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Sample records for 3d conformal external

  1. Survey of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Japan by the Japan 3-D Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy Group

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, Yasushi Hiraoka, Masahiro; Mizowaki, Takashi; Narita, Yuichiro; Matsuo, Yukinori; Norihisa, Yoshiki; Onishi, Hiroshi; Shirato, Hiroki

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: To recognize the current status of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in Japan, using a nationwide survey conducted by the Japan 3-D Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy Group. Methods and Materials: The questionnaire was sent by mail to 117 institutions. Ninety-four institutions (80%) responded by the end of November 2005. Fifty-three institutions indicated that they have already started SBRT, and 38 institutions had been reimbursed by insurance. Results: A total of 1111 patients with histologically confirmed lung cancer were treated. Among these patients, 637 had T1N0M0 and 272 had T2N0M0 lung cancer. Metastatic lung cancer was found in 702 and histologically unconfirmed lung tumor in 291 patients. Primary liver cancer was found in 207 and metastatic liver cancer in 76 patients. The most frequent schedule used for primary lung cancer was 48Gy in 4 fractions at 22 institutions (52%), followed by 50Gy in 5 fractions at 11 institutions (26%) and 60Gy in 8 fractions at 4 institutions (10%). The tendency was the same for metastatic lung cancer. The average number of personnel involved in SBRT was 1.8 radiation oncologists, including 1.1 certified radiation oncologists, 2.8 technologists, 0.7 nurses, and 0.6 certified quality assurance personnel and 0.3 physicists. The most frequent amount of time for treatment planning was 61-120min, for quality assurance was 50-60min, and for treatment was 30min. There were 14 (0.6% of all cases) reported Grade 5 complications: 11 cases of radiation pneumonitis, 2 cases of hemoptysis, and 1 case of radiation esophagitis. Conclusion: The current status of SBRT in Japan was surveyed.

  2. Clinical Applications of 3-D Conformal Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miralbell, Raymond

    Although a significant improvement in cancer cure (i.e. 20% increment) has been obtained in the last 2-3 decades, 30-40% of patients still fail locally after curative radiotherapy. In order to improve local tumor control rates with radiotherapy high doses to the tumor volume are frequently necessary. Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3-D CRT) is used to denote a spectrum of radiation planning and delivery techniques that rely on three-dimensional imaging to define the target (tumor) and to distinguish it from normal tissues. Modern, high-precision radiotherapy (RT) techniques are needed in order to implement the goal of optimal tumor destruction delivering minimal dose to the non-target normal tissues. A better target definition is nowadays possible with contemporary imaging (computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography) and image registration technology. A highly precise dose distributions can be obtained with optimal 3-D CRT treatment delivery techniques such as stereotactic RT, intensity modulated RT (IMRT), or protontherapy (the latter allowing for in-depth conformation). Patient daily set-up repositioning and internal organ immobilization systems are necessary before considering to undertake any of the above mentioned high-precision treatment approaches. Prostate cancer, brain tumors, and base of skull malignancies are among the sites most benefitting of dose escalation approaches. Nevertheless, a significant dose reduction to the normal tissues in the vicinity of the irradiated tumor also achievable with optimal 3-D CRT may also be a major issue in the treatment of pediatric tumors in order to preserve growth, normal development, and to reduce the risk of developing radiation induced diseases such as cancer or endocrinologic disorders.

  3. Impact of Increasing Margin Around the Lumpectomy Cavity to Define the Planning Target Volume for 3D Conformal External Beam Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Brett W.; Horst, Kathleen C. Thornton, Sherri; Dirbas, Frederick M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dose to normal tissues as a function of increasing margins around the lumpectomy cavity in accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). Eight patients with Stage 0-I breast cancer underwent treatment planning for 3DCRT APBI. The clinical target volume (CTV) was defined as a 15-mm expansion around the cavity limited by the chest wall and skin. Three planning target volumes (PTV1, PTV2, PTV3) were generated for each patient using a 0, 5-, and 10-mm expansion around the CTV, for a total margin of 15, 20, and 25 mm. Three treatment plans were generated for every patient using the 3 PTVs, and dose-volume analysis was performed for each plan. For each 5-mm increase in margin, the mean PTV:total breast volume ratio increased 10% and the relative increase in the mean ipsilateral breast dose was 15%. The mean volume of ipsilateral breast tissue receiving 75%, 50%, and 25% of the prescribed dose increased 6% to 7% for every 5 mm increase in PTV margin. Compared to lesions located in the upper outer quadrant, plans for medially located tumors revealed higher mean ipsilateral breast doses and 20% to 22% more ipsilateral breast tissue encompassed by the 25% IDL. The use of 3DCRT for APBI delivers higher doses to normal breast tissue as the PTV increases around the lumpectomy cavity. Efforts should be made to minimize the overall PTV when this technique is used. Ongoing studies will be necessary to determine the clinical relevance of these findings.

  4. A non-conforming 3D spherical harmonic transport solver

    SciTech Connect

    Van Criekingen, S.

    2006-07-01

    A new 3D transport solver for the time-independent Boltzmann transport equation has been developed. This solver is based on the second-order even-parity form of the transport equation. The angular discretization is performed through the expansion of the angular neutron flux in spherical harmonics (PN method). The novelty of this solver is the use of non-conforming finite elements for the spatial discretization. Such elements lead to a discontinuous flux approximation. This interface continuity requirement relaxation property is shared with mixed-dual formulations such as the ones based on Raviart-Thomas finite elements. Encouraging numerical results are presented. (authors)

  5. Interim Cosmetic Results and Toxicity Using 3D Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy to Deliver Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in Patients With Early-Stage Breast Cancer Treated With Breast-Conserving Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Vicini, Frank A. Chen, Peter; Wallace, Michelle; Mitchell, Christina; Hasan, Yasmin; Grills, Inga; Kestin, Larry; Schell, Scott; Goldstein, Neal S.; Kunzman, Jonathan; Gilbert, Sam; Martinez, Alvaro

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: We present our ongoing clinical experience utilizing three-dimensional (3D)-conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy. Methods and Materials: Ninety-one consecutive patients were treated with APBI using our previously reported 3D-CRT technique. The clinical target volume consisted of the lumpectomy cavity plus a 10- to 15 -mm margin. The prescribed dose was 34 or 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions given over 5 consecutive days. The median follow-up was 24 months. Twelve patients have been followed for {>=}4 years, 20 for {>=}3.5 years, 29 for >3.0 years, 33 for {>=}2.5 years, and 46 for {>=}2.0 years. Results: No local recurrences developed. Cosmetic results were rated as good/excellent in 100% of evaluable patients at {>=} 6 months (n = 47), 93% at 1 year (n = 43), 91% at 2 years (n = 21), and in 90% at {>=}3 years (n = 10). Erythema, hyperpigmentation, breast edema, breast pain, telangiectasias, fibrosis, and fat necrosis were evaluated at 6, 24, and 36 months after treatment. All factors stabilized by 3 years posttreatment with grade I or II rates of 0%, 0%, 0%, 0%, 9%, 18%, and 9%, respectively. Only 2 patients (3%) developed grade III toxicity (breast pain), which resolved with time. Conclusions: Delivery of APBI with 3D-CRT resulted in minimal chronic ({>=}6 months) toxicity to date with good/excellent cosmetic results. Additional follow-up is needed to assess the long-term efficacy of this form of APBI.

  6. Einstein gravity as a 3D conformally invariant theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Henrique; Gryb, Sean; Koslowski, Tim

    2011-02-01

    We give an alternative description of the physical content of general relativity that does not require a Lorentz invariant spacetime. Instead, we find that gravity admits a dual description in terms of a theory where local size is irrelevant. The dual theory is invariant under foliation-preserving 3-diffeomorphisms and 3D conformal transformations that preserve the 3-volume (for the spatially compact case). Locally, this symmetry is identical to that of Hořava-Lifshitz gravity in the high energy limit but our theory is equivalent to Einstein gravity. Specifically, we find that the solutions of general relativity, in a gauge where the spatial hypersurfaces have constant mean extrinsic curvature, can be mapped to solutions of a particular gauge fixing of the dual theory. Moreover, this duality is not accidental. We provide a general geometric picture for our procedure that allows us to trade foliation invariance for conformal invariance. The dual theory provides a new proposal for the theory space of quantum gravity.

  7. Conformal Invariance of the 3D Self-Avoiding Walk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Tom

    2013-10-01

    We show that if the three-dimensional self-avoiding walk (SAW) is conformally invariant, then one can compute the hitting densities for the SAW in a half-space and in a sphere. We test these predictions by Monte Carlo simulations and find excellent agreement, thus providing evidence that the SAW is conformally invariant in three dimensions.

  8. 2D-3D MIGRATION AND CONFORMATIONAL MULTIPLICATION OF CHEMICALS IN LARGE CHEMICAL INVENTORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical interactions are three-dimensional (3D) in nature and require modeling chemicals as 3D entities. In turn, using 3D models of chemicals leads to the realization that a single 2D structure can have hundreds of different conformations, and the electronic properties of these...

  9. Orbiter/External Tank Mate 3-D Solid Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfrey, G. S.; Brandt, B.; Rorden, D.; Kapr, F.

    2004-01-01

    This research and development project presents an overview of the work completed while attending a summer 2004 American Society of Engineering Education/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (ASEE/NASA) Faculty Fellowship. This fellowship was completed at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The scope of the project was to complete parts, assemblies, and drawings that could be used by Ground Support Equipment (GSE) personnel to simulate situations and scenarios commonplace to the space shuttle Orbiter/External Tank (ET) Mate (50004). This mate takes place in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). These simulations could then be used by NASA engineers as decision-making tools. During the summer of 2004, parts were created that defined the Orbiter/ET structural interfaces. Emphasis was placed upon assemblies that included the Orbiter/ET forward attachment (EO-1), aft left thrust strut (EO-2), aft right tripod support structure (EO-3), and crossbeam and aft feedline/umbilical supports. These assemblies are used to attach the Orbiter to the ET. The Orbiter/ET Mate assembly was then used to compare and analyze clearance distances using different Orbiter hang angles. It was found that a 30-minute arc angle change in Orbiter hang angle affected distance at the bipod strut to Orbiter yoke fitting 8.11 inches. A 3-D solid model library was established as a result of this project. This library contains parts, assemblies, and drawings translated into several formats. This library contains a collection of the following files: sti for sterolithography, stp for neutral file work, shrinkwrap for compression. tiff for photoshop work, jpeg for Internet use, and prt and asm for Pro/Engineer use. This library was made available to NASA engineers so that they could access its contents to make angle, load, and clearance analysis studies. These decision-making tools may be used by Pro/Engineer users and non-users.

  10. Conformal geometry and its applications on 3D shape matching, recognition, and stitching.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sen; Wang, Yang; Jin, Miao; Gu, Xianfeng David; Samaras, Dimitris

    2007-07-01

    Three-dimensional shape matching is a fundamental issue in computer vision with many applications such as shape registration, 3D object recognition, and classification. However, shape matching with noise, occlusion, and clutter is a challenging problem. In this paper, we analyze a family of quasi-conformal maps including harmonic maps, conformal maps, and least-squares conformal maps with regards to 3D shape matching. As a result, we propose a novel and computationally efficient shape matching framework by using least-squares conformal maps. According to conformal geometry theory, each 3D surface with disk topology can be mapped to a 2D domain through a global optimization and the resulting map is a diffeomorphism, i.e., one-to-one and onto. This allows us to simplify the 3D shape-matching problem to a 2D image-matching problem, by comparing the resulting 2D parametric maps, which are stable, insensitive to resolution changes and robust to occlusion, and noise. Therefore, highly accurate and efficient 3D shape matching algorithms can be achieved by using the above three parametric maps. Finally, the robustness of least-squares conformal maps is evaluated and analyzed comprehensively in 3D shape matching with occlusion, noise, and resolution variation. In order to further demonstrate the performance of our proposed method, we also conduct a series of experiments on two computer vision applications, i.e., 3D face recognition and 3D nonrigid surface alignment and stitching. PMID:17496378

  11. Exploring conformational search protocols for ligand-based virtual screening and 3-D QSAR modeling.

    PubMed

    Cappel, Daniel; Dixon, Steven L; Sherman, Woody; Duan, Jianxin

    2015-02-01

    3-D ligand conformations are required for most ligand-based drug design methods, such as pharmacophore modeling, shape-based screening, and 3-D QSAR model building. Many studies of conformational search methods have focused on the reproduction of crystal structures (i.e. bioactive conformations); however, for ligand-based modeling the key question is how to generate a ligand alignment that produces the best results for a given query molecule. In this work, we study different conformation generation modes of ConfGen and the impact on virtual screening (Shape Screening and e-Pharmacophore) and QSAR predictions (atom-based and field-based). In addition, we develop a new search method, called common scaffold alignment, that automatically detects the maximum common scaffold between each screening molecule and the query to ensure identical coordinates of the common core, thereby minimizing the noise introduced by analogous parts of the molecules. In general, we find that virtual screening results are relatively insensitive to the conformational search protocol; hence, a conformational search method that generates fewer conformations could be considered "better" because it is more computationally efficient for screening. However, for 3-D QSAR modeling we find that more thorough conformational sampling tends to produce better QSAR predictions. In addition, significant improvements in QSAR predictions are obtained with the common scaffold alignment protocol developed in this work, which focuses conformational sampling on parts of the molecules that are not part of the common scaffold. PMID:25408244

  12. Frog: a FRee Online druG 3D conformation generator.

    PubMed

    Leite, T Bohme; Gomes, D; Miteva, M A; Chomilier, J; Villoutreix, B O; Tufféry, P

    2007-07-01

    In silico screening methods based on the 3D structures of the ligands or of the proteins have become an essential tool to facilitate the drug discovery process. To achieve such process, the 3D structures of the small chemical compounds have to be generated. In addition, for ligand-based screening computations or hierarchical structure-based screening projects involving a rigid-body docking step, it is necessary to generate multi-conformer 3D models for each input ligand to increase the efficiency of the search. However, most academic or commercial compound collections are delivered in 1D SMILES (simplified molecular input line entry system) format or in 2D SDF (structure data file), highlighting the need for free 1D/2D to 3D structure generators. Frog is an on-line service aimed at generating 3D conformations for drug-like compounds starting from their 1D or 2D descriptions. Given the atomic constitution of the molecules and connectivity information, Frog can identify the different unambiguous isomers corresponding to each compound, and generate single or multiple low-to-medium energy 3D conformations, using an assembly process that does not presently consider ring flexibility. Tests show that Frog is able to generate bioactive conformations close to those observed in crystallographic complexes. Frog can be accessed at http://bioserv.rpbs.jussieu.fr/Frog.html. PMID:17485475

  13. WE-F-16A-05: Use of 3D-Printers to Create a Tissue Equivalent 3D-Bolus for External Beam Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Burleson, S; Baker, J; Hsia, A; Xu, Z

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this project is to demonstrate that a non-expensive 3D-printer can be used to manufacture a 3D-bolus for external beam therapy. The printed bolus then can be modeled in our treatment planning system to ensure accurate dose delivery to the patient. Methods: We developed a simple method to manufacture a patient-specific custom 3Dbolus. The bolus is designed using Eclipse Treatment Planning System, contoured onto the patients CT images. The bolus file is exported from Eclipse to 3D-printer software, and then printed using a 3D printer. Various tests were completed to determine the properties of the printing material. Percent depth dose curves in this material were measured with electron and photon beams for comparison to other materials. In order to test the validity of the 3D printed bolus for treatment planning, a custom bolus was printed and tested on the Rando phantom using film for a dose plane comparison. We compared the dose plane measured on the film to the same dose plane exported from our treatment planning system using Film QA software. The gamma-dose distribution tool was used in our film analysis. Results: We compared point measurements throughout the dose plane and were able to achieve greater than 95% passing rate at 3% dose difference and 3 mm distance to agreement, which is our departments acceptable gamma pixel parameters. Conclusion: The printed 3D bolus has proven to be accurately modeled in our treatment planning system, it is more conformal to the patient surface and more durable than other bolus currently used (wax, superflab etc.). It is also more convenient and less costly than comparable bolus from milling machine companies.

  14. 3D-Conformal Versus Intensity-Modulated Postoperative Radiotherapy of Vaginal Vault: A Dosimetric Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Cilla, Savino; Macchia, Gabriella Digesu, Cinzia; Deodato, Francesco; Romanella, Michele; Ferrandina, Gabriella; Padula, Gilbert; Picardi, Vincenzo; Scambia, Giovanni; Morganti, Alessio Giuseppe

    2010-07-01

    We evaluated a step-and-shoot IMRT plan in the postoperative irradiation of the vaginal vault compared with equispaced beam arrangements (3-5) 3D-radiotherapy (RT) optimized plans. Twelve patients were included in this analysis. Four plans for each patient were compared in terms of dose-volume histograms, homogeneity index (HI), and conformity index (CI): (1) 3 equispaced beam arrangement 3D-RT; (2) 4 equispaced beam arrangement 3D-RT; (3) 5 equispaced beam arrangement 3D-RT; (4) step-and-shoot IMRT technique. CI showed a good discrimination between the four plans. The mean scores of CI were 0.58 (range: 0.38-0.67) for the 3F-CRT plan, 0.58 (range: 0.41-0.66) for 4F-CRT, 0.62 (range: 0.43-0.68) for 5F-CRT and 0.69 (range: 0.58-0.78) for the IMRT plan. A significant improvement of the conformity was reached by the IMRT plan (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). As expected, the increment of 3D-CRT fields was associated with an improvement of target dose conformity and homogeneity; on the contrary, in the IMRT plans, a better conformity was associated to a worse target dose homogeneity. A significant reduction in terms of D{sub mean}, V90%, V95%, V100% was recorded for rectal and bladder irradiation with the IMRT plan. Surprisingly, IMRT supplied a significant dose reduction also for rectum and bladder V30% and V50%. A significant dosimetric advantage of IMRT over 3D-RT in the adjuvant treatment of vaginal vault alone in terms of treatment conformity and rectum and bladder sparing is shown.

  15. SU-E-T-538: Lung SBRT Dosimetric Comparison of 3D Conformal and RapidArc Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, R; Zhan, L; Osei, E

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Dose distributions of RapidArc Plan can be quite different from standard 3D conformal radiation therapy. SBRT plans can be optimized with high conformity or mimic the 3D conformal treatment planning with very high dose in the center of the tumor. This study quantifies the dosimetric differences among 3D conformal plan; flattened beam and FFF beam RapidArc Plans for lung SBRT. Methods: Five lung cancer patients treated with 3D non-coplanar SBRT were randomly selected. All the patients were CT scanned with 4DCT to determine the internal target volume. Abdominal compression was applied to minimize respiratory motion for SBRT patients. The prescription dose was 48 Gy in 4 fractions. The PTV coverage was optimized by two groups of objective function: one with high conformity, another mimicking 3D conformal dose distribution with high dose in the center of PTV. Optimization constraints were set to meet the criteria of the RTOG-0915 protocol. All VMAT plans were optimized with the RapidArc technique using four full arcs in Eclipse treatment planning system. The RapidArc SBRT plans with flattened 6MV beam and 6MV FFF beam were generated and dosimetric results were compared with the previous treated 3D non-coplanar plans. Results: All the RapidArc plans with flattened beam and FFF beam had similar results for the PTV and OARs. For the high conformity optimization group, The DVH of PTV exhibited a steep dose fall-off outside the PTV compared to the 3D non-coplanar plan. However, for the group mimicking the 3D conformal target dose distribution, although the PTV is very similar to the 3D conformal plan, the ITV coverage is better than 3D conformal plan. Conclusion: Due to excellent clinical experiences of 3D conformal SBRT treatment, the Rapid Arc optimization mimicking 3D conformal planning may be suggested for clinical use.

  16. SU-F-BRF-08: Conformal Mapping-Based 3D Surface Matching and Registration

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Y; Zeng, W; Gu, X; Liu, C

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Recently, non-rigid 3D surface matching and registration has been used extensively in engineering and medicine. However, matching 3D surfaces undergoing non-rigid deformation accurately is still a challenging mathematical problem. In this study, we present a novel algorithm to address this issue by introducing intrinsic symmetry to the registration Methods: Our computational algorithm for symmetric conformal mapping is divided into three major steps: 1) Finding the symmetric plane; 2) Finding feature points; and 3) Performing cross registration. The key strategy is to preserve the symmetry during the conformal mapping, such that the image on the parameter domain is symmetric and the area distortion factor on the parameter image is also symmetric. Several novel algorithms were developed using different conformal geometric tools. One was based on solving Riemann-Cauchy equation and the other one employed curvature flow Results: Our algorithm was implemented using generic C++ on Windows XP and used conjugate gradient search optimization for acceleration. The human face 3D surface images were acquired using a high speed 3D scanner based on the phase-shifting method. The scanning speed was 30 frames/sec. The image resolution for each frame was 640 × 480. For 3D human face surfaces with different expressions, postures, and boundaries, our algorithms were able to produce consistent result on the texture pattern on the overlapping region Conclusion: We proposed a novel algorithm to improve the robustness of conformal geometric methods by incorporating the symmetric information into the mapping process. To objectively evaluate its performance, we compared it with most existing techniques. Experimental results indicated that our method outperformed all the others in terms of robustness. The technique has a great potential in real-time patient monitoring and tracking in image-guided radiation therapy.

  17. A Low-Dose Ipsilateral Lung Restriction Improves 3-D Conformal Planning for Partial Breast Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Tracy; Truong, Pauline T.; Salter, Lee; Graham, Cathy; Gaffney, Helene; Beckham, Wayne; Olivotto, Ivo A.

    2011-04-01

    In trials of 3D conformal external beam partial breast radiotherapy (PBRT), the dosimetrist must balance the priorities of achieving high conformity to the target versus minimizing low-dose exposure to the normal structures. This study highlights the caveat that in the absence of a low-dose lung restriction, the use of relatively en-face fields may meet trial-defined requirements but expose the ipsilateral lung to unnecessary low-dose radiation. Adding a low-dose restriction that {<=}20% of the ipsilateral lung should receive 10% of the prescribed dose resulted in successful plans in 88% of cases. This low-dose lung limit should be used in PBRT planning.

  18. Use of 3D printers to create a patient-specific 3D bolus for external beam therapy.

    PubMed

    Burleson, Sarah; Baker, Jamie; Hsia, An Ting; Xu, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that an inexpensive 3D printer can be used to manufacture patient-specific bolus for external beam therapy, and to show we can accurately model this printed bolus in our treatment planning system for accurate treatment delivery. Percent depth-dose measurements and tissue maximum ratios were used to determine the characteristics of the printing materials, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and polylactic acid, as bolus material with physical density of 1.04 and 1.2 g/cm3, and electron density of 3.38 × 10²³ electrons/cm3 and 3.80 × 10²³ electrons/ cm3, respectively. Dose plane comparisons using Gafchromic EBT2 film and the RANDO phantom were used to verify accurate treatment planning. We accurately modeled a printing material in Eclipse treatment planning system, assigning it a Hounsfield unit of 260. We were also able to verify accurate treatment planning using gamma analysis for dose plane comparisons. With gamma criteria of 5% dose difference and 2 mm DTA, we were able to have 86.5% points passing, and with gamma criteria of 5% dose difference and 3 mm DTA, we were able to have 95% points passing. We were able to create a patient-specific bolus using an inexpensive 3D printer and model it in our treatment planning system for accurate treatment delivery. PMID:26103485

  19. Conformal perturbation of off-critical correlators in the 3D Ising universality class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caselle, M.; Costagliola, G.; Magnoli, N.

    2016-07-01

    Thanks to the impressive progress of conformal bootstrap methods we have now very precise estimates of both scaling dimensions and operator product expansion coefficients for several 3D universality classes. We show how to use this information to obtain similarly precise estimates for off-critical correlators using conformal perturbation. We discuss in particular the ⟨σ (r )σ (0 )⟩ , ⟨ɛ (r )ɛ (0 )⟩ and ⟨σ (r )ɛ (0 )⟩ two-point functions in the high and low temperature regimes of the 3D Ising model and evaluate the leading and next to leading terms in the s =trΔt expansion, where t is the reduced temperature. Our results for ⟨σ (r )σ (0 )⟩ agree both with Monte Carlo simulations and with a set of experimental estimates of the critical scattering function.

  20. 3D Conducting Polymer Platforms for Electrical Control of Protein Conformation and Cellular Functions

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Alwin Ming-Doug; Inal, Sahika; Williams, Tiffany; Wang, Karin; Leleux, Pierre; Estevez, Luis; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Fischbach, Claudia; Malliaras, George G.; Gourdon, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    We report the fabrication of three dimensional (3D) macroporous scaffolds made from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) via an ice-templating method. The scaffolds offer tunable pore size and morphology, and are electrochemically active. When a potential is applied to the scaffolds, reversible changes take place in their electrical doping state, which in turn enables precise control over the conformation of adsorbed proteins (e.g., fibronectin). Additionally, the scaffolds support the growth of mouse fibroblasts (3T3-L1) for 7 days, and are able to electrically control cell adhesion and pro-angiogenic capability. These 3D matrix-mimicking platforms offer precise control of protein conformation and major cell functions, over large volumes and long cell culture times. As such, they represent a new tool for biological research with many potential applications in bioelectronics, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. PMID:26413300

  1. DVE flight test results of a sensor enhanced 3D conformal pilot support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münsterer, Thomas; Völschow, Philipp; Singer, Bernhard; Strobel, Michael; Kramper, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    The paper presents results and findings of flight tests of the Airbus Defence and Space DVE system SFERION performed at Yuma Proving Grounds. During the flight tests ladar information was fused with a priori DB knowledge in real-time and 3D conformal symbology was generated for display on an HMD. The test flights included low level flights as well as numerous brownout landings.

  2. Comparison of Three-Dimensional (3D) Conformal Proton Radiotherapy (RT), 3D Conformal Photon RT, and Intensity-Modulated RT for Retroperitoneal and Intra-Abdominal Sarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, Erika L.; Indelicato, Daniel J.; Louis, Debbie; Flampouri, Stella; Li, Zuofeng; Morris, Christopher G.; Paryani, Nitesh; Slopsema, Roelf

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To compare three-dimensional conformal proton radiotherapy (3DCPT), intensity-modulated photon radiotherapy (IMRT), and 3D conformal photon radiotherapy (3DCRT) to predict the optimal RT technique for retroperitoneal sarcomas. Methods and Materials: 3DCRT, IMRT, and 3DCPT plans were created for treating eight patients with retroperitoneal or intra-abdominal sarcomas. The clinical target volume (CTV) included the gross tumor plus a 2-cm margin, limited by bone and intact fascial planes. For photon plans, the planning target volume (PTV) included a uniform expansion of 5 mm. For the proton plans, the PTV was nonuniform and beam-specific. The prescription dose was 50.4 Gy/Cobalt gray equivalent CGE. Plans were normalized so that >95% of the CTV received 100% of the dose. Results: The CTV was covered adequately by all techniques. The median conformity index was 0.69 for 3DCPT, 0.75 for IMRT, and 0.51 for 3DCRT. The median inhomogeneity coefficient was 0.062 for 3DCPT, 0.066 for IMRT, and 0.073 for 3DCRT. The bowel median volume receiving 15 Gy (V15) was 16.4% for 3DCPT, 52.2% for IMRT, and 66.1% for 3DCRT. The bowel median V45 was 6.3% for 3DCPT, 4.7% for IMRT, and 15.6% for 3DCRT. The median ipsilateral mean kidney dose was 22.5 CGE for 3DCPT, 34.1 Gy for IMRT, and 37.8 Gy for 3DCRT. The median contralateral mean kidney dose was 0 CGE for 3DCPT, 6.4 Gy for IMRT, and 11 Gy for 3DCRT. The median contralateral kidney V5 was 0% for 3DCPT, 49.9% for IMRT, and 99.7% for 3DCRT. Regardless of technique, the median mean liver dose was <30 Gy, and the median cord V50 was 0%. The median integral dose was 126 J for 3DCPT, 400 J for IMRT, and 432 J for 3DCRT. Conclusions: IMRT and 3DCPT result in plans that are more conformal and homogenous than 3DCRT. Based on Quantitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in Clinic benchmarks, the dosimetric advantage of proton therapy may be less gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity.

  3. Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines and pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines as conformationally restricted analogues of the antibacterial agent trimethoprim.

    PubMed

    Kuyper, L F; Garvey, J M; Baccanari, D P; Champness, J N; Stammers, D K; Beddell, C R

    1996-04-01

    Conformationally restricted analogues of the antibacterial agent trimethoprim (TMP) were designed to mimic the conformation of drug observed in its complex with bacterial dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). This conformation of TMP was achieved by linking the 4-amino function to the methylene group by one- and two-carbon bridges. A pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine, a dihydro analogue, and a tetrahydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine were synthesized and tested as inhibitors of DHFR. One analogue showed activity equivalent to that of TMP against DHFR from three species of bacteria. An X-ray crystal structure of this inhibitor bound to Escherichia coli DHFR was determined to evaluate the structural consequences of the conformational restriction. PMID:8735847

  4. Use of 3D conformal symbology on HMD for a safer flight in degraded visual environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Ofer; Doehler, Hans-Ullrich; Trousil, Thomas; Peleg-Marzan, Ruthy

    2012-06-01

    Since the entry of coalition forces to Afghanistan and Iraq, a steep rise at the rate of accidents has occurred as a result of flying and landing in Degraded Visual Environment (DVE) conditions. Such conditions exist in various areas around the world and include bad weather, dust and snow landing (Brownout and whiteout) and low illumination at dark nights. A promising solution is a novel 3D conformal symbology displayed on head-tracked helmet mounted display (HMD). The 3D conformal symbology approach provides space stabilized three-dimensional symbology presented on the pilot helmet mounted display and has the potential of presenting a step function in HMD performance. It offers an intuitive way for presenting crucial information to the pilots in order to increase Situational Awareness, lower the pilots' workload and thus enhancing safety of flight dramatically. The pilots can fly "heads out" while the necessary flight and mission information is presented in intuitive manner, conformal with the real world and in real-time. . Several Evaluation trials had been conducted in the UK, US and Israel using systems that were developed by Elbit Systems to prove the embodied potential of the system to provide a solution for DVE flight conditions: technology, concept and the specific systems.

  5. Use of 3D Printed Models in Medical Education: A Randomized Control Trial Comparing 3D Prints versus Cadaveric Materials for Learning External Cardiac Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Kah Heng Alexander; Loo, Zhou Yaw; Goldie, Stephen J.; Adams, Justin W.; McMenamin, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging technology capable of readily producing accurate anatomical models, however, evidence for the use of 3D prints in medical education remains limited. A study was performed to assess their effectiveness against cadaveric materials for learning external cardiac anatomy. A double blind randomized…

  6. 3D Simulation of External Flooding Events for the RISMC Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, Steven; Mandelli, Diego; Sampath, Ramprasad; Smith, Curtis; Lin, Linyu

    2015-09-01

    Incorporating 3D simulations as part of the Risk-Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMIC) Toolkit allows analysts to obtain a more complete picture of complex system behavior for events including external plant hazards. External events such as flooding have become more important recently – however these can be analyzed with existing and validated simulated physics toolkits. In this report, we describe these approaches specific to flooding-based analysis using an approach called Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics. The theory, validation, and example applications of the 3D flooding simulation are described. Integrating these 3D simulation methods into computational risk analysis provides a spatial/visual aspect to the design, improves the realism of results, and can prove visual understanding to validate the analysis of flooding.

  7. A nanofiber based artificial electronic skin with high pressure sensitivity and 3D conformability.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Weibin; Liu, Qiongzhen; Wu, Yongzhi; Wang, Yuedan; Qing, Xing; Li, Mufang; Liu, Ke; Wang, Wenwen; Wang, Dong

    2016-06-16

    Pressure sensors with 3D conformability are highly desirable components for artificial electronic skin or e-textiles that can mimic natural skin, especially for application in real-time monitoring of human physiological signals. Here, a nanofiber based electronic skin with ultra-high pressure sensitivity and 3D conformability is designed and built by interlocking two elastic patterned nanofibrous membranes. The patterned membrane is facilely prepared by casting conductive nanofiber ink into a silicon mould to form an array of semi-spheroid-like protuberances. The protuberances composed of intertwined elastic POE nanofibers and PPy@PVA-co-PE nanofibers afford a tunable effective elastic modulus that is capable of capturing varied strains and stresses, thereby contributing to a high sensitivity for pressure sensing. This electronic skin-like sensor demonstrates an ultra-high sensitivity (1.24 kPa(-1)) below 150 Pa with a detection limit as low as about 1.3 Pa. The pixelated sensor array and a RGB-LED light are then assembled into a circuit and show a feasibility for visual detection of spatial pressure. Furthermore, a nanofiber based proof-of-concept wireless pressure sensor with a bluetooth module as a signal transmitter is proposed and has demonstrated great promise for wireless monitoring of human physiological signals, indicating a potential for large scale wearable electronic devices or e-skin. PMID:27250529

  8. Second order superintegrable systems in conformally flat spaces. IV. The classical 3D Staeckel transform and 3D classification theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kalnins, E.G.; Kress, J.M.; Miller, W. Jr.

    2006-04-15

    This article is one of a series that lays the groundwork for a structure and classification theory of second order superintegrable systems, both classical and quantum, in conformally flat spaces. In the first part of the article we study the Staeckel transform (or coupling constant metamorphosis) as an invertible mapping between classical superintegrable systems on different three-dimensional spaces. We show first that all superintegrable systems with nondegenerate potentials are multiseparable and then that each such system on any conformally flat space is Staeckel equivalent to a system on a constant curvature space. In the second part of the article we classify all the superintegrable systems that admit separation in generic coordinates. We find that there are eight families of these systems.

  9. 3D conformation of a flexible fiber in a turbulent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhille, Gautier; Bartoli, Adrien

    2016-07-01

    A growing number of studies is devoted to anisotropic particles in turbulent flows. In most cases, the particles are assumed to be rigid and their deformations are neglected. We present an adaptation of classical computer vision tools to reconstruct from two different images the 3D conformation of a fiber distorted by the turbulent fluctuations in a von Kármán flow. This technique allows us notably to characterize the fiber deformation by computing the correlation function of the orientation of the tangent vector. This function allows us to tackle the analogy between polymers and flexible fibers proposed by Brouzet et al. (Phys Rev Lett 112(7):074501, 2014). We show that this function depends on an elastic length ℓ _e which characterizes the particle flexibility, as is the case for polymers, but also on the fiber length L, contrary to polymers.

  10. A nanofiber based artificial electronic skin with high pressure sensitivity and 3D conformability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Weibin; Liu, Qiongzhen; Wu, Yongzhi; Wang, Yuedan; Qing, Xing; Li, Mufang; Liu, Ke; Wang, Wenwen; Wang, Dong

    2016-06-01

    Pressure sensors with 3D conformability are highly desirable components for artificial electronic skin or e-textiles that can mimic natural skin, especially for application in real-time monitoring of human physiological signals. Here, a nanofiber based electronic skin with ultra-high pressure sensitivity and 3D conformability is designed and built by interlocking two elastic patterned nanofibrous membranes. The patterned membrane is facilely prepared by casting conductive nanofiber ink into a silicon mould to form an array of semi-spheroid-like protuberances. The protuberances composed of intertwined elastic POE nanofibers and PPy@PVA-co-PE nanofibers afford a tunable effective elastic modulus that is capable of capturing varied strains and stresses, thereby contributing to a high sensitivity for pressure sensing. This electronic skin-like sensor demonstrates an ultra-high sensitivity (1.24 kPa-1) below 150 Pa with a detection limit as low as about 1.3 Pa. The pixelated sensor array and a RGB-LED light are then assembled into a circuit and show a feasibility for visual detection of spatial pressure. Furthermore, a nanofiber based proof-of-concept wireless pressure sensor with a bluetooth module as a signal transmitter is proposed and has demonstrated great promise for wireless monitoring of human physiological signals, indicating a potential for large scale wearable electronic devices or e-skin.Pressure sensors with 3D conformability are highly desirable components for artificial electronic skin or e-textiles that can mimic natural skin, especially for application in real-time monitoring of human physiological signals. Here, a nanofiber based electronic skin with ultra-high pressure sensitivity and 3D conformability is designed and built by interlocking two elastic patterned nanofibrous membranes. The patterned membrane is facilely prepared by casting conductive nanofiber ink into a silicon mould to form an array of semi-spheroid-like protuberances. The

  11. The impact of flattening-filter-free beam technology on 3D conformal RT

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The removal of the flattening filter (FF) leads to non-uniform fluence distribution with a considerable increase in dose rate. It is possible to adapt FFF beams (flattening-filter-free) in 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D CRT) by using field in field techniques (FiF). The aim of this retrospective study is to clarify whether the quality of 3D CRT plans is influenced by the use of FFF beams. Method This study includes a total of 52 CT studies of RT locations that occur frequently in clinical practice. Dose volume targets were provided for the PTV of breast (n=13), neurocranium (n=11), lung (n=7), bone metastasis (n=10) and prostate (n=11) in line with ICRU report 50/62. 3D CRT planning was carried out using FiF methods. Two clinically utilized photon energies are used for a Siemens ARTISTE linear accelerator in FFF mode at 7MVFFF and 11MVFFF as well as in FF mode at 6MVFF and 10MVFF. The plan quality in relation to the PTV coverage, OAR (organs at risk) and low dose burden as well as the 2D dosimetric verification is compared with FF plans. Results No significant differences were found between FFF and FF plans in the mean dose for the PTV of breast, lung, spine metastasis and prostate. The low dose parameters V5Gy and V10Gy display significant differences for FFF and FF plans in some subgroups. The DVH analysis of the OAR revealed some significant differences. Significantly more fields (1.9 – 4.5) were necessary in the use of FFF beams for each location (p<0.0001) in order to achieve PTV coverage. All the tested groups displayed significant increases (1.3 – 2.2 times) in the average number of necessary MU with the use of FFF beams (p<0.001). Conclusions This study has shown that the exclusive use of a linear accelerator in FFF mode is feasible in 3D CRT. It was possible to realize RT plans in comparable quality in typical cases of clinical radiotherapy. The 2D dosimetric validation of the modulated fields verified the dose calculation and thus the

  12. Conformal 3D planned radiotherapy for pelvic lymphoceles following surgery for urological cancer: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Stefan; Käsmann, Lukas; Cegla, Robert; Rades, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the outcome and toxicity of 3D conformal radiotherapy (RT) for persistent lymphoceles following surgery for urological cancer. A total of 6 patients with bladder (n=1) and prostate cancer (n=5), with persistent lymphoceles following surgery for a primary tumor were treated with total doses of 10–12 Gy (1 Gy single dose) after computed tomography (CT) based 3D planning in order to suspend secretion. No acute or chronic toxicities were observed. In 5 patients, secretion of lymph fluid resolved after RT and in 1 patient RT had no effect. After a mean follow-up of 21 months (range, 5–47 months), no patient suffered from any symptoms concerning his former lymphoceles. This is the first analysis, to the best of our knowledge, to evaluate a homogenous patient collective of urological cancer patients with persistent lymphoceles after surgery for the initial tumor. RT to lymphoceles in urological cancer patient is effective, very well-tolerated and should be offered to patients with persistent secretion following drainage.

  13. Use of 3D printed models in medical education: A randomized control trial comparing 3D prints versus cadaveric materials for learning external cardiac anatomy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kah Heng Alexander; Loo, Zhou Yaw; Goldie, Stephen J; Adams, Justin W; McMenamin, Paul G

    2016-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging technology capable of readily producing accurate anatomical models, however, evidence for the use of 3D prints in medical education remains limited. A study was performed to assess their effectiveness against cadaveric materials for learning external cardiac anatomy. A double blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken on undergraduate medical students without prior formal cardiac anatomy teaching. Following a pre-test examining baseline external cardiac anatomy knowledge, participants were randomly assigned to three groups who underwent self-directed learning sessions using either cadaveric materials, 3D prints, or a combination of cadaveric materials/3D prints (combined materials). Participants were then subjected to a post-test written by a third party. Fifty-two participants completed the trial; 18 using cadaveric materials, 16 using 3D models, and 18 using combined materials. Age and time since completion of high school were equally distributed between groups. Pre-test scores were not significantly different (P = 0.231), however, post-test scores were significantly higher for 3D prints group compared to the cadaveric materials or combined materials groups (mean of 60.83% vs. 44.81% and 44.62%, P = 0.010, adjusted P = 0.012). A significant improvement in test scores was detected for the 3D prints group (P = 0.003) but not for the other two groups. The finding of this pilot study suggests that use of 3D prints do not disadvantage students relative to cadaveric materials; maximally, results suggest that 3D may confer certain benefits to anatomy learning and supports their use and ongoing evaluation as supplements to cadaver-based curriculums. Anat Sci Educ 9: 213-221. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26468636

  14. External fixator configurations in tibia fractures: 1D optimization and 3D analysis comparison.

    PubMed

    Roseiro, Luis M; Neto, M Augusta; Amaro, Ana; Leal, Rogerio P; Samarra, Miguel C

    2014-01-01

    The use of external fixation devices in orthopedic surgery is very common in open tibial fractures. A properly applied fixator may improve the healing process while one improperly applied might delay the healing process. The several external fixator systems used in clinical today, can be categorized into uniplanar-unilateral, uniplanar-bilateral, biplanar and multiplanar. The stability on the fracture focus and, therefore, the fracture healing process, is related with the type of external fixator configuration that is selected. The aim of this study is to discuss the principles for the successful application of unilateral-uniplanar external fixation, the assembly of its components, for the case of a transverse fractures using computational models. In this context, the fixation stiffness characteristics are evaluated using a simplified 1D finite element model for the tibia and external fixator. The beams are modeled with realistic cross-sectional geometry and material properties instead of a simplified model. The VABS (the Variational Asymptotic Beam Section analysis) methodology is used to compute the cross-sectional model for the generalized Timoshenko model, which was embedded in the finite element solver FEAP. The use of Timoshenko beam theory allows accounting for several kinds of loads, including torsion moments. Optimal design is performed with respect to the assembly of fixator components using a genetic algorithm. The optimization procedure is based on the evaluation of an objective function, which is dependent on the displacement at the fracture focus. The initial and optimal results are compared by performing a 3D analysis, for which different three-dimensional finite element models are created. The geometrical model of a tibia is created on the basis of data acquired by CAT scan, made for a healthy tibia of a 22 year old male. The 3D comparison of the 1D optimal results show a clear improvement on the objective function for the several load cases and

  15. Development of a 3D-printed external ventricular drain placement simulator: technical note.

    PubMed

    Tai, Bruce L; Rooney, Deborah; Stephenson, Francesca; Liao, Peng-Siang; Sagher, Oren; Shih, Albert J; Savastano, Luis E

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the authors present a physical model developed to simulate accurate external ventricular drain (EVD) placement with realistic haptic and visual feedbacks to serve as a platform for complete procedural training. Insertion of an EVD via ventriculostomy is a common neurosurgical procedure used to monitor intracranial pressures and/or drain CSF. Currently, realistic training tools are scarce and mainly limited to virtual reality simulation systems. The use of 3D printing technology enables the development of realistic anatomical structures and customized design for physical simulators. In this study, the authors used the advantages of 3D printing to directly build the model geometry from stealth head CT scans and build a phantom brain mold based on 3D scans of a plastinated human brain. The resultant simulator provides realistic haptic feedback during a procedure, with visualization of catheter trajectory and fluid drainage. A multiinstitutional survey was also used to prove content validity of the simulator. With minor refinement, this simulator is expected to be a cost-effective tool for training neurosurgical residents in EVD placement. PMID:26115472

  16. Multiple receptor conformation docking, dock pose clustering and 3D QSAR studies on human poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Sabiha; Jatavath, Mohan Babu; Bathini, Raju; Sivan, Sree Kanth; Manga, Vijjulatha

    2014-10-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) functions as a DNA damage sensor and signaling molecule. It plays a vital role in the repair of DNA strand breaks induced by radiation and chemotherapeutic drugs; inhibitors of this enzyme have the potential to improve cancer chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (3D QSAR) models were developed using comparative molecular field analysis, comparative molecular similarity indices analysis and docking studies. A set of 88 molecules were docked into the active site of six X-ray crystal structures of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1), by a procedure called multiple receptor conformation docking (MRCD), in order to improve the 3D QSAR models through the analysis of binding conformations. The docked poses were clustered to obtain the best receptor binding conformation. These dock poses from clustering were used for 3D QSAR analysis. Based on MRCD and QSAR information, some key features have been identified that explain the observed variance in the activity. Two receptor-based QSAR models were generated; these models showed good internal and external statistical reliability that is evident from the [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. The identified key features enabled us to design new PARP-1 inhibitors. PMID:25046176

  17. SU-E-T-393: Investigation of Hot Spots in Tomotherapy 3D Conformal Breast Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Q; Siebers, J; Khandelwal, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the root-cause of hotspots inherent to Tomotherapy static beam 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) for breast treatment. ASTRO (ref here) recommends that IMRT be avoided for breast treatments. Despite Tomotherapy's inherent IMRT-like optimization and delivery, our experience at a Tomotherapy-only site has been that Tomotherapy 3DCRT fail to produce a clinically acceptable plan for 79% of our breast patients. Hot-spots have been one of the major obstacles. Methods: Eight lumpectomy patients were planned according to RTOG-1005 specification. Two or four tangential beams were used for 3DCRT breast planning. To spare the contralateral breast and ipsilateral lung, part of the PTV was not covered by the primary beam, yielding adjacent hot-spots. We hypothesize that the planning system creates hotspots adjacent to the cold spots to yield scatter radiation dose compensation in the blocked region. Various phantom and patient setup were used to test the hypothesis. Results: Hot spots outside of PTV in the range of 135% - 174% were observed for patient plan. It is confirmed that the PTV partial block causes the adjacent hot spot. The root cause is the optimizer quadratic objective function over- weighs improving the cold spot. The IMRT flexibility offered by Tomotherapy is counter-productive in static-beam 3DCRT breast treatment. For phantom case, as the Modulation-Factor increases from 1.1 to 5, the hot spot increases from 110% to 300%. Limiting the 3DCRT intensity modulation is shown to produce clinically acceptable plan. Conclusion: Most of the hot spots in Tomotherapy 3DCRT breast plan originate from the planning-system optimizer attempting to cover PTV cold spots rather than from the beam energy. Altering the objective function could improve clinical acceptability of static beam Tomotherapy 3DCRT.

  18. Dosimetry in brain tumor phantom at 15 MV 3D conformal radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Larissa; Dias, Humberto Galvão; Campos, Tarcísio Passos Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common, aggressive, highly malignant and infiltrative of all brain tumors with low rate of control. The main goal of this work was to evaluate the spatial dose distribution into a GBM simulator inside a head phantom exposed to a 15 MV 3D conformal radiation therapy in order to validate internal doses. A head and neck phantom developed by the Ionizing Radiation Research Group (NRI) was used on the experiments. Such phantom holds the following synthetic structures: brain and spinal cord, skull, cervical and thoracic vertebrae, jaw, hyoid bone, laryngeal cartilages, head and neck muscles and skin. Computer tomography (CT) of the simulator was taken, capturing a set of contrasted references. Therapy Radiation planning (TPS) was performed based on those CT images, satisfying a 200 cGy prescribed dose split in three irradiation fields. The TPS assumed 97% of prescribed dose cover the prescribed treatment volume (PTV). Radiochromic films in a solid water phantom provided dose response as a function of optical density. Spatial dosimetric distribution was generated by radiochromic film samples at coronal, sagittal-anterior and sagittal-posterior positions, inserted into tumor simulator and brain. The spatial dose profiles held 70 to 120% of the prescribed dose. In spite of the stratified profile, as opposed to the smooth dose profile from TPS, the tumor internal doses were within a 5% deviation from 214.4 cGy evaluated by TPS. 83.2% of the points with a gamma value of less than 1 (3%/3mm) for TPS and experimental values, respectively. At the tumor, measured at coronal section, a few dark spots in the film caused the appearance of outlier points in 13-15% of dose deviation percentage. And, as final conclusion, such dosimeter choice and the physical anthropomorphic and anthropometric phantom provided an efficient method for validating radiotherapy protocols. PMID:23829593

  19. Dosimetry in brain tumor phantom at 15 MV 3D conformal radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common, aggressive, highly malignant and infiltrative of all brain tumors with low rate of control. The main goal of this work was to evaluate the spatial dose distribution into a GBM simulator inside a head phantom exposed to a 15 MV 3D conformal radiation therapy in order to validate internal doses. A head and neck phantom developed by the Ionizing Radiation Research Group (NRI) was used on the experiments. Such phantom holds the following synthetic structures: brain and spinal cord, skull, cervical and thoracic vertebrae, jaw, hyoid bone, laryngeal cartilages, head and neck muscles and skin. Computer tomography (CT) of the simulator was taken, capturing a set of contrasted references. Therapy Radiation planning (TPS) was performed based on those CT images, satisfying a 200 cGy prescribed dose split in three irradiation fields. The TPS assumed 97% of prescribed dose cover the prescribed treatment volume (PTV). Radiochromic films in a solid water phantom provided dose response as a function of optical density. Spatial dosimetric distribution was generated by radiochromic film samples at coronal, sagittal-anterior and sagittal-posterior positions, inserted into tumor simulator and brain. The spatial dose profiles held 70 to 120% of the prescribed dose. In spite of the stratified profile, as opposed to the smooth dose profile from TPS, the tumor internal doses were within a 5% deviation from 214.4 cGy evaluated by TPS. 83.2% of the points with a gamma value of less than 1 (3%/3mm) for TPS and experimental values, respectively. At the tumor, measured at coronal section, a few dark spots in the film caused the appearance of outlier points in 13-15% of dose deviation percentage. And, as final conclusion, such dosimeter choice and the physical anthropomorphic and anthropometric phantom provided an efficient method for validating radiotherapy protocols. PMID:23829593

  20. Adjoint Monte Carlo method for prostate external photon beam treatment planning: an application to 3D patient anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Brian; Goldstein, Moshe; Xu, X. George; Sahoo, Narayan

    2005-03-01

    Recently, the theoretical framework of the adjoint Monte Carlo (AMC) method has been developed using a simplified patient geometry. In this study, we extended our previous work by applying the AMC framework to a 3D anatomical model called VIP-Man constructed from the Visible Human images. First, the adjoint fluxes for the prostate (PTV) and rectum and bladder (organs at risk (OARs)) were calculated on a spherical surface of 1 m radius, centred at the centre of gravity of PTV. An importance ratio, defined as the PTV dose divided by the weighted OAR doses, was calculated for each of the available beamlets to select the beam angles. Finally, the detailed doses in PTV and OAR were calculated using a forward Monte Carlo simulation to include the electron transport. The dose information was then used to generate dose volume histograms (DVHs). The Pinnacle treatment planning system was also used to generate DVHs for the 3D plans with beam angles obtained from the AMC (3D-AMC) and a standard six-field conformal radiation therapy plan (3D-CRT). Results show that the DVHs for prostate from 3D-AMC and the standard 3D-CRT are very similar, showing that both methods can deliver prescribed dose to the PTV. A substantial improvement in the DVHs for bladder and rectum was found for the 3D-AMC method in comparison to those obtained from 3D-CRT. However, the 3D-AMC plan is less conformal than the 3D-CRT plan because only bladder, rectum and PTV are considered for calculating the importance ratios. Nevertheless, this study clearly demonstrated the feasibility of the AMC in selecting the beam directions as a part of a treatment planning based on the anatomical information in a 3D and realistic patient anatomy.

