue development through highly orchestrated gradients of biomolecules that direct cell growth, migration, and differentiation. While numerous methods have been developed to manipulate and implement biomolecular gradients, integrating gradients into multiplexed, three-dimensional (3D) matrices remains a critical challenge. Here we present a method to 3D print stimuli-responsive core/shell capsules for programmable release of multiplexed gradients within hydrogel matrices. These capsules are composed of an aqueous core, which can be formulated to maintain the activity of payload biomolecules, and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA, an FDA approved polymer) shell. Importantly, the shell can be loaded with plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs), which permits selective rupturing of the capsule when irradiated with a laser wavelength specifically determined by the lengths of the nanorods. This precise control over space, time, and selectivity allows for the ability to pattern 2D and 3D multiplexed arrays of enzyme-loaded capsules along with tunable laser-triggered rupture and release of active enzymes into a hydrogel ambient. The advantages of this 3D printing-based method include (1) highly monodisperse capsules, (2) efficient encapsulation of biomolecular payloads, (3) precise spatial patterning of capsule arrays, (4) “on the fly” programmable reconfiguration of gradients, and (5) versatility for incorporation in hierarchical architectures. Indeed, 3D printing of programmable release capsules may represent a powerful new tool to enable spatiotemporal control over biomolecular gradients. PMID:26042472

  15. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  16. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  17. Bioprinting of 3D hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Stanton, M M; Samitier, J; Sánchez, S

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has recently emerged as an extension of 3D material printing, by using biocompatible or cellular components to build structures in an additive, layer-by-layer methodology for encapsulation and culture of cells. These 3D systems allow for cell culture in a suspension for formation of highly organized tissue or controlled spatial orientation of cell environments. The in vitro 3D cellular environments simulate the complexity of an in vivo environment and natural extracellular matrices (ECM). This paper will focus on bioprinting utilizing hydrogels as 3D scaffolds. Hydrogels are advantageous for cell culture as they are highly permeable to cell culture media, nutrients, and waste products generated during metabolic cell processes. They have the ability to be fabricated in customized shapes with various material properties with dimensions at the micron scale. 3D hydrogels are a reliable method for biocompatible 3D printing and have applications in tissue engineering, drug screening, and organ on a chip models. PMID:26066320

  18. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  19. Arena3D: visualization of biological networks in 3D

    PubMed Central

    Pavlopoulos, Georgios A; O'Donoghue, Seán I; Satagopam, Venkata P; Soldatos, Theodoros G; Pafilis, Evangelos; Schneider, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    Background Complexity is a key problem when visualizing biological networks; as the number of entities increases, most graphical views become incomprehensible. Our goal is to enable many thousands of entities to be visualized meaningfully and with high performance. Results We present a new visualization tool, Arena3D, which introduces a new concept of staggered layers in 3D space. Related data – such as proteins, chemicals, or pathways – can be grouped onto separate layers and arranged via layout algorithms, such as Fruchterman-Reingold, distance geometry, and a novel hierarchical layout. Data on a layer can be clustered via k-means, affinity propagation, Markov clustering, neighbor joining, tree clustering, or UPGMA ('unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean'). A simple input format defines the name and URL for each node, and defines connections or similarity scores between pairs of nodes. The use of Arena3D is illustrated with datasets related to Huntington's disease. Conclusion Arena3D is a user friendly visualization tool that is able to visualize biological or any other network in 3D space. It is free for academic use and runs on any platform. It can be downloaded or lunched directly from . Java3D library and Java 1.5 need to be pre-installed for the software to run. PMID:19040715

  20. Texture splats for 3D vector and scalar field visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Crawfis, R.A.; Max, N.

    1993-04-06

    Volume Visualization is becoming an important tool for understanding large 3D datasets. A popular technique for volume rendering is known as splatting. With new hardware architectures offering substantial improvements in the performance of rendering texture mapped objects, we present textured splats. An ideal reconstruction function for 3D signals is developed which can be used as a texture map for a splat. Extensions to the basic splatting technique are then developed to additionally represent vector fields.

  1. Fdf in US3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otis, Collin; Ferrero, Pietro; Candler, Graham; Givi, Peyman

    2013-11-01

    The scalar filtered mass density function (SFMDF) methodology is implemented into the computer code US3D. This is an unstructured Eulerian finite volume hydrodynamic solver and has proven very effective for simulation of compressible turbulent flows. The resulting SFMDF-US3D code is employed for large eddy simulation (LES) on unstructured meshes. Simulations are conducted of subsonic and supersonic flows under non-reacting and reacting conditions. The consistency and the accuracy of the simulated results are assessed along with appraisal of the overall performance of the methodology. The SFMDF-US3D is now capable of simulating high speed flows in complex configurations.

  2. Application of a 3D model Mixfor-3D for description of solar radiation regime in a tropical monsoon forest in the Cat Tien National Park in Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olchev, A.; Kurbatova, J.; Radler, K.; Khanh, Pham Huu; Khoi, Vu Xuan; Kuznetsov, A.

    2009-04-01

    The radiation regime of lowland lagerstroemia tropical monsoon forests in the Cat Tien National Park in Vietnam was described using a 3D process-based model Mixfor-3D (Olchev et al. 2009). The Cat Tien National Park is situated in the south of Vietnam, approximately 150 km north of Ho Chi Minh City. It is unique area that protects one of the largest areas of lowland tropical rainforests left in Vietnam. The main concept of the used Mixfor-3D model is a combined description of the physical and biological processes on the different spatial levels of a plant ecosystem, i.e. from individual leaf and plant (tree) to the entire ecosystem. The model effectively integrates a very high (3D) spatial resolution of ecosystem structure with 3D algorithms sophistically describing the processes of radiation, turbulent exchange of sensible heat and water vapour, water and heat transfer in plant canopy and soil. The Mixfor-3D model consists of several closely coupled 3D sub-models describing: structure of a forest stand; radiative transfer in a forest canopy; turbulent transfer of sensible heat and water vapour between ground surface, trees and the atmospheric surface layer; heat and moisture transfer in soil. Reasonable computing time and a number of input parameters are important factors that were taken into account during development of the model. Mixfor-3D has a horizontal resolution of 2 m x 2 m, a vertical canopy resolution of 1 m, a vertical soil resolution of 0.1 m and a primary time step of 1 hour. These spatial and temporal resolutions allow us to take into account small scale heterogeneity of the canopy and soil structure and to reproduce the 3D flux distribution and canopy microclimate. For modeling experiments three different forest plots have been selected. They are characterized by very heterogeneous and diverse structure. Tree density of the forest plots is up to 660 trees per hectare, and number of tree species is ranged between 19 and 23. Upper canopy layer of the

  3. 3D dendritic α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nano-architectures: Synthesis and its application on electrochemical non-enzymatic H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Majumder, S.

    2015-06-24

    In this manuscript we have successfully synthesized a large scale 3D dendritic α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} hierarchical structure via a hydrothermal reaction. The crystallinity, composition, purity, morphology of the synthesized α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), field emission scanning electron microscopic (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (EDS). FESEM image reveals that the individual α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} dendrite consists of a long central trunk with secondary and tertiary branches. For electrochemical H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensing we have carried out cyclic voltammetry (CV), amperometric i-t measurement. It has been found that the current density vs. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration calibration curve is linear in nature. The present study reveals that the dendritic α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} hierarchical structure exhibits very sensitive electrochemical sensing capability towards H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reduction.

  4. Wavefront construction in 3-D

    SciTech Connect

    Chilcoat, S.R. Hildebrand, S.T.

    1995-12-31

    Travel time computation in inhomogeneous media is essential for pre-stack Kirchhoff imaging in areas such as the sub-salt province in the Gulf of Mexico. The 2D algorithm published by Vinje, et al, has been extended to 3D to compute wavefronts in complicated inhomogeneous media. The 3D wavefront construction algorithm provides many advantages over conventional ray tracing and other methods of computing travel times in 3D. The algorithm dynamically maintains a reasonably consistent ray density without making a priori guesses at the number of rays to shoot. The determination of caustics in 3D is a straight forward geometric procedure. The wavefront algorithm also enables the computation of multi-valued travel time surfaces.

  5. Heterodyne 3D ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xu; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Chenghua; Xu, Lu; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Conventional three dimensional (3D) ghost imaging measures range of target based on pulse fight time measurement method. Due to the limit of data acquisition system sampling rate, range resolution of the conventional 3D ghost imaging is usually low. In order to take off the effect of sampling rate to range resolution of 3D ghost imaging, a heterodyne 3D ghost imaging (HGI) system is presented in this study. The source of HGI is a continuous wave laser instead of pulse laser. Temporal correlation and spatial correlation of light are both utilized to obtain the range image of target. Through theory analysis and numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that HGI can obtain high range resolution image with low sampling rate.

  6. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  7. Thermal Infrared Hot Spot and Dependence on Canopy Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James A.; Ballard, Jerrell R., Jr.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We perform theoretical calculations of the canopy thermal infrared (TIR) hot spot using a first principles 3-D model described earlier. Various theoretical canopies of varying leaf size and for differing canopy height are used to illustrate the magnitude of the TIR effect. Our results are similar to predicted behavior in the reflective hot spot as a function of canopy geometry and comparable to TIR measurements from the literature and our own simple ground experiments. We apply the MODTRAN atmospheric code to estimate the at-sensor variation in brightness temperature with view direction in the solar principal plane. For simple homogeneous canopies, we predict canopy thermal infrared hot spot variations of 2 degrees C at the surface with respect to nadir viewing. Dependence on leaf size is weak as long as the ratio of leaf size to canopy height is maintained. However, the angular width of the hot spot increases as the ratio of leaf diameter to canopy height increases. Atmospheric effects minimize but do not eliminate the TIR hot spot at satellite altitudes.

  8. Consultation virtual collaborative environment for 3D medicine.

    PubMed

    Krsek, Premysl; Spanel, Michal; Svub, Miroslav; Stancl, Vít; Siler, Ondrej; Sára, Vítezslav

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the problems of consultation virtual collaborative environment, which is designed to support 3D medical applications. This system allows loading CT/MR data from PACS system, segmentation and 3D models of tissues. It allows distant 3D consultations of the data between technicians and surgeons. System is designed as three-layer client-server architecture. Communication between clients and server is done via HTTP/HTTPS protocol. Results and tests have confirmed, that today's standard network latency and dataflow do not affect the usability of our system. PMID:19162770

  9. 3D printing of functional biomaterials for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Ma, Xuanyi; Gou, Maling; Mei, Deqing; Zhang, Kang; Chen, Shaochen

    2016-08-01

    3D printing is emerging as a powerful tool for tissue engineering by enabling 3D cell culture within complex 3D biomimetic architectures. This review discusses the prevailing 3D printing techniques and their most recent applications in building tissue constructs. The work associated with relatively well-known inkjet and extrusion-based bioprinting is presented with the latest advances in the fields. Emphasis is put on introducing two relatively new light-assisted bioprinting techniques, including digital light processing (DLP)-based bioprinting and laser based two photon polymerization (TPP) bioprinting. 3D bioprinting of vasculature network is particularly discussed for its foremost significance in maintaining tissue viability and promoting functional maturation. Limitations to current bioprinting approaches, as well as future directions of bioprinting functional tissues are also discussed. PMID:27043763

  10. 3D scanning modeling method application in ancient city reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Pu; Zhou, Mingquan; Du, Guoguang; Shui, Wuyang; Zhou, Pengbo

    2015-07-01

    With the development of optical engineering technology, the precision of 3D scanning equipment becomes higher, and its role in 3D modeling is getting more distinctive. This paper proposed a 3D scanning modeling method that has been successfully applied in Chinese ancient city reconstruction. On one hand, for the existing architectures, an improved algorithm based on multiple scanning is adopted. Firstly, two pieces of scanning data were rough rigid registered using spherical displacers and vertex clustering method. Secondly, a global weighted ICP (iterative closest points) method is used to achieve a fine rigid registration. On the other hand, for the buildings which have already disappeared, an exemplar-driven algorithm for rapid modeling was proposed. Based on the 3D scanning technology and the historical data, a system approach was proposed for 3D modeling and virtual display of ancient city.

  11. 3D printed quantum dot light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yong Lin; Tamargo, Ian A; Kim, Hyoungsoo; Johnson, Blake N; Gupta, Maneesh K; Koh, Tae-Wook; Chin, Huai-An; Steingart, Daniel A; Rand, Barry P; McAlpine, Michael C

    2014-12-10

    Developing the ability to 3D print various classes of materials possessing distinct properties could enable the freeform generation of active electronics in unique functional, interwoven architectures. Achieving seamless integration of diverse materials with 3D printing is a significant challenge that requires overcoming discrepancies in material properties in addition to ensuring that all the materials are compatible with the 3D printing process. To date, 3D printing has been limited to specific plastics, passive conductors, and a few biological materials. Here, we show that diverse classes of materials can be 3D printed and fully integrated into device components with active properties. Specifically, we demonstrate the seamless interweaving of five different materials, including (1) emissive semiconducting inorganic nanoparticles, (2) an elastomeric matrix, (3) organic polymers as charge transport layers, (4) solid and liquid metal leads, and (5) a UV-adhesive transparent substrate layer. As a proof of concept for demonstrating the integrated functionality of these materials, we 3D printed quantum dot-based light-emitting diodes (QD-LEDs) that exhibit pure and tunable color emission properties. By further incorporating the 3D scanning of surface topologies, we demonstrate the ability to conformally print devices onto curvilinear surfaces, such as contact lenses. Finally, we show that novel architectures that are not easily accessed using standard microfabrication techniques can be constructed, by 3D printing a 2 × 2 × 2 cube of encapsulated LEDs, in which every component of the cube and electronics are 3D printed. Overall, these results suggest that 3D printing is more versatile than has been demonstrated to date and is capable of integrating many distinct classes of materials. PMID:25360485

  12. Inferential modeling of 3D chromatin structure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Siyu; Xu, Jinbo; Zeng, Jianyang

    2015-01-01

    For eukaryotic cells, the biological processes involving regulatory DNA elements play an important role in cell cycle. Understanding 3D spatial arrangements of chromosomes and revealing long-range chromatin interactions are critical to decipher these biological processes. In recent years, chromosome conformation capture (3C) related techniques have been developed to measure the interaction frequencies between long-range genome loci, which have provided a great opportunity to decode the 3D organization of the genome. In this paper, we develop a new Bayesian framework to derive the 3D architecture of a chromosome from 3C-based data. By modeling each chromosome as a polymer chain, we define the conformational energy based on our current knowledge on polymer physics and use it as prior information in the Bayesian framework. We also propose an expectation-maximization (EM) based algorithm to estimate the unknown parameters of the Bayesian model and infer an ensemble of chromatin structures based on interaction frequency data. We have validated our Bayesian inference approach through cross-validation and verified the computed chromatin conformations using the geometric constraints derived from fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments. We have further confirmed the inferred chromatin structures using the known genetic interactions derived from other studies in the literature. Our test results have indicated that our Bayesian framework can compute an accurate ensemble of 3D chromatin conformations that best interpret the distance constraints derived from 3C-based data and also agree with other sources of geometric constraints derived from experimental evidence in the previous studies. The source code of our approach can be found in https://github.com/wangsy11/InfMod3DGen. PMID:25690896

  13. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  14. Advances in animal ecology from 3D-LiDAR ecosystem mapping.

    PubMed

    Davies, Andrew B; Asner, Gregory P

    2014-12-01

    The advent and recent advances of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) have enabled accurate measurement of 3D ecosystem structure. Here, we review insights gained through the application of LiDAR to animal ecology studies, revealing the fundamental importance of structure for animals. Structural heterogeneity is most conducive to increased animal richness and abundance, and increased complexity of vertical vegetation structure is more positively influential compared with traditionally measured canopy cover, which produces mixed results. However, different taxonomic groups interact with a variety of 3D canopy traits and some groups with 3D topography. To develop a better understanding of animal dynamics, future studies will benefit from considering 3D habitat effects in a wider variety of ecosystems and with more taxa. PMID:25457158

  15. Remote 3D Medical Consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.

    Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.

  16. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  17. 3D-Printed Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony K; Huynh, Wilson; Horowitz, Lisa F; Folch, Albert

    2016-03-14

    The advent of soft lithography allowed for an unprecedented expansion in the field of microfluidics. However, the vast majority of PDMS microfluidic devices are still made with extensive manual labor, are tethered to bulky control systems, and have cumbersome user interfaces, which all render commercialization difficult. On the other hand, 3D printing has begun to embrace the range of sizes and materials that appeal to the developers of microfluidic devices. Prior to fabrication, a design is digitally built as a detailed 3D CAD file. The design can be assembled in modules by remotely collaborating teams, and its mechanical and fluidic behavior can be simulated using finite-element modeling. As structures are created by adding materials without the need for etching or dissolution, processing is environmentally friendly and economically efficient. We predict that in the next few years, 3D printing will replace most PDMS and plastic molding techniques in academia. PMID:26854878

  18. Life in 3D is never flat: 3D models to optimise drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kathleen A; Malhotra, Meenakshi; Curtin, Caroline M; O' Brien, Fergal J; O' Driscoll, Caitriona M

    2015-10-10

    The development of safe, effective and patient-acceptable drug products is an expensive and lengthy process and the risk of failure at different stages of the development life-cycle is high. Improved biopharmaceutical tools which are robust, easy to use and accurately predict the in vivo response are urgently required to help address these issues. In this review the advantages and challenges of in vitro 3D versus 2D cell culture models will be discussed in terms of evaluating new drug products at the pre-clinical development stage. Examples of models with a 3D architecture including scaffolds, cell-derived matrices, multicellular spheroids and biochips will be described. The ability to simulate the microenvironment of tumours and vital organs including the liver, kidney, heart and intestine which have major impact on drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and toxicity will be evaluated. Examples of the application of 3D models including a role in formulation development, pharmacokinetic profiling and toxicity testing will be critically assessed. Although utilisation of 3D cell culture models in the field of drug delivery is still in its infancy, the area is attracting high levels of interest and is likely to become a significant in vitro tool to assist in drug product development thus reducing the requirement for unnecessary animal studies. PMID:26220617

  19. Highly compressible 3D periodic graphene aerogel microlattices

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhu, Cheng; Han, T. Yong-Jin; Duoss, Eric B.; Golobic, Alexandra M.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Worsley, Marcus A.