  1. Dosimetric comparison of 3D conformal, IMRT, and V-MAT techniques for accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jian-Jian; Chang, Zheng; Horton, Janet K; Wu, Qing-Rong Jackie; Yoo, Sua; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose is to dosimetrically compare the following 3 delivery techniques: 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMRT), and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (V-MAT) in the treatment of accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI). Overall, 16 patients with T1/2N0 breast cancer were treated with 3D-CRT (multiple, noncoplanar photon fields) on the RTOG 0413 partial-breast trial. These cases were subsequently replanned using static gantry IMRT and V-MAT technology to understand dosimetric differences among these 3 techniques. Several dosimetric parameters were used in plan quality evaluation, including dose conformity index (CI) and dose-volume histogram analysis of normal tissue coverage. Quality assurance studies including gamma analysis were performed to compare the measured and calculated dose distributions. The IMRT and V-MAT plans gave more conformal target dose distributions than the 3D-CRT plans (p < 0.05 in CI). The volume of ipsilateral breast receiving 5 and 10Gy was significantly less using the V-MAT technique than with either 3D-CRT or IMRT (p < 0.05). The maximum lung dose and the ipsilateral lung volume receiving 10 (V10) or 20Gy (V20) were significantly less with both V-MAT and IMRT (p < 0.05). The IMRT technique was superior to 3D-CRT and V-MAT of low dose distributions in ipsilateral lung (p < 0.05 in V5 and D5). The total mean monitor units (MUs) for V-MAT (621.0 ± 111.9) were 12.2% less than those for 3D-CRT (707.3 ± 130.9) and 46.5% less than those for IMRT (1161.4 ± 315.6) (p < 0.05). The average machine delivery time was 1.5 ± 0.2 minutes for the V-MAT plans, 7.0 ± 1.6 minutes for the 3D-CRT plans, and 11.5 ± 1.9 minutes for the IMRT plans, demonstrating much less delivery time for V-MAT. Based on this preliminary study, V-MAT and IMRT techniques offer improved dose conformity as compared with 3D-CRT techniques without increasing dose to the ipsilateral lung. In terms of MU and delivery

  2. Dosimetric comparison of 3D conformal, IMRT, and V-MAT techniques for accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI)

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Jian-Jian; Chang, Zheng; Horton, Janet K.; Wu, Qing-Rong Jackie; Yoo, Sua; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2014-07-01

    The purpose is to dosimetrically compare the following 3 delivery techniques: 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMRT), and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (V-MAT) in the treatment of accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI). Overall, 16 patients with T1/2N0 breast cancer were treated with 3D-CRT (multiple, noncoplanar photon fields) on the RTOG 0413 partial-breast trial. These cases were subsequently replanned using static gantry IMRT and V-MAT technology to understand dosimetric differences among these 3 techniques. Several dosimetric parameters were used in plan quality evaluation, including dose conformity index (CI) and dose-volume histogram analysis of normal tissue coverage. Quality assurance studies including gamma analysis were performed to compare the measured and calculated dose distributions. The IMRT and V-MAT plans gave more conformal target dose distributions than the 3D-CRT plans (p < 0.05 in CI). The volume of ipsilateral breast receiving 5 and 10 Gy was significantly less using the V-MAT technique than with either 3D-CRT or IMRT (p < 0.05). The maximum lung dose and the ipsilateral lung volume receiving 10 (V{sub 10}) or 20 Gy (V{sub 20}) were significantly less with both V-MAT and IMRT (p < 0.05). The IMRT technique was superior to 3D-CRT and V-MAT of low dose distributions in ipsilateral lung (p < 0.05 in V{sub 5} and D{sub 5}). The total mean monitor units (MUs) for V-MAT (621.0 ± 111.9) were 12.2% less than those for 3D-CRT (707.3 ± 130.9) and 46.5% less than those for IMRT (1161.4 ± 315.6) (p < 0.05). The average machine delivery time was 1.5 ± 0.2 minutes for the V-MAT plans, 7.0 ± 1.6 minutes for the 3D-CRT plans, and 11.5 ± 1.9 minutes for the IMRT plans, demonstrating much less delivery time for V-MAT. Based on this preliminary study, V-MAT and IMRT techniques offer improved dose conformity as compared with 3D-CRT techniques without increasing dose to the ipsilateral lung. In

  3. UniCon3D: de novo protein structure prediction using united-residue conformational search via stepwise, probabilistic sampling

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Debswapna; Cao, Renzhi; Cheng, Jianlin

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Recent experimental studies have suggested that proteins fold via stepwise assembly of structural units named ‘foldons’ through the process of sequential stabilization. Alongside, latest developments on computational side based on probabilistic modeling have shown promising direction to perform de novo protein conformational sampling from continuous space. However, existing computational approaches for de novo protein structure prediction often randomly sample protein conformational space as opposed to experimentally suggested stepwise sampling. Results: Here, we develop a novel generative, probabilistic model that simultaneously captures local structural preferences of backbone and side chain conformational space of polypeptide chains in a united-residue representation and performs experimentally motivated conditional conformational sampling via stepwise synthesis and assembly of foldon units that minimizes a composite physics and knowledge-based energy function for de novo protein structure prediction. The proposed method, UniCon3D, has been found to (i) sample lower energy conformations with higher accuracy than traditional random sampling in a small benchmark of 6 proteins; (ii) perform comparably with the top five automated methods on 30 difficult target domains from the 11th Critical Assessment of Protein Structure Prediction (CASP) experiment and on 15 difficult target domains from the 10th CASP experiment; and (iii) outperform two state-of-the-art approaches and a baseline counterpart of UniCon3D that performs traditional random sampling for protein modeling aided by predicted residue-residue contacts on 45 targets from the 10th edition of CASP. Availability and Implementation: Source code, executable versions, manuals and example data of UniCon3D for Linux and OSX are freely available to non-commercial users at http://sysbio.rnet.missouri.edu/UniCon3D/. Contact: chengji@missouri.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are

  4. 3D GeoWall Analysis System for Shuttle External Tank Foreign Object Debris Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Richard; Navard, Andrew; Spruce, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    An analytical, advanced imaging method has been developed for the initial monitoring and identification of foam debris and similar anomalies that occur post-launch in reference to the space shuttle s external tank (ET). Remote sensing technologies have been used to perform image enhancement and analysis on high-resolution, true-color images collected with the DCS 760 Kodak digital camera located in the right umbilical well of the space shuttle. Improvements to the camera, using filters, have added sharpness/definition to the image sets; however, image review/analysis of the ET has been limited by the fact that the images acquired by umbilical cameras during launch are two-dimensional, and are usually nonreferenceable between frames due to rotation translation of the ET as it falls away from the space shuttle. Use of stereo pairs of these images can enable strong visual indicators that can immediately portray depth perception of damaged areas or movement of fragments between frames is not perceivable in two-dimensional images. A stereoscopic image visualization system has been developed to allow 3D depth perception of stereo-aligned image pairs taken from in-flight umbilical and handheld digital shuttle cameras. This new system has been developed to augment and optimize existing 2D monitoring capabilities. Using this system, candidate sequential image pairs are identified for transformation into stereo viewing pairs. Image orientation is corrected using control points (similar points) between frames to place the two images in proper X-Y viewing perspective. The images are then imported into the WallView stereo viewing software package. The collected control points are used to generate a transformation equation that is used to re-project one image and effectively co-register it to the other image. The co-registered, oriented image pairs are imported into a WallView image set and are used as a 3D stereo analysis slide show. Multiple sequential image pairs can be used

  5. Conkiss: Conformal Kidneys Sparing 3D Noncoplanar Radiotherapy Treatment for Pancreatic Cancer As an Alternative to IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Sebestyen, Zsolt; Kovacs, Peter; Gulyban, Akos; Farkas, Robert; Bellyei, Szabolcs; Liposits, Gabor; Szigeti, Andras; Esik, Olga; Derczy, Katalin; Mangel, Laszlo

    2011-04-01

    When treating pancreatic cancer using standard (ST) 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) beam arrangements, the kidneys often receive a higher dose than their probable tolerance limit. Our aim was to elaborate a new planning method that-similarly to IMRT-effectively spares the kidneys without compromising the target coverage. Conformal kidneys sparing (CONKISS) 5-field, noncoplanar plans were compared with ST plans for 23 consecutive patients retrospectively. Optimal beam arrangements were used consisting of a left- and right-wedged beam-pair and an anteroposterior beam inclined in the caudal direction. The wedge direction determination (WEDDE) algorithm was developed to adjust the adequate direction of wedges. The aimed organs at risk (OARs) mean dose limits were: kidney <12 Gy, liver <25 Gy, small bowels <30 Gy, and spinal cord maximum <45 Gy. Conformity and homogeneity indexes with z-test were used to evaluate and compare the different planning approaches. The mean dose to the kidneys decreased significantly (p < 0.05): left kidney 7.7 vs. 10.7 Gy, right kidney 9.1 vs. 11.7 Gy. Meanwhile the mean dose to the liver increased significantly (18.1 vs. 15.0 Gy). The changes in the conformity, homogeneity, and in the doses to other OARs were not significant. The CONKISS method balances the load among the OARs and significantly reduces the dose to the kidneys, without any significant change in the conformity and homogeneity. Using 3D-CRT the CONKISS method can be a smart alternative to IMRT to enhance the possibility of dose escalation.

  6. MIC(0) preconditioning of 3D FEM problems on unstructured grids: Conforming and non-conforming elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margenov, Svetozar; Kosturski, Nikola

    2009-04-01

    In this study, the topics of grid generation and FEM applications are studied together following their natural synergy. We consider the following three tetrahedral grid generators: NETGEN, TetGen, and Gmsh. After that, the performance of the MIC(0) preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) solver is analyzed for both conforming and non-conforming linear FEM problems. If positive off-diagonal entries appear in the corresponding matrix, a diagonal compensation is applied to get an auxiliary M-matrix allowing a stable MIC(0) factorization. The presented numerical experiments for elliptic and parabolic problems well illustrate the similar PCG convergence rate of the MIC(0) preconditioner for both, structured and unstructured grids.

  7. Three-year outcomes of a once daily fractionation scheme for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using 3-D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT)

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Sharad; Daroui, Parima; Khan, Atif J; Kearney, Thomas; Kirstein, Laurie; Haffty, Bruce G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report 3-year outcomes of toxicity, cosmesis, and local control using a once daily fractionation scheme (49.95 Gy in 3.33 Gy once daily fractions) for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Between July 2008 and August 2010, women aged ≥40 years with ductal carcinoma in situ or node-negative invasive breast cancer ≤3 cm in diameter, treated with breast-conserving surgery achieving negative margins, were accrued to a prospective study. Women were treated with APBI using 3–5 photon beams, delivering 49.95 Gy over 15 once daily fractions over 3 weeks. Patients were assessed for toxicities, cosmesis, and local control rates before APBI and at specified time points. Thirty-four patients (mean age 60 years) with Tis 0 (n = 9) and T1N0 (n = 25) breast cancer were treated and followed up for an average of 39 months. Only 3% (1/34) patients experienced a grade 3 subcutaneous fibrosis and breast edema and 97% of the patients had good/excellent cosmetic outcome at 3 years. The 3-year rate of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) was 0% while the rate of contralateral breast events was 6%. The 3-year disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) was 94%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Our novel accelerated partial breast fractionation scheme of 15 once daily fractions of 3.33 Gy (49.95 Gy total) is a remarkably well-tolerated regimen of 3D-CRT-based APBI. A larger cohort of patients is needed to further ascertain the toxicity of this accelerated partial breast regimen. PMID:24403270

  8. Clinical Outcome of Patients Treated With 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy (3D-CRT) for Prostate Cancer on RTOG 9406

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, Jeff; Winter, Kathryn; Roach, Mack; Markoe, Arnold; Sandler, Howard M.; Ryu, Janice; Parliament, Matthew; Purdy, James A.; Valicenti, Richard K.; Cox, James D.

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: Report of clinical cancer control outcomes on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9406, a three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) dose escalation trial for localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Methods and Materials: RTOG 9406 is a Phase I/II multi-institutional dose escalation study of 3D-CRT for men with localized prostate cancer. Patients were registered on five sequential dose levels: 68.4 Gy, 73.8 Gy, 79.2 Gy, 74 Gy, and 78 Gy with 1.8 Gy/day (levels I-III) or 2.0 Gy/day (levels IV and V). Neoadjuvant hormone therapy (NHT) from 2 to 6 months was allowed. Protocol-specific, American Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), and Phoenix biochemical failure definitions are reported. Results: Thirty-four institutions enrolled 1,084 patients and 1,051 patients are analyzable. Median follow-up for levels I, II, III, IV, and V was 11.7, 10.4, 11.8, 10.4, and 9.2 years, respectively. Thirty-six percent of patients received NHT. The 5-year overall survival was 90%, 87%, 88%, 89%, and 88% for dose levels I-V, respectively. The 5-year clinical disease-free survival (excluding protocol prostate-specific antigen definition) for levels I-V is 84%, 78%, 81%, 82%, and 82%, respectively. By ASTRO definition, the 5-year disease-free survivals were 57%, 59%, 52%, 64% and 75% (low risk); 46%, 52%, 54%, 56%, and 63% (intermediate risk); and 50%, 34%, 46%, 34%, and 61% (high risk) for levels I-V, respectively. By the Phoenix definition, the 5-year disease-free survivals were 68%, 73%, 67%, 84%, and 80% (low risk); 70%, 62%, 70%, 74%, and 69% (intermediate risk); and 42%, 62%, 68%, 54%, and 67% (high risk) for levels I-V, respectively. Conclusion: Dose-escalated 3D-CRT yields favorable outcomes for localized prostate cancer. This multi-institutional experience allows comparison to other experiences with modern radiation therapy.

  9. Radiotherapy-induced secondary cancer risk for breast cancer: 3D conformal therapy versus IMRT versus VMAT.

    PubMed

    Lee, Boram; Lee, Sunyoung; Sung, Jiwon; Yoon, Myonggeun

    2014-06-01

    This study evaluated the secondary cancer risk to various organs due to radiation treatment for breast cancer. Organ doses to an anthropomorphic phantom were measured using a photoluminescent dosimeter (PLD) for breast cancer treatment with 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Cancer risk based on the measured dose was calculated using the BEIR (Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation) VII models. The secondary dose per treatment dose (50.4 Gy) to various organs ranged from 0.02 to 0.36 Gy for 3D-CRT, but from 0.07 to 8.48 Gy for IMRT and VMAT, indicating that the latter methods are associated with higher secondary radiation doses than 3D-CRT. The result of the homogeneity index in the breast target shows that the dose homogeneity of 3D-CRT was worse than those of IMRT and VMAT. The organ specific lifetime attributable risks (LARs) to the thyroid, contralateral breast and ipsilateral lung per 100 000 population were 0.02, 19.71, and 0.76 respectively for 3D-CRT, much lower than the 0.11, 463.56, and 10.59 respectively for IMRT and the 0.12, 290.32, and 12.28 respectively for VMAT. The overall estimation of LAR indicated that the radiation-induced cancer risk due to breast radiation therapy was lower with 3D-CRT than with IMRT or VMAT. PMID:24705154

  10. Involved-Site Image-Guided Intensity Modulated Versus 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy in Early Stage Supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Ciammella, Patrizia; Piva, Cristina; Ragona, Riccardo; Botto, Barbara; Gavarotti, Paolo; Merli, Francesco; Vitolo, Umberto; Iotti, Cinzia; Ricardi, Umberto

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) allows for margin reduction and highly conformal dose distribution, with consistent advantages in sparing of normal tissues. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare involved-site IG-IMRT with involved-site 3D conformal RT (3D-CRT) in the treatment of early stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) involving the mediastinum, with efficacy and toxicity as primary clinical endpoints. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 90 stage IIA HL patients treated with either involved-site 3D-CRT or IG-IMRT between 2005 and 2012 in 2 different institutions. Inclusion criteria were favorable or unfavorable disease (according to European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria), complete response after 3 to 4 cycles of an adriamycin- bleomycin-vinblastine-dacarbazine (ABVD) regimen plus 30 Gy as total radiation dose. Exclusion criteria were chemotherapy other than ABVD, partial response after ABVD, total radiation dose other than 30 Gy. Clinical endpoints were relapse-free survival (RFS) and acute toxicity. Results: Forty-nine patients were treated with 3D-CRT (54.4%) and 41 with IG-IMRT (45.6%). Median follow-up time was 54.2 months for 3D-CRT and 24.1 months for IG-IMRT. No differences in RFS were observed between the 2 groups, with 1 relapse each. Three-year RFS was 98.7% for 3D-CRT and 100% for IG-IMRT. Grade 2 toxicity events, mainly mucositis, were recorded in 32.7% of 3D-CRT patients (16 of 49) and in 9.8% of IG-IMRT patients (4 of 41). IG-IMRT was significantly associated with a lower incidence of grade 2 acute toxicity (P=.043). Conclusions: RFS rates at 3 years were extremely high in both groups, albeit the median follow-up time is different. Acute tolerance profiles were better for IG-IMRT than for 3D-CRT. Our preliminary results support the clinical safety and efficacy of advanced RT planning and delivery techniques in patients affected with early stage HL, achieving complete

  11. Quantitative analysis of tomotherapy, linear-accelerator-based 3D conformal radiation therapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, and 4D conformal radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Hae-Kag; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Lee, Jong-Woong; Park, Hoon-Hee

    2012-04-01

    This study quantified, evaluated and analyzed the radiation dose to which tumors and normal tissues were exposed in 3D conformal radiation therapy (CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and tomotherapy by using a dose volume histogram (DVH) that represented the volume dose and the dose distribution of anatomical structures in the evaluation of treatment planning. Furthermore, a comparison was made for the dose to the gross tumor volume (GTV) and the planning target volume (PTV) of organ to be treated based on the change in field size for three- and four-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT and 4D-CT) (gating based) and in the histogram with a view to proving the usefulness of 4D-CT therapy, which corresponds to respiration-gated radiation therapy. According to the study results, a comparison of 3D CRT, IMRT with a linear accelerator (LINAC), and tomotherapy demonstrated that the GTV of the cranium was higher for tomotherapy than for 3D CRT and IMRT with a LINAC by 5.2% and 4.6%, respectively. The GTV of the neck was higher for tomotherapy than for 3D CRT and IMRT with a LINAC by 6.5% and 2.0%, respectively. The GTV of the pelvis was higher for tomotherapy than for 3D CRT and IMRT with a LINAC by 8.6% and 3.7%, respectively. When the comparison was made for the 3D-CT and the 4D-CT (gating based) treatment equipment, the GTV and the PTV became smaller for 4D-CT treatment planning than for 3D-CT, which could reduce the area in which normal tissues in the surroundings are exposed to an unnecessary radiation dose. In addition, when 4D-CT treatment planning (gating based) was used, the radiation dose could be concentrated on the GTV, CTV or PTV, which meant that the treatment area exceeded that when 3D-CT's treatment planning was used. Moreover, the radiation dose on nearby normal tissues could be reduced. When 4D-CT treatment planning (gating based) was utilized, unnecessary areas that were exposed to a radiation dose could be reduced more than they could

  12. Treating benign optic nerve tumors with a 3-D conformal plan

    SciTech Connect

    Millunchick, Cheryl Hope

    2013-07-01

    A 68 year old male patient presented for radiation therapy for treatment of a benign tumor, a glioma of his left optic nerve. The radiation oncologist intended to prescribe 52.2 Gy to the planning target volume, while maintaining a maximum of 54 Gy to the optic nerves and the optic chiasm and a maximum of 40–45 Gy to the globes in order to minimize the possibility of damaging the optic system, which is especially important as this is a benign tumor. The dosimetrist devised a conformal non-coplanar three-dimensional plan with a slightly weighted forward planning component. This plan was created in approximately 15 minutes after the critical organs and the targets were delineated and resulted in an extremely conformal and homogenous plan, treating the target while sparing the nearby critical structures. This approach can also be extended to other tumors in the brain - benign or malignant.

  13. Limited Advantages of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Over 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy in the Adjuvant Management of Gastric Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Alani, Shlomo; Soyfer, Viacheslav; Strauss, Natan; Schifter, Dan; Corn, Benjamin W.

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: Although chemoradiotherapy was considered the standard adjuvant treatment for gastric cancer, a recent Phase III trial (Medical Research Council Adjuvant Gastric Infusional Chemotherapy [MAGIC]) did not include radiotherapy in the randomization scheme because it was considered expendable. Given radiotherapy's potential, efforts needed to be made to optimize its use for treating gastric cancer. We assessed whether intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) could improve upon our published results in patients treated with three-dimensional (3D) conformal therapy. Methods and Materials: Fourteen patients with adenocarcinoma of the stomach were treated with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy using a noncoplanar four-field arrangement. Subsequently, a nine-field IMRT plan was designed using a CMS Xio IMRT version 4.3.3 module. Two IMRT beam arrangements were evaluated: beam arrangement 1 consisted of gantry angles of 0 deg., 53 deg., 107 deg., 158 deg., 204 deg., 255 deg., and 306 deg.. Beam arrangement 2 consisted of gantry angles of 30 deg., 90 deg., 315 deg., and 345 deg.; a gantry angle of 320 deg./couch, 30 deg.; and a gantry angle of 35{sup o}/couch, 312{sup o}. Both the target volume coverage and the dose deposition in adjacent critical organs were assessed in the plans. Dose-volume histograms were generated for the clinical target volume, kidneys, spine, and liver. Results: Comparison of the clinical target volumes revealed satisfactory coverage by the 95% isodose envelope using either IMRT or 3D conformal therapy. However, IMRT was only marginally better than 3D conformal therapy at protecting the spine and kidneys from radiation. Conclusions: IMRT confers only a marginal benefit in the adjuvant treatment of gastric cancer and should be used only in the small subset of patients with risk factors for kidney disease or those with a preexisting nephropathy.

  14. Sensor based 3D conformal cueing for safe and reliable HC operation specifically for landing in DVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münsterer, Thomas; Kress, Martin; Klasen, Stephanus

    2013-05-01

    The paper describes the approach of a sensor based landing aid for helicopters in degraded visual conditions. The system concept presented employs a long range high resolution ladar sensor allowing for identifying obstacles in the flight and in the approach path as well as measuring landing site conditions like slope, roughness and precise position relative to the helicopter during long final approach. All these measurements are visualized to the pilot. Cueing is done by 3D conformal symbology displayed in a head-tracked HMD enhanced by 2D symbols for data which is perceived easier by 2D symbols than by 3D cueing. All 3D conformal symbology is placed on the measured landing site surface which is further visualized by a grid structure for displaying landing site slope, roughness and small obstacles. Due to the limited resolution of the employed HMD a specific scheme of blending in the information during the approach is employed. The interplay between in flight and in approach obstacle warning and CFIT warning symbology with this landing aid symbology is also investigated and exemplarily evaluated for the NH90 helicopter which has already today implemented a long range high resolution ladar sensor based obstacle warning and CFIT symbology. The paper further describes the results of simulator and flight tests performed with this system employing a ladar sensor and a head-tracked head mounted display system. In the simulator trials a full model of the ladar sensor producing 3D measurement points was used working with the same algorithms used in flight tests.

  15. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy, not 3D conformal, is the preferred technique for treating locally advanced lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Joe Y.

    2015-01-01

    When used to treat lung cancer, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can deliver higher dose to the targets and spare more critical organs in lung cancer than can 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). However, tumor-motion management and optimized radiotherapy planning based on four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT) scanning are crucial to maximize the benefit of IMRT and to eliminate or minimize potential uncertainties. This article summarizes these strategies and reviews published findings supporting the safety and efficacy of IMRT for lung cancer. PMID:25771415

  16. High-Performance Stable Field Emission with Ultralow Turn on Voltage from rGO Conformal Coated TiO2 Nanotubes 3D Arrays.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Yogyata; Kedawat, Garima; Kumar, Pawan; Dwivedi, Jaya; Singh, V N; Gupta, R K; Gupta, Bipin Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A facile method to produce conformal coated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) on vertically aligned titanium oxide (TiO2) nanotubes three dimensional (3D) arrays (NTAs) is demonstrated for enhanced field emission display applications. These engineered nano arrays exhibit efficient electron field emission properties such as high field emission current density (80 mA/cm(2)), low turn-on field (1.0 V/μm) and field enhancement factor (6000) with high emission current stability. Moreover, these enhancements observed in nano arrays attribute to the contribution of low work function with non-rectifying barriers, which allow an easy injection of electrons from the conduction band of TiO2 into the Fermi level of reduced graphene oxide under external electric field. The obtained results are extremely advantageous for its potential application in field emission devices. PMID:26152895

  17. High-Performance Stable Field Emission with Ultralow Turn on Voltage from rGO Conformal Coated TiO2 Nanotubes 3D Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Yogyata; Kedawat, Garima; Kumar, Pawan; Dwivedi, Jaya; Singh, V. N.; Gupta, R. K.; Gupta, Bipin Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A facile method to produce conformal coated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) on vertically aligned titanium oxide (TiO2) nanotubes three dimensional (3D) arrays (NTAs) is demonstrated for enhanced field emission display applications. These engineered nano arrays exhibit efficient electron field emission properties such as high field emission current density (80 mA/cm2), low turn-on field (1.0 V/μm) and field enhancement factor (6000) with high emission current stability. Moreover, these enhancements observed in nano arrays attribute to the contribution of low work function with non-rectifying barriers, which allow an easy injection of electrons from the conduction band of TiO2 into the Fermi level of reduced graphene oxide under external electric field. The obtained results are extremely advantageous for its potential application in field emission devices. PMID:26152895

  18. Skin-sparing Helical Tomotherapy vs 3D-conformal Radiotherapy for Adjuvant Breast Radiotherapy: In Vivo Skin Dosimetry Study

    SciTech Connect

    Capelle, Lisa; Warkentin, Heather; MacKenzie, Marc; Joseph, Kurian; Gabos, Zsolt; Pervez, Nadeem; Tankel, Keith; Chafe, Susan; Amanie, John; Ghosh, Sunita; Parliament, Matthew; Abdulkarim, Bassam

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether treatment-planning system (TPS)-calculated dose accurately reflects skin dose received for patients receiving adjuvant breast radiotherapy (RT) with standard three-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT) or skin-sparing helical tomotherapy (HT). Methods and Materials: Fifty patients enrolled in a randomized controlled trial investigating acute skin toxicity from adjuvant breast RT with 3D-CRT compared to skin-sparing HT, where a 5-mm strip of ipsilateral breast skin was spared. Thermoluminescent dosimetry or optically stimulated luminescence measurements were made in multiple locations and were compared to TPS-calculated doses. Skin dosimetric parameters and acute skin toxicity were recorded in these patients. Results: With HT there was a significant correlation between calculated and measured dose in the medial and lateral ipsilateral breast (r = 0.67, P<.001; r = 0.44, P=.03, respectively) and the medial and central contralateral breast (r = 0.73, P<.001; r = 0.88, P<.001, respectively). With 3D-CRT there was a significant correlation in the medial and lateral ipsilateral breast (r = 0.45, P=.03; r = 0.68, P<.001, respectively); the medial and central contralateral breast (r = 0.62, P=.001; r = 0.86, P<.001, respectively); and the mid neck (r = 0.42, P=.04, respectively). On average, HT-calculated dose overestimated the measured dose by 14%; 3D-CRT underestimated the dose by 0.4%. There was a borderline association between highest measured skin dose and moist desquamation (P=.05). Skin-sparing HT had greater skin homogeneity (homogeneity index of 1.39 vs 1.65, respectively; P=.005) than 3D-CRT plans. HT plans had a lower skin{sub V50} (1.4% vs 5.9%, respectively; P=.001) but higher skin{sub V40} and skin{sub V30} (71.7% vs 64.0%, P=.02; and 99.0% vs 93.8%, P=.001, respectively) than 3D-CRT plans. Conclusion: The 3D-CRT TPS more accurately reflected skin dose than the HT TPS, which tended to overestimate dose received by 14% in patients

  19. Probing Protein 3D Structures and Conformational Changes Using Electrochemistry-Assisted Isotope Labeling Cross-Linking Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qiuling; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Shiyong; Chen, Hao

    2016-05-01

    This study presents a new chemical cross-linking mass spectrometry (MS) method in combination with electrochemistry and isotope labeling strategy for probing both protein three-dimensional (3D) structures and conformational changes. For the former purpose, the target protein/protein complex is cross-linked with equal mole of premixed light and heavy isotope labeled cross-linkers carrying electrochemically reducible disulfide bonds (i.e., DSP-d0 and DSP-d8 in this study, DSP = dithiobis[succinimidyl propionate]), digested and then electrochemically reduced followed with online MS analysis. Cross-links can be quickly identified because of their reduced intensities upon electrolysis and the presence of doublet isotopic peak characteristics. In addition, electroreduction converts cross-links into linear peptides, facilitating MS/MS analysis to gain increased information about their sequences and modification sites. For the latter purpose of probing protein conformational changes, an altered procedure is adopted, in which the protein in two different conformations is cross-linked using DSP-d0 and DSP-d8 separately, and then the two protein samples are mixed in 1:1 molar ratio. The merged sample is subjected to digestion and electrochemical mass spectrometric analysis. In such a comparative cross-linking experiment, cross-links could still be rapidly recognized based on their responses to electrolysis. More importantly, the ion intensity ratios of light and heavy isotope labeled cross-links reveal the conformational changes of the protein, as exemplified by examining the effect of Ca(2+) on calmodulin conformation alternation. This new cross-linking MS method is fast and would have high value in structural biology. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:26902947

  20. Probing Protein 3D Structures and Conformational Changes Using Electrochemistry-Assisted Isotope Labeling Cross-Linking Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Qiuling; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Shiyong; Chen, Hao

    2016-05-01

    This study presents a new chemical cross-linking mass spectrometry (MS) method in combination with electrochemistry and isotope labeling strategy for probing both protein three-dimensional (3D) structures and conformational changes. For the former purpose, the target protein/protein complex is cross-linked with equal mole of premixed light and heavy isotope labeled cross-linkers carrying electrochemically reducible disulfide bonds (i.e., DSP-d0 and DSP-d8 in this study, DSP = dithiobis[succinimidyl propionate]), digested and then electrochemically reduced followed with online MS analysis. Cross-links can be quickly identified because of their reduced intensities upon electrolysis and the presence of doublet isotopic peak characteristics. In addition, electroreduction converts cross-links into linear peptides, facilitating MS/MS analysis to gain increased information about their sequences and modification sites. For the latter purpose of probing protein conformational changes, an altered procedure is adopted, in which the protein in two different conformations is cross-linked using DSP-d0 and DSP-d8 separately, and then the two protein samples are mixed in 1:1 molar ratio. The merged sample is subjected to digestion and electrochemical mass spectrometric analysis. In such a comparative cross-linking experiment, cross-links could still be rapidly recognized based on their responses to electrolysis. More importantly, the ion intensity ratios of light and heavy isotope labeled cross-links reveal the conformational changes of the protein, as exemplified by examining the effect of Ca2+ on calmodulin conformation alternation. This new cross-linking MS method is fast and would have high value in structural biology.

  1. Probing Protein 3D Structures and Conformational Changes Using Electrochemistry-Assisted Isotope Labeling Cross-Linking Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Qiuling; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Shiyong; Chen, Hao

    2016-02-01

    This study presents a new chemical cross-linking mass spectrometry (MS) method in combination with electrochemistry and isotope labeling strategy for probing both protein three-dimensional (3D) structures and conformational changes. For the former purpose, the target protein/protein complex is cross-linked with equal mole of premixed light and heavy isotope labeled cross-linkers carrying electrochemically reducible disulfide bonds (i.e., DSP-d0 and DSP-d8 in this study, DSP = dithiobis[succinimidyl propionate]), digested and then electrochemically reduced followed with online MS analysis. Cross-links can be quickly identified because of their reduced intensities upon electrolysis and the presence of doublet isotopic peak characteristics. In addition, electroreduction converts cross-links into linear peptides, facilitating MS/MS analysis to gain increased information about their sequences and modification sites. For the latter purpose of probing protein conformational changes, an altered procedure is adopted, in which the protein in two different conformations is cross-linked using DSP-d0 and DSP-d8 separately, and then the two protein samples are mixed in 1:1 molar ratio. The merged sample is subjected to digestion and electrochemical mass spectrometric analysis. In such a comparative cross-linking experiment, cross-links could still be rapidly recognized based on their responses to electrolysis. More importantly, the ion intensity ratios of light and heavy isotope labeled cross-links reveal the conformational changes of the protein, as exemplified by examining the effect of Ca2+ on calmodulin conformation alternation. This new cross-linking MS method is fast and would have high value in structural biology.

  2. 3D conformal MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy: results of gel phantom experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'Djin, W. A.; Burtnyk, M.; McCormick, S.; Bronskill, M.; Chopra, R.

    2011-09-01

    MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy shows promise for minimally invasive treatment of localized prostate cancer. Previous in-vivo studies demonstrated the feasibility of performing conservative treatments using real-time temperature feedback to control accurately the establishment of coagulative lesions within circumscribed prostate regions. This in-vitro study tested device configuration and control options for achieving full prostate treatments. A multi-channel MRI compatible ultrasound therapy system was evaluated in gel phantoms using 3 canine prostate models. Prostate profiles were 5 mm-step-segmented from T2-weighted MR images performed during previous in-vivo experiments. During ultrasound exposures, each ultrasound element was controlled independently by the 3D controller. Decisions on acoustic power, frequency, and device rotation rate were made in real time based on MR thermometry feedback and prostate radii. Low and high power treatment approaches using maximum acoustic powers of 10 or 20 W.cm-2 were tested as well as single and dual-frequency strategies (4.05/13.10 MHz). The dual-frequency strategy used either the fundamental frequency or the 3rd harmonic component, depending on the prostate radius. The 20 W.cm-2 dual frequency approach was the most efficient configuration in achieving full prostate treatments. Treatment times were about half the duration of those performed with 10 W.cm-2 configurations. Full prostate coagulations were performed in 16.3±6.1 min at a rate of 1.8±0.2 cm3.min-1, and resulted in very little undertreated tissue (<3%). Surrounding organs positioned beyond a safety distance of 1.4±1.0 mm from prostate boundaries were not damaged, particularly rectal wall tissues. In this study, a 3D, MR-thermometry-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy was validated in vitro in a tissue-mimicking phantom for performing full prostate treatment. A dual-frequency configuration with 20 W.cm-2 ultrasound intensity exposure showed good

  3. Survival and Quality of Life After Stereotactic or 3D-Conformal Radiotherapy for Inoperable Early-Stage Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, Joachim; Postmus, Douwe; Ubbels, Jan F.; Wiegman, Erwin M.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate survival and local recurrence after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) or three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) administered for early-stage primary lung cancer and to investigate longitudinal changes of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) parameters after either treatment. Methods and Materials: Two prospective cohorts of inoperable patients with T1-2N0M0 primary lung tumors were analyzed. Patients received 70 Gy in 35 fractions with 3D-CRT or 60 Gy in three to eight fractions with SABR. Global quality of life (GQOL), physical functioning (PF), and patient-rated dyspnea were assessed using the respective dimensions of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Questionnaire-C30 and LC13. HRQOL was analyzed using multivariate linear mixed-effects modeling, survival and local control (LC) using the Kaplan-Meier method, Cox proportional hazards analysis, and Fine and Gray multivariate competing risk analysis as appropriate. Results: Overall survival (OS) was better after SABR compared with 3D-CRT with a HR of 2.6 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-4.8; p < 0.01). 3D-CRT conferred a subhazard ratio for LC of 5.0 (95% CI: 1.7-14.7; p < 0.01) compared with SABR. GQOL and PF were stable after SABR (p = 0.21 and p = 0.62, respectively). Dyspnea increased after SABR by 3.2 out of 100 points (95% CI: 1.0-5.3; p < 0.01), which is clinically insignificant. At 1 year, PF decreased by an excess of 8.7 out of 100 points (95% CI: 2.8-14.7; p < 0.01) after 3D-CRT compared with SABR. Conclusion: In this nonrandomized comparison of two prospective cohorts of medically inoperable patients with Stage I lung cancer, OS and LC were better after SABR. GQOL, PF, and patient-rated dyspnea were stable after SABR, whereas PF decreased after 3D-CRT approaching clinical significance already at 1 year.

  4. Numerical simulation of internal and external inviscid and viscous 3-D flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leicher, Stefan

    1986-11-01

    A numerical method for solving the 3-D Euler equations in geometrical complex domains was developed. The approach divides the computational space into multiple blocks whose structure follows the natural lines of the conficuration. A systematic, multi-block grid generation scheme is used to produce the grid. The flow solutions are obtained by solving the Euler equations by a finite volume discretization and a Runge-Kutta time stepping scheme. The main advantage of this method is the applicability to complex geometries, for example complete aircraft configurations including wing, fuselage, canard and tail. The coupling with a 3-D boundary layer method allows to account for viscous effects. Another application for the method was the simulation of flows in the presence of a propeller.

  5. Heat- and pH-induced BSA conformational changes, hydrogel formation and application as 3D cell scaffold.

    PubMed

    Navarra, Giovanna; Peres, Chiara; Contardi, Marco; Picone, Pasquale; San Biagio, Pier Luigi; Di Carlo, Marta; Giacomazza, Daniela; Militello, Valeria

    2016-09-15

    Aggregation and gelation of globular proteins can be an advantage to generate new forms of nanoscale biomaterials based on the fibrillar architecture. Here, we report results obtained by exploiting the proteins' natural tendency to self-organize in 3D network, for the production of new material based on BSA for medical application. In particular, at five different pH values the conformational and structural changes of the BSA during all the steps of the thermal aggregation and gelation have been analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. The macroscopic mechanical properties of these hydrogels have been obtained by rheological measurements. The microscopic structure of the gels have been studied by AFM and SEM images to have a picture of their different spatial arrangement. Finally, the use of the BSA hydrogels as scaffold has been tested in two different cell cultures. PMID:27480606

  6. Heating-induced conformational change of a novel beta-(1-->3)-D-glucan from Pleurotus geestanus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei

    2010-02-01

    Recently, we isolated and purified a neutral polysaccharide (PGN) from edible fungus Pleurotus geestanus. Its structure was characterized by a range of physical-chemical methods, including high performance anion exchange chromatography, uronic acid, and protein analyses, size exclusion chromatography with ultraviolet, refractive index and light scattering detectors, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Our results revealed that PGN is a novel beta-(1-->3)-D-glucan with glucose attached to every other sugar residues at Position 6 in the backbone. It has a degree of branching of 1/2. Such structure is different from typical beta-(1-->3)-D-glucans schizophyllan and lentinan in which DB is 1/3 and 2/5, respectively. Rheological study showed a very interesting melting behavior of PGN in water solution: heating PGN in water leads to two transitions, in the range of 8-12.5 degrees C and 25-60 degrees C, respectively. The melting behavior and conformational changes were characterized by rheometry, micro-differential scan calorimetry, atomic force microscopy, static and dynamic light scattering at different temperatures. The first heating-induced transition corresponds to the disintegration of polymer bundles into small helical clusters, resembling the heating-induced dissociation of SPG in water at 7 degrees C; the second one might correspond to the dissociation of helical strands to individual chains. The ability of PGN to undergo a conformation/viscosity transition in water upon heating is very valuable to immobilize cells or enzymes or therapeutic DNA/RNA, which makes PGN a potentially useful biomaterial. PMID:19768780

  7. 3-D simulations of limiter stabilization of high-beta external kink-tearing modes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.K.; Ohyabu, N.

    1984-03-01

    The effects of finite-size poloidal limiters, toroidal limiters, and general mushroom limiters are examined for high-beta finite-resistivity tokamak plamas in free boundary. Even for a linear stability analysis, a 3-D simulation is necessary, in which many poloidal and toroidal modes are coupled because of the limiter constraint and finite-beta. When the plasma pressure and resistivity are small, a poloidal limiter is effective in reducing the growth rate with a small limiter-size, while a toroidal limiter requires a large size for a comparable effect. As the plasma pressure or resistivity increases, a toroidal limiter becomes more effective in reducing the growth rate than a poloidal limiter of the same size. A small optimized mushroom limiter might have a stabilizing effect similar to a conducting shell.

  8. Optical CT scanner for in-air readout of gels for external radiation beam 3D dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Ramm, Daniel; Rutten, Thomas P; Shepherd, Justin; Bezak, Eva

    2012-06-21

    Optical CT scanners for a 3D readout of externally irradiated radiosensitive hydrogels currently require the use of a refractive index (RI) matching liquid bath to obtain suitable optical ray paths through the gel sample to the detector. The requirement for a RI matching liquid bath has been negated by the design of a plastic cylindrical gel container that provides parallel beam geometry through the gel sample for the majority of the projection. The design method can be used for various hydrogels. Preliminary test results for the prototype laser beam scanner with ferrous xylenol-orange gel show geometric distortion of 0.2 mm maximum, spatial resolution limited to beam spot size of about 0.4 mm and 0.8% noise (1 SD) for a uniform irradiation. Reconstruction of a star pattern irradiated through the cylinder walls demonstrates the suitability for external beam applications. The extremely simple and cost-effective construction of this optical CT scanner, together with the simplicity of scanning gel samples without RI matching fluid increases the feasibility of using 3D gel dosimetry for clinical external beam dose verifications. PMID:22644104

  9. Surface processes on the asteroid deduced from the external 3D shapes and surface features of Itokawa particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiyama, A.; Matsumoto, T.

    2015-10-01

    Particles on the surface of S-type Asteroid 25143 Itokawa were successfully recovered by the Hayabusa mission of JAXA (e.g., [1,2]). They are not only the first samples recovered from an asteroid, but also the second extraterrestrial regolith to have been sampled, the first being the Moon by Apollo and Luna missions. The analysis of tiny sample particles (20-200 μm) shows that the Itokawa surface material is consistent with LL chondrites suffered by space weathering as expected and brought an end to the origin of meteorites (e.g., [2-4]). In addition, the examination of Itokawa particles allow studies of surface processes on the asteroid because regolith particles can be regarded as an interface with the space environment, where the impacts of small objects and irradiation by the solar wind and galactic cosmic rays should have been recorded. External 3D shapes and surface features of Itokawa regolith particles were examined. Two kinds of surface modification, formation of space-weathering rims mainly by solar wind implantation and surface abrasion by grain migration, were recognized. Spectral change of the asteroid proceeded by formation of space-weathering rims and refreshment of the regolith surfaces. External 3D shapes and surface morphologies of the regolith particles can provide information about formation and evolution history of regolith particles in relation to asteroidal surface processes. 3D shapes of Itokawa regolith particles were obtained using microtomography [3]. The surface nanomiromorpholgy of Itokawa particles were also observed using FE-SEM [5]. However, the number of particles was limited and genial feature on the surface morphology has not been understood. In this study, the surface morphology of Itokawa regolith particles was systematically investigated together with their 3D structures.

  10. Transition from Ignition to Flame Growth under External Radiation in Three Dimensions (TIGER-3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashiwagi, Takashi; Nakamura, Yuji; Olson, Sandra L.; Mell, William

    2004-01-01

    This study focuses on localized ignition by external radiant flux and subsequent flame growth over thin polymeric materials (plastic and paper) in microgravity. Two transition stages were observed. The first transition stage covers the period from the onset of ignition to the formation of stabilized flame near the ignited area. This is followed by the second transition of the flame growth stage from the initial stabilized flame to sustained fire growth away from the ignited area. For the first stage, ignition experiments of thin PMMA sheets were conducted using a CO2 laser as an external source in the 10 s drop tower. The results of front side surface ignition and of backside surface ignition were observed. The effects of imposed flow velocity, sample thickness, and ambient oxygen concentration on ignition are obtained. Numerical study was conducted to investigate to understand and predict ignition behavior observed in the experiments. For the second stage, numerical study is being conducted to describe the effects of gravity on heat release rate of a PMMA sheet. The gravity level was varied from zero to normal gravity. The preliminary results show that the maximum heat release occurs at around 0.02 g.

  11. Determination of a new uniform thorax density representative of the living population from 3D external body shape modeling.

    PubMed

    Amabile, Celia; Choisne, Julie; Nérot, Agathe; Pillet, Hélène; Skalli, Wafa

    2016-05-01

    Body segment parameters (BSP) for each body׳s segment are needed for biomechanical analysis. To provide population-specific BSP, precise estimation of body׳s segments volume and density are needed. Widely used uniform densities, provided by cadavers׳ studies, did not consider the air present in the lungs when determining the thorax density. The purpose of this study was to propose a new uniform thorax density representative of the living population from 3D external body shape modeling. Bi-planar X-ray radiographies were acquired on 58 participants allowing 3D reconstructions of the spine, rib cage and human body shape. Three methods of computing the thorax mass were compared for 48 subjects: (1) the Dempster Uniform Density Method, currently in use for BSPs calculation, using Dempster density data, (2) the Personalized Method using full-description of the thorax based on 3D reconstruction of the rib cage and spine and (3) the Improved Uniform Density Method using a uniform thorax density resulting from the Personalized Method. For 10 participants, comparison was made between the body mass obtained from a force-plate and the body mass computed with each of the three methods. The Dempster Uniform Density Method presented a mean error of 4.8% in the total body mass compared to the force-plate vs 0.2% for the Personalized Method and 0.4% for the Improved Uniform Density Method. The adjusted thorax density found from the 3D reconstruction was 0.74g/cm(3) for men and 0.73g/cm(3) for women instead of the one provided by Dempster (0.92g/cm(3)), leading to a better estimate of the thorax mass and body mass. PMID:26976227

  12. A Bayesian mixture model relating dose to critical organs and functional complication in 3D conformal radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Timothy D; Taylor, Jeremy M G; Ten Haken, Randall K; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2005-10-01

    A goal of cancer radiation therapy is to deliver maximum dose to the target tumor while minimizing complications due to irradiation of critical organs. Technological advances in 3D conformal radiation therapy has allowed great strides in realizing this goal; however, complications may still arise. Critical organs may be adjacent to tumors or in the path of the radiation beam. Several mathematical models have been proposed that describe the relationship between dose and observed functional complication; however, only a few published studies have successfully fit these models to data using modern statistical methods which make efficient use of the data. One complication following radiation therapy of head and neck cancers is the patient's inability to produce saliva. Xerostomia (dry mouth) leads to high susceptibility to oral infection and dental caries and is, in general, unpleasant and an annoyance. We present a dose-damage-injury model that subsumes any of the various mathematical models relating dose to damage. The model is a nonlinear, longitudinal mixed effects model where the outcome (saliva flow rate) is modeled as a mixture of a Dirac measure at zero and a gamma distribution whose mean is a function of time and dose. Bayesian methods are used to estimate the relationship between dose delivered to the parotid glands and the observational outcome-saliva flow rate. A summary measure of the dose-damage relationship is modeled and assessed by a Bayesian chi(2) test for goodness-of-fit. PMID:15917377

  13. 3D documentation and visualization of external injury findings by integration of simple photography in CT/MRI data sets (IprojeCT).

    PubMed

    Campana, Lorenzo; Breitbeck, Robert; Bauer-Kreuz, Regula; Buck, Ursula

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of documenting patterned injury using three dimensions and true colour photography without complex 3D surface documentation methods. This method is based on a generated 3D surface model using radiologic slice images (CT) while the colour information is derived from photographs taken with commercially available cameras. The external patterned injuries were documented in 16 cases using digital photography as well as highly precise photogrammetry-supported 3D structured light scanning. The internal findings of these deceased were recorded using CT and MRI. For registration of the internal with the external data, two different types of radiographic markers were used and compared. The 3D surface model generated from CT slice images was linked with the photographs, and thereby digital true-colour 3D models of the patterned injuries could be created (Image projection onto CT/IprojeCT). In addition, these external models were merged with the models of the somatic interior. We demonstrated that 3D documentation and visualization of external injury findings by integration of digital photography in CT/MRI data sets is suitable for the 3D documentation of individual patterned injuries to a body. Nevertheless, this documentation method is not a substitution for photogrammetry and surface scanning, especially when the entire bodily surface is to be recorded in three dimensions including all external findings, and when precise data is required for comparing highly detailed injury features with the injury-inflicting tool. PMID:26496803

  14. Mitigation of Alfvén activity in a tokamak by externally applied static 3D fields.

    PubMed

    Bortolon, A; Heidbrink, W W; Kramer, G J; Park, J-K; Fredrickson, E D; Lore, J D; Podestà, M

    2013-06-28

    The application of static magnetic field perturbations to a tokamak plasma is observed to alter the dynamics of high-frequency bursting Alfvén modes that are driven unstable by energetic ions. In response to perturbations with an amplitude of δB/B∼0.01 at the plasma boundary, the mode amplitude is reduced, the bursting frequency is increased, and the frequency chirp is smaller. For modes of weaker bursting character, the magnetic perturbation induces a temporary transition to a saturated continuous mode. Calculations of the perturbed distribution function indicate that the 3D perturbation affects the orbits of fast ions that resonate with the bursting modes. The experimental evidence represents an important demonstration of the possibility of controlling fast-ion instabilities through "phase-space engineering" of the fast-ion distribution function, by means of externally applied perturbation fields. PMID:23848889

  15. Sensor-enhanced 3D conformal cueing for safe and reliable HC operation in DVE in all flight phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münsterer, Thomas; Schafhitzel, Tobias; Strobel, Michael; Völschow, Philipp; Klasen, Stephanus; Eisenkeil, Ferdinand

    2014-06-01

    Low level helicopter operations in Degraded Visual Environment (DVE) still are a major challenge and bear the risk of potentially fatal accidents. DVE generally encompasses all degradations to the visual perception of the pilot ranging from night conditions via rain and snowfall to fog and maybe even blinding sunlight or unstructured outside scenery. Each of these conditions reduce the pilots' ability to perceive visual cues in the outside world reducing his performance and finally increasing risk of mission failure and accidents, like for example Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT). The basis for the presented solution is a fusion of processed and classified high resolution ladar data with database information having a potential to also include other sensor data like forward looking or 360° radar data. This paper reports on a pilot assistance system aiming at giving back the essential visual cues to the pilot by means of displaying 3D conformal cues and symbols in a head-tracked Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) and a combination with synthetic view on a head-down Multi-Function Display (MFD). Each flight phase and each flight envelope requires different symbology sets and different possibilities for the pilots to select specific support functions. Several functionalities have been implemented and tested in a simulator as well as in flight. The symbology ranges from obstacle warning symbology via terrain enhancements through grids or ridge lines to different waypoint symbols supporting navigation. While some adaptations can be automated it emerged as essential that symbology characteristics and completeness can be selected by the pilot to match the relevant flight envelope and outside visual conditions.

  16. Tracking the dynamic seroma cavity using fiducial markers in patients treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation using 3D conformal radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Ning J.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Goyal, Sharad

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to perform an analysis of the changes in the dynamic seroma cavity based on fiducial markers in early stage breast cancer patients treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Methods: A prospective, single arm trial was designed to investigate the utility of gold fiducial markers in image guided APBI using 3D-CRT. At the time of lumpectomy, four to six suture-type gold fiducial markers were sutured to the walls of the cavity. Patients were treated with a fractionation scheme consisting of 15 fractions with a fractional dose of 333 cGy. Treatment design and planning followed NSABP/RTOG B-39 guidelines. During radiation treatment, daily kV imaging was performed and the markers were localized and tracked. The change in distance between fiducial markers was analyzed based on the planning CT and daily kV images. Results: Thirty-four patients were simulated at an average of 28 days after surgery, and started the treatment on an average of 39 days after surgery. The average intermarker distance (AiMD) between fiducial markers was strongly correlated to seroma volume. The average reduction in AiMD was 19.1% (range 0.0%-41.4%) and 10.8% (range 0.0%-35.6%) for all the patients between simulation and completion of radiotherapy, and between simulation and beginning of radiotherapy, respectively. The change of AiMD fits an exponential function with a half-life of seroma shrinkage. The average half-life for seroma shrinkage was 15 days. After accounting for the reduction which started to occur after surgery through CT simulation and treatment, radiation was found to have minimal impact on the distance change over the treatment course. Conclusions: Using the marker distance change as a surrogate for seroma volume, it appears that the seroma cavity experiences an exponential reduction in size. The change in seroma size has implications in the size of

  17. Feasibility of low-dose single-view 3D fiducial tracking concurrent with external beam delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Speidel, Michael A.; Wilfley, Brian P.; Hsu, Annie; Hristov, Dimitre

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: In external-beam radiation therapy, existing on-board x-ray imaging chains orthogonal to the delivery beam cannot recover 3D target trajectories from a single view in real-time. This limits their utility for real-time motion management concurrent with beam delivery. To address this limitation, the authors propose a novel concept for on-board imaging based on the inverse-geometry Scanning-Beam Digital X-ray (SBDX) system and evaluate its feasibility for single-view 3D intradelivery fiducial tracking. Methods: A chest phantom comprising a posterior wall, a central lung volume, and an anterior wall was constructed. Two fiducials were placed along the mediastinal ridge between the lung cavities: a 1.5 mm diameter steel sphere superiorly and a gold cylinder (2.6 mm length x 0.9 mm diameter) inferiorly. The phantom was placed on a linear motion stage that moved sinusoidally. Fiducial motion was along the source-detector (z) axis of the SBDX system with {+-}10 mm amplitude and a programmed period of either 3.5 s or 5 s. The SBDX system was operated at 15 frames per second, 100 kVp, providing good apparent conspicuity of the fiducials. With the stage moving, detector data were acquired and subsequently reconstructed into 15 planes with a 12 mm plane-to-plane spacing using digital tomosynthesis. A tracking algorithm was applied to the image planes for each temporal frame to determine the position of each fiducial in (x,y,z)-space versus time. A 3D time-sinusoidal motion model was fit to the measured 3D coordinates and root mean square (RMS) deviations about the fitted trajectory were calculated. Results: Tracked motion was sinusoidal and primarily along the source-detector (z) axis. The RMS deviation of the tracked z-coordinate ranged from 0.53 to 0.71 mm. The motion amplitude derived from the model fit agreed with the programmed amplitude to within 0.28 mm for the steel sphere and within -0.77 mm for the gold seed. The model fit periods agreed with the programmed

  18. Dose verification in carcinoma of uterine cervix patients undergoing 3D conformal radiotherapy with Farmer type ion chamber

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, Challapalli; Kumar, P Suman; Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Banerjee, S; Saxena, P.U; Kumar, E.S Arun; Pai, Dinesh K.

    2014-01-01

    External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for carcinoma of uterine cervix is a basic line of treatment with three dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) in large number of patients. There is need for an established method for verification dosimetry. We tried to document absorbed doses in a group of carcinoma cervix patients by inserting a 0.6 cc Farmer type ion chamber in the vaginal cavity. A special long perspex sleeve cap is designed to cover the chamber for using in the patient's body. Response of ionization chamber is checked earlier in water phantom with and without cap. Treatment planning was carried out with X-ray computed tomography (CT) scan and with the chamber along with cap in inserted position, and with the images Xio treatment planning system. Three measurements on 3 days at 5-6 fraction intervals were recorded in 12 patients. Electrometer measured charges are converted to absorbed dose at the chamber center, in vivo. Our results show good agreement with planned dose within 3% against prescribed dose. This study, is a refinement over our previous studies with transmission dosimetry and chemicals in ampules. This preliminary work shows promise that this can be followed as a routine dose check with special relevance to new protocols in the treatment of carcinoma cervix with EBRT. PMID:25525313

  19. In-house quality check of external beam plans using 3D treatment planning systems - a DVH comparison.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ayyalasomayajula Anil; Akula, Roopa Rani; Ayyangar, Komanduri; P, Krishna Reddy; Vuppu, Srinivas; Narayana, P V Lakshmi; Rao, A Durga Prasada

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach towards the quality assurance of external beam plans using in-house-developed DICOM import and export software in a clinical setup. The new approach is different from what is currently used in most clinics, viz., only MU and point dose are verified. The DICOM-RT software generates ASCII files to import/export structure sets, treatment beam data, and dose-volume histo-grams (DVH) from one treatment planning system (TPS) to the other. An efficient and reliable 3D planning system, ROPS, was used for verifying the accuracy of treatment plans and treatment plan parameters. With the use of this new approach, treatment plans planned using Varian Eclipse planning system were exported to ROPS planning system. Important treatment and dosimetrical data, such as the beam setup accuracy, target dose coverage, and dose to critical structures, were also quantitatively verified using DVH comparisons. Two external beam plans with diverse photon energies were selected to test the new approach. The satisfactory results show that the new approach is feasible, easy to use, and can be used as an adjunct test for patient treatment quality check. PMID:27167271

  20. High-dose radiotherapy in inoperable nonsmall cell lung cancer: comparison of volumetric modulated arc therapy, dynamic IMRT and 3D conformal radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bree, Ingrid de; van Hinsberg, Mariëlle G E; van Veelen, Lieneke R

    2012-01-01

    Conformal 3D radiotherapy (3D-CRT) combined with chemotherapy for inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to the preferable high dose is often not achievable because of dose-limiting organs. This reduces the probability of regional tumor control. Therefore, the surplus value of using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques, specifically volumetric modulated arc therapy (RapidArc [RA]) and dynamic IMRT (d-IMRT) has been investigated. RA and d-IMRT plans were compared with 3D-CRT treatment plans for 20 patients eligible for concurrent high-dose chemoradiotherapy, in whom a dose of 60 Gy was not achievable. Comparison of dose delivery in the target volume and organs at risk was carried out by evaluating 3D dose distributions and dose-volume histograms. Quality of the dose distribution was assessed using the inhomogeneity and conformity index. For most patients, a higher dose to the target volume can be delivered using RA or d-IMRT; in 15% of the patients a dose ≥60 Gy was possible. Both IMRT techniques result in a better conformity of the dose (p < 0.001). There are no significant differences in homogeneity of dose in the target volume. IMRT techniques for NSCLC patients allow higher dose to the target volume, thus improving regional tumor control. PMID:22459649

  1. A 3-D MHD equilibrium description of nonlinearly saturated ideal external kink/peeling structures in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, W. A.; Graves, J. P.; Duval, B. P.; Porte, L.; Reimerdes, H.; Sauter, O.; Tran, T.-M.

    2015-12-01

    > Novel free boundary magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium states with spontaneous three-dimensional (3-D) deformations of the plasma-vacuum interface are computed. The structures obtained look like saturated ideal external kink/peeling modes. Large edge pressure gradients yield toroidal mode number distortions when the edge bootstrap current is large and higher corrugations when this current is small. Linear ideal MHD stability analyses confirm the nonlinear saturated ideal kink equilibrium states produced and we can identify the Pfirsch-Schlüter current as the main linear instability driving mechanism when the edge pressure gradient is large. The dominant non-axisymmetric component of this Pfirsch-Schlüter current drives a near resonant helical parallel current density ribbon that aligns with the near vanishing magnetic shear region caused by the edge bootstrap current. This current ribbon is a manifestation of the outer mode previously found on JET (Solano 2010). We claim that the equilibrium corrugations describe structures that are commonly observed in quiescent H-mode tokamak discharges.

  2. Dosimetric Comparison Between Intensity-Modulated with Coplanar Field and 3D Conformal Radiotherapy with Noncoplanar Field for Postocular Invasion Tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Tu Wenyong; Liu Lu Zeng Jun; Yin Weidong; Li Yun

    2010-07-01

    This study presents a dosimetric optimization effort aiming to compare noncoplanar field (NCF) on 3 dimensions conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and coplanar field (CF) on intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) planning for postocular invasion tumor. We performed a planning study on the computed tomography data of 8 consecutive patients with localized postocular invasion tumor. Four fields NCF 3D-CRT in the transverse plane with gantry angles of 0-10 deg., 30-45 deg., 240-270 deg., and 310-335 deg. degrees were isocentered at the center of gravity of the target volume. The geometry of the beams was determined by beam's eye view. The same constraints were prepared with between CF IMRT optimization and NCF 3D-CRT treatment. The maximum point doses (D max) for the different optic pathway structures (OPS) with NCF 3D-CRT treatment should differ in no more than 3% from those with the NCF IMRT plan. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were obtained for all targets and organ at risk (OAR) with both treatment techniques. Plans with NCF 3D-CRT and CF IMRT constraints on target dose in homogeneity were computed, as well as the conformity index (CI) and homogeneity index (HI) in the target volume. The PTV coverage was optimal with both NCF 3D-CRT and CF IMRT plans in the 8 tumor sites. No difference was noted between the two techniques for the average D{sub max} and D{sub min} dose. NCF 3D-CRT and CF IMRT will yield similar results on CI. However, HI was a significant difference between NCF 3D-CRT and CF IMRT plan (p < 0.001). Physical endpoints for target showed the mean target dose to be low in the CF IMRT plan, caused by a large target dose in homogeneity (p < 0.001). The impact of NCF 3D-CRT versus CF IMRT set-up is very slight. NCF3D-CRT is one of the treatment options for postocular invasion tumor. However, constraints for OARs are needed.

  3. A Comparison of Helical Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy, and 3D-Conformal Radiation Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Poppe, Matthew M.; Narra, Venkat; Yue, Ning J.; Zhou Jinghao; Nelson, Carl; Jabbour, Salma K.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed dosimetric differences in pancreatic cancer radiotherapy via helical intensity-modulated radiotherapy (HIMRT), linac-based IMRT, and 3D-conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) with regard to successful plan acceptance and dose to critical organs. Dosimetric analysis was performed in 16 pancreatic cases that were planned to 54 Gy; both post-pancreaticoduodenectomy (n = 8) and unresected (n = 8) cases were compared. Without volume modification, plans met constraints 75% of the time with HIMRT and IMRT and 13% with 3D-CRT. There was no statistically significantly improvement with HIMRT over conventional IMRT in reducing liver V35, stomach V45, or bowel V45. HIMRT offers improved planning target volume (PTV) dose homogeneity compared with IMRT, averaging a lower maximum dose and higher volume receiving the prescription dose (D100). HIMRT showed an increased mean dose over IMRT to bowel and liver. Both HIMRT and IMRT offer a statistically significant improvement over 3D-CRT in lowering dose to liver, stomach, and bowel. The results were similar for both unresected and resected patients. In pancreatic cancer, HIMRT offers improved dose homogeneity over conventional IMRT and several significant benefits to 3D-CRT. Factors to consider before incorporating IMRT into pancreatic cancer therapy are respiratory motion, dose inhomogeneity, and mean dose.

  4. A comparative analysis of 3D conformal deep inspiratory–breath hold and free-breathing intensity-modulated radiation therapy for left-sided breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, Kelli A.; Read, Paul W.; Morris, Monica M.; Reardon, Michael A.; Geesey, Constance; Wijesooriya, Krishni

    2013-07-01

    Patients undergoing radiation for left-sided breast cancer have increased rates of coronary artery disease. Free-breathing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (FB-IMRT) and 3-dimensional conformal deep inspiratory–breath hold (3D-DIBH) reduce cardiac irradiation. The purpose of this study is to compare the dose to organs at risk in FB-IMRT vs 3D-DIBH for patients with left-sided breast cancer. Ten patients with left-sided breast cancer had 2 computed tomography scans: free breathing and voluntary DIBH. Optimization of the IMRT plan was performed on the free-breathing scan using 6 noncoplanar tangential beams. The 3D-DIBH plan was optimized on the DIBH scan and used standard tangents. Mean volumes of the heart, the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), the total lung, and the right breast receiving 5% to 95% (5% increments) of the prescription dose were calculated. Mean volumes of the heart and the LAD were lower (p<0.05) in 3D-DIBH for volumes receiving 5% to 80% of the prescription dose for the heart and 5% for the LAD. Mean dose to the LAD and heart were lower in 3D-DIBH (p≤0.01). Mean volumes of the total lung were lower in FB-IMRT for dose levels 20% to 75% (p<0.05), but mean dose was not different. Mean volumes of the right breast were not different for any dose; however, mean dose was lower for 3D-DIBH (p = 0.04). 3D-DIBH is an alternative approach to FB-IMRT that provides a clinically equivalent treatment for patients with left-sided breast cancer while sparing organs at risk with increased ease of implementation.

  5. Does gap-free intensity modulated chemoradiation therapy provide a greater clinical benefit than 3D conformal chemoradiation in patients with anal cancer?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chemoradiation is the standard treatment for anal cancer. 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) is usually split in 2 sequences with a therapeutic break (gap) in between. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) makes it possible to reduce treatment time by abandoning this gap. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes and toxicities in patients treated with either IMRT or 3D-CRT. Methods Between 2004 and 2011, the data of 51 patients treated with exclusive radiotherapy with or without concomitant chemotherapy for non-metastatic anal carcinoma were retrospectively analyzed. Twenty-seven patients were treated with 3D-CRT and 24 patients with IMRT, with a median dose delivered to the tumor of 59.4Gy [30.6-66.6], whatever the radiotherapy technique (p= 0.99). The median follow-up was 40 months [26.4-51.6]. Results There was no difference between the two groups for response to treatment (p= 0.46). Two-year overall survival, locoregional relapse-free survival and colostomy-free survival rates were 88.5%, 63% and 60.3%, respectively for the IMRT group and 81%, 76.5% and 81.1% for the 3D-CRT group (all NS). Ten patients (37%) in 3D-CRT and 11 patients (45.8%) in IMRT (p= 0.524) had grade 3 acute toxicity. No grade 4 toxicity occurred. Conclusions Our study suggests that further investigations concerning the use of IMRT to treat cancer of the anus are warranted. IMRT makes it possible to remove the gap, but with no impact on the prognosis. Nonetheless, a longer follow-up is essential to determine whether or not IMRT has an impact on late toxicity, local control and survival compared with conventional 3D-CRT. PMID:23190693

  6. Prone Hypofractionated Whole-Breast Radiotherapy Without a Boost to the Tumor Bed: Comparable Toxicity of IMRT Versus a 3D Conformal Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, Matthew E.; Raza, Shahzad; Becker, Stewart J.; Jozsef, Gabor; Lymberis, Stella C.; Hochman, Tsivia; Goldberg, Judith D.; DeWyngaert, Keith J.; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: We report a comparison of the dosimetry and toxicity of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) vs. intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) among patients treated in the prone position with the same fractionation and target of the hypofractionation arm of the Canadian/Whelan trial. Methods and Materials: An institutional review board-approved protocol identified a consecutive series of early-stage breast cancer patients treated according to the Canadian hypofractionation regimen but in the prone position. Patients underwent IMRT treatment planning and treatment if the insurance carrier approved reimbursement for IMRT; in case of refusal, a 3D-CRT plan was used. A comparison of the dosimetric and toxicity outcomes during the acute, subacute, and long-term follow-up of the two treatment groups is reported. Results: We included 97 consecutive patients with 100 treatment plans in this study (3 patients with bilateral breast cancer); 40 patients were treated with 3D-CRT and 57 with IMRT. IMRT significantly reduced the maximum dose (Dmax median, 109.96% for 3D-CRT vs. 107.28% for IMRT; p < 0.0001, Wilcoxon test) and improved median dose homogeneity (median, 1.15 for 3D-CRT vs. 1.05 for IMRT; p < 0.0001, Wilcoxon test) when compared with 3D-CRT. Acute toxicity consisted primarily of Grade 1 to 2 dermatitis and occurred in 92% of patients. Grade 2 dermatitis occurred in 13% of patients in the 3D-CRT group and 2% in the IMRT group. IMRT moderately decreased rates of acute pruritus (p = 0.03, chi-square test) and Grade 2 to 3 subacute hyperpigmentation (p = 0.01, Fisher exact test). With a minimum of 6 months' follow-up, the treatment was similarly well tolerated in either group, including among women with large breast volumes. Conclusion: Hypofractionated breast radiotherapy is well tolerated when treating patients in the prone position, even among those with large breast volumes. Breast IMRT significantly improves dosimetry but yields only a modest but

  7. DG-AMMOS: A New tool to generate 3D conformation of small molecules using Distance Geometry and Automated Molecular Mechanics Optimization for in silico Screening

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Discovery of new bioactive molecules that could enter drug discovery programs or that could serve as chemical probes is a very complex and costly endeavor. Structure-based and ligand-based in silico screening approaches are nowadays extensively used to complement experimental screening approaches in order to increase the effectiveness of the process and facilitating the screening of thousands or millions of small molecules against a biomolecular target. Both in silico screening methods require as input a suitable chemical compound collection and most often the 3D structure of the small molecules has to be generated since compounds are usually delivered in 1D SMILES, CANSMILES or in 2D SDF formats. Results Here, we describe the new open source program DG-AMMOS which allows the generation of the 3D conformation of small molecules using Distance Geometry and their energy minimization via Automated Molecular Mechanics Optimization. The program is validated on the Astex dataset, the ChemBridge Diversity database and on a number of small molecules with known crystal structures extracted from the Cambridge Structural Database. A comparison with the free program Balloon and the well-known commercial program Omega generating the 3D of small molecules is carried out. The results show that the new free program DG-AMMOS is a very efficient 3D structure generator engine. Conclusion DG-AMMOS provides fast, automated and reliable access to the generation of 3D conformation of small molecules and facilitates the preparation of a compound collection prior to high-throughput virtual screening computations. The validation of DG-AMMOS on several different datasets proves that generated structures are generally of equal quality or sometimes better than structures obtained by other tested methods. PMID:19912625

  8. AP-PA field orientation followed by IMRT reduces lung exposure in comparison to conventional 3D conformal and sole IMRT in centrally located lung tumors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the fact that intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques do not easily enable treatment with opposed beams. Three treatment plans (3 D conformal, IMRT, and combined (anterior-posterior-posterio-anterior (AP-PA) + IMRT) of 7 patients with centrally-located lung cancer were compared for exposure of lung, spinal cord and esophagus. Combined IMRT and AP-PA techniques offer better lung tissue sparing compared to plans predicated solely on IMRT for centrally-located lung tumors. PMID:22340727

  9. AP-PA field orientation followed by IMRT reduces lung exposure in comparison to conventional 3D conformal and sole IMRT in centrally located lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Soyfer, Viacheslav; Meir, Yaron; Corn, Benjamin W; Schifter, Dan; Gez, Eliahu; Tempelhoff, Haim; Shtraus, Natan

    2012-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the fact that intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques do not easily enable treatment with opposed beams. Three treatment plans (3 D conformal, IMRT, and combined (anterior-posterior-posterio-anterior (AP-PA) + IMRT) of 7 patients with centrally-located lung cancer were compared for exposure of lung, spinal cord and esophagus. Combined IMRT and AP-PA techniques offer better lung tissue sparing compared to plans predicated solely on IMRT for centrally-located lung tumors. PMID:22340727

  10. Phase II trial of temozolomide and reirradiation using conformal 3D-radiotherapy in recurrent brain gliomas

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This phase II trial was designed to assess the response rate, survival benefits and toxicity profile of temozolomide, and brain reirradiation using conformal radiotherapy (RT) for treatment of recurrent high grade glioma. Design Open-label phase II trial. Patients Twenty-nine patients had been enrolled in the study between February 2006 and June 2009. Patients had to show unequivocal evidence of tumour recurrence on gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after failing conventional RT with or without temozolomide and surgery for initial disease. Histology included recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme. Interventions Patients were treated by temozolomide at a dose of 200 mg/m2/day for chemonaïve patients, and at a dose of 150 mg/m2/day to previously treated patients, for 4-5 cycles. Then, patients underwent reirradiation by conformal RT at a dose of 30-40 Gy by conventional fractionation. Main outcome measures The primary end point of the study was response. The secondary end points included survival benefit. Results All the 29 patients were treated with temozolomide and reirradiation. Two patients achieved complete remission (CR), 4 achieved partial remission (PR), with an overall objective response rate of 20.6%, and further 10 patients had stable disease (SD), with a SD rate of 34.4%. The mean progression free survival (PFS) was 10.1 months, and the mean overall survival (OS) was 11.4 months. Additionally, treatment significantly improved quality of life (QOL). Treatment was tolerated well with mild grade 1, 2 nausea/vomiting in 40% of cycles, and mild grade 1, 2 haematological toxicities (neutropenia/thrombocytoprnia) in 8.6% of cycles. Conclusions Temozolomide and conformal RT had an anti-tumor activity in recurrent high grade glioma, and represented a good treatment hope for patients with recurrent brain glioma. PMID:25333019

  11. Comparative study of four advanced 3d-conformal radiation therapy treatment planning techniques for head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Herrassi, Mohamed Yassine; Bentayeb, Farida; Malisan, Maria Rosa

    2013-01-01

    For the head-and-neck cancer bilateral irradiation, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is the most reported technique as it enables both target dose coverage and organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing. However, during the last 20 years, three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) techniques have been introduced, which are tailored to improve the classic shrinking field technique, as regards both planning target volume (PTV) dose conformality and sparing of OAR’s, such as parotid glands and spinal cord. In this study, we tested experimentally in a sample of 13 patients, four of these advanced 3DCRT techniques, all using photon beams only and a unique isocentre, namely Bellinzona, Forward-Planned Multisegments (FPMS), ConPas, and field-in-field (FIF) techniques. Statistical analysis of the main dosimetric parameters of PTV and OAR’s DVH’s as well as of homogeneity and conformity indexes was carried out in order to compare the performance of each technique. The results show that the PTV dose coverage is adequate for all the techniques, with the FPMS techniques providing the highest value for D95%; on the other hand, the best sparing of parotid glands is achieved using the FIF and ConPas techniques, with a mean dose of 26 Gy to parotid glands for a PTV prescription dose of 54 Gy. After taking into account both PTV coverage and parotid sparing, the best global performance was achieved by the FIF technique with results comparable to that of IMRT plans. This technique can be proposed as a valid alternative when IMRT equipment is not available or patient is not suitable for IMRT treatment. PMID:23776314

  12. Retrospective evaluation of dosimetric quality for prostate carcinomas treated with 3D conformal, intensity modulated and volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, Scott B; Kairn, Tanya; Middlebrook, Nigel; Hill, Brendan; Christie, David R H; Knight, Richard T; Kenny, John; Langton, Christian M; Trapp, Jamie V

    2013-12-15

    This study examines and compares the dosimetric quality of radiotherapy treatment plans for prostate carcinoma across a cohort of 163 patients treated across five centres: 83 treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), 33 treated with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and 47 treated with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Treatment plan quality was evaluated in terms of target dose homogeneity and organs at risk (OAR), through the use of a set of dose metrics. These included the mean, maximum and minimum doses; the homogeneity and conformity indices for the target volumes; and a selection of dose coverage values that were relevant to each OAR. Statistical significance was evaluated using two-tailed Welch's T-tests. The Monte Carlo DICOM ToolKit software was adapted to permit the evaluation of dose metrics from DICOM data exported from a commercial radiotherapy treatment planning system. The 3DCRT treatment plans offered greater planning target volume dose homogeneity than the other two treatment modalities. The IMRT and VMAT plans offered greater dose reduction in the OAR: with increased compliance with recommended OAR dose constraints, compared to conventional 3DCRT treatments. When compared to each other, IMRT and VMAT did not provide significantly different treatment plan quality for like-sized tumour volumes. This study indicates that IMRT and VMAT have provided similar dosimetric quality, which is superior to the dosimetric quality achieved with 3DCRT.

  13. Retrospective evaluation of dosimetric quality for prostate carcinomas treated with 3D conformal, intensity modulated and volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Scott B; Kairn, Tanya; Middlebrook, Nigel; Hill, Brendan; Christie, David R H; Knight, Richard T; Kenny, John; Langton, Christian M; Trapp, Jamie V

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This study examines and compares the dosimetric quality of radiotherapy treatment plans for prostate carcinoma across a cohort of 163 patients treated across five centres: 83 treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), 33 treated with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and 47 treated with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Methods Treatment plan quality was evaluated in terms of target dose homogeneity and organs at risk (OAR), through the use of a set of dose metrics. These included the mean, maximum and minimum doses; the homogeneity and conformity indices for the target volumes; and a selection of dose coverage values that were relevant to each OAR. Statistical significance was evaluated using two-tailed Welch's T-tests. The Monte Carlo DICOM ToolKit software was adapted to permit the evaluation of dose metrics from DICOM data exported from a commercial radiotherapy treatment planning system. Results The 3DCRT treatment plans offered greater planning target volume dose homogeneity than the other two treatment modalities. The IMRT and VMAT plans offered greater dose reduction in the OAR: with increased compliance with recommended OAR dose constraints, compared to conventional 3DCRT treatments. When compared to each other, IMRT and VMAT did not provide significantly different treatment plan quality for like-sized tumour volumes. Conclusions This study indicates that IMRT and VMAT have provided similar dosimetric quality, which is superior to the dosimetric quality achieved with 3DCRT. PMID:26229621

  14. Treatment techniques for 3D conformal radiation to breast and chest wall including the internal mammary chain

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnik, Deborah; Selvaraj, Raj N. . E-mail: selvarajrn@upmc.edu; Faul, Clare; Gerszten, Kristina; Heron, Dwight E.; King, Gwendolyn C.

    2007-04-01

    Breast, chest wall, and regional nodal irradiation have been associated with an improved outcome in high-risk breast cancer patients. Complex treatment planning is often utilized to ensure complete coverage of the target volume while minimizing the dose to surrounding normal tissues. The 2 techniques evaluated in this report are the partially wide tangent fields (PWTFs) and the 4-field photon/electron combination (the modified 'Kuske Technique'). These 2 techniques were evaluated in 10 consecutive breast cancer patients. All patients had computerized tomographic (CT) scans for 3D planning supine on a breast board. The breast was defined clinically by the physician and confirmed radiographically with radiopaque bebes. The resulting dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of normal and target tissues were then compared. The deep tangent field with blocks resulted in optimal coverage of the target and the upper internal mammary chain (IMC) while sparing of critical and nontarget tissues. The wide tangent technique required less treatment planning and delivery time. We compared the 2 techniques and their resultant DVHs and feasibility in a busy clinic.

  15. Structure of the antiviral stavudine using quantum chemical methods: Complete conformational space analysis, 3D potential energy surfaces and solid state simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcolea Palafox, M.; Iza, N.

    2012-11-01

    The molecular structure and energy of the anti-HIV, 2',3'-didehydro-3'-deoxythymidine (D4T, stavudine or Zerit) nucleoside analogue was determined by using MP2, B3LYP and B971 quantum chemical methods. The global minimum was determined through 3D potential energy surfaces (PES). These surfaces were built by rotation of the exocyclic χ, γ and β torsional angles, in steps of 20°, and full optimization of the remaining parameters. As consequence 5832 geometries were final optimized. The search located 25 local minimum, 4 of which are by MP2 within a 2 kcal/mol electronic energy range of the global minimum. The whole conformational parameters as well as P, νmax were analyzed in all the stable conformers. The global minimum by MP2 corresponds to the calculated values of the exocyclic torsional angles: χ = -103.6°, β = 63.8° and γ = 60.6°. The results obtained are in accordance to those found in thymidine and in related anti-HIV nucleoside analogues. The effect of hydration on the two most stable conformers is analyzed by continuous and discrete models up to 20 water molecules. The solid state was also simulated. The dimer forms found in the crystal unit cell were accurately determined and they are in accordance to the X-ray data.

  16. Biological Modeling Based Outcome Analysis (BMOA) in 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy (3DCRT) Treatments for Lung and Breast Cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyakuryal, Anil; Chen, Chiu-Hao; Dhungana, Sudarshan

    2010-03-01

    3DCRT treatments are the most commonly used techniques in the treatment of lung and breast cancers. The purpose of this study was to perform the BMOA of the 3DCRT plans designed for the treatment of breast and lung cancers utilizing HART program (Med. Phys. 36, p.2547(2009)). The BMOA parameters include normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), tumor control probability (TCP), and the complication-free tumor control probability (P+). The 3DCRT plans were designed for (i) the palliative treatment of 8 left lung cancer patients (CPs) at early stage (m=8), (ii) the curative treatment of 8 left lung CPs at stages II and III (k=8), and (iii) the curative treatment of 8 left breast CPs (n=8). The NTCPs were noticeably small (<2%) for heart, lungs and cord in both types of treatments except for the esophagus in lung CPs (k=8). Assessments of the TCPs and P+s also indicated good improvements in local tumor control in all plans. Homogeneous target coverage and improved dose conformality were the major advantages of such techniques in the treatment of breast cancer. These achievements support the efficacy of the 3DCRT techniques for the efficient treatment of various types of cancer.

  17. Factors of influence on acute skin toxicity of breast cancer patients treated with standard three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) after breast conserving surgery (BCS)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives Standard 3D-CRT after BCS may cause skin toxicity with a wide range of intensity including acute effects like erythema or late effects. In order to reduce these side effects it is mandatory to identify potential factors of influence in breast cancer patients undergoing standard three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) of the breast and modern systemic therapy. Materials/Methods Between 2006 and 2010 a total of 211 breast cancer patients (median age 52,4 years, range 24–77) after BCS consecutively treated in our institution with 3D-CRT (50 Gy whole breast photon radiotherapy followed by 16 Gy electron boost to the tumorbed) were evaluated with special focus on documented skin toxicity at the end of the 50 Gy-course. Standardized photodocumentation of the treated breast was done in each patient lying on the linac table with arms elevated. Skin toxicity was documented according to the common toxicity criteria (CTC)-score. Potential influencing factors were classified in three groups: patient-specific (smoking, age, breast size, body mass index = BMI, allergies), tumor-specific (tumorsize) and treatment-specific factors (antihormonal therapy with tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors, chemotherapy). Uni- and multivariate statistical analyses were done using IBM SPSS version 19. Results After 50 Gy 3D-CRT to the whole breast 28.9% of all 211 patients had no erythema, 62.2% showed erythema grade 1 (G1) and 8.5% erythema grade 2. None of the patients had grade 3/4 (G3/4) erythema. In univariate analyses a significant influence or trend on the development of acute skin toxicities (erythema G0 versus G1 versus G2) was observed for larger breast volumes (p=0,004), smoking during radiation therapy (p=0,064) and absence of allergies (p=0,014) as well as larger tumorsize (p=0,009) and antihormonal therapy (p=0.005). Neither patient age, BMI nor choice of chemotherapy showed any significant effect on higher grade toxicity. In the multivariate

  18. Optimization of 3D conformal electron beam therapy in inhomogeneous media by concomitant fluence and energy modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åsell, Mats; Hyödynmaa, Simo; Gustafsson, Anders; Brahme, Anders

    1997-11-01

    The possibilities of using simultaneous fluence and energy modulation techniques in electron beam therapy to shape the dose distribution and almost eliminate the influences of tissue inhomogeneities have been investigated. By using a radiobiologically based optimization algorithm the radiobiological properties of the tissues can be taken into account when trying to find the best possible dose delivery. First water phantoms with differently shaped surfaces were used to study the effect of surface irregularities. We also studied water phantoms with internal inhomogeneities consisting of air or cortical bone. It was possible to improve substantially the dose distribution by fluence modulation in these cases. In addition to the fluence modulation the most suitable single electron energy in each case was also determined. Finally, the simultaneous use of several preselected electron beam energies was also tested, each with an individually optimized fluence profile. One to six electron energies were used, resulting in a slow improvement in complication-free cure with increasing number of beam energies. To apply these techniques to a more clinically relevant situation a post-operative breast cancer patient was studied. For simplicity this patient was treated with only one anterior beam portal to clearly illustrate the effect of inhomogeneities like bone and lung on the dose distribution. It is shown that by using fluence modulation the influence of dose inhomogeneities can be significantly reduced. When two or more electron beam energies with individually optimized fluence profiles are used the dose conformality to the internal target volume is further increased, particularly for targets with complex shapes.

  19. Volumetric Modulation Arc Radiotherapy With Flattening Filter-Free Beams Compared With Static Gantry IMRT and 3D Conformal Radiotherapy for Advanced Esophageal Cancer: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolini, Giorgia; Ghosh-Laskar, Sarbani; Shrivastava, Shyam Kishore; Banerjee, Sushovan; Chaudhary, Suresh; Agarwal, Jai Prakash; Munshi, Anusheel; Clivio, Alessandro; Fogliata, Antonella; Mancosu, Pietro; Vanetti, Eugenio; Cozzi, Luca

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: A feasibility study was performed to evaluate RapidArc (RA), and the potential benefit of flattening filter-free beams, on advanced esophageal cancer against intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Methods and Materials: The plans for 3D-CRT and IMRT with three to seven and five to seven fixed beams were compared against double-modulated arcs with avoidance sectors to spare the lungs for 10 patients. All plans were optimized for 6-MV photon beams. The RA plans were studied for conventional and flattening filter-free (FFF) beams. The objectives for the planning target volume were the volume receiving {>=}95% or at most 107% of the prescribed dose of <1% with a dose prescription of 59.4 Gy. For the organs at risk, the lung volume (minus the planning target volume) receiving {>=}5 Gy was <60%, that receiving 20 Gy was <20%-30%, and the mean lung dose was <15.0 Gy. The heart volume receiving 45 Gy was <20%, volume receiving 30 Gy was <50%. The spinal dose received by 1% was <45 Gy. The technical delivery parameters for RA were assessed to compare the normal and FFF beam characteristics. Results: RA and IMRT provided equivalent coverage and homogeneity, slightly superior to 3D-CRT. The conformity index was 1.2 {+-} 0.1 for RA and IMRT and 1.5 {+-} 0.2 for 3D-CRT. The mean lung dose was 12.2 {+-} 4.5 for IMRT, 11.3 {+-} 4.6 for RA, and 10.8 {+-} 4.4 for RA with FFF beams, 18.2 {+-} 8.5 for 3D-CRT. The percentage of volume receiving {>=}20 Gy ranged from 23.6% {+-} 9.1% to 21.1% {+-} 9.7% for IMRT and RA (FFF beams) and 39.2% {+-} 17.0% for 3D-CRT. The heart and spine objectives were met by all techniques. The monitor units for IMRT and RA were 457 {+-} 139, 322 {+-} 20, and 387 {+-} 40, respectively. RA with FFF beams showed, compared with RA with normal beams, a {approx}20% increase in monitor units per Gray, a 90% increase in the average dose rate, and 20% reduction in beam on time (owing to different

  20. SU-C-BRE-01: 3D Conformal Micro Irradiation Results of Four Treatment Sites for Preclinical Small Animal and Clinical Treatment Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Price, S; Yaddanapudi, S; Rangaraj, D; Izaguirre, E

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Small animal irradiation can provide preclinical insights necessary for clinical advancement. In order to provide clinically relevant data, these small animal irradiations must be designed such that the treatment methods and results are comparable to clinical protocols, regardless of variations in treatment size and modality. Methods: Small animal treatments for four treatment sites (brain, liver, lung and spine) were investigated, accounting for change in treatment energy and target size. Up to five orthovoltage (300kVp) beams were used in the preclinical treatments, using circular, square, and conformal tungsten apertures, based on the treatment site. Treatments were delivered using the image guided micro irradiator (microIGRT). The plans were delivered to a mouse sized phantom and dose measurements in axial and coronal planes were performed using radiochromic film. The results of the clinical and preclinical protocols were characterized in terms of conformality number, CTV coverage, dose nonuniformity ratio, and organ at risk sparing. Results: Preclinical small animal treatment conformality was within 1–16% of clinical results for all treatment sites. The volume of the CTV receiving 100% of the prescription dose was typically within 10% of clinical values. The dose non-uniformity was consistently higher for preclinical treatments compared to clinical treatments, indicating hot spots in the target. The ratios of the mean dose in the target to the mean dose in an organ at risk were comparable if not better for preclinical versus clinical treatments. Finally, QUANTEC dose constraints were applied and the recommended morbidity limits were satisfied in each small animal treatment site. Conclusion: We have shown that for four treatment sites, preclinical 3D conformal small animal treatments can be clinically comparable if clinical protocols are followed. Using clinical protocols as the standard, preclinical irradiation methods can be altered and iteratively

  1. Functional outcome of patients with benign meningioma treated by 3D conformal irradiation with a combination of photons and protons

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, Georges . E-mail: noel@ipno.in2p3.fr; Bollet, Marc A.; Calugaru, Valentin; Feuvret, Loic; Haie-Meder, Christine; Dhermain, Frederic; Ferrand, Regis; Boisserie, Gilbert; Beaudre, Anne; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Habrand, Jean-Louis

    2005-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate efficacy and tolerance of external fractionated combination of photon and proton radiation therapy (RT) for intracranial benign meningiomas. Methods and Materials: Between 1994 and 2002, 51 patients with intracranial meningiomas of the base of the skull were treated with a combination of photon and proton RT. Median total dose was 60.6 cobalt Gy equivalent (54-64). One hundred eight eye-related symptoms were collected; 80 other symptoms were noted and followed up. Results: Mean follow-up was 25.4 months. Acute tolerance was excellent. Out of the 108 eye-related symptoms, 106 (96%) were evaluated. Improvements were reported for 73 (68.8%) of them. Out of the 88 other miscellaneous symptoms, 81 (92%) were evaluated. Improvements were reported in 54 cases (67%). Median time to improvement ranged from 1 to 24 months after completion of the radiotherapy, depending on the symptom. We did not observe any worsening of primary clinical signs. Radiologically, 1 patient relapsed 4 months after the end of irradiation. Pathology revealed a malignant (Grade 3) transformation of the initial Grade 1 meningioma. Four-year local control and overall survival rates were, respectively, 98% and 100%. Stabilization of the tumor was observed in 38 cases (72%), volume reduction in 10 cases (20%), and intratumor necrosis in 3 cases. Two patients complained of Grade 3 side effects: 1 unilateral hearing loss requiring aid and 1 case of complete pituitary deficiency. Conclusion: These results stressed the clinical efficacy of fractionated-associated photon-proton RT in the treatment of meningiomas, especially on cranial nerve palsies, without severe toxicity in almost all patients.

  2. Synthesis and biological activities of tricyclic conformationally restricted tetrahydropyrido annulated furo[2,3-d]pyrimidines as inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductases.

    PubMed

    Gangjee, A; Elzein, E; Queener, S F; McGuire, J J

    1998-04-23

    The synthesis of seven 2,4-diamino-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-7-substituted pyrido[4',3':4,5]furo[2,3-d]pyrimidines 1-6 are reported as nonclassical antifolate inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and compound 7 as a classical antifolate inhibitor of tumor cells in culture. The compounds were designed as conformationally restricted analogues of trimetrexate. The synthesis was accomplished from the cyclocondensation of 3-bromo-4-piperidone with 2, 4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine to afford regiospecifically 2, 4-diamino-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropyrido[4',3':4,5]furo[2, 3-d]pyrimidine-7-hydrobromide (16). This in turn was alkylated with the appropriate benzyl halide to afford the target compounds 1-6. The classical antifolate 7 utilized 4-(chloromethyl)benzoyl-l-glutamic acid diethyl ester (17) instead of the benzyl halide for alkylation, followed by saponification to afford 7. Compounds 1-6 showed moderate inhibitory potency against DHFR from Pneumocystis carinii, Toxoplasma gondii, Mycobacterium avium, and rat liver. The classical analogue 7 was 88-fold more potent against M. avium DHFR than against rat liver DHFR. The classical analogue was also inhibitory against the growth of tumor cells, CCRF-CEM, and FaDu, in culture. PMID:9554874

  3. Initial Efficacy Results of RTOG 0319: Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy (3D-CRT) Confined to the Region of the Lumpectomy Cavity for Stage I/ II Breast Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Vicini, Frank; Winter, Kathryn; Wong, John

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: This prospective study (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0319) examines the use of three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy (3D-CRT) to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Initial data on efficacy and toxicity are presented. Methods and Materials: Patients with Stage I or II breast cancer with lesions {<=}3 cm, negative margins and with {<=}3 positive nodes were eligible. The 3D-CRT was 38.5 Gy in 3.85 Gy/fraction delivered 2x/day. Ipsilateral breast, ipsilateral nodal, contralateral breast, and distant failure (IBF, INF, CBF, DF) were estimated using the cumulative incidence method. Mastectomy-free, disease-free, and overall survival (MFS, DFS, OS) were recorded. The National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3, was used to grade acute and late toxicity. Results: Fifty-eight patients were entered and 52 patients are eligible and evaluable for efficacy. The median age of patients was 61 years with the following characteristics: 46% tumor size <1 cm; 87% invasive ductal histology; 94% American Joint Committee on Cancer Stage I; 65% postmenopausal; 83% no chemotherapy; and 71% with no hormone therapy. Median follow-up is 4.5 years (1.7-4.8). Four-year estimates (95% CI) of efficacy are: IBF 6% (0-12%) [4% within field (0-9%)]; INF 2% (0-6%); CBF 0%; DF 8% (0-15%); MFS 90% (78-96%); DFS 84% (71-92%); and OS 96% (85-99%). Only two (4%) Grade 3 toxicities were observed. Conclusions: Initial efficacy and toxicity using 3D-CRT to deliver APBI appears comparable to other experiences with similar follow-up. However, additional patients, further follow-up, and mature Phase III data are needed to evaluate the extent of application, limitations, and value of this particular form of APBI.

  4. Toward a Rational Design of Highly Folded Peptide Cation Conformations. 3D Gas-Phase Ion Structures and Ion Mobility Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepin, Robert; Laszlo, Kenneth J.; Marek, Aleš; Peng, Bo; Bush, Matthew F.; Lavanant, Helène; Afonso, Carlos; Tureček, František

    2016-07-01

    Heptapeptide ions containing combinations of polar Lys, Arg, and Asp residues with non-polar Leu, Pro, Ala, and Gly residues were designed to study polar effects on gas-phase ion conformations. Doubly and triply charged ions were studied by ion mobility mass spectrometry and electron structure theory using correlated ab initio and density functional theory methods and found to exhibit tightly folded 3D structures in the gas phase. Manipulation of the basic residue positions in LKGPADR, LRGPADK, KLGPADR, and RLGPADK resulted in only minor changes in the ion collision cross sections in helium. Replacement of the Pro residue with Leu resulted in only marginally larger collision cross sections for the doubly and triply charged ions. Disruption of zwitterionic interactions in doubly charged ions was performed by converting the C-terminal and Asp carboxyl groups to methyl esters. This resulted in very minor changes in the collision cross sections of doubly charged ions and even slightly diminished collision cross sections in most triply charged ions. The experimental collision cross sections were related to those calculated for structures of lowest free energy ion conformers that were obtained by extensive search of the conformational space and fully optimized by density functional theory calculations. The predominant factors that affected ion structures and collision cross sections were due to attractive hydrogen bonding interactions and internal solvation of the charged groups that overcompensated their Coulomb repulsion. Structure features typically assigned to the Pro residue and zwitterionic COO-charged group interactions were only secondary in affecting the structures and collision cross sections of these gas-phase peptide ions.

  5. Impact of plasma response on plasma displacements in DIII-D during application of external 3D perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Wingen, Andreas; Ferraro, N. M.; Shafer, M.W.; Unterberg, Ezekial A; Evans, T. E.; Hillis, Donald Lee; Snyder, P. B.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of applied 3D resonant magnetic perturbations are modelled with and without self-consistent plasma response. The plasma response is calculated using a linear two-fluid model. A synthetic diagnostic is used to simulate soft x-ray (SXR) emission within the steep gradient region of the pedestal, 0.98 > > 0.94. Two methods for simulating the SXR emission given the perturbed fields are considered. In the first method, the emission is assumed to be constant on magnetic field lines, with the emission on each line determined by the penetration depth into the plasma. In the second method, the emission is taken to be a function of the perturbed electron temperature and density calculated by the two-fluid model. It is shown that the latter method is more accurate within the plasma, but is inadequate in the scrape-off layer due to the breakdown of the linearized temperature equation in the two-fluid model. The resulting synthetic emission is compared to measured SXR data, which show helical m = 11 1 displacements around the 11/3 rational surface of sizes up to 5 cm, depending on the poloidal angle. The helical displacements around the 11/3 surface are identified to be directly related to the kink response, caused by amplification of non-resonant components of the magnetic field due to plasma response. The role of different plasma parameters is investigated, but it appears that the electron rotation plays a key role in the formation of screening and resonant amplification, while the kinking appears to be sensitive to the edge current density. It is also hypothesized that the plasma response affects the edge-localized-mode (ELM) stability, i.e. the discharge s operational point relative to the peeling ballooning stability boundary.

  6. Generation of fluoroscopic 3D images with a respiratory motion model based on an external surrogate signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurwitz, Martina; Williams, Christopher L.; Mishra, Pankaj; Rottmann, Joerg; Dhou, Salam; Wagar, Matthew; Mannarino, Edward G.; Mak, Raymond H.; Lewis, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory motion during radiotherapy can cause uncertainties in definition of the target volume and in estimation of the dose delivered to the target and healthy tissue. In this paper, we generate volumetric images of the internal patient anatomy during treatment using only the motion of a surrogate signal. Pre-treatment four-dimensional CT imaging is used to create a patient-specific model correlating internal respiratory motion with the trajectory of an external surrogate placed on the chest. The performance of this model is assessed with digital and physical phantoms reproducing measured irregular patient breathing patterns. Ten patient breathing patterns are incorporated in a digital phantom. For each patient breathing pattern, the model is used to generate images over the course of thirty seconds. The tumor position predicted by the model is compared to ground truth information from the digital phantom. Over the ten patient breathing patterns, the average absolute error in the tumor centroid position predicted by the motion model is 1.4 mm. The corresponding error for one patient breathing pattern implemented in an anthropomorphic physical phantom was 0.6 mm. The global voxel intensity error was used to compare the full image to the ground truth and demonstrates good agreement between predicted and true images. The model also generates accurate predictions for breathing patterns with irregular phases or amplitudes.

  7. MRI-guided 3D conformal arc micro-irradiation of a F98 glioblastoma rat model using the Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP).

    PubMed

    Bolcaen, Julie; Descamps, Benedicte; Deblaere, Karel; Boterberg, Tom; Hallaert, Giorgio; Van den Broecke, Caroline; Decrock, Elke; Vral, Anne; Leybaert, Luc; Vanhove, Christian; Goethals, Ingeborg

    2014-11-01

    Current glioblastoma (GB) small animal models for cranial radiation therapy (RT) use simple single beam technologies, which differ from the advanced conformal image-guided radiation techniques used in clinical practice. This technological disparity presents a major disadvantage for the development of new therapeutic approaches. Hence, we established a F98 GB rat model using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided three-dimensional (3D)-conformal arc RT with the Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP). Ten Fischer rats were inoculated with F98 tumor cells. When the tumor reached a volume of approximately 27 mm(3) on T2-weighted MR images, the animals were randomized into a treatment group (n = 5) receiving RT and concomitant temozolomide, and a sham group (n = 5) receiving control injections. For the treated animals, contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR images were acquired followed by a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) on the SARRP system. Both scans were co-registered; MRI was used to define the target whereas CBCT was used for calculating a dose plan (20 Gy, three non-coplanar arc beams, 3 × 3 mm collimator). Tumor volumes were evaluated on follow-up contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR images. Verification of treatment accuracy with γH2AX immunohistochemical staining was performed. Tumors in the control animals showed rapid proliferation during follow-up, encompassing almost the entire right cerebral hemisphere at day 12-15. Treated animals showed no significant tumor growth from 2 to 9 days post RT. γH2AX results confirmed the accuracy of dose delivery. This model, which is quite similar to the approach in the clinic, is valid for combined RT and chemotherapy of GB in rats. PMID:25069566

  8. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-01

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions < ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C T . We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N . We also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  9. Conformational dynamics and aggregation behavior of piezoelectric diphenylalanine peptides in an external electric field

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Catherine M.; Northey, Thomas; Ryan, Kate; Brooks, Bernard R.; Kholkin, Andrei; Rodriguez, Brian J.; Buchete, Nicolae-Viorel

    2014-01-01

    Aromatic peptides such as diphenylalanine (FF) have the characteristic capacity to self-assemble into ordered nanostructures such as peptide nanotubes, which are biocompatible, thermally and chemically stable, and have strong piezoelectric activity and high mechanical strength. The physical properties of FF aggregates open up a variety of potential biomedical applications. Electric fields are commonly applied to align FF nanotubes, yet little is known about the effect of the electric field on the assembly process. Using all-atom molecular dynamics with explicit water molecules, we probe the conformational dynamics of individual, solvated FF molecules with both charged and neutral ends, to account for different possible pH conditions. With charged ends, the FF molecules show more complex dynamics, experiencing three main conformational states (cis, trans and extended). We first examine the structural response of FF monomers to the application of a constant external electric field over a range of intensities. We also probe the aggregation mechanism of FF peptides, both with and without an externally applied electric field, and find that the presence of even relatively weak fields can accelerate the formation of ordered FF aggregates, primarily by facilitating the alignment of individual molecular dipole moments. The correlation between the strength of the external electric field and the local dipolar interactions is modulated both by the conformational response of individual FF peptides (e.g. backbone stretching, hydrogen bonds and relative alignment of aromatic sidechains) and by the response of neighboring FF and water molecules. These field-dependent observations may facilitate future studies on the controlled formation of nano-structured aggregates of piezoelectric peptides and the understanding of their specific electromechanical properties. PMID:25240398

  10. Improvement in toxicity in high risk prostate cancer patients treated with image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy compared to 3D conformal radiotherapy without daily image guidance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) facilitates the delivery of a very precise radiation dose. In this study we compare the toxicity and biochemical progression-free survival between patients treated with daily image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) and 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) without daily image guidance for high risk prostate cancer (PCa). Methods A total of 503 high risk PCa patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) and endocrine treatment between 2000 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. 115 patients were treated with 3DCRT, and 388 patients were treated with IG-IMRT. 3DCRT patients were treated to 76 Gy and without daily image guidance and with 1–2 cm PTV margins. IG-IMRT patients were treated to 78 Gy based on daily image guidance of fiducial markers, and the PTV margins were 5–7 mm. Furthermore, the dose-volume constraints to both the rectum and bladder were changed with the introduction of IG-IMRT. Results The 2-year actuarial likelihood of developing grade > = 2 GI toxicity following RT was 57.3% in 3DCRT patients and 5.8% in IG-IMRT patients (p < 0.001). For GU toxicity the numbers were 41.8% and 29.7%, respectively (p = 0.011). On multivariate analysis, 3DCRT was associated with a significantly increased risk of developing grade > = 2 GI toxicity compared to IG-IMRT (p < 0.001, HR = 11.59 [CI: 6.67-20.14]). 3DCRT was also associated with an increased risk of developing GU toxicity compared to IG-IMRT. The 3-year actuarial biochemical progression-free survival probability was 86.0% for 3DCRT and 90.3% for IG-IMRT (p = 0.386). On multivariate analysis there was no difference in biochemical progression-free survival between 3DCRT and IG-IMRT. Conclusion The difference in toxicity can be attributed to the combination of the IMRT technique with reduced dose to organs-at-risk, daily image guidance and margin reduction. PMID:24495815

  11. Predictors of Long-Term Toxicity Using Three-Dimensional Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy to Deliver Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Shaitelman, Simona F.; Kim, Leonard H.; Grills, Inga S.; Chen, Peter Y.; Ye Hong; Kestin, Larry L.; Yan Di; Vicini, Frank A.

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: We analyzed variables associated with long-term toxicity using three-dimensional conformal external beam radiation therapy (3D-CRT) to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation. Methods and Materials: One hundred patients treated with 3D-CRT accelerated partial breast irradiation were evaluated using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 scale. Cosmesis was scored using Harvard criteria. Multiple dosimetric and volumetric parameters were analyzed for their association with worst and last (W/L) toxicity outcomes. Results: Sixty-two patients had a minimum of 36 months of toxicity follow-up (median follow-up, 4.8 years). The W/L incidence of poor-fair cosmesis, any telangiectasia, and grade {>=}2 induration, volume reduction, and pain were 16.4%/11.5%, 24.2%/14.5%, 16.1%/9.7%, 17.7%/12.9%, and 11.3%/3.2%, respectively. Only the incidence of any telangiectasia was found to be predicted by any dosimetric parameter, with the absolute breast volume receiving 5% to 50% of the prescription dose (192.5 cGy-1925 cGy) being significant. No associations with maximum dose, volumes of lumpectomy cavity, breast, modified planning target volume, and PTV, dose homogeneity index, number of fields, and photon energy used were identified with any of the aforementioned toxicities. Non-upper outer quadrant location was associated with grade {>=}2 volume reduction (p = 0.02 W/p = 0.04 L). A small cavity-to-skin distance was associated with a grade {>=}2 induration (p = 0.03 W/p = 0.01 L), a borderline significant association with grade {>=}2 volume reduction (p = 0.06 W/p = 0.06 L) and poor-fair cosmesis (p = 0.08 W/p = 0.09 L), with threshold distances ranging from 5 to 8 mm. Conclusions: No dose--volume relationships associated with long-term toxicity were identified in this large patient cohort with extended follow-up. Cosmetic results were good-to-excellent in 88% of patients at 5 years.