    2015-04-22

    Graphene is a two-dimensional material that offers a unique combination of low density, exceptional mechanical properties, large surface area and excellent electrical conductivity. Recent progress has produced bulk 3D assemblies of graphene, such as graphene aerogels, but they possess purely stochastic porous networks, which limit their performance compared with the potential of an engineered architecture. Here we report the fabrication of periodic graphene aerogel microlattices, possessing an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The 3D printed graphene aerogels are lightweight, highly conductive and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90% compressive strain). Moreover, the Young’s modulimore » of the 3D printed graphene aerogels show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials with comparable geometric density and possess large surface areas. Ultimately, adapting the 3D printing technique to graphene aerogels realizes the possibility of fabricating a myriad of complex aerogel architectures for a broad range of applications.« less

  20. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  1. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2003-05-12

    This project is in its first full year after the combining of two previously funded projects: ''3D Code Development'' and ''Dynamic Material Properties''. The motivation behind this move was to emphasize and strengthen the ties between the experimental work and the computational model development in the materials area. The next year's activities will indicate the merging of the two efforts. The current activity is structured in two tasks. Task A, ''Simulations and Measurements'', combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. Task B, ''ALE3D Development'', is a continuation of the non-materials related activities from the previous project.

  2. From 1D to 3D - macroscopic nanowire aerogel monoliths.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Rechberger, Felix; Niederberger, Markus

    2016-08-01

    Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying. PMID:27389477

  3. 3D printing of versatile reactionware for chemical synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kitson, Philip J; Glatzel, Stefan; Chen, Wei; Lin, Chang-Gen; Song, Yu-Fei; Cronin, Leroy

    2016-05-01

    In recent decades, 3D printing (also known as additive manufacturing) techniques have moved beyond their traditional applications in the fields of industrial manufacturing and prototyping to increasingly find roles in scientific research contexts, such as synthetic chemistry. We present a general approach for the production of bespoke chemical reactors, termed reactionware, using two different approaches to extrusion-based 3D printing. This protocol describes the printing of an inert polypropylene (PP) architecture with the concurrent printing of soft material catalyst composites, using two different 3D printer setups. The steps of the PROCEDURE describe the design and preparation of a 3D digital model of the desired reactionware device and the preparation of this model for use with fused deposition modeling (FDM) type 3D printers. The protocol then further describes the preparation of composite catalyst-silicone materials for incorporation into the 3D-printed device and the steps required to fabricate a reactionware device. This combined approach allows versatility in the design and use of reactionware based on the specific needs of the experimental user. To illustrate this, we present a detailed procedure for the production of one such reactionware device that will result in the production of a sealed reactor capable of effecting a multistep organic synthesis. Depending on the design time of the 3D model, and including time for curing and drying of materials, this procedure can be completed in ∼3 d. PMID:27077333

  4. Ligand-controlled assembly of Cd(II) coordination polymers based on mixed ligands of naphthalene-dicarboxylate and dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline: From 0D+1D cocrystal, 2D rectangular network (4,4), to 3D PtS-type architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Guocheng; Chen Yongqiang; Wang Xiuli Chen Baokuan; Lin Hongyan

    2009-03-15

    Three novel Cd(II) coordination polymers, namely, [Cd(Dpq)(1,8-NDC)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}][Cd(Dpq)(1,8-NDC)].2H{sub 2}O (1), [Cd(Dpq)(1,4-NDC)(H{sub 2}O)] (2), and [Cd(Dpq)(2,6-NDC)] (3) have been obtained from hydrothermal reactions of cadmium(II) nitrate with the mixed ligands dipyrido [3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline (Dpq) and three structurally related naphthalene-dicarboxylate ligands [1,8-naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid (1,8-H{sub 2}NDC), 1,4-naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid (1,4-H{sub 2}NDC), and 2,6-naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid (2,6-H{sub 2}NDC)]. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the three polymers exhibit novel structures due to different naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid. Compound 1 is a novel cocrystal of left- and right-handed helical chains and binuclear complexes and ultimately packed into a 3D supramolecular structure through hydrogen bonds and {pi}-{pi} stacking interactions. Compound 2 shows a 2D rectangular network (4,4) bridged by 1,4-NDC with two kinds of coordination modes and ultimately packed into a 3D supramolecular structure through inter-layer {pi}-{pi} stacking interactions. Compound 3 is a new 3D coordination polymer with distorted PtS-type network. In addition, the title compounds exhibit blue/green emission in solid state at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Three novel Cd(II) compounds have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions exhibiting a systematic variation of architecture by the employment of three structurally related naphthalene-dicarboxylate ligands.

  5. Luminescence and magnetic properties of novel nanoparticle-sheathed 3D Micro-Architectures of Fe0.5R0.5(MoO4)1.5:Ln3+ (R = Gd3+, La3+), (Ln = Eu, Tb, Dy) for bifunctional application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Rajagopalan; Thirumalai, Jagannathan; Kathiravan, Arunkumar

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, we report the successful synthesis of novel nanoparticle-sheathed bipyramid-like and almond-like Fe0.5R0.5(MoO4)1.5:Ln3+ (R = Gd3+, La3+), (Ln = Eu, Tb, Dy) 3D hierarchical microstructures through a simple disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Na2EDTA) facilitated hydrothermal method. Interestingly, time-dependent experiments confirm that the assembly-disassembly process is responsible for the formation of self-aggregated 3D architectures via Ostwald ripening phenomena. The resultant products are characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), photoluminescence (PL), and magnetic measurements. The growth and formation mechanisms of the self-assembled 3D micro structures are discussed in detail. To confirm the presence of all the elements in the microstructure, the energy loss induced by the K, L shell electron ionization is observed in order to map the Fe, Gd, Mo, O, and Eu components. The photo luminescence properties of Fe0.5R0.5(MoO4)1.5 doped with Eu3+, Tb3+, Dy3+ are investigated. The room temperature and low temperature magnetic properties suggest that the interaction between the local-fields introduced by the magnetic Fe3+ ions and the R3+ (La, Gd) ions in the dodecahedral sites determine the magnetism in Fe0.5R0.5(MoO4)1.5:Eu3+. This work provides a new approach to synthesizing the novel Fe0.5R0.5(MoO4)1.5:Ln3+ for bi-functional magnetic and luminescence applications.

  6. The Effects of Vegetation Canopy Processes on Snow Surface Energy and Mass Balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, G.; Yang, Z.

    2004-12-01

    This paper addresses the effects of canopy physical processes on snow mass and energy balances in boreal ecosystems. We incorporate new parameterizations of radiation transfer through the vegetation canopy, interception of snow by the vegetation canopy, and under-canopy sensible heat transfer processes into the Versatile Integrator of Surface and Atmosphere (VISA) and test the model results against the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) data observed at South Study Area, Old Jack Pine (SSA-OJP). A modified two-stream radiation transfer scheme that accounts for the three-dimensional (3-D) geometry of vegetation accurately simulates the transferring of solar radiation through the vegetation canopy when the leaf and stem area index (LSAI) is reduced to match the observed, but the simulated wintertime surface albedos are higher than the observed. This overestimation can be removed by lowering the fractional snow cover on the canopy through the introduction of a snow interception model that explicitly describes the loading and unloading of snow and the melting and refreezing of snow. VISA overestimates the downward sensible heat fluxes from the canopy to the snow surface, which leads to earlier snow ablation and a shallower snowpack than the observed. Explicitly including a canopy heat storage term in the canopy energy balance equation decreases the spuriously large amplitude of the diurnal canopy temperature variation and reduces the excessive daytime sensible heat flux from the canopy downward to the snow surface. Sensitivity tests reveal that the turbulent sensible heat flux below the vegetation canopy strongly depends on the canopy absorption coefficient of momentum. During spring, the daytime temperature difference between the snow surface and the vegetation canopy forms a strongly stable atmospheric condition, which results in a larger absorption coefficient of momentum and a weak turbulent sensible heat flux. The modeled excessive downward sensible heat

  7. 3D Microperiodic Hydrogel Scaffolds for Robust Neuronal Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Hanson Shepherd, Jennifer N.; Parker, Sara T.; Shepherd, Robert F.; Gillette, Martha U.; Lewis, Jennifer A.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) microperiodic scaffolds of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) have been fabricated by direct-write assembly of a photopolymerizable hydrogel ink. The ink is initially composed of physically entangled pHEMA chains dissolved in a solution of HEMA monomer, comonomer, photoinitiator and water. Upon printing 3D scaffolds of varying architecture, the ink filaments are exposed to UV light, where they are transformed into an interpenetrating hydrogel network of chemically cross-linked and physically entangled pHEMA chains. These 3D microperiodic scaffolds are rendered growth compliant for primary rat hippocampal neurons by absorption of polylysine. Neuronal cells thrive on these scaffolds, forming differentiated, intricately branched networks. Confocal laser scanning microscopy reveals that both cell distribution and extent of neuronal process alignment depend upon scaffold architecture. This work provides an important step forward in the creation of suitable platforms for in vitro study of sensitive cell types. PMID:21709750

  8. 3D web visualization of huge CityGML models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prandi, F.; Devigili, F.; Soave, M.; Di Staso, U.; De Amicis, R.

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, rapid technological development into acquiring geo-spatial information; joined to the capabilities to process these data in a relative short period of time, allows the generation of detailed 3D textured city models that will become an essential part of the modern city information infrastructure (Spatial Data Infrastructure) and, can be used to integrate various data from different sources for public accessible visualisation and many other applications. One of the main bottlenecks, which at the moment limit the use of these datasets to few experts, is a lack on efficient visualization systems through the web and interoperable frameworks that allow standardising the access to the city models. The work presented in this paper tries to satisfy these two requirements developing a 3D web-based visualization system based on OGC standards and effective visualization concepts. The architectural framework, based on Services Oriented Architecture (SOA) concepts, provides the 3D city data to a web client designed to support the view process in a very effective way. The first part of the work is to design a framework compliant to the 3D Portrayal Service drafted by the of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) 3D standardization working group. The latter is related to the development of an effective web client able to render in an efficient way the 3D city models.

  9. SNL3dFace

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial featuresmore » of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.« less

  10. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  11. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  12. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  13. Does spatial arrangement of 3D plants affect light transmission and extinction coefficient within maize crops?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Row spacing effects on light interception and extinction coefficient have been inconsistent for maize (Zea mays L.) when calculated with field measurements. To avoid inconsistencies due to variable light conditions and variable leaf canopies, we used a model to describe three-dimensional (3D) shoot ...

  14. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  15. Virtual VMASC: A 3D Game Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manepalli, Suchitra; Shen, Yuzhong; Garcia, Hector M.; Lawsure, Kaleen

    2010-01-01

    The advantages of creating interactive 3D simulations that allow viewing, exploring, and interacting with land improvements, such as buildings, in digital form are manifold and range from allowing individuals from anywhere in the world to explore those virtual land improvements online, to training military personnel in dealing with war-time environments, and to making those land improvements available in virtual worlds such as Second Life. While we haven't fully explored the true potential of such simulations, we have identified a requirement within our organization to use simulations like those to replace our front-desk personnel and allow visitors to query, naVigate, and communicate virtually with various entities within the building. We implemented the Virtual VMASC 3D simulation of the Virginia Modeling Analysis and Simulation Center (VMASC) office building to not only meet our front-desk requirement but also to evaluate the effort required in designing such a simulation and, thereby, leverage the experience we gained in future projects of this kind. This paper describes the goals we set for our implementation, the software approach taken, the modeling contribution made, and the technologies used such as XNA Game Studio, .NET framework, Autodesk software packages, and, finally, the applicability of our implementation on a variety of architectures including Xbox 360 and PC. This paper also summarizes the result of our evaluation and the lessons learned from our effort.

  16. Towards Single Cell Traction Microscopy within 3D Collagen Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Matthew S.; Long, Rong; Feng, Xinzeng; Huang, YuLing; Hui, Chung-Yuen; Wu, Mingming

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical interaction between the cell and its extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cellular behaviors, including proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration. Cells require the three dimensional (3D) architectural support of the ECM to perform physiologically realistic functions. However, current understanding of cell-ECM and cell-cell mechanical interactions is largely derived from 2D cell traction force microscopy, in which cells are cultured on a flat substrate. 3D cell traction microscopy is emerging for mapping traction fields of single animal cells embedded in either synthetic or natively derived fibrous gels. We discuss here the development of 3D cell traction microscopy, its current limitations, and perspectives on the future of this technology. Emphasis is placed on strategies for applying 3D cell traction microscopy to individual tumor cells migration within collagen gels. PMID:23806281

  17. Improving Semantic Updating Method on 3d City Models Using Hybrid Semantic-Geometric 3d Segmentation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkawi, K.-H.; Abdul-Rahman, A.

    2013-09-01

    to LoD4. The accuracy and structural complexity of the 3D objects increases with the LoD level where LoD0 is the simplest LoD (2.5D; Digital Terrain Model (DTM) + building or roof print) while LoD4 is the most complex LoD (architectural details with interior structures). Semantic information is one of the main components in CityGML and 3D City Models, and provides important information for any analyses. However, more often than not, the semantic information is not available for the 3D city model due to the unstandardized modelling process. One of the examples is where a building is normally generated as one object (without specific feature layers such as Roof, Ground floor, Level 1, Level 2, Block A, Block B, etc). This research attempts to develop a method to improve the semantic data updating process by segmenting the 3D building into simpler parts which will make it easier for the users to select and update the semantic information. The methodology is implemented for 3D buildings in LoD2 where the buildings are generated without architectural details but with distinct roof structures. This paper also introduces hybrid semantic-geometric 3D segmentation method that deals with hierarchical segmentation of a 3D building based on its semantic value and surface characteristics, fitted by one of the predefined primitives. For future work, the segmentation method will be implemented as part of the change detection module that can detect any changes on the 3D buildings, store and retrieve semantic information of the changed structure, automatically updates the 3D models and visualize the results in a userfriendly graphical user interface (GUI).

  18. Simulating imaging spectrometer data of a mixed old-growth forest: A parameterization of a 3D radiative transfer model based on airborne and terrestrial laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, F. D.; Leiterer, R.; Morsdorf, F.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J.; Lauret, N.; Pfeifer, N.; Schaepman, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Remote sensing offers unique potential to study forest ecosystems by providing spatially and temporally distributed information that can be linked with key biophysical and biochemical variables. The estimation of biochemical constituents of leaves from remotely sensed data is of high interest revealing insight on photosynthetic processes, plant health, plant functional types, and speciation. However, the scaling of observations at the canopy level to the leaf level or vice versa is not trivial due to the structural complexity of forests. Thus, a common solution for scaling spectral information is the use of physically-based radiative transfer models. The discrete anisotropic radiative transfer model (DART), being one of the most complete coupled canopy-atmosphere 3D radiative transfer models, was parameterized based on airborne and in-situ measurements. At-sensor radiances were simulated and compared with measurements from an airborne imaging spectrometer. The study was performed on the Laegern site, a temperate mixed forest characterized by steep slopes, a heterogeneous spectral background, and deciduous and coniferous trees at different development stages (dominated by beech trees; 47°28'42.0' N, 8°21'51.8' E, 682 m asl, Switzerland). It is one of the few studies conducted on an old-growth forest. Particularly the 3D modeling of the complex canopy architecture is crucial to model the interaction of photons with the vegetation canopy and its background. Thus, we developed two forest reconstruction approaches: 1) based on a voxel grid, and 2) based on individual tree detection. Both methods are transferable to various forest ecosystems and applicable at scales between plot and landscape. Our results show that the newly developed voxel grid approach is favorable over a parameterization based on individual trees. In comparison to the actual imaging spectrometer data, the simulated images exhibit very similar spatial patterns, whereas absolute radiance values are

  19. Optoplasmonics: hybridization in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, L.; Gervinskas, G.; Žukauskas, A.; Malinauskas, M.; Brasselet, E.; Juodkazis, S.

    2013-12-01

    Femtosecond laser fabrication has been used to make hybrid refractive and di ractive micro-optical elements in photo-polymer SZ2080. For applications in micro- uidics, axicon lenses were fabricated (both single and arrays), for generation of light intensity patterns extending through the entire depth of a typically tens-of-micrometers deep channel. Further hybridisation of an axicon with a plasmonic slot is fabricated and demonstrated nu- merically. Spiralling chiral grooves were inscribed into a 100-nm-thick gold coating sputtered over polymerized micro-axicon lenses, using a focused ion beam. This demonstrates possibility of hybridisation between optical and plasmonic 3D micro-optical elements. Numerical modelling of optical performance by 3D-FDTD method is presented.

  20. 3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.

    1998-12-01

    We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W = 4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure.

  1. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  2. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  3. 360-degree 3D profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yuanhe; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Wenyi; Tan, Yushan

    1997-12-01

    A new method of 360 degree turning 3D shape measurement in which light sectioning and phase shifting techniques are both used is presented in this paper. A sine light field is applied in the projected light stripe, meanwhile phase shifting technique is used to calculate phases of the light slit. Thereafter wrapped phase distribution of the slit is formed and the unwrapping process is made by means of the height information based on the light sectioning method. Therefore phase measuring results with better precision can be obtained. At last the target 3D shape data can be produced according to geometric relationships between phases and the object heights. The principles of this method are discussed in detail and experimental results are shown in this paper.

  4. 3D Printable Graphene Composite.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being's history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today's personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite's linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C(-1) from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  5. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  6. 3D light scanning macrography.

    PubMed

    Huber, D; Keller, M; Robert, D

    2001-08-01

    The technique of 3D light scanning macrography permits the non-invasive surface scanning of small specimens at magnifications up to 200x. Obviating both the problem of limited depth of field inherent to conventional close-up macrophotography and the metallic coating required by scanning electron microscopy, 3D light scanning macrography provides three-dimensional digital images of intact specimens without the loss of colour, texture and transparency information. This newly developed technique offers a versatile, portable and cost-efficient method for the non-invasive digital and photographic documentation of small objects. Computer controlled device operation and digital image acquisition facilitate fast and accurate quantitative morphometric investigations, and the technique offers a broad field of research and educational applications in biological, medical and materials sciences. PMID:11489078

  7. 3D-graphite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Belenkov, E. A. Ali-Pasha, V. A.

    2011-01-15

    The structure of clusters of some new carbon 3D-graphite phases have been calculated using the molecular-mechanics methods. It is established that 3D-graphite polytypes {alpha}{sub 1,1}, {alpha}{sub 1,3}, {alpha}{sub 1,5}, {alpha}{sub 2,1}, {alpha}{sub 2,3}, {alpha}{sub 3,1}, {beta}{sub 1,2}, {beta}{sub 1,4}, {beta}{sub 1,6}, {beta}{sub 2,1}, and {beta}{sub 3,2} consist of sp{sup 2}-hybridized atoms, have hexagonal unit cells, and differ in regards to the structure of layers and order of their alternation. A possible way to experimentally synthesize new carbon phases is proposed: the polymerization and carbonization of hydrocarbon molecules.

  8. 3D Printing: 3D Printing of Conductive Complex Structures with In Situ Generation of Silver Nanoparticles (Adv. Mater. 19/2016).