  12. Single-arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (sVMAT) as adjuvant treatment for gastric cancer: Dosimetric comparisons with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin; Li, Guangjun; Zhang, Yingjie; Bai, Sen; Xu, Feng; Wei, Yuquan; Gong, Youling

    2013-01-01

    To compare the dosimetric differences between the single-arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (sVMAT), 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) techniques in treatment planning for gastric cancer as adjuvant radiotherapy. Twelve patients were retrospectively analyzed. In each patient's case, the parameters were compared based on the dose-volume histogram (DVH) of the sVMAT, 3D-CRT, and IMRT plans, respectively. Three techniques showed similar target dose coverage. The maximum and mean doses of the target were significantly higher in the sVMAT plans than that in 3D-CRT plans and in the 3D-CRT/IMRT plans, respectively, but these differences were clinically acceptable. The IMRT and sVMAT plans successfully achieved better target dose conformity, reduced the V{sub 20/30}, and mean dose of the left kidney, as well as the V{sub 20/30} of the liver, compared with the 3D-CRT plans. And the sVMAT technique reduced the V{sub 20} of the liver much significantly. Although the maximum dose of the spinal cord were much higher in the IMRT and sVMAT plans, respectively (mean 36.4 vs 39.5 and 40.6 Gy), these data were still under the constraints. Not much difference was found in the analysis of the parameters of the right kidney, intestine, and heart. The IMRT and sVMAT plans achieved similar dose distribution to the target, but superior to the 3D-CRT plans, in adjuvant radiotherapy for gastric cancer. The sVMAT technique improved the dose sparings of the left kidney and liver, compared with the 3D-CRT technique, but showed few dosimetric advantages over the IMRT technique. Studies are warranted to evaluate the clinical benefits of the VMAT treatment for patients with gastric cancer after surgery in the future.

  13. Molecular, electronic structure and conformational flexibility of the 1,6-dihydropyrimidine, 4,5-dihydrofuro[2,3-d]pyrimidine and their oxo, imino and methylene derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishkin, Oleg V.; Antonov, Dmitry M.

    1996-11-01

    Molecular and electronic structures of 1,6-dihydropyrimidine, 4,5-dihydrofuro[2,3-d]pyrimidine and their oxo, imino and methylene derivatives have been studied using the semiempirical quantum-chemical method AM1. The equilibrium geometry of all molecules is planar. These results were confirmed by X-ray structural investigations of the 1-oxo- and 1-imino derivatives of 2,5-dimethyl-3-(2,2,2-trichloroethyl)-4,5-dihydrofuro[2,3-d]pyrimidine. However, the dihydropyrimidine ring in all compounds possesses a degree of conformational flexibility. The transition from a planar equilibrium conformation to a distorted sofa with the CNCC torsion angle ± 20° causes an increase of energy less than 1.5 kcal mol -1. The factors that determine this property of the dihydroheterocycle (bending strain, non-aromaticity, conjugation, 1,2-allylic strain) have been considered.

  14. Postoperative External Beam Radiotherapy for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: Outcomes and Morbidity With Conformal Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, David L. Lobo, Mark J.; Ang, K. Kian; Morrison, William H.; Rosenthal, David I.; Ahamad, Anesa; Evans, Douglas B.; Clayman, Gary; Sherman, Steven I.; Garden, Adam S.

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: To review institutional outcomes for patients treated for differentiated thyroid cancer with postoperative conformal external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution retrospective review of 131 consecutive patients with differentiated thyroid cancer who underwent EBRT between January 1996 and December 2005. Histologic diagnoses included 104 papillary, 21 follicular, and six mixed papillary-follicular types. American Joint Committee on Cancer stage distribution was Stage III in 2 patients, Stage IVa-IVc in 128, and not assessable in 1. Thirty-four patients (26%) had high-risk histologic types and 76 (58%) had recurrent disease. Extraglandular disease spread was seen in 126 patients (96%), microscopically positive surgical margins were seen in 62 patients (47%), and gross residual disease was seen in 15 patients (11%). Median EBRT dose was 60 Gy (range, 38-72 Gy). Fifty-seven patients (44%) were treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to a median dose of 60 Gy (range, 56-66 Gy). Median follow-up was 38 months (range, 0-134 months). Results: Kaplan-Meier estimates of locoregional relapse-free survival, disease-specific survival, and overall survival at 4 years were 79%, 76%, and 73%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, high-risk histologic features and gross residual disease predicted for inferior locoregional relapse-free survival, whereas high-risk histologic features, M1 disease, and gross residual disease predicted for inferior disease-specific and overall survival. The IMRT did not impact on survival outcomes, but was associated with less frequent severe late morbidity (12% vs. 2%). Conclusions: Postoperative conformal EBRT provides durable locoregional disease control for patients with high-risk differentiated thyroid cancer if disease is reduced to microscopic burden. Patients with gross disease face significantly worse outcomes. The IMRT may significantly reduce chronic radiation morbidity, but

  15. Conformational dynamics and aggregation behavior of piezoelectric diphenylalanine peptides in an external electric field.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Catherine M; Northey, Thomas; Ryan, Kate; Brooks, Bernard R; Kholkin, Andrei L; Rodriguez, Brian J; Buchete, Nicolae-Viorel

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic peptides including diphenylalanine (FF) have the capacity to self-assemble into ordered, biocompatible nanostructures with piezoelectric properties relevant to a variety of biomedical applications. Electric fields are commonly applied to align FF nanotubes, yet little is known about the effect of the electric field on the assembly process. Using all-atom molecular dynamics with explicit water molecules, we examine the response of FF monomers to the application of a constant external electric field over a range of intensities. We probe the aggregation mechanism of FF peptides, and find that the presence of even relatively weak fields can accelerate ordered aggregation, primarily by facilitating the alignment of individual molecular dipole moments. This is modulated by the conformational response of individual FF peptides (e.g., backbone stretching) and by the cooperative alignment of neighboring FF and water molecules. These observations may facilitate future studies on the controlled formation of nanostructured aggregates of piezoelectric peptides and the understanding of their electro-mechanical properties. PMID:25240398

  16. Intensity-Modulated and 3D-Conformal Radiotherapy for Whole-Ventricular Irradiation as Compared With Conventional Whole-Brain Irradiation in the Management of Localized Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Michael Jenwei; Silva Santos, Adriana da; Sakuraba, Roberto Kenji; Lopes, Cleverson Perceu; Goncalves, Vinicius Demanboro; Weltman, Eduardo; Ferrigno, Robson; Cruz, Jose Carlos

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: To compare the sparing potential of cerebral hemispheres with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for whole-ventricular irradiation (WVI) and conventional whole-brain irradiation (WBI) in the management of localized central nervous system germ cell tumors (CNSGCTs). Methods and Materials: Ten cases of patients with localized CNSGCTs and submitted to WVI by use of IMRT with or without a 'boost' to the primary lesion were selected. For comparison purposes, similar treatment plans were produced by use of 3D-CRT (WVI with or without boost) and WBI (opposed lateral fields with or without boost), and cerebral hemisphere sparing was evaluated at dose levels ranging from 2 Gy to 40 Gy. Results: The median prescription dose for WVI was 30.6 Gy (range, 25.2-37.5 Gy), and that for the boost was 16.5 Gy (range, 0-23.4 Gy). Mean irradiated cerebral hemisphere volumes were lower for WVI with IMRT than for 3D-CRT and were lower for WVI with 3D-CRT than for WBI. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy was associated with the lowest irradiated volumes, with reductions of 7.5%, 12.2%, and 9.0% at dose levels of 20, 30, and 40 Gy, respectively, compared with 3D-CRT. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy provided statistically significant reductions of median irradiated volumes at all dose levels (p = 0.002 or less). However, estimated radiation doses to peripheral areas of the body were 1.9 times higher with IMRT than with 3D-CRT. Conclusions: Although IMRT is associated with increased radiation doses to peripheral areas of the body, its use can spare a significant amount of normal central nervous system tissue compared with 3D-CRT or WBI in the setting of CNSGCT treatment.

  17. 3D cryo-electron reconstruction of BmrA, a bacterial multidrug ABC transporter in an inward-facing conformation and in a lipidic environment.

    PubMed

    Fribourg, Pierre Frederic; Chami, Mohamed; Sorzano, Carlos Oscar S; Gubellini, Francesca; Marabini, Roberto; Marco, Sergio; Jault, Jean-Michel; Lévy, Daniel

    2014-05-15

    ABC (ATP-binding cassette) membrane exporters are efflux transporters of a wide diversity of molecule across the membrane at the expense of ATP. A key issue regarding their catalytic cycle is whether or not their nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) are physically disengaged in the resting state. To settle this controversy, we obtained structural data on BmrA, a bacterial multidrug homodimeric ABC transporter, in a membrane-embedded state. BmrA in the apostate was reconstituted in lipid bilayers forming a mixture of ring-shaped structures of 24 or 39 homodimers. Three-dimensional models of the ring-shaped structures of 24 or 39 homodimers were calculated at 2.3 nm and 2.5 nm resolution from cryo-electron microscopy, respectively. In these structures, BmrA adopts an inward-facing open conformation similar to that found in mouse P-glycoprotein structure with the NBDs separated by 3 nm. Both lipidic leaflets delimiting the transmembrane domains of BmrA were clearly resolved. In planar membrane sheets, the NBDs were even more separated. BmrA in an ATP-bound conformation was determined from two-dimensional crystals grown in the presence of ATP and vanadate. A projection map calculated at 1.6 nm resolution shows an open outward-facing conformation. Overall, the data are consistent with a mechanism of drug transport involving large conformational changes of BmrA and show that a bacterial ABC exporter can adopt at least two open inward conformations in lipid membrane. PMID:24630999

  18. Four-Year Efficacy, Cosmesis, and Toxicity Using Three-Dimensional Conformal External Beam Radiation Therapy to Deliver Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Peter Y.; Wallace, Michelle; Mitchell, Christina; Grills, Inga; Kestin, Larry; Fowler, Ashley; Martinez, Alvaro; Vicini, Frank

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: This prospective study examines the use of three-dimensional conformal external beam radiation therapy (3D-CRT) to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Four-year data on efficacy, cosmesis, and toxicity are presented. Methods: Patients with Stage O, I, or II breast cancer with lesions <=3 cm, negative margins, and negative nodes were eligible. The 3D-CRT delivered was 38.5 Gy in 3.85 Gy/fraction. Ipsilateral breast, ipsilateral nodal, contralateral breast, and distant failure (IBF, INF, CBF, DF) were estimated using the cumulative incidence method. Disease-free, overall, and cancer-specific survival (DFS, OS, CSS) were recorded. The National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 3) toxicity scale was used to grade acute and late toxicities. Results: Ninety-four patients are evaluable for efficacy. Median patient age was 62 years with the following characteristics: 68% tumor size <1 cm, 72% invasive ductal histology, 77% estrogen receptor (ER) (+), 88% postmenopausal; 88% no chemotherapy and 44% with no hormone therapy. Median follow-up was 4.2 years (range, 1.3-8.3). Four-year estimates of efficacy were IBF: 1.1% (one local recurrence); INF: 0%; CBF: 1.1%; DF: 3.9%; DFS: 95%; OS: 97%; and CSS: 99%. Four (4%) Grade 3 toxicities (one transient breast pain and three fibrosis) were observed. Cosmesis was rated good/excellent in 89% of patients at 4 years. Conclusions: Four-year efficacy, cosmesis, and toxicity using 3D-CRT to deliver APBI appear comparable to other experiences with similar follow-up. However, additional patients, further follow-up, and mature Phase III data are needed to evaluate thoroughly the extent of application, limitations, and complete value of this particular form of APBI.

  19. A GPU-based framework for modeling real-time 3D lung tumor conformal dosimetry with subject-specific lung tumor motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Yugang; Santhanam, Anand; Neelakkantan, Harini; Ruddy, Bari H.; Meeks, Sanford L.; Kupelian, Patrick A.

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, we present a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based simulation framework to calculate the delivered dose to a 3D moving lung tumor and its surrounding normal tissues, which are undergoing subject-specific lung deformations. The GPU-based simulation framework models the motion of the 3D volumetric lung tumor and its surrounding tissues, simulates the dose delivery using the dose extracted from a treatment plan using Pinnacle Treatment Planning System, Phillips, for one of the 3DCTs of the 4DCT and predicts the amount and location of radiation doses deposited inside the lung. The 4DCT lung datasets were registered with each other using a modified optical flow algorithm. The motion of the tumor and the motion of the surrounding tissues were simulated by measuring the changes in lung volume during the radiotherapy treatment using spirometry. The real-time dose delivered to the tumor for each beam is generated by summing the dose delivered to the target volume at each increase in lung volume during the beam delivery time period. The simulation results showed the real-time capability of the framework at 20 discrete tumor motion steps per breath, which is higher than the number of 4DCT steps (approximately 12) reconstructed during multiple breathing cycles.

  20. Acute Toxicity After Image-Guided Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Compared to 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy in Prostate Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Wortel, Ruud C.; Incrocci, Luca; Pos, Floris J.; Lebesque, Joos V.; Witte, Marnix G.; Heide, Uulke A. van der; Herk, Marcel van; Heemsbergen, Wilma D.

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) allows significant dose reductions to organs at risk in prostate cancer patients. However, clinical data identifying the benefits of IG-IMRT in daily practice are scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare dose distributions to organs at risk and acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity levels of patients treated to 78 Gy with either IG-IMRT or 3D-CRT. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with 3D-CRT (n=215) and IG-IMRT (n=260) receiving 78 Gy in 39 fractions within 2 randomized trials were selected. Dose surface histograms of anorectum, anal canal, and bladder were calculated. Identical toxicity questionnaires were distributed at baseline, prior to fraction 20 and 30 and at 90 days after treatment. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade ≥1, ≥2, and ≥3 endpoints were derived directly from questionnaires. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were applied. Results: The median volumes receiving 5 to 75 Gy were significantly lower (all P<.001) with IG-IMRT for anorectum, anal canal, and bladder. The mean dose to the anorectum was 34.4 Gy versus 47.3 Gy (P<.001), 23.6 Gy versus 44.6 Gy for the anal canal (P<.001), and 33.1 Gy versus 43.2 Gy for the bladder (P<.001). Significantly lower grade ≥2 toxicity was observed for proctitis, stool frequency ≥6/day, and urinary frequency ≥12/day. IG-IMRT resulted in significantly lower overall RTOG grade ≥2 GI toxicity (29% vs 49%, respectively, P=.002) and overall GU grade ≥2 toxicity (38% vs 48%, respectively, P=.009). Conclusions: A clinically meaningful reduction in dose to organs at risk and acute toxicity levels was observed in IG-IMRT patients, as a result of improved technique and tighter margins. Therefore reduced late toxicity levels can be expected as well; additional research is needed to quantify such reductions.

  1. The Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Conformationally Restricted 4-Substituted-2,6-dimethylfuro[2,3-d]pyrimidines as Multi-targeted Receptor Tyrosine Kinase and Microtubule Inhibitors as Potential Antitumor Agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Raghavan, Sudhir; Ihnat, Michael; Hamel, Ernest; Zammiello, Cynthia; Bastian, Anja; Mooberry, Susan L.; Gangjee, Aleem

    2015-01-01

    A series of eleven conformationally restricted, 4-substituted 2,6-dimethylfuro[2,3-d]pyrimidines was designed to explore the bioactive conformation required for dual inhibition of microtubule assembly and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), and their biological activities are reported. All three rotatable single bonds in the lead compound 1 were sequentially restricted to address the role of each in SAR for microtubule and RTK inhibitory effects. Compounds 2, 3, 7 and 10 showed microtubule depolymerizing activity comparable to or better than the lead 1, some with nanomolar EC50 values. While compound 8 had no effect on microtubules, 8 and 10 both showed potent RTK inhibition with nanomolar IC50s. These compounds confirm that the bioactive conformation for RTK inhibition is different from that for tubulin inhibition. The tetrahydroquinoline analog 10 showed the most potent dual tubulin and RTK inhibitory activities (low nanomolar inhibition of EGFR, VEGFR2 and PDGFR-β). Compound 10 is highly potent activity against many NCI cancer cell lines, including several chemo-resistant cell lines, and could serve as a lead for further preclinical studies. PMID:25882519

  2. The design, synthesis and biological evaluation of conformationally restricted 4-substituted-2,6-dimethylfuro[2,3-d]pyrimidines as multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase and microtubule inhibitors as potential antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Raghavan, Sudhir; Ihnat, Michael; Hamel, Ernest; Zammiello, Cynthia; Bastian, Anja; Mooberry, Susan L; Gangjee, Aleem

    2015-05-15

    A series of eleven conformationally restricted, 4-substituted 2,6-dimethylfuro[2,3-d]pyrimidines was designed to explore the bioactive conformation required for dual inhibition of microtubule assembly and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), and their biological activities are reported. All three rotatable single bonds in the lead compound 1 were sequentially restricted to address the role of each in SAR for microtubule and RTK inhibitory effects. Compounds 2, 3, 7 and 10 showed microtubule depolymerizing activity comparable to or better than the lead 1, some with nanomolar EC50 values. While compound 8 had no effect on microtubules, 8 and 10 both showed potent RTK inhibition with nanomolar IC50s. These compounds confirm that the bioactive conformation for RTK inhibition is different from that for tubulin inhibition. The tetrahydroquinoline analog 10 showed the most potent dual tubulin and RTK inhibitory activities (low nanomolar inhibition of EGFR, VEGFR2 and PDGFR-β). Compound 10 has highly potent activity against many NCI cancer cell lines, including several chemo-resistant cell lines, and could serve as a lead for further preclinical studies. PMID:25882519

  3. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Versus 3D Conformal Radiotherapy for Postoperative Gynecologic Cancer: Are They Covering the Same Planning Target Volume?

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Nikhilesh; D'souza, David; Millman, Barbara; Yaremko, Brian P; Leung, Eric; Whiston, Frances; Hajdok, George; Wong, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: This study compares dosimetric parameters of planning target volume (PTV) coverage and organs at risk (OAR) sparing when postoperative radiotherapy for gynecologic cancers is delivered using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) versus a four-field (4FLD) box technique. Material and Methods: From July to December 2012, women requiring postoperative radiation for gynecologic cancers were treated with a standardized VMAT protocol. Two sets of optimized 4FLD plans were retrospectively generated: one based on standard anatomical borders (4FLD) and one based on the clinical target volume (CTV) created for VMAT with a 2 cm expansion guiding field border placement (4FLD+2). Ninety-five percent isodose curves were generated to evaluate PTV coverage. Results: VMAT significantly improved dose conformity compared with 4FLD and 4FLD+2 plans (p < 0.001) and provided additional coverage of the PTV posteriorly and superiorly, corresponding to coverage of the presacral and proximal iliac vessels. There was a significant reduction in dose to all OARs with VMAT, including a 58% reduction in the volume of the small bowel receiving more than 45 Gy (p=0.005). Conclusions: Despite treating a larger volume, radiotherapy using a 4FLD technique is less homogenous and provides inferior coverage of the PTV compared with VMAT. With meticulous treatment planning and delivery, VMAT effectively encompasses the PTV and minimizes dose to OARs. PMID:26973802

  4. Three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy compared with permanent prostate implantation in low-risk prostate cancer based on endorectal magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging and prostate-specific antigen level

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, Barby . E-mail: pickett@radonc17.ucsf.edu; Kurhanewicz, John; Pouliot, Jean; Weinberg, Vivian; Shinohara, Katsuto; Coakley, Fergus; Roach, Mack

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the metabolic response by comparing the time to resolution of spectroscopic abnormalities (TRSA) and the time to prostate-specific antigen level in low-risk prostate cancer patients after treatment with three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy (3D-CRT) compared with permanent prostate implantation (PPI). Recent studies have suggested that the treatment of low-risk prostate cancer yields similar results for patients treated with 3D-CRT or PPI. Methods and Materials: A total of 50 patients, 25 in each group, who had been treated with 3D-CRT or PPI, had undergone endorectal magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging before and/or at varying times after therapy. The 3D-CRT patients had received radiation doses of {>=}72 Gy compared with 144 Gy for the PPI patients. The spectra from all usable voxels were examined for detectable levels of metabolic signal, and the percentages of atrophic and cancerous voxels were tabulated. Results: The median time to resolution of the spectroscopic abnormalities was 32.2 and 24.8 months and the time to the nadir prostate-specific antigen level was 52.4 and 38.0 months for the 3D-CRT and PPI patients, respectively. Of the 3D-CRT patients, 92% achieved negative endorectal magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging findings, with 40% having complete metabolic atrophy. All 25 PPI patients had negative endorectal magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging findings, with 60% achieving complete metabolic atrophy. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that metabolic and biochemical responses of the prostate are more pronounced after PPI. Our results have not proved PPI is more effective at curing prostate cancer, but they have demonstrated that it may be more effective at destroying prostate metabolism.

  5. Three-dimensional conformal setup (3D-CSU) of patients using the coordinate system provided by three internal fiducial markers and two orthogonal diagnostic X-ray systems in the treatment room

    SciTech Connect

    Shirato, Hiroki . E-mail: hshirato@radi.med.hokudai.ac.jp; Oita, Masataka; Fujita, Katsuhisa; Shimizu, Shinichi; Onimaru, Rikiya; Uegaki, Shinji; Watanabe, Yoshiharu; Kato, Norio; Miyasaka, Kazuo

    2004-10-01

    Purpose: To test the accuracy of a system for correcting for the rotational error of the clinical target volume (CTV) without having to reposition the patient using three fiducial markers and two orthogonal fluoroscopic images. We call this system 'three-dimensional conformal setup' (3D-CSU). Methods and materials: Three 2.0-mm gold markers are inserted into or adjacent to the CTV. On the treatment couch, the actual positions of the three markers are calculated based on two orthogonal fluoroscopies crossing at the isocenter of the linear accelerator. Discrepancy of the actual coordinates of gravity center of three markers from its planned coordinates is calculated. Translational setup error is corrected by adjustment of the treatment couch. The rotation angles ({alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}) of the coordinates of the actual CTV relative to the planned CTV are calculated around the lateral (x), craniocaudal (y), and anteroposterior (z) axes of the planned CTV. The angles of the gantry head, collimator, and treatment couch of the linear accelerator are adjusted according to the rotation of the actual coordinates of the tumor in relation to the planned coordinates. We have measured the accuracy of 3D-CSU using a static cubic phantom. Results: The gravity center of the phantom was corrected within 0.9 {+-} 0.3 mm (mean {+-} SD), 0.4 {+-} 0.2 mm, and 0.6 {+-} 0.2 mm for the rotation of the phantom from 0-30 degrees around the x, y, and z axes, respectively, every 5 degrees. Dose distribution was shown to be consistent with the planned dose distribution every 10 degrees of the rotation from 0-30 degrees. The mean rotational error after 3D-CSU was -0.4 {+-} 0.4 (mean {+-} SD), -0.2 {+-} 0.4, and 0.0 {+-} 0.5 degrees around the x, y, and z axis, respectively, for the rotation from 0-90 degrees. Conclusions: Phantom studies showed that 3D-CSU is useful for performing rotational correction of the target volume without correcting the position of the patient on the treatment couch

  6. Can All Centers Plan Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) Effectively? An External Audit of Dosimetric Comparisons Between Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy and IMRT for Adjuvant Chemoradiation for Gastric Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Hans T. Lee, Brian; Park, Eileen; Lu, Jiade J.; Xia Ping

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To compare dosimetric endpoints between three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) at our center with limited IMRT experience, and to perform an external audit of the IMRT plans. Methods and Materials: Ten patients, who received adjuvant chemoradiation for gastric cancer, formed the study cohort. For standardization, the planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk were recontoured with the assistance of a study protocol radiologic atlas. The cohort was replanned with CMS Xio to generate coplanar 3D-CRT and IMRT plans. All 10 datasets, including volumes but without the plans (i.e., blinded), were transmitted to an experienced center where IMRT plans were designed using Nomos Corvus (IMRT-C) and ADAC Pinnacle (IMRT-P). All IMRT plans were normalized to D95% receiving 45 Gy. Results: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy yielded higher PTV V45 (volume that receives {>=}45 Gy) (p < 0.001) than 3D-CRT. No difference in V20 was seen in the right (p = 0.9) and left (p 0.3) kidneys, but the liver mean dose (p < 0.001) was superior with IMRT. For the external audit, IMRT-C (p = 0.002) and IMRT-P (p < 0.001) achieved significantly lower left kidney V20 than IMRT, and IMRT-P (p < 0.001) achieved lower right kidney V20 than IMRT. The IMRT-C (p = 0.003) but not IMRT-P (p = 0.6) had lower liver mean doses than IMRT. Conclusions: At our institution with early IMRT experience, IMRT improved PTV dose coverage and liver doses but not kidney doses. An external audit of IMRT plans showed that an experienced center can yield superior IMRT plans.

  7. Externalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zicht, Barbara, Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This issue explains the concept of externalities (benefits or burdens which accrue to society when there is a difference between the private cost or benefit of an action and the social cost or benefit of that action). These external or social costs of individual actions are often referred to as spillover costs. Three brief teaching units follow…

  8. Five-Year Outcomes, Cosmesis, and Toxicity With 3-Dimensional Conformal External Beam Radiation Therapy to Deliver Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez, Núria; Sanz, Xavier; Dengra, Josefa; Foro, Palmira; Membrive, Ismael; Reig, Anna; Quera, Jaume; Fernández-Velilla, Enric; Pera, Óscar; Lio, Jackson; Lozano, Joan; Algara, Manuel

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To report the interim results from a study comparing the efficacy, toxicity, and cosmesis of breast-conserving treatment with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) or whole breast irradiation (WBI) using 3-dimensional conformal external beam radiation therapy (3D-CRT). Methods and Materials: 102 patients with early-stage breast cancer who underwent breast-conserving surgery were randomized to receive either WBI (n=51) or APBI (n=51). In the WBI arm, 48 Gy was delivered to the whole breast in daily fractions of 2 Gy, with or without additional 10 Gy to the tumor bed. In the APBI arm, patients received 37.5 Gy in 3.75 Gy per fraction delivered twice daily. Toxicity results were scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Common Toxicity Criteria. Skin elasticity was measured using a dedicated device (Multi-Skin-Test-Center MC-750-B2, CKelectronic-GmbH). Cosmetic results were assessed by the physician and the patients as good/excellent, regular, or poor. Results: The median follow-up time was 5 years. No local recurrences were observed. No significant differences in survival rates were found. APBI reduced acute side effects and radiation doses to healthy tissues compared with WBI (P<.01). Late skin toxicity was no worse than grade 2 in either group, without significant differences between the 2 groups. In the ipsilateral breast, the areas that received the highest doses (ie, the boost or quadrant) showed the greatest loss of elasticity. WBI resulted in a greater loss of elasticity in the high-dose area compared with APBI (P<.05). Physician assessment showed that >75% of patients in the APBI arm had excellent or good cosmesis, and these outcomes appear to be stable over time. The percentage of patients with excellent/good cosmetic results was similar in both groups. Conclusions: APBI delivered by 3D-CRT to the tumor bed for a selected group of early-stage breast cancer patients produces 5-year results similar to those achieved with

  9. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  10. Brachytherapy or Conformal External Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer: A Single-Institution Matched-Pair Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pickles, Tom; Keyes, Mira; Morris, W. James

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: In the absence of randomized study data, institutional case series have shown brachytherapy (BT) to produce excellent biochemical control (bNED) in patients with localized prostate cancer compared with alternative curative treatments. This study was designed to overcome some of the limitations of case series studies by using a matched-pair design in patients treated contemporaneously with BT and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) at a single institution. Methods and Materials: Six hundred one eligible patients treated between 1998 and 2001 were prospectively followed up in our institutional databases and matched on a 1:1 basis for the following known prognostic variables: prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, Gleason score, T stage, the use and duration of neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy, and the percentage of positive tissue core samples. Two hundred seventy-eight perfect matches of patients (139 in each group) with low- and intermediate-risk cancer were further analyzed. bNED (Phoenix definition) was the primary endpoint. Other endpoints were toxicity, PSA kinetics, and the secondary use of androgen deprivation therapy. Results: The 5-year bNED rates were 95% (BT) and 85% (EBRT) (p < 0.001). After 7 years, the BT bNED result was unchanged, but the rate in EBRT patients had fallen to 75%. The median posttreatment PSA nadirs were 0.04 ng/mL (BT) and 0.62 ng/mL (EBRT, p < 0.001), which predicted a higher ongoing treatment failure rate in association with EBRT use than with BT use. Late urinary toxicity and rectal/bowel toxicity were worse in patients treated with BT and EBRT, respectively. Conclusions: BT for both low-risk and selected intermediate-risk cancers achieves exceptional cure rates. Even with dose escalation, it will be difficult for EBRT to match the proven track record of BT seen over the past decade.

  11. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  12. Intensity modulated radiotherapy and 3D conformal radiotherapy for whole breast irradiation: a comparative dosimetric study and introduction of a novel qualitative index for plan evaluation, the normal tissue index

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, Jackie; Suttie, Clare; Bromley, Regina; Morgia, Marita; Lamoury, Gillian

    2015-09-15

    We report on a retrospective dosimetric study, comparing 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and hybrid intensity modulated radiotherapy (hIMRT). We evaluated plans based on their planning target volume coverage, dose homogeneity, dose to organs at risk (OARs) and exposure of normal tissue to radiation. The Homogeneity Index (HI) was used to assess the dose homogeneity in the target region, and we describe a new index, the normal tissue index (NTI), to assess the dose in the normal tissue inside the tangent treatment portal. Plans were generated for 25 early-stage breast cancer patients, using a hIMRT technique. These were compared with the 3DCRT plans of the treatment previously received by the patients. Plan quality was evaluated using the HI, NTI and dose to OARs. The hIMRT technique was significantly more homogenous than the 3DCRT technique, while maintaining target coverage. The hIMRT technique was also superior at minimising the amount of tissue receiving D{sub 105%} and above (P < 0.0001). The ipsilateral lung and contralateral breast maximum were significantly lower in the hIMRT plans (P < 0.05 and P < 0.005), but the 3DCRT technique achieved a lower mean heart dose in left-sided breast cancer patients (P < 0.05). Hybrid intensity modulated radiotherapy plans achieved improved dose homogeneity compared to the 3DCRT plans and superior outcome with regard to dose to normal tissues. We propose that the addition of both HI and NTI in evaluating the quality of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) breast plans provides clinically relevant comparators which more accurately reflect the new paradigm of treatment goals and outcomes in the era of breast IMRT.

  13. Intensity modulated radiotherapy and 3D conformal radiotherapy for whole breast irradiation: a comparative dosimetric study and introduction of a novel qualitative index for plan evaluation, the normal tissue index

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Jackie; Suttie, Clare; Bromley, Regina; Morgia, Marita; Lamoury, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We report on a retrospective dosimetric study, comparing 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and hybrid intensity modulated radiotherapy (hIMRT). We evaluated plans based on their planning target volume coverage, dose homogeneity, dose to organs at risk (OARs) and exposure of normal tissue to radiation. The Homogeneity Index (HI) was used to assess the dose homogeneity in the target region, and we describe a new index, the normal tissue index (NTI), to assess the dose in the normal tissue inside the tangent treatment portal. Methods Plans were generated for 25 early-stage breast cancer patients, using a hIMRT technique. These were compared with the 3DCRT plans of the treatment previously received by the patients. Plan quality was evaluated using the HI, NTI and dose to OARs. Results The hIMRT technique was significantly more homogenous than the 3DCRT technique, while maintaining target coverage. The hIMRT technique was also superior at minimising the amount of tissue receiving D105% and above (P < 0.0001). The ipsilateral lung and contralateral breast maximum were significantly lower in the hIMRT plans (P < 0.05 and P < 0.005), but the 3DCRT technique achieved a lower mean heart dose in left-sided breast cancer patients (P < 0.05). Conclusion Hybrid intensity modulated radiotherapy plans achieved improved dose homogeneity compared to the 3DCRT plans and superior outcome with regard to dose to normal tissues. We propose that the addition of both HI and NTI in evaluating the quality of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) breast plans provides clinically relevant comparators which more accurately reflect the new paradigm of treatment goals and outcomes in the era of breast IMRT. PMID:26451240

  14. Stereoscopic Investigations of 3D Coulomb Balls

    SciTech Connect

    Kaeding, Sebastian; Melzer, Andre; Arp, Oliver; Block, Dietmar; Piel, Alexander

    2005-10-31

    In dusty plasmas particles are arranged due to the influence of external forces and the Coulomb interaction. Recently Arp et al. were able to generate 3D spherical dust clouds, so-called Coulomb balls. Here, we present measurements that reveal the full 3D particle trajectories from stereoscopic imaging.

  15. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  16. Conformal external beam radiation or selective internal radiation therapy—a comparison of treatment outcomes for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Oladeru, Oluwadamilola T.; Miccio, Joseph A.; Yang, Jie; Xue, Yaqi; Ryu, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-operative treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has expanded significantly with the use of selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) mostly with yttrium 90 (90Y) tagged microspheres and highly conformal external beam radiation therapy such as stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) to treat unresectable liver tumors for local tumor control. SBRT is a noninvasive procedure using external radiation source under image guidance, while SIRT delivers radioactive particles by transarterial radioembolization (TARE). However, the survival benefits of SBRT versus SIRT have never been compared. The aim of the present study is to compare the outcomes of overall and disease specific survival (DSS) using SIRT versus SBRT to treat HCC. Methods The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry database [2004–2011] was queried for cases of unresectable HCC. Patients with missing data and those who received surgery were excluded from the study. A total of 189 patients with unresectable HCC were identified and used for statistical analysis, with 112 receiving SBRT and 77 receiving SIRT. Overall and disease-specific survival was compared using multivariable cox proportional hazard models. Results After adjusting for confounding factors (age at diagnosis, gender, race, grade, stage, AFP level and type of surgery), there were no significant difference in overall survival (OS) [hazard ratio (HR), 0.72; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.49–1.07; P=0.1077] and DSS (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.46–1.05; P=0.0880) for SIRT compared to SBRT. However, patients with elevated AFP level were associated with higher death risk (P=0.0459) and disease specific death risk (P=0.0233) than those with AFP within normal limits in both treatment groups. Conclusions The retrospective analysis serves as the first comparison of SIRT to SBRT in treatment of unresectable HCC. Our findings suggest both treatment approaches result in similar outcomes in overall and disease

  17. DYNAMIC 3D QSAR TECHNIQUES: APPLICATIONS IN TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two dynamic techniques recently developed to account for conformational flexibility of chemicals in 3D QSARs are presented. In addition to the impact of conformational flexibility of chemicals in 3D QSAR models, the applicability of various molecular descriptors is discussed. The...

  18. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  19. The Effect of Flattening Filter Free on Three-dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy (3D-CRT), Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT), and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) Plans for Metastatic Brain Tumors from Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Li-Wan; Lai, You-Qun; Lin, Qin; Ha, Hui-Ming; Fu, Li-Rong

    2015-07-01

    Flattening filter free (FFF) may affect outcome measures of radiotherapy. The objective of this study is to compare the dosimetric parameters in three types of radiotherapy plans, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), with or without the flattening filter (FF), developed for the treatment of metastatic brain tumors from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). From July 2013 to October 2013, 3D-CRT, IMRT, and VMAT treatment plans were designed using 6 MV and 10 MV, with and without FF, for 10 patients with brain metastasis from NSCLC. The evaluation of the treatment plans included homogeneity index (HI), conformity index (CI), monitor units (MU), mean dose (Dmean), treatment time, and the influence of FFF on volumes. There was no difference in CI or HI between FFF and FF models with 3D-CRT, IMRT, and VMAT plans. At 6 MV, a lower Dmean was seen in the FFF model of 3D-CRT and in the VMAT plan at 10 MV. In the IMRT 6 MV, IMRT 10 MV, and VMAT 10 MV plans, higher MUs were seen in the FFF models. FFF treatments are similar in quality to FF plans, generally lead to more monitor units, and are associated with shorter treatment times. FFF plans ranked by the order of superiority in terms of a time advantage are VMAT, 3D-CRT, and IMRT. PMID:26011493

  20. TRACE 3-D documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, K.R.

    1987-08-01

    TRACE 3-D is an interactive beam-dynamics program that calculates the envelopes of a bunched beam, including linear space-charge forces, through a user-defined transport system. TRACE 3-D provides an immediate graphics display of the envelopes and the phase-space ellipses and allows nine types of beam-matching options. This report describes the beam-dynamics calculations and gives detailed instruction for using the code. Several examples are described in detail.

  1. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  2. Improved vision in forensic documentation: forensic 3D/CAD-supported photogrammetry of bodily injury external surfaces combined with volumetric radiologic scanning of bodily injury internal structures provides more investigative leads and stronger forensic evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thali, Michael J.; Braun, Marcel; Kneubuehl, Beat P.; Brueschweiler, Walter; Vock, Peter; Dirnhofer, Richard

    2000-05-01

    In the field of the documentation of forensics-relevant injuries, from the reconstructive point of view, the Forensic, 3D/CAD-supported Photometry plays an important role; particularly so when a detailed 3D reconstruction is vital. This was demonstrated with an experimentally-produced 'injury' to a head model, the 'skin-skull-brain model'. The injury-causing instrument, drawn from a real forensic case, was a specifically formed weapon.

  3. 3D microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2008-02-01

    In order to circumvent the fact that only one observer can view the image from a stereoscopic microscope, an attachment was devised for displaying the 3D microscopic image on a large LCD monitor for viewing by multiple observers in real time. The principle of operation, design, fabrication, and performance are presented, along with tolerance measurements relating to the properties of the cellophane half-wave plate used in the design.

  4. 3-D Volume Rendering of Sand Specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) images of resin-impregnated Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) specimens are assembled to provide 3-D volume renderings of density patterns formed by dislocation under the external loading stress profile applied during the experiments. Experiments flown on STS-79 and STS-89. Principal Investigator: Dr. Stein Sture

  5. Multiviewer 3D monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Aye, Tin M.; Kim, Dai Hyun; Esterkin, Vladimir; Savant, Gajendra D.

    1998-09-01

    Physical Optics Corporation has developed an advanced 3-D virtual reality system for use with simulation tools for training technical and military personnel. This system avoids such drawbacks of other virtual reality (VR) systems as eye fatigue, headaches, and alignment for each viewer, all of which are due to the need to wear special VR goggles. The new system is based on direct viewing of an interactive environment. This innovative holographic multiplexed screen technology makes it unnecessary for the viewer to wear special goggles.

  6. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  7. 3D Surgical Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  8. Inferential modeling of 3D chromatin structure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Siyu; Xu, Jinbo; Zeng, Jianyang

    2015-01-01

    For eukaryotic cells, the biological processes involving regulatory DNA elements play an important role in cell cycle. Understanding 3D spatial arrangements of chromosomes and revealing long-range chromatin interactions are critical to decipher these biological processes. In recent years, chromosome conformation capture (3C) related techniques have been developed to measure the interaction frequencies between long-range genome loci, which have provided a great opportunity to decode the 3D organization of the genome. In this paper, we develop a new Bayesian framework to derive the 3D architecture of a chromosome from 3C-based data. By modeling each chromosome as a polymer chain, we define the conformational energy based on our current knowledge on polymer physics and use it as prior information in the Bayesian framework. We also propose an expectation-maximization (EM) based algorithm to estimate the unknown parameters of the Bayesian model and infer an ensemble of chromatin structures based on interaction frequency data. We have validated our Bayesian inference approach through cross-validation and verified the computed chromatin conformations using the geometric constraints derived from fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments. We have further confirmed the inferred chromatin structures using the known genetic interactions derived from other studies in the literature. Our test results have indicated that our Bayesian framework can compute an accurate ensemble of 3D chromatin conformations that best interpret the distance constraints derived from 3C-based data and also agree with other sources of geometric constraints derived from experimental evidence in the previous studies. The source code of our approach can be found in https://github.com/wangsy11/InfMod3DGen. PMID:25690896

  9. Dosimetric quality assurance of highly conformal external beam treatments: from 2D phantom comparisons to 4D patient dose reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feygelman, V.; Nelms, B.

    2013-06-01

    As IMRT technology continues to evolve, so do the dosimetric QA methods. A historical review of those is presented, starting with longstanding techniques such as film and ion chamber in a phantom and progressing towards 3D and 4D dose reconstruction in the patient. Regarding patient-specific QA, we envision that the currently prevalent limited comparison of dose distributions in the phantom by γ-analysis will be eventually replaced by clinically meaningful patient dose analyses with improved sensitivity and specificity. In a larger sense, we envision a future of QA built upon lessons from the rich history of "quality" as a science and philosophy. This future will aim to improve quality (and ultimately reduce cost) via advanced commissioning processes that succeed in detecting and rooting out systematic errors upstream of patient treatment, thus reducing our reliance on, and the resource burden associated with, per-beam/per-plan inspection.

  10. 3D polarimetric purity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, José J.; San José, Ignacio

    2010-11-01

    From our previous definition of the indices of polarimetric purity for 3D light beams [J.J. Gil, J.M. Correas, P.A. Melero and C. Ferreira, Monogr. Semin. Mat. G. de Galdeano 31, 161 (2004)], an analysis of their geometric and physical interpretation is presented. It is found that, in agreement with previous results, the first parameter is a measure of the degree of polarization, whereas the second parameter (called the degree of directionality) is a measure of the mean angular aperture of the direction of propagation of the corresponding light beam. This pair of invariant, non-dimensional, indices of polarimetric purity contains complete information about the polarimetric purity of a light beam. The overall degree of polarimetric purity is obtained as a weighted quadratic average of the degree of polarization and the degree of directionality.

  11. 3D field harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

    1991-03-30

    We have developed an harmonic representation for the three dimensional field components within the windings of accelerator magnets. The form by which the field is presented is suitable for interfacing with other codes that make use of the 3D field components (particle tracking and stability). The field components can be calculated with high precision and reduced cup time at any location (r,{theta},z) inside the magnet bore. The same conductor geometry which is used to simulate line currents is also used in CAD with modifications more readily available. It is our hope that the format used here for magnetic fields can be used not only as a means of delivering fields but also as a way by which beam dynamics can suggest correction to the conductor geometry. 5 refs., 70 figs.

  12. 'Bonneville' in 3-D!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this 3-D navigation camera mosaic of the crater called 'Bonneville' after driving approximately 13 meters (42.7 feet) to get a better vantage point. Spirit's current position is close enough to the edge to see the interior of the crater, but high enough and far enough back to get a view of all of the walls. Because scientists and rover controllers are so pleased with this location, they will stay here for at least two more martian days, or sols, to take high resolution panoramic camera images of 'Bonneville' in its entirety. Just above the far crater rim, on the left side, is the rover's heatshield, which is visible as a tiny reflective speck.

  13. 3D face recognition based on matching of facial surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echeagaray-Patrón, Beatriz A.; Kober, Vitaly

    2015-09-01

    Face recognition is an important task in pattern recognition and computer vision. In this work a method for 3D face recognition in the presence of facial expression and poses variations is proposed. The method uses 3D shape data without color or texture information. A new matching algorithm based on conformal mapping of original facial surfaces onto a Riemannian manifold followed by comparison of conformal and isometric invariants computed in the manifold is suggested. Experimental results are presented using common 3D face databases that contain significant amount of expression and pose variations.

  14. 3D Modeling Engine Representation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Timothy Yang

    2014-09-01

    Computers have been used for 3D modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This summary report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a 3D modeling engine to represent risk analysis simulation for advanced small modular reactor structures and components. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.

  15. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  16. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  17. Teat Morphology Characterization With 3D Imaging.

    PubMed

    Vesterinen, Heidi M; Corfe, Ian J; Sinkkonen, Ville; Iivanainen, Antti; Jernvall, Jukka; Laakkonen, Juha

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to visualize, in a novel way, the morphological characteristics of bovine teats to gain a better understanding of the detailed teat morphology. We applied silicone casting and 3D digital imaging in order to obtain a more detailed image of the teat structures than that seen in previous studies. Teat samples from 65 dairy cows over 12 months of age were obtained from cows slaughtered at an abattoir. The teats were classified according to the teat condition scoring used in Finland and the lengths of the teat canals were measured. Silicone molds were made from the external teat surface surrounding the teat orifice and from the internal surface of the teat consisting of the papillary duct, Fürstenberg's rosette, and distal part of the teat cistern. The external and internal surface molds of 35 cows were scanned with a 3D laser scanner. The molds and the digital 3D models were used to evaluate internal and external teat surface morphology. A number of measurements were taken from the silicone molds. The 3D models reproduced the morphology of the teats accurately with high repeatability. Breed didn't correlate with the teat classification score. The rosette was found to have significant variation in its size and number of mucosal folds. The internal surface morphology of the rosette did not correlate with the external surface morphology of the teat implying that it is relatively independent of milking parameters that may impact the teat canal and the external surface of the teat. PMID:25382725

  18. Concurrent 3-D motion segmentation and 3-D interpretation of temporal sequences of monocular images.

    PubMed

    Sekkati, Hicham; Mitiche, Amar

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate a variational method for joint multiregion three-dimensional (3-D) motion segmentation and 3-D interpretation of temporal sequences of monocular images. Interpretation consists of dense recovery of 3-D structure and motion from the image sequence spatiotemporal variations due to short-range image motion. The method is direct insomuch as it does not require prior computation of image motion. It allows movement of both viewing system and multiple independently moving objects. The problem is formulated following a variational statement with a functional containing three terms. One term measures the conformity of the interpretation within each region of 3-D motion segmentation to the image sequence spatiotemporal variations. The second term is of regularization of depth. The assumption that environmental objects are rigid accounts automatically for the regularity of 3-D motion within each region of segmentation. The third and last term is for the regularity of segmentation boundaries. Minimization of the functional follows the corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations. This results in iterated concurrent computation of 3-D motion segmentation by curve evolution, depth by gradient descent, and 3-D motion by least squares within each region of segmentation. Curve evolution is implemented via level sets for topology independence and numerical stability. This algorithm and its implementation are verified on synthetic and real image sequences. Viewers presented with anaglyphs of stereoscopic images constructed from the algorithm's output reported a strong perception of depth. PMID:16519351

  19. STAR3D: a stack-based RNA 3D structural alignment tool

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Ping; Zhang, Shaojie

    2015-01-01

    The various roles of versatile non-coding RNAs typically require the attainment of complex high-order structures. Therefore, comparing the 3D structures of RNA molecules can yield in-depth understanding of their functional conservation and evolutionary history. Recently, many powerful tools have been developed to align RNA 3D structures. Although some methods rely on both backbone conformations and base pairing interactions, none of them consider the entire hierarchical formation of the RNA secondary structure. One of the major issues is that directly applying the algorithms of matching 2D structures to the 3D coordinates is particularly time-consuming. In this article, we propose a novel RNA 3D structural alignment tool, STAR3D, to take into full account the 2D relations between stacks without the complicated comparison of secondary structures. First, the 3D conserved stacks in the inputs are identified and then combined into a tree-like consensus. Afterward, the loop regions are compared one-to-one in accordance with their relative positions in the consensus tree. The experimental results show that the prediction of STAR3D is more accurate for both non-homologous and homologous RNAs than other state-of-the-art tools with shorter running time. PMID:26184875

  20. 3D-GNOME: an integrated web service for structural modeling of the 3D genome

    PubMed Central

    Szalaj, Przemyslaw; Michalski, Paul J.; Wróblewski, Przemysław; Tang, Zhonghui; Kadlof, Michal; Mazzocco, Giovanni; Ruan, Yijun; Plewczynski, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology, such as Hi-C and ChIA-PET, have demonstrated the importance of 3D genome organization in development, cell differentiation and transcriptional regulation. There is now a widespread need for computational tools to generate and analyze 3D structural models from 3C data. Here we introduce our 3D GeNOme Modeling Engine (3D-GNOME), a web service which generates 3D structures from 3C data and provides tools to visually inspect and annotate the resulting structures, in addition to a variety of statistical plots and heatmaps which characterize the selected genomic region. Users submit a bedpe (paired-end BED format) file containing the locations and strengths of long range contact points, and 3D-GNOME simulates the structure and provides a convenient user interface for further analysis. Alternatively, a user may generate structures using published ChIA-PET data for the GM12878 cell line by simply specifying a genomic region of interest. 3D-GNOME is freely available at http://3dgnome.cent.uw.edu.pl/. PMID:27185892

  1. 3D-GNOME: an integrated web service for structural modeling of the 3D genome.

    PubMed

    Szalaj, Przemyslaw; Michalski, Paul J; Wróblewski, Przemysław; Tang, Zhonghui; Kadlof, Michal; Mazzocco, Giovanni; Ruan, Yijun; Plewczynski, Dariusz

    2016-07-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology, such as Hi-C and ChIA-PET, have demonstrated the importance of 3D genome organization in development, cell differentiation and transcriptional regulation. There is now a widespread need for computational tools to generate and analyze 3D structural models from 3C data. Here we introduce our 3D GeNOme Modeling Engine (3D-GNOME), a web service which generates 3D structures from 3C data and provides tools to visually inspect and annotate the resulting structures, in addition to a variety of statistical plots and heatmaps which characterize the selected genomic region. Users submit a bedpe (paired-end BED format) file containing the locations and strengths of long range contact points, and 3D-GNOME simulates the structure and provides a convenient user interface for further analysis. Alternatively, a user may generate structures using published ChIA-PET data for the GM12878 cell line by simply specifying a genomic region of interest. 3D-GNOME is freely available at http://3dgnome.cent.uw.edu.pl/. PMID:27185892

  2. STAR3D: a stack-based RNA 3D structural alignment tool.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ping; Zhang, Shaojie

    2015-11-16

    The various roles of versatile non-coding RNAs typically require the attainment of complex high-order structures. Therefore, comparing the 3D structures of RNA molecules can yield in-depth understanding of their functional conservation and evolutionary history. Recently, many powerful tools have been developed to align RNA 3D structures. Although some methods rely on both backbone conformations and base pairing interactions, none of them consider the entire hierarchical formation of the RNA secondary structure. One of the major issues is that directly applying the algorithms of matching 2D structures to the 3D coordinates is particularly time-consuming. In this article, we propose a novel RNA 3D structural alignment tool, STAR3D, to take into full account the 2D relations between stacks without the complicated comparison of secondary structures. First, the 3D conserved stacks in the inputs are identified and then combined into a tree-like consensus. Afterward, the loop regions are compared one-to-one in accordance with their relative positions in the consensus tree. The experimental results show that the prediction of STAR3D is more accurate for both non-homologous and homologous RNAs than other state-of-the-art tools with shorter running time. PMID:26184875

  3. Correlation Between Acute and Late Toxicity in 973 Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Three-Dimensional Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara A.; Zerini, Dario; Fodor, Cristiana

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: To analyze the correlation between acute and late injury in 973 prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy and to evaluate the effect of patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related variables on toxicity. Methods and Materials: Of the 973 patients, 542 and 431 received definitive or postprostatectomy radiotherapy, respectively. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy included a six-field technique and two-dynamic arc therapy. Toxicity was classified according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria. The correlation between acute and late toxicity (incidence and severity) was assessed. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that age {<=}65 years (p = .06) and use of the three-dimensional, six-field technique (p <.0001) correlated significantly with greater acute rectal toxicity. The three-dimensional, six-field technique (p = .0002), dose >70 Gy (p = .014), and radiotherapy duration (p = .05) correlated with greater acute urinary toxicity. Acute rectal toxicity (p <.0001) was the only factor that correlated with late rectal injury on multivariate analysis. Late urinary toxicity correlated with acute urinary events (p <.0001) and was inversely related to the use of salvage radiotherapy (p = .018). A highly significant correlation was found between the incidence of acute and late events for both rectal (p <.001) and urinary (p <.001) reactions. The severity of acute toxicity (Grade 2 or greater) was predictive for the severity of late toxicity for both rectal and urinary events (p <.001). Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that the risk of acute reactions depends on both patient-related (age) and treatment-related (dose, technique) factors. Acute toxicity was an independent significant predictor of late toxicity. These findings might help to predict and prevent late radiotherapy-induced complications.

  4. 3D-QSAR and Docking Studies of Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine Derivatives as Wee1 Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Guo-hua; Wu, Wen-juan; Zhang, Rong; Sun, Jun; Xie, Wen-guo; Shen, Yong

    2012-06-01

    In order to investigate the inhibiting mechanism and obtain some helpful information for designing functional inhibitors against Wee1, three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) and docking studies have been performed on 45 pyrido[2,3-d] pyrimidine derivatives acting as Wee1 inhibitors. Two optimal 3D-QSAR models with significant statistical quality and satisfactory predictive ability were established, including the CoMFA model (q2=0.707, R2=0.964) and CoMSIA model (q2=0.645, R2=0.972). The external validation indicated that both CoMFA and CoMSIA models were quite robust and had high predictive power with the predictive correlation coefficient values of 0.707 and 0.794, essential parameter rm2 values of 0.792 and 0.826, the leave-one-out r2m(LOO) values of 0.781 and 0.809, r2m(overall) values of 0.787 and 0.810, respectively. Moreover, the appropriate binding orientations and conformations of these compounds interacting with Wee1 were revealed by the docking studies. Based on the CoMFA and CoMSIA contour maps and docking analyses, several key structural requirements of these compounds responsible for inhibitory activity were identified as follows: simultaneously introducing high electropositive groups to the substituents R1 and R5 may increase the activity, the substituent R2 should be smaller bulky and higher electronegative, moderate-size and strong electron-withdrawing groups for the substituent R3 is advantageous to the activity, but the substituent X should be medium-size and hydrophilic. These theoretical results help to understand the action mechanism and design novel potential Wee1 inhibitors.