    PubMed

    Fantino, Erika; Chiappone, Annalisa; Roppolo, Ignazio; Manfredi, Diego; Bongiovanni, Roberta; Pirri, Candido Fabrizio; Calignano, Flaviana

    2016-05-01

    On page 3712, E. Fantino, A. Chiappone, and co-workers fabricate conductive 3D hybrid structures by coupling the photo-reduction of metal precursors with 3D printing technology. The generated structures consist of metal nanoparticles embedded in a polymer matrix shaped into complex multilayered architectures. 3D conductive structures are fabricated with a digital light-processing printer incorporating silver salt into photocurable formulations. PMID:27167030

  9. [Real time 3D echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Bauer, F; Shiota, T; Thomas, J D

    2001-07-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients. PMID:11494630

  10. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  11. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer themore » second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.« less

  12. Evaluating a three dimensional model of diffuse photosynthetically active radiation in maize canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiping; Guo, Yan; Li, Baoguo; Wang, Xiyong; Ma, Yuntao

    2006-07-01

    Diffuse photosynthetically active radiation (DPAR) is important during overcast days and for plant parts shaded from the direct beam radiation. Simulation of DPAR interception by individual plant parts of a canopy, separately from direct beam photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), may give important insights into plant ecology. This paper presents a model to simulate the interception of DPAR in plant canopies. A sub-model of a virtual maize canopy was reconstructed. Plant surfaces were represented as small triangular facets positioned according to three-dimensionally (3D) digitized data collected in the field. Then a second sub-model to simulate the 3D DPAR distribution in the canopy was developed by dividing the sky hemisphere into a grid of fine cells that allowed for the anisotropic distribution of DPAR over the sky hemisphere. This model, DSHP (Dividing Sky Hemisphere with Projecting), simulates which DSH (Divided Sky Hemisphere) cells are directly visible from a facet in the virtual canopy, i.e. not obscured by other facets. The DPAR reaching the center of a facet was calculated by summing the amounts of DPAR present in every DSH cell. The distribution of DPAR in a canopy was obtained from the calculated DPARs intercepted by all facets in the canopy. This DSHP model was validated against DPAR measurements made in an actual maize ( Zea mays L.) canopy over selected days during the early filling stage. The simulated and measured DPAR at different canopy depths showed a good agreement with a R 2 equaling 0.78 ( n=120).

  13. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  14. 3D printing of liquid metals as fugitive inks for fabrication of 3D microfluidic channels.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Dishit P; Ladd, Collin; Panich, Lazar; Moussa, Khalil; Dickey, Michael D

    2016-05-21

    This paper demonstrates a simple method to fabricate 3D microchannels and microvasculature at room temperature by direct-writing liquid metal as a sacrificial template. The formation of a surface oxide skin on the low-viscosity liquid metal stabilizes the shape of the printed metal for planar and out-of-plane structures. The printed structures can be embedded in a variety of soft (e.g. elastomeric) and rigid (e.g. thermoset) polymers. Both acid and electrochemical reduction are capable of removing the oxide skin that forms on the metal, which destabilizes the ink so that it withdraws from the encapsulating material due to capillary forces, resulting in nearly full recovery of the fugitive ink at room temperature. Whereas conventional fabrication procedures typically confine microchannels to 2D planes, the geometry of the printed microchannels can be varied from a simple 2D network to complex 3D architectures without using lithography. The method produces robust monolithic structures without the need for any bonding or assembling techniques that often limit the materials of construction of conventional microchannels. Removing select portions of the metal leaves behind 3D metal features that can be used as antennas, interconnects, or electrodes for interfacing with lab-on-a-chip devices. This paper describes the capabilities and limitations of this simple process. PMID:27025537

  15. Comparative study of Suits and SAIL canopy reflectance models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Verhoef, W.; Bunnik, N. J. J.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the relationships between the canopy reflectance and the characteristics of canopy elements is an important factor for the full exploitation of the potential of remote sensing from aircraft and spacecraft altitudes to map vegetation and estimate key agronomic parameters such as the leaf area index (LAI) and biomass (BM). Suits (1972) idealized the canopy geometry by replacing each plant component with three orthogonal projections of that component. Verhoeff and Bunnik (1981) extended the Suits model, henceforth called the SAIL (Scattering from Arbitrarily Inclined Leaves) model, by removing certain constraints. The present investigation is concerned with an evaluation of the performance of the Suits and SAIL models, taking into account two data sets on soybean and corn. It was found that the tested models have significant deficiencies. However, the performance of the SAIL model is better than that of the Suits model because it provides a more realistic description of the canopy architecture.

  16. Are leaf chemistry signatures preserved at the canopy level?

    SciTech Connect

    Borel, C.C.; Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1994-05-01

    Imaging spectrometers have the potential to be very useful in remote sensing of canopy chemistry constituents such as nitrogen and lignin. In this study under the HIRIS project the question of how leaf chemical composition which is reflected in leaf spectral features in the reflectance and transmittance is affected by canopy architecture was investigated. Several plants were modeled with high fidelity and a radiosity model was used to compute the canopy spectral signature over the visible and near infrared. We found that chemical constituent specific signatures such as absorptions are preserved and in the case of low absorption are actually enhanced. For moderately dense canopies the amount of a constituent depends also on the total leaf area.

  17. 3D printed components with ultrasonically arranged microscale structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llewellyn-Jones, Thomas M.; Drinkwater, Bruce W.; Trask, Richard S.

    2016-02-01

    This paper shows the first application of in situ manipulation of discontinuous fibrous structure mid-print, within a 3D printed polymeric composite architecture. Currently, rapid prototyping methods (fused filament fabrication, stereolithography) are gaining increasing popularity within the engineering commnity to build structural components. Unfortunately, the full potential of these components is limited by the mechanical properties of the materials used. The aim of this study is to create and demonstrate a novel method to instantaneously orient micro-scale glass fibres within a selectively cured photocurable resin system, using ultrasonic forces to align the fibres in the desired 3D architecture. To achieve this we have mounted a switchable, focused laser module on the carriage of a three-axis 3D printing stage, above an in-house ultrasonic alignment rig containing a mixture of photocurable resin and discontinuous 14 μm diameter glass fibre reinforcement(50 μm length). In our study, a suitable print speed of 20 mm s-1 was used, which is comparable to conventional additive layer techniques. We show the ability to construct in-plane orthogonally aligned sections printed side by side, where the precise orientation of the configurations is controlled by switching the ultrasonic standing wave profile mid-print. This approach permits the realisation of complex fibrous architectures within a 3D printed landscape. The versatile nature of the ultrasonic manipulation technique also permits a wide range of particle types (diameters, aspect ratios and functions) and architectures (in-plane, and out-plane) to be patterned, leading to the creation of a new generation of fibrous reinforced composites for 3D printing.

  18. 3-D VLSI Architecture Implementation for Data Fusion Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, T.; Weldon, D.; Thomas, T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of hardware implementation techniques employed in solving real-time classification problems using Neural Network, Principle Component Analysis (PCA), and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) techniques.

  19. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  20. Parallelization of Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Dana P.; Korte, John J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the parallelization of the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST3D). POST3D uses a gradient-based optimization algorithm that reaches an optimum design point by moving from one design point to the next. The gradient calculations required to complete the optimization process, dominate the computational time and have been parallelized using a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) on a distributed memory NUMA (non-uniform memory access) architecture. The Origin2000 was used for the tests presented.

  1. 3D plasmonic crystal metamaterials for ultra-sensitive biosensing.

    PubMed

    Aristov, Andrey I; Manousidaki, Maria; Danilov, Artem; Terzaki, Konstantina; Fotakis, Costas; Farsari, Maria; Kabashin, Andrei V

    2016-01-01

    We explore the excitation of plasmons in 3D plasmon crystal metamaterials and report the observation of a delocalized plasmon mode, which provides extremely high spectral sensitivity (>2600 nm per refractive index unit (RIU) change), outperforming all plasmonic counterparts excited in 2D nanoscale geometries, as well as a prominent phase-sensitive response (>3*10(4) deg. of phase per RIU). Combined with a large surface for bioimmobilization provided by the 3D matrix, the proposed sensor architecture promises a new important landmark in the advancement of plasmonic biosensing technology. PMID:27151104

  2. 3D plasmonic crystal metamaterials for ultra-sensitive biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aristov, Andrey I.; Manousidaki, Maria; Danilov, Artem; Terzaki, Konstantina; Fotakis, Costas; Farsari, Maria; Kabashin, Andrei V.

    2016-05-01

    We explore the excitation of plasmons in 3D plasmon crystal metamaterials and report the observation of a delocalized plasmon mode, which provides extremely high spectral sensitivity (>2600 nm per refractive index unit (RIU) change), outperforming all plasmonic counterparts excited in 2D nanoscale geometries, as well as a prominent phase-sensitive response (>3*104 deg. of phase per RIU). Combined with a large surface for bioimmobilization provided by the 3D matrix, the proposed sensor architecture promises a new important landmark in the advancement of plasmonic biosensing technology.

  3. 3D plasmonic crystal metamaterials for ultra-sensitive biosensing

    PubMed Central

    Aristov, Andrey I.; Manousidaki, Maria; Danilov, Artem; Terzaki, Konstantina; Fotakis, Costas; Farsari, Maria; Kabashin, Andrei V.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the excitation of plasmons in 3D plasmon crystal metamaterials and report the observation of a delocalized plasmon mode, which provides extremely high spectral sensitivity (>2600 nm per refractive index unit (RIU) change), outperforming all plasmonic counterparts excited in 2D nanoscale geometries, as well as a prominent phase-sensitive response (>3*104 deg. of phase per RIU). Combined with a large surface for bioimmobilization provided by the 3D matrix, the proposed sensor architecture promises a new important landmark in the advancement of plasmonic biosensing technology. PMID:27151104

  4. A Clean Adirondack (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.

  5. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  6. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  7. Vacant Lander in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D image captured by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's rear hazard-identification camera shows the now-empty lander that carried the rover 283 million miles to Meridiani Planum, Mars. Engineers received confirmation that Opportunity's six wheels successfully rolled off the lander and onto martian soil at 3:01 a.m. PST, January 31, 2004, on the seventh martian day, or sol, of the mission. The rover is approximately 1 meter (3 feet) in front of the lander, facing north.

  8. Combined Immunofluorescence and DNA FISH on 3D-preserved Interphase Nuclei to Study Changes in 3D Nuclear Organization

    PubMed Central

    Chaumeil, Julie; Micsinai, Mariann; Skok, Jane A.

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization using DNA probes on 3-dimensionally preserved nuclei followed by 3D confocal microscopy (3D DNA FISH) represents the most direct way to visualize the location of gene loci, chromosomal sub-regions or entire territories in individual cells. This type of analysis provides insight into the global architecture of the nucleus as well as the behavior of specific genomic loci and regions within the nuclear space. Immunofluorescence, on the other hand, permits the detection of nuclear proteins (modified histones, histone variants and modifiers, transcription machinery and factors, nuclear sub-compartments, etc). The major challenge in combining immunofluorescence and 3D DNA FISH is, on the one hand to preserve the epitope detected by the antibody as well as the 3D architecture of the nucleus, and on the other hand, to allow the penetration of the DNA probe to detect gene loci or chromosome territories 1-5. Here we provide a protocol that combines visualization of chromatin modifications with genomic loci in 3D preserved nuclei. PMID:23407477

  9. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  10. 3D acoustic atmospheric tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kevin; Finn, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing spatially varying 3D atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based. Measurements of the acoustic signature measured onboard a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are compared to ground-based observations of the same signals. The frequency-shifted signal variations are then used to estimate the acoustic propagation delay between the UAV and the ground microphones, which are also affected by atmospheric temperature and wind speed vectors along each sound ray path. The wind and temperature profiles are modelled as the weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions (RBFs), which also allow local meteorological measurements made at the UAV and ground receivers to supplement any acoustic observations. Tomography is used to provide a full 3D reconstruction/visualisation of the observed atmosphere. The technique offers observational mobility under direct user control and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. This paper summarises the tomographic technique and reports on the results of simulations and initial field trials. The technique has practical applications for atmospheric research, sound propagation studies, boundary layer meteorology, air pollution measurements, analysis of wind shear, and wind farm surveys.

  11. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  12. 3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikaw, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.

    1998-12-01

    We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W=4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure. We also simulate jets with the more realistic initial conditions for injecting jets for helical mangetic field, perturbed density, velocity, and internal energy, which are supposed to be caused in the process of jet generation. Three possible explanations for the observed variability are (i) tidal disruption of a star falling into the black hole, (ii) instabilities in the relativistic accretion disk, and (iii) jet-related PRocesses. New results will be reported at the meeting.

  13. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  14. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  15. 3D medical thermography device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Peyman

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.

  16. 3D Ion Temperature Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Hiroshi; You, Setthivoine; Balandin, Alexander; Inomoto, Michiaki; Ono, Yasushi

    2009-11-01

    The TS-4 experiment at the University of Tokyo collides two spheromaks to form a single high-beta compact toroid. Magnetic reconnection during the merging process heats and accelerates the plasma in toroidal and poloidal directions. The reconnection region has a complex 3D topology determined by the pitch of the spheromak magnetic fields at the merging plane. A pair of multichord passive spectroscopic diagnostics have been established to measure the ion temperature and velocity in the reconnection volume. One setup measures spectral lines across a poloidal plane, retrieving velocity and temperature from Abel inversion. The other, novel setup records spectral lines across another section of the plasma and reconstructs velocity and temperature from 3D vector and 2D scalar tomography techniques. The magnetic field linking both measurement planes is determined from in situ magnetic probe arrays. The ion temperature is then estimated within the volume between the two measurement planes and at the reconnection region. The measurement is followed over several repeatable discharges to follow the heating and acceleration process during the merging reconnection.

  17. Filling gaps in cultural heritage documentation by 3D photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.

    2015-08-01

    This contribution promotes 3D photography as an important tool to obtain objective object information. Keeping mainly in mind World Heritage documentation as well as Heritage protection, it is another intention of this paper, to stimulate the interest in applications of 3D photography for professionals as well as for amateurs. In addition this is also an activity report of the international CIPA task group 3. The main part of this paper starts with "Digging the treasure of existing international 3D photography". This does not only belong to tangible but also to intangible Cultural Heritage. 3D photography clearly supports the recording, the visualization, the preservation and the restoration of architectural and archaeological objects. Therefore the use of 3D photography in C.H. should increase on an international level. The presented samples in 3D represent a voluminous, almost partly "forgotten treasure" of international archives for 3D photography. The next chapter is on "Promoting new 3D photography in Cultural Heritage". Though 3D photographs are a well-established basic photographic and photogrammetric tool, even suited to provide "near real" documentation, they are still a matter of research and improvement. Beside the use of 3D cameras even single lenses cameras are very much suited for photographic 3D documentation purposes in Cultural Heritage. Currently at the Faculty of Civil Engineering of the University of Applied Sciences Magdeburg-Stendal, low altitude aerial photography is exposed from a maximum height of 13m, using a hand hold carbon telescope rod. The use of this "huge selfie stick" is also an (international) recommendation, to expose high resolution 3D photography of monuments under expedition conditions. In addition to the carbon rod recently a captive balloon and a hexacopter UAV- platform is in use, mainly to take better synoptically (extremely low altitude, ground truth) aerial photography. Additional experiments with respect to "easy

  18. LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller

    2004-09-01

    The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data

  19. Toward single cell traction microscopy within 3D collagen matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Matthew S.; Long, Rong; Feng, Xinzeng; Huang, YuLing; Hui, Chung-Yuen; Wu, Mingming

    2013-10-01

    Mechanical interaction between the cell and its extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cellular behaviors, including proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration. Cells require the three-dimensional (3D) architectural support of the ECM to perform physiologically realistic functions. However, current understanding of cell–ECM and cell–cell mechanical interactions is largely derived from 2D cell traction force microscopy, in which cells are cultured on a flat substrate. 3D cell traction microscopy is emerging for mapping traction fields of single animal cells embedded in either synthetic or natively derived fibrous gels. We discuss here the development of 3D cell traction microscopy, its current limitations, and perspectives on the future of this technology. Emphasis is placed on strategies for applying 3D cell traction microscopy to individual tumor cell migration within collagen gels. - Highlights: • Review of the current state of the art in 3D cell traction force microscopy. • Bulk and micro-characterization of remodelable fibrous collagen gels. • Strategies for performing 3D cell traction microscopy within collagen gels.

  20. Improving 3D Genome Reconstructions Using Orthologous and Functional Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Diament, Alon; Tuller, Tamir

    2015-01-01

    The study of the 3D architecture of chromosomes has been advancing rapidly in recent years. While a number of methods for 3D reconstruction of genomic models based on Hi-C data were proposed, most of the analyses in the field have been performed on different 3D representation forms (such as graphs). Here, we reproduce most of the previous results on the 3D genomic organization of the eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae using analysis of 3D reconstructions. We show that many of these results can be reproduced in sparse reconstructions, generated from a small fraction of the experimental data (5% of the data), and study the properties of such models. Finally, we propose for the first time a novel approach for improving the accuracy of 3D reconstructions by introducing additional predicted physical interactions to the model, based on orthologous interactions in an evolutionary-related organism and based on predicted functional interactions between genes. We demonstrate that this approach indeed leads to the reconstruction of improved models. PMID:26000633

  1. Thermal vegetation canopy model studies

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.A.; Ranson, K.J.; Nguyen, D.; Balick, L.; Link, L.E.; Fritschen, L.; Hutchison, B.

    1981-01-01

    An iterative-type thermal model applicable to forest canopies was tested with data from two diverse forest types. The model framework consists of a system of steady-state energy budget equations describing the interactions of short- and long-wave radiation within three horizontally infinite canopy layers. A state-space formulation of the energy dynamics within the canopy is used which permits a factorization of canopy geometrical parameters from canopy optical and thermal coefficients as well as environmental driving variables. Two sets of data characterizing a coniferous (Douglas-fir) and deciduous (oak-hickory) canopy were collected to evaluate the thermal model. The results show that the model approximates measured mean canopy temperatures to within 2/sup 0/C for relatively clear weather conditions and deviates by a maximum of 3/sup 0/C for very hazy or foggy conditions.

  2. 3D-Flow processor for a programmable Level-1 trigger (feasibility study)

    SciTech Connect

    Crosetto, D.

    1992-10-01

    A feasibility study has been made to use the 3D-Flow processor in a pipelined programmable parallel processing architecture to identify particles such as electrons, jets, muons, etc., in high-energy physics experiments.

  3. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction. PMID:26861680

  4. ShowMe3D

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  5. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  6. From 1D to 3D - macroscopic nanowire aerogel monoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wei; Rechberger, Felix; Niederberger, Markus

    2016-07-01

    Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying.Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, SEM and TEM images, and digital photographs. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr04429h

  7. Multi Sensor Data Integration for AN Accurate 3d Model Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhatkuli, S.; Satoh, T.; Tachibana, K.

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a novel technique of data integration between two different data sets, i.e. laser scanned RGB point cloud and oblique imageries derived 3D model, to create a 3D model with more details and better accuracy. In general, aerial imageries are used to create a 3D city model. Aerial imageries produce an overall decent 3D city models and generally suit to generate 3D model of building roof and some non-complex terrain. However, the automatically generated 3D model, from aerial imageries, generally suffers from the lack of accuracy in deriving the 3D model of road under the bridges, details under tree canopy, isolated trees, etc. Moreover, the automatically generated 3D model from aerial imageries also suffers from undulated road surfaces, non-conforming building shapes, loss of minute details like street furniture, etc. in many cases. On the other hand, laser scanned data and images taken from mobile vehicle platform can produce more detailed 3D road model, street furniture model, 3D model of details under bridge, etc. However, laser scanned data and images from mobile vehicle are not suitable to acquire detailed 3D model of tall buildings, roof tops, and so forth. Our proposed approach to integrate multi sensor data compensated each other's weakness and helped to create a very detailed 3D model with better accuracy. Moreover, the additional details like isolated trees, street furniture, etc. which were missing in the original 3D model derived from aerial imageries could also be integrated in the final model automatically. During the process, the noise in the laser scanned data for example people, vehicles etc. on the road were also automatically removed. Hence, even though the two dataset were acquired in different time period the integrated data set or the final 3D model was generally noise free and without unnecessary details.

  8. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  9. LV motion tracking from 3D echocardiography using textural and structural information.

    PubMed

    Myronenko, Andriy; Song, Xubo; Sahn, David J

    2007-01-01

    Automated motion reconstruction of the left ventricle (LV) from 3D echocardiography provides insight into myocardium architecture and function. Low image quality and artifacts make 3D ultrasound image processing a challenging problem. We introduce a LV tracking method, which combines textural and structural information to overcome the image quality limitations. Our method automatically reconstructs the motion of the LV contour (endocardium and epicardium) from a sequence of 3D ultrasound images. PMID:18044597

  10. i3DP, a robust 3D printing approach enabling genetic post-printing surface modification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolong; Cai, Xiaobing; Guo, Qiuquan; Zhang, Tengyuan; Kobe, Brad; Yang, Jun

    2013-10-01

    Initiator integrated 3D printing, namely i3DP, was developed by incorporating a vinyl-terminated initiator into UV curable resin to make functional structural materials that enable genetic post-printing surface-initiated modification. Taking advantage of 3D printing and surface-initiated ATRP, the feasible i3DP makes 3D printed complex architectures possible for nearly any desired surface modification for various applications, for example, even pouring water into a sieve was readily achieved. PMID:24002351

  11. 3D Printing of Conductive Complex Structures with In Situ Generation of Silver Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Fantino, Erika; Chiappone, Annalisa; Roppolo, Ignazio; Manfredi, Diego; Bongiovanni, Roberta; Pirri, Candido Fabrizio; Calignano, Flaviana

    2016-05-01

    Coupling the photoreduction of a metal precursor with 3D-printing technology is shown to allow the fabrication of conductive 3D hybrid structures consisting of metal nanoparticles and organic polymers shaped in complex multilayered architectures. 3D conductive structures are fabricated incorporating silver nitrate into a photocurable oligomer in the presence of suitable photoinitiators and exposing them to a digital light system. PMID:26992060

  12. Advanced 3D imaging lidar concepts for long range sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, K. J.; Hiskett, P. A.; Lamb, R. A.

    2014-06-01

    Recent developments in 3D imaging lidar are presented. Long range 3D imaging using photon counting is now a possibility, offering a low-cost approach to integrated remote sensing with step changing advantages in size, weight and power compared to conventional analogue active imaging technology. We report results using a Geiger-mode array for time-of-flight, single photon counting lidar for depth profiling and determination of the shape and size of tree canopies and distributed surface reflections at a range of 9km, with 4μJ pulses with a frame rate of 100kHz using a low-cost fibre laser operating at a wavelength of λ=1.5 μm. The range resolution is less than 4cm providing very high depth resolution for target identification. This specification opens up several additional functionalities for advanced lidar, for example: absolute rangefinding and depth profiling for long range identification, optical communications, turbulence sensing and time-of-flight spectroscopy. Future concepts for 3D time-of-flight polarimetric and multispectral imaging lidar, with optical communications in a single integrated system are also proposed.

  13. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  14. Macroscopic Carbon Nanotube-based 3D Monoliths.

    PubMed

    Du, Ran; Zhao, Qiuchen; Zhang, Na; Zhang, Jin

    2015-07-15

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one of the most promising carbon allotropes with incredible diverse physicochemical properties, thereby enjoying continuous worldwide attention since their discovery about two decades ago. From the point of view of practical applications, assembling individual CNTs into macroscopic functional and high-performance materials is of paramount importance. For example, multiscaled CNT-based assemblies including 1D fibers, 2D films, and 3D monoliths have been developed. Among all of these, monolithic 3D CNT architectures with porous structures have attracted increasing interest in the last few years. In this form, theoretically all individual CNTs are well connected and fully expose their surfaces. These 3D architectures have huge specific surface areas, hierarchical pores, and interconnected conductive networks, resulting in enhanced mass/electron transport and countless accessible active sites for diverse applications (e.g. catalysis, capacitors, and sorption). More importantly, the monolithic form of 3D CNT assemblies can impart additional application potentials to materials, such as free-standing electrodes, sensors, and recyclable sorbents. However, scaling the properties of individual CNTs to 3D assemblies, improving use of the diverse, structure-dependent properties of CNTs, and increasing the performance-to-cost ratio are great unsolved challenges for their real commercialization. This review aims to provide a comprehensive introduction of this young and energetic field, i.e., CNT-based 3D monoliths, with a focus on the preparation principles, current synthetic methods, and typical applications. Opportunities and challenges in this field are also presented. PMID:25740457

  15. Dual redundant display in bubble canopy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdi, Ken; Niemczyk, James

    2010-04-01

    Today's cockpit integrator, whether for state of the art military fast jet, or piston powered general aviation, is striving to utilize all available panel space for AMLCD based displays to enhance situational awareness and increase safety. The benefits of a glass cockpit have been well studied and documented. The technology used to create these glass cockpits, however, is driven by commercial AMLCD demand which far outstrips the combined worldwide avionics requirements. In order to satisfy the wide variety of human factors and environmental requirements, large area displays have been developed to maximize the usable display area while also providing necessary redundancy in case of failure. The AMLCD has been optimized for extremely wide viewing angles driven by the flat panel TV market. In some cockpit applications, wide viewing cones are desired. In bubble canopy cockpits, however, narrow viewing cones are desired to reduce canopy reflections. American Panel Corporation has developed AMLCD displays that maximize viewing area, provide redundancy, while also providing a very narrow viewing cone even though commercial AMLCD technology is employed suitable for high performance AMLCD Displays. This paper investigates both the large area display architecture with several available options to solve redundancy as well as beam steering techniques to also limit canopy reflections.

  16. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  17. [Effects of canopy shapes of grape on canopy microenvironment, leaf and fruit quality in greenhouse].

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiang-bin; Liu, Feng-zhi; Cheng, Cun-gang; Wang, Xiao-di; Wang, Bao-liang; Zheng, Xiao-cui; Wang, Hai-bo

    2015-12-01

    The effects of three canopy shapes, i.e., vertical canopy, V-shaped canopy and horizontal canopy, on canopy microenvironment, quality of leaves and fruits were studied in the 3-year-old grape 'Jingmi' grafted on ' Beta' in greenhouse. The results showed that gap fraction and openness of vertical canopy were significantly higher than that of V-shaped canopy and horizontal canopy, and leaf area index, light interception rate and canopy temperature difference between day and night were significantly lower than those of V-shaped canopy and horizontal canopy. There was no significant difference between the latter two treatments. The palisade thickness of V-shaped canopy was significantly greater than that of vertical canopy, and horizontal canopy was in the middle. The chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of V-shaped canopy were significantly higher than those of vertical canopy and horizontal canopy, and those in the latter two treatments had no significant difference. The fruit quality of V-shaped canopy was the best, and that of horizontal canopy was the worst. The results of GC-MS analysis showed that 29 types of volatile aroma compounds were detected in V-shaped canopy, but just 17 and 16 in vertical canopy and horizontal canopy, respectively. In V-shaped canopy, the characteristic aroma in grape 'Jingmi' was higher, except ethanol, trans-2- hexene-1-alcohol, 2-octyl ketone and formic acid ester. The linalool content in vertical canopy and V-shaped canopy was higher than that in horizontal canopy. The nerol content in V-shaped canopy was higher than that in vertical canopy and horizontal canopy, and the leaf alcohol content in V-shaped canopy and horizontal canopy was higher than that in vertical canopy. The citronellol was de-tected only in V-shaped canopy. In greenhouse, the fruit aroma of V-shaped canopy grape was stronger, and well reflected the variety characteristics. PMID:27112012

  18. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  19. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-21

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K(+) channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44(+) EGFR(+) KV1.1(+) MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44(-) EGFR(-) KV1.1(+) 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third

  20. Integration of real-time 3D capture, reconstruction, and light-field display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Pei, Renjing; Liu, Yongchun; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-03-01

    Effective integration of 3D acquisition, reconstruction (modeling) and display technologies into a seamless systems provides augmented experience of visualizing and analyzing real objects and scenes with realistic 3D sensation. Applications can be found in medical imaging, gaming, virtual or augmented reality and hybrid simulations. Although 3D acquisition, reconstruction, and display technologies have gained significant momentum in recent years, there seems a lack of attention on synergistically combining these components into a "end-to-end" 3D visualization system. We designed, built and tested an integrated 3D visualization system that is able to capture in real-time 3D light-field images, perform 3D reconstruction to build 3D model of the objects, and display the 3D model on a large autostereoscopic screen. In this article, we will present our system architecture and component designs, hardware/software implementations, and experimental results. We will elaborate on our recent progress on sparse camera array light-field 3D acquisition, real-time dense 3D reconstruction, and autostereoscopic multi-view 3D display. A prototype is finally presented with test results to illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed integrated 3D visualization system.

  1. 3D Kitaev spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, Maria

    The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.

  2. Yogi the rock - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Yogi, a rock taller than rover Sojourner, is the subject of this image, taken in stereo by the deployed Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The soil in the foreground has been the location of multiple soil mechanics experiments performed by Sojourner's cleated wheels. Pathfinder scientists were able to control the force inflicted on the soil beneath the rover's wheels, giving them insight into the soil's mechanical properties. The soil mechanics experiments were conducted after this image was taken.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  3. 3D ultrafast laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

    2013-03-01

    Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and 3D volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.

  4. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  5. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  6. Single Cell Traction Microscopy within 3D Collagen Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Mingming

    2014-03-01

    Mechanical interaction between the cell and its extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cellular behaviors, including proliferation, differentiation, adhesion and migration. Cells require the three dimensional (3D) architectural support of the ECM to perform physiologically realistic functions. However, our current understanding of cell-ECM and cell-cell mechanical interactions is largely derived from 2D traction force microscopy, in which cells are cultured on a flat substrate. It is now clear that what we learn about cellular behavior on a 2D substrate does not always apply to cells embedded within a 3D biomatrix. 3D traction microscopy is emerging for mapping traction fields of single cells embedded in 3D gel, but current methods cannot account for the fibrous and nonlinear properties of collagen gel. In this talk, I will present a forward computation algorithm that we have developed for 3D cell traction measurements within collagen gels. The application of this technology to understanding cancer migration and invasion will be discussed. This work is supported by the National Center for Research Resources (5R21RR025801-03, NIH) and the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (8 R21 GM103388-03,NIH), and the Cornell Center on the Microenvironment & Metastasis.

  7. Optimizing 3D image quality and performance for stereoscopic gaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flack, Julien; Sanderson, Hugh; Pegg, Steven; Kwok, Simon; Paterson, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    The successful introduction of stereoscopic TV systems, such as Samsung's 3D Ready Plasma, requires high quality 3D content to be commercially available to the consumer. Console and PC games provide the most readily accessible source of high quality 3D content. This paper describes innovative developments in a generic, PC-based game driver architecture that addresses the two key issues affecting 3D gaming: quality and speed. At the heart of the quality issue are the same considerations that studios face producing stereoscopic renders from CG movies: how best to perform the mapping from a geometric CG environment into the stereoscopic display volume. The major difference being that for game drivers this mapping cannot be choreographed by hand but must be automatically calculated in real-time without significant impact on performance. Performance is a critical issue when dealing with gaming. Stereoscopic gaming has traditionally meant rendering the scene twice with the associated performance overhead. An alternative approach is to render the scene from one virtual camera position and use information from the z-buffer to generate a stereo pair using Depth-Image-Based Rendering (DIBR). We analyze this trade-off in more detail and provide some results relating to both 3D image quality and render performance.

  8. Plant canopy specular reflectance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, V. C.; Grant, L.

    1985-01-01

    A model is derived for the amount of light specularly reflected and polarized by a plant canopy. The model is based on the morphological and phenological characteristics of the canopy and upon the Fresnel equations of optics. The theory demonstrates that the specular reflectance of the plant canopy is a function of the angle of incidence and potentially contains information to help discriminate between species. The theory relates the specular reflectance to botanical condition of the canopy - to factors such as development stage, plant vigor, and leaf area index (LAI).

  9. Concentrated hydroxyapatite inks for direct-write assembly of 3-D periodic scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Michna, Sarah; Wu, Willie; Lewis, Jennifer A

    2005-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds with a 3-D periodic architecture and multiscale porosity have been fabricated by direct-write assembly. Concentrated HA inks with tailored viscoelastic properties were developed to enable the construction of complex 3-D architectures comprised of self-supporting cylindrical rods in a layer-by-layer patterning sequence. By controlling their lattice constant and sintering conditions, 3-D periodic HA scaffolds were produced with a bimodal pore size distribution. Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) was used to determine the characteristic pore size and volume associated with the interconnected pore channels between HA rods and the finer pores within the partially sintered HA rods. PMID:15878368

  10. 3-D Cavern Enlargement Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    EHGARTNER, BRIAN L.; SOBOLIK, STEVEN R.

    2002-03-01

    Three-dimensional finite element analyses simulate the mechanical response of enlarging existing caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The caverns are located in Gulf Coast salt domes and are enlarged by leaching during oil drawdowns as fresh water is injected to displace the crude oil from the caverns. The current criteria adopted by the SPR limits cavern usage to 5 drawdowns (leaches). As a base case, 5 leaches were modeled over a 25 year period to roughly double the volume of a 19 cavern field. Thirteen additional leaches where then simulated until caverns approached coalescence. The cavern field approximated the geometries and geologic properties found at the West Hackberry site. This enabled comparisons are data collected over nearly 20 years to analysis predictions. The analyses closely predicted the measured surface subsidence and cavern closure rates as inferred from historic well head pressures. This provided the necessary assurance that the model displacements, strains, and stresses are accurate. However, the cavern field has not yet experienced the large scale drawdowns being simulated. Should they occur in the future, code predictions should be validated with actual field behavior at that time. The simulations were performed using JAS3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasi-static solids. The results examine the impacts of leaching and cavern workovers, where internal cavern pressures are reduced, on surface subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The results suggest that the current limit of 5 oil drawdowns may be extended with some mitigative action required on the wells and later on to surface structure due to subsidence strains. The predicted stress state in the salt shows damage to start occurring after 15 drawdowns with significant failure occurring at the 16th drawdown, well beyond the current limit of 5 drawdowns.

  11. (abstract) A High Throughput 3-D Inner Product Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daud, Tuan

    1996-01-01

    A particularily challenging image processing application is the real time scene acquisition and object discrimination. It requires spatio-temporal recognition of point and resolved objects at high speeds with parallel processing algorithms. Neural network paradigms provide fine grain parallism and, when implemented in hardware, offer orders of magnitude speed up. However, neural networks implemented on a VLSI chip are planer architectures capable of efficient processing of linear vector signals rather than 2-D images. Therefore, for processing of images, a 3-D stack of neural-net ICs receiving planar inputs and consuming minimal power are required. Details of the circuits with chip architectures will be described with need to develop ultralow-power electronics. Further, use of the architecture in a system for high-speed processing will be illustrated.

  12. Characterizing canopy nonrandomness with a multiband vegetation imager (MVI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucharik, C. J.; Norman, J. M.; Murdock, L. M.; Gower, S. T.

    1997-12-01

    A new method for measuring plant canopy nonrandomness and other architectural components has been developed using a 16 bit (65535 gray scale levels) charged-coupled device (CCD) camera that captures images of plant canopies in two wavelength bands. This complete system is referred to as a multiband vegetation imager (MVI). The use of two wavelength bands (visible (VIS) 400-620 nm and near infrared (NIR) 720-950 nm) permits identification of sunlit and shaded foliage, sunlit and shaded branch area, clouds, and blue sky based on the camera's resolution, and the varying spectral properties that scene components have in the two wavelength bands. This approach is different from other canopy imaging methods (such as fish-eye photography) because it emphasizes measuring the fraction of an image occupied by various scene components (branches, shaded leaves, sunlit leaves) under different sky conditions rather than simply the canopy gap fraction under uniform sky conditions. The MVI has been used during the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) in aspen (Populus tremuloides) and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) to estimate architectural characteristics of each canopy. The leaf area index (LAI), sunlit LAI, and degree of nonrandomness within a canopy are architectural properties that have been measured with the MVI. Using a crown-based Monte Carlo model for nonrandom canopies, nonrandomness factors are calculated from MVI data using two approaches (gap fraction and gap-size distribution theories) to correct total and sunlit LAI estimates from indirect methods that assume random foliage distributions. Canopy nonrandomness factors obtained from analyzing the gap-size distribution in a Monte Carlo model are shown to be a function of path length (angle) through the canopy (Ωe(θ)); thus we suggest that LAI-2000 indirect measurements of LAI be adjusted with the value of Ωe(θ) at θ=35° because this is the mean angle at which the canopy gap fraction is measured by the

  13. Imaging a Sustainable Future in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kanngieser, E.

    2012-07-01

    It is the intention of this paper, to contribute to a sustainable future by providing objective object information based on 3D photography as well as promoting 3D photography not only for scientists, but also for amateurs. Due to the presentation of this article by CIPA Task Group 3 on "3D Photographs in Cultural Heritage", the presented samples are masterpieces of historic as well as of current 3D photography concentrating on cultural heritage. In addition to a report on exemplarily access to international archives of 3D photographs, samples for new 3D photographs taken with modern 3D cameras, as well as by means of a ground based high resolution XLITE staff camera and also 3D photographs taken from a captive balloon and the use of civil drone platforms are dealt with. To advise on optimum suited 3D methodology, as well as to catch new trends in 3D, an updated synoptic overview of the 3D visualization technology, even claiming completeness, has been carried out as a result of a systematic survey. In this respect, e.g., today's lasered crystals might be "early bird" products in 3D, which, due to lack in resolution, contrast and color, remember to the stage of the invention of photography.