  5. Inclined nanoimprinting lithography-based 3D nanofabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhan; Bucknall, David G.; Allen, Mark G.

    2011-06-01

    We report a 'top-down' 3D nanofabrication approach combining non-conventional inclined nanoimprint lithography (INIL) with reactive ion etching (RIE), contact molding and 3D metal nanotransfer printing (nTP). This integration of processes enables the production and conformal transfer of 3D polymer nanostructures of varying heights to a variety of other materials including a silicon-based substrate, a silicone stamp and a metal gold (Au) thin film. The process demonstrates the potential of reduced fabrication cost and complexity compared to existing methods. Various 3D nanostructures in technologically useful materials have been fabricated, including symmetric and asymmetric nanolines, nanocircles and nanosquares. Such 3D nanostructures have potential applications such as angle-resolved photonic crystals, plasmonic crystals and biomimicking anisotropic surfaces. This integrated INIL-based strategy shows great promise for 3D nanofabrication in the fields of photonics, plasmonics and surface tribology.

  6. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  7. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  8. Modular 3-D Transport model

    EPA Science Inventory

    MT3D was first developed by Chunmiao Zheng in 1990 at S.S. Papadopulos & Associates, Inc. with partial support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Starting in 1990, MT3D was released as a pubic domain code from the USEPA. Commercial versions with enhanced capab...

  9. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  10. LLNL-Earth3D

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  11. [3-D ultrasound in gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Zoller, W G; Liess, H

    1994-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) sonography represents a development of noninvasive diagnostic imaging by real-time two-dimensional (2D) sonography. The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a 3D effect. The objective of the present study was to optimate 3D presentation of abdominal findings. Additional investigations were made with a new volumetric program to determine the volume of selected findings of the liver. The results were compared with the estimated volumes of 2D sonography and 2D computer tomography (CT). For the processing of 3D images, typical parameter constellations were found for the different findings, which facilitated processing of 3D images. In more than 75% of the cases examined we found an optimal 3D presentation of sonographic findings with respect to the evaluation criteria developed by us for the 3D imaging of processed data. Great differences were found for the estimated volumes of the findings of the liver concerning the three different techniques applied. 3D ultrasound represents a valuable method to judge morphological appearance in abdominal findings. The possibility of volumetric measurements enlarges its potential diagnostic significance. Further clinical investigations are necessary to find out if definite differentiation between benign and malign findings is possible. PMID:7919882

  12. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  13. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-02-26

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  14. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  15. Random-Profiles-Based 3D Face Recognition System

    PubMed Central

    Joongrock, Kim; Sunjin, Yu; Sangyoun, Lee

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a noble nonintrusive three-dimensional (3D) face modeling system for random-profile-based 3D face recognition is presented. Although recent two-dimensional (2D) face recognition systems can achieve a reliable recognition rate under certain conditions, their performance is limited by internal and external changes, such as illumination and pose variation. To address these issues, 3D face recognition, which uses 3D face data, has recently received much attention. However, the performance of 3D face recognition highly depends on the precision of acquired 3D face data, while also requiring more computational power and storage capacity than 2D face recognition systems. In this paper, we present a developed nonintrusive 3D face modeling system composed of a stereo vision system and an invisible near-infrared line laser, which can be directly applied to profile-based 3D face recognition. We further propose a novel random-profile-based 3D face recognition method that is memory-efficient and pose-invariant. The experimental results demonstrate that the reconstructed 3D face data consists of more than 50 k 3D point clouds and a reliable recognition rate against pose variation. PMID:24691101

  16. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  17. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26657435

  18. Shape corrections for 3D EIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paridis, Kyriakos; Lionheart, William R. B.

    2010-04-01

    Movement of the boundary in biomedical Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) has been always a source of error in image reconstruction. In the case of pulmonary EIT, where the patient's chest shape changes during respiration, this is inevitable, so it is essential to be able to correct for shape changes and consequently avoid artifacts. Assuming that the conductivity is isotropic, an assumption that is reasonable for lung tissue but admittedly violated for muscle, the boundary shape up to a Möbius transformation (conformal mapping) as well as the conductivity can theoretically be determined by 3D EIT data. While in two dimensions the space of conformal mappings are infinite dimensional, in the three dimensional case the Möbius transformations are given by a finite number of parameters. In this paper, we concentrate on the three dimensional case and take a linear approximation. We will give results of numerical studies analogous to the two dimensional work of Boyle et al on the effect of electrode movement and shape error in 3D EIT.

  19. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  20. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  1. Uncertainty in 3D gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deene, Yves; Jirasek, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) gel dosimetry has a unique role to play in safeguarding conformal radiotherapy treatments as the technique can cover the full treatment chain and provides the radiation oncologist with the integrated dose distribution in 3D. It can also be applied to benchmark new treatment strategies such as image guided and tracking radiotherapy techniques. A major obstacle that has hindered the wider dissemination of gel dosimetry in radiotherapy centres is a lack of confidence in the reliability of the measured dose distribution. Uncertainties in 3D dosimeters are attributed to both dosimeter properties and scanning performance. In polymer gel dosimetry with MRI readout, discrepancies in dose response of large polymer gel dosimeters versus small calibration phantoms have been reported which can lead to significant inaccuracies in the dose maps. The sources of error in polymer gel dosimetry with MRI readout are well understood and it has been demonstrated that with a carefully designed scanning protocol, the overall uncertainty in absolute dose that can currently be obtained falls within 5% on an individual voxel basis, for a minimum voxel size of 5 mm3. However, several research groups have chosen to use polymer gel dosimetry in a relative manner by normalizing the dose distribution towards an internal reference dose within the gel dosimeter phantom. 3D dosimetry with optical scanning has also been mostly applied in a relative way, although in principle absolute calibration is possible. As the optical absorption in 3D dosimeters is less dependent on temperature it can be expected that the achievable accuracy is higher with optical CT. The precision in optical scanning of 3D dosimeters depends to a large extend on the performance of the detector. 3D dosimetry with X-ray CT readout is a low contrast imaging modality for polymer gel dosimetry. Sources of error in x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry (XCT) are currently under investigation and include inherent

  2. Bioprinting of 3D hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Stanton, M M; Samitier, J; Sánchez, S

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has recently emerged as an extension of 3D material printing, by using biocompatible or cellular components to build structures in an additive, layer-by-layer methodology for encapsulation and culture of cells. These 3D systems allow for cell culture in a suspension for formation of highly organized tissue or controlled spatial orientation of cell environments. The in vitro 3D cellular environments simulate the complexity of an in vivo environment and natural extracellular matrices (ECM). This paper will focus on bioprinting utilizing hydrogels as 3D scaffolds. Hydrogels are advantageous for cell culture as they are highly permeable to cell culture media, nutrients, and waste products generated during metabolic cell processes. They have the ability to be fabricated in customized shapes with various material properties with dimensions at the micron scale. 3D hydrogels are a reliable method for biocompatible 3D printing and have applications in tissue engineering, drug screening, and organ on a chip models. PMID:26066320

  3. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  4. Arena3D: visualization of biological networks in 3D

    PubMed Central

    Pavlopoulos, Georgios A; O'Donoghue, Seán I; Satagopam, Venkata P; Soldatos, Theodoros G; Pafilis, Evangelos; Schneider, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    Background Complexity is a key problem when visualizing biological networks; as the number of entities increases, most graphical views become incomprehensible. Our goal is to enable many thousands of entities to be visualized meaningfully and with high performance. Results We present a new visualization tool, Arena3D, which introduces a new concept of staggered layers in 3D space. Related data – such as proteins, chemicals, or pathways – can be grouped onto separate layers and arranged via layout algorithms, such as Fruchterman-Reingold, distance geometry, and a novel hierarchical layout. Data on a layer can be clustered via k-means, affinity propagation, Markov clustering, neighbor joining, tree clustering, or UPGMA ('unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean'). A simple input format defines the name and URL for each node, and defines connections or similarity scores between pairs of nodes. The use of Arena3D is illustrated with datasets related to Huntington's disease. Conclusion Arena3D is a user friendly visualization tool that is able to visualize biological or any other network in 3D space. It is free for academic use and runs on any platform. It can be downloaded or lunched directly from . Java3D library and Java 1.5 need to be pre-installed for the software to run. PMID:19040715

  5. Fdf in US3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otis, Collin; Ferrero, Pietro; Candler, Graham; Givi, Peyman

    2013-11-01

    The scalar filtered mass density function (SFMDF) methodology is implemented into the computer code US3D. This is an unstructured Eulerian finite volume hydrodynamic solver and has proven very effective for simulation of compressible turbulent flows. The resulting SFMDF-US3D code is employed for large eddy simulation (LES) on unstructured meshes. Simulations are conducted of subsonic and supersonic flows under non-reacting and reacting conditions. The consistency and the accuracy of the simulated results are assessed along with appraisal of the overall performance of the methodology. The SFMDF-US3D is now capable of simulating high speed flows in complex configurations.

  6. Wavefront construction in 3-D

    SciTech Connect

    Chilcoat, S.R. Hildebrand, S.T.

    1995-12-31

    Travel time computation in inhomogeneous media is essential for pre-stack Kirchhoff imaging in areas such as the sub-salt province in the Gulf of Mexico. The 2D algorithm published by Vinje, et al, has been extended to 3D to compute wavefronts in complicated inhomogeneous media. The 3D wavefront construction algorithm provides many advantages over conventional ray tracing and other methods of computing travel times in 3D. The algorithm dynamically maintains a reasonably consistent ray density without making a priori guesses at the number of rays to shoot. The determination of caustics in 3D is a straight forward geometric procedure. The wavefront algorithm also enables the computation of multi-valued travel time surfaces.

  7. Heterodyne 3D ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xu; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Chenghua; Xu, Lu; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Conventional three dimensional (3D) ghost imaging measures range of target based on pulse fight time measurement method. Due to the limit of data acquisition system sampling rate, range resolution of the conventional 3D ghost imaging is usually low. In order to take off the effect of sampling rate to range resolution of 3D ghost imaging, a heterodyne 3D ghost imaging (HGI) system is presented in this study. The source of HGI is a continuous wave laser instead of pulse laser. Temporal correlation and spatial correlation of light are both utilized to obtain the range image of target. Through theory analysis and numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that HGI can obtain high range resolution image with low sampling rate.

  8. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  9. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  10. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  11. Remote 3D Medical Consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.

    Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.

  12. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  13. 3D-Printed Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony K; Huynh, Wilson; Horowitz, Lisa F; Folch, Albert

    2016-03-14

    The advent of soft lithography allowed for an unprecedented expansion in the field of microfluidics. However, the vast majority of PDMS microfluidic devices are still made with extensive manual labor, are tethered to bulky control systems, and have cumbersome user interfaces, which all render commercialization difficult. On the other hand, 3D printing has begun to embrace the range of sizes and materials that appeal to the developers of microfluidic devices. Prior to fabrication, a design is digitally built as a detailed 3D CAD file. The design can be assembled in modules by remotely collaborating teams, and its mechanical and fluidic behavior can be simulated using finite-element modeling. As structures are created by adding materials without the need for etching or dissolution, processing is environmentally friendly and economically efficient. We predict that in the next few years, 3D printing will replace most PDMS and plastic molding techniques in academia. PMID:26854878

  14. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  15. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2003-05-12

    This project is in its first full year after the combining of two previously funded projects: ''3D Code Development'' and ''Dynamic Material Properties''. The motivation behind this move was to emphasize and strengthen the ties between the experimental work and the computational model development in the materials area. The next year's activities will indicate the merging of the two efforts. The current activity is structured in two tasks. Task A, ''Simulations and Measurements'', combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. Task B, ''ALE3D Development'', is a continuation of the non-materials related activities from the previous project.

  16. Holography of 3D flat cosmological horizons.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Arjun; Detournay, Stéphane; Fareghbal, Reza; Simón, Joan

    2013-04-01

    We provide a first derivation of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of 3D flat cosmological horizons in terms of the counting of states in a dual field theory. These horizons appear in the flat limit of nonextremal rotating Banados-Teitleboim-Zanelli black holes and are remnants of the inner horizons. They also satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. We study flat holography as a limit of AdS(3)/CFT(2) to semiclassically compute the density of states in the dual theory, which is given by a contraction of a 2D conformal field theory, exactly reproducing the bulk entropy in the limit of large charges. We comment on how the dual theory reproduces the bulk first law and how cosmological bulk excitations are matched with boundary quantum numbers. PMID:25166977

  17. INCORPORATING DYNAMIC 3D SIMULATION INTO PRA

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R Prescott; Curtis Smith

    2011-07-01

    Through continued advancement in computational resources, development that was previously done by trial and error production is now performed through computer simulation. These virtual physical representations have the potential to provide accurate and valid modeling results and are being used in many different technical fields. Risk assessment now has the opportunity to use 3D simulation to improve analysis results and insights, especially for external event analysis. By using simulations, the modeler only has to determine the likelihood of an event without having to also predict the results of that event. The 3D simulation automatically determines not only the outcome of the event, but when those failures occur. How can we effectively incorporate 3D simulation into traditional PRA? Most PRA plant modeling is made up of components with different failure modes, probabilities, and rates. Typically, these components are grouped into various systems and then are modeled together (in different combinations) as a “system” with logic structures to form fault trees. Applicable fault trees are combined through scenarios, typically represented by event tree models. Though this method gives us failure results for a given model, it has limitations when it comes to time-based dependencies or dependencies that are coupled to physical processes which may themselves be space- or time-dependent. Since, failures from a 3D simulation are naturally time related, they should be used in that manner. In our simulation approach, traditional static models are converted into an equivalent state diagram representation with start states, probabilistic driven movements between states and terminal states. As the state model is run repeatedly, it converges to the same results as the PRA model in cases where time-related factors are not important. In cases where timing considerations are important (e.g., when events are dependent upon each other), then the simulation approach will typically

  18. 3D Equilibrium Reconstructions in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lao, L. L.; Ferraro, N. W.; Strait, E. J.; Turnbull, A. D.; King, J. D.; Hirshman, H. P.; Lazarus, E. A.; Sontag, A. C.; Hanson, J.; Trevisan, G.

    2013-10-01

    Accurate and efficient 3D equilibrium reconstruction is needed in tokamaks for study of 3D magnetic field effects on experimentally reconstructed equilibrium and for analysis of MHD stability experiments with externally imposed magnetic perturbations. A large number of new magnetic probes have been recently installed in DIII-D to improve 3D equilibrium measurements and to facilitate 3D reconstructions. The V3FIT code has been in use in DIII-D to support 3D reconstruction and the new magnetic diagnostic design. V3FIT is based on the 3D equilibrium code VMEC that assumes nested magnetic surfaces. V3FIT uses a pseudo-Newton least-square algorithm to search for the solution vector. In parallel, the EFIT equilibrium reconstruction code is being extended to allow for 3D effects using a perturbation approach based on an expansion of the MHD equations. EFIT uses the cylindrical coordinate system and can include the magnetic island and stochastic effects. Algorithms are being developed to allow EFIT to reconstruct 3D perturbed equilibria directly making use of plasma response to 3D perturbations from the GATO, MARS-F, or M3D-C1 MHD codes. DIII-D 3D reconstruction examples using EFIT and V3FIT and the new 3D magnetic data will be presented. Work supported in part by US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-FG02-95ER54309 and DE-AC05-06OR23100.

  19. Autofocused 3D classification of cryoelectron subtomograms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuxiang; Pfeffer, Stefan; Fernández, José Jesús; Sorzano, Carlos Oscar S; Förster, Friedrich

    2014-10-01

    Classification of subtomograms obtained by cryoelectron tomography (cryo-ET) is a powerful approach to study the conformational landscapes of macromolecular complexes in situ. Major challenges in subtomogram classification are the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of cryo-tomograms, their incomplete angular sampling, the unknown number of classes and the typically unbalanced abundances of structurally distinct complexes. Here, we propose a clustering algorithm named AC3D that is based on a similarity measure, which automatically focuses on the areas of major structural discrepancy between respective subtomogram class averages. Furthermore, we incorporate a spherical-harmonics-based fast subtomogram alignment algorithm, which provides a significant speedup. Assessment of our approach on simulated data sets indicates substantially increased classification accuracy of the presented method compared to two state-of-the-art approaches. Application to experimental subtomograms depicting endoplasmic-reticulum-associated ribosomal particles shows that AC3D is well suited to deconvolute the compositional heterogeneity of macromolecular complexes in situ. PMID:25242455

  20. SNL3dFace

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial featuresmore » of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.« less

  1. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  2. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  3. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  4. FR3D: finding local and composite recurrent structural motifs in RNA 3D structures.

    PubMed

    Sarver, Michael; Zirbel, Craig L; Stombaugh, Jesse; Mokdad, Ali; Leontis, Neocles B

    2008-01-01

    geometric discrepancy with respect to the query motif falls below a user-specified cutoff discrepancy. This technique can be applied to RMSD searches. Candidate motifs identified geometrically may be further screened symbolically to identify those that contain particular basepair types or base-stacking arrangements or that conform to sequence continuity or nucleotide identity constraints. Purely symbolic searches for motifs containing user-defined sequence, continuity and interaction constraints have also been implemented. We demonstrate that FR3D finds all occurrences, both local and composite and with nucleotide substitutions, of sarcin/ricin and kink-turn motifs in the 23S and 5S ribosomal RNA 3D structures of the H. marismortui 50S ribosomal subunit and assigns the lowest discrepancy scores to bona fide examples of these motifs. The search algorithms have been optimized for speed to allow users to search the non-redundant RNA 3D structure database on a personal computer in a matter of minutes. PMID:17694311

  5. Pharmacophore modeling, 3D-QSAR and docking study of 2-phenylpyrimidine analogues as selective PDE4B inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tripuraneni, Naga Srinivas; Azam, Mohammed Afzal

    2016-04-01

    Pharmacophore modeling, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies have been performed, to explore the putative binding modes of 2-phenylpyrimidine series as PDE4B selective inhibitors. A five point pharmacophore model was developed using 87 molecules having pIC50 ranging from 8.52 to 5.07. The pharmacophore hypothesis yielded a statistically significant 3D-QSAR model, with a high correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.918), cross validation coefficient (Q(2)=0.852), and F value (175) at 4 component PLS factor. The external validation indicated that our QSAR model possessed high predictive power (R(2)=0.70). The generated model was further validated by enrichment studies using the decoy test. To evaluate the effectiveness of docking protocol in flexible docking, we have selected crystallographic bound compound to validate our docking procedure as evident from root mean square deviation. A 10ns molecular dynamics simulation confirmed the docking results of both stability of the 1XMU-ligand complex and the presumed active conformation. Further, similar orientation was observed between the superposition of the conformations of 85 after MD simulation and best XP-docking pose; MD simulation and 3D-QSAR pose; best XP-docking and 3D-QSAR poses. Outcomes of the present study provide insight in designing novel molecules with better PDE4B selective inhibitory activity. PMID:26804643

  6. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  7. 3D Band Diagram and Photoexcitation of 2D–3D Semiconductor Heterojunctions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Bo; Shi, Gang; Lei, Sidong; He, Yongmin; Gao, Weilu; Gong, Yongji; Ye, Gonglan; Zhou, Wu; Keyshar, Kunttal; Hao, Ji; et al

    2015-08-17

    The emergence of a rich variety of two-dimensional (2D) layered semiconductor materials has enabled the creation of atomically thin heterojunction devices. Junctions between atomically thin 2D layers and 3D bulk semiconductors can lead to junctions that are fundamentally electronically different from the covalently bonded conventional semiconductor junctions. In this paper, we propose a new 3D band diagram for the heterojunction formed between n-type monolayer MoS2 and p-type Si, in which the conduction and valence band-edges of the MoS2 monolayer are drawn for both stacked and in-plane directions. This new band diagram helps visualize the flow of charge carriers inside themore » device in a 3D manner. Our detailed wavelength-dependent photocurrent measurements fully support the diagrams and unambiguously show that the band alignment is type I for this 2D-3D heterojunction. Photogenerated electron–hole pairs in the atomically thin monolayer are separated and driven by an external bias and control the “on/off” states of the junction photodetector device. Finally, two photoresponse regimes with fast and slow relaxation are also revealed in time-resolved photocurrent measurements, suggesting the important role played by charge trap states.« less

  8. 3D Band Diagram and Photoexcitation of 2D–3D Semiconductor Heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Bo; Shi, Gang; Lei, Sidong; He, Yongmin; Gao, Weilu; Gong, Yongji; Ye, Gonglan; Zhou, Wu; Keyshar, Kunttal; Hao, Ji; Dong, Pei; Ge, Liehui; Lou, Jun; Kono, Junichiro; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2015-08-17

    The emergence of a rich variety of two-dimensional (2D) layered semiconductor materials has enabled the creation of atomically thin heterojunction devices. Junctions between atomically thin 2D layers and 3D bulk semiconductors can lead to junctions that are fundamentally electronically different from the covalently bonded conventional semiconductor junctions. In this paper, we propose a new 3D band diagram for the heterojunction formed between n-type monolayer MoS2 and p-type Si, in which the conduction and valence band-edges of the MoS2 monolayer are drawn for both stacked and in-plane directions. This new band diagram helps visualize the flow of charge carriers inside the device in a 3D manner. Our detailed wavelength-dependent photocurrent measurements fully support the diagrams and unambiguously show that the band alignment is type I for this 2D-3D heterojunction. Photogenerated electron–hole pairs in the atomically thin monolayer are separated and driven by an external bias and control the “on/off” states of the junction photodetector device. Finally, two photoresponse regimes with fast and slow relaxation are also revealed in time-resolved photocurrent measurements, suggesting the important role played by charge trap states.

  9. 3D printed quantum dot light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yong Lin; Tamargo, Ian A; Kim, Hyoungsoo; Johnson, Blake N; Gupta, Maneesh K; Koh, Tae-Wook; Chin, Huai-An; Steingart, Daniel A; Rand, Barry P; McAlpine, Michael C

    2014-12-10

    Developing the ability to 3D print various classes of materials possessing distinct properties could enable the freeform generation of active electronics in unique functional, interwoven architectures. Achieving seamless integration of diverse materials with 3D printing is a significant challenge that requires overcoming discrepancies in material properties in addition to ensuring that all the materials are compatible with the 3D printing process. To date, 3D printing has been limited to specific plastics, passive conductors, and a few biological materials. Here, we show that diverse classes of materials can be 3D printed and fully integrated into device components with active properties. Specifically, we demonstrate the seamless interweaving of five different materials, including (1) emissive semiconducting inorganic nanoparticles, (2) an elastomeric matrix, (3) organic polymers as charge transport layers, (4) solid and liquid metal leads, and (5) a UV-adhesive transparent substrate layer. As a proof of concept for demonstrating the integrated functionality of these materials, we 3D printed quantum dot-based light-emitting diodes (QD-LEDs) that exhibit pure and tunable color emission properties. By further incorporating the 3D scanning of surface topologies, we demonstrate the ability to conformally print devices onto curvilinear surfaces, such as contact lenses. Finally, we show that novel architectures that are not easily accessed using standard microfabrication techniques can be constructed, by 3D printing a 2 × 2 × 2 cube of encapsulated LEDs, in which every component of the cube and electronics are 3D printed. Overall, these results suggest that 3D printing is more versatile than has been demonstrated to date and is capable of integrating many distinct classes of materials. PMID:25360485

  10. Optoplasmonics: hybridization in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, L.; Gervinskas, G.; Žukauskas, A.; Malinauskas, M.; Brasselet, E.; Juodkazis, S.

    2013-12-01

    Femtosecond laser fabrication has been used to make hybrid refractive and di ractive micro-optical elements in photo-polymer SZ2080. For applications in micro- uidics, axicon lenses were fabricated (both single and arrays), for generation of light intensity patterns extending through the entire depth of a typically tens-of-micrometers deep channel. Further hybridisation of an axicon with a plasmonic slot is fabricated and demonstrated nu- merically. Spiralling chiral grooves were inscribed into a 100-nm-thick gold coating sputtered over polymerized micro-axicon lenses, using a focused ion beam. This demonstrates possibility of hybridisation between optical and plasmonic 3D micro-optical elements. Numerical modelling of optical performance by 3D-FDTD method is presented.

  11. 3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.

    1998-12-01

    We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W = 4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure.

  12. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  13. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  14. 360-degree 3D profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yuanhe; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Wenyi; Tan, Yushan

    1997-12-01

    A new method of 360 degree turning 3D shape measurement in which light sectioning and phase shifting techniques are both used is presented in this paper. A sine light field is applied in the projected light stripe, meanwhile phase shifting technique is used to calculate phases of the light slit. Thereafter wrapped phase distribution of the slit is formed and the unwrapping process is made by means of the height information based on the light sectioning method. Therefore phase measuring results with better precision can be obtained. At last the target 3D shape data can be produced according to geometric relationships between phases and the object heights. The principles of this method are discussed in detail and experimental results are shown in this paper.

  15. 3D Printable Graphene Composite.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being's history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today's personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite's linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C(-1) from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  16. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  17. 3D light scanning macrography.

    PubMed

    Huber, D; Keller, M; Robert, D

    2001-08-01

    The technique of 3D light scanning macrography permits the non-invasive surface scanning of small specimens at magnifications up to 200x. Obviating both the problem of limited depth of field inherent to conventional close-up macrophotography and the metallic coating required by scanning electron microscopy, 3D light scanning macrography provides three-dimensional digital images of intact specimens without the loss of colour, texture and transparency information. This newly developed technique offers a versatile, portable and cost-efficient method for the non-invasive digital and photographic documentation of small objects. Computer controlled device operation and digital image acquisition facilitate fast and accurate quantitative morphometric investigations, and the technique offers a broad field of research and educational applications in biological, medical and materials sciences. PMID:11489078

  18. 3D-graphite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Belenkov, E. A. Ali-Pasha, V. A.

    2011-01-15

    The structure of clusters of some new carbon 3D-graphite phases have been calculated using the molecular-mechanics methods. It is established that 3D-graphite polytypes {alpha}{sub 1,1}, {alpha}{sub 1,3}, {alpha}{sub 1,5}, {alpha}{sub 2,1}, {alpha}{sub 2,3}, {alpha}{sub 3,1}, {beta}{sub 1,2}, {beta}{sub 1,4}, {beta}{sub 1,6}, {beta}{sub 2,1}, and {beta}{sub 3,2} consist of sp{sup 2}-hybridized atoms, have hexagonal unit cells, and differ in regards to the structure of layers and order of their alternation. A possible way to experimentally synthesize new carbon phases is proposed: the polymerization and carbonization of hydrocarbon molecules.

  19. FR3D: finding local and composite recurrent structural motifs in RNA 3D structures

    PubMed Central

    Sarver, Michael; Stombaugh, Jesse; Mokdad, Ali; Leontis, Neocles B.

    2010-01-01

    whose geometric discrepancy with respect to the query motif falls below a user-specified cutoff discrepancy. This technique can be applied to RMSD searches. Candidate motifs identified geometrically may be further screened symbolically to identify those that contain particular basepair types or base-stacking arrangements or that conform to sequence continuity or nucleotide identity constraints. Purely symbolic searches for motifs containing user-defined sequence, continuity and interaction constraints have also been implemented. We demonstrate that FR3D finds all occurrences, both local and composite and with nucleotide substitutions, of sarcin/ricin and kink-turn motifs in the 23S and 5S ribosomal RNA 3D structures of the H. marismortui 50S ribosomal subunit and assigns the lowest discrepancy scores to bona fide examples of these motifs. The search algorithms have been optimized for speed to allow users to search the non-redundant RNA 3D structure database on a personal computer in a matter of minutes. PMID:17694311

  20. [Real time 3D echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Bauer, F; Shiota, T; Thomas, J D

    2001-07-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients. PMID:11494630

  1. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  2. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer themore » second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.« less

  3. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  4. 3D Printers Can Provide an Added Dimension for Teaching Structure-Energy Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blauch, David N.; Carroll, Felix A.

    2014-01-01

    A 3D printer is used to prepare a variety of models representing potential energy as a function of two geometric coordinates. These models facilitate the teaching of structure-energy relationships in molecular conformations and in chemical reactions.

  5. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  6. Steering knuckle diameter measurement based on optical 3D scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Li-mei; Li, Da-peng; Chang, Yu-lan; Xi, Jiang-tao; Guo, Qing-hua

    2014-11-01

    To achieve accurate measurements, the creating a fitting hole for internal diameter (CFHID) measurement method and the establishing multi-sectional curve for external diameter (EMCED) measurement method are proposed in this paper, which are based on computer vision principle and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. The methods are able to highlight the 3D characteristics of the scanned object and to achieve the accurate measurement of 3D data. It can create favorable conditions for realizing the reverse design and 3D reconstruction of scanned object. These methods can also be applied to dangerous work environment or the occasion that traditional contact measurement can not meet the demands, and they can improve the security in measurement.

  7. A Clean Adirondack (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.

  8. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  9. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  10. Vacant Lander in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D image captured by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's rear hazard-identification camera shows the now-empty lander that carried the rover 283 million miles to Meridiani Planum, Mars. Engineers received confirmation that Opportunity's six wheels successfully rolled off the lander and onto martian soil at 3:01 a.m. PST, January 31, 2004, on the seventh martian day, or sol, of the mission. The rover is approximately 1 meter (3 feet) in front of the lander, facing north.

  11. An Evaluative Review of Simulated Dynamic Smart 3d Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeijn, H.; Sheth, F.; Pettit, C. J.

    2012-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) modelling of plants can be an asset for creating agricultural based visualisation products. The continuum of 3D plants models ranges from static to dynamic objects, also known as smart 3D objects. There is an increasing requirement for smarter simulated 3D objects that are attributed mathematically and/or from biological inputs. A systematic approach to plant simulation offers significant advantages to applications in agricultural research, particularly in simulating plant behaviour and the influences of external environmental factors. This approach of 3D plant object visualisation is primarily evident from the visualisation of plants using photographed billboarded images, to more advanced procedural models that come closer to simulating realistic virtual plants. However, few programs model physical reactions of plants to external factors and even fewer are able to grow plants based on mathematical and/or biological parameters. In this paper, we undertake an evaluation of plant-based object simulation programs currently available, with a focus upon the components and techniques involved in producing these objects. Through an analytical review process we consider the strengths and weaknesses of several program packages, the features and use of these programs and the possible opportunities in deploying these for creating smart 3D plant-based objects to support agricultural research and natural resource management. In creating smart 3D objects the model needs to be informed by both plant physiology and phenology. Expert knowledge will frame the parameters and procedures that will attribute the object and allow the simulation of dynamic virtual plants. Ultimately, biologically smart 3D virtual plants that react to changes within an environment could be an effective medium to visually represent landscapes and communicate land management scenarios and practices to planners and decision-makers.

  12. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  13. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  14. 3D acoustic atmospheric tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kevin; Finn, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing spatially varying 3D atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based. Measurements of the acoustic signature measured onboard a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are compared to ground-based observations of the same signals. The frequency-shifted signal variations are then used to estimate the acoustic propagation delay between the UAV and the ground microphones, which are also affected by atmospheric temperature and wind speed vectors along each sound ray path. The wind and temperature profiles are modelled as the weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions (RBFs), which also allow local meteorological measurements made at the UAV and ground receivers to supplement any acoustic observations. Tomography is used to provide a full 3D reconstruction/visualisation of the observed atmosphere. The technique offers observational mobility under direct user control and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. This paper summarises the tomographic technique and reports on the results of simulations and initial field trials. The technique has practical applications for atmospheric research, sound propagation studies, boundary layer meteorology, air pollution measurements, analysis of wind shear, and wind farm surveys.

  15. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  16. 3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikaw, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.

    1998-12-01

    We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W=4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure. We also simulate jets with the more realistic initial conditions for injecting jets for helical mangetic field, perturbed density, velocity, and internal energy, which are supposed to be caused in the process of jet generation. Three possible explanations for the observed variability are (i) tidal disruption of a star falling into the black hole, (ii) instabilities in the relativistic accretion disk, and (iii) jet-related PRocesses. New results will be reported at the meeting.

  17. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  18. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  19. 3D medical thermography device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Peyman

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.

  20. 3D Ion Temperature Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Hiroshi; You, Setthivoine; Balandin, Alexander; Inomoto, Michiaki; Ono, Yasushi

    2009-11-01

    The TS-4 experiment at the University of Tokyo collides two spheromaks to form a single high-beta compact toroid. Magnetic reconnection during the merging process heats and accelerates the plasma in toroidal and poloidal directions. The reconnection region has a complex 3D topology determined by the pitch of the spheromak magnetic fields at the merging plane. A pair of multichord passive spectroscopic diagnostics have been established to measure the ion temperature and velocity in the reconnection volume. One setup measures spectral lines across a poloidal plane, retrieving velocity and temperature from Abel inversion. The other, novel setup records spectral lines across another section of the plasma and reconstructs velocity and temperature from 3D vector and 2D scalar tomography techniques. The magnetic field linking both measurement planes is determined from in situ magnetic probe arrays. The ion temperature is then estimated within the volume between the two measurement planes and at the reconnection region. The measurement is followed over several repeatable discharges to follow the heating and acceleration process during the merging reconnection.

  1. RNA folding on the 3D triangular lattice

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Difficult problems in structural bioinformatics are often studied in simple exact models to gain insights and to derive general principles. Protein folding, for example, has long been studied in the lattice model. Recently, researchers have also begun to apply the lattice model to the study of RNA folding. Results We present a novel method for predicting RNA secondary structures with pseudoknots: first simulate the folding dynamics of the RNA sequence on the 3D triangular lattice, next extract and select a set of disjoint base pairs from the best lattice conformation found by the folding simulation. Experiments on sequences from PseudoBase show that our prediction method outperforms the HotKnot algorithm of Ren, Rastegari, Condon and Hoos, a leading method for RNA pseudoknot prediction. Our method for RNA secondary structure prediction can be adapted into an efficient reconstruction method that, given an RNA sequence and an associated secondary structure, finds a conformation of the sequence on the 3D triangular lattice that realizes the base pairs in the secondary structure. We implemented a suite of computer programs for the simulation and visualization of RNA folding on the 3D triangular lattice. These programs come with detailed documentation and are accessible from the companion website of this paper at http://www.cs.usu.edu/~mjiang/rna/DeltaIS/. Conclusion Folding simulation on the 3D triangular lattice is effective method for RNA secondary structure prediction and lattice conformation reconstruction. The visualization software for the lattice conformations of RNA structures is a valuable tool for the study of RNA folding and is a great pedagogic device. PMID:19891777

  2. LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller

    2004-09-01

    The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data

  3. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction. PMID:26861680

  4. ShowMe3D

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  5. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  6. 3D Elastic Wavefield Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guasch, L.; Warner, M.; Stekl, I.; Umpleby, A.; Shah, N.

    2010-12-01

    Wavefield tomography, or waveform inversion, aims to extract the maximum information from seismic data by matching trace by trace the response of the solid earth to seismic waves using numerical modelling tools. Its first formulation dates from the early 80's, when Albert Tarantola developed a solid theoretical basis that is still used today with little change. Due to computational limitations, the application of the method to 3D problems has been unaffordable until a few years ago, and then only under the acoustic approximation. Although acoustic wavefield tomography is widely used, a complete solution of the seismic inversion problem requires that we account properly for the physics of wave propagation, and so must include elastic effects. We have developed a 3D tomographic wavefield inversion code that incorporates the full elastic wave equation. The bottle neck of the different implementations is the forward modelling algorithm that generates the synthetic data to be compared with the field seismograms as well as the backpropagation of the residuals needed to form the direction update of the model parameters. Furthermore, one or two extra modelling runs are needed in order to calculate the step-length. Our approach uses a FD scheme explicit time-stepping by finite differences that are 4th order in space and 2nd order in time, which is a 3D version of the one developed by Jean Virieux in 1986. We chose the time domain because an explicit time scheme is much less demanding in terms of memory than its frequency domain analogue, although the discussion of wich domain is more efficient still remains open. We calculate the parameter gradients for Vp and Vs by correlating the normal and shear stress wavefields respectively. A straightforward application would lead to the storage of the wavefield at all grid points at each time-step. We tackled this problem using two different approaches. The first one makes better use of resources for small models of dimension equal

  7. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  8. Holography of 3D asymptotically flat black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fareghbal, Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Morteza

    2015-04-01

    We study the asymptotically flat rotating hairy black hole solution of a three-dimensional gravity theory which is given by taking the flat-space limit (zero cosmological constant limit) of new massive gravity. We propose that the dual field theory of the flat-space limit of new massive gravity can be described by a contracted conformal field theory which is invariant under the action of the BMS3 group. Using the flat/contracted conformal field theory correspondence, we construct a stress tensor which yields the conserved charges of the asymptotically flat black hole solution. We check that our expressions of the mass and angular momentum fit with the first law of black hole thermodynamics. Furthermore, by taking the appropriate limit of the Cardy formula in the parent conformal field theory, we find a Cardy-like formula which reproduces the Wald's entropy of the 3D asymptotically flat black hole.

  9. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through.

    The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave.

    This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron.

    High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these

  10. FlexyDos3D: a deformable anthropomorphic 3D radiation dosimeter: radiation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deene, Y.; Skyt, P. S.; Hil, R.; Booth, J. T.

    2015-02-01

    Three dimensional radiation dosimetry has received growing interest with the implementation of highly conformal radiotherapy treatments. The radiotherapy community faces new challenges with the commissioning of image guided and image gated radiotherapy treatments (IGRT) and deformable image registration software. A new three dimensional anthropomorphically shaped flexible dosimeter, further called ‘FlexyDos3D’, has been constructed and a new fast optical scanning method has been implemented that enables scanning of irregular shaped dosimeters. The FlexyDos3D phantom can be actuated and deformed during the actual treatment. FlexyDos3D offers the additional advantage that it is easy to fabricate, is non-toxic and can be molded in an arbitrary shape with high geometrical precision. The dosimeter formulation has been optimized in terms of dose sensitivity. The influence of the casting material and oxygen concentration has also been investigated. The radiophysical properties of this new dosimeter are discussed including stability, spatial integrity, temperature dependence of the dosimeter during radiation, readout and storage, dose rate dependence and tissue equivalence. The first authors Y De Deene and P S Skyt made an equivalent contribution to the experimental work presented in this paper.

  11. Imaging 3D strain field monitoring during hydraulic fracturing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rongzhang; Zaghloul, Mohamed A. S.; Yan, Aidong; Li, Shuo; Lu, Guanyi; Ames, Brandon C.; Zolfaghari, Navid; Bunger, Andrew P.; Li, Ming-Jun; Chen, Kevin P.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present a distributed fiber optic sensing scheme to study 3D strain fields inside concrete cubes during hydraulic fracturing process. Optical fibers embedded in concrete were used to monitor 3D strain field build-up with external hydraulic pressures. High spatial resolution strain fields were interrogated by the in-fiber Rayleigh backscattering with 1-cm spatial resolution using optical frequency domain reflectometry. The fiber optics sensor scheme presented in this paper provides scientists and engineers a unique laboratory tool to understand the hydraulic fracturing processes in various rock formations and its impacts to environments.

  12. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  13. 3D modelling in salt tectonic context: the Crocodile minibasin in Sivas (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collon, Pauline; Pichat, Alexandre; Kergaravat, Charlie; Botella, Arnaud; Caumon, Guillaume; Favreau, Océane; Fuss, Gaétan; Godefroy, Gabriel; Lerat, Marine; Mazuyer, Antoine; Parquer, Marion; Charreau, Julien; Callot, Jean-Paul; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude

    2015-04-01

    salt surface to consistently disconnect both minibasin parts. This step is performed thanks to a local simplification of the salt surface that consists in replacing pinched parts by an equivalent fault/weld surface. The 3D scalar field is then computed with a Discrete Smooth Interpolation constrained by several information. Those information are weighted consistently with their relative uncertainty. Control points impose locally the scalar field value. They are set on interpreted bedding traces and on a surface located at 5m from the external salt surface boundary to account for the tangency of the sediment deposits in conformable parts of the minibasin. They are completed by constraints on the scalar field gradient orientation using dip measurements and a constant gradient constraint. The result highlights the remarkable geometry of this salt-tectonic related structure and underlines the usefulness of new modelling methods to ease a more automated generation of such tectonic features.

  14. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  15. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-21

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K(+) channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44(+) EGFR(+) KV1.1(+) MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44(-) EGFR(-) KV1.1(+) 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third

  16. 3-D electromagnetic modeling of wakefields in accelerator components

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, B.R.; Caporaso, G.J.; Ng, Wang C.; Shang, C.C.; Steich, D.

    1996-09-18

    We discuss the use of 3-D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) electromagnetic codes for modeling accelerator components. Computational modeling of cylindrically symmetric structures such as induction accelerator cells has been very successful in predicting the wake potential and wake impedances of these structures, but full 3-D modeling of complex structures has been limited due to substantial computer resources required for a full 3-D model. New massively parallel 3-D time domain electromagnetic codes now under development using conforming unstructured meshes allow a substantial increase in the geometric fidelity of the structures being modeled. Development of these new codes are discussed in context of applicability to accelerator problems. Various 3-D structures are tested with an existing cubical cell FDTD code and wake impedances compared with simple analytic models for the structures; results will be used as benchmarks for testing the new time time domain codes. Structures under consideration include a stripline beam position monitor as well as circular and elliptical apertures in circular waveguides. Excellent agreement for monopole and dipole impedances with models were found for these structures below the cutoff frequency of the beam line.

  17. 3-D electromagnetic modeling of wakefields in accelerator components

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, Brian R.; Caporaso, George J.; Ng, Wang C.; Shang, Clifford C.; Steich, David

    1997-02-01

    We discuss the use of 3-D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) electromagnetic codes for the modeling of accelerator components. Computational modeling of cylindrically symmetric structures such as induction accelerator cells has been extremely successful in predicting the wake potential and wake impedances of these structures, but fully 3-D modeling of complex structures has been limited due to the substantial computer resources required for a fully 3-D model. New massively parallel 3-D time domain electromagnetic codes now under development using conforming unstructured meshes allow a substantial increase in the geometric fidelity of the structures being modeled. Development of these new codes will be discussed in the context of their applicability to accelerator problems. A variety of 3-D structures are tested with an existing cubical cell FDTD code and the wake impedances are compared with simple analytic models for the structures. These results will provide a set of benchmarks for testing the new time domain codes. Structures under consideration include a stripline beam position monitor as well as circular and elliptical apertures in circular waveguides. Excellent agreement for the monopole and dipole impedances with the models are found for these structures below the cutoff frequency of the beam line.

  18. 3D thermography imaging standardization technique for inflammation diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Xiangyang; Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Siebert, J. Paul

    2005-01-01

    We develop a 3D thermography imaging standardization technique to allow quantitative data analysis. Medical Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging is very sensitive and reliable mean of graphically mapping and display skin surface temperature. It allows doctors to visualise in colour and quantify temperature changes in skin surface. The spectrum of colours indicates both hot and cold responses which may co-exist if the pain associate with an inflammatory focus excites an increase in sympathetic activity. However, due to thermograph provides only qualitative diagnosis information, it has not gained acceptance in the medical and veterinary communities as a necessary or effective tool in inflammation and tumor detection. Here, our technique is based on the combination of visual 3D imaging technique and thermal imaging technique, which maps the 2D thermography images on to 3D anatomical model. Then we rectify the 3D thermogram into a view independent thermogram and conform it a standard shape template. The combination of these imaging facilities allows the generation of combined 3D and thermal data from which thermal signatures can be quantified.

  19. 3D Kitaev spin liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, Maria

    The Kitaev honeycomb model has become one of the archetypal spin models exhibiting topological phases of matter, where the magnetic moments fractionalize into Majorana fermions interacting with a Z2 gauge field. In this talk, we discuss generalizations of this model to three-dimensional lattice structures. Our main focus is the metallic state that the emergent Majorana fermions form. In particular, we discuss the relation of the nature of this Majorana metal to the details of the underlying lattice structure. Besides (almost) conventional metals with a Majorana Fermi surface, one also finds various realizations of Dirac semi-metals, where the gapless modes form Fermi lines or even Weyl nodes. We introduce a general classification of these gapless quantum spin liquids using projective symmetry analysis. Furthermore, we briefly outline why these Majorana metals in 3D Kitaev systems provide an even richer variety of Dirac and Weyl phases than possible for electronic matter and comment on possible experimental signatures. Work done in collaboration with Kevin O'Brien and Simon Trebst.

  20. Yogi the rock - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Yogi, a rock taller than rover Sojourner, is the subject of this image, taken in stereo by the deployed Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The soil in the foreground has been the location of multiple soil mechanics experiments performed by Sojourner's cleated wheels. Pathfinder scientists were able to control the force inflicted on the soil beneath the rover's wheels, giving them insight into the soil's mechanical properties. The soil mechanics experiments were conducted after this image was taken.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  1. 3D ultrafast laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

    2013-03-01

    Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and 3D volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.

  2. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  3. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  4. 3-D Cavern Enlargement Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    EHGARTNER, BRIAN L.; SOBOLIK, STEVEN R.

    2002-03-01

    Three-dimensional finite element analyses simulate the mechanical response of enlarging existing caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The caverns are located in Gulf Coast salt domes and are enlarged by leaching during oil drawdowns as fresh water is injected to displace the crude oil from the caverns. The current criteria adopted by the SPR limits cavern usage to 5 drawdowns (leaches). As a base case, 5 leaches were modeled over a 25 year period to roughly double the volume of a 19 cavern field. Thirteen additional leaches where then simulated until caverns approached coalescence. The cavern field approximated the geometries and geologic properties found at the West Hackberry site. This enabled comparisons are data collected over nearly 20 years to analysis predictions. The analyses closely predicted the measured surface subsidence and cavern closure rates as inferred from historic well head pressures. This provided the necessary assurance that the model displacements, strains, and stresses are accurate. However, the cavern field has not yet experienced the large scale drawdowns being simulated. Should they occur in the future, code predictions should be validated with actual field behavior at that time. The simulations were performed using JAS3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasi-static solids. The results examine the impacts of leaching and cavern workovers, where internal cavern pressures are reduced, on surface subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The results suggest that the current limit of 5 oil drawdowns may be extended with some mitigative action required on the wells and later on to surface structure due to subsidence strains. The predicted stress state in the salt shows damage to start occurring after 15 drawdowns with significant failure occurring at the 16th drawdown, well beyond the current limit of 5 drawdowns.

  5. Imaging a Sustainable Future in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kanngieser, E.

    2012-07-01

    It is the intention of this paper, to contribute to a sustainable future by providing objective object information based on 3D photography as well as promoting 3D photography not only for scientists, but also for amateurs. Due to the presentation of this article by CIPA Task Group 3 on "3D Photographs in Cultural Heritage", the presented samples are masterpieces of historic as well as of current 3D photography concentrating on cultural heritage. In addition to a report on exemplarily access to international archives of 3D photographs, samples for new 3D photographs taken with modern 3D cameras, as well as by means of a ground based high resolution XLITE staff camera and also 3D photographs taken from a captive balloon and the use of civil drone platforms are dealt with. To advise on optimum suited 3D methodology, as well as to catch new trends in 3D, an updated synoptic overview of the 3D visualization technology, even claiming completeness, has been carried out as a result of a systematic survey. In this respect, e.g., today's lasered crystals might be "early bird" products in 3D, which, due to lack in resolution, contrast and color, remember to the stage of the invention of photography.

  6. Teaching Geography with 3-D Visualization Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter; Ziegler, Susy S.

    2006-01-01

    Technology that helps students view images in three dimensions (3-D) can support a broad range of learning styles. "Geo-Wall systems" are visualization tools that allow scientists, teachers, and students to project stereographic images and view them in 3-D. We developed and presented 3-D visualization exercises in several undergraduate courses.…

  7. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  8. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  9. 3D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-09-23

    E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output.

  10. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology. PMID:26028997

  11. 3D seismic image processing for interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xinming

    Extracting fault, unconformity, and horizon surfaces from a seismic image is useful for interpretation of geologic structures and stratigraphic features. Although interpretation of these surfaces has been automated to some extent by others, significant manual effort is still required for extracting each type of these geologic surfaces. I propose methods to automatically extract all the fault, unconformity, and horizon surfaces from a 3D seismic image. To a large degree, these methods just involve image processing or array processing which is achieved by efficiently solving partial differential equations. For fault interpretation, I propose a linked data structure, which is simpler than triangle or quad meshes, to represent a fault surface. In this simple data structure, each sample of a fault corresponds to exactly one image sample. Using this linked data structure, I extract complete and intersecting fault surfaces without holes from 3D seismic images. I use the same structure in subsequent processing to estimate fault slip vectors. I further propose two methods, using precomputed fault surfaces and slips, to undo faulting in seismic images by simultaneously moving fault blocks and faults themselves. For unconformity interpretation, I first propose a new method to compute a unconformity likelihood image that highlights both the termination areas and the corresponding parallel unconformities and correlative conformities. I then extract unconformity surfaces from the likelihood image and use these surfaces as constraints to more accurately estimate seismic normal vectors that are discontinuous near the unconformities. Finally, I use the estimated normal vectors and use the unconformities as constraints to compute a flattened image, in which seismic reflectors are all flat and vertical gaps correspond to the unconformities. Horizon extraction is straightforward after computing a map of image flattening; we can first extract horizontal slices in the flattened space

  12. 3D printed long period gratings for optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Iezzi, Victor Lambin; Boisvert, Jean-Sébastien; Loranger, Sébastien; Kashyap, Raman

    2016-04-15

    We demonstrate a simple technique for implementing long period grating (LPG) structures by the use of a 3D printer. This Letter shows a way of manipulating the mode coupling within an optical fiber by applying stress through an external 3D printed periodic structure. Different LPG lengths and periods have been studied, as well as the effect of the applied stress on the coupling efficiency from the fundamental mode to cladding modes. The technique is very simple, highly flexible, affordable, and easy to implement without the need of altering the optical fiber. This Letter is part of a growing line of interest in the use of 3D printers for optical applications. PMID:27082365

  13. Efficient framework for deformable 2D-3D registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fluck, Oliver; Aharon, Shmuel; Khamene, Ali

    2008-03-01

    Using 2D-3D registration it is possible to extract the body transformation between the coordinate systems of X-ray and volumetric CT images. Our initial motivation is the improvement of accuracy of external beam radiation therapy, an effective method for treating cancer, where CT data play a central role in radiation treatment planning. Rigid body transformation is used to compute the correct patient setup. The drawback of such approaches is that the rigidity assumption on the imaged object is not valid for most of the patient cases, mainly due to respiratory motion. In the present work, we address this limitation by proposing a flexible framework for deformable 2D-3D registration consisting of a learning phase incorporating 4D CT data sets and hardware accelerated free form DRR generation, 2D motion computation, and 2D-3D back projection.

  14. 3D bioprinting of skin: a state-of-the-art review on modelling, materials, and processes.

    PubMed

    Vijayavenkataraman, S; Lu, W F; Fuh, J Y H

    2016-01-01

    The skin is the largest organ of the body, having a complex multi-layered structure and guards the underlying muscles, bones, ligaments, and internal organs. It serves as the first line of defence to any external stimuli, hence it is the most vulnerable to injury and warrants the need for rapid and reliable regeneration methods. Tissue engineered skin substitutes help overcome the limitations of traditional skin treatment methods, in terms of technology, time, and cost. While there is commendable progress in the treating of superficial wounds and injuries with skin substitutes, treatment of full-thickness injuries, especially with third or fourth degree burns, still looks murkier. Engineering multi-layer skin architecture, conforming to the native skin structure is a tougher goal to achieve with the current tissue engineering methods, if not impossible, restoring all the functions of the native skin. The testing of drugs and cosmetics is another area, where engineered skins are very much needed, with bans being imposed on product testing on animals. Given this greater need, 3D bioprinting is a promising technology that can achieve rapid and reliable production of biomimetic cellular skin substitutes, satisfying both clinical and industrial needs. This paper reviews all aspects related to the 3D bioprinting of skin, right from imaging the injury site, 3D model creation, biomaterials that are used and their suitability, types of cells and their functions, actual bioprinting technologies, along with the challenges and future prospects. PMID:27606434

  15. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  16. The Esri 3D city information model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, T.; Schubiger-Banz, S.