  14. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  15. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  16. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  17. 3D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-09-23

    E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output.

  18. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  19. Research on urban rapid 3D modeling and application based on CGA rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing-wen; Jiang, Jian-wu; Zhou, Song; Yin, Shou-qiang

    2015-12-01

    Use CityEngine as the 3D modeling platform, research on urban rapid 3D modeling technology based on the CGA(Computer Generated Architectur) rule , solved the problem of the rapid creation of urban 3D model in large scenes , and research on building texture processing and 3D model optimization techniques based on CGA rule , using component modeling method , solved the problem of texture distortion and model redundancy in the traditional fast modeling 3D model , and development of a three-dimensional view and analysis system based on ArcGIS Engine , realization of 3D model query , distance measurement , specific path flight , 3D marking , Scene export,etc.

  20. Oscillatory flow through submerged canopies: 2. Canopy mass transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Ryan J.; Koseff, Jeffrey R.; Monismith, Stephen G.; Falter, James L.

    2005-10-01

    Mass transfer rates from submerged canopies constructed from arrays of vertical cylinders were investigated for a range of different cylinder spacings under both unidirectional and oscillatory flow. Individual canopy elements made from gypsum were dissolved in fresh water to simulate the mass transfer of dissolved metabolites to and from canopies of living benthic organisms. Mass transfer rates under oscillatory flow were up to three times higher than values measured for a comparable unidirectional current. This enhancement was shown to be a strong function of the canopy element spacing. A model was developed to predict canopy mass transfer rates on the basis of the in-canopy flow speed and was generalized to incorporate either unidirectional or oscillatory flow. Agreement between the modeled and experimentally measured mass transfer rates indicate that enhanced mass transfer to/from living benthic canopies under oscillatory flow is driven primarily by the higher in-canopy water motion generated by the oscillatory flow, as detailed in the companion paper (Lowe et al., 2005).

  1. Modeling the backscattering and transmission properties of vegetation canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. T.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental measurements of canopy attenuation at 10.2 GHz (X-band) for canopies of wheat and soybeans, experimental observations of the effect upon the microwave backscattering coefficient (sigma) of free water in a vegetation canopy, and experimental measurements of sigma (10.2 GHz, 50 deg, VV and VH polarization) of 30 agricultural fields over the growing season of each crop are discussed. The measurements of the canopy attenuation through wheat independently determined the attenuation resulting from the wheat heads and that from the stalks. An experiment conducted to simulate the effects of rain or dew on sigma showed that sigma increases by about 3 dB as a result of spraying a vegetation canopy with water. The temporal observations of sigma for the 30 agricultural fields (10 each of wheat, corn, and soybeans) indicated fields of the same crop type exhibits similar temporal patterns. Models previously reported were tested using these multitemporal sigma data, and a new model for each crop type was developed and tested. The new models proved to be superior to the previous ones.

  2. Heterogeneously Assembled Metamaterials and Metadevices via 3D Modular Transfer Printing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungwoo; Kang, Byungsoo; Keum, Hohyun; Ahmed, Numair; Rogers, John A.; Ferreira, Placid M.; Kim, Seok; Min, Bumki

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterials have made the exotic control of the flow of electromagnetic waves possible, which is difficult to achieve with natural materials. In recent years, the emergence of functional metadevices has shown immense potential for the practical realization of highly efficient photonic devices. However, complex and heterogeneous architectures that enable diverse functionalities of metamaterials and metadevices have been challenging to realize because of the limited manufacturing capabilities of conventional fabrication methods. Here, we show that three-dimensional (3D) modular transfer printing can be used to construct diverse metamaterials in complex 3D architectures on universal substrates, which is attractive for achieving on-demand photonic properties. Few repetitive processing steps and rapid constructions are additional advantages of 3D modular transfer printing. Thus, this method provides a fascinating route to generate flexible and stretchable 2D/3D metamaterials and metadevices with heterogeneous material components, complex device architectures, and diverse functionalities. PMID:27283594

  3. Heterogeneously Assembled Metamaterials and Metadevices via 3D Modular Transfer Printing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungwoo; Kang, Byungsoo; Keum, Hohyun; Ahmed, Numair; Rogers, John A; Ferreira, Placid M; Kim, Seok; Min, Bumki

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterials have made the exotic control of the flow of electromagnetic waves possible, which is difficult to achieve with natural materials. In recent years, the emergence of functional metadevices has shown immense potential for the practical realization of highly efficient photonic devices. However, complex and heterogeneous architectures that enable diverse functionalities of metamaterials and metadevices have been challenging to realize because of the limited manufacturing capabilities of conventional fabrication methods. Here, we show that three-dimensional (3D) modular transfer printing can be used to construct diverse metamaterials in complex 3D architectures on universal substrates, which is attractive for achieving on-demand photonic properties. Few repetitive processing steps and rapid constructions are additional advantages of 3D modular transfer printing. Thus, this method provides a fascinating route to generate flexible and stretchable 2D/3D metamaterials and metadevices with heterogeneous material components, complex device architectures, and diverse functionalities. PMID:27283594

  4. Heterogeneously Assembled Metamaterials and Metadevices via 3D Modular Transfer Printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungwoo; Kang, Byungsoo; Keum, Hohyun; Ahmed, Numair; Rogers, John A.; Ferreira, Placid M.; Kim, Seok; Min, Bumki

    2016-06-01

    Metamaterials have made the exotic control of the flow of electromagnetic waves possible, which is difficult to achieve with natural materials. In recent years, the emergence of functional metadevices has shown immense potential for the practical realization of highly efficient photonic devices. However, complex and heterogeneous architectures that enable diverse functionalities of metamaterials and metadevices have been challenging to realize because of the limited manufacturing capabilities of conventional fabrication methods. Here, we show that three-dimensional (3D) modular transfer printing can be used to construct diverse metamaterials in complex 3D architectures on universal substrates, which is attractive for achieving on-demand photonic properties. Few repetitive processing steps and rapid constructions are additional advantages of 3D modular transfer printing. Thus, this method provides a fascinating route to generate flexible and stretchable 2D/3D metamaterials and metadevices with heterogeneous material components, complex device architectures, and diverse functionalities.

  5. Transforming 2d Cadastral Data Into a Dynamic Smart 3d Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiliakou, E.; Labropoulos, T.; Dimopoulou, E.

    2013-08-01

    3D property registration has become an imperative need in order to optimally reflect all complex cases of the multilayer reality of property rights and restrictions, revealing their vertical component. This paper refers to the potentials and multiple applications of 3D cadastral systems and explores the current state-of-the art, especially the available software with which 3D visualization can be achieved. Within this context, the Hellenic Cadastre's current state is investigated, in particular its data modeling frame. Presenting the methodologies and specifications addressing the registration of 3D properties, the operating cadastral system's shortcomings and merits are pointed out. Nonetheless, current technological advances as well as the availability of sophisticated software packages (proprietary or open source) call for 3D modeling. In order to register and visualize the complex reality in 3D, Esri's CityEngine modeling software has been used, which is specialized in the generation of 3D urban environments, transforming 2D GIS Data into Smart 3D City Models. The application of the 3D model concerns the Campus of the National Technical University of Athens, in which a complex ownership status is established along with approved special zoning regulations. The 3D model was built using different parameters based on input data, derived from cadastral and urban planning datasets, as well as legal documents and architectural plans. The process resulted in a final 3D model, optimally describing the cadastral situation and built environment and proved to be a good practice example of 3D visualization.

  6. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  7. Use of spectral analogy to evaluate canopy reflectance sensitivity to leaf optical property

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baret, Frederic; Vanderbilt, Vern C.; Steven, Michael D.; Jacquemoud, Stephane

    1993-01-01

    The spectral variation of canopy reflectance is mostly governed by the absorption properties of the elements, hence the leaves, since their intrinsic scattering properties show very little spectral variation. The relationship between canopy reflectance and leaf reflectance measured at the red edge over sugar beet canopies was used to simulate canopy reflectance from leaf reflectance spectra measured over the whole spectral domain. The results show that the spectral analogies found allows accurate reconstruction of canopy reflectance spectra. Explicit assumptions about the very low spectral variation of leaf intrinsic scattering properties are thus indirectly justified. The sensitivity of canopy reflectance (rho(sub c)) to leaf optical properties can then be investigated from concurrent spectral variations of canopy (delta rho(sub c)/delta lambda) and leaf reflectance (delta rho(sub l)/delta lambda): (delta rho(sub c))/(delta rho(sub l)) = ((delta rho(sub c))/(delta lambda) ((delta rho( sub l))/(delta lambda))(sup -1)). This expression is strictly valid only when the optical properties of the soil background or the other vegetation elements such as bark are either spectrally flat or do not contribute significantly to canopy reflectance. Simulations using the SAIL and PROSPECT models demonstrate that the sensitivity of canopy reflectance to leaf reflectance is significant for large vegetation cover fractions in spectral domains where absorption is low. In these conditions, multiple, scattering enhances the leaf absorption features by a factor that can be greater than 2.0. To override the limitations of the SAIL model for the description of the canopy architecture, we tested the previous findings on experimental data. Concurrent canopy and leaf reflectance spectra were measured for a range of sugar beet canopies. The results show good agreement with the theoretical findings. Conclusions are drawn about the applicability of these findings, with particular attention to

  8. The Esri 3D city information model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, T.; Schubiger-Banz, S.

    2014-02-01

    With residential and commercial space becoming increasingly scarce, cities are going vertical. Managing the urban environments in 3D is an increasingly important and complex undertaking. To help solving this problem, Esri has released the ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution. The ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution provides the information model, tools and apps for creating, analyzing and maintaining a 3D city using the ArcGIS platform. This paper presents an overview of the 3D City Information Model and some sample use cases.

  9. Advances in animal ecology from 3D ecosystem mapping with LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, A.; Asner, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    The advent and recent advances of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) have enabled accurate measurement of 3D ecosystem structure. Although the use of LiDAR data is widespread in vegetation science, it has only recently (< 14 years) been applied to animal ecology. Despite such recent application, LiDAR has enabled new insights in the field and revealed the fundamental importance of 3D ecosystem structure for animals. We reviewed the studies to date that have used LiDAR in animal ecology, synthesising the insights gained. Structural heterogeneity is most conducive to increased animal richness and abundance, and increased complexity of vertical vegetation structure is more positively influential than traditionally measured canopy cover, which produces mixed results. However, different taxonomic groups interact with a variety of 3D canopy traits and some groups with 3D topography. LiDAR technology can be applied to animal ecology studies in a wide variety of environments to answer an impressive array of questions. Drawing on case studies from vastly different groups, termites and lions, we further demonstrate the applicability of LiDAR and highlight new understanding, ranging from habitat preference to predator-prey interactions, that would not have been possible from studies restricted to field based methods. We conclude with discussion of how future studies will benefit by using LiDAR to consider 3D habitat effects in a wider variety of ecosystems and with more taxa to develop a better understanding of animal dynamics.

  10. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  11. 3D laptop for defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David

    2012-06-01

    Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous 3D display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for 3D vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged 3D laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype 3D laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and 3D content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live 3D video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced 3D data interpretation, and simulation.

  12. Calculation of TIR Canopy Hot Spot and Implications for Earth Radiation Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. A.; Ballard, J. R., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Using a 3-D model for thermal infrared exitance and the Lowtran 7 atmospheric radiative transfer model, we compute the variation in brightness temperature with view direction and, in particular, the canopy thermal hot spot. We then perform a sensitivity analysis of surface energy balance components for a nominal case using a simple SVAT model given the uncertainty in canopy temperature arising from the thermal hot spot effect. Canopy thermal hot spot variations of two degrees C lead to differences of plus or minus 24% in the midday available energy.

  13. Canopy temperature and cotton performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract The temperature of a cotton canopy is a useful indicator of both the metabolic state and water status of the crop. Recent advances in equipment have resulted in reductions in the cost and complexity of near continuous canopy temperature monitoring. Measurements on a seasonal timeframe at a ...

  14. 3D-design exploration of CNN algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaanenburg, Lambert; Malki, Suleyman

    2011-05-01

    Multi-dimensional algorithms are hard to implement on classical platforms. Pipelining may exploit instruction-level parallelism, but not in the presence of simultaneous data; threads optimize only within the given restrictions. Tiled architectures do add a dimension to the solution space. With locally a large register store, data parallelism is handled, but only to a dimension. 3-D technologies are meant to add a dimension in the realization. Applied on the device level, it makes each computational node smaller. The interconnections become shorter and hence the network will be condensed. Such advantages will be easily lost at higher implementation levels unless 3-D technologies as multi-cores or chip stacking are also introduced. 3-D technologies scale in space, where (partial) reconfiguration scales in time. The optimal selection over the various implementation levels is algorithm dependent. The paper discusses such principles while applied on the scaling of cellular neural networks (CNN). It illustrates how stacking of reconfigurable chips supports many algorithmic requirements in a defect-insensitive manner. Further the paper explores the potential of chip stacking for multi-modal implementations in a reconfigurable approach to heterogeneous architectures for algorithm domains.

  15. 3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team

    Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).

  16. RT3D tutorials for GMS users

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.

    1998-02-01

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

  17. Perception-based shape retrieval for 3D building models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Man; Zhang, Liqiang; Takis Mathiopoulos, P.; Ding, Yusi; Wang, Hao

    2013-01-01

    With the help of 3D search engines, a large number of 3D building models can be retrieved freely online. A serious disadvantage of most rotation-insensitive shape descriptors is their inability to distinguish between two 3D building models which are different at their main axes, but appear similar when one of them is rotated. To resolve this problem, we present a novel upright-based normalization method which not only correctly rotates such building models, but also greatly simplifies and accelerates the abstraction and the matching of building models' shape descriptors. Moreover, the abundance of architectural styles significantly hinders the effective shape retrieval of building models. Our research has shown that buildings with different designs are not well distinguished by the widely recognized shape descriptors for general 3D models. Motivated by this observation and to further improve the shape retrieval quality, a new building matching method is introduced and analyzed based on concepts found in the field of perception theory and the well-known Light Field descriptor. The resulting normalized building models are first classified using the qualitative shape descriptors of Shell and Unevenness which outline integral geometrical and topological information. These models are then put in on orderly fashion with the help of an improved quantitative shape descriptor which we will term as Horizontal Light Field Descriptor, since it assembles detailed shape characteristics. To accurately evaluate the proposed methodology, an enlarged building shape database which extends previous well-known shape benchmarks was implemented as well as a model retrieval system supporting inputs from 2D sketches and 3D models. Various experimental performance evaluation results have shown that, as compared to previous methods, retrievals employing the proposed matching methodology are faster and more consistent with human recognition of spatial objects. In addition these performance

  18. Controlling Material Reactivity Using Architecture.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kyle T; Zhu, Cheng; Duoss, Eric B; Gash, Alexander E; Kolesky, David B; Kuntz, Joshua D; Lewis, Jennifer A; Spadaccini, Christopher M

    2016-03-01

    3D-printing methods are used to generate reactive material architectures. Several geometric parameters are observed to influence the resultant flame propagation velocity, indicating that the architecture can be utilized to control reactivity. Two different architectures, channels and hurdles, are generated, and thin films of thermite are deposited onto the surface. The architecture offers an additional route to control, at will, the energy release rate in reactive composite materials. PMID:26669517

  19. Visualization using 3D voxelization of full lidar waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Joong Yong; Ramnath, Vinod; Feygels, Victor

    2014-11-01

    Airborne bathymetric lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) systems measure photoelectrons on the optical path (range and angle) at the photocathode of a returned laser pulse at high rates, such as every nanosecond. The collected measurement of a single pulse in a time series is called a waveform. Based on the calibration of the lidar system, the return signal is converted into units of received power. This converted value from the lidar waveform data is used to compute an estimate of the reflectance from the returned backscatter, which contains environmental information from along the optical path. This concept led us to develop a novel tool to visualize lidar data in terms of the returned backscatter, and to use this as a data analysis and editing tool. The full lidar waveforms along the optical path, from laser points collected in the region of interest (ROI), are voxelized into a 3D image cube. This allows lidar measurements to be analyzed in three orthogonal directions simultaneously. The laser pulse return (reflection) from the seafloor is visible in the waveform as a pronounced "bump" above the volume backscatter. Floating or submerged objects in the water may also be visible. Similarly, forest canopies and tree branches can be identified in the 3D voxelization. This paper discusses the possibility of using this unique three-orthogonal volume visualizing tool to extract environmental information for carrying out rapid environmental assessments over forests and water.

  20. 3D Dynamic Echocardiography with a Digitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshiro, Osamu; Matani, Ayumu; Chihara, Kunihiro

    1998-05-01

    In this paper,a three-dimensional (3D) dynamic ultrasound (US) imaging system,where a US brightness-mode (B-mode) imagetriggered with an R-wave of electrocardiogram (ECG)was obtained with an ultrasound diagnostic deviceand the location and orientation of the US probewere simultaneously measured with a 3D digitizer, is described.The obtained B-mode imagewas then projected onto a virtual 3D spacewith the proposed interpolation algorithm using a Gaussian operator.Furthermore, a 3D image was presented on a cathode ray tube (CRT)and stored in virtual reality modeling language (VRML).We performed an experimentto reconstruct a 3D heart image in systole using this system.The experimental results indicatethat the system enables the visualization ofthe 3D and internal structure of a heart viewed from any angleand has potential for use in dynamic imaging,intraoperative ultrasonography and tele-medicine.

  1. Fractal geometry for atmospheric correction and canopy simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornow, Carmen

    1996-06-01

    Global climate modeling needs a good parameterization of the vegetative surface. Two of the main important parameters are the leaf area index (LAI) and the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR). In order to derive these values from space and airborne spectral radiance measurements one needs information on the actual atmospheric state as well as good canopy models. First we have developed a retrieval method for the optical depth to perform an atmospheric correction of remote sensing data. The atmospheric influence reduces the global image contrast and acts as a low pass filter. We found that the autocorrelation function [ACF(lambda )(h)] of the image depends on the global image contrast C and on the fractal dimension s. Using multiple regression the spectral optical depth in the visible range can be estimated from C and s with an absolute accuracy of 0.021. This method was applied and tested for a number of rural TM scenes. Atmospheric correction allows us to calculate the canopy reflectance from the image data. The relationships between the canopy reflectance and LAI or FPAR can be determined from canopy radiative transfer modeling. Row and shadowing effects influence the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) since the leaves and stems are real 3D objects. In order to use a ray tracer for 3D radiative transfer simulation the canopy should be described by simple shapes (discs, cylinders) and polygones. Lindenmayer systems which are based on the ideas of fractal geometry allow the construction of plants and trees in this way. We have created simple artificial plants and arranged them into rows to study shadowing and row effects and compute the BRDF in various spectral channels.

  2. 3D medical volume reconstruction using web services.

    PubMed

    Kooper, Rob; Shirk, Andrew; Lee, Sang-Chul; Lin, Amy; Folberg, Robert; Bajcsy, Peter

    2008-04-01

    We address the problem of 3D medical volume reconstruction using web services. The use of proposed web services is motivated by the fact that the problem of 3D medical volume reconstruction requires significant computer resources and human expertise in medical and computer science areas. Web services are implemented as an additional layer to a dataflow framework called data to knowledge. In the collaboration between UIC and NCSA, pre-processed input images at NCSA are made accessible to medical collaborators for registration. Every time UIC medical collaborators inspected images and selected corresponding features for registration, the web service at NCSA is contacted and the registration processing query is executed using the image to knowledge library of registration methods. Co-registered frames are returned for verification by medical collaborators in a new window. In this paper, we present 3D volume reconstruction problem requirements and the architecture of the developed prototype system at http://isda.ncsa.uiuc.edu/MedVolume. We also explain the tradeoffs of our system design and provide experimental data to support our system implementation. The prototype system has been used for multiple 3D volume reconstructions of blood vessels and vasculogenic mimicry patterns in histological sections of uveal melanoma studied by fluorescent confocal laser scanning microscope. PMID:18336808

  3. 3D vertical nanostructures for enhanced infrared plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Malerba, Mario; Alabastri, Alessandro; Miele, Ermanno; Zilio, Pierfrancesco; Patrini, Maddalena; Bajoni, Daniele; Messina, Gabriele C; Dipalo, Michele; Toma, Andrea; Proietti Zaccaria, Remo; De Angelis, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The exploitation of surface plasmon polaritons has been mostly limited to the visible and near infrared range, due to the low frequency limit for coherent plasmon excitation and the reduction of confinement on the metal surface for lower energies. In this work we show that 3D--out of plane--nanostructures can considerably increase the intrinsic quality of the optical output, light confinement and electric field enhancement factors, also in the near and mid-infrared. We suggest that the physical principle relies on the combination of far field and near field interactions between neighboring antennas, promoted by the 3D out-of-plane geometry. We first analyze the changes in the optical behavior, which occur when passing from a single on-plane nanostructure to a 3D out-of-plane configuration. Then we show that by arranging the nanostructures in periodic arrays, 3D architectures can provide, in the mid-IR, a much stronger plasmonic response, compared to that achievable with the use of 2D configurations, leading to higher energy harvesting properties and improved Q-factors, with bright perspective up to the terahertz range. PMID:26552340

  4. Constructing 3D microtubule networks using holographic optical trapping

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, J.; Osunbayo, O.; Vershinin, M.

    2015-01-01

    Developing abilities to assemble nanoscale structures is a major scientific and engineering challenge. We report a technique which allows precise positioning and manipulation of individual rigid filaments, enabling construction of custom-designed 3D filament networks. This approach uses holographic optical trapping (HOT) for nano-positioning and microtubules (MTs) as network building blocks. MTs are desirable engineering components due to their high aspect ratio, rigidity, and their ability to serve as substrate for directed nano-transport, reflecting their roles in the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. The 3D architecture of MT cytoskeleton is a significant component of its function, however experimental tools to study the roles of this geometric complexity in a controlled environment have been lacking. We demonstrate the broad capabilities of our system by building a self-supporting 3D MT-based nanostructure and by conducting a MT-based transport experiment on a dynamically adjustable 3D MT intersection. Our methodology not only will advance studies of cytoskeletal networks (and associated processes such as MT-based transport) but will also likely find use in engineering nanostructures and devices. PMID:26657337

  5. From 3D Scanning to Analytical Heritage Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaich, M.

    During the last few years, the number of historical and archaeological items recorded using innovative, three dimensional surveying technologies has increased considerably. Comprehensive digital, photo-realistic 3D recording and modelling yields a huge range of new possibilities for documenting, analysing and safeguarding items of cultural importance. ArcTron GmbH has specialised in electronic surveying and the development of CAD and database information systems for heritage and archaeology for over 12 years employing total stations, laser pantographs and photogrammetry, as well as a variety of laser scanning systems, to generate 3D recordings. Innovative complementary combinations of these technologies allow their respective strengths to be fully exploited. The data resulting from recording techniques of these kinds can be used as a basis for producing documentation of outstanding quality. 3D digital models with photo-realistic texturing, orthophotos, coloured point clouds, 3D damage mapping, rapid prototyping models and multi-media presentations are just some of the potential resulting forms of documentation. Historical monuments and items ranging from huge sections of terrain down to the smallest artefact can be reproduced with such accuracy and to such a high level of realism that documentation of this kind is not only extremely useful for archaeologists, conservators and architectural historians etc. but practically indispensable.

  6. Sydney-Gunnedah-Bowen Basin deep 3D structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danis, Cara

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the Sydney-Gunnedah-Bowen Basin (SGBB), one of the largest extensional rift sedimentary basins on the east coast of Australia, lack an understanding of the 3D upper crustal structure. Understanding of the subsurface structure is essential for many areas of resource exploration, development and management, as well as scientific research. Geological models provide a way to visualise and investigate the subsurface structure. The integrated regional scale gravity modelling approach, which uses boreholes and seismic data constraints, provides an understanding of the upper crustal structure and allows the development of a 3D geological model which can be used as the architectural framework for many different applications. This work presents a 3D geological model of the SGBB developed for application in high resolution thermal models. It is the culmination of geological surfaces derived from the interpolation of previous regional scale 2D gravity models and numerous borehole records. The model outlines the basement structure of the SGBB and provides information on depth to basement, depth to basal volcanics and thickness of overlying sediments. Through understanding the uncertainties, limitations, confidence and reliability of this model, the 3D geological model can provide the ideal framework for future research.

  7. Geospatial Modelling Approach for 3d Urban Densification Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koziatek, O.; Dragićević, S.; Li, S.

    2016-06-01

    With growing populations, economic pressures, and the need for sustainable practices, many urban regions are rapidly densifying developments in the vertical built dimension with mid- and high-rise buildings. The location of these buildings can be projected based on key factors that are attractive to urban planners, developers, and potential buyers. Current research in this area includes various modelling approaches, such as cellular automata and agent-based modelling, but the results are mostly linked to raster grids as the smallest spatial units that operate in two spatial dimensions. Therefore, the objective of this research is to develop a geospatial model that operates on irregular spatial tessellations to model mid- and high-rise buildings in three spatial dimensions (3D). The proposed model is based on the integration of GIS, fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation (MCE), and 3D GIS-based procedural modelling. Part of the City of Surrey, within the Metro Vancouver Region, Canada, has been used to present the simulations of the generated 3D building objects. The proposed 3D modelling approach was developed using ESRI's CityEngine software and the Computer Generated Architecture (CGA) language.

  8. 3D vertical nanostructures for enhanced infrared plasmonics

    PubMed Central

    Malerba, Mario; Alabastri, Alessandro; Miele, Ermanno; Zilio, Pierfrancesco; Patrini, Maddalena; Bajoni, Daniele; Messina, Gabriele C.; Dipalo, Michele; Toma, Andrea; Proietti Zaccaria, Remo; De Angelis, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The exploitation of surface plasmon polaritons has been mostly limited to the visible and near infrared range, due to the low frequency limit for coherent plasmon excitation and the reduction of confinement on the metal surface for lower energies. In this work we show that 3D - out of plane - nanostructures can considerably increase the intrinsic quality of the optical output, light confinement and electric field enhancement factors, also in the near and mid-infrared. We suggest that the physical principle relies on the combination of far field and near field interactions between neighboring antennas, promoted by the 3D out-of-plane geometry. We first analyze the changes in the optical behavior, which occur when passing from a single on-plane nanostructure to a 3D out-of-plane configuration. Then we show that by arranging the nanostructures in periodic arrays, 3D architectures can provide, in the mid-IR, a much stronger plasmonic response, compared to that achievable with the use of 2D configurations, leading to higher energy harvesting properties and improved Q-factors, with bright perspective up to the terahertz range. PMID:26552340

  9. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2015-03-01

    This is the first book written on using Blender for scientific visualization. It is a practical and interesting introduction to Blender for understanding key parts of 3D rendering and animation that pertain to the sciences via step-by-step guided tutorials. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender takes you through an understanding of 3D graphics and modelling for different visualization scenarios in the physical sciences.

  10. Isotopic characteristics of canopies in simulated leaf assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Heather V.; Patzkowsky, Mark E.; Wing, Scott L.; Parker, Geoffrey G.; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Freeman, Katherine H.

    2014-11-01

    The geologic history of closed-canopy forests is of great interest to paleoecologists and paleoclimatologists alike. Closed canopies have pronounced effects on local, continental and global rainfall and temperature patterns. Although evidence for canopy closure is difficult to reconstruct from the fossil record, the characteristic isotope gradients of the "canopy effect" could be preserved in leaves and proxy biomarkers. To assess this, we employed new carbon isotopic data for leaves collected in diverse light environments within a deciduous, temperate forest (Maryland, USA) and for leaves from a perennially closed canopy, moist tropical forest (Bosque Protector San Lorenzo, Panamá). In the tropical forest, leaf carbon isotope values range 10‰, with higher δ13Cleaf values occurring both in upper reaches of the canopy, and with higher light exposure and lower humidity. Leaf fractionation (Δleaf) varied negatively with height and light and positively with humidity. Vertical 13C enrichment in leaves largely reflects changes in Δleaf, and does not trend with δ13C of CO2 within the canopy. At the site in Maryland, leaves express a more modest δ13C range (∼6‰), with a clear trend that follows both light and leaf height. Using a model we simulate leaf assemblage isotope patterns from canopy data binned by elevation. The re-sampling (bootstrap) model determined both the mean and range of carbon isotope values for simulated leaf assemblages ranging in size from 10 to over 1000 leaves. For the tropical forest data, the canopy's isotope range is captured with 50 or more randomly sampled leaves. Thus, with a sufficient number of fossil leaves it is possible to distinguish isotopic gradients in an ancient closed canopy forest from those in an open forest. For very large leaf assemblages, mean isotopic values approximate the δ13C of carbon contributed by leaves to soil and are similar to observed δ13Clitter values at forested sites within Panamá, including the

  11. In-forest canopy chemical sinks and regional air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes, J. D.; Brune, W. H.; Stockwell, W. R.

    2009-12-01

    In forested landscapes, it is necessary to estimate emissions of biogenic hydrocarbons emitted by vegetation. Such emissions are required to determine the contribution of biogenic hydrocarbons to the formation of oxidants such as ozone and secondary organic aerosols. Depending on forest architecture (e.g., leaf area index) and lifetime of chemical species, substantial biogenic hydrocarbons can react within plant canopies before reaching the surrounding atmosphere. Emission inventories are required for regional air quality models designed to estimate oxidant and aerosol production from biogenic hydrocarbons. Also, emission inventories for air quality models need to account for reductions of biogenic hydrocarbons and increases in their products due to reactions within plant canopies. Therefore, one objective of this presentation is to report and discuss results on the degree of chemical processing for a select group of biogenic hydrocarbon species as a function of forest canopy attributes and prevailing atmospheric turbulence. Chemical processing within plant canopies can appropriately be estimated using one-dimensional models that include detailed photochemical mechanisms, and radiative transfer and atmospheric turbulence theory within plant canopies. Due to computational demands, such detailed canopy models cannot be realistically included in regional models. Thus, a second goal of this research is to develop a simplified algorithm to account for the in-plant canopy chemical reactions leading to reductions in the estimated biogenic hydrocarbon emissions. The purpose of this new algorithm is to include an explicit representation of the biogenic hydrocarbon chemical sinks in regional air quality models. Model outputs will contrast results obtained for cases with and without in-plant canopy chemical processing in an effort to quantify the effect of chemical sinks on regional oxidant formation. Also, the presentation will highlight the effects of in-plant canopy

  12. Software for 3D radiotherapy dosimetry. Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr; Karwowski, Andrzej C.

    2014-08-01

    The subject of this work is polyGeVero® software (GeVero Co., Poland), which has been developed to fill the requirements of fast calculations of 3D dosimetry data with the emphasis on polymer gel dosimetry for radiotherapy. This software comprises four workspaces that have been prepared for: (i) calculating calibration curves and calibration equations, (ii) storing the calibration characteristics of the 3D dosimeters, (iii) calculating 3D dose distributions in irradiated 3D dosimeters, and (iv) comparing 3D dose distributions obtained from measurements with the aid of 3D dosimeters and calculated with the aid of treatment planning systems (TPSs). The main features and functions of the software are described in this work. Moreover, the core algorithms were validated and the results are presented. The validation was performed using the data of the new PABIGnx polymer gel dosimeter. The polyGeVero® software simplifies and greatly accelerates the calculations of raw 3D dosimetry data. It is an effective tool for fast verification of TPS-generated plans for tumor irradiation when combined with a 3D dosimeter. Consequently, the software may facilitate calculations by the 3D dosimetry community. In this work, the calibration characteristics of the PABIGnx obtained through four calibration methods: multi vial, cross beam, depth dose, and brachytherapy, are discussed as well.

  13. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  14. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-03-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The current paper describes the modern stereo 3-D technologies that are applicable to various tasks in teaching physics in schools, colleges, and universities. Examples of stereo 3-D simulations developed by the author can be observed on online.

  15. Accuracy in Quantitative 3D Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bassel, George W.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative 3D imaging is becoming an increasingly popular and powerful approach to investigate plant growth and development. With the increased use of 3D image analysis, standards to ensure the accuracy and reproducibility of these data are required. This commentary highlights how image acquisition and postprocessing can introduce artifacts into 3D image data and proposes steps to increase both the accuracy and reproducibility of these analyses. It is intended to aid researchers entering the field of 3D image processing of plant cells and tissues and to help general readers in understanding and evaluating such data. PMID:25804539

  16. Ultra-High Resolution 3D Imaging of Whole Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fang; Sirinakis, George; Allgeyer, Edward S; Schroeder, Lena K; Duim, Whitney C; Kromann, Emil B; Phan, Thomy; Rivera-Molina, Felix E; Myers, Jordan R; Irnov, Irnov; Lessard, Mark; Zhang, Yongdeng; Handel, Mary Ann; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine; Lusk, C Patrick; Rothman, James E; Toomre, Derek; Booth, Martin J; Bewersdorf, Joerg

    2016-08-11

    Fluorescence nanoscopy, or super-resolution microscopy, has become an important tool in cell biological research. However, because of its usually inferior resolution in the depth direction (50-80 nm) and rapidly deteriorating resolution in thick samples, its practical biological application has been effectively limited to two dimensions and thin samples. Here, we present the development of whole-cell 4Pi single-molecule switching nanoscopy (W-4PiSMSN), an optical nanoscope that allows imaging of three-dimensional (3D) structures at 10- to 20-nm resolution throughout entire mammalian cells. We demonstrate the wide applicability of W-4PiSMSN across diverse research fields by imaging complex molecular architectures ranging from bacteriophages to nuclear pores, cilia, and synaptonemal complexes in large 3D cellular volumes. PMID:27397506

  17. Robust bioengineered 3D functional human intestinal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Lin, Yinan; Davis, Kimberly M.; Wang, Qianrui; Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena; Li, Chunmei; Isberg, Ralph R.; Kumamoto, Carol A.; Mecsas, Joan; Kaplan, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal functions are central to human physiology, health and disease. Options to study these functions with direct relevance to the human condition remain severely limited when using conventional cell cultures, microfluidic systems, organoids, animal surrogates or human studies. To replicate in vitro the tissue architecture and microenvironments of native intestine, we developed a 3D porous protein scaffolding system, containing a geometrically-engineered hollow lumen, with adaptability to both large and small intestines. These intestinal tissues demonstrated representative human responses by permitting continuous accumulation of mucous secretions on the epithelial surface, establishing low oxygen tension in the lumen, and interacting with gut-colonizing bacteria. The newly developed 3D intestine model enabled months-long sustained access to these intestinal functions in vitro, readily integrable with a multitude of different organ mimics and will therefore ensure a reliable ex vivo tissue system for studies in a broad context of human intestinal diseases and treatments. PMID:26374193

  18. RNAComposer and RNA 3D structure prediction for nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Biesiada, Marcin; Pachulska-Wieczorek, Katarzyna; Adamiak, Ryszard W; Purzycka, Katarzyna J

    2016-07-01

    RNAs adopt specific, stable tertiary architectures to perform their activities. Knowledge of RNA tertiary structure is fundamental to understand RNA functions beginning with transcription and ending with turnover. Contrary to advanced RNA secondary structure prediction algorithms, which allow good accuracy when experimental data are integrated into the prediction, tertiary structure prediction of large RNAs still remains a significant challenge. However, the field of RNA tertiary structure prediction is rapidly developing and new computational methods based on different strategies are emerging. RNAComposer is a user-friendly and freely available server for 3D structure prediction of RNA up to 500 nucleotide residues. RNAComposer employs fully automated fragment assembly based on RNA secondary structure specified by the user. Importantly, this method allows incorporation of distance restraints derived from the experimental data to strengthen the 3D predictions. The potential and limitations of RNAComposer are discussed and an application to RNA design for nanotechnology is presented. PMID:27016145

  19. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  20. From 2D to 3D: novel nanostructured scaffolds to investigate signalling in reconstructed neuronal networks.

    PubMed

    Bosi, Susanna; Rauti, Rossana; Laishram, Jummi; Turco, Antonio; Lonardoni, Davide; Nieus, Thierry; Prato, Maurizio; Scaini, Denis; Ballerini, Laura

    2015-01-01

    To recreate in vitro 3D neuronal circuits will ultimately increase the relevance of results from cultured to whole-brain networks and will promote enabling technologies for neuro-engineering applications. Here we fabricate novel elastomeric scaffolds able to instruct 3D growth of living primary neurons. Such systems allow investigating the emerging activity, in terms of calcium signals, of small clusters of neurons as a function of the interplay between the 2D or 3D architectures and network dynamics. We report the ability of 3D geometry to improve functional organization and synchronization in small neuronal assemblies. We propose a mathematical modelling of network dynamics that supports such a result. Entrapping carbon nanotubes in the scaffolds remarkably boosted synaptic activity, thus allowing for the first time to exploit nanomaterial/cell interfacing in 3D growth support. Our 3D system represents a simple and reliable construct, able to improve the complexity of current tissue culture models. PMID:25910072

  1. Integration of Jeddah Historical BIM and 3D GIS for Documentation and Restoration of Historical Monument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, A.; Yaagoubi, R.; Boehm, J.