    2014-02-01

    With residential and commercial space becoming increasingly scarce, cities are going vertical. Managing the urban environments in 3D is an increasingly important and complex undertaking. To help solving this problem, Esri has released the ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution. The ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution provides the information model, tools and apps for creating, analyzing and maintaining a 3D city using the ArcGIS platform. This paper presents an overview of the 3D City Information Model and some sample use cases.

  17. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  18. 3D laptop for defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David

    2012-06-01

    Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous 3D display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for 3D vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged 3D laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype 3D laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and 3D content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live 3D video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced 3D data interpretation, and simulation.

  19. Directed 3D cell alignment and elongation in microengineered hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Aubin, Hug; Nichol, Jason W; Hutson, Ché B; Bae, Hojae; Sieminski, Alisha L; Cropek, Donald M; Akhyari, Payam; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2010-09-01

    Organized cellular alignment is critical to controlling tissue microarchitecture and biological function. Although a multitude of techniques have been described to control cellular alignment in 2D, recapitulating the cellular alignment of highly organized native tissues in 3D engineered tissues remains a challenge. While cellular alignment in engineered tissues can be induced through the use of external physical stimuli, there are few simple techniques for microscale control of cell behavior that are largely cell-driven. In this study we present a simple and direct method to control the alignment and elongation of fibroblasts, myoblasts, endothelial cells and cardiac stem cells encapsulated in microengineered 3D gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogels, demonstrating that cells with the intrinsic potential to form aligned tissues in vivo will self-organize into functional tissues in vitro if confined in the appropriate 3D microarchitecture. The presented system may be used as an in vitro model for investigating cell and tissue morphogenesis in 3D, as well as for creating tissue constructs with microscale control of 3D cellular alignment and elongation, that could have great potential for the engineering of functional tissues with aligned cells and anisotropic function. PMID:20638973

  20. 3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team

    Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).

  1. RT3D tutorials for GMS users

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, T.P.; Jones, N.L.

    1998-02-01

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

  2. 3-D laser patterning process utilizing horizontal and vertical patterning

    DOEpatents

    Malba, Vincent; Bernhardt, Anthony F.

    2000-01-01

    A process which vastly improves the 3-D patterning capability of laser pantography (computer controlled laser direct-write patterning). The process uses commercially available electrodeposited photoresist (EDPR) to pattern 3-D surfaces. The EDPR covers the surface of a metal layer conformally, coating the vertical as well as horizontal surfaces. A laser pantograph then patterns the EDPR, which is subsequently developed in a standard, commercially available developer, leaving patterned trench areas in the EDPR. The metal layer thereunder is now exposed in the trench areas and masked in others, and thereafter can be etched to form the desired pattern (subtractive process), or can be plated with metal (additive process), followed by a resist stripping, and removal of the remaining field metal (additive process). This improved laser pantograph process is simpler, faster, move manufacturable, and requires no micro-machining.

  3. 3D Dynamic Echocardiography with a Digitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshiro, Osamu; Matani, Ayumu; Chihara, Kunihiro

    1998-05-01

    In this paper,a three-dimensional (3D) dynamic ultrasound (US) imaging system,where a US brightness-mode (B-mode) imagetriggered with an R-wave of electrocardiogram (ECG)was obtained with an ultrasound diagnostic deviceand the location and orientation of the US probewere simultaneously measured with a 3D digitizer, is described.The obtained B-mode imagewas then projected onto a virtual 3D spacewith the proposed interpolation algorithm using a Gaussian operator.Furthermore, a 3D image was presented on a cathode ray tube (CRT)and stored in virtual reality modeling language (VRML).We performed an experimentto reconstruct a 3D heart image in systole using this system.The experimental results indicatethat the system enables the visualization ofthe 3D and internal structure of a heart viewed from any angleand has potential for use in dynamic imaging,intraoperative ultrasonography and tele-medicine.

  4. Comparison of 3D CRT and IMRT Tratment Plans

    PubMed Central

    Bakiu, Erjona; Telhaj, Ervis; Kozma, Elvisa; Ruçi, Ferdinand; Malkaj, Partizan

    2013-01-01

    Plans of patients with prostate tumor have been studied. These patients have been scanned in the CT simulator and the images have been sent to the Focal, the system where the doctor delineates the tumor and the organs at risk. After that in the treatment planning system XiO there are created for the same patients three dimensional conformal and intensity modulated radiotherapy treatment plans. The planes are compared according to the dose volume histograms. It is observed that the plans with IMRT technique conform better the isodoses to the planning target volume and protect more the organs at risk, but the time needed to create such plans and to control it is higher than 3D CRT. So it necessary to decide in which patients to do one or the other technique depending on the full dose given to PTV and time consuming in genereral. PMID:24167395

  5. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2015-03-01

    This is the first book written on using Blender for scientific visualization. It is a practical and interesting introduction to Blender for understanding key parts of 3D rendering and animation that pertain to the sciences via step-by-step guided tutorials. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender takes you through an understanding of 3D graphics and modelling for different visualization scenarios in the physical sciences.

  6. Software for 3D radiotherapy dosimetry. Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr; Karwowski, Andrzej C.

    2014-08-01

    The subject of this work is polyGeVero® software (GeVero Co., Poland), which has been developed to fill the requirements of fast calculations of 3D dosimetry data with the emphasis on polymer gel dosimetry for radiotherapy. This software comprises four workspaces that have been prepared for: (i) calculating calibration curves and calibration equations, (ii) storing the calibration characteristics of the 3D dosimeters, (iii) calculating 3D dose distributions in irradiated 3D dosimeters, and (iv) comparing 3D dose distributions obtained from measurements with the aid of 3D dosimeters and calculated with the aid of treatment planning systems (TPSs). The main features and functions of the software are described in this work. Moreover, the core algorithms were validated and the results are presented. The validation was performed using the data of the new PABIGnx polymer gel dosimeter. The polyGeVero® software simplifies and greatly accelerates the calculations of raw 3D dosimetry data. It is an effective tool for fast verification of TPS-generated plans for tumor irradiation when combined with a 3D dosimeter. Consequently, the software may facilitate calculations by the 3D dosimetry community. In this work, the calibration characteristics of the PABIGnx obtained through four calibration methods: multi vial, cross beam, depth dose, and brachytherapy, are discussed as well.

  7. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  8. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-03-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The current paper describes the modern stereo 3-D technologies that are applicable to various tasks in teaching physics in schools, colleges, and universities. Examples of stereo 3-D simulations developed by the author can be observed on online.

  9. Accuracy in Quantitative 3D Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bassel, George W.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative 3D imaging is becoming an increasingly popular and powerful approach to investigate plant growth and development. With the increased use of 3D image analysis, standards to ensure the accuracy and reproducibility of these data are required. This commentary highlights how image acquisition and postprocessing can introduce artifacts into 3D image data and proposes steps to increase both the accuracy and reproducibility of these analyses. It is intended to aid researchers entering the field of 3D image processing of plant cells and tissues and to help general readers in understanding and evaluating such data. PMID:25804539

  10. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  11. A hybrid approach for addressing ring flexibility in 3D database searching.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, J

    1997-01-01

    A hybrid approach for flexible 3D database searching is presented that addresses the problem of ring flexibility. It combines the explicit storage of up to 25 multiple conformations of rings, with up to eight atoms, generated by the 3D structure generator CORINA with the power of a torsional fitting technique implemented in the 3D database system UNITY. A comparison with the original UNITY approach, using a database with about 130,000 entries and five different pharmacophore queries, was performed. The hybrid approach scored, on an average, 10-20% more hits than the reference run. Moreover, specific problems with unrealistic hit geometries produced by the original approach can be excluded. In addition, the influence of the maximum number of ring conformations per molecule was investigated. An optimal number of 10 conformations per molecule is recommended. PMID:9139112

  12. 3D Simulations of the Beehive Proplyd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feitosa, J. A.; Vasconcelos, M. J.; Cerqueira, A. H.

    2014-10-01

    Some star formation regions, like the Orion nebula, have stars of different masses, from massive stars, responsible for strong ionizing winds and HII regions, to low-mass stars, which spend a long time in the protostellar phase, and are frequently associated with protostellar disks and jets. Massive O or B stars emit a great deal of UV radiation, able to dissociate the hydrogen molecule (FUV radiation, energies between 6-13 eV), to ionize the atomic hydrogen (EUV radiation, energies greater than 13.6 eV) and heat the gas. Around these stars, a large and hot (10^{4}K) region is formed, known as HII region. T-Tauri stars inside HII regions produce a type of young stellar object, a proplyd, described with accuracy in O'Dell et al. (1993). Proplyds exhibit a cometary shape from which we can distinguish a central low-mass star with an accretion disk, an ionization front, a photodissociation region and, sometimes, an external bow shock and a protostellar jet. Its morphological characteristics depends on the distance between the low-mass star and the source of the ionizing radiation. The Beehive, a giant proplyd in Orion Nebula, has attracted attention due to its exotic system of rings coaxial to the HH540 jet's axis. Bally et al. (2005) suggested that the rings are perturbations due to the crossing of the ionization front by the jet. In this work, we test this hypothesis making 3D hydrodynamic numerical simulations over an adaptive grid, using the Yguazú-A code (Raga et al., 2000), properly adapted for the Beehive conditions. Our results show that the jet causes a perturbation in the ionization front of the proplyd, but is necessary to adjust carefully some parameters of the jet like its velocity and ejection frequency in order to have the results matching the observations.

  13. Universal constraints on 2D CFTs and 3D gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qualls, Joshua

    We study constraints imposed on a general unitary two-dimensional conformal field theory by modular invariance. We begin with a review of previous bounds on the conformal dimension Delta1 of the lowest primary operator assuming unitarity, a discrete spectrum, modular invariance, c, c > 1, and no extended chiral algebra. We then obtain bounds on the conformal dimensions Delta1, Delta2 using no additional assumptions. We also show that in order to find a bound for Delta 4 or higher Deltan, we need to assume a larger minimum value for ctot that grows logarithmically with n. We next extend the previous results to remove the requirement that our two-dimensional conformal field theories have no extended chiral algebra. We then show that modular invariance also implies an upper bound on the total number of states of positive energy less than c tot/24 (or equivalently, states of conformal dimension Delta between ctot/24 and ctot/12), in terms of the number of negative energy states. Finally, we consider the case where the CFT has a gravitational dual and investigate the gravitational interpretation of our results. Using the AdS3/CFT2 correspondence, we obtain an upper bound on the lightest few massive excitations (both with and without the constraint of no chiral primary operators) in a theory of 3D matter and gravity with Lambda < 0. We show our results are consistent with facts and expectations about the spectrum of BTZ black holes in 2+1 gravity. We then discuss the upper and lower bounds on number of states and primary operators in the dual gravitational theory, focusing on the case of AdS 3 pure gravity. KEYWORDS: Conformal Field Theory, Modular Invariance, AdS/CFT Correspondence, BTZ Black Holes, Bounds.

  14. Accuracy of volume measurement using 3D ultrasound and development of CT-3D US image fusion algorithm for prostate cancer radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, Jihye; Huh, Jangyoung; Hyun An, So; Oh, Yoonjin; Kim, Myungsoo; Kim, DongYoung; Chung, Kwangzoo; Cho, Sungho; Lee, Rena

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of measuring volumes using three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US), and to verify the feasibility of the replacement of CT-MR fusion images with CT-3D US in radiotherapy treatment planning. Methods: Phantoms, consisting of water, contrast agent, and agarose, were manufactured. The volume was measured using 3D US, CT, and MR devices. A CT-3D US and MR-3D US image fusion software was developed using the Insight Toolkit library in order to acquire three-dimensional fusion images. The quality of the image fusion was evaluated using metric value and fusion images. Results: Volume measurement, using 3D US, shows a 2.8 {+-} 1.5% error, 4.4 {+-} 3.0% error for CT, and 3.1 {+-} 2.0% error for MR. The results imply that volume measurement using the 3D US devices has a similar accuracy level to that of CT and MR. Three-dimensional image fusion of CT-3D US and MR-3D US was successfully performed using phantom images. Moreover, MR-3D US image fusion was performed using human bladder images. Conclusions: 3D US could be used in the volume measurement of human bladders and prostates. CT-3D US image fusion could be used in monitoring the target position in each fraction of external beam radiation therapy. Moreover, the feasibility of replacing the CT-MR image fusion to the CT-3D US in radiotherapy treatment planning was verified.

  15. 3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.

  16. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  17. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

  18. Multi Sensor Data Integration for AN Accurate 3d Model Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhatkuli, S.; Satoh, T.; Tachibana, K.

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a novel technique of data integration between two different data sets, i.e. laser scanned RGB point cloud and oblique imageries derived 3D model, to create a 3D model with more details and better accuracy. In general, aerial imageries are used to create a 3D city model. Aerial imageries produce an overall decent 3D city models and generally suit to generate 3D model of building roof and some non-complex terrain. However, the automatically generated 3D model, from aerial imageries, generally suffers from the lack of accuracy in deriving the 3D model of road under the bridges, details under tree canopy, isolated trees, etc. Moreover, the automatically generated 3D model from aerial imageries also suffers from undulated road surfaces, non-conforming building shapes, loss of minute details like street furniture, etc. in many cases. On the other hand, laser scanned data and images taken from mobile vehicle platform can produce more detailed 3D road model, street furniture model, 3D model of details under bridge, etc. However, laser scanned data and images from mobile vehicle are not suitable to acquire detailed 3D model of tall buildings, roof tops, and so forth. Our proposed approach to integrate multi sensor data compensated each other's weakness and helped to create a very detailed 3D model with better accuracy. Moreover, the additional details like isolated trees, street furniture, etc. which were missing in the original 3D model derived from aerial imageries could also be integrated in the final model automatically. During the process, the noise in the laser scanned data for example people, vehicles etc. on the road were also automatically removed. Hence, even though the two dataset were acquired in different time period the integrated data set or the final 3D model was generally noise free and without unnecessary details.

  19. Reconstruction of 3D scenes from sequences of images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Bei; Sang, Xinzhu; Chen, Duo; Cai, Yuanfa

    2013-08-01

    Reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) scenes is an active research topic in the field of computer vision and 3D display. It's a challenge to model 3D objects rapidly and effectively. A 3D model can be extracted from multiple images. The system only requires a sequence of images taken with cameras without knowing the parameters of camera, which provide flexibility to a high degree. We focus on quickly merging point cloud of the object from depth map sequences. The whole system combines algorithms of different areas in computer vision, such as camera calibration, stereo correspondence, point cloud splicing and surface reconstruction. The procedure of 3D reconstruction is decomposed into a number of successive steps. Firstly, image sequences are received by the camera freely moving around the object. Secondly, the scene depth is obtained by a non-local stereo matching algorithm. The pairwise is realized with the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm. An initial matching is then made for the first two images of the sequence. For the subsequent image that is processed with previous image, the point of interest corresponding to ones in previous images are refined or corrected. The vertical parallax between the images is eliminated. The next step is to calibrate camera, and intrinsic parameters and external parameters of the camera are calculated. Therefore, The relative position and orientation of camera are gotten. A sequence of depth maps are acquired by using a non-local cost aggregation method for stereo matching. Then point cloud sequence is achieved by the scene depths, which consists of point cloud model using the external parameters of camera and the point cloud sequence. The point cloud model is then approximated by a triangular wire-frame mesh to reduce geometric complexity and to tailor the model to the requirements of computer graphics visualization systems. Finally, the texture is mapped onto the wire-frame model, which can also be used for 3

  20. Topology dictionary for 3D video understanding.

    PubMed

    Tung, Tony; Matsuyama, Takashi

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a novel approach that achieves 3D video understanding. 3D video consists of a stream of 3D models of subjects in motion. The acquisition of long sequences requires large storage space (2 GB for 1 min). Moreover, it is tedious to browse data sets and extract meaningful information. We propose the topology dictionary to encode and describe 3D video content. The model consists of a topology-based shape descriptor dictionary which can be generated from either extracted patterns or training sequences. The model relies on 1) topology description and classification using Reeb graphs, and 2) a Markov motion graph to represent topology change states. We show that the use of Reeb graphs as the high-level topology descriptor is relevant. It allows the dictionary to automatically model complex sequences, whereas other strategies would require prior knowledge on the shape and topology of the captured subjects. Our approach serves to encode 3D video sequences, and can be applied for content-based description and summarization of 3D video sequences. Furthermore, topology class labeling during a learning process enables the system to perform content-based event recognition. Experiments were carried out on various 3D videos. We showcase an application for 3D video progressive summarization using the topology dictionary. PMID:22745004

  1. 3-D seismology in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Husseini, M.; Chimblo, R.

    1995-08-01

    Since 1977 when Aramco and GSI (Geophysical Services International) pioneered the first 3-D seismic survey in the Arabian Gulf, under the guidance of Aramco`s Chief Geophysicist John Hoke, 3-D seismology has been effectively used to map many complex subsurface geological phenomena. By the mid-1990s extensive 3-D surveys were acquired in Abu Dhabi, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Also in the mid-1990`s Bahrain, Kuwait and Dubai were preparing to record surveys over their fields. On the structural side 3-D has refined seismic maps, focused faults and fractures systems, as well as outlined the distribution of facies, porosity and fluid saturation. In field development, 3D has not only reduced drilling costs significantly, but has also improved the understanding of fluid behavior in the reservoir. In Oman, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) has now acquired the first Gulf 4-D seismic survey (time-lapse 3D survey) over the Yibal Field. The 4-D survey will allow PDO to directly monitor water encroachment in the highly-faulted Cretaceous Shu`aiba reservoir. In exploration, 3-D seismology has resolved complex prospects with structural and stratigraphic complications and reduced the risk in the selection of drilling locations. The many case studies from Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, which are reviewed in this paper, attest to the effectiveness of 3D seismology in exploration and producing, in clastics and carbonates reservoirs, and in the Mesozoic and Paleozoic.

  2. A 3D Geostatistical Mapping Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-02-09

    This software provides accurate 3D reservoir modeling tools and high quality 3D graphics for PC platforms enabling engineers and geologists to better comprehend reservoirs and consequently improve their decisions. The mapping algorithms are fractals, kriging, sequential guassian simulation, and three nearest neighbor methods.

  3. 3D, or Not to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  4. 3-D structures of planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, W.

    2016-07-01

    Recent advances in the 3-D reconstruction of planetary nebulae are reviewed. We include not only results for 3-D reconstructions, but also the current techniques in terms of general methods and software. In order to obtain more accurate reconstructions, we suggest to extend the widely used assumption of homologous nebula expansion to map spectroscopically measured velocity to position along the line of sight.

  5. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  6. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  7. Static & Dynamic Response of 3D Solids

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-07-15

    NIKE3D is a large deformations 3D finite element code used to obtain the resulting displacements and stresses from multi-body static and dynamic structural thermo-mechanics problems with sliding interfaces. Many nonlinear and temperature dependent constitutive models are available.

  8. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  9. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  10. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D…

  11. Geometric and colour data fusion for outdoor 3D models.

    PubMed

    Merchán, Pilar; Adán, Antonio; Salamanca, Santiago; Domínguez, Vicente; Chacón, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the generation of accurate, dense and coloured 3D models of outdoor scenarios from scanners. This is a challenging research field in which several problems still remain unsolved. In particular, the process of 3D model creation in outdoor scenes may be inefficient if the scene is digitalized under unsuitable technical (specific scanner on-board camera) and environmental (rain, dampness, changing illumination) conditions. We address our research towards the integration of images and range data to produce photorealistic models. Our proposal is based on decoupling the colour integration and geometry reconstruction stages, making them independent and controlled processes. This issue is approached from two different viewpoints. On the one hand, given a complete model (geometry plus texture), we propose a method to modify the original texture provided by the scanner on-board camera with the colour information extracted from external images taken at given moments and under specific environmental conditions. On the other hand, we propose an algorithm to directly assign external images onto the complete geometric model, thus avoiding tedious on-line calibration processes. We present the work conducted on two large Roman archaeological sites dating from the first century A.D., namely, the Theatre of Segobriga and the Fori Porticus of Emerita Augusta, both in Spain. The results obtained demonstrate that our approach could be useful in the digitalization and 3D modelling fields. PMID:22969327

  12. Clinical applications of 3-D dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuu, Cheng-Shie

    2015-01-01

    Both 3-D gels and radiochromic plastic dosimeters, in conjunction with dose image readout systems (MRI or optical-CT), have been employed to measure 3-D dose distributions in many clinical applications. The 3-D dose maps obtained from these systems can provide a useful tool for clinical dose verification for complex treatment techniques such as IMRT, SRS/SBRT, brachytherapy, and proton beam therapy. These complex treatments present high dose gradient regions in the boundaries between the target and surrounding critical organs. Dose accuracy in these areas can be critical, and may affect treatment outcome. In this review, applications of 3-D gels and PRESAGE dosimeter are reviewed and evaluated in terms of their performance in providing information on clinical dose verification as well as commissioning of various treatment modalities. Future interests and clinical needs on studies of 3-D dosimetry are also discussed.

  13. Biocompatible 3D Matrix with Antimicrobial Properties.

    PubMed

    Ion, Alberto; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Rădulescu, Dragoș; Rădulescu, Marius; Iordache, Florin; Vasile, Bogdan Ștefan; Surdu, Adrian Vasile; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Maniu, Horia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, characterize and assess the biological activity of a new regenerative 3D matrix with antimicrobial properties, based on collagen (COLL), hydroxyapatite (HAp), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and usnic acid (UA). The prepared 3D matrix was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FT-IRM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). In vitro qualitative and quantitative analyses performed on cultured diploid cells demonstrated that the 3D matrix is biocompatible, allowing the normal development and growth of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and exhibited an antimicrobial effect, especially on the Staphylococcus aureus strain, explained by the particular higher inhibitory activity of usnic acid (UA) against Gram positive bacterial strains. Our data strongly recommend the obtained 3D matrix to be used as a successful alternative for the fabrication of three dimensional (3D) anti-infective regeneration matrix for bone tissue engineering. PMID:26805790

  14. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; Da Via, C.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  15. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  16. Hybrid segmentation framework for 3D medical image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ting; Metaxas, Dimitri N.

    2003-05-01

    Medical image segmentation is the process that defines the region of interest in the image volume. Classical segmentation methods such as region-based methods and boundary-based methods cannot make full use of the information provided by the image. In this paper we proposed a general hybrid framework for 3D medical image segmentation purposes. In our approach we combine the Gibbs Prior model, and the deformable model. First, Gibbs Prior models are applied onto each slice in a 3D medical image volume and the segmentation results are combined to a 3D binary masks of the object. Then we create a deformable mesh based on this 3D binary mask. The deformable model will be lead to the edge features in the volume with the help of image derived external forces. The deformable model segmentation result can be used to update the parameters for Gibbs Prior models. These methods will then work recursively to reach a global segmentation solution. The hybrid segmentation framework has been applied to images with the objective of lung, heart, colon, jaw, tumor, and brain. The experimental data includes MRI (T1, T2, PD), CT, X-ray, Ultra-Sound images. High quality results are achieved with relatively efficient time cost. We also did validation work using expert manual segmentation as the ground truth. The result shows that the hybrid segmentation may have further clinical use.

  17. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  18. 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Arango, Juan Esteban; Imbault, Marion; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative real-time imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in three dimensions based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32×32 matrix-array probe. Its capability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3-D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging and finally 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3-D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3-D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, for the first time, the complex 3-D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, and the 3-D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3-D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3-D real-time mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra- and inter-observer variability. PMID:25207828

  19. The psychology of the 3D experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  20. Quantifying Interparticle Forces and Heterogeneity in 3D Granular Materials.

    PubMed

    Hurley, R C; Hall, S A; Andrade, J E; Wright, J

    2016-08-26

    Interparticle forces in granular materials are intimately linked to mechanical properties and are known to self-organize into heterogeneous structures, or force chains, under external load. Despite progress in understanding the statistics and spatial distribution of interparticle forces in recent decades, a systematic method for measuring forces in opaque, three-dimensional (3D), frictional, stiff granular media has yet to emerge. In this Letter, we present results from an experiment that combines 3D x-ray diffraction, x-ray tomography, and a numerical force inference technique to quantify interparticle forces and their heterogeneity in an assembly of quartz grains undergoing a one-dimensional compression cycle. Forces exhibit an exponential decay above the mean and partition into strong and weak networks. We find a surprising inverse relationship between macroscopic load and the heterogeneity of interparticle forces, despite the clear emergence of two force chains that span the system. PMID:27610890

  1. 3D resolved mapping of optical aberrations in thick tissues

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jun; Mahou, Pierre; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire; Beaurepaire, Emmanuel; Débarre, Delphine

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a simple method for mapping optical aberrations with 3D resolution within thick samples. The method relies on the local measurement of the variation in image quality with externally applied aberrations. We discuss the accuracy of the method as a function of the signal strength and of the aberration amplitude and we derive the achievable resolution for the resulting measurements. We then report on measured 3D aberration maps in human skin biopsies and mouse brain slices. From these data, we analyse the consequences of tissue structure and refractive index distribution on aberrations and imaging depth in normal and cleared tissue samples. The aberration maps allow the estimation of the typical aplanetism region size over which aberrations can be uniformly corrected. This method and data pave the way towards efficient correction strategies for tissue imaging applications. PMID:22876353

  2. Molecular cartography of the human skin surface in 3D

    PubMed Central

    Bouslimani, Amina; Porto, Carla; Rath, Christopher M.; Wang, Mingxun; Guo, Yurong; Gonzalez, Antonio; Berg-Lyon, Donna; Ackermann, Gail; Moeller Christensen, Gitte Julie; Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Zhang, Lingjuan; Borkowski, Andrew W.; Meehan, Michael J.; Dorrestein, Kathleen; Gallo, Richard L.; Bandeira, Nuno; Knight, Rob; Alexandrov, Theodore; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2015-01-01

    The human skin is an organ with a surface area of 1.5–2 m2 that provides our interface with the environment. The molecular composition of this organ is derived from host cells, microbiota, and external molecules. The chemical makeup of the skin surface is largely undefined. Here we advance the technologies needed to explore the topographical distribution of skin molecules, using 3D mapping of mass spectrometry data and microbial 16S rRNA amplicon sequences. Our 3D maps reveal that the molecular composition of skin has diverse distributions and that the composition is defined not only by skin cells and microbes but also by our daily routines, including the application of hygiene products. The technological development of these maps lays a foundation for studying the spatial relationships of human skin with hygiene, the microbiota, and environment, with potential for developing predictive models of skin phenotypes tailored to individual health. PMID:25825778

  3. Molecular cartography of the human skin surface in 3D.

    PubMed

    Bouslimani, Amina; Porto, Carla; Rath, Christopher M; Wang, Mingxun; Guo, Yurong; Gonzalez, Antonio; Berg-Lyon, Donna; Ackermann, Gail; Moeller Christensen, Gitte Julie; Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Zhang, Lingjuan; Borkowski, Andrew W; Meehan, Michael J; Dorrestein, Kathleen; Gallo, Richard L; Bandeira, Nuno; Knight, Rob; Alexandrov, Theodore; Dorrestein, Pieter C

    2015-04-28

    The human skin is an organ with a surface area of 1.5-2 m(2) that provides our interface with the environment. The molecular composition of this organ is derived from host cells, microbiota, and external molecules. The chemical makeup of the skin surface is largely undefined. Here we advance the technologies needed to explore the topographical distribution of skin molecules, using 3D mapping of mass spectrometry data and microbial 16S rRNA amplicon sequences. Our 3D maps reveal that the molecular composition of skin has diverse distributions and that the composition is defined not only by skin cells and microbes but also by our daily routines, including the application of hygiene products. The technological development of these maps lays a foundation for studying the spatial relationships of human skin with hygiene, the microbiota, and environment, with potential for developing predictive models of skin phenotypes tailored to individual health. PMID:25825778

  4. Thinking on sharing 3D GIS data by web service following OGC standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lvewei

    2016-03-01

    Sharing based on web service is a well-understood method in GIS. This paper mainly study on how to share 3D GIS data in this way. Based on the analysis of current situation, this paper concludes the existing problem and put forward the idea of sharing 3D by web service following OGC standard. Besides, feasibility and practicality of the idea are verified by relevant experimental evidence. In the end, a framework conforming to the idea above is present, providing reference to the sharing 3D GIS based on web service.

  5. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26562233

  6. 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology. PMID:25093879

  7. Optically rewritable 3D liquid crystal displays.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Srivastava, A K; Zhang, W; Wang, L; Chigrinov, V G; Kwok, H S

    2014-11-01

    Optically rewritable liquid crystal display (ORWLCD) is a concept based on the optically addressed bi-stable display that does not need any power to hold the image after being uploaded. Recently, the demand for the 3D image display has increased enormously. Several attempts have been made to achieve 3D image on the ORWLCD, but all of them involve high complexity for image processing on both hardware and software levels. In this Letter, we disclose a concept for the 3D-ORWLCD by dividing the given image in three parts with different optic axis. A quarter-wave plate is placed on the top of the ORWLCD to modify the emerging light from different domains of the image in different manner. Thereafter, Polaroid glasses can be used to visualize the 3D image. The 3D image can be refreshed, on the 3D-ORWLCD, in one-step with proper ORWLCD printer and image processing, and therefore, with easy image refreshing and good image quality, such displays can be applied for many applications viz. 3D bi-stable display, security elements, etc. PMID:25361316

  8. Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Norman A.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

  9. FUN3D Manual: 12.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  10. FUN3D Manual: 12.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  11. FUN3D Manual: 13.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  12. FUN3D Manual: 12.8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  13. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  14. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models. PMID:19147891

  15. New method of 3-D object recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, An-Zhi; Li, Qun Z.; Miao, Peng C.

    1991-12-01

    In this paper, a new method of 3-D object recognition using optical techniques and a computer is presented. We perform 3-D object recognition using moire contour to obtain the object's 3- D coordinates, projecting drawings of the object in three coordinate planes to describe it and using a method of inquiring library of judgement to match objects. The recognition of a simple geometrical entity is simulated by computer and studied experimentally. The recognition of an object which is composed of a few simple geometrical entities is discussed.

  16. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, includingmore » frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.« less

  17. How We 3D-Print Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-23

    A new type of graphene aerogel will make for better energy storage, sensors, nanoelectronics, catalysis and separations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have made graphene aerogel microlattices with an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The research appears in the April 22 edition of the journal, Nature Communications. The 3D printed graphene aerogels have high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, are lightweight, have mechanical stiffness and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90 percent compressive strain). In addition, the 3D printed graphene aerogel microlattices show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials and much better mass transport.

  18. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-07-29

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

  19. FUN3D Manual: 12.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  20. FUN3D Manual: 12.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  1. FUN3D Manual: 12.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.6, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  2. Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-07

    DYNA3D is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation.

  3. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    PubMed

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing. PMID:24808080

  4. JAR3D Webserver: Scoring and aligning RNA loop sequences to known 3D motifs.

    PubMed

    Roll, James; Zirbel, Craig L; Sweeney, Blake; Petrov, Anton I; Leontis, Neocles

    2016-07-01

    Many non-coding RNAs have been identified and may function by forming 2D and 3D structures. RNA hairpin and internal loops are often represented as unstructured on secondary structure diagrams, but RNA 3D structures show that most such loops are structured by non-Watson-Crick basepairs and base stacking. Moreover, different RNA sequences can form the same RNA 3D motif. JAR3D finds possible 3D geometries for hairpin and internal loops by matching loop sequences to motif groups from the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, by exact sequence match when possible, and by probabilistic scoring and edit distance for novel sequences. The scoring gauges the ability of the sequences to form the same pattern of interactions observed in 3D structures of the motif. The JAR3D webserver at http://rna.bgsu.edu/jar3d/ takes one or many sequences of a single loop as input, or else one or many sequences of longer RNAs with multiple loops. Each sequence is scored against all current motif groups. The output shows the ten best-matching motif groups. Users can align input sequences to each of the motif groups found by JAR3D. JAR3D will be updated with every release of the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, and so its performance is expected to improve over time. PMID:27235417

  5. Structure based 3D-QSAR studies of Interleukin-2 inhibitors: Comparing the quality and predictivity of 3D-QSAR models obtained from different alignment methods and charge calculations.

    PubMed

    Halim, Sobia Ahsan; Zaheer-ul-Haq

    2015-08-01

    Interleukin-2 is an essential cytokine in an innate immune response, and is a promising drug target for several immunological disorders. In the present study, structure-based 3D-QSAR modeling was carried out via Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) and Comparative Molecular Similarity Index Analysis (CoMSIA) methods. Six different partial charge calculation methods were used in combination with two different alignment methods to scrutinize their effects on the predictive power of 3D-QSAR models. The best CoMFA and CoMSIA models were obtained with the AM1 charges when used with co-conformer based substructure alignment (CCBSA) method. The obtained models posses excellent correlation coefficient value and also exhibited good predictive power (for CoMFA: q(2)=0.619; r(2)=0.890; r(2)Pred=0.765 and for CoMSIA: q(2)=0.607; r(2)=0.884; r(2)Pred=0.655). The developed models were further validated by using a set of another sixteen compounds as external test set 2 and both models showed strong predictive power with r(2)Pred=>0.8. The contour maps obtained from these models better interpret the structure activity relationship; hence the developed models would help to design and optimize more potent IL-2 inhibitors. The results might have implications for rational design of specific anti-inflammatory compounds with improved affinity and selectivity. PMID:26051521

  6. 2D/3D Image Registration using Regression Learning

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chen-Rui; Frederick, Brandon; Mageras, Gig; Chang, Sha; Pizer, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    In computer vision and image analysis, image registration between 2D projections and a 3D image that achieves high accuracy and near real-time computation is challenging. In this paper, we propose a novel method that can rapidly detect an object’s 3D rigid motion or deformation from a 2D projection image or a small set thereof. The method is called CLARET (Correction via Limited-Angle Residues in External Beam Therapy) and consists of two stages: registration preceded by shape space and regression learning. In the registration stage, linear operators are used to iteratively estimate the motion/deformation parameters based on the current intensity residue between the target projec-tion(s) and the digitally reconstructed radiograph(s) (DRRs) of the estimated 3D image. The method determines the linear operators via a two-step learning process. First, it builds a low-order parametric model of the image region’s motion/deformation shape space from its prior 3D images. Second, using learning-time samples produced from the 3D images, it formulates the relationships between the model parameters and the co-varying 2D projection intensity residues by multi-scale linear regressions. The calculated multi-scale regression matrices yield the coarse-to-fine linear operators used in estimating the model parameters from the 2D projection intensity residues in the registration. The method’s application to Image-guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) requires only a few seconds and yields good results in localizing a tumor under rigid motion in the head and neck and under respiratory deformation in the lung, using one treatment-time imaging 2D projection or a small set thereof. PMID:24058278

  7. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  8. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  9. Tropical Cyclone Jack in Satellite 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby from NASA's TRMM satellite of Tropical Cyclone Jack on April 21 shows that some of the thunderstorms were shown by TRMM PR were still reaching height of at least 17 km (10.5 miles). ...

  10. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication. PMID:26869728

  11. 3D Visualization of Recent Sumatra Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Atul; Kilb, Debi

    2005-04-01

    Scientists and visualization experts at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography have created an interactive three-dimensional visualization of the 28 March 2005 magnitude 8.7 earthquake in Sumatra. The visualization shows the earthquake's hypocenter and aftershocks recorded until 29 March 2005, and compares it with the location of the 26 December 2004 magnitude 9 event and the consequent seismicity in that region. The 3D visualization was created using the Fledermaus software developed by Interactive Visualization Systems (http://www.ivs.unb.ca/) and stored as a ``scene'' file. To view this visualization, viewers need to download and install the free viewer program iView3D (http://www.ivs3d.com/products/iview3d).

  12. Future Engineers 3-D Print Timelapse

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Challenges K-12 students to create a model of a container for space using 3-D modeling software. Astronauts need containers of all kinds - from advanced containers that can study fruit flies t...

  13. 3-D Flyover Visualization of Veil Nebula

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D visualization flies across a small portion of the Veil Nebula as photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope. This region is a small part of a huge expanding remnant from a star that explod...

  14. Quantifying Modes of 3D Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Meghan K; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2015-12-01

    Although it is widely appreciated that cells migrate in a variety of diverse environments in vivo, we are only now beginning to use experimental workflows that yield images with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to study the molecular processes governing cell migration in 3D environments. Since cell migration is a dynamic process, it is usually studied via microscopy, but 3D movies of 3D processes are difficult to interpret by visual inspection. In this review, we discuss the technologies required to study the diversity of 3D cell migration modes with a focus on the visualization and computational analysis tools needed to study cell migration quantitatively at a level comparable to the analyses performed today on cells crawling on flat substrates. PMID:26603943

  15. 3D-patterned polymer brush surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xuechang; Liu, Xuqing; Xie, Zhuang; Zheng, Zijian

    2011-12-01

    Polymer brush-based three-dimensional (3D) structures are emerging as a powerful platform to engineer a surface by providing abundant spatially distributed chemical and physical properties. In this feature article, we aim to give a summary of the recent progress on the fabrication of 3D structures with polymer brushes, with a particular focus on the micro- and nanoscale. We start with a brief introduction on polymer brushes and the challenges to prepare their 3D structures. Then, we highlight the recent advances of the fabrication approaches on the basis of traditional polymerization time and grafting density strategies, and a recently developed feature density strategy. Finally, we provide some perspective outlooks on the future directions of engineering the 3D structures with polymer brushes.

  16. Modeling Cellular Processes in 3-D

    PubMed Central

    Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David

    2011-01-01

    Summary Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated, we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3-D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3-D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3-D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2-D or 1-D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3-D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling. PMID:22036197

  17. Eyes on the Earth 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.

    2013-01-01

    Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.

  18. 3-D Animation of Typhoon Bopha

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D animation of NASA's TRMM satellite data showed Typhoon Bopha tracking over the Philippines on Dec. 3 and moving into the Sulu Sea on Dec. 4, 2012. TRMM saw heavy rain (red) was falling at ...

  19. 3-D TRMM Flyby of Hurricane Amanda

    NASA Video Gallery

    The TRMM satellite flew over Hurricane Amanda on Tuesday, May 27 at 1049 UTC (6:49 a.m. EDT) and captured rainfall rates and cloud height data that was used to create this 3-D simulated flyby. Cred...

  20. Cyclone Rusty's Landfall in 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D image derived from NASA's TRMM satellite Precipitation Radar data on February 26, 2013 at 0654 UTC showed that the tops of some towering thunderstorms in Rusty's eye wall were reaching hei...

  1. TRMM 3-D Flyby of Ingrid

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Ingrid's rainfall was created from TRMM satellite data for Sept. 16. Heaviest rainfall appears in red towers over the Gulf of Mexico, while moderate rainfall stretc...

  2. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Gregory W; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F

    2016-07-15

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices. PMID:27250897

  3. Palacios field: A 3-D case history

    SciTech Connect

    McWhorter, R.; Torguson, B.

    1994-12-31

    In late 1992, Mitchell Energy Corporation acquired a 7.75 sq mi (20.0 km{sup 2}) 3-D seismic survey over Palacios field. Matagorda County, Texas. The company shot the survey to help evaluate the field for further development by delineating the fault pattern of the producing Middle Oligocene Frio interval. They compare the mapping of the field before and after the 3-D survey. This comparison shows that the 3-D volume yields superior fault imaging and interpretability compared to the dense 2-D data set. The problems with the 2-D data set are improper imaging of small and oblique faults and insufficient coverage over a complex fault pattern. Whereas the 2-D data set validated a simple fault model, the 3-D volume revealed a more complex history of faulting that includes three different fault systems. This discovery enabled them to reconstruct the depositional and structural history of Palacios field.

  4. Radiosity diffusion model in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Jason D.; Arridge, Simon R.; Chrysanthou, Yiorgos; Dehghani, Hamid; Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.; Schweiger, Martin

    2001-11-01

    We present the Radiosity-Diffusion model in three dimensions(3D), as an extension to previous work in 2D. It is a method for handling non-scattering spaces in optically participating media. We present the extension of the model to 3D including an extension to the model to cope with increased complexity of the 3D domain. We show that in 3D more careful consideration must be given to the issues of meshing and visibility to model the transport of light within reasonable computational bounds. We demonstrate the model to be comparable to Monte-Carlo simulations for selected geometries, and show preliminary results of comparisons to measured time-resolved data acquired on resin phantoms.

  5. 3D-HST results and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2015-01-01

    The 3D-HST survey is providing a comprehensive census of the distant Universe, combining HST WFC3 imaging and grism spectroscopy with a myriad of other ground- and space-based datasets. This talk constitutes an overview of science results from the survey, with a focus on ongoing work and ways to exploit the rich public release of the 3D-HST data.

  6. Assessing 3d Photogrammetry Techniques in Craniometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshobane, M. C.; de Bruyn, P. J. N.; Bester, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features) has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc®) three-dimensional (3D) modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model's accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  7. 3D model reconstruction of underground goaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yuanmin; Zuo, Xiaoqing; Jin, Baoxuan

    2005-10-01

    Constructing 3D model of underground goaf, we can control the process of mining better and arrange mining work reasonably. However, the shape of goaf and the laneway among goafs are very irregular, which produce great difficulties in data-acquiring and 3D model reconstruction. In this paper, we research on the method of data-acquiring and 3D model construction of underground goaf, building topological relation among goafs. The main contents are as follows: a) The paper proposed an efficient encoding rule employed to structure the field measurement data. b) A 3D model construction method of goaf is put forward, which by means of combining several TIN (triangulated irregular network) pieces, and an efficient automatic processing algorithm of boundary of TIN is proposed. c) Topological relation of goaf models is established. TIN object is the basic modeling element of goaf 3D model, and the topological relation among goaf is created and maintained by building the topological relation among TIN objects. Based on this, various 3D spatial analysis functions can be performed including transect and volume calculation of goaf. A prototype is developed, which can realized the model and algorithm proposed in this paper.

  8. 3D steerable wavelets in practice.

    PubMed

    Chenouard, Nicolas; Unser, Michael

    2012-11-01

    We introduce a systematic and practical design for steerable wavelet frames in 3D. Our steerable wavelets are obtained by applying a 3D version of the generalized Riesz transform to a primary isotropic wavelet frame. The novel transform is self-reversible (tight frame) and its elementary constituents (Riesz wavelets) can be efficiently rotated in any 3D direction by forming appropriate linear combinations. Moreover, the basis functions at a given location can be linearly combined to design custom (and adaptive) steerable wavelets. The features of the proposed method are illustrated with the processing and analysis of 3D biomedical data. In particular, we show how those wavelets can be used to characterize directional patterns and to detect edges by means of a 3D monogenic analysis. We also propose a new inverse-problem formalism along with an optimization algorithm for reconstructing 3D images from a sparse set of wavelet-domain edges. The scheme results in high-quality image reconstructions which demonstrate the feature-reduction ability of the steerable wavelets as well as their potential for solving inverse problems. PMID:22752138

  9. DYNA3D example problem manual

    SciTech Connect

    Lovejoy, S.C.; Whirley, R.G.

    1990-10-10

    This manual describes in detail the solution of ten example problems using the explicit nonlinear finite element code DYNA3D. The sample problems include solid, shell, and beam element types, and a variety of linear and nonlinear material models. For each example, there is first an engineering description of the physical problem to be studied. Next, the analytical techniques incorporated in the model are discussed and key features of DYNA3D are highlighted. INGRID commands used to generate the mesh are listed, and sample plots from the DYNA3D analysis are given. Finally, there is a description of the TAURUS post-processing commands used to generate the plots of the solution. This set of example problems is useful in verifying the installation of DYNA3D on a new computer system. In addition, these documented analyses illustrate the application of DYNA3D to a variety of engineering problems, and thus this manual should be helpful to new analysts getting started with DYNA3D. 7 refs., 56 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Conformational flexibility of aspartame.

    PubMed

    Toniolo, Claudio; Temussi, Pierandrea

    2016-05-01

    L-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, better known as aspartame, is not only one of the most used artificial sweeteners, but also a very interesting molecule with respect to the correlation between molecular structure and taste. The extreme conformational flexibility of this dipeptide posed a huge difficulty when researchers tried to use it as a lead compound to design new sweeteners. In particular, it was difficult to take advantage of its molecular model as a mold to infer the shape of the, then unknown, active site of the sweet taste receptor. Here, we follow the story of the 3D structural aspects of aspartame from early conformational studies to recent docking into homology models of the receptor. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 376-384, 2016. PMID:27038223

  11. Recording stereoscopic 3D neurosurgery with a head-mounted 3D camera system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Brian; Chen, Brian R; Chen, Beverly B; Lu, James Y; Giannotta, Steven L

    2015-06-01

    Stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) imaging can present more information to the viewer and further enhance the learning experience over traditional two-dimensional (2D) video. Most 3D surgical videos are recorded from the operating microscope and only feature the crux, or the most important part of the surgery, leaving out other crucial parts of surgery including the opening, approach, and closing of the surgical site. In addition, many other surgeries including complex spine, trauma, and intensive care unit procedures are also rarely recorded. We describe and share our experience with a commercially available head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to obtain stereoscopic 3D recordings of these seldom recorded aspects of neurosurgery. The strengths and limitations of using the GoPro(®) 3D system as a head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system in the operating room are reviewed in detail. Over the past several years, we have recorded in stereoscopic 3D over 50 cranial and spinal surgeries and created a library for education purposes. We have found the head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to be a valuable asset to supplement 3D footage from a 3D microscope. We expect that these comprehensive 3D surgical videos will become an important facet of resident education and ultimately lead to improved patient care. PMID:25620087

  12. RAG-3D: a search tool for RNA 3D substructures.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-10-30

    To address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D-a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool-designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding. PMID:26304547

  13. 3-D SAR image formation from sparse aperture data using 3-D target grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, Rajan; Li, Junfei; Ling, Hao

    2005-05-01

    The performance of ATR systems can potentially be improved by using three-dimensional (3-D) SAR images instead of the traditional two-dimensional SAR images or one-dimensional range profiles. 3-D SAR image formation of targets from radar backscattered data collected on wide angle, sparse apertures has been identified by AFRL as fundamental to building an object detection and recognition capability. A set of data has been released as a challenge problem. This paper describes a technique based on the concept of 3-D target grids aimed at the formation of 3-D SAR images of targets from sparse aperture data. The 3-D target grids capture the 3-D spatial and angular scattering properties of the target and serve as matched filters for SAR formation. The results of 3-D SAR formation using the backhoe public release data are presented.

  14. Rapid 360 degree imaging and stitching of 3D objects using multiple precision 3D cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Thomas; Yin, Stuart; Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Jiangan; Wu, Frank

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we present the system architecture of a 360 degree view 3D imaging system. The system consists of multiple 3D sensors synchronized to take 3D images around the object. Each 3D camera employs a single high-resolution digital camera and a color-coded light projector. The cameras are synchronized to rapidly capture the 3D and color information of a static object or a live person. The color encoded structure lighting ensures the precise reconstruction of the depth of the object. A 3D imaging system architecture is presented. The architecture employs the displacement of the camera and the projector to triangulate the depth information. The 3D camera system has achieved high depth resolution down to 0.1mm on a human head sized object and 360 degree imaging capability.

  15. CFL3D, FUN3d, and NSU3D Contributions to the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Laflin, Kelly R.; Chaffin, Mark S.; Powell, Nicholas; Levy, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Results presented at the Fifth Drag Prediction Workshop using CFL3D, FUN3D, and NSU3D are described. These are calculations on the workshop provided grids and drag adapted grids. The NSU3D results have been updated to reflect an improvement to skin friction calculation on skewed grids. FUN3D results generated after the workshop are included for custom participant generated grids and a grid from a previous workshop. Uniform grid refinement at the design condition shows a tight grouping in calculated drag, where the variation in the pressure component of drag is larger than the skin friction component. At this design condition, A fine-grid drag value was predicted with a smaller drag adjoint adapted grid via tetrahedral adaption to a metric and mixed-element subdivision. The buffet study produced larger variation than the design case, which is attributed to large differences in the predicted side-of-body separation extent. Various modeling and discretization approaches had a strong impact on predicted side-of-body separation. This large wing root separation bubble was not observed in wind tunnel tests indicating that more work is necessary in modeling wing root juncture flows to predict experiments.

  16. Proteopedia: A Collaborative, Virtual 3D Web-Resource for Protein and Biomolecule Structure and Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodis, Eran; Prilusky, Jaime, Sussman, Joel L.

    2010-01-01

    Protein structures are hard to represent on paper. They are large, complex, and three-dimensional (3D)--four-dimensional if conformational changes count! Unlike most of their substrates, which can easily be drawn out in full chemical formula, drawing every atom in a protein would usually be a mess. Simplifications like showing only the surface of…

  17. Computerized 3-D reconstruction of two "double teeth".

    PubMed

    Lyroudia, K; Mikrogeorgis, G; Nikopoulos, N; Samakovitis, G; Molyvdas, I; Pitas, I

    1997-10-01

    "Double teeth" is a root malformation in the dentition and the purpose of this study was to reconstruct three-dimensionally the external and internal morphology of two "double teeth". The first set of "double teeth" was formed by the conjunction of a mandibular molar and a premolar, and the second by a conjunction of a maxillary molar and a supernumerary tooth. The process of 3-D reconstruction included serial cross-sectioning, photographs of the sections, digitization of the photographs, extraction of the boundaries of interest for each section, surface representation using triangulation and, finally, surface rendering using photorealistic effects. The resulting three-dimensional representations of the two teeth helped us visualize their external and internal anatomy. The results showed: a) in the first case, fusion of the radical and coronal dentin, as well as fusion of the pulp chambers; and b) in the second case, fusion only of the radical dentin and the pulp chambers. PMID:9550051

  18. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  19. A microfluidic device for 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D cell navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamloo, Amir; Amirifar, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced 3D to 3D collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to 3D manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies.

  20. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally describedmore » in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.« less

  1. RAG-3D: A search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-08-24

    In this study, to address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding.

  2. RAG-3D: a search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    PubMed Central

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    To address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding. PMID:26304547

  3. Automatic needle segmentation in 3D ultrasound images using 3D Hough transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hua; Qiu, Wu; Ding, Mingyue; Zhang, Songgeng

    2007-12-01

    3D ultrasound (US) is a new technology that can be used for a variety of diagnostic applications, such as obstetrical, vascular, and urological imaging, and has been explored greatly potential in the applications of image-guided surgery and therapy. Uterine adenoma and uterine bleeding are the two most prevalent diseases in Chinese woman, and a minimally invasive ablation system using an RF button electrode which is needle-like is being used to destroy tumor cells or stop bleeding currently. Now a 3D US guidance system has been developed to avoid accidents or death of the patient by inaccurate localizations of the electrode and the tumor position during treatment. In this paper, we described two automated techniques, the 3D Hough Transform (3DHT) and the 3D Randomized Hough Transform (3DRHT), which is potentially fast, accurate, and robust to provide needle segmentation in 3D US image for use of 3D US imaging guidance. Based on the representation (Φ , θ , ρ , α ) of straight lines in 3D space, we used the 3DHT algorithm to segment needles successfully assumed that the approximate needle position and orientation are known in priori. The 3DRHT algorithm was developed to detect needles quickly without any information of the 3D US images. The needle segmentation techniques were evaluated using the 3D US images acquired by scanning water phantoms. The experiments demonstrated the feasibility of two 3D needle segmentation algorithms described in this paper.