    2015-08-01

    This work outlines a new approach for the integration of 3D Building Information Modelling and the 3D Geographic Information System (GIS) to provide semantically rich models, and to get the benefits from both systems to help document and analyse cultural heritage sites. Our proposed framework is based on the Jeddah Historical Building Information Modelling process (JHBIM). This JHBIM consists of a Hijazi Architectural Objects Library (HAOL) that supports higher level of details (LoD) while decreasing the time of modelling. The Hijazi Architectural Objects Library has been modelled based on the Islamic historical manuscripts and Hijazi architectural pattern books. Moreover, the HAOL is implemented using BIM software called Autodesk Revit. However, it is known that this BIM environment still has some limitations with the non-standard architectural objects. Hence, we propose to integrate the developed 3D JHBIM with 3D GIS for more advanced analysis. To do so, the JHBIM database is exported and semantically enriched with non-architectural information that is necessary for restoration and preservation of historical monuments. After that, this database is integrated with the 3D Model in the 3D GIS solution. At the end of this paper, we'll illustrate our proposed framework by applying it to a Historical Building called Nasif Historical House in Jeddah. First of all, this building is scanned by the use of a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and Close Range Photogrammetry. Then, the 3D JHBIM based on the HOAL is designed on Revit Platform. Finally, this model is integrated to a 3D GIS solution through Autodesk InfraWorks. The shown analysis presented in this research highlights the importance of such integration especially for operational decisions and sharing the historical knowledge about Jeddah Historical City. Furthermore, one of the historical buildings in Old Jeddah, Nasif Historical House, was chosen as a test case for the project.

  2. 3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.

  3. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  4. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

  5. Unstructured 3D grid toolbox for modeling and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    George, D.

    1997-11-01

    Computable 3D grids that accurately represent complex multimaterial geometries are essential for both static and time-dependent modeling and simulation. LaGriT, the grid toolbox developed at Los Alamos provides a sophisticated set of initial grid generation, grid maintenance and grid optimization tools. We present example grids that demonstrate the flexibility of the grid generator. Additionally, we present the results of an electrostatic calculation and a grain growth problem that illustrate the grid optimization features and the utility of the grid server architecture.

  6. 3D-reconstruction of blood vessels by ultramicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jährling, Nina; Becker, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    As recently shown, ultramicroscopy (UM) allows 3D-visualization of even large microscopic structures with µm resolution. Thus, it can be applied to anatomical studies of numerous biological and medical specimens. We reconstructed the three-dimensional architecture of tomato-lectin (Lycopersicon esculentum) stained vascular networks by UM in whole mouse organs. The topology of filigree branches of the microvasculature was visualized. Since tumors require an extensive growth of blood vessels to survive, this novel approach may open up new vistas in neurobiology and histology, particularly in cancer research. PMID:20539742

  7. Topology dictionary for 3D video understanding.

    PubMed

    Tung, Tony; Matsuyama, Takashi

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a novel approach that achieves 3D video understanding. 3D video consists of a stream of 3D models of subjects in motion. The acquisition of long sequences requires large storage space (2 GB for 1 min). Moreover, it is tedious to browse data sets and extract meaningful information. We propose the topology dictionary to encode and describe 3D video content. The model consists of a topology-based shape descriptor dictionary which can be generated from either extracted patterns or training sequences. The model relies on 1) topology description and classification using Reeb graphs, and 2) a Markov motion graph to represent topology change states. We show that the use of Reeb graphs as the high-level topology descriptor is relevant. It allows the dictionary to automatically model complex sequences, whereas other strategies would require prior knowledge on the shape and topology of the captured subjects. Our approach serves to encode 3D video sequences, and can be applied for content-based description and summarization of 3D video sequences. Furthermore, topology class labeling during a learning process enables the system to perform content-based event recognition. Experiments were carried out on various 3D videos. We showcase an application for 3D video progressive summarization using the topology dictionary. PMID:22745004

  8. 3-D seismology in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Husseini, M.; Chimblo, R.

    1995-08-01

    Since 1977 when Aramco and GSI (Geophysical Services International) pioneered the first 3-D seismic survey in the Arabian Gulf, under the guidance of Aramco`s Chief Geophysicist John Hoke, 3-D seismology has been effectively used to map many complex subsurface geological phenomena. By the mid-1990s extensive 3-D surveys were acquired in Abu Dhabi, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Also in the mid-1990`s Bahrain, Kuwait and Dubai were preparing to record surveys over their fields. On the structural side 3-D has refined seismic maps, focused faults and fractures systems, as well as outlined the distribution of facies, porosity and fluid saturation. In field development, 3D has not only reduced drilling costs significantly, but has also improved the understanding of fluid behavior in the reservoir. In Oman, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) has now acquired the first Gulf 4-D seismic survey (time-lapse 3D survey) over the Yibal Field. The 4-D survey will allow PDO to directly monitor water encroachment in the highly-faulted Cretaceous Shu`aiba reservoir. In exploration, 3-D seismology has resolved complex prospects with structural and stratigraphic complications and reduced the risk in the selection of drilling locations. The many case studies from Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, which are reviewed in this paper, attest to the effectiveness of 3D seismology in exploration and producing, in clastics and carbonates reservoirs, and in the Mesozoic and Paleozoic.

  9. A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-02-09

    This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.

  10. 3D, or Not to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  11. Stereoscopic Investigations of 3D Coulomb Balls

    SciTech Connect

    Kaeding, Sebastian; Melzer, Andre; Arp, Oliver; Block, Dietmar; Piel, Alexander

    2005-10-31

    In dusty plasmas particles are arranged due to the influence of external forces and the Coulomb interaction. Recently Arp et al. were able to generate 3D spherical dust clouds, so-called Coulomb balls. Here, we present measurements that reveal the full 3D particle trajectories from stereoscopic imaging.

  12. 3-D structures of planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, W.

    2016-07-01

    Recent advances in the 3-D reconstruction of planetary nebulae are reviewed. We include not only results for 3-D reconstructions, but also the current techniques in terms of general methods and software. In order to obtain more accurate reconstructions, we suggest to extend the widely used assumption of homologous nebula expansion to map spectroscopically measured velocity to position along the line of sight.

  13. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  14. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  15. Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-07-15

    NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.

  16. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  17. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  18. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D…

  19. EarthServer - 3D Visualization on the Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Sebastian; Herzig, Pasquale; Bockholt, Ulrich; Jung, Yvonne; Behr, Johannes

    2013-04-01

    EarthServer (www.earthserver.eu), funded by the European Commission under its Seventh Framework Program, is a project to enable the management, access and exploration of massive, multi-dimensional datasets using Open GeoSpatial Consortium (OGC) query and processing language standards like WCS 2.0 and WCPS. To this end, a server/client architecture designed to handle Petabyte/Exabyte volumes of multi-dimensional data is being developed and deployed. As an important part of the EarthServer project, six Lighthouse Applications, major scientific data exploitation initiatives, are being established to make cross-domain, Earth Sciences related data repositories available in an open and unified manner, as service endpoints based on solutions and infrastructure developed within the project. Clients technology developed and deployed in EarthServer ranges from mobile and web clients to immersive virtual reality systems, all designed to interact with a physically and logically distributed server infrastructure using exclusively OGC standards. In this contribution, we would like to present our work on a web-based 3D visualization and interaction client for Earth Sciences data using only technology found in standard web browsers without requiring the user to install plugins or addons. Additionally, we are able to run the earth data visualization client on a wide range of different platforms with very different soft- and hardware requirements such as smart phones (e.g. iOS, Android), different desktop systems etc. High-quality, hardware-accelerated visualization of 3D and 4D content in standard web browsers can be realized now and we believe it will become more and more common to use this fast, lightweight and ubiquitous platform to provide insights into big datasets without requiring the user to set up a specialized client first. With that in mind, we will also point out some of the limitations we encountered using current web technologies. Underlying the EarthServer web client

  20. Estimating Canopy Dark Respiration for Crop Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monje Mejia, Oscar Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Crop production is obtained from accurate estimates of daily carbon gain.Canopy gross photosynthesis (Pgross) can be estimated from biochemical models of photosynthesis using sun and shaded leaf portions and the amount of intercepted photosyntheticallyactive radiation (PAR).In turn, canopy daily net carbon gain can be estimated from canopy daily gross photosynthesis when canopy dark respiration (Rd) is known.

  1. Clinical applications of 3-D dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuu, Cheng-Shie

    2015-01-01

    Both 3-D gels and radiochromic plastic dosimeters, in conjunction with dose image readout systems (MRI or optical-CT), have been employed to measure 3-D dose distributions in many clinical applications. The 3-D dose maps obtained from these systems can provide a useful tool for clinical dose verification for complex treatment techniques such as IMRT, SRS/SBRT, brachytherapy, and proton beam therapy. These complex treatments present high dose gradient regions in the boundaries between the target and surrounding critical organs. Dose accuracy in these areas can be critical, and may affect treatment outcome. In this review, applications of 3-D gels and PRESAGE dosimeter are reviewed and evaluated in terms of their performance in providing information on clinical dose verification as well as commissioning of various treatment modalities. Future interests and clinical needs on studies of 3-D dosimetry are also discussed.

  2. Biocompatible 3D Matrix with Antimicrobial Properties.

    PubMed

    Ion, Alberto; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Rădulescu, Dragoș; Rădulescu, Marius; Iordache, Florin; Vasile, Bogdan Ștefan; Surdu, Adrian Vasile; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Maniu, Horia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, characterize and assess the biological activity of a new regenerative 3D matrix with antimicrobial properties, based on collagen (COLL), hydroxyapatite (HAp), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and usnic acid (UA). The prepared 3D matrix was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FT-IRM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). In vitro qualitative and quantitative analyses performed on cultured diploid cells demonstrated that the 3D matrix is biocompatible, allowing the normal development and growth of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and exhibited an antimicrobial effect, especially on the Staphylococcus aureus strain, explained by the particular higher inhibitory activity of usnic acid (UA) against Gram positive bacterial strains. Our data strongly recommend the obtained 3D matrix to be used as a successful alternative for the fabrication of three dimensional (3D) anti-infective regeneration matrix for bone tissue engineering. PMID:26805790

  3. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  4. Assessing the Potential of Low-Cost 3D Cameras for the Rapid Measurement of Plant Woody Structure

    PubMed Central

    Nock, Charles A; Taugourdeau, Olivier; Delagrange, Sylvain; Messier, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Detailed 3D plant architectural data have numerous applications in plant science, but many existing approaches for 3D data collection are time-consuming and/or require costly equipment. Recently, there has been rapid growth in the availability of low-cost, 3D cameras and related open source software applications. 3D cameras may provide measurements of key components of plant architecture such as stem diameters and lengths, however, few tests of 3D cameras for the measurement of plant architecture have been conducted. Here, we measured Salix branch segments ranging from 2–13 mm in diameter with an Asus Xtion camera to quantify the limits and accuracy of branch diameter measurement with a 3D camera. By scanning at a variety of distances we also quantified the effect of scanning distance. In addition, we also test the sensitivity of the program KinFu for continuous 3D object scanning and modeling as well as other similar software to accurately record stem diameters and capture plant form (<3 m in height). Given its ability to accurately capture the diameter of branches >6 mm, Asus Xtion may provide a novel method for the collection of 3D data on the branching architecture of woody plants. Improvements in camera measurement accuracy and available software are likely to further improve the utility of 3D cameras for plant sciences in the future. PMID:24287538

  5. Plant photomorphogenesis and canopy growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballare, Carlos L.; Scopel, Ana L.

    1994-01-01

    An important motivation for studying photomorphogenesis is to understand the relationships among plant photophysiology in canopies, canopy productivity, and agronomic yield. This understanding is essential to optimize lighting systems used for plant farming in controlled environments (CE) and for the design of genetically engineered crop strains with altered photoresponses. This article provides an overview of some basic principles of plant photomorphogenesis in canopies and discusses their implications for (1) scaling up information on plant photophysiology from individual plants in CE to whole canopies in the field, and (2) designing lighting conditions to increase plant productivity in CE used for agronomic purposes (e.g. space farming in CE Life Support Systems). We concentrate on the visible (lambda between 400 and 700 nm) and far-infrared (FR; lambda greater than 700 nm) spectral regions, since the ultraviolet (UV; 280 to 400 nm) is covered by other authors in this volume.

  6. Voxel-Based 3-D Tree Modeling from Lidar Images for Extracting Tree Structual Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoi, F.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, lidar (light detection and ranging) has been used to extracting tree structural information. Portable scanning lidar systems can capture the complex shape of individual trees as a 3-D point-cloud image. 3-D tree models reproduced from the lidar-derived 3-D image can be used to estimate tree structural parameters. We have proposed the voxel-based 3-D modeling for extracting tree structural parameters. One of the tree parameters derived from the voxel modeling is leaf area density (LAD). We refer to the method as the voxel-based canopy profiling (VCP) method. In this method, several measurement points surrounding the canopy and optimally inclined laser beams are adopted for full laser beam illumination of whole canopy up to the internal. From obtained lidar image, the 3-D information is reproduced as the voxel attributes in the 3-D voxel array. Based on the voxel attributes, contact frequency of laser beams on leaves is computed and LAD in each horizontal layer is obtained. This method offered accurate LAD estimation for individual trees and woody canopy trees. For more accurate LAD estimation, the voxel model was constructed by combining airborne and portable ground-based lidar data. The profiles obtained by the two types of lidar complemented each other, thus eliminating blind regions and yielding more accurate LAD profiles than could be obtained by using each type of lidar alone. Based on the estimation results, we proposed an index named laser beam coverage index, Ω, which relates to the lidar's laser beam settings and a laser beam attenuation factor. It was shown that this index can be used for adjusting measurement set-up of lidar systems and also used for explaining the LAD estimation error using different types of lidar systems. Moreover, we proposed a method to estimate woody material volume as another application of the voxel tree modeling. In this method, voxel solid model of a target tree was produced from the lidar image, which is composed of

  7. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  8. 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  9. The psychology of the 3D experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  10. Directing Matter: Toward Atomic-Scale 3D Nanofabrication.

    PubMed

    Jesse, Stephen; Borisevich, Albina Y; Fowlkes, Jason D; Lupini, Andrew R; Rack, Philip D; Unocic, Raymond R; Sumpter, Bobby G; Kalinin, Sergei V; Belianinov, Alex; Ovchinnikova, Olga S

    2016-06-28

    Enabling memristive, neuromorphic, and quantum-based computing as well as efficient mainstream energy storage and conversion technologies requires the next generation of materials customized at the atomic scale. This requires full control of atomic arrangement and bonding in three dimensions. The last two decades witnessed substantial industrial, academic, and government research efforts directed toward this goal through various lithographies and scanning-probe-based methods. These technologies emphasize 2D surface structures, with some limited 3D capability. Recently, a range of focused electron- and ion-based methods have demonstrated compelling alternative pathways to achieving atomically precise manufacturing of 3D structures in solids, liquids, and at interfaces. Electron and ion microscopies offer a platform that can simultaneously observe dynamic and static structures at the nano- and atomic scales and also induce structural rearrangements and chemical transformation. The addition of predictive modeling or rapid image analytics and feedback enables guiding these in a controlled manner. Here, we review the recent results that used focused electron and ion beams to create free-standing nanoscale 3D structures, radiolysis, and the fabrication potential with liquid precursors, epitaxial crystallization of amorphous oxides with atomic layer precision, as well as visualization and control of individual dopant motion within a 3D crystal lattice. These works lay the foundation for approaches to directing nanoscale level architectures and offer a potential roadmap to full 3D atomic control in materials. In this paper, we lay out the gaps that currently constrain the processing range of these platforms, reflect on indirect requirements, such as the integration of large-scale data analysis with theory, and discuss future prospects of these technologies. PMID:27183171

  11. Directing Matter: Towards Atomic Scale 3D Nanofabrication

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jesse, Stephen; Borisevich, Albina Y; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson; Lupini, Andrew R; Rack, Philip D; Unocic, Raymond R; Sumpter, Bobby G; Kalinin, Sergei V; Ovchinnikova, Olga S

    2016-01-01

    Enabling memristive, neuromorphic, and quantum based computing as well as efficient mainstream energy storage and conversion technologies requires next generation of materials customized at the atomic scale. This requires full control of atomic arrangement and bonding in three dimensions. The last two decades witnessed substantial industrial, academic, and government research efforts directed towards this goal through various lithographies and scanning probe based methods. These technologies emphasize 2D surface structures, with some limited 3D capability. Recently, a range of focused electron and ion based methods have demonstrated compelling alternative pathways to achieving atomically precise manufacturing of 3D structures in solids, liquids,more » and at interfaces. Electron and ion microscopies offer a platform that can simultaneously observe dynamic and static structures at the nano and atomic scales, and also induce structural rearrangements and chemical transformation. The addition of predictive modeling or rapid image analytics and feedback enables guiding these in a controlled manner. Here, we review the recent results that used focused electron and ion beams to create free-standing nanoscale 3D structures, radiolysis and the fabrication potential with liquid precursors, epitaxial crystallization of amorphous oxides with atomic layer precision, as well as visualization and control of individual dopant motion within a 3D crystal lattice. These works lay the foundation for new approaches to directing nanoscale level architectures and offer a potential roadmap to full 3D atomic control in materials. In this perspective we lay out the gaps that currently constrain the processing range of these platforms, reflect on indirect requirements, such as the integration of large scale data analysis with theory, and discuss future prospects of these technologies.« less

  12. Mechanical properties of 3D ceramic nanolattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza, Lucas

    Developments in advanced nanoscale fabrication techniques have allowed for the creation of 3-dimensional hierarchical structural meta-materials that can be designed with arbitrary geometry. These structures can be made on length scales spanning multiple orders of magnitude, from tens of nanometers to hundreds of microns. The smallest features are controllable on length scales where materials have been shown to exhibit size effects in their mechanical properties. Combining novel nanoscale mechanical properties with a 3-dimensional architecture enables the creation of new classes of materials with tunable and unprecedented mechanical properties. We present the fabrication and mechanical deformation of hollow tube alumina nanolattices that were fabricated using two-photon lithography direct laser writing (DLW), atomic layer deposition (ALD), and oxygen plasma etching. Nanolattices were designed in a number of different geometries including octet-truss, octahedron, and 3D Kagome. Additionally, a number of structural parameters were varied including tube wall thickness (t) , tube major axis (a) , and unit cell size (L) . The resulting nanolattices had a range of densities from ρ = 4 to 250 mg/cm3. Uniaxial compression and cyclic loading tests were performed on the nanolattices to obtain the yield strength and modulus. In these tests, a marked change in the deformation response was observed when the wall thickness was reduced below 20nm; thick-walled nanolattices (t>20nm) underwent catastrophic, brittle failure, which transitioned to a gradual, ductile-like deformation as wall thickness was reduced. Thick-walled nanolattices also exhibited no recovery after compression, while thin-walled structures demonstrated notable recovery, with some recovering by 98% after compression to 50% strain and by 80% when compressed to 90% strain. Across all geometries, unit cell sizes, and wall thicknesses, we found a consistent power law relation between strength and modulus with