  4. ICER-3D Hyperspectral Image Compression Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Hua; Kiely, Aaron; Klimesh, matthew; Aranki, Nazeeh

    2010-01-01

    Software has been developed to implement the ICER-3D algorithm. ICER-3D effects progressive, three-dimensional (3D), wavelet-based compression of hyperspectral images. If a compressed data stream is truncated, the progressive nature of the algorithm enables reconstruction of hyperspectral data at fidelity commensurate with the given data volume. The ICER-3D software is capable of providing either lossless or lossy compression, and incorporates an error-containment scheme to limit the effects of data loss during transmission. The compression algorithm, which was derived from the ICER image compression algorithm, includes wavelet-transform, context-modeling, and entropy coding subalgorithms. The 3D wavelet decomposition structure used by ICER-3D exploits correlations in all three dimensions of sets of hyperspectral image data, while facilitating elimination of spectral ringing artifacts, using a technique summarized in "Improving 3D Wavelet-Based Compression of Spectral Images" (NPO-41381), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 3 (March 2009), page 7a. Correlation is further exploited by a context-modeling subalgorithm, which exploits spectral dependencies in the wavelet-transformed hyperspectral data, using an algorithm that is summarized in "Context Modeler for Wavelet Compression of Hyperspectral Images" (NPO-43239), which follows this article. An important feature of ICER-3D is a scheme for limiting the adverse effects of loss of data during transmission. In this scheme, as in the similar scheme used by ICER, the spatial-frequency domain is partitioned into rectangular error-containment regions. In ICER-3D, the partitions extend through all the wavelength bands. The data in each partition are compressed independently of those in the other partitions, so that loss or corruption of data from any partition does not affect the other partitions. Furthermore, because compression is progressive within each partition, when data are lost, any data from that partition received

  5. An automated 3D reconstruction method of UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Wang, He; Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Feng; Sun, Guangtong; Song, Ping

    2015-10-01

    In this paper a novel fully automated 3D reconstruction approach based on low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle system (UAVs) images will be presented, which does not require previous camera calibration or any other external prior knowledge. Dense 3D point clouds are generated by integrating orderly feature extraction, image matching, structure from motion (SfM) and multi-view stereo (MVS) algorithms, overcoming many of the cost, time limitations of rigorous photogrammetry techniques. An image topology analysis strategy is introduced to speed up large scene reconstruction by taking advantage of the flight-control data acquired by UAV. Image topology map can significantly reduce the running time of feature matching by limiting the combination of images. A high-resolution digital surface model of the study area is produced base on UAV point clouds by constructing the triangular irregular network. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is robust and feasible for automatic 3D reconstruction of low-altitude UAV images, and has great potential for the acquisition of spatial information at large scales mapping, especially suitable for rapid response and precise modelling in disaster emergency.

  6. Cooling of 3D Granular Gases: Experiments in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harth, Kirsten; Wegner, Sandra; Trittel, Torsten; Stannarius, Ralf

    Granular gases are ensembles of macroscopic grains, which move randomly and interact through inelastic collisions. This non-equilibrium statistical system is easy to picture, but still insufficiently understood. Numerous theoretical treatments have been performed, favorably with spherical grains and periodic boundaries, starting from a homogeneous state. Experimentally, such a gas in 3D can only be realized with strong external forcing or in microgravity. We have recently demonstrated that the use of elongated grains facilitates the realization of 3D experiments beyond the Knudsen regime (1). Main findings in a sounding rocket experiment were non-Gaussian velocity distributions and a violation of the equipartition of kinetic energy in the steady state. Rotational degrees of freedom are under-excited. When the excitation is stopped, energy is dissipated, the granular gas is ''cooling''. We present the first quantitative study of the cooling of a granular gas, based on a 3D data evaluation, from drop tower experiments. The evolution of the kinetic energy in translational and rotational degrees of freedom is compared to Haff's law and recent numerical studies. Additionally, we analyze velocity and density distributions.(1) K. Harth et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 144102 (2013) This research was funded by German Aerospace Center DLR Grants 50WM1241 and 50WB1344 and by DFG Grant STA-425/34-1.

  7. Reactor transient analyses with KIN3D/PARTISN

    SciTech Connect

    Gabrielli, F.; Rineiski, A.; Maschek, W.; Marchetti, M.

    2013-07-01

    Efforts are going on at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) to extend the kinetics capability of the PARTISN code in order to run in parallel two- and three-dimensional transient analyses with the quasistatic method, while taking into account delayed neutrons. In the original code version, time-dependent transport problems are solved by employing a semi-implicit direct kinetics option, the delayed neutrons being not taken into account. The PARTISN 5.97 code has been extended and then coupled with KIN3D, a time-dependent model embedded in the ERANOS code system. In the coupled code, PARTISN 5.97 is used as neutron transport solver to perform transient analyses while employing direct and quasi-static kinetics options of KIN3D. The coupled code can be also applied for first-order and exact perturbation theory calculations. In the paper, the PARTISN 5.97 extensions and coupling procedure are described and the performances of the KIN3D/PARTISN coupled code are investigated by analyzing transients induced by a source-jerk in a three-dimensional ADS model driven by an external source. (authors)

  8. Shim3d Helmholtz Solution Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-01-29

    This suite of codes solves the Helmholtz Equation for the steady-state propagation of single-frequency electromagnetic radiation in an arbitrary 2D or 3D dielectric medium. Materials can be either transparent or absorptive (including metals) and are described entirely by their shape and complex dielectric constant. Dielectric boundaries are assumed to always fall on grid boundaries and the material within a single grid cell is considered to be uniform. Input to the problem is in the formmore » of a Dirichlet boundary condition on a single boundary, and may be either analytic (Gaussian) in shape, or a mode shape computed using a separate code (such as the included eigenmode solver vwave20), and written to a file. Solution is via the finite difference method using Jacobi iteration for 3D problems or direct matrix inversion for 2D problems. Note that 3D problems that include metals will require different iteration parameters than described in the above reference. For structures with curved boundaries not easily modeled on a rectangular grid, the auxillary codes helmholtz11(2D), helm3d (semivectoral), and helmv3d (full vectoral) are provided. For these codes the finite difference equations are specified on a topological regular triangular grid and solved using Jacobi iteration or direct matrix inversion as before. An automatic grid generator is supplied.« less

  9. 3D Spray Droplet Distributions in Sneezes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Techet, Alexandra; Scharfman, Barry; Bourouiba, Lydia

    2015-11-01

    3D spray droplet clouds generated during human sneezing are investigated using the Synthetic Aperture Feature Extraction (SAFE) method, which relies on light field imaging (LFI) and synthetic aperture (SA) refocusing computational photographic techniques. An array of nine high-speed cameras are used to image sneeze droplets and tracked the droplets in 3D space and time (3D + T). An additional high-speed camera is utilized to track the motion of the head during sneezing. In the SAFE method, the raw images recorded by each camera in the array are preprocessed and binarized, simplifying post processing after image refocusing and enabling the extraction of feature sizes and positions in 3D + T. These binary images are refocused using either additive or multiplicative methods, combined with thresholding. Sneeze droplet centroids, radii, distributions and trajectories are determined and compared with existing data. The reconstructed 3D droplet centroids and radii enable a more complete understanding of the physical extent and fluid dynamics of sneeze ejecta. These measurements are important for understanding the infectious disease transmission potential of sneezes in various indoor environments.

  10. T-HEMP3D user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.

    1983-08-01

    The T-HEMP3D (Transportable HEMP3D) computer program is a derivative of the STEALTH three-dimensional thermodynamics code developed by Science Applications, Inc., under the direction of Ron Hofmann. STEALTH, in turn, is based entirely on the original HEMP3D code written at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The primary advantage STEALTH has over its predecessors is that it was designed using modern structured design techniques, with rigorous programming standards enforced. This yields two benefits. First, the code is easily changeable; this is a necessity for a physics code used for research. The second benefit is that the code is easily transportable between different types of computers. The STEALTH program was transferred to LLNL under a cooperative development agreement. Changes were made primarily in three areas: material specification, coordinate generation, and the addition of sliding surface boundary conditions. The code was renamed T-HEMP3D to avoid confusion with other versions of STEALTH. This document summarizes the input to T-HEMP3D, as used at LLNL. It does not describe the physics simulated by the program, nor the numerical techniques employed. Furthermore, it does not describe the separate job steps of coordinate generation and post-processing, including graphical display of results. (WHK)

  11. Magnetic Properties of 3D Printed Toroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollig, Lindsey; Otto, Austin; Hilpisch, Peter; Mowry, Greg; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Renewable Energy; Alternatives Lab (REAL) Team

    Transformers are ubiquitous in electronics today. Although toroidal geometries perform most efficiently, transformers are traditionally made with rectangular cross-sections due to the lower manufacturing costs. Additive manufacturing techniques (3D printing) can easily achieve toroidal geometries by building up a part through a series of 2D layers. To get strong magnetic properties in a 3D printed transformer, a composite filament is used containing Fe dispersed in a polymer matrix. How the resulting 3D printed toroid responds to a magnetic field depends on two structural factors of the printed 2D layers: fill factor (planar density) and fill pattern. In this work, we investigate how the fill factor and fill pattern affect the magnetic properties of 3D printed toroids. The magnetic properties of the printed toroids are measured by a custom circuit that produces a hysteresis loop for each toroid. Toroids with various fill factors and fill patterns are compared to determine how these two factors can affect the magnetic field the toroid can produce. These 3D printed toroids can be used for numerous applications in order to increase the efficiency of transformers by making it possible for manufacturers to make a toroidal geometry.

  12. 3D dynamic roadmapping for abdominal catheterizations.

    PubMed

    Bender, Frederik; Groher, Martin; Khamene, Ali; Wein, Wolfgang; Heibel, Tim Hauke; Navab, Nassir

    2008-01-01

    Despite rapid advances in interventional imaging, the navigation of a guide wire through abdominal vasculature remains, not only for novice radiologists, a difficult task. Since this navigation is mostly based on 2D fluoroscopic image sequences from one view, the process is slowed down significantly due to missing depth information and patient motion. We propose a novel approach for 3D dynamic roadmapping in deformable regions by predicting the location of the guide wire tip in a 3D vessel model from the tip's 2D location, respiratory motion analysis, and view geometry. In a first step, the method compensates for the apparent respiratory motion in 2D space before backprojecting the 2D guide wire tip into three dimensional space, using a given projection matrix. To countervail the error connected to the projection parameters and the motion compensation, as well as the ambiguity caused by vessel deformation, we establish a statistical framework, which computes a reliable estimate of the guide wire tip location within the 3D vessel model. With this 2D-to-3D transfer, the navigation can be performed from arbitrary viewing angles, disconnected from the static perspective view of the fluoroscopic sequence. Tests on a realistic breathing phantom and on synthetic data with a known ground truth clearly reveal the superiority of our approach compared to naive methods for 3D roadmapping. The concepts and information presented in this paper are based on research and are not commercially available. PMID:18982662

  13. Lifting Object Detection Datasets into 3D.

    PubMed

    Carreira, Joao; Vicente, Sara; Agapito, Lourdes; Batista, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    While data has certainly taken the center stage in computer vision in recent years, it can still be difficult to obtain in certain scenarios. In particular, acquiring ground truth 3D shapes of objects pictured in 2D images remains a challenging feat and this has hampered progress in recognition-based object reconstruction from a single image. Here we propose to bypass previous solutions such as 3D scanning or manual design, that scale poorly, and instead populate object category detection datasets semi-automatically with dense, per-object 3D reconstructions, bootstrapped from:(i) class labels, (ii) ground truth figure-ground segmentations and (iii) a small set of keypoint annotations. Our proposed algorithm first estimates camera viewpoint using rigid structure-from-motion and then reconstructs object shapes by optimizing over visual hull proposals guided by loose within-class shape similarity assumptions. The visual hull sampling process attempts to intersect an object's projection cone with the cones of minimal subsets of other similar objects among those pictured from certain vantage points. We show that our method is able to produce convincing per-object 3D reconstructions and to accurately estimate cameras viewpoints on one of the most challenging existing object-category detection datasets, PASCAL VOC. We hope that our results will re-stimulate interest on joint object recognition and 3D reconstruction from a single image. PMID:27295458

  14. 3D camera tracking from disparity images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kiyoung; Woo, Woontack

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a robust camera tracking method that uses disparity images computed from known parameters of 3D camera and multiple epipolar constraints. We assume that baselines between lenses in 3D camera and intrinsic parameters are known. The proposed method reduces camera motion uncertainty encountered during camera tracking. Specifically, we first obtain corresponding feature points between initial lenses using normalized correlation method. In conjunction with matching features, we get disparity images. When the camera moves, the corresponding feature points, obtained from each lens of 3D camera, are robustly tracked via Kanade-Lukas-Tomasi (KLT) tracking algorithm. Secondly, relative pose parameters of each lens are calculated via Essential matrices. Essential matrices are computed from Fundamental matrix calculated using normalized 8-point algorithm with RANSAC scheme. Then, we determine scale factor of translation matrix by d-motion. This is required because the camera motion obtained from Essential matrix is up to scale. Finally, we optimize camera motion using multiple epipolar constraints between lenses and d-motion constraints computed from disparity images. The proposed method can be widely adopted in Augmented Reality (AR) applications, 3D reconstruction using 3D camera, and fine surveillance systems which not only need depth information, but also camera motion parameters in real-time.

  15. Full-color holographic 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Masami; Shigeta, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Susumu; Ohyama, Nagaaki; Kobayashi, Akihiko; Iwata, Fujio

    2003-05-01

    A holographic 3D printer is a system that produces a direct hologram with full-parallax information using the 3-dimensional data of a subject from a computer. In this paper, we present a proposal for the reproduction of full-color images with the holographic 3D printer. In order to realize the 3-dimensional color image, we selected the 3 laser wavelength colors of red (λ=633nm), green (λ=533nm), and blue (λ=442nm), and we built a one-step optical system using a projection system and a liquid crystal display. The 3-dimensional color image is obtained by synthesizing in a 2D array the multiple exposure with these 3 wavelengths made on each 250mm elementary hologram, and moving recording medium on a x-y stage. For the natural color reproduction in the holographic 3D printer, we take the approach of the digital processing technique based on the color management technology. The matching between the input and output colors is performed by investigating first, the relation between the gray level transmittance of the LCD and the diffraction efficiency of the hologram and second, by measuring the color displayed by the hologram to establish a correlation. In our first experimental results a non-linear functional relation for single and multiple exposure of the three components were found. These results are the first step in the realization of a natural color 3D image produced by the holographic color 3D printer.

  16. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  17. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universalmore » 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.« less

  18. The importance of 3D dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been getting progressively more complex for the past 20 years. Early radiation therapy techniques needed only basic dosimetry equipment; motorized water phantoms, ionization chambers, and basic radiographic film techniques. As intensity modulated radiation therapy and image guided therapy came into widespread practice, medical physicists were challenged with developing effective and efficient dose measurement techniques. The complex 3-dimensional (3D) nature of the dose distributions that were being delivered demanded the development of more quantitative and more thorough methods for dose measurement. The quality assurance vendors developed a wide array of multidetector arrays that have been enormously useful for measuring and characterizing dose distributions, and these have been made especially useful with the advent of 3D dose calculation systems based on the array measurements, as well as measurements made using film and portal imagers. Other vendors have been providing 3D calculations based on data from the linear accelerator or the record and verify system, providing thorough evaluation of the dose but lacking quality assurance (QA) of the dose delivery process, including machine calibration. The current state of 3D dosimetry is one of a state of flux. The vendors and professional associations are trying to determine the optimal balance between thorough QA, labor efficiency, and quantitation. This balance will take some time to reach, but a necessary component will be the 3D measurement and independent calculation of delivered radiation therapy dose distributions.

  19. Visual inertia of rotating 3-D objects.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y; Pantle, A J; Mark, L S

    1998-02-01

    Five experiments were designed to determine whether a rotating, transparent 3-D cloud of dots (simulated sphere) could influence the perceived direction of rotation of a subsequent sphere. Experiment 1 established conditions under which the direction of rotation of a virtual sphere was perceived unambiguously. When a near-far luminance difference and perspective depth cues were present, observers consistently saw the sphere rotate in the intended direction. In Experiment 2, a near-far luminance difference was used to create an unambiguous rotation sequence that was followed by a directionally ambiguous rotation sequence that lacked both the near-far luminance cue and the perspective cue. Observers consistently saw the second sequence as rotating in the same direction as the first, indicating the presence of 3-D visual inertia. Experiment 3 showed that 3-D visual inertia was sufficiently powerful to bias the perceived direction of a rotation sequence made unambiguous by a near-far luminance cue. Experiment 5 showed that 3-D visual inertia could be obtained using an occlusion depth cue to create an unambiguous inertia-inducing sequence. Finally, Experiments 2, 4, and 5 all revealed a fast-decay phase of inertia that lasted for approximately 800 msec, followed by an asymptotic phase that lasted for periods as long as 1,600 msec. The implications of these findings are examined with respect to motion mechanisms of 3-D visual inertia. PMID:9529911

  20. Integral 3D display using multiple LCDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okaichi, Naoto; Miura, Masato; Arai, Jun; Mishina, Tomoyuki

    2015-03-01

    The quality of the integral 3D images created by a 3D imaging system was improved by combining multiple LCDs to utilize a greater number of pixels than that possible with one LCD. A prototype of the display device was constructed by using four HD LCDs. An integral photography (IP) image displayed by the prototype is four times larger than that reconstructed by a single display. The pixel pitch of the HD display used is 55.5 μm, and the number of elemental lenses is 212 horizontally and 119 vertically. The 3D image pixel count is 25,228, and the viewing angle is 28°. Since this method is extensible, it is possible to display an integral 3D image of higher quality by increasing the number of LCDs. Using this integral 3D display structure makes it possible to make the whole device thinner than a projector-based display system. It is therefore expected to be applied to the home television in the future.

  1. 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.

    PubMed

    Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies. PMID:26724184

  2. Miniaturized 3D microscope imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Yung-Sung; Chang, Chir-Weei; Sung, Hsin-Yueh; Wang, Yen-Chang; Chang, Cheng-Yi

    2015-05-01

    We designed and assembled a portable 3-D miniature microscopic image system with the size of 35x35x105 mm3 . By integrating a microlens array (MLA) into the optical train of a handheld microscope, the biological specimen's image will be captured for ease of use in a single shot. With the light field raw data and program, the focal plane can be changed digitally and the 3-D image can be reconstructed after the image was taken. To localize an object in a 3-D volume, an automated data analysis algorithm to precisely distinguish profundity position is needed. The ability to create focal stacks from a single image allows moving or specimens to be recorded. Applying light field microscope algorithm to these focal stacks, a set of cross sections will be produced, which can be visualized using 3-D rendering. Furthermore, we have developed a series of design rules in order to enhance the pixel using efficiency and reduce the crosstalk between each microlens for obtain good image quality. In this paper, we demonstrate a handheld light field microscope (HLFM) to distinguish two different color fluorescence particles separated by a cover glass in a 600um range, show its focal stacks, and 3-D position.

  3. 3D optical measuring technologies and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugui, Yuri V.

    2005-02-01

    The results of the R & D activity of TDI SIE SB RAS in the field of the 3D optical measuring technologies and systems for noncontact 3D optical dimensional inspection applied to atomic and railway industry safety problems are presented. This activity includes investigations of diffraction phenomena on some 3D objects, using the original constructive calculation method. The efficient algorithms for precise determining the transverse and longitudinal sizes of 3D objects of constant thickness by diffraction method, peculiarities on formation of the shadow and images of the typical elements of the extended objects were suggested. Ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors and running trains as well as their high exploitation reliability requires a 100% noncontact precise inspection of geometrical parameters of their components. To solve this problem we have developed methods and produced the technical vision measuring systems LMM, CONTROL, PROFIL, and technologies for noncontact 3D dimensional inspection of grid spacers and fuel elements for the nuclear reactor VVER-1000 and VVER-440, as well as automatic laser diagnostic COMPLEX for noncontact inspection of geometric parameters of running freight car wheel pairs. The performances of these systems and the results of industrial testing are presented and discussed. The created devices are in pilot operation at Atomic and Railway Companies.

  4. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of applied 3D fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  5. A dimensional comparison between embedded 3D-printed and silicon microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, J.; Punch, J.; Jeffers, N.; Stafford, J.

    2014-07-01

    The subject of this paper is the dimensional characterization of embedded microchannel arrays created using contemporary 3D-printing fabrication techniques. Conventional microchannel arrays, fabricated using deep reactive ion etching techniques (DRIE) and wet-etching (KOH), are used as a benchmark for comparison. Rectangular and trapezoidal cross-sectional shapes were investigated. The channel arrays were 3D-printed in vertical and horizontal directions, to examine the influence of print orientation on channel characteristics. The 3D-printed channels were benchmarked against Silicon channels in terms of the following dimensional characteristics: cross-sectional area (CSA), perimeter, and surface profiles. The 3D-printed microchannel arrays demonstrated variances in CSA of 6.6-20% with the vertical printing approach yielding greater dimensional conformity than the horizontal approach. The measured CSA and perimeter of the vertical channels were smaller than the nominal dimensions, while the horizontal channels were larger in both CSA and perimeter due to additional side-wall roughness present throughout the channel length. This side-wall roughness caused significant shape distortion. Surface profile measurements revealed that the base wall roughness was approximately the resolution of current 3D-printers. A spatial periodicity was found along the channel length which appeared at different frequencies for each channel array. This paper concludes that vertical 3D-printing is superior to the horizontal printing approach, in terms of both dimensional fidelity and shape conformity and can be applied in microfluidic device applications.

  6. Real-time monitoring of 3D cell culture using a 3D capacitance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Han, Nalae; Lee, Rimi; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Yong-Beom; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-03-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures have recently received attention because they represent a more physiologically relevant environment compared to conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. However, 2D-based imaging techniques or cell sensors are insufficient for real-time monitoring of cellular behavior in 3D cell culture. Here, we report investigations conducted with a 3D capacitance cell sensor consisting of vertically aligned pairs of electrodes. When GFP-expressing human breast cancer cells (GFP-MCF-7) encapsulated in alginate hydrogel were cultured in a 3D cell culture system, cellular activities, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis at different heights, could be monitored non-invasively and in real-time by measuring the change in capacitance with the 3D capacitance sensor. Moreover, we were able to monitor cell migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with our 3D capacitance sensor. PMID:26386332

  7. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen

    2016-03-01

    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.

  8. 3D whiteboard: collaborative sketching with 3D-tracked smart phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lue, James; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2014-02-01

    We present the results of our investigation of the feasibility of a new approach for collaborative drawing in 3D, based on Android smart phones. Our approach utilizes a number of fiduciary markers, placed in the working area where they can be seen by the smart phones' cameras, in order to estimate the pose of each phone in the room. Our prototype allows two users to draw 3D objects with their smart phones by moving their phones around in 3D space. For example, 3D lines are drawn by recording the path of the phone as it is moved around in 3D space, drawing line segments on the screen along the way. Each user can see the virtual drawing space on their smart phones' displays, as if the display was a window into this space. Besides lines, our prototype application also supports 3D geometry creation, geometry transformation operations, and it shows the location of the other user's phone.

  9. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Tokola, Ryan A; Mikkilineni, Aravind K; Boehnen, Chris Bensing

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  10. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve.

    PubMed

    Keating, Steven J; Gariboldi, Maria Isabella; Patrick, William G; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  11. Angular description for 3D scattering centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, Rajan; Raynal, Ann Marie; Ling, Hao; Moore, John; Velten, Vincent J.

    2006-05-01

    The electromagnetic scattered field from an electrically large target can often be well modeled as if it is emanating from a discrete set of scattering centers (see Fig. 1). In the scattering center extraction tool we developed previously based on the shooting and bouncing ray technique, no correspondence is maintained amongst the 3D scattering center extracted at adjacent angles. In this paper we present a multi-dimensional clustering algorithm to track the angular and spatial behaviors of 3D scattering centers and group them into features. The extracted features for the Slicy and backhoe targets are presented. We also describe two metrics for measuring the angular persistence and spatial mobility of the 3D scattering centers that make up these features in order to gather insights into target physics and feature stability. We find that features that are most persistent are also the most mobile and discuss implications for optimal SAR imaging.

  12. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Ryan

    2014-02-13

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  13. 3D Simulation: Microgravity Environments and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Most, if not all, 3-D and Virtual Reality (VR) software programs are designed for one-G gravity applications. Space environments simulations require gravity effects of one one-thousandth to one one-million of that of the Earth's surface (10(exp -3) - 10(exp -6) G), thus one must be able to generate simulations that replicate those microgravity effects upon simulated astronauts. Unfortunately, the software programs utilized by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration does not have the ability to readily neutralize the one-G gravity effect. This pre-programmed situation causes the engineer or analysis difficulty during micro-gravity simulations. Therefore, microgravity simulations require special techniques or additional code in order to apply the power of 3D graphic simulation to space related applications. This paper discusses the problem and possible solutions to allow microgravity 3-D/VR simulations to be completed successfully without program code modifications.

  14. Structured light field 3D imaging.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zewei; Liu, Xiaoli; Peng, Xiang; Yin, Yongkai; Li, Ameng; Wu, Jiachen; Gao, Bruce Z

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a method by means of light field imaging under structured illumination to deal with high dynamic range 3D imaging. Fringe patterns are projected onto a scene and modulated by the scene depth then a structured light field is detected using light field recording devices. The structured light field contains information about ray direction and phase-encoded depth, via which the scene depth can be estimated from different directions. The multidirectional depth estimation can achieve high dynamic 3D imaging effectively. We analyzed and derived the phase-depth mapping in the structured light field and then proposed a flexible ray-based calibration approach to determine the independent mapping coefficients for each ray. Experimental results demonstrated the validity of the proposed method to perform high-quality 3D imaging for highly and lowly reflective surfaces. PMID:27607639

  15. 3D holoscopic video imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steurer, Johannes H.; Pesch, Matthias; Hahne, Christopher

    2012-03-01

    Since many years, integral imaging has been discussed as a technique to overcome the limitations of standard still photography imaging systems where a three-dimensional scene is irrevocably projected onto two dimensions. With the success of 3D stereoscopic movies, a huge interest in capturing three-dimensional motion picture scenes has been generated. In this paper, we present a test bench integral imaging camera system aiming to tailor the methods of light field imaging towards capturing integral 3D motion picture content. We estimate the hardware requirements needed to generate high quality 3D holoscopic images and show a prototype camera setup that allows us to study these requirements using existing technology. The necessary steps that are involved in the calibration of the system as well as the technique of generating human readable holoscopic images from the recorded data are discussed.

  16. Spectroradiometric characterization of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubiño, Manuel; Salas, Carlos; Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, J. J.; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    Spectroradiometric measurements have been made for the experimental characterization of the RGB channels of autostereoscopic 3D displays, giving results for different measurement angles with respect to the normal direction of the plane of the display. In the study, 2 different models of autostereoscopic 3D displays of different sizes and resolutions were used, making measurements with a spectroradiometer (model PR-670 SpectraScan of PhotoResearch). From the measurements made, goniometric results were recorded for luminance contrast, and the fundamental hypotheses have been evaluated for the characterization of the displays: independence of the RGB channels and their constancy. The results show that the display with the lower angle variability in the contrast-ratio value and constancy of the chromaticity coordinates nevertheless presented the greatest additivity deviations with the measurement angle. For both displays, when the parameters evaluated were taken into account, lower angle variability consistently resulted in the 2D mode than in the 3D mode.

  17. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, William G.; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S.; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  18. Decoder for 3-D color codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Kung-Chuan; Brun, Todd

    Transversal circuits are important components of fault-tolerant quantum computation. Several classes of quantum error-correcting codes are known to have transversal implementations of any logical Clifford operation. However, to achieve universal quantum computation, it would be helpful to have high-performance error-correcting codes that have a transversal implementation of some logical non-Clifford operation. The 3-D color codes are a class of topological codes that permit transversal implementation of the logical π / 8 -gate. The decoding problem of a 3-D color code can be understood as a graph-matching problem on a three-dimensional lattice. Whether this class of codes will be useful in terms of performance is still an open question. We investigate the decoding problem of 3-D color codes and analyze the performance of some possible decoders.

  19. Particle Acceleration in 3D Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlin, J.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is an important driver of energetic particles in phenomena such as magnetospheric storms and solar flares. Using kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we show that the stochastic magnetic field structure which develops during 3D reconnection plays a vital role in particle acceleration and transport. In a 2D system, electrons are trapped in magnetic islands which limits their energy gain. In a 3D system, however, the stochastic magnetic field enables the energetic electrons to access volume-filling acceleration regions and therefore gain energy much more efficiently than in the 2D system. We also examine the relative roles of two important acceleration drivers: parallel electric fields and a Fermi mechanism associated with reflection of charged particles from contracting field lines. We find that parallel electric fields are most important for accelerating low energy particles, whereas Fermi reflection dominates energetic particle production. We also find that proton energization is reduced in the 3D system.

  20. Ames Lab 101: 3D Metals Printer

    ScienceCinema

    Ott, Ryan

    2014-06-04

    To meet one of the biggest energy challenges of the 21st century - finding alternatives to rare-earth elements and other critical materials - scientists will need new and advanced tools. The Critical Materials Institute at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has a new one: a 3D printer for metals research. 3D printing technology, which has captured the imagination of both industry and consumers, enables ideas to move quickly from the initial design phase to final form using materials including polymers, ceramics, paper and even food. But the Critical Materials Institute (CMI) will apply the advantages of the 3D printing process in a unique way: for materials discovery.

  1. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-02-01

    TOPAZ3D is a three-dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ3D can be used to solve for the steady-state or transient temperature field on three-dimensional geometries. Material properties may be temperature-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functionalmore » representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. TOPAZ3D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.« less

  2. Impedance mammograph 3D phantom studies.

    PubMed

    Wtorek, J; Stelter, J; Nowakowski, A

    1999-04-20

    The results obtained using the Technical University of Gdansk Electroimpedance Mammograph (TUGEM) of a 3D phantom study are presented. The TUGEM system is briefly described. The hardware contains the measurement head and DSP-based identification modules controlled by a PC computer. A specially developed reconstruction algorithm, Regulated Correction Frequency Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (RCFART), is used to obtain 3D images. To visualize results, the Advance Visualization System (AVS) is used. It allows a powerful image processing on a fast workstation or on a high-performance computer. Results of three types of 3D conductivity perturbations used in the study (aluminum, Plexiglas, and cucumber) are shown. The relative volumes of perturbations less than 2% of the measurement chamber are easily evidenced. PMID:10372188

  3. 3D EIT image reconstruction with GREIT.

    PubMed

    Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Müller, Beat; Adler, Andy

    2016-06-01

    Most applications of thoracic EIT use a single plane of electrodes on the chest from which a transverse image 'slice' is calculated. However, interpretation of EIT images is made difficult by the large region above and below the electrode plane to which EIT is sensitive. Volumetric EIT images using two (or more) electrode planes should help compensate, but are little used currently. The Graz consensus reconstruction algorithm for EIT (GREIT) has become popular in lung EIT. One shortcoming of the original formulation of GREIT is its restriction to reconstruction onto a 2D planar image. We present an extension of the GREIT algorithm to 3D and develop open-source tools to evaluate its performance as a function of the choice of stimulation and measurement pattern. Results show 3D GREIT using two electrode layers has significantly more uniform sensitivity profiles through the chest region. Overall, the advantages of 3D EIT are compelling. PMID:27203184

  4. Methods for comparing 3D surface attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Alex; Freeman, Adam

    1996-03-01

    A common task in data analysis is to compare two or more sets of data, statistics, presentations, etc. A predominant method in use is side-by-side visual comparison of images. While straightforward, it burdens the user with the task of discerning the differences between the two images. The user if further taxed when the images are of 3D scenes. This paper presents several methods for analyzing the extent, magnitude, and manner in which surfaces in 3D differ in their attributes. The surface geometry are assumed to be identical and only the surface attributes (color, texture, etc.) are variable. As a case in point, we examine the differences obtained when a 3D scene is rendered progressively using radiosity with different form factor calculation methods. The comparison methods include extensions of simple methods such as mapping difference information to color or transparency, and more recent methods including the use of surface texture, perturbation, and adaptive placements of error glyphs.

  5. Local Diagnosis of Reconnection in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudder, J. D.; Karimabadi, H.; Daughton, W. S.; Roytershteyn, V.

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate (I,II) an approach to find reconnection sites in 3D where there is no flux function for guidance, and where local observational signatures for the ``violation of frozen flux'' are under developed, if not non-existent. We use 2D and 3D PIC simulations of asymmetric guide field reconnection to test our observational hierarchy of single spacecraft kinetic diagnostics - all possible with present state of the art instrumentation. The proliferation of turbulent, electron inertial scale layers in the realistic 3D case demonstrates that electron demagnetization, while necessary, is not sufficient to identify reconnection sites. An excellent local, observable, single spacecraft proxy is demonstrated for the size of the theoretical frozen flux violation. Since even frozen flux violations need not imply reconnection is at hand, a new calibrated dimensionless method is used to determine the importance of such violations. This measure is available in 2D and 3D to help differentiate reconnection layers from weaker frozen flux violating layers. We discuss the possibility that this technique can be implemented on MMS. A technique to highlight flow geometries conducive to reconnection in 3D simulations is also suggested, that may also be implementable with the MMS flotilla. We use local analysis with multiple necessary, but theoretically independent electron kinetic conditions to help reduce the probability of misidentification of any given layer as a reconnection site. Since these local conditions are all necessary for the site, but none is known to be sufficient, the multiple tests help to greatly reduce false positive identifications. The selectivity of the results of this approach using PIC simulations of 3D asymmetric guide field reconnection will be shown using varying numbers of simultaneous conditions. Scudder, J.D., H. Karimabadi, W. Daughton and V. Roytershteyn I, II, submitted Phys. Plasma., 2014

  6. 3D printed diffractive terahertz lenses.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Walter D; Ferrando, Vicente; Monsoriu, Juan A; Zagrajek, Przemysław; Czerwińska, Elżbieta; Szustakowski, Mieczysław

    2016-04-15

    A 3D printer was used to realize custom-made diffractive THz lenses. After testing several materials, phase binary lenses with periodic and aperiodic radial profiles were designed and constructed in polyamide material to work at 0.625 THz. The nonconventional focusing properties of such lenses were assessed by computing and measuring their axial point spread function (PSF). Our results demonstrate that inexpensive 3D printed THz diffractive lenses can be reliably used in focusing and imaging THz systems. Diffractive THz lenses with unprecedented features, such as extended depth of focus or bifocalization, have been demonstrated. PMID:27082335

  7. The Galicia 3D experiment: an Introduction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reston, Timothy; Martinez Loriente, Sara; Holroyd, Luke; Merry, Tobias; Sawyer, Dale; Morgan, Julia; Jordan, Brian; Tesi Sanjurjo, Mari; Alexanian, Ara; Shillington, Donna; Gibson, James; Minshull, Tim; Karplus, Marianne; Bayracki, Gaye; Davy, Richard; Klaeschen, Dirk; Papenberg, Cord; Ranero, Cesar; Perez-Gussinye, Marta; Martinez, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    In June and July 2013, scientists from 8 institutions took part in the Galicia 3D seismic experiment, the first ever crustal -scale academic 3D MCS survey over a rifted margin. The aim was to determine the 3D structure of a critical portion of the west Galicia rifted margin. At this margin, well-defined tilted fault blocks, bound by west-dipping faults and capped by synrift sediments are underlain by a bright reflection, undulating on time sections, termed the S reflector and thought to represent a major detachment fault of some kind. Moving west, the crust thins to zero thickness and mantle is unroofed, as evidence by the "Peridotite Ridge" first reported at this margin, but since observed at many other magma-poor margins. By imaging such a margin in detail, the experiment aimed to resolve the processes controlling crustal thinning and mantle unroofing at a type example magma poor margin. The experiment set out to collect several key datasets: a 3D seismic reflection volume measuring ~20x64km and extending down to ~14s TWT, a 3D ocean bottom seismometer dataset suitable for full wavefield inversion (the recording of the complete 3D seismic shots by 70 ocean bottom instruments), the "mirror imaging" of the crust using the same grid of OBS, a single 2D combined reflection/refraction profile extending to the west to determine the transition from unroofed mantle to true oceanic crust, and the seismic imaging of the water column, calibrated by regular deployment of XBTs to measure the temperature structure of the water column. We collected 1280 km2 of seismic reflection data, consisting of 136533 shots recorded on 1920 channels, producing 260 million seismic traces, each ~ 14s long. This adds up to ~ 8 terabytes of data, representing, we believe, the largest ever academic 3D MCS survey in terms of both the area covered and the volume of data. The OBS deployment was the largest ever within an academic 3D survey.

  8. Vector quantization of 3-D point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Jae-Young; Kim, Chang-Su; Lee, Sang-Uk

    2005-10-01

    A geometry compression algorithm for 3-D QSplat data using vector quantization (VQ) is proposed in this work. The positions of child spheres are transformed to the local coordinate system, which is determined by the parent children relationship. The coordinate transform makes child positions more compactly distributed in 3-D space, facilitating effective quantization. Moreover, we develop a constrained encoding method for sphere radii, which guarantees hole-free surface rendering at the decoder side. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm provides a faithful rendering quality even at low bitrates.

  9. Solar abundances and 3D model atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Hans-Günter; Caffau, Elisabetta; Steffen, Matthias; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Freytag, Bernd; Cayrel, Roger

    2010-03-01

    We present solar photospheric abundances for 12 elements from optical and near-infrared spectroscopy. The abundance analysis was conducted employing 3D hydrodynamical (CO5BOLD) as well as standard 1D hydrostatic model atmospheres. We compare our results to others with emphasis on discrepancies and still lingering problems, in particular exemplified by the pivotal abundance of oxygen. We argue that the thermal structure of the lower solar photosphere is very well represented by our 3D model. We obtain an excellent match of the observed center-to-limb variation of the line-blanketed continuum intensity, also at wavelengths shortward of the Balmer jump.

  10. Visualization of liver in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chin-Tu; Chou, Jin-Shin; Giger, Maryellen L.; Kahn, Charles E., Jr.; Bae, Kyongtae T.; Lin, Wei-Chung

    1991-05-01

    Visualization of the liver in three dimensions (3-D) can improve the accuracy of volumetric estimation and also aid in surgical planning. We have developed a method for 3-D visualization of the liver using x-ray computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) images. This method includes four major components: (1) segmentation algorithms for extracting liver data from tomographic images; (2) interpolation techniques for both shape and intensity; (3) schemes for volume rendering and display, and (4) routines for electronic surgery and image analysis. This method has been applied to cases from a living-donor liver transplant project and appears to be useful for surgical planning.

  11. Acquisition and applications of 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterian, Paul; Mocanu, Elena

    2007-08-01

    The moiré fringes method and their analysis up to medical and entertainment applications are discussed in this paper. We describe the procedure of capturing 3D images with an Inspeck Camera that is a real-time 3D shape acquisition system based on structured light techniques. The method is a high-resolution one. After processing the images, using computer, we can use the data for creating laser fashionable objects by engraving them with a Q-switched Nd:YAG. In medical field we mention the plastic surgery and the replacement of X-Ray especially in pediatric use.

  12. Anisotropy effects on 3D waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stekl, I.; Warner, M.; Umpleby, A.

    2010-12-01

    In the recent years 3D waveform inversion has become achievable procedure for seismic data processing. A number of datasets has been inverted and presented (Warner el al 2008, Ben Hadj at all, Sirgue et all 2010) using isotropic 3D waveform inversion. However the question arises will the results be affected by isotropic assumption. Full-wavefield inversion techniques seek to match field data, wiggle-for-wiggle, to synthetic data generated by a high-resolution model of the sub-surface. In this endeavour, correctly matching the travel times of the principal arrivals is a necessary minimal requirement. In many, perhaps most, long-offset and wide-azimuth datasets, it is necessary to introduce some form of p-wave velocity anisotropy to match the travel times successfully. If this anisotropy is not also incorporated into the wavefield inversion, then results from the inversion will necessarily be compromised. We have incorporated anisotropy into our 3D wavefield tomography codes, characterised as spatially varying transverse isotropy with a tilted axis of symmetry - TTI anisotropy. This enhancement approximately doubles both the run time and the memory requirements of the code. We show that neglect of anisotropy can lead to significant artefacts in the recovered velocity models. We will present inversion results of inverting anisotropic 3D dataset by assuming isotropic earth and compare them with anisotropic inversion result. As a test case Marmousi model extended to 3D with no velocity variation in third direction and with added spatially varying anisotropy is used. Acquisition geometry is assumed as OBC with sources and receivers everywhere at the surface. We attempted inversion using both 2D and full 3D acquisition for this dataset. Results show that if no anisotropy is taken into account although image looks plausible most features are miss positioned in depth and space, even for relatively low anisotropy, which leads to incorrect result. This may lead to

  13. FARGO3D: Hydrodynamics/magnetohydrodynamics code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benítez Llambay, Pablo; Masset, Frédéric

    2015-09-01

    A successor of FARGO (ascl:1102.017), FARGO3D is a versatile HD/MHD code that runs on clusters of CPUs or GPUs, with special emphasis on protoplanetary disks. FARGO3D offers Cartesian, cylindrical or spherical geometry; 1-, 2- or 3-dimensional calculations; and orbital advection (aka FARGO) for HD and MHD calculations. As in FARGO, a simple Runge-Kutta N-body solver may be used to describe the orbital evolution of embedded point-like objects. There is no need to know CUDA; users can develop new functions in C and have them translated to CUDA automatically to run on GPUs.

  14. Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2014-05-01

    Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a 3D CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make 3D visualisation, including 3D geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The 3D CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive 3D visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex 3D geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and dynamic data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river

  15. Cryogenic 3D printing for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Adamkiewicz, Michal; Rubinsky, Boris

    2015-12-01

    We describe a new cryogenic 3D printing technology for freezing hydrogels, with a potential impact to tissue engineering. We show that complex frozen hydrogel structures can be generated when the 3D object is printed immersed in a liquid coolant (liquid nitrogen), whose upper surface is maintained at the same level as the highest deposited layer of the object. This novel approach ensures that the process of freezing is controlled precisely, and that already printed frozen layers remain at a constant temperature. We describe the device and present results which illustrate the potential of the new technology. PMID:26548335

  16. Wetting Hierarchy in Oleophobic 3D Electrospun Nanofiber Networks.

    PubMed

    Stachewicz, Urszula; Bailey, Russell J; Zhang, Hao; Stone, Corinne A; Willis, Colin R; Barber, Asa H

    2015-08-01

    Wetting behavior between electrospun nanofibrous networks and liquids is of critical importance in many applications including filtration and liquid-repellent textiles. The relationship between intrinsic nanofiber properties, including surface characteristics, and extrinsic nanofibrous network organization on resultant wetting characteristics of the nanofiber network is shown in this work. Novel 3D imaging exploiting focused ion beam (FIB) microscopy and cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) highlights a wetting hierarchy that defines liquid interactions with the network. Specifically, small length scale partial wetting between individual electrospun nanofibers and low surface tension liquids, measured both using direct SEM visualization and a nano Wilhelmy balance approach, provides oleophobic surfaces due to the high porosity of electrospun nanofiber networks. These observations conform to a metastable Cassie-Baxter regime and are important in defining general rules for understanding the wetting behavior between fibrous solids and low surface tension liquids for omniphobic functionality. PMID:26176304

  17. Automating the determination of 3D protein structure

    SciTech Connect

    Rayl, K.D.

    1993-12-31

    The creation of an automated method for determining 3D protein structure would be invaluable to the field of biology and presents an interesting challenge to computer science. Unfortunately, given the current level of protein knowledge, a completely automated solution method is not yet feasible, therefore, our group has decided to integrate existing databases and theories to create a software system that assists X-ray crystallographers in specifying a particular protein structure. By breaking the problem of determining overall protein structure into small subproblems, we hope to come closer to solving a novel structure by solving each component. By generating necessary information for structure determination, this method provides the first step toward designing a program to determine protein conformation automatically.

  18. Triangular framework mesh generation of 3D geological structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xianhai; Zhou, Kun; Li, Jigang; Yang, Qin

    2013-03-01

    The dynamic simulation of oil migration and accumulation is an important issue on the research of petroleum exploration, and it is a numerical simulation process with special requirement on the framework mesh of 3D geological models, which means that the mesh should have same geometry and topology relation near the intersected part of geological surfaces. In this paper, basing on the conforming Delaunay triangulation algorithm to construct mesh of individual geological stratum or fault, a novel link-Delaunay-triangulation method is presented to achieve the geometric and topological consistency in the intersected line between two surfaces, also with the analysis of termination of our algorithm. Finally, some examples of the geological framework mesh are provided and the experimental result proved that the algorithm's effectiveness in engineering practice.

  19. Nondestructive quantitative 3D characterization of a car brake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jueptner, Werner P. O.; Osten, Wolfgang; Andrae, Peter; Nadeborn, Werner

    1996-07-01

    Holographic interferometry enables the accurate measurement of 3D displacement fields. However, the determination of 3D- displacement vectors of objects with complex surfaces requires to measure the 3D-object coordinates not only to consider local sensitivities but to distinguish between in- plane deformation, i.e. strains, and out-of-plane components, i.e. shears, too. To this purpose both the surface displacement and coordinates have to be combined and it is advantageous to make the data available for CAE- systems. The object surface has to be approximated analytically from the measured point cloud to generate a surface mesh. The displacement vectors can be assigned to the nodes of this surface mesh and the components of the deformation can be evaluated for an experimental stress analysis. They also can be compared to the results of FEM- calculations. The brake saddle of a car brake is such a complex formed object where the surface cannot be described by fundamental mathematical functions. The 3D-object coordinates were measured in a separate topometric set-up using a modified fringe projection technique to acquire absolute phase values. By means of a geometrical model the phase data were mapped onto coordinates precisely. The determination of 3D-displacement vectors required the measurement of several interference phase distributions for at least three independent sensitivity directions as well as the 3D-position of each measuring point. These geometric quantities had to be transformed into a reference coordinate system of the interferometric set-up in order to calculate the geometric matrix. The necessary transformation were realized by means of a detection of object features in both data sets and a subsequent determination of the external camera orientation. This paper presents a consistent solution for the measurement and combination of shape and displacement data including their transformation into simulation systems for the car brake. This is an example

  20. Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Carl; van Langeveld, Mark C; Donoso, Larry A

    2014-02-01

    3D printing is a method of manufacturing in which materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited onto one another in layers to produce a three dimensional object, such as a pair of eye glasses or other 3D objects. This process contrasts with traditional ink-based printers which produce a two dimensional object (ink on paper). To date, 3D printing has primarily been used in engineering to create engineering prototypes. However, recent advances in printing materials have now enabled 3D printers to make objects that are comparable with traditionally manufactured items. In contrast with conventional printers, 3D printing has the potential to enable mass customisation of goods on a large scale and has relevance in medicine including ophthalmology. 3D printing has already been proved viable in several medical applications including the manufacture of eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential for 3D printing to revolutionise manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolutionised conventional printing. The applications and limitations of 3D printing are discussed; the production process is demonstrated by producing a set of eyeglass frames from 3D blueprints. PMID:24288392

  1. Recent developments in DFD (depth-fused 3D) display and arc 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyama, Shiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

    2015-05-01

    We will report our recent developments in DFD (Depth-fused 3D) display and arc 3D display, both of which have smooth movement parallax. Firstly, fatigueless DFD display, composed of only two layered displays with a gap, has continuous perceived depth by changing luminance ratio between two images. Two new methods, called "Edge-based DFD display" and "Deep DFD display", have been proposed in order to solve two severe problems of viewing angle and perceived depth limitations. Edge-based DFD display, layered by original 2D image and its edge part with a gap, can expand the DFD viewing angle limitation both in 2D and 3D perception. Deep DFD display can enlarge the DFD image depth by modulating spatial frequencies of front and rear images. Secondly, Arc 3D display can provide floating 3D images behind or in front of the display by illuminating many arc-shaped directional scattering sources, for example, arcshaped scratches on a flat board. Curved Arc 3D display, composed of many directional scattering sources on a curved surface, can provide a peculiar 3D image, for example, a floating image in the cylindrical bottle. The new active device has been proposed for switching arc 3D images by using the tips of dual-frequency liquid-crystal prisms as directional scattering sources. Directional scattering can be switched on/off by changing liquid-crystal refractive index, resulting in switching of arc 3D image.

  2. Computerized 3D morphological analysis of glenoid orientation.

    PubMed

    Ghafurian, Soheil; Galdi, Balazs; Bastian, Sevag; Tan, Virak; Li, Kang

    2016-04-01

    An accurate preoperative measurement of glenoid orientation is crucial for evaluating pathologies and successful total shoulder arthroplasty. Existing methods may be labor-intensive, observer-dependent, and sensitive to the misalignment between the scapula plane and CT scanning direction. In this study, we proposed a computation framework and performed an automated analysis of the glenoid orientation based on 3D surface data. Three-dimensional models of 12 scapulae were analyzed. The glenoid cavity and external anatomical features were automatically extracted from these 3D models. Glenoid version was calculated using the scapula plane and the fulcrum axis alternatively. Glenoid inclination was measured both relative to transverse axis of the scapula and the medial pole-inferior tip axis. The mean (±SD) of the fulcrum-based glenoid version was -0.55° (±4.17°), while the scapular-plane-based glenoid version was -5.05° (±3.50°). The mean (±SD) of glenoid inclinations based on the medial pole and inferior tip was 12.75° (±5.03°) while the mean (±SD) of the glenoid inclination based on the medial pole and glenoid center was 4.63° (±4.86°). Our computational framework was able to extract the reproducible morphological measures free of inter- and intra- observer variability. For the first time in 3D, we showed that the fulcrum axis was practically perpendicular to the glenoid plane normal (radial line), and thus extended the fulcrum-based glenoid version for quantifying 3D glenoid orientation. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:692-698, 2016. PMID:26400654

  3. Dose optimization in gynecological 3D image based interstitial brachytherapy using martinez universal perineal interstitial template (MUPIT) -an institutional experience

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pramod Kumar; Sharma, Praveen Kumar; Swamidas, Jamema V; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Deshpande, D. D.; Manjhi, Jayanand; Rai, D V

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose optimization in 3D image based gynecological interstitial brachytherapy using Martinez Universal Perineal Interstitial Template (MUPIT). Axial CT image data set of 20 patients of gynecological cancer who underwent external radiotherapy and high dose rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy using MUPIT was employed to delineate clinical target volume (CTV) and organs at risk (OARs). Geometrical and graphical optimization were done for optimum CTV coverage and sparing of OARs. Coverage Index (CI), dose homogeneity index (DHI), overdose index (OI), dose non-uniformity ratio (DNR), external volume index (EI), conformity index (COIN) and dose volume parameters recommended by GEC-ESTRO were evaluated. The mean CTV, bladder and rectum volume were 137 ± 47cc, 106 ± 41cc and 50 ± 25cc, respectively. Mean CI, DHI and DNR were 0.86 ± 0.03, 0.69 ± 0.11 and 0.31 ± 0.09, while the mean OI, EI, and COIN were 0.08 ± 0.03, 0.07 ± 0.05 and 0.79 ± 0.05, respectively. The estimated mean CTV D90 was 76 ± 11Gy and D100 was 63 ± 9Gy. The different dosimetric parameters of bladder D2cc, D1cc and D0.1cc were 76 ± 11Gy, 81 ± 14Gy, and 98 ± 21Gy and of rectum/recto-sigmoid were 80 ± 17Gy, 85 ± 13Gy, and 124 ± 37Gy, respectively. Dose optimization yields superior coverage with optimal values of indices. Emerging data on 3D image based brachytherapy with reporting and clinical correlation of DVH parameters outcome is enterprizing and provides definite assistance in improving the quality of brachytherapy implants. DVH parameter for urethra in gynecological implants needs to be defined further. PMID:25190999

  4. Wall-touching kink mode calculations with the M3D code

    SciTech Connect

    Breslau, J. A. Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-06-15

    This paper seeks to address a controversy regarding the applicability of the 3D nonlinear extended MHD code M3D [W. Park et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 1796 (1999)] and similar codes to calculations of the electromagnetic interaction of a disrupting tokamak plasma with the surrounding vessel structures. M3D is applied to a simple test problem involving an external kink mode in an ideal cylindrical plasma, used also by the Disruption Simulation Code (DSC) as a model case for illustrating the nature of transient vessel currents during a major disruption. While comparison of the results with those of the DSC is complicated by effects arising from the higher dimensionality and complexity of M3D, we verify that M3D is capable of reproducing both the correct saturation behavior of the free boundary kink and the “Hiro” currents arising when the kink interacts with a conducting tile surface interior to the ideal wall.