  13. A 3D Toolbox to Enhance Physiological Relevance of Human Tissue Models.

    PubMed

    Picollet-D'hahan, Nathalie; Dolega, Monika E; Liguori, Lavinia; Marquette, Christophe; Le Gac, Séverine; Gidrol, Xavier; Martin, Donald K

    2016-09-01

    We discuss the current challenges and future prospects of flow-based organoid models and 3D self-assembling scaffolds. The existing paradigm of 3D culture suffers from a lack of control over organoid size and shape; can be an obstacle for cell harvesting and extended cellular and molecular analysis; and does not provide access to the function of exocrine glands. Moreover, existing organ-on-chip models are mostly composed of 2D extracellular matrix (ECM)-coated elastomeric membranes that do not mimic real organ architectures. A new comprehensive 3D toolbox for cell biology has emerged to address some of these issues. Advances in microfabrication and cell-culturing approaches enable the engineering of sophisticated models that mimic organ 3D architectures and physiological conditions, while supporting flow-based drug screening and secretomics-based diagnosis. PMID:27497676

  14. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26562233

  15. 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology. PMID:25093879

  16. Optically rewritable 3D liquid crystal displays.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Srivastava, A K; Zhang, W; Wang, L; Chigrinov, V G; Kwok, H S

    2014-11-01

    Optically rewritable liquid crystal display (ORWLCD) is a concept based on the optically addressed bi-stable display that does not need any power to hold the image after being uploaded. Recently, the demand for the 3D image display has increased enormously. Several attempts have been made to achieve 3D image on the ORWLCD, but all of them involve high complexity for image processing on both hardware and software levels. In this Letter, we disclose a concept for the 3D-ORWLCD by dividing the given image in three parts with different optic axis. A quarter-wave plate is placed on the top of the ORWLCD to modify the emerging light from different domains of the image in different manner. Thereafter, Polaroid glasses can be used to visualize the 3D image. The 3D image can be refreshed, on the 3D-ORWLCD, in one-step with proper ORWLCD printer and image processing, and therefore, with easy image refreshing and good image quality, such displays can be applied for many applications viz. 3D bi-stable display, security elements, etc. PMID:25361316

  17. Enhancing surface interactions with colon cancer cells on a transferrin-conjugated 3D nanostructured substrate.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Shashwat S; Paul, Debjani; Bhansali, Sujit G; Aher, Naval D; Jalota-Badhwar, Archana; Khandare, Jayant

    2012-06-11

    A transferrin-conjugated PEG-Fe(3) O(4) nanostructured matrix is developed to explore cellular responses in terms of enhanced cell adhesion, specific interactions between ligands in the matrix and molecular receptors on the cell membrane, comparison of cell shapes on 2D and 3D surfaces, and effect of polymer architecture on cell adhesion. Integration of such advanced synthetic nanomaterials into a functionalized 3D matrix to control cell behavior on surfaces will have implications in nanomedicine. PMID:22434693

  18. Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Norman A.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

  19. Brandenburg 3D - a comprehensive 3D Subsurface Model, Conception of an Infrastructure Node and a Web Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerschke, Dorit; Schilling, Maik; Simon, Andreas; Wächter, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    The Energiewende and the increasing scarcity of raw materials will lead to an intensified utilization of the subsurface in Germany. Within this context, geological 3D modeling is a fundamental approach for integrated decision and planning processes. Initiated by the development of the European Geospatial Infrastructure INSPIRE, the German State Geological Offices started digitizing their predominantly analog archive inventory. Until now, a comprehensive 3D subsurface model of Brandenburg did not exist. Therefore the project B3D strived to develop a new 3D model as well as a subsequent infrastructure node to integrate all geological and spatial data within the Geodaten-Infrastruktur Brandenburg (Geospatial Infrastructure, GDI-BB) and provide it to the public through an interactive 2D/3D web application. The functionality of the web application is based on a client-server architecture. Server-sided, all available spatial data is published through GeoServer. GeoServer is designed for interoperability and acts as the reference implementation of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Feature Service (WFS) standard that provides the interface that allows requests for geographical features. In addition, GeoServer implements, among others, the high performance certified compliant Web Map Service (WMS) that serves geo-referenced map images. For publishing 3D data, the OGC Web 3D Service (W3DS), a portrayal service for three-dimensional geo-data, is used. The W3DS displays elements representing the geometry, appearance, and behavior of geographic objects. On the client side, the web application is solely based on Free and Open Source Software and leans on the JavaScript API WebGL that allows the interactive rendering of 2D and 3D graphics by means of GPU accelerated usage of physics and image processing as part of the web page canvas without the use of plug-ins. WebGL is supported by most web browsers (e.g., Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Safari, and Opera). The web

  20. FUN3D Manual: 12.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  1. FUN3D Manual: 12.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  2. FUN3D Manual: 13.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  3. FUN3D Manual: 12.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  4. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  5. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models. PMID:19147891

  6. New method of 3-D object recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, An-Zhi; Li, Qun Z.; Miao, Peng C.

    1991-12-01

    In this paper, a new method of 3-D object recognition using optical techniques and a computer is presented. We perform 3-D object recognition using moire contour to obtain the object's 3- D coordinates, projecting drawings of the object in three coordinate planes to describe it and using a method of inquiring library of judgement to match objects. The recognition of a simple geometrical entity is simulated by computer and studied experimentally. The recognition of an object which is composed of a few simple geometrical entities is discussed.

  7. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, includingmore » frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.« less

  8. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-07-29

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

  9. FUN3D Manual: 12.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  10. FUN3D Manual: 12.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  11. FUN3D Manual: 12.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.6, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  12. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.

  13. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    PubMed

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing. PMID:24808080

  14. JAR3D Webserver: Scoring and aligning RNA loop sequences to known 3D motifs.

    PubMed

    Roll, James; Zirbel, Craig L; Sweeney, Blake; Petrov, Anton I; Leontis, Neocles

    2016-07-01

    Many non-coding RNAs have been identified and may function by forming 2D and 3D structures. RNA hairpin and internal loops are often represented as unstructured on secondary structure diagrams, but RNA 3D structures show that most such loops are structured by non-Watson-Crick basepairs and base stacking. Moreover, different RNA sequences can form the same RNA 3D motif. JAR3D finds possible 3D geometries for hairpin and internal loops by matching loop sequences to motif groups from the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, by exact sequence match when possible, and by probabilistic scoring and edit distance for novel sequences. The scoring gauges the ability of the sequences to form the same pattern of interactions observed in 3D structures of the motif. The JAR3D webserver at http://rna.bgsu.edu/jar3d/ takes one or many sequences of a single loop as input, or else one or many sequences of longer RNAs with multiple loops. Each sequence is scored against all current motif groups. The output shows the ten best-matching motif groups. Users can align input sequences to each of the motif groups found by JAR3D. JAR3D will be updated with every release of the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, and so its performance is expected to improve over time. PMID:27235417

  15. High-Resolution Three-Dimensional Structural Data Quantify the Impact of Photoinhibition on Long-Term Carbon Gain in Wheat Canopies in the Field.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Alexandra J; Retkute, Renata; Pound, Michael P; Foulkes, John; Preston, Simon P; Jensen, Oliver E; Pridmore, Tony P; Murchie, Erik H

    2015-10-01

    Photoinhibition reduces photosynthetic productivity; however, it is difficult to quantify accurately in complex canopies partly because of a lack of high-resolution structural data on plant canopy architecture, which determines complex fluctuations of light in space and time. Here, we evaluate the effects of photoinhibition on long-term carbon gain (over 1 d) in three different wheat (Triticum aestivum) lines, which are architecturally diverse. We use a unique method for accurate digital three-dimensional reconstruction of canopies growing in the field. The reconstruction method captures unique architectural differences between lines, such as leaf angle, curvature, and leaf density, thus providing a sensitive method of evaluating the productivity of actual canopy structures that previously were difficult or impossible to obtain. We show that complex data on light distribution can be automatically obtained without conventional manual measurements. We use a mathematical model of photosynthesis parameterized by field data consisting of chlorophyll fluorescence, light response curves of carbon dioxide assimilation, and manual confirmation of canopy architecture and light attenuation. Model simulations show that photoinhibition alone can result in substantial reduction in carbon gain, but this is highly dependent on exact canopy architecture and the diurnal dynamics of photoinhibition. The use of such highly realistic canopy reconstructions also allows us to conclude that even a moderate change in leaf angle in upper layers of the wheat canopy led to a large increase in the number of leaves in a severely light-limited state. PMID:26282240

  16. High-Resolution Three-Dimensional Structural Data Quantify the Impact of Photoinhibition on Long-Term Carbon Gain in Wheat Canopies in the Field1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Alexandra J.; Retkute, Renata; Pound, Michael P.; Foulkes, John; Preston, Simon P.; Jensen, Oliver E.; Pridmore, Tony P.; Murchie, Erik H.

    2015-01-01

    Photoinhibition reduces photosynthetic productivity; however, it is difficult to quantify accurately in complex canopies partly because of a lack of high-resolution structural data on plant canopy architecture, which determines complex fluctuations of light in space and time. Here, we evaluate the effects of photoinhibition on long-term carbon gain (over 1 d) in three different wheat (Triticum aestivum) lines, which are architecturally diverse. We use a unique method for accurate digital three-dimensional reconstruction of canopies growing in the field. The reconstruction method captures unique architectural differences between lines, such as leaf angle, curvature, and leaf density, thus providing a sensitive method of evaluating the productivity of actual canopy structures that previously were difficult or impossible to obtain. We show that complex data on light distribution can be automatically obtained without conventional manual measurements. We use a mathematical model of photosynthesis parameterized by field data consisting of chlorophyll fluorescence, light response curves of carbon dioxide assimilation, and manual confirmation of canopy architecture and light attenuation. Model simulations show that photoinhibition alone can result in substantial reduction in carbon gain, but this is highly dependent on exact canopy architecture and the diurnal dynamics of photoinhibition. The use of such highly realistic canopy reconstructions also allows us to conclude that even a moderate change in leaf angle in upper layers of the wheat canopy led to a large increase in the number of leaves in a severely light-limited state. PMID:26282240

  17. An efficient approach to 3D single tree-crown delineation in LiDAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mongus, Domen; Žalik, Borut

    2015-10-01

    This paper proposes a new method for 3D delineation of single tree-crowns in LiDAR data by exploiting the complementaries of treetop and tree trunk detections. A unified mathematical framework is provided based on the graph theory, allowing for all the segmentations to be achieved using marker-controlled watersheds. Treetops are defined by detecting concave neighbourhoods within the canopy height model using locally fitted surfaces. These serve as markers for watershed segmentation of the canopy layer where possible oversegmentation is reduced by merging the regions based on their heights, areas, and shapes. Additional tree crowns are delineated from mid- and under-storey layers based on tree trunk detection. A new approach for estimating the verticalities of the points' distributions is proposed for this purpose. The watershed segmentation is then applied on a density function within the voxel space, while boundaries of delineated trees from the canopy layer are used to prevent the overspreading of regions. The experiments show an approximately 6% increase in the efficiency of the proposed treetop definition based on locally fitted surfaces in comparison with the traditionally used local maxima of the smoothed canopy height model. In addition, 4% increase in the efficiency is achieved by the proposed tree trunk detection. Although the tree trunk detection alone is dependent on the data density, supplementing it with the treetop detection the proposed approach is efficient even when dealing with low density point-clouds.

  18. Mapping Vegetation Canopy Structure and Distribution for Great Smoky Mountains National Park Using LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z.; Weiner, J.; Kumar, J.; Norman, S. P.; Hargrove, W. W.; Collier, N.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2015-12-01

    A major challenge in forest management is the inaccessibility of large swaths of land, which makes accurate monitoring of forest change difficult. Remote sensing methods can help address this issue by allowing investigators to monitor remote or inaccessible regions using aerial or satellite-based platforms. However, most remote sensing methods do not provide a full three-dimensional (3D) description of the area. Rather, they return only a single elevation point or landcover description. Multiple-return LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) gathers data in a 3D point cloud, which allows forest managers to more accurately characterize and monitor changes in canopy structure and vegetation-type distribution. Our project used high-resolution aerial multiple-return LiDAR data to determine vegetation canopy structures and their spatial distribution in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. To ensure sufficient data density and to match LANDSAT resolution, we gridded the data into 30m x 30m cells. The LiDAR data points within each cell were then used to generate the vertical canopy structure for that cell. After vertical profiles had been created, we used a k-means cluster analysis algorithm to classify the landscape based on the canopy structure. The spatial distribution of distinct and unique canopy structures was mapped across the park and compared to a vegetation-type map to determine the correlation of canopy structure to vegetation types. Preliminary analysis conducted at a number of phenology sites maintained by the Great Smoky Mountains Institute at Tremont shows strong correspondence between canopy structure and vegetation type. However, more validation is needed in other regions of the park to establish this method as a reliable tool. LiDAR data has a unique ability to map full 3D structures of vegetation and the methods developed in this project offer an extensible tool for forest mapping and monitoring.

  19. NASA's 3D Flight Computer for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkalai, Leon

    2000-01-01

    The New Millennium Program (NMP) Integrated Product Development Team (IPDT) for Microelectronics Systems was planning to validate a newly developed 3D Flight Computer system on its first deep-space flight, DS1, launched in October 1998. This computer, developed in the 1995-97 time frame, contains many new computer technologies previously never used in deep-space systems. They include: advanced 3D packaging architecture for future low-mass and low-volume avionics systems; high-density 3D packaged chip-stacks for both volatile and non-volatile mass memory: 400 Mbytes of local DRAM memory, and 128 Mbytes of Flash memory; high-bandwidth Peripheral Component Interface (Per) local-bus with a bridge to VME; high-bandwidth (20 Mbps) fiber-optic serial bus; and other attributes, such as standard support for Design for Testability (DFT). Even though this computer system did not complete on time for delivery to the DS1 project, it was an important development along a technology roadmap towards highly integrated and highly miniaturized avionics systems for deep-space applications. This continued technology development is now being performed by NASA's Deep Space System Development Program (also known as X2000) and within JPL's Center for Integrated Space Microsystems (CISM).

  20. Design Application Translates 2-D Graphics to 3-D Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Fabric Images Inc., specializing in the printing and manufacturing of fabric tension architecture for the retail, museum, and exhibit/tradeshow communities, designed software to translate 2-D graphics for 3-D surfaces prior to print production. Fabric Images' fabric-flattening design process models a 3-D surface based on computer-aided design (CAD) specifications. The surface geometry of the model is used to form a 2-D template, similar to a flattening process developed by NASA's Glenn Research Center. This template or pattern is then applied in the development of a 2-D graphic layout. Benefits of this process include 11.5 percent time savings per project, less material wasted, and the ability to improve upon graphic techniques and offer new design services. Partners include Exhibitgroup/Giltspur (end-user client: TAC Air, a division of Truman Arnold Companies Inc.), Jack Morton Worldwide (end-user client: Nickelodeon), as well as 3D Exhibits Inc., and MG Design Associates Corp.

  1. S2PLOT: Three-dimensional (3D) Plotting Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, D. G.; Fluke, C. J.; Bourke, P. D.; Parry, O. T.

    2011-03-01

    We present a new, three-dimensional (3D) plotting library with advanced features, and support for standard and enhanced display devices. The library - S2PLOT - is written in C and can be used by C, C++ and FORTRAN programs on GNU/Linux and Apple/OSX systems. S2PLOT draws objects in a 3D (x,y,z) Cartesian space and the user interactively controls how this space is rendered at run time. With a PGPLOT inspired interface, S2PLOT provides astronomers with elegant techniques for displaying and exploring 3D data sets directly from their program code, and the potential to use stereoscopic and dome display devices. The S2PLOT architecture supports dynamic geometry and can be used to plot time-evolving data sets, such as might be produced by simulation codes. In this paper, we introduce S2PLOT to the astronomical community, describe its potential applications, and present some example uses of the library.

  2. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  3. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  4. Tropical Cyclone Jack in Satellite 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby from NASA's TRMM satellite of Tropical Cyclone Jack on April 21 shows that some of the thunderstorms were shown by TRMM PR were still reaching height of at least 17 km (10.5 miles). ...

  5. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication. PMID:26869728

  6. 3D Visualization of Recent Sumatra Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Atul; Kilb, Debi

    2005-04-01

    Scientists and visualization experts at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography have created an interactive three-dimensional visualization of the 28 March 2005 magnitude 8.7 earthquake in Sumatra. The visualization shows the earthquake's hypocenter and aftershocks recorded until 29 March 2005, and compares it with the location of the 26 December 2004 magnitude 9 event and the consequent seismicity in that region. The 3D visualization was created using the Fledermaus software developed by Interactive Visualization Systems (http://www.ivs.unb.ca/) and stored as a ``scene'' file. To view this visualization, viewers need to download and install the free viewer program iView3D (http://www.ivs3d.com/products/iview3d).

  7. Future Engineers 3-D Print Timelapse

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Challenges K-12 students to create a model of a container for space using 3-D modeling software. Astronauts need containers of all kinds - from advanced containers that can study fruit flies t...

  8. 3-D Flyover Visualization of Veil Nebula

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D visualization flies across a small portion of the Veil Nebula as photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope. This region is a small part of a huge expanding remnant from a star that explod...

  9. Quantifying Modes of 3D Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Meghan K; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2015-12-01

    Although it is widely appreciated that cells migrate in a variety of diverse environments in vivo, we are only now beginning to use experimental workflows that yield images with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to study the molecular processes governing cell migration in 3D environments. Since cell migration is a dynamic process, it is usually studied via microscopy, but 3D movies of 3D processes are difficult to interpret by visual inspection. In this review, we discuss the technologies required to study the diversity of 3D cell migration modes with a focus on the visualization and computational analysis tools needed to study cell migration quantitatively at a level comparable to the analyses performed today on cells crawling on flat substrates. PMID:26603943

  10. 3D-patterned polymer brush surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xuechang; Liu, Xuqing; Xie, Zhuang; Zheng, Zijian

    2011-12-01

    Polymer brush-based three-dimensional (3D) structures are emerging as a powerful platform to engineer a surface by providing abundant spatially distributed chemical and physical properties. In this feature article, we aim to give a summary of the recent progress on the fabrication of 3D structures with polymer brushes, with a particular focus on the micro- and nanoscale. We start with a brief introduction on polymer brushes and the challenges to prepare their 3D structures. Then, we highlight the recent advances of the fabrication approaches on the basis of traditional polymerization time and grafting density strategies, and a recently developed feature density strategy. Finally, we provide some perspective outlooks on the future directions of engineering the 3D structures with polymer brushes.

  11. Modeling Cellular Processes in 3-D

    PubMed Central

    Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David

    2011-01-01

    Summary Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated, we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3-D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3-D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3-D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2-D or 1-D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3-D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling. PMID:22036197

  12. Eyes on the Earth 3D