  5. Wall-touching kink mode calculations with the M3D code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breslau, J. A.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-06-01

    This paper seeks to address a controversy regarding the applicability of the 3D nonlinear extended MHD code M3D [W. Park et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 1796 (1999)] and similar codes to calculations of the electromagnetic interaction of a disrupting tokamak plasma with the surrounding vessel structures. M3D is applied to a simple test problem involving an external kink mode in an ideal cylindrical plasma, used also by the Disruption Simulation Code (DSC) as a model case for illustrating the nature of transient vessel currents during a major disruption. While comparison of the results with those of the DSC is complicated by effects arising from the higher dimensionality and complexity of M3D, we verify that M3D is capable of reproducing both the correct saturation behavior of the free boundary kink and the "Hiro" currents arising when the kink interacts with a conducting tile surface interior to the ideal wall.

  6. The effect of small 3D magnetic perturbations on linear micro-instability properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegna, C. C.

    2014-10-01

    Small externally applied non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations can significantly alter the edge properties of tokamaks. In this work, we model the effect of the applied 3D fields on the flux surface deformation and show that these can alter key geometric properties of interest to microinstabilities. Shielding physics is assumed to be operative so that flux surface integrity is retained. Local 3D equilibrium theory is employed using a perturbative approach to calculate flux surface deformations consistent with magnetostatic force balance. Prior work has shown applied 3D fields can significantly alter ideal ballooning stability boundaries due to order unity 3D field induced changes to the local shear. The impact of 3D fields on ion temperature gradient and trapped electron mode growth rates are quantified using analytically derived proxy functions. Research supported by U.S. DoE Grant No. DE-FG02-86ER53218.

  7. Parallel 3D Mortar Element Method for Adaptive Nonconforming Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Huiyu; Mavriplis, Catherine; VanderWijngaart, Rob; Biswas, Rupak

    2004-01-01

    High order methods are frequently used in computational simulation for their high accuracy. An efficient way to avoid unnecessary computation in smooth regions of the solution is to use adaptive meshes which employ fine grids only in areas where they are needed. Nonconforming spectral elements allow the grid to be flexibly adjusted to satisfy the computational accuracy requirements. The method is suitable for computational simulations of unsteady problems with very disparate length scales or unsteady moving features, such as heat transfer, fluid dynamics or flame combustion. In this work, we select the Mark Element Method (MEM) to handle the non-conforming interfaces between elements. A new technique is introduced to efficiently implement MEM in 3-D nonconforming meshes. By introducing an "intermediate mortar", the proposed method decomposes the projection between 3-D elements and mortars into two steps. In each step, projection matrices derived in 2-D are used. The two-step method avoids explicitly forming/deriving large projection matrices for 3-D meshes, and also helps to simplify the implementation. This new technique can be used for both h- and p-type adaptation. This method is applied to an unsteady 3-D moving heat source problem. With our new MEM implementation, mesh adaptation is able to efficiently refine the grid near the heat source and coarsen the grid once the heat source passes. The savings in computational work resulting from the dynamic mesh adaptation is demonstrated by the reduction of the the number of elements used and CPU time spent. MEM and mesh adaptation, respectively, bring irregularity and dynamics to the computer memory access pattern. Hence, they provide a good way to gauge the performance of computer systems when running scientific applications whose memory access patterns are irregular and unpredictable. We select a 3-D moving heat source problem as the Unstructured Adaptive (UA) grid benchmark, a new component of the NAS Parallel

  8. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study to assess the efficacy of tadalafil (Cialis[reg]) in the treatment of erectile dysfunction following three-dimensional conformal external-beam radiotherapy for prostatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Incrocci, Luca . E-mail: l.incrocci@erasmusmc.nl; Slagter, Cleo; Slob, A. Koos; Hop, Wim C.J.

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: Erectile dysfunction after three-dimensional conformal external-beam radiotherapy (3DCRT) for prostatic carcinoma is reported in as many as 64% of those patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of the oral drug tadalafil (Cialis (registered) ) in patients with erectile dysfunction after radiotherapy for prostatic carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Patients (N = 358) who completed radiotherapy at least 12 months before the study were approached by mail. All patients had been treated by 3DCRT; 60 patients were included and entered a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study lasting 12 weeks. They received 20 mg of tadalafil or placebo for 6 weeks. Drug or placebo was taken on demand at patient's discretion, with no restrictions regarding the consumption of alcohol or food, at least once a week and no more than once daily. At 6 weeks patients crossed over to the alternative treatment. Data were collected using the Sexual Encounter Profile (SEP) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaires. Side effects were also recorded. Results: Mean age at study entry was 69 years. All patients completed the study. For almost all questions of the IIEF questionnaire there was a significant increase in mean scores from baseline with tadalafil, but not with placebo. Sixty-seven percent of the patients reported an improvement of erectile function with tadalafil (placebo: 20%), and 48% reported successful intercourse with tadalafil (placebo: 9%) (p < 0.0001). Side effects were mild or moderate. Conclusions: Tadalafil is an effective treatment for erectile dysfunction after 3DCRT for prostatic carcinoma with successful intercourse reported in almost 50% of the patients, and it is well tolerated.

  9. The EISCAT_3D Science Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjulin, A.; Mann, I.; McCrea, I.; Aikio, A. T.

    2013-05-01

    EISCAT_3D will be a world-leading international research infrastructure using the incoherent scatter technique to study the atmosphere in the Fenno-Scandinavian Arctic and to investigate how the Earth's atmosphere is coupled to space. The EISCAT_3D phased-array multistatic radar system will be operated by EISCAT Scientific Association and thus be an integral part of an organisation that has successfully been running incoherent scatter radars for more than thirty years. The baseline design of the radar system contains a core site with transmitting and receiving capabilities located close to the intersection of the Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish borders and five receiving sites located within 50 to 250 km from the core. The EISCAT_3D project is currently in its Preparatory Phase and can smoothly transit into implementation in 2014, provided sufficient funding. Construction can start 2016 and first operations in 2018. The EISCAT_3D Science Case is prepared as part of the Preparatory Phase. It is regularly updated with annual new releases, and it aims at being a common document for the whole future EISCAT_3D user community. The areas covered by the Science Case are atmospheric physics and global change; space and plasma physics; solar system research; space weather and service applications; and radar techniques, new methods for coding and analysis. Two of the aims for EISCAT_3D are to understand the ways natural variability in the upper atmosphere, imposed by the Sun-Earth system, can influence the middle and lower atmosphere, and to improve the predictivity of atmospheric models by providing higher resolution observations to replace the current parametrised input. Observations by EISCAT_3D will also be used to monitor the direct effects from the Sun on the ionosphere-atmosphere system and those caused by solar wind magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction. In addition, EISCAT_3D will be used for remote sensing the large-scale behaviour of the magnetosphere from its

  10. Analysis of B-Raf[Formula: see text] inhibitors using 2D and 3D-QSAR, molecular docking and pharmacophore studies.

    PubMed

    Aalizadeh, Reza; Pourbasheer, Eslam; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza

    2015-11-01

    In the present work, a molecular modeling study was carried out using 2D and 3D quantitative structure-activity relationships for the various series of compounds known as B-Raf[Formula: see text] inhibitors. For 2D-QSAR analysis, a linear model was developed by MLR based on GA-OLS with appropriate results [Formula: see text], which was validated by several external validation techniques. To perform a 3D-QSAR analysis, CoMFA and CoMSIA methods were used. The selected CoMFA model could provide reliable statistical values [Formula: see text] based on the training set in the biases of the selected alignment. Using the same selected alignment, a statistically reliable CoMSIA model, out of thirty-one different combinations, was also obtained [Formula: see text]. The predictive accuracy of the derived models was rigorously evaluated with the external test set of nineteen compounds based on several validation techniques. Molecular docking simulations and pharmacophore analyses were also performed to derive the true conformations of the most potent inhibitors with B-Raf[Formula: see text] kinase. PMID:26276566

  11. 3D ablation catheter localisation using individual C-arm x-ray projections.

    PubMed

    Haase, C; Schäfer, D; Dössel, O; Grass, M

    2014-11-21

    Cardiac ablation procedures during electrophysiology interventions are performed under x-ray guidance with a C-arm imaging system. Some procedures require catheter navigation in complex anatomies like the left atrium. Navigation aids like 3D road maps and external tracking systems may be used to facilitate catheter navigation. As an alternative to external tracking a fully automatic method is presented here that enables the calculation of the 3D location of the ablation catheter from individual 2D x-ray projections. The method registers a high resolution, deformable 3D attenuation model of the catheter to a 2D x-ray projection. The 3D localization is based on the divergent beam projection of the catheter. On an individual projection, the catheter tip is detected in 2D by image filtering and a template matching method. The deformable 3D catheter model is adapted using the projection geometry provided by the C-arm system and 2D similarity measures for an accurate 2D/3D registration. Prior to the tracking and registration procedure, the deformable 3D attenuation model is automatically extracted from a separate 3D cone beam CT reconstruction of the device. The method can hence be applied to various cardiac ablation catheters. In a simulation study of a virtual ablation procedure with realistic background, noise, scatter and motion blur an average 3D registration accuracy of 3.8 mm is reached for the catheter tip. In this study four different types of ablation catheters were used. Experiments using measured C-arm fluoroscopy projections of a catheter in a RSD phantom deliver an average 3D accuracy of 4.5 mm. PMID:25350552

  12. 3D ablation catheter localisation using individual C-arm x-ray projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, C.; Schäfer, D.; Dössel, O.; Grass, M.

    2014-11-01

    Cardiac ablation procedures during electrophysiology interventions are performed under x-ray guidance with a C-arm imaging system. Some procedures require catheter navigation in complex anatomies like the left atrium. Navigation aids like 3D road maps and external tracking systems may be used to facilitate catheter navigation. As an alternative to external tracking a fully automatic method is presented here that enables the calculation of the 3D location of the ablation catheter from individual 2D x-ray projections. The method registers a high resolution, deformable 3D attenuation model of the catheter to a 2D x-ray projection. The 3D localization is based on the divergent beam projection of the catheter. On an individual projection, the catheter tip is detected in 2D by image filtering and a template matching method. The deformable 3D catheter model is adapted using the projection geometry provided by the C-arm system and 2D similarity measures for an accurate 2D/3D registration. Prior to the tracking and registration procedure, the deformable 3D attenuation model is automatically extracted from a separate 3D cone beam CT reconstruction of the device. The method can hence be applied to various cardiac ablation catheters. In a simulation study of a virtual ablation procedure with realistic background, noise, scatter and motion blur an average 3D registration accuracy of 3.8 mm is reached for the catheter tip. In this study four different types of ablation catheters were used. Experiments using measured C-arm fluoroscopy projections of a catheter in a RSD phantom deliver an average 3D accuracy of 4.5 mm.

  13. Scoops3D: software to analyze 3D slope stability throughout a digital landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Mark E.; Christian, Sarah B.; Brien, Dianne L.; Henderson, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    The computer program, Scoops3D, evaluates slope stability throughout a digital landscape represented by a digital elevation model (DEM). The program uses a three-dimensional (3D) method of columns approach to assess the stability of many (typically millions) potential landslides within a user-defined size range. For each potential landslide (or failure), Scoops3D assesses the stability of a rotational, spherical slip surface encompassing many DEM cells using a 3D version of either Bishop’s simplified method or the Ordinary (Fellenius) method of limit-equilibrium analysis. Scoops3D has several options for the user to systematically and efficiently search throughout an entire DEM, thereby incorporating the effects of complex surface topography. In a thorough search, each DEM cell is included in multiple potential failures, and Scoops3D records the lowest stability (factor of safety) for each DEM cell, as well as the size (volume or area) associated with each of these potential landslides. It also determines the least-stable potential failure for the entire DEM. The user has a variety of options for building a 3D domain, including layers or full 3D distributions of strength and pore-water pressures, simplistic earthquake loading, and unsaturated suction conditions. Results from Scoops3D can be readily incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) or other visualization software. This manual includes information on the theoretical basis for the slope-stability analysis, requirements for constructing and searching a 3D domain, a detailed operational guide (including step-by-step instructions for using the graphical user interface [GUI] software, Scoops3D-i) and input/output file specifications, practical considerations for conducting an analysis, results of verification tests, and multiple examples illustrating the capabilities of Scoops3D. Easy-to-use software installation packages are available for the Windows or Macintosh operating systems; these packages

  14. Recovery and Visualization of 3D Structure of Chromosomes from Tomographic Reconstruction Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, Sabarish; Liao, Pao-Chuan; Shin, Min C.; Tsap, Leonid V.

    2006-12-01

    The objectives of this work include automatic recovery and visualization of a 3D chromosome structure from a sequence of 2D tomographic reconstruction images taken through the nucleus of a cell. Structure is very important for biologists as it affects chromosome functions, behavior of the cell, and its state. Analysis of chromosome structure is significant in the detection of diseases, identification of chromosomal abnormalities, study of DNA structural conformation, in-depth study of chromosomal surface morphology, observation of in vivo behavior of the chromosomes over time, and in monitoring environmental gene mutations. The methodology incorporates thresholding based on a histogram analysis with a polyline splitting algorithm, contour extraction via active contours, and detection of the 3D chromosome structure by establishing corresponding regions throughout the slices. Visualization using point cloud meshing generates a 3D surface. The 3D triangular mesh of the chromosomes provides surface detail and allows a user to interactively analyze chromosomes using visualization software.

  15. Stem dependence on stiffness in 3D RNA simulation using SimRNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Wayne; Boniecki, Michal; Bujnicki, Janusz

    2015-03-01

    SimRNA is a recently developed de novo 3D structure prediction program in our laboratory that uses the Monte Carlo method to search the conformation space of RNA using knowledge based energy functions. In developing the 3D model, we have also be exploring the larger physical questions about what generates differences in Kuhn length (a measure of stiffness) in biopolymers. In previoius work, this was shown to depend on the stem length and to be a function of the length and Young's modulus. A complete theoretical model was of the entropy changes due to the freezing out of degrees of freedom was developed base on this model. In this study, we find that this is further supported in the development of the 3D statitstical potentials for actual 3D simulations of RNA.

  16. Formation and properties of 3D metamaterial composites fabricated using nanometer scale laser lithography (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokes, Sharka M.; Perkins, Frank K.; Glembocki, Orest J.

    2015-08-01

    Metamaterials designed for the visible or near IR wavelengths require patterning on the nanometer scale. To achieve this, e-beam lithography is used, but it is extremely difficult and can only produce 2D structures. A new alternative technique to produce 2D and 3D structures involves laser fabrication using the Nanoscribe 3D laser lithography system. This is a direct laser writing technique which can form arbitrary 3D nanostructures on the nanometer scale and is based on multi-photon polymerization. We are creating 2D and 3D metamaterials via this technique, and subsequently conformally coating them using Atomic Layer Deposition of oxides and Ag. We will discuss the optical properties of these novel composite structures and their potential for dual resonant metamaterials.

  17. 3-D prestack Kirchhoff depth migration: From prototype to production in a massively parallel processor environment

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.; Solano, M.; VanDyke, J.P.; McMechan, G.A.; Epili, D.

    1998-03-01

    Portable, production-scale 3-D prestack Kirchhoff depth migration software capable of full-volume imaging has been successfully implemented and applied to a six-million trace (46.9 Gbyte) marine data set from a salt/subsalt play in the Gulf of Mexico. Velocity model building and updates use an image-driven strategy and were performed in a Sun Sparc environment. Images obtained by 3-D prestack migration after three velocity iterations are substantially better focused and reveal drilling targets that were not visible in images obtained from conventional 3-D poststack time migration. Amplitudes are well preserved, so anomalies associated with known reservoirs conform to the petrophysical predictions. Prototype development was on an 8-node Intel iPSC860 computer; the production version was run on an 1824-node Intel Paragon computer. The code has been successfully ported to CRAY (T3D) and Unix workstation (PVM) environments.

  18. Effect of viewing distance on 3D fatigue caused by viewing mobile 3D content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Sungchul; Lee, Dong-Su; Park, Min-Chul; Yano, Sumio

    2013-05-01

    With an advent of autostereoscopic display technique and increased needs for smart phones, there has been a significant growth in mobile TV markets. The rapid growth in technical, economical, and social aspects has encouraged 3D TV manufacturers to apply 3D rendering technology to mobile devices so that people have more opportunities to come into contact with many 3D content anytime and anywhere. Even if the mobile 3D technology leads to the current market growth, there is an important thing to consider for consistent development and growth in the display market. To put it briefly, human factors linked to mobile 3D viewing should be taken into consideration before developing mobile 3D technology. Many studies have investigated whether mobile 3D viewing causes undesirable biomedical effects such as motion sickness and visual fatigue, but few have examined main factors adversely affecting human health. Viewing distance is considered one of the main factors to establish optimized viewing environments from a viewer's point of view. Thus, in an effort to determine human-friendly viewing environments, this study aims to investigate the effect of viewing distance on human visual system when exposing to mobile 3D environments. Recording and analyzing brainwaves before and after watching mobile 3D content, we explore how viewing distance affects viewing experience from physiological and psychological perspectives. Results obtained in this study are expected to provide viewing guidelines for viewers, help ensure viewers against undesirable 3D effects, and lead to make gradual progress towards a human-friendly mobile 3D viewing.

  19. GPM 3D Flyby of Hurricane Lester

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby of Lester was created using GPM's Radar data. NASA/JAXA's GPM core observatory satellite flew over Hurricane Lester on August 29, 2016 at 7:21 p.m. EDT. Rain was measured by GPM's ra...

  20. Spatial Visualization by Realistic 3D Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Jianping

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the popular Purdue Spatial Visualization Test-Visualization by Rotations (PSVT-R) in isometric drawings was recreated with CAD software that allows 3D solid modeling and rendering to provide more realistic pictorial views. Both the original and the modified PSVT-R tests were given to students and their scores on the two tests were…

  1. 3D printed PLA-based scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Tiziano; Mateos-Timoneda, Miguel A; Planell, Josep A; Navarro, Melba

    2013-01-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP), also known as additive manufacturing (AM), has been well received and adopted in the biomedical field. The capacity of this family of techniques to fabricate customized 3D structures with complex geometries and excellent reproducibility has revolutionized implantology and regenerative medicine. In particular, nozzle-based systems allow the fabrication of high-resolution polylactic acid (PLA) structures that are of interest in regenerative medicine. These 3D structures find interesting applications in the regenerative medicine field where promising applications including biodegradable templates for tissue regeneration purposes, 3D in vitro platforms for studying cell response to different scaffolds conditions and for drug screening are considered among others. Scaffolds functionality depends not only on the fabrication technique, but also on the material used to build the 3D structure, the geometry and inner architecture of the structure, and the final surface properties. All being crucial parameters affecting scaffolds success. This Commentary emphasizes the importance of these parameters in scaffolds’ fabrication and also draws the attention toward the versatility of these PLA scaffolds as a potential tool in regenerative medicine and other medical fields. PMID:23959206

  2. 3D printed microfluidics for biological applications.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chee Meng Benjamin; Ng, Sum Huan; Li, King Ho Holden; Yoon, Yong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The term "Lab-on-a-Chip," is synonymous with describing microfluidic devices with biomedical applications. Even though microfluidics have been developing rapidly over the past decade, the uptake rate in biological research has been slow. This could be due to the tedious process of fabricating a chip and the absence of a "killer application" that would outperform existing traditional methods. In recent years, three dimensional (3D) printing has been drawing much interest from the research community. It has the ability to make complex structures with high resolution. Moreover, the fast building time and ease of learning has simplified the fabrication process of microfluidic devices to a single step. This could possibly aid the field of microfluidics in finding its "killer application" that will lead to its acceptance by researchers, especially in the biomedical field. In this paper, a review is carried out of how 3D printing helps to improve the fabrication of microfluidic devices, the 3D printing technologies currently used for fabrication and the future of 3D printing in the field of microfluidics. PMID:26237523

  3. Rubber Impact on 3D Textile Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimbs, Sebastian; Van Den Broucke, Björn; Duplessis Kergomard, Yann; Dau, Frederic; Malherbe, Benoit

    2012-06-01

    A low velocity impact study of aircraft tire rubber on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates was performed experimentally and numerically. In contrast to regular unidirectional composite laminates, no delaminations occur in such a 3D textile composite. Yarn decohesions, matrix cracks and yarn ruptures have been identified as the major damage mechanisms under impact load. An increase in the number of 3D warp yarns is proposed to improve the impact damage resistance. The characteristic of a rubber impact is the high amount of elastic energy stored in the impactor during impact, which was more than 90% of the initial kinetic energy. This large geometrical deformation of the rubber during impact leads to a less localised loading of the target structure and poses great challenges for the numerical modelling. A hyperelastic Mooney-Rivlin constitutive law was used in Abaqus/Explicit based on a step-by-step validation with static rubber compression tests and low velocity impact tests on aluminium plates. Simulation models of the textile weave were developed on the meso- and macro-scale. The final correlation between impact simulation results on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates and impact test data was promising, highlighting the potential of such numerical simulation tools.

  4. Metrological characterization of 3D imaging devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, G.

    2013-04-01

    Manufacturers often express the performance of a 3D imaging device in various non-uniform ways for the lack of internationally recognized standard requirements for metrological parameters able to identify the capability of capturing a real scene. For this reason several national and international organizations in the last ten years have been developing protocols for verifying such performance. Ranging from VDI/VDE 2634, published by the Association of German Engineers and oriented to the world of mechanical 3D measurements (triangulation-based devices), to the ASTM technical committee E57, working also on laser systems based on direct range detection (TOF, Phase Shift, FM-CW, flash LADAR), this paper shows the state of the art about the characterization of active range devices, with special emphasis on measurement uncertainty, accuracy and resolution. Most of these protocols are based on special objects whose shape and size are certified with a known level of accuracy. By capturing the 3D shape of such objects with a range device, a comparison between the measured points and the theoretical shape they should represent is possible. The actual deviations can be directly analyzed or some derived parameters can be obtained (e.g. angles between planes, distances between barycenters of spheres rigidly connected, frequency domain parameters, etc.). This paper shows theoretical aspects and experimental results of some novel characterization methods applied to different categories of active 3D imaging devices based on both principles of triangulation and direct range detection.

  5. Introduction to 3D Graphics through Excel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benacka, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a method of explaining the principles of 3D graphics through making a revolvable and sizable orthographic parallel projection of cuboid in Excel. No programming is used. The method was tried in fourteen 90 minute lessons with 181 participants, which were Informatics teachers, undergraduates of Applied Informatics and gymnasium…

  6. 3D Virtual Reality for Teaching Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speck, Angela; Ruzhitskaya, L.; Laffey, J.; Ding, N.

    2012-01-01

    We are developing 3D virtual learning environments (VLEs) as learning materials for an undergraduate astronomy course, in which will utilize advances both in technologies available and in our understanding of the social nature of learning. These learning materials will be used to test whether such VLEs can indeed augment science learning so that it is more engaging, active, visual and effective. Our project focuses on the challenges and requirements of introductory college astronomy classes. Here we present our virtual world of the Jupiter system and how we plan to implement it to allow students to learn course material - physical laws and concepts in astronomy - while engaging them into exploration of the Jupiter's system, encouraging their imagination, curiosity, and motivation. The VLE can allow students to work individually or collaboratively. The 3D world also provides an opportunity for research in astronomy education to investigate impact of social interaction, gaming features, and use of manipulatives offered by a learning tool on students’ motivation and learning outcomes. Use of this VLE is also a valuable source for exploration of how the learners’ spatial awareness can be enhanced by working in 3D environment. We will present the Jupiter-system environment along with a preliminary study of the efficacy and usability of our Jupiter 3D VLE.

  7. Spacecraft 3D Augmented Reality Mobile App

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussey, Kevin J.; Doronila, Paul R.; Kumanchik, Brian E.; Chan, Evan G.; Ellison, Douglas J.; Boeck, Andrea; Moore, Justin M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spacecraft 3D application allows users to learn about and interact with iconic NASA missions in a new and immersive way using common mobile devices. Using Augmented Reality (AR) techniques to project 3D renditions of the mission spacecraft into real-world surroundings, users can interact with and learn about Curiosity, GRAIL, Cassini, and Voyager. Additional updates on future missions, animations, and information will be ongoing. Using a printed AR Target and camera on a mobile device, users can get up close with these robotic explorers, see how some move, and learn about these engineering feats, which are used to expand knowledge and understanding about space. The software receives input from the mobile device's camera to recognize the presence of an AR marker in the camera's field of view. It then displays a 3D rendition of the selected spacecraft in the user's physical surroundings, on the mobile device's screen, while it tracks the device's movement in relation to the physical position of the spacecraft's 3D image on the AR marker.

  8. How to See Shadows in 3D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parikesit, Gea O. F.

    2014-01-01

    Shadows can be found easily everywhere around us, so that we rarely find it interesting to reflect on how they work. In order to raise curiosity among students on the optics of shadows, we can display the shadows in 3D, particularly using a stereoscopic set-up. In this paper we describe the optics of stereoscopic shadows using simple schematic…

  9. Crack interaction with 3-D dislocation loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Huajian

    CRACKS in a solid often interact with other crystal defects such as dislocation loops. The interaction effects are of 3-D character yet their analytical treatment has been mostly limited to the 2-D regime due to mathematical complications. This paper shows that distribution of the stress intensity factors along a crack front due to arbitrary dislocation loops may be expressed as simple line integrals along the loop contours. The method of analysis is based on the 3-D Bueckner-Rice weight function theory for elastic crack analysis. Our results have significantly simplified the calculations for 3-D dislocation loops produced in the plastic processes at the crack front due to highly concentrated crack tip stress fields. Examples for crack-tip 3-D loops and 2-D straight dislocations emerging from the crack tip are given to demonstrate applications of the derived formulae. The results are consistent with some previous analytical solutions existing in the literature. As further applications we also analyse straight dislocations that are parallel or perpendicular to the crack plane but are not parallel to the crack front.

  10. Holography of incoherently illuminated 3D scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaked, Natan T.; Rosen, Joseph

    2008-04-01

    We review several methods of generating holograms of 3D realistic objects illuminated by incoherent white light. Using these methods, it is possible to obtain holograms with a simple digital camera, operating in regular light conditions. Thus, most disadvantages characterizing conventional holography, namely the need for a powerful, highly coherent laser and meticulous stability of the optical system are avoided. These holograms can be reconstructed optically by illuminating them with a coherent plane wave, or alternatively by using a digital reconstruction technique. In order to generate the proposed hologram, the 3D scene is captured from multiple points of view by a simple digital camera. Then, the acquired projections are digitally processed to yield the final hologram of the 3D scene. Based on this principle, we can generate Fourier, Fresnel, image or other types of holograms. To obtain certain advantages over the regular holograms, we also propose new digital holograms, such as modified Fresnel holograms and protected correlation holograms. Instead of shifting the camera mechanically to acquire a different projection of the 3D scene each time, it is possible to use a microlens array for acquiring the entire projections in a single camera shot. Alternatively, only the extreme projections can be acquired experimentally, while the middle projections are predicted digitally by using the view synthesis algorithm. The prospective goal of these methods is to facilitate the design of a simple, portable digital holographic camera which can be useful for a variety of practical applications.

  11. 3D puzzle reconstruction for archeological fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jampy, F.; Hostein, A.; Fauvet, E.; Laligant, O.; Truchetet, F.

    2015-03-01

    The reconstruction of broken artifacts is a common task in archeology domain; it can be supported now by 3D data acquisition device and computer processing. Many works have been dedicated in the past to reconstructing 2D puzzles but very few propose a true 3D approach. We present here a complete solution including a dedicated transportable 3D acquisition set-up and a virtual tool with a graphic interface allowing the archeologists to manipulate the fragments and to, interactively, reconstruct the puzzle. The whole lateral part is acquired by rotating the fragment around an axis chosen within a light sheet thanks to a step-motor synchronized with the camera frame clock. Another camera provides a top view of the fragment under scanning. A scanning accuracy of 100μm is attained. The iterative automatic processing algorithm is based on segmentation into facets of the lateral part of the fragments followed by a 3D matching providing the user with a ranked short list of possible assemblies. The device has been applied to the reconstruction of a set of 1200 fragments from broken tablets supporting a Latin inscription dating from the first century AD.

  12. 3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Therese; Auk-Emblem, Pia; Dornish, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent), and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell–matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue. PMID:27600217

  13. [3D virtual endoscopy of heart].

    PubMed

    Du, Aan; Yang, Xin; Xue, Haihong; Yao, Liping; Sun, Kun

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we present a virtual endoscopy (VE) for diagnosis of heart diseases, which is proved efficient and affordable, easy to popularize for viewing the interior of the heart. The dual source CT (DSCT) data were used as primary data in our system. The 3D structure of virtual heart was reconstructed with 3D texture mapping technology based on graphics processing unit (GPU), and could be displayed dynamically in real time. When we displayed it in real time, we could not only observe the inside of the chambers of heart but also examine from the new angle of view by the 3D data which were already clipped according to doctor's desire. In the pattern of observation, we used both mutual interactive mode and auto mode. In the auto mode, we used Dijkstra Algorithm which treated the 3D Euler distance as weighting factor to find out the view path quickly, and, used view path to calculate the four chamber plane. PMID:23198444

  14. The New Realm of 3-D Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Dimension Technologies Inc., developed a line of 2-D/3-D Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screens, including a 15-inch model priced at consumer levels. DTI's family of flat panel LCD displays, called the Virtual Window(TM), provide real-time 3-D images without the use of glasses, head trackers, helmets, or other viewing aids. Most of the company initial 3-D display research was funded through NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The images on DTI's displays appear to leap off the screen and hang in space. The display accepts input from computers or stereo video sources, and can be switched from 3-D to full-resolution 2-D viewing with the push of a button. The Virtual Window displays have applications in data visualization, medicine, architecture, business, real estate, entertainment, and other research, design, military, and consumer applications. Displays are currently used for computer games, protein analysis, and surgical imaging. The technology greatly benefits the medical field, as surgical simulators are helping to increase the skills of surgical residents. Virtual Window(TM) is a trademark of Dimension Technologies Inc.

  15. Virtual Representations in 3D Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shonfeld, Miri; Kritz, Miki

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the extent to which virtual worlds can serve as online collaborative learning environments for students by increasing social presence and engagement. 3D environments enable learning, which simulates face-to-face encounters while retaining the advantages of online learning. Students in Education departments created avatars…

  16. NASA Sees Typhoon Rammasun in 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's TRMM satellite flew over on July 14, 2014 at 1819 UTC and data was used to make this 3-D flyby showing thunderstorms to heights of almost 17km (10.5 miles). Rain was measured falling at a ra...

  17. 3-D Teaching Models for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Joan; Farland-Smith, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Allowing a student to "see" through touch what other students see through a microscope can be a challenging task. Therefore, author Joan Bradley created three-dimensional (3-D) models with one student's visual impairment in mind. They are meant to benefit all students and can be used to teach common high school biology topics, including the…

  18. A Rotation Invariant in 3-D Reaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Suvobrata; Turvey, M. T.

    2004-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors investigated changes in hand orientation during a 3-D reaching task that imposed specific position and orientation requirements on the hand's initial and final postures. Instantaneous hand orientation was described using 3-element rotation vectors representing current orientation as a rotation from a fixed reference…

  19. Laser printing of 3D metallic interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniam, Iyoel; Mathews, Scott A.; Charipar, Nicholas A.; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Piqué, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The use of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) techniques for the printing of functional materials has been demonstrated for numerous applications. The printing gives rise to patterns, which can be used to fabricate planar interconnects. More recently, various groups have demonstrated electrical interconnects from laser-printed 3D structures. The laser printing of these interconnects takes place through aggregation of voxels of either molten metal or of pastes containing dispersed metallic particles. However, the generated 3D structures do not posses the same metallic conductivity as a bulk metal interconnect of the same cross-section and length as those formed by wire bonding or tab welding. An alternative is to laser transfer entire 3D structures using a technique known as lase-and-place. Lase-and-place is a LIFT process whereby whole components and parts can be transferred from a donor substrate onto a desired location with one single laser pulse. This paper will describe the use of LIFT to laser print freestanding, solid metal foils or beams precisely over the contact pads of discrete devices to interconnect them into fully functional circuits. Furthermore, this paper will also show how the same laser can be used to bend or fold the bulk metal foils prior to transfer, thus forming compliant 3D structures able to provide strain relief for the circuits under flexing or during motion from thermal mismatch. These interconnect "ridges" can span wide gaps (on the order of a millimeter) and accommodate height differences of tens of microns between adjacent devices. Examples of these laser printed 3D metallic bridges and their role in the development of next generation electronics by additive manufacturing will be presented.

  20. Volume rendering for interactive 3D segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toennies, Klaus D.; Derz, Claus

    1997-05-01

    Combined emission/absorption and reflection/transmission volume rendering is able to display poorly segmented structures from 3D medical image sequences. Visual cues such as shading and color let the user distinguish structures in the 3D display that are incompletely extracted by threshold segmentation. In order to be truly helpful, analyzed information needs to be quantified and transferred back into the data. We extend our previously presented scheme for such display be establishing a communication between visual analysis and the display process. The main tool is a selective 3D picking device. For being useful on a rather rough segmentation, the device itself and the display offer facilities for object selection. Selective intersection planes let the user discard information prior to choosing a tissue of interest. Subsequently, a picking is carried out on the 2D display by casting a ray into the volume. The picking device is made pre-selective using already existing segmentation information. Thus, objects can be picked that are visible behind semi-transparent surfaces of other structures. Information generated by a later connected- component analysis can then be integrated into the data. Data examination is continued on an improved display letting the user actively participate in the analysis process. Results of this display-and-interaction scheme proved to be very effective. The viewer's ability to extract relevant information form a complex scene is combined with the computer's ability to quantify this information. The approach introduces 3D computer graphics methods into user- guided image analysis creating an analysis-synthesis cycle for interactive 3D segmentation.

  1. 3-D inversion of magnetotelluric Phase Tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patro, Prasanta; Uyeshima, Makoto

    2010-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) inversion of the magnetotelluric (MT) has become a routine practice among the MT community due to progress of algorithms for 3-D inverse problems (e.g. Mackie and Madden, 1993; Siripunvaraporn et al., 2005). While availability of such 3-D inversion codes have increased the resolving power of the MT data and improved the interpretation, on the other hand, still the galvanic effects poses difficulties in interpretation of resistivity structure obtained from the MT data. In order to tackle the galvanic distortion of MT data, Caldwell et al., (2004) introduced the concept of phase tensor. They demonstrated how the regional phase information can be retrieved from the observed impedance tensor without any assumptions for structural dimension, where both the near surface inhomogeneity and the regional conductivity structures can be 3-D. We made an attempt to modify a 3-D inversion code (Siripunvaraporn et al., 2005) to directly invert the phase tensor elements. We present here the main modification done in the sensitivity calculation and then show a few synthetic studies and its application to the real data. The synthetic model study suggests that the prior model (m_0) setting is important in retrieving the true model. This is because estimation of correct induction scale length lacks in the phase tensor inversion process. Comparison between results from conventional impedance inversion and new phase tensor inversion suggests that, in spite of presence of the galvanic distortion (due to near surface checkerboard anomalies in our case), the new inverion algorithm retrieves the regional conductivitity structure reliably. We applied the new inversion to the real data from the Indian sub continent and compared with the results from conventional impedance inversion.

  2. Recognition methods for 3D textured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cula, Oana G.; Dana, Kristin J.

    2001-06-01

    Texture as a surface representation is the subject of a wide body of computer vision and computer graphics literature. While texture is always associated with a form of repetition in the image, the repeating quantity may vary. The texture may be a color or albedo variation as in a checkerboard, a paisley print or zebra stripes. Very often in real-world scenes, texture is instead due to a surface height variation, e.g. pebbles, gravel, foliage and any rough surface. Such surfaces are referred to here as 3D textured surfaces. Standard texture recognition algorithms are not appropriate for 3D textured surfaces because the appearance of these surfaces changes in a complex manner with viewing direction and illumination direction. Recent methods have been developed for recognition of 3D textured surfaces using a database of surfaces observed under varied imaging parameters. One of these methods is based on 3D textons obtained using K-means clustering of multiscale feature vectors. Another method uses eigen-analysis originally developed for appearance-based object recognition. In this work we develop a hybrid approach that employs both feature grouping and dimensionality reduction. The method is tested using the Columbia-Utrecht texture database and provides excellent recognition rates. The method is compared with existing recognition methods for 3D textured surfaces. A direct comparison is facilitated by empirical recognition rates from the same texture data set. The current method has key advantages over existing methods including requiring less prior information on both the training and novel images.

  3. 3D Printed Programmable Release Capsules.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Maneesh K; Meng, Fanben; Johnson, Blake N; Kong, Yong Lin; Tian, Limei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Masters, Nina; Singamaneni, Srikanth; McAlpine, Michael C

    2015-08-12

    The development of methods for achieving precise spatiotemporal control over chemical and biomolecular gradients could enable significant advances in areas such as synthetic tissue engineering, biotic-abiotic interfaces, and bionanotechnology. Living organisms guide tissue development through highly orchestrated gradients of biomolecules that direct cell growth, migration, and differentiation. While numerous methods have been developed to manipulate and implement biomolecular gradients, integrating gradients into multiplexed, three-dimensional (3D) matrices remains a critical challenge. Here we present a method to 3D print stimuli-responsive core/shell capsules for programmable release of multiplexed gradients within hydrogel matrices. These capsules are composed of an aqueous core, which can be formulated to maintain the activity of payload biomolecules, and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA, an FDA approved polymer) shell. Importantly, the shell can be loaded with plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs), which permits selective rupturing of the capsule when irradiated with a laser wavelength specifically determined by the lengths of the nanorods. This precise control over space, time, and selectivity allows for the ability to pattern 2D and 3D multiplexed arrays of enzyme-loaded capsules along with tunable laser-triggered rupture and release of active enzymes into a hydrogel ambient. The advantages of this 3D printing-based method include (1) highly monodisperse capsules, (2) efficient encapsulation of biomolecular payloads, (3) precise spatial patterning of capsule arrays, (4) "on the fly" programmable reconfiguration of gradients, and (5) versatility for incorporation in hierarchical architectures. Indeed, 3D printing of programmable release capsules may represent a powerful new tool to enable spatiotemporal control over biomolecular gradients. PMID:26042472

  4. 3D Printed Programmable Release Capsules

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Maneesh K.; Meng, Fanben; Johnson, Blake N.; Kong, Yong Lin; Tian, Limei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Masters, Nina; Singamaneni, Srikanth; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    The development of methods for achieving precise spatiotemporal control over chemical and biomolecular gradients could enable significant advances in areas such as synthetic tissue engineering, biotic–abiotic interfaces, and bionanotechnology. Living organisms guide tissue development through highly orchestrated gradients of biomolecules that direct cell growth, migration, and differentiation. While numerous methods have been developed to manipulate and implement biomolecular gradients, integrating gradients into multiplexed, three-dimensional (3D) matrices remains a critical challenge. Here we present a method to 3D print stimuli-responsive core/shell capsules for programmable release of multiplexed gradients within hydrogel matrices. These capsules are composed of an aqueous core, which can be formulated to maintain the activity of payload biomolecules, and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA, an FDA approved polymer) shell. Importantly, the shell can be loaded with plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs), which permits selective rupturing of the capsule when irradiated with a laser wavelength specifically determined by the lengths of the nanorods. This precise control over space, time, and selectivity allows for the ability to pattern 2D and 3D multiplexed arrays of enzyme-loaded capsules along with tunable laser-triggered rupture and release of active enzymes into a hydrogel ambient. The advantages of this 3D printing-based method include (1) highly monodisperse capsules, (2) efficient encapsulation of biomolecular payloads, (3) precise spatial patterning of capsule arrays, (4) “on the fly” programmable reconfiguration of gradients, and (5) versatility for incorporation in hierarchical architectures. Indeed, 3D printing of programmable release capsules may represent a powerful new tool to enable spatiotemporal control over biomolecular gradients. PMID:26042472

  5. R3D-2-MSA: the RNA 3D structure-to-multiple sequence alignment server.

    PubMed

    Cannone, Jamie J; Sweeney, Blake A; Petrov, Anton I; Gutell, Robin R; Zirbel, Craig L; Leontis, Neocles

    2015-07-01

    The RNA 3D Structure-to-Multiple Sequence Alignment Server (R3D-2-MSA) is a new web service that seamlessly links RNA three-dimensional (3D) structures to high-quality RNA multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) from diverse biological sources. In this first release, R3D-2-MSA provides manual and programmatic access to curated, representative ribosomal RNA sequence alignments from bacterial, archaeal, eukaryal and organellar ribosomes, using nucleotide numbers from representative atomic-resolution 3D structures. A web-based front end is available for manual entry and an Application Program Interface for programmatic access. Users can specify up to five ranges of nucleotides and 50 nucleotide positions per range. The R3D-2-MSA server maps these ranges to the appropriate columns of the corresponding MSA and returns the contents of the columns, either for display in a web browser or in JSON format for subsequent programmatic use. The browser output page provides a 3D interactive display of the query, a full list of sequence variants with taxonomic information and a statistical summary of distinct sequence variants found. The output can be filtered and sorted in the browser. Previous user queries can be viewed at any time by resubmitting the output URL, which encodes the search and re-generates the results. The service is freely available with no login requirement at http://rna.bgsu.edu/r3d-2-msa. PMID:26048960

  6. A 3D radiative transfer framework. VI. PHOENIX/3D example applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauschildt, P. H.; Baron, E.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: We demonstrate the application of our 3D radiative transfer framework in the model atmosphere code PHOENIX for a number of spectrum synthesis calculations for very different conditions. Methods: The 3DRT framework discussed in the previous papers of this series was added to our general-purpose model atmosphere code PHOENIX/1D and an extended 3D version PHOENIX/3D was created. The PHOENIX/3D code is parallelized via the MPI library using a hierarchical domain decomposition and displays very good strong scaling. Results: We present the results of several test cases for widely different atmosphere conditions and compare the 3D calculations with equivalent 1D models to assess the internal accuracy of the 3D modeling. In addition, we show the results for a number of parameterized 3D structures. Conclusions: With presently available computational resources it is possible to solve the full 3D radiative transfer (including scattering) problem with the same micro-physics as included in 1D modeling.

  7. R3D-2-MSA: the RNA 3D structure-to-multiple sequence alignment server

    PubMed Central

    Cannone, Jamie J.; Sweeney, Blake A.; Petrov, Anton I.; Gutell, Robin R.; Zirbel, Craig L.; Leontis, Neocles

    2015-01-01

    The RNA 3D Structure-to-Multiple Sequence Alignment Server (R3D-2-MSA) is a new web service that seamlessly links RNA three-dimensional (3D) structures to high-quality RNA multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) from diverse biological sources. In this first release, R3D-2-MSA provides manual and programmatic access to curated, representative ribosomal RNA sequence alignments from bacterial, archaeal, eukaryal and organellar ribosomes, using nucleotide numbers from representative atomic-resolution 3D structures. A web-based front end is available for manual entry and an Application Program Interface for programmatic access. Users can specify up to five ranges of nucleotides and 50 nucleotide positions per range. The R3D-2-MSA server maps these ranges to the appropriate columns of the corresponding MSA and returns the contents of the columns, either for display in a web browser or in JSON format for subsequent programmatic use. The browser output page provides a 3D interactive display of the query, a full list of sequence variants with taxonomic information and a statistical summary of distinct sequence variants found. The output can be filtered and sorted in the browser. Previous user queries can be viewed at any time by resubmitting the output URL, which encodes the search and re-generates the results. The service is freely available with no login requirement at http://rna.bgsu.edu/r3d-2-msa. PMID:26048960

  8. The dimension added by 3D scanning and 3D printing of meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vet, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    An overview for the 3D photodocumentation of meteorites is presented, focussing on two 3D scanning methods in relation to 3D printing. The 3D photodocumention of meteorites provides new ways for the digital preservation of culturally, historically or scientifically unique meteorites. It has the potential for becoming a new documentation standard of meteorites that can exist complementary to traditional photographic documentation. Notable applications include (i.) use of physical properties in dark flight-, strewn field-, or aerodynamic modelling; (ii.) collection research of meteorites curated by different museum collections, and (iii.) public dissemination of meteorite models as a resource for educational users. The possible applications provided by the additional dimension of 3D illustrate the benefits for the meteoritics community.

  9. 3D spatial resolution and spectral resolution of interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Obara, Masaki; Yoshimori, Kyu

    2016-04-01

    Recently developed interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry (J. Opt. Soc. Am A18, 765 [2001]1084-7529JOAOD610.1364/JOSAA.18.000765) enables obtainment of the spectral information and 3D spatial information for incoherently illuminated or self-luminous object simultaneously. Using this method, we can obtain multispectral components of complex holograms, which correspond directly to the phase distribution of the wavefronts propagated from the polychromatic object. This paper focuses on the analysis of spectral resolution and 3D spatial resolution in interferometric 3D imaging spectrometry. Our analysis is based on a novel analytical impulse response function defined over four-dimensional space. We found that the experimental results agree well with the theoretical prediction. This work also suggests a new criterion and estimate method regarding 3D spatial resolution of digital holography. PMID:27139648

  10. 3-D transient analysis of pebble-bed HTGR by TORT-TD/ATTICA3D

    SciTech Connect

    Seubert, A.; Sureda, A.; Lapins, J.; Buck, M.; Bader, J.; Laurien, E.

    2012-07-01

    As most of the acceptance criteria are local core parameters, application of transient 3-D fine mesh neutron transport and thermal hydraulics coupled codes is mandatory for best estimate evaluations of safety margins. This also applies to high-temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR). Application of 3-D fine-mesh transient transport codes using few energy groups coupled with 3-D thermal hydraulics codes becomes feasible in view of increasing computing power. This paper describes the discrete ordinates based coupled code system TORT-TD/ATTICA3D that has recently been extended by a fine-mesh diffusion solver. Based on transient analyses for the PBMR-400 design, the transport/diffusion capabilities are demonstrated and 3-D local flux and power redistribution effects during a partial control rod withdrawal are shown. (authors)

  11. Quasi 3D dosimetry (EPID, conventional 2D/3D detector matrices)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäck, A.

    2015-01-01

    Patient specific pretreatment measurement for IMRT and VMAT QA should preferably give information with a high resolution in 3D. The ability to distinguish complex treatment plans, i.e. treatment plans with a difference between measured and calculated dose distributions that exceeds a specified tolerance, puts high demands on the dosimetry system used for the pretreatment measurements and the results of the measurement evaluation needs a clinical interpretation. There are a number of commercial dosimetry systems designed for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. 2D arrays such as MapCHECK® (Sun Nuclear), MatriXXEvolution (IBA Dosimetry) and OCTAVIOUS® 1500 (PTW), 3D phantoms such as OCTAVIUS® 4D (PTW), ArcCHECK® (Sun Nuclear) and Delta4 (ScandiDos) and software for EPID dosimetry and 3D reconstruction of the dose in the patient geometry such as EPIDoseTM (Sun Nuclear) and Dosimetry CheckTM (Math Resolutions) are available. None of those dosimetry systems can measure the 3D dose distribution with a high resolution (full 3D dose distribution). Those systems can be called quasi 3D dosimetry systems. To be able to estimate the delivered dose in full 3D the user is dependent on a calculation algorithm in the software of the dosimetry system. All the vendors of the dosimetry systems mentioned above provide calculation algorithms to reconstruct a full 3D dose in the patient geometry. This enables analyzes of the difference between measured and calculated dose distributions in DVHs of the structures of clinical interest which facilitates the clinical interpretation and is a promising tool to be used for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. However, independent validation studies on the accuracy of those algorithms are scarce. Pretreatment IMRT QA using the quasi 3D dosimetry systems mentioned above rely on both measurement uncertainty and accuracy of calculation algorithms. In this article, these quasi 3D dosimetry systems and their use in patient specific pretreatment IMRT

  12. 3D Structural Fluctuation of IgG1 Antibody Revealed by Individual Particle Electron Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xing; Zhang, Lei; Tong, Huimin; Peng, Bo; Rames, Matthew J.; Zhang, Shengli; Ren, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Commonly used methods for determining protein structure, including X-ray crystallography and single-particle reconstruction, often provide a single and unique three-dimensional (3D) structure. However, in these methods, the protein dynamics and flexibility/fluctuation remain mostly unknown. Here, we utilized advances in electron tomography (ET) to study the antibody flexibility and fluctuation through structural determination of individual antibody particles rather than averaging multiple antibody particles together. Through individual-particle electron tomography (IPET) 3D reconstruction from negatively-stained ET images, we obtained 120 ab-initio 3D density maps at an intermediate resolution (~1–3 nm) from 120 individual IgG1 antibody particles. Using these maps as a constraint, we derived 120 conformations of the antibody via structural flexible docking of the crystal structure to these maps by targeted molecular dynamics simulations. Statistical analysis of the various conformations disclosed the antibody 3D conformational flexibility through the distribution of its domain distances and orientations. This blueprint approach, if extended to other flexible proteins, may serve as a useful methodology towards understanding protein dynamics and functions. PMID:25940394

  13. 3D structural fluctuation of IgG1 antibody revealed by individual particle electron tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xing; Zhang, Lei; Tong, Huimin; Peng, Bo; Rames, Matthew J.; Zhang, Shengli; Ren, Gang

    2015-05-05

    Commonly used methods for determining protein structure, including X-ray crystallography and single-particle reconstruction, often provide a single and unique three-dimensional (3D) structure. However, in these methods, the protein dynamics and flexibility/fluctuation remain mostly unknown. Here, we utilized advances in electron tomography (ET) to study the antibody flexibility and fluctuation through structural determination of individual antibody particles rather than averaging multiple antibody particles together. Through individual-particle electron tomography (IPET) 3D reconstruction from negatively-stained ET images, we obtained 120 ab-initio 3D density maps at an intermediate resolution (~1–3 nm) from 120 individual IgG1 antibody particles. Using these maps as a constraint, we derived 120 conformations of the antibody via structural flexible docking of the crystal structure to these maps by targeted molecular dynamics simulations. Statistical analysis of the various conformations disclosed the antibody 3D conformational flexibility through the distribution of its domain distances and orientations. This blueprint approach, if extended to other flexible proteins, may serve as a useful methodology towards understanding protein dynamics and functions.

  14. 3D structural fluctuation of IgG1 antibody revealed by individual particle electron tomography

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Xing; Zhang, Lei; Tong, Huimin; Peng, Bo; Rames, Matthew J.; Zhang, Shengli; Ren, Gang

    2015-05-05

    Commonly used methods for determining protein structure, including X-ray crystallography and single-particle reconstruction, often provide a single and unique three-dimensional (3D) structure. However, in these methods, the protein dynamics and flexibility/fluctuation remain mostly unknown. Here, we utilized advances in electron tomography (ET) to study the antibody flexibility and fluctuation through structural determination of individual antibody particles rather than averaging multiple antibody particles together. Through individual-particle electron tomography (IPET) 3D reconstruction from negatively-stained ET images, we obtained 120 ab-initio 3D density maps at an intermediate resolution (~1–3 nm) from 120 individual IgG1 antibody particles. Using these maps as a constraint, wemore » derived 120 conformations of the antibody via structural flexible docking of the crystal structure to these maps by targeted molecular dynamics simulations. Statistical analysis of the various conformations disclosed the antibody 3D conformational flexibility through the distribution of its domain distances and orientations. This blueprint approach, if extended to other flexible proteins, may serve as a useful methodology towards understanding protein dynamics and functions.« less

  15. True 3D chemical dosimetry (gels, plastics): Development and clinical role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of volumetric chemical dosimetry with Fricke gel dosimeters in the 1980s, three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry has been a promising technique for the clinic, since it provides a unique methodology for 3D dose measurement of the complex conformal dose distributions achieved by modern techniques such as Intensity Modulated and Volumetric Arc Radiation Therapy. In the last decade, the potential for improved clinical applicability has been advanced by the development of improved 3D dosimeters such as normoxic polymer gel systems, radiochromic plastics (such as PRESAGE) and, recently, newer radiochromic gel dosimeters. Some of these new 3D dosimetry systems were enabled by the availability of optical computed tomography imaging systems for fast dose readout. However, despite its promise, true 3D dosimetry is still not widely practiced in the community. Its use has been confined primarily to select centres of expertise and to specialised quality assurance or commissioning roles where oth